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Full text of "Biographical and historical record of Greene and Carroll counties, Iowa. Containing portraits of all the presidents of the United States from Washington to Cleveland, with accompanying biographies of each; portraits and biographies of the governors of the state ... and a concise history of the two counties and their cities and villages"

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Greene and Carroll Counties, Iowa. 



Containing Poetraits of all the Presidents op the Uniteii States froji Washington" to 
Cleveland, with accompanying Biogkapiiies oi' each; Poijtkaits and Bioguapiiies 
OF the Governors of the State: Engravings op Puominent Citizens 
in Greene and Carroli, Counties, with Personal Histories 
OF jiany of the Leading Families, and a Concise His- 
tory OF THE two Counties and their 
Cities and Villages. 



THE LEWIS PUBLTSIIING COMPANY, 

li:! Adams .Street, Chicago. 
1887. 



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PRESIDENTS OF THE 
UNITED STATES. 

CTeorge Washington '■) 

John Adams 14 

Thomas Jett'erson 20 

James Madison 30 

James Jlonroe 33 

John Quincy Adams 38 

Andrew Jackson 47 

]Mai'tin Van Buren 53 

^Villiam Henry Harrison 5G 

John Tyler 00 

James K. Polk 04 

Zachary Taylor 08 

Millard Fillmore v3 

Franklin Pierce 70 

James Buchanan 80 

Abraham Lincoln 84 

Andrew Johnson 93 

Ulysses S. Grant 90 

Kutherlbrd B. Hayes '. . .103 



James A. Garfield 109 

Chester A. Arthur 113 

Grover Cleveland 117 

HISTORY OF IOWA. 

Aboriginal ... 123 

Caucasian 134 

Pioneer Life 133 

Louisiana Territory 137 

Iowa Territory 139 

State Organization and Subse- 
quent Historj' 141 

Patriotism 140 

Iowa Since the War l.^il 

State Institutions 1-51 

Educational 154 

Statistical 157 

Physical Features 158 

Geology 158 

Climate 103 

Census of Iowa 104 



Territorial Otlicers 104 

State Otlicers 105 

GOVERNORS OF IOWA. 

Robert Lucas 171 

John Chambers 173 

James Clarke 175 

Ansel Briggs 179 

Stephen Hempstead 183 

James W. Grimes 187 

Ralph P. Lowe 191 

Samuel J. Kirkwood 105 

William M. Stone 199 

Samuel Merrill 303 

Cvrus C. Carpenter 307 

Joshua G. Newbold 211 

John H. Gear 215 

Buren R. Sherman 219 

William Larrabee 323 






i 

I 



-^* History of Greene 6oui2TY.^^^ 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



A. 

Adams, W H 354 

Addy, J. A 300 

Addy, W. L 358 

Adkins, H. H 314 

Albert. J. H 443 

Allan, William 439 

Allen, Mrs. R. A 433 

Allen, Rensselaer 390 

Allison, Alfred 258 

AUstott, John G 443 

Ames,W. E 393 

Anderson, B, F 333 

Anderson, D. B 313 

Anderson, D. P 370. 

Anderson, J. W 288 

Anderson, S. B 399 

Andrew, George 420 

Arch, J. D 450 



Armstrong, T. J 297 

Atchinsou, George 352 

B. 

Babb, V. S 303 

Barker, A. B 333 

Barnes, I. M 315 

Barth, W. C 350 

Bassett, C. H 347 

Beaty,J. F 453 

Beebe, Henry 418 

Berrien, E. B 447 

Berry, J. E 300 

Bish, John 374 

Bistline, W. H 378 

Blake, H, M 338 

Blanshan, D. 1 3.50 

Bofink, Charles 279 

Boggs, L. W 407 



Bolin, Benjamin 428 

Bontz, J. P 331 

Boyden, John 395 

Bradley, J. F. M 450 

Bradshaw. Frank 344 

Breiner, P. B 403 

Bucher, Henry 375 

Buchrailler, E. S 454 

Burk, Archibald 300 

Burk, Joshua 348 

Burk,Leroy 259 

Burke, James 330 

Burkholder, C. K 451 

C. 

Cain, Abram 235 

Cain, Edward 374 

Cain, Robert 334 

Carey, A. H 406 



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■-■«»--»■ 






CONTENTS. 



( 









't 



( 

fit 



Wt 

I 



Carlton, E.O 

liiiter, E. 11 

tarter, J. C 

(ass, F. 1) 

IhiUls, II. I 

t'liunh, Z. A 

Chunliin, Joseph.. . 

Clark, K. C 

(.'levelaml, V. L. . . . 
C'lipi>ert()n, William 

Cloploii, Isaac 

('.icliraii, .losepli 



I 

I 



395 

312 

377 

2(>8 

438 

301 

29-1 

232 

31G 

413 

28G 

30.5 

(\)naiit, Daviil -^11 

( oniiell, Koberl ='43 

Ciiombs, Joseph ''36 

Cooper, F. I' ='W 

Copeland, John 44.) 

Councilman, S. J •'"8 

Cowan, J. T 352 

Cralib, .lames 3i'.j 

Crandall, L. B 319 

Crow, W. M 31(i 

Crowiler, W. G 331 

Culley,J. M 271 

Curran, J. F 440 



Franklin, W..\ 281 

Franklin, W. J 294 

Free, F. A 354 

Free, Samuel 348 

Free, S. Q 3C1 

French, E. K 363 

French, B. P 2.>7 

French, G. V 411 

Frymier, I. W -i^" 



J. 



G. 



I). 



John. 



Davenport 

Dawson, .1.11 

Day, (i. W 

Derry, J. J ... . . . . . 

Dickinson, II. W. ■ . 
Dickinson, William 

Dillavou, G. C 

Dillavou, James. . . 
Dinan, John 
Do(li,'e, C. >I 



. .401 
...448 
. ..33.J 
...311 
...26.5 
...302 
...247 
...2.51 
...240 
. . .303 



Gallup, J. N 

G.irland, J. U 

Garrett, \V. K 

Gayl<ir(l,'E. \\ 

Gibson, Robert 

Gillibuul, A. II 

Gillilanil, (i. M 

Gilroy, G. W 

Goodrich, Calvin 

Goodrich, Washington 

Goodwin, Robert 

Graham, II. W 

Gray, A. J 

Gray, John 

Greene, W. R 

G re it, J. C 



.283 



.43.5 
.4.56 
.361 
,.281 
, .242 
..235 
. .2(i0 
..298 
..338 
..314 
. .393 
..423 
. .3.59 
..4.51 



Jackson, C. H 238 

Jackson, G. W 249 

Jaqties,N. D 240 

Jaques, Thomas ^j ' ' 

Jay, Samuel 440 

Jetlries, C. L 323 

Jenks, Rev. S. E 257 

W. F 453 

John,D. B 357 

John, J. B 300 

Johnson, Amos. 230 

Johnson, D. E 44.5 

Johnson, Emmersou 243 

Johnson, Ephraim 285 

Johnson, I. II 268 

Johnson, Jesse 317 

Johnson, J. B 423 

Johnson, J. J"' 238 

Johnson, Joseph 3.50 

Johusiui, S. W. . 



Jones, E. W. . 
Jones, H. J. . 
Jones, Josiah. 



Groves, W. K 335 

Gulick.J. P 331 



H. 



DunttM-man, William 292 

Dwinnell, U. A 370 

E. 

Eagleson, G. G 250 

Eason, Hoberl 279 

Edinliorou;:!!, C. J 408 

Eilwards, Daniel 428 

Ellison, Samuel 409 

Elmore, W. A 391 

Enihree, Daniel 320 

Enlield, Charles 396 

English, C. A 305 

English, J. U 385 



F. 

Ferguson, F. M . . . . 
Ferguson, W. M . . . 
Ferrin, Zebulon . . 

Fey, A. II 

Fit/. J. W 

Fit/.patrick, J. J . . . 
Fit/. Patrick, P. M. 

Fleck, G.W 

Forbes, K. P 

Forbes, J. M 

Forbes, .1. R 

Ford. 1. W 

Foy, E. W 

Franklin, F. M. . . . 



Haight, 1). li ... 

Hall, J. B 

Ham, H. M 

Ham, Kingman 
Hanks, George. 
Hanson, Hoberl 
Hanson, G. F 



....427 
....326 
....310 
....313 
....300 
. . . .417 
....306 



...341 
...383 
...2.53 
...231 
...281 
...426 

...in') 

....347 
...373 
...437 
....340 
....372 
....324 



Harding, E 278 

Harmon, Franklin 441 

Harmon, Lafavette 441 

llarnion, U. L 3.53 

Harris, A. C 347 

Hatlield, G. B 413 

llaun, J.(; 349 

Head, A. -M 383 

Heath, H. B 430 

Ileator, Jacob 299 

lleisel, John 408 

Henderson, ILL 419 

Heudeison, J. A 293 

Herron, S. W 444 

Iliggins, James 358 

Hiilm.an.G. C 303 

Hoshaw, J. M 24( 

Howard,!. D 234 

Howard, R. h 433 

llulVman, (i. A 328 

Hughes, Frances 257 

Huirhes, F.J 2.56 

Hunt, J. 1 253 

Hutchinson, Jonathan . . .333 



I. 



dy, 

Id, 



Infield, Henry 



..237 
. .425 
. .425 



K. 



Keller, A. D 437 

Kellev, Charles 343 

Kellogg, 11. W 270 

Kendan, G. B 408 

Kettell, Henry 421 

Kinsey, U.B 244 

Kinsman, J. C 431 

Kions, M. W 233 

Knowles, A 454 

Koenig, Augustus 424 

Krause, A.F 267 

Krause, C. W 400 

Kuder, G.W...-. 275 



Lawrence, G. G 244 

Lee, William 243 

Libis, Francis 404 

Lilley, D. M 337 

Linn, J. J 411 

Linn, Mason 239 

Linn, W.S 419 

Livermore, H. N 327 

Livingstim, W'.H 373 

Lloyd, E. 1 409 

Long, Charles 417 

Lovejov, J. C 323 

Lowi-rv, O. W 353 



,owery, 

Lowry, R. A 

Luccock, Rev. G. N. 

Lunnon, George 

Lyon, J. L 

Lyons, Theodore. . . 



.M. 



.318 
.445 
.432 
.348 
.405 



..416 
. .258 



Mack 
i\lacU 
Mannin 
Mantz 



A.J 

Willard 

Rev. 

C... 



Joseph.. . 



Marker, Emanuel 



..364 

. 271 

..333 

. . .405 

. . .339 



CONTENTS. 



Marquart, August . 

Martin, S. S 

Martin, T. B 

Martin, T.W 

Matliews, J. K 

Matteson, I. J . 



.409 
.389 
.387 
.443 
303 
.433 



Mavnard, S. C 413 

McAllister, W. A 309 

McCartliy, Jolin 345 

JlcCrory, W. L 439 

McCu'' y, G. 13 307 

:Mo^ jakl, William 3.)7 

Mc^'Uffle, M. B 305 

ilcKay, John 343 

^[cNauglit, W. A. J 355 

Mecum, 0. B 367 

Merrill, Mrs. E. H 443 

Metzger, C. C 338 

Meyer, Philip 346 

Miller, R. W 319 

Millett, T. A 300 

Mish, J. J 397 

Moore, R. C 403 

Morden, R. P 374 

Morris, D. J 449 

Moss, J. E 390 

Muir, Robert, Jr 399 

JIunn, G. W 308 

Myers, H. R 413 

N. 

Neal, A. M 365 

Neary, R. W 267 

Nelson, Swan 309 

Noyes, N. G 346 

Nugent, John 443 

O. 

O'Connor, John 415 

Odell, G. M 444 

Olds, J. K 315 

Olive, Richard 389 

Osborn, B. F 454 

Osborne, John 370 

Oxley, B. T 435 



Park, C. B 379 

Park, O. W 439 

Park, W. R 403 

Parker, James 336 

Parmenter, F. H 385 

Paul, W. S 355 

Perkins, W. H 333 

Perkins, W. H 434 

Peterson, Martin 336 

Pettit, J. E 388 

Phelps, E. P 419 

Pierce, AV. H 414 

Potter, Harvey 341 

Q- 

Quayle, John 455 

Quirk, Rev. M. J 434 



Raver, A. F. 
Ray, J. W. . . 



.340 
.393 



Reece, T. B 286 

Reeder,J. M 418 

Reese, G. W 349 

llemick, L. B 371 

Renner, William 332 

Reuner, W. II 335 

Reynolds, Patrick 420 

Reynolds, Terrence 359 

Rhoads, J. M 351 

Rhoad, Samuel 334 

Rice, Columbus 368 

Rice, F. T 433 

Rice, John 441 

Richardson, Matthew 351 

Richardson, M. H 353 

Ridle, J. H 337 

Riley, E. II 343 

Rinehart, Elhanan .390 

Ritchie, L. 1 307 

Rittgers, H. C 456 

Rittgers, S. R 400 

Robbins, F. E 239 

Roberts, Eli 397 

Roberts, Roland 337 

Roberts, Thomas 404 

Roberts, Rev. Willam 373 

Robinson, George 259 

Robinson, I. E 447 

Robinson, Jonatlian 304 

Roby, W. G 424 

Rogers, H. D 233 

Root, D. P ...420 

Rosa, Francis 384 

Rowles, J. A 385 

Russell, Caleb 337 

Russell, J. J 389 

Russell, N. F 393 

Rutter, S. S 453 



S. 



Sanders, James 437 

Sayers, M. C 370 

Schermerhorn, W. S 355 

Seaman, R. G 363 

Seaman, W. P 378 

Semmons, AV. J 310 

Shannon, A. F 373 

Shaw, Joel 330 

Shearman, William 380 

Sherman, J. M 416 

Shipman, Horace 453 

Shreve, James 391 

Smith, Aaron 386 

! Smith, J. AV 246 

i Smith, P. A 429 

'' Smittle, Anton 453 

Smittle, J. A 397 

States, G. W 422 

Steele, J. M 269 

Stevens, AV. R 317 

Stevens, William 301 

Stewart, Mrs. L. J 360 

Stillman, E. B > 393 

Stilsou, Rev. Lyman 381 

Stockwell, Levi 341 

Stream, P. C 414 

Stream, W. C 386 

Stream, Wilson 388 



Stroud, William 400 

Suydani, C. H 280 

Swartzendruver 435 

T. 

Tallman, J.H .335 

Taylor, S. M 364 

Terrill, T. M 369 

Thomas, J. R 403 

Thomas, L. B 391 

Thompson, C. AV 438 

Thompson, G. AV 430 

Thompson, L. S 393 

Thompson, AV. A 276 

Thornton, James 369 

Toliver, Isom 329 

Towers, James 344 

Turrill, H. A 414 

V. 

Vader, I.N 398 

Vader, J. W 383 

Vance, T. AV 446 

Vest, AV. H 438 

AV. 

AValrad, Horace 321 

Walton, Charles 250 

AA^ard, E. S 395 

Warner, S. E 323 

AA'atsou, George 398 

Way, C. W 383 

Weatherson, G. A 366 

Weatherson, J. H 283 

Wells, A. C 369 

AVessling, Daniel 336 

AVest, B. F 306 

Westervelt, M. B 243 

AVherry,J. P 291 

AVhite, O.J 263 

Whiteside, Samuel 26(i 

AViggins, S. AV 349 

AVight, Marion 366 

Wilkinson, John 384 

Will, Christian 385 

Williams. J. D 303 

AVilliams, M 345 

Williamson, J. B. 341 

AVilliamson, J. J 421 

Wilson, John 348 

Wilson, S. E 374 

AVilsou, AVilliam 431 

Winkelman, Benjamin 375 

AVood, Robert 256 

Woods, B. G 337 

AVoods, C. A 245 

Wright, Ervin 371 

AVright, G. AV 394 

AVyant, G. AV 365 

Y. 

Yates, AVilliam 345 

Young, F.W 456 

Y'oungman, H. A 449 






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z. 

Zavilz, W. I) 380 

Zeiller, Hillbuiu 377 

Zeller, A ;J34 

Zeller, James 398 

ZelllioeCer, l?ev. George 333 



CONTENTS. 



Zellhoefer. W. V 320 

Zimmeiuiau, Stepbeu 370 

GENERAL HISTORY. 

InlriiduulDry 4.')!) 

Karl)' History 465 

Ullicial Kegisler 474 



Political History 477 

The Civil War 484 

The Press 489 

Professional 493 

^nscellaueous 4!)S 

Jetterson 503 

Towns ami V.Uages 511 



-g ' S '- S - ^ 



I } 
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^Record of Carroll County, »=^ 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. ^X^ 



Adams, Edwin (133 

Amos, H. W 013 

Anderson, L. T 594 

Annear, Joseph 597 

Armstrong, Alexander 537 

Arts, William G13 

15. 

Habcock, C. AV 540 

liuinister. William .501 

Ifecker, W. L 039 

Bedford, Alfred 543 

Bedford, Charles 543 

Beiter, Nicholas 578 

Bell, Harvey 568 

Bell, John 035 

Berger, Peter .535 

Bingham, Samuel .5.55 

Bohnenkami), J. II 591 

Bowman, Samuel 578 

Boyce, John .5.59 

Brand, Jai-ob 545 

Brigham, L. P 615 

Biuniug, Clemens 009 

Brunin.L', J. H .500 

Bverlv, J. II 594 



C. 

Carpenter, Henry. . . 

Charles. P. A 

Chevalier, J. F 

Cbrislmas, Daniel... 
Coklo, C. C 



.501 
.583 
.580 
.010 
549 



Conner, (icorge. 503 

Cooley, H. J 033 

Cooley, I. N 593 

Cooney, John 033 

Coppock, J.J 031 

Comb, C. V ,5.56 

Coulter, J. N 533 

Culver, M. M ,574 



1). 



Davis, Daniel. 
Deal, J. K.... 



..038 
..545 



Deshler, J. J 583 

Dickey, J. H 617 

Dickson, Robert 536 

Drees, J. M ,504 

E. 

Elliott, Asa 589 

Ehvood, Thomas ,558 

Engleman, J. C 032 

English, J. AV .593 

Erp, AV. F 590 

Everts, D. F 579 

F. 

Fendrich, Rev. John .597 

Ferguson, George 611 

Florencourt, F. F 619 

Fobes, E 541 

Frisbee, H. ^1 008 

Fuerth, J. J 553 

Funk, E. JI ..549 

G. 

Gabel, H.J ,5.53 

Gardner, J. AV 5.53 

Gales, H. H .595 

Geiselharl, Conrad 558 

George, Henry 563 

Gilley, AVilliam 573 

Guam, J . H 628 

Graham, J. B 623 

Graves, J.J 025 

Grillilh, l.N 5.57 

Gritlith, J. E 577 

Grole, Henry 009 

Guthrie.P. M 547 

II. 

Harris, Arista .505 

Harris, Isaac 564 

Hatlield, A. R 618 

Havens, J. O ,591 

Hayner, Hoberl 604 

I lelVellinger, U. S 536 

Hemesalii, Rev. 11. J .543 

Henry, S. D 009 



Hess, J. P 

Hesslingh, George.. 
Hesslingb, Herman. 

Hilau, David 

Hiuklev, J. D 

Hobbs.J. \V 

I-Ioff, AA^L 

HoUnian, Rev. J. P.. 

Hood, J. A 

Horton. Oliver 

Howard, J. R 

Hoyt, 31. A 

Hungerford, J. B 



..612 
. .565 
..634 
..583 
..CIS 
..500 
. . 5.55 
..546 
..595 
..590 
..587 
..630 
..038 



I. 



Ingledue, O. U. 



.580 



Jetlries, George. 
Jerome, Grin... 
Johnson, P. J. . . 
Jones, U. 



.502 
.614 
.621 
.576 



K. 



Kay, J.AV 

IvloUe, Henry. . . 
Kniest, Lambert., 

Kotas, John 

Krause, F. AV 

Kuhn, .lacob 



.^85 
..(i\3 



.0.30 

.587 
.586 
.539 



Lamont, Peter. . 
Lawrence, C. S. . 
Leibfreid, F. M. 
Louthan, J. H.. . 
Lynch, William. 
Lyons, L. M . . . . 



.577 
.034 
.585 
.599 
.614 
.611 



M. 



.Ma<Oean, P. M .... 

AlcClue, T. B 

-McCormack, G. AV. 
.AlcKenna, T. S.. . . 
Mctiuaid, J. L.... 



. 599 
.608 
. 505 
.590 
.001 



CONTENTS. 



Meis, Coniiul 637 

Miller, Michael 615 

Moershell, Ferdinand 546 

Mohler, Isaac 550 

Moore, O-M 538 

Morlau, J. W 548 

Morris, C. E 636 

Morrow, W. .T 603 

N. 

Nestie, John 568 

Neil, Charles 539 



O. 

O'Connor, Rev. P. J . 



...607 



P. 

Paine, G. W 58<J 

Park, Andrew 543 

Parker, Cephas 634 

Parker, John 603 

Parker, T. L 581 

Parsons, E. M 540 

Patton, U. L 559 

Plainer, W. H 631 

Powell, Henry 509 

Preston, Sylvester 633 

Q 

quint, S.C 583 



R. 

Uadeletr, H. D 593 

Heever, E. H 604 

Keid, T. C 639 

Khoades, Cyrus 635 

Kibble, Crockett 616 

Kichman, E. P 556 

Ricke, J. H 557 

Ricke, Richard 637 

Roberts, Moses 563 

Roderick, Thomas 566 

Rousli, Valentine 506 

S. 

8al inner, 15. I 584 

Schelle, F. J 610 

Schmicli, Michael 554 

Schiilze, D. & Son 574 

Shirk, D. E 538 

Smith, M. S 634 

Smith, Seth 575 

Soat, H. F 556 

Soper, O.J 570 

Staak, August 551 

Stearns, L. A 603 

Steigerwalt, \V. P 600 

Stevens, J. W 619 

Stevens, Robert 607 

Stokes, Georee 551 

Stoll, L.S..."; 579 

Stoufler, P. B 594 

Strunk, H.J 636 

T. 
Talbott, A. A 509 



Thorn, M. S 624 

Tuuue, E. B 580 

Tregloan, W. G 553 

Trowbridge, William 543 

Tuel, Alexander 634 

Turechek, Frank 581 

W. 

Wagner, Theodore 619 

W^iidron, W. F 567 

Wegmann, Uev. Theo 633 

Wetland, G. A 603 

Weilaud, J.J 617 

Westbrook, C. H 575 

Wetter, George 535 

Whitman, C. S 616 

Whitney, J. R 623 

Wiedemeier, Joseph 567 

Williams, K. K 596 

AVilson, Samuel 598 

Wine, E. S 588 

Winnett, G. ]\I 548 

GENERAL HISTORY. 

Introductory 639 

Early and Civil History (i4:! 

Political and Official 601 

The Civil War 007 

The Press 071 

Professional 074 

Miscellaneous .678 

Carroll 685 

Towns and Villages 694 



ILLUSTF^ATIONS. 



Adams, John 15 

Adams, John Quincy 39 

Armstroug, T. J 396 

Arthur, Chester A 113 

Briggs, Ansel 178 

Buchanan, James 81 

Carpenter, Cyrus C 206 

Chambers, John 170 

Clarke, James.. 170 

Cleveland, Grover 110 

Fillmore, Millard 73 

Garfield, James A 108 

Gear, John H 214 

Gilley, William 572 

Grant, Ulysses S 97 



Grimes, James W 186 

Gulick, J. P 330 

Gulick, Mrs 330 

Harrison, William Henry 57 

Hayes, Rutherford B 103 

Hempstead, Stephen 182 

Iowa State House 123 

Jackson, Andrew 46 

Jefferson, Thomas 21 

Johnson, Andrew 92 

Kirkwood, Samuel J . .194 

Larrabee, William 222 

Lincoln, Abraham 85 

Lowe, Ralph P 190 

Lucas, Robert : 170 



Madison, James 27 

Merrill, Samuel 202 

Monroe, James 33 

New bold, Joshua G 310 

Pierce, Franklin 77 

Polk, .Tames K 05 

Sherman, Buren R 318 

Stevens, Robert 606 

Stone, William M 198 

Taylor, Zachary 69 

Tyler, John 01 

Van Buren, Martin 53 

Washington, George 8 

White, O. J '. 262 



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GEORGE M'ASn/NGTON. 







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EORGE WASHING- 
TON, the "Father of 
his Country" and its 
first President, 1789- 
'97, was born Febru- 
ary 22, 1732, in Wash- 
ington Parish, West- 
moreland Count y, Virginia. 
His father, Augustine Wash- 
ington, first married Jane But- 
,_„ » ^,. . ler, who bore him four chil- 
CcIwIj) drcn, and March 6, 1730, he 
married Mary Ball. Of six 
children by his second mar- 
riage, George was the eldest, 
the others being Betty, Samuel, John, Au- 
gustine, Charles and Mildred, of whom the 
youngest died in infancy. Little is known 
of the early years of Washington, beyond 
the fact that the house in which he was 
born was burned during his early child- 
hood, and that his father thereupon moved 
to another farm, inherited from his jiaternal 
ancestors, situated in Stafford County, on 
the north bank of the Rappahannock, where 
he acted as agent of the Principio Iron 
Works in the immediate vicinit}', and died 
there in 1743. 

From earliest childhood George devel- 
oped a noble character. He had a vigorous 
constitution, a fine form, and great bodily 
Strength. His education was somewhat de- 



fective, being confined to the elementary 
branches taught him by his mother and at 
a neighboring school. He developed, how- 
ever, a fondness for mathematics, and en- 
joyed in that branch the instructions of a 
private teacher. On leaving school he re- 
sided for some time at Mount Vernon with 
his half brother, Lawrence, who acted as 
his guardian, and who liad married a daugh- 
ter of his neighbor at Belvoir on the Poto- 
mac, the wealthy William Fairfax, for some 
time president of the executive council of 
the colon3\ Both Fairfax and his son-in-law, 
Lawrence Washington, had served with dis- 
tinction in 1740 as officers of an American 
battalion at the siege of Carthagena, and 
were friends and correspondents of Admiral 
Vernon, for whom the lattcr's residence on 
the Potomac has been named. George's 
inclinations were for a similar career, and a 
midshipman's warrant was procured for 
him, probably through the influence of the 
Admiral ; but through the oppositicjn of his 
mother the project was abandoned. The 
family connection with the Fairfaxes, how- 
ever, opened another career for the young 
man, who, at the age of sixteen, was ap- 
pointed surveyor to the immense estates of 
the eccentric Lord Fairfax, who was then 
on a visit at Belvoir, and who shortly after- 
ward established his baronial residence at 
Greenway Court, in the Shenandoah Valley. 






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PRES/UENJS OF THE UN/TED STATES. 



Three years were passed by young' Wash- 
ington in a rough frontier hfc, gaining ex- 
perience which afterward proved very es- 
sential to him. 

In 1751, wiien the Virginia militia were 
put imdcr training wiih a view to active 
service against France, Washington, thougli 
onl)' nineteen years of age, was appointed 
Adjutant with the rank of Major. In Sep- 
tember of that year the faihng health of 
Lawrence Wasliington rendered it neces- 
sar}' for him to seek a warmer climate, and 
George accompanied him in a voyage to 
Barbadoes. They returned early in 1752, 
and Lawrence shortly afterward died, leav- 
ing his large property to an infant daughter. 
In his will George was named one of the 
executors and as eventual heir to Mount 
Vernon, and by the death of the infant niece 
soon succeeded to that estate. 

On the arrival of Robert Dinwiddle as 
Lieutenant-Governor of Virginia in 1752 
the militia was reorganized, and the prov- 
ince divided into four districts. Washing- 
ton was commissioned by Dinwiddle Adju- 
tant-General of the Northern District in 
1753, and in November of that year a most 
important as well as hazardous mission was 
assigned him. This was to proceed to the 
Canadian posts recently established on 
French Creek, near Lake Erie, to demand 
in the name of the King of England the 
withdrawal of the French from a territory 
claimed b}' Virginia. This enterprise had 
been declined by more than one officer, 
since it involved a journey through an ex- 
tensive and almost unexplored wilderness 
in the occupancy of savage Indian tribes, 
either hostile to the English, or of doubtful 
attachment. Major Washington, however, 
accepted the commission with alacrity ; and, 
accompanied by Captain Gist, he reached 
Fort Le Bocuf on French Creek, delivered 
his dispatches and received reply, which, of 
course, was a polite refusal to surrender the 
posts. This rcj)ly was of such a character 



as to induce the Assembly of Virginia to 
authorize the executive to raise a regiment 
of 300 men for the purpose of maintaining 
the asserted rights of the British crown 
over the territory claimed. As Washing- 
ton declined to be a candidate for that post, 
the command of this regiment was given to 
Colonel Joshua Fry, and Major Washing- 
ton, at his own request, was commissioned 
Lieutenant-Colonel. On the march to Ohio, 
news was received that a part}' previously 
sent to build a fort at the confluence of the 
Monongahela with the Ohio had been 
driven back by a considerable French force, 
which had completed the work there be- 
gun, and named it Fort Duquesne, in honor 
of the Marquis Duquesne, then Governor 
of Canada. This was the beginning of the 
great "French and Indian war," which con- 
tinued seven years. On the death of Colonel 
Fry, Washington succeeded to the com- 
mand of the regiment, and so well did he 
fulfill his trust that the Virginia Assembly 
commissioned him as Commander-in-Chief 
of all the forces raised in the colon)-. 

A cessation of all Indian hostilit}' on the 
frontier having followed the expulsion of 
the French from the Ohio, the object of 
Washington was accomplished and he i^e- 
signed his commission as Commander-in- 
Chief of the Virginia forces. He then pro- 
ceeded to Williamsburg to take his seat in 
the General Assembly, of which he had 
been elected a member. 

January 17, 1759, Washington married 
Mrs. Martha (Dandridge) Custis, a young 
and beautiful widow of great wealth, and de- 
voted himself for the ensuing fifteen years 
to tiie quiet pursuits of agriculture, inter- 
rupted only by his annual attendance in 
winter upon the Colonial Legislature at 
Williamsburg, until summoned by his 
country to enter upon that other arena in 
which his fame was to become world wide. 

It is ininecessary here to trace the details 
of the struggle upon the question of local 



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aEORQE WASHINGTON. 



self-government, which, after ten years, cul- 
minated by act of Parliament of the port of 
Boston. It was at the instance of Virginia 
that a congress of all the colonies was called 
to meet at Philadelphia September 5, 1774, 
to secu re their common liberties — if possible 
by peaceful means. To this Congress 
Colonel Washington was sent as a dele- 
gate. On dissolving in October, it recom- 
mended the colonies to send deputies to 
another Congress the following spring. In 
the meantime several of the colonies felt 
impelled to raise local forces to repel in- 
sults and aggressions on the part of British 
troops, so that on the assembling of the next 
Congress, May 10, 1775, the war prepara- 
tions of the mother country were unmis- 
takable. The battles of Concord and Lex- 
ington had been fought. Among the earliest 
acts, therefore, of the Congress was the 
selection of a commander-in-chief of the 
colonial forces. This office was unani- 
mously conferred upon Washington, still a 
member of the Congress. He accepted it 
on June 19, but on the express condition he 
should receive no salar}'. 

He immediately repaired to the vicinity 
of Boston, against which point the British 
ministry had concentrated their forces. As 
early as April General Gage had 3,000 
troops in and around this proscribed city. 
During the fall and winter the British policy 
clearly indicated a purpose to divide pub- 
lic sentiment and to build up a British party 
in the colonies. Those who sided with the 
ministry were stigmatized by the patriots 
as " Tories," while the patriots took to them- 
selves the name of " Whigs." 

As early as 1776 the leading men had 
come to the conclusion that there was no 
hope except in separation and indepen- 
dence. In May of that year Washington 
wrote from the head of the army in New 
York : " A reconciliation with Great Brit- 
ain is impossible When I took 

command of the army, I abhorred the idea 




of independence ; but I am now fully satis- 
fied that nothing else will save us." 

It is not the object of this sketch to trace 
the military acts of the patriot hero, to 
whose hands the fortunes and liberties of 
the United States were confided during the 
seven years' bloody struggle that ensued 
until the treaty of 1783, in which England 
acknowledged the independence of each of 
the thirteen States, and negotiated with 
them, jointly, as separate sovereignties. The 
merits of Washington as a military chief- 
tain have been considerabl}- discussed, espe- 
cially by writers in his own country. Dur- 
ing the war he was most bitterly assailed 
for incompetency, and great efforts were 
made to displace him ; but he never for a 
moment lost the confidence of either the 
Congress or the people. December 4, 1783, 
the great commander took leave of his offi- 
cers in most affectionate and patriotic terms, 
and went to Annapolis, Maryland, where 
the Congress of the States was in session, 
and to that body, when peace and order 
prevailed everywhere, resigned his com- 
mission and retired to Mount Vernon. 

It was in 1788 that Washington was called 
to the chief magistracy of the nation. He 
received every electoral vote cast in all the 
colleges of the States voting for the office 
of President. The 4th of March, 1789, was 
the time appointed for the Government of 
the United States to begin its operations, 
but several weeks elapsed before quorums 
of both the newly constituted houses of the 
Congress were assembled. The city of New 
York was the place where the Congress 
then met. April 16 Washington left his 
home to enter upon the discharge of his 
new duties. He set out with a purpose of 
traveling privately, and without attracting 
any public attention ; but this was impossi- 
ble. Everywhere on his way he was met 
with thronging crowds, eager to see the 
man whom they regarded as the chief de- 
fender of their liberties, and everywhere 



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J'A'ES/DEATS OF THE U.V/TED STATES. 



within its specific and limited sphere, wliilc 
the others were for enlarging its powers by 
inference and implication. Hamilton and 



he was hailed with those public manifesta- 
tions of joy, regard and love which spring 
s|)<)nlancously from the hearts of an affec- 
tionate and grateful people. His reception I Jefferson, both members of the first cabinet, 
in New York was marked by a grandeur were regarded as the chief leaders, respect- 
and an enthusiasm never before witnessed ivelv, of these rising antagonistic parties, 
in that metropolis. The inauguration took which have existed, under different names, 



place April 30, in the presence of an immense 
multitude which had assembled to witness 



from that day to this. Washington was re- 
garded as holding a neutral position between 



the new and imposing ceremony. The oath them, tiiough, by mature deliberation, he 
of office was administered by Robert R. \ vetoed the first apportionment bill, in 1790, 
Livingston, Chancellor of the State. When passed by the party headed b}' Hamilton, 



this sacred pledge was given, he retired 
with the other officials into the Senate 



address to both houses of the newly con- 
stituted Congress in joint assembly. 

In the manifold details of his civil ad- 
ministration, Washington proved himself 
ccpial t(j the requirements oi his position. 
The greater portion of the first session of 
the first Congress was occupied in passing 
the necessary statutes for putting the new 
organization into complete operation. In 



veto power under the present Constitution. 
It created considerable excitement at the 
time. Another bill was soon passed in pur- 
suance of Mr. Jefferson's views, which has 
been adhered to in principle in every ap- 
portionment act passed since. 

At the second session of the new Con- 
gress, Washington announced the gratily- 
ing: fact of " the accession of North Caro- 



tins legislation the nature and character of 
the new system came under general review. 
On no one of them did any decided antago- 
nism of opinion arise. All held it to be a 
limited government, clothed only with spe- 
cific powers conferred by delegation from 
the States. There was no change in the 
name of the legislative department ; it still 
remained "the Congress of the United 
States of America." There was no change 
in the original flag of the country, and none 
in the seal, which still remains with the 
Grecian escutcheon borne by the eagle, 
with other emblems, imder the great and 
expressive motto, " /: Plnribiis Unui/i." 

The first division of parties arose upon 
the manner of construing the powers dele- 
gated, and they were first styled "strict 
constructionists" and " latitudinarian con- 
structionists." The former were for con- 
fining the action ol tlie Government strictly 



I of the same year he amiounced by special 
message the like " accession of the State of 
Rhode Island," with his congratulations on 
the happy event which " united under the 
general Government" all the States which 
were originally confederated. 

In 1792, at the second Presidential elec- 
tion, Washington was desirous to retire ; 
but he yielded to the general wish of the 
country, and was again chosen President 
by the unanimous vote of every electoral 
college. At the third election, 1796, he was 
again most urgently entreated to consent to 
remain in the executive chair. This he 
positively refused. In September, before 
the election, he gave to his countrymen his 
memorable Farewell Address, which in lan- 
guage, sentiment and patriotism was a fit 
and crowning glory of his illustrious life. 
After March 4, 1797, he again retired to 
Mount N'ernon lor peace, quiet and lepose. 



which was based upon a principle construct- ( 
ively leading to centralization or consoli 



chamber, where he delivered his inaugural ! dation. This was the first exercise of the \ 



tlie discussions brouglit up in tiie course of i lina" to the Constitution of 1787, and June / 



,B^ CT j 






GEORGE WASHINGTON. 



His administration for the two terms had 
been sticcessful beyond the expectation and 
hopes of even the most sanguine of his 
friends. The finances of the country were 
no longer in an embarrassed condition, the 
pubHc credit was fully restored, life was 
given to every department of industry, the 
workings of the new system in allowing 
Congress to raise revenue from duties on 
imports proved to be not only harmonious 
in its federal action, but astonishing in its 
results upon the commerce and trade of all 
the States. The exports from the Union 
increased from $19,000,000 to over $56,000,- 
000 per annum, while tlie imports increased 
in about the same proportion. Three new 
members had been added to the Union. The 
progress of the States in their new career 
under their new organization thus far was 
exceedingly encouraging, not only to the 
friends of liberty within their own limits, 
but to their sympathizing allies in all climes 
and countries. 

CM the call again made on this illustrious 



chief to quit his repose at Mount Vernon 
and take command of all the United States 
forces, with the rank of Lieutenant-General, 
when war was threatened with France in 
1798, nothing need here be stated, except to 
note the fact as an unmistakable testimo- 
nial of the high regard in which he was still 
held by his countrymen, of all shades of po- 
litical opinion. He patrioticall)' accepted 
this trust, but a treaty of peace put a stop 
to all action under it. He again retired to 
Mount Vernon, where, after a short and 
severe illness, he died December 14, 1799, 
in the sixty-eighth year of his age. The 
whole country was filled with gloom by this 
sad intelligence. Men of all parties in poli- 
tics and creeds in religion, in ever}' State 
in the Union, united with Congress in " pay- 
ing honor to the man, first in war, first in 
peace, and first in the hearts of his country- 
men." 

His remains were deposited in a family 
vault on the banks of the Potomac at Mount 
Vernon, where they still lie entombed. 




14 PRESIDENTS OF THE UN/TED S'TATeS. 




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iHS^If ^POHN ADAMS, the second 



President of the United 
States, 1797 to 1801, was 
born in the present town 
of Ouinc}-, then a portion 
of Braintree, Massachu- 
setts, October 30, 1735. His 
father was a farmer of mod- 
erate means, a worthy and 
industrious man. He was 
a deacon in the church, and 
was very desirous of giving 
his son a collegiate educa- 
tion, hoping that he would 
become a minister of the 
gospel. But, as up to this 
time, the age of fourteen, he had been only 
a play-boy in the fields and forests, he had 
no taste for books, he chose farming. On 
being set to work, however, by his father 
out in the field, the very first day con- 
verted the bov into a lover of books. 




Accordingl}-, at the 



of sixteen he 



entered Harvard College, and graduated in 
1755, at the age of twenty, highly esteemed 
for integrity, energy and ability. Thus, 
having no capital but his education, he 
started out into the stormy world at a time 
of great political exxitement, as France and 
England were then engaged in their great 
seven-years struggle for the mastery over 
the New World. The fire of patriotism 



seized young Adams, and for a tini-r he 
studied over the question whether he 
should take to the law, to politics or the 
army. He wrote a remarkable letter to a 
friend, making prophecies concerning the 
future greatness of this country which have 
since been more than fulfilled. For two 
years he taught scliool and studied law, 
wasting no odd moments, and at the early 
age of twenty-two years he opened a law 
ofifice in his native town. His inherited 
powers of mind and untiring devotion to 
his profession caused him to rise rapidly 
in public esteem. 

In October, 1764, Mr. Adams married 
Miss Abigail Smith, daughter of a clerg}-- 
man at Weymouth and a lady of rare per- 
sonal and intellectual endowments, who 
afterward contributed much to her hus- 
band's celebrity. 

Soon the oppression of the British in 
America reached its climax. The Boston 
merchants employed an attorney by the 
name of James Otis to argue the legality of 
oppressive tax law before the Superior 
Court. Adams heard the argument, and 
afterward wrote to a friend concerning the 
ability displayed, as follows : " Otis was a 
flame of fire. With a promptitude of 
classical allusion, a depth of research, a 
rapid summary of historical events and 
dates, a profusion of legal authorities and a 






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JOHN ADAMS. 



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prophetic glance into futurity, he hurried 
away all before him. American independence 
was then and there born. Every man of an 
immensely crowded audience appeared to 
me to go away, as I did, ready to take up 
arms." 

Soon Mr. Adams wrote an essay to be 
read before the literary club of his town, 
upon the state of affairs, which was so able 
as to attract public attention. It was pub- 
lished in American journals, republished 
in England, and was pronounced by the 
friends of the colonists there as " one of the 
very best productions ever seen from North 
America." 

The memorable Stamp Act was now 
issued, and Adams entered with all the 
ardor of his soul into political life in order 
to resist it. He drew up a series of reso- 
lutions remonstrating against the act, which 
were adopted at a public meeting of the 
citizens of Braintree, and which were sub- 
sequently adopted, word for word, by more 
than forty towns in the State. Popular 
commotion prevented the landing of the 
Stamp Act papers, and the English author- 
ities then closed the courts. The town of 
Boston therefore appointed Jereni}- Grid- 
lev, James Otis and John Adams to argue a 
petition before the Governor and council 
for the re-opening of the courts; and while 
the two first mentioned attorneys based 
their argument upon the distress caused to 
the people by the measure, Adams boldly 
claimed that the Stamp Act was a violation 
both of the English Constitution and the 
charter of the Provinces. It is said that 
this was the first direct denial of the un- 
limited right of Parliament over the colo- 
nies. Soon after this the Stamp Act was 
repealed. 

Directly Mr. Adams was employed to 
defend Ansell Nickerson, who had killed an 
Englishman in the act of impressing him 
(Nickerson) into the King's service, and his 
client was acquitted, the court thus estab- 



lishing the principle that the infamous 
royal prerogative of impressment could 
have no existence in the colonial code. 
But in 1770 Messrs. Adams and Josiah 
Quincy defended a party of British soldiers 
who had been arrested for murder when 
they had been onl}' obeying Governmental 
orders ; and when reproached for thus ap- 
parently deserting the cause of popular 
liberty, Mr. Adams replied that he would a 
thousandfold rather live under the domina- 
tion of the worst of England's kings than 
under that of a lawless mob. Next, after 
serving a term as a member of the Colonial 
Legislature from Boston, Mr. Adams, find- 
ing his health affected by too great labor, 
retired to his native home at Braintree. 

The year 1774 soon arrived, with its fa- 
mous Boston " Tea Party," the first open 
act of rebellion. Adams was sent to the 
Congress at Philadelphia ; and when the 
Attorney-General announced that Great 
Britain had " determined on her system, 
and that her power to execute it was irre- 
sistible," Adams replied : " I know that 
Great Britain has determined on her sys- 
tem, and that very determination deter- 
mines me on mine. You know that I have 
been constant in my opposition to her 
measures. The die is now cast. I have 
passed the Rubicon. Sink or swim, live or 
die, with my country, is my unalterable 
determination." The rumor beginnins: to 
prevail at Philadelphia that the Congress 
had independence in view, Adams foresaw 
that it was too soon to declare it openly. 
He advised every one to remain quiet in 
that respect; and as soon as it became ap- 
parent that he himself was for independ- 
ence, he was advised to hide himself, which 
he did. 

The next year the great Revolutionary 
war opened in earnest, and Mrs. Adams, 
residing near Boston, kept her husband ad- 
vised by letter of all the events transpiring 
in her vicinity. The battle of Bunker Hill 




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i^ RES I DENTS OF THE UN /TED STATES^ 



the fighting men of the 
delegation 



came on. Congress had to do something 
immediately. The first thing was to 
choose a commander-in-chief for the — we 
can't say " army 
colonies. The New England 
was almost unanimous in favor of appoint- 
ing General Ward, then at the head of the 
Massachusetts forces, but Mr. Adams urged 
the appointment of George Washington, 
then almost unknown outside of his own 
State. He was appointed without oppo- 
sition. Mr. Adams offered the resolution, 
which was adopted, annulling all the royal 
authority in the colonies. Having thus 
prepared the way, a few weeks later, viz., 
June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee, of Vir- 
ginia, who a few months before had declared 
that the British Government would aban- 
don its oppressive measures, now offered 
the memorable resolution, seconded by 
Adams, " that these United States are, and 
of right ought to be, free and independent." 
Jefferson, Adams, Franklin, Sherman and 
Livingston were then appointed a commit- 
tee to draught a declaration of independ- 
ence. Mr. Jefferson desired Mr. Adams 
to draw up the bold document, but the 
latter persuaded Mr. Jefferson to perform 
that responsible task. The Declaration 
drawn up, Mr. Adams became its foremost 
defender on the floor of Congress. It was 
signed by all the fifty-five members present, 
and the next day Mr. Adams wrote to his 
wife how great a deed was done, and how 
proud he was of it. Mr. Adams continued 
to be the leading man of Congress, and 
the leading advocate of American inde- 
pendence. Above all other Americans, 
he was considered by every one the prin- 
cipal shining mark for British vengeance. 
Thus circumstanced, he was appointed to 
the most dangerous task of crossing the 
ocean in winter, exposed to capture by the 
British, who knew of his mission, which 
was to visit Paris and solicit the co-opera- 
tion of the French. Besides, to take him- 



self away from the country of which he 
was the most prominent defender, at that 
critical time, was an act of the greatest self- 
sacrifice. Sure enough, while crossing the 
sea, he had two very narrow escapes from 
capture ; and the transit was otherwise a 
stormy and eventful one. During th^ 
summer of 1779 he returned home, but was 
immediately dispatched back to France, to 
be in readiness there to negotiate terms of 
peace and commerce with Great Britain as 
soon as the latter power was ready for such 
business. But as Dr. Franklin was more 
popular than heat the court of France, Mr. 
Adams repaired to Holland, where he was 
far more successful as a diplomatist. 

The treaty of peace between the United 
States and England was finally signed at 
Paris, January 21, 1783; and the re-action 
from so great excitement as Mr. Adams had 
so long been experiencing threw him into 
a dangerous fever. Before he fully re- 
covered he was in London, whence he was 
dispatched again to Amsterdam to negoti- 
ate another loan. Compliance with this 
order undermined his physical constitution 
for life. 

In 1785 Mr. Adams was appointed envoy 
to the court of St. James, to meet face to 
face the very king who had regarded him 
as an arch traitor! Accordingly he re- 
paired thither, where he did actually meet 
and converse with George III.! After a 
residence there for about three jears, he 
obtained permission to return to America. 
While in London he wrote and published 
an able work, in three volumes, entitled: 
" A Defense of the American Constitution." 

The Articles of Confederation proving 
inefficient, as Adams had prophesied, a 
carefully draughted Constitution was 
adopted in 1789, when George Washington 
was elected President of the new nation, 
and Adams Vice-President. Congress met 
for a time in New York, but was removed 
to Philadelphia for ten years, until suitable 



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JOHN ADAMS. 



19 



buildings should be erected at the new 
cajiital in the District of Columbia. Mr. 
Adams then moved his family to Phila- 
delphia. Toward the close of his term of 
office the French Revolution culminated, 
when Adams and Washington rather 
S3'mpathized with England, and Jefferson 
with France. The Presidential election of 
1796 resulted in giving Mr. Adams the first 
place by a small majority, and Mr. Jeffer- 
son the second place. 

Mr. Adams's administration was consci- 
entious, patriotic and able. The period 
was a turbulent one, and even an archangel 
could not have reconciled the hostile par- 
ties. Partisanism with reference to Eng- 
land and France was bitter, and for four 
years Mr. Adams struggled through almost 
a constant tempest of assaults. In fact, he 
was not truly a popular man, and his cha- 
grin at not receiving a re-election was so 
great that he did not even remain at Phila- 
delphia to witness the inauguration of Mr. 
Jefferson, his successor. The friendly 
intimacy between these two men was 
interrupted for about thirteen years of their 
life. Adams tinall}' made the first advances 
toward a restoration of their mutual friend- 
ship, which were gratefully accepted by 
Jefferson. 

Mr. Adams was glad of his opportunity 
to retire to private liic, where he could rest 
his mind and enjoy the comforts of home. 
By a thousand bitter experiences he found 
the path of public duty a thorny one. For 
twenty-six 3'ears his service of the public 
was as arduous, self-sacrificing and devoted 
as ever fell to the lot of man. In one im- 
portant sense he was as much the " Father 
of his Country " as was Washington in 
another sense. During these long years of 
anxiety and toil, in which he was laying- 
broad and deep, the foundations of the 



greatest nation the sun ever shone upon, he 
received from his impoverished country a 
meager support. The only privilege he 
carried with him into his retirement was 
that of franking his letters. 

Although taking no active part in juiblic 
affairs, both himself and his son, John 
Quincy, nobly supported the policy of Mr. 
Jefferson in resisting the encroachments of 
England, who persisted in searching 
American ships on the high seas and 
diagging from them any sailors that might 
be designated by any pert lieutenant as 
British subjects. Even for this noble sup- 
port Mr. Adams was maligned by thou- 
sands of bitter enemies ! On this occasion, 
for the first time since his retirement, he 
broke silence and drew up a very able 
paper, exposing the atrocit}' of the British 
pretensions. 

Mr. Adams outlived nearly all his famil3\ 
Though his physical frame began to give 
way many years before his death, his mental 
powers retained their strength and vigor to 
the last. In his ninetieth year he was 
gladdened by the popular elevation of his 
son to the Presidential office, the highest in 
the gift of the people. A few months more 
passed away and the 4th of Julv, 1826, 
arrived. The people, unaware of the near 
approach of the end of two great lives — 
that of Adams and Jefferson — were making 
unusual preparations for a national holiday. 
Mr. Adams lay upon his couch, listening to 
the ringing of bells, the waftures of martial 
music and the roar of cannon, with silent 
emotion. Only four days before, he had 
given for a public toast, " Independence 
forever." About two o'clock in the after- 
noon he said, "And Jefferson still survives." 
But he was mistaken by an hour or so ; 
and in a few minutes he had breathed his 
last. 



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PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



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^T^f "OMAS JEFFER- 
son, the third Presi- 
dent of the United 
States, i8oi-'9, was 
born April 2, 1743, 
the eldest child of 
his parents, Peter 
and Jane (Randolph) Jef- 
ferson, near Charlottes- 
ville, Albemarle County, 
Virginia, upon the slopes 
of the Blue Ridge. When 
he -was fourteen years of 
age, his father died, leav- 
ing a widow and eight 
children. She was a beau- 
tiful and accomplished 
lady, a good letter-writer, with a fund of 
humor, and an admirable housekeeper. His 
parents belonged to the Church of England, 
and are said to be of Welch origin. But 
little is known of them, however. 

Thomas was naturally of a serious turn 
of mind, apt to learn, and a favorite at 
school, his choice studies bemg mathemat- 
ics and the classics. At the age of seven- 
teen he entered William and Mar}' College, 
in an advanced class, and lived in rather an 
expensive style, consequently being much 
caressed by gay society. That he was not 
ruined, is proof of his stamina of character. 
But during his second year he discarded 




society, his horses and even his favorite 
violin, and devoted thenceforward iifteen 
hours a day to hard study, becoming ex- 
traordinarily proficient in Latin and Greek 
authors. 

On leaving college, before he was twenty- 
one, he commenced the study of law, and 
pursued it diligently until he was well 
qualified for practice, upon which he 
entered in 1767. By this time he was also 
versed in French, Spanish, Italian and An- 
glo-Saxon, and in the criticism of the fine 
arts. Being very polite and polished in his 
manners, he won the friendship of all whom 
he met. Though able with his pen, he was 
not fluent in public speecli. 

In 1769 he was chosen a member of the 
Virginia Legislature, and was the largest 
slave-holding member of that bod}'. He 
introduced a bill empowering slave-holders 
to manumit their slaves, but it was rejected 
by an overwhelming vote. 

In 1770 Mr. Jefferson met with a great 
loss; his house at Shadwell was burned, 
and his valuable library of 2,000 volumes 
was consumed. But he was wealthy 
enough to replace the most of it, as from 
his 5,000 acres tilled by slaves and his 
practice at the bar his income amounted to 
about $5,000 a year. 

In 1772 he married Mrs. JNIartha Skciton, 
a beautiful, wealthy and accomplished 





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THOMAS JEFFERSON. 



23 



young widow, who owned 40,000 acres of 
land and 130 slaves; yet he labored assidu- 
(Hislv for the abolition of slavery. For his 
new home he selected a majestic rise of 
land upon his large estate at Shadwell, 
called Monticello, whereon he erected a 
mansion of modest yet elegant architecture. 
Here he lived in luxury, indulging his taste 
in magnificent, high-blooded horses. 

At this period the British Government 
gradually became more insolent and op- 
pressive toward the American colonies, 
and Mr. Jefferson was ever one of the most 
foremost to resist its encroachments. From 
time to time he drew up resolutions of re- 
monstrance, which were finally adopted, 
thus proving his ability as a, statesman and 
as a leader. By the year 1774 he became 
quite busy, both with voice and pen, in de- 
fending the right of the colonies to defend ' 
themselves. His pamphlet entitled: "A 
Summary View of the Rights of British 
America," attracted much attention in Eng- 
land. The following year he, in company) 
with George Washington, served as an ex- 
ecutive committee in measures to defend 
by arms the State of Virginia. As a Mem- 
ber of the Congress, he was not a speech- 
maker, yet in conversation and upon 
committees he was so frank and decisive 
that he always m.ade a favorable impression. 
But as late as the autumn of 1775 he re- 
mained in hopes of reconciliation with the 
parent country. 

At length, however, the hour arrived for 
draughting the " Declaration of Indepen- 
dence," and this responsible task was de- 
volved upon Jefferson. Franklin, and 
Adams suggested a few verbal corrections 
before it was submitted to Congress, which 
was June 28, 1776, only six days before it 
was adopted. During the three days of 
the fiery ordeal of criticism through which 
it passed in Congress, Mr. Jefferson opened 
not his hps. John Adams was the main 
champion of the Declaration on the floor 



of Congress. The signing of tliis document 
was one of the most solemn and momentous 
occasions ever attended to by man. Prayer 
and silence reigned throughout the hall, 
and each signer realized that if American 
independence was not finally sustained by 
arms he was doomed to the scaffold. 

After the colonies became independent 
States, Jefferson resigned for a time his seat 
in Congress in order to aid in organizing 
the government of Virginia, of which State 
he was chosen Governor in 1779, when he 
was thirty-six years of age. At this time 
the British had possession of Georgia and 
were invading South Carolina, and at one 
time a British officer, Tarleton, sent a 
secret expedition to Monticello to capture 
the Governor. Five minutes after Mr. 

,JeffprsDii. escaped with his family, his man- 

•si'ort was liv possession of the enemy ! The 
British trob'p's also destroyed his valuable 
plantation on the James River. " Had they 
cari;iie.d off the sFaves," said Jefferson, with 

"chaYacteVisttc 'magnanimity, " to give them 
freedbfh', fhey'would have done right." 

The year 1781 was a gloomy one for the 
Virginia Governor. While confined to his 
secluded home in the forest by a sick and 
dying wife, a party arose against him 
throughout the State, severely criticising 
his course as Governor. Being very sensi- 
tive to reproach, this touched him to the 
quick, and the heap of troubles then sur- 
rounding him nearly crushed him. He re- 
solved, in despair, to retire from public life 
for the rest of his days. For weeks Mr. 

Jefferson sat lovingly, but with a crushed 
heart, at the bedside of his sick wife, during 
which time unfeeling letters were sent to 
him, accusing him of weakness and unfaith- 
fulness to duty. All this, after he had lost 
so much property and at the same time 
done so much for his country ! After her 
death he actually fainted away, and re- 
mained so long insensible that it was feared 
he never would recover! Several weeks 






24 



PRESIDE.VTS OF TUB U.V/TED STATES. 



passed before he could fully recover his 
equilibrium. He was never married a 
second time. 

In the spring of 1782 the people of Eng- 
land compelled their king to make to the 
Americans overtures of peace, and in No- 
vember following, Mr. Jefferson was reap- 
pointed by Congress, unanimously and 
without a single adverse remark, minister 
plenipotentiary to negotiate a treat}'. 

In March, 1784, Mr. Jefferson was ap- 
pointed on a committee to draught a plan 
for the government of the Northwestern 
Territory. His slavery -prohibition clause 
in that plan was stricken out by the pro- 
slavery majority of the committee; but amid 
all the controversies and wrangles of poli- 
ticians, he made it a rule never to contra- 
dict anybody or engage in any discussion 
as a debater. 

In company with Mr. Adams and Dr. 
Franklin, Mr. Jefferson was appointed in 
May, 1784, to act as minister plenipotentiary 
in the negotiation of treaties of commerce 
with foreign nations. Accordingly, he went 
to Paris and satisfactorily accomplished his 
mission. The suavity and high bearing of 
his manner made all the French his friends; 
and even Mrs, Adams at one time wrote 
to her sister that he was " the chosen 
of the earth." But all the honors that 
he received, both at home and abroad, 
seemed to make no change in the simplicity 
of his republican tastes. On his return to 
America, he found two parties respecting 
the foreign commercial policy, Mr. Adams 
sympathizing with that in favor of England 
and himself favoring Fiance. 

On the inauguration of General Wash- 
ington as President, Mr. Jefferson was 
chosen by him for the office of Secretary of 
State. At this time the rising storm of the 
French Revolution became visible, and 
Washington watched it with great anxiety. 
His cabinet was divided in their views of 
constitutional government as well as re- 



garding the issues in France. General 
Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury, was 
the leader of the so-called Federal party, 
while Mr. Jefferson was the leader of the 
Republican party. At the same time there 
was a strong monarchical party in this 
country, with which Mr. Adams sympa- 
thized. Some important financial measures, 
which were proposed by Hamilton and 
finally adopted b}' the cabinet and approved 
by Washington, were opposed by Mr. 
Jefferson ; and his enemies then began to 
reproach him with holding office under an 
administration whose views he opposed. 
The President poured oil on the troubled 
waters. On his re-election to tiie Presi- 
dency he desired Mr. Jefferson to remain 
in the cabinet, but the latter sent in his 
resignation at two different times, probably 
because he was dissatisfied with some of 
the measures of the Government. His 
final one was not received until January i, 
1794, when General Washington parted 
from him with great regret. 

Jefferson then retired to his quiet home 
at Monticello, to enjoy a good rest, not even 
reading the newspapers lest the political 
gossip should disquiet him. On the Presi- 
dent's again calling him back to the office 
of Secretary of State, he replied that no 
circumstances would ever again tempt him 
to engage in anything public! But, while 
all Europe was ablaze with war, and France 
in the throes of a bloody revolution and the 
principal theater of the conflict, a new 
Presidential election in this country came 
on. John Adams was the Federal candi- 
date and Mr. Jefferson became the Republi- 
can candidate. The result of the election 
was the promotion of tiic latter to the Vice- 
Presidency, while the former was chosen 
President. In this contest Mr. Jefferson 
reall}- did not desire to have either office, 
he was "so weary" of party strife. He 
Icjvcd the retirement of home more than 
any other place on the earth. 






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THOMAS JEFFERSON. 



25 






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But for four long years his Vice-Presi- 
dency passed jo3^1essIy away, while the 
partisan strife between Federalist and Re- 
publican was ever growing hotter. The 
former party split and the result of the 
fourth general election was the elevation of 
Mr. Jefferson to the Presidency! with 
Aaron Burr as Vice-President. These men 
being at the head of a growing party, their 
election was hailed everywhere with joy. 
On the other hand, many of the Federalists 
turned pale, as they believed what a portion 
of the pulpit and the press had been preach- 
ing — that Jefferson was a " scoffing atheist," 
a "Jacobin," the " incarnation of all evil," 
"breathing threatening and slaughter! " 

Mr. Jefferson's inaugural address con- 
tained nothing but the noblest sentiments, 
expressed in fine language, and his personal 
behavior afterward exhibited the extreme 
of American, democratic simplicity. His 
disgust of European court etiquette grew 
upon him with age. He believed that 
General Washington was somewhat dis- 
trustful of the ultimate success of a popular 
Government, and that, imbued with a little 
admiration of the forms of a monarchical 
Government, he had instituted levees, birth- 
daj^s, pompous meetings with Congress, 
etc. Jefferson was always polite, even to 
slaves everywhere he met them, and carried 
in his countenance the indications of an ac- 
commodating disposition. 

The political principles of the Jeffersoni- 
an party now swept the country, and Mr. 
Jefferson himself swayed an influence which 
was never exceeded even by Washington. 
Under his administration, in 1803, the Lou- 
isiana purchase was made, for $15,000,000, 
the " Louisiana Territory " purchased com- 
prising all the land west of the Mississippi 
to the Pacific Ocean. 

The year 1804 witnessed another severe 
loss in his family. His highly accomplished 
and most beloved daughter Maria sickened 
and died, causing as great grief in the 



stricken parent as it was possible for him to 
survive with any degree of sanity. 

The same year he was re-elected to the 
Presidency, with George Clinton as Vice- 
President. During his second term our 
relations with England became more com- 
plicated, and on June 22, 1807, near Hamp- 
ton Roads, the United States frigate 
Chesapeake was fired upon by the Brit- 
ish man-of-war Leopard, and was made 
to surrender. Three men were killed and 
ten wounded. Jefferson demanded repara- 
tion. England grew insolent. It became 
evident that war was determined upon by 
the latter power. More than 1,200 Ameri- 
cans were forced into the British service 
upon the high seas. Before any satisfactory 
solution was reached, Mr. Jefferson's 
Presidential term closed. Amid all these 
public excitements he thought constantl}' 
of the welfare of his family, and longed 
for the time when he could return home 
to remain. There, at Monticello, his sub- 
sequent life was very similar to that of 
Washington at Mt. Vernon. His hospi- 
tality toward his numerous friends, indul- 
gence of his slaves, and misfortunes to his 
property, etc., finall)' involved him in debt. 
For years his home resembled a fashion- 
able watering-place. During the summer, 
thirty-seven house servants were required! 
It was presided over by his daughter, Mrs. 
Randolph. 

Mr. Jefferson did much for the establish- 
ment of the University at Charlottesville, 
making it unsectarian, in keeping with the 
spirit of American institutions, but poverty 
and the feebleness of old age prevented 
him from doing what he would. He even 
went so far as to petition tiie Legislature 
for permission to dispose of some of his 
possessions by lottery, in order to raise the 
necessary funds for home expenses. It was 
granted ; but before the plan was carried 
out, Mr. Jefferson died, July 4, 1826, at 

12:50 ]'. M. 



26 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UN/TED STATES. 








V. AMES MADISON, t h c 

3; fourth President of the 

'■^^ United States, iSog-'i;, 

was born at Port Con- 

tTd^s?- ilirei'' ■ ■-"'•. ^^''^V, Prince George 
^^/^.tS^^ £l .i;" Comity, Virginia, March 
i6, 1 75 1. His fatiicr, 
Colonel James Madiscjn, was 
a wealthy planter, residing 
upon a very fine estate 
called " Montpclier," only 
twenty-five miles from the 
home of Thomas Jefferson 
at Monticello. The closest 
personal and political at- 
tachment existed between 
these illustrious men from their early youth 
until death. 

James was the eldest of a family of seven 
children, four sons and three daughters, all 
of whom attained maturity. His early edu- 
cation was conducted mostly at home, 
under a private tutor. Being naturallv in- 
tellectual in his tastes, he consecrated him- 
self with unusual vigor to study. At a very 
early age he made considerable proficiency 
in the Greek, Latin, French and Spanish 
languages. In 1769 he entered Princeton 
College, New Jersey, of which the illus- 
trious Dr. Weathcrspoon was then Presi- 
dent. He graduatefl in 1771, with a char- 



acter of the utmost purity, and a mind 
highly disciplined and stored with all the 
learning which embellished and gave effi- 
ciency to his subsequent career. After 
graduating he pursued a course of reading 
for several months, under the guidance of 
President VVeatherspoon, anil in 1772 re- 
turned to Virginia, where he continued in 
incessant study for two years, nominally 
directed to the law, but really including 
extended researches in theology, philoso- 
phy and general literature. 

The Church of England was the estab- 
lished church in Virginia, invested with all 
the prerogatives and immunities which it 
enjoyed in the fatherland, and other de- 
nominations labored under serious disabili- 
ties, the enforcement of which was rightly 
or wrongly characterized by them as per- 
secution. Madison took a prominent stand 
in behalf of the removal of all disabilities, 
repeatedly appeared in the court of his own 
county to defend the Baptist nonconform- 
ists, and was elected from Orange County to 
the Virginia Convention in the spring of 
1766, when he signalized the beginning of 
his public career by ])rocuring the passage 
of an amendment to the Declaration of 
Rights as prepared by George Mason, sub- 
stituting for "toleration" a more (-niphatic 
assertion of leligious liberty. 







/ 






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THENZV/'YO«K|; 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 



ASTOR, LeWOX AH{> 
TILDEN FOU*<OaT«D«S. 






,{ISSI 



L / ^CLr~^v^> ^u/« 



yAMES MADISON. 



29 



In 1776 he was elected a member of the 
Virginia Convention to frame the Constitu- 
tion of the State. Like Jefferson, he took 
but little part in the public debates. His 
main strength lay in his conversational in- 
fluence and in his pen. In November, 1777, 
he was chosen a member of the Council of 
State, and in March, 17S0, took his seat in 
the Continental Congress, where he first 
gained prominence through his energetic 
opposition to the issue of paper money by 
the States. He continued in Congress three 
years, one of its most active and influential 
members. 

In 1784 Mr. Madison was elected a mem- 
ber of the Virginia Legislature. He ren- 
dered important service by promoting and 
participating in that revision of the statutes 
which effectually abolished the remnants of 
the feudal system subsistent up to that 
time in the form of entails, primogeniture, 
and State support given the Anglican 
Church ; and his " Memorial and Remon- 
strance" against a general assessment for 
the support of religion is one of the ablest 
papers which emanated from his pen. It 
settled the question of the entire separation 
of church and State in Virginia. 

Mr. Jefferson sa3's of him, in allusion to 
the study and experience through which he 
had already passed : 

" Trained in these successive schools, he 
acquired a habit of self-possession which 
placed at ready command the rich resources 
of his luminous and discriminating mind and 
of his extensive information, and rendered 
him the first of every assembly of which he 
afterward became a member. Never wan- 
dering from his subject into vain declama- 
tion, but pursuing it closely in language 
pure, classical and copious, soothing al- 
wa3's the feelings of his adversaries by civili- 
ties and softness of expression, he rose to the 
emin.ent station which he held in the great 
National Convention of 17S7 ; and in that of 
Virginia, which followed, he sustained the 



new Constitution in all its parts, bearing off 
the palm against the logic of George Mason 
and tlie fervid declamation of Patrick 
Henry. With these consummate powers 
were united a pure and spotless virtue 
which no calumny has ever attempted to 
suUv. Of the power and polish of his pen, 
and of the wisdom of his administration in 
the highest office of the nation, I need say 
nothing. They have spoken, and will for- 
ever speak, for themselves." 

In January, 1786, Mr. Madison took the 
initiative in proposing a meeting of State 
Commissioners to devise measures for more 
satisfactory commercial relations between 
the States. A meeting was held at An- 
napolis to discuss this subject, and but five 
States were represented. The convention 
issued another call, drawn up by Mr. Madi- 
son, urging all the States to send their dele- 
gates to Philadelphia, in May, 1787, to 
draught a Constitution for the United 
States. The delegates met at the time ap- 
pointed, every State except Rhode Island 
being represented. George Washington 
was chosen president of the convention, 
and the present Constitution of the United 
States was then and there formed. There 
was no mind and no pen more active in 
framing this immortal document than the 
mind and pen of James Madison. He was, 
perhaps, its ablest advocate in the pages of 
the Federalist. 

Mr. Madison was a member of the first 
four Congresses, i789-'97, in which he main- 
tained a moderate opposition to Hamilton's 
financial policy. He declined the mission 
to France and the Secretaryship of State, 
and, graduall}' identifying himself with the 
Republican party, became from 1792 its 
avowed leader. In 1796 he was its choice 
for the Presidency as successor to Wash- 
ington. Mr. Jefferson wrote : " There is 
not another person in the United States 
with whom, being placed at the helm of our 
affairs, my mi-nd would be so completely at 



3° 



PItESIDE.VTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



rest for tlie fortune of our political bark." 
But Mr. Madison declined to be a candi- 
date. Mis term in Congress had expired, 
and he returned from New York to his 
beautiful retreat at Montpelier. 

In 1794 Mr. Madison married a young 
widow of remarkable powers of fascination 
— Mrs. Todd. Her maiden name was Doro- 
th\' Paine. She was born in 1767, in Vir- 
ginia, of Quaker parents, and had been 
educated in t\\e strictest rules of that sect. 
Wlicn but eighteen years of age she married 
a young lawyer and moved to Philadelphia, 
where she was introduced to brilliant scenes 
of fashionable life. She speedily laid aside 
the dress and address of the Quakeress, and 
became one of the most fascinating ladies 
of the republican court. In New York, 
after the death of her husband, she was the 
belle of the season and was surrounded with 
admirers. Mr. Madison won the prize. 
She proved an invaluable helpmate. In 
Washington she was the life of society. 
If there was any dilSdent, timid young 
girl just making her appearance, she 
found in Mi"s. Madison an encouraging 
friend. 

During the stormy administration of John 
Adams Madison remained in private life, 
but was tiie author of the celebrated " Reso- 
lutions of 1798," adopted by the Virginia 
Legislature, in condemnation of the Alien 
and Sedition laws, as well as of the " report" 
in which he defended those resolutions, 
which is, by many, considered his ablest 
State paper. 

The storm passed away ; the Alien and 
Sedition laws were repealed, John Adams 
lost his re-election, and in 1801 Thomas Jef- 
ferson was chosen President. The great re- 
action in public sentiment which seated 
Jefferson in the presidential chair was large- 
ly owing to the writings of Madison, who 
was consequently well entitled to the post 
of Secretary of State. With great ability 
he discharged the duties of this responsible 



office during the eight years of Mr. Jeffer- 
son's administration. 

As Mr. Jefferson was a widower, and 
neither of his daughters could be often with 
him, Mrs. Madison usually presided over 
the festivities of the White House ; and as 
her husband succeeded Mr. Jefferson, hold- 
ing his office for two terms, this remarkable 
woman was the mistress of the presidential 
mansion for sixteen years. 

Mr. Madison being entirely engrossed by 
the cares of his office, all the duties of so- 
cial life devolved upon his accomplished 
wife. Never were such responsibilities 
more ably discharged. The most bitter 
foes of her husband and of the administra- 
tion were received with the frankly prof- 
fered hand and the cordial smile of wel- 
come ; and the influence of this gentle 
woman in allaying the bitterness of party 
rancor became a great and salutary power 
in the nation. 

As the term of Mr. Jefferson's Presidency 
drew near its close, party strife was roused 
to the utmost to elect his successor. It was 
a death-grapple between the two great 
parties, the Federal and Republican. Mr. 
Madison was chosen President by an elec- 
toral vote of 122 to 53, and was inaugurated 
March 4, 1809, at a critical period, wiien 
the relations of the United States with Great 
Britain were becoming embittered, and his 
first term was passed in diplomatic quarrels, 
aggravated by the act of non-intercourse of 
Mav, iSlO, and finally resulting in a decla- 
ration of war. 

On the 1 8th of June, 1812, President 
Madison gave his approval to an act of 
Congress declaring war against Great Brit- 
ain. Notwithstanding the bitter hostility 
of the Federal party to the war, the country 
in general approved ; and in the autumn 
Madison was re-elected to the Presidency 
by 128 electoral votes to 89 in favor of 
George Clinton. 

March 4, 1S17, Madison vieldeil 1 he Presi- 



^-....-..^ ..■.iii«fSij^i»W«Mii»»M„n_a,a «»,Miin5;» 



yAMES A/AD/SON. 



31 



dency to his Secretary of State and inti- 
mate friend, James Monroe, and retired to 
his ancestral estate at MontpeHer, where he 
passed the evening of his days surrounded 
by attached friends and enjoying the 
merited respect of the whole nation. He 
took pleasure in promoting agriculture, as 
president of the county society, and in 
watching the development of the University 
of Virginia, of which he was long rector and 
visitor. In extreme old age he sat in 1829 
as a member of the convention called to re- 
form the Virginia Constitution, where his 
appearance was hailed with the most gen- 
uine interest and satisfaction, though he 
was too infirm to participate in the active 
work of revision. Small in stature, slender 
and delicate in form, with a countenance 
full of intelligence, and expressive alike of 
mildness and dignity, he attracted the atten- 
tion of all who attended the convention, 
and was treated with the utmost deference. 
He seldom addressed the assembly, though 
he always appeared self-possessed, and 
watched with unflagging interest the prog- 
ress of every measure. Though the con- 
vention sat sixteen weeks, he spoke only 
twice; but when he did speak, the whole 
house paused to listen. His voice was 
feeble though his enunciation was very dis- 
tinct. One of the reporters, Mr. Stansbury, 
relates the following anecdote of Mr. Madi- 
son's last speech: 

" The next day, as there was a great call 
for it, and the report had not been returned 
for publication, I sent my son with a re- 
spectful note, requesting the manuscript. 
My son was a lad of sixteen, whom I had 
taken with me to act as amanuensis. On 
delivering my note, he was received with 
the utmost politeness, and requested to 
come up into Mr. Madison's room and wait 
while his eye ran over the paper, as com- 
pany had prevented his attending to it. He 
did so, and Mr. Madison sat down to correct 

the report. The lad stood near him so that 
3 



his eye fell on the paper. Coming to a 
certain sentence in the speech, Mr. Madison 
erased a word and substituted another ; but 
hesitated, and not feeling satisfied with the 
second word, drew his pen through it also. 
My son was young, ignorant of the world, 
and unconscious of the solecism of which he 
was about to be guilty, when, in all simplic- 
ity, he suggested a word. Probably no 
other person then living would have taken 
such a liberty. But the sage, instead of 
reoarding such an intrusion with a frown, 
raised his eyes to the boy's face with a 
pleased surprise, and said, ' Thank you, sir ; 
it is the very word,' and immediately in- 
serted it. I saw him the next day, and he 
mentioned the circumstance, with a compli- 
ment on the 3'oung critic." 

Mr. Madison died at Montpelicr, June 28, 
1836, at the advanced age of eighty-five. 
Wiiile not possessing the highest order of 
talent, and deficient in oratorical powers, 
he was pre-eminently a statesman, of a well- 
balanced mind. His attainments were solid, 
his knowledge copious, his judgment gener- 
ally sound, his powers of analysis and logi- 
cal statement rarely surpassed, his language 
and literary style correct and polished, his 
conversation witty, his temperament san- 
guine and trusfful, his integrity unques- 
tioned, his manners simple, courteous and 
winning. By these rare qualities he con- 
ciliated the esteem not only of friends, but 
of political opponents, in a greater degree 
than any American statesman in the present 
century. 

Mrs. Madison survived her husband thir- 
teen years, and died July 12, 1849, i'^ the 
eighty-second year of her age. She was one 
of the most remarkable women our coun- 
try has produced. Even now she is ad- 
miringly remembered in Washington as 
" Dolly Madison," and it is fitting tliat her 
memory should descend to posterity in 
company with thatof the companion of 
her life. 



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PJiES/DEIVTS UF THE UN 11 ED STATES. 







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f '|r AMES MONROE, the fifth 
President of the United 
ij;^ States, 1817-25, was born 
in Westmoreland County 
Virginia, April 28, 1758. 
lie was a son of Spence 
Monroe, and a descendant 
of a Scottish cavalier fam- 
ily. Like all his predeces- 
sors thus far in the Presi- 
dential chair, he cnjo3'ed all 
the advantages of educa- 
tion wiiich tlic country 
could then afford. He was 
carl}' sent to a fine classical 
school, and at the age of six- 
teen entered William and Mary College.. 
In 1776, when he had been in college but 
two years, the Declaration of Independence 
was adopted, and our feeble militia, with- 
out arms, amunition or clothing, were strug- 
gling against the trained armies of England. 
James Monroe left college, hastened to 
General Washington's headquarters at New 
York and enrolled himself as a cadet in the 
army. 

At Trenton Lieutenant Monroe so dis- 
tinguished himself, receiving a wound in his 
shoulder, that he was promoted to a Cap- 
taincy. Upon recovering from his wound, 
he was invited to act as aide to Lord Ster- 
ling, and in that capacity he took an active 
part in the battles of Brandywinc, Ger- 
niaiitownand Monmouth. ;\t Gcrmantown 



he stood b}' the side of Lafayette when the 
French Marquis received his wound. Gen- 
eral Washington, who had formed a high 
idea of young Monroe's ability, sent him to 
Virginia to raise a new regiment, of which 
he was to be Colonel; but so exhausted was 
Virginia at that time that the effort proved 
unsuccessful. He, however, received his 
commission. 

Finding no opportunity to enter the army 
as a commissioned officer, he returned to his 
original plan of studying law, and entered 
the ofihce of Thomas Jefferson, who was 
then Governorof Virginia. He developed 
a very noble character, frank, manly and 
sincere. Mr. Jefferson said of him: 

"James Monroe is so perfectl}- honest 
that if his soul were turned inside out there 
would not be found a spot on it." 

In 17S2 he was elected to the Assembly 
of Virginia, and was also appointed a mem- 
ber of the E.xecutive Council. The next 
year he was chosen delegate to the Conti- 
nental Congress for a term of three years. 
He was present at Annapolis when Wash- 
ington surrendered his commission of Com- 
mander-in-chief. 

With Washington, Jefferson and Madison 
he felt deeply the inefficiency of the old 
Articles of Confederation, and urged the 
formation of a new Constitution, which 
should invest the Central Government with 
something like national power. Influenced 
by these views, he introduced a resolution 



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that Congress should be empowered to 
regulate trade, and to lay an impost duty 
of five per cent. The resolution was refer- 
red to a committee of which he was chair- 
man. The report and the discussion which 
rose upon it led to the convention of five 
States at Annapolis, and the consequent 
general convention at Philadelphia, which, 
in 1787, drafted the Constitution of the 
United States. 

At this time there was a controversy be- 
tween New York and Massachusetts in 
reference to their boundaries. The high 
esteem in which Colonel Monroe was held 
is indicated by the fact that he was ap- 
pointed one of the judges to decide the 
controversy. While in New York attend- 
ing Congress, he married Miss Kortright, 
a young lady distingLiished alike for her 
beauty and accomplishments. For near)}' 
fifty years this happv union remained un- 
broken. In London and in Paris, as in her 
own country, Mrs. Monroe won admiration 
and affection by the loveliness of her per- 
son, the brilliancy of her intellect, and the 
amiability of her character. 

Returning to Virginia, Colonel Monroe 
commenced the practice of law at Freder- 
icksburg. He was very soon elected to a 
seat in the State Legislature, and the ne.xt 
year he was chosen a member of the Vir- 
ginia convention which was assembled to 
decide upon the acceptance or rejection of 
the Constitution which had been drawn up 
at Philadelphia, and was now submitted 
to the several States. Deeply as he felt 
the imperfections of the old Confederacy, 
he was opposed to the new Constitution, 
thinking, with many others of the Republi- 
can party, that it gave too much power to 
the Central Government, and not enough 
to the individual States. 

In 1789 he became a member of the 
United States Senate, which office he held 
acceptably to his constituents; and with 
honor tui himself lor four years. 



Having opposed the Constitution as not 
leaving enough power with the States, he, 
of course, became more and more identi- 
fied with the Republican party. Thus he 
found himself in cordial co-operation with 
Jefferson and Madison. The great Repub- 
lican party became the dominant power 
which ruled the land. 

George Washington was then President. 
England had espoused the cause of the 
Bourbons against the principles of the 
French Revolution. President Washing- 
ton issued a proclamation of neutralit}' be- 
tween these contending powers. France 
had helped us in the struggle for our lib- 
erties. All the despotisms of Europe were 
now combined to prevent the French 
from escaping from tyrann}' a thousandfold 
worse than that which we had endured. 
Colonel Monroe, more magnanimous than 
prudent, was anxious that we should help 
our old allies in their extremit}*. He vio- 
lently opposed the President's procla- 
mation as ungrateful and wanting in 
magnanimity. 

Washington, who could appreciate such 
a character, developed his calm, serene, 
almost divine greatness by appointing that 
ver}' James Monroe, who was denouncing 
the polic}' of the Government, as the Minis- 
ter of that Government to the republic of 
France. He was directed b}' Washington 
to express to the French people our warm- 
est sympathy, communicating to them cor- 
responding resolves approved by the Pres- 
ident, and adopted by botii iiouses of 
Congress. 

Mr. Monroe was welcomed by the Na- 
tional Convention in France with the most 
enthusiastic demonstrations of respect and 
affection. He was publicly introduced to 
that body, anil received the embrace of tiie 
President, Merlin de Douay, after having 
been addressed in a speech glowing with 
congratulations, and with expressions of 
desire that iiarmony might ever exist be- 



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36 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



character of George 



tween the two nations. The flags of the 
two republics were intertwined in the hall 
of the convention. Mr. Monroe presented 
the American colors, and received those of 
France in return. The course which he 
pursued in Paris was so annoying to Eng- 
land and to the friends of England in 
this country that, near the close of Wash- 
ington's administration, Mr. Monroe, was 
recalled. 

After his return Colonel Monroe wrote a 
book of 400 pages, entitled " A View of the 
Conduct of the Executive in Foreign Af- 
fairs." In this work he ver}' ably advo- 
cated his side of the question; but, with 
the magnanimity of the man, he recorded a 
warm tribute to the patriotism, abilit)- and 
spotless integrity of John Jay, between 
whom and himself there was intense antag- 
onism ; and in subsequent years he ex- 
pressed in warmest terms his perfect 
veneration for the 
Washington. 

Shortly after his return to this country 
Colonel Monroe was elected Governor of 
Virginia, and held that ofifice for three 
years, the period limited by the Constitu- 
tion. In 1802 he was an Envoy to France, 
and to Spain in 1805, and was Minister to 
England in 1803. In 1806 he returned to 
his quiet home in Virginia, and with his 
wife and children and an ample competence 
from his paternal estate, enjoyed a few years 
of domestic repose. 

In 1809 Mr. Jefferson's second term of 
office expired, and many of the Republican 
party were anxious to nominate James 
^t()^r()e as his successor. The majority 
were in f:ivor of Mr. Madison. Mr. Mon- 
roe withdrew his name and was soon after 
chosen a second time Governor of Virginia. 
He soon resigned that office to accept the 
l)ositi()n of Secretary of State, offered him 
by President Madison. The correspond- 
ence which he then carried on with tlie 
British Government demonstrated that 



there was no hope of any peaceful adjust- 
ment of our difficulties with the cabinet of 
St. James. War was consequently declared 
in June, 18 12. Immediately after the sack 
of Washington the Secretary of War re- 
signed, and Mr. Monroe, at the earnest 
request of Mr. Madison, assumed the ad- 
ditional duties of the War Department, 
without resigning his position as Secretary 
of State. It has been confidentl}' stated, 
that, had Mr. Monroe's energies been in the 
War Department a few months earlier, the 
disaster at Washington would not have 
occurred. 

The duties now devolving upon Mr. Mon- 
roe were extremely arduous. Ten thou- 
sand men, picked from the veteran armies 
of England, were sent with a powerful fleet 
to New Orleans to acquire possession of 
the mouths of the Mississippi. Our finan- 
ces were in the most deplorable condition. 
The treasury was exhausted and our credit 
gone. And yet it was necessary to make 
the most rigorous preparations to meet the 
foe. In this crisis James Monroe, the Sec- 
retary of War, with virtue unsurpassed in 
Greek or Roman story, stepped forward 
and pledged his own individual credit as 
subsidiary to that of the nation, and thus 
succeeded in placing the city of New Or- 
leans in such a posture of defense, that it 
was enabled successfully to repel the in- 
vader. 

Mr. Monroe was truly the armor-bearer 
of President Madison, and the most efficient 
business man in his cabinet. His energy 
in the double capacity of Secretary, both 
of State and War, pervaded all the depart- 
ments of the country. He proposed to 
increase the army to 100,000 men, a meas- 
ure which he deemed absohitel)' necessary 
to save us from ignominious defeat, but 
which, at the same time, he knew would 
render his name so unpopular as to preclude 
the possibility of his being a successful can- 
didate for the Presidenc}'. 



JAMES MONROE. 



37 



The happy result of the conference at 
Ghent in securing peace rendered the in- 
crease of the array unnecessary; but it is not 
too much to say that James Monroe placed 
in the hands of Andrew Jackson the 
weapon with which to beat off the foe at 
New Orleans. Upon the return of peace 
Mr. Monroe resigned the department of 
war, devoting himself entirely to the duties 
of Secretary of State. These he continued 
to discharge until the close of President 
Madison's administration, with zeal which 
was never abated, and with an ardor of 
self-devotion which made him almost for- 
getful of the claims of fortune, health or 
life. 

Mr. Madison's second term expired in 
March, 1817, and Mr. Monroe succeeded 
to the Presidency. He was a candidate of 
the Republican party, now taking the name 
of the Democratic Republican. In 1821 he 
was re-elected, with scarcely any opposition. 
Out of 232 electoral votes, he received 231. 
The slavery question, which subsequently 
assumed such formidable dimensions, now 
began to make its appearance. The State 
of Missouri, which had been carved out of 
that immense territory which we had pur- 
chased of France, applied for admission to 
the Union, with a slavery Constitution. 
There were not a few who foresaw the 
evils impending. After the debate of a 
week it was decided that Missouri could 
not be admitted into the Union with slav- 
ery. This important question was at length 
settled by a compromise proposed by 
Henry Clay. 

The famous "Monroe Doctrine," of which 
so much has been said, originated in this 
way: In 1823 it was rumored that the 
Holy Alliance was about to interfere to 
prevent the establishment of Republican 
liberty in the European colonies of South 
America. President Monroe wrote to his 
old fi'iend Thomas Jefferson lor advice in 
the emergency. In his reply under date of 



October 24, Mr. Jefferson writes upon the 
supposition that our attempt to resist this 
European movement might lead to war: 

" Its object is to introduce and establish 
the American system of keeping out of our 
land all foreign powers; of never permitting 
those of Europe to intermeddle with the 
affairs of our nation. It is to maintain our 
own principle, not to depart from it." 

December 2, 1823, President Monroe 
sent a message to Congress, declaring it to 
be the policy of this Government not to 
entangle ourselves with the broils of Eu- 
rope, and not to allow Europe to interfere 
with the affairs of nations on the American 
continent; and the doctrine was announced, 
that any attempt on the part of the Euro- 
pean powers " to extend their system to 
any portion of this hemisphere would be 
regarded by the United States as danger- 
ous to our peace and safety." 

March 4, 1825, Mr. Monroe surrendered 
the presidential chair to his Secretary of 
State, John Ouincy Adams, and retired, 
with the universal respect of the nation, 
to his private residence at Oak Hill, Lou- 
doun County, Virginia. His time had been 
so entirely consecrated to his country, that 
he had neglected his pecuniary interests, 
and was deeply involved in debt. The 
welfare of his country had ever been up- 
permost in his mind. 

For many years Mrs. Monroe was in such 
feeble health that she rarely appeared in 
public. In 1830 Mr. Monroe took up his 
residence with his son-in-law in New York, 
where he died on the 4th of July, 1831. 
The citizens of New York conducted his 
obsequies with pageants more imposing 
than had ever been witnessed there before. 
Our country will ever cherish his mem- 
ory with pride, gratefully enrolling his 
name in the list of its benefactors, pronounc- 
ing him the worthy successor of the illus- 
trious men who had preceded him in the 
presidential chair. 



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PRESIDENTS OF THE UN IT ED STATES. 



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'OHN OUINCY ADAMS, 

the sixth President of the 
United States, i825-'9, 
was born in the rural 
home of his honored 
father, John Adams, in 
Q u i n c y , Massachusetts, 
July II, 1767. Hisinother, 
a woman of exalted worth, 
watched over his childhood 
during the almost constant 
absence of his father. He 
commenced his education 
at the village school, giving 
at an early period indica- 
tions of superior mental en- 
dowments. 

When eleven 3'ears of age he sailed with 
his father for Europe, where the latter was 
associated with Franklin and Lee as Minister 
Plenipotentiary. The intelligence of John 
Quincy attracted the attention of these men 
and received from them flattering marks of 
attention. Mr. Adams had scarcely returned 
to this country in 1779 ere he was again 
sent abroad, and John Quincy again accom- 
panied him. On this voyage he commenced 
a diary, which practice he continued, with 
but few interruptions, until his death. He 
journeyed with his father from Ferrol, in 
Spain, to Paris. Here he applied himself 
for six months to study; then accompanied 



his father to Holland, where he entered, 
first a school in Amsterdam, and then the 
University of Leyden. In 1781, when only 
fourteen years of age, he was selected by 
Mr. Dana, our Minister to the Russian 
court, as his private secretar}'. In this 
school of incessant labor he spent fourteen 
months, and then returned alone to Holland 
through Sweden, Denmark, Hamburg and 
Bremen. Again he resumed his studies 
under a private tutor, at The Hague. 

In the spring of 1782 he accompanied his 
father to Paris, forming acquaintance with 
the most distinguished men on the Conti- 
nent. After a short visit to England, he re- 
turned to Paris and studied until May, 
1785, when he returned to America, leav- 
ing his father an embassador at the court 
of St. James. In 1786 he entered the jun- 
ior class in Harvard University, and grad- 
uated with the second honor of his class. 
The oration he delivered on this occasion, 
the " Importance of Public Faith to the 
Well-being of a Community," was pub- 
lished—an event very rare in this or any 
other land. 

Upon leaving college at the age of twenty 
he studied law three years with the Hon. 
Theophilus Parsons in Newburyport. In 
1790 he opened a law office in Boston. The 
profession was crowded with able men, and 
the fees were small. The first year he had 




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THENEW YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 



A8TOR, LENOX AND 
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JOHN ^UINCr ADAMS. 



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no clients, but not a moment was lost. The 
second year passed away, still no clients, 
and still he was dependent upon his parents 
for support. Anxiously he awaited the 
third year. The reward now came. Cli- 
ents began to enter his office, and before 
the end of the year he was so crowded 
with business that all solicitude respecting 
a support was at an end. 

When Great Britain commenced war 
against France, in 1793, Mr. Adams wrote 
some articles, urging entire neutrality on 
the part of the United States. The view 
was not a popular one. Many felt that as 
France had helped us, we were bound to 
help France. But President Washington 
coincided with Mr. Adams, and issued his 
proclamation of neutrality. His writings 
at this time in the Boston journals gave 
him so high a reputation, that in June, 
1794, he was appointed by Washington 
resident Minister at the Netherlands. In 
July, 1797, he left The Hague to go to Port- 
ugal as Minister Plenipotentiar}-. Wash- 
ington at this time wrote to his father, John 
Adams: 

" Without intending to compliment the 
father or the mother, or to censure any 
others, I give it as my decided opinion, 
that Mr. Adams is the most valuable char- 
acter we have abroad; and there remains 
no doubt in my mind that he will jirove the 
ablest of our diplomatic corps." 

On his way to Portugal, c.pon his arrival 
in London, he met with dispatches direct- 
ing him to the court of Berlin, but request- 
ing him to remain in London until he should 



receive 



instructions. While waiting he 



was married to Miss Louisa Catherine John- 
son, to whom he had been previously en- 
gaged. Miss Johnson was a daughter of 
Mr. Joshua Johnson, American Consul 
in London, and was a lady endowed with 
that beauty and those accomplishments 
which' fitted her to move in the elevated 
sphere for which she was destined. 



In July, 1799, having fulfilled all the pur- 
poses of his mission, Mr. Adams returned. 
In 1802 he was chosen to the Senate of 
Massachusetts from Boston, and then was 
elected Senator of the United States for six 
years from March4, 1804. His reputation, 
his ability and his experience, placed him 
immediately among the most prominent 
and influential members of that body. He 
sustained the Government in its measures 
of resistance to the encroachments of Eng- 
land, destroying our commerce and insult- 
ing our flag. There was no man in America 
more familiar with the arrogance of the 
British court upon these points, and no 
one more resolved to present a firm resist- 
ance. This course, so truly patriotic, and 
which scarcely a voice will now be found 
to condemn, alienated him from the Fed- 
eral party dominant in Boston, and sub- 
jected him to censure. 

In 1805 Mr. Adams was chosen professor 
of rhetoric in Harvard College. His lect- 
ures at this place were subsequently pub- 
lished. In 1809 he was sent as Minister to 
Russia. He was one of the commissioners 
that negotiated the treaty of peace with 
Great Britain, signed December 24, 1814, 
and he was appointed Minister to the court 
of St. James in 1815. In 1817 he became 
Secretary of State in Mr. Monroe's cabinet 
in which position he remained eight years. 
Few will now contradict the assertion that 
the duties of that office were never more 
ably discharged. Pr(jbably the most im- 
portant measure which Mr. Adams con- 
ducted was the purchase of Florida from 
Spain for $5,000,000. 

The campaign of 1824 was an exciting 
one. Four candidates were in the field. 
Of the 260 electoral votes that were cast, 
Andrew Jackson received ninety-nine; John 
Quincy x-\dams, eighty-four; William H. 
Crawford, forty-one, and Henry Clay, 
thirty-seven. As there was no choice by 
the people, the question went to the House 






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PliES/DENTS OF THE UN /TED STATES. 



of Representatives. Mr. Clay gave the 
vote of Kentuck}' to Mr. Adams, and he 
was elected. 

The friends of all disappointed candidates 
now combined in a venomous assault upon 
Mr. Adams. There is nothing more dis- 
graceful in the past history of our countrv 
than the abuse which was poured in one 
uninterrupted stream upon this high- 
minded, upright, patriotic man. There was 
never an administration more pure in prin- 
ciples, more conscientiously devoted to the 
best interests of the country, than that of 
John Quincy Adams; and never, perhaps, 
was there an administration more unscru- 
pulously assailed. Mr. Adams took his seat 
in the presidential chair resolved not to 
know any partisans hip, but only to con- 
sult for the interests of the whole Republic, 

He refused to dismiss any man from of- 
fice for his political views. If he was a faith- 
ful officer that was enough. Bitter must 
have been his disappointment to find that the 
Nation could not appreciate such conduct. 

Mr. Adams, in his public manners, was 
cold and repulsive; though with his per- 
sonal friends he was at times very genial. 
This chilling address verv seriously de- 
tracted from his popularity. No one can 
read an impartial record of his administra- 
tion without admitting that a more noble 
example of uncompromising dignity can 
scarcely be found. It was stated publicl}' 
that Mr. Adams' administration was to be 
put down, " though it be as pure as the an- 
gels which stand at the right hand of the 
throne of God." Many of the active par- 
ticipants in these scenes lived to regret the 
course they pursued. Some years after, 
Warren R. Davis, of South Carolina, turn- 
ing to Mr. Adams, then a member of the 
House of Representatives, said: 

" Well do I remember the enthusiastic 
zeal witli which we reproached the admin- 
istration of that gentleman, and the ardor 
and vehemence with which we labored to 



bring in another. For the share I had in 
these transactions, and it was not a small 
one, I hope God zvill forgive vie, for I sliall 
iieiicr forgh <c myself. 

March 4, 1829, Mr. Adams retired from 
the Presidency and was succeeded by An- 
drew Jackson, the latter receiving 168 out 
of 261 electoral votes. John C. Calhoun 
was elected Vice-President. The slavery 
question now began to assume pretentious 
magnitude. Mr. Adams returned to 
Quincy, and pursued his studies with una- 
bated zeal. But he was not long permitted 
to remain in retirement. In November, 
1830, he was elected to Congress. In this 
he recognized the principle that it is honor- 
able for the General of yesterday to act as 
Corporal to-day, if by so doing he can ren- 
der service to his countr}'. Deep as are 
our obligations to John Quincy Adams for 
his services as embassador, as Secretary of 
State and as President; in his capacity as 
legislator in the House of Representa- 
tives, he conferred benefits upon our land 
which eclipsed all the rest, and which can 
never be over-estimated. 

For seventeen years, until his death, lie 
occupied the post of Representative, tow- 
ering above all his peers, ever read}' to do 
brave battle for freedom, and winning the 
title of " the old man eloquent." Upon 
taking his seat in the House he announced 
that he should hold himself bound to no 
party. He was usually the first in his 
place in the morning, and the last to leave 
his seat in the evening. Not a measure 
could escape his scrutin}'. The battle 
which he fought, almost singly, against the 
pro-slavery fiarty in the Government, was 
sublime in its moral daring and heroism. 
For persisting in presenting petitions for 
the abolition of slavery, he was threatened 
with indictment by the Grand Jury, with 
expulsion from the House, with assassina- 
tion; but no threats could intimidate him, 
and his final triuiuph was complete. 



JOHN ^UINCr ADAMS. 



43 



On one occasion Mr. Adams presented a 
petition, signed by several women, against 
the annexation of Texas for the purpose of 
cutting it up into slave States. Mr. How- 
ard, of Maryland, said that these women 
discredited not only themselves, but their 
section of the country, by turning from 
their domestic duties to the conflicts of po- 
litical life. 

"Are women," exclaimed Mr. Adams, 
" to have no opinions or actions on subjects 
relating to the general welfare ? Where 
did the gentleman get his principle? Did 
he find it in sacred history, — in the language 
of Miriam, the prophetess, in one of the 
noblest and sublime songs of triumph that 
ever met the human eye or ear ? Did the 
gentleman never hear of Deborah, to whom 
the children of Israel came up for judg- 
ment ? Has he forgotten the deed of Jael, 
who slew the dreaded enemy of her coun- 
try ? Has he forgotten Esther, who, by her 
petition saved her people and her coun- 
try? 

" To go from sacred history to profane, 
does the gentleman there find it ' discredita- 
ble ' for women to take an interest in politi- 
cal affairs? Has he forgotten the Spartan 
mother, who said to her son when going 
out to battle, ' My son, come back to me 
with thy shield, or Jipon thy shield ? ' Does 
he remember Cloelia and her hundred com- 
panions, who swam across the river under 
a shower of darts, escaping from Porsena ? 
Has he forgotten Cornelia, the mother of 
the Gracchi ? Does he not remember Por- 
tia, the wife of Brutus and the daughter of 
Cato? 

" To come to later periods, what says the 
history of our Anglo-Saxon ancestors ? 
To say nothing of Boadicea, the British 
heroine in the time of the Ceesars, what 
name is more illustrious than that of Eliza- 
beth ? .Or, if he will go to the continent, 
will he not find the names of Maria Theresa 
of Hungary of the two Catherines of 

4 



Prussia, and of Isabella of Castile, the pa- 
troness of Columbus ? Did she bring ' dis- 
credit ' on her sex by mingling in politics? " 

In this glowing strain M^. Adams si- 
lenced and overwhelmed his antagonists. 

In January, 1842, Mr. Adams presented 
a petition from forty-five citizens of Haver- 
hill, Massachusetts, praying for a peaceable 
dissolution of the Union. The pro-slavery 
party in Congress, who were then plotting 
the destruction of the Government, were 
aroused to a pretense of commotion such as 
even our stormy hall of legislation has 
rarely witnessed. They met in caucus, and, 
finding that they probably would not be 
able to expel Mr. Adams from the House 
drew up a series of resolutions, which, i( 
adopted, would inflict upon him disgrace, 
equivalent to expulsion. Mr. Adams had 
presented the petition, which was most re- 
spectfully worded, and had moved that it be 
referred to a committee instructed to re- 
port an answer, showing the reason why 
the prayer ought not to be granted. 

It was the 25th of January. The whole 
body of the pro-slavery party came crowd- 
ing together in the House, prepared to 
crush Mr. Adams forever. One of the num- 
ber, Thomas F. Marshall, of Kentucky, was 
appointed to read the resolutions, which 
accused Mr. Adams of high treason, of 
having insulted the Government, and of 
meriting expulsion; but for which deserved 
punishment, the House, in its great mercy, 
would substitute its severest censure. With ^ 
the assumption of a very solemn and mag- t 
isterial air, there being breathless silence in \ 
the audience, Mr. Marshall hurled the care- 5 
fully prepared anathemas at his victim. i 
Mr. Adams stood alone, the whole pi-o-slav- \ 
ery party against him. j 

As soon as the resolutions were read, \ 
every eye being fixed upon him, that bold 
old man, whose scattered locks were whit- 
ened by sevent}''-five years, casting a wither- ' 
ing glance in the direction of his assailants, } 




PRESIDENTS 



UNITED STATES. 



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in a clear, shrill tone, tremulous with sup- 
pressed emotion, said: 

" In reply to this audacious, atrocious 
charge of higrh treason, I call for the read- 
ing of the first paragraph of the Declaration 
of Independence. Read it ! Read it! and 
see what that says of the rights of a people 
to reform, to change, and to dissolve their 
Government.' 

The attitude, the manner, the tone, the 
words; the venerable old man, with flash- 
ing eye and flushed cheek, and whose very 
form seemed to expand under the inspiration 
of the occasion — all presented a scene over- 
flowing in its sublimity. There was breath- 
less silence as that paragraph was read, in 
defense of whose principles our fathers had 
pledged their lives, their fortunes and their 
sacred honor. It was a proud hour to Mr. 
Adams as they were all compelled- to- listen 
to the words: 

" That, to secure these rights, govern- 
ments are instituted among men, deriving 
their just powers from the consent of the 
governed; and that whenever any form of 
government becomes destructive of those 
ends, it is the right of the people to alter or 
abolish it, and to institute new government, 
laying its foundations on such principles 
and organizing its powers in such form 
as shall seem most likely to effect their 
safety and happiness." 

That one sentence routed and baffled the 



foe. The heroic old man looked around 
upon the audience, and thundered out, 
" Read that again!" It was again read. 
Then in a few fiery, logical words he stated 
his defense in terms which even prejudiced 
minds could not resist. His discomfited 
assailants made several attempts to rally. 
After a conflict of eleven days they gave 
up vanquished and their resolution was ig- 
nominiously laid upon the table. 

In January, 1846, when seventy-eight 
years of age, he took part in the great de- 
bate on the Oregon question, displaying 
intellectual vigor, and an extent and accu- 
racy of acquaintance with the subject that 
excited great admiration. 

On the 2 1 St of February, 1848, he rose on 
the floor of Congress with a paper in his 
hand to address the Speaker. Suddenly 
he fell, stricken by paralysis, and was caught 
in the arms of those around him. For a 
time he was senseless and was conveyed 
to a sofa in the rotunda. With reviving 
consciousness he opened his eyes, looked 
calmly around and said, " T/a's is the end of 
earth." Then after a moment's pause, he 
added, " I am content." These were his last 
words, and he soon breathed his last, in the 
apartment beneath the dome of the capitol 
— the theater of his labors and his triumphs. 
In the language of hymnology, he "died at 
his post;" he " ceased at once to work and 
live." 



THENEW yorkJ 
I P^'KUC LIBRARY 



TILDtN FOUNDATIONS. 




■''^ ,- 




ANDREW JACKSON. 



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Andrew jackson, 

the seventh President 
of the United States, 
i829-'37, was born at 
the Waxhaw Settle. 
t^ ment, Union Coun- 
h"^ ty, North Carolina, 
March i6, 1767. His parents 
were Scotch-Irish, natives of 
Carrickfergus, who came to 
America in 1765, and settled 
on Twelve-Mile Creek, a trib- 
utary of the Catawba. His 
father, who was a poor farm 
laborer, died shortly before An- 
drew's birth, when his mother removed to 
Wnxhaw, where some relatives resided. 

Few particulars of the childhood of Jack- 
son have been preserved. His education 
was of the most limited kind, and he showed 
no fondness for books. He grew up to be a 
tall, lank boy, with coarse hair and freck- 
led cheeks, with bare feet dangling from 
trousers too short for him, very fond of ath- 
letic sports, running, boxing and wrestling. 
He was generous to the younger and 
weaker boys, but very irascible and over- 
bearing with his equals and superiors. He 
was profane — a vice in which he surpassed 
all other men. The character of his mother 



he revered; and it was not until after her 
death that his predominant vices gained 
full strength. 

In 1780, at the age of thirteen, Andrew, 
or Andy, as he was called, with his brother 
Robert, volunteered to serve in the Revo- 
lutionary forces under General Sumter, and 
was a witness of the latter's defeat at Hang- 
ing Rock. In the following year the 
brothers were made prisoners, and confined 
in Camden, experiencing brutal treatment 
from their captors, and being spectators of 
General Green's defeat at Hobkirk Hill. 
Through their mother's exertions the boys 
were exchanged while suffering from small- 
pox. In two days Robert was dead, and 
Andy apparently dying. The strength of 
his constitution triumphed, and he regained 
health and vigor. 

As he was getting better, his mother 
heard the cry of anguish from the prison- 
ers whom the British held in Charleston, 
among whom were the sons of her sisters. 
She hastened to their relief, was attacked 
by fever, died and was buried where her 
grave could never be found. Thus Andrew 
Jackson, when fourteen years of age, was 
left alone in the world, without father, 
mother, sister or brother, and without one 
dollar which he could call his own. He 



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48 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



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soon entered a saddler's shop, and labored 
diligently for six months. But gradually, 
as health returned, he became more and 
more a wild, reckless, lawless boy. He 
gambled, drank and was regarded as about 
the worst character that could be found. 

He now turned schoolmaster. He could 
teach the alphabet, perhaps the multiplica- 
tion table; and as he was a very bold boy, 
it is possible he might have ventured to 
teach a little writing. But he soon began to 
think of a profession and decided to study 
law. With a very slender purse, and on 
the back of a ver}' fine horse, he set out 
for Salisbury, North Carolina, where he 
entered the law office of Mr. McCay. 
Here he remained two years, professedly 
studying law. He is still remembered in 
traditions of Salisbury, which say: 

" Andrew Jackson was the most roaring, 
rollicking, horse-racing, card-playing, mis- 
chievous fellow that ever lived in Salisbur}^ 
He did not trouble the law-books much." 

Andrew was now, at the age of twenty, 
a tall j'oung man, being over six feet in 
height. He was slender, remarkably grace- 
ful and dignified in his manners, an exquis- 
ite horseman, and developed, amidst his 
loathesome profanit}- and multiform vices, a 
vein of rare magnanimit3^ His temper was 
fiery in the extreme; but it was said of him 
that no man knew better than Andrew 
Jackson when to get angry and when not. 

In 1786 he was admitted to the bar, and 
two years later removed to Nashville, 
in what was then the western district of 
North Carolina, with the appointment of so- 
licitor, or public prosecutor. It was an of- 
fice of little honor, small emolument and 
great peril. Few men could be found to 
accept it. 

And now Andrew Jackson commenced 
vigorously to practice law. It was an im- 
portant part of his business to collect debts. 
It required nerve. During the first seven 
years of his residence in those wilds he 



traversed the almost pathless forest between 
Nashville and Jonesborough, a distance of 
200 miles, twenty-two times. Hostile In- 
dians were constant!}' on the watch, and a 
man was liable at any moment to be shot 
down in his own field. Andrew Jackson 
was just the man for this service — a wild, 
daring, rough backwoodsman. Daily he 
made hair-breadth escapes. He seemed to 
bear a charmed life. Boldly, alone or with 
few companions, he traversed the forests, 
encountering all perils and triumphing 
over all. 

In 1790 Tennessee became a Territory, 
and Jackson was appointed, by President 
Washington, United States Attorney for 
the new district. In 1791 he married Mrs. 
Rachel Robards (daughter of Colonel John 
Donelson), whom he supposed to have been 
divorced in that year by an act of the Leg- 
islature of Virginia. Two years after this 
Mr. and Mrs. Jackson learned, to their 
great surprise, that Mr. Robards had just 
obtained a divorce in one of the courts of 
Kentucky, and that the act of the Virginia 
Legislature was not final, but conditional. 
To remedy the irregularity as much as pos- 
sible, a new license was obtained and the 
marriage ceremony was again performed. 

It proved to be a marriage of rare felic- 
ity. Probably there never was a more 
affectionate union. However rough Mr. 
Jackson might have been abroad, he was 
always gentle and tender at home; and 
through all the vicissitudes of their lives, he 
treated Mrs. Jackson with the most chival- 
ric attention. 

Under the circumstances it was not un- 
natural that the facts in the case of this 
marriage were so misrepresented by oppo- 
nents in the political campaigns a quarter 
or a century later as to become the basis 
of serious charges against Jackson's moral- 
it}' which, however, have been satisfactorih' 
attested by abundant evidence. 

Jackson was untiring in his duties as 



ANDREW JACKSON. 



49 



United States Attorney, which demanded 
frequent journeys through the wilderness 
and exposed him to Indian hostihties. He 
acquired considerable property in land, and 
obtained such influence as to be chosen 
a member of the convention which framed 
the Constitution for the new State of Ten- 
nessee, in 1796, and in that year was elected 
its first Representative in Congress. Albert 
Gallatin thus describes the first appearance 
of the Hon. Andrew Jackson in the House: 

" A tall, lank, uncouth-looking personage, 
with locks of hair hanging over his face and 
a cue down his back, tied with an eel skin; 
his dress singular, his manners and deport- 
ment those of a rough backwoodsman." 

Jackson was an earnest advocate of the 
Democratic party. Jefferson was his idol. 
He admired Bonaparte, loved France and 
hated England. As Mr. Jackson took his 
seat. General Washington, whose second 
term of office was just expiring, delivered 
his last speech to Congress. A committee 
drew up a complimentar}' address in reply. 
Andrew Jackson did not approve the ad- 
dress and was one of twelve who voted 
against it. 

Tennessee had fitted out an expedition 
against the Indians, contrary to the policy 
of the Government. A resolution was intro- 
duced that the National Government 
should pay the expenses. Jackson advo- 
cated it and it was carried. This rendered 
him very popular in Tennessee. A va- 
cancy chanced soon after to occur in the 
Senate, and Andrew Jackson was chosen 
United States Senator b\- the State of Ten- 
nessee. John Adams was then President 
and Thomas Jefferson, Vice-President. 

In 1798 Mr. Jackson returned to Tennes- 
see, and resigned his seat in the Senate. 
Soon after he was chosen Judge of the Su- 
preme Court of that State, with a salary of 
$600. This office he held six years. It is 
said that his decisions, though sometimes 
ungrammatical, were generally right. He 



did not enjoy his seat upon the bench, and 
renounced the dignity in 1804. About 
this time he was chosen Major-General of 
militia, and lost the title of judge in that of 
General. 

When he retired from the Senate Cham- 
ber, he decided to try his fortune through 
trade. He purchased a stock of goods in 
Philadelphia and sent them to Nashville, 
where he opened a store. He lived about 
thirteen miles from Nashville, on a tract of 
land of several thousand acres, mostl}' un- 
cultivated. He used a small block-house 
for a store, from a narrow window of 
which he sold goods to the Indians. As he 
had an assistant his office as judge did not 
materially interfere with his business. 

As to slaver}', born in the midst of it, the 
idea never seemed to enter his mind that it 
could be wrong. He eventually became 
an extensive slave owner, but he was one of 
the most humane and gentle of masters. 

In 1804 Mr. Jackson withdrew from pol- 
itics and settled on a plantation which he 
called the Hermitage, near Nashville. He 
set up a cotton-gin, formed a partnership 
and traded in New Orleans, making the 
voyage on flatboats. Through his hot tem- 
per he became involved in several quarrels 
and " affairs of honor," during this period, 
in one of which he was severely wounded, 
but had the misfortune to kill his opponent, 
Charles Dickinson. For a time this affair 
greatly injured General Jackson's popular- 
ity. The verdict then was, and continues 
to be, that General Jackson was outra- 
geously wrong. If he subsequently felt anj^ 
remorse he never revealed it to anyone. 

In 1805 Aaron Burr had visited Nash- 
ville and been a guest of Jackson, with 
whom he corresponded on the subject of a 
war with Spain, which was anticipated and 
desired by them, as well as by the people 
of the Southwest generally. 

Burr repeated his visit in September, 
1806, when he engaged in the celebrated 



i 



combinations which led to his trial for trea- 
son. He was warmly received by Jackson, 
at whose instance a public ball was given 
in his honor at Nashville, and contracted 
with the latter for boats and provisions. 
Early in 1807, when Burr had been pro- 
claimed a traitor by President Jefferson, 
volunteer forces for the Federal service 
were organized at Nashville under Jack- 
son's command; but his energy and activ- 
ity did not shield him from suspicions of 
connivance in the supposed treason. He 
was summoned to Richmond as a witness 
in Burr's trial, but was not called to the 
stand, probably because he was out-spoken 
in his partisanship. 

On tiie outbreak of the war with Great 
Britain in 1 812, Jackson tendered his serv- 
ices, and in Januar}', 181 3, embarked for 
New Orleans at the head of the Tennessee 
contingent. In March he received an or- 
der to disband his forces; but in Septem- 
ber he again took the field, in the Creek 
war, and in conjunction with his former 
partner. Colonel Coffee, inflicted upon the 
Inflians the memorable defeat at Talladega, 
Emuckfaw and Tallapoosa. 

In May, 18 14, Jackson, who had now ac- 
quired a national re[)utation, was appointed 
a Major-General of the United States arm}-, 
and commenced a campaign against the 
British in Florida. He conducted the de- 
fense at Mobile, September 15, seized upon 
Pensacola, November 6, and immediately 
transported the bulk of his troops to New 
Orleans, then threatened by a powerful 
naval force. Martial law was declared in 
Louisiana, the State militia was called to 
arms, engagements with the British were 
fought December 23 and 28, and after re-en- 
forcements had been received on both sides 
the famous victory of January 8, 181 5, 
crowned Jackson's fame as a soldier, and 
made him the typical American hero of 
the first half of the nineteenth century. 

In i8i7-'i8 Jackson conducted the war 



against the Seminoles of Florida, during 
which he seized upon Pensacola and exe- 
cuted by courtmartial two British subjects, 

Arbuthnot and Ambrister acts which 

might easily have involved the United 
States in war both with Spain and Great 
Britain. Fortunately the peril was averted 
by the cession of Florida to the United 
States; and Jackson, who had escaped a 
trial for the irregularity of his conduct 
only through a division of opinion in Mon- 
roe's cabinet, was appointed in 1821 Gov- 
ernor of the new Territorv. Soon after he 
declined the appointment of minister to 
Mexico. 

In 1823 Jackson was elected to the United 
States Senate, and nominated by the Ten- 
nessee Legislature for the Presidency. This 
candidacy, though a matter of surprise, and 
even merryment, speedily became popular, 
and in 1824, when the stormy electoral can- 
vas resulted in the choice of John Ouincy 
Adams by the House of Representatives, 
General Jackson received the largest popu- 
lar vote among the four candidates. 

In 1828 Jackson was triumphantly elected 
President over Adams after a campaign of 
unparalleled bitterness. He was inaugu- 
rated March 4, 1829, and at once removed 
from office all the incumbents belonging to 
the opposite party — a procedure new to 
American politics, but which naturall}- be- 
came a precedent. 

His first term was characterized by cpiar- 
rels between the Vice-President, Calhoun, 
and the Secretary of State, Van Buren, at-, 
tended by a cabinet crisis originating in 
scandals connected with the name of Mrs. 
General Eaton, wife of the Secretary of 
War; by the beginning of his war upon the 
United States Bank, and by his vigorous 
action against the partisans of Calhoun, 
who, in South Carolina, threatened to 
nullify the acts of Congress, establishing a 
protective tariff. 

In the Presidential campaign nl 1832 






ANDREW JACKSON. 



51 



Jackson received 219 out of 288 electoral 
votes, his competitor being Mr. Clay, while 
Mr. Wirt, on an Anti-Masonic platform, 
received the vote of Vermont alone. In 
1833 President Jackson removed the Gov- 
ernment deposits from the United States 
bank, thereby incurring a vote of censure 
from the Senate, which was, however, ex- 
punged four years later. During this second 
term of office the Cherokees, Choctaws and 
Creeks were removed, not without diffi- 
culty, from Georgia, Alabama and Missis- 
sippi, to the Indian Territory; the National 
debt was extinguished; Arkansas and 
Michigan were admitted as States to the 
Union; the Seminole war was renewed; the 
anti-slavery agitation first acquired impor- 
tance; the Mormon delusion, which had 
organized in 1829, attained considerable 
proportions in Ohio and Missouri, and the 
countr)' experienced its greatest pecuniary 
panic. 

Railroads with locomotive propulsion 
were introduced into America during Jack- 
son's first term, and had become an impor- 
tant element of national life before the 
close of his second term. For many rea- 
sons, therefore, the administration of Presi- 
dent Jackson formed an era in American 
history, political, social and industrial. 
He succeeded in effecting the election of 



his friend Van Buren as his successor, re- 
tired from the Presidency March 4, 1837, 
and led a tranquil life at the Hermitage 
until his death, which occurred June 8, 

1845- 

During his closing years he was a pro- 
fessed Christian and a member ot the Pres- 
byterian church. No American of this 
century has been the subject of such oppo- 
site judgments. He was loved and hated 
with equal vehemence during his life, but 
at the present distance of time from his 
career, while opinions still vary as to the 
merits of his public acts, few of his country- 
men will question that he was a warm- 
hearted, brave, patriotic, honest and sincere 
man. If his distinguishing qualities were 
not such as constitute statesmanship, in the 
highest sense, he at least never pretended 
to other merits than such as were written 
to his credit on the page of American his- 
tory — not attempting to disguise the de- 
merits which were equally legible. The 
majority of his countrymen accepted and 
honored him, in spite of all that calumny 
as well as truth could allege against him. 
His faults may therefore be truly said to 
have been those of his time; his magnifi- 
cent virtues may also, with the same jus- 
tice, be considered as typical of a state of 
society which has nearly passed away. 






I.' 



52 



PliESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



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ARTIN VAN BU- 
REN, the eighth 
'■'^Hj President of the 
United States, 1837- 
'41, was born at Kin- 
';?5't* derhook, New York, 
December 5, 1782. 
I lis ancestors were of Dutch 
origin, and were among the 
earliest emigrants from Hol- 
land to the banks of the 
Hudson. His father was a 
tavern-keeper, as well as a 
. farmer, and a very decided 

Democrat. 
Martin commenced the stud\' 
of law at the age of fourteen, and took an 
active part in politics before he had reached 
the age of twenty. In 1803 he commenced 
the practice of law in his native village. 
In 1809 he removed to Hudson, the shire 
town of his county, where he spent seven 
years, gaining strength by contending in 
the courts with some of the ablest men 
who have adorned the bar of his State. 
The heroic example of John Quincy Adams 
in retaining in office every faithful man, 
without regard to his political preferences, 
had been thoroughly repudiated by Gen- 
eral Jackson. The unfortunate principle 
was now fully established, that " to the 
victor belong the spoils." Still, this prin- 
ci[)le, to which Mr. Van Buren gave his ad- 



herence, was not devoid of inconveniences. 
When, subsequently, he attained power 
which placed vast patronage in his hands, 
he was heard to say : " I prefer an office 
that has no patronage. When I give a man 
an office I offend his disappointed competi- 
tors and their friends. Nor am I certain o( 
gaining a friend in the man I appoint, for, 
in all probability, he expected something 
better." 

In 1812 Mr. Van Buren was elected to 
the State Senate. In 181 5 he was appointed 
Attorney-General, and in 1816 to the Senate 
a second time. In 1818 there was a great 
split in the Democratic party in New York, 
and Mr. Van Buren took the lead in or- 
ganizing that portion of the party called 
the Albany Regency, which is said to have 
swayed the destinies of the State for a 
quarter of a century. 

In 1 82 1 he was chosen a member of the 
convention for revising the State Constitu- 
tion, in which he advocated an extension of 
the franchise, but opposed universal suf- 
frage, and also favored the proposal that 
colored persons, in order to vote, shoidd 
have freehold property to the amount of 
$250. In this year he was also elected to 
the United States Senate, and at the con- 
clusion of his term, in 1827, was re-elected, 
but resigned the following year, having 
been chosen Governor of the State. In 
March, 1829, he was appointed Secretary of 




O 7 2^^^ ^^^J i<^c^^^-c^ 



MARTIN VAN BUR EN. 



S5 



State by President Jackson, but resigned 
in April, 183 1, and during the recess of 
Congress was appointed minister to Eng- 
land, whither he proceeded in September, 
but the Senate, when convened in Decem- 
ber, refused to ratify the appointment. 

In May, 1832, Mr. Van Buren was nomi- 
nated as the Democratic candidate for Vice- 
President, and elected in the following 
November. May 26, 1836, he received the 
nomination to succeed General Jackson as 
President, and received 170 electoral votes, 
out of 283. 

Scarcely had he taken his seat in the 
Presidential chair when a financial panic 
swept over the land. Many attributed 
this to the war which General Jackson had 
waged on the banks, and to his endeavor to 
secure an almost exclusive specie currency. 
Nearly every bank in the country was com- 
pelled to suspend specie payment, and ruin 
pervaded all our great cities. Not less than 
254 houses failed in New York in one week. 
All public works were brought to a stand, 
and there was a general state of dismay. 
President Van Buren urged the adoption of 
the independent treasury system, which 
was twice passed in the Senate and defeated 
in the House, but finally became a law near 
the close of his ridminictration. 

Another important measure was the pass- 
age of a pre-emption law, giving actual set- 
tlers the preference in the purchase of 
public lands. The question of slavery, also, 
now began to assume great prominence in 
national politics, and after an elaborate 
anti-slavery speech b}- Mr. Slade, of Ver- 
mont, in the House of Representatives, the 
Southern members withdrew for a separate 
consultation, at which Mr. Rhett, of South 
Carolina, proposed to declare it expedient 
that the Union should be dissolved; but 
the matter was tided over by the passage 
of a resolution that no petitions or papers 
relating to slavery should be in any way 
considered or acted upon. 



In the Presidential election of 1840 Mr. 
Van Buren was nominated, without opposi- 
tion, as the Democratic candidate, William 
H. Harrison being the candidate of the 
Whig party. The Democrats carried only 
seven States, and out of 294 electoral votes 
only sixty were for Mr. Van Buren, the re- 
maining 234 being for his opponent. The 
Whig popular majority, however, was not 
large, the elections in many of the States 
being very close. 

March 4, 1841, Mr. Van Buren retired 
from the Presidency. From his fine estate 
at Lindenwald he still exerted a powerful 
influence upon the politics of the country. 
In 1844 he was again proposed as the 
Democratic candidate for the Presidency, 
and a majority of the delegates of the 
nominating convention were in his favor ; 
but, owing to his opposition to the pro- 
posed annexation of Texas, he could not 
secure tiie requisite two-thirds vote. His 
name was at length withdrawn by his 
friends, and Mr. Polk received (he nomina- 
tion, and was elected. 

In 1848 Mr. Cass was the regular Demo- 
cratic candidate. A schism, however, 
sprang up in the party, upon the question 
of the permission of slavery in the newly- 
acquired territory, and a portion of the 
party, taking the name of " Frce-Soilers," 
nominated Mr. Van Buren. They drew 
away sufficient votes to secure the election 
of General Taylor, the Whig candidate. 
After this Mr. Van Buren retired to his es- 
tate at Kinderhook, where the remainder 
of his life was passed, with the exception of 
a European tour in 1853. He died at 
Kinderhook, July 24, 1862, at the age of 
eighty years. 

Martin Van Buren was a great and good 
man, and no one will question his right to 
a high position among those who have 
been the successors of Washington in the 
faithful occupancy of the Presidential 
chair. 



"1\ 






(I 



— ^,.-.^<r 



56 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 






1 WILLIAM HENRY HflHRISDN. p 





L I A M HENRY 
HARRISON, the 
ninth President of 
the United States, 
I 84 I, was born 
February 9, 1773, 
in Charles County, 
Virginia, at Berkeley, the resi- 
dence of his father. Governor 
Benjamin Harrison. He studied 
at Hampden, Sidney College, 
with a view of entering the med- 
ical profession. After graduation 
he went to Philadelphia to study 
medicine under the instruction of 
Dr. Rush. 
George Washington was then President 
Df the United States. The Indians were 
committing fearful ravages on our North- 
western frontier. Young Harrison, either 
lured by the love of adventure, or moved 
by the sufferings of families exposed to the 
most horrible outrages, abandoned his med- 
ical studies and entered the army, having 
obtained a commission of ensign from Pres- 
ident Washington. The first duty assigned 
him was to take a train of pack-horses 
bound to Fort Hamilton, on the Miami 
River, about forty miles from Fort Wash- 
ington. He was soon promoted to the 



rank of Lieutenant, and joined the arm}' 
which Washington had placed under the 
command of General Wayne to prosecute 
more vigorously the war with the In- 
dians. Lieutenant Harrison received great 
commendation from his commanding offi- 
cer, and was promoted to the rank of 
Captain, and placed in command at Fort 
Washington, now Cincmnati, Ohio. 

About this time he married a daughter 
of John Cleves Symmes, one of the fron- 
tiersmen who had established a thriving 
settlement on the bank of the Maumee. 

In 1797 Captain Harrison resigned his 
commission in the army and was appointed 
Secretary of the Northwest Territory, and 
cx-officio Lieutenant-Governor, General St. 
Clair being then Governor of the Territory. 
At that time the law in reference to the 
disposal of the public lands was such that 
no one could purchase in tracts less than 
4,000 acres. Captain Harrison, in the 
face of violent opposition, succeeded in 
obtaining so much of a modification of 
this unjust law that the land was sold in 
alternate tracts of 640 and 320 acres. The 
Northwest Territory was then entitled 
to one delegate in Congress, and Cap- 
tain Harrison was chosen to fill that of- 
fice. In 1 800 he was ajipointod Governor 



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of Indiana Territory and soon after of 
Upper Louisiana. He was also Superin- 
tendent of Indian Affairs, and so well did he 
fulfill these duties that he was four times 
appointed to this office. During his admin- 
istration he effected thirteen treaties with 
the Indians, by which the United States 
acquired 60,000,000 acres of land. In 1804 
he (jbtaincd a cession from the Indians of 
all the land between the Illinois River and 
the Mississippi. 

In 1S12 he was made Major-General of 
Kentucky militia and Brigadier-General 
in the army, with the command of the 
Northwest frontiei^. In 1813 he was made 
Major-Gencral, and as such won much re- 
nown b}' the defense of Fort Meigs, and the 
battle of the Thames, Octobers, 1813. In 
1814 he left the army and was employed in 
Indian affairs by the Government. 

In 18 16 General Harrison was chosen a 
member of the National House of Repre- 
sentatives to represent the district of Ohio. 
In the contest which preceded his election 
he was accused of corruption in respect to 
the commissariat of tiie army. Immedi- 
ately upon taking his seat, he called for an 
investigation of the charge. A committee 
was appointed, and his vindication was 
triumphant. A high compliment was paid 
to his patriotism, disinterestedness and 
devotion to the public service. For these 
services a gold medal was presented to him 
with the thanks of Congress. 

In 1819 he was elected to the Senate of 
Ohio, and in 1824, as one of the Presiden- 
tial electors of that State, he gave his vote 
to Henry Clay. In the same year he was 
elected to the Senate of the United States. 
In 1828 he was appointed by President 
Adams minister plenipotentiar}' to Colom- 
bia, but was recalled by General Jackson 
immediatel)' after the inauguration of the 
latter. 

Upon liis return to the United States, 
General Harrison retired t(j his farm at 



North Bend, Hamilton County, Ohio, six- 
teen miles below Cincinnati, where for 
twelve years he was clerk of the County 
Court. He once owned a distillery, but 
perceiving the sad effects of whisky upon 
the surrounding population, he promptl}' 
abandoned his business at great pecuniar}' 
sacrifice. 

In 1836 General Harrison was brought 
forward as a candidate for the Presidency. 
Van Buren was the administration candi- 
date; the opposite party could not unite, 
and four candidates were brought forward. 
General Harrison received seventy-three 
electoral votes without any general concert 
among his friends. The Democratic party 
triumphed and Mr. Van Buren was chosen 
President. In 1839 General Harrison was 
again nominated for the Presidency by the 
Whigs, at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Mr. 
Van Buren being the Democratic candi- 
date. General Harrison received 234 elec- 
toral votes against sixty for his opponent. 
This election is memorable chiefly for the 
then e.xtraordinar}' means employed during 
the canvass for popular votes. Mass meet- 
ings and processions were introduced, and 
the watchwords " log cabin " and " hard 
cider" were effectually used by the Whigs, 
and aroused a popular enthusiasm. 

A vast concourse of people attended his 
inauguration. His address on that occasion 
was in accordance with hisantecedents, and 
gave great satisfaction. A short time after he 
took his seat, he was seized by a pleurisy- 
fever, and after a few days of violent sick- 
ness, died April 4, just one short month after 
his inauguration. His death was universally 
regarded as one of the greatest of National 
calamities. Never, since the death of 
Washington, were there, throughout one 
land, such demonstrations of sorrow. Not, 
one single spot can be found to sully his 
fame; and through all ages Americans will 
pronounce with love and reverence the 
name of William Henrv Harrison. 






6o 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



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OHN TYLER, the tenth 
President of the United 
States, was born in 
Charles City Count}-, 
Virginia, March 2g, 1790. 
His fatlier. Judge John 
Tyler, possessed large 
landed estates in Virginia, 
and was one of the most 
distinguished men of his 
day, filling the offices of 
Speaker of the House of 
Delegates, Judge of the Su- 
])reme Court and Governor 
of the State. 
At the early age of twelve 
young John entered William and Mary 
College, and graduated with honor when 
but seventeen years old. He then closely 
apjtlied himself to the study of law, and at 
nineteen years of age commenced the prac- 
tice of his profession. When only twenty- 
one he was elected to a seat in the State 
Legislature. He acted with the Demo- 
cratic party and advocated the measures of 
Jefferson and Madison. For five years he 
was elected to the Legislature, receiving 
, nearly the unanimous vote of his county. 

When but twenty-six years of age he was 
elected a member of Congress. He advo- 
cated a strict construction of the Constitu- 
tion and tlu' most careful vigilance over 



State rights. He was soon compelled to 
resign his seat in Congress, owing to ill 
health, but afterward took his seat in the 
State Legislature, where he exerted a 
powerful influence in promoting public 
works of great utility. 

In 1825 Mr. Tyler was chosen Governor 
of his State — a high honor, for Virginia 
had many able men as competitors for 
the prize. His administration was signallj' 
a successful one. He urged forward inter- 
nal improvements and strove to remove 
sectional jealousies. His popularity secured 
his re-election. In 1827 he was elected 
United States Senator, and upon taking his 
seat joined the ranks of the opposition. He 
opposed the tariff, voted against the bank 
as unconstitutional, opposed all restrictions 
upon slavery, resisted all projects of inter- 
nal improvements by the General Govern- 
ment, avowed his synipath}' with Mr. Cal- 
houn's views of nullification, and declared 
that General Jackson, by his opposition to 
the nullifiers, had abandoned the principles 
of the Democratic party. Such was Mr. 
Tyler's record in Congress. 

This hostility to Jackson caused Mr. 
Tyler's retirement from the Senate, after 
his election to a second term. He soon 
after removed to Williamsburg for the 
better education of his children, and again 
took his seat in the LcLrislature. 






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In 1839 he was sent to the National Con- 
vention at Harrisburg to nominate a Presi- 
dent. General Harrison received a majority 
of votes, much to the disappointment of the 
South, who had wished for Henry Cla3\ 
In order to conciliate the Southern Whigs, 
John Tyler was nominated for Vice-Presi- 
dent. Harrison and Tyler were inaugu- 
rated March 4, 1841. In one short month 
from that time President Harrison died, 
and Mr. Tyler, to his own surprise as well 
as that of the nation, found himself an 
occupant of the Presidential chair. His 
position was an exceedingly difficult one, 
as he was opposed to the main principles of 
the party which had brcjught him into 
power. General Harrison had selected a 
Whig cabinet. Should he retain them, and 
thus surround himself with coimcilors 
whose views were antagonistic to his own? 
or should he turn against the party that 
had elected him, and select a cabinet in 
harmony with himself? This was his fear- 
ful dilemma. 

President Tyler deserves more charity 
than he has received. He issued an address 
to the people, which gave general satisfac- 
tion. He retained the cabinet General 
Harrison had selected. His veto of a bill 
chartering a new national bank led to an 
open quarrel with the party which elected 
him, and to a resignation of the entire 
cabinet, except Daniel Webster, Secretar}- 
of State. 

President Tyler attempted to conciliate. 
He appointed a new cabinet, leaving out all 
strong party men, but the Whig members 
of Congress were not satisfied, and they 
published a manifesto September 13, break- 
ing off all political relations. The Demo- 
crats had a majority in the House ; the 
Whigs in the Senate. Mr. Webster soon 
found it necessary to resign, being forced 
out by the pressure of his Whig friends. 

April 12, 1844, President Tyler concluded, 
through Mr. Calhoun, a treaty for the an- 



nexation oi Texas, which was rejected by 
the Senate ; but he effected his object in the 
closing days of his administration by the 
passage of the joint resolution of March i 
1845. 

He was n(^minated for the Presidency by 
an informal Democratic Convention, held 
at Baltimore in May, 1844, but soon with- 
drew from the canvass, perceiving that he 
had not gained the confidence of the Demo- 
crats at large. 

Mr. Tyler's administration was particu- 
larly unfortunate. No one was satisfied. 
Whigs and Democrats alike assailed him. 
Situated as he was, it is more than can 
be expected of hiauan nature that he 
should, in all cases, have acted in the wisest 
manner; but it will probably be the verdict 
of all candid men, in a careful review of his 
career, that John Tyler was placed in a 
position of such difficulty that he could not 
pursue an}' course which would not expose 
him to severe censure and denunciation. 

In 18 1 3 Mr. Tyler married Letitia Chris- 
tian, who bore him three sons and three 
daughters, and died in Washington in 1842. 
June 26, 1844, he contracted a second mar- 
riage with Miss Julia Gardner, of New 
York. He lived in almost complete retire- 
ment from politics until February, 1861, 
when he was a member of the abortive 
" peace convention," held at Washington, 
and was chosen its President. Soon after 
he renounced his allegiance to the United 
States and was elected to the Confederate 
Congress. He died at Richmond, January 
17, 1862, after a short illness. 

Unfortunately for his memory the name 
of John Tyler must forever be associated 
with all the miser}' of that terrible Re- 
bellion, whose cause he openly espoused. 
It is with sorrow that history records that 
a President of the United States died while 
defending the flag of rebellion, which was 
j arrayed against the national banner in 
deadly warfare. 






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PHESIDENTS OF THE UN /TED STATES. 



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AMES KNOX POLK, 
the eleventh President of 
'^f^«* the United States, 1845- 
'49, was born in Meck- 
lenburg County, North 
Carolina, November 2, 
1795. He was the eldest 
son of a family of six sons 
and four daughters, and was 
• a grand-nephew of Colonel 
Thomas Polk, celebrated in 
connection with the Meck- 
lenburg Declaration of In- 
dependence. 

In 1806 his father, Samuel 
Polk, emigrated with his fam- 
\\y two or three himdred miles west to the 
valley of the Duck River. He was a sur- 
veyor as well as farmer, and gradually in- 
creased in wealth until he became one of 
the leading men of the region. 

In the common schools James rapidly be- 
came proficient in all the common branches 
of an English education. In 1813 he was 
sent to Murfreesboro Academy, and in the 
autumn of 181 5 entered the sophomore class 
in the University of North Carolina, at 
Chapel Hill, graduating in 1818. After a 
short season of recreation he went to Nash- 
ville and entered the law office of Felix 
Grundy. As soon as he had his finished 



legal studies and been admitted to the bar, 
he returned to Columbia, the shire town of 
Maury County, and opened an office. 

James K. Polk ever adhered to the polit- 
ical faith of his father, which was that of 
a Jeffersonian Republican. In 1823 he was 
elected to the Legislature of Tennessee. As 
a " strict constructionist," he did not think 
that the Constitution empowered the Gen- 
eral Government to carry on a system of 
internal improvements in the States, but 
deemed it important that it should have 
that power, and wished the Constitution 
amended that it might be conferred. Sub- 
sequentl}-, however, he became alarmed lest 
the General Government become so strong 
as to undertake to interfere with slavery. 
He therefore gave all his influence to 
strengthen the State governments, and to 
check the growth of the central power. 

In Januar}-, 1824, Mr. Polk married Miss 
Mary Childress, of Rutherford County, Ten- 
nessee. Had some one then whispered to 
him that he was destined to become Presi- 
dent of the United States, and that he must 
select for his companion one who would 
adorn that distinguished station, he could 
not have made a more fitting choice. She 
was truly a lady of rare beauty and culture. 

In the fall of 1825 Mr. Polk was chosen 
a member of Congress, and was continu- 



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JAMES A". POLK. 




ously re-elected until 1839. He then with- 
drew, only that he might accept the 
gubernatorial chair of his native State. 
He was a warm friend of General Jackson, 
who had been defeated in the electoral 
contest by John Quincy Adams. This 
latter gentleman had just taken his seat in 
the Presidential chair when Mr. Polk took 
his seat in the House of Representatives. 
He immediately united himself with the 
opponents of Mr. Adams, and was soon 
regarded as the leader of the Jackson party 
in the House. 

The four years of Mr. Adams' adminis- 
tration passed away, and General Jackson 
took tne Presidential chair. Mr. Polk had 
now become a man of great influence in 
Congress, and was chairman of its most 
important committee — that of Ways and 
Means. Eloquently he sustained General 
Jackson in all his measures — in his hostility 
to internal improvements, to the banks, and 
to the tariff. Eight years of General Jack- 
son's administration passed away, and the 
powers he had wielded passed into the 
hands of Martin Van Buren ; and still Mr. 
Polk remained in the House, the advocate 
of that type of Democracy which those 
distinguished men upheld. 

During five sessions of Congress Mr. 
Polk was speaker of the House. He per- 
formed his arduous duties to general satis- 
faction, and a unanimous vote of thanks to 
him was passed by the House as he with- 
drew, March 4, 1839. He was elected 
Governor by a large majority, and took 
the oath of office at Nashville, October 14, 
1839. He was a candidate for re-election 
in 1841, but was defeated. In the mean- 
time a wonderful revolution had swept 
over the country. W. H. Harrison, the Whig 
candidate, had been called to the Presiden- 
tial chair, and in Tennessee the Whig ticket 
had been carried by over 12,000 majority. 
Under these circumstances Mr. Polk's suc- 
cess was hopeless. Still he canvassed the 



State with his Whig competitor, Mr. Jones, 
traveling in the mcjst friendly manner to- 
gether, often in the same carriage, and at 
one time sleeping in the same bed. Mr. 
Jones was elected by 3.000 majority. 

And now the question of the annexation 
of Texas to our country agitated the whole 
land. When this question became national 
Mr. Polk, as the avowed champion of an- 
nexation, became the Presidential candidate 
of the pro-slavery wing of the Democratic 
party, and George M. Dallas their candi- 
date for the Vice-Presidency. They were 
elected by a large majority, and were in- 
augurated March 4, 1845. 

President Polk formed an able cabinet, 
consisting of James Buchanan, Robert J. 
Walker, William L. Marcy, George Ban- 
croft, Cave Johnson and John Y. Mason. 
The Oregon boundar\' question was settled, 
the Department of the Interior was created, 
the low tariff of 1846 was carried, the 
financial S3'stem of the Government was 
reorganized, the Mexican war was con- 
ducted, which resulted in the acquisition of 
California and New Mexico, and had far- 
reaching consequences upon the later fort- 
unes of the republic. Peace was made. 
We had wrested from Mexico territory 
equal to four times the empire of France, 
and five times that of Spain. In the prose- 
cution of this war we expended 20,000 
lives and more than $100,000,000. Of this 
money $15,000,000 were paid to Mexiccj. 

Declining to seek a renomination, Mr. 
Polk retired from the Presidency March 4, 
1849, when he was succeeded by General 
Zachary Taylor. He retired to Nashville, 
and died there June 19, 1S49, i" the fifty- 
fourth year of his age. His funeral was at- 
tended the following day, in Nashville, with 
every demonstration of respect. He left 
no children. Without being possessed of 
extraordinary talent, Mr. Polk was a capable 
administrator of public affairs, and irre- 
proachable in private life. 



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J'RES/DENTS OF THE UN/TED STATES. 




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ACHARY TAY- 
LOR, the twelfth 
President of the 
United States,. 
1 849-' 50, was born 
in Orange County, 
Virginia, Septem- 
ber 24, 1784. His father, 
Richard Ta)lor, was Colo- 
nel of a Virginia regiment 
in the Revolutionary war, 
and removed to Kentucky 
in 1785 ; purchased a large 
plantation near Louisville 
and became an influential cit- 
izen ; was a member of the convention that 
framed the Constitution of Kentucky ; served 
in both branches of the Legislature ; was 
Collector of the port of Louisville under 
President Washington ; as a Presidential 
elector, voted for Jefferson, Madison, Mon- 
roe and Clay; died January 19,1829. 

Zachary remained on his father's planta- 
tion until 1808, in which year (Ma}- 3) he 
was appointed First Lieutenant in the 
Seventh Infantry, to fill a vacancy oc- 
casioned by the death of his elder brother, 
Hancock. Up to this point he had received 
but a limited education. 

Joining his regiment at New Orleans, he 



was attacked with yellow fever, with nearly 
fatal termination. In November, 1810, he 
was promoted to Captain, and in the sum- 
mer of 1812 he was in command of Fort 
Harrison, on the left bank of the Wabash 
River, near the present site of Terre Haute, 
his successful defense of which with but a 
handful of men against a large force of 
Indians which had attacked him was one of 
the first marked military achievements of 
the war. He was then brcvetted Major, 
and in 1814 promoted to the full rank. 

During the remainder of the war Taylor 
was actively employed on the Western 
frontier. In the peace organization of 18 15 
he was retained as Captain, but soon after 
resigned and settled near Louisville. In 
May, i8i6, however, he re-entered the army 
as Major of the Third Infantr}' ; became 
Lieutenant-Colonel of the Eighth Infantry 
in 1819, and in 1832 attained the Colonelcy 
of the First Infantry, of which he had been 
Lieutenant-Colonel since 1821. Ondifferent 
occasions he had been called to Washington 
as member of a military board for organiz- 
ing the militia of the Union, and to aid the 
Government with his knowledge in the 
organization of the Indian Bureau, having 
for many years discharged the duties of 
Indian accent over larg-e tracts of Western 




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country. He served through the Black 
Hawk war in 1833, and in 1837 was ordered 
to take command in Florida, then the scene 
of war with the Indians. 

In 1846 he was transferred to the com- 
mand of the Army of the Southwest, from 
wiiich he was relieved the same year at his 
own request. Subsequently he was sta- 
tioned on the Arkansas frontier at Forts 
Gibbon, Smith and Jesup, which latter work 
had been built under his direction in 1822. 

May 28, 1845, he received a dispatch from 
the Secretary of War informing him of the 
receipt of information by the President 
'* that Texas would shortly accede to the 
terms of annexation," in which event he 
was instructed to defend and protect her 
from " foreign invasion and Indian incur- 
sions." He proceeded, upon the annexation 
of Texas, with about 1,500 men to Corpus 
Christi, where his force was increased to 
some 4,000. 

Taylor was brevetted Major-General May 
28, and a month later, June 29, 1846, his full 
commission to that grade was issued. After 
needed rest and reinforcement, he advanced 
in September on Monterey, which city ca- 
pitulated after three-days stubborn resist- 
ance. Here he took up his winter quarters. 
The plan for the invasion of Mexico, by 
way of Vera Cruz, with General Scott in 
command, was now determined upon b}' 
the Govenrment, and at the moment Taylor 
was about to resume active operations, he 
received orders to send the larger part of 
his force to reinforce the army of General 
Scott at Vera Cruz. Though subsequently 
reinforced by raw recruits, yet after pro- 
viding a garrison for Monterey and Saltillo 
he had but about 5,300 effective troops, of 
which but 500 or 600 were regulars. In 
this weakened condition, however, he was 
destined to achieve his greatest victor}'. 
Confidently relying upon his strength at 
Vera Cruz to resist the enemy for a long 
time, Santa Anna directed his entire army 



against Taylor to overwhelm him, and then 
to return to oppose the advance of Scott's 
more formidable invasion. The battle of 
Buena Vista was fought February 22 and 
23, 1847. Taylor received the thanks of 
Congress and a gold medal, and " Old 
Rough and Ready," the sobriquet given 
him in the army, became a household word. 
He remained in quiet possession of the 
Rio Grande Valley until November, when 
he returned to the United States. 

In the Whig convention which met at 
Philadelphia,June 7, 1848, Taylor was nomi- 
nated on the fourth ballot as candidate of 
the Wliig party for President, over Henry 
Clay, General Scott and Daniel Webster. 
In November Taylor received a majority 
of electoral votes, and a popular vote of 
1,360,752, against 1,219,962 ftjr Cass and 
Butler, and 291,342 for Van Buren and 
Adams. General Taylor was inaugurated 
March 4, 1849. 

The free and slave States being then equal 
in number, the struggle for supremacy on 
the part of the leaders in Congress was 
violent and bitter. In the summer of 1849 
California adopted in convention a Consti- 
tution prohibiting slavery within its borders. 
Taylor advocated the immediate admission 
of California with her Constitution, and the 
postponement of the question as to the other 
Territories until they could hold conven- 
tions and decide for themselves whether 
slavery should exist within their borders. 
This policy ultimately prevailed through 
the celebrated " Compromise Measures" of 
Henry Clay; but not during the life of the 
brave soldier and patriot statesman. July 
5 he was taken suddenly' ill with a bilious 
fever, which proved fatal, his death occur- 
ring July 9, 1850. One of his daughters 
married Colonel W. W. S. Bliss, his Adju- 
tant-General and Chief of Staff in Florida 
and Mexico, and Private Secretary during 
his Presidency. Another daughter was 
married to Jefferson Davis. 



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PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 





LLARD FILL- 
MORE, the thir- 
j^^/ teenth President 
of the United 
States, i85o-'3, was 
born in Summer 
Hill, Cayuga 
County, New York, Janu- 
ary 7, 1800. He was of 
New England ancestry, and 
his educational advantages 
were limited. He early 
learned the clothiers' trade, 
but spent all his leisure time 
in study. At nineteen years 
of age he was induced by 
Judge Walter Wood to abandon his trade 
and commence the study of law. Upon 
learning that the young man was entirely 
destitute of means, he took him into his 
own office and loaned him such money as 
he needed. That he might not be heavily 
burdened with debt, young Fillmore taught 
school during the winter months, and in 
various other ways helped himself along. 
At the age of twenty-three he was ad- 
mitted to the Court of Common Pleas, and 
commenced the practice of his profession 
in the village of Aurora, situated on the 



eastern bank of the Cayuga Lake. In 1825 
he married Miss Abigail Powers, daughter 
of Rev. Lemuel Powers, a lady of great 
moral worth. In 1825 he took his seat in 
the House of Assembly of his native State, 
as Representative from Erie County, 
whither he had recently moved. 

Though he had never taken a very 
active part in politics his vote and his sym- 
pathies were with the Whig party. The 
State was then Democratic, but his cour- 
tesy, ability and integrity won the respect 
of his associates. In 1832 he was elected 
to a seat in the United States Congress. 
At the close of his term he returned to his 
law practice, and in two years more he was 
again elected to Congress. 

He now began to have a national reputa- 
tion. His labors were very arduous. To 
draft resolutions in the committee room, 
and then to defend them against the most 
skillful opponents on the floor of the House 
requires readiness of mind, mental resources 
and skill in debate such as few possess. 
Weary with these exhausting labors, and 
pressed by the claims of his private affairs, 
Mr. Fillmore wrote a letter to his constitu- 
ents and declined to be a candidate for re- 
election. Notwithstanding this communi- 



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MILLARD FILLMORE. 



75 



cation his friends met in convention and 
renominated him by acclamation. Though 
g;ratified by this proof of their appreciation 
of his labors he adhered to his resolve and 
returned to his home. 

In 1847 Mr. Fillmore was elected to the 
important office of comptroller of the State. 
In entering upon the very responsible duties 
which this situation demanded, it was nec- 
essary for him to abandon his profession, 
and he removed to the city of Albany. In 
this year, also, the Whigs were looking 
around to find suitable candidates for the 
President and Vice-President at the ap- 
proaching election, and the names of Zach- 
ary Taylor and Millard Fillmore became 
the rallying cry of the Whigs. On the 4th 
of March, 1849, General Taylor was inaug- 
urated President and Millard Fillmore 
Vice-President of the United States. 

The great question of slavery had as- 
sumed enormous proportions, and perme- 
ated every subject that was brought before 
Congress. It was evident that the strength 
of our institutions was to be severely tried. 
July 9, 1850, President Taylor died, and, by 
the Constitution, Vice-President Fillmore 
became President of the United States. 
The agitated condition of the country 
brought questions of great delicacy before 
him. He was bound by his oath of office 
to execute the laws of the United States. 
One of these laws was understood to be, 
that if a slave, escaping from bondage, 
should reach a free State, the United States 
was bound to do its utmost to capture him 
and return him to his master. Most Chris- 
tian men loathed this law. President Fill- 
more felt bound by his oath rigidly to see 
it enforced. Slavery was organizing armies 
to invade Cuba as it had invaded Texas, 
and annex it to the United States. Presi- 
dent Fillmore gave all the influence of his 
exalted station against the atrocious enter- 
prise. 

Mr. Fillmore had serious difficulties to 



contend with, since the opposition had a 
majority in both Houses. He did every- 
thing in his power to conciliate the South, 
but the pro-slavery party in that secticMi 
felt the inadequency of all measures of tran- 
sient conciliation. The population of the 
free States was so rapidly increasing over 
that of the slave States, that it was inevita- 
ble that the power of the Government 
should soon pass into the hands of the free 
States. The famous compromise measures 
were adopted under Mr. Fillmore's admin- 
istration, and the Japan expedition was 
sent out. 

March 4, 1853, having served one term. 
President Fillmore retired from office. He 
then took a long tour through the South, 
where he met with quite an enthusiastic 
reception. In a speech at Vicksburg, al- 
luding to the rapid growth of the country, 
he said: 

" Canada is knocking for admission, and 
Mexico would be glad to come in, and 
without saying whether it would be right 
or wrong, we stand with open arms to re- 
ceive them; for it is the manifest destiny of 
this Government to embrace the whole 
North American Continent." 

In 1855 Mr. Fillmore went to Europe 
where he was received with those marked 
attentions which his position and character 
merited. Returning to this country in 
1856 he was nominated for the Presidency 
by the "Know-Nothing" party. Mr. Bu- 
chanan, the Democratic candidate was 
the successful competitor. Mr. Fillmore 
ever afterward lived in retirement. Dur- 
ing the conflict of civil war he was mostly 
silent. It was generally supposed, how- 
ever, that his sympathy was with the South- 
ern Confederacy. He kept aloof from the 
conflict without any words of cheer to the 
one party or the other. For this reason 
he was forgotten by both. He died of 
paralysis, in Buffalo, New York, March 8, 
1874. 



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PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



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'RANKLIN PIERCE, 

the fourteenth Presi- 
dent of the United 
States, was born in 
Hillsborough, New 
Hampshire, Novem- 
ber 23, 1804. His 
father. Governor 
Benjamin Pierce, was a Rev- 
olutionary soldier, a man of 
rigid integrity ; was for sev- 
eral years in the State Legis- 
lature, a member of the Gov- 
ernor's council and a General 
of the militia. 
Franklin was the sixth of eight children. 
As a boy he listened eagerly to the argu- 
ments of his father, enforced by strong and 
ready utterance and earnest gesture. It 
was in the days of intense political excite- 
ment, when, all over the New England 
States, Federalists and Democrats were ar- 
rayed so fiercely against each other. 

In 1820 he entered Bowdoin College, at 
Brunswick, Maine, and graduated in 1S24, 
and commenced the study of law in the 
office of Judge Woodbury, a very distin- 
guished lawyer, and in 1827 was admitted 
to the bar. He practiced with great success 
in Hillsborough and Concord. He served 



in the State Legislature four years, the last 
two of which he was chosen Speaker of the 
House by a very large vote. 

In 1833 he was elected a member of Con- 
gress. In 1837 lis ^^''is elected to the United 
States Senate, just as Mr. Van Buren com- 
menced his administration. 

In 1834 he married Miss Jane Means 
Appleton, a lady admirably fitted to adorn 
ever}' station with which her husband was 
honored. Three sons born to them all 
found an early grave. 

Upon his accession to office, President 
Polk appointed Mr. Pierce Attorney-Gen- 
eral of the United States, but the offer was 
declined in consequence of numerous pro- 
fessional engagements at home and the 
precarious state of Mrs. Pierce's health. 
About the same time he also declined the 
nomination for Governor bv the Demo- 
cratic party. 

The war with Mexico called Mr. Pierce 
into the army. Receiving the appointment 
of Brigadier-General, he embarked with a 
portion of his ti'oops at Newport, Rhode 
Island, May 27, 1847. He served during 
this war, and distinguished himself by his 
bravery, skill and excellent judgment. 
When he reached his home in his native 
State he was enthusiastically received by 





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FRANKLIN PIERCE. 



the advocates of the war, and coldly by its 
opponents. He resumed the practice of his 
profession, frequently taking an active part 
in political questions, and giving his sup- 
port to the pro-slavery wing of the Demo- 
cratic party. 

June 12, 1852, the Democratic convention 
met in Baltimore to nominate a candidate 
for the Presidency. For four da3-s the}' 
continued in session, and in thirtj^-five bal- 
lotings no one had received the requisite 
two-thirds vote. Not a vote had been 
thrown thus far for General Pierce. Then 
the Virginia delegation brougiit forward 
his name. There were fourteen more bal- 
lotings, during which General Pierce 
gained strength, until, at the forty-ninth 
ballot, he received 282 votes, and all other 
candidates eleven. General Winfield Scott 
was the Whig candidate. General Pierce 
was elected with great unanimity. Only 
four States — Vermont, Massachusetts, Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee — cast their electoral 
votes against him. March 4, 1853 he was 
inaugurated President of the United States, 
and William R. King, Vice-President. 

President Pierce's cabinet consisted of 
William S. Marcy, James Guthrie, Jefferson 
Davis, James C. Dobbin, Robert McClel- 
land, James Campbell and Caleb Cushing. 

At the demand of slavery the Missouri 
Compromise was repealed, and all the Ter- 
ritories of the Union were thrown open to 
slavery. The Territory of Kansas, west of 
Missouri, was settled by emigrants mainly 
from the North. According to law, they 
were about to meet and decide whether 
slavery or freedom should be the law of 
that realm. Slavery in Missouri and 
other Southern States rallied her armed 
legions, marched them into Kansas, took 
possession of the polls, drove away the 
citizens, deposited their own votes by 
handfuls, went through the farce of count- 
ing them, and then declared that, .by an 
overwhelming majority, slavery was estab- 



lished in Kansas. These facts nobody 
denied, and yet President Pierce's adminis- 
tration felt bound to respect the decision 
obtained by such votes. The citizens of 
Kansas, the majority of whom were free- 
State men, met in convention and adopted 
the following resolve : 

"Resolved, That the body of men who, 
for the past two months, have been passing 
laws for the people of our Territory, 
moved, counseled and dictated to by the 
demagogues of other States, are to us a 
foreign body, representing only the lawless 
invaders who elected them, and not the 
people of this Territory- ; that we repudiate 
their action as the monstrous consummation 
of an act of violence, usurpation and fraud 
imparalleled in the history of the Union." 

The free-State people of Kansas also sent 
a petition to the General Government, im- 
ploring its protection. Ii; reply the Presi- 
dent issued a proclamation, declaring that 
Legislature thus created must be recog- 
nized as the legitimate Legislature of Kan- 
sas, and that its laws were binding upon 
the people, and that, if necessary, the whole 
force of the Governmental arm would be 
put forth to inforce those laws. 

James Buchanan succeeded him in the 
Presidency, and, March 4, 1857, President 
Pierce retired to his home in Concord, 
New Hampshire. When the Rebellion 
burst forth Mr. Pierce remained steadfast 
to the principles he had always cherished, 
and gave his sympathies to the pro-slaver}' 
party, with which he had ever been allied. 
He declined to do anything, either b}' 
voice or pen, to strengthen the hands ol 
the National Government. He resided in 
Concord until his death, which occurred in 
October, 1869. He was one of the most 
menial and social of men, generous to 
a fault, and contributed liberally of his 
moderate means for the alleviation of suf- 
fering and want. He was an honored 
communicant of the Episcopal church, 



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AMES BUCHANAN, the 
fifteenth President of the 
United States. 1857-61, 
was born in Franklin 
County, Pennsylvania, 
April 23, 1791. The 
place where his fatlier's 
cabin stood was called 
Stony Batter, and it was 
situated in a wild, romantic 
spot, in a gorge of mount- 
ains, with towering sum- 
mits rising all around. He 
was of Irish ancestry, his 
father having emigrated in- 
1783, with very little prop- 
erty, save his own strong arms. 

James remained in his secluded home for 
eight 3'ears enjoying very few social or 
intellectual advantages. His parents were 
industrious, frugal, prosperous and intelli- 
gent. In 1799 his father removed to Mer- 
cersburg, where James was placed in 
school and conuiienced a course in English, 
Greek and Latin. His progress was rapid 
and in 1801 he entered Dickinson College 
at Carlisle. Here he took his stand among 
the first scholars in the institution, and was 
able to master the most abstruse subjects 
with facility. In 1809 he graduated with 
the highest honors in his class. 

He was then eighteen years of age, tall. 



graceful and in vigorous health, fond of 
athletic sports, an unerring shot and en- 
livened with an exuberant flow of animal 
spirits. He immediately commenced the 
study of law in the city of Lancaster, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1812. He rose 
very rapidly in his profession and at once 
took undisputed stand with the ablest law- 
yers of the State. When but twenty-six 
years of age, unaided by counsel, he suc- 
cessfully defended before the State Senate 
one of the Judges of the State, who was 
tried upon articles of impeachment. At 
the age of thirty it was generally admitted 
that he stood at the head of the bar, and 
there was no lawyer in the State who had 
a more extensive or lucrative practice. 

In 1812, just after Mr. Buchanan had 
entered upon the practice of the law, our 
second war with England occurred. With 
all his powers he sustained the Govern- 
ment, eloquently urging the rigorous pros- 
ecution of the war; and even enlis'ing as a 
private soldier to assist in repelling the 
British, who had sacked Washington and 
were threatening Baltimore. He was at 
that time a Federalist, but when the Con- 
stitution was adopted by both parties, 
Jefferson truly said, "We are all Federal- 
ists; we are all Republicans." 

The opposition of the Fcderali'-ls lo the 
war with England, and tiie alien and scdi- 





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yAMES BUCHANAN. 



83 



tioii laws of John Adams, brought the party 
into dispute, and the name of Federalist 
became a reproach. Mr. Buchanan almost 
immediately upon entering Congress began 
to incline more and more to the Repub- 
licans. In the stormy Presidential election 
of 1824, in which Jackson, Clay, Crawford 
and John Ouincy Adams were candidates, 
Mr. Buchanan espoused the cause of Gen- 
eral Jackson and unrelentingly opposed the 
administration of Mr. Adams. 

Upon his elevation to the Presidency, 
General Jackson appointed Mr. Buchanan, 
minister to Russia. Upon his return in 1S33 
he was elected to a seat in the United States 
Senate. He there met as his associates, 
Webster, Clay, Wright and Calhoun. He 
advocated the measures proposed by Presi- 
dent Jackson of making reprisals against 
France, and defended the course of the Pres- 
ident in his unprecedented and wholesale 
removals from office of those who were not 
the supporters of his administration. Upon 
this question he was brought into direct col- 
lision with Henry Clay. In the discussion 
of the question respecting the admission of 
Michigan and Arkansas into the Union, Mr. 
Buchanan defined his position by saying: 

" The older I grow, the more I am in- 
clined to be what is called a State-rights 
man." 

M. de Tocqueville, in his renowned work 
upon " Democracy in America," foresaw 
the trouble which was inevitable from the 
doctrine of State sovereignty as held by 
Calhoun and Buchanan. He was con- 
vinced that the National Government was 
losing that strength which was essential 
to its own existence, and that the States 
were assuming powers which threatened 
the perpetuity of the Union. Mr. Buchanan 
received the book in the Senate and de- 
clared the fears of De Tocqueville to be 
groundless, and yet he lived to sit in the 
Presidential chair and see State after State, 
in accordance with his own views of State 



rights, breaking from the Union, thus 
crumbling our Republic into ruins; while 
the unhappy old man folded his arms in 
despair, declaring that the National Consti- 
tution invested him with no power to arrest 
the destruction. 

Upon Mr. Polk's accession to the Presi- 
dency, Mr. Buchanan became Secretary of 
State, and as such took his share of the 
responsibility in the conduct of the Mexi- 
can war. At the close of Mr. Polk's ad- 
ministration, Mr. Buchanan retired to pri- 
vate life; but his intelligence, and his great 
ability as a statesman, enabled him to exert 
a powerful influence in National affairs. 

Mr. Pierce, upon his election to the 
Presidency, honored Mr. Buchanan with 
the mission to England. In the year 1856 
the National Democratic convention nomi- 
nated Mr. Buchanan for the Presidency. 
The political conflict was one of the most 
severe in which our country has ever en- 
gaged. On the 4th of March, 1857, Mr. 
Buchanan was inaugurated President. His 
cabinet were Lewis Cass, Howell Cobb, 
J. B. Floyd, Isaac Toucey, Jacob Thomp- 
son, A. V. Brown and J. S. Black. 

The disruption of the Democratic party, 
in consequence of the manner in which the 
issue of the nationality of slavery was 
pressed by the Southern wing, occurred at 
the National convention, held at Charleston 
in April, 1S60, for the nomination of Mr. 
Buchanan's successor, when the majority 
of Southern delegates withdrew upon the 
passage of a resolution declaring that the 
constitutional status of slavery should be 
determined by the Supreme Court. 

In the next Presidential canvass Abra- 
ham Lincoln was nominated by the oppo- 
nents of Mr. Buchanan's administration. 
Mr. Buchanan remained in Washington 
long enough to see his successor installed 
and then retired to his home in Wheatland. 
He died June i, 1868, aged seventy-seven 
years. 




84 



PUBS/DENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 






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BRAHAM LIN- 

^^ COLN, the sixteenth 

J? President of the 

United States, i86i-'s, 

^ i was born February 

'k^ 12, 1809, in Larue 



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(then Hardin) County, 
Kentucky, in a cabin on Nolan 
Creek, three miles west of 
Hudgensville. His parents 
w ere Thomas and Nancy 
(Hanks) Lincoln. Of his an- 
cestry and early years the little 
that is known may best be 
given in his own language : " My 
parents were both born in Virginia, of un- 
distinguished families — second families, per- 
haps I should say. My mother, who died 
in my tenth year, was of a family of the 
name of Hanks, some of whom now remain 
in Adams, and others in Macon County, 
Illinois. My paterna' grandfather, Abra- 
ham Lincoln, emigrated from Rockbridge 
County, Virginia, to Kentuck}' in 1781 or 
1782, where, a year or two later, he was 
killed by Indians — not in battle, but by 
stealth, when he was laboring to open a 
farm in the forest. His ancestors, who were 
Quakers, went to Virginia from Berks 
County, Pennsylvania. An efTort to iden- 



tify them with the New England family of 
the same name ended in nothing more defi- 
nite than a similarity of Christian names in 
both families, such as Enoch, Levi, Mor- 
decai, Solomon, Abraliam and the like. 
My father, at the death of his father, was 
but six 3'ears of age, and he grew up, liter- 
ally, without education. He removed from 
Kentucky to what is now Spencer County, 
Indiana, in my eighth year. We reached 
our new home about the time the State came 
into the Union. It was a wild region, with 
bears and other wild animals still in the 
woods. There I grew to manhood. 

" There were some schools, so called, but 
no qualification was ever retjuired of a 
teacher beyond ' readin', writin', and cipher- 
in' to the rule of three.' If a straggler, sup- 
posed to understand Latin, happened to 
sojourn in the neighborhood, he was Idoked 
upon as a wizard. There was absolutely 
nothing to excite ambition for education. 
Of course, when I came of age I did not 
know much. Still, somehow, I could read, 
write and cipher to the rule of three, and 
that was all. I have not been to school 
since. The little advance I now have upon 
this store of education I have picked up 
from time to time under the pressure of 
necessity. I was raised to faini-work, whicli 





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PUBLIGLIPHARY 



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I continued till I was twenty-two. At 
twenty-one I came to Illinois and passed 
the first year in Macon County. Then I got 
to New Salem, at that time in Sangamon, 
now in Menard County, where I remained 
a year as a sort of clerk in a store. 

•' Then came the Black Hawk war, and I 
was elected a Captain of volunteers — a suc- 
cess which gave me more pleasure than any 
I have had since. I went the campaign, 
was elated ; ran for the Legislature the 
same year (1831-') and was beaten, the only 
time I have ever been beaten b}' the people. 
The next and three succeeding biennial 
elections I was elected to the Legislature, 
and was never a candidate afterward. 

" During this legislative period I had 
studied law, and removed to Springfield to 
practice it. In 1846 I was elected to the 
Lower House of Congress ; was not a can- 
didate for re-election. From 1849 to •854- 
inclusive, I practiced the law more assid- 
uously than ever before. Always a Whig 
in pohtics, and generally on the Whig elec- 
toral tickets, making active canvasses, I was 
losing interest in politics, when the repeal 
of the Missouri Compromise roused me 
again. What I have done since is pretty 
well known." 

The early residence of Lincoln in Indi- 
ana was sixteen miles north of the Ohio 
River, on Little Pigeon Creek, one and a 
half miles east of Gentryville, within the 
present township of Carter. Here his 
mother died October 5, 1818, and the next 
year his father married Mrs. Sally (Bush) 
Johnston, of Elizabethtown, Kentucky. She 
was an affectionate foster-parent, to whom 
Abraham was indebted for his first encour- 
agement to study. He became an eager 
reader, and the few books owned in the 
vicinity were many times perused. He 
worked frequently for the neighbors as a 
farm laborer ; was for some time clerk in a 
store at Gentryville; and became famous 
throughout that region for his athletic 



powers, his fondness for argument, his in- 
exhaustible fund of humerous anecdote, as 
well as for mock oratory and the composi- 
tion of rude satirical verses. In 1828 he 
made a trading voyage to New Orleans as 
" bow-hand " on a flatboat ; removed to 
Illinois in 1830; helped his father build a 
log house and clear a farm on the north 
fork of Sangamon River, ten miles west of 
Decatur, and was for some time employed 
in splitting rails for the fences — a fact which 
was prominently brought forward for a 
political purpose thirty years later. 

In the spring of 185 1 he, with two of his 
relatives, was hired to build a flatboat on 
the Sangamon River and navigate it to 
New Orleans. The boat " stuck " on a 
mill-dam, and was got off with great labor 
through an ingenious mechanical device 
which some 3'ears later led to Lincoln's 
taking out a patent for "an improved 
method for lifting vessels over shoals." 
This voyage was memorable for another 
reason — the sisjht of slaves chained, nial- 
treated and flogged at New Orleans was 
the origin of his deep convictions upon the 
slavery question. 

Returning from this voyage he became a 
resident for several years at New Salem, a 
recently settled village on the Sangamon, 
where he was successively a clerk, grocer, 
surveyor and postmaster, and acted as pilot 
to the first steamboat that ascended the 
Sangamon. Here he studied law, inter- 
ested himself in local politics after his 
return from the Black Hawk war, and 
became known as an effective "stump- 
speaker." The subject of his fii^st political 
speech was the improvement of the channel 
of the Sangamon, and the chief ground on 
which he announced himself (1832) a candi- 
date for the Legislature was his advocacy 
of this popular measure, on whicii subject 
his practical experience made him the high- 
est authority. 

Elected to the Legislature in 1834 as a 



J'/C/iS/DENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



" Henry Clay Whig," he rapidly acquired 
that command of language and that homely 
but forcible rhetoric which, added to his 
intimate knowledge of the people from 
which he sprang, made him more than a 
match in debate for his few well-educated 
opponents. 

Admitted to the bar in 1837 lie soon 
established himself at Springfield, where 
the State capital was located in 1839, 
largely through his influence ; became a 
successful pleader in the State, Circuit and 
District Courts ; married in 1842 a lady be- 
longing to a prominent family in Lexington, 
Kentucky; took an active part in the Pres- 
idential campaigns of 1840 and 1844 as 
candidate for elector on the Harrison and 
Clay tickets, and in 1846 was elected to the 
United States House of Representatives 
over the celebrated Peter Cartwright. 
During his single term in Congress he did 
not attain any prominence. 

He voted for the reception of anti-slavery 
petitions for the abolition of the slave trade 
in the District of Columbia and for the 
Wilmot proviso; but was chiefly remem- 
bered for the stand he took against the 
Mexican war. For several 3'ears there- 
after he took comparatively little interest 
in politics, but gained a leading position at 
the Springfield bar. Two or three non- 
political lectures and an eulogy on Henry 
Clay (1852) added nothing to his reputation. 

In 1854 the repeal of the Missouri 
Compromise by the Kansas-Nebraska act 
aroused Lincoln from his indifference, and 
in attacking that measure he had the im- 
mense advantage of knowing perfectly well 
the motives and the record of its author, 
Stephen A. Douglas, of Illinois, then popu- 
larly designated as the " Little Giant." The 
latter came to Springfield in October, 1854, 
on the occasion of the State Fair, to vindi- 
cate his policy in the Senate, and the " Anti- 
Nebraska" Whigs, remembering that Lin- 
coln iiad often measured his .strensfth with 



Douglas in the Illinois Legislature and be- 
fore the Springfield Courts, engaged him 
to improvise a repi}'. This speech, in the 
opinion of those who heard it, was one of 
the greatest efforts of Lincoln's life ; cer- 
tainly the most effective in his whole career. 
It took the audience by storm, and from 
that moment it was felt that Douglas had 
met his match. Lincoln was accordingly 
selected as the Anti-Nebraska candidate for 
the United States Senate in place of General 
Shields, whose term expired March 4, 1855, 
and led to several ballots; but Trumbull 
was ultimately chosen. 

The second conflict on the soil of Kan- 
sas, which Lincoln had predicted, soon be- 
gan. The result was the disruption of the 
Whig and the formation of the Republican 
party. At the Bloomington State Conven- 
tion in 1856, where the new party first 
assumed form in Illinois, Lincoln made an 
impressive address, in which for the first 
time he took distinctive ground against 
slavery in itself. 

At the National Republican Convention 
at Philadelphia, June 17, after the nomi- 
nation of Fremont, Lincoln was put for- 
ward by the Illinois delegation for the 
Vice-Presidenc}', and received on the first 
ballot no votes against 259 for William L 
Dayton. He took a prominent part in the 
canvass, being on the electoral ticket. 

In 1858 Lincoln was unanimously nomi- 
nated by the Republican State Convention 
as its candidate for the United States Senate 
in place of Douglas, and in his speech of 
acceptance used the celebrated illustration 
of a "house divided against itself" on the 
slavery question, which was, perhaps, the 
cause of his defeat. The great debate car- 
ried on at all the principal towns of Illinois 
between Lincoln and Douglas as rival Sena- 
torial candidates resulted at the time in the 
election of the latter ; but being widely cir- 
culated as a campaign document, it fixed 
tlie attention of the country upon the 



79M 



' ' ----- - ^1^ 



— ^a 



ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 



89 



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former, as the clearest and most convinc- 
ing exponent of Republican doctrine. 

Early in 1859 he began to be named in 
Illinois as a suitable Republican candidate 
for the Presidential campaign of the ensu- 
ing year, and a political address delivered 
at the Cooper Institute, New York, Febru- 
ary 27, i860, followed by similar speeches 
at New Llaven, Hartford and elsewhere in 
New England, first made him known to the 
Eastern States in the light by which he had 
long been regarded at home. By the Re- 
publican State Convention, which met at 
Decatur, Illinois, May 9 and 10, Lincoln 
was unanimously endorsed for the Presi- 
dency. It was on this occasion that two 
rails, said to have been split by his hands 
thirty years before, were brought into the 
convention, and the incident contributed 
much to his popularity. The National 
Republican Convention at Chicago, after 
spirited efforts made in favor of Seward, 
Chase and Bates, nominated Lincoln for 
the Presidency, with Hannibal Hamlin 
for Vice-President, at the same time adopt- 
ing a vigorous anti-slavery platform. 

The Democratic party having been dis- 
organized and presenting two candidates, 
Douglas and Brcckenridge, and the rem- 
nant of the "American" party having put 
forward John Bell, of Tennessee, the Re- 
publican victory was an easy one, Lincoln 
being elected November 6 by a large plu- 
ralit\', comprehending nearly all the North- 
ern States, but none of the Southern. The 
secession of South Carolina and the Gulf 
States was the immediate result, followed 
a few months later by that of the border 
slave States and the outbreak of the great 
civil war. 

The life of Abraham Lincoln became 
thenceforth merged in the history of his 
country. None of the details of the vast 
conflict which filled the remainder of Lin- 
coln's life can here be given. Narrowly 
escaping assassination by avoiding Balti- 



more on his way to the capital, he reached 
Washington February 23, and was inaugu- 
rated President of the United States March 
4, 1 86 1. 

In his inaugural address he said: " I hold, 
that in contemplation of universal law and 
the Constitution the Union of these States is 
perpetual. Perpetuity is implied if not ex- 
pressed in the fundamental laws of all na- 
tional governments. It is safe to assert 
that no government proper ever had a pro- 
vision in its organic law for its own termi- 
nation. I therefore consider that in view 
of the Constitution and the laws, the Union 
is unbroken, and to the extent of my ability 
I shall take care, as the Constitution en- 
joins upon me, that the laws of the United 
States be extended in all the States. In 
doing this there need be no bloodshed or vio- 
lence, and there shall be none unless it be 
forced upon the national authority. The 
power conferred to me will be used to hold, 
occupy and possess the property and places 
belonging to the Government, and to col- 
lect the duties and imports, but beyond 
what niav be necessary for these objects 
there will be no invasion, no using of force 
against or among the pecjple an3'where. In 
your hands, my dissatished fellow-country- 
men, is the momentous issue of civil war. 
The Government will not assail you. You 
can have no conflict without being your- 
selves the aggressors. You have no oath 
registered in heaven to destroy the Gov- 
ernment, while I shall have the most sol- 
emn one to preserve, protect and defend 
it." 

He called to his cabinet his principal 
rivals for the Presidential nomination — 
Seward, Chase, Cameron and Bates; se- 
cured the co-operation of the Union Demo- 
crats, headed by Douglas; called out 75,000 
militia from the several States upon the first 
tidings of the bombardment of Fort Sumter, 
April 15; proclaimed a blockade of the 
Southern posts April 19; called an extra 



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90 



PJiESIDENTS OF THE UN/TED STATES. 



session of Congress for July 4, from which 
he asked and obtained 400,000 men and 
$400,000,000 for the war; placed McCIellan 
at the head of the Federal army on General 
Scott's resignation, October 31; appointed 
Edwin M. Stanton Secretary of War, Jan- 
uary 14, 1862, and September 22, 1862, 
issued a proclamation declaring the free- 
dom of all slaves in the States and parts of 
States then in rebellion from and after 
January i. 1S63. This was the crowning 
act of Lincoln's career — the act by which 
he will be chiefly known through all future 
time — and it decided the war. 

October 16, 1863, President Lincoln called 
for 300,000 volunteers to replace those 
whose term of enlistment had expired ; 
made a celebrated and touching, though 
brief, address at the dedication of the 
Gettysburg military cemetery, November 
19, 1863; commissioned Ulysses S. Grant 
Lieutenant-General and Commander-in- 
Chief of the armies of the United States, 
March 9, 1864; was re-elected President in 
November of the same year, by a large 
majority over General McCIellan, with 
Andrew Johnson, of Tennessee, as Vice- 
President; delivered a very remarkable ad- 
dress at his second inauguration, March 4, 
1865; visited the army before Richmond the 
same month; entered the capital of the Con- 
federacy the day after its fall, and upon the 
surrender of General Robert E. Lee's army, 
April 9, was actively engaged in devising 
generous plans for the reconstruction of the 
Union, when, on the evening of Good Fri- 
day, April 14, he was shot in his box at 
Ford's Theatre,\Vashington, byJohnWilkes 
Booth, a fanatical actor, and expired early 
on the following morning, April 15. Al- 
most simultaneously a murderous attack 
was made upon William H. Seward, Secre- 
tary of State. 

At noon on the isth of April Andrew 



Johnson assumed the Presidency, and active 
measures were taken which resulted in the 
death of Booth and the execution of his 
principal accomplices. 

The funeral of President Lincoln was 
conducted with unexampled solemnity and 
magnificence. Impressive services were 
held in Washington, after which the sad 
procession proceeded over the same route 
he had traveled four years before, from 
Springfield to Washington. In Philadel- 
phia his body lay in state in Independence 
Hall, in which he had declared before his 
first inauguration " that I would sooner be 
assassinated than to give up the principles 
of the Declaration of Independence." He 
was buried at Oak Ridge Cemetery, near 
Springfield, Illinois, on May 4, where a 
monument emblematic of the emancipation 
of the slaves and the restoration of the 
Union mark his resting place. 

The leaders and citizens of the expiring 
Confederacy expressed genuine indignation 
at the murder of a generous political adver- 
sary. Foreign nations took part in mourn- 
ing the death of a statesman who had proved 
himself a true representative of American 
nationality. The freedmen of the South 
almost worshiped the memory of their de- 
liverer ; and the general sentiment of the 
great Nation he had saved awarded him a 
place in its affections, second only to that 
held by Washington. 

The characteristics of Abraham Lincoln 
have been familiarly known throughout the 
civilized world. His tall, gaunt, ungainly 
figure, homely countenance, and his shrewd 
mother-wit, shown in his celebrated con- 
versations overflowing in humorous and 
pointed anecdote, combined with an accu- 
rate, intuitive appreciation of the questions 
of the time, are recognized as forming the 
best type of a period of American history 
now rapidly passing away. 



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tFWNDREW JOHNSON, 
the seventeenth Presi- 
dent of the United 
States, 1865-9, was 
b o r n at Raleigh, 
North Carolina, De- 
c e m b e r 29, 1808. 
His father died when 
2 was four years old, and in 
is eleventh year he was ap- 
renticed to a tailor. He nev- 
" attended school, and did 
3t learn to read until late in 
is apprenticeship, when he 
denly acquired a passion for 
obtaining knowledge, and devoted 
all his spare time to reading. 

After working two years as a journe}-- 
man tailor at Lauren's Court-House, South 
Carolina, he removed, in 1826, to Green- 
ville, Tennessee, where he worked at his 
trade and married. Under his wife's in- 
structions he made i"apid progress in his 
education, and manifested such an intelli- 
gent interest in local politics as to be 
elected as " workingmen's candidate " al- 
derman, in 1828, and mayor in 1830, being 
twice re-elected to each office. 

During this period he cidtivated his tal- 
ents as a public speaker by takitig part in a 



debating society, consisting largely of stu- 
dents of Greenville College. In 1835, and 
again in 1839, he was chosen to the lower 
house of the Legislature, as a Democrat. 
In 1 841 he was elected State Senator, and 
in 1843, Representative in Congress, being 
re-elected four successive periods, until 
1853, when he was chosen Governor of 
Tennessee. In Congress he supported the 
administrations of Tyler and Polk in their 
chief measures, especially the annexation 
of Texas, the adjustment of the Oregon 
boundary, the Mexican war, and the tariff 
of 1846. 

In 1855 Mi\ Johnson was re elected Gov- 
ernor, and in 1857 entered the United 
States Senate, where he was conspicuous 
as an advocate of retrenchment and of the 
Homestead bill, and as an opponent of the 
Pacific Railroad. He was supported by the 
Tennessee delegation to the Democratic 
convention in i860 for the Presidential 
nomination, and lent his influence to the 
Brcckenridge wing of that party. 

When the election of Lincoln had 
brought about the first attempt at secession 
in December, i860, Johnson took in the 
Senate a firm attitude for the Union, and 
in May, 1861, on returning to Tennessee, 
he was in imminent peril of suffering from 



94 



PRES/DEA'TS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



popular violence for his loyalty to the " old 
flag." He was the leader of the Loyalists' 
convention of East Tennessee, and during j 
the following winter was very active in or- 
ganizing relief for the destitute loyal refu- 
gees from that region, his own family being 
among those compelled to leave. 

By his course in this crisis Johnson came 
prominently before the Northern public, 
and when in March, 1862, lie was appointed 
by President Lincoln military Governor of 
Tennessee, with the rank of Brigadier-Gen- 
eral, he increased in popularity by the vig- 
orous and successful manner in which he 
labored to restore order, protect Union 
men and punish marauders. On the ap- 
proach of the Presidential campaign of 1864, 
the termination of the war being plainly 
foreseen, and several Southern States being 
partially reconstructed, it was felt that the 
Vice-Presidency should be given to a South- 
ern man of conspicuous loyalty, and Gov- 
ernor Johnson was elected on the same 
platform and ticket as President Lincoln; 
and on the assassination of the latter suc- 
ceeded to the Presidenc}', April 15, 1865. 
In a public speech two days later he said: 
"The American people must be taught, if 
they do not already feel, that treason is a 
crime and must be punished; that the Gov- 
ernment will not always bear with its ene- 
mies; that it is strong, not only to protect, 
but to punish. In our peaceful histor}^ 
treason has been almost unknown. The 
people must understand that it is the black- 
est of crimes, and will be punished." He 
then added the ominous sentence: "In re- 
gard to my future course, I make no prom- 
ises, no pledges." President Johnson re- 
tained the cabinet of Lincoln, and exhibited 
considerable severity toward traitors in his 
earlier acts and speeches, but he soon inaug- 
urated a policy of reconstruction, proclaim- 
ing a general amnesty to the late Confeder- 
ates, and successively establishing provis- 
ional Governments in the Southern States. 



These States accordingly claimed lepresen- 
tation in Congress in the following Decem- 
ber, and the momentous question of what 
should be the policy of the victorious Union 
toward its late armed opponents was forced 
upon that body. 

Two considerations impelled the Repub- 
lican majority to reject the policy of Presi. 
dent Johnson: First, an apprehension that 
the chief magistrate intended to undo the re- 
sults of the war in regard to slavery; and,sec- 
ond, the sullen attitude of the South, which 
seemed to be plotting to regain the policy 
which arms had lost. The credentials of the 
Southern members elect were laid on the 
table, a civil rights bill and a bill extending 
the sphere of the Freedmcn's Bureau were 
passed over the executive veto, and the two 
highest branches of the Government were 
soon in open antagonism. The action of 
Congress was characterized by the Presi- 
dent as a " new rebellion." In July the 
cabinet was reconstructed, Messrs. Randall, 
Stanbury and Browning taking the places 
of Messrs. Denison, Speed and Harlan, and 
an unsuccessful attempt was made by 
means of a general convention in Philadel- 
phia to form a new party on the basis of the 
administration policy. 

In an excursion to Chicago for the pur- 
pose of laying a corner-stone of the monu- 
ment to Stephen A. Douglas, f^resident 
Johnson, accompanied by several members 
of the cabinet, passed through Philadelphia, 
New York and Albau}', in each of which 
cities, and in other places along the route, 
he made speeches justifying and explaining 
his own polic}', and violently denouncing 
the action of Congress. 

August 12, 1867, President Johnscjn re- 
moved the Secretary of War, replacing 
him by General Grant. Secretary Stanton 
retired under protest, based upon the ten- 
ure-of-ofifice act which had been passed the 
preceding March. The President then is- 
sued a proclamation declaring the insurrec- 



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tioii at an end, and that " peace, order, tran- 
qiiilit}- and civil authority existed in and 
throughout the United States." Another 
proclamation enjoined obedience to the 
Constitution and the laws, and an amnesty 
was published September 7, relieving nearly 
all the participants in the late Rebellion 
from the disabilities thereby incurred, on 
condition of taking the oath to support the 
Constitution and the laws. 

In December Congress refused to confirm 
the removal of Secretary Stanton, who 
thereupon resumed the exercise of his of- 
fice; but February 21, 1868, President 
Johnson again attempted to remove him, 
appointing General Lorenzo Thomas in his 
place. Stanton refused to vacate his post, 
and was sustained by the Senate. 

February 24 the House of Representa- 
tives voted to impeach the President for 
" high crime and misdemeanors," and March 
5 presented eleven articles of impeachment 
on the ground of his resistance to the exe- 
cution of the acts of Congress, alleging, in 
addition to the offense lately committed, 
his public expressions of contempt for Con- 
gress, in " certain intemperate, inflamma- 
tory and scandalous harangues"' pronounced 
in August and September, 1866, and there- 
after declaring that the Thirty-ninth Con- 
gress of the United States was not a 
competent legislative body, and den3-ing 
its power to propose Constitutional -amend- 
ments. March 23 the impeachment trial 
began, the President appearing b}- counsel, 
and resulted in acquittal, the vote lacking 



one of the two-thirds vote required for 
conviction. 

The remainder of President Johnson's 
term of office was passed without any such 
conflicts as might have been anticipated. 
He failed to obtain a ncMiiination for re- 
election b}' the Democratic party, though 
receiving sixty-five votes on tiie first ballot. 
July 4 and December 25 new proclamations 
of pardon to the participants in the late 
Rebellion were issued, but were of little 
effect. On the accession of General Grant 
to the Presidency, March 4, 1869, Johnson 
returned to Greenville, Tennessee. Unsuc- 
cessful in 1870 and 1872 as a candidate re- 
spectively for United States Senator and 
Representative, he was finally elected to the 
Senate in 1875, and took his seat in the extra 
session of March, in which his speeches 
were comparatively temperate. He died 
July 31, 1875, and was buried at Green- 
ville. 

President Johnson's administration was a 
peculiarly unfortunate one. That he should 
so soon become involved in bitter feud with 
the Republican mpjoritv in Congress was 
certainl}' a surprising and deplorable inci- 
dent; yet, in reviewing the circumstances 
after a lapse of so man)' 3'ears, it is easy to 
find ample room for a charitable judgment 
of both the parties in the heated contro- 
versy, since it cannot be doubted that any 
President, even Lincoln himself, had he 
lived, must have sacrificed a large portion 
of his popularity in carrying out ariy pos- 
sible scheme of reconstruction. 



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PRESIDEIVTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



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LYSSES SIMPSON 
GRANT, the eight- 
eenth President of the 
United States, iS6g-'yy, 
was born April 27, 1 822, 
at Point Pleasant, 
-|^ Clermont County, 
Ohio. His father was of Scotch 
descent, and a dealer in leather. 
At the age of seventeen he en- 
tered the Military Academy at 
West Point, and four years later 
graduated twenty-first in a class 
of thirty-nine, receiving the 
commission of Brevet Second 
Lieutenant. He was assigned 
to the Fourth Infantrj^ and re- 
mained in the army eleven years. He was 
engaged in every battle of the Mexican war 
except that of Buena Vista, and received 
two brevets for gallantry. 

In 1848 Mr. Grant married Julia, daughter 
of Frederick Dent, a prominent merchant of 
St. Louis, and in 1854, having reached the 
grade of Captain, he resigned his commis- 
sion in the army. For several years he fol- 
lowed farming near St. Louis, but unsuc- 
cessfully ; and in i860 he entered the leather 
trade with his father at Galena, Illinois. 

When the civil war broke out in 1861, 
Grant was thirty-nine 3'ears of age, but cn- 
tirelv unknown to public men and without 



any personal acquaintance with great affairs. 
President Lincoln's first call for troops was 
made on the 15th of April, and on the 19th 
Grant was drilling a company of volunteers 
at Galena. He also offered his services to 
the Adjutant-General of the army, but re- 
ceived no repl}'. The Governor of Illinois, 
however, employed him in the organization 
of volunteer troops, and at the end of five 
weeks he was appointed Colonel of the 
Twenty-first Infantry. He took command 
of his regiment in June, and reported first 
to General Pope in Missouri. His superior 
knowledge of militaiy life rather surprised 
his superior officers, who had never before 
even heard of him, and they were thus led 
to place him on the road to rapid advance- 
ment. August 7 he was commissioned a 
Brigadier-General of volunteers, the ap- 
pointment having been made without his 
knowledge. He had been unanimously 
recommended by the Congressmen from 
Illinois, not one of whom had been his 
personal acquaintance. For a few weeks 
he was occupied in watciiing the move- 
ments of partisan forces in Missouri. 

September i he was placed in command 
of the District of Southeast Missouri, with 
headquarters at Cairo, and on the 6th, with- 
out orders, he seized Paducah, at the mouth 
of the Tennessee River, and commanding 
the navigation both of tiiat stream and of 




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ULrSSES S. GRAiVT. 



99 



the Ohio. This stroke secured Kentucky 
to the Union ; for the State Legislature, 
which had until then affected to be neutral, 
at once declared in favor of the Govern- 
ment. In November following, according 
to orders, he made a demonstration about 
eighteen miles below Cairo, preventing the 
crossing of hostile troops into Missouri ; 
but in order to accomplish this purpose he 
had to do some fighting, and that, too, with 
only 3,000 raw recruits, against 7,000 Con- 
federates. Grant carried off two pieces of 
artillery and 200 prisoners. 

After repeated applicitions to General 
Halleck, his immediate superior, he was 
allowed, in February, 1863, to move up the 
Tennessee River against Fort Henry, in 
conjunction with a naval force. The gun- 
boats silenced the fort, and Grant immedi- 
ately made preparations to attack Fort 
Donelson, about twelve miles distant, on 
the Cumberland River. Without waiting 
for orders he moved his troops there, and 
with 15,000 men began the siege. The 
fort, garrisoned with 21,000 men, was a 
strong one, but after hard fighting on three 
successive days Grant forced an " Uncon- 
ditional Surrender" (an alliteration upon 
the initials of his name). The prize he capt- 
ured consisted of sixty -five cannon, 17,600 
small arms and 14,623 soldiers. About 4,- 
000 of the garrison had escaped in the night, 
and 2,500 were killed or wounded. Grant's 
entire loss was less than 2,000. This was the 
first important success won by the national 
troops during the war, and its strategic re- 
sults were marked, as the entire States of 
Kentucky and Tennessee at once fell into the 
National hands. Our hero was made a 
Major-General of Volunteers and placed in 
command of the District of West Ten- 
nessee. 

In March, 1862, he was ordered to move 
up the Tennessee River toward Corinth, 
where the Confederates were concentrat- 
ing a large army ; but he was directed not 



to attack. His forces, now numbering 38,- 
000, were accordingly encamped near Shi- 
loh, or Pittsburg;- Landins:, to await the 
arrival of General Buell with 40,000 more; 
but April 6 the Confederates came out from 
Corinth 50,000 strong and attacked Grant 
violently, hoping to overwhelm him before 
Buell could arrive ; 5,000 of his troops were 
bej'ond supporting distance, so that he was 
largely outnumbered and forced back to the 
river, where, however, he held out until 
dark, when the head of Buell's column 
came upon the field. The ne.Kt day the 
Confederates were driven back to Corinth, 
nineteen miles. The loss was heavy on 
both sides ; Grant, being senior in rank to 
Buell, commanded on both days. Two 
days afterward Halleck arrived at the front 
and assumed command of the army, Grant 
remaining at the head of the right wing and 
the reserve. On May 30 Corinth was 
evacuated by the Confederates. In July 
Halleck was made General-in-Chief, and 
Grant succeeded him in command of the 
Department of the Tennessee. September 
19 the battle of luka was fought, where, 
owing to Rosecrans's fault, only an incom- 
plete victory was obtained. 

Next, Grant, with 30,000 men, moved 
down into Mississippi and threatened Vicks- 
burg, while Sherman, with 40,000 men, was 
sent by way of the river to attack that place 
in front ; but, owing to Colonel Murphy's 
surrendering Holly Springs to the Con- 
federates, Grant was so weakened that he 
had to retire to Corinth, and then Sherman 
failed to sustain his intended attack. 

In January, 1863, General Grant took 
command in person of all the troops in the 
Mississippi Valley, and spent several months 
in fruitless attempts to compel the surrender 
or evacuation of Vicksburg; but July 4, 
following, the place surrendered, with 31,- 
600 men and 172 cannon, and the Mississippi 
River thus fell permanently into the hands 
of the Government. Grant was made a 









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301963 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



Major-General in the regular army, and in 
October following he was placed in com- 
mand of the Division of the Mississippi. 
The same month he went to Chattanooga 
and saved the Army of the Cumberland 
from starvation, and drove Bragg from that 
part of the country. This victory over- 
threw the last important hostile force west 
of the AUeghanies and opened the way for 
the National armies into Georgia and Sher- 
man's march to the sea. 

The remarkable series of successes which 
Grant had now achieved pointed him out 
as the appropriate leader of the National 
armies, and accordingly, in February, 1864, 
the rank of Lieutcnant-General was created 
for him by Congress, and on March 17 he 
assumed command of the armies of the 
United States. Planning the grand final 
campaign, he sent Sherman into Georgia, 
Sigel into the valley of Virginia, and Butler 
to capture Richmond, while he fought his 
own way from the Rapidan to the James. 
The costly but victorious battles of the 
Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna and 
Cold Harbor were fought, more for the 
purpose of annihilating Lee than to capture 
any particular point. In June, 1864, the 
siege of Richmond was begun. Sherman, 
meanwhile, was marching and fighting daily 
in Georgia and steadily advancing toward 
Atlanta ; but Sigel had been defeated in the 
valley of Virginia, and was superseded by 
Hunter. Lee sent Early to threaten the Na- 
tional capital ; whereupon Grant gathered 
up a force which he placed under Sheridan, 
and that commander rapidly drove Early, 
inasuccessionof battles, through the valley 
of Virginia and destroyed his army as an 
organized force. The siege of Richmond 
went on, and Grant made numerous attacks, 
but was only partially successful. The 
people of the North grew impatient, and 
even the Government advised him to 
abandon the attempt to take Richmond or 
crush the Confederacy in that way; but he 



never wavered. He resolved to " fight it 
out on that line, if it took all summer." 

By September Sherman had made his 
way to Atlanta, and Grant then sent him 
on his famous " march to the sea," a route 
which the chief had designed six months 
before. He made Sherman's success possi- 
ble, not only by holding Lee in front of 
Richmond, but also by sending reinforce- 
ments to Thomas, who then drew off and 
defeated the only army which could have 
confronted Sherman. Thus the latter was 
left unopposed, and, with Thomas and Sheri- 
dan, was used in the furtherance of Grant's 
plans. Each executed his part in the great 
design and contributed his share to the re- 
sult at which Grant was aiming. Sherman 
finally reached Savannah, Schofield beat 
the enemy at Franklin, Thomas at Nash- 
ville, and Sheridan wherever he met him ; 
and all this while General Grant was hold- 
ing Lcc, with the principal Confederate 
army, near Richmond, as it were chained 
and helpless. Then Schofield was brought 
from the West, and Fort Fisher and Wil- 
mington were captured on the sea-coast, so 
as to afford him a foothold ; from here he 
was sent into the interior of North Caro- 
lina, and Sherman was ordered to move 
northward to join him. When all this was 
effected, and Sheridan could find no one else 
to fight in the Shenandoah Valle}', Grant 
brought the cavalry leader to the front of 
Richmond, and, making a last effort, drove 
Lee from his entrenchments and captured 
Richmond. 

At the beginning of the final campaign 
Lee had collected 73,000 fighting men in 
the lines at Richmond, besides the local 
militia and the gunboat crews, amounting 
to 5,000 more. Including Sheridan's force 
Grant had 1 10,000 men in the works before 
Petersburg and Richmond. Petersburg fell 
on the 2d of April, and Richmond on the 
3d, and Lee fled in the direction of Lynch- 
burg. Grant pursued with remorseless 



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iTLfSSES S. GRANT. 



energy, only stopping to strike fresh blows, 
and Lee at last found himself not only out- 
fought but also out-marched and out-gen- 
eraled. Being completely surrounded, he 
surrendered on the 9th of April, 1865, at 
Appomattox Court-House, in the open field, 
with 27,000 men, all that remained of his 
army. This act virtually ended the war. 
Thus, in ten days Grant had captured 
Petersburg and Richmond, fought, by his 
subordinates, the battles of Five Forks and 
Sailor's Creek, besides ni'.ir\erous smaller 
ones, captured 20,000 men in actual battle, 
and received the surrender of 27,000 more 
at Appomattox, absolutely annihilating an 
army of 70,000 soldiers. 

General Grant returned at once to Wash- 
ington to superintend tiie disbandment of 
the armies, but this pleasurable work was 
scarcely begun when President Lincoln was 
assassinated. It had doubtless been in- 
tended to inflict the same fate upon Grant ; 
but he, fortunately, on account of leaving 
Washington early in the evening, declined 
an invitation to accompany the President 
to the theater where the murder was com- 
mitted. This event made Andrew Johnson 
President, but left Grant by far the most 
conspicuous figure in the public life of the 
country. He became the object of an en- 
thusiasm greater than had ever been known 
in America. Every possible honor was 
heaped upon him ; the grade of General 
was created for him by Congress; houses 
were presented to him by citizens ; towns 
were illuminated on his entrance into them ; 
and, to cap the climax, when he made his 
tour around the world, "all nations did him 
honor" as they had never before honored 
a foreigner. 

The General, as Commander-in-Chief, 
was placed in an embarrassing position by 
the opposition of President Johnson to the 
measures of Congress ; but he directly man- 
ifested his characteristic loyalty by obeying 
Congress rather than the disaffected Presi- 



dent, although for a short time he had 
served in his cabinet as Secretary of War. 

Of course, everybody thought of General 
Grant as the next President of the United 
States, and he was accordingly elected as 
such in 1868 "by a large majority," and 
four years later re-elected by a much larger 
majority — the most overwhelming ever 
given by the people of this country. His first 
administration was distinguished by a ces- 
sation of the strifes which sprang from the 
war, by a large reduction of the National 
debt, and by a settlement of the difificulties 
with England which had grown out of the 
depredations committed by privateers fit- 
ted out in England during the war. This 
last settlement was made by the famous 
" Geneva arbitration," which saved to this 
Government $15,000,000, but, more than all, 
prevented a war with England. " Let us 
have peace," was Grant's motto. And this 
is the most appropriate place to remark 
that above all Presidents whom this Gov- 
ernment has ever had. General Grant was 
the most non-partisan. He regarded the 
Executive office as purely and exclusively 
executive of the laws of Congress, irrespect- 
ive of " politics." But every great man 
has jealous, bitter enemies, a fact Grant 
was well aware of. 

After the close of his Presidency, our 
General made his famous tour around the 
world, already referred to, and soon after- 
ward, in company with Ferdinand Ward, 
of New York City, he engaged in banking 
and stock brokerage, which business was 
made disastrous to Grant, as well as to him- 
self, by his rascality. By this time an in- 
curable cancer of the tongue developed 
itself in the person of the afflicted ex- 
President, which ended his unrequited life 
July 23, 1885. Thus passed away from 
earth's turmoils the man, the General, who 
was as truly the " father of this regenerated 
country 
the infant nation 



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PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 





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UTHERFORD BIRCH- 
ARD HAYES, the nine- 
teenth President of 
the United States, 
iS77-'8i, was born in 
'^hu Delaware, Ohio, Oc- 
1-'^^^^ tober 4, 1822. His 
ancestry can be traced as far 
back as 1280, when Hayes and 
Rutherford were two Scottish 
chieftains fighting side by side 
with BaHol, William Wallace 
and Robert Bruce. Both fami- 
lies belonged to the nobilit}', 
owned extensive estates and had 
a large following. The Hayes 
family had, for a coat of-arms, a 
shield, barred and surmounted by a flying 
eagle. There was a circle of stars about 
the eagle and above the shield, while on a 
scroll underneath the shield was inscribed 
the motto, "Recte." Misfortune overtaking 
the family, George Hayes left Scotland in 
1680, and settled in Windsor, Connecticut. 
He was an industrious worker in wood and 
iron, having a mechanical genius and a cul- 
tivated mind. His son George was born 
in Windsor and remained there during his 
life. 

Daniel Hayes, son of the latter, married 
Sarah Lee, and lived in Simsbury, Con- 




necticut. Ezekiel, son of Daniel, was born 
in 1724, and was a manufacturer of scythes 
at Bradford, Connecticut. Rutherford 
Hayes, son of Ezekiel and grandfather of 
President Haj'es, was born in New Haven, 
in August, 1756. He was a famous black- 
smith and tavern-keeper. He immigrated to 
Vermont at an unknown date, settling in 
Brattleboro where he established a hotel. 
Here his son Rutherford, father of Presi- 
dent Hayes, was born. In September, 1813, 
he married Sophia Birchard, of Wilming- 
ton, Vermont, whose ancestry on the male 
side is traced back to 1635, to John Birch- 
ard, one of the principal founders of Nor- 
wich. Both of her grandfathers were 
soldiers in the Revolutionary war. 

The father of President Ha3'es was of a 
mechanical turn, and could mend a plow, 
knit a stocking, or do almost anything that 
he might undertake. He was prosperous 
in business, a member of the church and 
active in all the benevolent enterprises of 
the town. After the close of the war of 181 2 
he immigrated to Ohio, and purchased a 
farm near the present town of Delaware. 
His family then consisted of his wife and 
two children, and an orphan girl whom he 
had adopted. 

It was in 1817 that the family arrived at 
Delaware. Instead of settling upon his 




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RUTHERFORD B. HATES. 



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farm, Mr. Hayes concluded to enter into 
business in the village. He purchased an 
interest in a distillery, a business then as re- 
spectable as it was profitable. His capital 
and recognized ability assured hiin the 
highest social position in the community. 
He died July 22, 1822, less than three 
months before the birth of the son that was 
destined to fill the office of President of the 
United States. 

Mrs. Hayes at this period was very weak, 
and the subject of this sketch was so feeble 
at birth that he was not expected to live 
beyond a month or two at most. As the 
months went by he grew weaker and weaker 
so that the neighbors were in the habit of 
inquiring from time to time "if Mrs. 
Hayes's baby died last night." On one oc- 
casion a neighbor, who was on friendly 
terms with the family, after alluding to the 
boy's big head and the mother's assiduous 
care of him, said to her, in a bantering way, 
"That's right! Stick to him. You have 
got him along so far, and I shouldn't won- 
der if he would really come to something 
yet." " You need not laugh," said Mrs. 
Hayes, " you wait and see. You can't tell 
but I shall make him Pi-esident of the 
United States yet." 

The boy lived, in spite of the universal 
predictions of his speedy death; and when, 
in 1825, his elder brother was drowned, he 
became, if possible, still dearer to his mother. 
He was seven years old before he was 
l)laced in school. His education, however, 
was not neglected. His sports were almost 
wholly within doors, his playmates being 
his sister and her associates. These circum- 
stances tended, no doubt, to foster that 
gentleness of disposition and that delicate 
consideration for the feelings of others 
which are marked traits of his character. 
At school he was ardently devoted to his 
studies, obedient to the teacher, and care- 
ful to avoid the quarrels in which many of 
liis schoolmates were involved. He was 



always waiting at the school-house door 
when it opened in the morning, and never 
late in returning to his seat at recess. His 
sister Fannie was his constant companion, 
and their affection for each other excited 
the admiration of their friends. 

In 1838 young Hayes entered Kenyon 
College and graduated in 1842. He then 
began the study of law in the office of 
Thomas Sparrow at Columbus. Hishealth 
was now well established, his figure robust, 
his mind vigorous and alert. In a short 
time he determined to enter the law school 
at Cambridge, Massachusetts, where foi" 
two years he pursued his studies with great 
diligence. 

In 1845 he was admitted to the bar at 
Marietta, Ohio, and shortly afterward went 
into piactice as an attorney-at-law with 
Ralph P. Buckland, of Fremont. Here he 
remained three years, acquiring but limited 
practice, and apparently unambitious of 
distinction in his profession. His bachelor 
uncle, Sardis Birchard, who had always 
manifested great interest in his nephew and 
rendered him assistance in boyhood, was 
now a wealthy ban'Kcr, and it was under- 
stood that the young man would be his 
heir. It is possible that this expectation 
may have made Mr. Hayes more indifferent 
to the attainment of wealth than he would 
otherwise have been, but he was led into no 
extravagance or vices on this account. 

In 1849 he removed to Cincinnati where 
his ambition found new stimulus. Two 
events occurring at this period had a pow- 
erful influence upon iiis subsequent life. 
One of them was his marriage to Miss 
Lucy Ware Webb, daughter of Dr. James 
Webb, of Cincinnati; the other was his 
introduction to the Cincinnati Literary 
Club, a body embracing such men as Chief 
Justice Salmon P. Chase, General John 
Pope and Governor Edward F. Noyes. 
The marriage was a fortunate one as every- 
body knows. Not one of all the wives of 



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PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



our Presidents was more universally ad- 
mired, reverenced and beloved than is Mrs. 
Hayes, and no one has done more than she 
to reflect honor upon i\.merican woman- 
liood. 

In 1S56 jVIr. Hayes was nominated to the 
office of Judge of tlie Court of Coniinon 
Pleas, but decHned to accept the nomina- 
tion. Two years later he was chosen to the 
office of City Solicitor. 

In i86i, when the Rebellion broke out, 
he was eager to take up arms in the defense 
of his countrv. His military life was 
bright and illustrious. June 7, 1861, he 
was appointed Major of the Twenty-third 
Ohio Infantrv- In July the regiment was 
sent to Virginia. October 15, 1861, he was 
made Lieutenant-Colonel of his regiment, 
and in August, 1862, was promoted Colonel 
of the Seventy-ninth Ohio Regiment, but 
refused to leave his old comrades. He was 
wounded at the battle of South Mountain, 
and suffered severely, being unable to enter 
upon active duty for several weeks. No- 
vember 30, 1862, he rejoined his regiment as 
its Colonel, having been promoted Octo- 
ber 15. 

December 25, 1862, he was placed in com- 
mand of the Kanawha division, and for 
meritorious service in several battles was 
promoted Brigadier-General. He was also 
brcvetted Major-General for distinguished 



services in 1864. He was wounded four 
times, and five horses were shot from 
under him. 

Mr. Hayes was first a Whig in politics, 
and was among the first to unite with the 
Free-Soil and Republican parties. In 1864 
he was elected to Congress from the Sec- 
ond Ohio District, which had always been 
Democratic, receiving a majority of 3,098. 
In 1 866 he was renominated for Congress 
and was a second time elected. In 1867 he 
was elected Governor over Allen G. Thur- 
man, the Democratic candidate, and re- 
elected in 1869. In 1874 Sardis Birchard 
died, leaving his large estate to General 
Hayes. 

In 1876 he was nominated for the Presi- 
dency. His letter of acceptance excited 
the admiration of the whole country. He 
resigned the office of Governor and retired 
to his home in Fremont to await the result 
of the canvass. After a hard, long contest 
he was inaugurated March 5, 1877. His 
Presidency was characterized by compro- 
mises with all parties, in order to please as 
many as possible. The close of his Presi- 
dential term in 188 1 was tlie close of his 
public life, and since then he has remained 
at his home in Fremont, Ohio, in Jefferso- 
nian retirement from public notice, in stiik- 
ing contrast with most others of the world's 
notables. 



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J^^^Sr'i^^AMES A. GARFIELD, 
^-\-' f'i'^Jk^:'^ twentieth President of 
^'''"^*''Mi!jfe«» the United States, 1881, 
was born November 19, 
I S3 1, in the wild woods 
o f Cuyahoga Count}-, 
Ohio. His parents were 
Abram and EHza (Ballon) 
Garfield, who were of New 
- England ancestry. The 
senior Garfield was an in- 
'' dustrious farmer, as the 
rapid improvements which 
appeared on his place at- 
tested. The residence was 
the familiar pioneer log cabin, 
and the household comprised the parents 
and their children — Mehetable, Thomas, 
Mary and James A. In May, 1833, the 
father died, and the care of the house- 
hold consequently devolved upon young 
Thomas, to whom James was greatly in- 
debted for the educational and other ad- 
vantages he enjoyed. He now lives in 
Michigan, and the two sisters live in Solon, 
Ohio, near their birthplace. 

As the subject of our sketch grew up, he, 
too, was industrious, both in mental and 
physical labor. He worked upon the farm. 
or at carpentering, or chopped wood, or at 
any other odd job that would aid in support 
of the family, and in the meantime made the 



most of his books. Ever afterward he was 
never ashamed of his humble origin, nor for- 
got the friends of his youth. The poorest 
laborer was sure of his sympathy, and he 
always exhibited the character of a modest 
gentleman. 

Until he was about sixteen years of age, 
James's highest ambition was to be a lake 
captain. To this his mother was strongly 
opposed, but she finally consented to his 
going to Cleveland to carry out his long- 
cherished design, with the understanding, 
however, that he should try to obtain some 
other kind of employment. He walked all 
the way to Cleveland, and this was his first 
visit to the city. After making many ap- 
plications for work, including labor on 
board a lake vessel, but all in vain, he 
finally engaged as a driver for his cousin, 
Amos Letcher, on the Ohio & Pennsyl- 
vania Canal. In a short time, however, he 
quit this and returned home. He then at- 
tended the seminary at Chester for about 
three years, and next he entered Hiram In- 
stitute, a school started in 1850 by the 
Disciples of Christ, of which church he was 
a member. In order to pa}' his way he 
assumed the duties of janitor, and at tmies 
taught school. He soon completed the cur- 
riculum there, and then entered Williams 
College, at which he graduated in 1856, 
taking one of the highest honors of his class. 



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PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



Afteiwaid he returned to Hiram as Presi- 
dent. In his youthful and therefore zealous 
pict}-, he exercised his talents occasionally 
as a preacher of the Gospel. He was a 
man of strong moral and religious convic- 
tions, and as soon as he began to look into 
politics, he saw innumerable points that 
could be improved. He also studied law, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1859. 
November 11, 1S58, Mr. Garfield married 
Miss Lucretia Rudolph, who ever after- 
ward proved a worthy consort in all the 
stages of her husband's career. They had 
seven children, five of whom are still living. 

It was in 1859 that Garfield made his 
first political speeches, in Hiram and the 
neighboring villages, and three years later 
he began to speak at county mass-meetings, 
being received everywhere with popular 
favor. He was elected to the State Senate 
this year, taking his seat in Janiiar}', i860. 

On the breaking out of the war of the 
Rebellion in 1861, Mr. Garfield resolved to 
fight as he had talked, and accordingly he 
enlisted to defend the old flag, receiving 
his commission as Lieutenant-Colonel of the 
Forty-second Regiment of the Ohio Volun- 
teer Infantry, August 14, that year. He 
was immediately thrown into active service, 
and before he had ever seen a gun fired in 
action he was placed in command of four 
regiments of infantry and eight companies 
of cavalry, charged with the work of driv- 
ing the Confederates, headed by Humphrey 
Marshall, from his native State, Kentucky. 
This task was speedily accomplished, al- 
though against great odds. On account of 
his success, President Lincoln commissioned 
him Brigadier-General, January 11, 1862; 
and, as he had been the youngest man in 
the Ohio Senate two j'ears before, so now 
he was tiie 3-oungest General in the army. 
He was with General Buell's ami}' at Shi- 
loh, also in its operations around Corinth 
and its march through Alabama. Next, he 
was (Iclailed as a member of the general 



court-martial for the trial of General Fitz- 
John Porter, and then ordered to report to 
General Rosecrans, when he was assigned 
to the position of Chief of Staff. His mili- 
tary history closed with his brilliant ser- 
vices at Chickamauga, where he won the 
stars of Major-General. 

In the fall of 1862, without any effort on 
his part, he was elected as a Representative 
to Congress, from that section of Ohio 
which had been represented f(jr sixty years 
mainly by two men — Elisha Whittlesey and 
Joshua R. Giddings. Again, he was the 
youngest member of that body, and con- 
tinued there by successive re-elections, as 
Representative or Senator, until he was 
elected President in 1880. During his life 
in Congress he compiled and published by 
his speeches, there and elsewhere, more 
information on the issues of the day, espe- 
cially on one side, than an}' other member. 

June 8, 1880, at the National Republican 
Convention held in Chicago, General Gar- 
field was nominated for the Presidency, in 
preference to the old war-horses, Blaine 
and Grant ; and although many of the Re- 
publican party felt sore over the failure of 
their respective heroes to obtain the nomi- 
nation. General Garfield was elected by a 
fair popular majority. He was duly in- 
augurated, but on Jul)' 2 following, before 
he had fairl}' got started in his administra- 
tion, he was fatally shot by a half-demented 
assassin. After very painful and protracted 
suffering, he died September 19, 1881, la- 
mented b}' all the American people. Never 
bcfcjre in tlie history of this country had 
anything occurred which so nearly froze 
the blood of the Nation, for the moment, as 
the awful act of Guiteau, the murderer. 
He was duly tried, convicted and put to 
death on the gallows. 

The lamented Garfield was succeeded b)' 
tlic Vice-President, General Arthur, who 
seemed to endeavor to carry out tlie policy 
inaugurated by his predecessor. 



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CHESTER A. ARTIIUR. 



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hMI ESTER ALLEN 

If ARTHUR, the twen- 
' ty-first Chief Execu- 
tive of this growing 
republic, i88i-'5, was 
born in F r a n k 1 i n 
County, Vermont, 
October 5, 1830, the eldest of a 
family of two sons and five 
->j|»^ daughters. His father, Rev. 
F?|^i» Dr. William Arthur, a Baptist 
clergyman, immigrated to this 
country from County Antrim, 
Ireland, in his eighteenth year, 
and died in 1875, in Newton- 
ville, near Albany, New York, 
after serving many years as a successful 
minister. Chester A. was educated at that 
old, conservative institution. Union Col- 
lege, at Schenectady, New York, where he 
excelled in all his studies. He graduated 
there, with honor, and then struck out in 
life for himself by teaching school for about 
two years in iiis native State. 

At the expiration of that time young 
Arthur, with $500 in his purse, went to the 
city of New York and entered the law office 
of ex-Judge E. D. Culver as a student. In 
due time he was admitted to the bar, when 
he formed a partnership with hi& intimate 



friend and old room-mate, Henry D. Gar- 
diner, with the intention of practicing law 
at some point in the West; but after spend- 
ing about three months in the Westen. 
States, in search of an eligible place, they 
returned to New York City, leased a room, 
exhibited a sign of their business and al- 
most immediately enjoyed a pa3'ing patron- 
age. 

At this stage of his career Mr. Arthur's 
business prospects were so encouraging 
that he concluded to take a wife, and ac- 
cordingly he married tlie daughter of Lieu- 
tenant Herndon, of the United States Navy, 
who had been lost at sea. To the widow 
of the latter Congress voted a gold medal, 
in recognition of the Lieutenant's bravery 
during the occasion in which he lost his 
life. Mrs. Artnur died shortly before her 
husband's nomination to the Vice-Presi- 
dency, leaving two children. 

Mr. Arthur obtained considerable celeb- 
rity as an attorney in the famous Lemmon 
suit, which was brought to recover posses- 
sion of eight slaves, who had been declared 
free by the Superior Court of New York 
City. The noted Charles O'Conor, who 
was nominated by the " Straight Demo- 
crats" in 1872 for the United States Presi- 
denc}', was retained by Jonathan G. Lem- 



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114 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



mon, of Virginia, to recover the negroes, 
but he lost the suit. In this case, however, 
Mr. Arthur was assisted by WiUiam M. 
Evarts, now United States Senator. Soon 
afterward, in 1856, a respectable colored 
woman was ejected from a street car in 
New York City. Mr. Arthur sued the car 
company in her behalf and recovered $500 
damages. Immediately afterward all the 
car companies in the city issued orders to 
their employes to admit colored persons 
upon their cars. 

Mr. Arthur's political doctrines, as well 
as his practice as a law3'er, raised him to 
prominence in the party of freedom ; and 
accordingly he was sent as a delegate to 
the first National Republican Convention. 
Soon afterward he was appointed Judge 
Advocate for the Second Brigade of the 
State of New York, and then Engineer-in- 
Chief on Governor Morgan's staff. In 1861, 
the first year of the war, he was made In- 
spector-General, and next, Quartermaster- 
General, in both which offices he rendered 
great service to the Government. Alter 
the close of Governor Morgan's term he 
resumed the practice of law, forming first a 
partnership with Mr. Ransom, and subse- 
quently adding Mr. Phelps to the firm. 
Each of these gentlemen were able lawj'ers. 

November 21, 1872, General Arthur was 
appointed Collector of the Port of New 
York by President Grant, and he held the 
office until July 20, 1878. 

The next event of prominence in General 
Arthur's career was his nomination to the 
Vice-Picsidency of the United States, under 
the influence of Roscoe Conkling, at the 
National Republican Convention held at 
Chicago in June, 1880, when James A. Gar- 
field was placed at the head of the ticket. 
Both the convention and the campaign that 
followed were noisy and exciting. The 
friends of Grant, constituting nearly half 



the convention, were exceedingly persist- 
ent, and were sorely disappomted over 
their defeat. At the head of the Demo- 
cratic ticket was placed a very strong and 
popular man ; yet Garfield and Arthur were 
elected by a respectable plurality of the 
popular vote. The 4th of i\Iarch following, 
these gentlemen were accordingly inaugu- 
rated ; but within four months the assassin's 
bullet made a fatal wound in the person of 
General Garfield, whose life terminated 
September 19, 1881, when General Arthur, 
ex officio, was obliged to take the chief 
reins of government. Some misgivings 
were entertained by many in this event, as 
Mr. Arthur was thought to represent espe 
cially the Grant and Conkling wing of the 
Republican party ; but President Arthur 
had both the ability and the good sense to 
allay all fears, and he gave the restless, 
critical American people as good an ad- 
ministration as they had ever been blessed 
with. Neither selfishness nor low parti- 
sanism ever characterized any feature of 
his public service. He ever maintained a 
high sense of every individual right as well 
as of the Nation's honor. Indeed, he stood 
so high that his successor, President Cleve- 
land, though of opposing politics, expressed 
a wish in his inaugural address that he 
could only satisf}' the people with as good 
an administration. 

But the day of civil service reform had 
come in so far, and the corresponding re- 
action against " third-tcrmism" had en- 
croached so far even upon "second-term" 
service, that the Republican party saw fit 
in 1884 to nominate another man for Presi- 
dent. Only by this means was General 
Arthur's tenure of office closed at Wash- 
inatuii. On his retirement from the Presi- 

o 

dencj, March, 1885, he engaged in the 
practice of law at New York City, where be 
(lied KiAi'iulier l'\ I'^^t'!. 






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GROVE R CLEVELAND. 



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\^j:^'"T?^^T ROVER CLEVE 
l^itMf ^ LAND, the twenty- 
JiriS)l>i^ t> ^-^Jt^ second President of the 

United States, 1885—, 
was born in Caldwell, 
Essex County, J>Jew 
Jersey, March 18, 
The house in which he 
was born, a small two-story 
wooden building, is still stand- 
ing. It was the parsonage of 
the Presbyterian church, of 
which his father, Richard 
Cleveland, at the time was 
pastor. The family is of New 
England orisrin, and for two centuries has 
contributed to the professions and to busi- 
ness, men who have reflected honor on the 
name. Aaron Cleveland, Grover Cleve- 
land's great-great-grandfather, was born in 
Massachusetts, but subsequently moved to 
Philadelphia, where he became an intimate 
friend of Benjamin Franklin, at whose 
house he died. He left a large family of 
children, who in time married and settled 
in different parts of New England. A 
grandson was one of the small American 
force that fought the British at Bunker 
Hill. He served with gallantry through- 
out the Revolution and was honorably 
discharged at its close as a Lieutenant in 
the Continental army. Another grandson, 
William Cleveland (a son of a second Aaron 



- ^i 



Cleveland, who was distinguished as a 
writer and member of the Connecticut 
Legislature) was Grover Cleveland's grand- 
father. William Cleveland became a silver- 
smith in Norwich, Connecticut. He ac- 
quired b}' industry some property and sent 
his son, Richard Cleveland, the father of 
Grover Cleveland, to Yale College, where 
he graduated in 1824. During a year spent 
in teaching at Baltimore, Maryland, after 
graduation, he met and fell in love with a 
Miss Annie Neale, daughter of a wealthy 
Baltimore book publisher, of Irish birth. 
He was earning his own way in the world 
at the time and was unable to marry; but 
in three years he completed a course of 
preparation for the ministr}', secured a 
church in Windham, Connecticut, and 
married Annie Neale. Subsequently he 
moved to Portsmouth, Virginia, where he 
preached for nearly two years, when he 
was summoned to Caldwell, New Jersey, 
where was born Grover Cleveland. 

When he was three years old the family 
moved to Fayetteville, Onondaga County, 
New York. Here Grover Cleveland lived 
until he was fourteen years old, the rugged, 
healthful life of a country boy. His frank, 
generous manner made him a favorite 
among his companions, and their respect 
was won by the good qualities in the germ 
which his manhood developed. He at- 
tended the district school of the village and 






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PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



was for a sliort time at the academy. His 
lather, however, believed that boys should 
be taught to labor at an early age, and be- 
fore he had completed the course of study 
at the academy he began to work in the 
village store at $50 for the first year, and the 
promise of $100 for the second year. His 
work was well done and the promised in- 
crease of pay was granted the second year. 

Meanwhile his father and family had 
moved to Clinton, the seat of Hamilton 
College, where his father acted as agent to 
the Presbyterian Board of Home Missions, 
preaching in the churches of the vicinity. 
Hither Grovcr came at his father's request 
shortly after the beginning of his second 
year at the Fayetteville store, and resumed 
his studies at the Clinton Academy. After 
three years spent in this town, the Rev. 
Richard Cleveland was called to the vil- 
lage church of Holland Patent. He had 
preached here only a month when he was 
suddenly stricken down and died without 
an hour's warning. The death of the father 
left the family in straitened circumstances, 
as Richard Cleveland had spent all his 
salary of $1,000 per year, which was not 
required for the necessary expenses of liv- 
ing, upon the education of his children, of 
whom there were nine, Grover being the 
fiftli. Grover was hoping to enter Hamil- 
ton College, but the death of his father 
made it necessary for him to earn his own 
livelihood. For the first year (i853-'4) he 
acted as assistant teacher and bookkeeper in 
the Institution for the Blind in New York 
City, of which the late Augustus Schell was 
for many years the patron. In the winter 
of 1854 he returned to Holland Patent 
where the generous people of that place, 
Fayetteville and Clinton, had purchased a 
home for liis mother, and in the following 
spring, borrowing $25, he set out for the 
West to earn his living. 

Reaching Buffalo he paid a hasty visit to 
an uncle, Lewis F. Allen, a well-known 



stock farmer, living at Black Rock, a few 
miles distant. He communicated his plans 
to Mr. Allen, who discouraged the idea of 
the West, and finally induced the enthusi- 
astic boy of seventeen to remain with him 
and help him prepare a catalogue of blooded 
short-horn cattle, known as " Allen's Amer- 
ican Herd Book," a publication familiar to 
all breeders of cattle. In August, 1855, he 
entered the law office of Rogers, Bowen 
& Rogers, at Buffalo, and after serving a 
few months without pay, was paid $4 a 
week — an amount barel}' sufficient to meet 
the necessary expenses of his board in the 
family of a fellow-student in Buffalo, with 
whom he took lodgings. Life at this time 
with Grover Cleveland was a stern battle 
with the world. He took his breakfast by 
candle-light with the drovers, and went at 
once to the office where the whole day was 
spent in work and study. Usually he re- 
turned again at night to resume reading 
which had been interrupted by the duties 
of the day. Gradually his employers came 
to recognize the abilit}', trustworthiness 
and capacity for hard work in their young 
employe, and by the time he was admitted 
to the bar (1859) he stood high in their con- 
fidence. A year later he was made confi- 
dential and managing clerk, and in the 
course of three years more his salary had 
been raised to $1,000. In 1863 he was ap- 
pointed assistant district attorney of Erie 
County by the district attorney, tiie Hon. 
C. C. Torrance. 

Since his first vote had been cast in 1858 
he had been a staunch Democrat, and until 
he was chosen Governor he always made 
it his duty, rain or shine, to stand at tiie 
polls and give out ballots to Democratic 
voters. During the first )-ear of his term 
as assistant district attorney, the Democrats 
desired especially to carry the Board of Su- 
pervisors. The old Second Ward in which 
he lived was Republican- ordinarily by 250 
majority, Iwt at the urgent request of the 



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party Grover Cleveland consented to be 
the Democratic candidate for Supervisor, 
and came within thirteen votes of an elec- 
tion. The three years spent in the district 
attorney's office were devoted to assiduous 
labor and the extension of his professional 
attainments. He then formed a law part- 
nership with the late Isaac V. Vanderpoel, 
ex-State Treasurer, under the firm name 
of Vanderpoel & Cleveland. Here the bulk 
of the work devolved on Cleveland's shoul- 
ders, and he soon won a good standing at 
the bar of Erie County. In 1869 Mr. 
Cleveland formed a partnership with ex- 
Senator A. P. Laning and ex-Assistant 
United States District Attorney Oscar Fol- 
som, under the firm name of Laning, Cleve- 
land & Folsom. During these years he 
began to earn a moderate professional in- 
come; but the larger portion of it was sent 
to his mother and sisters at Holland Patent 
to whose support he had contributed ever 
since i860. He served as sheriff of Erie 
County, i870-'4, and then resumed the 
practice of law, associating hitnseif with the 
Hon. Lyman K. Bass and Wilson S. Bissell. 



The firm was strong and popular, and soon 
commanded a large and lucrative practice. 
Ill health forced the retirement of Mr. Bass 
in 1879, and the firm became Cleveland & 
Bissell. In 1881 Mr. George J. Sicard was 
added to the firm. 

In the autumn election of 1881 he was 
elected mayor of Buffalo by a majority of 
over 3,500 — the largest majority ever given 
a candidate for mayor^and the Democratic 
city ticket was successful, although the 
Republicans carried Buffalo by over 1,000 
majority for their State ticket. Grover 
Cleveland's administration as mayor fully 
justified the confidence reposed in him by 
the people of Buffalo, evidenced by the 
great vote he received. 

The Democratic State Convention met 
at Syracuse, September 22, 1882, and nomi- 
nated Grover Cleveland for Governor 
on the third ballot and Cleveland was 
elected by 192,000 majority. In the fall of 
1 884 he was elected President of the United 
States by about 1,000 popular majority, 
in New York State, and he was accordingly 
inaugurated the 4th of March following. 



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''■xfllE race or races who 
occupied this beau- 
tiful prairie country 
before the advent of 
the whites from Eu- 
rope had no litera- 
ture, and therefore 
have left us no history of 
themselves. Not even tra- 
ditions, to any extent, have 
been handed down to us. 
Hence, about all we know 
of the Indians, previous to 
explorations by the whites, 
is derived from mounds 
and a few simple relics. 
The mounds were erected 
by a people generally denominated Mound 
Builders, but whether they were a distinct 
race from the Indians is an unsettled ques- 
tion. Prof. Alex. Winchell, of the Michigan 
State University, as well as a number of 
other investigators, is of the opinion that 
those who built mounds, mined copper and 
iron, made elaborate implements of war, 
agriculture and domestic economy, and 
built houses and substantial villages, etc., 
were no other than the ancestors of the 
present Indians, who, like the ancient 
Greeks and Romans, were more skilled in 

lO 



the arts of life than their successors during 
the middle ages. Most people have their 
periods of decline, as well as those of prog- 
ress. The Persians, Hindoos and Chinese, 
although so long in existence as distinct 
nations, have been forages in a state of de- 
cay. Spain and Italy do not improve, 
while Germany, Russia and the United 
States have now their turn in enjoying a 
rapid rise. Similarly, the Indians have long 
been on the decline in the practical arts of 
life. Even since the recent days of Feni- 
more Cooper, the " noble " red men have 
degenerated into savages, despite the close 
contact of the highest order of civiHzation. 

Nearly all modern authorities unite in 
the opinion that the, American continent 
was first peopled from Eastern Asia, either 
by immigration across Behring's Strait or 
by shipwrecks of sailors from the Kamt- 
schatkan and Japanese coast. If mankind 
originated at the north pole, and subse- 
quently occupied an Atlantic continent, 
now submerged, it is possible that the 
American Indians are relics of polar or 
Atlantic races. 

The ancient race which built the towns 
and cities of Mexico and the Western 
United States is called the Aztec, and even 
of them is scarcely anything known save 






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124 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 



what can be learned from their buried 
structures. The few inscriptions that are 
found seem to be meaningless. 

Indian mounds are found throughout 
the United States east of the Rocky 
Mountains, but are far more abundant in 
some places than others. In this State 
they abound near the principal rivers. 
They vary in size from a few to hundreds 
of feet indiameter.and from three to fifteen 
or more feet in height. They are generally 
round, or nearly so, but in a few notable 
exceptions they bear a rude resemblance in 
their outline to the figure of some animal. 
Their contents are limited, both in quantity 
and variety, and consist mainly of human 
bones, stone implements, tobacco pipes, 
beads, etc. The stone implements are axes, 
skinning knives, pestles and mortars, arrow 
points, etc. The human bones are often 
found in a mass as if a number of corpses had 
been buried together, and indicate that their 
possessors were interred in a sitting posture. 
Judge Samuel Murdock, of Elkader, this 
State, who has made this subject a special 
study for many years, is of the opinion that 
these remams are not of subjects who were 
inhumed as corpses, but of persons who, 
under the influence of a savage religion, 
voluntarily sacrificed themselves by under- 
going a burial when alive. 

CAUCASIAN. 

The first member of this race to discover 
the Mississippi River was Ferdinand Dc 
Soto, a Spaniard, who explored the region 
of the Lower Mississippi in 1 541, but came 
no farther north than the 35th parallel. 
He founded no settlements, nor was he ever 
followed by others of his country to make 
settlements, and hence Spain lost her title 
to the country which she had earned by 
discovery through her subject, De Soto. 
At a subsequent period a Frenchman re- 
discovered the realm, took possession of it 
in the name of France, and his fellow 



countrymen soon followed and effected 
actual settlements. Accordingly, in 1682, 
France claimed the country, and, accord- 
ing to the usage of European nations, 
earned a proper title to the same. The re- 
sult was a collision between those two na- 
tions, success finally crowning the efforts of 
France. 

In a grand council of Indians, on the 
shore of Lake Superior, they told the 
Frenchmen glowing stories of the " Father 
01 Waters " and of the adjacent country, 
and in 1669 Jacques Marquette, a zealous 
and shrewd Jesuit missionary, became in- 
spired with the idea of visiting this re- 
gion, in the interests of civilization. After 
studying the language and customs of 
the Illinois Indians until 1673, he made prep- 
arations for the journey, in which he was 
to be accompanied by Louis Joliet, an agent 
of the French Government. The Indians, 
who had gathered in large numbers to wit- 
ness his departure, endeavored to dissuade 
him from the undertaking, representing that 
the Indians of the Mississippi Valley were 
cruel and bloodthirsty. The great river 
itself, they said, was the abode of terrible 
monsters which could swallow men, canoes 
and all. But the shrewd missionary, already 
aware of Indian extravagance in descrip- 
tion, set out upon the contemplated jour- 
ney May 13. With the aid of two Miami 
guides he proceeded to the Wisconsin 
River, and down that stream to the Mis- 
sissippi. Floating down the latter he dis- 
covered, on the 25th of June, traces of 
Indians on the west bank, and landed. 
This was at a point a little above the mouth 
of the Des Moines River, and thus a Euro- 
pean first trod the soil of Iowa. After re- 
maining a short time and becoming ac- 
quainted with the red man as he tiicn and 
there exhibited himself, he proceeded down 
to the mouth of the Illinois, thence up 
that river and by Lake Michigan to the 
French settlements. 



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imamawTS^^m^m^u^m^m^m^u^w^vi fmsm^BifSi 



HISTORT OF IOWA. 



Nine years later, in 1682, Rene Robert 
Cavalier La Salle descended the Missis- 
sippi to the Gulf of Mexico, and in the name 
of the King of France took formal posses- 
sion of all the Mississippi Valley, naming it 
Louisiana, in honor of his king, Louis XIV. 
The river itself he named Colbert, in honor 
of the French minister. Soon afterward 
the Government of France began to en- 
courage the establishment of a line of trad- 
ing posts and missionary stations through- 
out the West from Canada to Louisiana, 
and this policy was maintained with par- 
tial success for about sevent3--five years. 
Christian zeal animated both France and 
England in missionary enterprise, the 
former in the interests of Catholicism and 
the latter in favor of Protestantism. Hence 
their haste to pre-occupy the land and prose- 
lyte the aborigines; but this ugly rivalry dis- 
gusted the Indians and the}' refused to be 
converted to either branch of Christianity. 
The traders also persisted in importing 
whisky, which canceled nearly every civ- 
ilizing influence that could be brought to 
bear upon the savages. Another character- 
istic of Indian nature was to listen atten- 
tively to all that the missionary said, pre- 
tending to believe all he preached, and then 
offer in turn his theory of the world, of re- 
ligion, etc.; and, not being listened to with 
the same degree of attention and pretense 
of belief, would depart from the white 
man's presence in disgust. This was his 
idea of the golden rule. 

Comparatively few Indians were perma- 
nently located within the present bounds 
of the State of Iowa. Favorite hunting 
grounds were resorted to by certain bands 
for a time, and afterward by others, subject 
to the varying fortunes of their little wars. 
The tribes were principally the Illinois, 
lowas, Dakotas, Sioux, Pottawatomies and 
finally the Sacs and Foxes. 

In 1765 the Miami confederacy was com- 
posed of four tribes, whose total number 



of warriors was estimated at only 1,050 
men. Of these about 250 were Twightwees, 
or Miamis proj^er; 300 Weas, or Ouiate- 
nons; 300 Piankeshaws and 200 Shockeys; 
but their headquarters were along the 
Maumee River, in Indiana and Ohio. 

From 1688 to 1697 the wars in which 
France and England were engaged re- 
tarded the growth of their American colo- 
nies. The efforts made by France to 
connect Canada and the Gulf of Mexico by 
a chain of trading posts and colonies nat- 
urally excited the jealousy of England and 
gradually laid the foundation for a struggle 
at arms. The crisis came and the contest 
obtained the name of the French and Indian 
war, the French and Indians combining 
against the English. The war was termi- 
nated in 1763 by a treaty at Paris, by which 
France ceded to Great Britain all of North 
America east of the Mississippi, except the 
island on which New Orleans is situated. 
The preceding autumn France ceded to 
Spain all the country west of that river. 

In 1765 the total number of French fami- 
lies within the limits of the Northwest Ter- 
ritory did not probably exceed 600. These 
were in settlements about Detroit, along 
the river Wabash and the neighborhood of 
Fort Chartres on the Mississippi. The 
colonial policy of the British Government 
opposed any measures which might 
strengthen settlements in the interior of 
this country, lest they should become self- 
supporting and consequently independent 
of the mother country. Hence the settle- 
ment of the Northwest was still further 
retarded. That short-sighted policy con- 
sisted mainly in holding the lands in the 
possession of the Government, and not 
allowing it to be subdivided and sold to 
those who would become settlers. After 
the establishment of American indepen- 
dence, and especially under the administra- 
tion of Thomas Jefferson, both as Governor 
of Virginia and President of the United 




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!26 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 



States, subdivision of land and giving it to 
actual settlers rapidly peopled this portion 
of the Union, so that the Northwest Terri- 
tory was formed and even subdivided into 
other Territories and States before the 
year 1820. 

For more than 100 years after Marquette 
and Joliet ti^od the virgin soil of Iowa and 
admired its fertile plains, not a single settle- 
ment was made or attempted ; not even a 
trading-post was established. During this 
time the Illinois Indians, once a powerful 
tribe, gave up the entire possession of this 
" Beautiful Land," as Iowa was tl>en called, 
to the Sacs and Foxes. In 1803, when 
Louisiana was purchased by the United 
States, the Sacs, Foxes and lowas pos- 
sessed this entire State, and the two for- 
mer tribes occupied also most of the State 
of Illinois. The four most important towns 
of tiie Sacs were along the Mississippi, two 
on the east side, one near the mouth of the 
Upper Iowa and one at the head of the 
Des Moines Rapids, near the present site 
of Montrose. Those of the Foxes were — 
one on the west side of the Mississippi just 
above Davenport, one about twelve miles 
from the river back of the Dubuque lead 
mines and one on Turkey River. The 
principal village of the lowas was on the 
Des Moines River, in Van Buren Count}', 
where lowaville now stands. Here the last 
great battle between the Sacs and Foxes 
and the lowas was fought, in which Black 
Hawk, then a young man, commanded the 
attacking forces. 

The Sioux had tlic northern portion of 
this State and Southern Minnesota. They 
were a fierce and war-like nation, who often 
disputed possessions with their rivals in 
savage and bloody warfare ; but finally a 
boundary line was established between 
them by the Government of the United 
States, in a treaty held at Prairie du Chien 
in 1825. This, however, became the occa- 
sion of an increased number of quarrels be- 



tween the tribes, as each trespassed, or was 
thought to trespass, upon the other's side of 
the line. In 1830, therefore, the Govern- 
ment created a forty-mile neutral strip of 
land between them, which policy proved to 
be more successful in the interests of peace. 

Soon after the acquisition of Louisiana by 
our Government, the latter adopted meas- 
ures for the exploration of the new terri- 
tory, having in view the conciliation of the 
numerous tribes of Indians by whom it was 
possessed, and also the selection of proper 
sites for mihtary posts and trading stations. 

The Army of the West, General Wilkin- 
son commanding, had its headquarters at 
St. Louis. From this post Captains Lewis 
and Clarke, in 1805, were detailed with a 
sufficient force to explore the Missouri 
River to its source, and Lieutenant Zebulon 
M. Pike to ascend to the head of the Missis- 
sippi. August 20 the latter arrived within 
the present limits of Iowa, at the foot of the 
Des Moines Rapids, where he met William 
Ewing, who had just been appointed Indian 
Agent at this point, a French interpreter, 
four chiefs and fifteen Sac and Fox war- 
riors. At the head of the rapids, where 
Montrose now is, Pike held a council with 
the Indians, merely for the purpose of stat- 
ing to them that the President of the United 
States wished to inquire into the needs of 
the red man, with a view of suggesting 
remedies. 

On the 23d he reached what is supposed 
from his description to be the site of Bur- 
lington, which place he designated for a 
post ; but the station, probably b}' some 
mistake, was afterward placed at Fort Madi- 
son. After accidentally separating fi-om his 
men and losing his way, suffering at one 
time for six days for want of food, and after 
many other mishaps Lieutenant Pike over- 
took the remainder of the party at the point 
now occupied by Dubuque, who had gone 
on up the river hoping to overtake him. At 
that point Pike was cordially received by 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 




127 



Julieii Dubuque, a Frenchman who held a 
mining claim under a grant from Spain, but 
was not disposed to publish the wealth of 
his possessions. Having an old field-piece 
with him, however, he fired a salute in 
honor of the first visit of an agent from the 
United States to that part of the country, 
and Pike pursued his way up the river. 

At what was afterward Fort Snelling, 
Minnesota, Lieutenant Pike held a council 
with the Sioux September 23, and obtained 
from them a grant of 100,000 acres of land. 
January 8 following (1806) he arrived at a 
trading post on Lake De Sable, belonging 
to the Northwestern Fur Company, whose 
field of operations at that time included this 
State. Pike returned to St. Louis the fol- 
lowing spring, after making a successful 
expedition. 

Before this country could be opened for 
settlement by the whites, it was necessary 
that Indian title should be extinguished and 
the aboriginal owners removed. When the 
Government assumed control of the country 
by virtue of the Louisiana purchase, nearly 
the whole State was in possession of the 
Sacs and Foxes, at whose head stood the 
rising Black Hawk. November 3, 1804, a 
treatv was concluded with these tribes by 
which they ceded to the United States the 
Illinois side of the great river, in consider- 
ation of $2,234 worth of goods then de- 
livered, and an annuity of $1,000 to be paid 
in goods at cost ; but Black Hawk always 
maintained that the chiefs who entered into 
that compact acted without authority, and 
that therefore the treaty was not binding. 

The first fort erected on Iowa soil was at 
Fort Madison. A short time previously a 
military post was fixed at what is now 
Warsaw, Illinois, and named Fort Edwards. 
These enterprises caused mistrust among 
the Indians. Indeed, Fort Madison was 
located in violation of the treaty of 1804. 
The Indians sent delegations to the whites 
at these forts to learn what they were do- 



ing, and what they intended. On being 
" informed " that those structures were 
merely trading-posts, they were incredu- 
lous and became more and more suspicious. 
Black Hawk therefore led a party to the 
vicinity of Fort Madison and attempted its 
destruction, but a premature attack by him 
caused his failure. 

In 181 2, when war was declared between 
this country and Great Britain, Black Hawk 
and his band allied themselves to the British, 
partly because thev were dazzled by their 
specious promises, but mostly, perhaps, be- 
cause they had been deceived by the Amer- 
icans. Black Hawk said plainly that the 
latter fact was the cause. A portion of the 
Sacs and Foxes, however, headed by Keo- 
kuk ("watchful fox"), could not be per- 
suaded into hostilities against the United 
States, being disposed to abide by the 
treaty of 1804. The Indians were there- 
fore divided into the "war" and the 
" peace " parties. Black Hawk says he 
was informed, after he had gone to the war, 
that his people, left on the west side of the 
river, would be defenseless against the 
United States forces in case they were at- 
tacked ; and, having all the old men, the 
women and the children on their hands to 
provide for, a council was held, and it was 
determined to have _the latter go to St. 
Louis and place themselves under the 
" American" chief stationed there. Ac- 
cordingly they went down, and were re- 
ceived as the " friendly band " of Sacs and 
Foxes, and were provided for and sent up 
the Missouri River. 

On Black Hawk's return from the British 
army, he says that Keokuk was introduced 
to him as the war chief of the braves then 
in the village. On inquiry as to how he 
became chief, there were given him the 
particulars of his having killed a Sioux in 
battle, which fact placed him among the 
warriors, and of his having headed an ex- 
pedition in defense of their village at Peoria, 






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5 



J28 



HISTORT OF IOWA. 



In person Keokuk was tall and of portlv 
bearing, and in speech he was an orator. 
He did not master the English language, 
however, and his interpreters were never 
able to do him justice. He was a friend of 
our Government, and always endeavored 
to persuade the Indians that it was useless 
to attack a nation so powerful as that of 
the United States. 

The treaty of 1804 was renewed in 1S16, 
which Black Hawk himself signed; but he 
afterward held that he was deceived, and 
that that treat}' was not even yet binding. 
But thci'c was no further serious trouble 
with the Indians until the noted " Black 
Hawk war" of 1833, all of which took place 
in Illinois and Wisconsin, with the expected 
result — the defeat and capture of the great 
chief, and the final, effectual and permanent 
repulsion of all hostile Indians to the west 
of the great Mississippi. Black Hawk died 
October 3, 1838, at his home in this State, 
and was buried there ; but his remains were 
afterward placed in the museum of the His- 
torical Society, where thev were accident- 
ally destroyed by fire. 

More or less affecting the territory now 
included within the State of Iowa, fifteen 
treaties with the Indians have been made, 
an outline of which is here given. In 1804, 
when the whites agreed not to settle west 
of the Mississippi on Indian lands. In 1815, 
with the Sioux, ratifying peace with Great 
Britain and the United States; with the 
Sacs, a treaty of a similar nature, and also 
ratifying that of 1804, the Indians agreeing 
not to join their brethi-cn who, inidcr Black 
Hawk, had aided the British ; with the 
Foxes, ratifying the treaty of 1S04, the In- 
dians agreeing to deliver up all their 
prisoners ; and with the lowas, a treaty of 
friendship. In 1816, with the Sacs of Rock 
River, ratifying the treaty of 1804. In 1824, 
with the Sacs and Foxes, the latter relin- 
quishing all their lands in Missouri ; and 
that portion of the soulhcasl corner of 



II MlMMlig >»»!■■ 



Iowa known as the " lialf-breed tract" was 
set ofT to the half-breeds. In 1825, placing 
a boundary line between the Sacs and Foxes 
on the south and the Sioux on the north. 
In 1830, when that line was widened to 
forty miles. Also, in the same year, with 
several tribes, who ceded a large portion of 
their possessions in the western part of the 
State. In 1832, with the Winnebagocs, ex- 
changing lands with them and providing a 
school, farm, etc., for them. Also, in the 
same year, the "Black Hawk purchase" 
was made, of about 6,000,000 acres, along 
the west side of the Mississippi from the 
southern line of the State to the mouth of 
the Iowa River. In 1836, with the Sacs and 
Foxes, ceding Keokuk's reserve to the 
United States. In 1837, with the same, 
when another slice of territory, comprising 
1,250000 acres, joining west of the forego- 
ing tract, was obtained. Also, in the same 
year, when these Indians gave up all their 
lands allowed them under former treaties; 
and finally, in 1842, when they relinquished 
their title to all their lands west of the 
Mississippi. 

Before the whole of Iowa fell into the 
hands of the United States Government 
sundry white settlers had, under the Spanish 
and French Governments, obtained and oc- 
cupied several important claims within our 
boundaries, which it may be well to notice 
in brief. September 22, 1788, Julien Du- 
buque, before mentioned, obtained a lease 
of lands from the Fox Indians, at the point 
now occupied by the city named after him. 
This tract contained valuable lead ore, and 
Dubuque followed mining. His claims, 
however, as well as those to whom he after- 
ward conveyed title, wei^e litigated for 
many years, with the final result of dis- 
appointing the purchasers. In 1799 Louis 
Honori obtained a tract of land about three 
miles square where Montrose is now sit- 
uated, and his title, standing through all 
the treaties and being iinallv coiilii nied by 



HISTOm' OF JOWA. 



U9 



the Supreme Court of tlie United States, is 
the oldest legal title held by a white man 
in the State of Iowa. A tract of 5,860 acres 
in Clayton County was granted by the 
Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Louisiana 
in 1795 to Basil Girard, whose title was 
made valid some time after the preceding 
case was settled. 

Other early settlers were: Mr. Johnson, 
an agent of the American Fur Company, 
who had a trading-post below Burlington. 
Le Moliere, a French trader, had, in 1820, 
a station at what is now Sandusky, in Lee 
County, si.K miles above Keokuk. During 
the same year Dr. Samuel C. Muir, a sur- 
geon of the United States army, built a 
cabin where the city of Keokuk now stands. 
His marriage and subsequent life were so 
romantic that we give the following briet 
sketch : 

While stationed at a military post on the 
Upper Mississippi, the post was visited by 
a beautiful Indian maiden — whose native 
name unfortunately has not been preserved 
— who, in her dreams, had seen a white 
brave unmoor his canoe, paddle- it across 
the river and come directly to her lodge. 
She felt assui'ed, according to the super- 
stitious belief of her race, that in her dreams 
she had seen her future husband, and had 
come to the fort to find him. Meeting Dr. 
Muir she instantly recognized him as the 
hero of her dream, which, with childlike 
innocence and simplicity, she related to 
him. Her dream was, indeed, prophetic. 
Charmed with Sophia's beauty, innocence 
and devotion, the Doctor honorably mar- 
ried her, but after a while the sneers and 
gibes of his brother ofificers — less honorable 
than he, perhaps — made him feel ashamed 
of his dark-skinned wife, and when his regi- 
ment was ordered down the river to Belle- 
fontaine, it is said that he embraced the 
opportunity to rid himself of her, and left 
her, never expecting to see her again, and 
little dreaming that she would -have the 



courage to follow him. But, with her in- 
fant child, this intrepid wife and mother 
started alone in her canoe, and after many 
days of weary labor and a lonely journey of 
900 miles, she at last reached him. She 
afterward remarked, when speaking of this 
toilsome journey down the river in search 
of her husband, " When I got there I was 
all perished away — so thin !" The Doctor, 
touched by such unexampled devotion, 
took her to his heart, and ever after until 
his death treated her with marked respect. 
She always presided at his table with grace 
and dignity, but never abandoned her na- 
tive st3'le of dress. In i8i9-'20 he was 
stationed at Fort Edward, now Warsaw, 
but the senseless ridicule of some of his 
brother officers on account of his Indian 
wife induced him to resign his commission. 
He then built a cabin as above stated, 
where Keokuk is now situated, and made 
a claim to some land. This claim he leased 
to Otis Reynolds and John Culver, of St. 
Louis, and went to La Pointe (afterward 
Galena), where he practiced his profession 
for ten years, when he returned to Keokuk. 
His Indian wife bore to him four children — 
Louise, James, Marv and Sophia. Dr. 
Muir died suddenly of cholera in 1832, but 
left his property in such a condition that it 
was soon wasted in vexatious litigation, and 
his brave and faithful wife, left friendless 
and penniless, became discouraged, and, 
with her two younger children, disap- 
peared. It is said she returned to her peo- 
ple on the Upper Missouri. 

The gentleman who had leased Dr. 
Muir's claim at Keokuk subsequently em- 
ployed as their agent Moses Stillwell, who 
arrived with his family in 1828, and took 
possession. Flis brothers-in-law, Amos and 
Valencourt Van Ansdal, came with him 
and settled near. Mr. Stillwell's daughter 
Margaret (afterward Mrs. Ford) was born 
in 1 83 1, at the foot of the rapids, called by 
the Indians Puckashetuck. She was prob- 



ill 



I30 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 



ably the fiist white American child born in 
Iowa. 

In 1829 Dr. Isaac Gallaud made a settle- 
ment on the Lower Rapids, at what is now 
Nashville. Tlie same year James S. Lang- 
wortii\-, who had been engaged in lead- 
mining at Galena since 1824, commenced 
lead-mining in the vicinity of Dubuque. A 
few others afterward came to that point as 
miners, and they soon found it necessar)' to 
hold a council and adopt some regulations 
for their government and protection. They 
met in 1830 on the bank of the river, by the 
side of an old ci^ttoawood drift log, at what 
is now the Jones Street Levee in Dubuque, 
and elected a committee, consisting of J. L. 
Langworthy, H. F. Lander, James Mc- 
Phetres, Samuel Scales and E. M. Wren, 
who drafted a set of rules, which were 
adopted by this, the first " Legislature" of 
Iowa. They elected Dr. Jarote as their 
officer to choose arbitrators for the settle- 
ment of difficulties that might arise. These 
settlers, however, were intruders upon In- 
dian territory, and were driven off in 1832 
by our Government, Colonel Zachary Tay- 
lor commanding the troops. The Indians 
returned and were encouraged to operate 
the rich mmcs opened by the late white 
occupants. 

But in June of the same year the troops 
were ordered to the east side of the Missis- 
sippi to assist in the annihilation of the 
very Indians whose rights they had been 
protecting on the west side ! 

Immediately after the close of the Black 
Hawk war and the negotiations of the treaty 
in September, 1S32, by which the Sacs and 
Foxes ceded the tract known as the " Black 
Hawk Purchase," the settlers, supposmg 
tiiat now they had a right to re-enter the 
territory, returned and took possession of 
their claims, built cabins, erected furnaces 
and prepared large quantities of lead for 
market. But the prospects of the hardy 
and enterprising settlers and miners were 



again ruthlessly interfered with by the 
Government, on the ground that the treaty 
with the Indians would not go into force 
until June i, 1833, although they had with- 
drawn from the vicinitv of the settlement. 
Colonel Taylor was again ordered by the 
War Department to remove the miners, 
and in January, 1833, troops were again 
sent from Prairie du Chien to Dubuque for 
that purpose. Tliis was a serious and per- 
haps unnecessary hardship imposed upon 
the miners. They were compelled to aban- 
don their cabins and homes in mid-winter. 
This, too, was only out of respect for forms; 
for the purchase had been made, and the 
Indians had retired. After the lapse of 
fifty years, no very satisfactory' reason for 
this rigorous action of the Government can 
be given. But the orders had been given, 
and there was no alternative but to obey. 
Manv of the settlers re-crossed the river, 
and did not return ; a few, however, re- 
moved to an island near the east bank of 
the river, built rude cabins of poles, in 
which to store their lead until spring, when 
they could float the fruits of their labor to 
St. Louis for sale, and where they could re- 
main until the treaty went into force, when 
thev could return. Among these were the 
Langworthy brothers, who had on hand 
about 300,000 pounds of lead. 

No sooner had the miners left than Lieu- 
tenant Covington, who had been placed in 
command at Dubuque by Colonel Taylor, 
ordered some of the cabins of the settlers to 
be torn down, and wagons and other prop- 
erty to be destroyed. This wanton and 
inexcusable action on the part of a subordi- 
nate, clothed with a little brief authority, 
was sternly rebuked by Colonel Taylor, and 
Covington was superseded by Lieutenant 
George Wilson, who pursued a just and 
friendly course with the pioneers, that were 
only waiting for the time when they could 
repossess tlicir claims. 

The treat V went formallv into effect June, 



■■^■"■''''■■''■"■"■"■'™M^«"»*'M"™™»^M"'5*»"'»'^ra"'Mi" M™M"a*»^»^»'"M"M"» '-"CT'»» "'M — MB»BMMMMM » 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 



13' 



1833, the troops were withdrawn, and the 
Lang worthy brothers and a few others at 
once returned and resumed possession of 
their homes and claims. From this time 
must date the first permanent settlement of 
this portion of Iowa. John P. Sheldon was 
appointed superintendent of the mines b}^ 
the Government, and a system of permits 
to miners and licenses to smelters was 
adopted, similar to that which had been 
in operation at Galena since 1S25, under 
Lieutenant Martin Thomas and Captain 
Thomas C. Legate. Substantially the primi- 
tive law enacted by the miners assembled 
around that old cottonwood drift log in 
1830, was adopted and enforced bv the 
United States Government, except that 
miners were required to sell their mineral 
to licensed smelters, and the smelter was 
required to give bonds for the payment of 
6 per cent, of all lead manufactured to the 
Government 

About 500 people arrived in the mining 
district in 1833, after the Indian title was 
fully extinguished, of whom 150 were from 
Galena. In the same year Mr. Langworth}' 
assisted in building the first school-house in 
Iowa, and thus was formed the nucleus of 
the populous and thriving city of Dubuque. 
Mr. Langworthy lived to see the naked 
prairie on which he first settled become the 
site of a city of 15,000 inhabitants, the small 
school-house which he aided in construct- 
ing replaced by three substantial edifices, 
wherein 2,000 children were being trained, 
churches erected in every part of the city, 
and railroads connecting the wilderness 
which he first explored with all the eastern 
world. He died suddenly on the 13th of 
March, 1865, while on a trip over the Du- 
buque & Southern Railroad, at Monticello, 
and the evening train brought the news of 
his death and his remains. 

Lucius H. Langwortliy, his brother, was 
one of the most worthy, gifted and inllu- 
ential of the old settlers of this section of 
11 



Iowa. He died greatly lamented by many 
friends, in June, 1865. 

The name Dubuque was given to the 
settlement b}' the miners, at a meeting held 
in 1834. 

Soon after the close of the Black Hawk 
war in 1832, Zachariah Hawkins, Benjamin 
Jennings, Aaron White, Augustine Horton, 
Samuel Gooch, Daniel Thompson and Peter 
Williams made claims at Fort Madison. In 
1833 General John H. Knapp and Colonel 
Nathaniel Knapp purchased these claims, 
and in the summer of 1835 the}' laid out the 
town of " Fort Madison." Lots were ex- 
posed for sale early in 1836. The town was 
subsequentl}' re-surveved and platted by 
the United States Government. The popu- 
lation rapidly increased, and in less than 
two years the beautiful location was cov- 
ered by a fiourishing town, containing 
nearly 600 inhabitants, with a large pro- 
portion of enterprising merchants, mechan- 
ics and manufacturers. 

In the fall of 1832 Simpson S. White 
erected a cabin on the site of Burlington, 
seventy-nine miles below Rock Island. 
During the war parties had looked long- 
ingly upon the "Flint Hills" from the op- 
posite side of the river, and \Vhite was 
soon followed by others. David Tothers 
made a claim on the prairie about three 
miles back from the river, at a place since 
known as the farm of Judge Morgan. The 
following winter the settlers were driven 
off by the military from Rock Island, as 
intruders upon the rights of the Indians. 
White's cabin was burned by the soldiers. 
He returned t(j Illinois, where he remained 
during the winter, and in the following 
summer, as soon as the Indian title was ex~ 
tinguished, returned and rebuilt his cabin. 
White was joined by his brother-in-law, 
D.)olittle, and they laid out the town of 
Burlington in 1834, on a beautiful area ot 
sloping eminences and gentle declivities, 
enclosed within a natural amphitheater 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 



formed by the surrounding hills, which 
were crowned with luxuriant forests and 
presented the most picturesque scenery. 
The same autumn witnessed the opennig of 
the first dry-goods stores by Dr. \V. R. Ross 
and Major Jeremiah Smith, each well sup- 
plied with Western merchandise. Such 
was tiie beginning of Burlington, which in 
less than four years became the seat of 
government for the Territory of Wisconsin, 
and in three years more contained a popu- 
lation of 1 ,400 persons. 

Immediately after the treaty with the 
Sacs and Foxes, in September, 1832, Colonel 
George Davenport made the first claim on 
the site of the present thriving city of 
Davenport. As early as 1827, Colonel 
Davenport had established a flat-boat ferr)', 
which ran between the island and the main 
shore of Iowa, by which he carried on a 
trade with the Indians west of the Missis- 
sippi. In 1833 Captain Benjamin W. Clark 
moved from Illinois, and laid the founda- 
tion of the town of Buffalo, in Scott County, 
which was the first actual settlement within 
the limits of that county. 

The first settlers of Davenport were An- 
toine Le Claire, Colonel George Davenport, 
Major Thomas Smith, Major William Gox- 
don, Pliilii) Hambough, Alexander W. Mc- 
Gregor, Levi S. Colton, Captain James May 
and others. 

A settlement was made in Cla3'ton County 
in the spring of 1832, on Turkey River, by 
Robert Hatfield and William W. Wayman. 
No further settlement was made in this part 
of the State until 1836. 

The first settlers of Muscatine County 
were Benjamin N^'e, John Vanater and G. 
W. Kase}', all of whom came in 1834. E. 
E. Fay, William St. John. N. FuUington, 
H. Reece, Jonas Pettibone, R. P. Lowe, 
Stephen Whicher, Abijah Whitney, J. E. 
Fletcher, W. D. Abcrnethy and Alexis 
Smith were also early settlers of Musca- 
tine. 



As early as 1824 a French trader named 
Hart had established a trading-post, and 
built a cabin on the bluffs above the large 
spring now known as " Mynster Spring," 
within the limits of the present city of 
Council Bluffs, and had probably been there 
some time, as the post was known to the 
employes of the American Fur Company 
as " La Cote de Hart," or " Hart's Bluff." 
In 1827 an agent of the American Fur 
Company, Francis Guittar, with others, 
encamped in the timber at the foot of the 
bluffs, about on the present location of 
Broadway, and afterward settled there. In 
1S39 a block house was built on the bluff in 
the east part of the city. The Pottawat- 
omie Indians occupied this part of the 
State until i846-'7, when they relinquished 
the territory and removed to Kansas. Billy 
Caldwell was then principal chief. There 
were no white settlers in that part of the 
State except Indian traders, until the arri- 
val of the Mormons under the lead of Brig- 
ham Young. These people on their way 
westward halted for the winter of i846-'7, 
on the west bank of the Missouri River, 
about five miles above Omaha, at a place 
now called Florence. Some of them had 
reached the eastern bank of the river the 
spring before in season to plant a crop. In 
the spring of 1847 Brigham Young and a 
portion of the colony pursued their journey 
to Salt Lake, but a large portion of them 
returned to the Iowa side and settled mainly 
within the present limits of Pottawatomie 
County. The principal settlement of this 
strange ccMnmunity was at a place first 
called " Miller's Hollow," on Indian Creek, 
and afterward named Kanesville, in honor 
of Colonel Thomas L. Kane, of Pennsyl- 
vania, who visited them soon afterward. 
The Mormon settlement extended over 
the county and into neighboring counties, 
wherever timber and water furnished de- 
sirable locations. Orson Hyde, priest, law- 
yer and editor, was installed as 'president 



■B":2»nl B"«w« " i » « » «a«». » .. »=i;g :wi=S 




HISTORY OF IOWA 



of the Ouorum of Twelve, and all that part 
of tlie State remained under Mormon con- 
trol for several years. In 1847 they raised 
a battalion numbering 500 men for the 
Mexican war. In 1S48 Hyde started a 
paper called the Frontier Guardian, at 
Kanesville. In 1849, 'ifter many of the 
faithful had left to join Brigham Young at 
Salt Lake, the Mormons in this section of 
Iowa numbered 6,552, and in 1S50, 7,828; 
but they were not all within the limits of 
Pottawatomie County. This county was 
organized in 1848, all the first officials be- 
ing Mormons. In 1852 the order was pro- 
mulgated that all the true believers should 
gather together at Salt Lake. Gentiles 
flocked in, and in a few years nearly all 
the first settlers were gone. 

May 9, 1843, Captain James Allen, with 
a small detachment of troops on board the 
steamer lone, ai-rived at the site of the 
present capital of the State, Des Moines. 
This was the first steamer to ascend the Des 
Moines River to this point. The troops 
and stores were landed at what is now the 
foot of Court avenue, and the Captain re- 
turned in the steamer to Fort Sanford to 
arrange for bringing up more soldiers and 
supplies. In due time they too arrived, 
and a foit was built near the mouth of Rac- 
coon Fork, at its confluence with the Des 
Moines, and named "Fort Des Moines." 
Soon after the arrival of the troops, a trad- 
ing-post was established on the east side of 
the river by two noted Indian traders 
named Ewing, from Ohio. Among the 
first settlers in this part of Iowa were Ben- 
jamin Bryant, J. B. Scott, James Drake 
(gunsmith), John Sturtevant, Robert Kin- 
zie, Alexander Turner, Peter Newcomer 
and others. 

PIONEER LIFE. 

Most of the early settlers of Iowa came 
from older States, as Pennsylvania, New 
York and Ohio, where their prospects for 



even a compctenc}' were very poor. The}' 
found those States good — to emigrate from. 
Their entire stock of furniture, implements 
and family necessities were easily stored 
in one wagon, and sometimes a cart was 
their only vehicle. 

After arriving and selecting a suitable 
location, the ne.Kt thing to do was to build 
a log cabin, a description of which may be 
interesting to many of our younger readers, 
as in some sections these old-time struct- 
ures are no more to be seen. Trees of 
uniform size were chosen and cut into loes 
of the desired length, generally twelve to 
fifteen feet, and hauled to the spot selected 
for the future dwelling. On an appointed 
day the few neighbors who were available 
would assemble and have a " house-raising." 
Each end of every log was saddled and 
notched so that they would lie as close down 
as possible; the next day the proprietor, 
would proceed to "chink" and "daub" 
the cabin, to keep out the rain, wind and 
cold. The house had to be re-daubed ev- 
ery fall, as the rains of the intervening time 
would wash out a great part of the mortar. 
The usual height of the house was seven or 
eight feet. The gables were formed by 
shortening the logs gradually at each end 
of the building near the top. The roof was 
made by laying very straight small logs or 
stout poles suitable distances apart, and 0:1 
these were laid the clapboards, somewhat 
like shingling, generally about two and a 
half feet to the weather. These clapboards 
were fastened to their place by " weight- 
poles" corresponding m place with the 
joists just described, and these again were 
held in their place by " runs " or " knees " 
which were chunks of wood about eighteen 
or twenty inches long fitted between them 
near the ends. Clapboards were made 
from the nicest oaks in the vicinity, by 
chopping or sawing them into four-foot 
blocks and riving these with a frow, which 
was a simple blade fixed at right angles to 



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■■■^■-■-■■■■■■■■■-''-■^■-■-■■■■■■ill-»-i»lW-M-lll-M. 



134 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 



its handles. This was driven into the 
bloclvs (o[ wciod by a mallet. As the frow 
was wrenched down through the wood, 
the latter was turned alternately over from 
side to side, one end being held by a forked 
piece of timber. 

The chimney to the Western pioneer's 
cabin was made by leaving in the original 
building a large open place in one wall, or 
by cutting one after the structure was up, 
and by building on the outside, from the 
ground up, a stone column, or a column of 
sticks and mud, the sticks being laid up 
cob house fashion. The fire-place thus made 
was often large enousrh to receive fire-wood 
six to eight feet long. Sometimes this 
wood, especially the " back-log," would be 
nearly as large as a saw-log. The more 
rapidly the pioneer could burn up the wood 
in his vicinity the sooner he had his little 
farm cleared and ready for cultivation. 
For a window, a piece about two feet long 
was cut out of one of the wall logs, and the 
hole closed, sometimes by glass but gener- 
ally with greased paper. Even greased deer- 
hide was sometimes used. A doorway was 
cut through one of the walls if a saw was to 
be had; otherwise the door would be left 
by shortened logs in the original building. 
The door was made by pinning clapboards 
to two or three wood bars, and was hung 
upon wooden hinges. A wooden latch, 
witli catch, then finished the door, and the 
latch was raised by any one on the outside 
by pulhng a leather string. For security 
at night this latch-string was drawn in, but 
for friends and neighbors, and even stran- 
gers, tlic " latch-string was always hanging 
out," as a welcome. In the interior over 
the fire-place would be a shelf called " the 
mantel," on which stood a candlestick or 
lamp, some cooking and table ware, possi- 
bly an old clock, and other articles; in the 
fire-place would be the crane, sometimes of 
iron, sometimes of wood; on it the pots were 
hung for cooking; over the door, in forked 



cleats, hung the ever-trustful rifle and pow- 
der-horn; in one corner stood the larger bed 
for the " old folks," and under it the 
trundle-bed for the children; in another 
stood the old-fashioned spinning-wheel, 
with a smaller one by its side; in another the 
heavy table, the onlj' table, of course, there 
was in the house; in the remaining was a 
rude cupboard holding the tableware, 
which consisted of a few cups and saucers, 
and blue-edged plates, standing singly on 
their edges against the back, to make the 
display of table-furniture more conspicu- 
ous; while around the room were scattered 
a few splint-bottom or Windsor chairs, and 
two or three stools. 

These simple cabins were inhabited by a 
kind and true-hearted people. They were 
strangers to mock modesty, and the traveler 
seeking lodging for the night, or desirous 
of spending a few days in the community, 
if willing to accept the rude offering, was 
always welcome, although how they were 
disposed of at night the reader might not 
easily imagine; for, as described, a single 
room was made to answer for kitchen, 
dining-room, sitting-room, bed-room and 
parlor, and many families consisted of six 
or eight members. 

The bed was very often made by fixing a 
post in the floor about six feet from one 
wall and four feet from the adjoining wall, 
and fastening a stick to this post about 
two feet above the floor, on each of two 
sides, so that the other end of each of the 
two sticks could be fastened in the oppo- 
site wall; clapboards were laid across these, 
and thus the bed was made complete. 
Guests were given this bed, while the fam- 
ily disposed of themselves in another cor- 
ner of the room or in the loft. When 
several guests were on* hand at once they 
were sometimes kept over night in the fol- 
lowing manner: When bedtime came the 
men were requested to step out of doors 
while the women spread out a broad bed 



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HISTOItr OF /OWA. 



13.S 



upon the mid floor, and put themselves 
to bed in the center; tlie signal was given, 
and the men came in and each husband took 
his place in bed next his own wife, and 
single men outside beyond them again. 
They were generally so crowded that they 
had to lie "spoon " fashion, and whenever 
anyone wished to turn over he would say 
" spoon," and the whole company of sleep- 
ers would turn over at once. This was the 
only way they could all keep in bed. 

To witness the various processes of cook- 
ing in those days would alike surprise and 
amuse those who have grown up since 
cooking stoves and ranges came into use. 
Kettles were hung over the large fire, sus- 
pended with pot-hooks, iron or wooden, 
on the crane, or on poles, one end of which 
would rest upon a chain. The long-hand- 
led fr3'ing pan was used for cooking meat. 
It was either held over the blaze by hand 
or set down upon coals drawn out upon 
the hearth. This pan was also used for 
baking pancakes, also call flapjacks, batter- 
cakes, etc. A better article for this, how- 
ever, was the cast-iron spider, or Dutch 
skillet. The best thing for baking bread 
in those days, and possibly even in these 
latter days, was the flat-bottomed bake 
kettle, of greater depth, with closely fitting 
cast-iron cover, and commonly known as the 
Dutch oven. With coals over and under it, 
bread and biscuits would be quickly and 
nicely baked. Turkey and spare-ribs were 
sometimes roasted before the fire, sus- 
pended by a string, a dish being placed 
underneath to catch the drippings. 

Hominy and samp were very much used. 
The hominy, however, was generally hulled 
corn — boiled corn from which the hull or 
bran had been taken by hot lye, hence 
sometimes called lye, hominy. True hom- 
iny and samp were made of pounded corn. 
A popular method of making this, as well 
as real meal for bread, was to cut out or 
burn a large hole in the top of a huge 



stump, in the shape of a mortar, and pound- 
ing the corn in this by a maul or beetle 
suspended by a swing pole like a well- 
sweep. This and the wellsweep consisted 
of a pole twenty to thirty feet long fixed in 
an upright fork so that it coidd be worked 
" teeter " fashion. It was a rapid and sim- 
ple way of drawing water. When the samp 
was sufficiently pounded it was taken 
out, the bran floated off, and the delicious 
grain boiled like rice. 

The chief articles of diet in an early day- 
were corn bread, hominy or samp, venison, 
pork, honey, pumpkin (dried pumpkin for 
more than half the year), turkey, prairie 
chicken, squirrel and some other game, 
with a few additional vegetables a portion 
of the year. Wheat bread, tea, coffee and 
fruit were luxuries not to be indulged in 
except on special occasions, as when visit- 
ors were present. 

Besides cooking in the manner described, 
the women had many other arduous duties 
to perform, one of the chief of which was 
spinning. The big wheel was used for 
spinning yarn and the little wheel for spin- 
ning flax. These stringed instruments fur- 
nished the principal music for tlie family, 
and were operated by our mothers and 
grandmothers with great skill, attained 
without pecuniary expense, and with far 
less practice than is necessary for the girls 
of our period to acquire a skillful use of 
their costly and elegant instruments. But 
those wheels, indispensable a few years ago, 
are all now superseded by the mighty fac- 
tories which overspread the country, fur- 
nishing cloth of all kinds at an expense ten 
times less than would be incurred now by 
the old system. 

The traveler always found a welcome at 
the pioneer's cabin. It was never full. 
Although there might be already a guest 
for every puncheon, there was still " room 
for one more," and a wider circle would be 
made for the new-comer at the big fire. If 



11 






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136 



HISTORl~ OF IOWA. 



the stranger was in search of land, he was 
doubly welcome, and his host would vol- 
unteer to show him all the " first rate claims 
in this neck of the woods," going with him 
for da\-s, showing the corners and advan- 
tages of ever}' " Congress tract " within a 
dozen miles of his own cabin. 

To his neighbors the pioneer was equally 
liberal. If a deer was killed, the choicest 
bits were sent to his nearest neighbor, a 
half-dozen miles away perhaps. When a 
pig was butchered, the same custom pre- 
vailed. If a new-comer came in too late 
for " cropping," the neighbors would sup- 
ply his table with just the same lu.xuries 
they themselves enjoj'ed, and in as libei-al 
quantity, until a crop could be raised. 
When a new-comer had located his claim, 
the ncigiibors for miles around would 
assemble at the site of the proposed cabin 
and aid himin " gittm " it up. One party 
with axes would cut down the trees and 
^ hew the logs; another with teams would 
t haul the logs to the ground; another party 
) would "raise" the cabin; while several 
I of the old men would rive the clap-boards 
\ for the roof. B3' night the little forest 
J domicile would be up and ready for a 
) " house-warming," which was the dedica- 



tory occupation of the house, when music 
and dancing and festivity would be enjojxd 
at full height. The next day the new-comer 
would be as well situated as his neighbors. 
An instance of primitive hospitable man- 
ners will be in place here. A traveling 
Methodist preacher arrived in a distant 
neighborhood to fill an appointment. The 
house where services were to be held did not 
belong to a church member, but no matter 
for that. Boards were collected from all 
quarters with which to make temporary 
seats, one of the neighbors volunteering to 
lead off in the work, while the man of the 
house, with the faithful rifle on his shoulder, 
sallied forth in quest of meat, for this truly 
was a "ground hog" case, the preacher 



coming and no meat in the house. The 
host ceased not to chase until he found the 
meat, in the shape of a deer; returning he 
sent a bo}' out after it, with directions on 
what "pint" to find it. After services, 
which had been listened to with rapt atten- 
tion by all the audience, mine host said to 
his wife, " Old woman, I reckon this 'ere 
preacher is pretty hungry and 3'ou must 
git him a bite to eat." " What shall I get 
him?" asked the wife, who had not seen 
the deer, " thar's nuthen in the house to 
eat." " Why, look thar," returned he, 
" thar's a deer, and thar's plenty of corn in 
the field; you git some corn and grate it 
while I skin the deer, and we'll have a 
good supper for him." It is needless to add 
that venison and corn bread made a sup- 
per fit for any pioneer preacher, and was 
thankfully eaten. 

Fires set out by Indians or settlers some- 
times purposely and sometimes permitted 
through carelessness, would visit the prai- 
rie every autumn, and sometimes the for- 
ests, either m autumn or spring, and settlers 
could not always succeed in defending 
themselves against the destroying element. 
Many interesting incidents are related. 
Often a fire was started to bewilder game, 
or to bare a piece of ground for the early 
grazing of stock the ensuing spring, and it 
would get away under a wind and soon 
be beyond control. Violent winds would 
often arise and drive the flames with such 
rapidity that riders on the fleetest steeds 
could scarcely escape. On the approach 
of a prairie fire the farmer would immedi- 
ately set about " cutting off supplies " for 
the devouring enemy by a " back fire." 
Thus by starting a small fire near the bare 
ground about his premises, and keeping it 
under control next his property, he would 
burn off a strip around him and prevent the 
attack of the on-coming flames. A few 
furrows or a ditch around the farm were 
in some degrees a proteclion. 



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HISTOnr OF IOWA. 



137 



I 



An original prairie of tall and exuberant 
grass on fire, especially at night, was a mag- 
nificent spectacle, enjoyed only by the 
pioneer. Here is an instance where the 
frontiersman, proverbially deprived of the 
sights and pleasures of an old community, 
is privileged far be3-ond the people of the 
present day in this country. One could 
scarcely tire of beholding the scene, as its 
awe-inspiring features seemed constantly to 
increase, and the whole panorama unceas- 
ingly changed like the dissolving views of 
a magic lantern, or like the aurora borealis. 
Language cannot convey, words cannot 
express, the faintest idea of the splendor 
and grandeur of such a conflagration at 
nigiit. It was as if the pale queen of night, 
disdaining to take her accustomed place in 
the heavens, had dispatched myriads upon 
myriads of messengers to light their torches 
at the altar of the setting sun until all had 
flashed into one long and continuous blaze. 
One instance has been described as follows: 

" Soon the fires began to kindle wider 
and rise higher from the long grass; the 
gentle breeze increased to stronger currents, 
and soon formed the small, flickering blaze 
into fierce torrent flames, which curled up 
and leaped along in resistless splendor; and 
like quickly raising the dark curtain from 
the luminous stage, the scenes before me 
were suddenly changed, as if b}' a magi- 
cian's wand, into one boundless amphithea- 
ter, blazing from earth to heaven and 
sweeping the horizon round, — columns of 
lurid flames sportivel}' mounting up to the 
zenith, and dark clouds of crimson smoke 
curling away and aloft till they nearly ob- 
scured stars and moon, while the rushing, 
crashing sounds, like roaring cataracts, 
mingled with distant thunders, were almost 
deafening; danger, death, glared all around; 
it screamed for victims; yet, notwithstand- 
ing the imminent peril of prairie fires, one 
is loth, irresolute, almost unable to with- 
draw or seek refuge. 



LOUISIANA TERRITORY. 

As before mentioned, although De Soto, 
a Spaniard, first took possession of the Mis- 
sissippi Valle}' for his Government, Spain 
did not establish her title to it by following 
up the proclamation with immediate settle- 
ments, and the country fell into the hands 
of France, by whose agent it was named 
" Louisiana." 

By the treaty of Utrecht, France ceded 
to England her possessions in Hudson's 
Bay, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, but 
retained Canada and Louisiana. In 171 1 
this province was placed in the hands of a 
governor-general, with headquarters at 
Mobile, for the purpose of appl3-ing a new 
policy for the settlement and development 
of the country. The very next year ano- 
ther change was made, placing all this ter- 
ritory in the hands of Anthony Crozat, a 
wealthy merchant of Paris, but this scheme 
also failed, as Spain continued to obstruct 
the efforts of any Frenchman to establish 
trade, by closing the ports against him. In 
1717 John Law appeared on the scene with 
his famous " Mississippi Company," as J,hc 
Louisiana branch of the Bank of France ; 
and as his roseate scheme promised to do 
much in raising crippled France upon a 
surer footing, extended powers and privi- 
leges were granted him. He was to be 
practically a viceroy, and the life of his 
charter was fixed at twenty-five years. But 
in 1720, when the " Mississippi bubble" was 
at the height of its splendor, it suddenly 
collapsed, leaving the mother country in a 
far worse condition than before. 

Heretofore Louisiana had been a sub- 
ordinate dependence, under the jurisdiction 
of the Governor-General of Canada. Early 
in 1723 the province of Louisiana was 
erected into an independent Government, 
and it was divided into nine districts, for 
civil and military purposes. 

Characteristic of human nature, the peo- 
ple were mo'"e excited with prospects of 



ii 



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'3S 



Hr STORY OF IOWA. 



finding enormous wealth ready at hand, if 
they should continue to scour the country, 
which they did in places as far west as the 
Rocky Mountains, to the neglect of their 
agricultural and domestic interests. A habit 
of roaming became fixed. At the same time 
their exposed condition was a constant 
temptation to Indian rapine, and the Nat- 
chez tribe in 1723 made a general assault 
upon the whites. At first they were re- 
pulsed, but about five years afterward, 
aided by the Chickasaws and others, they 
fell upon the French village of St. Catha- 
rine and massacred the whole male popu- 
lation. Two soldiers, who happened to be 
in the woods, alone escaped to New Or- 
leans, to bear the news. The colonies on 
the Yazoo and the Washita suffered the 
same fate. Maddened by these outrages, 
the whites turned upon the Natchez and in 
the course of three years exterminated 
them. They were probably the most in- 
telligent tribe of Indians north of Mexico. 

During the fifteen years from 1717 to 
1732 the province increased in population 
from 700 to 5, 000, and in prosperity to a 
wonderful degree. It remained under royal 
governors until 1764, the end of the French 
dominion. Most of this time the Indians 
were troublesome, and in 1754 began the 
long "French and Indian war" with Eng- 
land, which resulted in favor of the latter, 
that Government obtaining all of New 
France, Canada, and the eastern half of 
Louisiana. This province did not suffer 
by being the scene of battle, but did suffer 
a great deal from a flood of irredeemable 
paper money. In the meantime the western 
portion, or residue, of this province was 
secretly promised to Spain ; but before 
either of the foreign powers had opportu- 
nity to rejoice long in their western posses- 
sions, a new power on earth, the United 
States, took independent possession of all 
the country except Louisiana and Florida, 
which it has maintained ever since. Durina: 



the seventy years of French control the 
province of Louisiana increased in popula- 
tion from a few destitute fishermen to a 
flourishing colony of 13,540. 

St. Louis, Missouri, was started in 1764. 

Don O'Reilly, the new Governor of Loui- 
siana in 1764, ruled with a despotic hand, 
yet for the general advantage of the peo- 
ple. His successor, Don Antonio Maria 
Bucarelly, was mild, and he was succeeded 
January i, 1777, by Don Bernard de Gal- 
vez, who was the last Governor. He sym- 
pathized with American independence. The 
British, with 140 troops and 1,400 Indians, 
invaded Upper Louisiana from the north 
by way of the Straits of Mackinaw, and in- 
vested St. Louis, Missouri, in 1780, but 
were driven off. When the Indians saw 
that they were led to fight " Americans" as 
well as Spaniards, they found that they had 
been deceived, and withdrew from the 
British army, and thus General George R. 
Clark, in behalf of the Americans, easily 
defended St. Louis, and also all the new 
settlements in this western country. 

After the Revolutionary war the country 
began again to prosper. Governor Galvez, 
b}^ a census, ascertained that Louisiana had 
in 1785 a population of about 33,000, exclu- 
sive of Indians. 

In the summer of the latter year Don 
Estavan Miro became Governor /r^' tciii. of 
the Spanish possessions in this country, and 
was afterward confirmed as such by the 
king. During his administration a vain 
attempt was made by the Catholics to 
establish the inquisition at New Orleans. 
He was succeeded in 1792 by Baron de 
Carondelet, and during his term the Spanish 
colonies grew so rapidly that their Govern- 
ment became jealous of the United States 
and sought to exclude all interference from 
them in domestic affairs ; but all efforts in 
this direction were ended in 1795 by the 
treaty of Madrid, which, after some delay 
and trouble, was fully carried out in 1798. 



Under the leadership of Livingston and 
Monroe, the United States Government, 
after various propositions had been dis- 
cussed by the respective powers, succeeded 
in effecting, in 1803, a purchase of the whole 
of Louisiana from France for $11,250,000, 
and all this country west of the great river 
consisted of the " Territory of Orleans " 
(now the State of Louisiana) and the " Dis- 
trict of Louisiana " (now the States of Ar- 
kansas, Missouri and Iowa, and westward 
indefinitely). The latter was annexed to the 
Territory of Indiana for one year, and in 
1805 it was erected into a separate Terri- 
tory, of the second class, the legislative 
power being vested in the Governor and 
judges. Before the close of the year it was 
made a Territory of the first class, under 
the name of the " Territory of Louisiana," 
the Government being administered by the 
Governor and judges. The first Governor 
was James Wilkinson, and he was succeeded 
near the close of 1806 by Colonel Meri- 
weather Lewis, the seat of Government be- 
ing at St. Louis; and during his adminis- 
tration the Territory was divided into six 
judicial districts or large counties — St. 
Charles, St. Louis, St. Genevieve, Cape 
Girardeau, New Madrid and Arkansas. In 
1810 the population of Louisiana Territory 
was 21,000, five-sevenths of whom were in 
Arkansas. 

In 1812 the State of Louisiana was ad- 
mitted into the Union, and then it was 
deemed expedient to change the name of 
the Territory. It was accordingly given 
the name of " Missouri Territory," which it 
retained until the admission of the State of 
Missouri in 1821. 

IOWA TERRITORY. 

Although the " Northwestern Territory" 
— carved out of Virginia and now divided 
into the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan and Wisconsin — never included 
Iowa, this State was in 1S34 incorporated 
1% 



into the "Territory of Michigan," and thus 
became subject to the ordinance of 1787; 
and two years later it was made a part of 
" Wisconsin Territory," and two years still 
later, in 1838, the "Territory of Iowa" 
was formed independently, with sixteen 
counties and a population of 23,000. 

In 1833, ^t Dubuque, a postoffice was 
estabhshed, and some time prior to 1834 
one or two justices of the peace had been 
appointed. In 1834 the Territorial Legis- 
lature of Michigan created two counties 
west of the Mississippi — Dubuque and Des 
Moines — separated by a line drawn west- 
ward from the foot of Rock Island. These 
counties were partially organized. John 
King was appointed " Chief Justice" of Du- 
buque County, and Isaac Leffler, of Bur- 
lington, of Des Moines County. Two 
associate justices in each county were ap- 
pointed by the Governor. In October, 
1835, General George W. Jones, of Du- 
buque, was elected a delegate to Congress. 
April 20, 1836, through the efforts of Gen- 
eral Jones, Congress passed a bill creating 
the Territory of Wisconsin, which went 
into operation July 4, that year. Iowa was 
then included in that Territory, of which 
General Henry Dodge was appointed Gov- 
ernor. The census of 1836 showed a popu- 
lation in Iowa of 10,531, of which 6,257 
were in Des Moines County and 4,274 in 
Dubuque County. 

Ths first Legislature assembled at Bel- 
mont, Wisconsin, October 25, 1836; the 
second at Burlington, Iowa, November 9, 
1837; and the third, also at the latter place, 
June I, 1838. 

As early as 1837 the people of Iowa be- 
gan to petition Congress for a separate 
Territorial organization, which was granted 
June 12 following. Ex-Governor Lucas, of 
Ohio, was appointed by President Van Bu- 
ren to be the first Governor of the new 
Territory. Immediately upon his arrival 
he issued a proclamation for the election of 



members of the first Territorial Legislature, 
to take place September lo. The following 
were elected : 

Council. — Jesse B. Brown, J. Keith, E. 
A. M. Swazey, Arthur Ingram, Robert 
Ralston, George Hepner, Jesse J. Payne, 
D. B. Hughes, James M. Clark, Charles 
Whittlesey, Jonathan W. Parker, Warner 
Lewis, Stephen Hempstead. 

House. — Wm. Patterson, Hawkins Tay- 
lor, Calvin J. Price, James Brierly, James 
Hall, Gideon S. Bailc}', Samuel Parker, 
James W. Grimes, George Temple, Van B. 
Delashmutt, Thomas Blair, George H. 
Beeler, Wm. G. Coop, Wm. H. Wallace, 
Asbury B. Porter, John Frierson, Wm. L. 
Toole, Levi Thornton, S. C. Hastings, 
Robert G. Roberts, Laurel Summers, 
Jabez A. Burchard, Jr., Chauncey Swan, 
Andrew Bankson, Thomas Cox and Har- 
din Nowlin. 

At the session of the above Legislature 
Wm. W. Chapman was elected delegate 
to Congress. As the latter body had given 
the Governor unlimited veto power, and 
as Governor Lucas was disposed to exer- 
cise it arbitrarily, the independent " Hawk- 
eyes " grew impatient under his administra- 
tion, and, after having a stormy session for 
a time, they had Congress to limit the veto 
power. Great excitement also prevailed. 



both 



the 



Legislature 



and among the 



people, concerning the question of the loca- 
tion of the seat of Government for the 
State. As they knew nothing concerning 
the great future development and extent of 
the State, they had no correct idea where 
the geographical center would or should 
be. The Black Hawk purchase, which was 
that strip of land next the Mississippi, in 
the southeastern part of the State, was the 
full extent and horizon of their idea of the 
new commonwealth. Hence they thought 
first only of Burlington or Mount Pleasant 
as the capital. Indeed, at that time, the 
Indians liad possession of the rest of Iowa. 



But a few of the more shrewd foresaw 
that a more central location would soon be 
further to the north at least, if not west, 
and a point in Johnson Count)' was ulti- 
mately decided upon. 

Commissioners, appointed by the Gov- 
ernor, selected the exact site, laid out a sec- 
tion of land into a town, sold lots and 
proceeded to erect the public buildings. 
The capitol was commenced in 1840 and 
Iowa City became thenceforward the capi- 
tal of the State. The fourth Legislative 
Assembly met at this place December 6, 
1 841, but not in the new capitol building, 
as it was not yet read3\ Being somewhat 
difficult to raise the necessary funds, the 
building was not completed for several 
3ears. The early Territorial Legislatures 
of Iowa laid the foundation for a very just 
and liberal Government, far in advance of 
what had ever been done before by any 
State. 

About this time a conflict arose between 
this Territory and Missouri concerning the 
boundary line between them. There was 
a difference of a strip eight or ten miles 
wide, extending from the Mississippi to the 
Missouri rivers, which each claimed. Mis- 
souri officers, attempting to collect taxes 
within the disputed territory, were arrested 
and confined in jail by Iowa sheriffs, and 
the respective Governors called out the 
militia, preparing for bloodshed. About 
1,200 Iowa men enlisted, and 500 were act- 
ually armed and encamped in Van Buren 
County, ready to defend their Tcrritor}-, 
when three prominent and able men were 
sent to Missouri as envoys plenipotentiar}-, 
to effect, if possible, a peaceable adjustment 
of the difficulty. Upon their arrival, they 
found that the county c(5mmissioners of 
Clark Count}-, Missouri, had rescinded their 
order for the collection of the taxes, and that 
Governor Boggs had dispatched messen- 
gers to the Governor of Iowa proposing to 
submit an agreed case to the Supreme 



HISTORT OF IOWA. 



141 



Court of the United States for tlie settle- 
ment of the boundary question. This prop- 
osition was declined; but afterward, upon 
petition oi Iowa and Missouri, Congress 
authorized a suit to settle the controversy. 
The suit was duly instituted, and resulted 
in the decision that Iowa had only asserted 
" the truth of iiistor)'," and she knew where 
the rapids of the Des Moines River were 
located. Thus ended the Missouri war. 
" There was much good sense," sa3's Hon. 
C. C. Nourse, "in the basis upon which 
peace was secured, to-wit: ' If Missourians 
did not know where the rapids of the river 
Des Moines were located, that was no sutifi- 
cient reason for killing them off with powder 
and lead; and if we did know a little more of 
history and geography than they did we 
ought not to be shot for our learning. We 
commend our mutual forbearance to older 
and greater people.' " Under an order 
from the Supreme Court of the United 
States commissioners surveyed and estab- 
lished the boundary. The expenses of the 
war, on the part of Iowa, were never paid, 
either by the United States or the Territo- 
rial Government. 

STATE ORGANIZATION AND SUBSEQUENT 
HISTORY. 

The population having become, by the 
year 1844, sufficient to justify the formation 
of a State Government, the Territorial Leg- 
islature of Iowa passed an act, approved 
February 12, that year, submitting to the 
people the question of the formation of a 
State Constitution and providing for the 
election of delegates to a convention to be 
called together for that purpose. The 
people voted upon this at their township 
elections in the following April, giving the 
measure a large majority. The elected 
delegates assembled in convention at Iowa 
City, October 7, 1844, and completed their 
work by November i. Hon. Shepherd 
Leffier, the President of this convention, 



was instructed to transact a certified copy 
of the proposed Constituticjn to the Dele- 
gate in Congress, to be submitted by him 
to that bodv at the earliest practicable da}'. 
It also provided that it should be submitted, 
together with any conditions or changes 
that might be made by Congress, to the 
people of the Territory, for their approval 
or rejection, at the township election in 
April, 1845. 

The Constitution, as thus prepared, fixed 
the boundaries of the State very differently 
from what were finally agreed upon. 

May 4, 1846, a second convention met at 
Iowa City, and on the i8th of the same 
month another Constitution, prescribing the 
boundaries as they now are, was adopted. 
This was accepted by the people, August 
3, by a vote of 9,492 to 9,036. The new 
Constitution was approved by Congress, 
and Iowa was admitted as a sovereign 
State in the American Union, December 
28, 1846. The people of the State, antici- 
pating favorable action by Congress, held 
an election for State officers October 26 
which resulted in i\.nsel Briggs being de- 
clared Governor; Elisha Cutler, Jr., Secre- 
tary of State; Joseph T. Fales, Auditor; 
Morgan Reno, Treasurer; and members of 
the Senate and House of Representatives. 

The act of Congress which admitted 
Iowa gave her the i6th section of every 
township of land in the State, or its equiv- 
alent, for the support of schools; also 
seventy-two sections of land for the pur- 
pose of a university; also five sections of 
land for the completion of her public build- 
ings; also the salt springs within her limits, 
not exceeding twelve in number, with sec- 
tions of land adjoining each; also, in con- 
sideration that her public lands should be 
exempt from taxation by the State, she 
gave to the State five per cent, of the net 
proceeds of the sale of public lands within 
the State. Thus provided for as a bride 
with her marriage portion, Iowa com- 



Jl 



SJfSSOmSmSmSm! 



SS2SS 






W^VfW^ 



142 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 



menced " housekeeping " upon her own 
account. 

A majority of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1S46 were of the Democratic party; 
and the instrument contains some of the 
pecuHar tenets of the party at that day. 
All bani<s of issue were prohibited within 
the State. The State was prohibited from 
becoming a stockholder in any corporation 
for pecuniary profit, and the General As- 
sembly could only provide for private cor- 
porations by general statutes. The Consti- 
tution also limited the State's indebtedness 
to $100,000. It required the General As- 
sembly to provide public schools through- 
out the State for at least three months in 
the year. Si.x months' previous residence 
of any white male citizen of the United 
States constituted him an elector. 

At the time of organization as a State, 
Iowa had a population of 1 16,65 1, as appears 
by the census of 1847. There were twenty- 
seven organized counties in the State, and 
the settlements were rapidly pushing to- 
ward the Missouri River. 

The first General Assembly was com- 
posed of nineteen Senators and forty Rep- 
resentatives. It assembled at Iowa City, 
November 30,1846, about a month before 
the State was admitted into the Union. 

The most important business transacted 
was the passage of a bill authorizing a loan 
of $50,000 for means to run the State Gov- 
ernment and pay the expenses of the Con- 
stitutional conventions. The great excite- 
ment of the session, however, was the 
attempt to choose United States Senators. 
The Whigs had a majority of two in the 
House, and the Democrats a majority of 
one in the Senate. After repeated attempts 
to control these majorities for caucus nom- 
inees and frequent sessions of a joint con- 
vention for purposes of an election, tiie 
attempt was abandoned. A school law was 
passed at this session for the organization 
of public schools in the State. 



At the first session also arose the ques- 
tion of the re-location of the capital. The 
western boundary of the State, as now 
determined, left Iowa Citv too far toward 
tlie eastern and southern boundary of the 
State; this was conceded. Congress had 
appropriated five sections of land for the 
erection of public buildings, and toward the 
close of the session a bill was introduced 
providing for the re-location of the seat of 
Government, involving to some extent the 
location of the State University, which had 
already been discussed. This bill gave rise 
to much discussion and parliamentary ma- 
neuvering, almost purely sectional in its 
character. It provided for the appointment 
of three commissioners, who were author- 
ized to make a location as near the geo- 
graphical center of the State as a healthy 
and eligible site could be obtained; to select 
the five sections of land donated by Con- 
gress; to survey and plat into town lots not 
exceeding one section of the land so se- 
lected, etc. Soon after, by " An act to 
locate and establish a State University," 
approved February 25, 1847, the unfinished 
public buildings at Iowa City, together 
with ten acres of land on which they were 
situated, were granted for the use of the 
University, reserving their use, however, 
by the General Assembly and the State 
officers, until other provisions were made 
by law. 

When the report of the commissioners, 
showing their financial operations, had 
been read in the House of Representa- 
tives, at the next session, and while it was 
under consideration, an indignant membci", 
afterward known as the eccentric Judge 
McFariand, moved to refer the report to a 
select committee of five, with instructions 
to report " how much of said city of Mon- 
roe was under water, and how much was 
burned." The report was referred witii- 
out the instructifMis, but Monroe City never 
I became tiie seat of Government. V>\ an 



■'mSSmBjiS^ 



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^•J' 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 



H3 



act approved January 15, 1S49, the law by 
which the location had been made was re- 
pealed and the new town was vacated, the 
money paid by purchasers of lots being re- 
funded to them. This, of course, retained 
the seat of Government at Iowa City, and 
precluded for the time the occupation of 
the building and grounds by the University. 

After the adjournment of the first Gen- 
eral Assembly, the Governor appointed 
Joseph Williams, Chief Justice, and George 
Green and John F. Kinney, Judges of the 
Supreme Court. They were afterward 
elected by the second General Assembly, 
and constituted the Supreme Court until 
1855, with the exception that Kinney re- 
signed in January, 1S54, and J. C. Hall, of 
Burlington, was appointed in his place. 

At this session Charles Mason, William 
G. Woodward and Stephen Hempstead 
were appointed commissioners to prepare a 
code of laws for the State. Their work 
was finished in 1850 and was adopted by 
the General Assembly. This " code " con- 
tained among other provisions a code of 
civil practice, superseding the old common- 
law forms of actions and writs, and it was 
admirable for its simplicity and method. It 
remained in force until 1863, when it was 
superseded by the more complicated and 
metaphysical system of the revision of that 
year. 

The first Representatives in Congress 
were S. Clinton Hastings, of Muscatine, 
and Shepherd LefHer, of Des Moines 
Countv. The second General Assembly 
elected to the United States Senate Au- 
gustus Cassar Dodge and George W.Jones. 
The State government, after the first ses- 
sion, was under the control of Democratic 
administrations till 1855. The electoral vote 
of the State was cast for Lewis Cass in 1848, 
and for Franklin Pierce in 1852. The popu- 
lar vote shows that the Free-Soil element 
of the State during this period very nearly 
held the balance of power, and that up to 



1854 it acted in the State elections to some 
extent with the Democratic party. In 1858 
Lewis Cass received 12,093 votes, Zachary 
Taylor 11,034, and Martin Van Buren, the 
Free-Soil candidate, 1,226 votes, being 167 
less than a majority for Cass. In 1852 
Pierce received 17,762 votes, Scott 15,855, 
and Hale, Free-Soil, 1,606, being for Pierce 
301 votes more than a majority. 

The question of the permanent location 
of the seat of government was not settled, 
and in 185 1 bills were introduced for the 
removal of the capital to Pella and to Fort 
Des Moines. The latter appeared to have 
the support of the majority, but was finally 
lost in the House on the question of order- 



ing it to its third reading. 



At the next session, in 1853, a bill was 
introduced in the Senate for the removal of 
the seat of government to Fort Des Moines, 
and on first vote was just barely defeated. 
At tlie next session, however, the effort was 
more successful, and January 15, 1855, a 
bill re-locating the capital within two miles 
of the Raccoon Fork of the Des Moines, 
and for the appointment of commissioners, 
was approved by Governor Grimes. The 
site was selected in 1856, in accordance 
with the provisions of this act, the land 
being donated to the State by citizens and 
property-holders of Des Moines. An asso- 
ciation of citizens erected a building for a 
temporar)^ capitol, and leased it to the State 
at a nominal rent. 

The passage by Congress of the act or- 
ofanizina: the Territories of Kansas and Ne- 
braska, and the provision it contained abro- 
gating that portion of the Missouri bill that 
prohibited slavery and involuntary servi- 
tude north of 36° 30' was tiie beginning of 
a political revolution in the Northern States, 
and in none was it more marked than in the 
State of Iowa. Iowa was the " first free 
child born of the Missouri Compromise," 
and has always resented the destruction ol 
her foster parent. 



i 









t 



144 



HIS I CRT OF IOWA. 



The year 1856 marked a new era in the his- 
tory of Iowa. In 1854 the Chicago & Rock 
Island Railroad had been completed to the 
cast bank of the Mississippi River, opposite 
Davenport. In the same year the corner- 
stone of a railroad bridge that was to be the 
first to span the " Father of Waters," was 
laid with appropriate ceremonies at this 
point. St. Louis had resolved that the 
enterprise was unconstitutional, and by 
writs of injunction made an unsuccessful 
effort to prevent its completion. Twenty 
years later in her history, St. Louis re- 
pented her folly, and made atonement for 
her sin by imitating Iowa's example. Jan- 
uary I, 1856, this railroad was completed to 
Iowa City. In the meantime, two other 
railroads had reached the east bank of the 
Mississippi — one opposite Burlington, and 
one opposite Dubuque — and these were be- 
ing extended into the interior of the State. 
Indeed, four other lines of railroads had 
been projected across the State from the 
Mississippi to the Missouri, having eastern 
connections. 

May 15, 1856, Congress passed an act 
granting to the State, to aid in the con- 
struction of railroads, the public lands in 
alternate sections, six miles on either side 
of the proposed lines. An extra session of 
the General Assembly was called in July of 
this year, that disposed of the grant to the 
several companies that proposed to com- 
plete these enterprises. The population of 
Iowa was now 500,000. Public attention 
had been called to the necessity of a rail- 
road across the continent. The position of 
Iowa, in the very heart and center of the 
republic, on the route of this great high- 
way of the continent, began to attract atten- 
tioti. Cities and towns sprang up through 
the State as if by magic. Capital began to 
j)Our into the State, and had it been em- 
])loyed in developing the vast coal measures 
and establishing m;uiufactorics, f)r if it had 
been cxijended in inijdoviug the lands, and 



in building houses and barns, it would have 
been well. But all were in haste to get 
rich, and the spirit of speculation ruled the 
hour. 

In the meantime, every effort was made 
to help the speedy completion of the rail- 
roads. Nearly every county and cit}' on 
the Mississippi, and many in the interior, 
voted large corporate subscriptions to the 
stock of the railroad companies, and issued 
their negotiable bonds for the amount. 
Thus enormous county and city debts were 
incurred, the payment of which these mu- 
nicipalities tried to avoid, upon the plea 
that they had exceeded the constitutional 
limitation of their powers. The Supreme 
Court of the United States held these bonds 
to be valid, and the courts b}' mandamus 
compelled the city and county authorities 
to levy taxes to pay the judgments re- 
covered upon them. These debts are not 
all paid, even to this day ; but the worst is 
over, and the incubus is in the course of 
ultimate extinction. Tiie most valuable 
lessons are those learned in the school of 
experience, and accordingly the corpora- 
tions of Iowa have ever since been noted 
for economy. 

In 1856 the popular vote was as follows: 
Fremont, 43,954; Buchanan, 36,170, and 
Fillmore, 9,180. This was 1,296 less than a 
majority for Fremont. The following year 
an election was held, after an exciting cam- 
paign, for State officers, resulting in a ma- 
jority of 1,406 for Ralph P. Lowe, the Re- 
publican nominee. The Legislature was 
largely Republican in both branches. 

One of the most injurious results to the 
State, arising from the spirit of speculation 
prevalent in 1856, was the purchase and 
entry of great bodies of Government land 
within the State by non-residents. This 
land was held for speculation and placed 
beyond the reach of actual settlers for many 
3ears. From no other one cause has Iowa 
suffered so much as from tlie short-sighted 



-f^^J -^L^-^^ ^ft^ >i 



HlSsrORT OF IOWA. 141; 



and counties was also limited to 5 percent, 
upon the valuation of their taxable property. 
The judges of the Supreme Court were to 
be elected by the popular vote. The per- 
manent seat of government was fixed at 
Des Moines, and the State University lo- 
cated at Iowa City. The qualifications of 
electors remained the same as under the old 
Constitution, but the schedule provided for 
a vote of the people upon a separate propo- 
sition to strike the word " white" out of the 
suffrage clause, which, had it prevailed, 
would have resulted in conferring the right 
of suffrage without distinction of color. 
Since the early organization of Iowa there 
had been upon the statute book a law pro- 
viding that no negro, mulatto nor Indian 
should be a competent witness in any suit 
or proceeding to which a white man was a 
party. The General Assembly of i856-'7 
repealed this law, and the new Constitution 
contained a clause forbidding such disquali- 
fication in the future. It also provided for 
the education of "all3'Outh of the State" 
through a system of common schools. This 
Constitution was adopted at the ensuing 
election by a vote of 40,311 to 38,681. 

October 19, 1857, Governor Grimes issued 
a proclamation declaring tlie city of Des 
Moines to be the capital of the State of Iowa. 
The removal of the archives and offices was 
commenced at once and continued through 
the fall. It was an undertaking of no 
small magnitude; there was not a mile of 
railroad to facilitate the work, and the 
season was unusually disagreeable. Rain, 
snow and other accompaniments increased 
the difficulties; and it was not until Decem- 
ber that the last of the effects, — the safe of 
the State Treasurer, loaded on two large 
" bob sleds " drawn by ten 3fokes of oxen, 
— was deposited in the new capitol. It is 
not imprudent now to remark that during 
this passage over hills and prairies, across 
rivers, through bottom lands and timber, 
the safes belonging to the several depart- 



policy of the Federal Government in selling 
lands within her borders. The money 
thus obtained by the Federal Government 
has been comparatively inconsiderable. 
The value of this magnificent public do- 
main to the United States was not in the 
few thousands of dollars she might exact 
from the hardy settlers, or that she might 
obtain from the speculator who hoped to 
profit by the settlers' labors in improving 
the country. Statesmen should have taken 
a broader and more comprehensive view of 
national economy, and a view more in har- 
mony with the divine economy that had 
prepared these vast fertile plains of the 
West for the " homes of men and the seats 
of empire." It was here that new States 
were to be builded up, that should be the 
future strength of the nation against foreign 
invasion or home revolt. A single regi- 
ment of Iowa soldiers during the dark days 
of the Rebellion was worth more to the 
nation than all the money she ever exacted 
from the toil and sweat of Iowa's early 
settlers. Could the statesmen of forty 
years ago have looked forward to this day, 
when Iowa pays her $1,000,000 annually 
into the treasury of the nation for the ex- 
tinction of the national debt, they would 
have realized that the founding of new 
States was a greater enterprise than the re- 
tailing of public lands. 

In January, 1857, another Constitutional 
Convention assembled at Iowa City, which 
framed the present State Constitution. One 
of the most pressing demands for this con- 
vention grew out of the prohibition of 
banks under the old Constitution. The 
practical result of this prohibition was to 
flood the State with every species of " wild- 
cat" currency. 

The new Constitution made ample pro- 
visions for home banks under the super- 
vision of our own laws. The limitation of 
the State debt was enlarged to $250,000, 
and the corporate indebtedness of the cities 



^fiTj g - ' ^l'IgirrsTjgTj'^Cg^^'!!;;!^'!;^^ 




146 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 



merits contained large sums of money, 
mostly individual funds, however. Thus 
Iowa City ceased to be the capital of the 
State, after four Territorial Legislatures, 
six State Legislatures and three Constitu- 
tional Conventions had held their sessions 
there. By the exciiange, the old capitol at 
Iowa City became the seat of the university, 
and, except the rooms occupied by the 
United States District Court, passed under 
the immediate and direct control of the 
trustees of that institution. Des Moines 
was now the permanent seat of govern- 
ment, made so by the fundamental law of 
the State, and January 11, 1858, the Sev- 
enth General Asscmbl}' convened at the 
new capitol. The citizens' association, 
whicli built this temporary building, bor- 
rowed the money of James D. Eads, Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction, and leased 
it to the State. In 1864 the State pur- 
chased the building. At the session of the 
General Assembly in 1858, James W. 
Grimes was elected United States Senator 
as successor to George W. Jones. 

During the years i858-'6o, the Sioux 
Indians became troublesome in the north- 
western part of the State. They made fre- 
quent raids for the purpose of plunder, and 
on several occasions murdered whole fami- 
lies of settlers. In 1861 several companies 
of militia were ordered to that portion of 
the State, to hunt down and expel the 
thieves. No battles were fought. The 
Indians fled as soon as they ascertained 
that systematic measures had been adopted 
for their punishment. 

P.XTRIOTISM. 

The Presidential campaign of i860 was 
the most remarkable and exciting of all in 
the history of Iowa. The fact that civil 
war might be inaugurated and was threat- 
ened, in case Mr. Lincoln was elected, was 
well understood and duly considered. The 
people of Iowa indulged in no feeling of 



hatred or ill-will toward the people of any 
State or section of the Union. There was, 
however, on the part of the majority, a 
cool determination to consider and decide 
upon our national relations to this institu- 
tion of slavery, uninfluenced by an)^ threat 
of violence or civil war. The popular vote 
of Iowa gave Mr. Lincoln 70,409; Stephen 
A. Douglas, 55,011; Breckenridge, 1,048. 

The General Assembly of the State 01 
Iowa, as early as 1851, had by joint resolu- 
tion declared that the State of Iowa was 
" bound to maintain the union of these 
States by all the means in her power." The 
same year the State furnished a block of 
marble for the Washington monument at the 
national capital, and by order of the Gen- 
eral Assembly there was inscribed upon its 
enduring surface the following: " Iowa: 
Her affections, like the rivers of her borders, 
flow to an inseparable Union." The time 
was now approaching in her history when 
these declarations of attachment and fidelity 
to the nation were to be put to a practical 
test. 

The declaration of Mr. Buchanan's last 
annual message, that the nation possessed 
no constitutional power to coerce a seced- 
ing State, \vas received by a great majority 
of our citizens with humiliation and dis- 
trust. Anxiously they awaited theexpiring 
hours of his administration, and looked tc 
the incoming President as to an expected 
deliverer that should rescue the nation 
from the hands of traitors, and the control 
of those whose non-resistance invited her 
destruction. The firing upon the national 
flag at Sumter aroused a burning indigna- 
tion throughout the loyal States of the re- 
public, and nowhere was it more intense 
than in Iowa; and when the proclamation 
of the President was published, April 15, 
1861, calling for 75,000 citizen soldiers to 
" maintain the honor, the integrity, and 
the existence of our national Union, :uid 
the perpetuity of popular govi rnnicnt," 



-■^■■-n«MMMM»-»-M-»«W|,W«W.gM»»,M»B»aM,B»M,l 



H/STORV OF lOU-A. 






M7 



the good people of Iowa were more 
tlian willing to respond to the call. Party 
lines gave wav, and for a while, at least, 
party spirit was hushed, and the cause of 
/;)ur common countr}- was supreme in the 
affections of the people. Peculiarly fort- 
unate were the citizens of Iowa at this 
crisis, in having a truly representative 
man, Samuel J. Kirkwood, as executive 
of tlie State. 

Within thirty days after the date of the 
President's call for troops, the first Iowa 
regiment was mustered into the service of 
the United States, a second regiment was 
in camp ready for the service, and the 
General Assembly of the State was con- 
vened in special session, and had by joint 
resolution solemnly pledged ever}' resource 
of men and money to the national cause. 

The Constitution of Iowa limited the 
State debt to $250,000, except debts con- 
tracted to " repel invasion, suppress insur- 
rection, or defend the State in war." The 
General Assembly authorized a loan of 
$800,000 for a war and defense fund, to be 
expended in organizing, arming, equipping 
and subsisting the militia of the State to 
meet the present and future requisitions of 
the President. Those in power looked to 
the spirit rather than to the letter of the 
Constitution, and acted upon the theor}' 
that to preserve the nation was to pre- 
serve the State, and that to prevent in- 
vasion was the most effectual means of 
repelling it. A few, however, in both 
branches of the General Assembly were 
more careful of the letter of the Constitu- 
tion. Three votes in the Senate and sev- 
enteen in the House were cast against 
the loan bill. These bonds were at 7 per 
cent, interest. Only $300,000 were ever 
issued, and they were purchased and held 
chiefly by our own citizens. At this crisis 
James W. Grimes and James Harlan were 
in the United States Senate, and General 

Samuel R. Curtis and General Vandeverin 
1.3 



the House of Representatives. During the 
first year of the war, Iowa furnished sixteen 
regiments of infantry, six of cavalry and 
three batteries, — in all, 22,000 soldiers. 
Iowa had no refuse population to enlist as 
" food for powder." Her cities contained 
none of that element found about the pur- 
lieus of vice in the great centers uf popu- 
lation. Her contribution to the armies of 
the republic was a genuine offering of 
manhood and patriotism. From her fields, 
her workshops, her counting-houses, her 
offices, and the halls of her schools and 
colleges, she contributed the best muscle, 
sinew and brain of an industrious, enter- 
prising and educated people. The first 
regiment of Iowa soldiers fought the bat- 
tle of Wilson's Creek after their term of 
enlistment had expired, and after they were 
entitled to a dischai-ge. They were citi- 
zen soldiers, each of whom had a personal 
interest in the struggle. It was to them no 
question of enlistment, of bounty or of pay. 
When the gallant General L3'on placed 
himself at their head, and told them that 
the honor of Iowa and of the nation was in 
their hands, he addressed men who knew 
what the appeal meant, and to whom such 
an appeal was never made in vain. 

At the fall election of 1861, party spirit 
had revived; and the contest for the control 
of the State administration was warm and 
earnest. Dissensions arose in both parties 
but the election resulted in a majority of 
16,600 votes for Kirkwood, who was thus 
retained as Governor of Iowa. In 1863 
the Republicans elected their cantlidate 
for Governor, William M. Stone, by a ma- 
jority of 29,000. 

Meanwhile the General Assembly had 
passed a law authorizing the " soldiers' 
vote," that is, citizens of the State in the 
volunteer military service of the United 
States, whether within or without the limits 
of the State, were authorized to open a poll 
on the dav of the election, and to make re- 



1 1 






■n-m-W 



I4S 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 



turn of their votes to the proper civil au- 
thorities. In the Presidental contest of 
1864 the popular vote at home was as 
follows: Lincoln, 72,122; McClellan, 47,- 
703. The soldier vote returned was: Lin- 
coln, 16,844; McClellan, 1,883. 

The General Assembly did all in its 
power to encourage enlistment and to pro- 
tect the soldiers in the field and their fami- 
lies at home. Statutes were enacted sus- 
pending all suits against soldiers in the 
service, and all writs of execution or attach- 
ment against their propertv; and county 
boai^ds of supervisois were authorized to 
vote bounties for enlistments, and pecuni- 
ary aid to the families of those in the serv- 
ice. The spirits of our people rose and 
fell, according to the success of the Union 
armies. One day the bells rung out with 
joy for the surrender of Vicksburg, and 
again the air seemed full of heaviness be- 
cause of our defeats on the Peninsula; but 
through all these dark and trying days, the 
faith of the great majoritv never wavered. 

The Emancipation Proclamation of the 
President was to them an inspiration of a 
new hope. 

In the Adjutant's department at Des 
Moines are preserved the shot-riddled col- 
ors and standards of Iowa's regiments. 
Upon them, by special authority, were 
inscribed from time to time during the war 
the names of the battle-fields upon which 
these regiments gained distinction. These 
names constitute the geographical nomen- 
clature of two-thirds of the territoi"y lately 
in rebellion. From the Des Moines River 
to the Gulf, from the Mississippi to the 
Atlantic, in the Mountains of West Virginia 
and in the valley of the Shenandoah, the 
Iowa soldier made his presence known and 
felt, and maintained the honor of the State, 
and the cause of the nation. They were 
with Lyon at Wilson's Creek; with Tuttle 
at Donelson. They fought with Sigcl and 
with Curtis at Pea Ridge; with Crocker 



at Champion Hills; with Reid at Shiloh. 
They were with Grant at the surrender of 
Vicksburg. They fought above the clouds 
with Hooker at Lookout Mountain. The\- 
were with Sherman in his march to the sea, 
and were ready for battle when Johnston 
surrendered. They were with Sheridan in 
the valley of the Shenandoah, and were in 
the veteran ranks of the nation's deliverers 
that stacked their arms in the national cap- 
itol at the close of the war. 

The State furnished to the armies of the 
republic, during the war, over 70,000 men, 
and 20,000 of these perished in battle or 
from diseases contracted in the service. 

We append here a brief notice of each 
regiment : 

The First Regiment was organized under 
the President's first call for three-months 
volunteers, with John Francis Bates, of Du- 
buque, as Colonel. It comprised various 
independent military companies that had 
been organized before the war, who ten- 
dered their services even before the break- 
ing out of hostilities. The)' were mustered 
in May 14, and first saw service under 
General L\on in Missouri. 

Second Infantry; Samuel R. Curtis, of 
Keokuk, Colonel. This was the first three- 
years regiment, and made a most distin- 
guished record throughout the South, go- 
ing with Sherman to the sea, returning 
through the Carolinas, etc. After the 
battle at Fort Donelson, the unenthusiastic 
General Halleck pronounced this regiment 
" the bravest of the brave." 

Third Infantry; Nelson G. Williams, of 
Dubuque County, Colonel. Veteranized 
in 1864, but before the new officers received 
their commissions the regiment fought itself 
out of existence at the battle of Atlanta ! 

Fourth Infantry ; G. M. Dodge, of Coun- 
cil Bluffs, Colonel. Engaged in the prin- 
cipal battles of the South. 

Fifth Infantry; William H. Worthington, 
of Keokuk, Colonel; 180 veteranized in 



■■■■■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■■ ■ ■ ■ - ■ ■ ■ ■■■■■M»«».ia»a i » «i « 1 i W r. « » » B. » « W a " « l »«»»» »U i « W - W i H- P « M « » « M « W «M i 









/I* . 



IIISTORT OF IOWA. 



149 



1864 and were transferred to the Fifth 
Cavalry. 

Sixth Infantry ; John A. McDowell, of 
Keokuk, Colonel. Engaged faithfully in 
many of the prominent battles. 

Seventh Infantry ; J. G. Lauman, of Bur- 
lington, Colonel. It lost 227 at the single 
battle of Belmont. 

Eighth Infantry ; Frederick Steele, of the 
regular army. Colonel. Most of this com- 
mantl suffered in rebel prisons for eight 
months. Was on duty in Alabama nearly 
a year after the collapse of the Rebellion. 

Ninth Infantry ; William Vandever, of 
Dubuque, Colonel. Was in almost ever}- 
Southern State, traveling altogether 10,000 
miles; marched more than 4,000 miles! 

Tenth Infantrv ; Nicholas Persczel, of 
Davenport, Colonel. Fought mainly in 
Mississippi; losing half its number at the 
battle of Champion Hills alone ! 

Eleventh Infantry ; A. M. Hare, of Mus- 
catine, Colonel. Served mainly in the in- 
terior of the South, doing as valiant service 
as anjr other regiment. 

Twelfth Infantry ; J. J. Wood, of Maquo- 
keta. Colonel. In rebel prisons eight 
months. Veteranized January 4, 1864, a 
larger proportion of the men re-enlisting 
than from any other Iowa regiment. Served 
for several months after the close of the 
war. 

Thirteenth Infantry; M. M. Crocker, of 
Des Moines, Colonel. Fought in the South- 
ern interior and made the famous round 
with Sherman to the sea, being the first to 
enter Columbia, South Carolina, where se- 
cession had its rise. 

Fourteenth Infantry; William T. Shaw, 
of Anamosa, Colonel. Nearly all captured 
at Shiloh, but were released after a few 
months. Engaged in some of the severest 
contests. 

Fifteenth Infantry; Hugh T. Reid, of 
Keokuk, Colonel. Served three and a half 
years in the heart of the Rebellion.- 



Sixteenth Infantry ; Alex. Chambers, of 
the regular army. Colonel. Bravely served 
throughout the South. 

Seventeenth Infantry; John W. Rankin, 
of Keokuk, Colonel. Served in the in- 
terior of the South. 

Eighteenth Infantry; John Edwards, of 
Chariton, Colonel. Much of its time was 
spent in garrison duty. 

Nineteenth Infantry ; Benjamin Crabb, 
of Washington, Colonel. Served mainly in 
Mississippi. Were prisoners of war about 
ten months. 

Twentieth Infantrv, comprismg five com- 
panies each from Scott and Linn counties, 
who vied with each other in patriotism; 
William M. Dye, of Marion, Colonel. En- 
gaged mainly on the Gulf coast. 

Twenty-first Infantry ; ex-Governor Sam- 
uel Merrill, Colonel. Distinguished in val- 
iant service throughout the South. See 
Twenty-third Regiment. 

Twenty-second Infantry ; William M. 
Stone, of Knoxville, since Governor of the 
State, was Colonel. Did excellent service, 
all the way from Mississippi to old Virginia. 

Twenty-third Infantry ; William Dewey, 
of Fremont County, Colonel. Its services 
were mainly in Mississippi. At Black River 
but a few minutes were required in carr}'- 
ing the rebel works, but those few minutes 
were fought with fearful loss to the troops. 
The Twent3'-first also participated in this 
daring assault, and immediately after the 
victory was gained General Lawler passed 
down the line and joyfully seized every man 
by the hand, so great was his emotion. 

Twenty-fourth Infantry ; the " Iowa 
Temperance Regiment," was raised b)' 
Eber C. Byam, of Linn County. Engaged 
mainly in the Lower Mississippi Valle}'. 

Twenty-fifth Infantry ; George A. Stone, 
of Mt. Pleasant, Colonel. "To the sea." 

Twentv-sixth Infantry; Milo Smith, of 
Clinton, Colonel. Took part in many great 
battles. 









i 

■ r 






'1.5, . 






'It. 



mWjm! 



^50 



HISTOnr OF IOWA. 



Twenty-seventh Infantry ; James I. Gil- 
bert, of Lansing, Colonel. On duty all the 
way from Minnesota to the Gulf of Mexico. 

Twenty-eighth Infantry ; William E. 
Miller, of Iowa City, Colonel. Service, in 
the region of the Lower Mississippi. 

Twenty-ninth Infantry ; Thomas H. Ben- 
ton, Jr., of Council Bluffs, Colonel. Sta- 
tioned in Arkansas. 

Thirtieth Infantry ; Charles B. Abbott, 
of Louisa County, Colonel. In the thickest 
of the war, coming home loaded with 
honors. 

Thirty-first Infantry ; William Smyth, of 
Marion, Colonel. Returned from its many 
hard-fought battles in the interior of the 
South with only 370 men out of 1,000 en- 
listed. 

Thirty-second Infantry; John Scott, of 
Nevada, Colonel. Engaged in a number of 
battles. 

Thirty -third Infantry ; Samuel A. Rice, 
a popular politician of Central Iowa, Colo- 
nel. Served from Arkansas to Alabama. 

Thirty-fourth Infantry; George W.Clark, 
of Indianola, Colonel. Traveled 15,000 
miles in its service ! 

Thirty-fifth Infantry ; S. G. Hill, of Mus- 
catine, Colonel. Served bravely in a dozen 
battles, and traveled 10,000 miles. 

Thirty-sixth Infantry ; Charles W. Kitt- 
redge, of Ottumwa, Colonel. Suffered a 
great deal from sickness— small-pox, measles, 
malaria, etc. 

Thirty-seventh Infantry, the "Gray- 
Beard Regiment," being composed of men 
over forty-five years of age, and was the 
only one of its kind in the war. Garrison 
and post duty. 

Thirty-eighth Infantry; D. II. Hughes, 
of Decorah, Colonel. Most unfortunate of 
all in respect of sickness, 300 dying during 
tiie first two years. 

Tiiirty-ninth Infantry; H. J. B. Cum- 
mings, of Winterset, Colonel. One of the 
most distinguished regiments in the field. 



Fortieth Infantry ; John A. Garrett, of 
Newton, Colonel. 

Forty-first Infantr}- was not completed, 
and the three companies raised for it were 
attached to the Seventh Cavalry. 

There were no regiments numbered 
Forty-second or Forty-third. 

Forty-fourth Infantry for 100 da3's; 
Stephen H. Henderson, Colonel. Garrison 
duty in Tennessee. 

Forty-fifth Infantry, lor 100 days; A. H. 
Bereman, of Mt. Pleasant, Colonel. Garri- 
son dut}- in Tennessee. 

Forty -sixth Infantry, for 100 days; D. B. 
Henderson, of Clermont, Colonel. Garri- 
son duty in Tennessee. 

Forty-seventh Infantry, for 100 days; 
James P. Sanford, of Oskaloosa, Colonel. 
Stationed at the sickly place of Helena, 
Arkansas. 

Forty-eighth Infantry (battalion), for 100 
days; O. H. P. Scott, of Farmington, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel. Guarded prisoners on Rock 
Island. 

First Cavalry ; Fitz Henry Warren, of 
Burlington, Colonel. Served for three 
years, mainly along the Lower Mississippi. 

Second Cavalry ; W. L. Elliott, a Cap- 
tain in the Third Cavalry of the regular 
army, Colonel. Fought faithfully in many 
important battles in Tennessee and Missis- 
sippi. 

Third Cavalry ; Cyrus Bussey, of Broom- 
field, Colonel. Distinguished in war. 

Fourth Cavalry; A. B. Porter, of Mt. 
Pleasant, Colonel. Participated with zeal 
and judgment in the hottest of battles in 
Tennessee and Mississippi. 

Fifth Cavalry, only in part an Iowa regi- 
ment; William W. Lowe, of the regular 
army. Colonel. Distinguished in the hotly 
contested battles of Tennessee antl vicinit}'. 
Sixth Cavalry; D. S. Wilson, of Du- 
buque, Colonel. Served against the In- 
dians. 

Seventh Cavalry ; S. W. Summers, of 



— \i 



lUSTORV OF IOWA. 



Ottumwa, Colonel. Served against the 
Indians. 

Eighth Cavalry ; Joseph B. Dorr, of Du- 
buque, Colonel. Served faithfully in guard- 
ing Sherman's communications, etc. 

Ninth Cavalry ; M. M. Trumbull, of 
Cedar Falls, Colonel. Scouting, guard and 
garrison duties in Arkansas. 

First Battery of Light Artillery; C. H. 
Fletcher, of Burlington, Captain. Served 
in Arkansas and Tennessee. 

Second Battery ; Nelson I. Spoor, of 
Council Bluffs, Captain. Engaged at Farm- 
ington, Corinth and other places. 

Third Battery ; M. M. Hayden, of Du- 
buque, Captain. Engaged at Pea Ridge, 
and in other important battles. 

Fourth Battery ; on duty most of the 
time in Louisiana. 

Iowa Regiment of Colored Troops ; John 
G. Hudson, of Missouri, Colonel. Garrison 
duty at St. Louis and elsewhere. 

Northern Border Brigade ; James A. 
Sawyer, of Sioux City, Colonel. Protected 
the Northwestern frontier. 

Southern Border Brigade ; protected the 
southern border of the State. 

The following promotions were made by 
the United States Government from Iowa 
regiments : To the rank of Major-General 
— Samuel R.Curtis, Frederick Steele, Frank 
J. Herron and Grenville INI. Dodge ; to that 
of Brigadier-General — Jacob G. Lauman, 
James M. Tattle, W. L. Elliott, Fitz Henry 
Warren, Charles L. Matthies, William Van- 
dever, M. M. Crocker, Hugh T. Reid, 
Samuel A. Rice, John M. Corse, Cyrus 
Bussey, Edward Hatch, Elliott W. Rice, 
William W. Belknap, John Edwards, James 
A. Williamson, James I. Gilbert and Thomas 
J. McKean ; Corse, Hatch, Belknap, Elliott 
and Vandever were brevetted Major- 
Generals ; brevetted Brigadier-Generals — 
William T. Clark, Edward F. Winslow, S. 
G. Hill, Thomas H. Benton, S. S. Glasgow, 
Weaver, Francis M. Drake, 



George A. Stone, Datus E. Coon, George 
W. Clark, Herman H. Heath, J. M. Hed- 
rick and W. W. Lowe. 

IOWA SINCE THE WAR. 

The two principal events (A political in- 
terest in this State since the war have been 
the popular contests concerning woman 
suffrage and the liquor traffic. In the 
popular elections the people gave a ma- 
jority against the former measure, but in 
favor of prohibiting the sale or manufact- 
ure of intoxicating liquors. 

A list of State officers to date is given on 
a subsequent page. The last vote for 
Governor, October 9, 1883, stood as fol- 
lows: For Buren R. Sherman, Republican, 
164,141 ; L. G. Kinne, Democrat, 140,032, 
and James B. Weaver, National Green- 
back, 23,093. 

STATE INSTITUTIONS. 

The present capitol building is a beauti- 
ful specimen of modern architecture. Its 
dimensions are, in general, 246 x 364 feet, 
with a dome and spire extending up to a 
height of 275 feet. In 1870 the General 
Assembly made an appropriation, and pro- 
vided for the appointment of a board of com- 
missioners to commence the work of build- 
ing. They were dulv appointed and pro- 
ceeded to work, laying the corner-stone with 
appropriate ceremonies, November 23, 1871. 
The structure is not yet completed. When 
finished it will have cost about $3,500,000. 

The State University, at Iowa City, was 
estaltlished there in 1858, immediately after 
the removal of the capital to Des Moines. 
As had alread}' been planned, it occupied 
the old capitol building. As early as Janu- 
ary, 1849, two branches of the university 
were established — one at Fairfield and one 
at Dubuque. At Fairfield, the board of 
directors organized and erected a building 
at a cost of $2,500. This was nearly de- 
stroyed by a hurricane the following year, 



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HISTORY OF IOWA. 



^ 



but was rebuilt more substantially by the 
citizens of Fairfield. This branch never 
received any aid from the State, and Janu- 
ar}"^ 24, 1853, at the request of the board, 
the General Assembly terminated its rela- 
tion to the State. The branch at Dubuque 
had only a nominal existence 

By act of Congress, approved July 20, 
1840, two entire townsliips of land were 
set apart in this State for the support of a 
university. The Legislature of this State 
placed the management of this institution 
in the hands of a board of fifteen trustees, 
five to be chosen (by the Legislature) every 
two years, the superintendent of public 
instruction to be president of the board. 
This board was also to appoint seven trus- 
tees for each of the three normal schools, to 
be simultaneously established — one each 
at Andrew, Oskaloosa and Mt. Pleasant. 
One was never started at the last-named 
place, and after a feeble existence for a 
short time the other two were discontin- 
ued. The university itself was closed dur- 
ing i85g-'6o, for want of funds. 

The law department was established in 
June, 1868, and soon afterward the Iowa 
Law School at Des Moines, which had been 
in successful operation for three years, was 
transferred to Iowa City and merged in the 
department. The medical d epartment was 
established in 1869; and in 1874 a chair of 
military instruction was added. 

Since April 11, 1870, the government of 
the university has been in the hands of a 
board of regents. The present faculty 
comprises forty-two professors, and the 
attendance 560 students. 

The State Normal School is located at 
Cedar Falls, and was opened in 1876. It 
has now a faculty of nine members, with an 
attendance of 301 pupils. 

The State Agricultural College is located 
at Ames, in Story County, being established 
by the legislative act of March 23, 1858. 
In 1862 Cf)ngress granted to Iowa 240,000 



acres of land for the endowment of schools 
of agriculture and the mechanic arts. The 
main building was completed in 1868, and 
the institution opened the following year. 
Tuition is free to pupils from the State 
over sixteen years of age. The college 
farm comprises 860 acres, of which a major 
portion is in cultivation. Professors, twen- 
ty-two; scholars, 319. 

The Deaf and Dumb Institute was estab- 
lished in 1855, 'It Iowa City, but was after- 
ward removed to Council Bluffs, to a tract- 
of ninety acres of land two miles south of 
that city. In October, 1870, the main build- 
ing and one wing were completed and 
occupied. In February, 1877, fire destroyed 
the main building and east wing, and dur- 
ing the summer following a tornado par- 
tially demolished the west wing. It is at 
present (1885) manned with fifteen teachers, 
and attended by 292 pupils. 

The College for the Blind has been at Vin- 
ton since 1862. Prof. Samuel Bacon, himself 
blind, a fine scholar, who had founded the 
Institution for the Blind, at Jacksonville, 
Illinois, commenced as early as 1852 a school 
of instruction at Keokuk. The next year 
the institution was adopted by the State 
and moved to Iowa City, with Prof. Bacon 
as principal. It was moved thence, in 1862, 
to Vinton. The building was erected and 
the college manned at vast expenditure of 
money. It is said that $282,000 were ex- 
pended upon the building alone, and that it 
required an outlay of $5,000 a year to heat 
it, while it had accommodations for 130 in- 
mates. At present, however, they have 
accommodations for more pupils, with an 
attendance of 132. There are eleven teach- 
ers. The annual legislative appropriation 
is $8,000, besides $128 per year for each 
pupil. 

The first Iowa Hospital for the Insane 
was established by an act of the Legislature 
approved January 24, 1S55. It is located at 
Mt. Pleasant, where the buildin<r was com- 




lUSTORV OF IOWA. 



I. S3 



pleted in 1861, at a cost of $258,555. Within 
the first three montlis 100 patients were ad- 
mitted, and before the close of October, 
1877, an aggregate of 3,684 had been ad- 
mitted. In April, 1876, a portion of tlie 
building was destroyed by fire. At this in- 
stitution there are now ninet^'-four superin- 
tendents and assistants, in charge of 472 
patients. 

Another Hospital for tiie Insane, at Inde- 
pendence, was opened May i, 1873, in a 
building which cost $88,114. The present 
number of inmates is 580, in the care of 1 1 1 
superintendents and employes. 

The Soldiers' Orphans' Home is located at 
Davenport. It was origmated by Mrs. Annie 
Wittenmeyer, during the late war, who 
called a convention for the purpose at Mus- 
catine, September 7, 1863, and uly 13 fol- 
lowing the institution was opened m a brick 
building at Lawrence, Van Buren County. 
It was sustained by voluntary contributions 
until 1866, when the State took charge of 
it. The Legislature provided at "first for 
three " homes." The one in Cedar Falls 
was organized in 1S65, an old hotel build- 
ing being fitted up for it, and by the follow- 
ing January there were ninety-six inmates. 
In October, 1869, the Home was removed 
to a large brick building about two miles 
west of Cedar Falls, and was very prosper- 
ous for several years; but in 1876 the Leg- 
islature devoted this building to the State 
Normal School, and the buildings and 
grounds of the Soldiers' Orphans' Home 
at Glenwood, Mills County, to an institution 
for the support of feeble-minded children, 
and also provided for the removal of the 
soldiers' orphans at the Glenwood and 
Cedar Falls homes to the institution at 
Davenport. The latter has now in charge 
169 orphans. 

The Asylum for Feeble-Minded Children, 
referred to above, is at Glenwood, estab- 
lished by the Legislature in March, 1876. 
The institution was opened September i, 



following, with a few pupils ; but now the 
attendance is 215, in the care of four teach- 
ers. This asylum is managed by three trus- 
tees, one of whom must be a resident of that 
county. Mills. 

The first penitentiary was established in 
1 841, near Fort Madison, its present loca- 
tion. The cost of the original building was 
§55,934, and its capacity was sufficient for 
1 38 convicts. At present there are at this 
prison 364 convicts, in charge of forty-three 
employes. 

The penitentiary at Anamosa was estab- 
lished in i872-'3. It now has 239 convicts 
and thirty-four employes. 

The boys' reform school was permanently 
located at Eldora, Hardin County, in 1872. 
For the three years previous it was kept at 
the building of the Iowa Manual Labor In- 
stitute at Salem, Henry Count}-. Only 
boys between seven and sixteen years of 
age are admitted. Credit of time for good 
conduct is given, so that occasionally one 
is discharged before he is of age. There 
are now (1885) 201 pupils here. 

The "girls' department" is at Mitchell- 
ville, similarly managed. Inmates, eight}'- 
three. 

The State Historical Scjciet}- is in part 
supported by the State, the Governor ap- 
pointing nine of the eighteen curators. 
This society was provided for in connection 
with the University, by legislative act of 
January 28, 1857, ^'^^^ ^'^ ^^^ published a 
series of valuable collections, and a large 
number of finely engraved portraits of 
prominent and early settlers. 

The State Agricultural Society is con- 
ducted under the auspices of the vState, and 
is one of the greatest promoters of the 
welfare of the people among all the State 
organizations. It holds an annual fair at 
Des Moines, and its proceedings are also 
published annually, at the expense of the 
State. 



The Fish-Hatching House has been sue- 



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HISTORT OF IOWA. 



cessfuUy carrying on its good work since 
its establishment in 1874, near Anamosa. 
Three fish commissioners are appointed, 
one for each of the three districts into whicii 
the State is for the purpose divided. 

The State Board of Health, establisiictl 
in 1880, has an advisory supervision, and to 
a limited extent also a police supervision, 
over the health of the people.^especially 
with reference to the abatement of those 
nuisances that are most calculated to pro- 
mulgate dangerous and contagious diseases. 
Their publications, which are made at the 
expense of the State, should be studied by 
every citizen 

EDUCATIONAL. 

The germ of the free public school sys- 
tem of Iowa, which now ranks second to 
none in the United States, was planted by 
the first settlers, and in no other public 
measure have the people ever since taken 
so deep an interest. They have expanded 
and improved their original system until 
now it is justly considered one of the most 
complete, comprehensive and liberal in the 
country. 

Nor is this to be wondered at when it is 
remembered that humble log school-houses 
were built almost as soon as the log cabins 
of the earliest settlers were occupied, and 
schoolteachers were among the first im- 
migrants to Iowa. Schools, therefore, the 
people have'had everywhere from the start, 
and tlie school-houses, in their character and 
accommodations, have kept fully abreast 
with the times. 

The first school-house within the limits 
of Iowa was a log cabin at Dubuque, built by 
J. L. Langworthy and a few other miners, 
in the autumn of 1833. When it was com- 
pleted George Cabbage was employed as 
teacher during the winter of 1833-4, thirty- 
five pupils attending his school. Barrett 
Whittemore taught the next school term, 
with twent3^-five pupils in attendance. Mrs. 
Caroline Dexter commenced teaching in 



Dubuque in March, 1S36. She was the first 
female teacher there, and probably the first 
in Iowa. In 1839 Thomas H. Beaton, Jr., 
afterward for ten years Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, opened an English and 
classical school in Dubuque. The first tax 
for the support of schools at DLibuquc was 
levied in 1840. 

At Burlington a commodious log school- 
house, built in 1834, was among the first 
buildings erected. A Mr. Johnson taught 
the first school in the winter of i834-'5. 

In Muscatine County, the first school was 
taught by George Bumgardner, in the 
spring of 1837. In 1839 a log school-house 
was erected in Muscatine, which served for 
a long time as school-house, church and 
public hall. 

The first school in Davenport was taught 
in 1838. In Fairfield, Miss Clarissa Sawyer, 
James F. Chambers and Mrs. Reed taught 
school in 1839. 

Johnson County was an entire wilderness 
when Iowa City was located as the capital 
of the Territory of Iowa, in May, 1839. 
The first sale of lots took place August 18, 
1839, ^"d before January i, 1840, about 
twenty families had settled within the limits 
of the town. During the same year Jesse 
Berry opened a school in a small frame 
building he had erected on what is now 
College street. 

In Monroe County, the first settlement 
was made in 1843, by Mr. John R. Gray, 
about two miles from the present site of 
Eddyville; and in the summer of 1844 a log 
school-house was built by Gray, William 
V. Beedle, C. Renfro, Joseph McMullen 
and Willoughby Randolph, and the first 
school was opened by Miss Urania Adams. 
The building was occupied for .school pur- 
poses for nearly ten years. 

About a year after the first cabin was 
built at Oskaloosa, a log school-house was 
built, in which school was opened by Sam- 
uel \V. Caldwell, in 1844. 



■ ■■■ ■ ■ »BBggWa'»ii«w"'«"»"B 



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HISTORY OF IOWA. 



15.S 



At Fort Des Moines, now the capital of 
the State, the first school was taught by 
Lewis Whitten, Clerk of the District Court, 
in the winter of i846-'7, in one of the rooms 
on " Coon Row," built for barracks. 

The first school in Pottawattamie County 
was opened by George Green, a Mormon, 
at Council Point, prior to 1S49; and until 
about 1S54 nearly all the teachers in that 
vicinity were Mormons. 

The first school in Dccorah was taught in 
1855, by Cyrus C. Carpenter, since Go\^- 
ernor of the State. In Crawford County the 
first school-house was built in Mason's 
Grove, in 1856, and Morris McHenry first 
occupied it as teacher. 

During tiie first twenty years of the his- 
tory of Iowa, the log school-house pre- 
vailed, and in 1861 there were 893 of these 
primitive structures in use for school pur- 
poses in the State. Since that time they 
have been gradually disappearing. In 1865 
there were 796; in 1870, 336; and in 1875, 
121. 

In 1846, the year of Iowa's admission as 
a State, there were 20,000 scholars out of 
100,000 inhabitants. About 400 school dis- 
tricts had been organized. In 1850 there 
were 1,200, and in 1857 the number had in- 
creased to 3,265. 

In March, 1858, upon the recommenda- 
tion of Hon. iSI. L. Fisher, then Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction, the seventh 
General Assembly enacted that " each civil 
township is declared a school district," and 
provided that these should be divided into 
sub-districts. This law went into force 
March 20, 1858, and reduced the number of 
school districts from about 3,500 to less than 
900. This change of school organization 
resulted in a very material reduction of the 
expenditures for the compensation of dis- 
trict secretaries and treasurers. An effort 
was made for several years, from 1867 to 
1872, to abolish the sub-district system. 
Mr. Kissell, Superintendent, recommended 

14 



this in his report of January i, 1872, and 
Governor Merrill forcibly endorsed his 
views in his annual message. But the 
Legislature of that year provided for the 
formation of independent districts from the 
sub-districts of district townships. 

The system of graded schools was in- 
augurated in 1849, 'i""^ n^^^' schools, in 
which more than one teacher is employed, 
are universally graded. 

Teachers' institutes were organized early 
in the history of the State. The first offi- 
cial mention of them occurs in the annual 
report of Hon. Thomas H. Benton, Jr., 
made December 2, 1850, who said: "An 
institution of this character was organized 
a few years ago, composed of the teachers 
of the mineral regions of Illinois, Wisconsin 
and Iowa. An association of teachers has 
also been formed in the county of Henry, 
and an effort was made in October last to 
organize a regular institute in the county 
of Jones." 

No legislation, however, was held luitil 
March, 1858, when an act was passed au- 
thorizing the holding of teachers' institutes 
for periods not less than six working days, 
whenever not less than thirty teachers 
siioidd desire. The superintendent was 
authorized to expend not exceeding $100 
for any one institute, to be paid out by the 
county superintendent, as the institute may 
direct, for teachers and lecturers, and $1,- 
000 was appropriated to defray the expenses 
of these institutes. Mr. Fisher at once 
pushed the matter of holding institutes, and 
December 6, 1858, he reported to the Board 
of Education that institutes had been ap- 
pointed in twenty counties within the pre- 
ceding six months, and more would have 
been held but the appropriation had been 
exhausted. At the first session of the Board 
of Education, commencing December 6, 
1858, a code of school laws was enacted, 
which retained the existing provisions for 
teachers' institutes. In March, 1S60, the 



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HISTORY OF IOWA. 



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General Assembly amended the act of the 
board b}- appropriating " a sum not ex- 
ceeding $50 annually for one such institute, 
held as provided by law in each county." 
In 1865 the superintendent, Mr. Faville, re- 
ported that " the provision made by the 
State for the benefit of teachers' institutes 
has never been so fully appreciated, both 
by the people and the teachers, as during 
the last two years." Under this law an in- 
stitute is held annually in each county, 
under the direction of the county superin- 
tendent. 

By an act approved March 19, 1874, nor- 
mal institutes were established in each 
county, to be held annually by the county 
superintendent. This was regarded as a 
very decided step in advance by Mr. Aber- 
nethy, and in 1876 the General Assembly 
established the first permanent State Nor- 
mal School at Cedar Falls, Black Hawk 
County, appropriating the building and 
property of the Soldiers' Orphans Home 
at that place for that purpose. This school 
is now " in the full tide of successful ex- 
periment." 

Funds for the support of the public 
schools are derived in several ways. The 
sixteenth section of every congressional 
township was set apart by the General 
Government for school purposes, being 
one thirty-sixth part of all the lands of the 
State. The minimum price of these lands 
was fixed at $1.25 per acre. Congress also 
made an additional donation to the State of 
500,000 acres, and an appropriation of 5 
per cent, on all the sales of public lands to 
the school fund. The State gives to this 
fund the proceeds of the sales of all lands 
which escheat to it ; the proceeds of all 
fines for the violation of the liquor and 
criminal laws. The money derived from 
these sources constitutes the permanent 
school fund of the State, which cannot be 
diverted to any other purpose. The pen- 
alties collected by the courts for fines and 



forfeitures go to the school fund in the 
counties where collected. The proceeds 
of the sale of lands and the 5 per cent, fund 
go into the State Treasury, and the State 
distributes these proceeds to the several 
counties according to their request. 

In 1844 there were in the State 4,339 
school districts, containing 11,244 schools, 
and employing 21,776 teachers. The aver- 
age monthly pay of male teachers was 
$32.50, and of female teachers $27.25. There 
were 594,730 persons of school age, of whom 
431,513 were enrolled in the public schools. 
The average cost of tuition for each pupil 
per month was $1.62. The expenditures 
for all school purposes was $5,129,819.49. 
The permanent school fund is now $3,547,- 
123.82, on which the income for 1881 was 
$234,622.40. 

Besides the State University, Agricult- 
ural College and Normal School, described 
on preceding pages, ample provision for 
higher education has been made by the 
different religious denominations, assisted 
by local and individual beneficence. There 
are, exclusive of State institutions, twenty- 
three universities and colleges, and one 
hundred and eleven academies and other 
private schools for the higher branches. 
All these are in active operation, and most 
of them stand high. 

Amity College, located at College 
Springs, Page County, has eight instructors 
and two hundred and fort3'-five students. 

Burlington University, eight instructors 
and forty-three pupils. 

Callanan College, at Des Moines, has 
eighteen in the faculty and one hundred 
and twenty students enrolled. 

Central University, at Pella, Marion 
County, is under the auspices of the Baptist 
church, and has eleven in the faculty and 
one hundred and two students. 

Coe College, at Cedar Rapids, has a 
faculty of ten, and an attendance of one 
hundred and ninety-nine. 



Cornell College, Methodist Episcopal, at 
Mt. Vernon, Linn County, has eighteen 
members of the faculty and four hundred 
and seventy-nine scholars. This is a strong 
institution. 

Drake University, at Des Moines, has 
tliirty instructors and three hundred and 
twenty-five pupils. 

Griswold College, at Davenport, is under 
the control of the Episcopal church, and 
has seven instructors and seventy-five stu- 
dents. 

Iowa College, at Grinnell, is pcrmanentl}' 
endowed. Has fourteen instructors anti 
three hundred and eighty-four students. 

Iowa Wesleyan University (Methodist 
Episcopal), at Mt. Pleasant, has six mem- 
bers of the faculty and one hundred and 
seventy-five students. 

Luther College, at Decorah, Winneshiek 
County, has a faculty of ten, and one hun- 
dred and sixty-five pupils. 

Oskaloosa College has a faculty of five, 
and one hundred and thirty-five students. 

Penn College, at Oskaloosa, has a faculty 
of five members, and one hundred and forty 
pupils in attendance. 

Simpson Centenary College, at Indianola, 
Warren County (Methodist Episcopal), has 
a faculty of seven and an attendance of two 
hundred. 

Tabor College, at Tabor, Fremont 
County, modeled after the Oberlin (Ohio) 
College, has twelve members in the faculty 
and an attendance of two hundred and ten 
scholars. 

University of Des Moines has five in- 
structors and fifty pupils. 

Upper Iowa University (Methodist Epis- 
copal), located at Fayette, in Fayette 
County, has eleven instructors and three 
hundred and fifty students. 

Whittier College, at Salem, Henry 
County, is under the auspices of the 
Friends. There are two instructors and 
sixty pupils. 



When Wisconsin Territory was organ- 
ized in 1S36, the entire population of that 
portion of the Territory now embraced in 
the State of Iowa was 10,531. The Terri- 
tory then embraced two counties, Dubuque 
and Des Moines, erected by the Territory 
of Michigan in 1S34. Since then the 
counties have increased to ninety-nine, and 
the population in 1880 was 1,624,463. The 
following table will show the population at 
different periods since the erection of Iowa 
Territory : 



Year. Population 

1S3S 22,589 

1S40 43,115 

1S44 75.i'i2 

1S46 97,5^8 

1847 116,651 

1S49 152,988 

1S50 191,982 

1S51 204,774 

1S52 230,713 

1854 326,013 

1856 5'9.05.S 



Year Population 

1859 638,775 

i860 .. 674,913 

1S63 701,732 

1865 750,699 

1867 902,040 

1S69 1,040,819 

1870 1,191,727 

1873 1.251,333 

1 875 1 366,000 

iSSo 1,624463 



The most populous county is Dubuque — 
42,997. Polk County has 42,395, and Scott, 
41,270. Not only in population, but in 
everything contributing to the growth and 
greatness of a State, has Iowa made rapid 
progress. In a little more than thirty-five 
years its wild but beautiful prairies have 
advanced from the home of the savage to a 
highly civilized commonwealth. 

The first railroad across the State was 
completed to Council Bluffs in January, 
1 87 1. The completion of three others scon 
followed. In 1854 there was not a mile of 
railroad in Iowa. Within the succeeding 
twenty years, 3,765 miles were built and 
put in successful operation. 

The present value of buildings for our 
State ins.titutions is as follows : 



Stale Capitol $2,500,000 

State University. 400,000 
Agricultural Col. 

and Farm 300,000 

Inst, for the Blind 150,000 
Institution for the 

Deaf and Dumb 225,000 



Institutions for the 

Insane $1,149,000 

Orphans' Hume.. 62,000 
Penitentiaries.... 408,000 
Normal School. . 50,000 
Reform School. . 90,000 



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158 



niSTORT OF IOWA. 



The State has never levied more than 
two and one-half mills on the dollar for 
State tax, and this is at present the consti- 
tntional limit. 

Iowa has no State debt. Whatever obli- 
gations have been incurred in the past have 
been promptly met and fully paid. Many 
of the counties are in debt, but only four of 
them to an amount exceeding $100,000 each. 
The bonded debt of the counties amounts 
in the aggregate to $2,592,222, and the float- 
ing debt, $153,456; total, $2,745,678. 

In the language of Judge C. C. Noursc, 
we feel compelled to say : " The great ulti- 
mate fact that America would demonstrate 
is, the existence of a people capable of at- 
taining and preserving a superior civiliza- 
tion, with a government self-imposed, self- 
administered and self-perpetuated. In this 
age of wonderful progress, America can 
exhibit nothing to the world of mankind 
more wonderful or more glorious than her 
new States — young empires, born of her 
own enterprise and tutored at her own 
political hearth-stone. Well may she say 
to the monarchies of the Old World, who 
look for evidence of her regal grandeur 
and state, ' Behold, these are my jewels !' 
and may she never blush to add, ' This one 
in the center of the diadem is Iowa !' " 

PHYSICAL FEATURES. 

Iowa, in the highly figurative and ex- 
pressive language of the aborigines, is said 
to signify " The Beautiful Land," and was 
applied by them to this magnificent section 
of the country between the two great rivers. 

The general shape of the State is that of 
a rectangle, the northern and southern 
boundaries being due east and west lines, 
and its eastern and western boundaries de- 
termined by southerly flowing rivers — the 
Mississippi on the east and the Missouri 
and the Big Sioux on the west. The width 
of the State from north to south is over 200 
miles, being from tiic jiarallel of 43° 30' to 



tliat of 40° 36', or merely three degrees; 
but this does not include the small angle at 
the southeast corner. The length of the 
State from east to west is about 265 miles. 
The area is 55,044 square miles, nearly all 
of which is readily tillable and highly fer- 
tile. 

The State lies wholly within, and com- 
prises a part of a vast plain, and there is no 
mountainous or even hilly country within 
its borders, excepting the bluffs of the larger 
rivers. The highest point is near Spirit 
Lake, and is but 1,200 feet above the lowest, 
which is in the southeast corner, and is 444 
feet above the level of the Gulf of Mexico. 
The average descent per mile between these 
two points is tour feet, and that from Spirit 
Lake to the northeast corner of the State, 
at low-water mark of the Mississippi, is five 
feet five inches. 

It has been estimated that about seven- 
eighths of Iowa was prairie when the white 
race first settled here. It seems to be a set- 
tled point in science that the annual fires of 
the Indians, prevented this western country 
from becoming heavily timbered. 

GEOLOGY. 

Geologists divide the soil of Iowa into 
three general divisions, which not only 
possess different physical characters, but 
also differ in the mode of their origin. 
These are drift, bluff and alluvial and be- 
long respectively to the deposits bearing 
the same names. The drift occupies a 
much larger part of the surface of the State 
than both the others. The bluff has the 
next greatest area of surface. 

All soil is disintegrated rock. The drift 
deposit of Iowa was derived to a consider- 
able extent from the rocks of Minnesota ; 
but the greater part was derived from its 
own rocks, much of which has been trans- 
ported but a short distance. In Northern 
and Northwestern Iowa the drift contains 
more sand and ijravcl than elsewhere. In 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 



159 



Southern Iowa tlie soil is frequently stiff 
and clayey. The bluff soil is found only in 
the western part of the State, and adjacent 
to Missouri River. Although it contains 
less than i per cent, of clay in its com- 
position, it is in no respect inferior to the 
best drift soil. The alluvial soil is that of 
the flood plains of the river valleys, or bot- 
tom lands. That which is periodically 
flooded by the rivers is of little value for 
agricultural purposes ; but a large part of 
it is entirely above the reach of the highest 
flood, and is very productive. 

The stratified rocks of Iowa range from 
the Azoic to the Mesozoic, inclusive ; but 
the greater portion of the surface of the 
State is occupied by those of the Palaeozoic 
a"-e. The table below will show each of 
these formations in their order: 




The Sioux quartzite, in the azoic system, 
is found exposed in natural ledges only 
upon a few acres in the extreme northwest 
corner of the State, upon the banks of the 
Big Sioux River, for which reason the 
specific name of Sioux quartzite has been 
given them. It is an intensely hard rock, 
breaks in splintery fracture, and of a color 
varying, in different localities, from a light 
to deep red. The process of metamorphism 
has been so complete throughout the whole 
formation that the rock is almost every- 
where of uniform texture. The dip is four 
or five degrees to the northward, and the 
trend of the outcrop is eastward and west- 
ward. 

The Potsdam sandstone formation is ex- 
posed only in a small portion of the north- 
eastern part of the State. It is only to be 
seen in the bases of the bluffs and steep 
valley sides which border the river thei-e. 
It is nearly valueless for economic purposes. 
No fossils have been discovered in this for- 
mation in Iowa. 

The Lower Magnesian limestone has but 
little greater geographical extent in Iowa 
than the Pots Jam sandstone. It lacks a 
uniformity of texture and stratification, ow- 
ing to which it is not generally valuable for 
building purposes. 

The St. Peter's sandstone formation is 
remarkably uniform in thickness through- 
out its known geographical extent, and it 
occupies a large portion of the northern 
half of Allamakee County; immediately be- 
neath the drift. 

With the exception of the Trenton lime- 
stone, all the limestones of both Upper and 
Lower Silurian age in Iowa are magnesian 
limestone. This formation occupies large 
portions of Winneshiek and Allamakee 
counties, and a small part of Clayton. The 
greater part of it is useless for economic 
purposes ; but there are some compact, 
even layers that furnish fine material for 
window caps and sills. 



'lal/ 

I 






(i 



'»"»■"" 



£g»i.i^nMm™« 



■ ™cai»M^^M'l 



'■■'■■'■■'■■"■' 



'»M^»»M'»l 



ri-Wig»„CTia«.i.»M»»» 



■■■■■w 



i6o 



HlSTOItl- OF IOWA. 



The Galena limestone is the upper for- 
mation of the Trenton Group. It is 150 
miles long and seldom exceeds twelve miles 
in widtii. It exhibits its greatest develop- 
ment in Dubuque County. It is nearly a 
pure dolomite with a slight admixture of 
silicious matter ; good blocks for dressing 
are sometimes found near the top of the 
bed, although it is usually imfit for such a 
purpose. This formation is the source of 
the lead ore of the Dubuque lead mines. 
The lead region proper is confined to an 
area of about fifteen miles square in the 
vicinity of Dubuque. The ore occurs in 
vertical fissures, which traverse the rock at 
regular intervals from east to west ; some 
is found in those which have a north and 
south direction. This ore is mostly that 
known as galena, or sulphuret of lead, very 
small quantities only of the carbonate being 
found with it. 

The surface occupied b}' the Maquoketa 
shales is more than 100 miles in length, but 
is singularly long and narrow, seldom reach- 
ing moie than a mile or two in width. The 
most northern exposure yet recognized is 
in tlie western part of Winneshiek Count}^, 
wliile the most southerly is in Jackson 
County, in the bluffs of the Mississippi. 
The formation is largely composed of bluish 
and brownish shales, sometimes slightly 
arenaceous, sometimes calcareous, which 
weather into a tenacious clay upon the sur- 
face, and the soil derived from it is usually 
stiff and clayey. 

The area occupied by the Niagara lime- 
stone is forty and fifty miles in width and 
nearly 160 miles long from north to south. 
This formation is entirely a magnesian lime- 
stone, with a considerable portion of sili- 
cious matter, in some ])laces, in the form of 
chert or coarse flint. A large part of it 
probably affords the best and greatest 
amount of cpiarry rock in the State. The 
cpiarrics at Anamosa, Le Claire and Farle}' 
are all opened in this lurniatioii. 



The area of surface occupied by the 
Hamilton limestone and shales, is as great 
as those by all the formations of both Upper 
and Lower Silurian age in the State. Its 
length is nearly 200 miles, and width from 
forty to fifty. Portions of it are valuable 
for economic purposes ; and, having a large 
geographical extent in the State, is a very 
important formation. Its value for the pro- 
duction of hydraulic lime has been demon- 
strated at Waverly, Bremer County. The 
heavier and more uniform magnesian beds 
furnish material for bridge piers and other 
material requiring strength and durability. 
A coral occurs near Iowa City, known as 
" Iowa City marble" and " bird's-eye mar- 
ble." 

Of the three groups of formations that 
constitute the carboniferous, viz., the sub- 
carboniferous, coal measures and Permian, 
only the first two are found in Iowa. 

The Subcarboniferous group occupies a 
very large area of surface. Its eastern 
border passes from the northeastern part of 
Winnebago County, with considerable di- 
rectness in a scnitheasterly direction to the 
northern part of Washington County. It 
then makes a broad and direct bend nearly 
eastward, striking the Mississippi at Mus- 
catine. The southern and western bound- 
aries are to a considerable extent the same 
as that which separates it from the real 
field. From the southern part of Poca- 
hontas County it passes southeast to Fort 
Dodge, thence to Webster City, thence to 
a point three or four miles northeast of El- 
dora, in Hardin County, tiience southward 
to the middle of the north line of Jasper 
County, thence southeastward to Sigour- 
nev, in Keokuk County, thence to the north- 
eastern corner of Jefferson County, thence 
sweeping a few miles eastward to the south- 
east corner of Van Buren County. Its arc 
is about 250 miles long and from twenty to 
fift\- miles wide. 

The most southerly exiiosurc nl the Kin- 









HIS TORT OF IOWA. 



i6i 



derhook beds is in Des Moines County, 
near the mouth of Skunk River. The most 
northerly now known is in the eastern part 
of Pocahontas County, more than 200 miles 
distant. The principal exposures of this 
formation are along the bluffs which border 
the Mississippi and Skunk rivers, where 
they form the eastern and northern bound- 
ary of Des Moines County; along English 
River, in Washington County ; along the 
Iowa River, in Tama, Marshall, Hamlin 
and Franklin counties, and along the Des 
Moines River, in Humboldt County. This 
formation has a considerable economic 
value, particularly in the northern portion 
of the region it occupies. In Pocahontas 
and Humboldt counties it is invaluable, as 
no other stone except a few boulders are 
found here. At Iowa Falls the lower 
division is very good for building purposes. 
In Marshall County all the limestone to be 
obtained comes from this formation, and 
the quarries near Le Grand are very valu- 
able. At this point some of the layers are 
finely veined with peroxide of iron, and are 
wrought into both useful and ornamental 
objects. In Tama Count}- the oolitic mem- 
ber is well exposed, where it is manufact- 
ured into lime. Upon exposure to atmos- 
phere and frost it crumbles to pieces ; 
consequently it is not valuable for building 
purposes. 

The Burlington limestone is carried down 
by the southerly dip of the Iowa rocks, so 
that it is seen for the last time in this State 
in the valley of Skunk River, near the 
southern boundary of Des Moines County ; 
it has been recognized in the northern part 
of Washington County, which is the most 
northerly point that it has been found ; but 
it probably exists as far north as Marshall 
County. Much valuable material is afforded 
by this formation for economic purposes. 
The upper division furnishes excellent com- 
mon quarry rock. Geologists are attracted 
by the great abundance and variety of its 



fossils — crinoids — now known to be more 
than 300. 

The Keokuk limestone formation is to be 
seen only in four counties : Lee, Van Buren, 
Henry and Des Moines. In some localities 
the upper silicious portion is known as the 
Geode bed ; it is not recognizable in the 
northern portion of the formation, nor in 
connection with it where it is exposed, 
about eighty miles below Keokuk. The 
geodes of the Geode bed are more or less 
masses of silex, usually hollow and lined 
with cr3-stals of quartz ; the outer crust is 
rough and unsightly, but the crystals which 
stud the interior are often very beautiful ; 
they vary in size from the size of a walnut 
to a foot in diameter. This formation is of 
great economic value. Large quantities 
of its stone have been used in the finest 
structures in the State, among which are 
the postoffices at Dubuque and Des Moines. 
The principal quarries are along the banks 
of the Mississippi, from Keokuk to Nauvoo. 

The St. Louis limestone is the uppermost 
of the subcarboniferous group in Iowa. It 
occupies a small superficial area, consisting 
of long, narrow strips, yet its extent is very 
great. It is first seen resting on the Geode 
division of the Keokuk limestone, near Keo- 
kuk ; proceeding northward, it forms a 
narrow border along the edge of the coal 
fields in Lee, Des Moines, Henry, Jeffer- 
son, Washington, Keokuk and Mahaska 
counties; it is then lost sight of until it 
appears again in the banks of Boone River, 
where it again passes out of view under the 
Coal Measures, until it is next seen in the 
banks of the Des Moines, near Fort Dodge. 
As it exists in Iowa, it consists of three 
tolerably distinct sub-divisions : The mag- 
nesian, arenaceous and calcareous. The 
upper division furnishes excellent material 
for quicklime, and when quarries are well 
opened, as in the northwestern part of Van 
Buren County, large blocks are obtained. 
The sandstone, or middle division, is of 



1 62 



HISTORT OF IOWA. 



little value. The lower, or inagnesiaii di- 
vision, furnishes a valuable and durable 
stone, exposures of which are found on Lick 
Creek, in Van Buren County, and on Long 
Creek, seven miles west of Burlington. 

The Coal Measure group is properly 
divided into three formations, viz.: The 
Lower, Middle and Upper Coal Measures, 
each having a vertical thickness of about 
200 feet. The Lower Coal Measures exist 
eastward and northward of the Dcs Moines 
River, and also occupy a large area west- 
ward and southward of that river, but their 
southerly dip passes them below the Middle 
Coal Measures at no great distance from 
the river. This formation possesses greater 
economic value than any other in the whole 
State. Tiie cla^- that underlies almost every 
bed of coal furnishes a large amount of ma- 
terial for potter's use. The sandstone of 
these measures is usually soft and unfit, but 
in some places, as in Red Rock in Marion 
County, blocks of large dimensions are ob- 
tained, which make good building material, 
samples of which can be seen in the State 
Arsenal, at Des Moines. 

The Upper Coal Measures occupy a 
very large area, coniprismg thirteen whole 
counties, in the southwestern part of the 
State. By its northern and eastern bound- 
aries it adjoins the area occupied by the 
Middle Coal Measures. 

The next strata in the geological series 
are of the Cretaceous age. They are found 
in tlic western half of the State, and do not 
dip, as do all the other formations upon 
wiiich they rest, to the southward and west- 
ward, but have a general dip of their own 
to the north of westward, which, however, 
is very slight. vVlthough the actual e.v- 
posuresof cretaceous rocks are few in Iowa, 
there is reason to believe that nearly all the 
western half of the State was originally 
occupied by them ; but they have been 
removed by denudation, which has taken 
place at two separate periods. 



The Nishnabotany sandstone has the most 
easterly and southerly extent of the cre- 
taceous deposits of Iowa, reaching the 
southeastern part of Guthrie County and 
the southern part of Montgomery County. 
To the northward, it passes beneath the 
Woodbury sandstones and shales, the latter 
passing beneath the chalky beds. This 
sandstone is, with few exceptions, valueless 
for economic purposes. 

Tiie chalk}- beds rest upon the Wood- 
bury sandstone and shales. They have not 
been observed in Iowa exce]it in the bluffs 
which bcirdcr the Big Sioux River in Wood- 
bury and Plymouth counties. Tiie}- are 
composed almost entirel}' of calcareous ma- 
terial, the upper portion of which is exten- 
sively used for lime. No building material 
can be obtained from these beds, and the 
only value they possess, except lime, are 
the marls, which at some time may be use- 
ful on the soil of the adjacent region. 

Extensive beds of peat exist in Northern 
Middle Iowa, which, it is estimated, contain 
the following areas: Cerro Gordo Count}', 
1,500 acres; Worth, 2,000; Winnebago, 2,- 
000; Hancock, 1,500; Wright, 500; Kos- 
suth, 700; Dickinson, 80. Several other 
counties contain peat beds, but the peat is 
inferior to that in the northern part of the 
State. The beds are of an average depth 
of four feet. It is estimated that each acre 
of these beds will furnish 250 tons of dry 
fuel for each foot in depth. At present 
this peat is not utilized ; but owing to its 
great distance from the coal fields and the 
absence of timber, the time is coming when 
its value will be fully realized. 

The only sulphate of the alkaline earths 
of any economic value is gypsum, and it 
may be found in the vicinity of Fort Dodge 
in Webster County. The deposit occupies 
a nearly central position in the county, the 
Des Moines River running nearly centrally 
through it, along the valley sides of which 
the gvpsuni is seen in the form of oidinary 



HISTORT OF /OirA. 



i<^3 



rock cliff and ledges, and also occiuring 
abundantly in similar positions along both 
sides of the valleys of the smaller streams 
and of the numerous ravines coming into 
the river valley. The most northerly known 
limit of the deposit is at a point near the 
mouth of Lizard Creek, a tributary of the 
Dcs Moines River and almost adjoining the 
town of Fort Dodge. Tiie most southerly 
point at which it has been exposed is about 
six miles, by way of the river, from the 
northerly point mentioned. The width of 
the area is unknown, as the g^-psum be- 
comes lost beneath the overlying drift, as 
one goes up the ravines and minor valleys. 

On either side of the creeks and ravines 
which come into the valley of the Des 
Moines River, the gypsum is seen jutting 
out from beneath the drift in the form of 
ledges and bold quarry fronts, having al- 
most the exact appearance of ordinary lime- 
stone exposures, so horizontal and regular 
its lines of stratification, and so similar in 
color is it to some varieties of that rock. 
The principal quarries now opened are on 
Two Mile Creek, a couple of miles below 
Fort Dodge. 

Epsomite, or native Epsom salts, having 
been discovered near Burlington, all the 
suli)hatcs of alkaline earths of natural origin 
have been recognized in Iowa, all except 
Ihc sulphate of lime being in very small 
quantity. 

Sulphate of lime in the various forms of 
fibrous gypsum, sclenite and small, amor- 
phous masses, has also been discovered in 
various formations in different parts of the 
State, including the Coal Measure shales 
near Fort Dodge, where it exists in small 
quantities, quite independently of the great 
gypsum of deposit there. The quantity of 
gypsum in these minor deposits is always 
too small to be of any practical value, 
usually occurring in shales and shaly clays, 
associated with strata that contain more or 
less sulphuret of iron. Gypsum has thus 

15 



been detected in the Coal Measures, the St. 
Louis limestone, the Cretaceous strata, and 
also in the dead caves of Dubuque. 

Sulphate of strontia is found at Fort 
Dodge. 

CLIMATE. 

The greatest objection to the climate of 
this State is the prevalence of wind, which 
is somewhat greater than in tlic States south 
and east, but not so great as farther west. 
The air is purer than either cast or south, 
as indicated by the bluer sky and conse- 
quent deeper green vegetation, and is 
therefore more bracing. By way of con- 
trast, Northern Illinois has a whiter sky 
and a consequent more yellowish green 
vegetation. 

The prevailing direction of the wiaid is 
from the west. 

Thunder-storms are somewhat more vio- 
lent here than east or south, but not so 
furious as toward the Rocky Mountains. 
The greatest rainfall is in the southeastern 
part of the State, and the least in the north- 
western portion. The increase of timber 
growth is increasing the amount of rain, as 
well as distributing it more evenly through- 
out the year. As elsewhere in the North- 
western States, easterly winds bring rain 
and snow, while westerly ones clear the sk}^ 
While the highest temperature occurs here 
in August, the month of July averages the 
hottest, and January the coldest. The mean 
temperature of April and October nearlv 
corresponds to the mean temperature of 
the year, as well as to the seasons of spring 
and fall, while that of summer and winter 
is best represented by August and Decem- 
ber. Indian summer is delightful and well 
prolonged. Untimely frosts sometimes oc- 
cur, but seldom severel}' enough to do 
great injury. The wheat crop being a 
staple product of this State, and not injured 
at all by frost, this great resource of the 
State continues intact. 



l64 



HIST OUT OF IOWA. 



CENSUS OF IOWA. 



COUNTIES. 



Adair 

Adams 

Allamakee 

Appanoose . . . 

Audubon 

Benton 

Black Hawk.. 

Boone 

Bremer 

Buchanan 

Buena Visla.. . 

Butler 

Calhoun 

Carroll 

Cass 

Cedar 

Cerro Gordo. . 

Cherokee 

Chickasaw. . . . 

Clarke 

Clay 

Clayton 

Clinton 

Crawford 

Dallas 

Davis 

Decatur , 

Delaware 

Des Moines.. . 

Dickinson 

Dubuque 

Emmett 

Fayette , 

Floyd 

Franklin 

Fremont 

Greene 

Grundy 

Guthrie 

Hamilton 

Hancock 

Hardhi 

Harri^^on 

Henry 

Howard 

HnnilioUlt 

Ida... 

Iowa 

Jackson 

Jasper 

Jefterson 

Johnson 

Jones 

Keokuk 

Kossuth 

I.ee .. 

Linn 

Louisa 

Lucas 

Lyon 

Madison 

Mahaska 

Marion 

Marshall 

Mills 



1850 



777 
3,131 



672 
13.S 

735 



517 



3,9 ( I 



709 



3,^73 

2^22 

' ' '854 
7,26^ 

9f'5 

1,759 

12,988 

10,841 

""S25 



1,244 



8,705 



822 
7,210 
1,280 
9.904 
4.472 
3,<J"7 
4,822 

'i 8,86 1 

.5,444 

4,939 

47" 



i,>79 

5 989 

5,482 

338 



i860. 


1870. 


9S4 


3,982 


1,533 


4,614 


12,237 


17,868 


11,931 


16,456 


454 


1,212 


8,496 


22,454 


8,244 


21,706 


4,232 


14.5S4 


4,915 


12,52b 


7,906 


17,034 


57 


1,585 


3,724 


9,951 


147 


1,602 


281 


2,451 


I,6l2 


5.464 


12,949 


■9.73' 


940 


4,722 


58 


',967 


4.336 


10, iSo 


5,427 


8,735 


52 


1,523 


20,728 


27,77' 


18,938 


35.357 


383 


2,530 


5,244 


12,019 


13.764 


15.565 


8,677 


12,018 


11,024 


17,432 


19,611 


27,256 


I So 


1,389 


31,164 


38,969 


lO? 


1,392 


12,073 


16,973 


3.744 


10,768 


1,309 


4,738 


5,074 


",'74 


1.374 


4,627 


793 


6,399 


3,058 


7,061 


1,699 


6,055 


'79 


999 


5,440 


13,684 


3.621 


8.93" 


18,701 


21,463 


3,i6S 


6,282 


332 


2,596 


43 


226 


8,029 


16,664 


'8,493 


22,619 


9,883 


22,116 


15.03S 


17,839 


'7.573 


24,898 


13,306 


19.731 


13,271 


19434 


416 


3.35' 


29,232 


37,2 'o 


18,947 


28,852 


10,370 


'2,8-7 


5,766 


10,388 




221 


7,.339 


13,884 


14,816 


22,508 


16813 


24,436 


6,015 


17,576 


4,481 


8,718 



1880. 



11,199 

11,188 

19.791 
16,636 

7,448 
24,888 

23.913 
20,838 

14,081 

18,547 

7,537 

14,293 

5 595 
12,35' 
16,943 
1 8 937 
1 ',461 

8,240 

i4,.534 
11,512 

4.248 
28,829 

36,764 
12,413 
18,746 
16,468 
15,336 
17,952 
33,099 
1,901 

42,997 

1,550 

22,258 

14,677 
10,248 

'7,653 
12,725 
12,639 
14,863 
11,252 
3.453 
17,808 
i6,6.|9 
20,826 
10,837 

6,341 

4,382 
19,221 

23,771 
25,962 
'7.478 
25,429 
21,052 
21,259 
6,179 
.34,859 
37,235 
13,146 

1 4, .'.30 
1,968 

17.225 
25,201 
25,111 
23,752 
14,135 



COUNTIES. 



Mitchell 

Monona 

Monroe 

Montgomery. . . . 

Muscatine 

O'Brien 

Osceola 

Page 

Palo Alto 

Plymouth. 

Pocahontas 

Polk 

Pottawattamie. . . 

Poweshiek 

Ringgold 

Sac 

Scott 

Shelby 

Sioux 

Storv 

Taina 

Taylor 

Union 

Van Buren 

Wapello 

Warren 

Washington... . 

Wayne 

Webster 

Winnebago 

Winneshiek 

Woodbury 

Worth...'. 

Wrieht 



Total 192,214 



1850. 



2.SS4 
5,73' 



55' 



4,513 
7,828 

615 



5,986 



8 
204 

12,270 

8,471 
961 

4,957 
340 



546 



i860. 



3.409 

c^32 

8,612 

1,256 

16,444 

8 



4,419 

132 

14S 

103 

11,625 

4.968 

5,668 

2.923 
246 

25.959 

818 

10 

4,05' 

5.285 

3,590 

2,012 

17,081 

14,5 '8 

10,281 

14,235 
6,409 

2,504 

1 68 

13,942 

',' '9 

7.56 

653 



1870. 



9,582 
3,654 

'2,724 
5,934 

21,688 

715 



1880. 



9,975 
1,336 
2,199 
1,446 

27,857 

16,893 

15,581 

5,691 

1,411 

38,509 

2,549 

570 

11,65' 

16,131 

6,989 

5,986 

17,67 

22,346 

17,980 

18,952 

11,287 

10,484 

',,562 

2.1,570 

6,172 

2,892 

2,392 



674.913 1, '91.792 1,624,463 



14,361 
9,055 
i3,7'9 
15,895 
23,168 

4,155 

2,219 

19,667 

4,131 
8,567 
3,7 '3 
42.,395 
39.846 
18,9.36 
1 2,085 

8,77^ 
41,270 
12,696 

5,426 
16,966 
21,585 
15,635 
14,980 
17,042 
25,282 
19.578 
20,375 
16,127 
15.9.50 

4,917 
23,937 
'4,997 

7,953 

5,062 



TERRITORIAL OFFICERS. 

Governors. — Robert Lucas, 1838-41; John 
Chamber, i84i-'45 ; James Clark, 1S45. 

SccrctariiS. — Wm. B. Conway, 183S, died 
1839; James Clark, 1839-41; O. H. W. 
Stull, 1841-43; Samuel J. Burr, 1843-45; 
Jesse Williams, 1S45. 

Auditors. — Jesse Williams, 1840-43; Will- 
iam L. Gilbert, 1843-45; Robert M. Secrest, 
1845. 

Treasurers. — Thornton Baylie, 1839-40; 
Morgan Reno, 1840. 

Judges. — Charles Mason, Chief Justice. 
1838; Joseph Williams, 1838; Thomas S. 
Wilson, 1838. 

Presidents of Council. — Jesse B. Brown, 
1838-49; Stephen Hempstead, 1839-40; M. 
Bainridge, i840-'4i; J. W. Parker, 1841-42; 
John D. Elbert. i842-'43 ; Thomas Cox, 



HISTORY OF lO^VA. 



165 



1 843-'44; S. Clinton Hasting, 1845; Stephen 
Hempstead, i845-'46. 

Speakers of tlic House. — William H. Wal- 
lace, i838-'39; Edward Johnson, 1839-40; 
Thomas Cox, i840-'3i ; Warner Lewis, 
i84i-'42; James M. Morgan, 1842-43; James 
P. Carleton, i843-'44; James M. Morgan, 
1845 ; George W. McLear\', 1845-46. 

STATE OFKICERS. 

Governors. — Ansel Briggs, i846-'50; 
Stephen Hempstead, i85o-'54: James W. 
Grimes, i854-'58; Ralph P. Lowe, 1858- 
'60; Samuel J. Kirkwood, i86o-'64 ; Will- 
iam M. Stone, i864-'68; Samuel Morrill, 
i868-'72; Cyrus C. Carpenter, i872-'76; 
Samuel J. Kirkwood, i876-'77; J- G. New- 
bold, 1877-78; John H. Gear, 1878-82; 
Buren R. Sherman, iS82-'S6 ; William Lar- 
rabee, 1886. 

Lieutenant-Governors. — Oran Faville, 1858- 
'60; Nicholas J. Rusch, i86o-'62; John R. 
Needham, i862-'64; Enoch W. Eastman, 
i864-'66; Benjamin F. Gue, i866-'68 ; John 
Scott, i868-'7o; M. M. Walden, i87o-'72 ; 
H. C. Bulls, i872-'74; Joseph Dysart, 
i874-'76; Joshua G. Newbold, i876-'78; 
Frank T. Campbell, 1878-82; Orlando H. 
Manning, 1882-S5 ; John A. T. Hull, 1886. 

This office was created by the new con- 
stitution Sept. 3, 1857. 

Secretaries of State. — Elisha Cutter, Jr., 
i846-'48; Joseph H. Bonne}', i848-'5o; 
George W. McClear}-, i85o-'56; Elijah 
Sells, i856-'63; James Wright, i863-'67 ; 
Ed. Wright, 1867-73 ; Josiah T. Young, 
1873-79; J. A. T. Hull, i879-'85; Franklin 
D. Jackson, 1SS5. 

Auditors of State. — Joseph T. Fales, 
i846-'5o; William Pattee, iS5o-'54; Andrew 
J. Stevens, i854-'55 ; John Pattee, i855-'59 ; 
Jonathan W. Cattell, i859-'6s ; John A. 
Elliott, 1865-71; John Russell, i87i-'75 ; 
Buren R. Sherman, 1875-81; Wm. V. 
Lucas, 1881 ; John L. Brown, i882-*83 ; J. 
VV. Cattell, acting, i885-'86. 



Treasurers of State. — Morgan Reno, 
i846-'5o; Israel Kister, i85o-'52 ; ALirtin L. 
Morris, i852-'59; John W. Jones, i859-'63 ; 
William H. Holmes, i863-'67; Samuel E. 
Rankin, i867-'73 ; William Christy, 1873- 
'77 ; George W. Bemis, i877-'8i ; Edwin 
H. Conger, i88i-'85 ; Voltaire Twombly, 
1885. 

Attorney-Generals. — David C. Cloud, 
iS53-'56; Samuel A. Rice, i856-'6o; Charles 
C. Nourse, i86o-'64; Isaac L. Allen, 1865- 
'66; Frederick E. Bissell, i866-'67; Henry 
O'Connor, i867-'72; Marcena E. Cutts, 
i872-'76; John F. Mcjunkin, i877-'8i ; 
Smith McPherson, iS8i-'85 ; A. J. Baker, 
1885. 

Adjutant-Generals. — Daniel S. Lee, 1851- 
'55; George W. McCleary, i855-'57; Eli- 
jah Sells, 1857; Jesse Bowen, i857-'6i ; Na- 
thaniel Baker, i86i-'77; John H. Looby, 
1877-78; W. L, Alexander, i878-'84. 

Registers of t lie State Land-Office. — Anson 
Hart, 1855-57 ; Theodore S. Parvin, 1857- 
'59; Amos B. Miller, i859-'62 ; Edwin 
Mitchell, i862-'63; Josiah A. Harvey, 
i863-'67 ; Cyrus C. Carpenter, i867-'7i ; 
Aaron Brown, i87i-'75 ; David Secor, 
i875-'79 ; J. K. Powers, i879-'82.* 

Superintendents of Public Instruction. — 
James Harlan, i847-'48; Thos. H. Benton, 
Jr., i848-'54; James D. Fads, i854-'57, 
Joseph C. Stone, 1857; Maturin L. Fisher, 
i857-'58; Oran Faville, iS64-'67; D.Frank- 
lin Wells, i867-'68 ; A. S. Kissell, i868-'72; 
Alonzo Abernethy, i872-'76; Carl W. 
Van Coelen, i876-'82; John W. Akers, 
1882-84. 

This office was created in 1S47 and abol- 
ished in 1858, and the duties then devolved 
upon the secretary of the Board of Educa- 
tion; it was re-created March 23, 1S64. 

State Printers. — Garrett D. Palmer and 
George Paul, i849-'5i ; William H. Merritt, 
i85i-'53; William A. Hornish, 1853 ; Den- 

*OlHcL- abolished January i, 1SS3, and duties devolved 
on the Secretary of State 



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HISTORY OF IOWA. 



nis A. Mahoney and Joseph B. Dorr, 1853- 
'55; Peter Moriarty, i855-'57 ; John Tees- 
dale, i857-'6i ; Francis W. Pahner, 1861- 
'69; Frank M. Mills, i869-'7i ; G. W. Ed- 
wards, 1 87 1 -'73 : Rich. P. Clarkson, 1873- 
'79; Frank M. Mills, i879-'Si ; Geo. E. 
Roberts, 1S81. 

State Binders. — William M. Coles, 1855- 
'58; Frank M. Mills, i858-'67 ; James S. 
Carter, i867-'7i ; J.J. Smart, iS7i-'75 ; H. 
A. Perkins, 1875-79 ; Matt. Parrott, 1879- 
'85; L. S. Merchant, 18S5. 

Secretaries of Board of Education. — T. 
H. Benton, Jr., i859-'63 ; Oran Faville, 
i863-'64. 

This office was abolished March 23, 1864. 

Presidents of the Senate. — Thomas Baker, 
i846-'47; Thomas Hnghes, 1847-48; John J. 
Selman, 1848-49; Enos Lowe, i849-'5i ; 
Wm. E. Leffingwell, i85i-'53; Maturn L. 
Fisher, i853-'55 ; Wm. \V. Hamilton, 1855- 

'57. 

Under the new Constitution the Lieuten- 
ant-Governor is President of the Senate. 

Speakers of the House. — Jesse B. Brown, 
i846-'48; Smilc}^ H. Bonham, i848-'50; 
George Temple, i850-'52 ; James Grant, 
i852-'54; Reuben Noble, 1854-56; Samuel 
McFarland, 1856-57; Stephen B. Sheledy, 
i857-'59; John Edwards, i859-'6i ; Rush 
Clark, 1861-63; Jacob Butler, 1863-65; Ed. 
Wright, i865-'67; John Russell, i867-"69; 
Aylett R. Cotton, 1 869-7 1 ; James Wilson, 
i87i-'73; John H. Geer, 1873-77 ; John Y. 
Stone, 1877-79; Lore Alford, i88o-'8i ; G. 
R. Struble, i882-'83 ; Wm. P. Wolf, 1884; 
Albert Head, 1886. 

Chief justices of the Supreme Court. — 
Charles ^L^son, 1847; Joseph Williams, 
1847-48; S. Clinton Hastings, 1848-49; 
Joseph Williams, 1849-55 ; George G. 
Wright, i855-'6o; I^alph P. Lowe, i86o-'62; 
Caleb Baldwin, i862-'64; George G. 
Wright, i864-'66; Ralph P. Lowe, 1866- 
'68; John F. Dillon, 1868-70 ; Chester C. 



Cole, 1870-71; James G. Day, 1871-72; 
Joseph M. Beck, 1872-74; W. E Miller, 
1874-76; Chester C. Cole, 1876; Wm. H. 
See vers, 1876-77 ; James G. Day, 1877-78; 
James H. Rothrock, 1878-83 and '84; 
Joseph M. Beck, i879-'8o and '85 ; Austin 
Adams, i8So-'8i and '86; Wm. H. Seevers, 
1882. 

Associate Justices. — Joseph Williams, held 
over from territorial government until a 
successor was appointed ; Thomas S. Wil- 
son, 1847; John F. Kinney, iS47-'54; George 
Greene, iS47-'55; Jonathan C. Hall, 1854- 
'55; William G.Woodward, 1855 ; Norman 
W. Isbell, i855-'56; Lacon D. Stockton, 
1856-60; Caleb Baldwin, 1860-64; Ralph 
P. Lowe, i860; George G. Wright, i860; 
John F. Dillon, i864-'7o; Chester C. Cole, 
1864-77; Joseph M. Beck, 1868; W. E. 
Miller, 1870; James G. Day, 1870. 

United States Senators. — Augustus C. 
Dodge, 1 848-' 5 5 ; George W. Jones, 1848- 
'59; James Harlan, i855-'65 ; James W. 
Grimes, i859-'69; Samuel J. Kirkwood, 
1866; James Harlan, i867-'73; James B. 
Howell, 1870; George G. Wright, 1S71- 
'jj; William B. Allison, 1873-79; Samuel 
J. Kirkwood, 1877-81; Wm. B. Allison, 
i879-'85; James W. McDill, 1881 ; James 
F. Wilson, 1883. 

Present State Officers (1886). — Governor, 
William Larrabee ; Secretary of State, 
Frank D. Jackson ; Auditor of State, J. W. 
Cattell, acting ; Treasurer, Voltaire Twom- 
bly ; Superintendent Public Instruction, 
John W. Akers ; Printer, George E. Rob- 
erts ; Binder, L. S. Merchant ; Adjutant- 
General, W. L. Alexander- Librarian, Mrs. 
S. B. Maxwell. 

Supreme Court. — William H. Seevers, 
Chief Justice, Oskaloosa ; James G. Day, 
Sidney, James H. Rothrock, Tijjton, Joseph 
M. Beck, Fort ^Ladison, Austin Adams, 
Dubuque, Judges; A. J. Baker, .Hforney- 
General. 




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OBERT LUCAS, the first 
Governor of Iowa Tcr- 
m, ritory, was the fourth 
'"|%* son and ninth child of 
William and Susan. 
ri ^:^\ HCj-^A '^W k' i nah Lucas, and was 
%!',;"«'/' "^^'^^-J^^^-' born April i, 1781, 
in Jefferson Valley, 
at Shepherdstown, Jefferson 
County, Virginia, a few miles 
from Harper's Ferry, where his 
ancestors settled before the Rev- 
olution. His father, who was 
descended from William Penn, 
was born January iS, 1743, and 
his mother, of Scotch extrac- 
tion, was born October S, 1745. 
They were married about the 
year 1760, and reared a faniil)' of six sons 
and six daughters. His father, who had 
served as a Captain in the Continental army 
during the Revolutionary war, and had 
distinguished himself at the battle of Bloody 
Run, emigrated with his family to Scioto 
County, Ohio, early in the present century. 
At the time of this removal Robert was 
a young man. He had obtained his educa- 
tion chieffv in Virginia, from an old Scotch 
schoolmaster named McMuUen, who taught 
him mathematics and surveying. The latter 
afforded him remunerative employment im- 
mediately upon his entrance into Ohio. 

He was married at Portsmouth, Ohio, 
April 3, 1810, to Elizabeth Brown, who died 
October 18, 18 1 2, leaving an infant daugh- 



ter, who afterward became Mrs. Minerva 
E. B. Sumner. March 7, 1816, he formed 
a second matrimonial connection ; this time 
with Friendly A. Sumner, who bore to him 
four sons and three daughters. 

The first public office held by Robert 
Lucas was that of County Surveyor of Sci- 
oto Countv, the commission from Governor 
Edward Tiffin, of Ohio, appointing him such 
being dated December 26, 1803. Decem- 
ber 16, 1805, he was commissioned by 
Governor Tiffin justice of the peace for 
three years. His first military appointment 
was that of Lieutenant of militia, by virtue 
of which he was authorized to raise twenty 
men to assist in filling Ohio's quota of 500 
volunteers called for by the President in 
view of possible difficulties with the Spanish. 
He was subsequently promoted through 
all the military grades to Major Gen- 
eral of Ohio militia, which latter rank was 
conferred upon him in 1818. 

He was a Brigadier-General on the 
breaking out of the war of 1S12, and had 
much to do with raising troops. He was 
appointed a Captain in the regular army, 
but before his commission reached him he 
was already in active service, scouting, 
spying, carrying a musket in the ranks and 
in other useful capacities. After Hull's 
surrender he was paroled and returned to 
Ohio. He was in the course of time made 
a Lieutenant-Colonel, and then a Colonel, 
from which position he resigned. 

He served in numerous civil offices in 



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GOVERNOIiS OF IOWA. 



Ohio, and at the time of his second marriage, 
ill 1816, he was and had been for some time 
a member of the Ohio Legislature, serving 
successively for nineteen years in one or the 
other branch, and in the course of his leg- 
islative career presiding over first one 
and then the other branch. In 1820 and 
again in 1828, he was chosen one of the 
Presidential electors of Ohio. In May, 
1832, at Baltimore, Maryland, he presided 
over the first Democratic National Con- 
vention — that which nominated Andrew 
Jackson for his second term as President, 
and Martin Van Buren for Vice Presi- 
dent. In 1832 he was elected Governor 
of Ohio, and re-elected in 1S34. He declined 
a third nomination for the same office. 

Under the act of Congress to divide tne 
Territory of Wisconsin and to establish the 
territorial government of Iowa, approved 
June 12, 1838, the subject of this sketch was 
appointed Governor of the new Territory, 
and he immediately accepted the responsi- 
bility. A journe}' from the interior of Ohio 
to the banks of the Upper Mississippi was 
then a matter of weeks ; so that, although 
Governor Lucas set out from his home on 
the 25th of July, delaying on his route 
a few days at Cincinnati, to arrange for the 
selection of the books for a territorial 
library, it was not till nearly the middle of 
August that he reached Burlington, then 
the temporary seat of government. 

The first official act of Lucas as Gov- 
ernor of Iowa was to issue a proclamation 
dated August 13, 1838, dividing the Terri- 
tor)' into eight representative districts, ap- 
portioning the members of the Council and 
House of Representatives among the nine- 
teen counties then composing the Terri- 
tory, and appointing the second Monday 
in September ensuing for the election of 
members of the Legislative Assembly and 
a delegate to Congress. His first message 
to the Legislature, after its organization, 
was dated November 12, 1838, and related 



chiefly to a code of laws for tiie new com- 
monwealth. He opposed imprisonment for 
debt, favored the death penalty for murder 
(executions to be in the presence of only 
the Sheriff and a suitable number of wit- 
nesses), and strenuously urged the organi- 
zation of a liberal system of common 
schools. The organization of the militia 
was also one of his pet measures. There 
was a broad difference between the views 
of a majority of this Legislative Assembly 
and the Governor, on many questions of 
public policy, as well as points of authority. 
This resulted in the sending to the Presi- 
dent of a memorial, dated January 12, 1839, 
signed by eight of the council and seven 
of the Representatives, praying the re- 
moval of Governor Lucas. In addition to 
this, a memorial for the Governor's re- 
moval was passed by both Houses, signed 
in due form by their presiding officers, and 
transmitted to the President. The charges 
made were met by a protest signed by 
eight Representatives, and as a result Gov- 
ernor Lucas was allowed to remain in office 
until the next change of administration. 

In 1839 and '40 occurred the well-known 
boundary dispute with Missouri, which 
was finally settled in favor of Iowa, by the 
Supreme Court of the United States. No- 
vember 5, 1839, Governor Lucas announced 
that the Territory had advanced in improve- 
ment, wealth and population (which latter 
was estimated at 50,000) without a parallel 
in history, and recommended the necessary 
legislation preparatory to the formation of 
a State government. This was overruled 
by the people, however. Among the latest 
of Governor Lucas's acts was a proclama- 
tion dated April 30, 1841, calling the Leg- 
islature to assemble, for the first time, at 
Iowa Cit}', the new capitol. 

March 25, 1841, he was succeeded by 
John Chambers. He lived a private life 
near Iowa City until his death, February 
7, 1853, at the age of seventy-one years. 



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JOHN CHAMBERS 



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OHN 

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CHAMBERS was 
second Governor of 
Iowa Territory. He was 
born October 6, 1780, at 
Bromley Bridge, Somer- 
set County, New Jersey. 
His father, Rowland Cham- 
bers, was born in Pennsyl- 
vania, of Irish parentage. 
According to a tradition in 
the family, their remote 
ancestors were Scotch, and 
belonged to the clan Cam- 
eron. Having refused to 
join in the rebellion of 1645, 
they migrated to Ireland, 
an act of Parliament, on their 
own petition, they took the name of Cham- 
bers. Rowland Chambers espoused with 
enthusiasm the cause of American inde- 
pendence, and was commissioned a Colonel 
of New Jersey militia. At the close of the 
war, reduced in circumstances, he immi- 
grated to Kentucky and settled in Wash- 
ington, then the seat of Mason County. 
John, the youngest of seven children, was 
then fourteen years old. A few days after 
the fami'y settled in their new home he 
found employment in a dry-goods store, 
and the following spring was sent to 
Transylvania Seminary, at Lexington. He 
returned home in less than a year. In 1797 

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he became deputy under Francis Taylor, 
Clerk of the District Court. His duties 
being light, he applied himself to the study 
of law. In the spring of 1800 he assumed 
all the duties of the office in which he had 
been employed, and in November following 
he was licensed to practice law. 

In 1803 Ml"- Chambers, who had now 
entered upon a career of uninterrupted 
professional prosperit}-, was married to Miss 
Margaret Taylor, of Hagerstown, Mary- jiT 
land. She lived but about three years, and 
in 1807 he married Miss Hannah Taylor, a 
sister of his first wife. Not long after he 
engaged in the manufacture of bale rope 
and bagging for the Southern market. In 
this he incurred heavy losses. 

In the campaign of 18 12 he served as 
aid-de-camp to General Harrison, with the 
rank of Major. In 181 5 Mr. Chambers was 
sent to the Legislature, and in 1828 he went 
to Congress to fill the unexpired term of 
General Thomas Metcalfe. In 1830 and 
1 83 1 he was again in the State Legislature. 
In 1832 he lost his wife. She was a lady of 
cultivated mind and elegant manners, and 
had made his home a happy and attractive 
one. The same year he was offered a seat 
on the bench of the Supreme Court of 
Kentucky, but this he decHned. The same 
office was tendered him in 1835, but before 
the time for taking his seat, he was obliged 



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GOVERNORS OF IOWA. 



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to resign, out of consideration for his health. 
From 1835 to 1839 he was in Congress, 
making for himself a high reputation. 

Between 18 15 and 1828 Mr. Chambers 
was, for several years, the commonwealth's 
attorney for the judicial district in which 
he lived. He was during that period at the 
zenith of his reputation as a lawyer and ad- 
vocate. He met the giants of the Ken- 
tucky bar in important civil and criminal 
trials. His well-known high sense of honor, 
and his contempt for professional chicanery, 
commanded the respect of his legal com- 
peers. His appearance and manner were 
dignified, his tone calm and impressive, 
and his language singularly direct and 
vigorous. 

He closed his congressional career in 
1839 with the purpose of resuming the 
practice of law, but his old friend General 
Harrison was nominated for the Presi- 
dency and induced him to aid in the 
personal canvass General Harrison made 
through the country. He was urged by 
President Harrison to accept some ofBce 
requiring his residence in Washington, but 
this he declined, though he afterward ac- 
cepted the appointment of Governor of 
Iowa. He entered upon the duties of this 
office May 13, 1841. His success in his 
administration of the affairs of the Territory 
was well attested by the approbation of the 
people, and by the hearty commendation 
of those in authority at Washington, espe- 
cially for his management of Indian affairs. 
During his term of office he found it neces- 
sary on several occasions to suppress the 
feuds of the red men, which he did with 
such firmness and decision that quiet was 
promptly restored where war seemed im- 
minent. Governor Chambers was repeat- 
edly called on to treat with the Indian tribes 



for the purchase of their lands. In October, 
1 84 1, he was commissioned jointly with 
Hon. T. H. Crawford, Commissioner of In- 
dian Affairs, and Governor Doty, of Wis- 
consin, to hold a treaty with the Sacs and 
Foxes, which, however, did not result in- a 
purchase. In September, 1842, being ap- 
pointed sole Commissioner for the same 
purpose, he succeeded fully in carrying out 
the wishes of the Government. In 1843 he 
held a treaty with the Winnebagoes, but in 
this instance no result was reached. 

In 1844, his term of office having expired, 
he was re-appointed by President Tyler, 
but was removed in 1845 by President 
Polk. Shortly afterward, with greatly im- 
paired health, he returned to Kentucky, 
where, with skillful medical treatment and 
entire relief from official cares, he partially 
recovered. During the few remaining years 
of his life Governor Chambers's recollec- 
tions of Iowa were of the most agreeable 
character. He spoke gratefully of the re- 
ception extended to him by her people, and 
often referred with great kindness to his 
neighbors in Des Moines County. 

His infirm health forbade his engagins: in 
any regular employment after his return to 
Kentucky, but in 1849, at the solicitation of 
the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, he ne- 
gotiated jointly with Governor Ramsey, of 
Minnesota, a successful treaty with the 
Sioux Indians for the purchase of lands. 
The latter years of Governor Chambers's 
life were spent mostly witli his children, 
whose affection and respect were the chief 
conditions of his happiness. During a visit 
to his daughter in Paris, Kentucky, he was 
taken sick at the house of his son-in-law, C. 
S. Brent, and after a few weeks breathed 
his last, September 21, 1852, in his seventy- 
second year. 











[HE third and last Ter- 
ritorial Governor 
was James Clarke. 
Sometime in the 
autumn of the year 
1837, when the trees 
were in the " sear 
and yellow leaf," a printer 
boy of slender form and 
gentle appearance might 
have been seen crossing 
the laurel hills of his own 
State. Behind him rolled 
the waters of the " Blue 
Juniata," on the banks of 
which he had spent, in 
merry glee, his youthful 
days. He had heard and read of strange 
countries that lay far off toward the setting 
sun, through which broad rivers run, and 
spreading landscapes unfolded to human 
eyes the most rare and magnificent beauty. 
With his youthful gaze fixed upon that star 
which never sets, he set forth into the wilds 
of Wisconsin, a stranger in a strange land, 
an adventurer seeking his own fortune, de- 
pending upon his own exertions, with no 
recommendation save an honest face and 
genteel deportment. This young man was 
James Clarke, who afterward became the 
able, talented and popular Governor of 
Iowa. 

He remained in Wisconsin, working at 
his trade as a printer, until after the organi- 



zation of the Territory of Iowa, when he 
removed to Burlington, where the first 
Legislature of Iowa assembled. After the 
death of Mr. Conway he was appointed by 
President Van Buren, Secretary of the Ter- 
ritory, which office he filled with great 
credit to himself and satisfaction to the 
people. During the time he held this office 
he contributed by his kind, gentle and 
amiable manner to soften the feelings of 
hatred and distrust which at one time ex- 
isted between leading men of the Territory. 
Whoever had business at his office found 
him a kind, gentle, quiet, amiable man, al- 
ways read}' and willing to do whatever was 
desired of him, regretting, at the same time, 
that he could do no more. During the 
time he was Secretary he performed a vast 
amount of labor, but notwithstanding the 
large amount of business he transacted, he 
still found time to write for the press, and 
contributed many valuable articles touch- 
ing the future greatness of Iowa. 

After he retired from the office of Secre- 
tary he again returned to the printing trade, 
and became the leading editor of the Bur- 
lington Gazette. To the columns of this 
paper he devoted his whole energies, and 
by so doing made it the leading Democratic 
paper of the Territory. In the early sum- 
mer of 1845 President Polk removed Mr. 
Chambers, and appointed Mr. Clarke to suc- 
ceed him as Governor of Iowa. Previous 
to his appointment he had been elected by 







GOVERNOJiS OF IOWA. 



i the people of his county a delegate to the 

t first convention which assembled to form a 

) Constitution for the State of Iowa. In this 

i convention he distinguished himself both 

\ for his talent and personal demeanor, and 

J contributed to the pages of that Constitu- 

i tion some of the great elementary principles 

{ which lie at the foundation of human rights. 

1 And although that Constitution was de- 
^ feated, he still had the satisfaction of seeing 
j their spirit and meaning transferred to 
( another, and still continued as the funda- 
\ mental law of our State. 

i The first Legislature after he received 

f his appointment assembled at Iowa City, 

i on the first Monday of December, 1845. 

) His message to the Legislature after its or- 

J ganization is a model of style and clearness. 

t He set forth the importance of an early ex- 

5 tinguishment of the Indian title to all the 

t lands within the limits of Iowa, and urged 

\ the Legislature to memorialize Congress to 

j purchase a tract of land on the Upper Mis- 

t sissippi for a future home for the Winne- 

J bagocs, and thus induce them to part with 

i their title to a large tract of country known 

\ as the " neutral ground," a recommendation 

i which the General Government soon after 

j acted upon and carried out. 

J Jaiuiary 16, 1846, the Legislature passed 

5 once more an act for the purpose of elect- 

{ ing delegates to frame a Constitution for 

i the State of Iowa. This time the friends of 

2 a State government took it for granted 
t that the people of the Territory wanted a 
; Constitution, so the Legislature provided 
J that at the April election following the 
( passage of this act, the people of the Ter- 
{ ritory should elect delegates to a conven- 
tion. Accordingly, at the April election 
delegates were elected, and the convention, 
agreeable to said act, consisting of thirty- 
two members instead of seventy as in the 
previous convention, met at Iowa City, on 
the first Monday of May, 1846, and after a 



session of eighteen days produced a Con- 
stitution which was immediately submitted, 
adopted, and made the organic law of the 
State of Iowa. After the result was known 
the Governor issued his proclamation for a 
general election to be held in November 
following, atwhich Ansel Briggs, of Jack- 
son County, was elected Governor of the 
State. 

This proclamation was the last public act 
of James Clarke, for as soon as the new 
Governor was qualified, he turned over to 
him all the archives of his office, and re- 
turned once more to the printing office. 
Again he scattered through Iowa his beau- 
tiful editorials through the columns of the 
Burlington Gazette, until the name and 
fame of Iowa became known throughout 
the length and breadth of the land. He 
appeared at the capitol at the first session 
of the State Legislature under the new Con- 
stitution, delivered to that body an affecting 
and interesting farewell address, then stood 
back quietly during the whole of the ses- 
sion, and gazed with indignation upon his 
countenance at the dreadful strife, storms 
and bitterness which was manifested during 
the entire session. 

This was the last time that Mr. Clarke 
ever appeared at the Legislature. He died 
soon after, at Burlington, of the cholera. 
Thus closed the earthly career of a just and 
noble man, cut off in the prime of life and 
in the midst of an useful career. He was 
married to a sister of General Dodge, and 
this fact being known at the time of his ap- 
pointment as Governor, drew upon the 
Dodges the title of the " royal family." But 
whatever might be said in this respect, the 
appointment could not have been bestowed 
upon a better man, or one more competent 
to fill it. His history is without a stain or 
reproach, and throughout his whole life no 
man ever imputed aught against his char- 
acter as a man and a citizen. 



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ANSEL BR/CGS. 



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''i^HE first Governor of 
Iowa under its State 
organization, was 
Ansel Briggs, who, 
like his two imme- 
diate successors, was 
^1^1 1. ^^ son of that won- 

(..^•"iil, IP derful nursery of progress. 

New England. He was 
the son of Benjamin Ingley 
Briggs and Electa his wife, 
and was born in Vermont, 
February 3, 1806. His 
boyhood was spent in his 
native State, where, in the 
common schools, he re- 
ceived a fair education, 
improved by a term spent at the academy 
of Norwich. In his youth, about the year 
1830, with his parents, he removed to 
Cambridge, Guernsey County, Ohio, where 
he engaged in the work of establishing 
stage lines, and where, as a Whig, he com- 
peted with John Ferguson, a Jackson 
Democrat, for the ofifice of county audi- 
tor and was defeated. In his twenty- 
fourth year he married a wife, born the 
same day and year as himself, of whom he 
was soon bereft. Before leaving Ohio he 
married his second wife, Nancy M., daugh- 
ter of Major Dunlap, an officer of the war 
of 181 2. 



In 1836, removing from Ohio, he joined 
that hardy band, so honored here to-day, 
the pioneers of Iowa, and settled with his 
family at Andrew, in Jackson County. 
Here he resumed his former business of 
opening stage lines, sometimes driving the 
stage himself, and entering into contracts 
with the postoffice department for carrying 
the United States mails weekly between 
Dubuque and Davenport, Dubuque and 
Iowa City, and other routes. 

On coming to Iowa he affiliated with the 
Democrats, and on their ticket, in 1842, 
was elected a member of the Territorial 
House of Representatives from Jackson 
County, and subsequently sheriff of the 
same county. On the formation of the 
State government, he at once became a 
prominent candidate for Governor. His 
competitors for the Democratic nomination 
were Judge Jesse Williams and William 
Thompson. The question above all otheis 
dividing the parties in Iowa in that day was 
that of banks, favored by the Whigs, and op- 
posed by the Dem.ocrats. A short time be- 
fore the nominating convention met, Briggs, 
at a banquet, struck a responsive chord in 
the popular heart by offering the toast, " No 
bailks but earth, and they well tilled," a 
sententious appeal to the pride of the pro- 
ducer and the prejudice of the partisan, 
which was at once caught up as a party 



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GOVBIiNORS OF /OWA. 



cr}', and did more to secure its author tiie 
nomination for Governor than all else. 

The convention was held at Iowa City 
on Tliuisday, September 24, 1846, and as- 
sembled to nominate State officers and two 
Congressmen. It was called to order by 
F. D. Mills, of Des Moines County. Will- 
iam Thompson, of Henry County, presided, 
and J. T. Fales, of Dubuque, was Secretary. 
The vote for Governor in the convention 
stood : Briggs, sixty-two ; Jesse Williams, 
thirty-two; and William Thompson, thirty- 
one. The two latter withdrew, and Briggs 
was then chosen by acclamation. Elisha 
Cutler, Jr., of Van Buren County, was 
nominated for Secretary of State; Joseph 
T. Fales, of Linn, for Auditor, and Morgan 
Reno, of Johnson, for Treasurer. S. C. 
Hastings and Shepherd Leffler were nomi- 
nated for Congress. The election was held 
October 28, 1846, the entire Democratic 
ticket being successful. Briggs received 
7,626 votes, and his competitor, Thomas 
McKnight, the Whig candidate, 7,379, giv- 
ing Briggs a majority of 247. 

The administration of Governor Brietrs 
was generally placid. Although avoiding 
excitement and desirous of being in har- 
monious accord with his party, when oc- 
casion requii-ed he exhibited an independent 
firmness not easily shaken. One perplex- 
ing controvers}' bequeathed him by his 
predecessors was the Missouri boundary 
question, which had produced much dis- 
quiet, and even a resort to arms on the part 
of both Iowa and Missouri. 

After the expiration of his four-years 
term. Governor Briggs continued his resi- 
dence in Jackson County, where he engaged 
in commercial business, having sold out his 
mail contracts when he became Governor. 

B}' his second marriage he had eight 
children, all of whom died in infancy save 
two, and of these latter Ansel, Jr., died 
May 15, 1867, aged twenty-five years. 
John S. Briggs, the only survivor of the 



family, is the editor of the Idaho Herald, 
published at Blackfoot, Idaho Territor}'. 
Mrs. Briggs died December 30, 1847, dur- 
ing her husband's term as Governor. She 
was an ardent Christian woman, adhering 
to the Presbyterian faith, and ver}' domestic 
in her tastes. She was well educated and 
endowed by nature with such womanly 
tact and grace as to enable her to adorn the 
high estate her husband had attained. She 
dispensed (albeit in a log house, a form of 
architecture in vogue in Iowa in that day, 
as the mansion of the rich or the cabin of 
the poor) a bounteous hospitality to the 
stranger and a generous charity to the poor, 
in which gracious ministrations she was al- 
ways seconded by her benevolent husband. 

In 1870 Governor Briggs removed from 
Andrew to Council Bluffs. He had visited 
the western part of the State before rail- 
roads had penetrated there, and made the 
trip by carriage. On that occasion he en- 
rolled himself as one of the founders of the 
town of Florence, on the Nebraska side of 
the Missouri River, six miles above Coun- 
cil Bluffs, and which, for a time, disputed 
with Omaha the honor of being the chief 
town of Nebraska. 

He made a trip to Colorado during the 
mining excitement in i860. After return- 
ing and spending some time at home, he 
went to Montana in 1S63, v/ith his son John, 
and a large party, remaining until 1865, 
when he came back. 

His last illness, ulceration of the stomach, 
was only five weeks in duration. He was 
able to be out three days before his death, 
which occurred at the residence of his son, 
John S. Briggs, in Omaha, May 5, 1881, at 
half past three in the morning. Governor 
Gear issued a proclamation the next day, 
reciting his services to tiie State, ordering 
half-hour guns to be fired and llic national 
flag on the State capitol to be half-masted, 
during the da\- of the funeral. He was 
buried on Sundav succeeding liis death. 



THE NEW YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 



ASTOR. LENOX AND 
TILDEN FOUNDATIONS. 




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STEPHEN HEMPSTEAD. 



183 



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HIS gentleman, the 
second Governor of 
the State, was born 
at New London, 
Connecticut, Octo- 
ber I, 1 81 2, and 
lived in that State 
the spring of 1828, 
his father's family 
West and settled on 
a farm a few miles from 
St. Louis, Missouri. Here 
he remained until 1830, 
when he entered as clerk 
in a commission house in 
Galena, Illinois, and dur- 
ing the Black Hawk war he 
was an officer in an artillery company or- 
ganized for the protection of that place. 

At the close of the war he entered as a 
student of the Illinois College at Jackson- 
ville, Illinois, remaining about two years, 
leaving to commence the study of law 
which he finished under Charles S. Hemp- 
stead, Esq., then a prominent lawyer at 
Galena. In T836 he was admitted to prac- 
tice his profession in the courts of the Ter- 
ritory of Wisconsin, then embracing Iowa, 
and in the same year located in Dubuque, 
being the first lawyer who practiced in 
that place. At the organization of the 



Territorial Legislature in 1838 he was 
elected to represent the northern portion 
of the Territory in the Legislative Council, 
of which he was chairman of the committee 
on judiciary, one of the important com- 
mittees of the Council. At the second 
session of that body he was elected presi- 
dent thereof, was again elected a member 
of the Council in 1845, which was held in 
Iowa City, and was again president of the 
same. In 1844 he was elected one of the 
delegates to the first constitutional conven- 
tion of the State of Iowa, and was chair- 
man of the committee on incorporations. 
In 1848, in connection with Hon. Charles 
Mason and W. G. Woodward, he was ap- 
pointed commissioner by the Legislature to 
revise the laws of the State of Iowa, and 
which revision, with a few amendments, 
was adopted as the code of Iowa in 185 1. 
In 1850 he was elected Governor of the 
State of Iowa, receiving 13,486 votes, 
against 11,403 for James L. Thompson, 575 
for William P. Clarke, and 1 1 scattering. 

The vote was canvassed on the 4th of 
December, and a committee was appointed 
to inform the Governor elect that the two 
Houses of the Legislature were ready to re- 
ceive him in joint convention, in order that 
he might receive the oath prescribed by 
the Constitution. After receiving formal 






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GOVERNORS OF IOWA. 



notification, Governor Hempstead, accom- 
panied by Governor Briggs, the judges of 
the Supreme Court and the officers of 
"State, entered the hall of the House, and 
having been duly announced, the Governor 
elect delivered his inaugural message, after 
which the oath was administered by the 
chief justice of the Supreme Court. 

This session of the Legislature passed a 
number of important acts which were 
approved by Govern'or Hempstead, and 
formed fifty-two new counties, most of 
them having the same names and bound- 
aries to-day. These new counties were : 
Adair, Union, Adams, Cass, Montgomery, 
Mills, Pottawattomie, Bremer, Butler, 
Grundy, Hardin, Franklin, Wright, Risley, 
Yell, Greene, Guthrie, Carroll, Fox, Sac, 
Crawford, Shelby, Harrison, Monona, Ida, 
Waukau, Humboldt, Pocahontas, Buena 
Vista, Fayette, Cherokee, Plymouth, Alla- 
makee, Chickasaw, Floyd, Cerro Gordo, 
Hancock, Kossuth, Palo Alto, Clay, O'- 
Brien, Sioux, Howard, Mitchell, Worth, 
Winnebago, Winneshiek, Bancroft, Em- 
mett, Dickinson, Osceola and Buncombe. 
The last-named county was so called under 
peculiar circumstances. The Legislature 
was composed of a large majority favoring 
stringent corporation laws, and the liability 
of individual stockholders for corporate 
debts. This sentiment, on account of the 
agitation of railroad enterprises then begin- 
ning, brought a large number of prominent 
men to the capital. To have an effect upon 
the Legislature, they organized a " lobby 
legislature," in which these questions were 
ably discussed. They elected as Governor 
Verplank Van Antwerp, who delivered to 
this self-constituted body a lengthy mes- 
sage, in which he sharply criticised the 
regular general assembly. Some of the 
members of the latter were in the habit of 
making long and useless speeches, much to 
the hindrance of business. To these he 
especially referred, charging them with 



speaking "for buncombe," and recom- 
mended that as their lasting memorial, a 
county should be called by that name. 
This suggestion was readily seized upon 
by the Legislature, and the county of " Bun- 
combe" was created with few dissenting 
voices. By act of the General Assembly 
approved September ii, 1862, the name 
was changed to " Lyon," in honor of Gen- 
eral Nathaniel Lyon, who was killed in the 
civil war. 

Governor Hempstead's message to the 
fourth General Assemblv, December, 1852, 
stated, among other things, that the popu- 
lation of the State was by the federal cen- 
sus 192,214, and that the State census 
showed an increase for one year of 37,786. 
He also stated that the resources of the 
State for the coming two yeai-s would be 
sufficient to cancel all that part of the funded 
debt which was payable at its option. 

By 1854 the State had fully recovered 
from the depression produced by the bad 
season of 1851, and in 1854 and 1855 the 
immigration from the East was unprece- 
dented. For miles and miles, day after day, 
the prairies of Illinois were lined with cattle 
and wagons, pushing on toward Iowa. At 
Peoria, one gentleman said that during a 
single month 1,743 wagons passed through 
that place, all for Iowa. The Burlington 
Ti'lcg7-aph said : " Twent)' thousand immi- 
grants have passed through the city within 
the last thirty da3-s, and they are still cross- 
ing the Mississippi at the rate of 600 a day." 

Governor Hempstead's term expired in 
the latter part of 1854, and he returned to 
Dubuque, where the following 3ear he was 
elected county judge. This position he 
held twelve years, and in 1867 he retired on 
account of impaired health. He lived, how- 
ever, till February 16, 1883, when at his 
home in Dubuque he closed his record on 
earth. He was a useful and active man, 
and deserves a prominent place in the 
esteem of lowans. 



THE NEW YORK 

PllBLiC LIBRARY 



ASTOR, LENOX AND 
TILDEN FOUNDATIONS. 




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*'ifl IE tliird to fill the of- 
fice of Governor of 
Iowa, and whose 
name deserves a 
fore m ( ) s t rank 
among the m e n 
whose personal his- 
tory is interwoven insepar- 
ably with that of the State, 
was James Wilson Grimes. 
He was born in the town 
of Deering, Hillsborough 
County, New Hampshire, 
October 20, 18 16. His 
parents — John Grimes, 
born August 11, 1772, and 
Elizabeth Wilson, born 
March 19, 1773 — were natives of the same 
town. Of a family of eight children born 
lo them, Janies was the youngest. In 
early childhood he evinced a taste for 
learning, attending the district school and 
also studying Latin and Greek under the 
instruction of the village pastoi". He 
completed his preparation for college 
at Hampton Academy, and entered Dart- 
mouth College in August, 1832, in the 
sixteenth year of his age. Upon leaving 
college in February, 1835, he commenced 
reading law with James Walker, Esq., in 
Petersburgh, New Hampshire. 

Being young and adventurous, and wish- 
ing to carve a fortune for himself, die left 

17 



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his native home in 1836 for the far West, 
landing in Burlington, then a new town in 
what was known as the " Black Hawk 
Purchase." Here he opened an office and 
soon established a reputation as a rising 
lawyer. In April, 1837, he was appointed 
city solicitor ; and entering upon the duties 
of that office he assisted in drawing up the 
first police laws of that town. In 1838 he 
was appointed justice of the peace, and be- 
came a law partner of William W. Chap- 
man, United States District Attorney for 
Wisconsin Territory. In the early part of 
the year 1841 he formed a partnership with 
Henry W. Starr, Esq., which continued 
twelve years. This firm stood at the head 
of the legal profession in Iowa. Mr. Grimes 
was widely known as a counselor of supe- 
rior knowledge of the law, and with a clear 
sense of truth and justice. He was chosen 
one of the representatives of Dcs Moines 
County in the first Legislative Assembly 
of the Territory of Iowa, which convened 
at Burlington, November 12, 183S; in the 
sixth, at Iowa Cit}-, December 4, 1843 '• ''^"d 
in the fourth General Assembly' of the 
State, at Iowa City, December 6, 1S52. 
He early took front rank among the pub- 
lic men of Iowa. He was chairman of the 
judiciary committee in the House of Rep- 
resentatives of the first Legislative As- 
sembly of the Territory, and all laws for the 
new Territory passed through his hands. 



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aoVEIl.VORS OF IOWA. 



He was married at Burlington, Novem- 
ber 9, 1846, to Miss Elizabeth Sarah Neally. 

In February, 1854, Mr. Grimes was nom- 
inated by a convention of the Whig party 
for Governor of the State. It was the 
largest convention of that partv ever held 
in Iowa, and the last. He was elected, and 
assumed the duties of the office in Decem- 
ber, 1854. Soon after his election it was 
proposed that he should be sent to the 
United States Senate, but he made it under- 
stood that he should fill the term of office 
for which he had been chosen, and he 
served his full term to the entire satisfac- 
tion and acceptance of all parties. He was 
a faithful leader in the political regenera- 
tion of the State. He introduced liberal 
measures to develop the resources of 
the State, and to promote the interests 
of all educational and humane establish- 
ments. Up to the time of his election 
as Governor, Democracy reigned supreme 
in the Territory. The representatives in 
Congress were allies of the slave power. 
He, after being elected, gave his whole 
soul to the work, and it may truly be said 
that Governor Grimes made I(3wa Repub- 
lican and allied it with the loyal States. 

January 14, 1S58, he laid down his office, 
only to be placed in another and greater 
one; for on the 25th he was nominated 
by the Republican caucus for United 
States Senator. He took his seat in the 
Senate March 4, 1859, and was placed upon 
the committee on naval affairs January 24, 
1861, on which he remained during the 
remainder of his senatorial career, serving 
as chairman from December, i86_|. 

Mr. Grimes voted for the Pacific Rail- 
road bill on June 20, 1S62, and for estab- 
lishing the gauge of the road from the Mis- 
souri I^iver to the Pacific Ocean, at four 
feet eight and a half inches, February 18, 
1863. 

January 16, 1864, Mr. Grimes was again 
chosen United .States Senator from Iowa 



for six 3'ears from March 4, 1865, receiving 
the votes of all but six of the members of 
the General Assemblv in joint convention; 
128 out of 134. His council was often 
sought in matters of great moment, and in 
cases of peculiar difficulty. Always ready 
to promote the welfare of the State, he 
gave, unsolicited, land worth $6,000 to the 
Congregational college at Grinnell. It 
constitutes the "Grimes foundation," and 
" is to be applied to the establishment and 
maintenance in Iowa College, forever, of 
four scholarships, to be awar.ded b}' the 
trustees, on the recommendation of the fac- 
ulty, to the best scholars, and the most 
promising, in anj' department, who may 
need and seek such aid, and without any 
regard to the religious tenets or opinions 
entertained by any person seeking either 
of said scholarships." These terms were 
imposed by Mr. Grimes and assumed July 
20, 1S65, by the trustees. He received 
the honorary degree of LL.D. in 1865 
from Dartmouth College, and also from 
Iowa College. He also aided in founding 
a public librar\' in Burlington, donating 
$5,000, which was expended in the purchase 
of costly books, and subsequently sent from 
Europe 256 volumes in the German lan- 
sruasre, antl also contributed 600 volumes of 
public documents. 

In January, i86g, he made a donation of 
$5,000 to Dartmouth College, and $1,000 
to the " Social Friend," a literary society of 
which he was a member when in college. 

His health failing, Mr. Grimes sailed for 
Europe April 14, 1S69, remaining abroad 
two years, reaching home September 22, 
1871, apparently in improved health and 
spirits. In November he celebrated his 
silver wedding, and spent the closing 
months of his life with his family. He voted 
at the city election February 5, 1872, was 
suddenly attacked with severe pains in the 
region of the heart, and died after a few 
short hours of intense suffering. 



■-■^■-■-■ '■■■■ ■■-■s»ii»ii i-'T--»- «.:»r.i»--wji 




/I t:t^^ 



RALPH P. LOWE. 



191 





,t'?\ME fourth Governor 
of the State, and 
the seventh of Iowa 
without refei^ence to 
the form of govern- 
ment, was Ralph P. 
Lowe. He was born 
in Ohio in 180S, and lived 
just three-fourths of a cent- 
ury. He came to the 
Territory of Iowa in 1839 
or 1840, when he was a 
little over thirty years old. 
He settled in Muscatine, 
where in a short time he 
became prominent in local 
affairs and of recognized 
ability in questions of public polic}'. While 
yet residing in that city, he represented 
the county of Muscatine in the constitu- 
tional convention of 1844 that framed the 
rejected Constitution. 

After this constitutional convention, Mr. 
Lowe took no further part in public mat- 
ters for a number of years. He removed 
*.o Lee County about 1849 or '50, where 
he became district judge as a successor to 
*jcorge H. Williams, who was afterward 
famous as President Grant's Attorney Gen- 
eral. He was district judge five years, 
from 1852 to 1857, being succeeded by 
Judge Claggett. In the summer '01 1857 



he was nominated by the Republicans for 
Governor of Iowa, with Oran Faville for 
Lieutenant-Governor. The Democracy 
put in the field Benjamin M. Samuels for 
Governor and George Gillaspy for Lieu- 
tenant Governor. There was a third ticket 
in the field, supported by the American or 
" Know Nothing " party, and bearing the 
names of T. F. Henry and Easton Morris. 
The election was held in October, 1857, and 
gave Mr. Lowe 38,498 votes, against 36,088 
for Mr. Samuels, and 1,006 for Mr. Henry. 

Hitherto the term of oflice had been four 
years, but by an amendment to the Consti- 
tution this was now reduced to two. Gov- 
ernor Lowe was inaugurated January 14, 
1858, and at once sent his first message to 
the Legislature. Among the measures 
passed by this Legislature were bills to in- 
corporate the State Bank of Iowa ; to pro- 
vide for an agricultural college ; to author- 
ize the business of banking ; disposing of 
the land grant made by Congress to the 
Des Moines Valley Railroad ; to provide 
for the erection of an institution for the 
education of the blind ; and to provide for 
taking a State census. 

No events of importance occurred dur- 
ing the administration of Governor Lowe, 
but it was not a period of uninterrupted 
prosperity. The Governor said in his 
biennial message of January 10, i860, re- 












192 



GOVERNORS OF IOWA. 



viewing the preceding two years: " The 
period that has elapsed since the last 
biennial session has been one of great dis- 
turbing causes, and of anxious solicitude to 
all classes of our fellow citizens. The first 
3-ear of this period was visited with heavy 
and continuous rains, which reduced the 
measure of our field crops below one-half 
of the usual product, whilst the financial 
revulsion which commenced upon the At- 
lantic coast in the autumn of 1857 did not 
reach its climax for evil in our borders until 
the year just past." 

He referred at length to the claim of the 
State against the Federal Government, 
and said that he had appealed in vain to 
the Secretary of the Interior for the pay- 
ment of the 5 per cent, upon the military 
land warrants that the State is justly en- 
titled to, which then approximated to a 
million of dollars. The payment of this 
fund, he said, " is not a mere favor which 
is asked of the General Government, but a 
subsisting right which could be enforced in 
a court of justice, was there a tribunal of 
this kind clothed with the requisite juris- 
diction." 

The subject of the Des Moines River 
grant received from the Governor special 
attention, and he gave a history of the 
operations of the State authorities in i-ef- 
erence to obtaining the residue of the lands 
to which the State was entitled, and other 
information as to the progress of the work. 
He also remarked " that under the act 
authorizing the Governor to raise a com- 
pany of mounted men for defense and pro- 
tection of our frontier, approved February 
9, 1858, a company of thirty such men, 
known as the Frontier Guards, armed and 
equipj)ed as required, were organized and 
mustered into service under the command 
of Captain Henry B. Martin, of Webster 
City, about the first of March then follow- 
ing, and were divided into two companies, 
one stationed on the Little Sioux River, 



the other at Spirit Lake. Their presence 
afforded security and gave quiet to the 
settlements in that region, and after a ser- 
vice of four months they were duly dis- 
banded. 

" Late in the fall of the year, however, 
great alarm and consternation was again 
felt in the region of Spirit Lake and Sioux 
River settlements, produced by the appear- 
ance of large numbers of Indians on the 
border, whose bearing was insolent and 
menacing, and who were charged with 
clandestinely running off the stock of the 
settlers. The most urgent appeals came 
from these settlers, invoking again the 
protection of the State. From the repre- 
sentations made of the imminence of their 
danger and the losses already sustained, 
the Governor summoned into the field once 
more the frontier guards. After a service 
of four or five months they were again 
discharged, and paid in tiie manner 
prescribed in the act imder which they 
were called out." 

Governor Lowe was beaten for the 
renoniination by Honorable S. J. Kirkwood, 
who was considered much the stronger 
man. To compensate him for his defeat 
for the second term, Governor Lowe was 
appointed one of the three judges under 
the new Constitution. He drew the short 
term, which expired in 1861, but was 
returned and served, all told, eight years. 
He then returned to the practice of 
law, gradually working into a claim busi- 
ness at Washington, to which city he re- 
moved about 1874. In that city he died, on 
Saturday, December 22, 1S83. He had a 
large family. Carleton, one of his sons, 
was an officer in the Third I(^wa Cavalr}' 
during the war. 

Governor Lowe was a man of detail, 
accurate and industrious. In private and 
public life he was pure, upright and honest. 
In religious faith he was inclined to be a 
Spiritualist. 



' 1^ 






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SAMUEL y. KIRK WOOD. 



195 






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mAMUEL JORDAN 
''' ' KIRK WOOD, the 
fifth Governor of the 
State of Iowa, was born 
December 20, 181 3, in 
Harford County, Mary- 
^* land, on his father's 
farm. His father was twice 
married, first to a lady named 
CoLilson, by whom he had 
two sons, and, after her 
death, to Mary Alexander, by 
whom he had three children, 
all sons, the youngest of whom 
is the subject of these notes. The 
father of Governor Kirkwood was 
a native of Maryland, his ancestors 
having settled there previous to the Revo- 
lution ; his mother was born in Scotland, 
and both parents were strict members of 
the Presbyterian church. 

When ten years old young Kirkwood was 
sent to Washington City to attend a school 
taught by a relative named John McLeod. 
He remained at school four years, when he 
entered a drug store at Washington as 
clerk, in which occupation he continued till 
after attaining his majority, with the e.xcep- 
tion of about eighteen months spent in 
teaching in York County, Pennsylvania. 
In 1835 Samuel left Washington and set- 
tled in Richland County, Ohio, where he 
assisted his father and brother (who had re- 







moved from Maryland there) in clearing a 
farm. In 1841 he entered, as a student, the 
law office of Thomas W. Bartley, afterward 
Governor of Ohio, and in 1843 ^^'■^^ admit- 
ted to the bar by the Supreme Court of 
Ohio. He then engaged in the practice 
of law with his former preceptor, Mr. 
Bartley, forming an association which con- 
tinued for eight years. 

From 1845 to 1849 ^^ served as prose- 
cuting attorney of his county. In 1849 ^^ 
was elected as a Democrat to represent his 
county and district in the constitutional 
convention. In 185 1 Mr. Bartley, his part- 
ner, having been elected to the supreme 
judiciary of the State, Kirkwood formed a 
partnership with Barnabas Barns, with 
whom he continued to practice until the 
spring of 1855, when he removed to the 
West. 

Up to 1854 Mr. Kirkwood had acted with 
the Democratic part}'. But the measures 
proposed and sustained that year b}' the 
Democracy in Congress, concentrated in 
what was known as the Kansas-Nebraska 
act, drove him with hosts of anti-slavery 
Democrats out of the party. He was be- 
sought by the opposition in the " Richland 
district" to become their candidate for 
Congress, but declined. In 1855 he came 
to Iowa and settled two miles northwest of 
Iowa City, entering into a partnership with 
his brother-in-law, Ezekiel Clark, in the 



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■ 96 



GOVERNORS OF IOWA. 



milling business, and kept aloof from pub- 
lic affairs. He could not long conceal his 
record and abilities from his neighbors, 
however, and in 1856 he was elected to the 
State Senate from the district composed of 
the counties of Iowa and Johnson, and 
served through the last session of the 
Legislature held at Iowa City and the first 
one held at Des Moines. 

In 1859 ^^i"- Kirk wood was made the 
standard-bearer of the Republicans of Iowa, 
and though he had as able and popular a 
competitor as General A. C. Dodge, he was 
elected Governor of Iowa by a majority of 
over 3,000. He was inaugurated January 
II, i860. Before the expiration of his first 
term came the great civil war. As Gov- 
ernor, during the darkest days of the Rebell- 
ion, he performed an exceedingly impor- 
tant duty. He secured a prompt response 
by volunteers to all requisitions by the 
federal Government on the State for troops, 
so that during his Governorship no " draft " 
took place in Iowa, and no regiment, except 
the first, enlisted for less than three years. 
At the same time he maintained the State's 
financial credit. The Legislature, at its ex- 
tra session in 1861, authorized the sale of 
$800,000 in bonds, to assist m arming and 
equipping troops. So frugally was this 
work done, that but $300,000 of the bonds 
were sold, and the remaining $500,000 not 
having been required, the bonds represent- 
ing this amount were destroyed by order 
of the succeeding Legislature. 

In October, 1861, Governor Kirkwood 
was, with comparatively little opposition, 
re-elected — an honor accorded for the first 
time in the history of the State. His ma- 
jority was about 18,000. During his second 
term he was appointed by President Lin- 
coln to be Minister to Denmark; but he 
declined to enter upon his diplomatic duties 
until the expiration of his term as Governor. 
The position was kept open for him until 
that time, but, when it came, pressing pri- 



vate business compelled a declination of 
the ofifice altogether. 

In January, 1866, he was a prominent 
candidate before the Legislature for United 
States Senator. Senator Harlan had re- 
signed the senatorship upon his appoint- 
ment to the office of Secretary of the 
Interior by President Lincoln, just before 
his death, but had withdrawn from the 
cabinet soon after the accession of Mr. 
Johnson to the Presidency. In this way 
it happened that the Legislature had two 
terms of United States Senator to fill, a 
short term of two years, to fill Harlan's 
unexpired term, and a long term of six 
years, to immediately succeed this ; and 
Harlan had now become a candidate for 
his own successorship, to which Kirkwood 
also aspired. Ultimately, Kirkwood was 
elected for the first and Harlan for the 
second term. During his brief senatorial 
service, Kirkwood did not hesitate to meas- 
ure swords with Senator Sumner, whose 
natural egotism had begotten in him an 
arrogant and dictatorial manner, borne with 
humbly until then by his colleagues, in 
deference to his long experience and emi- 
nent ability, but unpalatable to an inde- 
pendent Western Senator like Kirkwood. 

At the close of his senatorial term, March 
4, 1867, he resumed the practice of law, 
which a few years later he relinquished to 
accept the presidency of the Iowa City 
Savings Bank. In 1875 he was again elected 
Governor, and was inaugurated Januar}- 13, 
1S76. He served but little over a year, as 
early in 1877 he was chosen United States 
Senator. He filled this position four years, 
resigning to become Secretary of the In- 
terior in President Garfield's cabinet. In 
this ofifice he was succeeded, April 17, 1882, 
by Henry M. Teller, of Colorado. 

Governor Kirkwood returned to Iowa 
City, his home, where he still resides, being 
now advanced in years. He was married 
in 1843 to Miss JaneClark, a native of Ohio. 



iaJiiai 



THE NEW YORK 

PURLIC LIBRARY 



ASTOR. LENOX AND 
TILDEN FOUNOATIONS. 





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WILLI AM M. STONE. 



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jHE subject of this brief 
sketch was the ninth 
to hold the position 
of Governor of Iowa, 
and the sixth to fill 
the office under the 
State organization. 
le held the office four 
years, from 1864 to 1868. 

William Milo Stone was 
born October 14, 1827, 
a son of Truman and La- 
vina (North) Stone. His 
erreat-srandfather on both 
sides of the family was in 
the seven years' struggle 
for independence. His 
grandfather, Aaron Stone, was in the second 
war with England. Truman Stone moved 
to Lewis County, New York, when the son 
was a year old, and six 3'ears later to Co- 
shocton County, Ohio. 

Like many other self-made men, William 
M. had few advantages. He never attended 
a school of any kind more than twelve 
months. In boyhood he was for two seasons 
a team-driver on the Ohio Canal. At seven- 
teen he was apprenticed to the chairmaker's 
trade, and he followed that business until 
twenty-three years of age, reading law 



meantime during his spare hours, wher- 
ever he happened to be. He commenced 
at Coshocton, with James Mathews, who 
afterward became his father-in-law; con- 
tinued his readings with General Lucius V. 
Pierce, of Akron, and finished with Ezra B. 
Taylor, of Ravenna. He was admitted to 
the bar in August, 1851, by Peter Hitch- 
cock and Rufus P. Ranney, supreme judges, 
holding a term of court at Ravenna. 

After practicing three years at Coshocton 
with his old preceptor, James Mathews, he, 
in November, 1854, settled in Knoxville, 
which has remained his home since. The 
year after locating here Mr. Stone pur- 
chased the Knoxville yi9«r«^r/, and was one 
of the prime movers in forming the Repub- 
lican party in Iowa, being the first editor to 
suofsfest a State convention, which met 
February 22, 1856, and completed the or- 
ganization. In the autumn of the same 
year he was a Presidential elector on the 
Republican ticket. 

In April, 1857, Mr. Stone was chosen 
Judge of the Eleventh Judicial District. 
He was elected judge of the Sixth Judicial 
District when the new Constitution went 
into operation in 1858, and was serving on 
the bench when the American flag was 
stricken down at Fort Sumter. At that 



IS 



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f < 



GOVERNORS OF JOWA. 



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time, April, 1861, he was holding court in 
Fairfield, Jefferson County, and when the 
news came of the insult to the old flag he 
immediately adjourned court and prepared 
for what he believed to be more important 
duties — duties to his country. 

In May he enlisted as a private; was 
made Captain of Company B, Third Iowa 
Infantry, and was subsequently promoted 
to Major. With that regiment he was at 
the battle of Blue Mills, Missouri, in Sep- 
tember, 1861, where he was wounded. At 
Shiloh, the following spring, he commanded 
the regiment and was taken prisoner. By 
order of Jefferson Davis he was paroled for 
the time of forty days, with orders to re- 
pair to Washington, and if possible secure 
an agreement for a cartel for a general ex- 
change of prisoners, and to return as a 
prisoner if he did not succeed. Failing to 
secure that result within the period speci- 
fied he returned to Richmond and had 
his parol extended fifteen days ; repairing 
again to Washington, he effected his pur- 
pose and was exchanged. 

In August, 1862, he was appointed by 
Governor Kirkwood Colonel of the Twen- 
ty-second Iowa Infantry, which rendez- 
voused and organized at Camp Pope, Iowa 
City, in August, 1862. The regiment was 
occupied for several months in guarding 
supply stores and the railroad, and escorting 
supply trains to the Army of the Southeast 
Missouri until January 27, 1863, when it re- 
ceived orders to join the army under Gen- 
eral Davidson, at West Plains, Missouri. 
After a march of five days it reached its 
destination, and was brigaded with the 
Twenty-first and Twenty-third Iowa regi 
ments. Colonel Stone commanding, and was 
designated the First Brigade, First Divis- 
ion, Arm}^ of Southeast Missouri. April i 
found Colonel Stone at Milliken's Bend, 
Louisiana, to assist Grant in the capture of 
Vicksburg. He was now in immediate 
command of his regiment, which formed a 



part of a brigade under Colonel C. L. 
Harris, of the Eleventh Wisconsin. In the 
advance upon Port Gibson Colonel Harris 
was taken sick, and Colonel Stone was 
again in charge of a brigade. In the battle 
of Port Gibson the Colonel and his com- 
mand distinguished themselves, and were 
successful. The brigade was in the reserve 
at Champion Hills, and in active skirmish 
at Black River. 

On the evening of May 21 Colonel Stone 
received General Grant's order for a gen- 
eral assault on the enemy's lines at 10 A. M. 
on the 22d. In this charge, which was 
unsuccessful. Colonel Stone was again 
wounded, receiving a gunshot in his left 
forearm. Colonel Stone commanded a 
brigfade until the last of August, when, 
being ordered to the Gulf department, he 
resigned. He had become very popular 
with the people of Iowa, and they were 
determined to make him Governor. 

He was nominated in a Republican con- 
vention held at Des Moines in June, 1863, 
and was elected by a large majority. He 
was bre vetted Brigadier-General in 1864, 
during his first year as Governor. He was 
inaugurated January 14, 1864, and was re- 
elected in 1865, his four years in office 
closing January 16, 1868. His majority in 
1863 was nearly 30,000, and in 1865 about 
16,500. His diminished vote in 1865 was 
due to the fact that he was very strongly 
committed in favor of negro suffrage. 

Governor Stone made a ver}' energetic 
and efficient executive. Since the expira- 
tion of his gubernatorial term he has sought 
to escape the public notice, and has given 
his time largely to his private business in- 
terests. He is in partnership with Hon. O. 
B. Ayres, of Knoxville, in legal practice. 

He was elected to the General Assembly 
in 1877, 'i"^ served one term. 

In May, 1857, he married Miss Carloaet 
Mathews, a native of Ohio, then residing in 
Knoxville. They have one son — William A. 









fHE NEW YORK! 
PUBUC LIBRARY' 









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SAMUEL MERRILL. 



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OLONEL SAM- 
UEL MERRILL, the 
seventh Governor of 
the State of Iowa, the 
successor of Governor 
Stone, is among the 
men of the West who 
have been called from 
private life to places of trust on 
account of their peculiar fitness 
for office, tie was born in the 
town of Turner, Oxford County, 
Maine, August 7, 1S22. He is 
of English ancestry, being a 
descendant on his mother's side 
of Peter Hill, who came from 
the West of England and set- 
tled in Saco, Maine (now known as Bidde- 
ford), in 1653. From this ancestry have 
sprung the most of the Hills of America. 
On his father's side he is a descendant of 
Nathaniel Merrill, who, with his brother 
John, came from Salisbury, England, and 
settled in Newburg, Massachusetts, in 1636. 
Abel Merrill married Abigail Hill, June 
25, 1809, in Buxton, Maine. They soon 
moved to Turner, where they became the 
parents of eight children, Samuel, the sub- 
ject of this sketch, being next the youngest, 
the fourth and youngest son in the family, 
and in the eighth generation from his Pil- 
grim fathers. 

IS 



Samuel was married first to Catherine 
Thoms, who died m 1847, but fourteen 
months after their marriage. In January, 
1 85 1, he was again married, his second wife 
being a Miss Hill, of Buxton, Maine. To 
this union there have been born four chil- 
dren, three of whom died young, the eldest 
living to be only two and a half years old. 

At the age of sixteen he moved with his 
parents to Buxton, where his time was 
mostly engaged by turns in teaching and 
in attending school until he attained his 
majority. Having determined to make 
teaching a profession, he set out for that 
purpose toward the sunny South, but, as 
he says, he was " born too far north " for 
his political comfort. Suspicion having 
been aroused as to his abolitionist pro- 
clivities, and finding the elements not al- 
together congenial, he soon abandoned the 
land of chivalry for the old Granite State, 
where he engaged for several years in 
farming. 

In 1847 he removed to Tamworth, New 
Hampshire, where he embarked in mer- 
cantile business in company with a brother. 
In this, as in all his business enterprises, he 
was quite successful. Not being satisfied 
with the limited resources of Northern 
New England, he determined to try his 
good fortune on the broad prairies of the 
new and more fertile West. Accordingly, 















M 



204 



GOVEItNOIiS OF IOWA. 



in 1856, he turned his face toward the set- 
ting sun. He made a final settlement at 
McGregor, Iowa, where he established a 
branch house of the old firm. 

During all these years of business Mr. 
Merrill took an active but not a noisy part 
in politics. In 1854 he was elected as an 
Abolitionist to the New Hampshire Legis- 
lature, at the same time General N. B. 
Baker, ex-Adjutant General of Iowa, was 
Governor of the same State. In 1855 he 
was returned for a second term to the Leg- 
islature. In Iowa he was equally fortunate 
in securing the good will of those who 
knew him. His neighbors and those who 
had dealings with him found a man who 
was honest in his busuiess, fair in his deal- 
ings, social in his relations, and benevolent 
in his disposition. He took an active in- 
terest in the prosperity of the town and 
ever held an open hand to all needed chari- 
ties. These traits of character had drawn 
around him, though not realized or intended 
by himself, a host of personal admirers. 
This good will resulted in his being nomi- 
nated for a seat in the State Legislature, 
and he was the only one on his ticket that 
was elected. The Legislature met in extra 
session in 1861 to provide for the exigencies 
of the Rebellion, and in its deliberations Mr. 
Merrill rendered effective and unselfish 
service. 

He continued in business at McGregor 
until the summer of 1862, when he was 
commissioned as Colonel of the Twenty- 
first Iowa Infantry, proceeding immediately 
to Missouri, where active service awaited 
him. Marmaduke was menacing the Union 
forces in Central Missouri, which called for 
prompt action on the part of the Union 
Generals. Colonel Merrill was placed in 
command of a detachment of the Twenty- 
first Iowa, a detachment of the Ninety-ninth 
Illinois, a portion of the Third Iowa Cavalry 
and two pieces of artillery, with orders to 
make a forced march to Springfield, he be- 



ing at Houston, eighty miles distant. On 
the morning of the nth of January, 1863, 
they having come across a body of rebels, 
found them advancing in heavy force. 
Colonel Merrill immediately made dis- 
position for battle, and brisk firing was 
kept up for an hour, when the enemy fell 
back. Colonel Merrill now moved in the 
direction of Hartville, where he found the 
rebels in force under Marmaduke, and from 
six to eight thousand strong, with six pieces 
of artillery, while Colonel Merrill had but 
800 men and two pieces of artillery. 

In this engagement the rebels lost several 
officers and not less than 300 men in killed 
and wounded. The Union loss was seven 
killed and sixty-four wounded, five captured 
and two missing. The regiment performed 
severe marches and suffered much in sick- 
ness during the winter. It was assigned to 
the Thirteenth Corps, General John A. Mc- 
Clernand ; fought gallantly at the battle of 
Port Gibson; and while the impetuous 
charge of Black River bridge was being 
made Colonel Merrill was scvcrel)-, and re- 
ported fatally, wounded. The battle of Black 
River bridge, the last of the scries of engage- 
ments during the campaign of \^icksburg in 
which the rebels fought without their fortifi- 
cations, was a short but bloody combat. 
While Colonel Merrill was leading his regi- 
ment in this deadly charge he was wounded 
through the hips. This brought his mili- 
tary career to a close. Suffering from his 
wounds, he resigned his commission and re- 
turned to McGregor, but was unable to at- 
tend to his private affairs for many months. 

In 1867 he was chosen Governor to suc- 
ceed William M. Stone. He was inaugu- 
rated January 16, 1868, and served till 
January 11, 1872, being re-elected in 1869. 
After the expiration of his term of office 
he returned to McGregor, but as soon as 
he could adjust his business interests he lo- 
cated in Des Moines, where he is now 
President of the Citizens' National Bank. 



THE NEW YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 



ASTOR. LENOX AND 
TILDEN FOUNDATIONS. 



i^mSi 



.■^■laB. 



CrJiUS C. CARPENTER. 



207 










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ROM his numerous offi- 
cial positions, and 
the ability with 
which the}' have 
been filled, Cyrus 
C. Carpenter, the 
eighth Governor of 
the State of Iowa, 
deserves to be remembered 
as one of Iowa's foremost 
men. He is a native of Sus- 
quehanna County, Pennsyl- 
vania, and was born Novem- 
ber 24, 1829. His parents 
were Asahel and Amanda M. 
(Thayer) Carpenter, both of whom died be- 
fore he was twelve years old. His grand- 
father, John Carpenter, was one of nine 
young men who, in 1789, left Attleborough, 
Massachusetts, for the purpose of finding a 
home in the " new country." After various 
vicissitudes they located upon the spot 
which they called Harford, in Northeastern 
Pennsylvania, the township in which Cyrus 
was born. This location at that time was 
far from any other settlement, Wilkesbarre, 
in Wyoming Valley, near the scene of the 
celebrated Indian massacre, being among 
the nearest, though fifty miles away. 

Cyrus attended a common school three 
or tour months in a year until 1846, then 



taught winters and worked on a farm sum- 
mers for three or four years, and with the 
money thus raised paid his expenses for 
several months at the academy which had 
been established in his native town. After 
leaving this institution, in 1852, he started 
westward ; halted at Johnstown, Licking 
County, Ohio ; taught there a year and a 
half, and with his funds thus replenished he 
came to Iowa, loitering some on the wav, 
and reaching Des Moines in June, 1854. A 
few days later he started on foot up the 
Des Moines Valle}^ and found his way to 
Fort Dodge, eighty miles northwest of Des 
Moines, from which place the soldiers had 
moved the previous spring to Fort Ridgely, 
Minnesota. 

He now had but a single half dollar m 
his pocket. He frankly told the landlord 
of his straightened circumstances, offering 
to do any kind of labor until something 
should " turn up." On the evening of his 
arrival he heard a Government contractor 
state that his chief surveyor had left him 
and that he was going out to find another. 
Young Carpenter at once offered his ser- 
vices. To the inquiry whether he was a 
surveyor, he answered that he understood 
the theory of surveying, but had had no 
experience in the field. His services were 
promptly accepted, with a promise of steady 




20S 



GOVERNORS OF IOWA. 



employment if he were found competent. 
The next mornini;; he met the party and 
took command. When the first week's 
work was done he went to Fort Dodge to 
replenish his wardrobe. As he left, some 
of the men remarked that that was the last 
that would be seen of him. He was then 
of a slight build, jaded and torn by hard 
work, and, when he left the camp, so utterly 
tired out it is not surprising that the men 
who were inured to out-door life thought 
him completel}' used up. But they did not 
know their man. With the few dollars 
which he had earned, he supplied himself 
with comfortable clothing, went back to 
his work on Monday morning and con- 
tinued it till the contract was completed. 

The next winter he taught the first school 
opened in Fort Dodge, and from that date 
his general success was assured. For the 
first two years he was employed much of 
the time by persons having contracts for 
surveying Government lands. He was thus 
naturally led into the land business, and 
from the autumn of 1855, when the Land 
Office was established at Fort Dodge, much 
of his time was devoted to surveying, select- 
ing lands for buyers, tax-paying for foreign 
owners, and in short a general land agency. 
During this period he devoted such time as 
he could spare to reading law, with the 
view of eventually entering the profession. 

Soon after the civil war commenced he 
entered the army, and before going into the 
field was commissioned as Captain in the 
staff department, and served over three 
years, attaining the rank of Lieutenant- 
Colonel and being mustered out as brevet 
Colonel. 

He has served his State in numerous 
civil capacities. He was elected Surveyor 
of Webster County in the spring of 1856, 
and the next year was elected a Represen- 
tative to the General Assembly, and served 
in tiie first session of that body held at Des 
Moines. He was elected Register of the 



State Land Ofifice in 1S66, re-elected in 
1868, and held the office four years, declin- 
ing to be a candidate for renomination. 

He was elected Governor of Iowa in 
1 87 1, and was inaugurated January 1 1, 1872. 
He was re-elected two years later, and 
served until January 13, 1874. He made 
an able and popular executive. In his first 
inaugural address, delivered January 11, 
1S72, he made a strong plea for the State 
University, and especially its normal de- 
partment, for the agricultural college, and 
for whatever would advance the material 
progress and prosperity of the people, urg- 
ing in particular the introduction of more 
manufactories. 

At the expiration of his second term as 
Governor Mr. Carpenter was appointed, 
without his previous knowledge. Second 
Comptroller of the United States Treasury, 
and resigned after holding that office about 
fifteen months. He was influenced to take 
this step at that ti me because another bureau 
officer was to be dismissed, as the head of 
the department held that Iowa had more 
heads of bureaus than she was entitled to, 
and his resigning an office of a higher grade 
saved a man who deserved to remain in 
Government employ. 

He was in the forty-seventh Congress 
from 1 88 1 to 1883, and represented Web- 
ster County in the twentieth General As- 
sembl}'. He is now leading the life of a 
private citizen at Fort Dodge, his chief 
employment being the carrying on of a 
farm. He is not rich, which is a striking 
commentary on his long official service. 
He has led a pure and upright life. 

He has been a Republican since the or- 
ganization of that party. In religious mat- 
ters he is orthodox. 

He was married in March, 1864, to Miss 
Susan C. Burkholder, of Fort Dodge. They 
have no children, but have reared from 
childhood a niece of Mrs. Carpenter, Miss 
Fannie Burkholder. 



TH F 

PUBLIC L. 



ASTOR, LENOX AND 
TILDEN FOUNDATIONS. 




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yoS/IUA G. NEWBOLD. 



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"OSHUA G. NEWBOLD 
was the tenth Governor 
of the State, and the 
thirteenth of Iowa, niim- 
bering from the first 
Territorial Governor. 
He is yet living at Mount 
Pleasant. He is a native of 
Pennsj'lvania, and his an- 
cestors in this country were 
among the very early set- 
tlers in New Jersey. They 
were Friends, and conse- 
quently none of them 
figured in the struggle for 
the independence of the colo- 
nies. Governor Newbold is the son of 
Barzilla and Catherine (Houseman) New- 
bold. He was born in Fa3'ette County, 
Pennsylvania, May 12, 1830, and reared as 
a farmer. When he was eight years of age 
the family moved to Westmoreland County, 
same State, where he was educated in the 
common school, and also in a select school 
or academy, the latter taught by Dr. John 
Lewis, since of Grinnell, Iowa. At sixteen 
he returned with the family to Fayette 
County, where he remained eight 3-ears, 
assisting his father in running a flouring 
mill, when not teaching. When about nine- 
teen he began the study of medicine, read- 
ing a year or more while teaching, and then 
abandoning the notion of being a physician. 



In the month of March, 1854, Mr. New- 
bold removed to Iowa, locating on a farm, 
now partly in the corporation of Mount 
Pleasant, Henry Countv. At the end of 
one year he removed to Cedar Township, 
Van Buren Count}', there merchandising 
and farming till about i860, when he re- 
moved to Hillsboro, Henry Count}'- and 
pursued the same callings. 

In 1862, when the call was made for 600,- 
000 men to finish the work of crushing the 
Rebellion, Mr. Newbold left his farm in the 
hands of his family and his store in charge 
of his partner, and went into the army as 
Captain of Company C, Twenty-fifth Regi- 
ment Iowa Infantry. He served nearly 
three years, resigning just before the war 
closed, on account of disability. During 
the last two or three months he served at 
the South he filled the position of Judge 
Advocate, with headquarters at Woodville, 
Alabama. 

His regiment was one of those that made 
Iowa troops famous. It arrived at Helena, 
Arkansas, in November, 1862, and sailed in 
December following on the expedition 
against Vicksburg by way of Chickasaw 
Bayou. At the latter place was its first en- 
e:ae:ement. Its second was at Arkansas 
Post, and there it suffered severely, losing 
in killed and wounded more than sixty. 

Alter Lookout Mountain it joined in the 
pursuit of Bragg's flying forces to Ring- 



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gfold, where il engfaged the enemv in their 
strong works, November 27 losing twenty- 
nine wonnded. The following year it joined 
Sherman in his Atlanta campaign, then on 
the famous march to the sea and through 
the Carolinas. 

On returning to Iowa he continued in 
the mercantile trade at Hillsboro for three 
or four years, and then sold out, giving 
thereafter his whole attention to agricult- 
ure, stock-raising and stock-dealing, mak- 
ing the stock department an important 
factor in his business for several years. Mr. 
Newbold was a member of the thirteenth, 
fourteenth and fifteenth Grcncral Assem- 
blies, representing Henry Count}', and was 
chairman of the school ccjmmittee in the 
fourteenth, and (jf the committee on appro- 
priations in the fifteenth General Assembly. 
In the fifteenth (1874) he was temporary 
Speaker during the deadlock in organizing 
the House. In 1875 he was elected Lieu- 
tenant Governor on the Republican ticket 
with Samuel J. Kirkwood. 

His Democratic competitor was E. B. 
Woodward, who received 93,060 votes. Mr. 
Newbold received 134,166, or a majority of 
31,106. Governor Kirkwood being elected 
United States Senator during that session, 
Mr. Newbold became Governor, taking the 
chair February i, 1S77, ^"d vacating it for 
Governor Gear in Januar}-, 1878. 

Governor Newbold's message to the Leg- 
islature in 187S shows painstaking care 
and a clear business-like view of the in- 
terests of the State. His recommendations 
were carefully considered and largel}^ 
adopted. The State's finances were then 
in a less creditable condition than ever be- 
fore or since, as there was an increasing 
floating debt, then amounting to $340,- 
826.56, more than $90,000 in excess of the 
Constitutional limitation. Said Governor 
Newbold in his message: "The common- 
wealth ought not to set an example of dila- 



toriness in meeting its obligations. Of all 
forms of indebtedness, that of a floating 
character is the most objectionable. The 
uncertainty as to its amount will invariably 
enter into any computation made by persons 
contracting with the State for supplies, ma- 
terial or labor. To remove the present 
difficulty, and to avert its recurrence, I 
look upon as the most important work that 
will demand your attention." 

One of the greatest problems before 
statesmen is that of equal and just taxation. 
The following recommendation shows that 
Governor Newbold was abreast with fore- 
most thinkers, for it proposes a step which 
yearly finds more favor with the people: 
"The inetiualities of the personal-property 
valuations of the several counties suggest 
to my mind the propriety of so adjusting 
the State's levy as to require the counties 
to pay into the State treasury only the tax 
on realty, leaving the corresponding tax on 
personalty in the county treasury. This 
would rest with each count}' the adjust- 
ment of its personal property valuations, 
without fear that they might be so high as 
to work injustice to itself in comparison 
with other counties." 

Governor Newbold has always affiliated 
with the Republican party, and holds to its 
great cardinal doctrines, having once em- 
braced them, with the same sincerity and 
honesty that he cherishes his religious senti- 
ments. He has been a Christian for some- 
thing like twenty-five years, his connection 
being with the Free-Will Baptist church. 
He found his wife, Rachel Farquhar, in 
Fayette County, Pennsylvania, their union 
taking place on the 2d of May, 1850. They 
have had five children, and lost two. The 
names of the living are — Mary Allene, 
Emma Irene and George C. 

The Governor is not yet an old man, and 
may serve his State or county in other 
capacities in the coming years. 



1 1 

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THENEW YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 



ASTOR, LENOX AND 
TILDEN FOUNDATIONS. 



yoiIN II. GEAR. 



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; H E eleventh to hold the 
highest official posi- 
tion in the State of 
Iowa was John H. 
Gear, of Burlington. 
Me is 3'et living in 
that city- He was 
born in Ithaca, New York, 
April 7, 1825. His father 
was Rev. E. G. Gear, a cler- 
gy man of the Protestant 
Episcopal church, who 
was born in New London, 
Connecticut, in 1792. 
When he was quite young 
h i s family removed to 
Pittsfteld, Berkshire County, 
Massachusetts; in 1816, after being or- 
dained, he emigrated to New York and 
settled at Onondaga Hill, near which is now 
the thriving city of Syracuse. Soon after 
locating there he was married to Miranda E. 
Cook. He was engaged in the ministry in 
various places in Western New York until 
1836, when he removed to Galena, Illinois. 
There he remained until 1838, when he was 
appointed Chaplain in the United States 
Army at Fort Snelling, Minnesota. He 
died in 1874, aged eighty-two years. 

John H., his onl}' son, in 1843, came to 
Burlington, where he has since continued 
to reside. On his arrival he commenced 



his mercantile career by engaging as clerk 
with the firm of Bridgeman & Bros. After 
being with this firm for a little over a year 
he entered the employ of W. F. Coolbaugh 
(since president of the Union National 
Bank, of Chicago), who was even at that 
early date the leading merchant of Eastern 
Iowa. He was clerk for Mr. Coolbaugh 
for about five years, and was then taken 
into partnership. The firm of W. F. Cool- 
baugh & Co. continued in business for 
nearl}' five years, when Mr. Gear suc- 
ceeded to the business by purchase, and 
carried it on until he became known as the 
oldest wholesale grocer in the State. He 
is now president of a large rolling mill 
company at Burlington. 

Mr. Gear has been honored by his fell(;w- 
citizens with many positions of trust. In 
1852 he was elected alderman ; in 1863 was 
elected mayor over A. W. Carpenter, be- 
ing the first Republican up to that time 
who had been elected in Burlington on a 
party issue. In 1867 the Burlington, Cedar 
Rapids & Minnesota Railroad Company 
was organized, and he was chosen as its 
president. His efforts highly contributed 
to the success of the enterprise, which did 
much for Burlington. He was also active 
in promoting the Burlington & Southwest- 
crri Railway, as well as the Burlington & 
Northwestern narrow-gauge road, 



2l6 



GOVERNOJiS OF IOWA. 



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He has always acted with the Republican 
party, and in 1871 was nominated and 
elected a member of tiie House of Repre- 
sentatives of the Fouitcenth General As- 
sembly. In 1S73 he was elected to the 
Fifteenth General Assembly. The Repub- 
lican caucus of the House nominated him 
lor Speaker by acclamation, and after a 
contest of two weeks he was chosen over 
his opponent, J. W. Di.xon. He filled the 
position of Speaker very acceptably, and 
at the close of the session all the members 
of the House, independent of party affili- 
ations, joined in sii^ning their names to a 
resolution of thanks, which was engraved 
and presented to him. In 1875 he was the 
third time nominated to the Assembly by 
the Republican part}', and while his county 
^ave a large Democratic vote he was again 
elected. He was also again nominated for 
Speaker, by the Republican caucus, and 
was elected by a handsome majority over 
his competitor, Hon. John Y. Stone. He 
is the only man in the State who ever had 
the honor of being chosen to this high posi- 
tion a second time. He enjoys the reputa- 
tion of being an able parliamentarian, his 
rulings never having been appealed from. 
\t the close of the session he again received 
the luianimous thanks of the House for his 
courtesy and impartialit}-. 

In 1877 he was nominated for Governor 
by the Republican convention which met 
at Des Moines, June 28, and at the election 
held the following October he received 
121,546 votes, against 79,353 for John P. 
Irish, 10,639 for Eliasjessup, and 38,228 for 
D. P. Stubbs. His plurality over Irish was 
42,193. He was inaugurated January 17, 
1 878, and served four years, being re-elected 
in 1879, by the following handsome vote : 
Gear, 157,571 ; Trimble, 85,056; Campbell, 
45,439; Dungan, 3,258; Gear's majority 
over all competitors, 23,828. His second 
inauguration was in January, 1880. 

Governor Gear's business habits enabled 



him to discharge the duties of his office 
with marked ability. He found the finan- 
cial condition of the State in a low ebb, but 
raised Iowa's credit to that of the best of 
our States. In his last biennial message he 
was able to report: "The warrants out- 
standing, but not bearing interest, Septem- 
ber 30, 1 88 1, amounted to $22,093.74, and 
there are now in the treasurv ample funds 
to meet the current expenses of the State. 
The war and defense debt has been paid, 
except the warrants for $125,000 negotiated 
by the executive, autlitor and treasurer, 
under the law of the Eighteenth General 
Assembly, and $2,500 of the original bonds 
not yet presented for pa^'ment. The only 
other debt owing by the State amounts to 
$245,435.19, due to the permanent school 
fund, a portion of which is made irredeem- 
able by the Constitution. These facts place 
Iowa practically among the States which 
have no debt, a consideration which must 
add much to her reputation. The expenses 
of the State for the last two years are less 
than those of any other period since 1869, 
and this notwithstanding the fact that the 
State is to-day sustaining several institU' 
tions not then in existence ; namely, the 
hospital at Independence, the additional 
penitentiary, the normal school, and the 
asylum for the feeble-minded children, be- 
sides the girl's department of the reform 
school. The State also, at present, makes 
provision for fish culture, for a useful 
weather service, for sanitary supervision 
by a board of health, for encouraging im- 
migration to the State, for the inspection of 
coal mines by a State inspector, and liberall)' 
for the military arm of the Government." 

Governor Gear is now in the sixty-first 
year of his age, and is in the full vigor of 
both his mental and physical faculties. He 
was married in 1852 to Harriet S. Foot, 
formerly of Middlebury, Vermont, by whom 
he has had lour children, two of whom are 
livinsr 



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isHE twelfth Governor 
of the State was 
Burcn R. Sherman, 
wlio held office two 
terms, from 1882 to 
1886. He was born 
in Phelps, Ontario 
County, New York, May 
28, 1836, and is the third 
son of Phineas L. and Eve- 
line (Robinson) Sherman, 
both of whom were natives 
)f the Empire State. 
The subject of this sketch 
received his early educa- 
tion in the public schools 
)f his native place, and con- 
cluded his studies at Elmira, New York, 
acquiring a thorough knowledge of the 
English branches. At the close of his 
studies, acting on the advice of his father, 
who was a mechanic (an ax maker), he ap- 
prenticed himself to Mr. S. Ayres, of El- 
mira, to learn the watchmaker's trade. In 
1855, with his family, he removed to Iowa 
and settled upon an unbroken prairie, in 
what is now Geneseo Township, Tama 
County, where his father had purchased 
lands from the Government. There young 
Sherman labored on his father's farm, em- 
ploying his leisure hours in the study t)f 
law, which he had begun at Elmira. He 
also engaged as bookkeeper in a neighbor- 
ly 



ing town, and with his wages assisted his 
parents in improving their farm. In the 
summer of 1859 he was admitted to the bar, 
and the following spring removed to Vin- 
ton, and began the practice of law with 
Hon. William Smj'th, formerly District 
Judge, and J. C. Traer, conducting the 
business under the firm name of Smyth, 
Traer & Sherman. 

They built up a flourishing practice and 
wei^e prospering when, upon the opening 
(jf the war, in 1861, Mr. Sherman enlisted in 
Company G, Thirteenth Iowa Volunteer 
Infantry, and immediately went to the 
front. He entered the service as Second 
Sergeant, and in February, 1S62, was made 
Second Lieutenant of Company E. On the 
6th of April following he was very severely 
wounded at the battle of Pittsburg Landing, 
and while in the hospital was promoted to 
the rank of Captain. He returned to his 
company while yet obliged to use crutches, 
and remained on duty till the summer of 
1863, when, b}' reason of his wound, he was 
compelled to resign and return home. Soon 
after returning from the ami)- he was 
elected County Judge of Benton County, 
and re-elected without opposition in 1865. 
In the autumn of 1866 he resigned his judge- 
ship and accepted the office of clerk of the 
District Court, to which he was re-elected 
in 186S, 1870 and 1872, and in December, 
1874, resigned in order to accept the office 



£^i^_fi 3 



. ■ - ■ - ■ - ■ - ■ - " - ■ - ■a^g 




GOVERNORS OF IOWA 



of Auditor of State, to which he had been 
elected by a majority of 28,425 over J. M. 
King, the " anti-monopoly" candidate. In 
1876 he was re-nominated and received 50,- 
272 more votes than W. Growneweg(Demo- 
crat) and Leonard Brown (Greenback) to- 
gether. In 1878 he was again chosen to 
represent the Republican party in that office, 
and Ibis time received a majority of 7,164 
over the combined votes of Colonel Eiboeck 
(Democrat) and G. V. Swearenger (Green- 
back). In the six years that he held this 
office, he was untiring in his faithful appli- 
cation to routine work and devotion to his 
especial share of the State's business. He 
retired with such an enviable record that it 
was with no surprise the people learned, 
June 27, 1 88 1, that he was the nominee of the 
Republican parly for Governor 

The campaign was an exciting one. The 
General Assembly had submitted to the 
people the prohibitory amendment to the 
Constitution. This, while not a partisan 
question, became uppermost in the mind 
of the public. Mr. Sherman received 133,- 
330 votes, against 83,244 for Kinne and 28,- 
1 12 for D. M. Clark, or a plurality of 50,086 
and a majority of 21,974. In 18S3 he was 
re-nominated by the Republicans, as was L. 
G. Kinne by the Democrats. The National 
party offered J. B. Weaver. During the 
campaign these candidates held a number 
of joint discussions at different points in the 
State. At the election the vote was: Sher- 
man, 164,182; Kinne, 139,093 ; Weaver, 23,- 
089; Sherman's ])lurality, 25,089 ; majority, 
2,000. In his second inaugural Governor 
Sherman said : 

" In assuming, for the second time, the 
office of Chief Magistrate of the State, I 
fully realize my grateful obligations to the 
people of Iowa, through whose generous 
confidence I am here. I am aware of the 
duties and grave responsibilities of this ex- 
alted position, and as well what is expected 
of lue therein. As in the past I have given 



my undivided time and serious attention 
thereto, so in the future I promise the most 
earnest devotion and untiring effort in the 
faithful performance of my official require- 
ments. I have seen the State grow from 
infancy to mature manhood, and each year 
one of substantial betterment of its previous 
position. 

" With more railroads than any other 
State, save two ; with a school interest the 
grandest and strongest, which commands 
the support and confidence of all the peo- 
ple, and a population, which in its entirety 
is superior to any other in the sisterhood, 
it is not strange the pride which attaches to 
our people. When we remember that the 
results of our efforts in the direction of good 
government have been crowned with such 
magnificent success, and to-day we have a 
State in most perfect physical and financial 
condition, no wonder our hearts swell in 
honest pride as we contemplate the past 
and so confidently hope for the future. 
What we may become depends on our own 
efforts, and to that future I look with earnest 
and abiding confidence." 

Governor Sherman's term of office con- 
tinued until January 14, 1886, when he was 
succeeded by William Larrabee, and he is 
now, temporarily, perhaps, enjoying a well- 
earned rest. He has been a Republican 
since the organization of that party, and his 
services as a campaign speaker have been 
for man}' years in great demand. As an 
officer he has been able to make an enviable 
record. Himself honorable and thorough, 
his management of public business has been 
of the same character, and such as has com- 
mended him to the hearty approval of the 
citizens of the State. 

He was married August 20, 1862, to Miss 
Lena Kendall, of Vinton, Iowa, a young 
lady of rare accomplishments and strength 
of character. The union has been happy 
in every respect. They have two children 
— Lena Kendall an<l Oscar Eugene. 



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WILL/AM I.ARRABEE. 



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LIAMLARRABEE 

is the thirteenth 
Governor of this 
State, and the six- 
teenth Governor 
of Iowa, counting 
from the Tcnito- 
rial organization. His ancestors 
bore the name of d'Larrabee, and 
were among the French Hugue- 
nots who came to America early 
in the seventeenth century, set- 
tling in Connecticut. Adam 
Larrabce was born March 14, 
17S7, and was one of the early 
graduates of West Point Military Academy. 
He served with distinction in tlie war of 
1812, having been made a Second Lieuten- 
ant March i, 181 1. He was promoted to be 
Captain February i, 1S14, and was soon 
after, March 30, of the same year, severely 
wounded at the battle of Lacole Mills, dur- 
ing General Wilkinson's campaign on the 
St. Lawrence. He recovered from this 
wound, which was in the lung, and was 
afterward married to Hannah Gallup Lester, 
who was born June S, 179S, and died March 
15, 1837. Captain Larrabee died in 1869, 
aged eighty-two. 

The subject of this sketch was born at 



Ledyard, Connecticut, January 20, 1S32, 
and was the seventh of nine children. He 
passed his early life on a rugged New Eng- 
land farm, and received only moderate 
school advantages. He attended the dis- 
trict schools winters until nineteen years of 
age, and then taught school for two wintei"s. 

He was now of an age when it became 
necessary to form some plans for the future. 
In this, however, he ^vas embarrassed by a 
misfortune which befcl him at the age of 
fourteen. In being trained to the use of 
fire-arms under his father's direction, an ac- 
cidental discharge resulted in the loss of 
sight in the right eye. This unfitted him 
for many employments usually sought by- 
ambitious youths. The family lived two 
miles from the sea, and in that locality it 
was the custom for at least one son in each 
family to become a sailor. William's two 
eldest brothers chose this occupation, and 
the third remained in charge of the home 
farm. 

Thus made free to choose for himself 
William decided to emigrate West. In 
1853, accordingly, he came to Iowa. His 
elder sister, Hannah, wife of E. H. Williams, 
was then living at Garnavillo, Clayton 
County, and there he went first. In that 
way he selected Northeast Iowa as his 



GOVERNORS OF IOWA. 



% 



After teaching one winter at 



future home. 
Hardin, he was for three years employed as 
a sort of foreman on the Grand Meadow 
farm of his brother-in-law, Judge Williams. 

In 1857 he bought a one-third interest in 
the Clermont Mills, and located at Cler- 
mont, Fayette Count}-. He soon was able 
to buy the other two-thirds, and within a 
year found himself sole owner. He oper- 
ated this mill until 1874, when he sold to S. 
M. Leach. On the breaking out of the war 
he offered to enlist, but was rejected on ac- 
count of the loss of his right eye. Being 
informed he might possibly be admitted as 
a commissioned ofificer he raised a company 
and received a commission as First Lieu- 
tenant, but was again rejected for the same 
disability. 

After selling the mill Mr. Larrabee de- 
voted himself to farming, and started a 
private bank at Clermont. He also, ex- 
perimentally, started a large nursery, but 
this resulted only in confirming the belief 
that Northern Iowa has too rigorous a cli- 
mate for fruit-raising. 

Mr. Larrabee did not begin his political 
career until 1867. He was reared as a 
Whig, and became a Republican on the or- 
ganization of that party. While interested 
in politics he generally refused local offices, 
serving only as treasurer of the School 
Board prior to 1867. In the autumn of that 
year, on the Republican ticket, he was 
elected to represent his county in the State 
Senate. To this high position he was re- 
elected from time to time, so that he served 
as Senator continuously for eighteen 3'ears 
before being ]in)motcd to the highest office 
in the State. He was so popular at home 
that he was generally re-nominated by ac- 
clamation, and for some years tiie Demo- 
crats did not even make nominations. 
During the whole eighteen years Senator 
Larrabee was a member of the principal 
committee, that on Ways and Means, of 
which he was generally rhairmaii, and was 



also a member of other committees. In the 
pursuit of the duties thus devolving u[)on 
him he was indefatigable. It is said that 
he never missed a committee meeting. Not 
alone in this, but in private and public 
business of all kinds his uniform habit is 
that of close application to work. Many 
of the important measures passed by the 
Legislature owe their existence or present 
form to him. 

He was a candidate for the gubernatorial 
nomination in 1881, but entered the contest 
too late, as Governor Sherman's following 
had been successfully organized. In 1885 
it was generally conceded before the meet- 
ing of the convention that he would be 
nominated, which he was, and his election 
followed as a matter of course. He was 
inaugurated January 14, 1886, and so far 
has made an excellent Governor. His 
position in regard to the liquor question, 
that on which political fortunes are made 
and lost in Iowa, is that the majority should 
rule. He was personally in favor of high 
license, but having been elected Governor, 
and sworn to uphold the Constitution and 
execute the laws, he proposes to do so. 

A Senator who sat beside him in the 
Senate declares him to be " a man of the 
broadest comprehension and informatioii, 
an extraordinarily clear reasoner, fair and 
conscientious in his conclusions, and of 
Spartan firmness in his matured judg- 
ment," and says that "he brings the prac- 
tical facts and philosophy of human nature, 
the science and history of law, to aid in his 
decisions, and adiicrcs with the earnestness 
of Jefferson and Sumnci' to the fundamental 
principles of the people's rights in govern- 
ment and law." 

Governor Larrabee was married Sep- 
tember 12, 1 861, at Clermont, to Anna M. 
Appelman, daughter of Captain G. A. 
Ai)pelman. Governor Larrabee has seven 
children — Charles, Augusta, Julia, Anna, 
William, Frederic and Helen. 






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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



329 







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JTSOM TOLIVER, one of Greene Coimty's 
^n worthy fanners, resides on section 33, 
T? Bristol Township. lie came to theconnty 
April 16, 185-i, locating first on section 11, 
Franklin Township, at the south end of the 
Raccoon Valley, where ho bought 240 acres 
of Government land, liis being one of the 
very first entries made in the county. At 
that time the nearest mill was at Panora, 
Guthrie County, and their trading was done 
at Des Moines. Mr. Toliver lived on his 
farm in Franklin Township until 1869, when 
he moved to Bristol Township, buying the 
farm where he now lives, which contains 180 
acres of choice land. From a small capital 
of $400 brought to Greene County, he has 
accumulated a large and valuable estate. Mr. 
Toliver was born on the top of Big Bald 
Mountain, in Ashe County, North Carolina, 
July 29, 1814, a son of John and Anna 
Toliver. His grandtather, Jesse Toliver, was 
a man of great force of cliaracter and ability, 
and served seven years in the war of the 
Revolution, five years as a Captain of the 
line. His father, John Toliver, died in 
North Carolina, and in 1884 the mother with 
her family moved to Owen County, Indiana. 

20 



Isom was the second of twelve children. He 
was married in Owen County in 1836 to 
Matilda Reynolds, a native of North Cai-olina, 
born in 1819. Her mother was Sally Greene, 
a granddaughter of General Greene, the 
friend of General Washington. In 1847 
Mr. Toliver moved from Indiana to Richland 
County, Illinois, and thence to Greene County, 
Iowa, in 1854. Mr. and Mrs. Toliver have 
had eleven children, nine sons and two 
daughters. Four sons and one daughter 
died before coming to their majority. The 
following are the names and order of birth 
of those who lived to maturity: John H., 
Gillum S., Jacob M., James C, Doctor R., 
Tarry J. and Isom M. Four of the brothers 
served their country during the war of the 
Rebellion. John H. was a member of Com- 
pany E, Thirty-ninth Iowa Infantry Volun- 
teers, and Fife-Major of his regiment. He 
died at Davenport, Iowa, soon after enlisting. 
Jacob M. M'as Second Lieutenant of the same 
company. He has served eight years as Dis- 
trict Attorney in Northwestern Iowa, and 
is now practicing law at Lake City, Iowa. 
Gillum S. was a member of Company H, 
Tentii Iowa Infantry Volunteers. He was 



1 1 






^. ii 



230 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



three years countv surveyor, two years county 
treasurer, and a mombcr of tlie Thirteenth 
General Assembly of Iowa, but his true 
sphere was ratlier that of a lawyer than of a 
politician. In the spring of 1870 he formed 
a law partnership with the Hon. John J. 
Russell, at JcS'erson, Iowa, under the Urin 
name of Ilussell and Toliver. The firm soon 
built up a large and lucrative practice, which 
they have ever since maintained. James C 
was a member of Company II, Tenth Iowa 
Infantry Volunteers. lie was two years 
deputy sheriff, and four years county recorder 
of (Treene County, Iowa. After that he was 
engaged in the real estate and abstract busi- 
ness at Rockwell City, Iowa, and is now a 
real estate dealer at Ainsworth, Nebraska. 
Doctor R., the seventh son, is a substantial 
farmer, tiow living in Bristol Township, 
Greene County, Iowa. Tarry J. and Isom 
M., the two younger children, are living at 
home, unmarried. Isom Toliver loved a new 
country, and always kept his family on the 
border, if not sometimes beyond, of what may 
be called the limits of civilization, so that 
his older sons possessed few educational 
advantages, but became thoroughly familiar 
with the arts and hardships of pioneer life. 
They are all self-made men. 



K*„+|,.^J.,|+,_ 



tMOS JOHNSON, an active and public- 
spirited citizen of Ilardin Township, is 
^i:^ a native of Ohio, born February 23, 
1842, son of Adam and Sarah Johnson, 
natives of Virginia, who, more than a half 
century ago, witli tlieir first born,— a daugh- 
ter not quite a year old, — in company with 
other relatives, emigrated from the moun- 
tainous regions of Virginia to Delaware 
County, Oliio, at that time a dense forest. 
Here our pioneers entered 100 acres upon 



which a comfortable log house was built, and 
within a few years a number of acres had 
been cleared, upon which the necessaries of 
life, sufficient for health and happiness, were 
produced. This homestead remained in pos- 
session of the family until the entire tract, 
with tiie exccjition of a few acres reserved for 
timljer purposes, was reduced to tillage, and 
also until these worthy pioneers were blessed 
with eleven children, eight sons and three 
daughters, ten of whom were born within tlie 
original pioneer log house. The eldest 
daughter is now the wife of Joseph Ililey, of 
Morrow County, Ohio. Elizabeth, another 
daughter, is yet a resident of the Buckeye 
State, and is the wife of Sewell Brookins, of 
Delaware County. Cordelia, the youngest 
daughter, is the wife of Joseph Wagoner, 
residing near Fort Scott, Kansas. The par- 
ents, with thej'oungcr members of the family, 
during the fall of 1862, removed to Jones 
County, Iowa, remaining there till 1879, when 
the mother died, since which time the father 
has made his home with different members of 
the family, chiefly with his daughter, Mrs. 
Joseph Wagoner. Three of the sons, Jesse, 
Thomas and Amos, were volunteers in defense 
of the Union during the late civil war, and 
though serving under the same flag, they 
were widely separated from each other. 
Jesse, the eldest son, was a member of the 
Fifty-first Illinois Infantry, and served in the 
Army of the Cumberland. Amos, the third 
son and fifth child, enlisted in June, 1861, in 
Company I, Fourth [Ohio Infantry, and was 
with Shield's division in the Shenandoali 
Valley in 18G2. He participateil in several 
severe engagements, serving faithfully until he 
was discharged on account of disability. He 
was in the AVest Virginia campaigns of 1861 
and '62, and afterward with tlic Army of the 
Potomac. It is a notable fact that, witli his 
regiment, Amos traversed much of the coun- 



BIOGRAPHJGAL SKETCHES. 



231 



try in which his parents were reared and 
married, and also participated in the battle of 
Tiich Mountain, near the home of their child- 
hood, a beardless youth, yet in his teens, 
whipping his parents' former playmates back 
into loyalty to the old flag. He was mustered 
out of the service at Columbus, Ohio, January 
29, 1863. Thomas, the sixth child in the 
family, served in the Ninety-sixth Ohio 
Infantry, and was in the Army of the Gulf. 
The three brothers already mentioned, with 
three of the younger brothers, Emerson, 
William and Elmore, are now residents of 
Greene County, Iowa, and all are engaged in 
agricultural pursuits, liobert, the second 
son, lives in Jones County, Iowa, where he 
has made his home for twenty-five years, 
while Newton, the ninth child in the family, 
is at present a resident of Sac County, Iowa. 
Amos Johnson, whose name heads this sketch, 
remained in liis native State i;ntil attaining 
the age of nineteen years, and was educated 
principally at the Olive Green Academy in 
Delaware Count}', Ohio. After his return 
from the service, having been discharged in 
January, 1863, he returned to Ohio, remain- 
ing there about five months, when, hoping to 
improve his shattered health, he immigrated 
to Cedar County, Iowa. He resided in Cedar 
County about five years, and during this time 
taught several terms of school. In 1868 he 
came to Greene County, locating on section 
21, Hardin Township, where he has since 
devoted his attention to farming and stock- 
raising, his farm containing eighty acres of 
choice land. He has been twice married, 
taking for his first wife Miss Hattie Elliott, 
a daughter of Andrew and Kebecca Elliott, 
who died in January, 1874, leaving two chil- 
dren — Addie V. and Rodney E. For his 
second wife Mr. Johnson married Miss Rachel 
McBurney, who was born in Canada in Octo- 
ber, 1849, her parents, George and Jane 



McBurney, being natives of Ireland. Three 
children have been born to this union — 
George and May (twins) and Eura ,1. In 
politics Mr. Johnson affiliates with the 
Republican party. Since becoming a resi- 
dent of Greene County he has served his 
township eflSciently as clerk, assessor and 
trustee. He is a comrade of the (irand Army 
post at Jefferson, Iowa. 



►>4^.|^.-K. 



PW' LRERT H. FEY, one of Scranton Town- 
.k\ .-hip's enterprising farmers, residing on 
'^^ section 9, was born in Schuylkill County, 
Pennsylvania, September 23, 1842, a son of 
AVilliam and Esther Fey, Pennsylvanians by 
birth, and of German extraction. In 1853 
the family removed to Du Page County, 
Illinois, settling on a farm in Naperville 
Township, where the parents still reside. Of 
their eleven children our subject was the 
eldest. He grew to manhood in Du Page 
County, remaining on the home farm till he 
enlisted in the war of the Rebellion in Au- 
gust, 1862, and was assigned to Company B, 
One Hundred and Fifth Illinois Infantry. 
His regiment was first engaged at Resaca, 
and in Sherman's campaign against Johnston's 
army, which culminated in the capture of 
Atlanta. Mr. Fey also participated in the 
battle of Peach Tree Creek, and at flie battle 
of Atlanta July 21 and 22, and in the en- 
gagements at Averyville and Bentonville, 
and with Sherman on his march to the sea. 
He participated in the grand review of Sher- 
man's army at Washington in June, 1865, 
and was honorably discharged the same month 
at Chicago, Illinois. During his entire term 
of service he was never out of the line of 
duty, was never sick, and passed through all 
of war's perils unscathed, proving himself to 
be a brave and gallant soldier. After his 






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»j«i»«a»«i»M« 



232 



BISTORT OP GREENE COUNTY. 



discharge he returned to his home in Du 
Page County, and December 19, 1866, lie 
was married to Miss Violet Dreher, who was 
born in Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, 
November 27, 18-17, a daughter of Israel and 
Hannah Dreher, of whom her father is 
deceased. Her mother is now living in 
Scranton City, Iowa. Mr. and INIrs. Fey are 
the parents of six children — AVillard 8., 
Elmer E., Mabel E., Oscar I., Blanche A. 
and Albert D. Mr. Fey followed agricultural 
pursuits in Du Page County until March, 
1881, when he came to Greene County, Iowa, 
and bought 160 acres of his present farm, 
which had l)een partially improved by the 
former owner, Frank Irons. Mr. Fey has 
added to his original ]>urchase until his farm 
now contains 320 acres, the north half of 
section 9, and has added largely to his build- 
ing improvements, and by his enterprising 
spirit and industrious habits he has gained 
the respect and confidence of the entire com- 
munity. Both Mr. and Mrs. Fey are mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal church. 
Politically he is a Re]niblican, having voted 
that ticket since the second election of 
Abraham Lincoln for President in 1864. He 
is a comrade of N. H. Powers Post, No. Ill, 
G. A. E., of Scranton City. 



^^^DiMOND C. CLAPtJv, attorney at law, 
'\My, Grand Junction, is a native of Broome 
"^'"i County, New York, born at Binghamton 
June 17, 1841, a son of Jesse Clark, deceased, 
who was born in Schenectady, New York. 
The father being a contractor and builder, 
our subject early in life learned the use of 
tools. He received good educational advan- 
tages, attending the schools of New York 
City and the .Methodist Episcopal Seminary 
at Binghamton. He began life for himself 



as a farm laborer, and was thus engaged two 
years, and for one summer drove horses on 
the canal. During the early part of the late 
war he enlisted as a private in Company E, 
Thirty-second New York Infantry, in which 
he served two years, taking part in the en- 
gagements at West Point, Gaines Mills, 
Malvern Hill, Fredericksburg, lirst and second 
battles of Bull Run, and others of minor 
importance. He was discharged with the 
rank of First Sergeant in June, 1863. In 
December, 1863, he re-enlisted in Company 
H, Sixth New York Cavalry. He was de- 
tached by special order of the War Depart- 
me"nt, and placed in command of Company 
B, Second Battalion, at the New York State 
rendezvous, doing garrison duty at Albany 
and Flart Island, New York harbor, for six 
months. He then returned to his regiment, 
and was again detached on scouting duty in 
Maryland, continuing in that capacity until 
the campaign of 1865, when he rejoined his 
regiment. He remained in the service until 
four months after the close of the war, during 
which time he was chief clerk in Petersburg 
Post Hospital. He received an honorable 
discharge in September, 1865. He was mar- 
ried January 2, 1864, to Mary J., daughter 
of William Bown, of Connecticut. They 
have one child — Gail B. After returning 
from the war Mr. Clark followed farming 
until 1870, after which he was a member of 
the police force of New York City for one 
year. Was variously employed for two years, 
during which time he also perfected a law- 
course which he had begun some time before. 
In the winter of 1872-'73 he entered the 
employ of Borden's Condensed Milk Com- 
pany, of New York, and was sent to Texas, 
where he was engaged in condensing beef 
for that company till the spring of 1873. In 
1880 he came to Jefferson, Greene County, 
where he was admitted to the bar, and for 




jBIOORAPBIOAL SKET0BE8. 



m 



four years practiced law at that place. In 
the spring of 1884 he came to Grand Junc- 
tion, where lie has since done a general 
law practice, and has become recognized as a 
leading lawyer of Greene County. Mr. 
Clark is a writer of some merit, and has 
contributed many poems to the New York 
Ledger and other papers, and now has a large 
volume of poctrj' in manuscript which has 
never yet been publisiied, among which is 
thefamous " Address to the Flag," an acrostic, 
displaying great poetical genius. 

— — 1^«^^•— 

JP^^ENKY D. IlOGEliS, one of the success- 
Cflf) '■'■^^ agriculturists of Greene County, 
tS'II residing in Highland Township, is a 
son of Daniel and Elizabeth (Fitz) Rogers, 
and a native of Pennsylvania, the date of liis 
birth being June 7, 1824. He was reared to 
the avocation of a farmer, which he has made 
his life work. When but live years of age 
he was taken by his parents to Ohio, and from 
there went to Hlinois, where the family lived 
about three years. In the spring of 1831 he 
removed with his parents to Linn County, 
Iowa, they being among the pioneers of that 
county. Henry D. entered 160 acres of land 
in that county and engaged in farminii- on his 
own account. After improving his land he 
sold it, and bought a farm near Mt. Vernon, 
Linn County, Iowa, which he sold and then 
came to Greene County, Iowa, where he 
bought 320 acres of land for himself, and 320 
acres for others. He first settled in what is 
now Cedar Township, a part of said township 
afterward being called Highland Township. 
There were only two log cabins in the town- 
ship when Mr. Rogers settled here, only one 
house being between his and Jefferson. He 
was married to Lueinda K. McRoberts, a 
daughter of Miciiael and Mary McLloberts. 



They have no children of their own, but have 
an adopted danghter, who is now the wife of 
W. (). kStotts, and lives south of the home 
farm. Mr. Henry Rogers has ])rospered in 
his agricultural pursuits since coming to 
Greene County, his home farm containing 
IGO acres of good land well improved and 
under cultivation. Resides his homestead he 
owns property in the village of Cliurdan. He 
also bouglit 157^ acres of land soutii of his 
firm, which he gave to his adopted daughter. 
He is a member of the Free Methodist church. 
Politically he casts his suffrage with the 
Republican party. 



i^i^^i W. KIONS, fanner, section 4, 
/■/I Kendrick Township, is one of the 
'^.:; ~* leading agriculturists of the town- 
ship, and has been identified with the county 
for twenty years. He was born in Mont- 
gomery Count}', Indiana, May 23, 1835, son 
of Nathan and Martha (Wilson) Kions, who 
were the parents of three children — AVilson, 
Adam, and M. W. Our subject lived in 
Montgomery County until he was twenty 
years of age, spending his time at farm work 
and in attending the subscription school. At 
the age of twenty he went to Piatt County, 
Illinois, where he worked by the month one 
season, and then returned to Indiana. The 
year following he went back to Illinois, and 
in September, 1857, came to Iowa and located 
on land adjoining the place where Humiston 
now stands. Here he resided seven years, 
then sold out and removed to Fulton County, 
Illinois, and in 1866 came to Greene County, 
and settled upon his present farm, wiiich was 
then in its wild state. He owns 380 acres of 
land, and it is known as one of the best farms 
in t!ie~ county. He inis a good house, sur- 
ri.iuiidcd witli shade trees, one barn 30x40 feet, 



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334 



BISTORT OF GREENE COUNTY. 



;uid aiiotlier 36x40 feet, and still another, 16x32 
feet. lie has seed lots, a native grove and a 
line orchard, lie is engaged in stock-raising 
and feeding, lie lias three children — Jose- 
])liine !)., Silas CI. and Adam Lewis. Politi- 
cally he is a Itepublican. 






.^^j^OBERT CAIN, farmer, section 1, Wil- 
^ low Township, postoffice Scranton, is 
one of the early settlers of the townsliip, 
and is a native of the Isle of Man, horn April 
18, 1844, son of John and Jane (Eads) Cain, 
who were the parents of ten children, Kobert 
])cing tlie fifth child. When he was fonrteen 
years of age he went to London, England, 
wlicre lie worked about ciglit years. lie was 
nnited in marriage January 31, 1807, to Miss 
Lottie Redgrave, who was born in Essex 
County, England, December 4, 1843, daugh- 
ter of Reuben and Mary (Reeve) Redgrave. 
Her parents liad seven children, si.\ of whom 
are living — Jemima, George, Lottie, Ann R., 
Eli/.nbcth, John, and James, deceased. Mr. 
and Mrs. Cain came to America soon after 
their marriage, and settled in AVarren County, 
Illinois, where they resided until 1881, 
engaged in farming. He then came to 
(Jreene County, and settled in Willow Town- 
sliip, where lie has since resided. Ilis first 
jiurchase was 175 acres of partly improved 
land. He has since added to that amount 
until he now owns 335 acres of as fine land 
as can be found in (Ti'eeiie County, and it is 
well cultivated and imj)roved. lie has a 
comfortable resideiic(>, with ijiiod buildines 
for stock and grain, and an (H'chard consisting 
of three acres. Mr. and Mrs. Cain are the 
parents of five sons — Roljort Ernest, Herbert 
11. .1., Frank Ceorge, Alfred R. anil Chester 
(i. Mr. Cain is a Republican in ]ii)litics, 
and also a member of the Masonic I'raternitv, 



being a member of Golden Gate Lodge, No. 
402, at Scranton. Mr. and Mrs. Cain are 
worthy members of the Methodist Episcopal 
church, and Mr. Cain has served as Steward 
and Sunday-school superintendent. He has 
always taken an active part in educational 
and religious matters, and is a lilieral sup- 
porter of both. 



tD. HOWARD, one of the older members 
of the bar of Greene County, is at pres- 
■^® ent the senior member of the firm of 
Howard & Rose. He has been a resident 
of Jefferson since about 1860, and began the 
practice of his profession in 1809. During 
the early part of his residence here he was 
engaged in teaching. Afterward he was 
elected to the office of clerk of the district 
court, in which capacity he served for a 
period of eight years. During the first four 
years of his otticial life, the office included the 
duties of the present county auditor, as clerk 
of the boai'd of supervisors. He commenced 
the practice of law about a year previous to 
the close of his term of office. Ilis first 
partner was ]\fr. .las. A. Henderson, with 
whom he continued about four years. Ho 
was then associated with I. J. McDuliie for 
ten 3'ears. The present partnersliip was 
formed in 1880. Mr. Howard was born in 
Franklin County, Massachusetts, Jul}' 10, 
1834. His mother died while he was still 
(jnite young. AYhen seventeen years of age, 
he removed with his father to Ohio, where he 
lived until he attained his majority. He 
came to Iowa in 1853, and has been a resident 
of Greene County since 1800. He was reared 
to the occupation of farming. He followed 
the occupation of teaching for ten years, the 
last four years being in Iowa. I'olitii'ally 
he is a IJepublican, and has ever been a strong 



BiOORAPHtOAL SRBTCnES. 




235 



adherent to the principles of tliat great politi- 
cal organization, lie cast his first presi- 
dential vote for John C Fremont in 185(3. 
He is a self-made man, and lias always been 
a hard workei-. lie studied law and prepared 
himself for admission to the bar while clerk 
of the courts. His success, and his ability as 
a lawj'er is universally recognized, lie was 
married in IJoone County, this State, to Eliza 
J. Kenney, a native of Pennsylvania. 






tBEAM CAIN, farmer, section 35, 
Greenbrier Township, is among the 
^^;^ leading citizens of Greene County, and 
was born on the Isle of Man, May 30, 1840. 
His parents were Jehu and Jane (Eads) 
Cain, and they were the parents of ten chil- 
dren — Sarah A., John, Abram, Edward, 
Robert, Jane, Elizabeth, Matilda (deceased), 
William and Morris E. Aliram resided in his 
native country until he was twenty-live years 
of age, having been reared in tlie village of 
Balla Salla, where he received his education. 
He worked at blacksmithing for three and a 
half years, then came to America and settled 
in Warren County, Illinois, where he lived 
over four years, and then went to England. 
He was united in marriage October 10, 1809, 
to Miss Ellen J. K. Kermode, wlio was born 
on the Isle of Man, and a daughter of Jehu 
and Ellen (Cubbon) Kermode. After his 
marriage Mr. Cain returned to America, and 
resided in Warren County, Illinois, until 
1876, when he came to Greene County' and 
settled on section 35, Greenbrier Township. 
He came to his present farm in 1879, which 
was then in a wild state. He has cultivated 
and improved it until it is now one of the 
best farms in Greene County. It is situated 
one mile north of Bagley. lie has a good 
one and ahalf storv residence, built in modern 



style and well furnished, and a commodious 
barn and sheds for cattle. He is extensively 
engaged in stock-raising, stock-feeding, and 
dealing in stock to some extent. A wind- 
mill furnishes a power for a water supply. 
The farm is all seeded to grass, and everything 
about tlie premises indicates the industry and 
thrift of the owner. Mr. and Mi"s. Cain have 
four children — Ella Jane, AV'illiam Ed., Emma, 
and Harry K. Charles E., Ben F. and Arthur 
G. are deceased. Politically Mr. Cain is a 
Tlepublican. lie is a worthy member of tlie 
Methodist Episcopal church, and a local 
preacher of that church, lie is numbered 
among the liest citizens of the countv. 



||EOUGE W. GlLliOY, one of Greene 
County's pioneers, and an active and 
enterprising citizen of Franklin Town- 
ship, was born in Clarke County, Ohio, the 
date of his birth being November 2, 1842. 
His parents, James and Anna (Crawford) 
Gilroy, were natives of Ireland and Ohio 
respectively. In 1855 they immigrated with 
their family to Greene County, where they 
made their home for many years, witnessing 
the country change from a wild state into 
well-cultivated farms and thriving towns and 
villages. The father died in Greene County 
February 25, 1885. The mother is now 
living in Saline County, Nebraska. The 
father being a farmer, George AY. was reared 
to the same occupation, and his youth was 
spent in assisting his father clear and culti- 
vate the home tarm. Febi-uary 10, 18(12, he 
enlisted in the late war at Des Moines in 
Company II, Tenth Iowa Infantry, serving 
in Hamilton's division, Sullivan's brigade. 
He took part in the siege of Corinth and 
battle of luka, and was wounded at the 
second battle of Corinth October 4, 18(J2, the 



)}. 



i:mZ i ^l m :: ! ^^ m ^m2 'm ;j i ^ m . m. m j.m^^ 



^36 



tllStORY O'F aUEiSNE COtfifT'i'. 



ball passing through his right elbow. He 
then lay in the liospital at Corinth three weeks, 
when he was removed to Keokuk, Iowa, 
remaining there until he was honorably dis- 
charged February 28, 1863. He then returned 
t(i ills luim(> in Greene County, and spent 
four months attending school. After leaving 
sciiool he licgan clerking in Isaac Tucker's 
store, where he served to the best interest of 
his employer for one year. He then clerked 
in the store of J. Orr, of Boonesborough, 
Boone County, Iowa, for one year, when he 
returned tu JeHerson, Iowa, and became 
associated witli Thomas lieese, this jiartner- 
ship lasting two years. He then, in 18G7, 
formed a partnership with Anderson & Too- 
good in the stock business, which they fol- 
lowed together about one year, when the 
partnership was dissolved by mutual consent. 
Mr. Gili'oy tlien went on a prospecting tour 
to Kansas, but becoming dissatisfied with the 
country he came to Appanoose County, Iowa, 
where he engaged in farming for two years. 
He then returned to Greene County, and has 
since followed farming on the old home place 
in Franklin Township. He was nuuricd in 
Greene County November 10, 18G7, to Miss 
Nancy A. Tucker, a native of Boone County, 
Indiana, I>orn Septendjer 15, 1832, daughter 
of Inskij) and Dicey Tucker, tlie father being 
a native of Kentucky, and the nintliei' of 
Indiana. To this union have been born three 
children — Victor W., .Vda A. and Floy W. 
Mr. (iilroy's residence is located on section 
12, Franklin Townshij), where he has sixty- 
seven acres of well-cultivated land. Beside 
his home farm he owns forty-seven acres on 
section 35 of (irant Township. He has 
served ids township elliciently as clerk, and 
for ten years was secretary of tlie Scliool 
Board, lie is a charter member of the 
Masoidc lodge at Jetl'erson, Iowa. In poli- 
tics he casts his suilVagc with the IJepublican 



party. Mrs. Gilroy is a member of the 
United Brethren churcli. Tlieir postoffice is 
Cooper, Iowa. 



•€-^^ 






AIITIN PETERSON, residing on 
section 20, is one of Scranton Towu- 
-^^ii^f^ ship s most enterprising tanners. 
When he came to his present farm, in the 
spring of 1877, his line homestead was raw 
prairie, but by persevering industry he made 
it one of tlie best farms in his neighborhood, 
and it now consists of 200 acres of well-im- 
proved land, 120 acres being under cultiva- 
tion, and his l>uilding improvements are 
noticeably good. Mr. Peterson is a native of 
Denmark, born January 28. 1840, the second 
in a family of six children of Peter and Karie 
Peterson. Both of his parents died in their 
native country. His brothers and sisters are 
now living in AVisconsin. He was tlie first 
of his father's family to come to America, 
landing at Quebec June 6, 1862, going thence 
directly to Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He began 
life in America as a farm laborer, which he 
followed near Milwaukee nearly two years. 
He was then engaged in the pineries in 
Oconto County, Wisconsin, and in the Green 
Bay district, until 1866. In the fall of 1864 
he was mari'ied to Miss Hannah Peterson, 
who was also a native of Denmark, born 
I^Iarch 2, 1840, a daughter of Jacob Peterson. 
Of the eight chikiren born to this uuiun onl}' 
two are living — Charles, born in February, 
1869, and Albert, born in August, 1878. 
Tiiey lost three children in the spring of 
1875; their two eldest, Peter and Mary, died 
aged ten and eight years respectively, and 
Eleanora aged two years. Nora died in 1877, 
aged one year and two months; Edwin at the 
age of four years and live months, and San- 
ford atjed two years and seven months, in 



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it 



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tt 

1 1 

1'' 

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BlOOttAPlilCAL SkETCHMS. 



23^ 



1885. In 1806 Mr. and Mrs. Peterson set- 
tled in Columbia County, AYisconsin, and 
there followed agricultural pursuits until 
coming to Greene County, Iowa, in 1S72. 
They then located on theii' own land, on sec- 
tion 27 of Scranton Township, a farm of 
eighty acres iniprtivcd by themselves, and 
there lived till they settled in their present 
home on section 20. Mr. Peterson came to 
America a poor man, but possessed of sti'ong- 
hands and a stout heart, and by his perse- 
vering energw and industry, combined with 
strict economy, he has succeeded well in his 
farming operations, and acquired a good 
property, and gained the confidence and re- 
spect of the entire community. In politics 
he has always aftiliated with the Republican 
]iarty. Both he and his wife are members of 
the United Bi'ethren church. 



-»o#^i-t "i-£M}-t'— -M- 



/^[DCtAR W. JONES, residing on section 
1lP/i "'"^' J""^'^ion Township, Greene County, 
!^ was born in Cass County, Michigan, 
May 10, 1848, a son of Oscar and Caroline 
O. (Wheeler) Jones, the father born in Kens- 
selaer County, New York, June 14, 1817. 
They were married July 3, 1841, and to them 
were born five children, of whom only two 
are living — Edgar W., the subject of this 
sketch, and Mrs. I'hoebe Melissa Smith, who 
was born August 15, 1843, and is now residing 
in Cass County, Michigan. Edgar W. Jones 
was reared to the avocation of a farmer, and 
educated in the common schools of his native 
county, and at a select school at Niles, Michi- 
gan, which he attended two terms. He 
came to Greene County, Iowa, in the fall of 
1867, locating at Jefferson, where he ran a 
meat market from 1868 until 1869, since 
wiiicli time he has followed agricultural pur- 
suits. He was married May 19, 1869, to 



Florenda A. Witherell, who was born Decem- 
ber 19, 1848, a daughter of Theodore and 
Adeline (Flanders) Witherell, both of whom 
are deceased. They are the ])arents of four 
children — Lena D., Fred M., Myrtie L. and 
Clyde L. Mr .lones settled on his farm in 
Junctiiju Township in the fall of 1870, where 
he is engaged in farming and stock-raising, 
making a specialty of graded stock. His 
farm contains eiglity acres of land, well im- 
proved and under cultivation. Since becom- 
ing a resident of Junction Townshiji Mr. 
Jones has served as constable, school director, 
and was secretary of the School Board some 
four or five years. 



fOSEPII II. PJDLE, section 10, Wash- 
ington Township, was born in Meadville, 
Crawford County, Pennsylvania, July 7, 
1814, a son of Peter Ridle, also a native of 
the Keystone State. His eai-ly life was spent 
on the home farm, and when eighteen years 
of age he began to learn the trade of a car- 
penter and joiner, being at that age thrown 
on his own resources. In 1840 he came West 
and lived in Fulton County, Illinois, a few 
years, subsequently moving to Stark County, 
where he lived until 1870, and while there 
was engaged in contracting and building. In 
1S70 he came to Iowa, and settled in Greene 
CouTity, on the farm where he now lives. 
He has been successful and now owns 160 
acres of good land, well improved, and a 
comfortable residence and farm buildings. 
Mr. Ridle was married April 8, 1841, in Ful- 
ton County, Illinois, to Angeline Buck, 
daughter of Daniel Buck. To them were 
born eight children, five of whom are living 
— Harriet, Charles M., Henrietta, Miles D. 
and -Joseph A. Their eldest son, Aaron, was 
killed at the battle of Knoxville, Tennessee, 






HISTORY Of GREENE COtJNff. 



while fighting for his country in the war of 
the Kebellion. Mrs. liidle died March 30, 
1857, and October 2, 1858, Mr. Kidle married 
Mary, daii<rhter of Jeremiah Bennett. Two 
of their tliree ciiildren are living — Olive and 
Mary. Mr. liidle has held the otiiees of 
township trustee and school director. lie 
was once elected justice of the peace, but re- 
fused to serve. lie and his wife are mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal church. 



fOim F. JOHNSON, a member of the 
general mercantile lirm of Erickson & 
-re Johnson, was horn in "Winnebago County, 
Illinois, the date of his birth being Septem- 
ber 5, 1852. His father, Peter Johnson, was 
born in Norway, coming to America about 
1843 or 1844. He settled in Illinois in an 
early day, and is still making his home in 
Winnebago County. J ohn F., the subject of 
this sketch, was reared to the avocation of a 
farmer, and i-eceived his education in the 
common and graded schools of Durand in his 
native county. He followed agricultural pur- 
suits until about the year 1884. In 1875 he 
came to Gi-eene County, Iowa, and purchased 
a tract of wild land, on which he settled in 
187t), which he improved and put under cul- 
tivation, and partially improved another i'arm. 
He sold his farm in August, 1883, and began 
dealing in farm implements, in company witli 
his present pai-tner, in March, 1884, to which 
he added his present business in March, 1885. 
In March, 188(5, they traded their implement 
business for land, ami have since devoted their 
attention to the mercantile business. The 
firm of Ki-ickson A: Johnson carries a capital 
stock of $4,4(JU, and both being active and 
enterprising business men, have succeeded in 
building up a good trade. Mr. Johnson was 
marri(>d November 29, 1877, to Miss Katie 



Wise, a daughter of Samuel and Rebecca 
Wise, her mother living in Paton, and her 
father deceased. One child, named Samuel 
F., has been born to Mr. and ]\[rs. Johnson. 
Mr. Johnson is one of the active aiul public- 
spirited citizens of Paton. 



■i^HARLES II. JACKSON, attorney at 
\Cte law, United States Commissioner and 
tiffi notary public, has been in practice at 
Jeflerson since 1870. He at first formed a 
partnership with Judge Harvey Potter, under 
the firm name of Jackson tt Potter. This 
partnership continued several years. Mr. 
Jackson then became associated with Captain 
Albert Head, which was also continued several 
years. Since that time he has been alone. 
He was l>orn in Chittenden County, Vermont, 
December 14, 1832. In 1848 his father, 
Abram Jackson, removed with his family to 
Henderson, Kno.x County, Illinois. In Au- 
gust, 1862, Mr. Jacks(3n enlisted in Company 
F, One Hundred and Seccuul Illinois Infantry, 
and served until July 11, 1S64, when he was 
discharged at the officer's hospital at Nash- 
ville for disability. His first service was at 
Louisville, Kentucky, thence to Frankfort, 
thence to Bowling Green, thence to Nashville, 
Tennessee; theiu-e to Chattanooga, where his 
regiment became attached to the Twentieth 
Army Corps. He participated in the severe 
battle of liesaca and Burnt Hickor}-, but was 
soon after compelled to enter the hospital, 
and resigned July 9, 1864. Upon the 
organization of his company he was elected 
its Captain. He conimandcil the company 
until October, 18G3, and on the 20th of that 
month he was appointed Major by Governor 
Yates, of Illinois. November 10 following, 
he was mustered into the service as Major of 
his regiment, and i-eniaiiied in that capacity 



■^■^^'■■■^■^■■■^■■■ri;^,! 



BIOGRAPHICAL SkSTCS^.i. 



r^9 



during liis army service. ITe has never 
recovered his former vigor since his army 
experience. He began the stndy of law in 
1859, and was admitted to the bar at Madison, 
Wisconsin, in October, 1859. September 
18. 1865, he was mari-ied to Miss Annie E. 
Chaffee, a native of Ohio. To this union 
have been born four cliildren — E. 11., Nellie, 
Frances and Maud May. Mr. Jackson was 
a Democrat for many years, but recently has 
been a Greenbacker. He belongs to the 
Grand Army of the Republic at Jefferson, 
and is also a member of the ^Masonic fraternity, 
belonging to the Blue Lodge, Chapter and 
Commandei'y. 



-'■^-^•-^•1^'- 



E. UOEBINS, sujierintendent of the 
Jefferson Brick and Tile Works, was 
3''^ born in Oswego County, New York, 
in 1842. When he was twelve years of age 
he went to Peoria, Illinois, and two years 
later engaged to work in a brick-yard at that 
place. lie has been engaged in that branch 
of the business ever since. His father, 
Phillip Bobbins, is still a resident of Oswego 
County, New York. F. E. Robbins was 
married to Miss Anna B. Butler, a native of 
Maryland, and they have four children — 
Minnie, Florence, Frank and Anna. Olive 
D. died in infancy. The Jefferson Brick and 
Tile Works, one of the most important 
industries of Greene County, is located in the 
south part of the corporation of Jefferson. 
Originally bi-ick alone was manufactured, the 
business being started by Ira Hammer in the 
spring of 1808, although a man named New- 
man had made a few brick previous to that 
time. In the fall of that year i\[r. F. E. 
Bobbins bought out Mr. Hammer, and has 
been connected with the business as owner, 
part owner and superintendent since that 



time. May IS, 1882, a stock company was 
organized, called the Jefferson Brick and Tile 
Company. This company was comjjosed of 
F. E. Bobbins, D. B. McCully, Albert Head, 
Mahlon Head and William Fnright. The offi- 
cers chosen were: D. I!. Mcthdly, President; 
Mahlon Head, Secretary and Treasurer, and 
F. E. Robbins, Superintendent. The only 
change that has been made in stockholders 
and otiicers is the substitution of President 
Charles Bolinch for Presi<lent McCully, the 
former having jnirchased the stock of the 
latter. The works are operated by an engine 
of forty-horse power. The engine and 
machinery' room is 26 x 80 feet, the lirick 
shed 30 X 70 feet, and the tile shed 26 x 100 
feet. The business is extensive and constantly 
improving, the latest im]iroved machinery 
being in use. The clav of which the brick 
and tile are made is of the best quality, ilr. 
Robbins is one of the ]n'ogressive business 
men of Greene County. His long experience 
in his business qualities him most thoroughl}' 
for the position he now occupies. Politically 
he is a Republican. 



— -f->»5^— 

^^ ASON LINN, farmer, section 3, Ken- 
drick Township, was born in Butler 
"^■"■^ County, Ohio, November 26, 1N26, 
son of Joseph and Nancy (Watson) Linn, 
who were natives of Pennsylvania, and were 
the parents of ten children, Mason being the 
sixth child. AYhen he was a babe his parents 
removed to LaFaj-ette County, Indiana, where 
they resided about ten years; thence to Por- 
ter County for four years; thence to Hender- 
son Count}', Illinois, for a short time; thence 
to Kankakee County, where they lived four 
years. He was reared a farmer and educated 
in the common schools. In November, 1848, 
he was married to Miss Rebecca Kyle, a na- 






^40 



Mis'roRr of ore en e count f. 



tive of Knox Comity, Ohio, and a dangliter 
ot' Henry and iSancy (llaskins) Kyle. They 
resided in Kankakee Connty until 1854, 
when, witii ox teams and wagons, they came 
to Greene Connty, this State, and settled 
upon the farm he now occupies. At that 
time there were but six or eight familes in 
the township. llis milling was done at 
Panora, and his postotHce was at Desiloines. 
His first residence was a log cahin, about 
IG X 18, which served for kitchen and parlor, 
and wliere hospitality was extended to the 
traveler or to a neighbor of the settlement, 
lie now owns 179 acres of excellent land, 
which is well improved and well cultivated. 
lie has a good house, a commodious barn, 
30 x 44 feet, for stock and grain, and a line 
orchard. Mr. and Mrs. Linn have had three 
children — Mansfield, William Wesley, who 
tiled at the age of nine months, and Nancy 
Ellen. Mrs. Linn died May 7, 188G, lament- 
ed by all who were so fortunate as to make 
her acquaintance. She was an affectionate 
wife, a kind mother and a good neighbor. 
Politically Mr. Linn is a Kepublican. He is 
a member of Zerrubabbel Lodge of Lake City, 
No. 240, A. ¥. & A. M. 






li D. JAQUES, farmer, sectign 2, Willow 
Township, is one of the loading citi- 
"^ili * zens of (ireene County, and the first 
settler of Willow Township, lie turned the 
first furrow, set the first post, ami built the 
first cabin on the wild prairie of that town- 
ship, lie was born in Canada, near Ilam- 
ilt(Mi, .luly 17, 1842, son of Thomas and 
Margaret Jai[ues. Wlicn .'ibnut eight years 
of age his parents removed to Middlesex 
(^(iinty, wliere he lived ten years, lie was 
reared a farmer, receiving his edneation in 
the common scliuols of Canada. At the age 



of eighteen years he came to the United 
States, and for seven 3'ears was engaged in 
various kinds of work and in different States, 
until 1865, when he returned to his father's 
house for a visit. He then bade farewell to 
all the family and started for the Golden 
State of California, starting from New York 
via the Isthmus of Panama. He remained 
in California and vicinity four years. In 
18G9 he retui'ued to New York, thence to 
the home of his parents, and in the spring of 
1870 came to Greene County and located in 
Willow Township all alone. His first loca- 
tion was at the place where his father and 
brother Ijcnjamin now reside. For several 
years he bought farms, partially improved 
them and then sold to persons wishing to buy 
such farms. He came to his present farm a 
few years ago. It consists of 360 acres of 
choice land, and it is one of the best stock 
farms in Greene Connty. He has a fine two- 
story residence, built in modern st^de and 
well furnished. He has a large, commodious 
barn for stock and hay, 74 x 112 feet, feed- 
lots and stock-scales. He is a member of 
Golden Gate Lodge, No. 402, A. F. & A. M., 
at Sci'anton. He started in life without 
means, but by hard work and good man- 
agement he has acquired a fine property. 
He takes an active interest in educational 
and religions matters, and is a liberal con- 
tril)utor to liotli. 



^^LBERT F. RAVEIl, postotHce Jefter- 
llifiAk son, is a native of Ciermanv, born Feb- 
•i;'^- ruary 15, 1838, remaining in his native 
country until til'teen \x'ars of age. He then 
immigrated with his jiarents to America, 
sailing from Hamburg June 9, 1853. He 
landed at New York, where he remained 
about eiirhteen months, when he went to 



-— ! 



■ii»ii«J 



BIUQBAPHIGAL SKETCHES. 



241 



Canada. After residing in Canada for ten 
years he returned to tlie United States and 
settled in Illinois, in which State he made 
his home aliout fifteen years, following the 
tailor's trade the tirst six years of his resi- 
dence there. lie settled in Greene County, 
Iowa, in 1S83, and since coming here he has 
met with excellent success in his agricultural 
pursuits. He is now engaged in general 
farming on section 83, Hardin Township, 
where he has a well-cultivated farm contain- 
ing 160 acres of valuable land. Mr. Haver 
has been twice married. His first wife was 
Lydia Ayres, daughter of Charles Ayres. 
She was born in England February 25, 1839, 
her parents being natives of the same country. 
She died in 1875, leaving four children, as 
follows — Cliarlie, May, Lydia and liartie. 
For his second wife Mr. Raver married Miss 
Bessie Wilson, who was also a native of 
England, born in August, 1847, and to this 
union have been born two children, named 
Violet and Claude. I5oth Mr. and Mrs. Raver 
are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. In his political views he affiliates 
with the Republican ]jarty. 



►>^^. 



tARVEY POTTER, attorney at law, has 
been a resident of Jefferson since May, 
1865. He was the second attorney 
that settled in that city, the first being Dan 
Mills, who is still living in Jeflerson, but is 
retired. Mr. Potter was l)orn at Turin, Lewis 
County, New York, .Inly 17, 1834. His 
father, Chester Potter, was a stone mason in 
early life, and a farmer in later years. His 
mother, Dinah (Miller) Potter, was of Eng- 
lish and Irish parentage. The Potters were 
wholly English. Harvey's paternal grand- 
father was a soldier in the Revolutionary war, 
and his father was in the war of 1&12. When 



he was three years of age his father removed 
with his family to Illinois, settling near 
Somonauk, DeKalb County. Our subject 
renuiined at home until twenty years of age, 
then went to Wheaton, twenty-five miles west 
of Chicago, where he spent six years in the 
preparatory and college course, graduating 
July 4, 1860. He attended the law depart- 
ment of Chicago University and graduated in 
1862, with the degree of LL. B. In 1864 
he received the degree of A. M. from his Alma 
Mater. At the time of his graduation from 
the law dejjartment, the civil war was at its 
height, and he felt that he owed his first 
duty to his country. Before entering 
upon his profession, he enlisted, in August, 

1862, as a private in Company H, One 
Hundred and Fifth Illinois Infantry. lie 
was promoted from time to time, until 

1863, when he was made First Lieuten- 
ant of his company. He commanded Com- 
pany F, of his regiment, during part of his 
Atlanta campaign, that being the company 
that captured the colors of the Twelfth Louisi- 
ana in the battle of Peach Tree Creek. He 
was struck by a fragment of a shell, at Kesaca, 
but was not much injured. He participated 
in several other important events of the 
Atlanta campaign, and resigned in August, 

1864, on account of the illness of his wife. 
He returned from the army and the following 
winter taught school. In May, 1865, he 
settled in Jefferson, and at once entered upon 
the practice of his profession. He served as 
United States Assistant Assessor of Greene, 
Calhoun and Sac counties, in 1866~'67, and 
was the last county judge of Greene County, 
serving in that capacity in l868-'69. Politi- 
cally he has always affiliated with the Repub- 
lican party, and his first vote was cast for 
John C. Fremont in 1856. He is a man of 
culture, having received a thorough literary 
and leiral education. lie has been admitted 



242 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



to practice in tiie United States Courts, the 
Supreme Court ol' the State of Illinois, and 
tlie Circuit, District and Supreme Courts of 
Iowa. He jiosscsses tlie Jcffersonian (pialiti- 
cation of iionesty, integrity and al)ility. 
.ludj^e lli'iiry i'-ootli. dean and leading pro- 
fessor \\\ the law department of the University 
of Chicago, paid him the following tribute: 
" Among all the students of my school, from 
twenty popular colleges, not one was superior 
to Harvey Potter." August 24, 1S62, lie 
was married to Miss Mary L. Price, a native 
of Illinois. She is a woman of education and 
rehnement. Religiously Mr. Potter and 
wife are devoted and consistent mendjers of 
the Methodist Episcopal church, and both are 
devoted to the Sunday-school and other 
religious work. They graduated at the 
Chautauqua Sunda3'-school Assembly at Clear 
Lake, Iowa, in the summer of 1877. I'oth 
have long been active, earnest workers in the 
cause of tempei-ance and proliibition, Mrs. 
Potter for some time being State vice-presi- 
dent of the Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union and having charge of the work of that 
organization in the entire Eleventh Con- 
gressional District of Iowa. 






1 LLIAM LEE, one of the old settlers 
fc.ypj of Washington Township, residing 
I'-Ei^l on section 0, is a native of Ohio, 
burn in llari-i>(in County May 11, 181G, a 
son of John Lee, who was born near llich- 
niond, Virginia. William Lee, our subject, 
was reared to tlie avocation of a fanner, liis 
educatifiii being obtained in the rude hxr 
cabin subscri])tion schools. He was married 
in 184'J to Miss Martha McLain, a daugliter 
of xilauson McLain, and of the eiirht chil- 
dren born to tliis union, five are livincr — 
Henry, John, Emma, Daniel and Dclbert D. 



One son, William, died in 1885 at the age ot 
twenty-two 3'ears. In the fall of 1851 he 
came to Greene County, Iowa, settling on 
the farm where he has since resided. His 
first dwelling was a sjjI it-log cabin consisting 
of one room 16 .\ 18 feet in size. Elk, 
wolves, deer and other wild animals were 
then in abundance, the surrounding country 
being in a state of nature. Here the family 
experienced many of tlie hardships and pri- 
vations of pioneer life. Their nearest milling 
and trading point was Des Moines. lie has 
met with fair success in his farming o])era- 
tions, and by years of toil and industry has 
acquired his present fine farm of eighty-two 
acres, all of which is under good cultivation. 



\ 

|[EOEGE M. (4ILLILAND, of Paton, a \ 
member of the firm of Gilliland Broth- 
ers, contractors and builders, is a son of 
Archibald and Mary (Henderson) Gilliland, 
natives of Beaver County, Pennsylvania, the 
father born in 1800, now deceased, and the 
mother in 1818. George M. Gilliland, the 
sul)ject of this sketcli, is a native of Boone 
County, Iowa, the date of iiis birth being 
September 14, 1859. His educational advant- 
ages were some what limited, he attending 
the district schools of his native county in his 
boyhood. At the age of tifteen years he 
began learning the carpenter's trade, his 
ancestors being workers or carvers in wood for 
many years. His grandfather, John Gilli- 
land, was a soldier in the Kevolutionary war 
and in the war of 1812, beinnr aennner in the 
latter war, and was transferred from the land 
foi'ces to the hikes. Mr. Gilliland has fol- 
lowed the trade learned in his youth tlirough 
life, and is considered one of the finest work- 
men in his part of Greene County. In the 
fall of 1873 he went to Oregon, where he 



'■ii™'a»«™«* 



BWGRA rillGAL .'^KETCHES. 



243 



remained till the spring of 1877. The same 
spring he went to Warren County, Iowa, and 
returned to his home in Boone County, in 
the fall of 1878. In the spring of 1881 he 
came to Paton, Greene Connty, when he 
formed a partnership with his lirother, A. II. 
Gilliland, and has since followed contractini,' 
and buildintf and during their comparatively 
short residence here have erected over ninety 
buildings. Mr. Gilliland has never married, 
l)nt makes his home with his mother, who is 
now livincc in Paton. He never seeks official 
honors, preferring to devote his entire atten- 
tion to his business. lie is a member of the 
Odd Fellows' order. 



i-5^-^^ 



5;MMERSON JOHNSON, an enterprising 



'iW^/ farmer and stock-raiser of Hardin 



I 



Township, residing on section 5, was 
born in Delaware County, Ohio, August 11, 
1845, a son of Adam and Sarali Johnson, 
who were natives of Virginia, and early 
settlers of Ohio. The motlicr died in 1878, 
and the father has since miide his home with 
his children; at present is living with his 
daughter, Mrs. "Wagoner, in Kansas. The 
father being a farmer, Emmerson was reared 
to the same avocation, which he has followed 
through life. At the age of twenty-eight 
years lie rented a farm iu Jones County, 
Iowa, wliich he farmed for two years. He 
was united in marriage in 1873 to Miss 
Cenith Jones, a native of Indiana, born Oc- 
tober 5, 1848, a daughter of Thomas and 
Jane (Tatun) Jones, the father born in Mon- 
roe County, Indiana, November 29, 1819, 
and the mother a native of North Carolina, 
born March 25, 1825. Tiie father settled 
with his family in Jones County, Iowa, in 
1863, where lie followed farming till his 
death, which occurred May 3, 1880. His 



widow, Mrs. Jones, is still living at Grand 
Junction, Iowa. Nine children were born to 
Mr. and Mrs. Jones, two sons and seven 
daughters, Mrs. Johnson being the fourth 
child. Mr. and Mrs. Johnson are keeping 
two of their brother Newton Johnson's chil- 
dren, their mother being deceased. They are 
— Myrtle P.., born August 31, 1872, and 
AltaM., born July 7, 1880. About the year 
iMiU Mr. Johnson took a trip to the north- 
western part of Iowa to determine a location, 
and linally settled on his present farm in 
Hardin Township. He is one of the self- 
made men of Greene County, having by fair 
dealing and hard work acrpiired his present 
fine property. He has his land now well 
improved, and it is considered one of the 
finest stock farms in Greene County. He 
devotes considerable attention to tlie raising 
of stock, and is making a specialty of Jersey 
hogs, short-horn cattle and a fine grade of 
Norman horses. In politics Mr. Johnson 
affiliates with the Democratic party. Mrs. 
Johnson is a member of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church. 



"'■'ts» 5nS " 



;j».SjILO B. WESTERVELT. farmer, re- 
'mmM sides on section 3, Bristol Township, 
"■^^Mf^ where he owns 400 acres of excellent 
land on sections 2 and 3. He was l)orn in 
Franklin County, Ohio, December 8, 1856, 
the only son of James and Kate (Knox) 
AVestervelt, now deceased. He was reared a 
farmer, and olitained a good education, 
becomincc a teacher before reaching his 
mai'ority. When twenty-one years ot age he 
entered into a partnershi]i with his uncle, 
John Kno.x, in farming and stock-raising, 
which continued until 1878, when he formed 
anotlier ]-iartnership iu the cattle and sheep 
trade, shipping to Pittsburg. Pennsylvania. 







In 1879 ho visited Greene County, stopping 
only two weeks, then went to California, 
where he led an active business lite for the 
next two years. Jle then returned to Greene 
Cuiinty, where lie spent several months in 
the abstract and recorder's office, under 
Recorder Head. In 1883 ho settled npon his 
farm, and is now engaged in improving and 
stocking the same. September 12, 1883, he 
was united in marriage with Miss Rose, 
dautrhtei' of -lulin and Sarah Uiemer, of 
Wayne County, this State. Mrs. Westervelt 
was born in that county September 12, 1860. 
They have two sons — Alanson K., born July 
7, 1884, and Milo B., born December 2, 1885. 
Politically Mr. Westervelt affiliates with the 
Republican party. 



G. LAWRENCE, of the lirm of Law- 
rence & Ilaag, the principal real estate 
.1-® dealers and abstractors in Jefferson, 
engaged in his present business in January, 
1876, at which time he bought a half interest 
in the Greene County Abstract and Real Es- 
tate Agency. This business was established 
in 1867 by W. 15. Mayes. IMr. Lawrence 
possesses the only complete set of abstract 
books in the county. lie has been a resident 
of Jefferson since 1867, and for six years he 
was engaged in the bank of Head Brothers. 
For four years he served as auditor of Greene 
County. He was born_ in Cleveland, Ohio, 
in 1844, and came to Iowa with his parents 
in 1854, the family settling in Boweshiok 
County. In 1861 he eidisted in Com])any 
F, Tenth lnwa Infantry, and served in Gen- 
eral Sherman's army until 1865, participating 
in many of the important events of the war, 
including the Atlanta canijiaigu and inarch 
to tlie sea, and tixik iiarl in the irraiid re- 
view at Washington. After the war Mr. 



Lawrence was engaged in farming one year, 
and was then employed in Mickle & Head's 
baidc at Montezuma for a short time. After- 
ward lie attended school at Davenport, from 
which place he came to Jefferson. Politi- 
cally he affiliates with the Rejiublican party. 



;ji.|LYSSES B. KINSEY, section 10, Junc- 
Jtll tion Township, Greene County, was 
born in Lancaster County, Pennsyl- 
vania, June 13, 1822, a son of Samuel and 
Susannah (Beam) Kinsey, who were natives 
of the same State, the father born in Lancas- 
ter County and the mother in Chester County. 
The father is deceased, the mother still living 
in Junction Township at the advanced age of 
eighty-six years. Our subject was taken by 
his parents to Coshocton County, Ohio, in 
1827, they settling on a farm in the then 
new country. He ol)tained such education 
as the rude log cabin schools of that early 
day afforded, his early life being spent iij at- 
tending these schools and in assisting with 
the work of the farm. He was married 
February 1, 1844, to Matilda Draper, a 
daughter of James and Elizabeth Draper, 
and to this union have been born five chil- 
dren — Leander B., Sarah J., Mary I., .lames 
L^. and Edgar L., all of whom are married 
and living in Junction Township. Mr. Kin- 
sey was a soldier in the war of the Rebellion, 
eidisting in Company I, Fifty-first Ohio In- 
fantry, as First Sergeant. He was shortly 
afterward promoted to Quartermaster-Ser- 
geant, serving as such till December 11, 1864, 
and participated in the battle of Stone River 
and a number of skirmishes. He came to 
Greene County, Iowa, in October, 1869, set- 
tling where ho now lives in Junction Town- 
ship. He owns eighty acres of land, which 
he rents to tenants, he workinii; at the car- 



'A' 



t 






BIOORAPEICAL SKETCHES. 



245 



penter's trade, M'liicli lie lias followed for 
many years. He began life entirely without 
capital, and while living in ()\\\o lie failed in 
business. He came to Iowa without means, 
but a stout heart and a pair of willing hands. 
Began here on wild land, which he cleared 
and improved, and he experienced many of the 
hardships and privations of pioneer life. Tie 
was one of the earliest settlers of Junction 
Township, locating on his present farm when 
there was scarcely a house in the township. 
The first two winters he trapped muskrats, 
from the sale of which he Ijuilt his house 
and helped to pay for his land, at one time 
taking as many as 2,200 skins to Grand 
Junction. He never seeks official honors, 
but has been induced to accept the office of 
township trustee, which he has iilled accept- 
ably for several years. He is a member of 
the Masonic fraternity, also a member of the 
Grand Army. He and his wife and their 
daughter, Mrs. Mary Coburn, are members 
of the Presbyterian church. 



.>>^^. 



I^JIAELES A. AVOODS, engaged in tarm- 
i\lE '"§ ^""-^ stock raising on section 22 of 
^T. Franklin Township, is a native of Ohio, 
born August 18, 1843, his parents, Thomas 
and Mary A. (Latta) Woods, being natives 
of Ireland, the father being a farmer b}' oc- 
cupation. At the early age of aiine years 
Charles A., our subject, began working in a 
rolling-mill nail factory, where he was em- 
ployed for twenty years. He was united in 
marriage in May, 1863, to Miss Mary H. 
Potts, who was born in Pittsburg, Pennsyl- 
vania, November 3, 1846, and died in Greene 
County, Iowa, July 4, 1882. She was the 
daughter of David and Mary (Patterson) 
Potts. To Mr. and Mrs. Woods were born 
seven children, their names being; as follows 

21 



— Minnie, Charles, John, Harry, Cora, Maud 
and Ethel. In February, 1875, Mr. Woods 
came with his family to Greene County, 
when he settled on liis farm on section 22, 
Franklin Township, where he now has a good 
farm, well improved, consisting of 160 acres. 
He has on his land a fine maple grove which 
covers two acres, from which the name of 
his homestead, "Maple Grove I'^arni," is de- 
rived. He is a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, his wife having been a 
member of the same church. In politics he 
affiliates with the Republican ])arty. Post- 
office, Cooper, Iowa. 



fOHN McCarthy, mayor of the city of 
Jefferson, is one of the prominent busi- 
-;•<, ness men of that town, though not one of 
its oldest residents. In December, 1880, he 
purchased 200 acres of land in Hardin Town- 
ship, and erected buildings thereon and 
improved and cultivated the farm. He pur- 
chased other land adjoining, until he now has 
540 acres. The land lies near town and is 
very valuable; he also owns real estate 
elsewhere. The total amount of his land in 
Greene County is 1,040 acres. To Mr. Mc- 
Carthy, more than to any other man, is due 
tlie investigation which led to the production 
of the numerous artesian wells which now 
exist in this vicinity. In 1881 he produced 
one of these wells on his farm near town, and 
from this well flows an abundance of excellent 
mineral water. A specimen of the water was 
analyzed by Professor Hunt of the Agricul- 
tural College, the formula of which shows 
that it possesses valuable medicinal proper- 
ties. The benefit of this well to the fine 
stock farm of Mr. McCarthy can hardly be 
estimated. The owner is extensively engaged 
in raising and feeding and buying and selling 



**^. *-*^^* ** 1 



-1— m— M-M- 



if. 



346 



HISTORF OF (IBEENE COUNTY. 



stock. He is also engaged in the boot and 
shoe business at Jefferson. Mr. McCarthy 
was born in the city of Kochester, State of 
New York, in 1843. Three years later his 
father, .lereniiali McCarthy, removed with his 
family In the State of Illinois, and settled in 
what is now Prairie Center, LaSallc County. 
Here our subject was reared to the occupation 
of fariiiiny and stock-raising. The father 
remained in LaSalle County until his decease. 
Mr. McCarthy was married in Illinois to 
Miss M. F. Blackwell. Politically Mr. Mc- 
Carthy is a Democrat. His popularity is 
indicated l»y the fact that in a strong Repub- 
lican town he was elected mayor by a major- 
ity of eightj'-one votes. They have an adopted 
son, Fred, born in 1863. 



■a, 



VMES AV. SillTIi resides on section 35, 
Grant Township, Greene County, Iowa, 
where his father, Pleasant Smith, settled 
in July, 1855, having purchased 210 acres of 
land of Winson Crouse. The father, liowever, 
lived but about three years after making his 
settlement here, dying in 1858. lie caught 
a severe cold while hunting elk the winter 
following his settlement here and an illness 
followed M'hich resulted in iiis death. He 
left a wife and t'ight children, four sons and 
four daughters, the wife dying in I)eceml)er, 
1868. Only three of the children are now 
living. James W. and Sarah live on the old 
liomestead. Jackson resides in AVashington 
Township. Pleasant Smith was b<jrn in Ten- 
nessee in December, 1799. Jle married Jane 
Upton in ISliJ, removing to Illinois in 1828, 
thence to Iowa in 1855. Two of his sons 
served in the Union army during the liebell- 
ion. Robert T. was a member of Company IT, 
Tenth Iowa Infantry. He was ca))tu red near 
Missionary Ridge in 1S63, and imprisoned at 



Andersonville, where he died June 24, 1864. 
Jannes AV. owns and occupies the homestead 
farm. He was born in DeA¥itt County, 
Illinois, November 14, 1839. August 15, 
1863, he enlisted in Company E, Thirty- 
ninth Iowa Infantry, and was in the battle of 
Parker's Cross Roads, Tennessee, December 
31, 18G2, and also in the battles of Snake 
Creek, Georgia, May 9, 1864; Horse-shoe 
Rend, May 16, 1864, and the terrible battle 
of Allatoona Pass, Georgia, October 5, 1864. 
At the last mentioned battle he was twice 
wounded, the first time, while occupying 
the ditch in front of the fort, receiving a 
gun-shot wound in the head. After the army 
had been driven back to the fort, after the 
third charge, he was shot through the elbow 
joint of the right arm, which resulted in 
amputation on the 31st of October. Being 
disabled by these severe wounds he was sent 
to army hospitals for treatment as follows: 
First to Rome, Georgia, and remained there 
until November, 1864, just before Sherman's 
" march to the sea;" thence to Chattanooga, 
Tennessee; thence to Nashville, Tennessee; 
thence to Jeffersonville, Indiana; thence to Jef- 
ferson Barracks, Missouri ; thence to Keokuk, 
Iowa, where he was discharged May 24, 1865, 
being in the active service two years and 
nearly ten months. Notwithstanding his 
terrible experience in the army his health is 
good. He was married to Susan A. Bell, 
daughter of Rev. AVatson A. Bell, May 30, 
1865, at Sigourney, Iowa. Mrs. Susan A. 
(Bell) Smith was born in AVestmoreland 
County, Pennsylvania, in 1843. They have 
nine children, seven sons and two daughters. 
In 1868 while driving a pair of young horses 
he was thrown from his wagon, receiving 
great injuries. AA^hile trying to escape from 
the run-away team he fell under the wagon, 
the wagon passing over him and breaking 
his lower jaw in two places, and his left leg 



ii^-"-"-"-"-"'^"!^^^^^^-^ ) 



below the knee. After lying at the point of 
death for several weeks he was restored to 
health by the kind nursing of his faithful 
wife, materially assisted by his strong consti- 
tution and his indomitable will. lie fully 
recovered from these injuries and enjoys the 
blessing of a sound constitution, carrying 
the marks of no affliction other than the 
bullet wounds he received in the service of 
his country as relatetl above. Politically Mr. 
Smith affiliates with Ilepiiblican party. 



,,.■?,. ?l|T,.,'?M, 



J^[EOEGE C. DILLAVOU, farmer, sec- 
flteT? tiou 17, Kendrick Township, was born 
w'- in Randolph County, Indiana, August 
29, 1850, son of James Dillavou, a prominent 
pioneer of this county. lie was five years 
of age when his father came to Iowa and 
settled amid the wild surroundings of pio- 
neer life. His youth was spent in assist- 
ing his father on the farm, and in attending 
the common schools of Greene County. He 
was married March 1.3, 1879, to Miss Lotta 
Chase, who was a native of Canada, and a 
daughter of Kev. John W. Chase, a promi- 
nent minister in the United Brethren church, 
and the founder of the first church of that 
denomination in Greene County. He was a 
native of Connecticut, and married Miss 
Susan Crawford, who was a native of Canada. 
They lived in Canada several years, and in 
1855 came to Iowa, settling in Clayton 
County, where they lived until 1868, then 
came to Greene County and settled in Cedar 
Township. Mr. Dillavou came to his present 
farm in the spring of 1879, which he pur- 
chased some time previous. He owns 200 
acres of excellent land, and his farm is known 
as one of the best in his township. He has 
a good two-story residence built in modern 
style, with bay window and piazzas, and 



surrounded with shade trees, and his farm 
buildings are commodious and comfortable. 
He is (piite extensively engaged in stock- 
raising and feeding. Mr. and Mrs. Dillavoxi 
have had four children — Mahlon J., Statten 
G. ; Ross L., who died at the age of two years, 
ten months and fifteen days, and Maud. 
Politically Mr. Dillavou is a Republican. He 
served as township clerk when only twenty- 
one years of age. He has served as a mem- 
ber of the School Board and township assessor 
with satisfaction to his constituents. He 
well remembers seeing the deer and elk run 
lip and down the creek on the farm of his 
father; seeing and hearing the prairie wolves 
howl when onl}^ a little boy, and at one time 
getting scared by the wolves, and in the 
place of seeing carpet-baggers and plug hats, 
hoops and bustles, or banged hair, he saw the 
hunter with his coon-skin cap and long rifle 
on his shoulder, and women dressed plain 
with lono- hair. 



-5«-»^ 



^AMES M. HOSHAAV, farmer, section 36, 
M Hardin Township, is a native of Siielby 
^ County, Ohio, born March 27, 1833, a 
son of Henry and Elizabeth (Shigley) Iloshaw, 
who were both natives of Shenandoah County, 
Virginia. Tliey left their native State in 
1811, in which year they settled in Ohio. 
Both are now deceased. James M. was 
reared on the home farm till twenty-one 
years of age, when he l)egan to learn the 
carpenter's trade, serving an apprenticeship 
of three years. After twelve years hard 
work he had saved enough money to purchase 
a farm of forty acres of improved land in 
Marion County, Iowa, on which he located 
in 1856, at that time not a railroad being in 
the State. He was united in marriage in 



Shelby County, Ohio, Januai-y 2, 1857, and ( 




248 



BISTORT OF GBEENK COUNTY. 



to this union were liorn four daugliters — 
America, Araminta, Matilda and Martlia. 
AVliile a resident of Marion County, Iowa, 
his wife returned to Oliio, where she died. 
He was a resident of Marion County about 
sixteen years, but after the deatli of his wife 
he moved to l)e Witt County, Illinois, where 
he lived about eight years. lie was married 
a second time in March, 1868, to Miss Evaline 
Warrenburg, who was born in Fayette County, 
Ohio, in November, 1840, lierpai'ents, George 
and Mary Warrenburg, being natives of the 
State of A'irginia; One child has Ijcen 
born to this union — James Henry, buni 
June 10, 1869. Mr. Hoshaw came with his 
family to Greene County in the spring of 
1874, when he settled in Hardin Township, 
on the farm where he still resides. He is 
an industrious and enteri)rising farmer, and 
his present fine farm of 120 acres has been 
acquired by years of toil. His land is now 
under a fair state of cultivation, and well im- 
proved. Eotli he and his wife are membei's 
of the Christian church, and are classed 
among the respected citizens of Green County. 



fOSlHJA BURK, one of the self-made 
men of Greene County, and an old pio- 
,^ neer of Wasliington Township, was born 
in Oswego County, Kew York, March 31, 
1833, a son of Amos S. IJurk, who was a 
native of the same State. The father removed 
with his family to Carroll County, Missouri, 
in 1844, and to McDonough County, Illinois, 
in 1846, where he lived till his death. Joshua 
Hurk, the subject of tliis sketch, went to Cass 
County, Illinois, in 1852, where he worked 
as a farm hand for one man for four years. 
He was married in the spring of 1856 to 
Amanda C. Hall, a native of A'ircinia, and a 
daughter of .lolm 1 1 all, deceased. They are 
the parents of eleven children — Viola E., 



married Tupper Kirby, of Grand Junction, 
and has two children, named Osa Viola and 
Edgar P.; Catherine, wife of Frank Taylor, 
of "Washington Townshij); Banj-er, married 
Emma John, and lives in "Washington Town- 
ship; John and Amos, twins, living in "Wash- 
ington Township, the latter married to Cora 
White; Nicholas P., Hannah, Eliza, Lilian, 
Andrew J. and Isaac J. Mr. Burk came to 
Iowa with his young wife the same year of 
their marriage, making the journey with an 
ox team in about three weeks, when they set- 
tled on the fsirm which lias since been their 
home. His first land purchased here was 
forty acres, for which he paid .$100 in work 
at forty or fifty cents per day, and a note for 
$54. His first house was built of roujrh oak 
boards, and consisted of one room 14 x 16 
feet in size. He hauled lumber to the mill 
for a party, and for his services received a 
quarter of the lumber, and with this he built 
his house. This house is still standing in the 
rear of his present residence. When they 
first settled in Washington Township the 
surrounding country was in a wild state, 
Indians and wild animals being the principal 
inhabitants, and for several years they were 
well supplied with wild game. Pork was 
scarce, selling at 25 cents a pound, and the 
price of flour in 1857 Avas §8.25 per hundred 
weight. Their trading and milling was done 
at Des Moines. Mr. Burk began life in Iowa 
without means, but by hard work and strict 
economy, assisted by the good management 
of his wife, he has become one of the pros- 
perous citizens of Greene County. He made 
his first money on buckwheat wliich he raised 
in 1857, taking 101 bushels to I)es Moines, 
and after getting it ground at Walnut Creek 
Mills, sold it for $3.25 a hundred weight. 
Mr. Burk is now the owner of 401 acres of 
valuable land, aiid has given to his children 
240 acres. Mr. Burk was a soldier in the 



BIOORAPHIOAL SKETCHES. 



249 



war of the Rebellion, sei-viiig in Company IT, 
Tenth Iowa Infantry, almost three years, lie 
participated in the battles of luka, Corinth, 
Missionary liidge, siege of Vicksburg, Jack- 
son, Mississippi, and others of minor im- 
portance, and was wounded in the battles of 
Corinth and Missionaiy Kidge. 



^,4^^^i.^ 



jm W. JACKSON, farmer, section 14, 
^''- Greenbrier Township, was born in 
I.® Crawford County, Pennsylvania, March 
13, 1843, son of Waterman and Sojjhia 
(Gnim) Jackson, the father a native of New 
Yoi-k, and the mother of Massachusetts. 
They were married in New York, and reared 
a family of eight children — Jane, Augusta, 
Ilirani, Zylpha, Helen M., G. W., Andrew 
and Asa. The latter, a twin brother of An- 
drew, is deceased. When our subject was 
two years of age his parents removed to 
Portage County, Ohio, where they lived 
eleven years, then removed to Porter C'ounty, 
Indiana. G. W. was reared a farmer and 
educated in the common schools. September 
5, 18G1, he enlisted in the Fourth Battery, 
Indiana Volunteers, Captain A. K. Bush 
commanding. He participateil in the battles 
of Perryville, Stone liiver and Chickamauga, 
and other minor engagements. At the latter 
place he was wounded in the right thigh, and 
conlined in the hiispital six months. lie re- 
turned to the service and remained until the 
term of his enlistment expired, which was 
three years, and November 2, 1864, he re- 
enlisted in the same battery, and was pro- 
moted to Second Lieutenant. He served in 
that capacity until Angnst 1, 1865, when he 
was honorably discharged at Indianapolis, In- 
diana, and returned to his home. He was 
married April 6, 186!J, to Miss Alice E. 
Marine, a natis-e of St. Joseph County, Indi- 



ana, and daughter of Ed. C. and Parthena 
(McClean) Marine. In 1874 our subject re- 
moved to Dallas County, Iowa, near Redfield, 
where he lived four years, engaged in farm- 
ing. In March, 1878, he removed to Green- 
brier Township, this county, and settled upon 
his present farm. His first purchase was 
eighty acres; he has since added to that until 
he now owns 240 acres of (^reene County's 
best soil. He has a comfortable house, and 
out-buildings for stock and grain, and is 
engaged in general farming, stock-raising 
and feeding. Mr. and Mrs. Jackson arc the 
parents of ten children — Archie A., Sybil Es- 
telle, Clyde L., George 1\I., O. P. Morton, 
lialph, ilerle, Percy M., Helen E. and Zylpha. 
Mr. Jackson is a Republican in politics, and 
is now serving as township treasurer and 
member of the school board. lie is senior 
\ice-conunander of May's Post, No. 264, 
(i. A. R. He started in life without a dollar, 
but liy good management, industry and ecou 
omy he has acquired a tine property. His 
postofhce is Bagley, Guthrie County. 



f 



"!<, 



OIIN DINAN, one of the self-made 
f men of Greene County, and an enter- 
prising farmer of Scranton Township, 
where he resides on section 19, is a native of 
Ireland, born in County Limerick in 1840. 
His parents, Thomas and Kate Dinan, never 
left their native country. They had a family 
of seven children, our subject being the sixth 
child, and the only one who came to America. 
He left Ireland during the war of the Rebell- 
ion, and landed at New York City in very 
limited cii-cumstances, but possessed of a 
stout heart and a determination to succeed 
in life. He lived at New Haven, Connecti- 
cut, several years, and was there married to 
IVIis^s-Letitia Lynch, who was born in County 
Derry, Ireland. Four children have been 



r: ^»-c»a»»««aiag»Mai»«M »ai »w«ii-»-i»«-ai«»Si»faM«»-»«»aB« aj»Q? gi^ 






250 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



m 



born to them, three of whom are living, all 
natives of New Haven, Connecticut — Thomas, 
born December 4, 1864; John, born May 24, 
1867, and Albert, born September 24, 1871. 
Their son Robert was born in Benton County, 
Iowa, May 5, 1874, and died in the same 
county January 25. 1878. Mr. Dinan came 
with his family to Iowa in 1871, and lived 
in Benton County several years. They after- 
ward resided in Story County, and from 
there came to Greene County, settling on 
his present farm in the spring of 1880. His 
farm of 160 acres is one of the best in his 
neighborhood, and almost entirely under 
cultivation, and is located half on section 19, 
Scranton Township, and half on section 25, 
of Ricliland Township, in Carroll County, 
whicli he has acipiired by persevering toil 
and energy, combined with good management, 
and by liis fair and honorable dealings he 
has won the confidence and respect of all who 
Ivuow him. Politically Mr. Dinan affiliates 
witli the Democratic party. The family are 
members of the Iloman Catliolic church. 



flllARLES WALTON, one of tlie enter- 
, prising citizens of Baton, cuii-aged in 
>#i,-i conti'actiiiir and biiildinir and dealinir 
i)i I'liniiture, was born in Toronto, Canada, 
tlie ihite of Ills birth being February 6, 1859. 
His father, John Walton, is now a resident 
uf Scott County, Iowa, having settled there 
M-itli liis family in 1861. Our subject lived 
(111 liis fatlier's farm in Scott County till nine 
years of age, after which lie attended scliool 
at Davenport, Iowa, till 1880, He then 
came to Baton, Greene County, Iowa, and 
engaged in contracting and building, which 



lie still follows, and in 1.S81 he engaged in 
the riirniluiT business, and is dniiig a goixl 
business. Mr. Walton was married October 



7, 1883, to Miss Anna L. Marker, a daughter 
of Martin V. Marker. Their only child, 
Irene Blanche, was choked to death at the 
age of fourteen months. Since coming to 
Baton Mr. Walton has held the office of con- 
stable for two years. He is the proprietor 
of Walton's Hall, which is used for traveling 
theatrical troupes, and for balls, etc. 



^-5m^>- 




that office January 1, 1882. He settled in 
the county in 1868. He was born in the 
town of Cadiz, Harrison County, Ohio, in 
1839, and was reared to the occupation of a 
farmer. He served his country in the war 
of the Bebellion as a member of Company 
C, One Hundred and Twenty-sixth Ohio 
Infantry. He enlisted in 1862, and served 
in the Army of the Botoinac until March, 
1865. His regiment belonged to Sedgwick's 
corps — the noted Sixth. He was captured 
at the battle of the Wilderness, May 6, 1864, 
and was confined at Andersonville for eight 
months, when he was e.xclianged. He lias 
never fully recovered from the effects of that 
terrible experience. He participated in the 
battle of Martinsbnrg, West Virginia, June 
14, 1863, and the battle of Mapping Height, 
July 23, in the same year. On the 6th day 
of August, 1863, the brigade to which his 
regiment belonged was ordered to New York 
to assist in enforcing the draft. They re- 
joined their corps at Box's Ford, and partici- 
pated in the battle of Culpeper Court-House, 
September 15; October 14, battle of Bristol 
Station; October 24, battle of Beal ten Station 
November 7, battle of Kelly's Ford; Novem- 
ber 8, Brandy Station ; Novemlier 26, Locnst 
Grove; November 28, Mine Run; .May 4, 5, 



G. EAGLESON is now serving his 
third term as sheriff of Greene County, 
having first assumed the duties of j 



JilOaRAl'UWAL SKETCHES. 



351 



?^' 



6, 1864, Imttle of the AVildeniess, being cap- 
tured on tlie Cth, and sent to AudersuTiville 
as previously stated. He was discharged for 
disability at Columbus, Ohio, in March, 1865. 
He remained in Ohio until lie came to Orcene 
County, and was engaged in farming until 
elected to his present position. Politically 
Mr. Eagleson is a Kepublican. While he 
was in Ohio he was married to Miss Mary 
Jane Taggart, a native of that State, and 
they have three children — Nettie, Uelle and 
Clyde. 



fUSTUS M. EIIOADS, agent of the United 
States Express Company, at Jefferson, 
dealer in musical instruments, sewing 
machines, stationery, cigars, etc., has been 
prominently identified with the interests of 
Jefferson since December, 1871, at whicli 
time he became a resident of the town. At 
that time he bought a half interest in the 
Jefferson Jiec. and in ]\[ay, 1874, he became 
sole proprietor and editor of that paper. In 
October, 1877, he sold a half interest to O. 
Tt. Gra}'. In 1883 he again became sole pro- 
prietor, and In 1884 sold to the present 
owner, Mr. E. 15. StillmaTi. Mr. Rhoads was 
postmaster at Jefferson from July 8, 1873, 
until November 1, 1885, a period of more 
tlian twelve years. In 1881-'82 he was 
mayor of Jeiferson, and is at present a mem- 
ber of the school board and common council 
of the town. Mr. Khoads was born in Pier- 
pont, Ashtabula County, Ohio, April 8, 1845. 
In 1856 liis father, F. W. Rhoads, removed 
with his family to Story County, this State, 
where he died in 1867. In 1861 onr suliject 
went to Des Moines an<l engaged in printing, 
having previously worked two years in a 
printing office at Nevada. In the spring of 
1864 he enlisted as a member of Company 
E, Forty-seventh Iowa. He remained in the 



army four months, and in December, 1864, 
went to Ohio and again entered the army as 
a member of the Eighteenth Ohio, serving 
until July, 1865. After the war closed he 
returned to Des Moines and was foreman of 
tlie Rajhter from 1867 until 1871. In 1863 
he crossed the plains with a team to Colo- 
rado, retni-ning in the fall of the same year. 
In 1871 he repeated the journey for the ben- 
efit of his health, and was for a time in the 
printing business in Central Citj', in that 
State. February 3, 1867, TVIr. Ilhoads was 
married in Des iloines to Miss Augusta E. 
Hemingway, a native of Pennsylvania, and 
for some time a resident of Livinfjston Coun- 
ty. New York, being educated at the Nunda 
Literary Institute in that county. Her father 
was Nathan Hemingway, one of the pioneers 
of Des Moines. Mr. and Mrs. Rhoads have 
five children — Fred II., Charles C, Jennie 
M., Frank P., and Justus A. The two eldest 
were born in Des Moines, Jennie in Coloi-ado, 
and the other two in Jefferson. 






^^AMES DILLAVOU, farmer, section 17, 

fKendrick Township, is one of the prom- 
inent pioneers of that township, and was 
born ih Greene County, Ohio, May 15, 1825, 
son of John and Rebecca (Roberts) Dillavou, 
natives of New Jersey, who were the parents 
of eight children, of whom our subject was 
the youngest. AYhen he was about twelve 
3'ears of age his parents removed to Raudolp)h 
County, Indiana, where he lived until twenty- 
five years of age. He was reared a farmer 
and received his education in the common 
schools. He was married May 21, 1848, to 
Miss Margaret Coon, daughter of John and 
Mary Coon, a native of Delaware. In 185U 
ilr. Dillavou removed to McLean County, 
Illinois, where he resided five years, and No- 



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.•^r^* my«k*m'-^f ^1.'^* %j«%*^b/-^*-'*J^>^^/-'*>-^A^^'*.'^/-^J'< 



253 



niSTOUY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



vcitihcr 9, 1855, lie came to Greene County, 
locatinop on liis present ftirin in Kendrick 
Ti-wiisliip. Tliere were alwut twenty-iive 
t'aniilies living in the township at that time. 
He iirst lived in a tent for some time, and 
his stock was sheltered in tlii^ brush. After 
ii time he built a log cabin. He had to go 
forty miles to mill, and his postoffice was at 
De.s Moines; the mail was fre(^uently brought 
to Jefferson with an ox team. Elk were fre- 
(juently found liere at that time. Mr. Dilla- 
vou owns 460 acres of well-cidtivated land, 
witli good improvements, lie has a com- 
fortable liouse, a commodious barn and out- 
buildincrs for stock and grain. Mrs. Dillavou 
died iVlay 25, 1802, leaving six children — 
George, Elza, Rebecca, Jolm, Mary and a 
babe; two are deceased. October 14, 1866, 
Mr. Dillavou was married to Mrs. Nancy 
Morelan, a native of Putnam County, Indi- 
ana, an<l daughter of William and Susan 
Iteclc. Mrs. Dillavou was the widow of 
Jacksun ]\[orelan and the mother of three 
children— -Evan, AVilliam and Jackson. V^y 
the second nnirriage there were eight children 
— Martha, Samuel, Henry, Ira, Amos, Aiiice, 
Stacy and Margaret, deceased. Politically 
Ml'. Dillavou is a Republican, casting his 
iirst vote for General Ereiiiont. lie has 
served in most of the township offices, ^id has 
served twice as county supervisor. lie 
donated the ground for the Dillavou ceme- 
tery, and is a liberal supporter df all worthy 
enterprises. 



^MmEIA'lLLK 11. U10IIARDSON,farm- 
ir, resides on section 22, Jackson 
Tdwnship, where he owns eighty 
acres of excellent land, in a good state of 
(•nlti\ aliiii!. He ha.-; been a resident of (ireene 
County since 1869, and has lived in his pres- 



ent home about ten years, his residence being 
on section 2 of the same township. Mr. 
Richardson came from St. Lawrence County, 
New York, wdiere he was born September 4. 
1834, son of Anson and Polly (Southworth) 
Richardson, the father a native of Bennington 
County. Vermont, and the mother of Con- 
necticut. Their early life was passed in 
Bennington Count}', and the father located 
in St. Lawrence County when only seventeen 
years of age, in the year 1806. He settled 
near where Canton, the county-seat, now is. 
lie made a home in the wilderness and lived 
there the rest of his days, passing away in 
1850,'aged sixty-one years. He was Orderly 
Serireant in the New York militia durine: 
the war of 1812, being twice called into the 
service. His wife survived until 1866. being 
seventy-two years old at death. Anson 
Richardson was one of the promoters of ^the 
building of the first Methodist church in St. 
]>awrence County. During the late war that 
building was replaced by a more pretentious 
structure. The father was a class-leader 
twenty-four years. He raised three children 
— Lucius, now seventy years of age, living 
near where he was born; Arvilla, who married 
Ira Starks, inherited the old homestead, and 
Melville II., the subject of this sketch, who 
was reared on the old homestead, and edu- 
cated in the scliools which the limited 
resources of his native county afforded. In 
October, 1859, he was married to Miss Nancy 
Pitt, daughter of William and Jane Pitt, who 
was born October 27, 1834, also in St. Lawrence 
County. They were ]>lay mates and school mates. 
Mr. Richardson enlisted in Company K, One 
Hundred and Forty-second New York Infan- 
try, August 27, 1862. His regiment was as- 
signed to the Army of the Potomac. He took 
])art in some of the early ]iistoricl)attles,buthis 
liealtli failing, he was placed on detached and 
lighter duties. He served his full term of 



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hlOORAPHWAL SKETORES. 



2bS 



enlistment aTid returned to liis home in St. 
Lawrence County, where his wife died Febru- 
ary 17, 1872, whither she had gone in hopes 
of restoring her failing health. She left one 
child^Adell, born June 21, 1862. For his 
second wife, Mr. Richardson married, May 
2, 1878, Miss Sally Eister, daughter of 
Samuel and Elizabeth Eister, who was born 
in Northumberland County, Pennsylvania, 
August 8, 1841. Mr. and Mrs. Iiichardson 
have no children, but they have an adopted 
daughter, Lona, daughter of Aaron Hanson. 
Mr. Richardson's daughter, Adell, married 
W. A. Young, and they have three children — 
Ross W., Lydia A. and Harl. In politics, 
Mr. Richardson is an ardent Republican, 
casting his first liopablican vote for John C. 
Fremont. He is a member of Morning Star 
Lodge, No. 159, A. F. & A. M. 



►>,j.4..-^ 



fAMES L. HUNT, engaged in wagon and 
carriage making, and painting and re- 
"Ri pairing, Paton, is a native of Illinois, 
born in Winslow, Stephenson County, May 22, 
1851, his father, Elias II., being a native of 
the State of Massachusetts. He was brought 
up in a blacksmith and wagon shop, his 
father and grandfather following the same 
avocation. Mr. Hunt was united in marriage 
July 26, 1872, to Miss Martha Pratt, who 
was born at Edwardsbui-g, Michigan, Sep- 
tember 17, 1852, the eldest daughter of Mr. 
and Mrs. I. S. Pratt. To tliis union were 
born two children, who are named Abbie R. 
and Bertha P. In November, 1879, Mr. 
Hunt brought his lamily to Paton, Greene 
County, Iowa, where he has hj his reason- 
able prices and accommodating manners, es- 
tablished a good business, and has gained the 
respect of all who have business with him, 
by his fair and honorable dealings. Since 



coming to Paton he has served as president 
of the school board for one term. He is a 
member of the Odd Fellows' order. He also 
belongs to the Methodist Episcopal church. 
Mrs. Hunt dieil June 11, 1886, her death be- 
ing a source of universal regret throughout 
the community in which she resided. She 
was a consistent member of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, and an active Sabbath- 
school worker. 



.^^>^ 



fEBULON FERRIX, one of Greene 
C'ounty's wealthiest agriculturists, re- 
■^15^^ sides upon and owns the entire section 
27, of Bristol Township. He settled in liis 
present home in tiie autumn of 1870, and 
the improvements upon his 640 acres have 
all been made by himself. His residence is 
situated in the northwest corner of the sec- 
tion and commands a view of the whole. He 
devotes his farm entirely to stock-raising and 
feeding, in which lie has been successful. 
1\H-. Ferrin was born in Livingston County, 
New York, May 10, 1829. His father, Zeb- 
ulon Ferrin, was born in New Hampshire, 
and his mother, Lucy Belle Wilson, was born 
in Pennsylvania. They were married in 
Livingston County, it being the second mar- 
riage of each, and each having a family by 
the former marriage. At the age of ten 
years our subject was orphaned by the death 
of his parents, and he was left a poor boy to 
fio-lit the battles of life in his own behalf 
Thrown entirely upon his own resources, 
those sterling cpialities necessary to the high- 
est degree of manhood were developed in 
him; but the lessons of life thus earl)' 
learned were hard ones. Tliey were well 
learned, however, and never forgotten. From 
the day which left him an orphan, to this 
day of prosperity, he has never had a dollar 



•■i"Mi"l*' — ""» — "■" — "'■»*'""■ 



»^»»M»Mu»M* 



S54 



ntSTOkr OF GREENE COtJNTT. 



tliat was not earned by himself, the legiti- 
mate reward of his own industry. When 
twenty years of age lie left his native county 
and settled in Du Page County, Illinois, 
where lie lived several years, then removed 
lo Ijureau Coimty, same State, in 1863. 
What means he had earned he used in col- 
lecting a drove of horses, which he took to 
California, crossing the plains and moun- 
tains. His venture was a xery successful 
one and netted him a handsome profit. Re- 
turning home via the Isthmus and New 
York City, he stopped in Ashtabula County, 
( )liio, where he bought a farm, then pro- 
ceeded to Illinois. At the Adams House in 
Chicago, December 29, 1864, he was united 
in marriage with ^VEiss Martha S., daughter 
of Frederick and Yesta (Remmick) Boydan, 
who was born in New Hampshire, August 
11, 1838, and was also orphaned when quite 
young. ^Ir. and Mrs. Ferrin commenced 
house-keeping on the Ohio fiirm, and later 
removed to IJureau County, Illinois, where 
they lived until they came to Greene County. 
Their three children are all deceased. Viria 
Belle died at the age of two years; Charles 
Z. died at the age of one year, and Wilbur R. 
died at the age of live months. Politically 
Mr. Ferrin belongs to the (Ireenback party, 
and has served as township trustee. He is a 
member of the Ancient and Progressive or- 
der of Free Masons, .Morning Star Lodge, 
No. 159, Jefferson. 



;T-*rTlLLlA.M II. ADAMS resides on sec- 
, \ A/ tion 27, Grant Township, where he 
{"T^il^ settled in 1880, having purchased 
land of the AYalter Rhoads estate. The land 
was entered by Thomas Roberts, but was pur- 
chased by Mr. Ulioads in 1856. Mr. Adams 
came to (ireene (Dunty in the tall of 1855 



and settled in Washington Township. His 
fatliei', ^Villiam Adams, purchased a tract of 
land in Dallas Township, Dallas County, in 
1855, and also purchased a tract in AYashing- 
ton Township, Geeene County. He now 
lives in Dallas County. William H. settled 
upon the land which his father purchased in 
AVashington Township, which he improved, 
and lived there until he came to his present 
home. He was born in Jackson County, 
Ohio, in 1832, and when he was two and a 
half years of age, his parents removed to 
Champaign County, Illinois. In 1855 he 
came to Iowa, sto]>ping a few days with Mr. 
John Ganoe, in Dallas (!ounty. In the 
spring of 1855 his father came and made the 
purchase, before mentioned, and our subject 
has been a resident of the county since that 
time. He has 460 acres in his homestead 
farm, and also owns land in AYashington 
Township, owning over 800 acres in all. His 
parents were natives of Ohio, and had twelve 
children. Four sons and three daughters are 
now living. Charles and George AV^. live in 
AYashington Township. Our subject was 
married to Miss Elizabeth, daughter of AYal- 
ter and Mary Rhoads, who were natives of 
Maryland, and removed to Greene County, 
Ohio, when the}' were young, where they 
lived until their marriage, then removed to 
Champaign County, Illinois, about 1830. In 
1855 they came to Greene County, this State, 
and settled where Mr. Adams now lives, re- 
maining until their decease, the father dying 
in September. 1861, and the niother in 1871. 
They had ten children, eight of whom are 
still living. Mr. and Mrs. Adams have nine 
children — AYilliam W., Jolin W., Lewis A., 
AYarren, Mary A., Frances E., Minnie, A'iana 
and Jemima. Laura, the eldest daughter, 
tlied at the acre of five vears. Mr. Adams is 
a Ucpnblicaii in jiolitics, an<l cast bis tii-st 
i Presidential \ote for John C. l-'iemoiit, in 






if 






»aM„»i«i«« 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



2!55 



1856. Ilis next vote was cast for Alii'aliam 
Lincoln. Iliiiiself and wife are inenil)crs of 
the Methodist Episcopal church. 



T 'f fILLIAM S. PAUL, farmer, residing 
Wfmm} on the northwest quarter of section 

It^^I 15, Scranton Township, was born in 
\Anxi County, Iowa, July 26, 1843, a son of 
Jonathan and Dorcas Paul. His parents caine 
from Greene County, Pennsylvania, to Linn 
County, Iowa, in a very early day, heing 
among the first settlers of that county. They 
settled in Brown Township, that county, a 
few months before the birth of our subject. 
They are still living in Linn County, well 
advanced in years. They are the parents of 
seven children — Mrs. iTargaret Kramer, of 
Linn County; William S., whose name heads 
this sketch; George, of Linn County; Wilson, 
of Greene County, Pennsylvania; Mrs. Rachel 
M. Dean, of Linn County; Alexander II., 
still unmarried, living with his parents, and 
Jonathan T., also a resident of Linn County. 
AVilliam S. l^aul canie to Scranton Township 
in 1876, and in the spring of 1877 settled on 
his present farm, his residence being one 
mile southwest of Scranton City. His land 
when he settled on it was almost entirely un- 
improved, and he has improved and brought 
his farm under good cultivation, and the 
building improvements are his work, lie 
was married in Scranton Township, Decem- 
ber 20, 1877, to Miss Susan Campbell, who 
was born in Linn County, Iowa, December 
20, 1849. They have two children living — 
Rachel D. and Thomas T. Their first born, 
Myrtie E., died aged five years and five 
months. Mrs. Paul is a member of the Sec- 
ond Advent church. In politics Mr. Paul is 
identified with the Democratic party. He is 
a member of Scranton Lodge, No.. 357, I. O. 



[ 0. F., and also belongs to the Ancient Order 
of United Workmen at Scranton. As a citi- 
zen and neighbor Mr. Paul ranks high with 
all who know him, having by his fair and 
honoral)le dealings gained the confidence and 
esteem of the entire community. 



S. SCIIERMERIIORN, M. D., has 
w/\\p ^'cen a member of the medical fra- 
iTSjjfeS ® ternity of Greene County since July, 
1870, at which time he located at Jefi'erson. 
He was born in the town of Deerfield, Oneida 
County, New York, in 1833. He began the 
study of medicine in 1850, at Frankfort, Her- 
kimer County, and graduated at the Albany' 
Medical College in 1853. The following year 
he settled in Lodi, Columbia County, Wis- 
consin, where he was engaged in the practice 
of his profession for a period of twelve years, 
save the time spent in tlie army. In the fall 
of 1864 he was commissioned as Assistant 
Surgeon of the Sixteenth Wisconsin, and 
served through the Atlanta campaign and in 
the march to the sea. In the fall of 1867 he 
went to Portage City and engaged in the 
revenue service as assistant assessor and col- 
lector under General Hammond, resigning in 
July, 1870. Politically the doctor has always 
aliiliated witli the Republican party, and while 
a resident of Wisconsin was an ardent worker 
in the interests of that party, and in 1866 
represented his district in the Legislature. 
He is a member of the Iowa State Medical 
Society, and of the American Medical Asso- 
ciation. He is a prominent Mason and 
a Knight Templar, a member of the Em- 
mans Commandery at Jefi'erson. He was 
married in the State of New York to Jane 
Looinis, who was born in Frankfm-t, Herki- 
mer County. They liave foui' children — 
llattie, wife of L. L. Smullin, agent of the 



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'^ri^^:^' ^' t:^ <« ^ » 






^56 



IltSTORT OF GREENE COUNTY. 



Northwestern Railroad Company at Jeffer- 
son; George, now a student at the Agricult- 
ural College at Aines, and two younger 
daughters, (irace and Mary. The two eldest 
were born in Wisconsin, and the two youngest 
in Jefferson. Tiie doctor and his wife are 
Hienibers of the l'resl)yterian church, of which 
he has been an elder for thirty 3'ears. Dr. 
Schermerhorn's parents, Evart L. and Marga- 
ret (Smith) Schermerhorn, were natives of 
New Vork. lie was only three years old 
when his father died, and his mother died 
when he was thirteen years old. lie was 
thus left an orphan in early life. He acquired 
sufficient education to enable him to teach, 
and in that way he defrayed the expenses of 
his medical education. 



I McFarlin, of Clinton County, Iowa. Of tlie" 
j three children born to this union only two 
' are liviiio', nameil Ethel anil Mabel. 



"^•"•f""-^"^" 



f'KANCIS J. HUGHES, one of the well- 
to-do farmers of Greene County, resid- 
ing on section 12, Junction Township, 
was born in Lanark County, Upper Canada, 
March 1, 1S54, a son of Francis Hughes, 
who is now a resident of Junction Township. 
Francis J., our suljject, was reared a farmer, 
and has always followed that avocation, and 
in his boyhood received the benefits of the 
common school. He caine with his parents 
to the United States in 1865, locating in 
Kane County, Illinois, and in ^Farch, 1869, 
came to Greene County, Iowa. He was en- 
gaged in working on the Des Moines & Eort 
Dodge llailroad part of two summei's during 
the construction of that line. He now 
devotes his entire attention to farmiuir and 
stock-raising, and liy his persevering industry 
and good management he has accumulated a 
line property, his farm containing 200 acres 
of choice land. Mr. Hughes was united in 
marriage September 9, 1880, to Miss Nettie 
I!. Mrl'arlin. a daughter of .\braliam Y. 



.;m S . ? ■»•>> 



■^■OllERT WOOD settled in Greene County 
|r|j in 1868, first locating in Jackson Town- 
'"^lill ship, where he bought 125 acres of land 
upon which some improvements had been 
made. A little breaking had been done and 
a shanty had been built. He removed to his 
present home on section 33, Bristol Township, 
where he has a good farm and a comfortable 
house. Mr. Wood was born in Rutland 
County, Vermont, June 20, 1830, son of 
Samuel S. and Eliza (Niles) AVood, who were 
also natives of Vermont. He was reared in 
St. Lawrence County, New York, where his 
father died. His mother afterward lived 
with a married daughter, and died in the 
State of New Hampshire. Mr. Wood was 
married to Miss Samantha J. Rriggs, 
dauo-hter of Caleb and Alsina Briiwg who 
was born in Vermont, June 30, 1831. Her 
parents removed to Franklin County, New 
York, in 1834. In August, 1862, Mr. and 
Mrs. Wood came West, and made a home in 
the township of Dane, Dane County, Wis- 
consin, remaining there until they came to 
Greene Count}-, where they have lived over 
nineteen years. They have live children — 
Edmund S. and Elmer A. are general mer- 
chants at Jefferson, under the tirm name of 
E. S. Wood; Fidelia D. is the wife of II. C. 
Parker, of Howard County, Nebraska; Elias 
R. is a general merchant at Lohrvillc, Cal- 
houn Count}', this State; Lillie May married 
William Kinsman, of Bristol Township. Mr. 
Wood has served as trustee, road supervisor, 
and as school direcor. Few men have taken 
a more active part in jiromotiiig the efticicncy 
of the common schools. His own childit'ii 



»i2SM5aHSHHi 



•Jii^imMmSmmmmmMmSM 



^aSii^mS 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



a57 



have had excellent educational advantages, 
and all except Elmer have been teachers. 
Mr. and Mrs. Wood are members of the 
Baptist church, and are practical Christians. 
Mr. Wood is a member of the Knights of 
Pythias, Garfield Lodge, No. 62, at Jefferson. 



to ' » e) 



HOWARD P. FRENCH was born in 
Onondaga County, New York, Septem- 
"^i ber 9, 1838, a son of E. Y. P. French. 
lie received a good education in the schools 
of his native county. He came West in 
1855, and lived in Grundy County, Illinois, 
eleven years, coming to Iowa in 1866. He 
lived in Muscatine County until 1880, when 
he removed to Greene County and located on 
section 30, Paton Township, where he owns 
a small farm. He has been employed as 
teacher in public schools much of the time 
since 1856; was principal of tlie public 
schools of West Liberty, Muscatine County, 
from 1868 to 1872, and is now (1887) teach- 
ing at Paton. Mr. French was married .lune 
26, 1861, to Eleanor Iv. McFarlane, a native 
of Trumbull County, Ohio. They have had 
five children, four of whom are living — 
Eugenie, Hettie, Clark and Mary. Mr. 
French is a member of the Masonic fraternity, 
and is now worshipful master of Gem 
Lodge, No. 429, Paton. 



fRANCIS HUGHES, one of the old pio- 
neers of Greene County, residing on 



section 12, Junction Township, is a 
native of Ontario, Canada, born in Lanark 
County, December 25, 1825. His father, 
Owen Hughes, was born in County Cavan, 
Ireland, coming to America when quite 
young, and lived in Canada till his death. 



Francis Hughes received such education as 
the log cabin subscription schools of a new 
country afforded. He was mai-ried July 24, 
1848, to Miss Rebecca Avery, a daugliter of 
Captain Benjamin Avery. Of the thirteen 
children born to this union, eight are still 
living— John, Mary, Frank, Joseph, Rebecca, 
Carrie, Rose and Ella. Mr. Hughes came to 
Augustus, Iowa, in 1859, and in 1860 re- 
turned to Canada. In 1865 he settled in 
Kane County, Illinois, where he lived till 
1869, when he came to Greene County, Iowa, 
and for a time was employed on the Des 
Moines & Fort Dodge Railroad. He settled 
on his present farm in the spring of 1871, 
then a tract of wild prairie, but by industry 
and persevering energy he has made good 
improvements on his farm, which now con- 
tains 160 acres of well-cultivated land. In 
his religious faith Mr. Hughes is a Catholic. 



^^EV. S. E. JENKS resides on sec- 
% tion 29, Kendrick Township, and has 
"v^\ been identified witli the interests of 
Greene County for many years. He was 
born in Caiiandaigua, New York, Se]itember 
5, 1818, son of Clark and Elizabeth Jenks, 
who were the parents of six children, our 
subject being the lifth child. When he was 
three years of age his lather removed to 
Geauga County, Ohio, where they lived four 
years, thence to Cuyahoga County, where he 
resided seventeen years. He was reared a 
farmer and received a common-school educa- 
tion, also studied at home. When twenty 
years of age he removed to Stephenson 
County, Illinois, and lived there four years. 
He was married May 31, 1845, to Miss Eliza- 
beth Ann Carney, a native of Kentucky, and 
daughter of Andrew and Martha Carney. 
Soon after his marriage he removed to Greene 






■^ ■'"■"■"■"'"''■"■■^»"''»'*=^'*ii 






258 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 






County, Wisconsin, where he lived until 1868, 
thence to Benton County, Iowa, for one year, 
thence to this county, where he has since re- 
sided. He purchased IGO acres of wild land 
witli nil iiii{)rovenicnts except a rude board 
sliantv. The -icnks fai'in is now known as 
one of the best farms in the township, lie 
has a good story-and-a-half residence, sur- 
rounded with shade trees, a native grove, 
(jrchard, and comfortable farm buildings for 
stock and grain. Mr. and Mrs. Jenks have 
nine children — Sarah Jane, Daniel Jefferson, 
Albert Ensign, Andrew Clark, Edmond Riley, 
Martha Zuba, Emery Lincoln, Harriet Au- 
gusta and Lillian Josephine. Mr. Jenks cast 
his first vote for General Harrison, and has 
since voted on that line of politics. He is a 
consistent member of the United Brethren 
church, and served as an ordained minister 
for twenty-five years. He has always been 
an earnest worker in the cause of his Master. 



ir?vENHY INFIELD, farmer, section 10, 

at-,' ^ _ ' 

c'iW])] Junction Township, Greene Coutity, 
"^M was burn in Coshocton County, Ohio, 
November 24, 1840, a son of John Infield, of 
Owen County, Indiana, who was a native of 
Bcfiford County, Penns^'lvania. Our subject 
was reared a farmer, and received in his 
youth the benefits of the common schools, 
where he obtained a fair education. He was 
a soldier in the war of the Rebellion, serviuir 
in Company I, Ninety-seventh Ohio Infantry, 
almost tlu-ee years. He participated in the 
battles of I'erryville, Stone River, Missionary 
Ridge, Charleston, Tennessee, Rocky Face 
Jiidge, Resaca, Adairsville, Dallas, ivenesaw 
Mountain, Peachtree Creek, Atlanta, Jones- 
boro, Luvejoy Station, Franklin and Nash- 
ville, Tennessee, receiving his discharge at 
Nashville, June 10, 18C5. During the war 



his regiment lost in killed and wounded 534 
men. In the fall of 1865 Mr. Intield settled 
in McLean County, Illinois, where he worked 
as a farm laborer till April, 1870, when he 
came to Greene County, Iowa, and purchased 
land. He located in Greene County perma- 
nently June 1, 1871, since which he has 
lived on his present farm, where he owns 
eighty acres of well cultivated land. Decem- 
ber 1, 1871, he was married to Miss Josephine 
Kinsey, a daughter of Ulysses B. Kinsey, of 
Junction Township. They are the parents of 
two children whose names are Minnie and 
Ida. In politics Mr. Infield casts his suffrage 
with the Republican party. He is a member 
of the Grand Army of the Republic, and of 
the Odd Fellows, belonging to the latter order 
for eighteen years. 



.^^V-LFRED ALLISON, one of Greene 
County's pioneers, resides on section 



1 



'^^ 15, Cedar Township, where he owns 
280 acres of valuable land. He was born in 
Yorkshire, England, in September, 1829, the 
eldest of five children of Job and Anna 
(Coates) Allison. His parents left England 
in 1830, sailing from Liverpool and landing in 
Quebec in May. In 1832 they returned to 
England. He was reared in his native coun- 
try, and was there married October 22, 1850, 
to Miss Ann Arnett, who was born in York- 
shire, in May, 1827, a daughter of Thomas 
and Hester Arnett. They started immedi- 
ately for America, sailing from Liverpool, 
October 25, 1850. They landed at New 
Orleans, December 16, and from there went 
to Mobile, Alabama, where they lived until 
June, 1851, when they moved to Rock Coun- 
ty, Wisconsin, where they lived fourteen 
years. In 1854 he bought eighty acres of 
land, wliich he improved. In September, 



1865, they moved to Greene County, Iowa, 
and settled near where they now live on a 
tract of unimproved land. His tirst home in 
the county was a log cabin, and at the time 
of his settlement there were but six families 
in the township. He now has a good house, 
and other farm buildings, an orchard of bear- 
ing trees, and all his surroundings betoken 
the thrifty and energetic fanner. From 
1877 until 1882 he was postmaster at Cedar 
Creek, the postoffice being at his house. In 
politics Mr. Allison is a Republican. He and 
his wife are members of tlie Episcopal church. 
They have three children — John AV.; Eliza 
A., wife of (t. II. Waters, and Mary J ., wife of 
William J. Bryant. 



J^EROY BURK, farmer and stock-raiser, 
Wffi residing on section 32, Washington 
^^ Township, Greene County, and a teacher 
in district Ko. 4 of the same township, was 
born in McDonough County, Illinois, Febru- 
ary 22, 1855, his parents, Amos S. and Catha- 
rine A. Allen, being natives of the State of 
New York. They had a family of fourteen 
children, seven sons and seven daughters, 
nine still living — James A.. Joshua, Archi- 
bald, Albro A., Emeline, Fernando C, Leroy, 
Sarah J. and Samantha. Selina, Goldsbrow 
B., Caroline, Mary L. and Celestia P. are de- 
ceased. The father is deceased, and the 
mother still lives on the old homestead in 
Washington Township with our subject, aged 
seventy-two years. Leroy Burk, whose name 
heads this sketch, was brought to Greene 
County, Iowa, in 1856, in which year his 
parents settled on the farm which is now 
owned and occupied by him, and here he grew 
to manhood, being reared to agricultural pur- 
suits. He received fair educational advantages, 
attendiuir the Normal schools of Greene Coun- 



ty, and at the age of eighteen years began his 
career as a teacher, and since that time has 
made teaching his principal occupation, be- 
coming well and favorably known as a 
popular instructor. He is quite a successful 
agriculturist, and owns eighty acres of choice 
land where he resides. He is a member of 
the Methodist Episcopal church. 



■^%'>^r 



§EORGE ROBINSON, one of Greene 
County's pioneers, and an enterprising 
■^sV'- farmer and stock-raiser of Franklin 
Township, is a native of New York, born 
April 26, 1840, his parents, Ezekiel and 
Catherine (Bushman) Robinson, being natives 
of the same State. They subsequently be- 
came residents of Carroll County, Illinois. 
George Robinson was reared to the avocation 
of a farmer, remaining with his parents till 
attaining the age of twentj'-six years. Jan- 
uary 1, 1866, he Avas married to Miss Almira, 
daughter of E. and Julia (Jones) Townsend, 
natives of New York, of whom the mother is 
deceased. Mr. Townsend is now living in 
Michigan. Mrs. Robinson is a native of 
New York, the date of her birth being Feb- 
ruary 21, 1841. Four children have been 
born to Mr. and Mrs. Robinson — Agnes, 
born in New York, February 23, 1867; Edith, 
born in Greene County, Iowa, January 3, 
1871; iJelbert J., born in Greene County, 
July 8, 1875, and died January 1, 1876, and 
Herbert AV., also a native of Greene County, 
born AEarch 8, 1878. Mr. Robinson came 
to Greene County, Iowa, March 14, 1866, and 
has since followed agricultural jjursuits on 
his farm on section 10, Franklin Township, 
where he has forty acres of well improved 
and highly cultivated land. Beside his home 
farm he also owns forty acres on section 11 of 
the same township, his property having been 



J 



■ -■■ ■ - ■ - ■ -■- ■ -■- ' ■- ■ ■-■-■-■'-. ■ ■-■■ ■ -■-■-■- ■-■-■-■-■-■-■-■=^g»=« 



260 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



acquired by persevering industry and good 
management. In politics Sir. Ilobinson 
casts liis sufiVagc with tlie Jiepublican party. 
lie is a member of the Kiiiglits of I'ythias, 
beluiiiriii"- to (4artield Lodge, Jefferson. Post- 



office, Co< 



>1KM-, 



Iowa. 






▼WIIKKON A. MILLETT resides on sec- 
i^ijl ,H- tion 17, Grant Townsliij). The land 
^ was purchased by his lather, Alexander 
JMillett, Aijril 1, 1886, of whom he Ijought 
it the following ()ctol)er. Jle was born in 
Jjcnawee County, Michigan, in 1814r, and was 
reared to the occupation of a farmer. He 
was married in Michigan, in 1870, to Miss 
Mary A- Simmonds, also a native of that 
State. He came to Greene County, Iowa, 
and settled four miles froiti, Jefferson, in 
Grant Township, where he lived until 1885. 
He then removed to his present home. He 
has eighty acres of land in his home farm, 
and also twenty acres of timber land else- 
where in the township. Mr. and ]\Irs. Mil- 
lett have four children — Erwin, Alma. Her- 
bert and .\niy. ilrs. Millett was born in 
Lenawee County, Michigan, in December, 
1849. Her parents were Ste])hen and Ann 
iSininionds, natives of England. Her father 
died in Lenawee County, in 1886, and her 
mother is still living. Her parents had seven 
children, all of whom are living, but none 
are resident-s of Iowa except herself. Mr. 
Millett is the only one of his father's family 
residing in Greene County. The following 
is a brief sketch of the life and death of 
Alexandci- Millett. the father of our subject: 
Mr. Alexander .Millett died at his residence, 
near Jefferson, April 7, 188(), at the ripe age 
of seventy-three years, eight months and ten 
day.s. He was born in Wayne County, New 
York, and remained there until the year 1838, 



when he came to Michigan, purchased a 
farm, built a residence, then returned to his 
native town and married Miss Jlannah lloag 
and settled upon his fai-m in Michigan. In 
1870 he came to Greene County, and located 
upon a farm four miles south of Jefferson. 
His wife died June 8, 1872, leaving five boys 
and one girl — Theron A., Jonathan H., Ed- 
mund P., who died October 11, 1873, Mar- 
tin H., Ilosetta V., wife of Robert Clopton, 
of Adrian, Nebraska, and Erank. In 1874 
Mr. Millett was married to Mary Blyler, who 
was a very kind and affectionate wife. She 
died Eebrnai'y 15, 1878. In 1879 he mar- 
ried Lillie E. Hall, who has been a kind wife 
and an indulgent mother, doing everything 
to make his last days pleasant and tree from 
care. Two small children were left with the 
mother, to whom the prudent plannings of 
the deceased secured an ample competency. 
For sixteen years he was one of the leading 
farmers of Greene County, and he died re- 
spected by all who knew him. As a business 
num, he was upright aiul honest in his deal- 
ings ; as a friend and neighbor he was thought- 
ful and accommodating, and as a citizen, he 
enjoyed the highest respect of the whole 
community. As a husband and father he 
was kind and affectionate, and as a business 
man, was very successful. 



:-wf*^v- 



-►«g*vi 



^^ALVIX GOOI)lUCII,a successful ag- 
"ij|ic. riculturist of Scranton Township, re- 
tji, 'i siding on section 17, was born in Mont- 
gomery County, New York, the date of his 
birth being October 18, 1847. He is a son of 
Ebenezerand Elizabeth (Toodrich, and brother 
of Washington Goodrich, of Scranton Town- 
ship. He was reared in his native county, 
remaining there till nineteen years -of age, 
when he went with his fathei'"s family to 



,„.J 



■■"■■■■ 



r 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



Barry County, Michigan, living there two 
years. On attaining his majority he went to 
Kendall County, Illinois, and made his home 
in Kendall and Lee Counties, that State, un- 
til he came to Greene County, Iowa, in 1881, 
when he settled on his pi'esent farm. While 
living in Lee County he returned to Barry 
County, Michigan, for his bride. Miss Grace 
E. Chapman, a daughter of Buluff Chapman, 
whom he married September 8, 1872. After 
their marriage they made their home in Ken- 
dall County, Illinois, for a time. They are 
the parents of six children; their names 
given in order of their birth being as follows 
—Floyd C, Zaidie V., Orlow L.,Verdie li., 
Harris V. and Ivan P. His farm consists of 
120 acres of choice land, eighty acres of 
which had been broken by the former owner. 
The present residence and commodious farm 
buildings have been erected by Mr. Good- 
rich, and he has brought his land under a good 
state of cultivation. In his political views 
Mr. Goodrich is independent, voting for men, 
not party. He is a member of the Farmers' 
Alliance, and believes that farmers should be 
prepared to act together, and to act more in- 
telligently, in order to protect their own in- 
terests, the greatest in the Nation. He also 
believes that until they make themselves felt 
as a political power against monopolists in 
land and other large capitalized interests that 
the evils now endured cannot be remedied. 



;;^ LIVER J. WHITE, one of the pioneers 
liTif] of Greene County, was born in the 
••i-^^- town of Sandisfield, Berkshire County, 
Massachusetts, in 1830. At the age of sev- 
enteen years he ran away from home and 
went to New York, where he tried to enlist 
for the Mexican war, but being too young 
and too small was rejected, and therefore he 

32 



shipped aboard of the whaling vessel Mary 
at the port of Nantucket, Massachusetts. 
The first landing the vessel made was at the 
Island of Juan Fernandez, in the Pacific 
Ocean, an island made famous by being the 
residence of Alexander Selkirk. The vessel 
was five and a half months in reaching that 
island. The second landing made was at 
Callao, near Lima, Peru. At Peru he ran 
away from the vessel, but remained at Callao 
about three months. He worked at shoe- 
making a part of the time, a trade he had 
already worked at for some time previous, 
and a portion of the time he was in the em- 
ployment of vessels in the harbor. When 
he left Callao he shipped aboard an Ameri- 
can whaler called The Leonidas. With 
this vessel he cruised around tiie coast ot 
South America, spending about tliree weeks 
on Albemarle Island, one of the Galapa- 
gos cluster, then cruised oft' the coast ot 
California, and down the coast of Peru, and 
put into Arica. Here the crew mutinied. 
After the difficulty was settled the vessel 
resumed its cruising, visiting Easter Island, 
at that time inhabited by cannibals; thence 
to Juan Fernandez and other islands; thence 
to Valparaiso, Chili, where he again ran 
away, remaining at the latter place about 
three weeks. He left the vessel because he 
felt that he had seen enough of the world for 
one trip, and resolved to leave the first oppor- 
tunity. The whaling vessel Uncas lay in 
the harbor about to return to New Bedford, 
but the crew being full he could not ship as 
a hand, and had no money to pay his passage 
home. So he stowed himself away in the 
''hold," only one sailor being cognizant of 
his presence on board. When he made his 
appearance on deck, after the vessel was well 
under way, the captain was very angry, or at 
least pretended to be, and threatened to put 
him aboard the first vessel thev niet and 



«*.r^'^r»/ 



264 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



send him back, or else put him oft' on some 
island; hut Mr. AVliite soon gained bis favor 
by taking a band at the watch, and in time 
be rciicbed JS'ew Bedford. lie remained at 
bonie about two rears, then took passage on 
board a merchant vessel bouud for Australia, 
and was 154 days in reaching his destination, 
stopjiing at Pernambuco, in Brazil. His 
next landing was at Cape Town, on the 
southern extremity of the coast of Africa, 
where the vessel remained three weeks taking 
on supplies. Their next landing was at 
Melbourne, Australia. Soon after reaching 
that point Mr. AYliite joined a party for the 
mines, 125 miles in the country. The cost 
of living at Bendigo, the mining town, was 
too great for his resources, and he returned 
to Melbourne and commenced workinjr at his 
trade, lie is said to be the first journeyman 
}>eg shoemaker tiiat ever worked in Australia. 
He worked there about eight months, then 
returned to the mines, where he remained 
two years, then went back to Melbourne. 
At this time the excitement attending the 
finding of gold in large quantities in the 
Amazon regions of South xYmerica reached 
Australia, and Mr. White decided to join the 
" rush " for that country. He accordingly 
shipped aboard a merchant vessel for (.'allao. 
On the voyage from Australia to Callao he 
was robbed of all he had made in xVustralia, 
which was no small sum. This left him 
poor, Imt did not discourage him from tryino- 
to make more. lie found that the gold 
re])ort was gotten up by vessel owners to 
catch the passenger traffic across the ocean, 
and consequently he was again obliged to 
resort to his trade as a means of supjiort. 
He was soon attacked with that dread scourge, 
yellow fever. He became reduced very low, 
but finally recovered, and soon afterward took ' 
pas-age on board a British steamer, went to 
I'anama, crossed the isthmus; thence to New ' 



York, and again safe at home. His intention 
was to return to Peru, but his friends pre- 
vailed u])on him to abandon the project, and 
he accordingly went to work at his trade in 
North Adams, Massachusetts. Two years 
later, in 1856, he came to Linn County, Iowa, 
having a sister living in Marion in that 
county. In the fall of 1857 he came to Jef- 
ferson, where he has worked at bis trade most 
of the time since. He was the first shoe- 
maker, and the first boot and shoe merchant 
in Jefl:erson. lu 1860 he purchased eighty 
acres of land in Hardin Township, and later 
added a fractional eighty to his first purchase, 
which he improved and still owns. He has 
devoted much attention to fruit-growing, 
making a specialty of apples. He has about 
eighty varieties of crab apples, and has made 
a great success, and has also been successful 
in getting a fine flowing artesian well in his 
orchard. lie was married in Jeft'erson in 
ISGl to Miss Sarah Ann Stiles, a native of 
Greene County, Ohio. She came to Iowa 
with her father. Job Stiles, now a resident of 
Jeft'erson. Mr. and Mrs. AVhite have five 
children now living — Ed. Gi'ant, Fred C, 
Elsie E., Osa 11. and Ilarley A. Their first 
child, Volney, died at the age of thirteen 
months. Mr. White's father, Jedediah White, 
was a native of Litchfield, Connecticut. He 
is a direct descendant of Peregrine White, 
the first child born in the Plymouth Colony. 
O. J. White's early education was under the 
auspices of the Calvinistic dogmas, his father 
belonging to the Baptist school (close com- 
munion), and very devoted to the observance 
of the rules and rites of the church, and as a 
matter of duty the father endeavored to 
impress on the mind of his son the strict 
observance of the same. But the develop- 
ment of the brain in the i-egion of veneration 
and surrounding faculties created in the child 
a spirit of inquiry, which led him gradually 



into the belief that man was a creature gov- 
erned by natural law, came into the world by 
the laws of nature, and goes out of the world 
in the same manner. And all the allegiance 
he owes to a Supreme Being is to obey as 
near as possible the laws of nature, ignoring 
entirely the idea of a personal God. Taking 
the broad ground of Pantheism, believing 
that religion is true reverence of nature, and 
worship is obedience to or of natural law. 



-4-^^'>- 



l^jmAESHALL B. McDUFFIE, one of 
I / \ '^'"^ leading business men of Jeffer- 
■^tt-, .-~ son, has been a resident of this town 
since 1865. He was born in Schoharie 
County, NewYork, in 1842, and removed when 
a child to St. Helena, Wyoming County. He 
was educated at the Kunda Literary Institute 
in Livingston County, and soon after engaged 
in teaching. In 1865 he settled in Jefferson, 
and was for a time principal of a school at 
this place; but receiving the appointment of 
postmaster, he resigned before the close of 
his first term and entered upon the duties of 
his ofhce. He held the office of postmaster 
two years, and during that time served as 
county superintendent of schools. He was 
county auditor two terms, or four years, and 
was afterward engaged in the druir business 
until the organization of the City Bank of 
Jefterson in 1876, of which he was one of 
the founders. He was cashier of this bank 
until 1886, when he resigned and was suc- 
ceeded by Mr. Hughes. Tiie success to 
which this institution has attained is due in 
a large degree to the business ability of Mr. 
McDuffie. He is a brother of I. J. McDuffie, 
who was long a prominent member of the 
Greene County bar, but is now a resident of 
Le Mars, Iowa. In 1876 Mr. McDuffie re- 
turned to Nunda, New York, and was united 



in marriage with Miss Sophia B. Warner, a 
daughter of L. B. Warner, a prominent mer- 
chant of that town. Mr. and Mrs. McDuffie 
have five sons — Duncan, Lewis, Ilobert, 
Charles and William. 



ENRY W. DICKINSON is the h 



Ijljl opathic physician and s 
%iJ(| Jefferson. He was born 



iioma;- 
irgeon of 

o 

in Ithica, 

Tompkins County, New York. In 1857, 
while an infant, his parents removed to 
Schenectady County, New York. He re- 
ceived his literary education at Union Col- 
lege, where he was a student for two years. 
When he was quite young his father died, 
and his mother died when he was nineteen 
years of age. At the age of twenty years 
he went to Chicago, and was for one year 
assistant editor of the Railway Reviev), pub- 
lished in that city. He began the study of 
medicine in the fall of 1878, with Dr. Har- 
1am P. Cole, professor of anatomy in the 
Hahnemann Medical College, of that city, 
and graduated at that institution in 1881. 
During the last two years of his college 
course he was demonstrator of anatomy. 
Pie began practice at Clarksville, Butler 
County, Iowa, where he was local surgeon 
for the Burlington, Cedar Kapids & North- 
ern Railroad for two years, and was also 
county phj'sician of Butler County one 
year. While at Clarksville he was associated 
with A. F. Tichenor, but owing to ill health 
he sold out his practice to his partner, with a 
view of going to California. Having occasion 
to stop in northern Missouri, he found him- 
self improving in health, and believing tiiat 
Jefferson afforded a good location for a 
homoeopathic physician, he decided to locate 
here. He is a thoroughly educated physi- 
cian, and has a large and lucrative practice. 



.-Ji 



rsm^m^m^m^mramitimninriiwismii* 



•."m^^* 






2rt6 



HISTOItr OF GREENE COUNTY. 



lie has an enviable reputation both as a 
pliysician and a citizen. Dr. Dickinson was 
niarried in Clarksville to Miss Anna Kilts, a 
(laiigliter of Christopher Kilts, of that town. 



^ E. J]EKliY, farmer, section 27, Green- 
''M\ brier Township, was born in Davis 
^'® Count}', Iowa, April 23, 1846, son of 
James and Nancy (McGonnell) Berry, who 
reared a family of eight children — Thomas, 
J. E., John, Samuel, Ephraim, Margaret, 
William and Mary E. Mr. Berry was reared 
on a farm, and educated in the common 
schools. He learned the carpenter's trade, 
and has followed it many years. He was 
married March 9, 1873, to Lucinda Breeding, 
daughter of Alexander Breeding, a promi- 
nent pioncei- of Davis County. In 1879 he 
came to this county, locating upon his 
present farm, M'hich was then in its wild 
state. lie has since made good improve- 
ments, has a comfortable house and a good 
barn and orchard. His farm consists of 120 
acres of as good land as can be found in 
Greene County. Mr. and Mrs. Berry have 
two sons — William Guy, born May 1, 1876, 
antl Thomas G., born June 20, 1881. Politi- 
cally Mr. Berry is a Kepublican. He takes 
an active interest in educational matters, and 
in the improvement of Greene County. 

«<^>i | » ; h ; » | m"^ 




ig 



ship, is a native of Allegany County, New 
^'ork, born May 17, 1837, a son of Zial and 
Caroline (Van ]>uren) AVight, his maternal 
irrandfatlier beinjf a cousin of President A'an 
Ibiren. His parents hail a fan iil_y of eight 



children, he being the seventh child. When 
four years of age he was taken by his parents 
to Chautauqua County, New York, where he 
remained till twenty years old, his early life 
Ijcing spent in assisting with the work of the 
farm and attending the common schools. At 
the age of twenty he removed to Genesee 
County, New York, where he resided two 
years. At the age of twenty- two years he 
was married to Miss Clara White, a daughter 
of Stephen and Hannah (Felt) White, and to 
this union have been born three children — 
Louisa, Samuel and Mary. In 1860 Mr. 
AVight settled in Carroll County, Illinois, and 
in 1865 came to Greene County, Iowa, when 
he located in Franklin Township, settling on 
his present farm in 1881, which was then in 
its natural state. He has in his farm eighty 
acres which he has improved and brought 
under cultivation, making it one of the best 
farms in the township. In his political 
views Mr. AVight is a Democrat. He has 
l)een a member of the school board, has 
sei'ved as township trustee and assessor, hold- 
ing the latter ofhce six terms, serving in all 
with credit to himself and to the best in- 
terests of his township. 



|^[AMUEL AVIIITESIDE, farmer and 
f^\^; stock raiser, section 18, Junction Town- 
^W' ship, Greene County, is a native of 
Toronto, Canada, born October 80, 1840, a 
son of AVilliam AA^hiteside, who was also born 
in Canada, now deceased. The grandfather 
AVhiteside,was at one time very wealthy, and 
owned the greater part of the heart of the 
city of Toronto. Our subject was brought to 
Galena, Illinois, when a child, and in 1847 
•to Burlington, Iowa, where he lived with his 
parents till i860. He then went to Pike's 
Peak, where he owned an interest in a saw- 



rM»Ba „iBaWnlBialll,aMBIn.i: .! J»JinB»S»ii1«iW«»ni1»»-»»« Ug£;»a 



BtOORAPHICAL SKETGBES. 



267 



mill in wliich he worked tor one year. He 
remained at Pike's Peak till he enlisted in 
the late war, September 27, 1S61, when he 
was assigned to Company L, First Colorado 
Cavalry, and for a time was fighting against 
the Indians, and participated in the l)att!es 
of Smoky Hill, Sand Creek, Apachee Can- 
3'on, and others of minor importance. At 
Apaclicc Canyon, twenty-live miles east of 
Santa Fe, New Mexico, they were met by 
tlie Texans, and, after a bloody battle, drove 
them back into Texas, thereby saving Fort 
Union, where tliere was a large amonnt of 
militarv stores. His regiment was on guard 
duty most of tiie time in the Soutliwest. He 
was discharged November IS, 18G5. After 
the war Mr. Whiteside located in DesMoines 
County, Iowa, where he resided till 1880. 
He was married October 7, 1873, to Miss 
Sarah Follett, a daughter of Daniel Follett, 
of Marion County, Iowa, and to theni liave 
been born five children — George, William, 
Samuel, Clarence and Kate. In 1880 Mr. 
Whiteside removed with his family to Greene 
County, Iowa, when he settled on his present 
farm in Junction Township, where he owns 
160 acres of well-cultivated land, and during 
his short residence in the county has gained 
the confidence and respect of all who know 
liim. 



~^'V"'^*^'^'"'~ 

|m|UGUST F. KRAUSE,postoftice Bayard. 
1?^^ Iowa, engaged in farming and stock- 
^p^ raising on section 28, Willow Township, 
was born in Prussia, Germany, September 
29, 1852, a son of Carl and Wilhelmine (Mar- 
tain) Krause, who were also natives of Ger- 
many. Tiiey were the parents of seven 
children, our subject being the fifth child. 
When but a child he was brought by his 
parents to the United States, they first locat- 
ing in Dane County, Wisconsin, in July, 



1856, where the father died in Octol)er, 1865. 
August F. was reai-ed to agi-icultural pursuits, 
receiving his education in the country school 
of his neigliborhood. He remained on the 
home farm in Dane County until 1876, 
helping to support his mother and her family. 
He then immigrated to Greene County, Iowa, 
when he settled on part of his present farm 
in Willow Township. His first purchase 
here was forty acres of wild prairie land, 
which lie cleared and improved, and by his 
persevering industry and excellent manage- 
ment he has succeeded well in his farming 
operations, and has been enabled to add to 
his original purchase till lie now has 200 
acres of as good land as can be found in 
Greene County. He makes a specialtj" of 
raising graded Clydesdale horses and Hol- 
stein cattle. He was united in marriage 
November 15, 1878, to Miss Mary I lagan, 
who was born in Warren Countj', Iowa, 
August 12, 1862. To this union was born 
one daughter — Lena R., August 19, 1879, 
who died August 23 following. Tlie motlier 
died August 30, 1879, and February 26, 
1882, Mr. Krause was mai'ried to Miss lielle 
Shaw, a native of Iowa, born August 29, 
1864, a daughter of John B. and Amanda 
(Siiarts) Shaw, who were natives of Indiana. 
They are the parents of three sons — Earle 
A., born September 1, 1883; John Clarence, 
born in October, 1885; and an infant yet 
unnamed. Botli Mr. and Mrs. Krause are 
members of the English Evangelical Asso- 
ciation. In politics lie alfiliates witli the 
Ke[>uiilican jiarty. 

-^'^^^i^*^^ 



W. NEARV, engaged in farming and 
stock raising on section 34, Hardin 
*"\|o> Township, where he owns 160 acres of 
highly cultivated land, is a native of Nova 



208 



■■-■-'■-■-■-■-■-■s p* STM««n-wi.-»ji».-j«.-j< 



BISTORY OF GREENE COUNT t. 



Scotia, born February 14, 1840, and is a son 
of Henry and Mary Neary. He was reared 

to ai;ririiltunil jnirsuits, which occupation he 
lias folh)\ved through lit'c with the exception 
of tln-ee years wlien he was engaged in driv- 
ing a stage from Jefferson, Iowa, to Panora, 
Iowa. lie remained in Nova Scotia until 
1N(J8, wlien lie sailed for Boston, remaining 
in tliat city about three years when he immi- 
grated to Greene County, Iowa, and settled 
nil the farm where he has since made his 
home. Mr. Neary was united in marriage 
April 26, 1870, to Miss Anna Bishop, who 
was born in Nova Scotia in 1848, her parents, 
Allen and llebecca Bishop, also being natives 
of Nova Scotia. Two children have been 
Ixirn to Mr. and Mrs. Neary — George W., 
born March 26, 1872, and Ervin E., born 
October 16, 1875. In politics Mr. Neary 
casts his snftrage with the Republican party. 
He is an^active and public-spirited citizen, 
and since coining to Hardin To\vnsliip has 
served as trustee and assessor, holding the 
latter office one year, and has also served five 
years as school director, to the satisfaction of 
ills constituents. 



II. .lOHNSON, farmer, section 21, 
Kondrick Townsliip, has been identified 
^* with the interests of Greene County for 
twenty-one j^ears. He was born in Cham- 
l)aign County, Ohio, June 24, 1836, son of 
Isaac Johnson, a native of Vermont, and 
Sarah Johnson, a native of Rhode Island. 
They were the parents of twelve children. 
Mr. Johnson resided in his native place until 
sixteen years of age. He was reared a fanner 
and educated in the common schools. In 
I85o his father removed to DeKalb County. 
mill. lis, where they lived two years, then 
came to Cedar CVninty, Iowa. August 14, 



1862, he enlisted in Company I, Twenty- 
sixth Iowa Infantry, and participated in the 
battles of Chickasaw Bayou, Arkansas Post, 
siege of Vicksburg, Jackson, Mississippi, 
Black River Bridge, Fourteen Mile Creek, 
Ramon, and was then transferred to the Vet- 
eran Reserve Corps, Seventeenth Regiment, 
Company E, and was stationed at Indianapo- 
lis, Indiana. He was honorably discharged 
as Corporal, July 24, 1865, and returned to 
his home. August 20, 1865, he came to 
Greene County, Iowa, and settled upon his 
present farm, which was then in its wild 
state, and was one of the first improved farms 
in tlie neighborhood. He owns ninety-four 
acres of excellent land, a well furnished 
residence, built in modern style, a commodious 
barn for stock and grain. Novenibei- 30, 
1860, he was united in marriage at DeWitt, 
Clinton County, Iowa, with Miss Mary Kim- 
ball, daughter of Horace and Rachel Kimball, 
born in Cedar County, Iowa. Mr. and Mrs. 
Johnson have three children — Ella Rosella, 
John Jasper, and Mary Viola. Two children, 
William P. and Elmer, are deceased. Politi- 
cally Mr. Johnson is a Republican, and has 
creditably served in several townshij) offices. 
He is a member of Post 111, G. A. R., at 
Scranton. By his genial manner, and hon- 
est dealings, he secured the confidence of all 
his acquaintances. His grandfather was a 
soldier in the war of the Revolution and his 
fatlier in the Mexican war. 



„.t^;Mf^'+.-KH 



fD. CASS, iihysician and surgeon of 
Churdan, Iowa, is a native of the State 
t^c ® of Illinois, born December 6, 1882, a 
son of James and Ann Cass, who wei-e 
natives of Kentucky and Virginia respectively. 
Both parents are deceased, the mother dying 
May 30. 1837, and his father in Ajiril. 1863. 



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STOORAPmCAL SKBTCItES. 



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Dr. Cass lived with liis father till attaining 

o 

the age of twenty-two years. In 1855 he 
hegan the study of medicine, taking his first 
course of lectures at the Miami IMedical 
College in 1856, reinaining in that institu- 
tion one year. In 1857 he began the prac- 
tice of medicine, wliich he followed until 
1863, when he entered Hush Medical Col- 
lege of Cliicago, Illinois, from which he 
graduated in 1864. After his graduation lie 
settled in Logan County, Illinois, whei-e he 
built up a lucrative practic, renuiining in 
that county until 1875. lie then returned to 
Miami College, o-raduatriny from tiuit insti- 
tution in 1876. He then resumed his prac- 
tice is Logan County. In 1882 he came to 
Greene County, Iowa, and after spending a 
short time iu Jefferson he removed to Chur- 
dan, locating at that place August 31, 1882, 
and has since been successfully engaged in 
the practice of his chosen jirofession. In 
July, 1885, he purchased a stock of drugs. 
lie has recently built a new store, and in 
connection with his medical practice he deals 
in drugs, all kinds of stationery a)id school 
books. Dr. Cass was united in marriage in 
1858 to Miss Sarah G. Landis, a daughter of 
P. K. and Eliza P. Landis, natives of Ohio. 
They are the parents of one son — Edward K., 
born December 17, 1859, who is now en- 
gaged in tlie insurance business in Chicago, 
Illinois. In politics the doctor is a stautich 
Itepublican. lie was appointed First Assis- 
tant Surgeon of the One Hundred and Fifty- 
first Regiment, Illinois Yolunteer Infantry, 
Feliruary 12, 1865, and served til! tlic close 
of the war. 



fAMES M. STEELE, residing on section 
13, Bristol Township, is one of the early 
settlers of this portion of Greene County. 



ITe was born in Bedford County, Pennsyl- 
vania, June 21, 1834, son of Solomon and 
Fanny (Metzgar) Steele, also natives of Penn- 
sylvania. The father was of Swiss ancestry, 
and is now deceasetl. The mother is of 
(rerman descent, and is still livincj in Penu- 
sylvania. Of their nine children, James ]\I. 
was the tliird child and eldest son. One son, 
David Frank, a member of the Thirty-third 
Pennsylvania Infantry, was killed at liurn- 
side's battles of Fredricksburg. He was a 
member of "General Hookei-'s corps. Four 
other sons, Thomas, John, Levi and Edward, 
served in the iVrmy of the Potomac, antl are 
all living. The two sisters are Mrs. Sophia 
Ake and Mrs. Eliza Ilerscliberger, a widow, 
with whom the mother lives. All are living 
in Pennsjdvania except Edward, who lives in 
Virginia. James was reared a farmer, and 
lias always followed farming with the excep- 
tion of a few years spent at cai'penter woi'k 
at Muscatine, Iowa. He settled in Muscatine 
in 1858, where he married Miss Hannah 
Maria Lower, daughter of Henry Lower, who 
died at tiie home of Mr. Steele in 1873. The 
mother, Mrs. Hannah (Steele) Lower, now in 
her ninety-second year, is cared for by her 
daughter and son-in-law. Mrs. Steele is 
also a native of Pennsylvania, and was born 
in Huntingdon County, February 1, 1836. 
She came with her parents to Muscatine in 
1850. Mr. Steele removed to St. Joseph, 
Missouri, in 1859, wliere he lived two years, 
then returned to Muscatine and lived there 
until 1866, then, with his family, went back 
to his native State. In 1872 he returned to 
Iowa and settled in his present home. He 
first bought eighty acres of land incurrring 
an indebtedness for the purchase money. lie 
has cleared that indel:>tedness, and added 
forty acres to the original purchase, so that 
jfe has a competency for his declining years. 
^Ir. ami Mrs. Steele have four children— 



ia»5^ia»j»ipa««^«,»r»iI^'^«- »«««g«w_»a»-« 



270 



HISTORY OF ORHENE GOUtTTf. 






Marion L., a young man of excellent business 
(jualifications, is cashier of Greene County 
l)ank. at Jefferson; Fanny, a very successful 
teaclier, now at home; Harriet S., attending 
school at Davenport; and Charley, living at 
home. The parents are consistent members 
of the Presbyterian church, and politically 
Mr. Steele is a liepublican. He is now serv- 
ing as townsliip trustee atid school director. 



fOIIN OSBORNE, dealer in grain, lum- 
ber and coal and one of the prominent 
men of Scranton, is a native of Cornwalh 
England, boru in the year 1844, a son of 
liobert Osborne. The father immigrated to 
America when our subject was a child, 
settling in Iowa County, AVisconsin, where 
he resided till his death in May, 1878. The 
father was a miner, and followed that occu- 
pation from the time he came to America in 
184s until 1855 when he engaged in farm- 
incr, which he t\)llowod the remainder of his 
life. His family consisted of six children, 
three sons and three daughters. John, the 
subject of this sketch; Robert living in Iowa 
Coimty,"\Visconsin ; Joseph, of Carroll County, 
Illinois; Emma, wife of Fairfield Sylvester, of 
( )gden, Iowa; Ellen, wife of W. J. Burns, of 
I'onca, Nebraska, and I\[argaret J., wife of J. 
W. Taylor, of Iowa County, AVisconsin. 
.lohn Osborne, our subject grew to manhood 
in Iowa County, being reared to agricultural 
pursuits. He remained with his parents till 
IStjn, but remained near his home till 1872, 
when he came to Iowa, and located at Ogden, 
lioone County, wliere he was engaged in 
dealing in live stock and farm implements 
until 1877, when he came to Scranton, 
(Treenc ('ounty. Tlie year before leaviiiir 
Ogden he began dealing in grain in connec- 
tion with his (itluT business. In 1S7(J Mr. 



Osborne formed a partnership with Sylvester 
& Huntley, they succeeding A. S. Omro in 
his grain trade, and the same year this firm 
built the west elevator. Mr. Osborne bought 
out Sylvester and Huntley's interest in 1882 
and has since conducted the business alone, 
becoming one of the leading business men of 
Scranton. His elevator has a capacity of 
about 14,000 bushels. In the spring of 1885 
he added the lumber trade to his business, in 
which he is meeting with good success. Mr. 
Osborne was united in marriage to Miss 
Elizabeth A. Baker, a daughter of John IT. 
Baker, of Iowa County, AVisconsin. In poli- 
tics Mr. Osborne affiliates with the Republi- 
can party. 



^>+^^-.,^ 



iy^ 1| 1 LTON C. SAYERS, farmer, section 
'^MjviM -^5' Jackson Township, owns one of 
'^icp^ the best farms in tliat part of Greene 
County. It consists of 240 .acres of land, 160 
acres l)eing on section 25, 80 on section 26, 
all being connected and constituting one farm. 
He came here from Bureau County, Illinois, in 
March, 1871, and settled in his present home 
the following year. He was born in Miami 
County, < )hio, January 7, 1844, son of Thomas 
and Margaret (Frencli) Sayers; tlie father died 
in Ohio, the mother is still living on the old 
homestead. Mr. Sayers served one year dur- 
ing the late war in tlie Mississippi squadron 
under Admiral Porter, entering the service 
in December, 1863. In the fall of 1865 he 
became a resident of Bureau County, Illinois, 
where lie engaged in the mercantile trade at 
AVahiut. September 22, 1867, he was united 
in marriage with Miss Henrietta Jones, 
daughter of Samuel and ^^iriam Jones, and 
sister of Josiah Jones, of Jackson Township. 
She was burn in Princotdii, P>ureau County, 
Illinois, Octdber 15,1845. They have two 



\ 

i 




MOORAPHICAL SKETCH MS. 



2^1 



cliildren — Milton C. and Samuel J. Mr. 
and Mrs. Sayers are worthy, honest and up- 
right people, and have won many friends in 
the community where they have so long re- 
sided. They are consistent members of the 
Baptist church, and in politics Mr. Sayers is 
a radical llepublican. Thomas J. Sayers, the 
father of our subject, was born in the State 
of Ohio and the mother in the State of Penn- 
sylvania. They were married in Ohio. Mil- 
ton C. was the youngest of seven children, 
and the only one residing in Greene County. 
His brother Enos lives in Atlantic, Cass 
County, this State, Ezekiel lives in Ohio, 
John in Kansas, Harrison in Bureau County, 
Illinois, Judson at Farmer's Valley, Illinois, 
and Mrs. Sarah Class in Miami C'ounty, Ohio. 




ILLARD MACK, farmer and stock- 
raiser, section 1, Junction Township, 
l^Sjil^] was born in Stanstead, Canada, April 
21, 1826. His father, Sebie Mack, was a 
native of Connecticut, but went to Canada 
with his parents when a boy, and trom there 
to Niagara Falls, Xew York, in 1S27. In 
1828 he went to Upper Canada, and in 1844 
to Boone County, Illinois. AVillard Mack 
remained in Illinois until April, 1876, when 
he came to Iowa and settled on the farm 
where he now lives. He owns 160 acres of 
valuable land, and his building improvements 
are among the best in the township. Mr. 
Mack was married ( )ctober 15, 1850, to Laura 
Smith, a daughter of Frederick Smith. To 
them were born eight children — Sophronia 
J., Mary A., Alice F., Artemus J., Elizabeth 
L. (deceased), Ella N., Lovilla L. and Emma 
L. Mrs. Mack died June 20, 1872, and 
Thanksgiving day, 1873, Mr. Mack married 
Hattie, daughter of Thomas Munn, of To- 
peka, Kansas. December 10( 1875, Mrs. 



Mack died, leaving two children — Edgar PI. 
and Daniel C. September 27, 1881, Mr. 
Mack married Jennie Peake, a native of 
Rockford, Illinois, daughter of Loami Peake, 
and a lineal descendant of Roger Williams 
and John Rogers. To them have been born 
two children — Lucy E. and John W. JMr. 
and IVIrs. Mack are members of the Baptist 
church. 



qm 



OHN M. CULLEY, one of the pioneers 
of Greene County, came to Jefl'erson 
January 26, 1856, when that city had 
but two log houses and one frame house. In 
one of the log houses George S. Walton kept 
a hotel and store. Dr. Lewis lived in the 
other log house, and Robei't M. Rippey lived 
in the frame house; he was a lawyer and land 
agent. Neither of them now live in the 
county. Mr. Culley, Roliert Rippey and Dr. 
W. S. McBride erected a steam saw-mill at 
Jeft'erson in 1856, which was operated by Mr. 
Culley about three years. He then followed 
tarming one year, and in 1860, was appointed 
clerk of the court, which at that time included 
the duties now performed by the auditor. 
He served two years, and then became a con- 
tractor for furnishing railroad ties in Boone 
County, for the Chicago & Northwestern 
Railroad. In 1866 he engaged in the hard- 
ware and farm implement trade, which he 
continued until 1877, since which time he 
has been interested in milling and farming. 
He was eneaged in milling at Grand June- 
tion four years, and now resides on section 
10, Jackson Township, where he settled in 
May, 1884. Mr. Culley has witnessed the 
changes in the county, from its earliest his- 
tory, when his postothce was at Des Moines, 
where his milling was also done. His son 
Chai'les, now a business man at Jefferson, was 
the first white male child born in Jefferson. 



« i. » Im W „ » m « 



■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■I 






3l?3 



illStORT OF ORBENE GOUNTT. 



~My. Ciilley was born at Milan, Huron County, 
Oliio, October 20, 1830, a son of M. D. Cul- 
ley. When be was ten years of age his parents 
removed to Aslitabula County, where be grew 
to inanliood. Wlien a young man lie learned 
the tinner's and coppersmith's trades which 
he fi)llowed until be came to Iowa. At Lancas- 
ter, New York, be married Miss Sarah Ann 
Hamilton, in June, 1852. Mrs. Culley died 
at Jefferson December 11, 1862, aged twenty- 
nine years. She left two children — Charley 
and AVill D., who are now the firm of Culley 
Brotliers, engaged in a restaurant and l)akery 
at Jefferson. For a second wife Mr. Cnlley 
married April 1, 1864, Miss Ilattie E. Beers, 
daughter of Jesse Beers, of Delaware Count}', 
New York, and to this union were born four 
children, all of whom died young. Mr. and 
Mrs. Culley are members of the Baptist 
church. Mr. Culley is one of the charter 
members of Morning Star Lodge, No. 159, 
A. F. & A. M., at Jefferson, and is the only 
one of the charter members now living in 
Greene County. lie has held the ofhce of 
senior and junior warden, and has lield many 
offices of trust in the township. Politically, 
be is a Republican. 



WESLEY JOHNSON, of the firm of 
S. AV. Johnson & Bro., dealers in 
^^® hardware, stoves, tinware, kitchen fur- 
niture, farm implements, shelf and heavy 
hardware, at Rippey, was born in Perry 
County, Ohio, November 25, 1852, son of 
l^phraim Johnson, of this county, who re- 
moved to Whiteside County, Illinois, in 1865. 
lie passed bis early life on a farm, and was 
educated in the common district schools. He 
came to Rippey in 1882 and engaged in the 
hardware business with ^. 1*. i.aw, under the 
tirm nairif iif Law «S; Johnson. This jiartner- 



sbip continued three years, when Mr. John- 
son purchased his partner's interest, and sold 
a third interest to his brother, AVilliam A. 
Johnson. He was married January 10, 1878, 
to Harriet Parrish, daugiiter of Watson Par- 
rish, now deceased. They have bad four 
children, only one of whom is living — Nellie 
C. Mr. Johnson is a member of the Odd 
Fellows fraternity. AVilliam A. Johnson 
was born April 10, 1860, in Perry County, 
Ohio, and was educated in the common school 
of Whiteside County, Illinois. He came to 
Iowa in 1882, spending his summers in Da- 
kota Territory for three years, and passed the 
winters in this county. He located perma- 
nently at Rippey in 1885. He is a membei- 
of the Methodist Episcopal chui-ch; also of 
the Rippey Cornet ISand. 






l^EV. WILLIAM ROBERTS, one of 
;;|W|i Greene County's prominent men, re- 
■^4^| siding in Dawson Township, wliei-e he 
owns a farm of 240 acres on section 23, and 
forty acres on section 26,.is a native of Wayne 
County, Indiana, born November 9, 1832, a 
son of Thomas Roberts. His parents were 
both natives of North Carolina. The}' were 
the parents of two children — William and a 
daughter now deceased. Tlie motlier died 
November 11, 1832, at the age of twenty-two 
years, the father surviving her till September 
21, 1839. William Roberts was thus left an 
orphan at the tender age of six years, lie 
was reared to the avocation of a farmer, his 
bo^'bood being spent in assisting on the farm 
of Levi Jessup. At the age of eighteen 
years he began working for himself, chopping 
wood, etc., for which he received 25 cents a 
cord. His education was obtained in the 
country scluiol-houses of his neighborhood, 
and at tjie Ki'iends' Boardin^r School, now 



.~j 



Earlhain Colles^e, at. Kichinond, Imliana, 
whicli he attended during the winters of '51 
and '52. lie then retxirned to the old home 
where he was reared, where he worked on the 
farm during the summers, and in the winters 
tanglit scliool, being thus emphjyed about 
six years. During tliis time lie purcliased a 
small farm near Richmond, Indiana, on which 
lie settled in 1853. August 31, 1853, he 
was mai'ried to Miss Elizabeth Rue, who was 
born in Wayne County, Indiana, August 25, 
1887, the youngest of eight children of 
Henry and Rebecca (Tallbert) Rue. Mr. and 
Mrs. Roberts are the parents of six children, 
and all are living but one, and settled near 
their home — Lindley II., married Alice Ed- 
gerton; Albert B., married Lizzie Johnson; 
John IL, married Clara Swearingen; Aunie 
M., married Charles AValker, and Emma L., 
married William Edsertoii. At the age of 
twenty-eiglit Mr. Roberts united with the 
Friends society, and at thirty began preaching 
at the Orange Church, Richmond, Indiana, 
Mdiicli he followed there at intervals for tM'enty 
years, lie residing on his tarm near Richmond 
until 1880. lie was ordained a minister at 
the age of thirty-two years, at Richmond. 
lie preached for fifteen years at Orange 
Church, with frequent leave of absence to 
perform other Christian work, traveled over 
a large portion of Michigan, preached in all 
the meeting-houses of his own church and 
many others, visited the luml)ering districts 
where ho distributed over 100,000 tracts, and 
preached in the school-houses and at farm 
houses, walking most of the time, and at all 
times bearing his own expenses. He was 
there for part of two years, doing most of his 
work in the winter time. lie visited nearly 
all the churches of his denomination in Indi- 
ana, Kansas and Ohio. After the close of 
the late war he was sent South to Helena, 
Arkansas. He offered tiie first -church mem- 



bership to the colored people south of Mason 
and Dixon's line. Two years later he was 
sent to Blount County, Tennessee, traveling 
over mountains, walking most of the time, 
and visiting all the churches in the valleys. 
Pie was there engaged in missionary work 
for some time, his labors for the Master beino- 
well rewarded. In 1880 he came to Greene 
County, Iowa, and since then has been 
engaged in church work in Dawson Town- 
ship, he being the first and only ordained 
minister tliere. His postoffice is Baton, Iowa. 
He is now pastt>r of tlie Friends church, 
near Baton. 



^mMON F. SHANNON, farmer and stock- 
-'fffl- raiser of Cedar Township, residino- on 
;^;';o— section 11, was born in Seneca County, 
Ohio, October 18, 1848, and is of Irish and 
Holland ancestry. He is a son of James and 
Amanda (Fairchild) Shannon, his father being 
a native of Bennsylvania, and his mother of 
Virginia, and is a descendant of Isaac Fair- 
child, who collected the first taxes in Holmes 
County, Ohio. In a family of two sons and 
one daughter our subject was the youngest 
child. He lived in his native State till ten 
years of age, when he went with his parents 
in 1858 to Jo Daviess County, Illinois, where 
he remained helping to support his parents 
for several years. In October, 18(35, he re- 
moved to Jones County, Iowa, remaining 
there three years. He was united in marriage 
October 18, 1868, to Miss Sarah E. Barrett, 
who was born in Guernsey County, Ohio, in 
February, 1845, her parents, Benjamin and 
Viola Barrett, being natives of the same 
State. The}' are the parents of two daughters 
— Mary, born December 1, 18fi9, and Ada, 
born January 20, 1882. Mr. Shannon came 
to Greene County, Iowa, in 18()8, when he 



S74 



it t STORY OF GREENE COUiftf. 



located on the land which he has since con- 
verted tViiin tiiu raw prairie into a well-im- 
proved and tinelv-cnltivated farm consisting 
of 100 acres. Since coming to the township 
lie has met with excellent success in his farm- 
ing operations, and is now classed among 
Cedar Township's well-to-do and respected 
citizens. Politicall}' he affiliates with the 
Republican Ji^ftj- 



(SfcOBERT P. MORDEN, a retired former, 
\ residing on sections 14 and 22, Franklin 
Township, was born in London, Canada, 
May 10, 1841, a son of John and Mary A. 
(Parkinson) Morden, who were all born in 
Canada, the mother still residing there. The 
father is deceased. They were the parents 
of nine children, two sons and seven daughters, 
our subject being the youngest child. The 
father being a farmer, Robert was reared to 
the same occupation, and at the age of four- 
teen years he began farming his father's farm, 
which he followed for three years. In 1869 
he came to the United States, and located in 
La Fayette Count}', Indiana, where he en- 
gaged in the insurance business, following 
that pursuit until December 8, 1802. Dur- 
ing the late war he was employed as wagon- 
master for three j'ears. In 1865 he went to 
Livingston County, Michigan, where he was 
married December 4 of the same 3'ear to 
Miss Elizabeth Dier, who was born in Liv- 
ingston County Janiiary 17, 1843, a daughter 
of Philip and Anna (Shotwell) Dier, who 
were natives of Pennsylvania, both being 
now decease<l. After remaining a short time 
in ^^i(•higan, they went to Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania, so that Mrs. IMorden (who had 
previously studied medicine) might attend 
her last term at the Women's Medical Col- 
lege, where she received her diploma in 1800. 



They then returned to Michigan, remaining 
there two years. In 1868 they came to 
Greene County, and after living a short time 
at Jefferson, they removed to Coon Rapids, 
Carroll County, where Mrs. Morden practiced 
her profession. In 1872 they left Coon 
Rapids, returning to Jefferson, where Mr. 
Morden engaged in the dry goods business, 
which he followed about a year. He then 
exchanged his store for his present farm in 
Franklin Township, where he has GOO acres 
of good land. He takes an active interest 
in stock-raising, and is at present engaged 
in raising short-horn cattle and a fine grade 
of horses, ilrs. Morden is still practicing 
medicine, in which she is very successful. 
Five children have been born to Mr. and 
Mrs. .Morden, of whom four are living — 
Byron, 'Lena, Orrie and Roy. Bertie is 
deceased. In politics Mr. Morden is a staunch 
Republican. Since becoming a resident of 
Franklin Township he has served as justice 
of the peace, holding that office with credit 
to himself and satisfaetion to his constituents. 
He is a member of the Odd Fellows order, 
belonging to the lodge at Jefferson. I'oth 
Mr. and IMrs. Morden are members of the 
Methodist Ejiiscopal church. Their post- 
office is Cooper, Iowa. 



»^„JS^nt.,^,.-^>. 



ii^iDWARD CAIN, farmer, section 35 
"^A. Greenbrier Township, is a native of the 
bpl Isle of Man, born September 4, 1842, 
and is a son of John and Jane (Eads) Cain, 
the former a native of the Isle of Man, and 
the mother of England. They were the 
parents of ten children- Sai'ah, John, Abra- 
ham, Edward, Robert, Jane, Elizabeth, T\[a- 
tilda, William and Morris. Edward passed 
liis youth at farm work, and attending the 
schools of his native island. At the age of 



Ji 



'■i"ia»M; 



■■■^■■' '■ia»-".«"M"ir Jrj>iJ»^w swsw aw;j»j»-j» _ » „«, » .M. » ^ 



BIOGRAPniOAL SKETCHES. 



eighteen years he emigrated to the United 
States, locating in Warren County, Illinois, 
wliere he lived tliree years. lie then re- 
moved to Knox County, same State, living 
there two years, then returned to Warren 
County and lived until 1879. He then came 
to Greene County, this State, and located 
upon his present farm, where he has since 
resided. His farm contains 680 acres, 400 
acres being in Greene Countv, and 280 in 
Guthrie County. It is in a good state of 
cultivation and well improved. He has a 
line one and a half story residence, built in 
modern style, and surrounded with shade and 
ornamental trees. He has a large and com- 
modious barn, and out-l)uildings for stock 
and grain, and is extensively engaged in 
stock-raising, usually keeping from 200 to 
225 head of cattle, and buying from 10,000 
to'12,000 bushels of corn a year. Mr. Cain 
was united in marriage March 4, 1868, to 
Miss Jane Gaunt, daughter of David and 
Ann (Charlesworth) Gaunt, of England. 
They have five children — Anna Jane, Ada 
M., (Jscar E., Charles W. and Alice E. Po- 
litically Mr. Cain is a Republican, and he is 
a worthy and consistent member of the 
Methodist Episcopal cliuroh. He started in 
life without means, but by industry and good 
management he has aci^uired a fine property, 
and is one of the leading men of Greene 
County. 



|EORGE W. KUDEIl, one of the old and 
honored pioneers of Greene County, who 
is engaged in farming and stock-raising 
on section 21, AVillow Township, is a native 
of Pennsylvania, born in Columbia County, 
June 15, 1832, his parents, George and Sarah 
(Morris) Kuder, being natives of the same 
State. He was reared to the avocation of a 
farmer, his early boyhood being spent in 



assisting his father on the home farm. In 
1844 he was taken by his parents to Cham- 
paign County, Illinois, wliere his father 
entered land at $1.25 per acre, the city of 
Champaign being now located on part of the 
land owned by the father. The father died 
there September 17, 1845, the mother sur- 
viving her husband until August 1, 1874. 
They were the parents of seven children, our 
subject being the fifth child. He came to 
Crreene County, Iowa, in 1854, and settled at 
Jefferson when that now thriving town con- 
tained but one house. The following spring 
he went to Minnesota, retnaining there one 
year, when he returned to Greene County and 
entered eighty acres of land on North Coon, 
nine miles north of Jefferson, Avhere he 
erected a log cabin, remaining there till 1859. 
Here he was engaged in trapjjing and hunt- 
ing during the winter seasons and during the 
summers woi'ked on his farm. He experienced 
many hardships and pi-ivations in his pioneer 
home. His nearest milling place was Des 
Moines, then a small place containing about 
a dozen houses, and his provisions were 
obtained at Keokuk, 125 miles distant, he 
making the trip with ox teams, and takino- 
two weeks or more to make the journey. He 
was united in marriage February 18, 1851, to 
Miss Isabelle lirock, born in Boone County, 
Indiana, June 13, 1840, a daughter of Alien 
and Lavina (Cocks) Brock, natives of Ten- 
nessee. To this union have been born five 
children — Madison M., Arabelle, Jennette G., 
Melissa and George Franklin. In 1859 Mr. 
Kuder went to Pikes Peak, remaining tjiere 
one year, when he returned to Greene (!ouiity, 
and a siiort time later returned to his oM 
home in Illinois, where he remained till after 
the close of the war. He again returned to 
Greene County, Iowa, in the fall of 1866, and 
iji 1881 settled on his present farm. To his 
original purchase he has added till he now 



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HISTOBT OF GREENE COUNTY. 



has 240 acres located on sections 16 and 21 

of Williiw Townsliip. his hnid being well 
improved iind well cultivated with the excep- 
tion of about nine acres. He has a good 
(U-i'liard ami a cunifortable and commodious 
residence surroumlcd by tine groves, and 
good out buildings for his stock. Mr. Kuder 
began life a poor boy but by years of pei'- 
severing toil and t;ood management he has 
prospered in his farming operations, and 
become the owner of his present fine prop- 
erty, and is now identified with (Treene 
County's best farmers. lie has done his 
share toward improving the county, having 
improved si.x different farms. Mr. and Mrs. 
Kuder are worthy members of the Church of 
God, and are among the most respected 
citizens of (ireene County. 



\EXRY W. KELLOGG, county audi- 
' r j tor of (jreene County, is now serving 
■^(1 his second term in that capacity, having 
Ijeen first elected in the fall of 1883, and re 
elected in 1885. He succeeded Andrew A. 
Watts, who had served six years, and the latter 
succeeded G. G. Lawrence, who had served four 
years. Mr. Kellogg settled in GrantTownship 
this county, in 18(59, where he purchased anil 
improveil a ])rairic I'arm which he still owns, 
and which he occupied until elected to his 
present office, lie was born in Sycamore, De 
Kalb County, Illinois, January 14, 1840, and 
was reared in his native county. His father, 
.lesse C. Kellogg, died in Sycamore in 1874. 
He was l)orn in Connecticut, and removed to 
Lamoille County, A'ermont, when quite 
young. lie settled in Sycamore in 1880. 
He was one of the early settlers of the county, 
and was clerk of the circuit court for many 
years. August 9. 1862, H. W. Kellogg en- 
listed in ComjJany A, One Hundred and 



Fifth Illinois Infantry, and served until June 
14, 1865. His regiment was attached to the 
Army of the Cumberland. Upon the con- 
solidation of the Eleventh and Twelfth Corps, 
the brigade to which he belonged became the 
Twentieth. Previous to that time his regi- 
ment was not attached to any corps. Mr. 
Kellogg participated in many important bat- 
tles and campaigns, including Resaca, Kene- 
saw Mountain, siege of Atlanta, and Sher- 
man's marcli to the sea. He was engaged in 
the battle of Bentonville, and marched to 
Washington after the surrender of Johnston 
and took part in the grand review in that 
city. His exposures, as a soldier, induced 
the asthma, and it was to find relief from that 
trouble that decided him to conie to Iowa. 
He was for many years engaged as mercan- 
tile clerk. In 1865 he married Miss Maggie 
Countryman, who died January 29, 1873. 
His present wife was formerly MissSamantha 
Kingsley. By his first marriage were two 
children — Jessie and Hiram, and a son and 
daughter by his present marriage, Bertha and 
Henry. Bertha died when five months old. 
He is a Republican in ])olitics, casting his 
first presidential vote for General Grant. He 
was a voter when Lincoln was elected the 
second time, but being in the army he could 
not exercise his right. Mr. Kellogg is a popu- 
lar and efficient officer, and one of the highly 
respiected and progressive citizens of Greene 
County. 



ILLIAM A. THOMPSON, farmer. 
Grant Township, resides on section 
^iP^\ 22, where he owns 200 acres of land 
on sections 22 and 23. This farm was en- 
tered b}' Mr. Reece, who made the first im- 
provements. Mr. Thompson purchased the 
place in 1875. It is one of the most desir- 
able farms in the township, KiO acres being 




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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



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in a fine state of cultivation and the remain- 
der well timbered. Mr. Thompson has been 
a resident of (jreene Ciamty since 1867, 
wlien lie settled in what was then Junction 
Township, on an unimjjroved farm. Jlc still 
owns the farm and has made many improve- 
ments. He is a native of the Buckeye State, 
having been born in Richland County, Ohio, 
in 1837, where he lived until nine years of 
age, when his parents removed to Cedar 
County, Iowa. His father, John Thompson, 
was one of the pioneers of that county, hav- 
ing settled there in 1846. He removed to 
Junction Township, this county, in 1874, 
where he passed the remainder of his days, 
surviving his wife two years. They were the 
parents of ten cliildren, five sons and five 
daughters; one son and one daughter are de- 
ceased. When William A. started out for 
himself he located in Keokuk County, where 
he improved a farm and resided until he came 
to Greene County. He has been twice mar- 
ried. His first wife was JVIartha J. Wright, 
a native of Lee County, Iowa, who died in 
this county, August 11, 1879. His present 
wife was formerly Mrs. Matilda Richardson, 
nee Nuterfee, who came to Washington 
County with her parents in 1842. Her 
father, Colston S. Nuterfee, is now deceased. 
By his first marriage, Mr. Thompson had four 
children — August C, Mary I., William II., 
and Bessie Centennial. Politically, he is a 
Republican, and cast his first presidential 
vote for Aljraham Lincoln in 1860. In 1886 
he was assessor of Grant Township. 



P.ILLBURN ZEITLER, a prosperous 

W\ farmer and stock-raiser of Hardin 

'5^(1 Township, residing on section 20, was 

born in Pennsylvania, June 13, 1837, his 

parents, John and Mary (Schloneker) Zeitler, 



being natives of the same State. He re- 
mained in his native State till sixteen years 
of age, when he came with his parents to 
Cedar County, Iowa. At the age of seven- 
teen he began working out by the montli, 
which he followed till twenty-tiiree years of 
age. He enlisted in the war of the Rebellion 
and was assigned to Company A, Fifth Iowa 
Infantry, his regiment being mustered into 
service shortly after. He participated in the 
battles of luka, Vicksburg and ( 'hattanooga, 
and other engagements of minor importance. 
He was mustered out of the service at Chat- 
tanooga, and received his final discharge at 
Davenport, Iowa, in August, 1864. He was 
married February 16,1865, to Miss Catherine 
Brown, a native of Ohio, born August 30, 
1840, a daughter of William and Susan 
(Ellis) Brown, who were both natives of 
Pennsylvania. Mr. Zeitler is in eveiy re- 
spect a self-made man; commencing as a pio- 
neer in Greene County on comparatively 
nothing, he has by his persevering industry 
and good management acquired a good prop- 
erty, having a fine farm of 240 acres under 
good cultivation. In connection with his 
general farming he pays some attention to 
stock-raising, keeping a good grade of stock. 
In politics he affiliates with the Republican 
party. Postoffice, JeH'erson, Iowa. 



fB. GARLAND, farmer, section 1(5, 
Kendrick Township, was born in 
,^ ® Boone County, Kentucky, November 
25, 1840, son of Ebenezer and Eliza (Iloshall) 
Garland, who were the parents of ten chil- 
dren, J. B. being the eldest. When he was 
a babe his parents removed to the Territory 
of Iowa, settling in Jackson County, where 
he was reared on a farm, and educated in the 
common schools of that county. He engaged 



2~S 



HISTORY OF GliEENE COUNTY. 



ill teaching at an early age, and taught 
several terms in Jackson and Greene coun- 
ties. Upon arriving at the age of manhood, 
he was united in marriage, March 28, 
1860, witli Miss Emma Hawkins, born in 
Mercer Coimtv, Pennsylvania, and daughter 
of John 15. and Hetty (Smith) Hawkins, who 
were the parents of nine children, ]\Irs. Gar- 
land being the eighth. Mr. Garland resided 
in Jackson County, until 1869,. then came to 
(ireene County and purchased eighty acres of 
wild land, which is his present home. He 
has since added to his original purchase until 
he now owns 370 acres of excellent land, 
which is in a good state of cultivation and 
well improved. He has a very pleasant 
residence, surrounded with shade trees, a 
native grove of two acres, and orchard, barn, 
and out buildings for stock, and a wind-mill 
which furnishes power for water supply for 
stock. He keeps from eighty to 100 head of 
cattle, and about 100 to 150 hogs, besides 
considerable other stock. Mr. Garland is a Ke- 
p\iblican in politics, and a strong adherent of 
the principles of that party. He has served 
as a member of the school board, township 
assessor, justice of the peace, and is at present 
serving as member of the board of super- 
visors. He belongs to the Masonic Lodge, 
(iolden Gate, at Scranton, and is also a mem- 
ber of the Ancient (Jrder of United Workmen. 






pi 11 AllDING, one of Churdan's promi- 
' F,!-, nent men, and mayor of the village, 

ip'* was born in Salem County, New Jer- 
sey, October 1, 1820, a son of Thomas and 
Lydia Harding, M'ho were also natives of the 
State of Is'ew .lersey. He was reared to the 
avocation of a farmer in his native State, re- 
maining on tlie home farm with his parents 
till attaining the age of twenty-one years. 



He then went to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
and engaged in tlie drug business, remaining 
there till 1856. He was united in marriage 
in the spring of 1841, to Miss Elizabeth N. 
Zane, a daughter of Redman and Lydia Zane, 
who were natives of New Jersey. Three 
children were born to this union, all <lying 
in infancy, ilrs. Harding died in Philadel- 
phia in 1851. In 1852 Mr. Harding married 
Miss A. C. Zane, a sister of his first wife, 
and this union was blessed with six children 
— Harry, Charles F., Ella K., Clarence A., 
Lillian M. and Orville A. Harry, a prosper- 
ous farmer living near Churdan, was born in 
1853; was married in IsT-t to Elizabeth 
Bardsley, a daughter of William and Betsy 
Eardslev. Charles F., born in 1855, sradu- 
ated from the law department of the State 
University at Madison, Wisconsin, and is now 
practicing his profession at Chicago, Illinois. 
He was married July 10, 1885, to Hattie 
Hoover, her parents, William and Agues 
Hoover, being residents of Wisconsin. Ella 
K. was born in 1856, and in 1879 was mar- 
ried to James W. Huntington, and now lives 
at Council Bluffs, Iowa. Clarence A. was 
l)orn in 1860. He is now living at Fonda, 
Iowa. Lillian, born in 1866, is still living 
with her parents. Orville, the youngest, 
lives with his parents, and is engaged in 
Churdan. In 1856 Mr. Harding removed 
with his family to Dane County, Wisconsin, 
where he bought a farm, and there followed 
agricultural pursuits until 1881. He then 
resided in Excelsior, Richland County, Wis- 
consin, eighteen months, and in 1883 he 
came to (Trcene County, Iowa, locating at 
Churdan, subsequently engaging in the in- 
surance, collecting and othcial business. In 
1885 he was elected to his present position 
of mayor, and in March, 1886, was re-elected, 
and re-elected in 1887. Mr. Harding has 
been a meml>cr of the Methodist Episcopal 



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'BlOORAPHICAL Sl^ETCSSS. 



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church since 1841, and since 1857 has been 
connected with the ministry, traveling part 
of the time as an ordained minister. In poli- 
tics he was formerly a Whig, hut is now a 
staunch Republican. He has been a member 
of both the Masonic and Odd P'ellows orders. 



..^j.^,. 



ROBERT EASON, president of the bank 
M of Scranton, has been a resident of 
Greene County, Iowa, since October, 
1872, at which time lie settled on a farm of 
560 acres in Jackson Township. Here he 
resided till February, 1885, when he removed 
to Scranton, and till the following November 
operated the tile factory at this place. He 
then bouglit the bank of Scranton, where he 
lias since carried on a general banking busi- 
ness, his son, W. M. Eason, being cashier of 
the bank. This is the only bank in Scranton, 
and was established in the fall of 1877 by 
T. P. Larue, he having erected the present 
substantial brick building at a cost of $4,800. 
Mr. Eason still owns liis valuable farm in 
Jackson Township, which is well -improved 
and well stocked, and is carried on by his son 
Frank A. Mr. Eason is a native of Ohio, 
born in AVooster, Wayne County, in 1838, 
where he was reared till his sixteenth year, 
and in 1854 removed with his parents to 
Iowa City, Iowa. He was married in John- 
son County, Iowa, to Miss Ellen Burke, a 
native of the State of New York. They are 
the parents of three children — Frank A., 
Willis M. and Martha. In October, 1861, 
Mr. Eason enlisted in t)ompany B, Fourteenth 
Iowa Infantry. Immediatelay after the battle 
of Shiloh he was transferred to the Forty- 
first Iowa Infantry, and sent to tlie frontier 
in Dakota, and nine months later he was 
transferred to the Seventh Iowa Cavalry, with 
which he served seven months. He was then 

23 



assigned as Quartermaster of the One Hun- 
dred and Twenty-second United States Colored 
Infantry, with headquarters at Lexington, 
Kentucky, and was afterward stationed at 
Fortress Monroe, Virginia, where he received 
his discharge in March, 1865. He was in 
active service during the whole term of iiis 
enlistment. Though never severely wounded 
in battle, the exposure and hai-dships whicli 
he endured while in the service have left 
their permanent effects on his constitution. 
After the war he returned to Johnson County, 
Iowa, where he remained till settling in 
Jackson Township, Greene County, in the 
fall of 1872. In politics Mr. Eason is a 
Republican, casting his first vote while in the 
army in 1864 for President Lincoln. Alex- 
ander G. Eason, the father of our subject, 
was a native of Pennsylvania, removing with 
his parents to Wooster, Ohio, in 1810, when 
fourteen years of age. In 1854 he came 
with his family to Iowa City, where he resided 
till his death in 1876. His wife, the mother 
of our subject, died two years later. They 
were tiie parents of ten children, nine yet 
living, one having died since the death of 
the parents. Three of them live in (ireene 
County — Samuel, engaged in the livery busi- 
ness at Scranton, Mrs. Sarah Burke, living in 
Kendrick Township, and Robert, the subject 
of this sketch. 






^IPJIARLES BOFINK is one ot the lead- 
jU-Im ^"& business men of Jeflersoii. His 
^1 business includes the sale of general 
hardware, farm implements, banking, dealing 
in live stock, etc. He came to Jefl'erson 
Auo-ust 3, 1866. At that time he was 
engaged in the lumber trade, and shipped 
the first car-load of lumber to this town. 
This was in the fall of 1866. when Jefi:erson 



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u^aam„m^ m^vim mmmm^m>i^ 



280 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



was the terminus of the Northwestern Eail- 
i-oail. In 1867 he sold out to his competitors 
ill trade, and went to Carroll City, where he 
also started the first lumber yard in that city. 
He remained in Carroll about one year, then 
sold out and went to Dunlap, and there, with 
L. T. Coldren, opened the first lumber yard, 
Mr. Coldren taking charge at Dunlap, and 
Air. Bolink at Carroll. In 1868 he bought 
the business and furniture store of Franklin, 
Haiglit, Bowman & Bingman, and continued 
in the furniture business two or three j'ears, 
then engaged in the hardware busmess. He 
has for many years been the leading dealer 
in hardware and agricultural implements in 
(ireene County. No man has done more 
toward building up the town of Jefferson 
than Mr. Bofink. In 1876, with several 
other gentlemen, he built the Centennial 
Block, and with these same gentlemen started 
the City Bank, of which Mr. Bofink has been 
president since its organization. He erected 
his elegant brick store in 1885. His resi- 
dence is one of the finest in the city. The 
family settled in Pennsylvania, removing 
thence to Michigan, where the parents still 
reside. Our subject came to Story County, 
this State, in 1864, and was engaged for 
about a year on the Northwestern Railroad 
as a newsboy. From this lieginning he has 
worked his way to his present financial con- 
dition. Mrs. Bofink was formerly Miss Eliza 
iv Xortliway, a native of the State of New 
York. 

^'■^|«-S*-^+'-*- — 

;ir-rTILSOX D. ZAVITZ, farmer and 
Wm'il stock-raiser, section 1, Junction 
l-&prj Township, was born near theWelland 
Canal, in Ontario, Canada, September 13, 
1816, a son of George and Jeanette (Haun) 
Zavitz. His father was also a native of On- 
tario. His ancestoi-e were of German birth, 



his great-grandfather, Henry Zavitz, coming 
to this country and locating in Lancaster, 
Pennsylvania, where his grandfather, Chris- 
tian Zavitz, was born. The latter moved 
from his native State to Canada in 1788, 
where he spent the rest of his life, dying at 
the age of ninety-four years. Wilson D. 
Zavitz was reared in his native country, and 
there received a common-school education. 
His early life was spent on a farm, and he 
has always devoted his attention to agricult- 
ure. He came to Iowa in the spring of 
1876, and bought eighty acres of land in 
Greene County, settling on it in the spring 
of 1877, where, with the exception of the 
year 1882, he has since lived. That year he 
spent on the old homestead in Canada. Mr. 
Zavitz has never married, his sister, Frances 
D., being his housekeeper. He is a member 
of the Masonic fraternity. Grand Junction 
Lodge. He has one brother, Adolphus Za- 
vitz, of Canada, and two sisters, Georgiana 
McCain, of Fort Gratiot, Michigan, and 
Frances D. Zavitz, of Iowa. 

••*"'■%* i' 'i "' ^"^*" 

fJIARLES H. SUYDAM, retired mer- 
chant, of Rippey, Iowa, is a native of 
"W^ Butler County, Ohio, born January 13, 
1837. His father, ^lathew Suydain, was a 
native of New Jersey, and in his youth went 
to Ohio, settling on a farm near good water- 
power, and being by trade a miller, built a 
mill, and carried it on in connection with 
farming. Thus in his early life our subject 
learned the practical part of both milling and 
farming. He received a fair English educa- 
tion, attending the common schools of his 
native county and of Kno.x Count}', Illinois, 
where his parents moved in 1849. In 1862 
he enlisted in the defense of his country and 
was assigned to Company E, One Hundred 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



■281 



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and Third Illinois Infantry, and served about 
three years. He participated in nineteen 
battles, among the more, important being 
Black River Bridge, Mission Ridge, Keiie- 
saw Mountain, Dalton, Rome, Atlanta, JMa- 
con, Savannah, Buzzard Roost, Kingston and 
JSIew Hope Church. He enlisted as a private 
but was promoted to Second and finally to 
First Lieutenant, and was in command of his 
company about two years. A short time after 
the war he came to Iowa, and has since lived 
in Rippey. He established the first store in 
the place and has been in the mercantile 
business at difl'erent times about fifteen years. 
He has a fine farm adjoining Rippey, of 240 
acres, well improved, also a residence and 
store building in Rippey where he resides. 
For three years Mr. Suydam served as post- 
master at Rippey. He is a public-spirited, 
enterprising citizen, but never seeks ofhcial 
honors, preferring to leave the cares of office 
to others and give his attention to the more 
(juiet pursuits of life. He was married Janu- 
ary 20, 1864, to Charlotte L. Cochrane, a resi- 
dent of Canton, Fulton County, Illinois, 
daughter of -Tohn Cochrane. 



l^jflLLIAM A. FRANKLIN, one of 

l^vifMl ''''^ °'^ ^""^^ honored pioneers of 
1^=^^] Greene County, was born in North 
Carolina, December 1, 1808, a son of John 
E. and Marian (Ashburn) Franklin, the father 
being a son of James and Ruth (Lewis) 
Franklin, of England, and the mother a 
daughter of Denison Ashburn. Air. Frank- 
lin, the subject of this sketch, was united in 
marriage to Miss jVIargaret Brown, a native 
of Tennessee, born in May, 1811, a daughter 
of William L. and Clara (Williams) Brown, 
her father being a native of Virginia, and 
her mother born in North Carolina, a daugh- 



ter of William and Margaret (Peterson) 
Williams. Mr. Franklin came to Greene 
County, Iowa, in an early day, and entered 
and bought 800 acres of land. The first 
building he erected here was a plank shanty, 
the boards of which were liauled from Adell, 
Dallas County, Iowa. This shanty was sub- 
sequently replaced by a log house. Here he 
and his family experienced all the privations 
and hardships incident to pioneer life. Their 
first milling was done on Coon River, south 
of Adell, they making the trip with an ox 
team, and Des Moines was their nearest mar- 
ket place. Wild game, such as turkey, elk 
and deer, was abundant, and fish were also 
plentiful. Mr. Franklin always took an active 
interest in the growth and development of 
his adopted county, and became one of its 
well-to-do farmers, as well as a most respected 
citizen. 

^mRCHIBALD H. GILLILAND, of the 

,;kV firm of Gilliland Brothers, contractors 
^^^ and builders, and a first-class architect, 
residing in Paton, Greene County, is a na- 
tive of Iowa, born in Boone County, October 
5, 1854. His father, Archibald Gilliland. 
was a native of Beaver County, Pennsylva- 
nia, the date of his birth being May 28, 1800. 
He spent two or three years in Ohio, where 
Indians and wild animals were the principal 
inhabitants, and in 1833 settled near Nau- 
voo, Illinois. In the winter of 1S3(U'37 he 
crossed the Mississippi River where Keokuk 
now stands. In 1852 he entered land in 
Boone County, Iowa, on which he settled in 
1853, where he experienced many of the 
hardships and privations of pioneer life, 
making his home in Boone County till his 
death. Our subject was reared on the 
I pioneer farm, and his younger days were spent 
in assisting his father with the duties of tlie 



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282 



BISTORY op GREENE COtlNTf. 



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farm, Ininting, playing witli Indian bojs, and 
attending the log cabin schools of his neigh- 
borliood where he received the rudiments of 
an education. At the age of fourteen years 
he began learning wood-turning. After leav- 
inir school he tauaht for two terms as assist- 
ant teacher. In 1871 he began working at 
the carpenter's trade which he followed most 
of tlie time till 1S77. In 1873 he went to 
Alliany. Oregon, and worked at his trade in 
the Willamette Valley until February 7, 
1877, when he went to California, returning 
in ten days to Boone County, where he ar- 
rived March 23. lie then engaged in con- 
tracting and building, which he has made his 
principal work to the present time. During 
this time he has farmed in Warren County, 
Iowa, for three years, and at the same time 
worked at his trade. April 11, 1877, he was 
married to Martha E. Erown, of Boone 
County, a daughter of Thomas S. Brown, de- 
ceased. Five children have been born to this 
union—Thomas W., Kosa ^lay, Mary B., 
( )liver G. and Charles II. In May, 1881, 
Mr. Giiliiand canae with his family to Baton 
Greene County, where he has since followed 
contracting and building, and also pays con- 
siderable attention to architecture. The firm 
of whicii lie is a member has erected about 
ninety buildings since coming to Baton, and 
the t\\i) churches of Baton were also built b}- 
them. Mr. (Jilliland has served efficiently as 
trustee of Baton for four years. Both he and 
his wife are iiicmbcrs of the Prci^bytcrian 
church. 



-"^'•^ I ' S i' t" ^"^ 



fAMES II. WFATIIEB8GN, farmer and 
stock-raiser, section ID, Junction Town- 
•'Ac ship, Greene County, Iowa, is a native 
of tlie llawkcye State, liorn in Jackson 
Cdunty March 3, 1858, a son of Luke and 
Mancy (Iligley) Weatiierson, and grandson 



of James Weatherson and Isaac Iligley, his 
paternal grandfather living and dying in his 
native country, Scotland. His parents now 
live in Jones Count}-, Iowa, where they 
moved when he was a mere boy, and where 
he was reared and educated. Ilis early life 
was passed on a farm, and he has made good 
use of the lessons he learned in his youtli, 
and is now one of the prosjierous farmers of 
Greene County. lie came to tliis county in 
1881, and settled on the farm where he now 
lives. He owns 120 acres of valuable land 
well imjiroved, with good residence and farm 
buildings. He was married March 8, 1880, 
to Bettie J. Colby, a daughter of Charles 
Colby, who gave his life for his country dur- 
ing the war of the Bebellion. They have 
had four children, but three are living — 
Charles A., Delia B. and Lnvia M. 



fOHN N. GALLUB, farmer and stock- 
raiser, section 30, Hardin Township, 
was born in Kent County, Ilhode Island, 
September 1, 1829, a son of Nelson and Betsy 
(Farmer) Gallup, who were also natives of 
Khode Island. The father was a farmer, 
though engaged in the manufacture of cotton 
goods at ditierent jieriods. Our subject was 
reared to the avocation of a farmer, which he 
has followed the greater part of his life. He 
was married in 1849 to Miss llapj)y K. 
Church, who was born in Griswell, Connecti- 
cut, April 23, 1829, her parents being natives 
of the same State. Seven children were born 
to this nniou — Francis Ebrel, born April 4, 
1850, died jS^ovember 14, 1850; Edgar E., 
born December 14, 1853; Ilattie E., liorn 
October 18, 1854, died August 18, 1863; 
Josephus F., born April 7, 1861; George II. , 
born June 10, 1864; Horace W. and John S. 
(twins), born February 12, 1868, the former 



J 






BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



383 



i 

nu 
i 

LI' 



dying July 3, 1868, and the latter September 
2, 1884. At the age of twenty Mr. Gallup 
commenced farming on his own account in 
Connecticut, which he followed in that State 
for four years. He then immigrated to Illi- 
nois, and made his home in La Salle County 
from 1854 until 1878. In the latter year he 
came to Greene County, Iowa, locating on 
his present farm in Hardin Township, where 
he has 160 acres of choice land under fine 
cultivation, and on his land he has a fine 
artesian well just north of his house. He 
also pays some attention to stock-raising, 
nniking a specialty of a good grade of cattle. 
Mr. Gallup served in the defense of his 
country from September, 1864, to -July, 1865. 
He was a member of Company E, Thirty-first 
Illinois Infantry, and participated in the bat- 
tle at Bentonville and several skirmishes of 
minor importance. He was mustered out at 
Washington, D. C, receiving his final dis- 
charge at Springfield, Illinois, when he re- 
turned to his home. lie is now a member of 
the Grand Army Post at Jefferson, Iowa. 
Both he and his wife are members of the 
Methodist Episcopal church. In politics he 
is a staunch Republican. 






IHARLES W. WAY resides at Eureka, 
Jackson Township. His farm, which 
#^1 is on section 11, contains 105 acres of 
very choice land, improved almost entirely 
l)y himself. Pie was the first settler in what 
is conceded to be one of the best neighbor- 
hoods in Greene County. He was born in 
New London County, Connecticut, May 14, 
1822, son of Daniel M. and Catherine (Wood- 
worth) Way, of English ancestry. The par- 
ents passed all their days in Connecticut, and 
have been deceased many years. He left the 
parental roof when twenty years of age, and 



became a resident of Lamoille County, Ver- 
mont, where he nuirried, ILirch 13, 1849, 
Miss Chastine Clemens, daughter of Lewis 
and Lucy Clemens, who was born in that 
county July 21, 1823. They remained in 
their native county for some years, where 
Mr. Way followed farming. They were pro- 
prietors of the Mohigan House at Lake 
George, New York, two seasons, it being a 
favorite summer resort for guests seeking 
quiet and rest. In 1868 they came to this 
county, living the first year in Jefferson. 
Mr. Way then purchased his present home. 
They have two daughters — Nellie, wife of E. 
M. McClure, and Nettie M., a school-teacher. 
Their first child died in infancy. Mr. and 
Mrs. Way are very highly esteemed for their 
many noble qualities of mind and heart, and 
for their many acts of neighborly kiiulness. 
Politically Mr. Way is an ardent Republican. 






^OHN W. VADER, son of Daniel Vader 
"^^•f was born in Henry County, Illinois, in 
-fi 1859, where he lived till about nine years 
of age. His father then removed with his 
family to Greene County, locating in Kendrick 
Townsliip in 1868. One year later the 
family removed to Scranton, where the father 
died November 13, 1872. The mother died 
December 14, 1886, at Scranton. John AV., 
the subject of this sketch, grew to manhood 
in Scranton, and was united in marriage in 
Jackson Township, Greene County, on Jan- 
uary 15, 1880, to Miss Cynthia A. Clopton, 
who was born in Greene County in 1855, a 
daughter of Isaac Clo2)ton, of Jackson Town- 
sliip. To Mr. and Mrs. Vader have been 
born two children — Leo C. and Clara B. Mr. 
A^ader followed agricultural pursuits till 1876, 
wjien he entered the postoffice at Scranton as 
clerk under H. C. Smith, postmaster. In 



.J 



284 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



A 



June, 1880, his wife was appointed post- 
mistress, as lie liad not then attained liis 
iiiajority. He soon after, however, assumed 
tliu duties of postmaster, holding that posi- 
tion until February, 1886, wlien the present 
incumbent was appointed. At the general 
election in iS'ovember, 1886, he was elected 
county recorder to succeed Thomas Bigger, 
and received a majority of 341 votes over 
Ed. ('aughlin the Democratic candidate. In 
politics Mr. Vader is a staunch Republican. 



^^EANCIS IIOSA, farmer, section 15, 
fcl Kendrick Township, was born in Cayu- 
^^ ga County, New York, near Auburn, 
August 22, 1822, son of Henry and Mary 
(Hawkins) Rosa, who were natives of New 
York, and the parents of live children — James, 
Francis, Fi'iscilla, Laura Ann and one de- 
ceased. When Francis was ten years of age 
his parents removed to Lorain County, Ohio, 
where he lived twelve years. His youth was 
spent on a farm and in attending the com- 
mon schools. At the age of twenty-two 
years he removed to La Porte Coiinty, Indi- 
ana, where lie learned the trade of miller, 
which he followed many years. In 1857 he 
removed to Cedar Itapids, Iowa, where he 
was engaged in milling. In 1859 he was 
united in marriage with Miss Mary Fitts, a 
native of Linn County, Iowa, and a daughter 
of Tiiomas and Cliarlotte (Bruner) Fitts. 
During tlie late civil war he enlisted in Au- 
gust, 1862, in Company G, Twenty-fourth 
Iowa Infantry. At the battle of Cliampion 
Hills lie was wounded by a niinie l)all in the 
riglit wrist, and his arm was amputated a 
inoiilh later. Some time afterward a second 
ani])iitatioii was Ibund necessary, and it was 
nine montlis before it healed. He was con- 
tiiied in hospital at Memphis, Tennessee, for 



some time, and was then granted a furlough 
and returned to his home in Ohio. He was 
lionorably discharged in October, 1863. Mr. 
Kosa resided in Ohio until the spring of 1864, 
then returned to Cedar llapids, and in 1869 
came to Greene County, settling upon his 
present farm which was then wild land. He 
owns 180 acres of excellent land, a good 
house, surrounded with shade trees, a large 
and commodious barn with stone basement, 
and it is considered one of the best farms in 
the county. Mr. and Mrs. Rosa have two 
children — Loren C. and Oliver M. Politi- 
cally Mr. Rosa aftiliates with the Republican 
party, and is a strong adherent of the princi- 
ples he fought to preserve. He belongs to 
N. li. Powers Post, No. Ill, G. A. R, at 
Scran ton. 



'■^t^f-' 



fAMES W. FITZ, treasurer of Greene 
County, has been a resident here since 
1868. He was born in Muskingum 
County, Ohio, in 1841, and when he was 
twelve years old his parents immigrated to 
Iowa and settled in Linn County. Here his 
father improved a farm and lived upon it un- 
til he came to Jefferson with his son in 1868. 
He now resides in New Jersey. James was 
reared in Linn County to the occupation of 
farming. In September, 1861, he enlisted 
in Companj- A, Thirteenth Iowa Infantry, 
and was mustered out of the service July 21, 
1865. He served in the Seventeenth Army 
Corps, and was in active service during the 
entire term of his enlistment, carrying a 
musket the greater part of the time. He en- 
listed as ;i private, and was promoted Orderly 
Sergeant. About the close of the M'ar he 
was made Second Lieutenant of his comjiany. 
He took part in all the battles and expedi- 
tions of his regiment; was engaged in buth 
days' tight at Shiloli, the second battle of 









^■'■■■■■«"-»"a"M"ji 




Corinth, and siege of Vicksburg. January 1, 
IfSG-i, lie re-enlisted and came home on a 
furk)ngh. On his return to the service he 
took part in the Atlanta camjjaign, and 
marched with Slierman to the sea. At the 
capture of Columbia, South Carolina, his 
regiment was the hrst to enter the town. 
They captured the State-house and placed 
the Union tlag thereon. Ujion his return 
from the army Mr. Fitz resumed farming, 
coming to this county in 1868, as before 
stated, and purchasing a farm in Bristol 
Township. lie was elected recorder of 
Greene County in 1872, serving four years. 
lie was elected to his present office in the 
fall of 1883, to succeed A. S. Gilliland, who 
had served three terms of two years each, and 
re-elected in 1885. Politically he is a Re- 
publican. He was married in 1866 to Miss 
Ann E. LeGore, a native of Indiana. To 
this union have been born four children — 
Leone L., Ella J., Minnie B. and Irma. 



iPHPvAIM JOHNSON, who resides on 
section 27, Washington Township, 



Greene County, is a native of Wash- 
ington County, Pennsylvania, born March 
15, 1826, a son of Hon. Aaron Johnson, now- 
deceased, who was also a native of Washing- 
ton Count}'. The father followed the avoca- 
tion of a shepherd. He came with his family 
to Perry County, Ohio, in 1836, settling 
three miles east of Somerset, and there our 
subject grew to manhood and received a 
common-school education. Ho was reared a 
farmer, and has always followed agricultui'al 
pursuits. He was married May 15, 1851, to 
Miss Martha Curran, and to this union have 
been born five children^S. Wesley; Sarah 
E., wife of J. P. Law, of Rippey; William 
A., Edgar A. and Lillie L. Mr. Johnson 



located in Whiteside County, Illinois, in 
1861, where he made his home till ilarch, 
1883, when he removed to his present farm, 
which contains 160 acres of choice land, and 
has since devoted his attention to farming 
and stock-raising. Both he and his wife are 
members of the Methodist Episcopal church 
at Rippey. 



"^'V'"^^"*""*" — 

.^AMES A. ROWLES, general merchant, 

fPaton, is a native of Ohio, born in 
Meigs County March 20, 1850, a son 
of Hezekiah Rowles, a native of the State of 
Pennsylvania, now living in Knox County, 
Illinois, where he has lived on a farm since 
the fall of 1856. James A. grew to manhood 
in Knox County, being reared on his father's 
farm, and receiving his education at Knox 
College, of Galesburg, Illinois. December 
25, 1871, he entered the employ of the Chi- 
cago, Burlington ikQuincj' Railroad Company, 
acting as agent and operator for them at New 
Windsor, Illinois; Ohio. Illinois, and at 
Prophetstown, Illinois, until 1880. He then 
came to Paton, Greene County, Iowa, and for 
a year and a half was engaged in dealing in 
grain and lumber, since which he has followed 
mercantile pursuits. He carries a full line 
of everything usually found in a well kept 
general store, and has the largest business ot 
its kind in Paton. He carries a capital stock 
of $5,000, his annual sales amounting to 
about $20,000. He was united in marriage 
April 8, 1875, to Miss Nellie E. Elkins, and 
to this union have been born three children — 
Edna I., deceased; Jessie E. and Mary L. 
Mr. Rowles is at present serving as treasurer 
of Paton and of the school district. He 
has held the office of mayor, serving as such 
with credit to himself, and to the best inter- 
ests of the town. He was also elected to the 



"W-M-I 



.w,»_t a_iiii»»i_»_m»».»,».».aB»,w,»^iB„»-_-« C 



286 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



office of justice of tlie peace, but refused to 
qualify. He is a member of the Independent 
< )rder of Good Templars, and is deputy of 
his lodge. He is the chorister in the Metii- 
odist Episcopal church of Paton. 



-s<-»J*|*'-« 



f HOMAS B. REECE, deceased, of i&i- 
flim. ferson, was a member of one of the 
^J representative pioneers of Greene 
County. His father, George W. Reece, set- 
tled on section 82, Grant Township, in April, 
1854. He was a native of Maryland, and 
reared in Pennsylvania. When a young man 
lie went to Miami County, Ohio, where he 
married Miss Mary Deeter, of Pennsylvania. 
When the family removed to Iowa it con- 
sisted of tlie parents and eight children. 
They resided one year in Iowa County before 
coming to this county. There M^ere but few 
families living in what is now Grant Town- 
ship when Mr. Reece and his family settled 
there; the number did not exceed half a 
dozen. The country was in its original state 
of wildness, and game was abundant, espe- 
cially deer and elk. Mr. Reece remembers 
of seeing a buffalo cross his father's farm 
soon after they came here — -.though this was 
probably a stray animal, as buffaloes had 
generally disappeared before this time. Mr. 
Recce's fiither was a great hunter and an ex- 
cellent shot with the rifle, and he found no 
trouble in supplyingthe family with an abund- 
ance of choice game. Thomas lost his 
mother by death in 1855, her death being 
the first in the township of Grant. In 1860 
his father remarried, taking for his second 
wife J\Irs. INFary Smith, widow of John Smith, 
and daughter of George May, a well-known 
pioneer of Greene County. George W. 
lieece remo\ed to Oregon, where he died, 
March 13, 1876. He was a man of high 



moral character, a generous and worthy citi- 
zen, a man of strong temperance principles, 
and withal a worthy representative of that 
grand old pioneer element that is fast passing 
away. Politically he was an anti-slavery 
Whig, and in religion, a member of the Ger- 
man Baptist church. Of the eight children 
who came to Iowa with their parents, but 
four are living — Michael resides in Missouri; 
Elizabeth, wife of William Williams, in Kan- 
sas; Marion, a minister of the Christian 
church, lives also in Kansas; Miller, also in 
Kansas. The deceased are Susan V., Mary 
A., Barbara A., and Thomas B. Thomas B. 
was the only one who located in Greene 
Township. He was born in JNIiami County, 
( )hio, in 1838, and was sixteen years of age 
when he came to Iowa with his parents. He 
married Miss Elizabeth, daughter of William 
Ingling, of Grant Township. They had six 
children — George W., Emma, Lewis, Sankey, 
Florence and Moody. Mr. Reece was en- 
gaged in mercantile business the greater part 
of his life, and for many years was one of the 
principal business men of Jefferson. He 
died February 2, 1887. 

— f*4M^r^-^.^«^ 

IfSAAC CLOPTON, a highly esteemed pio- 
Jij j neer of Greene County, settled in Jackson 
'S' Township in the spring of 1851. He has 
witnessed the growth and development of the 
county from its earliest infancy, being one of 
the twelve or fourteen families who first 
settled in the county. Few men have done 
more to advance the interests of the county 
than has Mr. Clopton, and few have made 
more friends. He was born in Cass County, 
Illinois, May 15, 1829. His parents were 
David and Lavinia Clopton, the father a 
native of Virginia and the mother of Ten- 
nessee. They were married in Kentucky 



i 

i 

i 



'■ ■ ■■■■■■ ^■■■■■■■■ ■■■■ ■ ■■ ■ ■ '■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■j *iir»sw»-»^-» - ,«.a_ » . 



BIOGBAPHIOAL SKETCHES. 



2H7 



and were among tlie first settlers of Cass 
County, Illinois. In 1841 the family 
removed to Harrison County, Missouri, 
where, November 29, 1850, Mr. Clopton was 
married to Miss Nancy Ann Salmon, daugh- 
tei' of William and Mary Salmon, who was 
born in Hardin County, Ohio, March 22, 
1829, and lived there until eighteen years of 
age, then, with her parents, went to Harrison 
County. Later, her parents removed to 
Davis County, Missouri, whei'e they remained 
until their decease. Mr. Clopton's parents 
had ten children, two of whom died young — 
John, who resides in Jackson Township, 
where he settled in October, 1853; Robert, 
who settled in ]\[adison County, this State, in 
an early day, entered the Union service dur- 
ing the late war and died at Cairo, Illinois, 
while iu the army; Isaac, our subject; Will- 
iam, who came to this county when j^oung 
and now lives in Greenbrier Township; David, 
who settled in Kansas; Mrs. Cynthia Duncan, 
who remained in Illinois; Mrs. Martha Har- 
din, of Davis County, Missouri, and Mrs. 
Lucy Ellis, who died in Dallas County. The 
parents came to Greene County about the 
same time their son Isaac came, and made 
their home on section 10, Jackson Township, 
about four years, then returned to Missouri 
and settled in Gentry Count}-, where the 
father died soon after the war. The mother 
survived several years, and died at the resi- 
dence of her son John, in Jackson Township. 
Mr. and Mrs. Clopton commenced their life 
in Greene County with no capital except 
strong and willing hands and a determination 
to deserve success by honest industi-y and 
frugality. The first few years were a con- 
stant struggle for the most common necessi- 
ties of life. But the reward came, and they 
are now possessed of ample means to support 
them in their declining years; and in the 
affections of their children, and in the resjject 



and confidence of a wide circle of friends the}- 
are rich indeed. Mr. Clopton owns 400 acres 
of excellent land, witii two good dwelling 
houses. His residence is on section 13. His 
land is well adapted to stock-raising and he 
devotes his- attention to that industry. He 
has meadow, upland and timber, well watered 
by the North Coon Iliver, making it one of 
the best farms in the county. Mr. and .Mrs. 
Clopton have had twelve children, who lived 
to be men and women, except one. Clara died 
at nine months, and all but two are now 
living. Their names are — Eobert and David 
A., now residents of Nebraska; AVilliam, 
who died at the age of twenty-one years; 
Mrs. Mary J. Millet, of Nebraska; ]\Ira. 
Cynthia A. Vader, of Scrantou City; Mrs. 
Martha E. Lyon, of Jackson Township; Mrs. 
Sabra Tyrall and Mrs. Minnie Stevens, also 
of Jackson Township; Isaac, Marshall and 
Edmond 1)., are at home. 



|HOMAS B. MARTIN, farmer and 
'^jljis: stock-raiser, section S, Junction Town- 
V^ ship, was born in St. Maiy's County, 
Maryland, March 12, 1825, his father, Thomas 
Martin, who is now deceased, having been 
born in the same county. Our subject was 
reared to the avocation of a farmer, his father 
being a farmer. His education was received 
in the common schools of Muskingum Coun- 
ty, Ohio, to which county the parents had 
removed about the year 1829, the father 
dying tiiere about 1838. Mr. Martin was 
married December 3, 1846, to Miss Susan 
Storer, a native of Pennsylvania, and daugh- 
ter of Richard Storer. Of the seven children 
born to this union five are yet living — Iiobei-t 
G., Mary J., Samuel S., Haimah and Sarah 
I. Mr. Martin removed to Athens County, 
Ohio, in 1847, remaining there two years. 



■■■-■-■S»J 



'"™™"g'* 



' - ■ -■-■- ■ - ■ ■ ■ -■- ■ - ■ - "' - ■ - ■ -"■.■^ ■ - l . 



^ 



288 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



if 



He then removed to Perry County, Ohio, 
niakiii;;' tliat his lioine from 1849 until 1866. 
lie served two yeans and tour months as a 
soUlicr in the wai- of tlie llebellion, enlisting 
ill Cuiiij)aMy C Thirty-nintii Oliio Infantry. 
lie jiarticipated in the battles of New Madi'id 
and luka, and at botli engagements at 
Corintli, wlien he was taken sick and trans- 
ferred to tlie invalid corps. He was dis- 
charged at Jetl'erson Barracks, Missonri, on 
account of disability in November, 1863. 
Mr. Martin came to Iowa in 1866, and lived 
in Linu County until the spring of 1870, 
since which he has resided on his farm on 
section 8, of Junction Township, where he has 
160 acres of land. Both Mr. and Mrs. Mar- 
tin are members of the Presbyterian church 
at Dana, and among the respected citizens of 
Junction Township. 



►^»-»^^i".»' 



fOSEPH W. xVNDERSOX resides on the 
southwest (juarter of section 22, Grant 
Townsliip, where he located in 1867. 
The first improvements on the place M'ere 
made \)y .1. A. Snodgrass. Mr. Anderson 
owns 200 acres of excellent land, the most of 
whicli is improved, and lie is engaged in gen- 
eral farming and stock-raising. Mr. Snod- 
grass erected a frame building in 1858, made 
of native timber and mostly' of black-walnut 
tinisli. In 1N86 Mr. Anderson removed the 
biiiWingand erected his present fine residence 
atacost of !i>l,0()0. He also lias good comforta- 
ble farm buildings, all of which he built 
himself The farm is well fenced, and in a 
good state of cultivation. Mr. Anderson is 
conceded to be among the best farmers and 
stock-raisers in his township. lie is a son of 
\\'illiam Anderson, who settled with liis 
fauiily in (Jrant Township, JS'ovember 23, 
1SG6. The father is a native of Ohio, born 



August 5, 1810, where he was reared, and 
where he married Amarilla Dinesmore, who 
died in Ohio, September, 1846. I)eceml)er 
6, 1848, the father married Lydia Homey. 
On the 7th day of October, 1856, the family 
started for Greene County, Iowa, the father 
having been here the previous fall and made 
his location. The family consisted of the 
parents and nine children, all of whom came 
at the same time. An older son, J. P., was 
then in California. He also came to Greene 
County, married, and settled in Jefferson, 
where he lived until his decease. One of the 
daughters, Sarah, was married at that time, 
and also came, with her husband, John A. 
Snodgrass. John Betebenner and wife came 
with the Anderson family and settled in Grant 
Township, but now live in Guthrie County. 
They came through with teams and wagons, 
the journey consuming about six weeks. 
This country was all new at tliat time, Des 
Moines being their market and their post- 
office. Settlers were scarce, but what there 
were rendered mutual assistance, and a 
friendly feeling existed in the hearts of all. 
A desire to help one another existed to a de- 
gree not often seen in older communities. 
William Anderson is still a resident of Greene 
County. Uncle Billy, as he is familiarly 
called, September 15, 1886, sold tlie old 
homestead to David ]\Iiner, of Illinois, for 
§13,000, and then bought 120 acres of fine 
land a mile and a lialf north, of M. B. Mc- 
Duffie, ]iaying fov it $25 an acre. On this 
farm is a good frame house and artesian well. 
All the children that came with their parents 
are still living except one daughter, .\nn. 
She was a child of the first marriage. Slie 
became the wife of Pleasant Keed, in 1861, 
who died in February, 1S62, his wife surviv- 
ing him but a few months. There were seven 
children bdrn to Mr. and ]\Irs. William An- 
derson alter they came to this county, six of 



,Ji 



■-■-■-■■■-■-■-»i 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



289 



whom are living. Mr. Anderson, Sr., is the \ substantial farmers of his townshij). For 
father of seventeen children, fourteen of whom the past live years he, in addition to attending 
were living in 1886. Ilehasthirtj-fonrgrand- to his farm, has been engaged in prospecting, 



children, and live great-grandchildren. Jo- 
seph W. ^Vnderson, the subject of this notice, 
was born in Fayette County, Ohio, January 
14, 1844. In August, 1861, he enlisted in 
Company II, Tenth Iowa Infantry, and served 
three years. lie was in the battles of Inka, 
Corinth, siege of Yicksburg, Chattanooga, 
Missionary Kidge, andsomeothersof less note. 
lie was discharged at Kingston, Georgia, his 
term of enlistment having expired in Sep- 
tembei-, 1864. In 1862 he received a gun- 
shot wound at Corinth, from the effects of 
which he has never fully recovered. He was 
mari'ied March 15, 1866, to Nancy J. Coch- 
ran, daughter of George and Phebe Ann 
Cochran. She was born in Logan County, 
Ohio, in 1848, and when she was a small 
child the family removed to Indiana, where 
the mother died when she M'as three years 
old. The father then returned to Ohio with 
his daughter, who was his only child. Mr. 
Cochran came to Iowa, leaving his daughter 
in Ohio, and she came to Greene County in 
1862. Her father now lives in Jeli'erson. 
Mr. and Mrs. Anderson have no children. 
Politically he is a Pepublican. 






I^AMUEL S. MARTIN, farmer, section 
°^1^1 ^' 'Junction Township, was born in 
'"W Perry County, Oliio, November 24, 
1853, a son of Thomas B. Martin, a resident 
of Junction Township, lie was reared and 
educated in his native county, living there 
until seventeen years old, and in 1870 accom- 
panied his parents to Greene County, Iowa. 
His life lias been spent on a farm, and the 
lessons learned in his youtli have been the 
means of making him one of the enterprising, | in deptJi and two stories in height, whic 



erecting wind-mills and pumps, and boring- 
wells. Mr. Martin is recognized as one of 
the leading men of the township, and has 
served as road supervisor and school director. 
He is a member of the Presbyterian cliurch 
at Dana. He was married Novenujer 7, 
1875, to Annie White, a native of Wisconsin, 
daughter of John White. They have four 
children — John W., Olive M., Edith I), and 
Samuel. 



RICHARD OLIVE, M. I)., one of the 
; prominent citizens of Scranton, where 
"^^iiV he has resided since January, 1873, was 
born in Manchester, England, where he was 
reared and educated. At the age of fourteen 
years he entered a drug store as a clerk, and 
subsequently began the study of medicine. 
He was married in his native country to 
Miss Elizabetli Kenney, who was also a native 
of Manchester, England, and to this union 
have been born eleven children, of whom two 
sons are deceased. Three sous and six daugii- 
ters are still living. Doctor Olive came to 
America with his family in 1849, locating 
first in Marquette County, Wisconsin, and 
later removed to Arlington, Wisconsin, where 
he practiced medicine and also owned a drug 
store. In 1868 he bought a farm in Greene 
County, Iowa, located in Scranton Township, 
one and a half miles south of Scranton, and 
has since been a resident of this county. In 
1878 he removed to the village of Scranton 
and purchased the drug store of Charles 
Dowd, which he still carries on, and which is 
the fourth drug store he has owned. He has 
an elegant brick store in Scranton, 100 feet 



290 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



was completed in 1879. JSo man in the 
State of Iowa has had a longer experience in 
the drug business than he, which extends 
through a ]ieriod oi forty-l'onr years. The 
success to wliifh the doctor has attained is 
due solely to his own industry and enterprise, 
having landed in America in limited circum- 
stances, and is now classed among the well- 
to-do citizens of liis county. Beside his drug 
store he owns a pleasant liome in Scranton, 
and a tine farm of 240 acres, well stocked and 
improved, near the town. Although he was 
educated in the medical profession in England, 
he has availed himself of opportunities for 
further extending his medical knowledge in 
this country, liaving attended medical lectures 
at the Iowa State University at Keokuk 
several terms. In 1868 he was senior prac- 
titioner in Mercy Hospital under Professor 
Davis. He has now retired from the active 
practice of his profession, yet at times is com- 
pelled to respond to calls for consultation in 
nreent cases. He was considered one of the 
most skillful practitioners in the county, and 
few men are better or more favorably known 
throughout the county than the subject of 
this sketch. His parents, John and Margaret 
Olive, immigrated to America with liim.and 
lirst settled in Wisconsin. Later the father 
removed to Minnesota, where he lived till his 
death. Tlic mother is also deceased. 



►|«-»j*|». 



Vp;LHANAN RINEHAET, farmer and 
W3li stock-raiser, residing on section 17, 
'j^ Washington Township, and an early 
pioneer of (4reene County, was bcirn in Wash- 
ington County, Pennsylvania, February 10, 
ISl-'j. His fatlier, JMathias Kinehart, who is 
now deceased, was born in Chester County, 
Pennsylvania, of German parentage. In 
1816 he removed with his family to Greene 



County, Ohio, coming down the river on a 
tlat boat, where the family experienced many 
of the hardships and privations of jiionecr life. 
In 1829 they removed to A'ermillion, now 
Champaign Count}', Illinois, which was also 
in a state of nature, Indians and wild animals, 
sucli as wolves and deer, being the principal 
inhabitants. Their nearest trading point and 
postoffice was at Danville, a distance of 
thirty miles. Our subject has spent the 
greater part of his life on the frontier, having 
settled in Greene County, Iowa, in dune, 
1855, about a quarter of a mile from his 
present home, and here he again passed 
through all the different phases of pioneer 
life. His neighbors were few and lived at 
long distances, few settlers having preceded 
him. His nearest mill and postoffice was at 
Panora, twenty miles away, but most of his 
tradintr was done at Des Moines. In tliose 
early days he paid §7 for a two bushel bag of 
salt, and everything was proportionately high. 
Indians were numerous, and for several 
winters camped near his house. ]\Ir. Pine- 
hart has cleared and improved his farm, which 
now contains 155 acres of well cultivated 
land, and is now enjoying the rest which is 
the reward of a well spent life, and is now 
surrounded by all the necessary comfoi'ts of 
life. January 16, 1840, he was united in 
marriage to Miss Margaret Correy, a native 
of Scioto County, Ohio, a daughter of Will- 
iam Correy, who is now deceased, who settled 
with his family in A'ermillion County, Illi- 
nois, in 1828. Of the seven children born 
to this union four are living — Angeline, 
Matilda, Louisa and William A. Angeline 
married Mark York, by whom she had four 
children, of whom only one, named Irene, is 
living. Mr. York died while serving in the 
war of the Rebellion, and liis widow subse- 
quently married William C. Elder, of Lincoln 
County, Nebraska, and to them have been 



hit 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKSTGQBS. 



291 



"-^1 



born fonr children — Rosa, Ora, Nona and 
Nina. Louisa is tlie wife of Alvin S. Gilli- 
land, of (Trecne County, Iowa. Amanda, 
anotlier dancjliter, wlio is deceased, married 
James II. Carter, of Daviess County, Missouri, 
and had four c!iildren,of wliom three survive 
her — Ciiarity, Lawrence and Frank. When 
Mr. llinehart was a young man lie learned 
the printer's trade, serving his apprenticeshij) 
in Danville and Paris, Illinois. Since becom- 
ing a resident of Greene County he has held 
tlie office of count}' supervisor, justice of the 
peace, school treasurer, beside filling other 
local offices of trust and responsibility, and 
in all of these positions served with credit to 
iiiraself, and to the best interest of his county. 



(£> ^ *• a) 

fAMES SIIREVE, fanner, section 15, 
Kendrick Township, was born in Brown 
County, Ohio, October 12, 1819, son of 
Caleb and Anna (Slack) Shreve, the former a 
native of Virginia and the latter of Maryland. 
They were the parents of thirteen children, 
James being the tenth child. lie lived in 
Brown Count\' until he was fourteen years of 
age. His youth was spent in assisting at 
farm work, and in attending the subscrij)tion 
schools of that day. In 1834 his parents 
removed to Fountain County, Indiana, where 
they lived one year, then removed to Cham- 
paign County, Illinois, his father being one 
of the pioneers of that county. His father 
died in the fall of 18.35, leaving him to 
control and manage the farm and other 
business. April 8, 1841, lie was married 
to Hester Ann Shutter, formerly Hester 
Ann Argo, who was born in Pickaway Coun- 
ty, Ohio, and a daughter of Alexander and 
Esther Argo. ]\Ir. Shreve remained in 
Champaign County until 1858, when he 
moved to Appanoose County, this State, 



residing there six inontlis, then came to 
Greene County and purchased some wild 
land of a Mr. Musselman, which is his present 
farm. For many years his house was a home 
for travelers who were coming to this new 
countiy. He has improved his farm, and has 
a good house, a commodious barn for stock 
and grain, a line orchard and a native grove 
of trees. He owns 140 acres of excellent 
land. When he first came here he had to go 
to Panora to mill. Mr. and Mrs. Shreve had 
six children Ijorn to them — "William H. IL, 
Caleb Alexander, Nancy Armilda, Hannah 
Mary, Sarah Catherine, and Julia Ann. Mrs. 
Shreve died July 15, 1885, aged sixty-seven 
3'ears. Slie was a worthy and consistent 
member of the Christian church, an aftec- 
tionate wife and mother, and a kind neighbor. 
Politically Mr. Shreve is a Republican. He 
has served as township trustee, mem])er of 
school board, and road supervisor. 

■ I I .i?.i'i I'l'^r. I- 



fOHN P. WHERRY, a successful and 
enterprising farmer and stock-raiser of 
=^ Cedar Township, Greene County, re- 
siding on section 3, was born in (Tuernsey 
County, Ohio, February 23, 1835. His par- 
ents, John and Catherine (Bonnell) Wherry, 
were natives of Pennsylvania and Virginia 
respectively. They immigrated to Jones 
County, Iowa, with their family in 1853, 
being among the pioneers of that county. 
Both are now deceased. John P. Wherrv, 
the subject of this sketch, was reared in his 
native county, his boyhood days being passed 
in assisting on his father's farm and attend- 
ing the district schools. He was about 
eighteen years old when he accompanied his 
parents to Jones County, and at the age of 
twenty-five years he began farming on his 
own account on a farm of eighty acres which 






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292 



HISTORY OF' GREENE COUNTY. 



had been given him by his father. He re- 
ni.-iiiicd in .loiies County on liis farm until 
the fall of 1880, when he removed to his 
present farm in Cedar Township, Greene 
County, wliere he has 240 acres of well- 
watered land, besides fifty acres of timber 
land. His residence is comfortable and com- 
modious, and his farm is among the best in 
Greene County, and although he has lived in 
the county but a short time, he has made 
many friends and gained the respect of all 
who know him. Mr. Wherry- was married in 
Jones County, December 24, 1802, to Miss 
Lucinda E. Coon, who was born July 1, 1844, 
a daughter of S. and M. Coon. They are the 
parents of five children — Dora A., Elmer E., 
Ellen J., Ida IT. and Emma A. Both Mr. 
and XErs. AVherry are members of the Evan- 
gelical Lutheran church. In politics he affili- 
ates with the Ilepublican party. 



--*|*^>^>-- 

:ir-^TILLIA:\I DUNTERMAN, postoffice, 
'Wiv/wl Bayard, Iowa, engaged in farming 
1— sJ^J and stock-raising in Willow Town- 
ship, was born in Cook County, Illinois, No- 
vember 15, 1849, his parents, C. and M. 
(Erlman) Dunterman, being natives of Ger- 
many. He was reared to the avocation of a 
farmer, his boyiiood being spent in assisting 
his father on the farm and attending: the dis- 
trict school of his neighborhood. On attain- 

o 

ing the age of twenty-one years he began 
learning the carpenter's trade, which he fol- 
lowed about six years, and from his earnings 
saved enough money to purchase his Greene 
County property, settling where he now re- 
sides, on section 20, Willow Township, in 
1878. He was united in marriage to Miss 
^linnic Nurnbcrg, a daughter of Charles 
Xurtdierg, and to this union have been born 
four ciiildren, as follows—Herman F., Henry 



W., Ida L. and Alcena L. Since coming to 
Greene County Mr. Dunterman has followed 
farming with success. His land when he 
settled on it was in a state of nature, but by 
hard work and persevering energy he has 
converted it into a well-improved farm, and 
has erected a comfortable and commodious 
residence, and good barn and other farm 
buildings, the entire surroundings showing 
the owner to be a thorough, ]iractical farmer. 
By industry and good management he has 
acquired his present fine property, which 
consists of eighty acres on section 20 ami 
forty acres on section 8, Willow Township. 
Mr. Dunterman has lield the office of road 
supervisor of Willow Township, and has also 
served as school director. Both he and his 
wife are members of the Lutheran church. 



M. FITZ PATRICK, farmer and 
yirp stock-raiser section 22, Cedar Town- 
j\, ® ship, is a son of Miles and Julia Fitz 
Patrick, who came from Ireland to America 
in 1845. They first settled in Illinois, living 
there ten years, and in 1855 came to Iowa, 
and were the first settlers of Cedar Township, 
Greene ( 'ounty. Our subject was the sev- 
enth of nine children. He was born in 
Ireland, March 10, 1844, and was therefore 
but one year old when his parents came to 
America. He remained with his parents 
until twenty-six j'ears of age, and in Febru- 
ary, 1870, he settled on the farm where he 
now lives. He first bought eighty acres, but 
to this he has added and has improved it 
until he now owns one of the best farms in 
Greene County. II is first trading point was 
Des Moines, which was also his postoffice. 
As there were no bridges and all the streams 
had to be forded, the trip was a hard and 
long one. ^Ir. Fitz Patrick was married 



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BIOGRAPEICAL SKETGHlSa. 



293 



January 9, 1S70, to Josephine Rhoads, a 
nature of Oliio, daugliter of Sauiuel Klioads, 
who came to Iowa in 1850, and settled in 
AVashington Township in 1855, where lie 
still lives. Mr. and Mrs. Fitz Patrick have 
six children — Mattie, Nellie, Mary and Miles 
(twins), Charles and Carl. Mr. Fitz Patrick 
and his family are members of the Catholic 
church. Although beginning life a poor 
Mian, Mr. Fitz Patrick has by hard work and 
economy acquired a valuable property, llis 
farm contains 260 acres of choice land, all 
well improved, and his home is a model of 
Ijeauty and convenience, lie is one of the 
influential men of the townsliip and has held 
most of the important offices, serving in 
each with efficiency and to tlie entire satisfac- 
tion of his constituents. 



-V^+*^i^— 



lORMAN F. RUSSELL, one of the 
active and enterprising farmers of 
% Junction Township, where he has a 
fine farm of 160 acres on section 9, is a 
native of Boone County, Illinois, the date of 
his birth being August 9, 1844. His father, 
Caleb Russell, was born in the State of Ver- 
mont, and in 1833 immigrated to Illinois. 
In 1849 he went to California with his family, 
by the overland route, their wagons in wliich 
they made the journey being drawn by oxen 
and mules. The father returned with his 
family to DeKalb County, Illinois, in 1852, 
and in the fall of 1855 came to Iowa, locating 
first in Cedar County. He is now a resident 
of Greene County, making his home in Paton 
Township. Norman F. Russell, the subject 
of this sketch, came to Iowa with his parents 
in the year 1855. He was reared to the 
avocation of a farmer, wliich he has always 
followed, with the exception of three years 
spent in the late war, and his education was 



obtained in the common schools of his neigh- 
borhood. lie was a member of Company I, 
Twenty-sixth .Iowa Infantry, and was in the 
battles of Arkansas Post, Vicksburg, Lookout 
Mountain, Missionary Ridge, Resaca, Keiiesaw 
Mountain, Marietta, Georgia, Atlanta, Jones- 
boro, Lovejoy Station, Goldsboro, and others 
of minor importance. He was wounded 
three times at Ringgold, all shots taking 
effect tlie same instant. In that conflict, out of 
thirteen of his company, three were killed and 
six wounded. May 18, 1867, lie was united 
in marriage to Miss Lucy Pike, a daughter 
of Abram Pike, and to this union liave been 
born three children — Nellie F., Nelson L. 
and Clarence R. Clarence R. Grubbs, a son 
of Mrs. Russell's deceased sister, is also being 
reared by them. Mr. Russell came to Greene 
County, Iowa, in 1876 and lived in Paton 
Township until the spring of 1885, when he 
settled on iiis present farm in .lunction 
Township. He has held the offices of road 
supervisor, township trustee and school direc- 
tor, since being a resident of Greene County. 
Mr. Russell is a member of the Baptist 
church, being baptized in Coon River, joining 
Calamus Creek Church, in Carroll Countv. 



fAMES A. HENDERSON, clerk of the 
courts of Greene County, was elected to 
"T^ his present office in the tall of 1884, and 
was re-elected in the fall of 1886, suc- 
ceeding his father, who had served three 
terms or six years. Mr. Henderson was born 
in Johnson County, Iowa, near Iowa City, in 
1862. In early life he attended the common 
schools, and for a time was a student at the 
academy in Jefterson. He was reared on his 
father's farm, and during the latter's admin- 
istration of the office of clerk of the courts, 
he was employed as clerk, thus becoming 



rr^mjjmj.m^ imjSwrsimstr iimsiWiiVi^^m^u^m^mst^.iWiS'Smrsa rj^ 



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&}sfokf dp OhE^N^ COU^Tf. 



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well qualified to succeed his father in office, 
lie cuine to this coniit\- with his father in 
February, 1873. Politically he is a Repub- 
lican. Mrs. Henderson was formerly Eliza 
J. Fet/.er, a native of Indiana. 



^rOSEPH CIIUKDAN, Sr., is one of the 
Sii ! oldest and most prominent pioneers of 
^ Highland Township, coming here when 
there were only two log buildings in the 
township, the date of his arrival being ilay 
24, 186S. lie is an Englishman by birth, 
born in Cuniliei-land County, April 25, 1824. 
Ilis parents, John and Ann Cliurdan, were 
both born in England, and lived in their 
native country till their death, the motlier 
dying eighteen years ago. Josepli Cluirdan, 
the subject of this sketch, was reared to the 
avocation of a farmer, remaining in his 
native country till twenty-six years of age. 
He left England March 20, 1850, landing at 
New York May 20, and first located in Sara- 
toga. New York, where he was engaged as 
overseer of a railroad tunnel l)eing erected at 
the head of Lake Champlain, and also of the 
laying of the Troy & Plattsburg Railroad, 
the work being completed in eighteen 
months. He then went to Canada, luit in 
February. 1852, returned to the United 
States, settling in Indiana, when he again 
entered the railroad employ. He started for 
Iowa in November, 1852, his route being 
from Madison, Indiana, down the Ohio River 
to Cairo, Illinois, thence up the Mississippi 
River to Muscatine, Iowa. No railroad being 
in the State at that time, he proceeded by 
teams to Cedar Rapids. He settled in Linn 
County, and for sixteen years followed farm- 
ing in that count}-. In the spring of 1868 
he sold his farm in Linn County, and bought 
eighty acres of his present farm in Highland 



Township, Greene County, and to his original 
purchase he has added from time to time till 
he now has 170 acres of fine land, well 
stocked. Mr. Churdan was united in mar- 
riage February 13, 1851, to Miss Eliza Ken- 
nedy, who was born in England, her parents 
living in their native country (England) till 
their death. Of the seven children born to 
Mr. and Mrs. Churdan, six are living — 
Joseph, Jr., born December 26, 1852; Anna 
Fonts, living in Cedar Township, Greene 
County, was born in Canada, November 6, 
1851; John, born April 25, 1857; Jennie 
Eliza Wilson, born INIarch IG, 1854; Rosa 
Ellen Robinson, born January 16, 1866, and 
Alfred Addison, born July 11, 1870. Robert 
Amos died June 16, 1856. Mr. Churdan 
takes an active interest in the growth and 
advancement of the village which was named 
Churdan in honor of him. He has held the 
office of school treasurer for several years, 
serving with credit to himself and to the en- 
tire satisfaction of his constituents. In poli- 
tics he has affiliated with the Republican 
party since its organization. Both Mr. and 
Mrs. Churdan are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, having united with that 
religious denomination in 1860. 

rW^.^ILLIAM L. FRANKLIN, one of the 
'\:\ \\ early settlers of Greene County, re- 

l"^^ siding on section 13, Franklin Town- 
ship, where he is engaged in farming and 
stock-raising, is a native of Owen County, 
Indiana, born March 1, 1839, a son of AVill- 
iam A. and Margaret (Brown) Franklin. 
The father being a farmer, our subject was 
reared to the same occupation. In 1844 he 
was brought by his parents to JSIuscatine 
County, Iowa, and in 1855 he accompanied 
them to Greene County, they settling wliere 



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THE NEW YORK 

pv' ::iY 



*SirOR.. LENOX AND 
, TTUffiltl* FOUNDATIONS. 




/v 








BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHED. 



297 



he now resides. At the age of twenty-one 
yearshe wentin company with G. B. Burlcaiid 
several otliers to Pike's Peak, starting across 
the plains in 1S60. They remained about 
two weeks at Council Bluft's, Iowa, waiting 
for more company before going farther, then 
reached their destination about six weeks 
later, crossing the plains with cattle. Mr. 
Franklin then engaged in mining with Mr. 
Burk, remaining there but a short time, when 
he returned to Greene County, Iowa. In 1862 
he enlisted in defense of his country, and was 
assigned to Company E, Tliirty-ninth Iowa 
Infantry. He was present at the battle of 
Cross-Koads, and was engaged in several 
skirmishes. He was taken prisoner at the 
battle of Allatoona, Georgia, where he was 
contined about six months, when he escaped. 
The prisoners at that time were being moved 
from one place to another when he made his 
escape by jumping from the train, but in 
doing so was wounded. He then returned to 
the Union lines, traveling by night for six- 
teen nights, and during the day-time hid in 
swamps andforfour days was witiiont anything 
to eat. He also passed on this perilous jour- 
ney several rebel pickets. He finally reached 
the Union lines near Newburn, North Caro- 
lina, and was mustered out of the service at 
Washington, but not being present he re- 
ceived his papers at Clinton, Iowa, in June, 
1865. He then returned to Greene County 
where he began farming on his own land, and 
by hard work and good management he has 
now a tine farm containing 185 acres under a 
good slate of cultivation. Mr. Franklin was 
united in marriage to Miss Consignee T. 
Roberts, wiio was born in Kentucky, Febru- 
ary 20, 1852, her parents, George and Nancy 
Roberts, being natives of Tennessee. Mr. 
and Mrs. Franklin are the parents of three 
children — Lillie E., George W. and Halsie A. 
Although not an office seeker, Mr. Franklin 



was elected a trustee of Franklin Township, 
which position he fills at present to tlie en- 
tire satisfaction of his constituents. He is 
a member of the Odd Fellows order, belong- 
ing to Lodge No. 466. Both he and his wife 
are members of the Baptist church. Mrs. 
Franklin was the fourth in a family of 
twelve children. Her parents are both living 
and are residents of Jefferson, Iowa. 



i 

p 
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fHOMAS J. ARMSTRONG, general 
merchant, and postmaster at Surry, 
^■' was born in Montgomery County, In- 
diana, July 25, 1838. His fatlier, Henry 
Armstrong, was a native of Kentucky, and 
settled in Indiana in 1832, surrounded with I 
woods and wild animals. He cleared ground 
for a log cabin, in which our subject lived 
until 1856. He removed to Blue Earth 
County, Minnesota, in 1878, and to Greene 
County, Iowa, the year following. He con- 
ducted the Armstrong bank one winter. In 
the summer of 1880 he removed to Gowrie 
and established a coal yard, which he con- 
ducted until March, 1883, then came to 
Surry and built a store building, and put in 
a stock of general merchandise. He carries 
a capital stock of $1,000, and does an annual 
business of $6,000. He was married No- 
vember 22, 1866, to Sarah Cole, daughter of 
Joshua Cole, deceased, a native of Virginia. 
Mrs. Armstrong was also born in Virginia. 
Mr. and Mrs. Armstrong had one child, who 
was burned to death by his clothes taking fire 
from a grate, when in his fourth year. Mr. 
Armstrong was a soldier in the late war, 
being a member of Company G, Eleventh 
Indiana Infanti-y, enlisting lor three months 
at the first call for troops. In 1863 he 
enlisted for three months in Company E, 
Seventy-eighth Indiana Infantry. He is a 



24 



J 



298 



HIHTUHY OJi' URKMNE COUNTY. 



member of the Odd Fellows fraternity, of 
the Knights of Labor, and of the Christian 
church. He was appointed postmaster in 
May, 1884. In politics he is a Greenbacker. 
Mrs. Armstronfjf is also a menilier of the 
Cliristian churcli. 

iii-.i.i y i» 3 i i ;»gi ii>-<o» 



fAMES ZELLER, farmer, section 36, 
Greenbrier Township, is one of the pio- 
neers of Greene County, and was born 
in Montgomery County, Xew York, Decem- 
ber 23, 1822. His father, Nicholas Zeller, 
was a native of Oppenheim, Montgomery 
County, New York, and his mother, Cathe- 
rine (Reed) Zeller, was a native of Albany 
County, same State. They were the parents 
of ten children — Eliza, James, AVilliam, 
Nancy, George H., Alexander, Joel, Harri- 
son, and two that died in infancy. James 
resided in Montgomery County until thir- 
teen years of age, when his father removed to 
St. Lawrence County, where he was reared 
on a farm, and received his education in the 
common schools. He was united in marriage 
March 6, 1845, to Miss Sally Ann Dillinbeck, 
a native of Montgomery County, New York, 
and daughter of Jonas and Eva (Wallrod) 
Dillenbeck. In 1854 Mr. Zeller, with his 
wife and four children, removed to Wiscon- 
sin, and located in the town of Lynn, Wal- 
worth County, where he resided until 1869, 
when he came to Greene County and settled 
upon his present farm, in Greenbrier Town- 
ship, which was then wild and uncultivated. 
There were then only live families in the 
township. He has resided here ever since, 
and now has one of the best improved farms 
in the township. He has a good two-story 
residence, built in modern style, and well 
furnished, surrounded with shade trees. He 
has also a good, commodious barn, and build- 



ings for stock and grain, and a modern wind- 
mill, furnishing power for a sup])ly of pure 
water for his stock and for the farm. He is 
principally engaged in stock-raising and feed- 
ing. His farm contains 320 acres of some of 
the best land in Greene County; his sons own 
the remainder of the section. Mr. and Mrs. 
Zeller have had seven children, three of whom 
are living — Oscar, Lafayette and Llomer A. 
The deceased are — Nancy A., who died at 
the age of twenty-three years; Mary C, who 
died at the age of three years; James Iler.ry, 
who died at thirteen m(jntlis, and John A., 
who died at the age of tifteen months. Mr. 
Zeller is a Rejinbiican in politics, and has 
served in most of the township offices, and as 
county supervisor. He is a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal churcii, and by fair and 
honorable dealings, lias secured the conti- 
dence of all who know him. 



«-5»-»5-« 



sfASHINGTON GOODRICH, an en- 



?->.|7p|| terprising farmer of Scranton T(.i\vi 



I {^^'^\ ship, residing on section 6, was born 
in Allegany County, New York, April 16, 
1838, a son of Ebenezerand Elizabeth (Reury) 
Goodrich. In 1840 he was taken by his 
parents to Montgomery County, New 1 ork, 
his mother dying in that county. His fatlier 
made his home in Montgomeiy County until 
1866. He subsequently removed to Barry 
County, Michigan, where he died. Six of 
his children are living — Mrs. Manzer, in 
Barry County, Michigan; Lewis A., in White 
County, Indiana; James W., in Re])nblic 
County, Kansas; Washington and (,'alvin, 
living in Scranton Township, Greene County; 
Mrs. Emma Fuller, residing at Atlantic, Cass 
County, Iowa. In 1855 Washington Good- 
rich, the subject of this sketcii, left his 
father's home in Montgomery County for 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



299 



Kendall County, Illinois, and from that time 
has acted for himself. November 10, 1861, 
he enlisted in the war of the Rebellion, and 
was assigned to Company II, Thirteenth Illi- 
nois Cavalry, being engaged principally in 
guarding lines of commissary trains, and 
keeping the country clear of bushwhackers 
in the States of Missouri and Arkansas. Pie 
served until August 18, 1865, when he re- 
ceived his discharge. June 14, 1864, while 
home on a furlough, he was married in Ken- 
dall County, Illinois, to Miss Sarah Hedges, 
who was born in Orange, Vermont, June 29, 
1843. Her parents, Erastus and Sarah M. 
(Noble) Hedges, died at Piano, Illinois. Mr. 
and Mrs. Goodrich are the parents of two 
children — Francis, born October 25, 1873, 
and Nellie, born December 29, 1881. Mr. 
Goodrich came with his family to Greene 
County, Iowa, and settled on his present 
farm in Scranton Township in 1876, he hav- 
ing purchased his land here in 1874. He 
now has a fine well cultivated farm of 160 
acres which he has improved from the raw 
prairie, erecting a good residence and farm 
buildings. Mr. Goodrich is a comi'adeof N. 
H. Powers Post, No. Ill, G. A. R., of Scran- 
ton, Iowa. In politics he affiliates with the 
Republican party, casting his first presiden- 
tial vote for Abraham Lincoln, and his last 
for James G. Blaine. 



►^w^ 



fACOB HEATER, an old and honored 
jjioneer of Greene County, Iowa, who is 
now deceased, was born in Pickaway 
County, Ohio, June 11, 1809, his father, 
Jacob Pleater, being a native of the same 
county. He received but limited educational 
advantages, attending the log cabin subscrip- 
tion schools of that early day. When he 
was quite young his father died, and he was 



obliged to assist in the maintenance of his 
widowed mother and family until her death. 
He located in Vermillion County, Illinois, 
in 1824, among Indians and wild animals, 
where he experienced many of the hardships 
and privations incident to pioneer life. He 
was a soldier in the Black Hawk war, servinw- 
eleven months, and helped Black Hawk 
across the Mississippi River at Prairie Du 
Chien. For his services in this war he re- 
ceived a grant for forty acres of land, this 
being the first land owned by iiim. He was 
twice married, taking for his first wife Miss 
Catherine Ganoe, and of the ten children 
born to this union five are living — Mary J., 
Elizabeth, Martha, Jacob and William. Mrs. 
Heater died in September, 1S52, and April 
20, 1853, Mr. Heater married Sarah A. Mc- 
Elroy, who was born in Lewis County, Ken- 
tucky, March 20, 1819, a daughter of David 
and Mary McElroy. They have four children 
— Mahala C, George W., Ilettie A. and 
Eliza. Mrs. Heater was taken by her parents 
to Adams County, Ohio, when one year old, 
where she lived till 1847. She then lived in 
Champaign County, Illinois, until coming to 
Greene County with Mr. Heater in 1855. 
Her first husband was a native of Kentucky, 
born in Harrison County, April 20, 1819, and 
died in Illinois. They had one daughter, 
Mary C, who died at the age of twenty-six 
years. She was the wife of Samuel Young, 
and to them were born four children, only 
two now living, named Rosa M. and George 
M. Mr. Heater came with his family to 
Greene County, Iowa, in October, 1855, set- 
tling on section 17 of Washington Township, 
the farm being still occupied by his widow. 
He was very successful in all his undertak- 
ings, and rapidly accumulated property, own- 
ing at one time 1,400 acres of land, and at 
the, time of his death was worth over $40,- 
000. He died of smallpox after a few days 



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HItiTOUY OF OHEENE COUNTY. 



illness, his death taking place June 18, 1864. 
He was an earnest Christian, and was a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal church 
for forty years. He was a good friend to the 
poor, and gave liberally of his means toward 
the support of charitable institutions, and 
was a man respected and esteemed by all who 
knew him. 



— «-.|*>^H^— — 

fOHN B. JOHN, a successful agricult- 
urist of Washington Township, Greene 
County, residing on section 5, is a native 
of West Virginia, born in Tyler County, 
November 24, 1839. He is a son of David 
John, who lives in Davis County, Missouri. 
He was born January 13, 1803, in Greene 
County, Pennsj'lvania, a son of James John, 
who is now deceased. John B. John, the 
subject of this sketch, received his education 
in the rude log cabin subscription schools, 
which were built in the most primitive style. 
He came with his parents to Greene County, 
Iowa, in the fall of 1856, where he has since 
made his home. He enlisted in the late war 
in Company H, Tenth Iowa Infantry, in Au- 
,gust, 1861, serving until December 10, 1862, 
when he was discharged on account of disa- 
bility. He was married October 9, 1864, to 
Mrs. Asenath Brown, a daughter of Isaac 
Crumley, of Greene County, Iowa, and to 
this union have been born three children — 
Isaac (deceased), Eva Alma and William B. 
By her marriage with Isaac H. Brown, Mrs. 
John had four children, of whom only one is 
living, a daughter named Hannah A. Mr. 
Brown was a native of East Tennessee, born 
November 10, 1828. He was a Second Lieu- 
tenant of Company H, Tenth Iowa Infantry, 
during the war of the Rebellion, and was 
killed at the battle of Champion Hills. Mr. 
John has made farming the principal avoca- 



tion of his life, and by his persevering in- 
dustry and good management he has met 
with excellent success, being now the owner 
of 194 acres of valuable land where he re- 
sides. Both Mr. and Mrs. John, and their 
daughters, Hannah and Alma, are members 
of the Methodist Episcopal church. 



;^[EORGE HANKS, one of the first set- 
•wW tiers of Scranton Township, has lived 
'W^ on section 15 since the autumn of 1870, 
his homestead at that time being in a state 
of nature. Mr. Hanks is a native of Eng- 
land, born in Yorkshire October 18, 1831, a 
son of George and Jane Hanks, both of whom 
died in their native country. He was reared 
in the city of York, and when eighteen _years 
of age entered the English army, and served 
three years a member of the Twentieth In- 
fantry, his service being on the Isle of Wight, 
Bermuda and Canada. After leaving the 
service of the Queen he lived at Ogdensburg, 
St. Lawrence County, New York, and at 
Gouverneur until 1859, and then went to 
Bennington County, Vermont, where he lived 
until the autumn of 1863, when he came 
West as far as Ogle County, Illinois, where 
he followed agricultural pursuits until 1870, 
and then came to Iowa and settled on the 
farm where he now lives. Mr. Hanks was 
married at Montreal, Canada, July 20, 1852, 
to Miss Catharine Kane, a native of County 
Cavan, Ireland, daughter of Patrick and 
Honore (McManus) Kane. Her father died 
in Durham, Canada, in 1857, and her mother 
now lives in Scranton Townshi]i with her son 
Charles Kane. To Mr. and Mrs. Hanks 
have been born ten children, of whom but 
six are living — the eldest died in infancy; 
George H. is a resident of Antelope County, 
Nebraska; John L. lives in Dodge County, 



L '!'. ^!s!!!s!! ' ^, g !!;^j^ * ° f !?j ; !f, ' ^' ! ^" 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



1 



301 



Nebraska; William E. died in 1873, aged 
sixteen years and four months; Francis D. 
lives in Scran ton City; Sarah J. is the wife 
of William O. Maley; Susan died in Illinois, 
aged six years and four months; Martha 
died in Illinois, aged eighteen months; 
Martha E. and Elizabeth are at home. In 
politics Mr. Hanks is identified with the 
Labor Reform Greenback party. He is one 
of the representative men of his township, 
and an upright, influential citizen. 

— .^-^f^-- 



ALA A. CHURCH, the present attor- 
ney of Greene County, has been a mem- 
tiv ber of the bar of this county since May 
14, 1878. In iiis earliest practice at Jeffer- 
son he funned a partnership with Harvey 
Potter, Esq., wliich continued about eighteen 
months. He was then associated with A. M. 
Head, the firm name being Head & Church. 
This partnersliip lasted until July, 1881, 
since wliich time Mr. Church has been alone 
in practice. He served as justice of the 
peace from 1880 until 1885, and in 1884 was 
elected Mayor of Jefferson. After serving 
one year he was elected county attorney. 
Mr. Church was born in the town of Dayton, 
Green County, Wisconsin, May 28, 1852. 
He received his literary education at Evans- 
ville, AVisconsin, and in the collegiate depart- 
ment of the Wisconsin State University, and 
graduated in the law department of the Wis- 
consin State University at Madison, June 20, 
1876. After graduation he was engaged for 
two years in teaching. He was married at 
Jefferson, May 4, 1881, to Miss MayMcCully, 
daughtei- of I). B. McCully, deceased. They 
have one child, a daughter — Iza L. Politi- 
cally Mr. Church is a Republican. He is a 
member of the Odd Fellows fraternity, being 
a member both of the subordinate lodge and 



the encampment. Also of the Masonic fra- 
ternity, being a member of Blue Lodge, chap- 
ter and commandery, and is high priest of the 
chapter at present writing. 



►^w^ 



_J#|fILLIAM STEVENS, residing on sec- 
iMiiW]! tion 35, Jackson Township, has been 
l^^ identified with Greene County since 
1869, coming from Boone County, where he 
spent his first winter in Iowa. He was born 
in Oswego County, New York, in the town 
of Oswego, February 12, 1823, son of Joel 
and Margaret (Tannery) Stevens, natives of 
Orange County, New York, both of whom 
died in Oswego County. William was reared 
to a farm life, and early inured to hard labor. 
He remained with his parents until he reached 
manhood, then learned the cooper's trade, 
which he followed about ten years in his 
native county. In January, 1844, he wedded 
Miss Mary E. Carnrite, who was born January 
7, 1823, daughter of Peter and Annie E. 
Carnrite, of Herkimer County. Her parents 
removed to Oswego County when she was a 
child. They lived to an advanced age, each 
at death being seventy-eight years old. Mr. 
and Mrs. Stevens removed to New Chester, 
Adams County, AViscousin, in 1857; thence 
to Columbia County, where they lived two 
years; thence to Iowa, as before stated. Mr. 
Stevens owns a fine farm of 200 acres, all on 
section 35. They have seven children living 
— Letta A. M., wife of George Gymer; 
Lillie O., wife of John E. Dodge; Mariette 
A., wife of Jay Barker; Williard S.; Cora 
A., wife of Miner Steele; AVilliam H. and 
Carrie E. Laura A., wife of Hugh D. Mc- 
Geary, died August 23, 1886, aged thirty 
years. She left four children — Agnes A., 
Mary Pearl, Laura Bertha and Carrie Eliza- 
beth. Effie M. died June 2, 1874, at the age 



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303 



HISTORY OP GREENE COUNTY. 



of seven years; Caroline E. died in New 
York September 9, 1848, aged two years; 
Ernest E. died in Wisconsin April 28, 1864, 
aged eleven days. Mr. and Mrs. Stevens 
have been members of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church for many years. Politically 
Mr. Stevens is a member of the Greenback 
party. 



|EOEGE C. HILLMAN, general mer- 
chant at Grand Junction, was born in 
East Charlemont, Franklin County, 
Massachusetts, January 28, 1847. His par- 
ents, George and Alcuta (Coy) Hillman, 
were natives of Colerain, Franklin County. 
His early life was passed on a farm, and his 
education was obtained at Shelburne Falls 
Academy in his native county. After leav- 
ing school he commenced clerking in a store, 
continuing in that employment until 1869, 
when he came to Tama City this State, and 
three or four months later came to Grand 
Junction and engaged in his present business. 
He began on a capital stock of s2,000. His 
first store was thirty feet long. He now 
carries a capital stock of from $5,000 to 
$6,000, and does an annual business of 
$25,000. He has been very successful in the 
mercantile business, and his patronage is 
constantly increasing. His genial manner, 
and his kind and amiable disposition have 
won for him hosts of friends, and secured for 
him the confidence of the whole community. 
He owns 235 acres of land adjoining Grand 
Junction, besides some timber land. A part 
of his farm is leased, and a part is worked by 
his employes. He was married October 7, 
1869, to Miss Dora T. Covell, daughter of 
Lewis Covell, of Franklin County, Massachu- 
setts. To this union have been born three 
children — L. Alice, Covell and Edith C. 



Mr. Hillman served as justice of the peace 
four years, treasurer of the school board four 
years, and in 1886 was elected county super- 
visor. These positions he has filled with 
great credit to himself and perfect satisfac- 
tion to his constituents. He and his excel- 
lent wife are worthy and consistent members 
of the Presbyterian church, and Mr. Hillman 
is a member of the society of Odd Fellows. 
He is very highly respected in the com- 
munity where he has been so long and well 
known, and is considered one of the solid 
men of the county. 

"^ 'S ' S i' i ' S" "^ 



T-fTILLIAM DICKINSON, a prominent 
\/\r farmer of Highland Township, resid- 
~ ~"j ing on section 32, is a native of 
Muskingum County, Ohio, born June 7, 1820, 
a son of Eli and Edith (Gitbert) Dickinson. 
His parents were pioneers of Ohio, locating 
in Muskingum County when there was but 
one house at the count}' seat. William 
grew to manhood on a farm in his native 
county, being reared to agricultural pursuits. 
He was married April 28, 1848, to Miss 
Elizabeth AVine, who was born in Virginia in 
1822, a daughter of John and Elizabeth 
(Vincil) Wine, also natives of Virginia. Six 
children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Dickinson, three of whom are living — Solo- 
mon S., born August 31, 1855, living in 
Kansas; Ellen V., born October 17, 1857, 
also a resident of Kansas; and Anna Laura, 
born November 22, 1864, was married in 
1880 to Edward Wine. Of the children 
deceased — Harvey C. was born .lanuary 26, 
1850, died October 12, 1852; Caroline E. 
was born July 7, 1852, died September 28, 
1854, and Howard D., born January 22, 
1860, died in Ohio, July 2, 1886. leaving a 
wife and one child. Mr. Dickinson com- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



303 



menced farming for himself in Ohio, on a 
farm of 220 acres. He subsequently sokl his 
Ohio farm and came to Greene County, Iowa, 
in 1882, when he settled on the farm where 
he has since followed agricultural pursuits, 
having now 240 acres of as good land as the 
township att'ords. 

"^-^ g ' S'T ' g 



|HARLES M. DODGE, dealer in notions, 
jt,, second-hand goods, etc., succeeded Oli- 
ver and Turrill Turner, who established 
the business. Mr. Dodge has the only store 
of this kind in the county. He was born in 
Lamoille County, Vermont, in November, 
1848, and when fourteen years of age, his 
father, Charles Dodge, removed with his fam- 
ily to McHenry County, Illinois. The fam- 
ily came to Greene County in the spring of 
1870, settling upon a farm in Jackson Town- 
ship, where the father still lives. Charles M. 
was reared on a farm. In 1882 he came to 
Jeiferson and engaged in the livery business, 
and in tlie fall of 1883 he sold his interest to 
his partner, Mr. Roland Roberts. Mr. Dodge 
married Miss Ada A. Heward, daughter of 
Charles Heward, who came to Greene County 
with her parents in the fall of 1870. Her 
father died in JetFerson in the spring of 
1886, and her mother still lives at Jefferson. 
Mr. and Mrs. Dodge have two daughter? — 
Nina E. and Clara B., born in Jackson Town- 
ship. 

-H i I. I *? II. ?l 1^ iM?til. j g . 



fOHN D. WILLIAMS, proprietor of 
livery stable at Angus, is a native of 
Ohio, born in Mahoning County March 
1, 1853, a son of David Williams, of Lyon 
County, Kansas. The father is a native of 
Wales, and was in former years a miner, our 



subject being reared principally among the 
coal mines of Illinois, his parents having 
located in Madison County, that State, in 
1856. John D. Williams has followed mining 
mostly till witliin the past five years. He 
went to Kansas in 1872, where he followed 
farming for one year, then went to Missouri, 
wliere he worked in the mines. He came to 
Iowa in 1874, locating at Panora, and in the 
fall of 1878 came to Angus, being one of the 
first settlers of the town. He established 
his livery business in the fall of 1881, and 
in connection with it he runs a transfer and 
bus line. September 11, 1875, Mr. Williams 
was united in marriage to Miss Mary Powell, 
a daughter of James R. Powell, of Panora, 
Iowa. Four children have been born to this 
union, M'hose names are as follows — Clyde, 
Jennie, Harry and Eva M. Mr. Williams is a 
member of the Masonic and Odd P^ellows 
orders. 



fOHN R. MATHEWS, a resident of 
Bristol Township, was born in Linn 
County, this State, September 13, 1853, 
son of William and Rosanna Mathews, who 
were among the pioneer settlers of Rapids 
Township, that county. They were natives 
of Pennsylvania, and settled in Linn County 
Iti 1849. The father died at their pioneer 
home in 1855, and the mother in 1885. Of 
their five children, John R. was the youngest. 
One sister, Mary, is the deceased wife of 
William C. Stream, of Bristol Township. 
The eldest brother, James A., now in the In- 
dian Territory, served in the late war. An- 
other brother, George A., lives at the old 
home in Linn County. Robert is deceased. 
John R. Mathews and Miss Elizabeth Lichte- 
barger, daughter of John and Maria Lichte- 
barger, of Linn County, were united in 



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304 



BI8T0RY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



marriage March 14, 1876. She was born in 
Linn County, February 12, 1S51. Her mother 
resides in that county, and her father is de- 
ceased. Mr. and Mrs. Mathews came to 
Greene County in 1877. They reside on 
section 21, wliere they own a fine property of 
160 acres, eighty acres being under good im- 
provement. Tlieir cliildren are — Lillie, Edith 
and Nellie. In politics Mi'. Mathews is a 
Hepublican. Mrs. Mathews' parents settled 
in Linn County during the Territorial days 
of Iowa, on a farm, the present site of West 
Cedar Rapids. 



fONATHAN ROBINSON, postoffice 
Cooper, engaged in farming on section 
11, Franklin Township, was born in 
Cayuga County, New York, September 3, 
1842, a son of Ezekiel and Catherine Robin- 
son. They were the parents of twelve chil- 
dren, our subject being the youngest child. 
They subseipieiitly removed with their family 
to Carroll County, Illinois, where their mother 
still lives. Their father died in 1883. Jona- 
than Robinson grew to manhood in Carroll 
County, being reared on a farm, and edu- 
cated in the common schools. Fie enlisted 
in defense of his country April 22, 1861, and 
was mustered in May 24 among the first 
Illinois troops, and was assigned to Company 
K, Fifteenth Infantry. He particijmted in 
the battles at Pittsburgh Landing, siege of 
Corinth and siege of Vicksburg, and June 
17, 1864, was Jionorably discharged at Spring- 
field, Illinois, when he returned to Carroll 
County. March 6, 1865, he re-enlisted for 
one year in (.'onipany G, Fourth United States 
Army Corps, and at the expiration of his 
term of service was again honorably dis- 
charged at Columbus, Ohio. He was married 
December 14, 1865, to Miss Uranee AVight, 



a native of the State of New York, a daugh- 
ter of Stephen AYight. Mrs. Robinson died 
November 9, 1875, leaving three children — 
Ellsworth, Delia May, and Frank. July 4, 
1876, Mr. Robinson was again married, to 
Miss Harriet S. Lawton, adaughter of Philip 
and Janet (Gait) Lawton. To this union have 
been born two children — Orrie and Arthur. 
Mr. Robinson resided in Carroll County, 
Illinois, until 1869, when he removed with 
his family to Greene County, Iowa, and set- 
tled in Washington Township where he re- 
sided for twelve yeai's, and opened up a farm 
of eighty acres on section 30. In 1881 he 
purchased his present farm which contains 
eighty acres of well improved land under a 
fine state of cultivation, a good residence and 
farm buildings. Mr. Robinson is a member 
of the Grand Army of the Republic, belong- 
ing to George H. Thomas Post, No. 23, at 
Jefferson. In politics he is an ardent Re- 
publican. 



►^M^ 



^REEDOM P. COOPER, proprietor of 
3,T|| the livery and feed stable at Rippey, 
'"^^ Greene County, was born in Niagara, 
Canada, the date of his birth being June 14, 
1847, his father, Freedom Cooper, being now 
a resident of Ogden, Iowa. In 1853 our sub- 
ject was brought by his parents to Clarke 
County, Missouri, and in September, 1859, 
to Boone County, Iowa, where the father has 
since made his home. Freedom P. Cooper 
was i-eared to the avocation which he has fol- 
lowed the greater part of his life, and in his 
youth he attended the schools of his neigh- 
borhood, where he obtained a fair common 
school education. He was united in mar- 
riage January 8, 1875, to Miss Margaret 
Ramsey, a daughter of John Ramsey, of 
Boone County, Iowa. Four children have 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



305 



been born to this union of whom only two 
are living — Charles and Martha. Mr. Cooper 
followed farming until 1.884. In March, 
1886, he came to Rippey, when he opened 
his present stable, and by his gentlemanly 
and accommodating manners, and strict at- 
tention to the wants of his customers he has 
succeeded in building up a good business 
which is steadily increasing. 



fOSEPH COCHRAN, one of the pioneers 
of Greene County, resides on section 4, 
Kendrick Township, P. O., Scranton. 
He was born in Ross County, Ohio, October 
20, 1823, son of Hugh and Jane (Myers) 
Cochran, who where the parents of nine chil- 
dren, our subject being the sixth child. He 
resided in his native county until 1863, 
where he was reared a farmer, and received 
his education in the common schools, which 
were held in log school-houses. March 5, 
1846, he was united in marriage with Miss 
Margaret Camelin, who was also a native of 
Ross County, Ohio. In 1863 Mr. Cocliran, 
with his family, came to Greene County and 
settled upon his present farm, which was 
then in its primitive state. He built a log 
house, 16.\18 feet, which answered for kitch- 
en, sleeping-room and parlor, and all visitors 
to this hospitable mansion were sure of a 
warm reception. Mr. Cochran owns 156 
acres of excellent land, has a good house, and 
his farm buildings are commodious and com- 
fortable. Politically he is a Democrat, and 
is a worthy and consistent member of the 
Methodist Episcopal church. Mr. and Mrs. 
Cochran have had seven children, four of 
whom are living — Elizabeth Jane Stephen- 
son, who resides in Cedar Township; Hugh 
Allen, who resides in C'hurdan engaged in the 
hardware business; Lafayette, a farmer re- 



siding in Cedar Township; Charles, born 
January 25, 1864, lives at home and assists 
in the management and care of the farm. 
Rhoda Ann Powers died in May, 1877, and 
two died in infancy. 



*^n^ 



/^[HARLES A. ENGLISH, one of the 
llE prominent farmers and stock-raisers of 
^i Highland Township, residing on section 
3, was born in Clarion County, Pennsylvania, 
August 1, 1836, a son of Robert and Esther 
(Henry) English. He grew to manhood in 
his native State, being reared to the avocation 
of a farmer. At the age of twenty years he 
immigrated to Scott County, Iowa, where lie 
commenced farming for himself, remaining 
there till the fall of 1S59, when he removed 
to Clinton County, Iowa. He was married 
in De Witt, Clinton County, Iowa, August 
27, 1863, to Mary A. AVilliams, who was 
born at St. Charles, Missouri, May 1, 1841, 
a daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth Williams, 
who were also natives of the State of Mis- 
souri. They are the parents of seven chil- 
dren — Edward N., born December 14, 1864; 
Lulu T., October 7, 1866; Sarah G., October 
1, 1869; Thomas M., August 12, 1872; 
Bruce H., May 11, 1875; Clyde A., Septem- 
ber 8, 1877, and Elizabeth, March 3, 1880. 
Mr. English came to Greene County, Iowa, 
with his family in the spring of 1881, and 
has since made his home on section 3, High- 
land Township. When he first came to the 
township, the creek which flows in front of 
his house was so high that he had to float the 
lumber over for his buildings. In connection 
with liis general farming, Mr. English devotes 
considerable attention to stock-raising, his 
land being well adapted for that purpose. 
He is a thorough, practical tarmer, and in his 
agricultural pursuits has met with excellent 






306 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



success, his lann containing 160 acres of 
valuable land, well stocked. Both Mr. and 
Mrs. English are active members of the 
Methodist Episcopal church. In politics Mr. 
English is a staunch Republican. 



lEOEGE F. HANSON, deceased, was 
born in the State of Maine, February 8, 
1826, a son of Silas and Hulda Hanson, 
who were among Iowa's pioneers, making 
their home in Muscatine County as early as 
1839. His father died in that county the 
same year, his mother surviving her husband 
for twenty-two years, her death taking place 
in 1861. George F. Hanson, the subject of 
this sketch, was married in Jones County, 
Iowa, November 23, 1848, to Miss Hannah 
Sherman, a native of Chautauqua County, 
New York, Ijorn February 14, 1830, a daugh- 
ter of Joshua and Mary Ann Sherman. Her 
parents were pioneers of Jones County, set- 
tling there in 1843, where they died many 
years ago on their old homestead. After 
their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Hanson made 
their home on a farm in Muscatine County, 
and there their six children were born — 
Silas, living at home with his mother; Hul- 
dah, wife of R. S. Ervin, an attorney at law, 
residing at Fort Dodge; Avis, teaching school 
at Flirt Dodge; Ella, teaching school at Paton, 
Greene County, and Sherman and Paul, living 
at home. In 1872 Mr. and Mrs. Hanson, in 
order to give their children the opportunity 
of attending the State University, removed 
to Iowa City, where they remained tw'o years, 
removing thence to Scranton City, Greene 
County, where Mr. Hanson was engaged in gen- 
eral mercantile pursuits until 1880. In that 
year he sold his stock of goods and removed to 
section 12, Scranton Township, intending to 
give his entire attention to his farm. He 



improved his land from the naked prairie, 
and left at his death a fine estate consisting 
of 720 acres. He died February 1, 18S4, 
and though left, in comfortable circumstances, 
his family met witli an irretrievable loss. He 
was an active, progressive business man, and 
gained the confidence and respect of all who 
knew him, his death causing universal regret. 
He always took a deep interest in public 
affairs, and was active in promoting the in- 
terests of his county, township, or neighbor- 
hood. In politics he was formerly a Whig, 
but was a Republican from the organization 
of that party. 



||R. BENJAMIN F. WEST, postmaster 
IIO and druggist at Angus, was born in 
Crawfordsville, Indiana, April 22, 1858, 
son of Thomas J. West, a native of the same 
place. The grandfather, Jeremiah West, 
came from Ohio to Crawfordsville in an early 
day, settling among the Indians and wild ani- 
mals. He lived in a log cabin. Our subject 
was reared on a farm near his native town, 
and educated at AVabash College, Crawfords- 
ville, graduating at Miami Medical College, 
Cincinnati, March 1, 1881. He then re- 
turned to his native place and practiced his 
profession until January, 1882, then came to 
Angus, where he has since lived. In August, 
1886, he was made postmaster, and confined 
his practice to ofhce practice. He also be- 
came a partner with Daniel J. Morris in the 
drug store. The postofiice is kept in the 
same place. He w-as married September 12, 
1881, to Mary Graham, daughter of Nathan 
Graham, now deceased. They have had two 
children, only one living — Harold. Wilson 
W. died from the efiects of a burn received 
by his clothes taking fire from the stove. Dr. 
West built up a large and lucrative practice. 



i I 



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He is a member of the Odd Fellows society 
and encampment, the Knights of Honor, 
Good Templars, and of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church. He has been a member of the 
town council and of the school board. 



|EOKGE B. McCULLT.— The mercan- 
i|: tile firm of McCully & Co., at Jefferson, 
is composed of George B. and Elizabeth 
McCully. The business was established by 
G. and D. B. McCully in 1874. This part- 
nership continued about four years, when the 
latter became sole proprietor. In 18S2 the 
partnership of D. B. McCully & Son was 
formed. The former died October 4, 1884, 
since which time the business has been con- 
ducted by the present firm. They are 
located on the east side of the square, their 
building being a fine frame structure 132 x 
22 feet. It was erected by D. B. McCully in 
1884. Daniel B. McCully, one of the found- 
ers of this enterprise, was a native of Ohio, 
where he was born in 1832. He was i-eared 
in his native State, and came to Scott County, 
Iowa, when a young man, where he married 
Elizabeth Smith, also a native of Ohio. He 
was reared on a farm, but for several years 
after his marriage followed the mercantile 
business in Wheatland, Clinton County, 
where he continued until he came here in 
1874. He was a successful business man, 
and built up a fine trade. His wife and son 
succeeded him at his death. Politically he 
was a Republican, but took very little inter- 
est in political matters. He was a member 
of the board of supervisors of this county for 
four years. Previous to coming here, he had 
for many years been identified with the Chris- 
tian church. There being no relicfious or- 
ganization of that church here, he united 
with the Baptist church at Jefferson, of which 



he remained a consistent and faithful member 
until death. He left a wife and four chil- 
dren — Mrs. Harriet E. Warner, a resident of 
Cheyenne, AVyoming Territory, Mrs. Mary 
Church, of Jeft'erson; George B. and Willie 
S. George B., the oldest son, was born in 
Scott County, this State, in 1859. He was 
educated at Jeflerson Academy, and when 
eighteen years old was engaged as clerk in 
his father's store. He married Miss Ida V. 
Hozad, who was born at Newton, Jasper 
County. They have one child, Daniel C. 
Willie S. McCully, the younger son, was born 
in Scott County, in September, 1866. 



Wa I. RITCHIE, farmer and stock-raiser, 
jniv? section 35, Cedar Townsliip, lias a good 
■^^® farm of 250 acres, and is one of Cedar 
Township's representative citizens. His 
parents, George and Margaret Ritchie, were 
natives of Maryland, and settled in Ohio in 
an early day, and in that State lie was born 
September 22, 1824. He learned the car- 
penter's trade in his youth, at which he 
worked in Ohio and Indiana. He was mar- 
ried in the latter State April 14, 1858, to 
Miss Margaret Ann Stephenson, a native of 
Indiana, born August 4, 1833, daugiiter of 
James and Marj' Stephenson, natives of Oiiio, 
but early settlers of Indiana, wiiere they were 
married. In 1856 Mr. Ritchie moved to 
Greene Cou!ity, Iowa, and settled on the 
farm where he now lives. His first purchase 
was eighty acres of raw prairie land, and has 
improved it until he now has it under culti- 
vation, and has added to it from time to 
time as he was able. During a residence of 
thirty years Mr. Ritchie has witnessed all 
the changes that have taken place in trans- 
forming Greene County from a barren prairie 
to a fine farming community interspersed 



IL .. 



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308 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



with thriving villages. He came West with 
but little capital, but his undaunted pluck 
and energy have resulted successfully. Mr. 
and Mrs. Ritchie have had eight children — 
Mary E., born April 6, 1854; William, born 
March 27, 1856; Margaret E., born April 16, 
1858; Adeliza, born October 29, 1860; Eo- 
setta and Rosaima, born June 27, 1863; 
Eosetta died July 24, 1874; Ever A., born 
August 5, 1868, died July 25, 1873; R. 
Pearl, born November 19, 1877. In politics 
Mr. Ritchie is a Eepublican. 



[YDNEY J. COUNCILMAN, one of 

?i^| the prominent farmers of Grant Town- 
ship, resides on section 34, his farm of 
320 acres lying on sections 34 and 33. 
He paid $11 per acre for this farm, 
which was wholly unimproved, but is now in 
a good state of cultivation. He was born in 
Broome County, New York, July 18, 1838. 
His father, Frederick Councilman, removed 
from the State of New York to Cook County, 
Illinois, thence to Clinton County, Iowa, in 
1853, where he died in 1884. Sydney J. 
lived near De Witt, Clinton County, until he 
came to Greene County in 1878. He mar- 
ried Miss Aiigeline Winchell, of Cascade, 
Dubuque County, and they have six children, 
one son aiid five daughters. Mr. Council- 
man has one of the most desirable farms in 
the township. He has given much attention 
to fruit-raising, and has a fine orchard which 
he set out in 1879. Of the 300 trees which 
he set out at that time only twenty have 
died. The orchard now contains about 600 
trees. He raises apples and very fine small 
fruits, including strawberries of an excellent 
quality. He has a taste for horticulture, and 
has given consideraVjle attention to that sub- 
ject. In early life he received a good educa- 



tion, and taught eight terms of winter school 
in Clinton County. 



-I^^Mf. 



EOEGE W. MUNN, section 21, Jack- 
son Township, settled on his farm June 
1, 1873, it being at that time wild 
prairie land, and but two families were living 
in sight of his residence. The developments 
of Greene County in the past thirteen years 
has nowhere been more noticeable than in 
his portion of Jackson Township. Mr. 
Munn's farm contains 160 acres of choice 
land, all available and productive, and shows 
the care of a thrifty owner. Mr. Munn was 
born in Oneida County, New York, June 1, 
1849, a son of George and Jane (Gibbs) 
Munn. When he was about a year old his 
parents moved to Boone County, Illinois, and 
there he was reared. His father died No- 
vember 17, 1860, leaving his widow with a 
family of nine children, five sons and four 
daughters. Albert E., the eldest, is now a 
resident of Boone, Iowa, as is also a daughter, 
Mrs. Jane Olmsted; Mrs. Sarah Lemmon 
lives in O'Brien County, Iowa; the fourth 
child was George W. ; Gardner lives near 
the old homestead in Illinois; Mrs. Martha 
Hall lives in the Black Hills district of 
Dakota; James lives with his mother on the 
old homestead; Mrs. Ruth Silvins lives in 
De Kalb County, Illinois; Rufus, twin 
brother of Ruth, died, aged three years. 
George W. Munn has always followed agri- 
cultural pursuits, commencing as a boy on 
his father's farm. He was married October 
13, 1870, to Miss Maria S. Chamberlin, a 
native of Pittsfield, Massachusetts, born 
October 13, 1847, a daughter of Griftin and 
Maria (Sheldon) Chamberlin. Her mother 
died in Massachusetts, and in 1853 her father 
moved to Boone County, Illinois, and died 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



309 



in New York December 12, 1871. Mr. and 
Mrs. Mnnn have one daughter — Liiella, born 
April 10, 1877. In politics Mr. Munn is a 
Republican. 

— — 4♦^«^">-^ — 



?¥^"TTLLIAM A. McALLISTER resides 
' '/ V '^" section 29, Grant Township, where 

l*-^jfe=| he owns 140 acres of land. He was 
born in Greene County, Ohio, in 1845. In 
the spring of 1864 his father, James II. 
McAllister, emigrated with his family to 
Iowa, settling in Iowa County. In the fall 
of 1870 the pai-ents went to Storm Lake, 
expecting to make a home there, but the 
country proved too new for them at their 
age in life, and they decided to settle in 
Greene County. The father accordingly 
purchased a farm of eighty acres in Grant 
Township, adjoining the farm now owned by 
his son William. But little improvement 
had been made. He erected a line house 
and barn and other buildings, and thei'e died 
July 20, 1S85. His wife, Susanna ircAllis- 
ter, was killed by lightning September 2, 
1875, during one of the most severe rain 
storms ever known in this country. Mr. and 
Mrs. McAllister were stationed just beneath 
the chimney on the second floor of the house 
endeavoring to catch in a tin vessel the water 
which came down the chimney in large 
quantities, thi-eatening to flood the room. 
The electric tiend struck the chimney, in- 
stantly killing Mrs. McAllister. Her hus- 
band was rendered senseless by the shock, 
and was made deaf to quite an extent. A 
very remarkable fact is that he remained deaf 
until about two weeks before his death, when 
his hearing returned, and he could hear as 
distinctly as he ever did. Mr. and Mrs. 
McAllister were natives of Greene County, 
Ohio, the father of Scotch origin, and the 



mother of Irish. They had four children, 
two of whom died in infancy. The others 
are — William A. and a younger sister, Mrs. 
Edith Alice Scott, of Bristol Township. 
William A. McAllister enlisted October 15, 
1864, in Company G, Sixteenth Iowa, and 
took part in the closing scenes of the war, 
marching with General Sherman to the sea. 
He was taken sick at Raleigh, North Caro- 
lina, and transferred to Beaufort; thence to 
Long Island, and was discharged in New 
York City May 28, 1865. He was married 
in Iowa County to Mary Ann AYagner, who 
was born in Ohio, and removed with her 
parents to Iowa when but seven years of age. 
Mr. and Mrs. McAllister have one child — 
Alice, born in Iowa County in January, 1867. 
Mr. McAllister is a Republican politically, 
as was his father. He is quite largely en- 
gaged in stock-raising, and he also makes a 
specialty of Canadian-French horses. 

k>^i+|*Jm3*|<-.-~ 

I^WAN NELSON, general merchant at 
°|'^^~| Angus, was born in Christianstadt, 
^^ Sweden, October 29, 1861, son of John 
Anderson, deceased. The customs of that 
country are such that if the father was living 
Mr. Nelson's name would be Johnson. His 
mother married a Mr. Nelson, and he took 
his stepfather's name. He went to Chicago 
with his mother in 1868, where he lived until 
1879, then came to Angus, wliich was then 
in its embrj'o. He clerked for Blair & 
Johnson, proprietors of the first store estab- 
lished in Angus. He remained with them 
until 1882, then clerked for Webster & 
Lunt six months, after which he returned to 
Chicago and engaged as department clerk in 
the domestic department of Cleveland, Cum- 
mings & Woodrufl^s wholesale dry goods 
house, where he remained seven months. 



^ 



310 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



and then the house failed. He was floor 
walker in E. J. Lehmann's celebrated fair 
during the holidays of 1883-'84, then returned 
to Angus, and in February of that year 
bought out the dry goods stock of Webster 
& Lunt, to which he added a full line of 
groceries and provisions. He also keeps 
gents' furnishing goods, boots and shoes, and 
everytliing usually found in a general store. 
He carries a capital stock of $1,400, with 
annual sales of $7,000. March 25, 1885, he 
was married to Miss Annie Anderson, daugh- 
ter of Anders Erickson, of Sweden. To this 
union one child lias been born — Elver, born 
February 1, 1886. While in Chicago Mr. 
Nelson became a member of Moody's church. 



[ILLIAM J. SEMMONS, general mer- 
II chant at Angus, was born in County 
l*-f^I Cornwall, England, October 4. 1860. 
His father is AVilliam Semmons, of Shaniokin, 
Pennsylvania, who brought his family to 
America in 1870. He was educated in the 
common schools of Shamokin, and in July, 
1880, came to Braidwood, Illinois, thence to 
Ottumwa, Iowa, a month later, and thence, in 
a few weeks, to Excelsior. In the spring of 
1881 he went East, and returned to E.\celsior 
the following fall, thence to Angus in Octo- 
ber, 1882. He worked in AVebster & Lunt's 
store for two years, and went into business 
for himself on the 14th day of February, 
1885. He carries a capital stock of $3,500, 
and does an annual business of $10,000. He 
keeps clothing, boots and shoes, gents' furnish- 
ing goods, hats and caps, groceries, provisions 
and notions. He has a good trade and it is 
constantl}' increasing. He was married 
October 1, 1885, to Jennie Clayton, daughter 
of James I). Clayton, of Van Meter, Iowa. 
They have one child, Harrv G. Mr. Sem- 



mons is a member of the Masonic lodge at 
Angus; also member of Palmyra Chapter, No. 
86, R. A. M., Perry, Iowa. Mrs. Semmons 
is a member of the Methodist church. 

^^^^„%.„__ 

l^^EOFESSOR HARRISON M. HAM, a 
|[^ son of Kingman Ham, is a native of 
"~3C Maine, born in Somerset County April 
19, 1845. His father being a farmer he was 
reared to the same occupation, remaining on 
the home farm till iifteen years of age. He 
then entered Vassalboro College, Maine, 
which he attended for live years. He began 
his career as a teacher while attending college 
at the age of seventeen, keeping up with his 
classes while teaching. He taught two terms 
in his native State while attending college. 
In 1865 he accompauied his parents on their 
removal to Illinois as far as New Martins- 
burgh, Ohio, where he taught four months 
at $45 per month. He then joined his par- 
ents in McLean County, Illinois, in the 
spring of 1866, and settled on the farm with 
them. Here he taught school two winters, 
workinff on the farm in summer. Professor 
Ham was married in April, 1869, to Miss 
Mary Merwin, who was born in Columbia 
County, New York, October 4, 1850, a 
daughter of Asher and Elizabeth (Ham) 
Merwin, who were natives of the same State. 
They are the parents of three children — 
Llewellyn, born March 12, 1870; Ida May, 
born January 5, 1881, died March 8, 1881; 
Mahlon K., born May 28, 1883. In the fall 
of 1870 Professor Ham went to Blooming- 
ton, Illinois, where he was engaged in mer- 
cantile pursuits about live years, being 
encao'cd most of that time as a commercial 
traveler. He was then appointed a professor 
in the schools of that place, which position 
he fllled acceptably from 1875 until 1881. 



.i\ 



[1^ 

L'', 
i 

( 
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"I 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHEH. 



an 



He tlien oatne to fTi-t'ene Coiirty, Iowa, and 
Sfltied on section 24, Fi-auklin Townsliip, 
wliere he lias sincL- resiMed, a .d is now devot- 
ihjr hi.-, ai .ention to i'arminu' and stock-rai^inir. 
He lias met witli success in his agricultural 
pursuits, and now owns eighty acres on sec- 
tion 25, Franklin Township, besides his home 
farm, which also contains eighty acres of 
well-cultivated land. His residence is com- 
fortable and commodious, and his farm build- 
ings are ''n good condition, and he is classed 
III':' L'litt'rprising and [iro.-perous 
ij...... ..i of Franklin Township. His post- 
office is I3ox 9 i, Jamaica, Guthrie County, 
Iowa. Professor Ham has always been a 
staunch Tfepnblicaii in politics, and always 
voted the Republican ticket, and believes in 
the triumph of that party in the near future. 
He has taken great interest in politics in late 
years, being an effective speaker upon political 
subjects. Professor Ham is considered a 
fine public sjieaker and orator upon subjects 
to whicli he has (jiven his earnest attention. 






vVIL) COX ANT, firmer, resides on 
sectitiu 16, Bristol Township, where he 
owns 160 acres of land. He settled 
upon his firm in 18G9, coming from Dane 
County, Wisconsin. In Septeuilier, 1861, he 
enlisted as a soldier in Company G, First 
Wisconsin Cavalry, under Colonel Daniels. 
Although lii.> regiment did very hard work 
in guarding ])roperty, keeping open lines of 
communication, lighting guerrillas and bush- 
whackers, and passed through many dangers, 
it never had the fortune to be engaged in any 
historic battle. Mr. Conant suffered much 
while in tlie service and contracted a disability 
from which he has never recovered. He was 
honorablj' discharged at Calhoun, Geoi'gia. 
Keturuing to Dane County, Wisconsin, he 



wedded Miss Alice M. Wilson, daughter of 
William and Alniira Wilson, now residents 
of Jetl'erson, this county. Mr. and Mrs. 
Conant have seven children — Cliarles A., 
Almira L., Samuel E., Matthew A., Sarah 
May, Olive Myrtle and Kate B. Mr. Conant 
was born in Lamoille County, Vermont, 
April 6, 1839, son of James A. and Louisa 
(Cartel-) Conant. The mother died in Ver- 
mont in 1845, and the father died in the 
State of New York since the war. After his 
mother's death, our subject was taken into 
the family ot George W. Swaiiu, w. o reared 
him. Mr. Swaim now lives in Dakota. 



fOHN J. DEERY, farmer, section 5, 
Wasliington Townsliip, was born in 
Athens County, Ohio, March 22, 1848, 
son of John R. Derry, of Douglas County, 
Missouri, and a native of Pennsylvania. He 
spent his early life on a tarm and was edu- 
cated in the common schools. He lived mostly 
in Pomeroy, Oliio, until eight years of age, 
then came to Greene County in 1865, set- 
tling upon the tarm he now owns. There 
were twenty acres broken and one acre fenced. 
There was also a simdl log cabin on the j)laee, 
which had one room, a clap-board roof and 
all the surroundings of a primitive dwelling, 
and also a very good frame iiouse. Mr. 
Derry endured the hardships and privations 
of pioneer life, but is now reaping the fruits 
of his hard labor. In November, 1885, J. R. 
Derry removed to Missouri. May 7, 1874, 
J. J. Derry was married to Miss LLinnah A. 
Brown, daughter of Isaac H. Brown, wlio 
was killed in the battle of Champion Hills 
while fio-htina; for the Union. He was First 
Lieutenant and acting as Captain when killed. 
Mrs. Derry was born in Jefferson, now Grant 
Township, Greene County, Iowa, November 




1 



312 



HISTORY OF QREEl^E COUNTY. 



30, 1850, her father having settled there in 
tlie spring of 1856. Mr. and Mrs. Derry 
are the parents of three children — Nelly M., 
Rena B. and Charles W. Mr. Derry owns 
175 acres of excellent land, and is engaged in 
general farming and stock-raising. Politi- 
cally he afhliates with the Republican party; 
religiously he is a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal chnrch. 



-■^^-^^^ 



H. CARTER, a prominent merchant 
^ pL of Jefferson, is located on the east side 
i^^® of the square. In 1875 he purchased 
an interest in the store of John D. Hall. 
Nearly two years later he sold out to Hall 
and opened a store on the west side of the 
square. In 1884 he erected his present fine 
bi-ick building, which is 22x100 feet, two 
stories in height, with basement. He has 
met with marked success in his bnsiness. 
From a small beginning he has built up iiis 
present lucrative business. Mr. Carter was 
born in Vermont in 1852, and is a son of 
Abel Carter, of Jackson Townsiiip, who 
emigrated with his family to Illinois in 1867, 
thence to Greene County the following year. 
Our subject was reared to the occupation of 
a farmer. In the fall of 1871 he went to 
Ringwood, near Chicago, where he was 
engaged in clerking one year. He then 
went to Clifton, Iroquois County, where he 
was also engaged in clerkino-. In 1875 he 
was married to Miss Amelia Ladd, daughter 
of Wesley Ladd, one of the earliest settlers 
of Mcllenry County, Illinois. They have 
one daughter, Marie, born in 1885. Abel 
Carter, father of our subject, and one of the 
representative citizens of Jackson Township, 
resides on section 11, where he established 
himself in 1869. His farm contains eighty- 
one acres of choice land, in the valley of the 



North Coon River. His land is well drained 
and easily worked, and is well adapted to all 
crops as well as for stock-raising. Mr. 
Carter also owns eighty acres on section 1, 
Jackson Township, used for pasturing and 
for the production of hay. He was born in 
Caledonia County, Vermont, June 9, 1829, 
son of Philip and Nancy (Swain) Carter, both 
of whom were born, reared and married in 
the State of New Hampshire. The mother 
died of consumption in 1839, at the old 
homestead, where the children were all 
reared and where the father lived over fifty 
years. He died in 1864, aged seventy-three 
years. Of their eight children, the subject 
of this sketch was the youngest, and the 
only one now living. The others were — Ira, 
Jeremiah S., Philip, Moses, Sally, Louisa and 
Huldah. Five of the family died of con- 
sumption. Abel Carter was reared on a 
farm, and has always followed that avocation. 
March 23, 1851, he wedded Miss Lucy D. 
Clemens, daughter of Lewis and Lucy (Wells) 
Clemens, natives of Vermont. Her father 
was killed while attempting to board a rail- 
road train at Burlington, in 1855. He was 
returning home after two years' absence in 
California, and was within fifty miles of his 
home when he met with his untimely fate. 
His age was sixty-three years. His widow 
survived him about three years. Mrs. Carter 
was born in Hyde Park, Vermont, August 
21, 1839; has three sisters living near her — 
Mrs. Pharisina Carter, widow of Jeremiah S. 
Carter, Mrs. Pauline Dodge, and Chastina 
E. Way. One brother. Rev. Sylvester 
Clemens, was a minister of the Methodist 
church, of Troy Conference, with a charge at 
Ilagerman's Mills; died March 8, 1887. One 
brother, Lucius Clemens, lives at Sacramento 
City, California. Mr. and Mrs. Carter have 
three children — Edsrar II., Mrs. Ella J. i 
Wood, and Mrs. Etha A. \ oung, all living j 






■-■-■-""■'-"■■■-'■-■"■■-■-■'-■g 



BIOORAPHIGAL HKETOUES. 




in Jefierson. Mrs. Carter has been a mem- 
ber of the Methodist church torty-two years. 
Politically Mr. Carter is a Republican, of 
Whig ancestry. lie has served as secretary 
of the school board and as township trustee. 



.«„.;^4^►2^^ 



B. ANDERSON, farmer, section 9, 
Kendrick Township, postoffice Scrau- 
ton, is one of the pioneers of Greene 
County, and was born in Kno.x County, Ohio, 
February 24, 1841, son of J. Y. and Mahala 
(Cain) Anderson, tlie former a native of Penn- 
sylvania, and the latter of Putnam County, 
Virginia. They were married in Perry 
County, Ohio, and reared a family of six 
children— J. A., A. B., D. B., S. B., W. H., 
and Miranda D. The family came to Iowa 
in 1854, with teams and wagons. The father 
tirst settled in Carroll County, tive miles 
northeast of Glidden. The family spent the 
lirst winter south of Jefferson, while the 
father and older sons camped out and pre- 
pared logs for a house. In tlie spring they 
built ahewed-loghouse, which was one of the 
best within a radius of thirty miles. Our 
subject was the hunter of the family, and 
supplied them with game. He had some 
very exciting experiences. At one time he 
found a large elk, and having only live bul- 
lets, which failed to bring the stag down, he 
dug a bullet out of a tree, which he had pre- 
viously used in shooting at a mark, and that, 
with the assistance of his trusty dog, brought 
the animal down. Mr. Anderson was mar- 
ried July 1, 1858, to Miss Eliza Miller, 
daughter of J. P. Miller, a prominent pioneer 
and physician of this county, who used fre- 
quently to ride fifty miles to visit his patients. 
Mr. Anderson located upon his present farm 



During 



in 1865, where he has since resided. 

the late civil war, he enlisted August 15, 

26 



1862, in Company E, Thirty-ninth Iowa In- 
fantry, and was in General Sherman's grand 
marcli to the sea and several other engage- 
ments. He was honorably discharged June 
5, 1865, and returned to his home. His farm 
contains 173 acres of excellent land, with 
good buildings. Mrs. Anderson died Janu- 
ary 9, 1879, and April 13, 1879, Mr. Ander- 
son was married to Mrs. Anna Nesbit, widow 
of John Nesbit, and the mother of tive chil- 
dren — M. L., Etta L., Alice M., Alva U. and 
Anna B. By his first marriage Mr. Ander- 
son had ten children, six of whom are living 
— Alice, Sylvester, Freddie, Hattie, Myra and 
David. To his second marriage were born 
three children — Eliza Pearl, Myrtie E. and 
Levi Robs. Politically Mr. Anderson is a 
Republican, and served as township clerk for 
twelve years. He has aiso served as con- 
stable and as secretary of the school board. 
He is a member of N. H. Powers Post, No. 
Ill, G. A. R., at Scranton ; he is also a mem- 
ber of the Ancient Order of United Work- 
men. 



.n.a5.»,»j 



jT^INGMAN HAM, a retired farmer, 
W^_ living on section 24, Franklin Town- 
-^F* ship, was born in Somerset County, 
Maine, August 37, 1812, his parents, Daniel 
and Hannah (Starbird) Ham, being natives of 
New Hampshire. He was the youngest in a 
family of four children, and the only one now 
living. He was reared on the home farm, 
remaining at home till attaining the age of 
twenty-two years, when he went to work in a 
pinery in the winter and during the summer 
worked in a mill, being thus employed for 
three years. In 1838 he bought a tarni of 
100 acres and engaged in farming, and shortly 
afterward gave this farm and §500 for a tract 
of land containing 400 acres, on which he 

.^,^..^.^.^..--.,-,.^.^.^-^---.Jt 



. ■ - ■ -■-. ■ -■- ■ ■ ■ ^ ■ -■- ■ -■■■-■- ■ - ■' ^" ' ^"- ■ -■- ■'■■-■■■-■-■-'■- ' ' -■- ■ - ■ - " -■- ■ -■ s^^ 



:;i4 



UIsrOHY OF GHKENE COUNTY. 



lived till 1866. April 30, 1840, he was mar- 
ried to Miss Elizabeth Magoon, wlio was born 
in Maine, February 1, 1817, the third in a 
family of four children of Benjamin and 
Charlotte (Batty) Magoon, who were also 
natives of Maine. Three children were born 
to Mr. and Mrs. Ham — Edwin, Harrison and 
Caroline. In 1866 Mr. Ham removed with 
his family to McLean County, Illinois, set- 
tling on a farm which he afterward sold, and 
in 1876 went to Michigan, where he made his 
home abont seven years. In 1882 he came 
to Greene County, Iowa, and settled in Frank- 
lin Township, where he has since resided, and 
ranks among the best citizens. In politics 
he is a Republican. Postoffice, Jamaica, Iowa. 



^ARVY W. GRAHAM, one of the sue 
jjpfl cessful farmers and business men of 
■^tl Bristol Townsliip, has been identilied 
with the interests of Greene County since 
1871, during which year he came from Noble 
County, Indiana. The four succeeding years 
he resided in Cedar Township, where he 
owned a farm on section 20. In January, 
1876, he sold that property and bought an 
interest in the Hawkeye Mills in Bristol 
Township, with Edward Hobden and W. J. 
Kinnett as partners, under the firm name of 
AV. J. Kinnett & Co. About two years later 
Mr. Gi-aham and Mr. Kinnett purchased the 
interest of Mr. Hobden, and continued the 
business under the name of Kinnett & Gra- 
ham until 1882, when Mr. Graham sold out 
to Mr. Kinnett and purchased the fine farm 
property of 160 acres he now owns and 
occupies. He has added largely to the build- 
ing improvements, and lias one of the finest 
farms in this part of the county. Mr. Gra- 
ham was born in Athens County, Ohio, 
December 19, 1840, son of William and 



Elizabeth (Camp) Graham. The father died 
when Ilarvy W. was five years of age, leaving 
a wife and a younger child, Iv}', now the wife 
of William Walker, of Eaton County, Michi- 
gan. For her second husband the mother 
married Mr. Francis Porter, who died in 
1881. The mother died in Noble County, 
Indiana, in 1884. Mr. Graham removed to 
Noble County with his mother and step- 
father. He was married in Adams County, 
Indiana, to Miss Isabel Van Buskirk, May 
21, 1861. They remained in Noble County 
until they came to this county. They have 
five children, all of whom are under the 
parental roof — Wilbert D., Annie, Lora B., 
Ella F. and Bertha E. Elizabeth O., the 
third child, died at the age of three years and 
six months. In politics Mr. Graham is a 
Republican, and he is also a member of 
Jefferson Lodge, No. 159, A. F. & A. M. 



--♦l-s^-^^^-- 



^^ENRY H. ADKINS, farmer, section 6, 
liW)' Washington Township, was born in 
■^'jj Champaign County, Illinois, November 
2, 1846. His father, Lewis Adkins, de- 
ceased, was a native of Ohio, born in 1816, 
and emigrated to Illinois in an early day. 
His mother, Mary A. (Phillippee) Adkins, is 
living: with her son, and is aged seventv-two 
years. The parents had ten children, four of 
whom are living — Angeline, Henry, Nelson 
and Fannie. They removed to Dallas County, 
Iowa, in 1856, and to this county in the fail 
of 1857, settling where Henry now lives. 
The countr}' was very new and wild, and 
abounded in deer, elk, wolves, etc. The 
father died in December, 18S2. Our subject 
was reared on a farm and educated in the 
common schools. The first school he attended 
was taught by A. R. Mills, in a small phmk 
house. Mr. Adkins owns 120 acres of excel- 



BIOOHAfHIt'AL SKETCHES. 



;;i.i 



lent land, and is engaged in farming and 
stock-raising. lie was married July 18, 
1869, to Maiy E. Hoover, daughter of Sam- 
uel and Sarah Hoover, pioneers of Washing- 
ton Township, having settled there in 1855. 
The father is deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Ad- 
kins have had six children, three of whom are 
livino-— t^iarles W., Effie E. and Mabel M. 
In ]io]ities Mr. Adkins is a Republican, and 
is a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. Mrs. Hoover's father was born in 
Ohio, March 10, 1823; her mother is a native 
of Virginia. 



1[ SAAC M. BAENES, living on section 10, 
t\ Highland Township, is one of the active 
^ fartners and stock-raisers of Greene Coun- 
ty. He was born in Guernsey County, Ohio, 
June 25, 1841, a son of Nathan and Mary 
Barnes, who were natives of Ohio and Penn- 
sylvania respectively, both now deceased. 
When he was ten years of age he was taken 
by his parents to Clinton, Iowa, remaining 
with them till about twenty years of age. 
He then went to Illinois, and enlisted in the 
defense of his country, in Company F, 
Eighty-third Illinois Infantry. He went 
with his reo-iment to Fort Donelson, whei-e 
he was wounded January 29, 1863, remaining 
in hospital six weeks, when he received an 
honorable discharge and was sent home. Mr. 
Barnes, like many others, has never fully 
recovered from the efi'ects of his army experi- 
ence. Besides the loss of a limb he con- 
tracted heart disease, and now receives a 
pension. His brother James was a member 
of Company H, Twenty-sixth Iowa Infantry, 
and was killed at the battle of Arkansas, and 
buried at St. Louis. Another brother, Nathan 
Barnes, enlisted in Company F, Eighty-thii'd 
Illinois Infantry, returning home with a 



broken limb. After the war Isaac M. Barnes 
settled in Clinton County, Iowa, where he 
made his home till 1879. He was married 
September 29, 1870, to Miss Laura Nowles, 
wlio was born in Ohio, December 9, 1849, 
her parents, G. li. and Emily Nowles, also 
being natives of Ohio. They came to Iowa 
in 1850, being pioneers of Scott County, 
where Mrs. Barnes was reared. Her parents 
still reside in Scott County. Mr. and Mrs. 
Barnes are the parents of seven children — 
Mary Tacy, born August 7, 1871; Albert M.,' 
born September 2, 1872; Mabel, born Sep- 
tember 2, 1875; Alice, born June 6, 1877; 
Laura, born March 6, 1879; Icyda, born Jan- 
uary 22, 1882, and Lester, born March 16, 
1885. Mr. Barnes is a member of tlie Grand 
Army of the Republic, belonging to the post 
at Scranton City, Iowa. In politics he is a 
straight Republican. Postoffice Churdan, 
Iowa. 



fK. OLDS, merchant, Angus, ^vas born 
in Morgan County, Indiana, September 
® 12, 1854. His father, Jared Olds, of 
Minburn, was a native of Connecticut, and 
settled in Morgan County in 1832, removing 
to Dallas County, this State, in 1872. He 
was reared a farmer, and educated at Moores- 
ville, Indiana. He was engaged in farming 
two years, then embarked in the mercantile 
business at Minburn. In March, 1886, he 
disposed of his stock, and came to Angus the 
following September, and purchased the Utter 
stock of goods, to which he added a large 
stock. He also has a store in the Standard 
addition to Angus, and carries a capital stock 
of S4,000, with annual sales amounting to 
$40,000. He has an extensive trade, and is 
well liked as a business man. He was mar- 
ried September 12, 1877, to Minerva A. 






■-■-■'--■■ 



:!!(> 



HISTORY OF GRUENH COUNTY. 



West, a daughter of Thomas J. West, a pio- 
neer of Dallas County. They have three 
children — Jennie B., Myrtle M. and Eva M. 
He has never sought official positions. He 
is a member of the Masonic order, and has 
filled all the offices except worshipful master, 
and would have held that office, but moved 
away just on the eve of the election. He and 
his wife are Methodists. 



^..^ 



-mEARLES L. CLEVELAND, one of the 
WP, leading agriculturists of Jackson Town, 
'^~^ ship, resides on section 18, his home- 
stead containing 200 acres of choice prairie 
land, all well improved, and his residence 
and other buildings are all noticeably good. 
He also owns forty acres of timber land on 
section 32, Bristol Township. Mr. Cleveland 
was born in Chautauqua County, New York, 
February 23, 1S42, the only child of Nathan 
and Enieline (Eaveline) Cleveland, his father 
a native of New York, and his mother of 
Vermont. His father died in 1844, and in 
1845 his mother moved to Kane County, 
Illinois, and was there married in 1847 to 
Eben Foss. She lived in Kane County until 
her death, which occurred in November, 1885, 
aged sixty -seven years. Charles L. Cleveland 
was reared on a farm in Kane County, living 
there until after the breaking out of the war 
of the Hebellion. In August, 1862, he 
enlisted in Company B, one Hundred and 
Twenty-fourth Illinois Infantry, and was 
with his regiment at the engagements at Fort 
Gibson, Raymond, Jackson, Champion Hills, 
Black Kiver and the siege of Vicksburg, and 
at the storming of Fort Hill (at Vicksburg) 
after it was blown up. Through this cam- 
paign he was under the gallant John A. 
Logan. After the latter campaign they were 
sent to the Gulf Department, and under the 



gallant General A. J. Smith did meritorious 
service in the relief of General Banks on his 
retreat from the disastrous Red River expe- 
dition. Later, under General Smith, the 
regiment participated in the assault on Spanish 
Fort, at Mobile, which was their last cam- 
paign. Mr. Cleveland was discharged June 
10, 1865, and returned to Kane County, 
Illinois, and lived in Kane and De Kalb 
counties until 1872, when he came to Iowa 
and located in Greene County. As an agri- 
culturist Mr. Cleveland is excelled by none 
in the county. Understanding fully the 
needs of the times, his methods are those 
adapted to the progressive age. He com- 
menced in Greene County on a small capital, 
although he had enough to pay for the ti'act 
of prairie which is now his line farm. He 
has prospered beyond his expectations. He 
early turned his attention to stock-raising, 
and has found in this industry the road to 
independence. Mr. ('leveland was married 
in Kane County, Illinois, January 2, 1866, 
to Miss Wealthy A. Allen, a native of Ohio, 
born October 25, 1841, a daughter of Levi 
Allen. They have two sons — Fred and Frank, 
aged respectively seventeen and thirteen years. 
Three children, Alta, .Nellie and Arthur, died 
in childhood. In politics Mr. Cleveland is 
identified with the Democratic party. He is 
a member of N. H. Powers Post, No. Ill, 
G. A. R., and of Blackberry Lodge, No. 359, 
A. F. & A. M. 



q/XJ= 



►^n:-. 



H^IIILLIAM M. CROW, druggist. Grand 
Junction, was born in Warren Coun- 
ty, Indiana, February 20, 1844. His 
father, John Crow, is a native of Dansville, 
Kentucky, and now resides in Polk County, 
this State. AVilliam j\[. was reared a fanner, 
and was educated in the high school at Des 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



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Moines, and also at Worthington and War- 
ner's ( 'ommercial College of the same cit^'. 
lie came with his parents to Des Moines in 
1850. In many respects he is a self-made 
man, having taught school sixteen years. He 
taught in Polk, Jasper, Dallas and Greene 
counties; he also taught in Kansas. His 
mother was formerly Medina Mace, a sister 
of Hon. Daniel Mace, who represented the 
La Fayette, Indiana, district from 1852 to 
1856, and it was he who presented the name 
of Andrew Johnson for Vice-President of the 
United States. He was a celebrated lawyer, 
and was the attorney of the famous criminal, 
Bowles. Afterward, while talking with Presi- 
dent Johnson, he was stricken with paralysis, 
from which he never recovered. Mr. Crow 
came to Grand Junction in 1878, and engaged 
in his present business. He carries a capital 
stock of $2,500, consisting of di-ugs, medi- 
cines, paiiits, oils, books, stationery, school 
books, notions, and everything usually kept 
in a first-class drug store. He does an annual 
business of $8,000. He was married Sep- 
tember 1, 1874, to Mary E. Jenks, daughter 
of William C. Jenks, deceased, and they have 
three children^R. Ernest, Arthur M. and 
Hazel. The latter was named for the heroine 
of the beautiful drama, Hazel Kirk. Mr. 
Crow is serving as president of the school 
board. Mrs. Crow is a member of the Pres- 
byterian church. 




R. STEVENS settled on section 
I 30, Grant Township, in 1885. He 
\~d)i^ ® has -357 acres of land, and is largely 
engaged in stock-raising. He has a fine brick 
residence, built by Alexander Millett, who 
formerly owned the place. Mr. Stevens has 
one of the best barns in Greene County, 
which he built in 1886, at a cost of about 



$1,600. He is a native of Massachusetts, 
and removed to Illinois in 1860. In 1862 he 
went to Ohio, and in January, 1864, enlisted 
in the Thirty-eighth Ohio, and served until 
the close of the war. His regiment was at- 
tached to the Fourteenth Army Corps, in the 
Army of the Tennessee and the Army of the 
Cumberland, being in active service all the 
time. After the war he returned to Ohio, 
and in 1872 went to Clay County, Nebraska, 
where he took up land and improved a farm. 
He had 345 acres, and sold out at $30 an 
acre. He was married in Illinois to Editha 
Lord, a native of Illinois. Mr. Stevens has 
an excellent farm, well adapted to stock- 
raising as well as to general farming. His 
improvements are of the best quality, and his 
location is a very desirable one. They have 
an adopted son. 






fESSE JOHNSON, of Jefferson, settled 
in Bristol Township, May 19. 1868, and 
was one of the first settlers in that part 
of the township. He located upon 160 acres 
of land that was entirely wild. He now 
owns a half section, besides a half section in 
Highland Township. Upon coming to this 
county he immediately engaged in the dairy 
business. He brought with him seventy 
head of cattle, about thirty of which were 
cows. He at once procured a fine apparatus 
for manufacturing cheese and butter, obtain- 
ing a ''Roe Western Reserve Vat and Cheese 
Press" of the best manufacture, and pre- 
pared himself for doing an extensive busi- 
ness. He was the first manufacturer of butter 
and cheese on a large scale in Greene County. 
He continued that business until 1883, then 
sold his stock, rented his land and removed 
to Jefferson. Mr. Johnson was born in Dela- 
ware County, Ohio, in January, 1835, where 



A 



318 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



he was reared to manhood. He came to 
Jones County, this State, in 1858, and engaged 
in farming with his brother Robert. In Oc- 
tober, 1861, he went to Ciiicago with a car- 
load of cattle. He had alread}' contemplated 
going into the army, but expected to return 
to Ohio and enlist in an Ohio regiment; but 
upon reaching Chicago he found the war 
fever running pretty high, and yielded to the 
temptation there ofl'ered, enlisting at Camp 
Chase, October 20, 1861, in Company A, 
Fifty-first Illinois Infantry, and serving over 
four years. He participated in many of the 
most important battles of the war, including 
Stone River, Chickamauga, Mission Ridge, 
Resaca and New Hope Church. At the bat- 
tle of Stone River he served as Fourth 
Sergeant. The Second Lieutenant, Jackson 
Keith, was killed, and our subject was pro- 
moted over the Orderly Sergeant to the 
Lieutenant's place. At the battle of New 
Hope Church he received a gun-shot wound 
in the right leg, below the knee. It was a 
severe wound, and the ball remained in his 
leg until 1871, when it was removed by Dr. 
Enfield, of Jefierson. He was sent to tlie 
hospital at Nashville for about a month, then 
went home on furlough. He rejoined his 
regiment at Atlanta, thence to Chattanooga. 
While CTcneral Sherman was nuvrching to 
the sea, Mr. Johnson's regiment, under 
Thomas, was in the battle of Franklin; thence 
to Nashville, and took part in the fight at 
that place. After General Hood had been 
eflTectively disposed of, his regiment was 
ordered to Texas. AVhile at New Orleans, 
en route for Texas, he received the commis- 
sion of ('aptain, but had commanded his 
comjtany all the time after the battle of 
Chickamauga. He was discharged with his 
regiment at Springfield, Illinois, September 
25, 1865, and returned to Ohio. He soon 
after came to Jones County, Iowa, again. 



where he lived until he came to this county. 
Mr. Johnson was married February 25, 1864, 
while at home on veteran furlough, to Mary 
A. Denny, a native of Delaware County, 
Ohio, born March 8, 1843. Her parents, 
John and Sarah Denny, were early settlers 
of that county; they now live in Chicago. 
Mr. Johnson's parents were Adam and Sarah 
Johnson. They removed to Jones County in 
1862. The father is now living at Fort 
Scott, Kansas, and the mother is deceased. 
Mr. and Mrs. Johnson have had five children 
— Elfa S., Clara, Jessie F., Emma and Har- 
old. Clara, the second child, died at the age 
of twelve years. 



l^OBERT A. LOWRY, editor and pro- 
|rM prietor of the Angus Black Diamond, 
"^^ is a native of the State of Illinois, born 
in Oswego September 24, 1859, a son of 
Hiram S. Lowry, who was born near Parkers- 
burs:, West A-^irginia, in 1834. During the 
late war he was Sergeant in Company I, 
Thirty-first Illinois Volunteer Infantry, and 
was killed at the siege of Atlanta, while 
fighting for the Union, August 27, 1863. 
Robert A. Lowry, whose name heads this 
sketch, spent the first nine years of his life 
in his native town, when he accompanied his 
mother and step-father to Polk County, Iowa, 
living there from 1868 until 1876. He then 
spent two years in attendance at the Agri- 
cultui-al College at Ames, Iowa, after which 
he engaged in teaching school, following that 
avocation in Pottawatomie and Cass counties, 
Iowa, until the fall of 1880. He then en- 
tered the law department of the State Uni- 
versity of Iowa, at Iowa City, and graduated 
with honors from that institution in June, 
1881, and the same year began the practice 
of law at Stratford, Iowa. In 1882 he bought 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



'■■'■■■—■—■■——*=' 



31!) 



the Stratford Register, which he carried on 
in connection witli liis law practice until 1883. 
In July of the same j^ear he came to ^Vngus, 
Iowa, and with C. M. Carr established the 
Angus Black Diamond. In 1884 he bought 
tlie interest of C. JVI. Carr, and has since 
devoted his time to the editing of his paper 
and to his law practice, in which he is meet- 
ing with success. Mr. Lowry was united in 
marriage September 2-i, 1883, to Miss Anna 
A. Keeler, a daughter of James F. Keeler, 
of Chicago, Illinois. Mrs. Lowry was born 
in Lena, Steplienson County, Illinois, but 
afterward moved to Chicago with her parents, 
where she lived till her marriage. Mr. and 
Mrs. Lowry are the jiarents of two children 
—Chester H. and Orlo C. 



«»-->5*>«-^">- 

tEWIS B. CRANDALL, residing on sec- 
tion 9, Washington Township, was born 
ill tilt' town of Horseheads, Chemung 
County, State of New York, August 81, 
1835. His father, Archibald Crandall, was 
born near Seneca Lake, New York, and his 
mother, Betsey A. (Strait) Crandall, was born 
in the town of Horseheads. He was brought 
up on a farm, and obtained his education in 
the common schools of his native county. 
He came to this county in the fall of 1867, 
settling upon his present farm, which was 
then entirely unfenced. A shanty had been 
built, and there was also a small stable on the 
place. Mr. Crandall lias planted trees, groves 
and hedges, and has tiic farm well improved. 
He owns 199 acres, and is engaged in general 
farming and stock-raising. He was married 
in the State of New York March 18, 1861, 
to Alena A. Boyer, daughter of Thomas and 
Sarah (Griffith) Boyer, both of whom are 
deceased. They have had ten children, five 
of whom are living — James K., Lewis B., 



Mabel L., Nettie E. and George "W. Mr. 
Crandall held the office of township trustee 
one term, but lie never seeks official honors. 



W. MILLER, farmer, is one of the 
wX pioneers of Greene County, and resides 
-^^^ on section 21, Franklin Township, 
where he owns 200 acres of excellent land. 
He was born in Franklin County, Ohio, 
February 15, 1837, son of J. C. and Margaret 
(McKinstry) Miller, the father a native of 
Mifflin County, Pennsylvania, and the mother 
of Cumberland County, same State. They 
were the parents of twelve children, seven of 
whom lived to maturity — Ross W., Hoover, 
Margaret, Elizabeth, Thomas, Mary E. and 
Jehu. Five of tliese children are still livins:. 
R. W. was the oldest of the family, and when 
he was seven years of age, his parents 
removed to the Territory of Iowa, locating at 
Walnut Grove, Scott County, sixteen miles 
north of Davenport, on Government land, and 
were among the first settlers of that county. 
Davenport was but a small village, and there 
was no railroad west of the Mississippi River. 
Mr. Miller saw the. first railroad coach that 
came to Rock Island. He was reared a farmer 
and received a limited education in the pio- 
neer log school-house. Arriving at the age 
of manhood, he was united in marriage 
November 4, 1857, with Miss Anna Eliza 
Mooney, a native of Cumberland County, 
Pennsylvania, and daughter of Frederick and 
Margaret (MeWilliams) Mooney, who were 
the parents of six children — William, Jane, 
Hannah, Anna Eliza, John and George. Mr. 
Miller resided in Scott County until 1871, 
when, with wife and three children, he came 
to this county and settled upon his present 
farm. He has a good house, and comfortable 
buildings for stock and grain. Mr. and Mrs. 



.■-■-■-■■■■-■-■-■'-■■■'^■■■-■-■-''-"^■-■-■-■'-"'-■ ■^■■■■■ - ■-■■^■^ t W lHl " ! 






320 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



Miller are the parents of three children — 
Clarence E., Ida M. and Ada M. He has 
given them good educational advantages, and 
all are well fitted for teachers and to take 
responsible positions in life. Politically Mr. 
Miller is a Kepublican, and is a member of 
the Methodist Episcopal church. 




ILLIAM F. ZELLHOEFER, dealer 
II in hardware, stoves, tinware, shelf 
1 and heavy hardware, Gi'and Juuction, 
was born in Rome, Jefferson County, Wis- 
consin, September 22, 1851, son of George 
and Frederica (Tartsch) Zellhoefer, natives of 
Germany, the former ot whom is deceased. 
He went to Foreston, Illinois, in 1869; thence 
to Boone County in 1870, and to Grand 
Junction a year later, where he has since 
resided. Pie was engaged in the harness 
trade one year, having previously worked 
seven years at that trade. He engaged in 
his present business in May, 1879, and carries 
a capital stock of 83,000. He does an annual 
business of $15,000. He was mari-ied De- 
cember 26, 1875, to Ellen A. Thompson, 
daughter of John Thompson, who is deceased. 
They have three children — Guy W., Bertha 
and Forrest. Mr. Zellhoefer is a member of 
the Evangelical Association, and his wife is 
a Methodist. He served as town assessor 
two terms, and as treasurer several terms. 
He is now a member of the school board. 



„.^*^j^,. 



,:ANIEL EMBREE, lumber and coal 
dealer at Grand Junction, was born in 
Vermillion County, Illinois, October 
14, 1839, son of .roseph Embree, a native of 
Georgia, who is now deceased. He lived on 
a farm until twelve years of age, when the 



family removed to town. He carne with his 
parents to "Warren County, Iowa, in 1850. 
During the late war, he enlisted in Company 
G, Fifteenth Iowa Infantry, and served over 
three years. He enlisted as a private, and 
was promoted to Second Lieutenant. He 
participated in the battles of Shiloh, Corinth, 
luka, Vicksburg, the Atlanta campaign, 
march to the sea, and through to Washing- 
ton. He came to Des Moines in 1865, and 
was engaged in the mercantile trade until 
1869, when he came to Grand Junction and 
clerked for the railroad companies at that place 
and was proprietor of the railroad eating house 
at Grand Junction for five years. In 1879 he 
embarked in the lumber and coal trade, and 
carries a capital stock of $5,000. He has a 
good trade, and it is constantly increasing. 
He was married August 6, 1868, to Aggie J. 
Johnston. They have one daughter. Bertha, 
thirteen years old. Mr. Embree is a member 
of the Masonic fraternity, the Odd Fellows, 
and the Ancient Order of United Workmen. 
Mrs. Embree is a member of the Presbyte- 
rian church. 



4^^^ 



^SPOEL SHAW, a successful farmer and 
jSn stock-raiser of Greene County, residing 
^^ on section 13, Dawson Township, whei-e 
he has 160 acres of choice land, is a son of 
Joel and Mariam Shaw, natives of England. 
They were the parents of six sons and six 
daughters, our subject being the fifth child. 
He was born in Butler County, Ohio, the 
date of his Ijirth being September 27, 1838. 
He lived on the home farm till eight years 
old, when he began working in a woolen fac- 
tor}', where he was employed for three years. 
At the age of twenty-three years he enlisted 
in defense of his country in Company H, 
Seventy-sixth Illinois Infantry, and was later 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



321 



transferred to Company H, Fourth Regiment, 
Veteran Reserves. He was sent north and 
served on garrison duty at Rock Island, 
Illinois, Davenport, Iowa, and Milwaukee, 
Wisconsin. He received his discharge at 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, June 25, 1865, when 
he returned to Illinois, and for the two years 
following made his home with his brother- 
in-law, N. Drayer. He was united in mar- 
riage September 25, 1867, to Miss Livia 
Griffin, a daughter of Asa and Margaret 
(Schultz) Griffin, natives of New York State. 
They were the parents of three sons and three 
daughters, Mrs. Shaw being the fifth child. 
She was born January 31, 1847, at C'loves- 
ville, Delaware County, New York. To Mr. 
and Mrs. Shaw have been born five children, 
as follows — Charles J., Hester L, Mary A., 
Medford A. and Edith M. Both Mr. and 
Mrs. Shaw are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal cliurch. Politicall}' he affiliates 
with tlie Republican party. Postoffice Paton, 
Iowa. 



iP^ORACE WALRAD, farmer, section 11, 
Kendrick Township, postoffice Scranton, 
is a native of De Kalb County, Illinois, 
born September 10, 1844, and son of Daniel 
and Ann (Mullen) Walrad, the former a 
native of New York. They were the parents 
of three children — Horace, Arvilla B. and 
Watson. Horace was reared a farmer, his 
father being a farmer and a local preacher. 
In June, 1861, he enlisted in Company B, 
Fifty-fifth Illinois Infantry, Captain Fox 
commanding. He was wounded at Shiloh, 
above the elbow, by a musket ball, and his 
arm had to be amputated. He was confined 
in the hospital at Keokuk for a long time, 
and was honorably discharged August 22, 
1862. at Chicago, Illinois. He was married 



June 4, 1874, to Mary Marinda Jane Mowry, 
who was born in Ohio, and a daughter of P. 
W. and Miranda (Morgan) Mowry. Mr. 
Walrad resided in De Kalb County until 
1870, when he came to Greene County, Iowa. 
He settled upon his present farm in 1874, 
which was then in its primitive condition, 
and there he has since resided. Mr. and Mrs. 
AValrad have two children — Daniel Irven and 
Walter M. Waland. Politically Mr. Walrad 
is a Republican, and is a member of N. H. 
Powers Post, No. Ill, G. A. R., at Scranton. 
His father was twice married. To the second 
marriage were born three children — Julia 
Ann, Sarah Jane and D. E. Sarah Jane 
lives in Arkansas, and the others in Kansas. 



"^.-f^.-S^.>>- 



^fOHN P. BONTZ, farmer and stock-raiser, 
"||n residing on section 18, Hardin Township, 
^^ is a native of Bavaria, Germany, born 
June 25, 1837, his parents. Jacob and Eve 
Bontz, also being natives of Bavaria. He 
was reared to the avocation of a farmer. He 
left his native country when about twelve 
years of age, sailing from Marseilles, France, 
in 1849, and landing at New Orleans. He 
immediately located in Peoria, Illinois, where 
he resided until 1862, in which year he went 
to Boulder County, Colorado, where he worked 
by the day in the gold and silver mines. In 
1864 he went to Montana and commenced 
mining for himself, remaining there till 1866, 
when he returned to Coloi'ado and engaged in 
farming, which he followed until 1869. He 
then came to Iowa, and was engaged in work- 
ing in the coal mines in Boone County until 
1872. He then removed to Greene County, 
and has since resided on his farm on section 
18, Hai'din Township. He was married in 
Greene County in February, 1875, to Miss 
Anna Shaw, who was born in Illinois in June, 






»^«JJ»ii»^»-"M"M"ii»g»iini«irigJ»Sw;ii g^nr„»»giP 



;nganiniPii?MWiitigii«a?iiwawiin'a« 



322 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



1856, a daughter of Joseph and Harriet Shaw, 
natives of Canada. Three cliildren have been 
born to this union — A^iola, Fred and Joseph. 
Mr. Bontz is one of the self-made men of 
Greene County. He came to America a poor 
boy, but by hard work and careful manage- 
ment he has met with good success, and is 
now classed among the best farmers of Har- 
din Township, where he owns 268 acres of 
choice land, 160 acres located on section 18, 
and the remainder on section 6. His farm 
is well improved and under good cultivation, 
and his residence and farm buildings are 
comfortable and commodious. 



^EV. GEOKGE ZELLHOEFEE, de- 
^ ceased, late of Grand Junction, was born 
'^Si in Byren, Germany, April 1, 1818. 
He came to America in 1850, settling in Jef- 
ferson County, Wisconsin. He was a minis- 
ter in the Evangelical Association over 
twenty-five years; preached mostly in Wis- 
consin and Iowa. He came to Grand Junc- 
tion in 1871, where he preached and worked 
on a farm until his death, which occurred 
June 17, 1885. He was married October, 
1848, to FredericaTartsch. daughter of Gott- 
lieb Tartsch, deceased. They were the par- 
ents of ele\en children, ten living — Chris- 
tina, William, John, George, August, Mary, 
Emma, Caroline, Edward and Sarah. The 
heirs still own the farm. 



~«-'^^->»J-^-— 

ILLIAM H. PERKINS, dealer in 
,..r/ II, tiroceries, boots and shoes at Ansrus, 
l-cij^i was born in Wales, February 17, 1852, 
son of John Perkins, also a native of Wales. 
He left his native country in September, 
1869, coming to LaSalle. Illinois, and the 




following spring, to Emporia, Kansas, living 
there and in Osage City and Leavenworth 
until 1874. He spent one winter, in the 
meantime, in Bloomington, Illinois. In 
1874 he went to Covington, Indiana, and the 
following year, visited his native country, 
returning in the spring of 1876, and in 1880 
made a second visit to Wales, and visited Cali- 
fornia the same year, returning in the. fall of 
1880. While in Indiana, he kept a grocery 
store at Coal Creek, near Covington. He 
came to Angus in 1882, and engaged in his 
present business the following April. He 
keeps a full line of groceries, provisions, 
boots, shoes and notions. He was married in 
September, 1881, to Jane Morgan, daughter 
of Thomas Morgan, deceased. Their children 
are — Janett, John and Edith. Mr. Perkins 
is a member of the Odd Fellows order, is 
town treasurer, in 1886, and re-elected for town 
treasurer for 1887 — and has served as a mem- 
ber of the town council. 



.^Mf-. 



|R. SAMUEL E. WARNER, the lead- 
ing dentist of Greene County, has been 
"^ engaged in the practice of his profes- 
sion at Jefl'erson since January 1, 1879. He 
is located in McNeal's Block, on the north- 
west corner of the square. Dr. Warner was 
born in Erie County, New York, where he 
grew to manhood. He began the study of 
dentistry at Springville, in his native county, 
■when about twenty years of age. In 1877 
he came west, spending one year in Michigan 
and Illinois. His skill in his profession is 
everywhere recognized as is indicated by his 
e.xtensive practice. His education has been 
thorough, and he is well informed on all 
matters pertaining to his business, adopting 
all improvements as soon as they are shown 
to be such. His office is completely fur- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



323 



nished with the latest instruments pertaining 
to his profession, a recent addition being a 
AVilkerson chair. The doctor is the only one 
of his father's family residing in Iowa. 

-^'^-^^^^-^ 



,mEN. F. ANDERSON resides on section 
|rp| 16, Grant Township, where his father, 
'^^ Preston Anderson, settled in 1866. The 
latter was a native of Greene County, Ohio, 
where he grew to manhood and married Eliza 
Jones. He emigrated with his family to 
Iowa, settling near Polk City, Polk County. 
The father bought the farm, now owned by 
his son, of Frank Robinson, who had made a 
few improvements, but the most of the im- 
provements have been made by Mr. Anderson, 
who died June 22, 1885. His wife is still 
living. They were the parents of three chil- 
dren — William, who lives in Muscatine 
County; Julia, wife of Caleb Head, and Ben. 
The latter was born in Greene County, Iowa, 
married Isadore Humphrey, and they have 
one child — Robert L. 



JP|R. JAMES C. LOVEJOY resides on 
flinj section 17, Washington Township, 
■^F where Old Rippey formerly stood. He 
was born in Orange County, Vermont, Jnne 
24, 1819. His mother, Jemima (Kingsbury) 
Lovejoy, was born in Orange County, July 
10, 1797. She resides alone, at Old Rippey, 
at the age of ninety years; is stout and well. 
His parents had eight children, he being the 
only one living. His father's family emi- 
grated to Connorsville, Faj'ette County, Indi- 
ana, in 1820, thence to La Fayette, Tippeca- 
noe County, in 1829, living there and in the 
vicinity for twenty years, his father dying 
on a farm, eight miles from La Fayette, in 



1838. Our subject was educated at Wabash 
College, Crawfordsville, Indiana. He taught 
school between the ages of sixteen and 
twenty-two years, reading medicine in the 
meantime. He practiced a few years, then 
graduated at Rush Medical College, of Chi- 
cago, in February, 1848. He then returned 
to Indiana and practiced in Warren and 
White counties until 1854, tlie ncame to Des 
Moines, this State, where he carried on the 
mercantile trade in connection with his prac- 
tice. In 1859 he came to this county, and 
settled at Old Rippey, where he has prac- 
ticed ever since. He established a store at 
Old Rippey in 1859, and closed it out in 1872. 
He was married July 4, 1847, to Miss Eme- 
line Bunnell, daughter of Isaac Bunnell, now 
deceased. The doctor and Mrs. Lovejoy have 
had twelve children, nine of whom are living 
— Arthur C, Walter, Halsey E., Owen, Al- 
bert, James, Frederick, Victor and Lillie E. 
Dr. Lovejoy is one of the oldest Odd Fellows 
in Greene County, having been a member of 
that order nearl}' forty years. He was post- 
master from 1859 until 1872, at Rippey; has 
also served as county supervisor and one term 
as county superintendent of schools and 
county coroner. He has been secretai'y of 
the school board for a number of years. In 
religion, he is liberal, and believes in the 
Golden Rule. In politics a Republican with 
a big R., believing in the final restoration and 
eternal salvation of every mother's son, who 
have or who in the near future embraces that 
political faith. 



— 4'^>^'^- 



||^[LARENCE L. JEFFRIES, ornamental 
mPii ^"^ ^^""^ painter, at Grand Junction, 
^l was born in Jones County, Iowa, Feb- 
ruary 29, 1856. His father, Martin Jeffries, 
was a native of Columbus, Ohio, and a son 



1 



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■■■■■■■■-■■■-■-■-»» »»*w»aii» a»B» 0^ 



0-54 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



of William JeiFries, who was the third settler 
in Jones County, having located there among 
the Indians and wild animals. Onr subject 
was reared ou a farm. In 1878 he went to 
learn his trade, then taught school during the 
winter and worked at his trade in the sum- 
mer, lie now does sign and ornamental 
painting during the summer, and carriage 
painting during the winter. He was mar- 
ried April 22, 1884r, to Emma Howe, daugh- 
ter of Eev. William R. Howe, now deceased. 
They have one child — Blondel. Mr. Jeffries 
came to Grand Junction in March, 1884, 
where he has since lived. He is a member 
of the society of Good Templars. 



-'■^*>^r^'-^ 



fRANCIS M. FEANKLIN is the lead- 
ing furniture dealer of Jefferson, his 
^ business being located on the northeast 
side of the square. He engaged in his pres- 
ent business June 28, 1875, succeeding 
Henry Bowman. It was the first establish- 
ment of the kind in Jefferson. He has both 
a jobbing and a wholesale trade. Mr. Frank- 
lin is a son of one of the pioneers of Greene 
County. His father, AVilliam A. Franklin, 
settled on section 13, in what is now Frank- 
lin Township, in 1855. He was the third 
settler in the township, which was named in 
honor of himself. He was a native of North 
Carolina, and when a boy removed with his 
parents to South Carolina, thence to the 
State of Indiana, where he married Margaret 
Brown. Soon after his marriage, about 1844, 
he removed to Muscatine County, this State, 
w'here he entered several hundred acres of 
land, and resided there until he came to 
Greene County, April 28, 1855. Mr. and 
Mrs. AVilliam A. Franklin had eight children, 
three of whom died young. Mrs. Serilda 
Robinson died, leaving a family. The sur- 



viving children are — James B., a farmer of 
Franklin Township; AVillliam L.,wlio resides 
on the homestead where the mother still 
lives; Francis M. and Sarah V. The latter 
is the wife of F. L. Robertson and lives in 
Oregon. Our subject was born in Muscatine, 
Iowa, 1846. He married Anise Scott, a 
daughter of Samuel and Elizabeth Scott, who 
was born in Indiana, where her father died. 
Her mother, with two sons and four daugh- 
ters, came to Iowa when Mrs. Franklin was 
a child. The eldest daughter, Nancey, was 
killed by the kick of a horse while the family 
were en route to Iowa. Mrs. Franklin is the 
only child left in Greene County. Mr. and 
Mrs. Franklin have two sons — William I. 
and Vincent V. Eddie W. died in infancy. 
Mr. Franklin's parents were very highly es- 
teemed in their community, and though the 
father long since passed away, the remem- 
brance of him still survives. His aged wife 
ia still left, a worthy representative of that 
grand old pioneer element that is fast pass- 
ing away. 



ZELLER, farmer, section 31, Franklin 
ijff.-k Township, is one of the pioneers of 
^=4^® Greene County, having been identified 
with its interests since 1872. He was born 
in Montgomery County, New York, Novem- 
ber 13, 1835, son of Nicholas Zeller. He 
was the fifth of seven children, and when six 
months of age his parents removed to St. 
Lawrence County, where they lived nine 
years, then removed to Jefferson County, 
where our subject resided until 1854. He 
was reared on a farm and received his educa- 
tion in his native State. In 1854 he removed 
to Racine County, Wisconsin, where he re- 
sided until 1861, then returned to New York. 
He was married April 17, 1867, to Miss 



;• 



ill 



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■-'■»"'»■■■■ 



T,g»;i^-^WJ.r.^.-a--,i ^„7cr,»,»,a,»..»,», ■,■.■.■,■.■,■ 






BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



335 



•; 



\\ 



Fidelia Lathrop, of Theresa, Jeiferson County, 
New York, daughter of Carlos and Tamer- 
son (Kilbourn) Lathrop, who were the parents 
of three children, Mrs. Zeller being the 
youngest. Mr. and Mrs. Zeller resided in 
Jefferson County until 1872, when he came 
to this county and located upon his present 
farm, which was then in a wild state. He 
first bouffht 160 acres, and has since added to 
that amount until he now has 480 acres of 
excellent land. He has a very pleasant home, 
surrounded with shade trees, a commodious 
barn for stock and grain, a fine orchard, and 
a native grove of six acres. His farm is one 
of the best in the township. Mr. Zeller is a 
staunch Republican, and has served as trustee 
four terms, and justice of the peace two 
terms, in a very satisfactory manner. Mr. 
and Mrs. Zeller have two sons — Willard and 
Wilbur, twins, born February 20, 1871. Both 
parents are members of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church, and are exemplary citizens, 
always taking an active interest in all that 
pertains to education and religion. 



^5«^^- 




TLLIAM Ft. GROVES, residing on 
section 14, Highland Townsliip, 
'egm^\ where he is engaged in farming and 
stock-raising, is a native of England, the date 
of his birth being September 30, 1845. In 
1850 he was brought to America by his par- 
ents, Samuel and Rebecca Groves, they 
settling in Dane County, Wisconsin. The 
mother died while a resident of Wisconsin, in 
the year 1870, and about the year 1882 the 
father came to Greene County, where his 
death occurred a year later. William R. 
Groves, the subject of tliis sketch, passed his 
youth in Dane County, AVisconsin. He was 
married May 29, 1876, to Miss Marion Tow- 
ers, who was born in Wisconsin, June 29, 



1861, a daughter of James and Margaret 
Towers. Her parents are natives of Scot- 
land, and are now living on section 14, High- 
land Township, Greene County. Mr. and 
Mrs. Groves are the parents of four children 
— Ransom W., born February 3, 1878; Daisy 
R., born September 6, 1880; Maggie May, 
born September 15, 1882, and Susan D., 
born December 11, 1884. Mr. Groves came 
to Greene County a poor man, but being in- 
dustrious lie has by his persevering energy 
met witii success, and is now the owner of 
a good farm well stocked. He is in his po- 
litical views an ardent Republican, having 
alTiliated witli that part}' for many years. He 
has been trustee of Highland Township eight 
years, and has also served as school director. 
Fostoffice, Churdan. 



^fAMES H. TALLMAN, farmer, section 
%\\ 20, Faton Township, was born at Canal 
^^ Winchester, Ohio. His father, John 
Tallman, of Jones County, Iowa, came west 
in the fall of 1845, all the way by wagon, 
and settled on Government land, which was 
then in its wild state, where our subject was 
reared on a farm and received an elementary 
education in the common school. During 
the late war he enlisted in Company E, 
Thirty-first Iowa Infantry, for three years. 
He participated in the battles of Chickasaw 
Bayou, Arkansas Fost, Vicksburg, second 
battle at Jackson, Canton, Cherokee Station, 
Tuscumbia, Lookout Mountain, Mission 
Ridge, Ringgold, Resaca, Dallas, Big and 
Little Kenesaw, Atlanta, capture of Atlanta, 
Jonesboro, Lovejoy Station, Savannali, Con- 
garee Creek, Columbia and Bentonville. 
After the war he attended school at Mt. Ver- 
non, Iowa, and taught school for three years. 
December 31, 1868, he was married to 






a2« 



HISTORY OF QUEEN E COUNTY. 



Landora J. Eistine, daughter of John Ris- 
tine, now deceased. Their children are — 
Wilbur M., Gertie P. and James O. Mr. 
Tallman came to this county in the spring of 
1874. He owns 110 acres of good land, and 
is engaged in farming and stock-raising. In 
the spring of 1868 he went to Denver, Colo- 
rado, and taught school near there for a time, 
then traveled among the mines in the mount- 
ains, returning in the fall of that same year. 
He was one of the prime movers in having 
the political township of Paton set oif, and 
was appointed by the county officers to call 
the first election in the township. The 
original portion of Paton village is situated 
on his land. He served as township trustee 
two 3'ears. He was not wounded during his 
service in the army, except receiving a small 
scratch on the thumb by a rifle ball. lie 
had tlie measles and afterward was very sick, 
with but little hope of recovery. His iron 
will carried him through. 



--4-'-5"^^-^"* 



?AMES PARKER, farmer, section 12, 
Willow Township, P. O. Scranton, is one 
of the enterprising citizens of the town- 
ship. He was born in Lincolnshire, England, 
nine miles from the city of Lincoln, that is 
noted for having one of the largest bells in 
Europe. He was born October 4, 1829, and 
was a son of AVilliam and Martha (Bernard) 
Parker, who were the parents of ten children, 
James being the seventh son. His youth was 
passed in both town and country, and his first 
manual labor was at farm work. The only 
education he received was by study at home. 
He has a good practical education, and is well 
posted in matters pertaining to business. In 
1S52 he emigrated to Canada, and was there 
united in marriage, April 2, 1855, with Miss 
Plioebe Ann Hern, who was born in Barn- 



stable, Devonshire, England, January 28, 
1838, daughter of John and Phoebe (Bowers) 
Hern. In March, 1865, Mr. and Mrs. Parker 
removed to Marshall County, Illinois, where 
they lived three years, then removed to 
Peoria County where they resided about 
eight years. In the spring of 1876 they 
came to Greene County, this State, and 
settled upon their present farm, which was 
then wild land, and was one of tlie first 
improved farms in the neighborhood. He 
has a comfortable residence, good barn and 
buildings for grain and stock, and an orchard 
of his own planting. Mr. and Mrs. Parker 
are the parents of two sons — Alfred, who 
reside on section 1, Willow Township, and 
is a promising young farmer; and George H., 
who resides at Council Blufi's, Iowa. Politi- 
cally Mr. Parker is an Independent. He was 
for many years a zealous and active member 
of the Methodist Episcopal ciiurch, and has 
always been interested in educational and 
religious n:iatters. He is one of Willow 
Township's most worthy citizens. 



-|->-^>" 



|R. JOHN B. HALL, veterinary surgeon, 
also farmer and stock raiser, section 10, 
Washington Township, was born in 
Rockingham County, Virginia, March 13, 
1848. His father, John Hall, was a native 
of the same county, and in 1853 brought his 
family to Cass County, Illinois, and to this 
county in 1859. He lived here until the fall 
of 1883, and died aged eighty-nine years. 
They settled here when the country was wild 
and infested with wolves. Their trading and 
milling were done at Des Moines. Our sub- 
ject was raised on the homestead on section 
29, in the north part of Washington Town- 
ship, and educated in the common schools. 
He commenced the study of veterinary sur- 






» m Pm<»m^9 MSmSmmi ^^ 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



gery when seventeen years of age, and has 
been practicing for the past eleven years. He 
has liad several very complicated cases, and is 
becoming noted for his skill in surgical work. 
His practice comprises an area of twenty 
miles. In 1886 he lost less than nine per 
cent, of his cases. His success is due to his 
close attention to ail c^ses in their acute 
form. He settled upon his present farm in 
March, 1876, where he owns eighty acres of 
good land. He was married November 28, 
1869, to Minerva A. Smith, daughter of 
Thomas J. Smith, deceased, who came from 
Piatt County, Illinois, to Dallas County, 
Iowa, in 1853, and to this county in 1858. 
Mr. and Mrs. Hall have six children — Ada 
A., Ida I., John T. ^\., Charles M., Frank 
and AVinnifred M. Mr. and Mrs. Hall are 
worthy and consistent members of the Meth. 
odist Episcopal churcli. 



tALEB EUfSELL, farmer, section 23, 
Paton Township, was born in Caledonia 
County, Vermont, April 9, 1822, son 
of David Russell, deceased. lie was reared 
a farmer, and received a limited education in 
the subscription schools, three miles distant. 
His parents were poor, and he had to work 
very hard. In the fall of 1834 they emi- 
grated, to La Porte County, Indiana; thence 
to De Kalb County, Illinois, the following 
spring. In the spring of 1849 he went to 
California, starting May 14, and reaching 
Placerville September 10. He went the 
overland route, driving an ox team all the 
way. His wife and three children accom- 
panied him. He remained there two years, 
working in the gold mines. He returned to 
Illinois, then removed to Cedar County, Iowa, 
where he followed farming; until 1874, then 
came to this county and settled on his present 



home, where he owns 240 acres of land. He 
was married in September, 1842, to Orendoro 
Corey, daughter of Samuel Corey. Seven of 
their nine children are living — Nelson S., 
Normand, Orendoro M., Mariette, Elizabeth, 
Jasper and Jennie. Mrs. llussell died May 
6, 1883. Mr. Russell was again married May 
10, 1885, to Mrs. Ann Pike, who had nine 
children by a former marriage — Hattie, 
Philena, Alvira, Lucy, John, James, Elnora 
and Isolia. Betsey J. died in her thirty- 
fourth year. Mr. Russell is a member of the 
Baptist church. 



I^ARLAN N. LIVERMORE, an active 
i{!r|\; and energetic agriculturist of Dawson 
"%4 Township, engaged in farming and 
stock-raising on section 32, was born in the 
State, of Vermont July 26, 1850, the only 
son of N. and Mary (Chapin) Livermore, 
who were natives of the same State. His 
mother died in his infancy, and in 1852 his 
father married Sai-ah F. Thayer, and to them 
were born one son and three daughters. His 
father being a farmer, he was reared to the 
same avocation. In 1855 he was taken by 
his parents to Waupaca County, Wisconsin, 
and there he grew to manhood, remaining 
there till 1873. He received a fair education 
in his youth, and subsequently engaged in 
teaching school for a short time. He was 
united in marriage September 23, 1872, to 
Miss Julia E. Dunham, a native of Maine, 
born June 17, 1849, a daughter of John and 
Tempa Dunham, who were also born in the 
State of Maine. In 1873 Mr. Livermore 
opened a railroad restaurant at Amherst 
Junction, Wisconsin, which he carried on till 
1879, when his buildings were destroyed by 
tire. Shortly after he came to Greene County, 
Iowa, settling in Dawson Township, where 



!»■"■■■"■■■■ 



:!38 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



'I 



in 1882 he erected his present line residence 
and other farm buildings to correspond. In 
connection with liis general farming he is 
engaged in raising thoroughbred short-horn 
cattle, Poland-China and Duroc-Jersey liogs, 
mammoth bronze turkej-s and Plymouth 
Rock and Wyandotte chickens, all stock of 
the purest and best strains. Mr. Livermore 
is a member in j^ood standing of the Masonic 
Lodge at Paton, and also of the Odd Fellows 
Lodge at Jefferson, Iowa. Politically he is 
a staunch Republican. Postoffice Jefferson, 
Iowa. 



^,^,^^ 



J[EORGE A. HUFFMAN, foreman of 
'"'— Grand Junction 7/<.'«(i//pr/i!;;, and assistant 
postmaster, was born in Medina, Medina 
County, Ohio, April 17, 1861. His father, 
Jacob F. Huffman, of Ithaca, Michigan, is a 
native of Mercer County, Pennsylvania, and 
removed to Michigan in 1867, and engaged 
in contracting and building, a business he 
still follows. His mother, Lydia (Vaughn) 
Huffman, died in 1867. He was educated 
in the schools of Ithaca, and In 1876 entered 
the Gratiot County Journal office as com- 
positor, having worked in that capacity morn- 
ings, evenings and Saturdays while in school. 
He remained in that office until the fall of 
1880, then went to Wellington, Kansas, and 
entered the office of the Sumner County 
Democrat as compositor. Three months 
later the name was changed to the Welling- 
tvnliin, and Mr. Huffman was made solicitor. 
He remained three months longer, then took 
a trip through Missouri, Arkansas, Missis- 
sippi, Indian Territory and Texas, then back 
to Kansas and Nebraska, through Iowa and 
buck to Michigan. In October, 1882, he 
entered the./oM/VK/Zollice again as compositor, 
and soon was promoted to foreman, which 



position he held until April, 1884, when he 
went to Duluth, Minnesota, and worked on 
the morning Daily Tribune. He remained 
there two months, then went to Port Arthur, 
Canada, working three months on the Daily 
Sentinel; thence back to Duluth; thence on 
an excursion to Glendive, Montana Territory, 
stopping at the principal towns along the 
route. Returning to St. Paul he started for 
Omaha. Being delayed two hours at Grand 
Junction he entered the Headlight office, 
found the editor sick, and accepted the situa- 
tion of foreman of the office. This was 
October 1, 1884, and Mr. Huffman still re- 
mains in the Headlight office. When the 
editor, S. C. Maynard, was appointed post- 
master he was made assistant, and still holds 
that position. He is a member of the society 
of Odd Fellows, and of the Printer's Union 
at East Saginaw, Michigan. He was married 
December 16, 1886, to Miss Lettie G. Miller, 
daughter of Philo AV. Miller, of Grand Junc- 
tion. 



~^'^'-5«f''^-- 

mi[HARLEY C. METZGER, proprietor of 

£ the meat market at Grand Junction, 
was born in Baden, Germany, Novem- 
ber 1, 1836. His father, Jacob Metzger, also 
a native of Germany, came to the United 
States January 7, 1855, and lived tw9 years 
in Crawford County, Ohio. In the fall of 
1856 the family came to Cedar County, Iowa, 
where our subject lived until 1870, then 
came to Grand Junction and engaged in his 
present business. He is the pioneer batcher 
of Greene County. He was married Novem- 
ber 19, 1872, to Miss Carrie J. Richter, 
daughter of Charles Richter, of this place. 
They have six children — William F., Charley 
E., Sarah T., Frank E.. Theresa M. and Guy 
A. Mr. Metzger served as township trustee 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



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six years, and has also been a member of the 
town council. He belongs to the Ancient 
Order of United Workmen, and himself and 
wife are members of the Presbyterian church. 



-2w5- 



fOHN P. GULICK, farmer, Grand Junc- 
tion, was born in Northumberland Coun- 
ty, Pennsylvania, September 18, 1810, 
son of Abrara Gulick, born in Sussex County, 
New Jersey, who was a soldier in the war of 
1812, and now deceased. lie was reared on 
a farm, and educated in the subscription 
school, in a small frame house covered with 
slabs, slab benches, and a board fastened to 
the wall for a desk; a huge fire-place in one 
end, a long window on one side, two rows of 
lights, and a four-light window for the teacher. 
In 1843 he removed to Three Rivers, Michi- 
gan, being in search of a fair 3'oung damsel 
whom he had met in Pennsylvania. He 
traveled through Illinois to Iowa, and back 
to White Pigeon, Michigan, and found her in 
the person of Mary D. Kownover, whom he 
married October 29, 1844. She was a daugh- 
ter of Richard L. Kownover, of New Jersey, 
and was born in Northumberland County, 
Pennsylvania. July 4, 1844, our subject 
drove a reaper and thresher combined, on 
prairie round, drawn by fourteen horses. 
The machine had on it a liberty pole, bearing 
the names of "Polk and Dallas." That day 
they cut and sacked twenty-eight acres of 
wheat with that machine. Mr. and Mrs. 
Gulick have had eight children, six of whom 
are living — William B., Emma J., Charley 
M., Kate, Margaret M. and Addie L. They 
have an adopted child — Maude. In 1846 
they returned to Luzerne County, Pennsylva- 
nia, thence to Northumberland County, Vir- 
ginia, in 1852, and returned to Pennsylvania 
in 1862. They spent about four years in 

26 



Washington, D. C, Mr. Gulick being in the 
employ of the United States four years. He 
was Captain of a squad of the Sixteenth New 
York, under Colonel Nickelson, sent by Gen- 
eral Auger to capture Booth, the assassinator 
of Lincoln. He rendered valuable service to 
the Government during the war; being a 
sailor, he gave information which led to the 
capture of many rebel vessels. In 1866 he 
removed to St. Josepli County, Indiana, 
thence to this count}' in 1873, where he has 
since lived. He conducted the xVshley House 
over three years. He belongs to the Masonic 
and Odd Fellows societies, and is a member 
of the Presbyterian church. The family are 
Baptists. 



years 



milLLIAM G. CROWDER, farmer, 
1' 1/ V -ection 4, Paton Township, was born 
I'^T^^JT) in Canada, forty miles above Corn- 
wall, November 18, 1841. His father, Paul 
Crowder, now a resident of Winnebago 
County, Illinois, is also a native of Canada, 
and removed to Illinois in 1852. He came 
to this county in June, 1876, settling on his 
present farm the following fall. At the time 
of his settlement here there were but two or 
three houses in sight, but twenty-eight were 
built that season. He has operated or helped 
to operate a threshing machine every season 
since he was eighteen years old. He was 
married January 10, 1860, to Miss Eliza C. 
Otto, daughter of Peter Otto, now deceased. 
She is also a native of Canada. Seven of 
their eight children are living — Frank AV"., 
George W., Sherman A. and Sheridan H. 
(twins), Louisa A., Fannie M. and Ralph D. 
Ross F. died in his third year. Mr. Crowder 
owns 120 acres of land, and devotes his time 
to farming and stock-raising, giving consider- 
able attention to graded stock. He has held 






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;}32 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



"nii 



a few local offices, is a member of the Odd 
Fellows order, the Good Templars, and be- 
longs to the Methodist church. His son 
Slieridan is a prominent teacher in this 
country. Fannie is also a teacher. In April, 
1S82, a cyclone tore his honse to pieces, de- 
stroying nearly all its contents. There were 
five persons in the house at the time, but no 
one was seriously injured. Sheridan was the 
only one that could extricate himself, and he 
assisted the others. The loss was about $600. 



IgflLLIAM RENNER, section 2, Junc- 
I tion Township, was born in Baden, 
l^=fe^! Germany, June 28, 1829, a son of 
Casper Renner. In 1848 he accompanied his 
father to the United States, and lived nearly 
two years in Rochester, New York, and from 
there removed to Racine, Wisconsin, where 
they lived two years. In 1852 they went to 
Walworth County, where the father still 
lives. In 1855 our subject went to Jefferson 
County,Wisconsin, where he lived until 1875, 
when he came to Iowa, and settled on the 
farm in Greene County, where he still lives. 
Mr. Renner was married November 22, 1854, 
to Jane Rickemann, daughter of Charles L. 
Rickemann. They have four children — Sarah 
J., George W., William H. and Charles L. 
Mr. Renner owns a fine farm of 300 acres, 
making a specialty of stock-raising. He and 
his wife are members of the Evangelical 
Association. 



pjEV. JOSEPH MANNING, of Jefferson, 
has resided in that city since October, 
1866. He laid out an addition to the 
northeast part of the town, which bears his 
name. He is a minister of the Methodist 



Episcopal church, and one of the pioneers of 
this part of the State. He was born in Abing- 
ton, Wayne County, Indiana, April 7, 1824, 
where he was reared to manhood. His father, 
Thomas Manning, was a native of Pennsyl- 
vania, and one of the early settlers of Wayne 
County, Indiana, where he lived until his de- 
cease. Mr. Manning entered the itineracy 
of the United Brethren church when only 
twenty years of age, his field of labor being 
in the White River Conference. Later, he 
was transferred to the Wabash Conference, 
where he remained five years, thence to the 
Iowa Conference, his field of labor being in 
the eastern part of the State. He traveled 
five years in the Iowa Conference, in the in- 
terests of the Western College, and two years 
as presiding elder and one year as station 
preacher at Lisbon. When he came to Jef- 
ferson there was no United Brethren society 
in the place, and he decided to unite with the 
Methodists. In the fall of 1868 he joined 
the conference at Council Blufis and engaged 
in itinerant work of the Methodist church. 
He organized a church at Carroll in 1869, and 
at Glidden the same year. In 1870 he or- 
ganized the first Methodist Episcopal church 
at Grand Junction. This is but a small por- 
tion of the work accomplished by Mr. Man- 
ning; he has devoted time and energies to 
ministerial work for many years. He was 
married in 1846, in Preble County, Ohio, to 
Miss Jane Bonebrake, of that county, born in 
1828. Her father, George Bonebrake, was a 
minister of the United Brethren (^hurch. He 
came to Iowa from Indiana, and many years 
later went to Topeka, Kansas, where he died 
in 1865. The mother, Eliza (Adams) Bone- 
brake, died in Indiana before her husband 
came to this State. Mr. and Mrs. Manning 
have four children. The eldest son, Orlando 
H., is a man of much distinction. He ob- 
tained his education at Western and Cornell 



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BIOGRAPHICAL ,'^ KETCHES. 



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Colleges, Iowa; studied law with Head & 
Knssell, at Jefferson ; later, located at Carroll, 
where he practiced law until the fell of 1881, 
when he removed to Council Bluff's, and 
later settled in Topeka, Kansas. He served 
two terms in the Iowa Legislature, from Car- 
roll and Greene Counties; was elected Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of Iowa in 1881, and re- 
elected in 1883. He is at present attorney 
for the Central National Bank, of Topeka, and 
also for the Loan Investment Company; he 
is a man of marked ability. Their second 
child, Jennie, is the wife of Alfred A. Kear- 
ney, of Stanton, Nebraska, an attorney of that 
place. Their third child, George B., is with 
his brother in Topeka; and May L. is en- 
gaged in teaching. Mr. Manning has spent 
the best portion of his life in the ministry, 
and has been an advocate of all principles 
tending to the advancement of religion and 
the moral interests of mankind. 

— — 4*>^f^- — 



fONATIIAN HUTCHINSON, deceased, 
late of Washington Township, was born 
near Trenton, New Jersey, in 1815. He 
came to this county in 1853, settling in 
Wasiiington Township, and was among the 
first settlers in the township. The country 
was then in its primitive condition, and 
abounded in deer, elk, wolves, wildcats, and 
other wild animals. Mr. Hutchinson was a 
skillful hunter and killed great quantities of 
wild game. He suff"ered all the hardships 
and privations of pioneer life, but was brave 
and persevering amid all his trials. He was 
married in December, 1889, to Miss Dorothy 
Burgess, a daughter of Jacob Burgess, and to 
this union were born five children, only three 
of whom are living — Barzilla B., Joseph W. 
and Sabra J. Two sons. Smith and Madison 
N., lost their lives while righting in defense 



of the Union. Mr. Hutchinson died in 1861. 
He was a man that was greatly respected by 
all tliat knew him, and his death cast a gloom 
over the whole comuiunity. He was a kind 
and affectionate husband, a tender parent and 
an obliging neighbor. In his death the 
countv lost a valual)le citizen. 



SR% ^' BARKER, senior member of the 
ImI ^''"' ''*' ^'^'■^^'' ^ Sons, proprietors of 
^i^® the Valley Farm, and dealers in and 
breeders of thorongh-bred stock, established 
their business in 1880, and it is one of the 
leading firms in Greene County engaged in 
the rearing of Hereford cattle. Mr. Barker 
was born in Oneida County, New York, De- 
cember 18, 1823, where he was reared and 
educated. In 1844 he removed to Illinois, 
where he worked at the carpenter's trade 
about four years in Chicago and in the 
vicinity of that city, and in 1847 returned to 
his native State. In 1850 he was united in 
marriage with Miss E. A. Stantial, a native 
of New York, and soon after settled in Will 
County, Illinois, where he was engaged in 
contracting and building until 1862, then 
engaged in agriculture. In 1872 he em- 
barked in the drug and grocery business, 
under the firm name of A. B. Barker & Son. 
Mr. and Mrs. Barker have three children — 
H. S., II. F. and Mattie E. II. F. Barker, 
the junior member of the firm, was reared in 
Will County, Illinois, where he received his 
education. He was married in 1880 to Miss 
Annie McGlashan, and to this union have 
been born three children — Corlis, Vera and 
Willie. The Barker residence is a fine two- 
story building, and everything about the farm 
indicates thrift and enterprise. Their herds 
are Nos. 10,807 and 15,143, and are second 
to none in central Iowa. The firm owns 240 






:!:i4 



F»Si>»"iJ»^'«'-»J' 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



acres of well-improved land, and is one of 
the largest farms in the county. The barn 
is 60 X 96 feet, and will hold 100 head of cat- 
tle and 150 tons of haj. They have all 
the modern conveniences for the care and 
handling of stock. They are devoting all 
their time and a great deal of money in the 
rearing of Herefords. 



1^1 AMUEL RHOAD, farmer, section 28, 
"^^^ Washington Township, was born in 
^^ Highland County, Ohio, June 27, 1806. 
His father, Phillip Hhoad, was born in Penn- 
sylvania, and taken by his father, Jacob 
Rhoad. to Shenandoah Connty, Virginia, in 
infancy, where he was reared, and removed to 
Highland County, Ohio, in 1805. His 
mother's mai-den name was Elizabeth Stols. 
Samuel Rboad's mother's maiden name was 
Mary Magdalene Wendel. He was reared on 
a farm and received a limited education in 
the subscription schools, which were held in 
the old pioneer log cabin. The cabins had 
split logs for seats, paper windows, puncheon 
floors, huge tire places and l)oard roofs. He 
and General Jacob Amman, who was a cadet 
at West Point, were schoolmates, attending 
school in an old still-house, with curtains to 
separate the school-room from the engine and 
boiler. He was born and reared on the old 
homestead, married and lived there until he 
had six children. In 1850 he came to 
Wapello County, Iowa, thence to Greene 
County, in 1855, settling upon his present 
farm, which was then wild land. There was 
but one log cabin in sight. There were 
many wolves, deer, wildcats and a few elk. 
He went to Panora and Elk Rapids to mill, 
a distance of twenty miles or more, and fre- 
quently went to Des Moines to trade. Corn 
bread was then the " stati" of life," and corn- 



'■"■■■°i'''k"d»''.. 



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meal was legal tender. Mr. Rhoad was 
married July 5, 1835, to Miss Martha Mc- 
Curdy, daughter of Hugh McCurdy, now 
deceased. She was born in Beaver County, 
Pennsylvania. Her mother's maiden name 
was Martha McAllister. Mr. and Mrs. 
Rhoad had eight children, four of whom are 
living — Andrew, Josephine, wife of P. M. 
Fitz Patrick, of this county; Hannah, wife of 
J. C. Beaman, of Washington Township, and 
Martha J., who lives at home. Mrs. Rhoad 
died August 19, 1871. She was a consistent 
member of the Presbyterian church, and was 
aged fifty-eight years, having been born 
March 25, 1813. Mr. Rhoad owns 240 acres 
of land, whicii is worked by a tenant. He is 
a member of the Presbyterian church. 






EO FREUND, one of the early and re- 
spected citizens of Jefferson, located in 
that city in January, 1871. He at that 
time engaged in the manufacture of cigars, 
having the first and only cigar factory in the 
town. In 1873 he bought five acres of tim- 
ber land on the Jefferson Mill road, which he 
cleared and then put out a grapery. He also 
erected a residence, kept a saloon, and manu- 
factured wine. About 1880 he returned to 
the city and engaged in the saloon business. 
He was born in Germany in 1846, and came 
to America in 1863. He lived in Venango 
County, Pennsylvania, for some time, then 
removed to Pittsburg in 1869, traveling con- 
siderably in the meantime. In the winter of 
1870-'71 he started westward, intending to 
go to California, but being pleased with Jef- 
ferson, decided to locate there. Mr. Freund 
is one of the highly-respected citizens of Jef- 
ferson. If all who follow the same business 
that he has pursued for many years were 
equally conscientious and careful in conduct- 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SEETCUES. 



335 



ing the same, the prohibitory law of Iowa 
would be nil necessary. No arrests were ever 
made in his house, he was never before the 
grand jury, and never cost the county a dol- 
lar as the result of his business. 



LLIAM H. EENNEK, manufacturer 
W/li o^' harness and dealer in trunks, 
y^ valises, etc., at Grand Junction, was 
born in Jefferson County, Wisconsin, March 
16, 1861, son of William Renner, of Junc- 
tion Township. He was reared on a farm 
until seventeen years of age. He came with 
his parents to this county, settling in Junc- 
tion Township, and served an apprenticeship 
of two years with A. Marquart, in Grand 
Junction, then went to Chicago and worked 
at his trade iive years. He then returned to 
his home, and in January, 1886, bought Mr. 
Marquart's stock of goods and built his 
present shop. He manufactures all kinds of 
light and heavy harness, and carries a capital 
stock of $1,500. He is doing a good busi- 
ness and is well worthy ot patronage. He is 
a member of the Koyal Arcanum, of Chicago 
(the H. W. Longfellow Council), and belongs 
to the German Evangelical Association of 
Grand Junction. 



|P[EOEGE ^Y. DAY, of Jefferson, ijecarae 
Avisir ^ resident of that city in January, 1878, 
^i and has been a resident of Greene 
County since 1870. At that time he bought 
a farm on section 16, upon which he lived 
until he settled in Jefferson. In 1880 he 
organized a detective association, of which he 
was manager for five years. He achieved a 
high reputation as a detective, being success- 
fully employed in a number of important 



eases. He was also deputy sheriff' for four 
years. At present he represents the Pitts 
Manufacturing Company, of Marseilles, Illi- 
nois, being emploj'ed as a traveling salesman. 
Mr. Day was born in Troy, New York, in 
1844. His parents, Joseph and Eliza Day, 
died when lie was an infant. In 1847, when 
but three years old, he was taken to Dane 
County, Wisconsin, by a man named Os- 
trander, who died wlien George was nine 
years of age, and from that time he was 
thrown upon his own resources, working his 
way without assistance. He entered the 
military State service of Wisconsin in July, 
1861, at Madison. In November of that 
year he re-enlisted in Company I, Twelfth 
Wisconsin Infantry. December 23, 1803, 
he again re-enlisted at Natchez, Mississippi, 
and was discharged July 16, 1865, at Louis- 
ville, Kentucky. He participated in the 
siege of Vicksburg, siege of Jackson, Miss- 
issippi, battle of Baker's Creek, capture of 
Fort Alexander, in Louisiana, and the Mer- 
iden expedition. He came home on fur- 
lough in March, 1864. Returning by way 
of Cairo, with the Seventeenth Corps, he 
joined General Sherman, and was captured 
near Kenesaw Mountain while on picket 
duty. He was kept a prisoner until May 5, 
1865, and was first confined in a Confederate 
prison at Talladega, Alabama, thence to Sel- 
ma, where he succeeded in escaping from his 
guard, in company with three others, but was 
recaptured after twelve hours and returned 
to prison. About the 20th of December he 
was taken to the prison at Meridian, Miss- 
issippi. After a confinement of a few weeks 
at this point he, with two others, Charles 
Lewis, Thirteenth Illinois, and Charles Broz- 
ier, Sixty-fourth Illinois, succeeded in com- 
pleting a tunnel and made their escape. 
They eluded their pursuers for six days, and 
were then recaptured and returned to prison. 



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336 



HISTORY OP GREENE COUNTY. 



They were barefoot and nearly naked. The 
season was midwinter, and traveling through 
the swamps was almost impossible, even un- 
der the most favorable circumstances. The 
water being frozen hard enough to bear tlieir 
weight, and again breaking through by the 
force of their weiglit, their bare feet and al- 
most naked bodies suffered almost beyond 
endurance. They were followed by hounds, 
and a recapture was the result, as before 
stated. Their food during the six days of 
their terrible experience was corn and pump- 
kins, which they found in the fields, and ate 
raw. A severe illness followed, and Mr. Day 
continued sick during the remainder of his 
imprisonment. Imagination can not depict 
the hoi'rors of that awful experience in a 
Southern prison, and words are inadequate to 
describe it. After a time he was returned to 
Cahaba and thence to Selma. At the latter 
place he was paroled, and conducted to the 
Union lines near Vicksburg, then transferred 
by steamer to St. Louis, thence to his home, 
arriving there May 11, 1865. His discharge 
followed in July. Mr. Day has never re- 
covered from the effects of his prison life. 
After the war he enwajjed in farmin<r in Wis- 
consin, where he remained until he came to 
Iowa. He was married in Wisconsin to 
Miss Addie J. Wilson, daughter of William 
AVilson. They have four children — Willie 
C, Nellie E., Rufus A. and Archie L. 

*o*"H- y * ? t i l * V |.i^.»<,« 



|ANIEL WESSLING, farmer, section 25, 
Paton Township, was born in North- 
tield. Cook County, Illinois, November 
17, 1855. His father, Henry Wessling, 
deceased, was a native of Hanover, Germany, 
and came to America in 1838, settling in 
Cook County. Daniel was reared a farmer, 
and received his elementary education in the 



common schools, and later, attended school 
at Naperville, Illinois. He came to this 
county in February, 188-1:, and settled where 
he now resides. He was married -Fune 3, 
1880, to Julia A. Roekenbach, daughter of 
Philip Roekenbach, of Lake County, Illinois, 
and they have four children — Clarence L., 
Delia I., Mamie M. and D. Raymond. Mr. 
Wessling: owns 240 acres of land. He is 
school director, and road supervisor. He 
and his wife are members of the Evangelical 
Association, and he has been Sunday-school 
superintendent two years; was also secretary 
of the Farmer's Alliance. 



?AMES BURKE, of Kendrick Township, 
was born in Ireland, October 10, 1834, 
son of Miles and Ellen Burke. When 
he was twelve years of age his parents emi- 
grated to America, locating in Cayuga Coun- 
ty, New York. In 1855 he removed to 
Clark County, Wisconsin, where he resided 
until the breaking out of the Rebellion, when 
he enlisted, August 23, 1861, in the First 
Wisconsin Battery Light Artillery, Colonel 
Jacob T. Foster commanding. December 23, 

1864, he re-enlisted, and served until the 
close of the war. He took an active part in 
many of the historical battles of the war, and 
was in General Banks' Red River Expedi- 
tion. He was honorably discharged July 18, 

1865, at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and returned 
to his home in Clark County, where he 
remained three months. He then removed 
to Hancock County, Mississippi, where he 
was engaged in lumbering and in railroad 
work for live years. In 1870 he removed to 
Johnson County, Iowa, living there one year. 
March 23, 1871, he was married to Miss 
Sarah Eason of that county, who was born in 
Wayne County, Ohio, a daughter of Alexan- 



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BIOGRAPHIGAL SKETCHES. 



337 



der and Mary Eason. During that same 
year he came to Greene County, locating 
near the Garland school-house in Keudrick 
Township, where he lived until 1879, then 
settled upon the farm where he now resides. 
His farm contains tifty acres of as good land 
as can be found in Greene County, and it is 
in a good state of cultivation. He has a one- 
aud-a-half-story modern residence, well fur- 
nished and surrounded with shade trees. He 
has a large and commodious barn for stock 
and grain, a fine orchard and a native grove. 
Mr. and Mrs. Burke have one daughter, Ada 
May, born January 11, 1872. Politically Mr. 
Burke aftiiliates with the Republican party, 
and he is a member of the N. H. Powers 
Post, No. Ill, G. A. R., at Scranton. 

~^'■^►>^^^-~ 



iUPtCH G. WOODS, a merchant, at 
Surry, was born in Adams County, 
Ohio, July 27, 1859, son of Isaac 
Woods, of Perry, Iowa, a native of the same 
place. He was reared on a farm, and edu- 
cated in the common schools of his native 
county, and Boone County, his parents re- 
moving to that county in the spring of 1872. 
He taught school ten years in one school- 
house; and as an appreciation of his services, 
liis patrons gave him from $10 to $15 a 
month more than the district paid him in 
public money. He clerked in the iirst store 
that was established at Angus, which was in 
18S2, and he opened the first bill of goods; 
was also postmaster there for awhile, and 
carried the mail in his pocket. He came to 
Surry in the spring of 1885, where he car- 
ries a general stock of goods, and has a good 
patronage. His success is due to his selling 
for small profits, and the gentlemanly cour- 
tesy he extends to his customers. He was 
married February 8, 1883, tu Eliza Mansell, 



daughter of John Mansell, an engineer of the 
Standard coal mine at Angus. They have 
two children — Clara and Lucy. Mr. Woods 
is a member of the Odd Fellows fraternity at 
Angus, No. 461. 



^UNCAN M. LILLEY, an engineer at 
Surry, was born in Lanarkshire, Scot- 
land, in Motherwell, July 4, 1844, son 
of Robert Lilley, deceased, a native of the 
same country. He learned the business of 
" engineer " and ran an engine eight years in 
his native country. He came to the United 
States in 1871, and settled at McKeesport, 
Pennsylvania, thence to Blossburgh, in the 
Allegheny Mountains, in 1872, thence to 
Ohio, one year later, thence to Boone County, 
Iowa, the same fall, and to this county in the 
fall of 1876, where he has since resided, and 
has run an engine most of the time since his 
settlement here. He ran the engine at the 
Armstrong Bank for awhile, but condemned 
the engine and refused to work there longer. 
Only a short time afterward it exploded, car- 
rying death and destruction in its wake. He 
was married June 11, 1875, to Nancy J. 
Sweney, daughter of James Sweney, of Wis- 
consin, and they have five children — Martha 
R., Ellen, James M., William D. and George 
L. Mr. Lilley is a member of the society of 
Odd Fellows, also of the Knights of Pythias. 



|OLAND ROBERTS, proprietor of the 
£ Washington street livery stable, at Jef- 
45)1 ferson, has been a resident of Greene 
County since 1870, at which time he set- 
tled on a farm in Grant Township. He im- 
proved this farm, and sold it to D. P. Root, 
who formerly owned the livery stable. The 



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iM..»^»»«W» -5T»ii»raT»»»l«,»,IUJiSBr.fC-J!Iia- 



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338 



EIST0B7 OF GREENE COUNTY. 



Ml 



fii'iii -was at one time Tioot & Roberts, being 
established as such in 1879. This firm was 
succeeded by Roberts & Williams, Mr. 
Roberts becoming sole projmetor in 1883. 
He is a native of Wales, born in 1840, and 
came to this country with his parents when 
six years of age. His father, J. H. Roberts, 
settled near Mazomanie, Dane County, Wis- 
consin, and died when Roland was eleven 
years old. Our subject was reared in Dane 
County, and married Miss C. M. Ballard. 
They have three children — Hugh B., Bessie 
C. and Gertie. The two oldest were born in 
Wisconsin. The parents of Mr. Roberts had 
ten children, five of whom are living — three 
sons and two daughters. Mr. Roberts is a 
successful business man, and receives the 
liberal patronage of the traveling public. 



» SuS » 



^jOBERT GOODWIN, of the firm of Dale 

'^ & Goodwin, proprietors of the Grand 
^\ Junction pipe and tile works, was born 
near Lith, Scotland, February 23, 1847, son 
of Robert Goodwin, now deceased. He was 
educated in the public schools of his native 
place. He came to America in May, 1865, 
and lived five years in Mercer County, Penn- 
sylvania, spending a portion of that time in 
the oil regions, and also mining coal and 
prospecting generally. He came to Trum- 
bull County, Ohio, in 1870, and worked in 
the mines most of the time until 1877, then 
came to Grand Junction and engaged in farm- 
ing until 1882, when he helped to build the 
present manufactories. He still manages a 
farm of 200 acres. The factory is large, run 
by a forty-five horse-power steam engine, with 
a capacity from one to two cars of tile or 
lirick everyday. They use the Tracer crusher, 
also own and operate a coal shaft in connec- 
tion with the factory, all run by the same en- 



gine. They mine their own coal and sell to 
local trade, using the clay from under the 
coal vein to make tile and brick. They do 
an extensive business, and it is constantly in- 
creasing. Mr. Goodwin was married Decem- 
ber 25, 1868, to Margaret Maxwell, daughter 
of Thomas Maxwell, deceased. 8he is a na- 
tive of Scotland. Mr. and Mrs. Goodwin are 
the parents of seven children — Tliomas, Rob- 
ert, William J., Daniel, Mary, Maggie and 
Katie; all are at home. Mr. and Mrs. Good- 
win are members of the Presbyterian church. 



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]p^,ENRY M. BLAKE, who is numbered 
IW)) ^'i^o^g the enterprising and public- 
*^(i spirited agriculturists of Highland 
Township, is a native of Ireland, his parents, 
Henry and Margaret (Magner) Blake, also 
being natives of the Emerald Isle. He was 
the fourth in a family of five children, and 
was born in County Clare, Ireland, the date 
of his birth being May 20, 1839. He immi- 
grated to America in the year 1851, settling 
near Ottawa. At the age of fifteen years he 
commenced working on a farm for his board 
and clothes, which he followed till the break- 
ing out of the war of the Rebellion in 1861. 
He then enlisted in the defense of the Union, 
and was assigned to Company A, Eleventh 
Wisconsin Infantry, and re-enlisted as a vet- 
eran in Texas. He participated in the battles 
of Vicksl)urg, Chamjjion Hill, Fort Blakcly, 
Magnolia Hill, Big Black River, Jackson, 
Mississippi, and others of minor importance. 
He was discharged at Mobile, Alabama, in 
18G5, having been in the service four years. 
October 24, 1866. he was married to Miss 
Margaret Murphy, a native of Canada, born 
May 10, 1844. The names of the children 
born to this union in order of their birth are 
as follows — Mary E., Annie T., Margaret, 



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BIOGMAPHIOAL SKETCHES. 



339 



James H., Sarah B., Elizabeth, Lucy, John 
S., Alice and George S., ten in all. After 
the war Mr. Blake resumed farming in Wis- 
consin, remaining in that State until 1869. 
In November of that year he came to Greene 
County, Iowa, when he settled on his present 
farm in Highland Township, which is located 
on section 35. He has met with success 
since coming to Greene County, owing to his 
industrious habits and good management, 
and is now the owner of a well-cultivated 
farm of 160 acres, and during his residence 
in Highland Township has gained the confi- 
dence and esteem of all who know him. In 
his political views he is independent, voting 
for men, not party. Mr. Blake and his 
family are members of the Koman Catholic 
church. 



.^[MANUEL MAKKEK, an active and 
°W/i ^"terprising farmer and stock-raiser of 
^y'l Greene County, residing on section 11, 
Hardin Township, is a son of Martin and Mar- 
garet Marker, natives of Maryland. They sub- 
sequently settled in Darke County, and later, 
in 1862, came to the State of Iowa, locating 
iirst in Cedar County where they spent two 
years. Emanuel Marker, the subject of this 
sketch, was born in Darke County, Ohio, the 
date of his birth being September 12, 1845. 
He grew to manhood in his native county, 
being reared to the avocation of a farmer. 
After attaining the age of twenty-one years 
he went to Versailles, Darke County, and be- 
gan working at the harness maker's trade, 
which he followed for seven years. With the 
money he saved while working at his trade 
he purchased a farm, and in 1875 engaged in 
farming, he having immigrated to Greene 
County in 1873 and located north of Paton. 
In November, 1872, he was united in mar- 



riage to Miss Eliza A. Meller, who was born 
in Darke County, Ohio, October 8, 1851, her 
parents, John J. and Nancy Meller, being 
natives of the same State. Four children 
have been born to this union as follows — 
Harvey M., born August 26, 1875 ; Crawford 
E., born February 14, 1877; Dennis L., born 
June 25, 1880, died November 25, 1885, and 
Florence A., born June 20, 1884, died Janu- 
ary 81, 1886. In November, 1877, Mr. 
Marker removed to his present farm on sec- 
tion 11, Hardin Township, where he has 160 
acres under good cultivation, with good resi- 
dence and farm buildings. Besides his home 
farm he owns eighty acres on section 2, and 
forty acres on section 12, Hardin Township, 
and seventy-five and a half acres on section 
19, Paton Township, and all of which he has 
acquired by hard work and good manage- 
ment. He takes an active interest in the 
afi'airs of his township, and since making his 
home here has served as school treasurer and 
pathmaster. In politics he affiliates with the 
Democratic party. Postoffice, Dana, Iowa. 
His father, Martin Marker, was born in Fred- 
erick County, Maryland, June 15, 1815, and 
was a son of George Marker who was also 
born in Frederick County, June 19, 1782. 
AVhen about seven years old, in 1823, Martin 
Marker was taken by his parents to Mont- 
gomery County, Ohio, where he was reared 
to agricultural pursuits, and educated in the 
subscription schools. His father resided in 
Montgomery County till his death, Novem- 
ber 29, 1850. His mother, Margaret Mar- 
ker, died in Preble County, Ohio, at the 
advanced age of eighty-four years. Martin 
Marker was married in Montgomery County, 
May 30, 1837, to Miss Margaret Weaver, a 
native of Montgomery County, Ohio, born 
January 18, 1818. Of eleven children born 
to this union nine yet survive — Lovina S., 
Martin V., Mary, Emanuel (whose name 






■■"ti-M— ■■W' 



t^m^Wlaia^^^Ulm^iim^Sflfa* 



340 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



heads this sketch), Martha J., Lucinda and 
Melinda (twins), Josiah and Amanda. The 
father lived on rented land for abont two 
years after his marriage, then leased a tract 
of land in Darke County, Ohio, being one of 
the early settlers of that county. Six months 
later he removed to a tract of ninety-four 
acres in York Township, Darke County, 
which his father-in-law had given him for 
$100. Here he erected his pioneer cabin, and 
began the laborious task of opening up a 
farm. He cleared and pnt nnder cultivation 
about forty acres, when he traded his farm for 
a saw and flouring mill, which he operated 
about ten years, when he was forced into a 
lawsuit by which he lost almost his entire 
property. He then bought seventy acres for 
$600, paying $10 down, which at that time 
was all that he had, but at the expiration of 
three years he had his land paid for. In 
1850 he bought eighty acres which he sold 
to his brother Raymond for $1,700. He then 
purchased 164 acres of land where he now 
resides in Darke County, near Versailles, 
which he sold in 1863 and purchased 240 
acres in Cedar County, Iowa. He then re- 
moved to his Cedar County property, to which 
he shortly afterward added 280 acres, making 
in all a tract of 520 acres, 120 of which was 
timber land. In 1866 he sold this land at a 
gain of nearly $6,000, when he returned to 
his old farm in Darke County, Ohio, the 
party to whom he had sold it having failed 
to pay for it. Here he has since made his 
home, devoting his attention to farming and 
stock-raising. His farm contains 164 acres 
of choice land valued at $16,000. His tine 
two-story residence is both comfortable and 
commodious, and his farm buildings are no- 
ticeably good, his large barn, 40 x 70 feet, 
costing $2,500. By hard labor and persever- 
ing energy, assisted by his noble wife, Mr. 
Marker has from a small beginning accumu- 



lated a valuable property, and is now classed 
among the prosperous citizens of Darke 
County. Together this old couple shared the 
vicissitudes of pioneer life, passing through 
many trials and struggles but have lived to 
attain prosperity, and to see their children 
become respected and useful members of 
society. Mr. Marker has given to his chil- 
dren in lands and money about $11,000. His 
farm is one of the best in his neighborhood, 
and has on it a very fine orchard, consisting 
of about 300 bearing trees. He has served 
efficiently in many of the townshiji offices 
during his residence in Darke County, and in 
1851 was elected district assessor. He 
platted and appraised the land in five town- 
ships in 102 days, receiving for his work $204, 
and in this gave entire satisfaction. He is 
known as the best and most successful auc- 
tioneer in his county. Both he and his wife 
have been members of the Lutheran church 
for almost forty-five years. 



^n^. 



jlfSAAC W. FORD, farmer, section 33, 
f] Junction Township, was born in St. Law- 
^ rence County, New York, October 27, 
1838. His father, Rollin Ford, deceased, 
was a native of Rutland County, Vermont, 
and settled in New York in early life. He 
was reared on a farm and educated in the 
common schools of his native county, and of 
Ohio, where his parents settled in 1847. 
They soon after removed to Fulton County, 
same State. The mother was Almira 
(Hogans) Ford, and lived with her son after 
the death of her husband. They were the 
parents of seven children — Sarah J., Rollin 
E., Esther A., Isaac H., Mary S., Henry M., 
Danna J. Our subject came to Jones Coun- 
ty, this State, in 1860. During the late war, 
in August, 1861, he enlisted in Company I, 




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'g1i»«"'M"M"« ' 1i1tf"i»»-a ' -J-»--»-'»---»y 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



341 



Second Iowa Cavalry, and served until Sep- 
tember, 1865. He participated in both 
battles of Corinth, lui^a, Holly Springs, 
Mempliis, Colliersville, Coffinsville, Water 
Valley, Tupelo, Franklin, Nashville, Eastport, 
and several others, lie enlisted as a private 
and was discharged as a Sergeant. He came 
to Greene County in March, 1869, settling in 
Junction Township, which has since been his 
home. He has held the office of school 
director, road commissioner, and is at present 
serving as township trustee. He was married 
September 22, 1861, to Mary Reese, daughter 
of Conrad Reese, deceased, born in the 
Mohawk Valley, New York. They have two 
children — Charles O. and Carrie E. Mr. 
Ford is a member of the G. A. R., and he 
and his wife are members of the Baptist 
church. 



-5+^ 



fRANK M. FERGUSON, farmer, section 
29, Patoii Township, was born in Ken- 
-j^ dall County, Illinois, September 8, 1839, 
son of Elijah and Lucinda (Sutton) Ferguson, 
both of whom are deceased. When he was 
fifteen years old his parents removed to Cedar 
County, Iowa. He came to this county in 
the fall of 1870, lived one year in Grand 
Junction, and worked at farming on Herron's 
place. The next eight years he was engaged 
in farming three miles north of Grand Junc- 
tion, and came to his present home in August, 
1880, wliere he has since resided, and where 
he owns 110 acres of land. He was married 
September 1, 1861, to Mary F. Weeks, daugh- 
ter of Gilbert Weeks, of Paton Township. 
Of their eight children, only six are living — 
Charles D., Edwin J., Frank L., Minnie M., 
James A. and Myrtle A. Mr. Ferguson held 
the office of road supervisor several years, 
and was also school director in Junction 



IL 



Township. He and his wife and Charles and 
Minnie are members of the Presbyterian 
church at Dana. 



4-5»-f4- 



fB. WILLIAMSON, farmer, section 32, 
Kendrick Township, postoffice Scran- 
® ton, was born in Jones County, Iowa, 
July 17, 1846, son of John and Sarah (Boyd) 
Williamson, the former a native of Ireland, 
and the latter of Pennsylvania. They were 
the parents of nine children, J. B. being the 
sixth child. He was reared a farmer, and 
received his education in the common schools. 
January 2, 1877, he was married to Miss 
Josie Clark, who was a native of Pennsyl- 
vania, and a daughter of William Clark. She 
died June 22, 1881, leaving two children — 
Miranda E. and Herbert H. Mr. Williamson 
came to Greene County in 1871, and pur- 
chased 120 acres of wild land, which he has 
since improved and cultivated. He has a 
good residence, good farm buildings and a 
line orchard. September 12, 1883, he was 
married to Mary S. Anderson. 



->45-. 



jTaEVI STOCKWELL, general farmer and 
f Cw stock-breeder, residing on section 5, 
'^^ Hardin Township, was born in Hadley, 
Massachusetts, January 20, 1826, a son of 
Daniel and Mary (Gale) Stockwell, who were 
natives of the same State. He was reared to 
the avocation of a farmer which he followed 
in the summer, and during the winter seasons 
worked in his father's broom factory. On 
attaining the age of twenty-one years he 
commenced farming for himself, raising 
broom corn tiie first season, wliich he made 
into brooms in the winter, and for his season's 
work he realized $400 clear profit. He 



I'i^:;:!^^!^;^^^:!^!^^::!!^:^!!!^^^!!!^^^^ 



'a"«"i 



342 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



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made on an average fifty brooms a day. April 
15, 1851, be was united in marriage to Miss 
Lydia Judd, wbo was born in South Hadley, 
Hampsliire County, Massachusetts, a daugh- 
ter of Simeon and Lydia (Day) Judd, tlie 
father a son of Thomas Judd of South Had- 
ley, and the mother a daughter of Eli Day of 
Northampton. The mother of Mrs. Stock well 
died July 1, 1852, and her father May 3, 
1869. They had a family of three children — 
Alethea Day, born September 30, 1823, wife 
of Elam Hitchcock, died February 13, 1855; 
Andrew Thomas was born Februarj' 9, 1826, 
married Sarah H. Day, June 26, 1857, and 
has three children; Lydia, born Julj^ 24, 
1828, is the wife of Levi Stockwell, and to 
this union have been born three children — 
Mary A., born in Tipton, Cedar County, Iowa, 
July 8, 1862, is assistant principal of the 
Jefferson high school, where she has taught 
successfully for three y^ars; Harriet B., also 
born in Tipton, January 16, 1864, is living 
at home, and William Judd, born in Tipton, 
October 2, 1867. Mr. Stockwell left Massa- 
chusetts in 1851 after disposing of his farm, 
when he located at East Windsor, Connecti- 
cut. He was engaged in the mercantile 
business in Hadley, Massachusetts, when on 
account of ill health his physician advised 
him to come West. He came to Iowa in 
1857 and located in Cedar County, wliere lie 
resided till 1870, when lie located on his 
present farm in Hardin Township, where he 
has 320 acres of well cultivated land, and is 
now numbered among Greene County's best 
farmers. His farm is one of the finest in the 
county, a good and substantial residence, and 
commodious farm buildings for his stock. 
He devotes considerable attention to stock- 
raising, and takes much pride in his fine herd. 
In his political views he is a firm Republican. 
He is at present serving as count}' supervisor, 
wliich ofiice he fills with honor to himself and 



to the best interests of his county. Both he 
and his wife are members of the Presbyterian 
church at Jefferson. 



— — ^.^^H,^.-- — 

f'^^OHN McKAY, superintendent of the 
Standard and Keystone mines at Angus 
and Surry, was born in the north of 
Scotland, January 13, 1843, a son of AValter 
McKay, who was born in the same country. 
When our subject was a small boy he was 
taken by his parents to Lanarkshire, Scot- 
land, and when but eight j'ears old began 
working in the mines, and has spent his life 
since then in or around mines. His first 
work in the mines M'as called trapping, that 
is opening and shutting the doors at the 
entries to keep the air in its proper channels. 
He was united in marriage January 2, 1864, 
to Miss Mary Gold, and to them have been 
born eight children, of whom only four are 
living — Katie, Mary, John and Andrew. Mr. 
McKay came to the United States in 1864, 
and was engaged in mining coal in Trumbull 
and Mahoning counties, Ohio, until 1872. 
He then came to Fort Dodge, Iowa, where he 
mined coal for J. F. Duncombe about one 
and a half years. He then began prospect- 
ing for coal for Duncombe and others in the 
neighborhood of the present site of Angus 
and Surrj', being thus engaged two years, 
and was pit boss in the Duncombe, now 
known as Climax No. 1, on section 31 of 
Union Township, Boone County. This shaft 
was sunk in 1878, and was the first sunk 
where the town of Angus now stands. Mr. 
McKay was also pit boss at No. 2 Climax 
shaft during its sinking. In 1881 he went 
to Webster County, Iowa, and took charge of 
the Little Standard mine for the Minneapolis 
& St. Louis Railway Company, which position 
he filled from January, 1881, until February, 



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'■■■■M"B»5^^»ii''^«ga3!ggBsa 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



'^"'■"■'■■■■'^li 



343 



1882. He then took charge of the Standard 
mines of Angus, and in June, 1885, took 
charge of the Keystone mines at Surrey, and 
is now superintendent of both. Mr. McKay 
is a member of both the Masonic and Odd 
Fellows orders. 

'^ " ' | " S " S ' |" "«" 



tOBERT CONNELL, of Surry, was born 
in County Northumberland, England, 
September 24, 1834, son of John Con- 
nell, deceased, a native of the same place. 
He came to the United States in 1865, 
settlina; on the Monongahela Kiver, where he 
worked in the mines two years. He then 
came to Hubbard, Ohio, and mined there 
until 1879, thence to Boonesboro, this State, 
and mined until 1880, then came to Greene 
County and has since lived in Surry. He 
worked in the Armstrong mine until the late 
sad explosion, and is now in the Buckeye 
mine. He was married August 3, 1861, to 
Miss Mary Black, daughter of James Black, 
deceased. They have two children — Elizabeth 
and Sarah; the former married Charles Dorr, 
of Surry, and they have live children — 
Charles, Maggie, Robert, "William and Mary. 
Mr. Council owns his home in Surry. He is 
a member of the society of Odd Fellows, uf 
Perry, and of the Knights of Pythias, of 
Anojus. 



IS ' - a 



«HARLES KELLEY, farmer, Grand 
Junction, was born in Canada East, 
near Huntington, May 25, 1833, son of 
James Kelley, a native of Ireland, now de- 
ceased. He was reared on a farm and edu- 
cated in the subscription schools of his native 
place. In 1855 he removed to Manitowoc 
County, Wisconsin, thence to Lake Superior 



in 1857, where the people were so rough and 
uncultivated that he left in three weeks, and 
went to Kane County, Illinois, and remained 
two years. During the late war he enlisted 
in Company A, Fifty-second Illinois Infantry, 
and served over three years. He participated 
in the battle of Shiloh and all the battles in 
which the First Brigade, Sixteenth Army 
Corps was engaged. In 1864 he came to 
Tipton, Iowa, and worked there and at Clar- 
ence at the mason's trade three years. He 
then came to Greene County, which has since 
been his home. He has been engaged in 
farming most of the time, and owns 160 
acres of land in Hardin Townshij), section 
35. He was married March 19, 1S67, to 
Mai'ia Weeks, daughter of Gilbert Weeks, of 
Paton Township. They have six children — 
Charles J., James R., Lettie E., Ehna D., Bes- 
sie L. and Mary F. Mr. Kelley is a meml)er 
of the Knights of Labor, and fully endorses 
the United Labor party. 



'■>^ 



J^[DWARD H. RILEY, farmer, section 
°ijML 25, Washington Township, was born in 
^^ New York City January 1, 1846. His 
father, Patrick Riley, was born in Count}' 
Cork, Ireland, and came to the United States 
about the year 1830. He formerly woi-ked 
on public works, but in later life was a farm- 
er; he is now deceased. Our subject was 
reai'ed a farmer and educated in the common 
schools of Henry and Whiteside counties, in 
Illinois, his parents having removed to Henry 
County in December, 1856. He was a sol- 
dier in the late war, being a member of 
Company K, One Hundred and Twelfth Illi- 
nois Infantry. He participated in the battles 
of Franklin and Clinton, Tennessee, Fort 
Anderson, Town Creek, Wilmington and 
Kingston, North Carolina. He was trans- 



»<■■■■"■■ 



344 



HISTORY OF ORE EN E COUNTY. 



ferred and served a short time in the Sixty- 
fifth Illinois. He came to Greene County in 
March, 1869, settling in his present home. 
The country was then quite new, there being 
but three or four improved farms within 
sight of his place. He owns 280 acres of 
land and devotes his lime to farming and 
stock-raising, giving some time to graded 
stock. lie was married October 4, 1864, to 
Catherine Beers, daughter of Ephraim Beers, 
deceased. Of their nine children seven are 
living — Hazel E., Burdette, Jessamine, Ed- 
ward P., Myrtle I., Harry Claude and Max. 
Politically Mr. Riley is a Republican, but he 
never seeks political distinction. 



fRANK BRADSHAW, farmer, section 
21, Paton Township, was born in Wells- 
^ burg, Brooke County, West Virginia, 
(the center of the Pan Handle) May 3, 1841. 
His father, John Bradshaw, was a native of 
Lancashire, England, and came to Philadel- 
phia in 1818, where he operated a woolen 
factory for several years. He then removed to 
"Wellsburg, and was running a woolen factory 
there at the time of the birth of his son 
Erank. In 1842 he removed his family to 
Daj'ton, La Salle County, Illinois, and run 
a factory there three years, then removed to 
Freedom Township, where he died August 
28, 1856, from the effects of injuries sus- 
tained by a railroad train striking his wagon 
while crossing the track at Ottawa. Mr. 
Bradshaw's mother was formerly Rebecca J. 
Dodd. The parents had eight boys and two 
girls, all living except two boys. Our sub- 
ject came to this county in the spring of 
1876, settling in Dawson Township. He 
located upon his present farm in 1881, where 
he owns 160 acres of good land, and is en- 
gaged in general farming, also pays consider- 



able attention to graded stock. February 21, 
1867, he was married to Aner E. Smith, 
daughter of Alfred and Alinira Smith, the 
former being deceased and the latter living 
in Dawson Township. Eight of their nine 
children are living — Fannie M., Frank W., 
Ida A., Emma M., Mary M., Charles W. and 
Cassie C, twins, and John A. Mr. Brad- 
shaw enlisted in the late war as a member of 
Company D, Second Illinois Light Artillery, 
and served over three years. He was engaged 
in the battle of Fort Donelson, Fort Henry, 
Shiloh, siege of Corinth, and several others. 
He served as Corporal most of the time. He 
has held several township offices, justice of 
the peace, township trustee, and is serving 
his third year as assessor, having been re- 
elected without a dissenting vote. He was 
census taker in 1884. lie is a member of 
Gem Lodge, No. 429, A. F. & A. M., at 
Paton. Mrs. Bradshaw and her daughter 
Fannie are members of the Evangelical As- 
'sociation. 



fAMES TOWERS, engaged in farming 
and stock-raising on section 14, High- 
land Township, is a son of Walter and 
Jane (Watson) Towers, natives of Scotland. 
James was born in that country May 3, 1839, 
remaining there till thirteen years of age. 
He sailed with his parents from Greenock in 
May, 1852, and landing at New York the 
following June. His parents settled in Colum- 
bia County, Wisconsin, where he lived with 
them till reaching the age of twenty-one 
years. He then began working by the month 
on a farm, which he followed until 1870, 
when he came to Greene County. He was 
married in the spring of 1862, in Wisconsin, 
to Margaret Wilson, who was born in Scot- 
land, July 20, 1840, coming to America with 



g»i"»''i."ii"»'"« 




&Ly»"«"a"ml!«"jB. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



:J45 



her parents, John and Marion Wilson, in 
April, 1850. Eight children have been born 
to this union, their names in order of their 
birth being as follows — Marion Blanch, John, 
James R., Walter, David W., Francis Harvey 
(died March 18, 1874), Lewis Watson and 
Margaret Jane. Mr. Towers came to Greene 
County in limited circumstances. He has 
e.xperienced many of the hardships and priva- 
tions incident to life in a new country, but is 
now comfortably situated in life, having by 
his own industry and persevering energy 
acquired his land, his farm being well watered 
by Hardin Creek. He improved his land 
from a state of nature, making it one of the 
finest in Highland Township. He has a com- 
modious two-story residence, a good barn and 
other farm buildings, and a maple grove of 
about three acres. In politics Mr. Towers is 
a staunch Republican. Mrs. Towers is a 
member of the Baptist church. They are 
classed among the well-to-do citizens of 
Highland Township, where they are held in 
high esteem by all who know them. 



(«1 • • (I 



fRW'} WILLIAMS, farmer, section 26, 
"MVYlcUt Greenbrier Township, was born in 
^#^® Washington County, New York, 
March 12, 1838, son of Benjamin and Ann 
(Hopkins) Williams, who were the parents of 
eleven children. He was reared in his native 
county, and educated in the common schools. 
His early life was spent in assisting in the 
labors of the farm. January 29, 1861, he 
was married to Miss Elizabeth McMurray, a 
native of Washington County, New York, 
and daughter of Robert and Elizabeth (Mc- 
Fadden) McMurray. In the spring of 1867 
Mr. Williams came to Iowa and settled in 
Boone County, where he lived four years, 
then came to Greene County and located in 



Greenbrier Township. He first bought 160 
acres of wild land, and afterward added 160 
acres, and now has 320 acres of excellent 
land, well improved, and in a good state of 
cultivation. He has a good house, surrounded 
with shade trees, good buildings for stock 
and grain, wind power for pumping water for 
his stock, an orchard, a native grove, and 
everything to denote the energy and enter- 
prise of the owner. He usually keeps about 
150 head of cattle. Mr. and Mrs Williams 
have two sons — Chester M., born in Wash- 
ington County, New Yoi'k, in 1864, and R. 
B., born in Boone County in 1870. Mr. 
AVilliams is a Republican, and has served in 
nearly all the township offices with credit. 

~-H«f*>+j.A-.-*- 



^^^g^ILLIAM YATES, a resident of Ken- 
\ \\ drick Township, is one of the pio- 
C^fi^i neers of Greene County, and was 
born in Stokes County, North Carolina, De- 
cember 24, 1818, son of AVilliam and Martha 
(Durham) Yates, who reared a family of 
eight children — Jane, Annie, James, Lettie, 
Paulina, AYilliam, Martha and George. When 
William was thirteen years of age the family 
removed to Rush County, Indiana, and were 
among the early settlers of that county. 
When he was eighteen years old they removed 
to Boone County, where AYilliam lived about 
seventeen years. He was united in marriage 
June 6, 1844, with Miss Louisa Brock, a 
native of Tennessee, and a daughter of Allen 
and Sarah (Johnson) Brock, natives of Vir- 
ginia, who were the parents of ten children — 
Jahue, Nancy, Lydia, Allen, Sarah, Rhoda, 
Hiram, Prier, Louisa and Campbell. All 
were reared to maturity and married before 
a phvsician was ever called to the family. 
Mr. Yates resided in Boone County until the 
fall of 1854, when he removed to Iowa, trav- 



346 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 






1 



eling with two horse teams. Mr. Yates drove 
one team, and Mrs. Yates the other one. lie 
first entered eiglity acres of Government 
land, and built a log cabiu 17x17 feet, which 
served tor kitchen, dining-room, sleeping- 
room and parlor. Mr. Yates owns 160 acres 
of farm land, and thirty acres of timber land. 
The log cabin has been removed, and in its 
place stands a good one-and-a-half-story resi- 
dence, built in modern style and well fur- 
nished. He has a fine orchard, a native 
grove, and his farm buildings are comfortable 
and commodious. Mr. and Mrs. Yates have 
had nine children, four of whom are living — 
Sarah L., Nancy E., Lydia A. and Clara A. 
The deceased are — Mary E., Laura E., Martha 
Jane, Clarinda, and a babe unnamed. Mr. 
and ]\[rs. Yates are zealous and worthy mem- 
bers of the Free Methodist church. 






tHILIP MEYER, farmer, section 33, 
Junction Township, in Grand Junction 
*^ corporation, was born in Alsace, France, 
(now Germany), November 26, 1887. His 
father, Andrew Meyer, of Henry County, 
Illinois, is a native of the same place. He 
brought his family to America in the spring 
of 1839, settling in Lake County, Illinois, 
where our subject was reared and educated. 
He came to Boone County, Iowa, in 1875, 
where he improved a farm and engaged in the 
grocery trade one and a half years at Ogden, 
that county. He came to Grand Junction in 
March, 18S2, and clerked one year in Zell- 
hoefer's hardware store, then began farming. 
He owns twenty acres of land and twenty 
town lots in Grand Junction, and 160 acres 
three miles soutlieast of the villacce, which is 
leased to tenants. He was a soldier in the 
late war, being a member of Company A, 
One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois Infantrv. 



He was married June 20, 1860, to Sarah 
Luther, daughter of Peter Luther of Henry 
County, Illinois. She was born near Chicago, 
in Lake County, Illinois. They have had 
three ciiildren — Clara J., deceased, Edward 
P. and Luther G., both at home; the former 
is twenty-four years old and the later four 
years old. Mr. and Mrs. Meyer and their 
son Edward are members of the Evangelical 
Association. 



^,ATHANIEL G. NO YES, farmer and 



Hardin Township, is a native of Hamp- 
shire, England, born May 3, 1849. His 
parents were also natives of England, sailing 
from London in 1851, and landing at New 
York. They first settled in Janesville, Rock 
County, Wisconsin, where the father followed 
his avocation, that of a miller, until 1876. 
He then immigrated with his family to 
Greene County, locating on a farm in Hardin 
Township where he remained until 1882, since 
which time he has made his home in Jeffer- 
son. Nathaniel G. Noyes, the subject of 
this sketch, was Imt two years old when he 
was brought by his parents to the United 
States. He lived with his parents in AVis- 
consin until eighteen years of age, when he 
went to Rockton, Illinois, and for three years 
woi-ked in HoUister & Carlton's grain mill. 
He then returned to Wisconsin, and three 
years later came to Greene County, Iowa, 
when he settled on the farm where he now 
resides, his farm containing 120 acres of fine 
land under good cultivation. Mr. Noyes 
was united in marriage July 26, 1871, to 
Anna Harker, a native of LaFayette County, 
Wisconsin, born October 22, 1851, her 
parents, Simon and Jane Harker, being 
natives of England. They are the parents of 



I 



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stock-raiser, residing on section 12, i 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



o47 J 



one child living, Mark, born June 2, 1876. 
Since becoming a resident of Hardin Town- 
ship Mr. Nojes has held several school 
offices, and is at present treasurer of the 
school board. He is a member of the Masonic 
fraternity. Politically he is a Democrat. 
Postoffice, Jefferson, Iowa. 



/^[DWAED P. FORBES, deceased, was 
1CP/i formerly a resident on section 31, Paton 
^l' Township. He M'as born in Lime, New 
Hampshire, July 5, 1836, son of Cyrus P. 
Forbes, a native of the same county. He 
was reared a farmer, and received a common 
school education. He came with his parents 
to Lee County, Illinois, in 1855, and to La 
Salle County in 1860. He taught school for 
a short time. He was married December 2, 
1868, to Eleanor J. French, daughter of Ebe- 
nezer P. French, now deceased. They have 
three children — Calvin J., Eugene L. and 
Bruce R., all at home. Mr. Forbes came to 
this county in March, 1878, and settled in 
the home where his family now reside. He 
owned 160 acres of land here, and 160 acres 
in Calhoun County. He died February 17, 
1879. He was a member of the Baptist 
church, as is also his wife. 



^i^^. 



^LANSON" C. HARRIS, farmer, section 
Hjv,\\5 30, Paton Township, was born in Gene- 
^isj^K- see County, New York, October 12, 
1840. His parents, Thomas and Fannie 
(Woodrufi") Harris, were born in Tioga 
Count}', New York. They are deceased. Our 
suljject was reared a farmer, and received a 
common-school education. In 1851 he re- 
moved with his parents to La Salle County, 
Illinois. November 9, 1861, he enlisted in 



Company A, Fifty-third Illinois Infantry, 
and was discharged fur disability April 27, 
1862. He re-enlisted October 8, 1864, in 
Company C, Eleventh Illinois Infantry, and 
was transferred to Company I, Forty-si.xth 
Illinois Infantry, and was discharged October 
8, 1865. He was in the battles of Spanish 
Fort and Fort Blakely. He came to Greene 
County in March, 1878, locating in his 
present home, which was then in a wild 
state, and now well improved. Mr. Harris 
was also a member of Company C, Tenth 
Illinois Battalion, and before removing was 
Second Lieutenant of the same. He owns 
193 acres of land. He was married August 
5, 1868, to Olive G. Forbes, a daughter of 
Cyrus P. Forbes, deceased. Three of their 
four children are living — Carlos F., Jessie E. 
and Nina G. George W. died at the age of 
two years. Mr. Harris has held the office of 
township trustee, school director, and is treas- 
urer of the township of Paton. He belongs 
to Gem Lodge, No. 429, A. F. & A. M. 






y^HARLES H. BASSETT, deceased, late 
mE °^" Gri'find Junction, was born in New 
^^ Bedford, Massachusetts, December 24, 
1824. He was brought up and educated in 
his native place. At the age of fifteen years 
he went to sea, and followed it several years. 
On his last trip he only lacked the distance 
from here to his native place of going around 
the world. He stopped in California several 
years, was also through Oregon, Washington 
Territory, Sandwich Islands, etc. It was he 
wiio took the first cargo of goods to San 
Francisco County, early in 1849. He made 
a long voyage of three years on the whaling 
ship Milo. He related many interesting in- 
cidents of this voyage. December 7, 1839, 
his crew secured five whales, and on the tif- 



:i4fS 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 






teentli of the same month they secured three 
more. They endured many hardships and 
liad many narrow escapes. He reached Grand 
Junction in September, 1869. Mr. Bassett 
died November 14, 1885, after an illness of 
seven weeks, leaving a wife and eiejlit chil- 
dren to mourn his loss. 



-^^«^->— 



fERRY L. LYON, proprietor of the Rip- 
pey bakery and restaurant, and fancy 
-i^o grocery, was born near Toulon, Stark 
County, Illinois, September 8, 1856. His 
father, Laten S., was a native of Northville, 
New York, who emigrated to Illinois in 1854, 
and is now deceased. He lived on a farm 
until nine years old, and the remainder of 
lii.s youth was spent in Toulon, receiving his 
education at Knox College, Galesburg, Illi- 
nois. He taught school eleven years in 
country and in graded schools. He came to 
this county in 1880, and taught three years 
in this township, in one place. He came to 
Rippey in November, 1885, and engaged in 
his present business. He was elected jiistice 
of the peace November 2, 1886, and has also 
served as township clerk two years. He was 
married November 24, 1880, to Flora C. 
Gilmer, daughter of Calvin A. Gilmer, of 
Canton, Illinois. They have three children 
— Laten G., Onslow and Lena. 



frOHN WILSON, farmer, section 9, Frank- 
I lin Township, was born in Henry County, 
Iowa, July 29, 1848, son of John and 
Mary (Thomas) Wilson, natives of Kentucky, 
who were the parents of ten children, John 
being the ninth. His youth was spent at 
farm work and in attending the common 
schools of Iowa. He was married November 



29, 1873, to Miss Evaline Hockett, a native 
of Henry County, and daughter of Nathan 
and Elizabeth (Cook) Hockett. In February, 
1873, jS[r. Wilson came to Greene County, 
settling upon his present farm, where he has 
since resided. It was then in its wild state, 
but is now one of the best improved farms in 
the township. It contains 160 acres of rich 
soil, and he has a comfortable house, and 
buildings for stock and grain, an orchard, and 
a native grove of trees. He is engaged in 
general farming and stock-raising. Mr. and 
Mrs. Wilson have four children — John Ralph, 
Nathan Herbert, Mary Eva and Walter Al- 
fred. Politically Mr. Wilson is a strong 
Greenbacker, and a zealous supporter of that 
platform. He is a member of Greene Lodge, 
No. 315, I. O. O. F. 



■^^^y^ 



26, 



l^lAMUEL FREE, farmer, section 
'^S\\ Washington Township, was born in 
'^P Pickaway County, Ohio, June 9, 1815. 
His father, Adam Free, deceased, was a 
native of Virginia. He was a blacksmith by 
trade, and also worked at gunsmithiiig in 
Harper's Ferry. He was a soldier in the 
war of 1812, and fought the Indians at San- 
dusky, northwest Ohio. Mr. Free's mother, 
formerly' Sarah Moorhead, was a native of 
Kentucky. He began to work on a farm at 
the age of thirteen years, and has always 
been a farmer since. He came to Vermillion 
County, Indiana, in 1835, and to Illinois in 
January, 1846, settling in Carroll County. 
He came to Boone County, this State, in tlie 
spring of 1869, crossing Des Moines River, 
near Boone, on ice, March 22, and the follow- 
ing fall, came to Greene County. lie was 
married July 21, 1836, to Catherine Sa.xton, 
daugliter of George Saxton, deceased. Of 
their ten children, only three are living — 



^Ji»J»iiiTga»^M»«-«-»i-»«»»»-»-».m»«»»"«"l"-PS»gl 



BIOGRAPHICAL ISKETVUES. 



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Francis A., Samuel Q., and John T. When 
they eniigrated to Illinois they had to drive 
a wliole day to get from one honae to another, 
and one night they found the lady of the 
house had gone visiting, thirteen miles away, 
to her nearest neighbors. Mr. Free has 
served as justice of the peace two years, and 
has held other local offices. He owns 
eighty acres of land near Surry. He has 
been a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
church since 1833. His wife is also a 
member. 



fOHN C. HAUN, cabinet-maker, and 
farmer, Grand Junction, was born in 
•^K, Elgin County, Ontario, Canada, March 
14, 1839. His father, John Ilaun, deceased, 
was born in Bertie, Niagara District, Canada. 
John C. was reared a farmer, and served an 
apprenticeship of three years in Fingal, in his 
native county, at the cabinet-maker's trade, 
and followed that trade until 1872. He came 
to this county in 1872, settling in Junction 
Township, and engaged in farming until 
February, 1885, when he came to Grand 
Junction. He owns 160 acres of land 
besides town property. He was married 
May 9, 1864, to Emma G. Mack, daughter of 
Sebra Mack, deceased. Two of their three 
children are living — Clarence A. and Lura 
E. Mr. Haun and his family are members 
of the Methodist Episcopal church. 



J^[EORGE AV. KEESE, farmer, section 3, 
'Ww 'l^""ction Township, was born in Oswego 
wl- County, New York, March 1, 1840, son 
of Conrad and Persis Reese. He removed to 
Ozaukee County, Wisconsin, in 1844, thence 
to Fulton County, Ohio, in 1852, thence 



overland to California in 1858, working in 
the gold mines until 1863, thence through 
Washington and Oregon Territories on horse- 
back to Idaho, where he worked in the mines 
until 1869. He tlien returned to Fayette 
Couiitv, Illinois, where he li\'ed until 1876, 
then came to this county, settling upon his 
present farm. It was then in its wild state, 
but it is now in a good state of cultivation. 
He has 160 acres of land, well fenced, a tine 
residence, and his farm buildings are com- 
modious and comfortable. He is engaged in 
general tanning and stock-raising, giving 
considerable attention to thoroughbred and 
graded cattle and hogs. December 14, 1870, 
Mr. Keese was married to Caroline S. Boimi- 
uell, daughter of Charles Bonniuell, of Wis- 
consin. She was born in Ozaukee Countj-, 
Wisconsin. Mr. and Mrs. Eeese are members 
of the Presbyterian church. 



|^[ W. WIGGINS, of the firm of Wiggins 
Brothers, dealers in general merchan- 
' ® disc, at Cooper, is a native of Stephen- 
son County, Illinois, born March 10, 1844, 
son of Levi and Betsey (Morton) AViggins, 
who were the parents of seven children, our 
subject being the third. When he was ten 
3'ears of ago his parents removed to Green 
County, Wisconsin. He was reared a farmer 
and obtained his education in the common 
schools. In December, 1863, he enlisted in 
Company K, Sixteenth Wisconsin Infantr}-. 
He was engaged in the battles of Kenesaw 
Mountain, Peach-Tree Creek, and at Atlanta, 
where he was wounded by a miuie-ball in his 
left hand. He was honorably discharged 
May 30, 1865, and returned to his home in 
Wisconsin. In 1869 he was married to Miss 
Frances Cleveland, and to tliis union were 
born two daughters — Edith and Ellen Frances. 



3o0 



HISTORY OF OREENE COUNTY. 



In 1881 he was married to Miss Mary O. 
Smith, and they liave three children — Elsie, 
Walter and Ethel. In 1871 Mr. Wig^^ins 
removed to Hardin County, this State, where 
he lived two years, thence to Wright County, 
living there until 1875, when he came to this 
county and settled in Franklin Townsliip, on 
section 20, where he bought sixty acres of 
wild land. In 1882 he came to Cooper and 
engaged in the mercantile trade, which he has 
since continued with good success. He has 
an extensive trade, and is always ready to 
serve his customers. Politically, he affiliates 
with the Ilepublican party. He was post- 
master at Cooper from 1882 until February, 
1886; lias also served as justice of the peace 
for several years. He is a member of JeiFer- 
son Lodge, No. 315, I. O. O. F. 



■►f*>^f^'-- 



fOSEPH JOHNSON, farmer, section 20, 
Franklin Township, is one of the pio- 
neers of that township, and was born in 
Lancashire, England, July 21, 1827, son of 
James Johnson, who for thirty years was 
superintendent and tax collector of Preston, 
England. His mother was Helen (Latus) 
Johnson, and they were the parents of seven 
children — Mary Ann, who is deceased; the 
second child also named Mary Ann; James, 
who lost his life on the City of Boston when 
that vessel was blown up; Josepii, Thomas, 
Francis and William. Joseph early learned 
the trade of engineer, which he fully under- 
stands in all its details. In 185-i he came to 
America and settled in Buffalo, New York. 
In 1856 he removed to Jo Daviess County, 
Illinois, where he resided until 1864, then re- 
moved to Clayton Connty, Iowa, where he 
purchased eighty acres of wild land. In 
1874 he caine to this county and settled upon 
his present farm, whicli was then in its wild 



state. He owns 160 acres of land, which is 
well-improved, and he now has one of the best 
farms in the county, with a good house and 
comfortable buildings for stock and grain; 
also an orchard and a grove of native trees. 
He was married at the age of seventeen years, 
to Miss Ann Hodson, and to this union have 
been born four children — James, Richard, 
Francis and Helen. Mr. and Mrs. Johnson 
are zealous members of the Catholic church. 



.^^^ 



^^'TTLLIAM C. EARTH, general mer- 
■■[. l/\/ chant at Dana, was born in Lewis 

(Hf^i County, New York, May 14, 1853, 
son of Andrew Barth, of Humboldt County, 
Iowa, a native of Germany; he came to the 
United States when quite young. Our sub- 
ject received a good education in Carthage, 
Jefferson County, New York, and came to 
Humboldt County in 1870, where he worked 
on a farm for five years. He then came to 
Grand Junction and worked one year for 
Cliarles Metzger, of that place. lie also at- 
tended school one year, then worked on the 
Des Moines & Ft. Dodge Railroad. Later, 
he was in the employ of Ed. Carlton, the 
stock-buyer, until 1880, then worked three 
years in Parmenter's hardware store. In 
April, 1883, he came to his present home and 
bought the stock and store-room of E. E. 
Hutchins. He carries a capital stock of 
$5,000, consisting of groceries, dry goods, 
boots and shoes, notions, hardware, glass, 
queen'sware, in fact, everything usually kept 
in a first-class store. He does an annual 
business of $17,000 to $18,000, and it is con- 
stantly increasing. He also buys grain and 
deals in coal. lie takes all kinds of ]iroduce 
and sells very cheap. This brings him a 
large patronage from other localities, an 
ables him to compete wit) 



en- 
Jefferson and 



.aimM,»»W„g»B!.«, W„ a , » , » ia » a » a M m » » M MM- » i M - » . 



BIOQUAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



351 



Grand Junction. He is a wide-awake busi- 
ness man, and a benefit to the community. 
He was married May 30, 1880, to Pliebe A. 
Ashmore, daughter of Madison Ashmore, of 
Iowa Count}', AVisconsin. She is a telegraph 
operator by occupation, and worked five years 
for tlie Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Rail- 
road Company, Prairie du Chien division. 
Mr. P)arth began life with nothing, but by 
hard work, economy and good management, 
he has secured a competency. He has filled 
the oflice of postmaster for .three and a lialf 
years. He is a member of the Masonic fra- 
ternity. 




w y^M 



ATTHEW PJCIIARDSON, one of 
(xreene County's prosperous agricult- 
urists, is a native of England, born 
in Westmoreland County, June 24, 1842. In 
1846 he sailed from Liverpool with his 
parents, Joseph and Elizabeth (Waters) Rich- 
ardson, landing at New York City, they 
locating in La Fayette County, Wisconsin. 
In 1865 our subject went to Helena, Montana, 
and began working in the mines, remaining 
in Montana until 1868. In March, 1870, he 
was married to Mary Ann Craig, who was 
born in Stanhope Wardale, Durhamshire, 
England, February 17, 1849, a daughter of 
Francis and Jane Craig, natives of England. 
In the fall of 1870 he and his wife immi- 
grated to Greene County, Iowa, and have 
since made their home on section 13, Hardin 
Township, and here they experienced many 
of the hardships and privations incident to 
pioneer life. In tlieir pioneer home their 
seven cliildren were born, their names being as 
follows — Joseph F., Eiizalieth J., Margaret A., 
George W., Charles L. (deceased). Marietta 
and Matthew T. Mr. Richardson has by hard 
work and the good management of himself and 



wife accumulated a good property, being the 
owner of 160 acres on section 13 and eighty 
acres on section 14 of Hardin Township, all of 
which is under a fair state of cultivation. He 
has a fine orchard on liis land, and also a 
native grove, also good residence and farm 
buildings. In his political views Mr. Rich- 
ardson is liberal, voting for men, not party. 
Joseph Richardson, the father of our subject, 
was born in Breugh, Westmoreland County, 
England, where he was reared and married, 
and was a brother of George Richardson, of 
Dubu(|ue, Iowa, a wholesale boot and shoe 
dealer. After coming to America he settled 
in Wisconsin, where he lived till his death. 
He worked by the day in the lead mines of 
Wisconsin until he had sufficient money to 
purchase a farm and team, and in 1849 he 
moved on the farm he had purchased, located 
in Benton Township, La Fayette County, 
Wisconsin, where he followed farming and 
stock-raising until his death, which occurred 
November 6, 1874, at the age of fifty-seven 
years. His death caused universal regret 
among the early settlers throughout the lead 
regions, who knew and respected the deceased 
for his manly worth and energy of character. 
Being a man of much energy and enterprise, 
he soon accumulated a competency which in 
time grew to a fortune. About six or seven 
years ])rio)- to his death he became associated 
witli William Gillette, with whom he operated 
a cheese factory some two years. He subse- 
quently purchased Mr. Gillette's interest and 
carried on the cheese factory alone till his 
death. Beside this he owned about 1,000 
acres of land, and a large amount of personal 
property. He was also the owner of a grist- 
mill on Fern River, known as the Alderson 
& Passmore mill. He was a good neighbor, 
and was always ready and willing to give of 
his means to aid any worthy enterprise. He 
gave the right of way to the Narrow Gauge 



353 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



1 
i 



Railroad, which imns a long distance through 
his land. He left a widow and thirteen chil- 
dren to mourn the death of a kind and 
affectionate husband and father. Mrs. Rich- 
ardson's fatlier, Francis Craig, was born in 
Durhamshire, England, November 17, 1821, 
and in 1850 came to the United States and 
located at New Diggings, AVisconsin, where 
he at once engaged in mining, which he has 
since followed. In 1870 he with others or- 
ganized the Craig Mining Company. His 
mining interests have been more exciting 
than any others in the locality where he lives. 
He owns 200 acres of valuable land, and the 
grounds about his house ai"e nicely laid out. 
He has held the greater part of the town 
offices, and has been chairman of the town 
board. He was married in 1849 to Jane 
Coulthard, who was born in Durhamshire, 
England, in 1819, and died in 1857, leaving 
three children — Mary Ann, Joseph and 
Francis. 



^'i^*h' 



llEORGE ATCHINSON, farmer and 
^— stock-raiser, section 32, Franklin Town- 
ship, was born in Fulton County, Illi- 
nois, November 8, 1838, son of Jacob and Mary 
(Randall) Atchinson, the former a native of 
Connecticut, and the latter of Deer Island. 
They were the parents of twelve children, of 
whom George was the tenth. He commenced 
to learn the carpenter's trade when quite 
young, and has worked at it the greater part 
of his life. He was married in 1871 to 
Elizabeth A. Butler, of Fulton County. In 
1876 Mr. Atchinson removed to this county 
and settled upon his present farm, which he 
had purchased the year previous. His farm 
contains 160 acres of e.xcellent land, and it is 
well cultivated. He has a good residence, 
comfortable out-linildings for stock and grain, 



an orchard, and a natural grove. Mr. and 
Mrs. Atchinson have four sons — Alonzo, 
John, Arthur and George. Politically Mr. 
Atchinson is a Republican, and he has served 
as constable. He is a worthy member of the 
Christian ciiurcli, and is respected by all who 
know him. 

"^"♦f-^wf-f^-"- 



fOHN T. COWAN, grain and lumber 
merchant, and proprietor of the Patou 
-*% elevator, is a native of Pennsylvania, 
born in "Westmoreland County, May 22, 1842, 
a son of Alex. T. Cowan, who was born in 
Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. The father 
removed with his family from Pennsylvania 
to Linn County, Iowa, in the spring of 1855, 
and later removed to Tama County, Iowa, 
where he still resides. John T., the subject 
of this sketch, was educated in the rude log 
cabin school-houses of his neighborhood, 
made with puncheon floor, clapboard roof, 
and slab seats. He was reared to the avoca- 
tion of a farmer, working on tlie farm till he 
enlisted in the late war in Company K, 
Eleventh Iowa Infantry. He was in the ser- 
vice of his country four years and participated 
in the battles of Pittsburgh Landing, Corinth, 
siege of Vicksburg, siege of Atlanta, and 
Averysborough. At the battle of July 22, 

1864, at Atlanta, he was wounded in the head 
by a musket ball. In the fall of 1865 he 
came to Tama County, Iowa, where he was 
married to Ann E. Townsend September 19, 

1865, his wife dying October 29 of the same 
year. He went to Black Hawk County, 
Iowa, in 1867, where he built a house, and 
began breaking land to cultivate. May 14, 
1868, he was married to Miss Carrie Dodd, a 
daughter of Rev. Luther Dodd now of Fort 
Dodge, and to this union have been lioni 
four children — L. Myrtle, Herbert A., Elmer 



tV^%^X '-^ «-«.>•« «~« ^-^«^ #- 



■ ■ ■ ■ ■■*'» ■ "■"' ■■■'■■'■» "' M «'«iMMB!^M».«»M^ M»Ili a»miSMa ;j||„M, M „ 1 , M ^ 1 „ a ^,,a_, ' ^ 



L. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



303 



and Donald. After liis marriage with Miss 
Dodd, Mr. Cowan returned with her to his 
farm in Black Hawk County, where he 
resided till 1874. In the fall of that year he 
went to Linn County, Iowa, and the following 
spring moved to Jefferson, Greene County, 
Iowa, where lie clerked one year in the land 
and abstract office of W. B. Mayes. In the 
spring of 1876 he came to Baton and engaged 
in the hardware and lumber business in part- 
nership with J. W. Hill, under the firm name 
of Hill & Cowan, Mr. Cowan acting as man- 
ager. This partnersliip was dissolved in 
December, 1877, when Mr. Cowan began 
dealing in grain and lumber on his own 
account, and at the same time he carries on a 
loan and collecting agency, also an insurance 
business and notary public, and since coming 
to Baton most of the conveyancing of the 
township has been done by him. He served 
one term as township trustee, and was 
elected justice of the peace, which office he 
resigned after filling it for three years. He 
is an elder in the Bresbyterian church, and is 
a member of the Masonic order. Mrs. Cowan 
and tlieir two eldest children are members of 
the same church. 

*«*-.i.^-.i.-2M5-iJS+->-*« 



jSCAR L. HARMON, of the firm ot 
Harmon Bros., blacksmiths, at Rippey, 
was born in Bolk County, Iowa, Sep- 
tember 17, 1855, son of Lafayette Harmon, 
of Junction Townsliip, this county. He was 
reared in Boonesboro, Iowa, where he re- 
moved with his parents in the fall of 1858, 
and was educated in his native town. He 
followed farming, teaming, and other work, 
until 1878,whenhewent to learn his trade. He 
came to Rippey October 28, 1878, where he 
has since resided. The building of Harmon 
Bros., is 22 x 66 feet, twelve feet story. The 



main building is frame lined with brick. Mr. 
Harmon was married November 15, 1881, to 
Sarah R. Marsli, daughter of Lambertis 
Marsh, of Grand Junction. They have three 
children — Lura, Harry O. and Bertha. Mr. 
and Mrs. Harmon are members of the Bres- 
byterian church. Mr. Harmon belongs to 
the Odd Fellows fraternity. 



►>^^ 



!R. OSCAR W. LOWERY, physician 
\w} ^^^ surgeon, of Grand Junction, Greene 
County, Iowa, was born six miles north 
of Fort Madison, Lee County, Iowa, April 22, 
1845. He is a son of Fredrick B. Lowery, of 
Bui-lington, Iowa, who was a native of Western 
Virginia. His motlier, Catharine (Jolly) Low- 
ery, was a native of Harrison County, Ohio, and 
they moved to the wilds of Iowa in 1839, and 
are both still living, the father in his seventy- 
second and the mother in her seventieth year. 
Dr. O. W. Lowery is one of twelve children, 
eight boys and four girls, of whom three 
brothers and tliree sisters are still livinsr. He 
was reared on the farm of his birth until 
1857, wlien his father moved into Des 
Moines County with his famil3^ He ob- 
tained his early education in the common 
schools, and on the 29th day of December, 
1863, he left the school-room and entered the 
army, enlisting in Company I, Sixth Iowa 
Infantry, in which he served until the close 
of the war. He was in the Second Brigade, 
Fourtli Division, Fifteenth Army Corps, com- 
manded by General John A. Logan, and was 
in all the battles with his brigade in the At- 
lanta campaign and General W. T. Sherman's 
march to the sea. He was wounded in both 
shoulders, from the effects of which he has 
never recovered, at Griswoldvijle near Macon, 
Georgia, November 22, 1864, and had to ritie 
to the sea in an ambulance, through Georgia 



i.«aa(fiatiBgn*-.p?»BaniiTir»»-»-w«».sariswariwa^ 



■■■■■ -■I, 



354 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



\\^i 



swamps and over corduroy roads. Decem- 
ber 20, 1864, lie reached Beaufort, South 
Carolina, and was sent to hospital No. 11, 
where he, in addition to his wonnd, suffered 
from gangrene and erysipelas, and came near 
dying. He recovered sufficiently to re-join 
his regiment at Raleigh, North Carolina, and 
marched to Washington, D. C, participating 
in the grand review in May, 1865, and was dis- 
cliarged from the army in July, 1865. His 
brothers, Austin P. and Oliver H., were in 
the same company and regiment, having en- 
listed in 1861. Austin P. was wounded in 
the head, losing a part of his skull and brain, 
July 6, 1863, near Vicksburg, Mississippi, 
and two days after its surrender. Oliver H. 
was wounded in the leg at the same time and 
died February 8, 1887, from the injuries re- 
ceived in the army. After the doctor's dis- 
charge from the army he attended school at 
the Denmark, Iowa, Academy, also at Pro- 
fessor Ebersole's School at Fort Madison, and 
ho spent two years at the Oskaloosa College 
at Oskaloosa, Iowa. He commenced the 
study of medicine with Dr. J. P. Gruell, of 
Oskaloosa, and graduated at the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, Keokuk, Iowa, in 
1873. He attended the practitioners' course 
at the Chicago Medical College, in 1880, and 
has practiced his medical profession in Grand 
Junction since 1870. He is a member of 
the Central District Medical Association and 
the State Medical Society. He has built up 
an extensive and lucrative practice, and is 
the leading physician of the town and one 
of the best in the county. He has been 
elected to positions of trust, as recorder, 
treasurer and mayor. In some of his own 
law cases he has appeared as his own attor- 
ney, and has not had " a fool for a client." 
He is a Prohibitionist and a Republican, and 
has always taken a prominent part in the 
politics of the county. He was married at 



Olivet, Iowa, April 8, 1873, to Miss Anne E. 
Ross, who was born in Mahaska County, 
Iowa, November 2, 1847. She is the daugh- 
ter of Nimrod Ross, deceased. They have 
five children — Fred Ross, Cordelia Ingaba, 
John Russell, Catherine Fox and William 
Oliver. The doctor is a member of the 
Christian church, and also a member of the 
Ancient Order of United Workmen. 



4'^^^-- 



i^RANCIS A. FREE, a farmer and stock- 
. ri raiser, section 27, Washington Town- 
■^r ship, was born in Parke County, Indi- 
ana, December 20, 1845, a son of Samuel 
Free, of this State, and a native of Ohio. He 
was educated in the common schools and 
passed his early life at farm work, which 
occupation he always followed. He was a sol- 
dier in the late war, being a member of Com- 
pany I, Ninety-second Illinois Mounted 
Infantry, and attached to General Kilpatrick's 
Cavalry Division. He served about twenty 
months, and participated in nearly all the 
battles and skirmishes incident to the Geor- 
gia and North and South Carolina campaigns 
of 1864 and 1865, prominent among which 
were Resaca, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Lovejoy 
Station, Buck-head, and Powder Springs, 
where we lost heavily in an advanced skir- 
mish line, where some of our dead fell into 
the hands of the Confederates. They made a 
grand raid around Atlanta, while that strong- 
hold was defended by Joe Johnston and J. 
B. Hood. Principal among his encounters 
was Aiken, South Carolina, where the Ninety- 
second Illinois and the Ninth Ohio Cavalry 
were completely surrounded by AV^ade Hamp- 
ton's and Joe Wheeler's Confederate cavali-y, 
but by having excellent officers and superior 
repeating rifles, the}' cut their way through 
the rebel host. Was this all? No. Alter 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



355 



their escape they reformed in good order and 
made a second charge and recovered their 
dead and wounded; also fonght at Averjs- 
boro, and Bentonville, then iinished their 
warfare and last battle at Swift Creek, near 
Ealeigh, North Carolina, where the regiment 
lost severely; also met some of General Lee's 
men returning to their homes in this his last 
battle. Then his command moved to Chapel 
Hill, North Carolina, where was located the 
State University, and there received the sad 
intelligence of the assassination of President 
Lincoln. Mr. Free enlisted a private and 
was mustered out First Sergeant. He re- 
turned to Carroll Count}', Illinois, in 1865, 
where he had settled in 1846, and came to 
this State in the spring of 1869, locating in 
Greene County in the fall of the same year. 
He was married December 23, 1872, to Mar- 
gery A. Mclntyre, of Savanna, Illinois. Mr. 
and Mrs. Free have six children — Francis A., 
Hugh S., Samuel P., Alice L., Mary C. and 
Grace. Mr. Free owns 160 acres of well 
improved land. He is a member of the Odd 
Fellows order and of the Grand Army of the 
Republic. He never seeks official distinction. 



►5«f^ 



WILLIAM A. J. McNAUGHT, one 
nffn of the pioneers of Greene County, 
-cjfcr-l located on section 12, Jackson Town- 
ship, where he now resides, in 1854. At 
that time the county had been organized only 
about one month, and contained only about 
forty voters. Jackson Township could poll 
only six votes. At first Mr. McNaught lived 
in a log cabin, which was long ago replaced 
by his present comfortable residence. All 
the improvements on his place have been 
made by himself. He owns 120 acres of land, 
well watered by the North Coon River, and 
it consists of upland, meadow and timber. 



Mr. McNaught was born in Owen County, 
Indiana, July 10, 1830, son of John and Jane 
(McKnight) McNaught. His father was a 
native of Ireland, and was brought to Amer- 
ica by his parents when three years of age. 
John McNaught served in the war of 1812, 
and the land- warrant that was granted for his 
services was used by his sou William in 
locating his present homestead. The parents 
both died in Indiana. Of their seven chil- 
dren, our subject was the youngest; only 
two others are now living — George F. re- 
sides in McDonough County, Missouri, and 
Mrs. Margaret J. Abrell lives in Christian 
County, Illinois. Mr. McNaught's father 
died when his son was six years of age, and 
from that time he was reared in Washington 
County, Indiana, where his mother died in 
1850. When he was three years old the 
parents removed to Vermillion County, Illi- 
nois, and three years later to Parke County, 
Indiana. Our subject was married in Owen 
Count}^ Indiana, January 2, 1852, to Miss 
Nancy M. Abrell, daughter of L. C. and S. 
Abrell, who was born in that county October 
16, 1830. Mr. and Mrs. McNaught lived in 
Washington County until the autumn of 
1853, then lived one year in Owen County, 
and tinally became pioneers of Greene County, 
Iowa. During the first few years they en- 
dured many hardships and privations. They 
came with no means except the land-warrant, 
a team, and a few household goods and sup- 
plies, and $5 that had to be used in locating 
the land. Habits of industry and economy 
have enabled them to live, and build for them- 
selves and children a good home. They gave 
their children much better educational ad- 
vantages than they had been able to obtain 
for themselves. They have had twelve chil- 
dren, seven of whom are now living — Mrs. 
Aurelia T. Crocker, a resident of Jackson 
Township; Mrs. Julia E. Jones, a resident of 



»"»t"«"w"M"«"«"r»»«"iii »i i»g»«ii" n i*w"«°'M' 



356 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



Billings, Montana; Nannie J., Connell, Mant, 
Sarah G. and Minnie Maud are under the 
parental roof. The deceased are — James B., 
John L., William A., Marj and Connor. The 
last named was a twin brother of Connell. 
In politics Mr. McNaught has always been a 
Democrat. 



-|->^f-|- 



jANIEL I. BLANSHAN, one of the 
progressive farmers of Junction Town- 
ship, Greene County, was born in 
Onondaga County, New York, November 29, 
1850, a son of Matthew and Sarah Blanshan. 
His youth was spent in assisting on the farm, 
his father being a farmer by occupation, and 
attending the common schools of Sheboygan 
County, Wisconsin, and Grand Junction, 
Iowa. lie has lived in Junction Township 
since the fall of 1873, and has always fol- 
lowed the avocation of a farmer, and by his 
persevering industry and good management 
he has acquired his present tine farm on sec- 
tion 2, which contains 120 acres of choice 
land. In connection with his general farm- 
ing he devotes some attention to the raising 
of stock. Mr. Blanshan is a member of the 
Odd P'ellows order. He was married January 
1, 1880, to Ella N. Mack, a daughter of Wil- 
lard Mack, of Junction Township. They 
are the parents of four children — Melvin, 
Sarah, Merton and Laura. Matthew Blanshan, 
the father of our subject, is a native of New 
York, born in Ulster County January 19, 
1825, his father, Daniel Blanshan, having 
been born in the same county. He was 
reared a farmer, and has followed that avo- 
cation through life. He grew to manhood 
in Onondaga County, New York, where his 
])arents settled when he was but three months 
old, and there he was educated in the common 
schools. He was married January 1, 1850, 



to Sarah Decker, a daughter of Isaac Decker. 
Of the six children born to this union, three 
are living — Daniel I., the subject of this 
sketch; James, living in Junction Township, 
and William, who carries on his father's 
farm on section 2, of Junction Township. 
James married Mary Zellhoefer, and has two 
children — Calista and Victor. William is 
married to Lena Davenport. Matthew Blan- 
shan enlisted in the late war September 1, 
1864, in Company F, Twenty-seventh Wis- 
consin Infantry. He took part in the battles 
of Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely, and received 
his discharge in August, 1865. In 1873 he 
came with his family to Greene County, Iowa, 
locating in Grand Junction, where he lived 
for two years. In November, 1875, he settled 
on section 2, Junction Township, where he 
owns forty acres of land, and where he has 
since made his home. 



~^-Vs*^'S^'-°^ 

SAAC WILLIAM FKYMIEE, postmas- 
ter and justice of the peace at Rippey, 
^ was born in Cumberland County, Penn- 
sylvania, November 6, 1851, son of Isaac 
Frymier, of that place, and a native of Berks 
County, that State. He was reared in New- 
ville and Philadelphia, receiving his educa- 
tion at the latter place. Took a course in 
Bryant & Stratton's Commercial College in 
1868. He was then for four years engaged 
in bookkeeping in Philadelphia with S. A. J. 
Ooyle & Co., wholesale dealers in wood and 
willow ware. He came to Carroll County, 
Illinois, in 1874, and was engaged in farm- 
ing six years, then came to this place, where 
he was engaged in farming until the fall of 
1885, at which time he was appointed post- 
master at Rippey. He served as assessor 
three years, and took the census of the town- 
ship in 1885. He was married May 26, 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



357 



1875, to Cliristina Mcliityre, daughter of 
Hugh Mclntyre, of Carroll County, who died 
in December, 1886, at the advanced age of 
ninety-five years; his brother, John Mcln- 
tyre, died at the age of ninety-four years, 
from the effects of a kick from a horse. Mr. 
and Mrs. Frymier have two children — Harry 
E. and Catherine. Mr. Frymier belongs to 
the Odd Fellows fraternity. 



-■^•-St-'J^' 



|AVID B. JOHN, farmer, section 5, 
Washington Township, was born in 
Tyler County, West Virginia, May 23, 
1842, son of David John, of Davis County, 
Missoiiri. He was reared on a farm and 
educated in the subscription schools of pio- 
neer days. The schools were held in log 
cabins, benches made of split logs, and a 
board fastened against the wall for a desk. 
The roof was made of hand-made shingles, — 
a great contrast to the large commodious 
school-houses of the present day. Mr. John 
came to this county in the fall of 1856, 
locating in Washington Township on section 
9. The country was then in its primitive 
condition. Not a sod had been turned on 
the land, but a small log cabin had been 
built. They went to Des Moines for their 
milling, also for their mail. He was married 
May 15, 1864, to Martha J. Smith, daughter 
of Thomas J. Smith, deceased, a pioneer of 
Dallas and Greene counties. They have had 
ten children, nine of whom are living — 
Hannah E., Daily E., Mary L., William L., 
Sarepta A., Clara A., Leonard W., Stella E., 
David S. and Nettie A. Mr. John settled 
upon his pi'esent farm in the spring of 1878, 
where he owns 160 acres of land. Pie gives 
his entire attention to farming and stock- 
raising. He and his wife, and his eldest 
daughter, Hannah, are members of the Meth- 



odist Episcopal church. Hannah is married 
to Peter Burke, of Washington Township. 

l^^JIILLIAM McDonald, section 5, 
"ffrfWll Scranton Township, was born near 
l-^l^l Inverness, Scotland, JVIay 6, 1832, 
a son of Donald and Mary (McPherson) Mc- 
Donald. He was reared in the Highlands of 
Scotland, and there learned the trade of a 
stone mason. In 1857 he came to the United 
States, seeking to make for himself a home 
and procure a competence for his old age, the 
New AVorld offering better inducements for 
the poor man than Scotland. He plied his 
trade in Ashland and other counties in Ohio 
until 1865, when he came to Greene County, 
Iowa, and settled on the larm where he now 
lives, having entered the lai^cl several years 
before. His homestead contains 110 acres of 
choice land, which he has improved from a 
state of nature. Since his residence in Greene 
County, Mr. McDonald has worked at his trade 
a portion of the time. The habits of industry 
and economy common to the people of his 
native country have met with their legitimate 
reward, and he is now comfortably situated 
financially. In 1881 he bought 120 acres of 
land in Kendrick Township, which he has 
also improved and now has it under good 
cultivation. He is held in high esteem by 
jiis fellow citizens, having gained their favor 
by an upright, honorable life, and fair, honest 
dealing. Mr. McDonald's parents died in 
Scotland, his father aged ninety-five years, 
and his mother aged seventy. He has one 
brother, Dawson, who is a large landowner 
in Hyde County, Dakota. Mr. McDonald 
was married in 1870, in Ohio, to Miss Katy 
Brady, a native of Pennsylvania, daughter of 
Samuel Brady. They have six children — 
John, Ann Eliza, Daniel, Ella May, William 



L,, 



y°ti*^a^ a 



Si^ 



! , 



358 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



and Nelson. Mr. McDonald became an 
American citizen at Wooster, Ohio, and has 
since affiliated with the Republican party, 
casting his iii'st vote for Abraham Lincoln at 
his second election. 



(s •' * a) 



T-r-piLLIAM LAFAYETTE ADDY, an 
Ti'/'A'll ^^^J^'6 ^'"^ enterprising citizen of 
l-^fe^l Junction Township, proprietor of the 
Dana Creamery, is a native of Linn County, 
Iowa, born April 23, 1856, and is the foster- 
Bon of Jacob A. Addy, of Junction Town- 
ship, whose name he of his own accord 
adopted. His mother, Mary (Corbley) For- 
dyce, died wheii he was an infant, and his 
father, x\braham Fordyce, is still living in 
Linn County, a highly respected elder of the 
Methodist Episcopal church of Wanbeck. 
William L. Addy was reared in Springville, 
Linn County, where he attended school, and 
also attended the Western College of Linn 
County. He has taught school about five 
years, principally during the winter terms. 
He made farming his principal avocation 
until 1883. He came to Greene County in 
1876. August 22, 1878, he was married to 
Miss Carrie Hughes, a daughter of Francis 
Hughes, a resident of Junction Township. 
They have two children, named Earl Fordyce 
and Frank Corbley. Since 1883 Mr. Addy 
has devoted part of his time to the creamery 
business, in connection with which he has 
carried on his farm until the last year, when 
he leased it. His tarm is located on section 
3, Junction Township, and contains 175 
acres. He has on his farm graded Holstein 
and short-horn cattle and Poland-China 
hogs, and also owns a half interest in a fine 
Norman stallion. His creamery is situated 
on his farm near his residence, and was built 
ill 1881 by H. Jordan, who operated it until 



1883, when it was purchased by Mr. Addy, 
the present proprietor. The main building 
is 20 X 34 feet, two stories in height, and the 
engine-room is 8 x 14 feet, with an ice-house 
14 X 26 feet. He uses Barnes Brothers' en- 
gine and boiler, of Maquoketa, Iowa, the 
engine, which is a six-horse power, being 
used in churning and pumping, the boiler in 
heating the building, etc. The churn is rec- 
tangular in shape, and has a capacity of 400 
pounds. The churn which is called the 
Conqueror Oil Test is also used, and is the 
finest process for testing the quality of the 
cream. During the winter seasons Mr. Addy 
handles cream and unsalted butter only, and 
in the summer months also handles milk. 
He handles from 2,000 to 7,000 pounds of 
the latter daily, and makes as high as 1,500 
pounds of butter in a day. During the busy 
season of 1886 thirteen men were employed. 
Mr. Addy ships principally to Boston and 
New York, and has dealt with the same com- 
missioners since he engaged in his present 
business — Utley & Boynton, of Boston, and 
McBride & Co., of New York. He usually 
puts up 100 tons of ice annually, all of which 
he uses in his business. Mr. Addy is a 
member of the Masonic fraternity, belonging 
to the Junction Lodge, No. 357, at Grand 
Junction. 



~^-V>»5-"^"« 

fAMES HIGGINS, farmer, section 27, 
Junction Township, was born in La 
Salle County, Illinois, March 18, 1845. 
His father, William Higgins, deceased, was a 
native of Latreum, Ireland, and came to 
America at the age of eighteen years. He 
lived in Maryland and Pennsylvania until 
1833, then came to La Salle County, Illinois, 
being one of the pioneers of that county. He 
hauled wheat from there to Chicago. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



359 



was a stonemason by trade, and was foreman 
of the mason work in constructingr the locks 
on the Illinois River Canal. Our subject 
was reared a farmer. During the late war he 
served in Company G, Thirty-ninth Illinois 
Infantry, and was in the battle of Lookout 
Mountain, Strawberry Plains, Shiloh, where 
his company was all cut to pieces, there be- 
ing but seven left that were able to muster 
the next morning. They were then trans- 
ferred to the Sixty-eighth Illinois under 
Colonel Dickey. July 3, 1872, lie was mar- 
ried to Jane Durkin, daughter of John Dur- 
kin, deceased. They have had six children — 
Mary, William (deceased), Ellen, John, Alice 
and James. Mr. Higgins came here in 1882. 
He owns 280 acres of land and is engaged in 
jijeneral farminn; and stock-raising. He o-ives 
much attention to thoroughbred and graded 
stock. He has the finest hogs in the State; 
they are Poland-China. 



SERPtENCE REYNOLDS, retired tarm- 
gi [jifc er. Grand Junction, was born in County 
W' Monaghan, Ireland, October 17, 1823, 
son of Terrence Reynolds, a native of the 
same place, now deceased. He came to 
America in 1853, locating in Cayuga County, 
New York, thence to La Salle County, Illi- 
nois, in 1854, and lived on a farm near 
Toniea three years. In the spring of 1857 
he came to Greene County and settled in 
Junction, and has since resided in this 
county. His place was near Buttrick's Creek. 
There were but two families north of him on 
that creek in Greene County. His milling 
was done at Des Moines, and he did most of 
his trading there. He entered his land in 
1855, and it being prairie land he com- 
menced farming immediately. He owns 
three farms, in all about 400 acres, besides 



property in Grand Junction. He was mar- 
ried August 2, 1856, to Alice Hughs. Four 
of their five children are living — Mary J., 
Florence, Margaret A. and Charles E. Wal- 
ter died at the age of two and a half years. 
Mrs. Reynolds was also born in County Mon- 
aghan, Ireland, where she was reared and 
educated. Her father was a native of Ire- 
land, but it is not certain what portion of 
the country. She came to America in 1847, 
and lived in New York City and in Trenton, 
New Jersey, over six years. She then came 
to La Salle County, Illinois. 



-tTTLLIAM R. GREENE, farmer, sec- 
. ,/ \|j, tion 14, Greenbrier Township, is a 
l^iffe^ native of County Down, Ireland, 
born December 19, 1832. IHs parents, Rob- 
ert and Mary (Tweedie) Greene, had seven 
children, of whom our subject was the second 
child. When he was fourteen years of age 
his parents removed to Dundee, Scotland, 
where he lived six years, working in a flax 
factory. At the age of twenty he came to 
the United States and located in Whitley 
County, Indiana, where he lived about seven- 
teen years, engaged in railroading. In 1868 
he came to this county, first settling three 
miles south of Jefl'erson, where he lived eio-lit 
years, having purchased eighty acres of land. 
In 1876 he came to Greenbrier Township 
and settled upon his present farm, where he 
has since resided. He first bought 160 
acres, and has since added to his original 
purchase until he now owns 240 acres of ex- 
cellent land, well improved and in a good 
state of cultivation. He has a good house, 
well furnished, and comfortable out-buildings 

for stock and grain. He also has a fine or- 
es 

chard and a native grove of five acres. He 
is engaged in general farming, stock-raising 



360 



HISTORY OP OBBENE COUNTY. 




and feeding. He was married in December, 
1850, to Miss Mary Elliott, a native of Ire- 
land, and a daughter of Thomas and Mar- 
garet (Hill) Elliott. Mr. and Mrs. Greene 
have eight children — Robert, George G., 
Maggie, IMary Jane, Elizabeth, Samuel E., 
William H. and Rose Alice. Mrs. Greene 
died October 8, 1884. Mr. Greene is a Re- 
publican in politics, and is a worthy and con- 
sistent member of the Presbyterian church, 
always taking an active interest in the ad- 
vancement of education and religion. 



~^'+(J*T+^-3^'-'°' 

fACOB A. ADDY, engaged in agricult- 
ural pursuits on section 3, Junction 
Township, is a native of Ohio, born in 
Coshocton County, April 17, 1817, a son of 
Robert Addy, who was a native of Virginia. 
His father served in the war of 1812, and 
his grandfather was a soldier in the Revolu- 
tionary war. Jacob A., our subject, was 
reared to agricultural pursuits, which he has 
followed through life with the exception of 
live years, from 1865 till 1870, when he was 
engaged in the mercantile business at Spring- 
ville, Linn County, Iowa. His educational 
advantages were limited to the los cabin sub- 
scription schools of that early da}', where he 
was taught the common branches. Novem- 
ber 15, 1836, he was married to Miss Mary 
A. Rodney, a daughter of John Rodney, and 
of the live children born to this union only 
one is living — a daughter, Catherine. She 
married William Sharp, of Tama City, Iowa, 
and to them have been born five children — 
Gertrude, Frank, Matie, Ruby C. and Bur- 
rell. The ciiildren deceased are — Sarah E., 
who died at the age of eighteen years; Rob- 
ert G., died aged seven years; Elizabeth and 
Clark, botii died at about the age of fourteen 
months. Mr. and Mrs. Addy have an adopted 



son, William L. Fordyce, whom they have 
reared from infancy, and who has taken the 
name of his adopted parents. Mr. Addy 
settled in Shelby County, Illinois, in 1841, 
and in 1849 removed to Linn County, Iowa, 
settling on wild land which he had entered, 
and there he endured many of the liardships 
and privations incident to pioneer life. In- 
dians were the principal inhabitants, and 
wild animals M'ere numerous. Their nearest 
milling and trading place was Muscatine or 
Des Moines, a distance of sixty miles, ox 
teams being their principal mode of convey- 
ance. He came to Greene County, Iowa, in 
1876, settling where he has since lived. He 
has been an industrious, hard-working citi- 
zen, and by his persevering energy, assisted 
by his excellent helpmeet, who has shared 
with him the vicissitudes of life for iifty 
years, he has acquired a competency for their 
declining years. Both are consistent mem- 
bers of the Presbyterian church at Dana. 
He is a member of the Masonic fraternity. 



|5^RS. LETTITIE J. STEWARD, of 
yWlM- Gr''^'^'^ Junction, is a native of Han- 
"^0$^ cock County, Ohio, born August 21, 
1842, a daughter of William H. and Rebecca 
(Keys) Harrison. In 1850 her parents moved 
to Jones County, Iowa, and located on a 
farm. She was reared in that county, receiv- 
ing a common-school education. She was 
married in Jones County, September 14, 
1862, to William Steward, a native of Ohio, 
born July 31, 1842, a son of Spencer Steward. 
Mr. Steward enlisted in the defense of ills 
country March 9, 1864, and was assigned to 
Company B, Ninth Iowa Infantry. He par- 
ticipated in a number of severe battles. 
From the eliects of exposure and hardship he 
was attacked with typhoid fever, and died 



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BIOGRAPHICAL HKETOHEB. 



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July 5, 1864. To Mr. and Mrs. Steward was 
born one son — Benjamin F., who is now 
employed at the Grand Junction coal shaft. 
Mrs. Steward removed to Greene County in 
the spring of 1869, and settled in Jefferson 
Township, where she lived until March, 1877, 
when she moved to Grand Junction. She is 
a member of the Methodist Episcopal church. 

~-'^r^^-^'^'"- 



I^OEEET GIBSON, farmer, section 25, 
^W\ AVashington Township, was born in 
~^^ Leicestershire, England, July 15, 1835, 
son of John Gibson, of this township, a 
native of the same country. He came to 
America in 1860, settling in Jackson, Michi- 
gan, where he remained three years. He 
then returned to England, and came back to 
the United States in May, 1864, stopping in 
Tioga County, New York, six months, then 
went to Hancock County, Dlinois. The fol- 
lowing winter he came to Polk County, this 
State. He conducted a market garden, at 
Des Moines, a few years, and came to this 
county in March, 1872, settling upon liis 
present farm, where he owns 120 acres of 
good land. Mr. Gibson served as justice of 
tiie peace here over two years, and as special 
deputy sheriff two years; also insurance agent 
for AVestern Home and Merchant and Bank- 
er's Company. He is a local preacher in the 
Methodist Episcopal church, and has married 
many couples, conducted many funeral ser- 
vices and taken a great many into the church 
t during the sixteen years he has lived in 



Washington Township, and has always taken 
an active part in Sunday-school work. He 
used to ride to Minburn Sunday mornings, a 
distance of fifteen miles, to preach, then four 
miles south of Minburn in the afternoon, 
preaching at Perry in the evenings, and ride 
home again that same evening. He has 



done more than any other man in punishing 
crime, in putting down saloons, and all kinds 
of evil. He is a public benefactor, though it 
has cost him hundreds of dollars. For a long 
time he stood entirely alone; but he proved 
himself to be the best friend to those who 
treated him the most shamefully, ilrs. 
Gibson is a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal church. Her father settled near 
Des Moines in 1856. Mrs. Gibson was 
married to her present husband September 1, 
1866. She has always taken a great interest 
in Sunday-schoul work and has made her 
home for many years the lioine of the minis- 
tei-s of different denominations. All found a 
welcome there, her greatest delight being to 
make others happy in this life, and get 
them interested in the life to come. She is 
greatly respected by all who know her, espe- 
cially by the young, for whom she has so 
faithfully labored these many years, in the 
community where she lives. 



I^i QUINN FREE, farmer, section 26, 
ti^^"! Washington Township, was born in 
\j^' ® the town of Savanna, Carroll County, 
Illinois, November 9, 1847, a son of Samuel 
Free. He was reared a farmer, receiving a 
common-school education. He came to 
Greene County, Iowa, in the year 1869, and 
settled upon his present farm. September 
10, 1871, he was married to Elizabeth J. 
Gilliland, daughter of Stephen AY. Gilli- 
land, who settled in Dallas County, Iowa, in 
1857. To this union have been born six 
children — Myron E., Katie E., Edna M., 
Blanche E. and James AV. Mr. Free owns 
eighty acres of land, was elected justice of the 
peace in 1881, and re-elected in 1884 and 
1886, and now has his office in the town of 
Surry. He has also served as township 



362 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 





clerk, trustee, assessor, and has been president 
of the school board in Washington Township, 
and is still a member of the board. He is a 
member of the Odd Fellows and Ancient 
Order of United Workmen. 



VALENTINE S. BABB, farmer, Grant 
Townsliip, resides on section 36, and is 
the oldest settler now living within 
the limits of Greene County, the date of his 
settlement being June 22, 1850. There were 
two other families living in what is now 
Grant Township when he came, viz., Enos 
Butterick and Richard Hardin; both are now 
deceased. Truman Davis had made a settle- 
ment in what is now Franklin Township. 
He died many j'ears ago, where he first 
settled. These men, witli their families, 
constituted the population of Greene County 
when Mr. Babb came. His brother, William 
K. Babb, came with him. He was married, 
but had no children. He made a settlement 
adjoining his brother, where he lived imtil 
his death, which occurred four or five years 
later. His widow is now Mrs. Hannah 
Smith, of Jefferson. He left two children, 
both of whom died young. Mr. Babb found 
the whole country in its primitive condition. 
The Indians had been removed, but the re- 
mains of their wiirwams were still to be seen. 



Wild game, including elk and deer, was 
abundant. The settlers went to Fort Des 
Moines to do their trading, and also had to 
go very near there to get their corn ground. 
Mr. Babb was born in Greene County, Ten- 
nessee, July 9, 1S20, and was reared in 
Hawkins County. His parents were William 
and Mercy (Brown) Babb, the former a native 
of Tenneseee, and the latter of Virginia. 
They spent the most of their lives in Ten- 
nessee, and died in that State. They had 



eight children, five sons and three daughters; 
the daughters and one brother are deceased. 
Mr. Babb was married in Tennessee to Lydia 
Crumley, and removed to Virginia May 1, 
1850. He, with his family, his brother and 
the latter's wife, and William and S. G. 
Crumley, started for Iowa with a team of 
five horses attached to a wagon. There were 
seven persons in tlie company, Mr. and Mrs. 
Babb having one cliild. They stopped a few- 
days in Dallas County, but Mr. Babb came 
almost immediately to Greene County and 
made his settlement as before stated, and 
here he has lived more than thirty-six years. 
His first house was a log cabin, where he 
lived with his family several years. He was 
a poor man when he came here. One of the 
horses previously mentioned belonged to him, 
and that constituted about all of his worldly 
possessions. He had not even money to 
enter his land, and was obliged to pay 40 per 
cent, interest in order to obtain the money. 
He pre-empted a quarter section, and about 
ten years ago added forty-five acres. He now 
has 205 acres of valuable land, and has suffi- 
cient means to make him and his family 
comfortable through life. His wife, who 
came here with him, died February 19, 1857. 
His second wife was formerly Abigail Ben- 
nett, whom he married August 9 of the same 
year. She died January 13, 1874. By his 
first marriage Mr. Babb had five children, 
three of whom died young. The living are — 
Emily, who came with her parents to this 
county, and is now the wife of Luke Turpen, 
and Amanda Jane, wife of John Atkins. ]iy 
his second marriage were seven children, one 
of whom died in infancy. Those living are 
— Mrs. Mary Roberts, Oliver V., Amelia A., 
Alice M., Mrs. Belle Jackson and Walter. 
Politically Mr. Babb is a Democrat. In the 
early days Greene County was organized into 
one civil township, called Washington Town- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



363 






i\ 



\ 



( 
t 



ship. Mr. Babb was the first justice of the 
peace in the county, and the first lawsuit was 
tried before liim. A. J. Cain was elected 
justice at the same time, but Mr. Babb was 
the first to qualify, and performed the first 
duties. of that office. He served one term as 
county clerk, and was assessor for many years. 
William K. Babb, the brother of our subject, 
was several years younger than V. S. He 
was quite successful in life, being the owner 
of 400 acres of land and considerable per- 
sonal property. He was taken sick from 
exposure, and died of pneumonia. His widow 
afterward married Thomas J. Smith, who is 
also deceased. Mr. Babb has had poor health 
for many years. About the year 1854 he 
caught a severe cold which settled upon his 
lungs, and he has never faliy recovered. In 
September, 1867, a horse ran away with him 
and broke his leg. This is also a source of 
considerable suflerintr. 



..I'^ii. -I iT„,?i 



V^[UGENIO K. FEENCH, deceased, was 
*wil ^''^''" ^^ Onondaga County, New York, 
"^r^ October 3, 1847, and removed with his 
parents to La Salle County, Illinois, in 1865. 
At the age of seventeen years he ran away 
from home to enlist in the United States 
service during the late war. He became a 
member of Company F, Ninth Illinois Cav- 
alry, and served until the close of the war. 
He was married December 29, 1870, to Aus- 
tis M. Bradt, and they had two children — 
Ora V. and Albert J. Mrs. French died 
December 10, 1876, and January 9, 1879, 
Mr. French married Miss Janette Haveuhill, 
a daughter of Oliver Havenhill, of La Salle 
County, Illinois. To this union have been 
born three children — Roscoe E., Oliver H. 
and Eugenio K. Our subject came to this 
county in March, 1882, settling on section 5, 

28 



Junction Township. He owned 160 acres of 
land, which his heirs now occupy. He held 
the office of tax collector, highway commis- 
sioner, and other local offices. He died May 
12, 1884. Mrs. French was born in Big 
Grove Township, Kendall County, Illinois, 
and was reared on a farm. Her husband was 
also reared on a farm, and was eminently 
successful as a farmer and stock- raiser. 



i»i^ 



»|jEESE G. SEAMAN, of the firm of 
^j Sli Seaman & Seaman, proprietors of the 
■^^'^ll Hawkeye Mills, on section 30, Bristol 
Township, was born June 1, 1844, in Clin- 
ton County, Ohio, son of W. I). Seaman. He 
was reared on a farm and remained with his 
father's family until his twenty-first year, 
when, in January, 1865, he became a recruit 
of Company F, Eighty-eighth Ohio Infantry. 
His service was on detached duty at the head- 
quarters of General P. Richardson. After 
the war he became a resident of Adair Coun- 
ty, Missouri, where he lived about ten years 
engaged in farming and in operating station- 
ary engines. He was also engaged in the 
marble trade four years. In Adair County, 
April 23, 1874, he was united in marriage 
with Hattie Capps, daughter of Henry Capps 
of that county. In 1875 Mr. Seaman became 
identified with the interests of Greene County 
and engaged in farming. Later he owned a 
farm on section 80, Bristol Township, which 
he sold, and then purchased an interest in 
the mill property of which he now has half 
of the charge. The building is 30 x 40 feet, 
two and one-half stories in height, with base- 
ment and three sets of burrs. The power 
comes from the North Coon Eiver, a head of 
seven feet giving a safe and reliable power 
sufficient for all uses. They contemplate 
niaking many improvements in the near 



a«4 



UISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



future. In connection with the mill prop- 
erty the company owns forty acres of land 
upon which are three houses, a barn and car- 
penter's shop. A fair valuation of the entire 
property would not vary much from $12,000. 
Mr. Seaman's parents lived many years in 
Adair County, Missouri, before their decease. 
The father was born in Ohio County and the 
mother in Rockbridge County, Virginia. 
They were married in Clinton County, Ohio. 
Of their nine children Reese G.was the si.xth. 
The eldest, George, lives in Carroll County, 
Missouri; James V. is a physician, living in 
Butler County, Kansas. These and our sub- 
ject are all that are living. George, Jonah 
V. and Reese G. served in Company F, 
Eiglitj^-eighth Ohio Infantry. Mr. and Mrs. 
Seaman have five children — Henry W., Jonah 
v., James D., Nellie and Edith. They are 
members of the Christian church, and in 
politics Mr. Seaman is an ardent Republican. 
He belongs to Golden Gate Lodge, No. 
402, A. F. & A. M., at Scranton, and N. H. 
Powers Post, G. A. R., at the same place. 






RTEMUS J. MACK, an active and 
ffli^V enterprising agriculturist, engaged in 
^s^' farming and stock-raising on section 
13, Junction Township, Greene County, is a 
native of Illinois, born in Boone County, 
July 12, 1856, a son of Willard Mack, who 
is living in Junction Township. His father 
being a farmer, he was reared to the same 
occupation, his youth being spent in assist- 
ing on tlie farm and in attending the common 
schools of his neighborhood. He came with 
his father's family to Greene County, Iowa, 
in 1876, where he has since made his home, 
and is now the owner of a fine farm in Junc- 
tion Township which contains eighty acres 
of well-cultivated land, he being numbered 



among the progressive farmers of this com- 
munity. Mr. Mack was united in marriage 
March 2, 1880, to Miss May Smith, a daugh- 
ter of Richard Smith, who is now deceased. 
Four children have been born to this union, 
whose names are as follows — Laura B., Ger- 
trude J., Spencer A. and Artemus R. 



-^>-J*|- 



|AMUEL M. TAYLOR, section 27, 
Grant Township, is one of the promi- 
nent pioneers of Greene County. His 
father, Joshua Taylor, settled in this county 
in June, 1855, buying a tract of wild land 
on which a log cabin had been built and one 
acre had been cleared and planted to potatoes. 
Joshua Taylor was born in Logan County, 
Kentucky, December 1, 1805, and September 
27, 1827, married Nancy More, also a native 
of Logan County, Kentucky, born May 12, 
1809. Several years later they moved to 
Champaign County, Illinois, and thence to 
Iowa. Joshua Taylor was a man highly es- 
teemed by all who knew him. He was a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal church 
many years, and in politics was a Jackson 
Democrat. At his death he left a widow and 
seven children, three childi-en having pi-eceded 
him to the other world. Those living at the 
time of his death were — Mrs. Martha J. Col- 
lins, Mary N., James H., Mrs. Sarah Win- 
kleman, Samuel M., Joshua G. and Matilda 
Kooder. Of this family Samuel M. is the 
only one living. After the father's death the 
mother married Wilkins Taylor (not a rela- 
tive). He also died and she then married 
Job C. Stiles. She died January 21, 1884, 
after a brief illness. Samuel M. Taylor was 
born in Champaign County, Illinois, March 
25, 1838. He has been twice married. II is 
first wife was Mrs. Frances Correy, daughter 
of Joseph Collins. To them were born two 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



365 






.' 



^1 ' 







t 

I 

4 

V- 



children — Eosettie C. and Nancy A. His pres- 
ent wife was Ann Elizabeth Tilton, daughter 
of David Tilton. She was born in Ohio in 
1851, and accompanied her parents to Illi- 
nois when a child, where her father died in 
1865. In 1870 she and her mother came to 
Greene County. Her mother returned to 
Illinois, where she died in September, 1878. 
Mr. and Mrs. Taylor have three children — 
Samuel M., "William Arthur and Ariel i\.dol- 
phus. They are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal church. In politics he is a Demo- 
crat. 



."igiEORGE W. WIANT, farmer, section 5, 
Wlf' Washington Township, was born in 
V- I Tuscarawas County, Ohio, December 2, 
184G. His father, Andrew Jesse Wiant, of 
Tuscarawas County, was born in Pennsyl- 
vania, and came to Ohio when a young man. 
Our subject was reared on a farm, and ob- 
tained his education in the common schools. 
He has always followed farming for his occu- 
pation. He was a soldier in the late war, 
enlisting February 28, 1865, for one year, or 
during the war, and was assigned to Com- 
pany C, One Hundred and Eighty-ninth 
Ohio Infantry, and was mustered out Sep- 
tember 28, 1865. In February, 1866, he re- 
moved to Peoria County, Illinois, and there 
attended the commercial college of Worth- 
ington, Warner & Cole, during the winter of 
1866-'67. In April, 1867, he came to 
Greene County, and bought and improved 
eighty acres on section 16, Washington Town- 
ship. He located upon his present farm in 
the fall of 1872, where he owns 240 acres 
of land. He is engaged in general farming, 
and gives considerable attention to graded 
stock. Mr. AViant was married February 26, 
1871, to Miss Loiiisa A. Potts, daughter of 



Jesse P. Potts, deceased, who was born in 
Cedar County, this State. They have had three 
children, only one of whom is living — Cora 
Enieline. Mr. Wiant has served as township 
clerk and township assessor several years; he 
is now a member of the school board and is 
township school treasurer. 



HLVIN M. NEAL, Angus, is a native of 
Iowa, born in Wapello County, July 10, 
<;t^ 1846, a son of Robert and Elizabeth 
(Pierce) Neal, the father being a native of 
Champaign County, ( )hio. The mother was 
a daughter of Thomas Pierce, a distant rela- 
tive of President Pierce, and was a colonel, 
and afterward acted as a spy in the Revolu- 
tionary war. He was a pioneer of Warren 
County, Illinois. The brother of our subject, 
John N. Neal, owns the gun which was car- 
ried by Mr. Pierce in the the Revolution, 
which he prizes very highly. Of the seven 
children born to Mr. and Mrs. Robert Neal, 
five are living — Eliza, John N., Daniel, Will- 
iam and Alvin M., our subject being the 
youngest child. His youngest sister, Lu- 
cinda J., died at the age of thirty-four years. 
His father died March 16, 1872, and his 
mother's death occurred in March, 1873. 
Alvin M. Neal was reared to the avocation 
of a farmer, receiving in his youth a com- 
mon-school education. He was brought by 
his parents to Marion County, Iowa, in the 
spring of 1855, and there he grew to man- 
hood on the home farm. He enlisted in the 
war of the Rebellion at the age of seventeen, 
and was assigned to Company F, Fortieth 
Iowa Inftintry, serving for three years, and 
participated in the battles of Little Rock, 
Memphis, Jenkins' Ferry, and others of minor 
importance. He returned to his home with- 
out having received a wound, but with health 




3(i6 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



permanently impaired by the exposure and 
hardships he had endured while in the ser- 
vice. He was married Kovember 18, 1865, 
to Miss Catherine Jones, a native of Wales, 
born January 29, 1842, a daughter of Henry 
D. and Ann (Davis) Jones, who were natives 
of the same country. Mr. Jones came to 
America with his family in 1857 and located 
at Scranton, Pennsylvania, and in January, 
1858, came to Knoxville, Iowa. The parents 
are still living in Marion County. They 
were the parents of twelve children, six still 
living — Mrs. Neal, Seth and Owen, natives of 
Wales, and William, Ulysses G. and Ann, 
born in Iowa. Seth Jones and Mr. Neal 
were messmates in the war of the Rebellion. 
Mr. and Mrs. Neal have a family of three 
children — William T., born September 15, 
1866; Arthur M., born October 9, 1868; 
Francis O., born August 24, 1871. Mr. 
Neal made his home in Marion County until 
1871, when he removed with his family to 
Otley, Iowa. In the spring of 1881 he came 
to Greene County, where he followed farm- 
ing i;ntil the spring of 1884, since which 
time he has been a resident of Angus. He 
has followed farming through life until with- 
in the past three years, since which time he 
has been running a bus and dray line at An- 
gus, in which undertaking he is meeting with 
success. He now owns two residences, and a 
business house at Angus, in which Mrs. Neal 
is running a millinery store, besides a farm 
of eighty acres on section 13 of Washington 
Township. He is a member of the Grand 
Army of the Republic. 



|-5»-^^. 



^mRCHIBALD BURK, farmer, section 

v\ 19, Washington Township, was born in 

"sii" Otsego County, Kew York, April 23, 

1840. His father, Amos S. Burk. brought 



his family to this county in the spring of 
1855, locating on the old Burk homestead, 
section 32, Washington Township, where he 
died several years ago. Our subject was 
reared on a farm and educated in the common 
schools. He has always followed the occupa- 
tion of a farmer. During the late war he 
enlisted in Company H, Tenth Iowa In- 
fantry, and participated in the battles of 
Madrid, the first and second battles of Cor- 
inth, luka, Jackson, Champion Hills, Yicks- 
burg and Missionary Ridge. For these 
services rendered his country he draws a 
pension of $4 a month. He was married 
May 21, 1865, to Martha Heater, daughtei 
of Jacob Heater, a pioneer of this county, 
and now deceased. They have four children 
— Jennie A., James A., George E. and Xellie 
A., all at home. Mr. Burk owns 160 acres 
of land and is engaged in farming and stock- 
raising. When the family first came to this 
county they had to go to Des Moines t.j trade 
and also to do their milling, a distance of 
fifty miles. Mr. Burk is a member of the 
Odd Fellows fraternity. 



►>t5- 



lEORGE A. WEATHERSON, a suc- 
cessful agriculturist of Junction Town- 
ship, Greene County, engaged in 
farming and stock-raising on section 18, is a 
native of Ohio, born August 18, 1854. His 
father, Luke Weatherson, was born in Scot- 
land, and came to America in 1849. He 
first located near Cleveland, Ohio, and in 
1850 went to California. In 1852 he settled 
near Milwaukee, Wisconsin, returning to 
Ohio in 1854. He is now a resident of 
Jones County, Iowa. He was a soldier three 
years in the war of the Rebellion, serving 
until its close. George A. AVeatherson, 
whose name heads this sketch, was reared to 



■■■-■-■ ■■■■- ■ ■i i a-i»»M-a- » ->n^ »i - air=»=» 



iJ 

M 



BIOOBAPHIOAL SKETCHES. 



»ii»WM-, l l l - B -, » „ l 



307 



agricultural pursuits on the home farm, and 
has always followed the avocation of a farmer. 
His education was obtained in the common 
schools of his neighborhood. He came to 
Greene County, Iowa, in June, 1880, settling 
on his present farm, where he has 160 acres 
of valuable land. Mr. Weatherson was united 
in marriage January 31, 1882, to Miss Mary 
Gunn, a daughter of Charles Gunii, of War- 
ren County, Illinois. One child was born to 
this union, a daughter, Huldah, who is now 
deceased. Mrs. AVeatherson is also deceased, 
her death taking place November 4, 1883. 
Mr. Weatherson never seeks official honors, 
preferring to devote his entire attention to 
the duties of his farm. 



IHARLES B. MECUM, section 36, 
Washington Township, was born in 
^l Springlield, Massachusetts, August 25, 
1822, a son of James and Julia (^ Dewey) 
Mecum, the father a native of Massachusetts, 
of Irish ancestry, his mother being of French 
descent. His father was a First Lieutenant 
in the war of 1812. Charles B. Mecum was 
reared a farmer, and has followed agricultural 
pursuits the greater part of his life. His 
education was obtained at Springfield, Massa- 
chusetts, and at Suffield, Connecticut. lie is 
one of the few remaining " forty-niners," who 
April 5, 1849, with oxen and wagons, started 
from Galesbnrg, Illinois, for the gold fields 
of California, taking the name of " Jay-Hawk- 
ers " to distinguish their party from the 
other parties who went the same year. After 
leaving Little Salt Lake the Jay-Hawkers 
took directions from Indian Walker, and 
Ward, an old mountaineer, who told them 
they could save 500 miles by taking the 
route he laid out for them, and branched 
oflf" from the main body. Finding nothing 



as represented they became lost, and wandered 
about for months. They cut up their wagons 
on Silver Mountain, and made of them pack- 
saddles for their cattle. Here thirteen of 
their number branched off on New Year's 
day, taking what jerked beef they could carry, 
and started due west over the mountains. 
This the main party could not do on account 
of their cattle, but when they came to a 
mountain took a southerly course around it. 
Of the thirteen who left but two lived to get 
through, and these were found by ranch 
Indians in a helpless condition and brought 
in and cared for. They had cast lots and 
lived on each other until but two remained. 
When questioned afterward in regard to their 
trip they burst into tears, and could not talk 
of it. The main body of the Jay-Hawkers 
kept their cattle (for thej^ were their only 
hope), and on these they lived. The cattl-e 
lived on the bitter sage bush, except when 
they occasionally found an oasis with water 
and a little srass upon it. The feet of the 
cattle were worn down until blood marked 
every step, and the boys wrapped their feet 
in raw hides, as they did their own. Many 
died from exposure, hunger and thirst, and 
were buried in the drifting sands, while those 
that were left tottered on not knowing whose 
turn would be next. But for their cattle not 
a man could have survived that awful journey. 
They ate the hide, the blood, tlie refuse, and 
picked the bones in camp, making jerked 
beef of the balance to take with them. After 
many desert wanderings and untold sufferings, 
they atlast struck Yahoon's Pass, and emerged 
suddenly into Santa Clara Valley, which was 
covered with long grass and wild flowers, 
with thousands of fat cattle feeding, a perfect 
paradise to those famished skeletons of men. 
There were thirty-six of the party who lived 
^o reach the valley, and every one shed tears 
of joy at the sight of the glorious vision 






^^■■■■■.■-■■■.i 



■WMkVniWBnHrMWS^'B 



^^Jt^^^^^^^'^mmimmmmamm^mM'timiimsmm 



368 



HISTORY OF OREENE COUNTY. 



spread before them and the suddenness of 
their deliverance. They shot five head of 
the cattle and were eating the raw flesh, when 
the ranch Indians, hearing the firing, came 
to see what was the matter, and finding them 
in a helpless condition reported to Francisco, 
the Spaniard who owned the cattle and ranch. 
lie came down and invited them to a gi'ove 
near his home, bade them welcome, and fur- 
nished them with meat, milk, grain and every- 
thing they needed, keeping them until they 
were recruited and able to go on their way. 
They reached the Santa Clara Valley Feb- 
ruary 4, 1850, and on that day each year they 
celebrate their deliverance by a reunion, 
where in pleasant companionship, around a 
festive board, they recount reminiscences of 
the past, and live over again those scenes, 
when young and hopeful, they lived and suf- 
fiered together. There are but fifteen of the 
party alive to-day, and these are widely 
scattered, the majority being on the Pacific 
Slope. February 4, 1887, the reunion took 
place at the residence of C. B. Mecum, of 
Rippey, but owing to the severity of the 
weather and the long distance intervening, 
but few survivors were able to be present, 
although all sent kind words of greeting. 
Mr. Mecum engaged in mining nearly three 
years, and in February, 1853, left California 
for Knox County, Illinois, where he resided 
until 1874, when in March of that year he 
came to Iowa and settled in Washington 
Township, Greene County, where he now 
lives. He owns 200 acres of choice land, 
and in connection with general farming is 
engaged in stock-raising. Mr. Mecum was 
married November 22, 1854, to Frances E. 
Richards, a native of Westminster, Vermont, 
born July 1, 1835, a daughter of Luther A. 
and Mary (Page) Richards, both of whom are 
now deceased. She is of Puritan descent, 
her ancestor, Thomas Richards, coming to 



America from Dorsetshire, England, in 1630, 
and locating at Dorchester, Massachusetts. 
She is well educated, att^ding school at her 
native village, Waterbury, and North Haven, 
Connecticut, and Galesburg, Illinois. Of 
the eight children born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Mecum, five are living — William F., Leroy 
II., Cora A., Edwin W. and Maude F. 
William is a justice of the peace at Douglas, 
Wyoming Territory. Leroy married a daugh- 
ter of Henry Youngman, and is living in 
Jefl'erson Township. He is at present serving 
as deputy sherift" of Greene County. Mrs. 
Mecum and William and Cora are nieml)ers 
of the Methodist Episcopal church. Mr. 
Mecum is a member of the Masonic fraternity. 



■>^ 



fpLUMBUS RICE, coal miner at Buck- 
eye bank, near Surry, was born in 
,^ I Fountain County, Indiana, June 8, 
1852, son of Francis Rice, of Washington 
Township. He was brought by his parents 
to Dallas County in 1852, who settled near 
Adel. The country was then wild and un- 
settled. Indians were plenty, and the whites 
often had skirmishes with them to save life 
and property. The whites were killing the 
wild game, and the savages wanted to drive 
them back by making raids and killing the 
people. Mr. Rice passed his early life at 
farm work, and in attending the common 
schools of his father's district. He is nat- 
urally quite a student and a great lover of 
history. He has worked on a farm in summer 
ever since he was nine years old, and aims to 
work summer and winter. In 1857 he took 
a trip with his fatiier to Kansas and Missouri, 
returning in 1864 to Iowa, and in 1873 he 
visited his native place in Indiana. He now 
works on the farm during the summer, and 
in the mines durinsr the winter. He came 



«kiw»»»Meg!»B" 



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t — 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



36U 



to this county with his parents in 1857, 
settling in Franklin Township. He located 
in this township in 1871, and this has since 
been his home. He never seeks official 
honors. 



fAMES THORNTON, farmer, of Grant 
Township, is one of the pioneers of 
Greene (!ounty, coming in June, 1857. 
He settled where he now lives, on section 26, 
although his farm of 240 acres is mostly on 
section 23. At that time there were but few 
families in what is now Grant Township, and 
their mill and postoffice was at Fort Des 
Moines. Mr. Thornton has witnessed and 
materially assisted in advancing all the 
enterprises that have changed Greene County 
from a wilderness to its present prosperous 
condition. He was born in Ohio in 1815, 
and when a young man went to Cass County, 
Michigan, where he lived until his removal 
to Iowa. He was married in Michigan to 
Jane Parker, a native of Ohio, born in 1825. 
They have had seven children — Jesse, of 
Greenbrier Township; Mary Ann, wife of 
Charles Mattison, died and left two cliildren; 
J. Parker, Lydia, Nathan, James and George. 



^LFRED C. WELLS, farmer and stock- 
16 raiser, section 27, Dawson Township, 
^f^ was born near Davenport, Scott County, 
( Iowa, April 25, 1811. His boyhood days 
were spent in assisting on the farm in Scott 
County, and in attending the district school. 
He remained at home until seventeen years 
old, when, August 15, 1861, he enlisted in 
the defense of his country and served over 
four yeare, being mustered out November 15, 
1865. After his discharge he returned home 



and lived in Scott County until 1868, when 
he moved to Greene County and settled where 
he now lives, being the first settler in Dawson 
Township. He owns 200 acres of choice 
land, and has erected good buildings, set out 
a fine orchard and now has one of the pleas- 
antest homes in the township. Mr. Wells 
was married April 11, 1868, to Eliza Mc- 
Cully, a native of Pennsylvania, born July 
25, 1815, daughter of James and Jane 
McCully, natives of Ohio and Ireland. They 
have one son — Charles E., born August 16, 
1880. 



►>»j« 



j^HOMAS M. TERRILL, a prosperous 
agriculturist of AVashington Township, 
^^ residing on section 30, is a native of 
Ohio County, West Virginia, born near 
AVheeling, May 18, 1850, his father, Daniel 
Terrill, who is now deceased, being born in 
the same county. The father brought his 
family to Iowa in 1853 when he settled in 
Cedar County, dying there the same year. 
The mother of our subject, Tabitha (Hemp- 
hill) Terrill, died in September, 1861. After 
his mother's death he lived with a Mr. 
Blaylock si.x years and a half, four years 
of this time in Keokuk County, Iowa, to 
which Mr. Blaylock had removed. At tlie 
age of eighteen he returned to his father's 
old liomestead in Cedar County, Iowa, 
where he lived three and a half years 
with Amos Barnard, who had bought the 
place. In the fall of 1871 he located near 
State Center, in Marshall County, where he 
spent two and a half months and the same fall 
came to Grand Junction. He soon after 
began working on the farm of James Thomp- 
son, where he remained almost three years. 
He then worked one year for S. Gilliland of 
Dallas County, and in the spring 1876 



370 



EI8T0RT OP GREENE COUNTY. 



engaged in farming on his own account, he 
having bought a farm in 1872. In 1879 he 
settled on his farm in Washington Township, 
which contains 240 acres of choice land, 
where he has since followed farming and 
stock-raising. November 6, 1879, Mr. Ter- 
rill was united in marriage to Miss Lydia M. 
Hill, a daughter of the late John Hill of 
Iowa County. Four children have been born 
to this union — Katie M., Otis W., Geneva I. 
and William D. 



iEUKY P. ANDERSON was born in 
Greene County, Ohio, September 3, 
1847, a son of William and Lydia An- 
derson. In 1857 his parents moved to 
Greene County, Iowa, and settled in Grant 
Township. Drury P. Anderson was reared 
on a farm in Greene County, and was educated 
in the common schools. He remained at 
home until twenty-two years of age, when he 
commenced life for himself. In 1877 he 
bought 106 acres of land on section 11, Jack- 
son Township. To this he has added eighty 
acres, and now has a very tine property. His 
residence is situated on a knoll overlooking 
the farm, and is but three miles from Jeffer- 
son and three-quarters of a mile from Eureka 
Mills. Mr. Anderson was married December 
17, 1877, to Annie McCuen, daughter of 
Nathan and Harriet McCuen, pioneers of 
Grant Township. Mrs. Anderson's father 
gave his life for his country during the war 
of the Rebellion. Her mother afterward 
married James Wilson, and again was 
widowed. She now lives in Grant Township. 
Mr. and Mrs. Anderson have two children 
— Lura and Sadie. Their second child, Ed- 
gar, died in infancy. In politics Mr. Ander- 
son is a Republican. He is one of the leading 
men of his township, which he is serving as 



trustee. He and his wife are members of the 
Methodist Episcopal church. 



g^ENRY A. DWINNELL was born in 
ml Worcester County, Massachusetts, in 
''Wi 1829. In 1837 his father, Solomon 
Dwinnell, went to Wisconsin, and in 1838 
attended the first land sale at Milwaukee, and 
bought considerable land for himself and 
other parties. He then returned to Massa- 
chusetts, where he died in the eighty-fourth 
year of his age, his wife surviving him a 
short time, dying in her eighty-thii'd year. 
They were the parents of twelve children, 
eight of whom are living. All save one 
daughter came West. Our subject left Mas- 
sachusetts for Wisconsin in 1852, and lived 
in Lodi until his removal to Jefferson in 
1870, and has since been identified with the 
mercantile interests of the town. He was 
married in Lodi, Wisconsin, to Theda Hum- 
phrey, a native of New York, daughter of 
Jeffrey and Harriet Humphrey, who have 
been residents of Jefi'erson since the fall of 
1869. 



ilTEPHEN ZIMMERMAN, an active 
and enterprising farmer of Scranton 
Township, residing on section 17, was 
born in Columbia County, Pennsylvania, 
the date of his birth being November 6, 
1847. His father, Christian Zimmerman, 
was a native of Germanj'', born in 1810, and 
when a child was brought by his parents to 
the United States, and was reared to man- 
hood in Pennsylvania. He was first married 
to Miss Sarah Gearhart, who was Iwrn and 
reared in the State of Pennsylvania. She 
died when our subject, who was the fifth 



l\ 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



371 



child, was five years old, leaving a family of 
six children — Peter enlisted in the three 
months service, and re-enlisted to serve three 
years, then re-enlisted for three more years, 
but died of measles shortly after his third 
enlistment; Margaret is the wife of Robert 
May, of Kendrick Townsliip; Sarah is the 
wife of Henry Stenberger, of Henry County, 
Illinois; Jacob is living in Manchester, Mich- 
igan; Stephen, the subject of this sketch; 
Washington, the sixth child, is living in 
Kendrick Township. For his second wife 
the father married Miss Sarah Michel in 
1854, a native of Pennsylvania, and to this 
union four children were born — Caroline, 
who died in childhood; Rebecca S., now 
living in Greene County, Iowa; Henry, also 
living in Greene County, and Enoch, living 
in Pennsylvania. The family settled in 
Henrj' County, Illinois, and there Stephen 
grew to manhood. The year he attained his 
majority he came with his father to Greene 
County, Iowa, where he bought eighty acres of 
land and commenced improvingthesarae. The 
father purchased a tract of 400 acres on sec- 
tion 16, Scranton Township, where he lived 
till his death, June 8, 1872, at the age of 
sixtj'-two years. The following year his 
widow returned to Pennsylvania, and died 
there one year later. Stephen Zimmerman 
was united in marriage to Miss Elizabeth 
Wood, of Scranton Township, October 24, 
1872, she being a native of the State of New 
York, born Febrnary 16, 1854. Six children 
have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Zimmerman 
— Ethe Helen, Medora V. (died aged eighteen 
months), Maud Jessie, Lee Wood (died at the 
age of five years). Homer Warren, and an 
infant son yet unnamed. Mr. Zimmerman 
made his home on section 16, Scranton Town- 
ship, until the spring of 1881, when he sold 
that property and purchased 160 acres of 
choice land on section 17 of the same town- 



ship, where he has since resided, and during 
his residence here of six short yeai's he lias 
converted his land from a state of nature into 
a very finely-improved farm, with excellent 
building improvements, the entire surround- 
ings showing care and thrift. Both Mr. and 
Mrs. Zimmerman are consistent members of 
the United Brethren church. In politics he 
has always been identified with the Republi- 
can party. 



.4*-^^• 



B. REMICK was born in Franklin 
Wll County, Maine, in 1834. When twenty 
® years of age he went to La Salle 
County, Illinois, where he lived until 1874, 
when he came to Iowa and located at Jefier- 
son, where he has dealt quite extensively in 
real estate, and at present is engaged in loan- 
ing money. He owns 280 acres of fine land, 
160 acres in Paton Township, eighty acres in 
Junction and forty acres iu Dawson Town- 
ship. He was married in Illinois to Helen 
G. Day, a native of Maine, who died, leaving 
one child — Georgiana. He subsequently 
married Sophia Mott, a native of New York. 
They have three daughters — Nellie, Mary S. 
and Fay. In politics Mr. Remick is a Re- 
publican. He and his wife are members of 
the Methodist Episcopal church. 



l-S+4f« 



V^lRVIN WRIGHT, a pioneer of Greene 
\\P/i t!ounty, resides on section 3, Jackson 
^i Township. He was born in Putnam 
County, Indiana, June 27, 1831. His par- 
ents, Elijah and Susannah Wright, were 
among the earliest settlers of Putnam County, 
removing there from North Carolina, their 
native State, in 1821. His youth was spent 
at farm labor and in attending the common 



I wi».rm.<-^^ 



373 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



subscription schools. August 26, 1849, be 
was married in his native county to Miss 
Delilah M. Beck, daughter of William and 
Susannah Beck, who was born in Washing- 
ton County, Indiana, October 30, 1827. Mr. 
Wright came to the Hawkeye State in 1853, 
coming to this county in the fall of that yeai'. 
During the winter following he bought 
eighty acres of land in Bristol Township. 
He lived in Dallas County two years, then 
settled in Bristol Township. When in his 
fifteenth year he had united with the Chris- 
tian church, and he assisted in organizing the 
first Christian society in Greene County. 
Their meetings were held in a log school- 
house which he had helped to build, and 
which was the first in Greene County. It 
was on section 28, Bristol Township, and 
Rev. Clayburn Wright was the first pastor. 
Mr. Wright, our subject, was licensed to 
preach the gospel, and several years later was 
ordained into the ministry. He has had a 
pastoral charge since 1860, and has devoted 
his time to the up-building of the Christian 
Church of God. Mr. Wright's father came 
to Iowa the same time his son came, and pur- 
chased the farm the latter now occupies. He 
died in August, 1860, at the age of sixty- 
seven years. Ilis wife survived him about 
sixteen years, and died at the age of eighty- 
five. Mr. Wright purchased the farm of the 
estate in March, 1863. It contains 108 
acres and has first-class improvements both 
as regards soil and buildings. He has an in- 
terest with his sons in three other farms, one 
of eighty acres, one of fifty-five acres and one 
of forty acres. Mr. and Mrs. AV right have 
six children — William S., John II., Mrs. 
Louisa J. McClung, Mrs. Hester Ann Tom- 
son, Mrs. Sarah F. Baaz and Ervin O. All 
are living in this county and all are married 
and settled except Ervin, who remains with 
his parents. The deceased are — Wilson M., 



who died in Indiana at the age of twenty- 
three months; Nathan M., who died at 
twenty-two months; Julia E. died at the 
age of three months; Rosetta A. died at 
four months, and three children died in 
early infancy. Mr. Wright was a Democrat 
for nu\ny years, but is now a Prohibitionist. 



y^DWARD W. FOY, druggist, Jefierson, 
Tpl Iowa, is a native of County Galway, 
o^ Ireland, born in 1845. He had good 
educational advantages in his native country, 
and after coming to America attended the 
Philadelphia High School some time. He 
came to the United States in Janiiary, 1862, 
and first lived in Philadelphia, going from 
there the same year to New York City, and 
from there to Mt. Morris, New York, where 
he lived until the fall of 1869, when he came 
to Iowa and clerked for James Stanford & 
Son, of Jefierson, until January, 1870, when 
he engaged in business for himself, and is 
now the oldest druggist in the place. Mr. 
Foy married Addie Young, daughter of 
Jacob Young. They have one child — Nettie. 



fAMES CRABB, farmer, section 81, 
AVashington Township, was born in Pick- 
away County, Ohio, May 12, 1823, son 
of John Crabb, deceased. He was reared a 
farmer and educated in the log cabin sub- 
scription schools, in Vermillion, Illinois^ 
where his parents removed when he was a 
child. The school-house had puncheon fioors 
and seats, clapboard roof, a huge fire-pliice, 
and a hole cut in the logs for window's. Mr. 
Crabb came to Des Moines in the fall of 1854, 
and to this county in March of the following 
year, locating on his present farm which 



.^~^^^^ 



" ■ ■■■"■^■■ ■ ■ '''■■■"-■■-■'- ■^"■ ■ ■ ■ - ■ ■ ■ - ■ ■ ■Sl 



' ■ - ■ ■' ^ " ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■■■ ■ ■■■■■«B«!Utg«B i 



BIOOBAPRICAL SKETCHES. 



37a 



abounded in wild animals. His trading and 
milling were done at Des Moines, and he 
paid one dollar a bushel for corn. He owns 
237^ acres of land, all richly earned by his 
hard labor. He was married in November, 
1841, to Phebe Adkins, daughter of Lewis 
Adkins, deceased, an early settler of Dallas 
Conntj. Seven of their twelve children are 
living — James A., William H., Jemima, El- 
len, Grant, Jeannette and Phillip. Mr. and 
Mrs. Crabb are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, and Mr. Crabb is a Repub- 
lican in politics. 



fOHN M. FORBES, of Bristol Town- 
ship, has charge of the county poor farm, 
which consists of 240 acres of land lying 
on sections 21 and 28. The farm buildings 
are situated on the latter section. Mr. 
Forbes took possession of the farm in 
March, 1886. He has been a resident 
of the county since 1871, engaged in 
] agricultural pursuits most of the time. 
He resided in Jefferson three years previ- 
ous to his occupancy of the county farm, 
being proprietor of the American House the 
last year of his residence in that city. Mr. 
Forbes was born in Camden County, North 
Carolina, April 5, 1826, son of William and 
Catherine (Mandeville) Forbes, natives also 
of North Carolina, where the father died 
March 5, 1854, aged sixty-seven years. John 
M. was the fourth of six children who were 
living at the time of the father's death, and 
four are now living — Jared lives in Kansas, 
Mary resides in Dakota, James in Audubon 
County, this State, and John M. in Bristol 
Township. The mother, with her two oldest 
children, left North Carolina before the war, 
and settled in Lee County, Illinois. She 
died in Ogle County, that State, March 18, 



1871, aged eighty-one years, nine months and 
fourteen days. Mr. Forbes was reared to a 
farm life in his native State, and was there 
married to Miss Elizabeth Bell, May 13, 
1852. She was born in Camden County 
August 1, 1833. During the last three years 
of the war, Mr. Forbes was within the Union 
lines, and received the protection of the Gov- 
ernment; and though he lost six slaves by 
the emancipation proclamation, he counted 
that a gain rather than a loss. In 1868 he 
came North with his family and settled in 
Ogle County, Illinois, where he lived three 
years, then came to Greene County. Mr. and 
Mrs. Forbes have four children — Rufus, 
Mary C, William and Samuel. Mr. Forbes 
was formerly an Old Line Whig, but since 
the war, has voted the Republican ticket. 
He was a staunch Union man during the war. 



«--£ 



■^^-i^ 



l^^JLLIAM B. LIVINGSTON, Jr., 
•ffWjI'fll was born in Belmont County, Ohio, 

l-=^I April 25, 1836. In 1850 his tather 
moved to Muskingum County, Ohio, where 
our subject lived until 1866, when he moved 
to Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and two years later 
to Greene County. He bought a tract of wild 
land which he improved, getting his farm 
under good cultivation and erecting a com- 
modious residence and other buildings. He 
lived on this farm until 1881 when he moved 
to Churdan, whei-e he now is engaged in the 
general mercantile business. He was mar- 
ried October 24, 1859, to Jennie G. Ganett, 
a native of Muskingum County, Ohio, born 
March 3, 1838, a daughter of J. M. and Mary 
Ganett. To them have been born two chil- 
dren— Eldora, wife of R. T. West, and Wil- 
liam A. In May, 1864, Mr. Livingston en- 
listed in Company G, One Hundred and 
Sixteenth Ohio Infantry and served until the 



-t^f'^y^.r^^'^^^^^^^^u^^'^ 



374 



HISTORY OF OBEENE COUNTY. 



following October. He is a member of the 
Baptist cliurcb. In politics be is a Repub- 
lican. 

fOHN BISH, one of the old pioneers of 
Greene County, was born in Highland 
County, Ohio, May 31, 1842, a son of 
Jacob Bisb, who was born in Rockingham 
County, West Virginia. The father brought his 
family to Van Buren County, Iowa, in the 
fall of 1849, and in the spring of 1850 
removed to Boone County, settling on Des 
Moines River near the present site of Rapids 
Mills, and here the father pre-empted land 
which he improved. Here the family experi- 
enced many of the hardships and privations 
of pioneer life, being in limited circumstances. 
Corn was then $2 per bushel, the father pay- 
ing for it by working at fifty cents a day, and 
at that time there were nine persons in the 
family. Tlieir nearest mill was forty miles 
distant. The country was then principally 
inhabited by Indians and wild animals, and 
their principal meat was wild game. They 
came to Greene County, Iowa, in 1854, 
settling in Washington Township. John 
Bish, the subject of this sketch, attended the 
rude log cabin subscription schools in his 
bo3'hood, receiving sucli education as could 
be obtained in the schools of that early day. 
He followed farming during the summers 
and in the winters followed trapping and 
hunting until 1861. August 10, 1861, he 
enlisted in Company II, Tenth Iowa Infantry, 
as a private, and was discharged as Second 
Lieutenant, August 14, 1865. He took part 
in the battles of Chattanooga, Corinth, luka, 
Champion Hills, Mission Ridge, Vicksburg 
and others, and was wounded at the battles 
of Corinth and Mission Ridge. At the latter 
battle he was struck by a cannon ball and was 



carried off the field for dead. He M'as 
married November 23, 1865, to Miss Hattie 
E. Clark, a daughter of George Clark, 
deceased, who was an early settler of Greene 
County, having settled in Franklin Township 
in the spring of 1855. Three children have 
been born to "Mr. and Mrs. Bish — Zuie A., 
born September 12, 1867; Charles, born May 
13, 1875, died aged eight years, and Nora B., 
born April 16, 1878. Mr. Bish followed 
farming from the time he returned from the 
war till 1880, after which he was engaged in 
the mercantile business at Rippey for a time. 
March 2, 1882, he was appointed postmaster 
of Rippey, resigning that ofiice January 1, 
1886. He owns land in Colorado. Since 
becoming a resident of Greene County he has 
held several ofiices of trust, including school 
director, road supervisor, and township trus- 
tee. He is a member of the Odd Fellows 
order. In his religious faith he is a Baptist. 



^-5Mf*|...M 



AMUEL E. WILSON has been a resi- 
dent of Bristol Township, Greene 
County, since 1869, where lie has 
followed the avocation of farming. He was 
born in Grafton County, New Hampshire, 
January 13, 1841, son of William and Almira 
Wilson, residents of Jefferson. The family 
removed to Rock County, Wisconsin, in 1854, 
thence to Dane County in 1856. While 
living in the last named place, Samuel E. 
Wilson enlisted, February 26, 1862, as a 
soldier in Company H, Second AVisconsin 
Infantry, and served for three years in that 
gallant regiment, which, for heroic deeds of 
valor, earned, on many a bloody battle-field, 
a reputation second to no organization in the 
Army of the Potomac. Its ranks repleted 
again and again, that noble State sent new 
men to take the places of the slain. The 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETOnEH. 






[J 



Second Wisconsin was a part of the renowned 
" Iron Brigade," so well known in history. 
At the second battle of Bull Run, Mr. Wilson 
was wounded in the left leg, and he was 
again wounded at Gettysburg. A portion of 
his service was in an ambulance train and a 
portion as courier and ordei-ly. He was 
honorably discharged February 26, 1865, and 
returned to Dane County, Wisconsin. May 
23, 1867, he was united in marriage at Rich- 
land County, Wisconsin, with Mrs. Amy 
Standish, a lady who was orphaned in early 
youth. Siie was born in Iowa County, Wis- 
consin, in April 4, 1813. Mr. Wilson came 
to Greene County in 1869, as before stated. 
Of their five children, only two, Harold E. 
and Elmer L. are living. The deceased are 
John, Jessie and Abbie. Politically, Mr. 
Wilson has always affiliated with the Repub- 
lican party. 



]^,ENRY BUCHER, residing on section 
%W\ 11, Bristol Township, has been a resi- 
^vii dent of that township since 1871. His 
farm was then wild j^rairie. He was born in 
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, September 
16, 1841, son of Martin and Mary Bucher, 
also natives of Pennsylvania. They came to 
Iowa in 1841, locating at Mount Vernon, 
Linn County, where the father worked at the 
blacksmith's trade several years, then removed 
to Cedar County, where he made a home on 
a farm and worked at his trade until his ad- 
vanced age compelled him to abandon it. 
The parents now live in Yates County, Ne- 
braska. Of their eleven children Henry was 
the third and the oldest now living. He re- 
mained with his parents until twenty-one 
years of age; then, in the fall of 1864, en- 
listed as a soldier in the Union army. He 
was a member of Company A, Sixteenth Iowa 



Infantry. He joined the army of General 
Sherman at Atlanta, and was in the glorious 
march to the sea. He started with the army 
on its campaign through the Carolinas, but 
while in South Carolina sickness compelled 
him to go to the hospital, where he remained 
four weeks. He was cared lor at Buford, 
and was then sent to Long Island, where he 
was carried from the steamer to the hospital, 
on a stretcher, and for nine weeks had a dear 
tight for life. Later he was sent to the con- 
valescent camp at Keokuk, this State, and 
discharged at that place. He then returned 
to Cedar County and lived with his parents 
until September, 1870, when he raai-ried 
Miss Lena Ilerbst, daughter of Henry 
Ilerbst, a native of that county, born in 
1850. They remained in Cedar County until 
1874, then removed to their present home in 
Greene County, where they have a well-im- 
proved farm and a home with very pleasant 
surroundings. In the fall of 1886 Mr. 
Bucher bought an additional forty acres. 
They have four children — Minnie, Edward, 
Ebby and Bertie. Willie, Georgie, Amelia 
and an infant unnamed are deceased. Polit- 
ically Mr. Bucher is a Democrat. 



<?.-2w^^- 



(B 

jENJAMIN WINKELMAN, farmer, 
I Iji resides on section 19, Grant Township, 
where he owns 245 acres on sections 19 
and 30. He settled there in December, 1856. 
The only improvements that had been made 
were about twenty acres broken, and a log 
cabin 16 x 18 liad been built. There were 
but few settlements in the vicinity when he 
located there. On that farm Mr. Winkelman 
has lived for thirty years. It will be remem- 
bered that the winter he settled here was the 
winter of the famous deep snow and severe 
weather. They were very comfortable during 



37(> 



HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY. 



the winter, and suffered but little from the 
severity of the season. He first purchased 
320 acres of land, for which he paid $1,500. 
He was able to pay for it all, and had a few 
hundred dollars remaining. Their nearest 
mill was at Panora, about twenty miles dis- 
tant. On one occasion Mr. AVinkelman sent 
his hired boj's to mill. While there a severe 
rain storm came up, and Mr. AVinkelman 
was obliged to ferry them back across the 
stream. Panora was also their nearest post- 
office. At that time there was no postoffice 
at Jefferson. The next year arrangements 
were made so that all Greene County mail 
was left at Des Moines, and when one of the 
residents of the county would go there he 
usually called at the postoffice for the Greene 
County mail, which would be left at some 
convenient place for distribution, usually' at 
Jefferson. Mr. Winkelman has witnessed 
all the changes in this county, from its prim- 
itive wildness to its present flourishing 
condition. He was born at Canton Berne, 
Switzerland, August 17, 1818. He came to 
America with his parents in 1833, the family 
then consisting of parents and four children. 
The parents were Benjamin and Catherine 
AVinkelman. They settled at Blue Creek, 
Franklin County, Indiana, on a farm, and 
eight years later removed to Cincinnati, Ohio, 
thence to Champaign County, Illinois, in 
1843, where the mother died in 1854. The 
father died in Cincinnati in 1863. Three of 
the children are living — Annie, a resident of 
Champaign County, Illinois; Benjamin, our 
subject, and Catherine, who married Charles 
Stifel in Cincinnati. She lost her husband, 
then removed to St. Louis, Missouri, with 
her children. In 1880 she came to Greene 
County to visit her brother, whom she had 
not seen for twenty-eight years. She was 
taken sick the day after her arrival, and died 
two weeks later at the house of her brother. 



She left one son and four daughters in St. 
Louis. John, the youngest of the children, 
lives in California. Benjamin was married 
in Cincinnati in 1843, to Miss Margaret 
Phoner, a native of Germany, who died in 
Illinois in 1854. In 1852 Mr. AVinkelman 
went the overland route to California and 
engaged in mining, returning in 1855. He 
was in California at the time of his wife's 
decease. He returned via the Isthmus of 
Panama, on the first passenger train that 
crossed the Isthmus. In February, 1855, he 
married his present wife, Angeline Bush, of 
A^'ermillion County, Indiana, born in March, 
1824. Mr. AVinkelman remained in Illinois 
until he came to this county. He has three 
children by his first marriage — Catherine, 
John and Fred. By his second marriage are 
four children — James, Susan, Martha and 
AVilliam Sherman. Mary, the oldest, wife of 
James Ganoe, is deceased. Ella is also de- 
ceased, having lost her life under the follow- 
ing painful circumstances: On the evening 
of the 9th of May, 1885, Mrs. AVinkelman 
and her daughter Ella were returning from 
Jefierson in a small spring wagon, James 
Ganoe being the driver. When crossing the 
Panora bridge, which spans Coon River, a 
span of the bridge gave way and all went 
down a distance of about twenty feet. Ella 
was so sevei-ely injured that she died the 10th 
day of June following. She was an amiable, 
intelligent and worthy young lady, beloved 
and respected by all who kne