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GENEALOGY CXHJ_ECTION 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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3 1833 02293 5727 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 



http://www.archive.org/details/biographicalhistOOsout 












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WRSTBRN <> ARKANSAS. 



COMPRISING 



A Condensed Historu of \\q State, a number of Biographies of Distinguished Citizens of 
the same, a brief Descriotive History of each of the Counties mentioned, and 
numerous Biographical Sketches of tl^e Citizer[s of such Couniies, 

*^ILLUSTRATED.^s# 



CHICAGO AND NASHVILLE; 

The Soutkern Fc^lishimg Qompany. 



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yi^'W'S the preparation of tills vohmie special care was employed and o-reat expense 
'^i$'^3' incurred to render the matter strictly accurate, Mith what result is left to the 
y*i»> considerate judgment e>f our patrons. The greatest diificulty was experienced 
in the spelling of proper names, and in the fact that too many of the person a 
sketches were not corrected and returned as requested. The great care taken bv th*^ 
Publishers to submit every personal sketch, should relieve them from all accountability 
for mistakes occurring in those sketches that v.ere not corrected and returned by sulj- 
scribers. It is hoped that the errors are few. The Publishers will willingly correct 
by special errata sheet, as is their custom, the few errors which appear, ujion prouipt 
notification of the same. In all cases, type-written copies of the personal sketches 
were submitted by mail to the subjects for revision and correction, and in most 
instances were improved and returned. The Publishers with pride call particular 
attention to the superb mechanical execution of the volume. They warmly thank their 
friends for the success of their difficult enterj)rise. 

Jhe Publishers. 



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11. 

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CHAPTER I. 

Geolotrj'— Importance of (iooluicie Study — Arra and (.'ii- 
mate — Boundaries — Principal Streams uf the State — 
The Mountain Systems — TUe Greot Sprin:;!i— I)ivcr.-.ity 
of Soils— Caves— Ttie Mines, Their Wonderful Depos- 
its and Formations <)-lS 

CHAPTER II. 

Arch.tolosy — Remains of Flint Arrow and Spear Heads, 
and Stone and Other Ornaments — Evidences of Pre- 
historic People alontj the Mississipi)!— Mounds, etc., 
in Other Portions of the State — Local Arelueolofrists 
and Their Work— The Indians— Tribal and Race Char- 
acteristics — The Arkansas Tribes — The Cession Trea- 
ties—The Removal of the Cherokees, Creeks and 
Choctows — An Indian Alarm — Assassination of the 
Leaders, etc., etc VJ-'23 



CHAPTER III. 

Discovery and Settlement — De Soto in -\rkansas — Mar- 
quette and .loliet — La Salle, Hennepin and Tonti — 
French and English Schemes of Conquest and Dreams 
of Power — Louisisina — The " Bubble " of .Tohn Law — 
The Early Viceroys and Governors — Proprietary 
Change of Louisiana — French and Spanish Settlers 
In Arkansas— Englisli Settlers— A Few First Settlers 
in the Conuties— The New Madrid Earthquake— Other 
Items of Interest 24-34 

CHAPTER IV. 

Organization— The Viceroys and Governors— The Attitude 
of the Royal Owners of Louisiana— Tlie District Divided 
— The Territory of Arkansas Formed from the Territory 
of Mis3<iuri — The Territorial Government — The First 
Legislature — The Seat of Governnrent — Other Legisla- 
tive Bodies— The Duello- Arkansas Admitted to State- 
hood — Tlie Constituticinal Conventions — The Memor- 
able Reconstruction Period — Legislative Attitude on 
the Question of Secession — The War of the Governors, 
etc., etc 34—14 

CHAPTER V. 

Advancement of the State — Misconceptions Removd- 
EITects of Slavery upon .\L;riculturc— i-^.xtraoidiuary 
Improvements Since the War — Important SuL'L'cstion^ 



—Comparative Estimate of Products— Growth of the 
Mannfacturing Interests— Wonderful Shoving of Ar- 
kansas—Its Desirability as u Place of Residence— State 
Elevations i-'- 

CHAPTER VI. 

Politics— Importance of tlie Subject— The Two Old Schools 
of Politicians — Triumph ■{ tlie Jacksonians — Early 
Prominent State Politicians — The Great Question of 
Secession— The State Votes to .Toin the Confederacy— 
Horrorof the War Period- The Reconstruction Distress 
—The Baxter-Brooks Embroglio 52- 

CHAPTER VII. 

Societies, State Institutions, etc.- The Ku Klux Klau— 
Independent Order of 0<\d Fellows— .Vncient. Free and 
Accepted Masons— (irand -Vrmy ..f the Republic— Bu- 
reau of ilines— Arkansas .\-;ricultural Associations — 
State Horticultural So.'iety — Tlie Wheel— The Slate 
Capital— The Cai.itol Buildins:- State Libraries— Stafe^ 
Medical Society— State Board ..f Itraitli- Deaf Mute 
Institute — School for the Blind — .\rkansas Lunatic 
Asylum— -Arkansas Industrial L'nivcrsity — The State 
Debt '>'> 

CHAPTER VIII. 

The Bench and Bar— An Analytic View of the Profession 
of Law— Spanish and French Laws— English Common 
Law— The Legal Circuit Riders— Territorial Low and 
Lawyers— The Court Circuits— F.arly Court Otlicers-- 
The Supreme ;Court— Prominent .Members of the State 
Bench and Bar— The Standard of the Execution of Law 
in the State ^"-^ 

CHAPTER IX. 

The Late Civil War— Analytical View of the Troublous 
Times — Passage of the Ordinance of Secession— The 
Call to Arms— The First Troops to take the Field— In- 
vasion of the State by the Federal Army- Sketch oi 
the Regiments— Names of Olhrers— Outline of Field 
Operations— Cleburne and Yell— Extracts from Private 
Memoranda- Evacuation of the Slat. —He-occupation 
—tlie War of 1^12— The Mexican War— St.mdard of 
American Generalship >■'• 



;■ ' Me 



CHAPTER X. 

Public Eutorpri^us— The Ke.il Estutf Bank of Arkaa^as— 
State Koail? and Othor llinlnvays— Tlir Military Roads 
— Navi;;atii)n within tliu State frum thi/ Earlirst Tiint'S 
to the Present — Decadcuee iif ^^tale Navigation — Steam- 
boat Rai'iMij— Aecidiuts toBoat— Tlie Rise and lirowtli 
of tlie Kailr.jad Systems— A Sketrli of the Different 
Lines— Otlier Imin.rtaut Consider:! tious. S3-.ST 

CHAPTER XI. 

The Counties of the State — Their Formation and ( hanires 
of Boundary Lines, etc.— Their County Seats and CKlier 
Items of Interest Coneerninij them— Uefunet Counties 
—New Counties— Population of all the Counties of the 
State at every General Cin.-us S7-92 

CHAPTER XII. 

Education — The Mental T\pe Considered — Territorial 
Schools, Laws and Funds — Constitutional Provisions 
for F.dui atiou — Legislative Provisions — Proijress since 
the War— The State Superintendents — Statistics — 
Arkansas Literature — The Arkausaw Traveler '.i3-!>7 

CHAPTER XIII. 

The Churches of Arkansas— Ajipiarance of the Mi-sion- 
aries— Church Mission- EstabUshed in the \Vil(leme^.— 
The Leadin- Prote-tant Denominatious— Eccle-iastical 
Statistics — General Outlook from a Keliirious Stand- 
point 98-101 

CHAPTER XIV. 

Names lUu.-trious in Arkansas History — Prominent .Men- 
tion of Noted Individual— Anil>rosc II. Sevier- \Vili- 
iam E. W.iodruif — .John Wilson — John Hemphill — 
Jacob Barkmau — Dr. Bowie — Sandy Faulkner — Samuel 
H. Hempstead — Trent, Williams, Shinn Familie-. and 
Others— The Conwajs— Uoliert Crittenden— Archibald 
Yell — Judire David Walker — Gen. G. D. Koyston— 
Judge James W. Bates lOS-lPi 

CHAPTER XV. 

Tell County — Its Fortunate Situation and Great Natural 
.\dvauta;;es — Its Streams — Lands — The Surface of the 
County — Agricultural Products — Timber — Minerals— 
The Mountains — Sprintjs — OriLfin of the Name Darda- 
nelle— The. Cherokee Agency— Pioneer Settlers and 
Their Indian Neighbors— Laud Entries Prior to 1S4.T — 
Early Mills and Cotton-u'lns — County Organization — 
The Temporary and Permanent Seat of Justice— Old 
andLaterCounty Buildings— County Omcers.lS4'MKl— 
Bench and Bar— Congressional and Legislative Repre- 
sentation— The County Press— Yell County in the War 
—A Record of Death— Yell's Federal Soldier-^— Chureh 
History— Public and Academic Educational Institu- 



Products and Miuer.as— Its Political Town,hip> and 
Their Area— County Orir;ini?atir)n— I he Sevral .■^eat< 
of Justice— County Buildiiigs — pope County'., Civil 
List— .Judges, Clerks, Sheriff--, Cororo.-r~, Surseyors- 
The Pope County Circuit Court, Its oilb-crs and Law- 
yers—Representatives in Senate and Lower House 
and in Constitutional Conventions— < otiuty Politics— 
The Dwight Mission and the Cherokee Settienient— 
Beginning and Progre-s of Settlement- Laud Entries 
in Pope County Prior to 1.^45— Educationpl History 
and School Statisti<-s — Railway.^ — Incorporated 
Towns, Villages and Post-olHces- Old Norristown and 
other Once Impoitant Points— Churchc — The War 
and Reconstruction Period— The Press 193-J71 

CHAPTER XVII. 

Johnson County— Its liouudaric.-. Topo;:ra;ihy. i.audspud 
•Mineral and Airricultural Resources- A Remarkable 
Coal Region— Land Entries and Early Settiemeni— 
Educational Interests— Ecclesi".stical History— County 
Organization — Location of Seat of .'ustice .ind Erec- 
tion of Public Buildings — Political Townships — List 
of County Olticers- Senators and Members of tlu 
Lower Branch of 'h-, Arkansas Legislature Represent 
ing This (jounty — 'i'lie Fifth Judicial i.ircnit and the 
Johnson Coc.nty Bnr — Notnries publn- — Congressional 
Kepresentatioa — R-..il\\ay History anl Preispeits — 
Towns, Villages and Post-e.tliccs— Military History — 
The Old Militia C)rgauization, the McT'can War aud 
the Struggle of the States— Tlie County Press, It,- 
Editors and PublislnTS — The .lohn.-ou County Pomo- 
loirical Society 'J7--:3J'. 



CHAPTER XVIII- 

Logan County — Loe-atiou —Area — Lauds — Teijo^raphy — 
Mountains — Streams — Derivation of Nam .•; — Tinrb'T 
— Minerals — .■\;,ricultiire — Horiic uiturc — Gra[ es and 
Native Wines — Paris Nursery— Raising of Live Stock 
— Transportation Lines — Settlement — De Solo's Expe- 
dition — Mounds Containing Human Bones — Sup- 
posed Fightwith Indians — Early Settlers Mentioned— 
An Ancient Grave — County Organization — Boundary 
Lines— Fir-t County Seat — Second and I'ina' County 
Seat — Burning of Court-houscs — County Buiidin.i^s 
—Change of Name of County from Sarber to Log.m - 
County Olticers— Political .\speet — Election Returtis 
— Circuit Co\irt--I.oiran County Legal Bar— Criminal 
Execution.s— Civil War— Hatruewood Fight— Attack 
on RoseviUe— Towns, Villages and Post-officcs-- 
Press — Education — Christiauity — Views from Short 
Mountain :S2"J- 



cott Cuntv-Pli 



CHAPTER XIX. 

e-b a! Dc-.Tiiition— Ho 



tions— Towua- 


-Biograjihical 

CHAPTER XVI. 




.IbS-LfJ 


ain Han-es. Micums, Ar 
acterof >o;i. Kt,-.-rhe ( 
lev— The Poteaii aiid Pe 


a, llei-ht o 
r.a- Four.hc 
it Jean Val 


Land- Char 
la Fave Val- 
cv system — 




Pope Countv, It- 


S;tu-\tion, Boundaries, 


Rc-our. e 


s and 


Value of Land — .\nalysi 


. of Soils— '1 


empera'ur- — 




1 Prospects— Its 

1 


Timber and Its Streams 


— Airrieii 


tural 


The County Coal Field> 


—Thickness. 


i^ialitv and 





-» v 



^ 




Quantity — i*tonL', Gold and Other Minerals — Gas and 
Oil ProspLcts — Lumber Resources — Scott County Or- 
1,'anized — The County Seat — Fires — Con;rressional 
Distriets — Townships — County Officers — Judicial Cir- 
cuits — The Squatters and Pioneers — Wild Game — 
Wild Fruit— Catnloifue of Early Settlers— Educational 
Facilities and Statistics — School Finances — The 
Churches and Sunday-schools — List of Post-ollices— 
A Sketch of the Towns and Villag-es- Their Resi- 
dents, Business and Population — Societici— Railway 
Prospects— The Local Newspapers— Military Record 
of Scott County a*4-4;¥S 

CHAPTER XX. 

Polk County— Location and Boundary —Topoirraphy. 
Streams. Springs and Water'Supply — Timber— Soil- 
Farm Products— Publir;.Land5 — Minerals, (lold, Silver, 
Manganese, Etc. — Horticulture — Vineyards- Natii.- 
W'ine— Live Stoek— U. S. Sitrnal Servici — Climat. — 
Proposed Kailreaua- TaxaVile Wealth- Wild Animal- 
— Settlement— Pioneer Settlers— First Mills— Pioneer 



Cabins— Couuiy Organii^ation- County Seat — Puldii 
Buildinirs— Ciumty oniiers— Election Ketiinis— Popu- 
lation— Circuit Court- Le-al liar- Civil War- Dallas 
and Other Towns— Dallas Hii;li School— Educational 
Facilities— Reliy;ions Dcnomiualic.ns . 4:'4— t*).". 

CHAPTER XXI. 

-Montgomery County — Location- Boundary— Area— De- 
scription, Resources and Productions— Soil— Streauja 
Freestone and Mineral Springs — Water Power — Tim- 
ber-Minerals— Live-stock Raising— Statistics— Fniit- 
Growiug— The (irapc and Its Product— Diversified 
Farming— Settlement-Early Settlers— Slavc.-—Public 
Lands— First Tax Book— Present Ta.vabh- Wealth- 
County Organization- Early Records— County Scat- 
Commissioners to Locate County Seat— Municipal 
Townships — County Boundary Lines — County Build- 
ings—County Officers- Political Status— Election Re- 
turns— Population— Circuit Court— First Court Ses- 
sions-First Grand and Petit Juries— Civil War Period 
Towns — Schools— Religious Denominations- Etc 4tJiV-4',l7 




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ISTOHY o OF 




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tmfiPTER I. 



Geology— Importance of Geologic Study— Area axd Climate— Boundaries— Principal Streams 
OF the State— The Mountain Systems— The Great Springs— Diversity of Soils- 
Caves— The ^IlNES. their "WONDERFl L DEPOSITS AND FORMATIONS. 



Such blessinss Xuture pours, 
O'erstocked mankiuil enjoys but half her stores. — Young. 




r, J^^^'ic^^HE matter of first impor- 
tance for every civilized peo- 
ple to know is the economic 
locry of the country they 
inhabit. The rocks and the 
climate are the solution in 
the end of all problems of 
life, as they are the prime sources 
from which all that human beings 
can possess comes. The measure of 
each and every civilization that has 
adorned the world is in exact de- 
gree with the people's kno'wledge 
jj^of the natural laws and the eavi- 
> ronmeuts about them. 
V'jy'^ C)/ The foundation of civilization 

'^/'i^ rests upon the agriculturists, and 

nothing can be of more importance to this class 
than some knowledge of what materials plants are 
composed, and the source from whence they de- 
rive existence; the food upon which plants live 
and grow; how they are nourished or de.stroyed; 
what plant food is appropriated by vegetation 
itsi-lf, without man's aid or intervention, through 
the Qiiturul operations in constant action. The 



schools will some day teach the children these use- 
ful and fundamental lessons, and then, beyond ail 
peradventure, they will answer very completely 
j the lately pr pounded question : •' Are the public 
I schools a failure?'" The knowledge of the ele- 
I mentary principles of the geology of this country 
I is now the demand of the age. made upon all na- 
. tions. in all climes. 

I The character of vegetation, as well as the 
[ qualities of the waters and their action upon vege- 
i table and animal life, is primarily determined 
j by the subjacent rocks on which the soil rests. 
i Earth and air are but the combinations of the 
original gases, forming the solids, liquids and the 
I atmosphere surrounding the globe. The soil is 
; but the decomposed rocks — their ashes, in other 
words, and hence is seen the imperative necessity of 
i the agriculturist understanding something of the 
rocks which lie beneath the land he would success- 
fully cultivate. He who is educated in the sim[)le 
funda-ieutal principles of geology — a thing easier 
\ to learn than is the difference in the oaks and pines 
! of the forest — to him there is a clear eomprehensi(jn 
of the life-giving qualities stored in the surface 
; rocks, as well as a knowledge of the minerals to be 



ij: 



L/rt-io 



HISTORY OF ARKxVXSAS. 



found ill tbeir company. A youth so educatod 
possesses incomparable advantages over his seh<wl 
companioa in the start, of life, who has conceiurated 
his energies on the classics or on metaphysiral sub- 
jects, whether, they enter the struggle for life as 
farmers, stock raisers, miners or craftsmen. It 
is as much easier to learn to analyze a rock, min- 
eral or soil, than to learn a Greek verb, as the one 
is more valuable to know than the other. All true 
knowledge is the acquirement of that which may 
aid in the race of life, an education that is so prac- 
tical that it is always helpful and useful. 

The geology of Arkansas, therefore, so far as 
given in this chapter, is in fact but the outline of 
the physical geography of one of the most interest- 
ing localities of the continent, and is written 
wholly for the lay reader, and attempted in a 
manner that will reach his understanding. 

Within the boundary lines of the State are 53,- 
045 sipiare miles, or 33,948,800 acres. It has 
3,808,800 more acres of land than the State of 
New York, and multiplies many times the com- 
bined natural resources of all the New England 
States. It has 2,756 miles of navigalile rivers. 

It had a population in ISSO, as shown by the 
census, of 802,525. Of these there were 10,350 
foreigners and 210,606 colored. In 1820 the Ter- 
ritory had a population of 14,255; in 1830, of 30,- 
338; in 1840, of 97.554: in 1850, of 209,897; in 
1860, of 435,450; in 1870, of 481,471. (This 
was the Civil War decade.) In 18S5 the popula- 
tion had advanced about 200, nOO over the year 
1880, or was near 1.000,000, In 18S7 it reached 
the figures of 1,260.000, or an increase of more 
than a quarter of a million in two years, and there 
is reason to believe this increased ratio will pass 
beyond the two million mark in the next census. 
At least, an increase of one hundretl per cent in 
the ten years is indicated. Keeping in mind that 
there are no great populous cities in the State, it 
will be known that this has been that healthy in- 
crease of population which gives glowing promises 
for the future of the State. Here the agricultural 
districts, and the towns and cities, have kept even 
pace, while in some of'the leading' States of the 
Mississippi Valley the great i 



havt 



while the ruial iicpulation has markedly decreased. 
These are serious problems to retlective minds in 
those States where the cities are overgrowing and 
the country is declining. Happily, Arkansas is 
trouliled with no such indications of the disturbed 
natural distribution of its people. The State, 
since it emerged from the ilark and evil days of 
civil war and reconstruction, has not only not been 
advertised in regard to its natural resources, but 
has been persistently slandered. The outside world, 
more than a generation ago, were plausibly led 
to believe the energy of its citizens was justly 
typified in the old senseless ballad, ''TheArkan- 
saw Traveler," and the culture and refinement of 
its best people are supposed to be told in the 
witty account of Judge Halliburton's '"First Piano 
in Arkansas." The ruined hopes, the bankrupted 
fortunes and the broken hearts that are the most 
recent history of the Western deserts, form some of 
the measure the poor people are paying for the de- 
ceptions in this regard that have been practiced 
upon them. These silly but amusing things have 
had their effect, lint they were pleasant and harm- 
less, compared to tli" latest phase of pretexts for 
persistent publications of the crudest falsehoods 
ever heaped upon the heads of innocent men. But, 
in the end, even this will do good: it is to be seen 
now among the people. It will put the people of 
the State u]ion their mettle, resulting, if that is 
not already the fact, in giving it the most orderly, 
law abiding, peaceful and moral people of any 
equal district of the Union, 

The State is in the central southern portion of 
the great Mississippi Valley, and in climate, soil, 
rocks, minerals and water may well be designated 
as the capital of this " garden and granary of the 
world," with resources beneath the surface that 
are not, taken all together, surpassed on the globe. 
Its eastern line is the channel of the Mississippi 
River "beginning at the parallel 30 of north lati- 
tude, thence west with said parallel to the middle 
of the main channel of the St. Francois (Francis) 
River; thence up the main channel of said last men- 
tioned river to the parallel of 36^ 30' of north lati- 
tude: thence west with the last mentioned parallel, 
or along the southern line of the State of Missouri, 



r 



■,B ; ■, h 



HISTORY OF Ai; KANSAS. 



11 



to the southwest corner of .-^aid State; thence to be 
bounded on the west to the north bank of Red 
Kiver, as designated by act of Congress and treat- 
ies, existing January 1, 1S37, defining the western 
limits of the Territory of Arkansaw, and to be 
bounded west across and south of Ked Kiver by 
the boundary line of the State of Texas as far as 
the northwest corner of the State of Louisiana; 
thence easterly with the northern boundary line of 
said last named State to the middle of the main 
channel of the Mississippi River; thence up the 
middle of the main channel of said last mentioned 
river, including an island in said river known as 
Belle Point Island, and all other land as originally 
surveyed and included as a part of the Territory, or 
State of Arkansas, to the 36' of north latitude, to 
the place of beginning."* 

The State includes between its north and south 
boundary lines the country lying between parallel 
of latitude 33' north, and parallel of latitude 36° 
30' north, and between its east to west lines the 
country between longitude 90' and a little west of 
longitude 94' 30'. Its geograj^hical position on 
the continent assures the best conditions of tem- 
perature, salubrity and rainfall, this being shown 
by the absence of the intense heat and the cold 
storms of the higher latitudes and the drouths of 
the west. 

From the meteorological reports it is learned 
that the average rainfall in the State during June, 
July and August is sixteen inches, except a narrow 
belt in the center of the State, where it is eighteen 



*The above descriptive boundary lines are in the au- 
thoritative language of the State Constitutional Conven- 
tion. To understand the south and west lines necessitates 
a reference to tlie treatiesand acts of Congress. The fol- 
lowing would sini|ilify the descriptive part of the west 
and south lines: Beginning at the southwest corner of 
Missouri, or in the center of Section 1!). Township 21. 
Uange 34 west of the fifth principal meridian line, thence 
in a straight line south, hearing a little east to strike the 
east line of Section 4. Township 8 north. Range 62 west; 
thence in a straiglit line south, bearing a little west to 
where the line strikes Red River in Section 14. Township 
13 south, Range 33 west; thence alonir .said river to the 
southwest corner of Section 7, Township 14 south. Range 
2.>^ west; tliencesoutli to the northwest corner of theuorth- 
east quarter of Section 18, Township 'JO .soutb. Range -,"< 
west; thence east along the 33-' of latitude to the middle 
of the channel of the Mississippi River; thence up said 
river to the place of beginning. The State lines run 
with the lines of latitudeand the meridional lines, and 
not witb the guverument survev lines. 



inches, and a strip on the western portion of the 
State, where it is from eight to fourteen inches. 
Accurate observations covering fifteen years give 
an average of seventy-five rainy days in the year. 

Of twenty-three States where are reported 134 
destructive tornadoes, four wi>re in Arkansas. 

The annual mean temperature of Los Angeles, 
Gal., is about 1' less than that of Little Rock. 

The watershed of the State runs from the 
north of west to the southea.st, from the divide of 
the Ozark Mountain range, except a few streams 
on the east side of the State, which flow nearly 
parallel with the Mississippi River, which runs a 
little west of soitth along the line of the State. 
North of the Ozark divide the streams bear to a 
northerly direction. 

Of the navigable rivers within its borders the 
Arkansas is navigable 505 miles; Bartholomew 
Bayou, 6S miles; Black River, 147 miles; Current 
River, 63 miles; Fourche La Favre River, 73 
miles; Little Missouri River, 74 miles; Little Red 
River, 48 miles; Little River, 98 miles; Missis- 
sippi River, 424 miles; Ouachita River, 134 miles; 
Petit Jean River, 105 miles; Red River. 92 miles; 
Saline River. 125 miles; St. Francis River, ISO 
miles; White River, 619 miles. 

These streams flow into the Mississippi River 
and give the State an unusual navigable river 
frontage, and they rtin so nearly in parallel lines 
to each other and are distributed so eq^ually as to 
give, especially the eastern half and the southwest 
part of the State, the best and cheapest transporta- 
tion facilities of any State in the Union. These 
free rivers will in all times control the extortions of 
transportation lines that are so oppressive to the 
people of less favored localities. 

The Arkansas River passes diagonally across 
the center of the State, entering at Fort Smith, and 
emptying into the 3Ii.-^sissippi at Napoleon. 

South of this the main stream is the Ouachita 
River and its tributaries; the Saline River, which 
divides nearly equally the territory between the 
Arkansas and Ouachita Rivers; and the Little Mis- 
souri on the southwest, which divides the territory 
between the Ouachita and Red Rivers. North of 
the Arkansas, and about equally dividing the ter- 



h ^l'^■■ 



12 



"HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



ritory between the Mississippi and the Arkansas 
Rivers, is White River, running nearly southeast. 
Its main tributary on the west is Little Red River, 
and on the northeast Black River, which enters the 
State from Missouri, and flows southwesterly and 
empties into the White at Jacksonport, Jackson 
County. Another important tributary is Cache 
River, which flows a little west of south from Clay 
County, emptying into the White near Clarendon. 

Eel River is in the noiiheast comer of the 
State and partially drains Craighead County. 
Eleven Points, Currant, Spring and Strawberry 
Rivers are important tributaries of Black River. St. 
Francis River flows from Missouri, and from 36° 
30' north latitude to 36° north latitude it forms 
the boundary line between Missouri and Arkansas, 
and continuing thence south empties into the Mis- 
sissippi a few miles above Helena. 

Main Fork of White River rises in Madison 
County and flows northwest in and through Wash- 
ington County into Benton County; thence north- 
east into Missouri, returning again to Arkansas in 
Boone County. Big North Fork of \Vhite River 
rises in the south central part of Missouri, flows 
southward, and forms its junction in Baxter County, 
Ark. La Grue River is a short distance south of 
White River; it rises in Prairie County and joins 
the White in Desha County. Middle Fork of 
Saline River rises in Garland County and flows 
southeast. Rolling Fork of Little River rises in 
Polk and passes south through Sevier County. 
Cassatot River also rises in Polk and passes south 
through Sevier County. Clear Fork of Little 
Missouri rises in Polk County and passes south- 
east. East Fork of Poteau River rises in Scott 
County and runs nearly due west into the Indian 
Territory. L'Auguille River rises in Poinsett 
County and flows through Cross, St. Francis and 
Lee Counties, and empties into the St. Francis 
within a few miles of the mouth of the latter. Big 
Wattensaw River rises in Lonoke County and runs 
east into Prairie County, and empties into White 
River. Muddy Fork of Little Missouri River rist-s 
in Howard County and runs southeast. Yache 
Grass River runs north throngh Sebastian County 
and empties into the Arkansas River east of Fort 



Smith. Terre Noir River runs from northwest to 
the southeast in Clark County and empties into 
Ouachita River. Sulphur Fork of Red River en- 
ters the State from Texas, about the center of the 
west line of Miller County, and running a little 
south of east empties into Red River. Sabine River 
flows south through the central southern portions of 
the State, and empties into the Ouachita River near 
the south line of the State. 

There are numerous creeks forming tributa- 
ries to the streams mentioned, equally distributed 
over the State, which are fully described in the re- 
spective cottnties. Besides these water-courses 
mention should properly be made of the nineteen 
bayous within the State's borders. 

The Ozark Mountains pass throngh the north- 
ern portion of Arkansas, from west to east, and 
form the great divide in the watersheds of the 
State. Rich Mountains are in the central western 
part, and run east from its west line, forming the 
dividing line between Scott and Polk Counties, 
and also between Scott and Montgomery Counties, 
and run into Yell County. 

South and east of the Rich Mountains are the 
Silver Leaf Mountains, also running east and west 
fi'om Polk County, through Montgomery to Gar- 
land County. These are the mountain formations 
seen about Hot Springs. Sugar Loaf Mountain 
is in Cleburne County, and receives its name from 
its pecttliar shape. It is in the northern central 
part of the State. Another mountain of the same 
name, containing the highest point in the State, is 
in Sebastian County, and extends into the Indian 
Territory. Boston ^Mountains are in the northwest- 
ern part of the State, running east and west in 
Washington, Crawford and other counties. These 
include the main mountainous formations. There 
are many points in these ranges that have local 
names. 

It would require volumes to give a complete 
account of the variety of the innumerable springs 
which Inirst forth with their delicious waters — 
warm, hot and cold, salt, mineral and medicated. 
The fame of some of the medical, and the Hot 
Springs of Arkansas, are known throughout the 
civilized world, and pilgrims from all nations come 



:„>■ : 



■ - ii 

;i 



HISTOltY OF ARKANSAS. 



13 



to be washed aud healed in them. They were 
known to and celebrated by the pre-historic peoples 
of America; and the migrating buffaloes, ages aud 
ages ago, came annually from the land of the Da- 
kotas to the spring waters of Arkansas. The in- 
stincts of the wild beasts antedate the knowledge 
of man of the virtues and values of the delicious 
waters so bountifully given to the State. Nearly 
all over its territory is one wonder after another, 
tilling every known range of springs aud spring 
waters, which, both in abundance of tlow and in 
medicinal properties, mock the world's previous 
comprehension of the possibilities of nature in this 
respect. 

When De Soto, in June, 1542, discovered the 
Mississippi River and crossed into (now) Arkansas, 
and had traveled north into the territory of Mis- 
souri, he heard of the "hot lakes" and turned 
about and arrived in time where is now Hot Springs. 
Even then, to the aborigines, this was the best- 
known spot on the continent, and was, and had 
been for centuries, their great sanitarium. The 
tribes of the Mississippi Valley had long been in 
the habit of sending here their invalids, and even 
long after they were in the possession of the whites 
it was a common sight to see the camp of repre- 
sentatives of many different tribes. The whites 
made no improvement in the locality until ISOT. 
Now there is a flourishing city of 1(XO(.)0 inhab- 
itants, and an annual arrival of visitors of many 
thousands. The waters, climate, mountain air and 
grand scenery combine to make this the great 
world's resort for health and pleasure seekers, and 
at all seasons of the year. The seasons round, with 
rarest exceptions, are the Mav and October months 
of the North. 

In the confined spot in the valley called Hot 
Springs there are now known seventy-one springs. 
In 1800 the State geologist, D. D. Owen, only 
knew of forty. Others will no doubt be added to 
the list. These range in temperature from. 93° 
to loO° Fahrenheit. They discharge over 500,000 
gallons of water daily. The waters are clear, taste- 
le.ss and inodorous; they come from the sides.of the 
ridge pure and sparkling as the jjellucid Neva; hold- 
ing in solution, as they rush up hot and bubbling 



from nature's most wonderful alembic, every valua- 
ble mineral constituent. In the cure, especially of 
nearly all manner of blood and chronic diseases, 
they are unecjualed, and their wonders have be- 
come mainly known to all the world by the liv- 
ing and breathing advertisements of those who 
have proven in their own persons their wonderful 
curative powers. To reach Hot Springs and be 
healed, is the hope aud aspiration of the invalid, 
when all other remedies have failed. Aud it is 
but just now that the pleasure seeker, the tourist, 
the scientist, and the intelligence and culture of 
the world are beginning to understand that this 
is one of the world's most inviting places to see 
and enjoy. 

But the marvels of the district are not confined 
to the immediate locality of Hot Springs. Here 
is indeed a wide district, with a quantity and variety 
of medical springs that are simply inapproachable 
on the globe. Going west from Hot Springs are sys- 
tems of springs running into Montgomery' County 
a distance of forty miles. As continued discov- 
eries of other springs in Hot Springs are being 
made, and as these widely distributed outlying 
springs are comparatively of recent disclosure, it 
may be assumed that for many years to come new 
and valuable s^jrings will become celebrated. 

In Carroll County, in the northwest part of 
the State, are Eureka Springs, only second to Hot 
Springs in the wide celebrity of fame as healincr 
waters. They, too, may well be considered one of 
the world's wonders. There are forty-two of these 
springs within the corporate limits of the city that 
has grown up about them. They received no pub- 
lic notice until 1879, when with a bound they 
became advertised to the world. Their wonderful 
cures, especially in cases of rheumatism, cancer, 
dyspepsia and other, if not nearly all, chronic 
diseases, have bordered on the marvelous, if not 
the miraculous. 

In White County are the noted White Sulphur 
Springs, at Searcy, and the sulphur and chalyb 
eate springs, known as the Armstrong and the 
Gritfin Springs, and the medical springs — Blan- 
chard Springs — in Union County; the Ravenden 
Springs, in Randolph County, and the Sugar Loaf 



1 



%•.. \> 



14 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



Springs, in Cloburne County; tlio vpry rcc-ontly dis- 
covered Lithia Sprinrrs, near Hojie, in Hmipstead 
County, pronounced by a leading uiodicul jiuunal, 
in its January issue, 1881*, to bo the most remark- 
able discovery of tliis class of niedical waters of 
this century. These are someof the leading sjiriugs 
of the State which possess unusual medicinal 
properties. By a glance at the map it will be seen 
they are distributed nearly equally all over its ter- 
ritory. Simply to catalogue them and give accom- 
panying analyses of the waters would make a |ion- 
derous volume of itself. In the above list have 
been omitted mention of the tine Betbseda Spriugs 
in Polk County, or the fine iron and chalybeate 
springs near Magnolia; Bussey's Springs, near 
Eldorado, Union County. Butler's Saline Chalyb- 
eate Springs, in Columbia County; the double 
mineral spring of J. I. Holdernist, in Calhoun 
County; a large number of saline chalybeate 
springs in Township 10 south. Range 23 west, in 
Hempstead County, called Hubbard's Springs; or 
Crawford's Sulphur Springs; or those others in 
Section 16, Township 12 south. Range 10 west; or 
Murphy's or Leag's Mineral Springs, all in Brad- 
ley County; or Gen. Royston's noted chalybeate 
springs in Pike County, and still many others that 
are known to possess mineral qualities, though no 
complete examination of them has yet been made. 

Special mention should not be omitted of the 
Mountain Valley Springs, twelve miles northwest 
of Hot Springs. The fame of these springs has 
demanded the shipment of water, lately, to distant 
localities in vast and constantly increasing quan- 
tities. The knowledge of them is but compara- 
tively recent, and yet their wonderful healing 
qualities are already widely known. 

Innumerable, apparently, as are the health 
springs of Arkansas, they are far surpassed by 
the common springs found nearly all over the 
State. 

Mammoth Spring is in Fulton County, and is 
unrivaled in the country. The water boils up 
from an opening 120 feet in circumference, and 
flows uninterruptedly at the rate of 9.000 ban-els a 
minute. From the compression of so larire an 
amount of carbonic acid held in solution, the whole 



surface of this water basin is in a eoutiiuial state of 
effervescence. Spring River, a bold stream, is 
prodaced by this spring, and gives an unlimited 
amount of water power. 

The general divisi(jn of the Mirface of the State 
is uplands and lowlands. It is a timlier State, 
with a large numl)er of small prairies. East and 
near Little Rock is Lonoke Prairie, and other 
small prairies are in the southwest part. In its 
northeast portion are some hirge strips of prairie. 
and there are m;'.ny other smail spots bare of tim- 
ber growths, but these altogether compose only a 
small porti(m of the State's suiface. 

The variety and excelh'uce of soils are not sur- 
passed by any State in the Union. The dark 
alldvial prevails in nearly all the lowlands, while 
on many sections of the uplands are the umber red 
soils of the noted tobacco lands of Cuba. About 
two-thirds of the State's surface shows yellow pine 
growth, the great tall trees standing side by side 
with the hardwoods, walnut, maple, grapevines, 
sumac, etc. A careful analysis of the soils and 
subsoils of every county in the State by the 
eminent geologist. Prof. D. D. Owen, shows this 
result: The best soils of Iowa, Wisconsin and 
Minnesota are inferior to the best soils of Arkan- 
sas in fertilizing properties. The following re- 
ports of State geologists tell the story: 





Ark. 


Minn. 


Iowa. ■ 


Wis. 


Or>;finic iind Volatile Matter.. 
Al'.imnia 


14.1.50 
8,715 
21.865 


6,334 

5,585 

690 


1 
6,028 

3,288: 

940i 

[ 


6,. 180 

4,610 

065 







In fertilizing qualities the only comparative 
results to the Arkansas soils are found in the blue 
limestone districts of Central Kentucky. 

Analysis of the soils shows the derivative geo- 
logical formation of soils, and their agricultural 
values; their losses by cultivation, and what soils 
lying convenient will rejiair the waste. Arkansas 
County, the mother of counties in the State, lying 
iu the southeast, shows the tertiary formations. 
Benton County, at the ojiposite northwest corner, 
has the subcarboniferons. The tertiary is found 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



15 



In Newton (Joanty; Clark. Hempstead and Sevier 
show the cretaceous; Couway, Crawford, Johnson, 
Ouachita, Perry, Polk, Pope, Prairie. Pulaski, 
Scott, Van Buren, White. Garland and Montgom- 
ery, the novaculite, or whetstone grit; Greene, 
Jackson, Poinsett and Union, the quaternary. In 
addition to Benton, given above, are Indep-endence, 
Madison, Monroe, Searcy and Washington, subcar- 
boniferous. The lower silurian is represented in 
Fulton, Izard, Lawrence, ^Marion and Randolph. 
These give the horizons of the rock formations of 
the State. The State has 2S,(X)0.0()0 acres of 
woodland — eighty-one and one-half percent of her 
soil. Of this twenty-eight per cent is in cleared 
farms. 

If there be drawn a line on the map, beginning 
a few miles west of longitude 91°, in the direction 
of Little Rock, thence to the north boundary line 
of Clark County, just west of the Iron Mountain 
Railroad, then nearly due west to the west line of 
the State, the portion north of this line will be the 
uplands, and south the lowlands. The uplands 
correspond with the Paleozoic, and lowlands with 
the Neozoic. 

The granitic axis outbursts in Pulaski, Saime. 
Hot Springs, Montgomery. Pike and Sevier Coun- 
ties, and runs from the northeast to the southwest 
through the State. In Northern Arkansas the dis- 
turbance shows itself in small faults, gentle folds 
and slightly indurated shales: but nearer the gran- 
ite asis, greater faults, strata with high dip and 
talcose slate, intersected with quartz and calcite 
veins, become common. These disturbances are 
intimately connected with, and determine to some 
extent, the character of the mineral deposits of 
the State. The veins along the granite axis were 
tilled probably with hot alkaline waters depositing 
the metalliferous compounds they contained. 

Almost every variety of land known to the 
agriculturist can be found, and, for fertility, the 
soils of the State are justly celebrated. Composed 
as they are of uplands and lowlands, and a variety 
of climate, they give a wide range of products. 
In the south and central portions are produced the 
finest cotton in the markets, while the uplands 
yield fruits in abundance and variety. No .place 



in the great valley excels it in variety of garden 
vegetables, small and orchard fruits, grasses, 
grains, and other field crops. Among agriculturists 
in Arkansas, truly cutton has been king. It is 
grown upon lands that would produce a hundred 
bushels of corn to the acre. All over the State a 
bale of cotton to the acre is the average — worth at 
this time ?-jO. Per acre it is about the same lal>or 
to raise as corn. In the varied and deep rich 
soils of the State arc produced the vegetation — 
fruits, vegetables and plants — of thesenji-tropic re- 
gions, and also the whole range of the staple prod- 
ucts of the north. Cereals, fruits and cotton 
grow as well here as anywhere. In the uplands 
will some day be raised grapes and tobacco that 
will be world famous. 

That portion of the hilly lands in Clay, Greene. 
Craighead. Poinsett. St. Francis, Lee and Phillips 
Counties, known as Crowley's ridge, has a soil and 
vegetable growth distinctive from any other por- 
tion of the State. Its principal forest growth is 
vellow poplar, which is found in immense size. 
With this timber are the oak, gum, hickory, wal- 
nut, sugar and maple. The soil is generally of a 
light yellowish or gray color, often gravelly, very 
friable and easily cultivated, producing abundant 
crops of cotton, corn, oats, clover, timothy and red 
top, and is most excellent for fruits. 

The prevailing soil is alluvial, with more or 
less diluvial soils. The alluvial soils, especially 
along the streams, are from three to thirty feet 
deep, and these rich bottoms are often miles in 
width. There are no stronger or more productive 
lands than these anywhere, and centuries of cul- 
tivation create no necessity for fertilizers. 

The swamp lands or slashes as a general thing 
lie stretched along between the alluvial lands and 
second bottoms. They are usually covered with 
water during the winter and spring, and are too 
wet for cultivation, though dry in the summer and 
fall. They can be easily reclaimed by draining. 

The second bottoms are principally on the east- 
ern side of the State, extending from the slashes to 
the hills. The soil is mostly gray color, sometimes 
yellowish, resting upon a subsoil of yellowish or 
mulatto clay. The rich, black lands prevail largely 






>3iry;e 



10 



HISTORY OF AKKANSAS. 



in Homp.stead. Little River, Sevier, Nevada, Clark, 
Searcy, Stoue, Izard and Independence Counties. 

In the mountainous range of the Ozarks, in 
Independence County, are remarkable cave forma- 
tions. They are mostly nitre caves and from these 
and others in the southeast and west of Batesville, 
the Confederacy olitained much of this necessity. 
Near Cushman, Independence County, are the won- 
derful caves. The extent and marvelous beauty of 
formations are in the great arched room, the 
"King's Palace." This cave has been explored 
for miles under the earth, and many wonders and 
beauties are seen on every hand. On thi' side of 
the mouth of one of the caves in this vicinity a 
strong spring leaps fi'om the mountain's side and 
into the cave, and the rumbling of the rushing 
waters beneath the earth can be heard quite a dis- 
tance. The notable saltpetre caves are in Marion, 
Newton, Carroll, Independence, Wasliugtou and 
Benton Counties. 

There are gold mines in Arkansas, yet no re- 
markable tinds that is, no marvelous wonders have 
as yet been uncovered. The universal diffusion 
of milky quartz in veins, seams and beds, as well 
as all the other geological tokens which lead on to 
fortune, are recent discoveries, and the intelligent 
gold hunters are hero in abundance. Who can 
tell what the future may have in store ? But 
should no rich paying gold fields ever be found, 
still in the resources of the State are ores of silver, 
antimony, zinc, iron, lead, copper, manganese, 
marble, granite, whet and honestone, rock-crystal, 
paints, nitre earths, kaolin, marls, freestone, 
limestone, buhr and grindstone and slate, which 
may well justify the bold assertion of that eminent 
geologist, Prof. D. D. Owen, in ISGO, after care- 
fully looking over the State, "that Arkansas is 
destined to rank as one of the richest mineral 
States in the Union." Its zinc ores compare 
favorably with those of Silesia, and its argentif- 
erous galena far exceeds in percentage of silver the 
average of such ores of other countries. Its 
novaculite (whetstone) rock can not be excelled in 
fineness of texture, beauty of color, and sharpness 
of grit. Its crystal mountains for extent, and 
their products for beauty, brilliancy and transpar- 



ency, have no rivals in the world. Its mineral 
waters are in variety and values equalled only by 
its mineral products. 

Anticipating the natural (questions as to why 
the mines of Arkansas are not better developed, it 
will be sufficient to condense to the utmost Prof. 
Owen's words in reference to the Bellah naine in 
Sevier County: "It is the same vein that is found 
in Pulaski County, ami runs northeast and south- 
west nearly through the State. Some years ago 
the Bellah mine was explored and six shafts were 
sunk. Three of the principal shafts were about 
thirty feet deep. The work was done under the 
suxjervision of Richard AV. Bellah, afterward of 
Texas. There was a continuous vein, increasing 
in thickness as far as he went. On the line other 
shafts were sunk from six to twelve feet deep, all 
showing the ore to be continuous. About five tons 
of ore were taken out. A portion of this was 
sent to Liverpool, England, to be tested, and the 
statement in return was ' seventy-three per cent 
lead, and 148 ounces of silver to the ton.' " Mr. 
Bellah wrote to Prof. Owen: "I am not willing 
to lease the mines; but I will sell for a reasonable 
price, provided my brother and sister will sell at 
the same. I have put the price upon the mines, 
and value it altogether [400 acres of land] at 
SICOOO." Such was the condition of affairs at 
this mine when the war came. Substantially, this 
is the ante-bellum history of the Arkansas mining 
interests. Prof. Owen reports picking up from 
the debris of these deserted shafts ore that anal- 
yzed seventy-three per cent lead and tifty-two and 
one-half ounces of silver to the ton of lead. 

That these rich fields should lie fallow -ground 
through the generations can now be accounted for 
only from the blight of slavery upon the enter- 
prise and industry of people, the evils of a great 
civil war, and the natural adaptation of the soil and 
slaverj' to the raising of cotton. 

On the line of this vein, in Saline County, 
from very superficial explorations, were discovered 
veins bearing argentiferous lead and copper. 

Lead is found in about every county in North- 
ern Arkansas. These are a continuation of the 
Missouri lead ores. The richest argentiferous lead 



,»..i.::I 



.. .'I 



if. 

-A' 



ores reported are in Pulaski, Saline. Montgomery, 
Polk, Pike, x\.sbley and Sevier Counties, being 
found in the quartz and calcite gangues. It is as- 
sociated in the north of the State with zinc, cop- 
per, and with antimony in Sevier County. 

One of the latest discoveries is the value of the 
antimony mines of Polk and Sevier Counties. A 
mine is being worked successfully for antimony, 
and the increase of silver is improving as the 
shaft goes down. At any hour in the progress of 
the work, according to the oj)inions of the best 
scientific mining experts, this shaft may reach one 
of the noted silver deposits of the world. In the 
Jeff Clark antimony mine, at a distance of 100 
feet down, was found a rich pocket of silver. In 
every particular, so far, this mine is a transcript of 
that of the noted Comstock mine. The Comstock 
mine showed silver on the surface; so did the Sev- 
ier County mine; then it passed down 100 feet, 
following a vein of antimony; so has the Sevier 
mine; then in each has silver been found. 

There is an unchanging law which governs the 
rock and mineral formations. Nature never lies. 
and there is no doubt that the Arkansas mineral 
belt, through Montgomery. Polk. Howard and Sev- 
ier Counties, will prove to be one of the richest 
mining districts of the world. 

The antimony mine has been quite successfully 
worked the past two years. The Bob Wolf mine, 
Antimony Bluff mine, and Stewart Lode are being 
profitably worked. Capital and the facilities for 
reducing ores by their absence are now the only 
drawliack to the mineral products of the State. 

Iron is found native in the State only in meteor- 
ites. The magnatite ore is found plentiful in Mag- 
net Cove. Lodestones from this place are shipped 
abroad, and have a high reputation. This is one 
of the best iron ores, and the scarcity of fuel and 
transportation in the vicinity are the causes of its 
not being worked. The limooite iron ore is the 
common ore of all Northern Arkansas; immense 
deposits are found in Lawrence, where several 
furnaces are operated. In the southern part of the 
State is the bog iron ore. The brown hematite is 
found in Lawrence, Randolph. Fulton and other 
counties. Workable veins of manganese are found 



in Independence County. This valuable ore is im- 
ported now from Spain; it is used in making Spie- 
gel iron. 

Bituminous and semi-anthracite coal is found 
in the true coal measures of the uplands of Ar- 
kansas. That of the northwest is free from sul- 
phur. The semi-anthracite is found in the valley 
of the Ai'kansas River. These coal fields cover 
10,000 acres. There are four defined coal hori- 
zons — the subconglomerate. lower, middle and up- 
per. The coal fields of this State belong to the 
lowest — the subcarboniferous — in the shale or 
millstone grit less than 100 feet above the Archi- 
medes limestone. In the Arkansas Valley these 
veins aggregate over six feet. The veins lie high 
in the Boston Mountains, dipping south into the 
-■^•kansas Valley. Shaft mining is done at Coal 
Hill, Spadra and many other points. It is shipped 
down the river in quantities to New Orleans. 

Aluminum, corundum, sapphire, oriental rub}', 
topaz and amethysts are found in Howard and 
Sevier Counties. Strontianite is found in Mag- 
net Cove — valuable in the purification of sugar. 
In the synclinal folds of Upper Arkansas common 
salt is easily obtained. Good salt springs are in 
Sevier County, also in Dallas and Hot Springs 
Counties. Chalcedony, of all colors, cornelian, 
agates, novaculite. honestone, buhrstone, varieties 
of granite, eight kinds of elegant marble, sand- 
stones, white, gray, red, brown and yellow, are 
common in the grit horizon; flagstones, roofing 
and pencil slates, talc, kaolin, abound in Saline, 
Washington, St. Francis and Greene Counties. The 
potter's clay of ^liller. Saline and Washington is 
extensively worked. "Rock oil" has been dis- 
covered in large pockets in Northwest Arkansas. 

In the development of its mineral resources the 
State is still in its infancy, so much so, indeed, 
that what will prove yet to be the great sources of 
wealth are not even now produced as a commer- 
cial commodity. In some respects this is most re- 
markable. For instance, Arkansas might supply 
the world, if necessity required, with lime and 
cement, can produce the best of each at the least 
cost, and yet practically all these consumed are 
imported here from other States. Years ago Prof. 



■I J }o 
, yA Ion 



18 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



D. D. Owen called attention to the valuablo marls 
in the southwest part of the State, Imt thi'^'reat 
beds lie untouched and cuttuii planters send ofi' for 
other fertilizers. So also of the j^reat beds of 
gypsum that lie uncovered and untouched. The 
v'-utside world wants unlimited supplies of kaolin, 
lire-clays and such other clays as the State pos- 
sesses in inestimable quantities, and yet the thrifty 
people seem to be oblivious of the fact that here is 
the way to easy sources of wealth. 

People can live here too easily it seems. In 
this way only can a reason be found for n^t strik- 
ing boldly out in new fields of venture, with that 
vigor of desperation which comes of stern and 
hard necessity. Where nature is stubborn and fin- 
yielding, man puts forth his supremest efforts. 

Magnet Cove probably furnishes more remark- 
able formations than any other district in the world. 
The "Sunk Lands'" in the northeast part of the 
State, the result of the disturbance of the New 
Madrid earthquake 1811-12, present features of 
interest to both lay and scientific inve.stigators. 
The curious spectacle of deep lakes, beneath which 
can be seen standing in their natural position the 
great forest trees, is presented: and instead of the 
land animals roving and feeding among them are 
the inhabitants of the deep waters. 

The natural abutments of novaculite rocks at 
Rockport, on the Ouachita River, with the proper 
outlying rocks on the opposite side of the river, are 
a very interesting formation. 

Cortes Mountain. Sebastian County, as seen 
from Hodges Prairie presents a grand view. The 
bare hard rock looks as though the waves in their 
mighty swells bad been congealed and tixed into 
a mountain. It is 1,500 feet high. Standing Rock, 
Board Camp Creek. Polk County, is a conspicious 
and interesting landmark. It rises from out the 



crumbling shales, like an artilicial pieoi'of ma'-oury. 
to the height of luncty feet. 

The Dardanelle Ruck as seen from the Arkan- 
sas River, opposite Morrist<nvn, is composed of fer- 
ruginous substancr, and the great column dips at 
an angle of 40° toward the river. From one point 
on the southeast is the wonderful Dardanelle Profile. 
All the features of the face, with a deep-cut mouth 
slightly open as if in the act of listening to what 
one is going to say to it, and the (.ratlines of the 
head, neck an<l shoulders, are faithfully produced. 
Its faithfulness of detail and heroic proportions 
are its strong charaeteiistics. 

Sandstone Dam across Lee Creek. Crawford 
County, is a curious iii-,tance of nature's perfect 
engineering. The formation here possesses as 
much interest to the scientist as the noted Natural 
Bridge. 

Investigations of the Mammoth Spring lead to 
the conclusion that it has underground connection 
with Havell's Valley, Mo; that here the waters 
from many springs, some rising to the surface and 
others not rising, are as the head of a vast funnel, 
which pour down the subterranean channel and, 
finally meeting obstructions to farther progress, are 
forced up through the solid rock and form the 
Mammoth Spring, a navigable subterranean river 
in short, whose charts no liold seaman will ever 
follow. 

North of Big Rock are the traces of a burnt 
out volcano, whose fires at one time would have 
lighted up the streets of Little Rock even better 
than the electric lights now gleaming from their 
high towers. 

The track of the awful cataclysm, once here 
in its grand forces, is all that is left: the energies 
of nature's greatest display of forces lost in the 
geological eons intervening. 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



19 



dlAPTE-R II. 



Akchaeology— Remains of Flixt Aurow and Spear Head.s and .Stone and Other Ornaments— 

Evidences of Pre-iiistoric People Along thk Mississippi— Mounds, etc., in Other Portions 

OF The State— Local Archaeologists and their Work— The Indians— Tribal 

AND Race Characteristics— The Arkansas Tribes— The Cession Treaties 

—The Removal of the Cherokees, Creeks and Choctaws— An 

Indian Alarm — Assassination of the Leaders, etc., etc 



Some lazy ages, lost in sleep and ease, 

No actions leave to busy cbronicles; 

Such whose superior felicit}" but makes 

In storj' chasms, in epochas mistalses. — Drydcn. 



i.¥^\^M^l 







^^.'v^ 



N the long gone ages, | 
reaches of time perhaps ! 
a only to be measured by 
geological periods, races 
of men have lieen here, 
grown, dourished. declined 
and passed away, many not 
even leaving a wrack behind; others 
transmitting fossil traces, dim and 
crumbling, and still later ones, the suc- 
cessors of the earlier ones, who had no 
., traditions of their predecessors, have 
^^'J ^^^^ something of the measure of their 
existence in the deftly cut flints, broken 
pottery, adobe walls, or great earth- 
works standing in the whilom silent 
wilderness as mute and enduring mon- 
uments to their existence; man, races, civilizations, 
systems of religion passing on and on to that 
eternal silence — stormfully from the inane to the 
inane, the great world's epic that is being forever 
written and that is never writ. 

Arkansas is an inviting field for the iavestiga- 
tion of the arehreologist, as well as the geologist. 
Races of unknown men in an unknown time have 
swarmed over the fair face of the State. Their 



restless activities drove them to nature's natural 
storehouses and the fairest climes on the continent. 
Where life is easiest maintained in its best form 
do men instinctively congregate, and thus commu- 
nities and nations are formed. The conditions of 
climate and soil, rainfall and minerals are the 
controlling factors in the busy movements of men. 
These conditions given, man follows the great 
streams, on whose bosom the rudest savages float 
their canoes and pirogues. 

Along the eastern part of the State are the most 
distinct traces of prehistoric peoples, whose hiero- 
glyphics, in the form of earthworks, are the most 
legible to the arehreologist. Here, earthworks in 
greatest estent and numbers are found, indicating 
that this section once swarmed with these barbaric 
races of men. 

In Lonoke County, sixteen miles southeast of 
Little Rock, and on the Little Rock k Altheimer 
branch of the St. Louis. Arkansas & Texas Rail- 
road, is a station called Toltec. It is located on 
the farm of Mr. Ciilbert Knapp. and is near 
Mounds Lake. This lake is either the line of what 
was a horse-shoe bend in Arkansas River long ago. 
or is the trace of a dead river. The lake is in the 
form of a horse-shoe, and covers a space of about 



20 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS 



three miles. The horse-shoe points east of north, 
and the heels to the southwest. Here is a great 
tield of large and interesting mounds and earth- 
works. A little east of the north bend of the lake 
are two great mounds — one square and the other 
cone shaped. The cone shaped is the larger and 
taller, and is supposed to have been 100 feet high, 
while the other was about seventy live feet in ele- 
vation. About them to the north and east are 
many small mounds, with no apparent fixed method 
in their location. These have all been denuded of 
their timber and are in cultivation, except the larger 
one above mentioned. Tpon this is a growth of 
heavy timber, elms, hickory, and oaks with as high 
as 500 rings, and standing on an alluvial soil from 
eight to fifteen feet deep. These large mounds 
are enclosed with an earth wall starting out from 
the bank of the lake, and circling at a considerable 
distance and returning to the lake, and keeping 
nearly an equal distance from the larger mound. 
The sloping base of each mound reaches the base 
and overlaps or mingles with the base of its neigh- 
bor. Around this big wall was once an outside 
ditch. The humus on the smaller mounds shows, 
in cultivation, a stronger and deeper alluvial soil 
than the surrounding land. 

There are evidences in these mounds that while 
they were built by one nation, for objects now 
problematical, they have been used by other suc- 
ceeding peoples for other and different purposes, 
much after the manner that are now found farm- 
ers with well-kept gardens on the tops of the 
mounds, or stately residences, or on others grow- 
ing cotton and com. In them human and ani- 
mal bones are seen, and there are indications that, 
while they were built for purposes of worship or 
war, when the builders passed away more than 
one race of their successors to the country used 
them as convenient burial grounds. They were 
skillful stone workers and potters, and their mason' s 
tools are frequently met with. Nearly everv- im- 
plement of the stone age is found in and about 
the mounds. 

M"-. Knapp, who has given the subject consid- 
erable intelligent study, is so convinced that these 
works were made by the Toltec race that he has 



named the new station in honor of that people. 
On the line of this earth-wall mentioned are two 
deep pools that never are known to become dry. 

East of Toltec thirty or more miles, in Lonoke 
Prairie, are mounds that apparently belong to 
the chain or system which runs parallel with the 
river, through the State. The small mounds or 
barrows, as Jefferson termed the modern Indian 
burial places, are numerous, and distributed all 
over Arkansas. 

What is pronounced a fortified town is found 
in well marked remains on St. Francis River. It 
was discovered by Mr. Savage, of Louisville. He 
reports "parts of walls, built of adobe brick and 
cemented." On these remains he detected trees 
growing numbering 300 rings. He reports the 
brick made of clay and chopped or twisted straw, 
and with regular figures. A piece of first-class 
engineering is said to be traced here in a sap- 
mine, which had passed under the walls of the 
fortification. 

The bones and pottery and tools and arms of 
the prehistoric peoples of Arkansas are much more 
atjundant than are found in any other spot in the 
United States. 

llrs. Hobbs, living four miles southeast of 
Little Rock, has a very complete collection of the 
antiquities of the State. It is pronounced by 
antiquarians as one of the most valuable in the 
country. The Smithsonian Institute has offered 
her every inducement to part with her collection, 
but she has refused. It is hoped the State will 
some day possess this treasure, and suitably and 
permanently provide for its preservation. 

When the white man discovered and took pos- 
session of North America, he found the red man ' 
and his many tribes here, and under a total mis- 
apprehension of having found a new continent, he 
named this strange people Indians. The new world 
might have been called Columbia, and the people 
Columbians. Again, instead of being spar-^^e tribes 
of individuals fringing the shores of the Atlantic 
Ocean there were 47S tribes, occupying nearly the 
whole of the north half of this western hemis- 
phere; some in powerful tribes, like the Iroquois; 
some were rude agricultural and commercial peoples. 



4 




some living in houses of logs or stone, permanent 
residents of their localities; others warriors and 
hunters only, and still others migratory in their i 
nature, piiates and parasites. One characteristic 
strongly marked them all — a love of liberty and 
absolute freedom far stronger than the instinct 
of life itself. The Indian would not be a slave. 
Proud and free, he regarded with contempt the 
refinements of civilization He breathed the same 
free air as did the eagle of the crags, and would 
starve before he would do manual work, or, as he 
believed, degrade himself in doing aught but paint 
himself, sing his war songs and go forth to battle, 
or pursue the wild game or meet the savage wild 
beasts in their paths and slay them in regular com- 
bat. To hunt, tish and light was the high mission 
of great and good men to his untutored mind, 
while the drudgery of life was relegated to the 
squaws and squaw-men. His entire economic 
philosophy was simply the attainment of his de- 
sires with the least exertion. In a short time he 
will have tilled his earthly mission, and passed 
from the stage of action, leaving nothing but a 
dim memory. From their many generations of 
untold numbers has come no thought, no inven- 
tion, no action that desei-ves to survive them a 
day or an hour. The Indians of to-day, the few 
that are pure blood, are but the remnants, the use- 
less refuse of a once numerous people, who were the 
undisputed possessors of a continent, but are now 
miserable, ragged and starving beggars at the 
back doors of their despoilers, stoically awaiting 
the last final scene in the race tragedy. And, like 
the cheerful sermon on the tombstone, who shall 
say that white civilization, nupibers and power, will 
not in the course of time, and that not far distant, 
be the successors of the residue of wretches now 
representing the red race? "'I was once as you 
are, you will soon be as I am." A grim philos- 
ophy truly, but it is the truth of the past, and the 
great world wheels about much now as it has for- 
ever. 

What is now Arkansas has been the possession 
of the following Indian tribes: no one tribe, it seems, 
occupied or owned the territory in its entirety. 
bnt their iio:=sessions extended into the lines, cov- 



ering a portion of the lands only, and then reach- 
ing many degrees, sometimes to the north, south 
and west: The Osages, a once numerous tribe, 
were said to own the country south of the Mis- 
souri River to Red River, including a large por- 
tion of Arkansas. The Quapaws. also a powerful 
nation, were the chief possessors, and occup.ied 
nearly the whole of the State, "time out of mind:" 
the Cherokees were forced out of Georgia and 
South Carolina, and removed west of tlie Missis- 
sippi River in 1S36; the Hitchittees were removed 
from the Chattahouchee River to Arkansas. They 
speak the Muskogee dialect — were (iOO strong when 
removed: the Choctaws were removed to the west, 
after the Cherokees. In lSr2 they were 15.000 
strong. 

The Quapaws, of all the tribes connected with 
Arkansas, may be regarded as the oldest settlers, 
having possessed more of its territory in well de- 
fined limits than any of the others. In the early 
part of the eighteenth century they constituted a 
powerful tribe. In the year 1720 they were deci- 
mated by smallpox; reduced by this and other 
calamities, in 18-0. one hundred years after, thev 
were found scattered along the south side of the 
Arkansas River, numbering only TOl) souls. They 
never regained their former numerical strength or 
warlike importance, but remained but a band of 
wretched, ragged beggars, about whose hunting 
grounds the white man was ever lessening and 
tightening the lines. 

January 5, 1810, Gov. Clark and Pierre Chou- 
teau made a treaty with the tribe by which was 
ceded to the United States the most of their terri- 
tory. The descriptive part of the treaty is in the 
following words: "Beginning at the mouth of the 
Arkansas River; thence extending up the Arkansas 
to the Canadian Fork, and up the Canadian Fork 
to its source; thence south to the big Red River, 
and down the middle of that river to the Big 
Raft; thence in a direct line so as to strike the 
Mississippi River, thirty leagues in a straight 
line, below the mouth of the Arkansas, together 
with all their claims to lands east of the Mississippi 
River and north of the Arkansas River. \Vith the 
exception and reservation following, that is to say. 






:rl 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



:k 



that tract of country bounded as follows: Begin- 
ning at h point on the Arkansas River opposite the 
present Post of Arkansas, and running thence a 
due southwest course to the V\"ashita River; thence 
up that river to the Saline Fork, to a point from 
whence a due north course would strike the Arkan- 
sas River at the Little Rock, and thence down the 
right bank of the Arkansas to the place of begin- 
ning." In addition to this a tract was reserved 
north of the Arkansas River, which the treaty says 
is indicated by " marks on the accompanying 
map." This west line of the Quapaw reservation 
struck the river about where is now Rock Street. 

In November, 1S24, Robert Crittenden, the lirst 
Territorial secretary, effected a treaty with the 
Quapaws, at Harrington's, Ark., which ceded the 
above reservation and forever extinguished all title 
of that tribe to any portion of Arkansas. The 
tribe was then removed to what is now the Indian 
Territory. 

The other original occupants or claimants to the 
Arkansas Territory were the Osages. Of these 
there were many tribes, and in 1830 numbered 
4,000 strong, but mostly along the Osage River. 
Their claim lapped over, it seems, all that portion 
of the Quapaw lands lying north of the Arkansas 
River. 

The title of the Osages was extinguished to 
what is now Arkansas by a treaty of November 10, 
180S, made at Fort Clark, on the Missouri River. 
By this treaty they ceded all the country east of a 
line running due south from Fort Clark to the Ar- 
kansas River, and down said river to its conlliience 
with the Mississippi River. These Indians occu- 
pied only the country along the Missouri and 
Osage Rivers, and if they were ever on what they 
claimed as their southern boundary, the Arkansas 
River, it was merely on expeditions. 

About 1S18, Georgia and South Carolina com- 
menced agitating the subject of getting rid of the 
Indians, and removing them west. They wanted 
their lands and did not want their presence. At 
first they used persuasion and strategy, and tinally 
force. They were artful in representing to the In- 
dians the glories of the Arkansas cou.itry. both for 
game and rich lands. During tl.e tueuty y.'iir-- nf 



agitating the subject Indians of the tribes of those 
States came singly and in small bands to Arkansas, 
and were encouraged to settle anywhere they might 
desire north of the Arkansas River, on the Osage 
ceded lands. The final act of removal of the lu- 
dians was consummated in 183U, when the last of 
the Cherokees were brought west. Simultaneous 
with the arrival of this last delegation of Indians 
an alarm passed around among the settlers that the 
Indians were preparing to make a foray on the 
white settlements and murder them aU. Many 
people were greatly alarmed, and in some settle- 
ments there were hasty preparations made to tiee 
to places of safety. In the meantime the poor, 
distressed Cherokees and Choctaws were innocent 
of the stories in circulation about them, and were 
trying to adjust themselves to their new homes 
and to repair theii- ruined fortunes. The Chero- 
kees were the most highly civilized of all the tribes, 
as they were the most intelligent, and had mingled 
and intermarried with the whites until there were 
few of pure blood left among them. They had 
men of force and character, good schools and 
printing presses, and published and edited papers, 
as well as their own school books. These condi- 
tions were largely true, also, of the Chickasaws. 
The Cherokees and Chickasaws were removed west 
under President Jackson's administration. The 
Cherokees were brought by water to Little Rock, 
and a straight road was cut out from Little Rock 
to the corntM- of their reservation, fifteen miles 
above Batesville, in Independence County, over 
which they were taken. Their southeast botmdary 
line was a straight line, at the point designated 
above Batesville. to the mouth of Point Remove 
Creek. 

The nistory of the removal of the Cherokee 
Indians (and much of the same is true of the re- 
moval of the Chickasaws and Creeks), is not a pleas- 
ant cha[)ter in American history. The Creeks of 
Florida had waged war, and when conquered Gen. 
Scott removed them Ijeyond the Mississippi River. 
U hen the final consummation of the removal of the 
Cherokees was effected, it was done by virtue of a 
treaty, said to have been the work of traitors, and 
unauthorized by the pro[)er Indian authorities. At 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



•23 



all events the artful whiter bail divided the bead- 
inen of the tribe, and iirucuiiMl tlifir si<;iiatiires to 
a treaty which drove the last of the nation beyond 
the Mississippi. The chief men in making this 
treaty were the Ridges, Boudinot. Bell and Rogers. 
This was the treaty of 1835. In June, 183y, the 
Ridges. Boudinot and Bell were assassinated. 
About forty Indians went to Ridge's house, Inde- 
{)endence County, and cruelly murdered young 
Ridge: they then pursued the elder Ridge and. over- 
taking him at the foot of Boston Mountains, as he 
was on his way to visit friends in Van Bui'en. Ark., 
shot him to death. It seems there was an old law 
of the nation back in Georgia, by which any one 
forfeited his life who bartered any part of their 
lands. 

The Choctaws by treaty ceded to the United 
States all their claim to lands lying within the 
limits of Ai'kansas, October 20, 1820. 

On the Gth of May. 1828, the Cherokees ceded 
all claim to their lands that lay within the Territo- 
rial limit of Arkansas. 

This was about the end of Indian occupation 
or claims within the State of Arkansas, but not 
the end of important communication, and acts of 
neighborly friendship, between the whites and the 
Cherokees especially. A considerable number of 
Indians, most of them having only a slight mix- 
ture of Indian blood, remained in the State and be- 
came useful and in some instances highly influ- 
ential citizens. Among them were prominent farm- 
ers, merchants and professional men. And very 
often now may be met some prominent citizen, 
who, after even an extended acquaintance, is found 
to be an Indian. Among that race of people 
they recognize as full members of the tribe all 
who have any trace of their blood in their veins, 
whether it shows or not. In this respect it seems 
that nearly all races differ from the white man. 
With the latter the least mi-xture of blood of any 
other color pronounces them at once to be not white. 

The Cherokee Indians, especially, have always 
held kindly intercourse with the people of Arkan- 
sas. In the late Civil War they went with the 



State in the secession movement without hesitation. 
A brigade of Cherokees was raised and Gen. Albert 
Pike was elected to the command. The eminent 
Indians in the command were Gen. Stand \\'aitie 
and Col. E. C. Boudinot. Until 1863 the Indians 
were unanimous in behalf of the Southern cause, 
but in that year Chief Ross went over to the Fed- 
eral side, and thus the old time divisions in the In- 
dian councils were revived. 

Col. Elias C. Boudinot was born in Georgia, in 
August, 1835, the same year of the treaty remov- 
ing the Indians from that State. Practically, 
therefore, he is an Arkansan. He shows a strong 
trace of India'n blood, though the features of the 
white race predominate. He is a man of educa- 
tion and careful culture, and when admitted to the 
bar he soon won a place in the splendid array of 
talent then so greatly distinguishing Arkansas. A 
born orator, strong enough in intellect to think 
without emotion, morally and physically a hero, he 
has spent much of his life pleading for his people 
to be made citizens — the owners of their individ- 
ual homes, as the only hope to stay that swift de- 
cay that is upon them, but the ignorance of his 
tribe and the scheming of demagogues and seltish 
" agents," have thwarted his efforts and practically 
exiled him from his race. 

A few years ago Col. Boudinot was invited to 
address Congress and the people of Washington 
on the subject of the Indian races. The masterly 
addi-ess by this man. one of the greatest of all the 
representatives of American Indians, will be tixed 
in history as the most pathetic epilogue of the 
greatest of dramas, the curtain of which was raised 
in 1492. Who will ever read and fully understand 
his emotions when he repeated the lines: 



Their liglit canoes have vanished 
From off the crested waves — 
Amid the forests where they roamed 
There rings no hunter's shout. 
And all their cone-like cabins 
That clustered o'er the vale. 
Have disappeared as withered leaves, 
Before the autumn gale. 






•jolo') rmUi 



24 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



SlflPTE-l HI. 



DlSCO\-ERY AND SETTLEMENT— De SOTO IN ARKANSAS— ilARQUETTE AND JOLIET— LA SALLE, HeNNEPIN 

AND ToNTi— French and English Schemes of Conquest and Dreams of Power— Louisiana 
—The " Bubble" of John Law— The Early Yicerhys and Governors- Proprie- 
tary Change of I-oui>iana— French and Spanish Settlers in Ark- 
ansas-English Settlers— A Few First Settlers in the 
Counties— The New Madrid Earthquake- 
Other Items of Interest. 









^^ 



Hail, memory, hail! In lliy exhaustless mine 
Fri)m age to age unnumbered treasures shine! 
Thought and her sliadowy brood thy call obey. 
And place and time are subject to thy sway. — Rubers. 






\ 



ERDINAND DE SOTO, the 

discoverer of the Missis- 
, sippi, was the tSrst civilized 
white man to put foot upon 
any part of what is now the 
State of Arkansas. He and 
3i;his band of adventurous 
■^ followers had forged their 
ovt,r immense obstacles, through 
'^ the trackless wastes, and in the pleas- 
\ ant month of June. l."41. readied the 
r. ,, >'' Mississippi River at. as is suppcjsed, 
}\i/i Chickasaw Bluffs, a short distance be- 
low Memphis. He had sailed from 
San Lucau in April. l.'.'iS. with ('>(l(l 
men, twenty officers and twenty-four priests. He 
represented his king and church, and came to 
make discoveries for his master in Florida, a coun- 
try UDdetined in extent, and believed to be the 
richest in the world. 

His expedition was a darin;^ and <lant;erous 
one, and there were but few m^n in the tide of 
time who could have carried it (Hi tn iht^ exti-iit 
that did this bold Spaniard. The worn and deci- 




mated band remained at the Chickasaw Bluffs to 
rest and recuperate until June 20, then crossing 
the river into Arkansas, and pushing on up the 
Mississippi River, through brakes and swamps and 
slashes, until they reached the higher prairie lands 
that lead toward New Madrid; stopping in tbeir 
north course at an Indian village, Pacaha, whiise 
location is not known. De Soto sent an expedition 
toward the Osage River, but it soon returned and 
rejwrted the country worthless. * He then turned 
west and proceeded to the Boston Mountains, at 
the head-waters of White River; then bendino- 
.'•outh, and passing Hot Springs, he went into camp 
for the winter on the Ouachita River, at Autamqua 
Village, in Garland County. In the spring he 

*It is (iropor to here slate the fact that some local in- 
vestit'ator<. and others who have studied the liistory of 
Ue Snto's voyaging through Arkansas, do not believe "that 
lie reache<l ami discovered the river as high up as .Mem- 
phis. They think he approached it ashortdistanee above 
the mouth of Ked Uiver. and from that point made his 
detour around to Red River. Others in the State, who 
liave also studied the sidjject thoroughly, find excellent 
evidence of liis presence in Arkansas along the Mississippi, 
particularly iuMississippi Couuly. Sre --HistoYv of 
Missj-sippi founty. Ark." After" exaniiuing the t"e^li- 
niDiiy carefully [ incline to the account as given in the 
context as being the most probable. — Ed. 



k. 




floated (lowD the river, often lost in the bayons 
and overflows of Red River, and tiually reached 
again the Mississippi. Halting here he made dil- 
igent inquiries of the Indians as to the mouth of 
the great stream, but they could give him no infor- 
mation. Ill June, one year from the date of his 
discovery, after a sickness of some weeks, he died. 
As an evidence of his importance to the expedition 
his death was kept a secret, and he was buried at 
night, most appropriately, in the waves of the 
gi'eat river that gave his name immortality. But 
the secrecy of his death was of no avail, for there 
was no one who could supj^ily his place, and with 
his life closed the existence, for all practical pur- 
poses, of the exjaedition. Here the interest of the 
historian in De Soto and his companions ceases. 
He came not to possess the beautiful country, or 
plant colonies, or even extend the dominions of 
civilization, but simply to find the fabled wealth 
in minerals and precious stones, and gather them 
and carry them away. Spain already possessed 
Florida, and it was all Florida then, from the At- 
lantic to the boundless and unknown west. 

The three great nations of the old world had 
conquered au<l possessed — the Spaniards Florida, 
the English Virginia and New England, and the 
French the St. Lawrence. The feeblest of all 
these colonizers or conquerors were the English, 
and they retained their narrow foothold on the 
new continent with so little vigor that for more 
than a century and a half they knew nothing of 
the country west of theui save the idle dreams and 
fictions of the surrounding savages. The general 
world had learned little of De Soto' s great western 
discoveries, and when he was buried in the Missis- 
sippi all remained undisturbed from the presence 
or knowledge of civilized men for the period of 
132 years. 

Jacques Marquette, a French Jesuit priest, had 
made expeditions along the Northern lakes, pros- 
elyting among the Indian tribes. He had con- 
ceived the idea that there was a great western 
river leading to China and Japan. He was joined 
in his ambition to tind this route, and the tribes 
along it, by Joliet, a man tired with the ambition 
and daring of the bold explorer. These two men, 



with five employes, started on their great adven- 
ture May 17, 1673. They found the Upper Mis- 
sissippi River and came down that to the mouth 
of the Arkansas River, thence proceeding up some 
distance, it is supposed to near where is Arkansas 
Post. Thus the feet of the white man pressed 
once more the soil of this State, but it was after 
the lapse of many years from the time of De Soto's 
visit. Marqttette carried into the newly discovered 
country the cross of Christ, while Joliet planted 
in the wilderness the tri-colors of France. France 
and Christianity stood together in the heart of the 
great Mississippi Valley; the discoverers, founders 
and possessors of the greatest spiritual and tem- 
poral empire on earth. From here the voyagers 
retraced their course to the Northern lakes and 
the St. Lawrence, and published a report of their 
discoveries. 

Nine years after Marquette and Joliet' s expe- 
dition. Chevalier de La Salle came from France, 
accompanied by Henry de Tonti, an Italian, filled 
with great schemes of empire in the new western 
world; it is charged, by some historians of that 
day, with no less ambition than securing the whole 
western portion of the continent and wresting 
Mexico from the Spaniards. When Canada was 
reached. La Salle was joined by Louis Hennepin, 
an ambitious, unscrupulous and daring Franciscan 
monk. It was evidently La Salle's idea to founil 
a military government in the new world, reaching 
with a line of forts and military possession from 
Quebec. Canada, to at least the Gulf, if not, as 
some have supposed, extending through Mexico. 
He explored the country lying between the North- 
ern lakes and the Ohio River. He raised a force 
in Canada and sailed through Green Bay, antl, 
sending back his boat laden with furs, proceeded 
with his party to the head waters of the Illinois 
River and built Fort Creve Coeur. He detached 
Hennepin with one companion and sent him to hunt 
the source of the Mississippi. He placed Tonti in 
command of Creve Coeur, with five men, and him- 
self returned to Canada in the latter i)art of IGSl, 
where he organized a new party with canoes, 
and went to Chicago; crossing the long portage 
from there to the Illinois River, he floated down 



'« 






26 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



that stream to the Missishipjii and on to the Gulf 
of Mexico, discovering the mouth of tlie Mississippi 
River April 5. IflSli. and three days after, with 
becoming pomp and ceremony, took possession, in 
the name of France, of the territory, and named it 
Louisiana, in honor of his king, Louis XIV. The 
vast region thus acquired by France was not, as it 
eould not be, well defined, but it was intended 
to embrace, in addition to much east of the 
Mississippi River, all the continent we^-t of that 
current. 

After this expedition La Salle returned to 
France, lifted out another expedition and set sail, 
ostensibly to reach the mouth of the Mississippi 
River and pass up that stream. He failed to find 
the river, and landed his tleet at Metagordo Bay, 
Texas, where he remained two years, when with a 
part of his force he started to reach Canada via 
Fort St. Louis, but was assassinated by one of his 
men near the Trinity River, Texas, March 19, 
16S7, and his body, together with that of his 
nephew, was left on the Texas prairie to the beasts 
and buzzards. La Salle was a born commander 
of men, a great explorer, with vast projects of 
empire far beyond the comprehension of his 
wretched king, or the appreciation of his country- 
men. Had he been supported by a wise and strong 
government, France would never, perhaps, have 
been disposse.ssed of the greatest inter-continental 
colonial empire on earth — from the Alleghanies to 
the Rocky Mountains. This was, in fact, the 
measure of the territory that La Salle's expedition 
and military possession gave to France. The two 
great ranges of mountains, the north pole and 
South America, were really the boundary lines of 
Louisiana, of which permanent ownership belonged 
forever to France, save for the weakness and inef- 
ficiency of that bete noire of poor, beautiful, sunny 
France — Louis XIV. In the irony of fate the his- 
torian of to-day may well write down the appella- 
tion of his toadies and parasites, as the grand 
monarque. La Salle may justly be reckoned one 
of the greatest founders of empire in the world, and 
had poor France had a real king instead of this 
weak and pompous imbecile, her tri-C(ilors would 
have floated upon every lireeze from the Allegha- 



nies to the Pacific Ocean, and over the islands of 
more than half of the waters of the glolie. 

The immensity of the Louisiana Territory has 
been but little understood by historians. It was 
the largest and richest province ever acquired, and 
the world's history since its establishment has 
been intimately conriected with and shaped by its 
influence. Thus the account of the Territory of 
Louisiana is one of the most interesting chapters 
in American history. 

Thirteen years after the death of La Salle, 
1700, his trusty lieutenant, Tonti, descended the 
Mississippi River from the Illinois, with a band of 
twenty French Illinois people, and upon reaching 
Arkansas' Post, established a station. This was 
but carrying out La Salle's idea of a military pos- 
session by a line of forts from Canada to the Gulf. 
It may be called the first actual and intended per- 
manent possession of Arkansas. In the meantime, 
Natchez had become the oldest settled point in 
the Territory, south of Illinois, and the conduct of 
the commandant of the canton, Chopart, was laying 
the foundations for the ultimate bloody massacre 
of that place, in November, 1729. The Jesuit, Du 
Poisson, was the missionary among the Arkansans. 
He had made his way up the Mississippi and 
passed along the Arkansas River till he reached 
the prairies of the Dakotahs. 

The Chickasaws were the dreaded enemy of 
France; it was they who hurried the Natchez to 
that awful massacre; it was they whose cedar bark 
canoes, shooting boldly into the Mississippi, inter- 
rupted the connections between Kaskaskia and 
New Orleans, and delayed successful permanent 
settlements in the Arkansas. It was they who 
weakened the French empire in Louisiana. They 
colleagued with the English, and attempted to 
extirpate the French dominion in the valley. 

Such was Louisiana more than half a century 
after the first attempt at colonization by La Salle. 
Its population may have been D.tlOO whites and 
half that number of blacks. Louis XIV had 
fostered it by giving it over to the control of Law 
and his company of the Mississippi, aided by 
boundless but transient credit. Priests and friars 
dispersed through tribes from Biloxi to the Da- 



HISTOllY OF ARKANSAS. 



i± 



kotabs, and propitiated tbo favor of the savages. 
But still the valley of the Mississippi remained a 
wilderness. All its patrons — though among them 
it counted kings and high ministers of state — had 
not accomplished for it in half a centnrv a tithe 
of that prosperity which, within the same period, 
sprung naturally from the benevolence of William 
Penu to the peaceful settlers on the Delaware. 

It required the feebleness of the grand mon- 
arque to discover John Law, the father of in- 
flated cheap money and national financial ruin. 
In September, 1717, John Law's Comj)any of the 
West was granted the commerce and control of 
Louisiana. He arrived at New Orleans with 800 
immigrants in August of that year. Instead of 
coming up the Mississippi, they landed at Dau- 
phine Island to make their way across by land. 
The reign of John Law's company over Louisiana 
was a romance or a riot of folly and extravagance. 
He was to people and create a great empire on 
cheap money and a monopoly of the slave trade. 
For fourteen years the Company of the West con- 
trolled Louisiana. T'ne bubble burst, the dreams 
and illusions of ease and wealth passed away, and 
but wretched remnants of colonies existed, in the 
extremes of want and suffering. But, after all, a 
permanent settlement of the great valley had been 
made. A small portion of these were located at 
Arkansas Post, up the Arkansas River and on Red 
River, and like the most of the others of Law's 
followers, they made a virtue of necessity and re- 
mained because they could not get away. 

John Law was an Englishman, a humbug, but 
a magnificent one, so marked and conspicuous in 
the world's history that his career should have 
taught the statesmen of all nations the simple 
lesson that debt is not wealth, and that every at- 
tempt to create wealth wholly by legislation is sure 
to be followed by general bankruptcy and ruin. 

The Jesuits and fur-traders were the founders 
of Illinois; Louis XIV and privileged companies 
were the patrons of Soiithem Louisiana, while 
the honor of l>eginning the work of colonizing the 
southwest of our republic belongs to the illustri- 
ous Canadian, Lemoine D'llierville. He was a wor 
thy successor of La Salle. He also souL'ht to find 



the mouth of the ^lississippi, and guided l>y floating 
trees and turbid waters, he reached it on March 
2, 169y. He perfected the line of communication 
between Quebec and the Gulf; extended east and 
west the already boundless possessions of France; 
erected forts and carved the lilies on the trees of 
the forests: and fixed the seat of government of 
Louisiana at Biloxi, and appointed his brother to 
command the province. Under D' Iberville, the 
French line was extended east to Paseagoula 
River; Beinville, La Sueur, and St. Denys had 
explored the west to New Mexico, and had gone 
in the northwest beyond the Wisconsin and the 
St. Croix, and reached the moiith of and followed 
this stream to the confluence of the Bliie Earth. 
D' Iberville died of yellow fever at Havana, July 
9, 1706, and in his death the Louisiana colony 
lost one of its most able and daring leaders. But 
Louisiana, at that time, possessed less than thirty 
families of whites, and these were scattered on 
voyages of discovery, and in quest of gold and 
gems. 

France perfected her civil government over 
Louisiana in lOS'J, and appointed Marquis de San- 
ville, royal viceroy. This viceroy's empire was as 
vast in territory as it was insignificant in popula- 
tion — less than 300 souls.* By regular appoint- 
ments of viceroys the successions were maintained 
(including the fourteen years of Law's supremacy) 
until by the treaty of Fontainbleau, November 3, 
1702, France was stripped of her American pos- 
sessions, and Canada and the Spanish Florida; 
everything east of the Mississippi except the 
island of New Orleans was given to England, 
and all Louisiana, including New Orleans west of 
the Mississippi River and south of the new southern 
boundary line of Canada, was given to Spain, in 
lieu of her Florida possessions. Hence, it was No- 
vember 3, 1762, that what is now Arkansas passed 
from the dominion of France to that of Spain. 

The signing of this treaty made that day the 
most eventful one in the busy movements of the 

*Tbe title of France to the liouniilt'^s confiDe< of 
Louisiana were coDtinued by the treaty of Utrecht. The 
contentious between Enirland and France nver the Ohio 
( .iiuifry. afterward, are a part of the aunals uf the gen- 
eral historv of tlie country. 



r«. 



( ■< 



io£MiH 1< \\ ■: 



28 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



human race. It re-mapped tbe worlil, save the 
English language to the American cuutinent. and 
spread it more widely over the glohe than any that 
had before given expression to human thought, 
the language that is the alma mater of civil liherty 
and religious independence. Had France perma- 
nently dominated America, civil liberty and repre- 
sentative government ■would have been yet unborn. 
The dogmatic tyranny of the middle ages, with all 
its intolerance and war, would have been the herit- 
age of North America. 

Thus re-adjubted iu her domain, Louisiana re- 
mained a province of Spain until October 1, iSltO, 
when the Little Corporal over-ran Spain with his 
victorious legions, and looted his Catholic majesty's 
domains. Napoleon allowed his military ambition 
to dwarf his genius, and except for this curious 
fact, he was the man who would have saved and 
disenthralled the French mind, and have placed 
the Gaul, with all his volcanic forces, in an even 
start in the race of civilization with the invincible 
and cruel Anglo -Saxon. He was the only man of 
progressive genius that has ever ruled poor, un- 
fortunate France. The treaty of St. Ildefonso, 
secretly transferring Louisiana from Spain again 
into the possession of France, was ratified March 24, 
1801. Its conditions provided that it was to re- 
main a secret, and the Spanish viceroy, who was 
governor of Louisiana, knew nothing of the trans- 
fer, and continued in the discharge of his duties, 
granting rights, creating privileges and deeding 
lands and other things that were inevital)le in 
breeding confusions, and cloudy land titles, such as 
would busy the courts for a hundred years, intlict- 
ing injustice and heavy burdens upon many inno- 
cent people. 

Li 1802 President Jefferson became possessed 
of the secret that France owned Louisiana. He 
at once sent James Monroe to Paris, who. with the 
resident minister, Mr. Livingston, opened negutia- 
tions with Napoleon, at first only trying to secure 
the free navigation of the Missisr,ippi River, hut to 
their great surprise the Emperor more than met 
them half way, with a proposal to sell Louisiana to 
the I'nited States. The bargain was closi-d. the 
consideration being the pnltry sum of .$l.j,(Kiii,()i)U. 



This important move on the great chess-board of 
nations occurred April ;<(!, l*5l)3. The perfunc 
tory act of lowering the Spanish ensign and hoist- 
ing the flag of France; then lowering immediately 
the tricolors aiul unl'uiliug the stars and stripes, 
it is hoped never to be furled, was performed at 
St. Louis March '.). 1S04. Bless those dear old, 
nation-building pioneers 1 Tliese were heavy drafts 
upon their patriotic allegiance, liut they were equal 
to the occasion, and ate their breakfasts as Span- 
iards, their dinners as Frenchmen, and suppers as 
true Americans. 

The successful class of immigrants to the west 
of the Mississippi were the French Canadians, who 
had brought little or nothing with them save the 
clothes on their liacks, and an old tlintlock gun 
with which to secure game. They colonized after 
the French mode of villages and long strips of 
farms, and a public commons. They propitiated 
the best they could the neighboring Indian tribes, 
erected their altars, hunted, and frolicked, arid 
were an honest, simple-minded and just people. 
but little vexed with ambitious pride or grasping 
avarice. The mouth of the Arkansas River was 
the attractive point for immigrants on their way to 
the .Arkansas Territory, and they would ascend that 
stream to Arkansas Post. There were not i'^OO 
white people in the Territory of (now) Arkansas in 
1803, when it became a part of the United States. 
In ISIO the total population was 1.0G2. So soon 
as Louisiana became a part of the United States, 
a small but never ceasing stream of English speak- 
ing people turned their faces to the west and 
crossed the " Father of Waters." Those for Ar- 
kaur^as estalilished Montgomery Point, at the mouth 
of White River, uiaking that the transfer place for 
all shipments inland. This remained as the main 
shipping and commercial point for many years. 
By this route were transferred the freights for 
Arkansas Post. Tbe highway from Montgomery 
Pijint to the Post was a slim and indistinct bridle 
path. The immigrants came down the Cumber- 
land and TtMiiu'^-,ee Rivets to the Ohio in keel- 
Ixjats and canoes, and were mostly from Tennes 
set'; beckoned to this fair and rich kingdom bv its 
sunny clime, its mountains and rivers, and its pro- 



"TU 



xl^l 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



29 



ductive valleys, all eariched with a tlora and fauna 
surpassing the dream of a [laj^toral poem. 

The French were the first permanent settlers 
of Arkansas, and descendants of these people are 
still here. Many bearing the oldest French names 
have attained to a position among the most emi- 
nent of the great men of the trans-Mississippi. 
Sometimes the names have become so corrupted as 
to bo unrecognizable as belonging to the early illus- 
trious stock. The English-speaking people speak- 
ing French names phonetically would soon change 
them completely, The Bogys and Lefevres, for 
instance, are names tliat go back to the very first 
settlements in Arkansas. " Lefevre" on the maps 
is often spelled phonetically thus: "Lafaver. " 
Representatives of the Lefe\Te family are yet 
numerous in and about Little Rock, and in other 
portions of the State. 

Peter L. Lefevre and family were among the 
very first French settlers, locating in the fall of 
1818 on the north side of the river on Spanish 
Grant No. 497. about six miles below Little Rock. 
His sons were Peter, Enos, Francis G. , Ambrose, 
Akin, Leon and John B., his daughter being Mary 
•Louise. All of these have passed away except 
the now venerable Leon Lefevre, who resides on 
the old plantation where he was born in the year 
1808. For eighty one years the panorama of the 
birth, growth and the vicissitudes of Arkansas 
have passed before his eyes. It is supposed of all 
living men he is the oldest representative surviving 
of the earliest settlers; however, a negro, still a 
resident of Little Rock, also came in 181 S. 

The first English speaking settlers were Ten- 
nesseeans, Kentuckians and Alabamians. The ear- 
liest came down the Mississippi River, and then 
penetrating Arkansas at the mouths of the streams 
from the west, ascended these in the search for 
future homes. The date of the first coming of 
English speaking colonists may be given as 1807, 
those prior to that time being only trappers, 
hunters and voyagers on expeditions of discovery, 
or those whose names can not now be ascertained. 

South Caroliua and Georgia also gave their 
small quotas to the first pioneers of Arkansas. 
From the States south of Tennessee the route was 



overland to the Mississippi River, or to some of its 

j bayous, and then by water. A few of these from 

] the Southern States brought considerable property, 

I and some of them negro slaves, but not many 

I were able to do this. The general rule was to 

I reach the Temtory alone and clear a small piece 

, of ground, and as soon as possible to buy slaves and 

I set them at work in the cotton fields. 

I In 1814 a colony of emigrants, consisting of 

' four families, settled at Batesville. then the Lower 

I Missouri Territory, now the county seat of Inde- 

I pendence County. There was an addition of tif- 

' teen families, to this colony the next year. Of the 

; first was the family of Samuel Miller, father of 

I (afterward) Gov. William R. Miller: there were also 

I John Moore, the Magnesses and Beans. All these 

families left names permanently connected with 

the history of Arkansas. In the colony of 1S15 

(all from Kentucky) were the brothers. Richard, 

John, Thomas and James Peel, sons of Thomas 

Peel, a Virginian, and Kentucky companion of 

Daniel Boone. Thomas Curran was also one of 

the later colonists from Kentucky, a relative of the 

great Irishman, John Philpot Curran. In the 1815 

colony were also old Ben Hardin— heio of so many 

Indian wars — his brother, Joab. and William 

Gritfin. Thomas Wyatt, William Martin, Samn>-1 

Elvin, James Akin, John Reed, James Miller and 

John B. Craig. 

Alden Trimble, who died at Peel, Ark. , in 
April, 1889. aged seventy-four years, was born in 
the Cal Hogan settlement, on White River, Marion 
County, June 14, 1815. This item is gained 
from the obituary notice of his death, and indicates 
some of the very first settlers in that portion of the 
State. 

Among the oldest settled points, after Arkan- 
sas Post, was what is now Arkadelphia. Clark 
County. It was first called Blakelytown. after 
Adam Blakely. He had opened a little store at 
the place, and about this were collected the first 
settlers, among whom may now be named Zack 
Davis, Samuel Parker and Adam Highuight. The 
Blakelys and the names given above were all locat- 
ed in that settlement in the year IS 10. The next 
year came John Hemphill, who was the first to dis- 



■).'rfa 






,k 



30 



HISTOKY OF ARKANSAS. 



cover and utilize the valuable waters of the salt 
springs of that jilace. Ho engaged in the suc- 
cessful manufacture of salt, and was ia time suc- 
ceeded by his son-in-law, Jonathan O. Callaway. 
Jacob Barkmaa settled in Arkadeiphia in ISll. 
He was a man of foresight and enterprise, and 
soon established a trade along the river to Xew 
Orleans. He commenced navigating the river in 
canoes and pirogues, and finally owned and ran in 
the trade the tirst steamboat plying from that 
point to New Orleans. He pushed trade at the 
point of settlement, at the same time advancing 
navigation, and opened a large cotton farm. 

Iq Arkansas County, among the early promi- 
nent men who were active in the county's affairs 
were Eli I. Lewis, Henry Scull, 0. H. Thomas, 
T. Farrelly, Hewes Scull, A. B. K. Thetford and 
Lewis Bogy. The latter afterward removed to 
Missouri, and has permanently associated his name 
with the history of that State. In a subsequent 
list of names should be mentioned those of Will- 
iam Fultony, James Maxwell and James H. Lucas, 
the latter being another of the notable citizens of 
Missouri. 

Carroll County: Judges George Campbell and 
William King, and John Bush, T. H. Clark, Abra- 
ham Shelly, William Nooner, Judge Hiram Davis. 
W. C. Mitchell, Charles Sneed, A. M. Wilson, 
Elijah Tabor. William Beller. M. L. Hawkins, 
John McMillan, M. Ferryman, J. A. Hicks, N. 
Eudd, Thomas Callen, W. E. Armstrong. 

Chicot County: John Clark, William B. Patton. 
Richard Latting, George W. Ferribee. Francis 
Rycroft, Thomas Knox, W. B. Duncan, J. W. 
Boone, H. S. Smith, James Blaine, Abner John- 
son, William Hunt. J. W. Neal, James Murray, 
B. Magrueler, W. P. Reyburn. J. T. White, Jolin 
Fulton, Judge W. H. Sutton. J. Chapman, Hiram 
Morrell, Reuben Smith, A. W. Webb. 

In Clark C'otinty, in the earliest times, were 
W. P. L. Blair, Colbert Baker, Moses Graham, 
Mathew Logan, James Miles, Thomas Drew, 
Daniel Eingo, A. Stroud, David Fisk and Isaac 
Ward. 

Clay County; John J. Griffin, Abraham Rob- 
erts, William Davis, William H. Mack. James 



Watson, J. G. Dudley, James Campbell, Single- 
ton Copeland, C. H. ilobley. 

Conway County: Judge Saffold, David Bar- 
ber, James Kellam, Reuben Blunt, James Barber, 
James Ward, Thomas MatluTs. John Houston, E. 
W. Owen, Judge B. B. Ball. J. I. Simmons, T. S. 
Haynes, B. F. Howard, William Ellis, N. H. 
Buckley, James Ward, Judge Robert McCall, W. 
H. Robertson, L. C. Griffin, Judge W. T. Gamble, 
D. D. Mason, George Fletcher and D. Harrison. 

Craighead County: Rufus Snoddy, Daniel 
O'Guinn. Yancey Broadway, Henry Powell, D. R. 
Tyler, Elias Mackey, William Q. Lane, John Ham- 
ilton, Asa Puckett, Eli Quarles, William Puryear. 

In Crawford County were Henry Bradford, 
Jack Mills, G. C. Pickett, Mark Beane, J. C. Sum- 
ner, James Billingsley. 

Crittenden County : J. Livingston, W. D. Fer- 
guson, W. Goshen, William Cherry, Judge D. H. 
Harrig, O. W. Wallace, S. A. Cherry, Judge 
Charles Blackmore, S. R. Cherry, John Tory, F. 
B. Read, Judge A. B. Hubbins, H. 0. Oders, J. 
H. Wathen, H. Bacon. 

Fulton County: G. W. Archer, William Wells, 
Daniel Hubble, Moses Brannon, John Nichols, 
Moses Steward, Enos C. Hunter, Milton Y'arberry, 
Dr. A. C. Cantrell. 

Greene County: Judge L. Brookfield, L. 
Thompson, James Brown, J. Sutlin, G. Hall, 
Charles Robertson, Judge W. Hane, Judge George 
Daniel, G. L. Martin, J. Stotts. James Eatchford. 
Judge L. Thompson. H. L. Holt, J. L. Atkinson. 
J. Clark, H. N. Reynolds, John Anderson, Ben- 
jamin Crowley, William I'evehouse, John Mitch- 
ell, Aaron Bagwell. A. J. Smith, Wiley Clarkson, 
William Hatch. 

In Hempstead County: J. M. Steward, A. S. 
Walker, Benjamin Clark. A. M. Oakley. Thomas 
Dooley, D. T. Witter, Edward Cross, William 
McDonald. D. Wilburn and James Moss. 

Hot Springs County: L. N. West. G. B. 
Hughes, Judge W. Durham, G. W. Rogers, T. W. 
Johnson, J. T. Grant, J. H. Robinson, H. A. 
Whittington, John Callaway, J. T. Grant, Judge 
G. Whittington, L. Runyan. II. Huson, J. Bank- 
son. Ira Robinson, Judge A. N. Sabin, C. A. Sa- 



,00- 




bill, W. W. McDanipl, W. Dunham, A. B. McDon- 
ald, Joseph Loiaace. 

ladeponilence County : R. Searcy, Robert Bean, 
Charles Kelly, John Reed, T. Curran, John Bean, 
I. Curran, J. L. Daniels, J. Redmon, John Rud- 
dell, C. H. Pelham, Samuel Miller, James Micham, 
James Trimble, Henry Envies, Hartwell Boswell, 
John H. Ringgold. 

Izard County: J. P. Houston, John Adams, 
Judge Mathew Adams, H. C. Roberts, Jesse Adams, 
John Hargrove, J. Blyeth, William Clement, 
Judge J. Jeffrey, Daniel Jeffrey, A. Adams, J. A. 
Harris, W. B. CaiT, Judge B. Hawkins, B. H. 
Johnson, D. K. Loyd, "W. H. Carr, A. Creswell, 
H. W. Bandy. Moses Bishop, Daniel Hively, 
John Gray, William Powell Thomas Richardson, 
William Seymour. 

Jackson County: Judge Hiram Glass, J. C. 
Saylors, Isaac Gray, N. Copeland. Judge E. 
Bartley, John Robinson, A. M. Carpenter, Judge 
D. C. Waters, P. O. Flynn, Hall Roddy, Judge 
R. Ridley, G. W. Cromwell, Sam Mathews, Sam 
Allen, Martin Bridgeman. John Wideman, New- 
ton Arnold, Joseph Haggerton, Holloway Stokes. 

Jefferson County: Judge W. P. Hackett, J. T. 
Pullen, Judge Creed Taylor, Peter German, N. 
Holland, Judge Sam C. Eoane, William Kinkead, 
Thomas O'Neal. E. H. Roane, S. Dardenne. Sam 
Taylor, Judge H. Bradford, H. Edgington. Judge 
W. H. Lindsey, J. H. Caldwell. 

Johnson County: Judge George Jameson, 
Thomas Jenette, S. F. Mason. Judge J. P. Kessie, 
A. Sinclair, William Fritz, W. J. Parks, R. S. 
McMicken, AugustiTs Ward, Judge J. L. Cravens, 
A. M. Ward, M. Rose, A. L. Black, W. A. Ander- 
son, Judge J. B. Brown, A. Sinclair, William 
Adams, W. M. H. Newton. 

Lafayette County: Judge Jacol.i Buzzard, Jesse 
Douglass, Joshua Monir-ou. I. \V. Ward, J. T. 
Conway, W. E. Hodges, J. Morrison, George Doo- 
ley, J. M. Dorr, J. P. Jett. W. B. Conway. \V. 
H. Conway. T. V. Jackson. G. H. Pickering, 
Judge E. M. Lowe, R. F. Sullivan, James Ab- 
rams. 

Lawrence County: Joseph Hardin. Roliert 
Blane, H. Sacidford, John Reed, R. Richardson, 



J. M. Kuykendall. H. R. Hyuson, James Camp- 
bell, D. W. Lowe, Thomas Black, John Rodney, 
John Spotts, William J. Hudson. William .Stuart, 
Isaac Morris, William B. Marshall, John S. Fick- 
lin. 

Madison County : Judge John Bowen, H. B. 
Brown, p. M. Johnson, H. C. Daugherty, M. 
Perryman, T. McCuiston. 

In Miller County: John Clark, J. Ewing, J. H. 
Fowler, B. English, C. Wright, G. F. Lawson, 
Thomas Polk, George Wetmore, David Clark, J. 
G. Pierson, John Morton, N. Y. * Crittenden, 
Charles Burkem, George Colluru, G. C. Wetmore, 
D. C. Steele, G. F. Lawton and Judge G. M. 
Martin. 

Mississippi County: Judge Edwin Jones, J. 
W. Whitworth, E. F. Loyd, S. McLung, G. C. 
Barfield, Judge Nathan Ross. Judge John Troy, 
J. W. Dewitt, J. C. Bowen. Judge Fred Miller, 
Uriah Russell, T. L. Daniel. J. G. Davis, Judge 
Nathan Ross. J. P. Edrington. Thomas Sears, 
A. G. Blackmore, William Kellums, Thomas J. 
Mills, James Williams, Elijah Buford, Peter G. 
Reeves. 

Monroe County: Judge William Ingram, J. C. 
Montgomery, James Eagan, John Maddox, Lafay- 
ette Jones. Judge James Carlton, M. Mitchell, J. 
R. Dye. J. Jacobs. R. S. Bell. 

Phillips County; W. B. R. Horner. Daniel 
j Mooney. S. Phillips. S. "SI. Rutherford, George 
Seaborn. H. L. Bi-^eoe. G. W. Fereby, J. H. 
ilcKenzie, Austin Hendricks, \V. H. Calvert. N. 
Righton, B. Burress, F. Hanks. J. H. :McKeal, 
J. K. Sandford. S. S. Smith, C. P. Smith, J. H. 
McKenzie, S. C. Mooney. I. C. P. Tolleson. Emer 
Askew, P. Pinkst.m, Charles Pearcy, J. B. Ford. 
W. Bettiss. J. Skiuuer. H. Turner and M. Irvin. 

Pike County: Judge W. Sorrels. D. S. Dickin- 
son, John Hughes, J. W, Dickinson, Judge A\'. 
Kelly, Isaac White. J. H, Kirkhan. E. K. Will- 
iams, Henry Brewer. 

Poinsett County: Judges Richard Hall and 
William Harris. Drs. Theopliilus Griffin and John 
P. Hardis, Harrison Ainsworth. Robert H. .Stone, 
Benjamin Harris. 

Pope County: Judge Andrew Scott, Twitty 






.a 



r 

.,:V 









32 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



Pace, H. Stinnett. W. Garrott. W. Mitchell, 
Judge S. K. Blythe, A. E. Pace, J. J. Morse, F. 
Heron, Judge Thomas JMurray. Jr., S. M. Hayes, 
S. S. Hayes. R. S. Witt. Judge Isaac Brown, R. 
T. Williamson. W. W. Rankin. Judge J. J. Morse. 
J. B. Logan. W. C. Webb. 

Pulaski County: R. C Oden, L. R. Curran, 
Jacob Peyatte, A. H. Renick, G. Greathouse. M. 
Cunningham. Samuel Anderson. H Armstrong. T. 
W. Newton, D. E. McKinney, S. M. Rutherford, 

A. McHeniy, Allen Martin. J. H. Caldwell. Judge 
S. S. Hall, 'J. Henderson. William Atchinson. R. 
N. Rowland, Judge Davi>l Rorer. J. K. Taylor, 
R. H. Callaway. A. L. Langham, Judge J. H. 
Co<-ke. W. Badgett, G. N. Peay, J. C. Anthony, 
L. R. Lincoln. A. Martin^ A. S. Walker, Judge 
R. Graves, J. P. and John Fields, J. K. Taylor, 
W. C. Howell, J. Gould, Roswell Beebe. ^\illiam 
Russell, John C. Peay. 

Randolph County: Judge P. R. Pittman. B. J. 
Wiley, William Black, R. Bradford. J. M. Cooper, 

B. J. Wiley, B. M. Simpson, John Janes. James 
Campbell, Samuel McElroy, Edward Mattix, 
Thomas S. Drew, R. S. Bettis. James Russell. 

St. Francis County: Andrew Roane. William 
Strong, S. Crouch, Judge John Johnson, T. J. 
Curl, G. B. Liucecum. William Lewis, Judge 
William Strong, Isaac Mitchell, David Davis, 
Isaac Forbes. Judge William Enos, N. O. Little, 
W. G. Bozeman, H. M. Carothers, Judge R. H. 
Hargrove, H. H. Curl, Cyrus Little. 

Saline County: Judge T. S. Hutchinson, Samuel 
Caldwell, V. Brazil. C. Lindsey. A. Carrick. Judge 
H. Prudden, G. B. Hughes. Samuel Collins, J. J. 
Joiner, J. R. Conway, R. Brazil, E. M. Owen, 
George McDaniel. C. P. Lyle. 

Scott County: Judge Elijah Baker. S. B. 
Walker. James Riley, J. R. Choate. Judge James 
Logan, G. Marshall, Charles Humphrey, W. Cau- 
thorn, G. C. Walker. T. J. Garner. Judge Gilbert 
Marshall. W. Kenner. 

Searcy County: Judge William Wood. William 
Kavanangh. E. M. Hale, Judj^'e Joseph Rea. Will- 
iam Ruttes. Joe Brown, V. Robertson, T. S. Hale, 
Judge J. Campbell. 

Sevier Count v: Judsre John Clark. R. Hart- 



lield. G. Clark. J. T. Little. Judge David Forau, 
P. Little, William White. Charles Moore. A. 
Harttield, Judge J. F. Little, Henry Morris, 
Judge Henry Brown. George Halbrook. Judge 
R. H. Scott, S. S. Smith. 

Sharp County: John King, Roljert Lott, Nich- 
olas Norris, William Morgan, AVilliam J. Gray, 
William Williford, Solomon Hud-peth, Stephen 
English. John Walker. L. D. Dale. John C. Gar- 
ner. R. P. Sniithee. Josiah Richardson, Judge A. 
H. Nunu. William G. Matheny. 

Union County: John T. Cabeen. John Black, 
Jr., Judge John Black. Sr. , Benjamin Gooch, 
Alexander Beard, Thomas O'Neal. Judge G. B. 
Hughes, John Cornish, John Hogg. Judge Hiram 
Smith, J. R. !Moore, John Henry, John Stokeley. 
Judge Charles H. Seay. W. L. Bradley. Judge 
Thomas Owens. 

Van Buren County: Judge J. L. Laferty. P. 
0. Powell, N. Daugherty. Philip Wail. L. Will- 
iams, Judge J. B. Craig, Judge J. M. Baird. J. 
McAllister, Judge AVilliam Dougherty. A. ^Mor- 
rison, George Coimts. A. Caruthers. W. W. Trim- 
ble, R/ Bain. J. O. Young. George Hardin, .\. ^^'. 
McRaines. Judge J. C. Ganier. 
j Washington County: L. Newton, Lewis Evans, 
! John Skelton, Judge Robert Mc-^my, B. H. 
; Smithson. Judge John Wilson, James Marrs. V. 
Caruthers, James Coulter, J. T. Edmonson. Judge 
J. M. Hoge, James Crawford, John McClellan. 
Judge W. B. N\'oody, W. W'. Hester. Judge John 
Cureton, L. C. Pleasants, Isaac ^Inrpliy. D. Calla- 
ghan. Judge Thomas Wilson, W. L. Wallace and 
L. W. Wallace. 

White Conuty: Judge Samuel Guthrie. P. W . 
Roberts, P. Crease. Mieha.'l Owens. M. H. Blue. 
S. Arnold, J. W. Bond, William Cook. J. Arnold. 
Milton Saunders. Jaoes Bird, Samuel Beeler, 
James Walker, ^lartiu Jones. Philij) Hilger. James 
King. L. Pate. John Akin. Reuben Stephens. Sam- 
uel Guthrie. 

WoodrufF County: RoUa Gray, Durant H. 
Bell. John Dennis. Dudley Glass. Michael Hag- 
gerdon, Samuel Taylor, James Barnes, George 
Hatch. John Teague, Thomas -irnold and Thomas 
Houirh. 



I .1 
1 



KgoJ 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



33 



The above were all prominent men in their lo- 
calities daring the Territorial times of Arkansas. 
Many of them have left names and memories inti- 
mately associated with the history of the State. 
They were a part of tho-;e pioneers " who hewed 
the dark, old woods away." and left a rich inheri- 
tance, and a substantial civilization, having wealth, 
refinement and luxm-fes, that were never a part of 
their dreams. They were home makers as well as 
State and Nation builders. They cut out the roads. 
opened their farms, bridged the streams, built 
houses, made settlements, towns and cities, render- 
ing all things possil;(le to their descendants; a race 
of heroes and martyrs pre-eminent in all time for 
the blessings they transmitted to posterity: they 
repelled the painted savage, and exterminated the 
ferocious wild beasts: they worked, struggled and 
endured that others might enjoy the fruits of their 
heroic sacrifices. Their lives were void of evil to 
mankind; possessing little ambition, their touch 
was the bloom and never the blight. Granted, 
cynic, they builded wiser than they knew, yet they 
built, and built well, and their every -iiiocess was 
the triumphant march of peace. Let the record of 
their huml:ile but great lives be immortal! 

The New Madrid earthquake of lSll-12. com- 
mencing in the last of December, and the>ubterra- 
nean forces ceasing after three months' duration, 
was of itself a noted era. bat to the awful disjilay 
of nature's forces was added a far more important 
and lasting event, the result of the silent but 
mighty powers of the human mind. Simulta- 
neously with the hour of the most violent convul- 
sions of nature, the third day of the earthquake. 
there rode out at the mouth of the Ohio, into the 
lashed and foaming waters of the Mississippi, the 
first steamboat that ever ploughed the western 
waters — the steamer "Orleans." Capt. Roosevelt. 
So awful was the display of nature's energies, that 
the granitic earth, with a mighty sound, heaved 
and writhed like a storm-tossed ocean. The great 
river turned back in its How, the waves of the 
ground burst, shooting high in the air, spouting 
sand and water; great forest-covered hills disap- 
peared at the bottom of deep lakes into which 
thev had sunk; and the "sunk land>" are to 



this day marked on the maps of Southeast Mis- 
souri and Northeast Arkansas. The sparse popu- 
lation along the river (New Madrid was a flourish- 
ing young town) fled the country in terror, leav- 
ing mostly their effects and domestic animals. 

The wild riot of nature met in this wilderness 
the triumph of man's genius. "Where else on the 
globe so appropriately could have been this meet- 
ing of the opposing forces as at the mouth of the 
Ohio and on the convulsed bosom of the Father of 
Waters? How feeble, apparently, in this contest, 
were the powers of man; how grand and awful the 
play of nature's forces! The mote struggling 
against the ''wreck of worlds and crush of mat- 
ter." But. "peace be still." was spoken to the 
vexed earth, while the invention- of Fulton will go 
on forever. The revolving paddle-wheels were the 
incipient drive-wheels, on which now ride in tri- 
umph the glories of this great age. 

The movement of immigrants to Arkansas in 
the decade following the earthquake was retarded 
somewhat, whereas, barring this, it should and 
would have been stimulated into activity by the 
advent of steamboats upon the western rivers. The 
south half of the State was in the possession of 
the Quapaw Indians. The Spanish attempts at 
colonizing were jiractieal failures. His Catholic 
majesty was moving in the old ruts of the feudal 
ages, in the deep-seated faith of the " divinity of 
kings," and the paternal powers and duties uf 
rulers. The Bastrop settlement of "thirty fam- 
ilies." by a seigniorial grant in IT'JT, had brought 
years of suffering, disappointment and failure. 
This was an attempt to found a colony on the 
Ouachita River, gi'anting an entire river and a 
strip of land on each side thereof to Bastrop, 
the government to pay the passage of the people 
across the ocean and to feed and clothe them one 
year. To care fi>r its vassals, and to provide 
human breeding grounds; swell the multitudes for 
the use of church and State: to " glorify God " 
by repressing the growing instincts of liberty and 
the freedom of thought, and add subjects to the 
possession and powers of these gilded toads, were 
tLe essence of the oriental schemes for peopling 
the new world. Happily for mankind they failed. 






'Ki 



34 



HISTOllY OF ARKANSAS. 



and the wild beasts returned to care for their young ; a manly spirit of self-reliance and independence, 
in safety and await the comiui,' of the real jiioneers, i These were the successful founders and builders 
they who came bringing little or nothing, save i of empire in the wilderness. 



€iiaPT3ER II. 



-o-<-*-vi^2,s =:^T^;ip-"j;^. ,^^/.,.„-_J.«_ 

Oroanizatiox— The Viceroys .\xd Govekxor.'?— The Attitude of the Royal Owners of Louisiaxa- 

The District Divided— The Territory of Arkansas Formed from the Teri:itouy of Mis.souri 

—The Territorial Government— The First Legislature— The Seat of Government 

—Other Legislative Bodies— The Deullo— Arkansas Admitted to Statehood 

—The Constitutional Conventions— The Mejiorable Reconstruction 

Period— Legislative Attitude on the Question of Secession 

-The War of the Governors, etc., etc. 




V-^ 



N the preceding chapter are 
briefly traced the changes 
in the government of the 
Territory of Louisiana from 
its discovery to the year 
1S03, when it liecame a 
part of the territoiy of 
the L'nited States. Discovered by 
the Sparush, possessed by the French, 
divided and re-divided between the 
French, Spanish and English; set- 
tled by the Holy Mother Church, 
^.^r J in the warp and woof of nations it 
was the Hying shuttle-cock of the 
great weaver in its religion as well 
as allegiance for 2<il years. This 
foundling, this waif of nations, was 
but an outcast, or a trophy chained to the 
triumphal car of the victors among the warring 
Em-opean powers, until in the providence of God 
it reached its haven and abiding home in the 
bosom of the union of States. 

As a French province, the civil government of 
Louisiana was organized, and the Marquis de San- 
ville appointed viceroy or governor in 16S',A 



UNDER FRENXH HULE. 

Robert Cavelier ile La Salle (.\pril 9, 

formal)... l&S'J-lfi*?!? 

ilarquis de Sanville lt>S9-lT00 

Bienville 1701-17 12 

Lamollie Cadillar 1713-171.5 

De L'Epinay 171(>-1717 

Bienville 1718-1723 

Buisbriant (ad iulerim) 1724 

Bienville 1732-1741 

Baron de Kelerec 1753-1762 

D'Abbadie 1763-1766* 

UNDER SPA.NISH RULE. 

Antonio <le Ulloa 1 767-1 76S 

Alexandtr O'Reilly 176S-1769 

Louis de Unzaga 1770-1776 

Beruando de Galvt-z 1777-1784 

Estevar Miro 1785-1787 

Francisco Luis Ilortu, Baron of Caron- 

delet 1789-1702 

Gayoso de Lenios 1703-1798 

Sc'liaslian de Co.^a Calvo y O'Farrell. . .1708-1700 
.Juan Manual de Salcedo 1800-1803 

From the dates already given it will be seen 
that the ofticial acts of Salcedo during his entire 

"Lnuisiana west of tbe Mississippi, altlioiiirb cedud 
to Spain in 1762, remained under French jurisdiclinu 
until 1766. 



r 



■Mii 



■ ujhi 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 1./.?'rC7''lG 



term of office, under the secret treaty of Ildefonso, 
were tainted with irregularity. Thousands of land 
grants had been given by him after he hH<l in fact 
ceased to be the Yieeroy of Spain. The contract- 
ing powers had affixed to the treaty the usual ob- 
ligations of the fultillment of all undertakings, but 
the American couiis and lawyers, in that ancient 
spirit of legal hypercritical technicalities, had 
given heed to the vicious doctrine that acts in good 
faith of a de facto governor may be treated as of 
questionable validity. This was never gijod law, 
because it was never good sense or justice. 

The acts and otHcial doings of these vice-royal- 
ties in the wilderness present little or nothing of 
interest to the student of history, because they 
were local and individual in their bearing. It 
was the action of the powers across the waters, in 
reference to Canada and Louisiana, that in their 
wide and sweeping effects have been nearly omnip- 
otent in shaping civilization. 

Referring to the acquisition of Canada and the 
Louisiana east of the Mississippi River, Bancroft 
says that England exulted in its conquest;* 
enjoying the glory of extended dominion in the 
confident expectation of a boundless increase of 
wealth. But its success was due to its having 
taken the lead in the good old struggle for liberty, 
and it was destined to bring fruits, not so much to 
itself as to the cause of freedom and mankind. 

France, of all the States on the continent of 
Europe the most powerful, by territorial unity, 
wealth, numbers, industry and culture, seemed 
also by its place marked out for maritime ascend- 
ency. Set between many seas it rested upon the 
Mediterranean, possessed harbors on the German 
Ocean, and embraced between its wide shores and 
jutting headlands the bays and open waters of the 
Atlantic; its people, infolding at one extreme the 
offspring of colonists from Greece, and at the 
other the hardy children of the Northmen, being 
called, as it were, to the inheritance of life upon 
the sea. The nation, too. readily conceived or ap- 
propriated great ideas and delighted in bold re- 
solves. Its travelers had penetrated farthest into 



*B;uirroft. vol. iv.— 1")7; 
Louisuuie, vol.' ii.-lil. 



'('avarre'3 Ilis-toire de la 



the fearful interior of unknown lands; its mission- 
aries won most familiarly the conHdence of the 
aboriginal hordes; its writers described v.itli 
keener and wiser observation the forms of nature 
in her wildness. and the habits and languages of 
savage man; its soldiers, and every lay Frenchman 
in America owed military service, uniting beyond 
all others celerity with courage, knew best how to 
endure the hardships of forest life and to triumph 
in forest warfare. Its ocean chivalry had given a 
name and a colony to Carolina, and its merchants 
a people to Acadia. The French discovered the 
basin of the St. Lawrence; were the first to ex- 
plore and possess the banks of the Mississippi, and 
planned an American empire that should unite the 
widest valleys and most copious inland waters in 
the world. But over all this splendid empire in 
the old and the new world w-as a government that 
was medieval — mured in its glittering palaces, 
taxing its subjects, it would allow nothing to come 
to the Louisiana Territory but what was old and 
worn out. French America was closed against even 
a gleam of intellectual independence; nor did ail 
Louisiana contain so much as one dissenter from 
the Roman Church. 

'■ We have caught them at last," exultingly ex- 
claimed Choiseul, when he gave up the Canadas 
to England and the Louisiana to Spain. " Eng- 
land will ere long repent of having removed the 
only check that could keep her colonies in awe. * 
* * She will call on them to support the bur- 
dens they have helped to bring on her, and they 
will answer by striking off all dependence." said 
Yergennes. 

These keen-witted Frenchmen, with a pene- 
tration far beyond the ablest statesmen of Eng- 
land, saw. as they believt'd. and time has con- 
firmed, that in the humiliation and elismember- 
ment of the territory of France, especially the 
transfer to England of Canada, they had la d the 
mine which some day would destroy the British 
colonial system, and probably eventuate in the 
independence of the American colonies. The in- 
tellect of France was keeping step with the spirit 
of the age; it had been excluded of course from 
the nation's councils, but saw what its feeble 



#» 






J:=^ 



30 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



government neither could see nor prevent, that the 
distant wilderness possessed a far greater impor- 
tance on the world's new map than was given it 
by the gold and gems it was supposed to contain; 
and that the change of allegiance of the colonies 
was the great step in the human mind, as it was 
slowly emerging from the gloom and darkness of 
the middle ages. Thus it was that the mere Terri- 
tory of Louisiana, before it was peojJed by civilized 
man, was playing its important part in the world's 
greatest of all dramas. 

The first otficial act of our government, after 
the purchase of Louisiana, was an act of Congress, 
March 26, ISO-t, dividing Louisiana into two dis- 
tricts, and attaching the whole to Indiana Terri- 
tory, under the government of William Henry 
Harrison. The division in Louisiana was by a lino 
on the thirty-third parallel; the south was named 
the District of Orleans; that north of it was named 
the District of Louisiana. This is now the south 
line of the State of Arkansas. 

In 1805 the District of Louisiana was erected in- 
to the Territory of Louisiana. It was however a terri- 
tory of the second class and remained under the gov- 
ernment and control of Indiana Territory until 1S12. 

By act of June 4, 1812. the name of Louisiana 
Territory was changed and became the Missouri 
Territory, being made a territory of the tirst class, 
and given a territorial government. Capt. William 
Clark, of the famous Lewis and Clark, explorers of 
the northwest, was appointed governor, remaining 
as such until 1819, when Arkansas Territory was 
cut off from Missouri. 

The act of 1812, changing the District of 
Louisiana to Missouri Territory, provided for a 
Territorial legislature consisting of nine members, 
and empowered the governor to lay off that 
part where the Indian title had been extinguished 
into thirteen counties. The county of New 
Madrid, as then formed, extended into the Arkan- 
sas territorial limits, '"down to the 3Iississippi to 
a point directly east of the mouth of Little Red 
River; thence to the mouth of Red River; thence 
np the Red River to the Osage purchase.'' etc^ 
In other words it diil not embrace the whole of 
what is now Arkansas. 



Decemljer 13, 1813, the County of Arkansas. 
Missouri Territory, was formed, and the county 
seat was fixed at Arkansas Post. * 

Besides Arkansas County, Lawrence Countv 
was formed January 15, 1815, and Clark, Hemp- 
stead and Pulaski Counties. December 15. 1S18. 

Missouri neglected it seems to provide a judi- 
cial district for her live southern or Arkansas 
counties. Therefore Congress, in 1814, authorized 
the President to appoint an additional judge for 
Missouri Territory, ' ' who should hold office four 
years and reside in or near the village of Arkan- 
sas," — across the river from Arkansas Post. 

March 2, 1S19, Congress created the Territory 
of Arkansas out of the Missouri Territory. It was 
only a territory of the second class, and the ma- 
chinery of government consisted of the governor 
and three judges, who constituted the executive, 
judicial and legislative departments, their offi- 
cial acts requiring the consent of Congress. Pres- 
ident Monroe appointed James Miller, governor; 
Robert Ciittendeu, secretary; Charles Jouett. 
-Ajidrew Scott and Robert P. Letcher, judges of the 
superior court. The act designated Arkansas Post 
as the temporary seat of government. In the al)- 
senee of the Governor, Robert Crittenden, "act- 
ing governor," convened the first session of the 
provisional government on August 3, 1819. The 
act continued the new territory under the laws of 
Missouri Territory. The five counties designated 
above as formed prior to the division of Arkansas. 
had been represented in the Missouri Territorial 
legislature. Elijah Kelly, of Clai'k County, was a 
representative, and he rode on horseback from his 
home to St. Louis. The session was probably not 
a week in length, and the pay and mileage little 
or nothing. 

This tirst Territorial legislature appointed a 
treasurer and auditor, provided a tax for general 
purposes, and divided the five counties into two 
judicial circuits: First. Arkansas and Lawrence 
Counties ; Second. Pulaski. Clark and Hempstead 
Counties. 

* During ttie latter part of the eighteentU century, 
snmethinij of tlje ■;ami' muiiicipnl divismn was niaiit-, ;in<l 
I ailed ■■ Arkansas Paristi," tlie n.ame being derived 
from an old Indian t(jwu called ArkaiiM-a. 



■Jiltl 



1 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



37 



April 21, 1S2U. Congress passed aa act per- 
fecting the Territorial organization, and applying 
the same provisions to Arkansas that wore contained 
in the act creating Missonri into a Territory of the 
first class. 

The tirst legislative body elected in Arkansas 
convened at Ai'kansas Post, February 7 to 'H, 1S20. 
In the council were: President, Edward McDonald; 
secretary, Richard Searcy; members, Arkansas 
County, Sylvan us Phillips; Clark Coauty. Jacob 
Barkman; Hempstead County, David Clark; 
Lawrence County, Edward ilcDonald; Pulaski 
County, John McElmurry. In the house of rep- 
resentatives: Speaker, Joseph Hardin (William 
Stephenson was tirst elected, served one day and 
resigned, on account of indisposition); J. Cham- 
berlain, clerk; members, Arkansas County, W. B. 
R. Horner, W. O. Allen; Clark, Thomas Fish; 
Hempstead, J. English, W. Stevenson; Lawrence, 
Joseph Hardin, Joab Hardin; Pulaski, Radford 
Ellis, T. H. Tindall. This body later adjourned to 
meet October following, continuing in session until 
the 2oth. 

At this adjourned session the question of the 
removal of the Territorial seat of government from 
Arkansas Post to ""the Little Rock," came up on 
a memorial signed by Amos Wheeler and others. 
"The Little Rock" was in contradistinction to 
"the Rocks," as were known the beautiful bluffs, 
over 200 feet high, a little above and across the 
river from "the Little Rock." In 1S2() Gov. 
Miller visited the Little Rock — Petit Rocher — 
with a view to selecting a new seat of government. 
The point designated was the northeast corner of 
the Quapaw west line and Arkansas River. Im- 
mediately upon the formation of the Territory, 
prominent parties L^gan to look out for a more 
central location for a capital higher up the river, 
and it was soon a general understanding that the 
seat of government and the county seat of Pulaski 
County, the then adjoining county above Arkansas 
County on the river, would be located at the same 
place, A syndicate was formed and Little Rock 
Bluff was pushed for this double honor. The 
government had not yet opened the land to pub- 
lic entry, as the title of the Quapaws had ju.-.t bveu 



extinguished. These jiarties resorted to the expe- 
dient of locating upon the land ''Now Madrid 
tloats," orclaims, uadi'r the act of February 17, 
1S15, which authorized any one whose land had 
been " materially injured " by the earthquake of 
1811 to locate the like quantity of laud on any of 
the public lands ojien for sale. Several hundred 
acres were entered under these claims as the fut- 
ure town site. The county seat of Pulaski County 
was, contrary to the expectation of the Little Rock 
syndicate, located at Cadron, near the mouth of 
Cadron Creek, where it enters the Arkansas River. 

On the ISth day of October, 1S20, the Terri- 
torial seat of government was removed from the 
Post of Arkansas to the Little Rock, the act to 
take effect June 1, 1821. The next Territorial 
legislature convened in Little Rock, October 1 to 
24, 1821. The council consisted of Sam C. Roane, 
president, and Richard Searcy, secretary. In the 
house William Trimble was speaker, and A. H. 
Sevier, clerk. 

The third legislature met October 6 to 31, 
1823. Sam C. Roane was president of the coun- 
cil, and Thomas AV. Newton, secretary; while T. 
Farrelly was speaker, and D. E. McKinney, clerk 
of the house. 

The fourth legislature was held October 3 to 
November 3, 1825. Of the council, the president 
was Jacob Barkman; secretary, Thomas W. New- 
ton. Of the house, Robert Bean was speaker; 
David Barber, clerk. 

The fifth Territorial legislature was held October 
1 to 31, 1827, and a special session held October 
6 to October 28, 1828; E. T. Clark served as presi- 
dent of the council, and John Clark, secretary; 
J. Wilson was speaker of the house, and Daniel 
Ringo, clerk. 

In the sixth legislature, Charles Caldwell was 
president of the council, and John Caldwell, secre- 
tary; John Wilson was speaker of the house, and 
Daniel Ringo, clerk. 

The seventh legislature held October 3 to 
November 7, 1S31, had Charles Caldwell as presi- 
dent of the council, and Absalom Fowler, secre- 
tary; William Trimble was speaker of the house, 
and G. W. .Ferebee, secretary. 



( ■■\--'V\ 



.t; li- 



: lil 



I'-'ii a i.i;;- 




In the eighth legishiture, October 7 to Novem- 
ber 16, 1S3;3, John A\'illiamsou was president of the 
council and William F. Yeomans, secretary: John 
AMlson was speaker of the house, and James B. 
Keatts, clerk. 

The ninth legislature met October 5 to Novem- 
ber 10. 1S85. The president of the senate was 
Charles Caldwell; secretary, S. T. Sanders. John 
Wilson was speaker of the house and L. B. Tiilly, 
clerk. 

This was the last of the Territorial assemblies. 
James Miller was succeeded as governor by George 
Izard, March 4, 1S25. and Izard by John Pope, 
March 9, 1S29. William Fulton followed Pope 
March 9, 1831"), and held the office until Arkansas 
became a State. 

Robert Crittenden was secretary of State 
(nearly all of Miller's term "acting governor "j, 
appointed March 8, 1S19, and was succeeded in 
ofiBce by T\'illiam Fulton, April S, IS'29; Fulton 
was succeeded by Lewis Randolph, February 23, 
1835. 

George W. Scott was appointed Territorial 
auditor August 5, 1819. and was succeeded by 
Richard C. Byrd, November 20, 1S29; Byrd was 
followed by Emzy Wilson, November 5, 1831; and 
the latter by William Pelham. November 12, 1833. 
his successor being Elias N. Conway. July 25,1835. 

James Scull, appointed treasurer August 5, 
1819, was succeeded by S. M. Rutherford, Novem- 
ber 12, 1833, who continued in office until the 
State was formed. 

The counties in 1825 had been increased in num- 
ber to thirteen: Arkansas, Clark, Conway, Chicot, 
Crawford, Crittenden, Lawrence, Miller, Hemp- 
stead, Independence, Pulaski, Izard and Phillips. 
The territory was divided into four judicial cir- 
cuits, of which William Trimble, Benjamin John- 
son, Thomas P. Eskridge and James Woodson 
Bates were, in the order named, the judges. The 
delegates in Congress from Arkansas Territory were 
James W. Bates, 1820-23; Henry W. Conway, 
1823-29; Ambrose H. Sevier. 1829-30. 

The Territorial legislature, in common with all 
other legislatiu'es of that day, passed some laws 
which would have been much better not passed, and 



others that remained a dead letter on the books. 
Among other good laws which were never enforced 
was one against duelling. In 1825 Whigs and 
Democrats allowed party feelings to run high, and 
some bloody duels grew out of the heat of cam- 
paigns. 

Robert Crittenden and Henry W. Conway 
fought a duel October 29, 1827. At the first lire 
Conway fell mortally wounded and died a fortnight 
thereafter. 

December 4, 1837, John Wilson, who, it will 
be noticed, figured prominently in the preceding 
record of the Territorial assemblies, was expelled 
from the house of representatives, of which body 
he was speaker, for killing J. J. Anthony. 

A constitutional convention, for the purpose of 
arranging for the Territory to become a State in th"^ 
Union, was held in Little Rock, in January, 1836. 
Its duty was to prepare a suitable constitution and 
.submit it to Congress, and, if unobjectionable, to 
have an act passed creating the State of Arkan- 
sas. John AMlson was president, and Charles P. 
Bertrand, secretary, of the convention. Thirty- 
live counties were represented by fifty- two members. 

June 15, 1836, Arkansas was made a State, 
and the preamble of the act recites that there was 
a population of 47, 700. 

The first State legislature met September 12 to 
November 8, 1836, later adjourning to Novemlier 
6, 1837, and continued in session until March 5, 
1S38. The president of the senate was Sam C. 
Roane; secretary, A. J. Greer; the speaker of the 
house was John Wilson (he was expelled and 
Gramiison D. Royston elected) ; clerk, S. H. Hemp- 
stead. 

The second constitutional convention, held 
January 4 to January 23, 1864, had as president. 
John McCoy, and secretary, R. J. T. White. This 
convention was called by virtue of President Lin- 
coln's proclamation. The polls had been opened 
chiefly at the Federal military posts, and the major- 
ity of delegates were realh' refugees from many of 
the counties they represented. It simply was an 
informal meeting of the Union men in response to 
the President's wish, and they mostly made their 
own credentials. The Federal army occupied the 



: ■!■! 



I ; ' ■;■ ••!■ -i 



,n,iT 






HISTORY OF AKKAXSAS. 



39 



Arkansas River and points north, while the south 
portion of the State was held by the Confederates. 
It is said the convention on important legal ques- 
tions was largely influenced by Hon. T. D. W. 
Yonly, of Pulaski County. The convention prac- 
tically re-enacted the constitution of 1S36. abolished 
slavery, already a fact, and created the separate 
otlice of lieutenant-governor, instead of the former 
ex-officio president of the senate. The machinery 
of State government was thus once more in oper- 
ation. The convention wisely did its work and 
adjourned. 

The next constitutional convention was held 
January 7 to February IS, 1SG8. Thomas M. 
Bowen was president, and John G. Price, secretary. 
The war was over and the Confederates had re- 
turned and were disposed to favor the constitution 
which they found the Unionists had adopted in 
their absence, and was then in full force in the 
State. Isaac Murphy (Federal) had been elected 
governor under tbe constitution of 1S64, and all 
the State offices were under couti'ol of the Union- 
ists. 'His term as governor would expire in July, 
18G8. 

This convention made sweeping changes in the 
fundamental laws. The most prominent w.ere the 
disfranchisement of a large majority of the white 
voters of the State, enfranchising the negroes, and 
providing for a complex and plastic system of reg- 
istration. This movement, and its severe character 
throughout, were a part of the reconstruction 
measures emanating from Congress. Arkansas 
was under military rule and the constitution of 
1804, and this condition of affairs, had been ac- 
cepted by the returned conquered Confederates. 
But the Unionists, who had tied to the Federal 
military posts for protection, were generally eager 
to visit their vanquished enemies with the severest 
penalties of the law. A large part of the intel- 
ligence and tax-payers of the State were indis- 
criminately excluded from the polls, and new vot- 
ers and new men came to the front, with grievances 
to be avenged and ambitions to be gratified. The 
unusual experiment of the reversal of the civic 
conditions of the ex-slaves with their former mas- 
ters was boldly undertaken. Impetuous men now 



prevailed in the name of patriotism, the natural 
retlex swing of the pendulum — the anti-climax was 
I this convention of reconstruction to the convention 
i of secession of 18G1. The connection between 
these two conventions — 18fJI-lS6S — is so blended 
! that the convention of '(51 is omitted in its chro- 
i nological order, that the two may be set properly 
! side by side. 

I March 4, 1801, a State convention assembled 

I in Little Rock. The election of delegates was 
j on February 18, preceding. The convention met 
j the day Abraham Lincoln was inducted into office 
as president of the United States. The people of " 
Arkansas were deeply concerned. The conserva- 
tive minds of the State loved the Union as sin- 
j cerely as they regretted the wanton assaults that 
j had been made upon them by the extremists of the 
I North. The members of that convention had 
been elected with a view to the consideration of 
those matters already visible in the dark war-clouds 
lowering upon the counti'y. The test of the un- 
ion and disunion sentiment of that body was the 
election of president of the convention. Judge 
David AValker (Union) received forty votes against 
thirty-five votes for Jurlge B. C. Totten. Hon. 
Henry F. Thomasson introduced a series of con- 
servative resolutions, condemning disunion and 
looking to a convention of all the States to '"settle 
the slavery question " and secure the perpetuation 
of tie Union. The resolutions were passed, and 
the convention adjourned to meet again in 3Iay fol- 
lowing. This filled the wise and conservative men 
of the State with great hopes for the future. But, 
most unfortunately, when the convention again 
met war was already upon the country, and the 
ordinance of secession was passed, with but one 
negative vote. The few days between the adjourn- 
ment and re-assembling of the convention had not 
made traitors of this majority that had so recent- 
ly_condemned disunion. The swift-moving events, 
everywhere producing consternation and alarm, 
called out determined men, and excitement ruled 
the hour. 

The conventions of ISOl and 18*58 — secession 
and reconstruction! When the long - gathering 
cloud-burst of civil war had passed, it left a cen- 



■■•] 






40 



HISTOKY UF ARKANSAS. 



tiiry"s trail of broken hearts, desolated homes, 
ruined lives, and a stream of demoralization over- 
flowing the beautiful valleys of the land to the 
mountain tops. The innocent and unfortunate ne- 
gro was the stumbling-block at all times. The con- 
vention of 1S61 would have foiinded an empire of 
freedom, buttressed in the slavery of the black man; 
theconveution of 1S68 preferred to rear its great col- 
umn of liberty upon the ashes of the unfortunate 
past; in every era the wise, conservative and patriotic 
sentiment of the land was chained and bound to 
the chariot- wheels of rejoicing emotion. Frndence 
and an intelligent insight into the future alone 
could prevent men from '' losing their reason." 

The constitution of 180S, as a whole, was not 
devoid of merit. It opened the way for an age of 
internal improvements, and intended the establish- 
ment of a liberal public free school system, and at 
the same time provided safeguards to protect the 
public treasury anel restrain reckless extravagance. 

Then the legislatures elected under it. the State 
officers, and the representatives in the upper and 
lower Congress, were in political accord with the 
dominant party of the country. Gen. Grant was 
president; Powell Clayton, governor; Robert J. L. 
White, secretary of State; J. R. Berry, auditor, 
and Henry Page, treasurer. The first legislature 
under the constitution of ISOS passed most lilieral 
laws to aid railroads and other internal improve- 
ments, and provided a system of revenue laws to 
meet the new order of affairs. During ISOU to 
1S71 railroad aid and levee bonds to the amount of 
$10,419,773.7-1 were issued. The supreme court 
of the State in after years declared the railroad 
aid, levee and Halford bonds void, aggregating 
§8,604,773.74. Before his term of governor had 
expired. Gov. Clayton was ele<'ted United States 
senator (1871-77), and in 1873 Hon. Stephen AV. 
Dorsey was elected to a like position. 

The climax and the end of reconstruction in 
Arkansas will always be an interesting paragrai)h 
in the State's hk^tory. Elisha Baxter and Ju.-^eph 
Brooks were the gubernatorial candidat.'s at tlje 
election of 1872. Both were ItepulilicMns. an.l 
Brooks was considered one of tiie mu-^t ardent of 
that party. Baxter was the nouiince of the party 



and on the same ticket with Grant, who was can- ' 
didate for president. Brooks was nominated on a 
mixed ticket, maile up by disaffected Republican-, 
but on a more liberal platform toward the Demo- 
crats than the regular ticket. On the face of the 
first returns the Greeley electors and the Brooks 
ticket were in the majority, but when the votes 
were finally canvassed, such changes were made, 
from illegal voting or bulldozing it was claimed, 
as to elect the Grant and Baxter tickets. Under 
the constitution of 1808, the legislature was de- 
clared the sole judge of the election of State oflicers. 
Brooks took his case before that body at its Jan- 
uary term, 1873 — at which time Baxter was in- 
augurated — but the assembly decided that Baxter 
was elected, and, whether right or wrong, every 
one supposed the question permanently settled. 

Brooks however, went before the supreme 
court (McClure being chief justice), that body 
promptly deciding that the legislature was by law 
the proper tribunal, and that as it had determined 
the case its action was final and binding. Bax- 
ter was inaugurated in January, 1873; had been 
declared elected by the proper authorities, and 
this had been confirmed by the legislature, the 
action of the latter being distinctly approved 
by the supreme court. The adherents of Brooks 
had supposed that they were greatly wronged, 
but like good citizens all acquiesced. Those 
who had politically despised Brooks — perhaps 
the majority of his voters — had learned to svm- 
pathize with what they believed were his and 
their mutual wrongs. Baxter had peacefully ad- 
ministered the otfice more than a year, when 
Brooks went before Judge John ^\'hytock. of the 
Pulaski circuit court, and commenced qxo wnrrcmto 
proceedings against Baxter. The governor's at- 
torneys tiled a demurrer, and the case stood over. 
Wednesday, April 15, 1874, Judge Whj-tock, in 
the absence of Baxter's attorneys, overruled the de- 
murrer, giving judgment of ouster against Baxter, 
and instantly Brooks, with an officer, ha.stened to 
the State house, demanded the surrender of the 
otfice. and arrested Baxter. Thus a stroke of the 
pen by a mere circuit court judge in banc plimged 
the State into tumult. 



.J J 
'■■■'{ 

■ ho 

i I 
•.oh . 

■ h 



v.* 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



41 



Couriers sped over the city, and the tiyinc; news 
gave the {)eople a g^onuine sensation. Indeed, not 
only Baxter Init the State and the nation received 
a great surprise. 

As soon as Baxter was released, though only 
under arrest a few minutes, he tied to St. John's 
College, in the city, and from this headquarters 
called for soldiers, as did Brooks from the 
State house, and alas, poor Arkansas! there were 
now again two doughty governors beating the 
long roll and swiftly forming in the ranks of war. 
Brooks converted the State house and grounds 
into a garrison, while Baxter made headquarters 
at the old Anthony Hotel, and the dead-line be- 
tween the armed foes was ^lain Street. Just in 
time to prevent mutual annihilation, though not 
in time to prevent bloodshed, some United States 
soldiers arrived and took up a position of armed 
neutrality between the foes. 

If there can be anything comical in a tragedy 
it is furnished just here in the fact that, in the 
twinkling of an eye, the adherents and voters of the 
two governors had changed places, and each was 
now lighting for the man whom he had opposed so 
vehemently. And in all these swift changes the 
supreme court had shown the greatest agility. 
By some remarkable legerdemain, Brooks, who was 
intrenching himself, had had his case again placed 
before the supreme court, and it promptly reversed 
itself and decided that the circuit court had juris- 
diction. The wires to Washington were kept hot 
with messages to President Grant and Congress. 
The whole State was in dire commotion with " ' mus- 
tering squadrons and clattering cars." The fre- 
quent popping of picket guns was in the land; a 
steamboat, laden with arms for Baxter, was at- 
tacked and several killed and many wounded. 
Business was again utterly prostrated and horrors 
brooded over the unfortunate State; and probably 
the most appalling feature of it all was that in the 
division in the ranks of the people the blacks, led 
by whites, were mostly on one side, while the 
whites were arrayed on the other. Congress sent 
the historical Poland Committee to investigate 
Arkansas affairs. President Grant submitted all 
legal questions to his attorney-general. 



The President, at the end of thirty days after 
the forcible possession of the office, sustained Bax- 
ter— exit Brooks. The end of the war, the cli- 
max of reconstruction in Arkansas, had come. 
Peace entered as swiftly as had war a few days be- 
fore. The sincerity and intensity of the people's 
happiness in this linal ending are found in the fact 
that when law and order were restored no one was 
impeached, no one was imprisoned for treason. 

The report of the Poland Committee, 1874, 
the written opinion of Attorney-General Williams, 
the decision of the Arkansas supreme court by 
Judge Samuel W. Williams, found in Vol, XXIX of 
Arkansas Reports, page 173, and the retiring mes- 
sage of Governor Baxtei', are the principal records 
of the literature and history of the reign of the 
dual governors. The students of law and history 
in coming time will turn in(^uiring eyes with 
curious interest upon these official pages. The 
memory of "the thirty days" in Arkansas will 
live forever, propagating its lessons and bearing 
its warnings; the wise moderation and the spirit 
of forbearance of the people, in even their exult- 
ing hour of triumph, will be as beacon lights 
shining out upon the troubled waters, transmit- 
ting for all time the transcendent fact that in the 
hour of supreme trial the best intelligence of the 
people is wiser than their rulers, better law- 
givers than their statesmen, and incomparably 
supenor to their courts. 

The moment that President Grant otficially 
spoke, the reconstruction constitution of 1S6S was 
doomed. True, the people had moved almost in 
mass and without leadership in 1873, and had 
repealed Article VIII of the constitution, disfran- 
chising a large part of the intelligent tax-payers 
of the State. 

The constitutional convention of 1874, with 
the above facts fresh before it, met and promul- 
gated the present State constitution. G. D. Koy- 
ston was president, and T. W. Newton, secretary. 
The session lasted from July 14 to October 31, 
1874. From the hour of its adoption the clouds 
rolled away, and at once commenced the present 
unexampled prosperity of the State. Only here and 
there in Little Rock and other ^joints in the State 



^.' ■■,dl ' 



yX)i«i 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



may one see the mute but eloquent mementos of 
the past, in the clilajiidaled buikliiii^s, eoatiscated 
during the lifetime of some former owner, may- 
hap, some once eminent citizen, now in his grave 
or self- expatriated from a State which his life 
and genius had adorned and helped make great. 
Municipalities and even small remote districts are 
paying off the last of heavy debts of the ' ' flush 
times. ' ' Long suffering and much chastened State 
and people, forgetting the past, and full of hope for 
the future, are fitly bedecking (though among the 
youn<rest) the queenliest in the sisterhood of States. 
In this connection it will be of much interest to 
notice the names of those individuals, who, by 
reason of their association with various public 
affairs, have become well and favorably known 
throughout the State. The term of service of each 
incumbent of the respective offices has been pre- 
served and is here given. The following table 
includes the acting Territorial and State governors 
of Arkansas, with date of inauguration, party pol- 
itics, etc: 



Territory 
and State. 



a ~i 



James .Miller- 
George Izarti.. 

John Pope 

Wm. Fullon... 



J. S. C 
Archibald Tell. 
Samuel .\dams, 

T. S. Drew 

J. Williamson.. 

E. C. Hyrd 

J. S. Roane 

R. C. Byrd 

J. R. Hampton 
E. N. Conwav.. 
E. N. Conway.. 
H. M. Rector... 

T. Fletcher 

H. Flannagin.. 

I. Murphy 

P. Clayiou 

O. A. Hadley ... 
E. Baxter 

A. H. Garland. 
W. K. Miller.... 
W. R .Miller.... 
T. J. Churchill 
J. H. Berrv 

B. T. Embry... 
•S. P. HuEhea... 
J. W. StaytOD.. 
S. P. Huiihes... 
D. E. Barker... 
J. P. Eagle 



March 4, 1SJ3 



Sept- 



App'fd: 
App'td 
App I'd 

:App't'd 

I 1S36 
1 184U 
; .Acting .\pr. '.^9 to N 
1^44; November; 
Acting! Apr. 9 to Mav 
Jau. 11 to Apr. 1 



1849 
Acting 
Acting 

18.52 

lSa4| 

l.SOul 
Actingi S( 

ISliij 

lSB4i 

18C8| 
Acting 

187:21 

1S74I 

1S76I 



April 19, 



Xovember 1.5, 

November 17, 

NoTember 15, 

V. 4 to Not. 1,5 

November 15 

April IS, 

July ■:. 

January 17, 

January •>, 

November I--'. 



, \S2'J 
. IS.-jo 
, I83C, 4 
, 1840 4 
, 1844 
, 1.S44 5 
, l^i4li 
, l.>^49 
1849* 
1849 
1.S.51 
185-J 4 
18.W4 



18i;n2 



>>- 


-I 


f " 








~ 




~ 


Dem. 


l,lir2S 


7,716 


Dem. 






Dem. 


1,731 P 


17,38T 


Dem. 


163 


6,809 


Pern. 


'ifi-n 


27.857 


Hem. 


\i:M\i 


43,861 


1. D. 


2,4fil 


61.198 


Con. 


(no re 


cordt 


l.V.n. 


10,(11-,' 


2C..266 


1-ed. 


( no re 


cord) 


Kep. 


( no re 


cord ) 


to-p. 
Hep. 


(no re 

■J.'.IIH 


cord) 

8U,72I 



.ss,7.i(i 
33,761 
28,481 

45,236 

17,411 

15,u06 



108,633 

ir),lil9 
147,169 

156,310 

16.3,889 

187,397 



' Special election. 



The secretaries of Arkansas Territory have 1 leen : 
Robert Crittenden, appointed March 3, ISIU; 
William Fulton, appointed April 8, 1829: Lewis 
Randolph, appointed February !23, 1S35. 

Secretaries of State: Robert A. Watkins, 
September 10, 1831], to November 12, 1S40.: D. 
B. Greer, November 12, 1840, to May 'J. Ib42; 
John "Winfrey, acting. May U, to August 9, 18-1:2: 
D. B. Greer, August 19, 18-tO, to September 3. 
1S59 (died); Alexander Boileau, Septembers. 1829, 
to January 21, ISfiO; S. M. Weaver, January 21, 
1860, to March 20, 1800; John I. Stirman. March 
24, 1860. to November 13, 1862: O. H. Gates. 
November 13, 1802, to April IS, 1864; Robert J. 
T. AVhite, Provisional, from January 24, to January 
6, 1873; J. M. Johnson. January 6, 1873, to No- 
vember 12, 1874; B. B. Beavers, November 12, 
1874, to January 17, 1870; Jacob Frolich, January 
17. 1879, to January, 1SS5; E. B. Moore, January, 
1S85, to January, 1889; B. B. Chism (present in- 
cumbent). 

Territorial auditors of Arkansas: George W. 
Scott, August 5, 1819, to November. 20. 1829: 
Richard C. Byrd, November 20, 1829, to Novem- 
ber 5, 1831; Emzy Wilson, November 5, 1831, to 
November 12, 1833; William Pelham. November 
12, 1833, to July 25, 1835; Elias N. Conway. 
July 25, 1835, to October 1, 1836. 

Auditors of State: Elias N. Conway, October 

I, 1830, to May 17, 1841; A. Boileau, May 17, 
1841, to July 5, 1841 (acting); Elias N. Conway, 
July 5, 1841, to January 3, 1849; C. C. Dataley, 
Januarys, 1S49, to September 16. 1854 (resignedi: 
W. R. Miller, September 16, 1854, to January 28. 
1855; A. S. Huey, January 23, 1855, to January 
23, 1857; W. R. Miller, January 23, 1857. to March 
5, 1860; H. C. Lowe, March 5, 1860. to January 24. 
1861 (acting); W. R. Miller. January 24. 1S61. to 
AprillS, 1864; J. R. Berry. April 18, 1864. to Oc- 
tober 15, 1866; Stephen Wheeler, .January 6. 1873. 
to November 12, 1874; W. R. :\[iller, Octolier 15. 
1866. to July 2, 1868; John Crawford, January 

II, 1877, to January 17, 18S3; A W. Files, Jan- 
uary, 1883. to January, 1887; A\'illiam R. Miller 
(died in office), January, 1887, to November, 1887: 
W. S. Dunlop, ajipointed November 30, 1887. to 



Vl^ 



.1 T 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



43 



January. ISSU; AV. S. Dunlop, January, ISS'J 
(presput incumbent). 

Territorial treasurers: James Scull, August 15, 
1S19, to November 12, ISiJH; S. M. Rutherford, 
November 12, 1S33. to October 1, 1S30. 

State treasurers: W. E. Woodruff. October 1, 
1830. to November 20, 1S3S; John Hutt, November 
20, 1S3S, to February 2, 1843; John C. Martin, 
February 2, 1843, to January 4, 1845; Samuel 
Adams. January 4, 1845. to January 2, 1849: Will- 
iam Adams, January 2, 1849, to January 10, 1849; 
John H. Crease. January 10, 1849, to January 20. 
1855; A. H. Rutherford, January 27, 1855, to Feb- 
ruary 2, 1857; J. H. Crease, February 2. 1857, to 
February 2, 1S59; John Quindley, February 2, 1859, 
to December 13, ISOt) (died); Jared C. Martin, 
December 13. 1860. to February 2, ISGl; Oliver 
Basham. February 2. 1861. to April IS. 1864; E. 
D. Ayers, April IS. 1S64, to October 15, 1866; L. 
B. Ciuiningham. October 15, 1866, to August 19, 
1867 (removed by military); Henry Page, August 
19, 1867 (military appointment), elected 1868 to 
1874 (resigned); R. C. Newton. May 23, 1874, to 
November 12. 1874; T. J. Churchill, November 
12, 1874, to January 12, 1881; W. E. Woodruff, 
Jr., January 12, ISSl, to January, 1S91. 

Attorneys-general: Robert W. Johnson, 1843; 
George C. Watkms. October 1, 1848; J. J. Critten- 
den, February 7, 1851; Thomas Johnson, Septem- 
ber 8. 1856: J. L. Hollowell. September 8. 1S58; 
P. Jordon, September 7. 1S61; Sam W. Williams, 
1862; C. T. Jordan. 1S64; R. S. Gantt. January 
31, 1865; R. H. Deadman, October 15, 1S66; J. R. 
Montgomery, July 21, 1868; T. D. W. Yonley. Jan- 
uary 8. 1873; J. L. Witherspoon, May 22, 1874; 
Simon P. Hughes. November 12. 1873, to 1876; W. 
F. Henderson. January 11, 1^77. to 1881; C. B. 
Moore, January 12, 1881. to 18S5; D. W. Jones, 
January, 1885, to 1SS9; W. E. Atkinson, January, 
1889 (present incumbent). 

Commissioners of immigration and of State 
lands: J. M. Lewis, July 2. 1868; W. H. Grey, 
October 15, 1872; J. N. Smithee. June 5, 1874. 

These officers were succeeded by the commis- 
sioner of State lands, the first to occupy this position 
being J. N. Smithee. from Novemljer 12, ]?74, to 



November IS, 1878; D. W. Lear, October 21, 1878, 
to November. 1882; W. P. Campbell. October 30. 
1SS2, to March, 1S84; P. M. Col)bs. March 31, 
1884, to October 30, 1^90. 

Superintendents of public instruction: Thomas 
Smith, 1868 to 1873; J. C. Corbin, July 6, 1873; 
G. W. Hill, December 18, 1875, to October, 1878; 
J. L. Denton, October 13, 1S75, to October 11, 
1882; Dunbar H. Pope. October 11 to 30. 1882; 
W. E. Thompson, Octoljer 20, 1882, to 1890. 

Of the present State officers and members of 
boards, the executive department is tirst worthy of 
attention. This is as follows: 

Governor, J. P. Eagle; secretary of State. B. 
B. Chism; treasurer, William E. Woodruff. Jr.; 
attorney-general, W. E. Atkinson; commissioner 
of State lands, Paul M. Cobbs; superintendent 
public instruction, W. E. Thompson; State geolo- 
gist, John C. Brauner. 

Board of election canvassers: Gov. J. P. Eagle, 
Sec. B. B. Chism. 

Board of commissioners of the common school 
fund: Gov. J. P. Eagle, Seo. B. B. Chism, Supt. 
W. E. Thompson. 

State debt board; Gov. J. P. Eagle; Aud. W. 
S. Dunlop, and Sec. B. B. Chism. 

Penitentiary board — commissioners: The Gov- 
ernor; the attorney -general, W. E. Atkinson, and 
the secretary of State. 

Lessee of penitentiary: The Arkansas Indus- 
trial Company. 

Printing board: The Governor, president; W. 
S. Dunlop, auditor, and W. E. Woodruff, Jr., 
treasurer. 

Board of railroad commissioners (to assess and 
equalize the railroad property and valuation within 
the State): The Governor, secretary of State and 
State auditor. 

Board of Trustees of Arkansas Medical College: 
J. A. Dibrell, M. D., William Thompson, M. D., 
William Lawrence, M. D. 

The Arkansas State University, at Fayetteville, 
has as its board of trustees: W. M. Fishback, Fort 
Smith; James Mitchell, Little Rock; W. B. 
Welch. Fayetteville; C. M. Taylor, South Bend; 
B. F. Avery, Camden; J. W. Kessee, Latour; Gov. 



.'fJBt 



..I 



*^ 






44 



HISTOIJY OF ARKANSAS. 



L. Aug 
hall. Dr. 



^patb. 
L. G. 



\. L. Brey- 
Loienzo R. 



Eagle, ex-officio: E. H. Jlurfree, president, A. I. 
U. ; J. L. Cravens, secretary. 

Of the Pine Bluff Normal, the president i.s J. 
Corbin, Pine Bluff; the board is the b.ame as that 
of the State University. 

Board of dental surgery : Dr 
Dr. H. C. Howard, Dr. M. C. Mar 
Roberts, and Dr. N. N. Hayes. 

State board of health: Drs. 
sacher, J. A. Dibrell. P. Yau Patten 
Gibson, W. A. Cantrell, V. Brunson. 

Board of municipal corporations: Ex officio — 
The Governor, secretary of State and State auditor. 

Board of education: The Governor, secretary 
of State and auditor. 

Board of review for donation contests: The 
Governor, auditor of State and attorney-general. 

Board of examiners of State script: The Gov- 
ernor, secretary of State and auditor. 

Reference to the presidential vote of Arkansas, 
from the year 1836 up to and including the elec- 
tion of 1S8S, will serve to show in a general way 
the political complexion of the State during that 
period. The elections have resulted as follows:* 

1836— Van Buren (D), 2,4C0; Han-ison (W), 
1,162; total 3,638. 

1840— Harrison (W), 5,160; Van Buren (D), 
6,049; Birney (A), 889; total 11,209. 

1844- Polk (D), 8,546; Clay (W), 5,504; 
total 15,050. 

1848— Taylor (W), 7,588; Cass (D), 9,300; 
total 16,888. ' 

* Scattering votes not given. 



1852— Pierce (D), 12,170; Scott, 7,404; 
total 19,577. 

■ 1856— Buchanan (D), 21,910; Fillmore, 10,787; 
total 32,697. 

1860— Douglas (D), 5.227; Breckenridge, 
28,532; Bell, 20,297. 

1864 -No vote. 

1868-Grant iR), 22,112; Seymour, 19,078; 
total 41,190. 

1872- Grant (R), 41,377: Greeley, 37,927; 
total 79,300. 

1876— Tildeu (D), 58,360; Hayes (R). 38,669; 
total 97.029. 

1880— Garlield (R), 42,435; Hancock (D), 
60,475; total, 107,290. 

1884— Cleveland (D), 72,927; Blaine, 50,895; 
total, 125,669. 

1888— Harrison (R), 58,752; Cleveland (D), 
88,962; Fisk, 593; total, 155,968. 

In accepting the vote of Arkansas, 1876. objec- 
tion was made to counting it, as follows: " First, 
because the otBcial returns of the election in said 
State, made according to the laws of said State, 
show that the persons certitied to the secretary 
of said State as elected, were not elected as 
■ electors for President of the L'nited States at 
; the election held November 5, 1876; and, sec- 
! ond, because the returns as read by the tellers 
j are not certified according to law. The objec- 
j tion was sustained by the Senate but not sus- 
tained by the House of Representatives."' 




^ 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



45 



fl^ftPTER ¥. 



— ^>x^ 



Advaxcp;mf.nt of the State— Misconceptions IIemoved— Effects of Slavery vpox AoRicuLTrKE- 

EXTKAOKDINARY IMPROVEMEXT SINCE THE WaR— IMPORTANT SUGGESTIONS— COMPARATIVE 

Estimate of Pp.odl'cts— Growth of the Manufacturing Interests- 
Wonderful Showing of Arkansas — Its Desirability as a 
Place of Residence— State Elevations. 



Look forward what's tii come, and back what's past; 
Thy life will be with praise aud prudence graced; 
What loss or gain may follow thou inay'st guess. 
Then wilt thou be secure of the success. — Denliani. 



§J<%Vp.^-rrr5^'r^i^ EFORE entering directly up 




•.n 



on the subject of the mate- 
rial life and growth of Arkan- 
sas, it is necessary to clear 
away at the threshold some 
of the obstructions that have 
lain in its pathway. From 
::y the earliest settlement slav- 
'i*' erv existed, and the nergo 

slave was brought with the 
first agricultural communities. Slave 
labor was profitable in but two things 
— cotton and sugar. Arkansas was 
, .^,, north of the sugar cane belt, but was a 
li]'^^ rXp splendid field for cotton growing. Slave 
•'*^*^'/i labor and white labor upon the farms 
were never congenial associates. These 
things fixed rigidly the one road in the 
agricultural progress of the State. 
What was therefore the very richness 
of heaven's bounties, became an incubus upon the 
general welfare. The fertile soil returned a rich 
reward even with the slovenly applied energies of 
the .slaves. A man could pay perhaps $1,000 for 
a slave, and in the cotton field, but really nowhere 
else, the investment would yield an enormous prulit. 



The loss in waste, or ill directed labor, in work 
carelessly done, or the want of preparation, tools 
or machinery, or any manner of real thrift, gave 
little or no concern to the average agriculturist. 
For personal comfort and large returns upon invest- 
ments that required little or no personal attention, 
no section of the world ever surpassed the United 
States south of the 3G° of north latitude. Wealth 
of individuals was rated therefore by the numl)er 
of slaves one possessed. Twenty hands in the cot- 
ton field, under even an indifferent overseer, with 
no watchful care of the master, none of that saving 
frugality in the farming so imperative elsewhere 
upon farms, returned every year an income which 
would enable the family to spend their lives trav- 
eling and sight-seeing over the world. The rich 
soil required no care in its tilling from the owner. 
It is the first and strongest principle in human na- 
ture to seek its desires through the least exertion. 
To raise cotton, ship to market and dispose of it, 
purchasing whatever was wanted, was the inevi- 
table result of such conditions. This was by far the 
easiest mode, and hence manufactures, diversity of 
farming or farming pursuits, were not an impera- 
tive necessity — indeed, the_v were not felt to be ne- 
cessities at all. The evil, the blight of slavery 



v ■■..>• 



40 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



upon the whites, was well understood by the intel- 
ligence of the South, by even those who had learned 
to believe that white labor could not and never 
would be profitable in this latitude; that — most 
strange! the white man who labored at manual 
labor, must be in the severe climate and upon the 
stubborn New England soil. It was simply effect 
following cause which made these people send off 
their childi'en to school, and to buy their every want, 
both necessaries and luxuries — importing hay, corn, 
oats, bacon, mules, horses and cattle even from 
Northern States, when every possible natural ad- 
vantage might be had in producing the same things 
at ho-ae. It was the easiest and cheapest way to do. 
In the matter of dollars and cents, the destroying 
of slavery was, to the farmers of the Upper Missis- 
sippi Valley, a permanent loss. Now the New South 
is beginning to send the products of its farms and 
gardens even to Illinois. The war, the abolition 
of slavery, the return of the Confederates to their 
desolated homes, and their invincible courage in 
rolling up their sleeves and going to work, and the 
results of their labors seen all over the South, form 
one of the grandest displays of the development of 
the latent forces of the gi'eat American people 
that can be found in history. 

There is not a thing, not even ice, but that, in 
the new social order of Arkansas, it can produce 
for its own use quite as well as the most favored 
of Northern States. The one obstruction in the 
way of the completed triumph of the State is the 
lingering idea among farmers that for the work of 
raising cotton, black labor is better than white. 
This fallacy is a companion of the old notion that 
slavery was necessary to the South. Under proper 
auspices these two articles of Arkansas — cotton 
and lumber — alone may make of it the most pros- 
perous State in the Union ; and the mac'ician's 
wand to transform all this to gold is in stx;uring the 
intelligent laborer of the North, far more than the 
Northern capital prayed for by so many. The North 
has its homeless millions, and the rcciit h'ssous 
in the opening of Oklahoma should be prumptly 
appreciated by the people of this State. For the 
next decade to manufacture every pound of cotton 
raised in the State, as well as huslianding and man- 



ufacturing all the lumber from these grand old for- 
ests, is to solve the questions in the race of State 
prosperity and general wealth among the people. 
When free labor supplanted slave labor what a won- 
derful advance it gave the whole section; when in- 
telligent skilled labor su[)plants ignorance and un- 
skilled labor, what a transcendent golden epoch 
will dawn. There is plenty of capital to-day in the 
State, if it was only put in proper co-operative 
form, to promote the establishment of manu- 
factories that would liberally reward the stock- 
holders, and make them and Arkansas the richest 
people in the world. Such will attract hundreds of 
thousands of intelligent and capable wage workers 
from the North, from all over the world, as well as 
the nimble-witted farm labor in the gardens, the 
orchards, the fields and the cotton plantations. This 
will bring and add to the present profits on a bale 
of cotton, the far richer dividend on stocks in fac- 
tories, banks, railroads and all that golden stream 
which is so much of modern increase in wealth. 
The people of Ai'kansas may just as well have this 
incalculable abundance as to not have it. and at the 
same time pay enormous premiums to others to come 
and reap the golden harvests. Competent labor- 
ers — skilled wage workers, the brawn and brain 
of the land — are telling of their unrest in strikes, 
lockouts, combinations and counter combinations; 
in short, in the conflict of labor and capital, they 
are appealing strongly to be allowed to come to 
Ai'kansas — not to enter the race against ignorant, 
incapable laljor, Imt simply to find employment and 
homes, where in comfort and plenty they can rear 
their families, and while enriching themselves to 
return profits a thousand fold. Don't fret and 
mope away your lives looking and longing for capi- 
tal to enter and develop your Iwundless resources. 
Capital is a royal good thing, but remember it is 
even a better thing in your own pockets than in 
some other person's. Open the way for proper, 
useful lal)or to come and find employment ; each 
di'[)artmont, no matter how small or humble the 
beginning, once started will grow rapidly, and the 
problem will have been solved. Only by the North 
taking the raw ])roduct of the South and putting it 
in the hands of skilled labor has their enormous 



i^ 






1^ 

.'J • 




capital bef n secured. The profits on hii^b priced 
labor will always far excel that on ignorant or cheap 
workmen. The time is now when this kind of 
labor and the small farmers and gardeners are 
awaiting a bidding to enter Arkansas. When the 
forlorn hope returned from the late war, they met 
the stern necessity, and demonstrated the fact that 
here, at least, the people can create their own capi- 
tal. Let them now anticipate the future by this 
heroic triumph of the past. The Gods help those 
only who help themselves. 

"The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our st;irs, 
but in ourselves." 

To the Northern home-seeker the thing of first 
importance is to tell of the temperate climate at all 
seasons, and its extraordinary healthfulness, cur- 
ing him of the false idea spread so wide that the 
topography of the State is seen from the decks 
of steamers, or on the lines of railroad which are 
built along the swamps and slashes, mostly on ac- 
count of the easy grades on these lines. Then show 
from the records the low rate of taxation and the 
provisions of the law by which high taxation is for- 
ever prevented. From this preliminary may be 
unfolded to him some of the wonderful natiu'al re- 
sources which are awaiting development. Here 
both tongue and pen will fall far short of telling all 
or nearly all. In climate, health, soil, timber, 
minerals, coal, rocks, clays, marls, sand, navigable 
streams, mineral and fresh waters. Arkansas may 
challenge any similar sized spot on the globe. It 
has more miles of navigable streams than any other 
State in the Union, and these are so placed as to 
give the whole territory the advantages thereof, as 
though the engineers had located them. It has 
uneqaaled water power — the Mammoth Spring 
alone furnishing enough water power to propel all 
the machinery west of the Mississippi River. The 
topography of the State is one of its most inviting 
features. Its variety in this respect is only equaled 
by the diversity of its soils. The traveler who in 
approaching this section concludes that it consists 
chiefly of swamp bottoms, and water- covered 
slashes, may readily learn from the records that 
three-quarters of the State's surface is uplands, 
ranging from the gentle swells of prairie and 



woodland to the grandly beautiful mountain scen- 
ery; and on the mountain lienches, and at the base. 
are as rich and beautiful valleys as are kissed by the 
rays of the sun in his season's round. Take the 
whole range of agricultural products of O'nio, Ind- 
iana, Illinois and Kansas, and all can be produced 
quite as well in Arkansas as in any of these States. 
In the fiice of this fact, for more than a genera- 
tion Arkansas raided scarcely any of the products 
of these Northern communities, but imported such 
as it had to have. It could not spare its lands from 
the cultivation of the more profitable crops of 
cotton. In a word, the truth is the State was bur- 
dened with natural wealth — this and slave labor 
having clogged the way and impeded its progress. 
With less labor, more cotton per acre and per hand, 
on an average, has been produced in Arkansas than 
in any other Southern State, and its quality has been 
such as to win the prize wherever it has been en- 
tered in competition. Its reputation as a fruit- 
growing State is not excelled. In the New Orleans 
Exposition, in California, Ohio and everywhere en- 
tered, it has taken the premium over all competi- 
tors. Its annual rainfall exceeds that of any South- 
ern State, and it cannot, therefore, suffer seriously 
from drouths. ' There is nut a spot. upon the globe 
which, if isolated from all outside of its limits, 
could sustain in health and all the civilized comforts 
a population as large as might Arkansas. Fifty 
thousand people annually come hither and are 
cured, and yet a general nebulous idea prevails 
among many in the North that the health and cli- 
mate of the State are not good. The statistics of 
the United States Medical Department show the 
mortality rate at Little Rock to be less than at any 
other occupied military post in the country. There 
is malaria in portions of the State, but considering 
the vast bottom stretches of timber-land, and the 
newness of the country's settlement, it is a remark- 
able fact that there is less of this disease here 
than in Pennsylvania; while all the severer diseases 
of the New England and Northern States, such as 
rheumatism, consumption, catarrh and blood poi- 
son, are always relieved and generally cured in 
Arkansas; malignant scarlet fever and diphtheria 
have never yet appeared. That dreadful decimator, 



.Ip.ip?;-.!' 



48 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



yellow fever, has only visited the eastern portion of 
the State, but in every case it was brouj^bt from 
abroad, and has never prevailed iu this locality as an 
epidemic. Therefore, the larcjest factories, schools 
and universities in the world should be here. The 
densest population, the busiest haunts of men, will 
inevitably come where their rewards will be great- 
est—the struggle for life less severe. Five hun- 
dred inhabitants to the square mile will not put to 
the fall test the limitless resources of this wonder- 
ful commonwealth. Ten months of summer with- 
out one torrid day, with invariable cool and re- 
freshing nights, and twij months only of winter, 
where a man can work out of doors every day in 
the year in comfort, with less cost in physician's 
bills, expense in food, clothing and hotising, are 
some of the inducements the State offers to the 
poor man. There are millions of acres of fertile 
lands that are offered almost without money and 
without price; land nearly any acre of which is 
worth more intrinsically than any other similar 
sized body of land in the world. There are 
5.000.000 acres of government lands in the State, 
and 2.000.000 acres of State lands. The rainfall in 
18S6 was 46.33; average mean temperature, oS.7'; 
highest, 97.8°; lowest, above zero, .7.6". Of the 
33,500,000 acres in the State there are soils richer 
and deeper than the Nile: others that excel the 
alluvial corn belt of the Northern States; others 
that may successfully compete with the noted Cuba 
or James River, Virginia, tobacco red soil districts, 
or the most noted vineyards of France or Italy. 
Here is the land of wine and silk, where side by side 
will grow the corn and the tig— the land overhung 
with the soft, blue skies, and decked with tlowers, 
the air laden with the rich perfumes of the magno- 
lias, on the topmost pinnacle of whose branches the 
Southern mocking-bird by day and by night swells 
its throat with song — 

" Where all. save the spirit of man. is divine." 

The artificial and local causes which have ob- 
structed the State's prosperity are now forever 
gone. There is yet the unsolved jiroblfm of the 
political negro, but this is in Illinois. Kan-;is luul 
Ohio, esactlv as it is in Arkau.-as. It is uiilv the 



! 

j common problem to the Anglo-Saxon of the United 
States, which, in the future as in the past, after 
many mistakes and even great wrongs, he will for- 
ever settle and for the best. Throw politics to the 
I winds; only remember to profit by the mistakes of 
; the North in inviting immigration, and therel)y 
avoid the ominous presence of anarchism, socialism. 
i and those conditions of social life latent in "the 
' conflict of labor and capital." These are some of 
i the portentous problems now confronting the older 
I States that are absent from Arkansas; they should 
I be kept away, by the knowledge that such uglv 
j conditions are the fanged whelps of the great 
j brood of American demagogues — overdoses of 
{ politics, washed down by too much universal vot- 
I ing. It is of infinitely more importance to gtiard 
I tax-receipts than the ballot boxes. When vice and 
ignorance vote their own destruction, there need be 
no one to compassionate their miseries, but alwavs 
where taxes run high, people's liberties run low. 
The best government governs the least — the freest 
government taxes the least. 

Offer premiums to the immigration of well- 
informed, expert labor, and small farmers, dairv- 
men, gardeners and horticulturists and small trad- 
ers. Let the 7.000,000 acres of government and 
State lands he given in forty-acre tracts to the 
heads of families, who will come and occupy them. 
Instead of millions of dollars in donations to crreat 
corporations and capitalists, give to that class which 
will create capital, develop the State, and enrich 
all the people. Railroads and capitalists will fol- 
low these as water runs down the hill. Arkansas 
needs railroads — ten thousand miles yet — it needs 
great factories, great cities, universities of learn- 
ing and, forsooth, millionaires. But its first and 
greatest needs are small farmers, practical toil- 
ers, skilled mechanics, and scattered all over the 
State beginnings in each of the various manufac- 
tures; the beginnings, in short, of that auspicious 
hour when it ceases to ship any of its raw mate- 
rials. It is a law of life, that, in a society where 
there are few millionaires, there are few paupers. 
N\ here the capital of a country is gathered in vast 
a<rgregations in the possession of a few. there the 
children cry for bread— the poor constantly in- 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



49 



crease, wages fall, employment too often fails, and 
the hoarse mutteriog^ of parailing mobs and bread 
riots take the places of the laughter and the songs 
of the laborers to and from the shops and the 
tields. 

The following from the government ollicial re- 
ports of the growth and value of the manufactures 
of the State is to be understooti as reaching only 
to ISSO, when it had but commenced to emerge 
from the old into the new life: 



Ideas of values are most easily reached by com- 
parisons. The following figures, taken from offi- 
cial government reports, explain themselves: 



Arkansas i S 74,249,6.551 S 4,R37,4;17 S 20,472.423 54;3.79i".,26; 

Nebraska Iu5,93-2.541| 7,S2",>)15 :a.440,;H.i 31.70.'<.914 

Iowa 507,4.311.0271 29.371,S*4 124,7l5,lc3 3ti,lii3.073 

Kansas.:: i 233,178,t;311 9,::!4,tV!4 tiO,9(iT.149 ,52.24U..561 

Minnesota I93,724,2ti0| I,3,0.-9,7S3 31,904,821 49,468,967 

The products are the profits on the capital in- 
vested. Words can add nothing to these figures 
in demonstrating the superiority of Arkansas as 
an agricultural State, except the explanation that 
Southern farming is yet more or less carried on 
under the baneful influences of the days of slavery, 
unintentional indifference and the ab.sence of 
watchful attention by the proprietor. 

Cotton grows finely in all parts of this com- 
monwealth and heretofore in two-thirds of its terri- 
tory it has been the main crop. In the fertile 
bottoms the product per acre has reached as high 
as 2,0U0 pounds of seed cotton, while on the 
uplands it runs from 600 to 1,000 pounds. The 
census of 1880 shows that Arkansas produces more 
cotton per acre, and at less expense, than any of 
the so-called cotton States. In 18S() the yield 
was (50^,256 bales, grown on 1,042,970 acres. That 





1 












£ 


- 


Year. 


1 




J 


s 


"S 


1 

3 


a 


o 












































































W 












> 


> 


1850 


261 


S 305,l>15 


812 


311 




5150,876 


S 215,789 


5 5:i7,9()8 




518 


l,3!b.61U 








5.->4,240 




2.380,578 




1,070 
1,202 


1,78? 913 






no 






a,933,i:30 


4,307 


90 


160 


925,33,8 











year Georgia raised 8 14, -441 bales, on 2,617,138 
acres. The estimated cost per acre of raising cot- 
ton is S6. It will thus be seen that it cost 
$9,444,972 in Georgia to raise 250,185 more bales 
of cotton than Arkansas had grown — much more 
than double the laud to produce less than one- 
fourth more cotton. Less than one-twentieth of 
the cotton land of the latter State has been brought 
under cultivation. 

The superiority of cotton here is attestetl by 
the fact that the greate.st cotton thread manufact- 
urers in the world prefer the Arkansas cotton to 
any other in the market. The product has for 
years carried off the first prizes over the world's 
competition. 

The extra census bulletin, 1880, gives the yield 
of corn, oats and wheat products in Arkansas for 
that year as follows: Corn, 24,150,517 bushels; 
oats, 2,219.824 bushels; wheat, 1,269,730 bushels. 
Remembering that this is considered almost ex- 
clusively a cotton State, these figures of the cereals 
will be a genuine surprise. More wheat is grown 
by 40,000 bushels and nearly three times as much 
corn as were raised in all New England, according 
to the official figures for that ^-ear. 

From the United .States agricultural reports are 
obtained these interesting statistics concerning the 
money value of farm crops per acre: 



Corn 



Rye. Oals. Potatoes. Hajr. 



Illinois I I 6 77, 

Iiuliaua 8 80j 

Ohio tl 52! 

Kansas 6 -Wj 

Viririnia 7 .52| 

Tennessee 7 91| 

Arkansas 1 1151 



$ 6 6t I 6 46 $130 32: $ 7 66 



7 m 


5 92 


30 08; 


7 66 


9 08 


7 90 


.34 481 


9 85 


5 98 


6 12 


37 40 


5 89 


.5 16' 


5 Si 


43 50 


17 30 


7 32 


5 73 


28 08 


14 95 


9 51, 


n 07, 


78 65 


22 94 



The following is the average cash value per 
acre on all crops taken together: 



."Maine ^13 51 

New Haiiip?bire.. . . 13 56 

Vermont U 60 

Massachusetts 26 71 

Rhode Island 29 32 

Connecticut 16 82 

Xew Vork 14 15 

New Jerse}' 18 05 

Pennsylvania 17 68 

Delaware 15 80 

-Maryland 17 ."^2 

Virginia 10 91 



North Carolina SIO 79 

10 09 
10 35 



uth Carolina. 

I Gooriria 

i Florida 

I Alahiima 

I Mis-iissippi 

Loiii-siana 

A:kaiisa3 

i Tennessee 

< West Viriiinia. 

KelJluckv 



Ohio 15 58 



50 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



Michigan §18 96 

Indiiuia 14 tiO 

Illinois 13 47 

AVisconsin 13 80 

Minnesota 10 39 

Iowa 8 88 



Missouri 10 78 Texas 



Kansas ■^ 9 11 

Nebraska 8 (10 

California 17 18 

Oregon 17 11 

2S"evai la. Colorado and 

tlie Territories.... 16 13 



14 69 



The advance of borticulture in the past decade 
in the State has been extraordinary. Twenty years 
ago its orchard products amounted to veiy little. 
By the census reports of ISSO, the total yield of 
fruit was i!S07,426. This was S 100,000 more than 
the yield of Florida, with all the latter' s immense 
orange groves. As universally as has the State 
been misunderstood, it is probably in reference 
to its fruits and berries that the greatest errors 
have long existed. If one visits the apple and 
peach regions of the North, it is found to be the gen- 
eral belief that Arkansas is too far south to pro- 
duce either, whereas the truth is that, especially 
in apples, it has no equal either in the United 
States or in the world. This fact was first brought 
to public attention at the "World's Fair, at New 
Orleans, 18S4-85, where the Arkansas exhibit was 
by far the finest ever made, and the State was 
awarded the first premium, receiving the World's 
medal and a special notice by the awarding com- 
mittee. Thus encouraged, the State was repre- 
sented at the meeting of the American Pomological 
Society, in Boston, in September, 1SS7. Sixty- 
eight varieties of Arkansas seedling apples were in 
the exhibit, to contend with all the champion fruit 
growers of the globe. The State won the Wilder 
medal, which is only given by reason of extraor- 
dinary merit, and in addition to this was awarded 
the first premium for the largest and best collection 
of apples, consisting of I'iS varieties. 

The collection which won the Boston prizes was 
then shipped to Little Rock, and after being on 
exhibition there twenty days, was re-packed and 
shipped to the National Horticultural meeting in 
California, which met at Riverside, February 7, 
1888. Arkansas again won the first prize, invad- 
ing the very home of Pomona, and bearing off the 
first honors as it had in eastern and northern sec- 
tions of the Union. The "Arkansas Shannon" 
is pronounced by competent judges to be the finest 
apple now grown anywhere. 



Strawberries are another late discovery of the 
resoui'ces of Arkansas. The yielil and quality are 
very superior. So rapidly has the industry grown 
that, during the fruit season, the Iron Mountain 
road runs a special daily fruit train, leaving Little 
Rock late in the afternoon and reaching St. Louis 
early the next morning. This luscious product, of 
remarkable size, ripens about the first of April. 

Of all cultivated fruit the grape has held its 
place in poetry and song, in sacred and profane 
history, as the first. It finds in Arkansas the same 
conditions and climate of its native countries, 
between Persia and India. The fruit and its wine 
produced here are said by native and foreign 
experts to equal, if not surpass, the most famous of 
Italy or France. The vines are always healthy 
and the fruit perfect. The wild muscadine and 
scuppernong grow vines measuring thirty-eight 
and one-half inches around, many varieties fruit- 
ing here to perfection that are not on the open air 
lists at all further north. 

The nativity of the peach is the same as that 
of the grape, and it, too. therefore, takes as kindly 
to the soil here as does the vine. Such a thing as 
budded peach trees are of very recent date, and as 
a consequence the surprises of the orchardists in re- 
spect to this fruit are many. Some of the varieties 
ripen in May, and s-o far every kind of budded 
peaches brought from the North, both the tree and 
the fruit, have improved by the transplanting. 
The vigor of the trees seems to baffle the borers, 
and no curled leaves have yet been noticed. In 
quality and quantity the product is most encourag- 
ing, and the next few years will see a marked 
advance in this industry. 

For fifty years after the settlement of the State 
peach seeellings were grown, and from these, as in 
the case of the apple, new and superior varieties 
have been started, noted for size, flavor, abundance 
and never failing crops. 

The Chickasaw plum is so far the most suc- 
cessfully grown, and is the best. It is a perfected 
fruit easily cultivated, and is free from the curculio, 
while the trees are healthy and vigorous beyond 
other localities. 

In vegetables and fruits, except the tropical 



■1 ■ -ii... 
■quia 



HISTORY OF AllKAN'SAS. 



plants, Arkansas is the banner State. In the fruit 
and vegetable kingdom there is found in luxuriant 
growth everything in the long list from corn to the 

fig- 

The yield and quality of Arkansas tobacco is 
remarkable when it is remembered that this indus- 
try l^as received so little attention. Thirty years 
ago State Geologist Owen informed the people 
that he found here the same, if not better, tobacco 
soil, than the most favored districts of Cuba. The 
yield of tobacco, in 18S0, was 970.230 pounds. 
Yet so little attention or experiment has been given 
the subject that an experimental knowledge of the 
State's resources in this respect cannot be claimed 
to have been gained. 

In 1880 the State produced: Barley, 1,952 
bushels; buckwheat, 548 bushels; rye, 22,387 
bushels; hay, 23,295 tons; Irish potatoes, 492,627 
bushels; sweet potatoes, 881,260 bushels. 

From the census reports of the same year are 
gleaned the following: Horses, total, 146.333; 
mules and asses, 87,082; woi'king oxen, 25.444; 
milch cows, 249,407; other cattle, 433.392: sheep, 
246,757; swine, 1,565,098: wool, 557,368 pounds; 
milk, 816,858 gallons; butter, 7.790,013 pounds: 
cheese, 26,310 pounds. All parts of the State are 
finely adapted to stock-raising. The excellence 
and abundance of pure water, the heavy growth of 
blue grass, the cane brakes and abundant mast, 
sustain the animals diuing most of the winter 
in marketable condition. In respect to all domes- 
tic animals here are presented the same conditions 
as in nearly every line of agriculture — cheapness 
of growth and excellence of quality. 

The improvement in cattle has been retarded 
by the now conceded fact that the "Texas fever" 
is asserted by some to be seated in the State. 
This affects Northern cattle when imported, while 
it has no effect on native animals. Except for this 
unfortunate reality there would be but little time 
lost iu developing here the great dairy industry of 
the country. But good graded cattle are now 
being raised in every portion, and so rich is the 
locality in this regard that in stock, as in its fruits, 
care and attention will produce new varieties of 
unrivaled excellence. Arkansas is the natural home 



and breeding ground of animals, all growing to 
great perfection, with less care and the least cost. 

Taxes here are not high. The total taxation in 
Illinois in 1880, assessed on real and personal 
propei'ty, as per census reports, for State, county 
and all civil divisions less than counties, was 
§24,586,018; the same year in Arkansas the total 
tax was SI. 839,090. Farm lands are decreasing 
in value in Illinois nearly as fast as they are in- 
creasing in Arkansas. The total taxation in the 
"United States in ISSO was the enormous sum of 
$312,750,721. Northern cities are growing, while 
their rural population is lessening. The reverse 
of this is the best for a State. The source of ruin 
to past nations and civilizations has all arisen 
from an abuse of the taxing powers. Excessive 
taxation can only end in general ruin. This 
simple but great lesson should be instilled into the 
minds of all youths, crystallized into the briefest 
maxim, and written over every threshold in the 
land; hung in the porches of every institution of 
learning; imprinted upon every plow handle and 
emblazoned on the trees and jutting rocks. The 
State that has taxed its people to build a 825, - 
000,000 State house, has given deep shame to the 
intelligence of this age. Taxes are the insidious 
destroyer of nations and all liberty, and it is only 
those freemen who jealously guard against this 
evil who will for any length of time maintain their 
independence, equality or manhood. 

The grade profile of the Memphis Route shows 
the elevations of the various cities and towns 
along that line to be as follows in feet, the datum 
plane being tide water of the Gulf of Mexico: 
Kansas City, 765: Rosedale, 825; Merriam. 900; 
Lenexa, 1,040; Olathe, 1,060; Bonita. 1.125; 
Ocheltree, 1,080; Spring Hill, 1,020; Hillsdale, 
900; Paola, 860; Pendleton. 855; Foutaua. 925; 
La Cygne. 840; Barnard, 810; Pleasanton, 8l)5: 
Miami, 910; Prescott, 880; Fulton, 820: Ham- 
mond, 875; Fort Scott, SliO; Clarksburg. 885; 
Garland. 865; all in Kansas; Arcadia. 820; 
Liberal, 875; lantha, 990; Lamar, 1,000; Keno- 
ma, 980; Golden City, 1,025; Lockwood. 1,065; 
South Greenfield, 1,040; Everton, 1,000; Ash 
Grove, 1,020; Boisd'Arc. 1,250; Campbells. 1,290; 



■■:d 



hCt. 






-tiJ-- ' 



. ..-d J; 

.h u- '■■■ .'■ 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



Nichols Junction, 1,280; Springtield, 1.300; Tur- I Spring, Ark.. 4S5; Aftou, 41(t: Plurdy, 370; Willi- 

ner, 1.210; Rogersville. 1,475; Fordland, 1,(300; ford, 330; Ravemleii, 31(1; Imbodfu. SCH); Black 

Seymour, l.(3S0: Cedar Gap. 1.0S5; Mansfield, j Rock, 2'.»0; Portia. 2S."i; Hoxie. 2'J5; Sedgwick, 

1,520; Norwood, 1,510; ;Mouiitaiii Grove, 1.525; I 270; Boiinerville, 320; Jonesboro, 275; Nettleton, 

Cabool, 1,250; Sterling, 1,5(50; Willuw Springs, ; 250; Big Bay Siding, 250; Hatchie Coon, 250; 

1,400; Burnbam, 1.3(]0 ; Olden, 1,2S(); West | Marked Tree. 250; Tyrouza. 240; Gilmore. 225; 

Plains, 950: Brandsville, 1.0(^0; Koshkocong, 970; | Clarketon, 240; Marion, 235; West Memphis, 200; 

Thayer, last point in Missouri, 575; Mammoth I Memphis, 2Sl). 






CMflPTEl. ¥1. 



Politics— lMroRT.A.NCE of the Si'b.ject— The Two Old Schools of Politician.s— TniuMPii of the 

Jacksoniaxs— Early Prominent State Politicians— The Gue.\.t Question of Secession 

—The State Votes to Join the Confederacy— Horror of the War Period— 

The Reconstruction Distress— The Baxter-Brooks Embroglio. 




In knots tliej- stand, or iu a rank the\- walk, 
Serious in aspect, earnest in their talk; 
Factious, and favouring this or t'other side. 
As their weak fancy or strong reason guide. - 



-Dryden. 



N one sense there is no 
portion of the history of 
Arkansas more instructive 
than its political history, 
tecause in this is the key 
to the character of many 
of its institutions, as well 

indications of the trend of 



^p^ as strong 

'^rr.i^ the public mind, and the characteris- 
^"*j^ tics of those men who shaped public 
*^^~' " affairs and controlled very largely in 
the State councils. 

Immediately upon the formation 
of the Territorial goveinment. the Presi- 
dent of the United States seat to .Ar- 
kansas Post Gov. James ^liller. Robert 
Crittenden, secretary, and C. Jouett, 
Robert P. Letcher and Andrew Scott, judges, to 
organize the new Territorial t,'overnraent. Gnv. 
Miller, it seems, gave little attention to hi.-j ollice, 




and therefore in all the early steps of formation 
Crittenden was the acting governor; and from the 
force of character he possessed, and his superior 
strength of mind, it is fair to conclude that he 
dominated almost at will the early public affairs 
of Arkansas. 

This was at the time of the beginning of the 
political rivalry between Clay and Jackson, two of 
the most remarkable types of great political lead- 
ers this country has produced — Henry Clay, the 
superb; "Old Hickory," the man of iron; the one 
as polished a gem as ever glittered in the political 
heavens — the other the great diamond in the 
rough, who was of the people, and who drew his 
followers with bands of steel. These opposites 
were destined to clash. It is well for the country 
that they did. 

Robert Crittenden was a brother of John J. 
Crittenden, of Kentucky, and by some who knew 
him long and well he was deemed not oidv his 



r 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS 



53 



brother's peer, but in many respects his intellect- 
ual superior. It goes without the saving, he was a 
born \Vhig, who, in Kentucky's super- loyal fash- 
ion, had Clay for his idol, and, to put it mildly, 
Jacksou to dislike. 

President Monroe had appointed the tirst Terri- 
torial officers, but the fact that Crittenden was 
secretary is evidence that politics then were not 
running very high. Monroe was succeeded in 
18'24 by John Quincy Adams. It would seem that 
in the early days in Arkansas, the Whigs stood 
upon the vantage grounds in many important 
respects. By the time Adams was inaugurated 
the war political to the death between Clay and 
Jacksou had begun. But no man looked mure care- 
fully after his own interests than Jackson. He 
had large property possessions just across the line 
in Tennessee, besides property in Arkansas. He 
induced, from his ranks in his own State, some 
young men of promi.'^e to come to Arkansas. The 
prize now was whether this should be a Whig 
or Democratic State. President Adams turned 
out Democratic officials and put in Whigs, and 
Kobert Crittenden for a long time seemed to hold 
the State in his hand. Jackson's superiority as a 
leader over Clay is manifested in the struggles 
between the two in Arkansas. Clay's followers 
here were men after his fashion, as were Jackson's 
men after his mold. Taking Robert Crittenden 
as the best type, he was but little inferior to Clay 
himself in his magnetic oratory and purity of prin- 
ciples and public life; while Jackson sent here 
the Seviers, Conways and Rectors, men of the 
people, but of matchless resolution and personal 
force of character. No two great commanders 
ever had more faithful or able lieutenants than 
were the respective champions of Old Hickory 
and Harry of the West, in the formative days of 
the State of Arkansas. The results were, like 
those thoughout the Union, that Jackson triumphed 
in the hard strife, and Arkansas entered the Union. 
by virtue of a bill introduced by James Buchanan, 
as a Jackson State, and has never wavere^i in its 
political integrity. 

As an evidence of the similarity of the con- 
tests and respective leaders of the two parties 



here to those throughout the country, it is only 
necessary to point out that Crittenden drew to 
his following such men as Albert Pike, a genius 
of the loftiest and most versatile gifts the country 
has so far produced, while Jacksou, ever supplying 
reinforcements to his captains, sent among others, 
as secretary of the Territory, Lewis Randolph, 
grandson of Thomas Jefferson, and whose wife 
was pretty Betty Martin, of the White House, a 
niece of Jackson's. Randolph settled in Hemp- 
stead County when it was an unbroken wilder- 
ness, and his remains are now resting there in an 
unknown grave. 

Clay, it seems, could dispatch but little addi- 
tional force to his followers, even when he saw they 
were the hardest pressed by the triumphant enemy. 
There was not much by which one could draw 
comparisons between Clay and Jackson — unless 
it was their radical difference. As a great ora- 
tor. Clay has never been excelled, and he lived in 
a day when the open sesame to the world's de- 
lights lay in the silver tongue; but Jackson was 
a hero, a great one, who inspired other born 
heroes to follow him even to the death. 

Arkansas was thus started permanently along 
the road of triumphant democracy, from which 
it never would have varied, excejit for the war 
times that brought to the whole cotintry such con- 
fusion and political chaos. Being a Jackson 
State, dominated by the blood of the lirst governor 
of Tennessee — Gen. John Sevier, a man little in- 
ferior to Jackson himself — it was only the most 
cruel circumstance that could force the State into 
secession. M'hen the convention met on the 4th 
of March, 18(31, " on the state of the Union," its 
voice was practically unanimous for the Union, 
and that body passed a series of as loyal resolu- 
I tions as were ever penned, then adjourning to 
j meet again in the May following. The conven- 
tion met May 6, but the war was upon the coun- 
i trv, and most of the Gulf States had seceded. 
Everv one knew that war was inevitable: it was 
already going on, btit very few realized its immen- 
sity. The convention did not rush hastily into 
secession. An ordinance of secession was intro- 
duced, and for days, and into the nights, run- 



^ 



-.0 

-. oc'j 
■'J 



•1 'i 



1; •■> 



fi^ 



54 



lIISTOIiY OF ARKANSAS. 



ning into the small hours, the matter was delib- 
erated upon — no preliminary test vote was forced 
to an issue. Delegates wore present in anxious 
attendance from the Carolinas, Alabama and 
Georgia. They knew that the fate of their action 
largely depended upon the attitude of Arkansas. 
If Arkansas voted no, then the whole secession 
movement would receive a severe blow. The after- 
noon before the final vote, which was to take place 
in the evening, these commissioners from other 
States had made up their minds that Arkansas 
might possibly vote down secession. When the con- 
vention adjourned for supper, they held a hurried 
consultation, and freely expressed their anxiety 
at the outlook. It was understood that the dis- 
cussion was closed, and the night session was 
wholly for the purpose of taking a vote. All was 
uncertainty and intense excitement. Expressions 
of deepest attachment to the Union and the old 
flag were heard. The most fiery and vehement 
of the secessionists in the body were cautious and 
deliberative. There was but little even of vehe- 
ment detestation of the abolitionists — a thing as 
natural then for a Southern man to despise as 
hatred is natural to a heated brain. 

At a late hour in the evening, amid the most 
solemn silence of the crowded hall, an informal 
vote was taken. All except six members voted to 
secede. A suppressed applause followed the 
announcement of the vote. A hurried, whispered 
conference went on, and the effort was made to 
have the result unanimous. Now came the final 
vote. When the name of Isaac Mur[)hy, afterward 
the military governor, was reached, it was passed 
and the roll call continued. It was so far unani- 
mous, with Mr. Murphy's name still to call. The 
clerk called it. Mr. Murphy arose and in an 
earnest and impressive manner in a few words ex- 
plained the dilemma he was in, but said, "I cannot 
violate my honest convictions of duty. I vote 
'No.' " 

When the day of reconstruction began, at first 
it was under the supervision of the military, ami 
it is yet the greatest pity that Congress djd not let 
the military alone to rehabilitate the States they had 
conquered. Isaac Murphy was made governor. 



No truer Union man lived than he. He knew the 
people, and his two years of government were 
fast curing the wounds of war. But he was 
tui-ned out of ofEce. 

The right to vote compels, if it is to be other 
than an evil, some correct and intelligent under- 
standing of the form of government prevailing in 
the United States, and of the elementary prin- 
ciples of political economy. The ability to read 
and write, own property, go to Congress or edit a 
political paper, has nothing to do with it, no more 
than the color of the skin, eyes or hair of the voter. 
The act of voting itself is the sovereign act in the 
economic affairs of the State; but if the govern- 
ment under its existing form is to endure, the 
average voter must understand and appreciate the 
fundamental principles which, in the providence 
of God, have made the United States the admira- 
tion of the world. 

Arkansas, the Democratic State, was in political 
disquiet from 1801 to IST-l — the beginning of the 
war and the end of reconstruction. When in the 
hands of Congress it was returned at every regular 
election as a Kepublican party State. The brief 
story of the political Moses who led it out of the 
wilderness is of itself a strange and interesting 
commentary on self-government. 

When the war came there lived in Batesville 
Elisha Baxter, a young lawyer who had been 
breasting only financial misfortunes all his life. 
Utterly failing as a farmer and merchant, he had 
been driven to study law and enter the practice 
to make a living. An honest, kind-hearted, good 
man, loving his neighbor as himself, but a patriot 
every inch of him. and loving the Union above all 
else, his heart was deeply grieved when he saw 
his adopted State had declared for secession. He 
could not l)e a disunionist, no more than he could 
turn upon his neighbors, friends and fellow-citi- 
zens of Arkansas. He determined to wash his 
hands of it all and remain quietly at home. Like 
all others he knew nothing of civil war. His 
neighliors soon drove him from his home and 
family. ;ind. to save his life, he went to the North- 
ern army, then in Siiuthern Missouri. He was 
welcomeil and offered a commission in the Federal 



,1 </J 



:!-> 



7/ ' I 



army and an njiportunity to rotiini to his State. 
He declined the otler: bo could uot turn and sbed i 
the blood of bis old neigbbors anel former friends. 
In tbe vicissitudes of war this non-coojbatant was 
captui'ed by an Arkansas command, paroled and 
ordered to report to tbe military autborities at Lit- 
tle Rock. He made bis way tbitber. and was 
thrown into a military prison and promptly indicted 
for high treason. Then only be began to under- 
stand tbe temper of the times, for tbe chances of 
his being banged were probably as a thousand to 
one to acquittal. In this extremity he broke jail 
and fled. He again reached tbe Northern army 
in which he accepted a commission, and returned 
to his old home in Batesville, remaining in mili- 
tary command of the place. He was actively 
engaged in recruiting the Union men of Northern 
Arkansas and forming them into regiments. It 
goes without saying that Baxter never raised a 
hand to strike back at those who had so deeply 
wronged him, when their positions were reversed 
and be bad tbe power in his hands. 

At tbe fall election, LSTl, Baxter was the regu- 
lar Republican candidate for governor, and Joseph 
Brooks was tbe Independent Republican nom- 
inee. Tbe Republican party was divided and each 



bid for tbe Democratic vote by promises to tbe 
ex Confederates. Brooks may have been elected, 
but was counted out. Baxter was duly inaugu- 
rated. When he bad served a year the politicians, 
it is supposed, who controlled Arkansas, finding 
they could not use Baxter, or in other words that 
they had counted in tbe wrong man, boldly pro- 
ceeded to undo their own acts, dethrone Baxter and 
put Brooks in the chair of State. An account of 
the Baxter-Brooks war is given in another chapter. 

Thus was this man the victim of political cir- 
cumstances; a patriot, loving his country and bis 
neighbors, he was driven from home and State; a 
non-combatant, be was arrested by his own friends 
as a traitor and the hangman's baiter dangled in 
bis face; Ijreaking prison and stealing away like a 
skulking convict, to return as ruler and master liy 
the omnipotent power of the bayonet; a non-party 
man, compelled to be a Republican in politics, and 
finally, as a Republican, fated to lead the Demo- 
cratic party to success and power. 

Tbe invincible Jacksonian dynasty, built up in 
Arkansas, with all else of public institutions went 
doi^Ti in tbe sweep of civil war. It has not been 
revived as a political institution. But the Demo- 
cratic party dominates the State as of old. 




56 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



eiAPTER ¥». 



> ♦ < ■> 



Societies, State Institutions, etc.— The Ku Klux Kl.\n— Independent Order of Odd Fellows- 
Ancient, Free and Accepted Mason.s— Grand Army of the TiEpriiLic— Bureau of Mines — 
Arkansas Agricultural Associations— State Horticultural Society — The Wheel 
—The State Capital— The <?apitol Building— State Librarie.s — State 
Medical Society— State Board of Health— Deaf Mute Institute 
— School for the Blind— Arkansas Lunatic Asylim— Ar- 
kansas Indistri.vl Univehsity — The State Debt. 



Heaven forming each on oilier to depend. 

A master, or a servant, or a friend. 

Bids each on other for assistance call. 

Till one man's weakness grows the strena;th of all. 



-Pope. 







^ "'^/ECRET societies are a form of ! comfort — indeed, for the sole purpose of linding 
social life aud expression \ybich, | something to do, would be the acknowledgment of 
i j? in some mode of existence, ! many a society motto. The causes are as diversi- 
yj^jF^-iOsXi > antedate even authentic his- 1 tied as the bodies, secret and otherwise, are 
jv, fi#sS''^4^ Vj.'Tv. torv. Originally a manner numerous. 
'^^&'-^i^.-i^^^ of securing defense from the The South furnishes a most remarkable instance 
^K^-'i^^^^ ^-^^ common enemies of tribes of the charm there is in mystery to all men, in the 
d peoples, they have developed j rise and spread of the Ku Klux Klan, a few years 
into social and eleemosynary insti- ' ago. Three or four young men, in Columbia, 
^^ tutions as advances in civilization ; Tenn., spending a social evening together, con- 
have been made. At iii>t they , eluded to organize a winter's literary society. All 
were but a severe necessit\ , and as had just returned from the war, in which they had 
that time slowly pas.-ed away, they , fought for the "'lost cause," and found time 
became a luxury and a pleasure, | hanging dull upon them. Each eagerly caught at 
having peculiar and strong attrae- ; the idea of a society, and soon they were in the 
tion to nearly all men. That part of intricacies of the details. Together, from their 
one's nature which loves to lean : sparse recollections of their schoolbooks, they 
npon others for aid, even in the social scale, tinds j evolved the curious name for the society. The 
its expression in some of the many forms of nauiP suggested to them that the sport to be 
societies, clubs, organizations or ini^titutions that derived from it might be increased by making it a 
now pervade nearly all the walk-^ cif life. In every secret society. The thing was launched upon this 



day existence, in business, church, .-t-ite, politics 
and pleasure, are societies and organizations every- 
where—for the purposes of gain, charity and 



basic idea. In everything connected with it each 
one was fertile it seems in adding mystery to mys- 
tery in their meetings and personal movements. 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



The initiation of a new member was maile a grand 
and rollicking affair. So complete bad the mem- 
bers occasioned their little innocent society to be 
a mystery, that it lieeamo in an astoui>hiui^-ly brief 
time a greater enigma to themselves than even to 
outsiders. It swiftly spread from the village to the 
county, from the county to the State, and over ran 
the Southern States like a racing prairie tire, 
changing in its aims an'l objects as rajiidly as it 
had grown. From simply frightening the poor 
night -prowling darkeys, it became a vast and 
uncontrollable semi-military organization; intlict- 
ing punishment here, and there taking life, until 
the State of Tennessee was thrown into utter con- 
fusion, and the military forces were called out ; 
large rewards were offered for the arrest even of 
women found making any of the paraphernalia of 
the order. Government detectives sent to pry uitc 
their secrets were slain, and a general reign of 
terror ensued. No rewards conld induce a mem- 
ber to betray his fellows; and the efforts of the 
organizers to control the storm they had raised, 
were as idle as the buzzing of a summer fly. 
Thousands and thousands of men belonged to 
it, who knew really little or nothing about it, and 
who to this day are oblivious of the true history 
of one of the most remarkable movements of large 
bodies of men that has ever occurred in this or 
perhaps any country. It was said by leading 
members of the order that they could, in twenty- 
four hours, put tens of thousands of men in line of 
battle, all fully armed and equipped. It was 
indeed the "Invisible Empire.'' By its founders 
it was as innocent and harmless in its purposes as 
a Sunday-school picnic, yet in a few weeks it spread 
and grew until it overshadowed the land — but little 
else than a bloody, headless riot. The imagina- 
tions of men on the outside conjured up the most 
blood-curdling falsehoods as to its doings; while 
those inside were, it seems, equally fei'tile in 
schemes and devices to further mystify people, 
alarm some and terrify others, and apparently the 
wilder the story told about them, the more they 
Would enjoy it. Its true history will long give it 
rank of first importance to the philosophic and 
careful, painstaking historian. 



Among socii^ties of tln' present day, that 
organization known as the Indepe'ideut Order of 
Odd Fellows is recognized as a prominent one. The 
Grand Lodge of the order in Arkansas was organ- 
ized June 11, 184'J. Its first past grand master 
was John J. Hornm-, elected in 1854. His succes- 
sors to date have been as follows : James A. He'nry. 
1858 ; P. O. Hooper, 18511-18(10 ; Richard Bragg. 
Sr., 1862; Peter Brugman, 1807. 1808, 1871: I^aac 
Eolsom, 1S73; Albert Cohen, 187-4; John B. Bond. 
1876; E. B. Moore, 1878; James S. Holmes, 1880; 
Adam Clark, 1881 ; W. A. Jett, 1882; James A. 
Gibson, 1884 ; George ^V. Hurley, 1885 ; H. S. 
Coleman, 1886, and A. S. Jett, 1887. The pres- 
ent able officers are R. P. Holt, grand master; 
J. P. ^\"oolsey, deputy grand master; Louis C. 
Lincoln, grand warden : Peter Brugman, grand 
secretary; H. Ehrenbers. grand treasurer; H. S. 
Coleman, grand representative; A. S. Jett. grand 
representative; Rev. L. B. Hawley, grand chap- 
lain; John R. Richardson, grand marshal; J. G. 
Parker, grand conductor; William Mosby. grand 
guardian ; W. J. Glenn, grand herald. In the 
State there are eighty-two lodges and a total mem- 
bership, reported by the secretary at the October 
meeting, 18S8, of 2,02:1 The revenue from sub- 
ordinate lodges amounts to $13,832, -while the 
relief granted aggregates §2,840. There were 
sixteen Rebekah lodges organized in l«887-88. 

The Masonic fraternity is no less influential 

in the affairs of every part of the country, than the 

society just mentioned. There is a tradition — too 

vague for reliance — that Masonry was introduced 

into Ai-kansas by the Spaniards more than 100 

years ago, and that therefore the first lodge was 

established at Arkansas Post. Relying, however, 

upon the records the earliest formation of a lodge 

i of the order was in 1819, when the Grand Lodge 

! of Kentucky granted a dispensation for a lodge at 

Arkansas Post. Robert Johnson was the first mas- 

i ter. Judge Andrew Scott, a Federal judge in the 

I Territory, was one of its members. But before 

i this lodge received its charter, the seat of govern- 

i ment was removed to Little Rock, and the Arkan- 

i sas Post lodge became extinct. No other lodge 

I was attempted to be established until 1830, when 









jOOlri 



i,.,.- r.-. 



DS 



HISTORY OF AilKAXSAS. 



a dispensation was granted Wasbiuijton Lodf^e No. 
82, at Fayetteville, Octol)er H. 1.S87. Oaesimurf 
Evans, was master; James McKi'5^ick. senior war- 
den; ^Nlatbew Leeper, junior warden. 

In 1S3S the Grand Lodge of Louisiana granted 
the second dispensation for a lodge at Arkansas 
Post— Jlorning Star Lodge No. 42; the same year 
granting a charter to Western Star Lodge No. 43, 
at Little Rock. Of this Edward Cross was master; 
Charles L. Jeffries, senior warden; Nicholas Peay, 
junior warden. About this time the Grand Lodge 
of Alabama granted a charter to Mount Horeb 
Lodge, of Washington. Hempstead Count}', 

November 21, 1S3S. these four lodges held a 
convention at Little Rock and formed the Grand 
Lodge of Arkansas. 

The representatives at this convention were: 
From Washington Lodge No. 82, of Fayetteville, 
Onesimus Evans, past master; Washington L. Wil- 
son, Robert Bedford. Abraham Whinnery, Richard 
C. S. Brown, Samuel Adams and Williamson S. 
Oldham. 

From We.stern Star Lodge No. 43, of Little 
Rock, William Gilchrist, past master; Charles L. 
Jeffries, past master; Nicholas Peay, past master; 
Edward Cross, past master; Thomas Parsel, Alden 
Sprague and John Morris. 

From Morning Star Lodge No 42, of the Post 
of Arkansas,*- John ^\'. Pullen. 

From Mount Horel) Lodge, of Washington, 
James H. Walker, Allen M. Oakley, Joseph W. Mc- 
Kean and James Trigg. 

Of this convention John Morris, of Western 
Star Lodge No. 43, was made secretary. Mr. 
Morris is still living (ISS'J), a resident of Auburn, 
Sebastian County, and is now quite an old man. 
Mr. John P. Karns, of Little Ruck, was in 
attendance at the convention, although n<jt a dele- 
gate. These two are the only ones surviving who 
were present on that occasion. 

The Grand Lodge organized by the election of 
William Gilchrist, grand ma^.ter: One.-imiis Evans, 
deputy grand master; James H. \\ alki-r. grand sfu- 
ior warden; Washington L. Wil-on. grand junior 
warden; Alden S[)rague, trr:""' treasurer, and 
Geori'e C. Watkins, grand secretary. 



The constituent lodges, their former charters be- 
ing extinct by their becoming meml)eis of a new jur- 
isdiction, took new numbers. Washington Lodge, 
at Fayetteville, became No. 1; Western Star, of 
Little Rock, became Nci. 2; ]\Iorning .Star, of the 
Post of Arkansas, became No. 3, and Blount Horeb, 
of Washington, became No. 4. Of these Wash- 
ington No. 1, and Western Star No. 2, are in vig- 
orous life, but Morning Star No. 3, and Mount 
Horeb No. 4, have become defunct. 

From this beginning of the four lodges, with a 
membership of probably 100, the Grand Lodge 
now consists of over 400 lodges, and a memlier- 
ship of about r2.ni)(». 

The following are the otScers for the present 
year: R. H, Taylor, grand master. Hot Springs; 
J. \V. Sorrels, deputy grand master, Farmer, 
Scott County; D. B. Warren, grand lectmer, 
Gainesville; W. A. Clement, grand orator. Rover, 
Yell County; W. K. Ramsey, grand senior ward- 
en, Camden; C. A. Bridewell, grand junior ward- 
en, Hope; George H. Meade, grand treasurer. Lit- 
tle Rock; Fay Hempstead, grand secretary. Little 
Rock; D. D. Leach, grand senior deacon, Augusta; 
Samuel Peete, grand junior deacon, Batesville; H. 
W. Brooks, grand chaplain, Hope; John B. Baxter, 
grand marshal, Brinkley; C. C. Hamby, grand 
sword bearer, Prescott; S. Solmson, senior grand 
steward, Pine Bluff; A. T. Wilson, junior grand 
steward. Eureka Springs; J. C. Churchill, grand 
pursuivant, Charlotte, Independence Comity: Ed. 
Jletcalf, grand tyler. Little Pvock. 

The first post of the Grand Ar:uy of the Repub- 
lic. Department of Arkati--a^, w i^ organized under 
authority from the Illinois Commaadery. and called 
McPherson Post No. 1, of Little Rock. The 
district then passed under command of the Depart- 
ment of Missouri, and by that authority was or- 
i ganized Po^t No. 2, at Fort Smith. 

The Provisional Department of Arkansas was 
' organized June lb. 1SS3, Stephen Wheeler lieing 
department commander, and C. M. Vaughan. adju- 
I tant general. A State encampment was called to 
I meet at Fort Smith, July 11, 18^3. Six posts were 
i represented in this meeting, when the following 
I State officers were elected: S. W heeler, com- 



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HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



59 



luandcr: M. Mitchell, senior vici'-. R. E. Jackson, 
juniiir vice: H. Stone, ([nHrtermaster, and the 
followinf; council: Jubu F. Owen, A. S. Fowler, 
W. "\V. Bailey, A. Walrath, Benton Turner. 

There are now seventy- foui' posts, with a mem- 
bership of 2. .5110. in tb" State. The present otfi- 
cers are: Department commander, A. S. Fowler; 
senior vice commander, JohnVaughan; junior vice 
commander, E. A. Ellis; medical director, T. G. 
Miller; chaplain, T. R. Early. 

The council of administration includes A. A, 
Whissen, Thomas Boles, W, S, Bartholomew, R, 
E. Renner and I. B. Lawton. The following were 
the appointments on the staff of the department 
commander: Assistant adjutant -general, N. W. Cox; 
assistant quartermaster-general, Stephen Wheeler; 
judge advocate, S, J. Evans: chief mustering 
officer, S. K. Robinson; department inspector, 
R. S. CuiTy. Headquarters were established at 
Little Rock, Ark. 

There are other bodies in the State whose aims 
and purposes differ materially from those previously 
mentioned. Among these is the Arkansas Bureau 
of Mines. Manufactures and Agriculture, which 
was organized as a State institution at the session 
of the legislature in 1SS9. The governor ap- 
pointed M. F. Locke commissioner, the latter mak- 
ing M. "\V. Manville assistant. They at once pro- 
ceeded to organize the department and open an 
office in the State-house. The legislature appro- 
priated for the nest two years for the bureau the 
sum of SIS. 000. 

This action of the legislature was in response 
to a demand from all parts of the State, which, 
■ growing in volume for some time, ctilminated in 
the meeting in Little Rock of numerous promi- 
nent men, and the organization of the Arkansas 
State Bureau of Immigration, January 31, 1SS8. 
A demand from almost every county prompted 
Gov. Senior P. Hughes to issue a call for a State 
meeting. The meeting was composed only of the 
I'est representative citizens. Gov. Hughes, in his 
address, stated that '"the State should have an 
agricultural, mining and manufacturing bureau, 
which should be a bureau of statistics and immi- 
gration, also." Hon. Logan H. Roots was elected 



president of the convention. He voiced the pur- 
poses of the meeting still further when he said, 
'•We want to educate others on the wealth-mak- 
ing properties of our State," A permanent State 
organization was effected, one delegate from each 
county to constitute a State Board of Immigra- 
tion, and the following permanent officers were 
chosen: Logan H. Roots, of Little Rock, presi- 
dent: Daudridge !McRae, of Searcy, vice-president: 
H. L. Remmel, of Newport, secretary : George R. 
Brown, of Little Rock, treasurer: J. H. Clen- 
dening, of Fort Smith, A. M. Crow, of Arkadel- 
phia, W. P. Fletcher, of Lonoke, additional exec- 
utive committee. The executive conamittee issued 
a strong address and published it extensively, giv- 
ing some of the many inducements the Stato had 
to offer immigrants. The legislature could not 
fail to properly recognize such a movement of the 
people, and so provided for the long needed bu- 
reau. 

Arkansas Agricultural Association was organ- 
ized in 1SS5. It has moved slowly so far, but is 
now reaching the condition of becoming a great 
and prosperous institution. The entire State is soon 
to be made into sub-districts, with minor organ- 
izations, at least one in each Congressional district, 
with a local control in each, and all will become 
stockholders and a part of the parent concern. 
A permanent State fair and suitable grounds and 
fistures are to be provided in the near f ature, when 
Arkansas will successfully vie with any State in 
the Union in an annual display of its products. 

The officers of the Agricultural Association for 
1889, are as follows: Zeb. Ward, president, Little 
Rock; B. D. \\'illiams, tirst vice-president. Little 
Rock: T. D. Cull)erhouse, vice-president First 
Congressional district; D. McRae, vice-president 
Second Congressional district: \V. L. Tate, vice- 
president Third Congressional district: J. J. Sump- 
ter, vice-president Fourth Congressional district: J. 
H. Yanhoose. vice-president Fifth Congressional 
disti-ict: M. W. ^Manville. secretary; D.W. Bizzell, 
treasurer. 

Arkansas State Horticultural Society was or- 
ganized May 24. 1879. and incorporated January 
81, 1889. Under its completed organization the 



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HISTORY OF AIIKAXSAS. 



first fair was held in Little Rock, commeucing 
Wednesday, May 1"), ISSU. President, E. F. Bab- 
cock; secretary, il. W. Manville: executive com 
mittee, S. H. Xo'.vlin, chairman. Little Rock; 
George P. C. Rumbongh, Little Rock; Rev. S. H. 
Buchanan, Little Rock; E. C. Kinney. Judsonia, 
and Fred Deugler, Hot Springs, constitute the 
official board. 

In ISSl three farmers of Prairie County met 
and talked over farm matters, and concluded to 
organize a society for the welfare of the farming 
community. The movement grew with astonish- 
ing rapidity. It was organized as a secret, non- 
political society, and in matters of trade and com- 
merce proposed to give its members the benefit 
of combination. In this respect it advocated ac- 
tion in concert with all labor unions or organiza- 
tions of laborers. A State and National organiza- 
tion was effected, and the sub-organizations, ex- 
tending to the smallest school districts, were re- 
quired to obtain authority and report to the State 
branch and it in return to the National head. Thus 
far its originators sought what they believed to be 
the true co-operative method in their business af- 
fairs. 

The next object was to sectire beneficial legis- 
lation to farmers — each one to retain his polit- 
ical party affiliations, and at the ballot-box to vote 
for either farmers or those most closely identified 
with their interests as might be found on the 
respective party tickets. 

The officers of the National society are: Isaac 
McCracken, president, Ozone, Ark. , and A. E. 
Gardner, secretary and treasurer, Dresden, Tenn. 
The Arkansas State Wheel officers are: L. P. 
Featherstone, president, Forrest City; R. H. 
Morehead, secretary, White Chapel, and W. H. 
Quayle, treasurer, Ozan. 

The scheme was invitmg to honest farmers and 
the humble beginning soon grew to be a most pros- 
perous society — not only extending over the State, 
but reaching boldly across the line into other 
States. When at the zenith of its prosperity, it 
is estimated there were 60,0t)() members of the 
order in .A rkansas. This was too tempting a pros- 
pect for the busy political demagogues, and to the 



amazement of the better men in the society, they 
soon awoke to the fact that tliey were in the hands 
of the wily politicians. It is now estimated that 
the ranks in Arkansas are reduced to 'iC.^tJO or 
less — all for political causes. The movement" now 
is to purge the society of politics and in the near 
future to meet the Farmer's Alliance in St. Louis, 
and foiTU a combination of the two societies. It 
is hoped by this arrangement to avoid the dema- 
gogues hereafter, and at the same time fora^ a 
strong and permanent society, which will answer 
the best interests of the farming community. 

As stated elsewhere, the location of a capital 
for Arkansas early occupied the attention of its 

I citizens. On Novemlier 20. 1821, W^illiam Rus- 
sell and others laid off and platted Little Rock 

] as the future capital of the Territory and State. 

I They made a plat and a bill of assurances thereto, 

■ subdividing the same into lots and blocks. They 
gi-anted to Pulaski County Lots 3 and 4 in trust 
and on the conditions following, viz. : " That the 

■ said county of Pulaski within two years" should 
1 erect a common jail upon said Lots 3 and 4. Out 
I of this transaction grew a great deal of litigation. 

The first jail was built of pine logs in 1S23. It 

! stood until 1S37, when it was burned, and a brick 
1 
building was erected in its stead. This stood for 

many years, but throiagh the growth of the city, it in 
time became a public nuisance and was condemned. 
and the location moved to the present site of the 
stone jail. 

The Territory was organized by Congress in 
1819, and the seat of government located at the 
1 Post of Arkansas. In the early part of 1820 
I arose the question of a new site for the seat of 
I government, and all eyes turned to Pulaski County. 
I A capital syndicate was formed and Little Rock 
! Bluff fixed upon as the future capital. The one 
! trouble was that the land at this point was not yet 
in market, and so the company secured " sunk land 
scrip"' and located this upon the selected tuwn 
j site. The west line of the Quapaw Indian rcsei- 
vation struck the Arkansas River at "the Little 
Rock" and therefore the east line of the contem- 
plated capital had to 1h> west of this Qunpaw line. 
This town survey "west of the point of rocks, 









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HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



61 



IL 



immediately south of the Arkansas lliver. and 
west of tbe Quapaw line." was surveyed and re- 
turned to tbe recorder at St. Louis as the new town ■ 
site and Territorial capital — called Little Rock. 
The dedication of the streets, etc.. and the plat as 
laid off, -was dated November 111, Ib'Jl. Grouutls 
were given for a State house, and other public ' 
buildings and purposes, and for •" the permanent 
seat of justice of said coiinty (^PuIaski)"" was ded- 
icated an entire half square, " bounded on the north 
by Jlarkham Street and on the west by Spring 
Street and on the south by Cherry (now Second) 
Street " for court house purposes. In return the 
county was to erect a court house and jail od the 
lots specified for these purposes, "within ten 
years from the date hereof. ' ' A market house was 1 
to be erected by tbe city on Lots 4 and 5, Block 99. I 
The latter in time was built on these lots, the upper : 
story containing a council chamber, which was in 
public use until 1S(34, when the present city hall , 
was erected. | 

By an act of the legislature, October 24, 1S21, 
James Billing^ly, Crawford County. Samuel C. 
Roane. Clark County, and Robert Bean, Inde- , 
pendence County, were appointed commissioners. | 
"to fix on a proper place for the seat of justice of 
the County of Pulaski:'" the act further specify- ■ 
ing "they shall take into consideration donations.; 
and future divisions." The latter part of the 
sentence is made still more important by the fact 
that at that time the western boundary of Pulaski 
County was 100 miles west, at the mouth of Petit 
Jean, and tbe eastern boundary was a few miles 
below Pine Bluff. j 

October IS, 1S20, the Ten-itorial seat of govern- 
ment was removed from the Post of Arkansas to , 
the Little Rock, tbe act to take effect June 1. 1821. 
It provided ' ' that there shall be a bond * * * 
for the faithful performance of tbe promise and 
good faith by which the seat of government is 
moved. ' ' 

In November. 1S21, abmit tbe last of the belong- 
ings of the Territorial capital at the Post were 
removed to Little Rock. It was a crossing point 
on the river of the government road leading to 
Missouri, and the place had often been designated 



as tbe "Missouri Crossing,"' Ijut the French had 
generally called it Arkapolis. 

During tbe short time the Territorial capital 
was at Arkansas Post, uo effort was made to erect 
public buildings, as from the first it was under- 
stood this was Init a temporary location. AVhen 
the capital came to Little Rock a one-story double 
log house was built, near the spot where is now 
the Presb_Ti-terian Church, or near the corner of 
Scott and Fifth Streets. This building was in 
tbe old style of two rooms, with an open space 
between, but all under the same roof. In 1S2G 
the log l)uilding was superseded by a one-story 
frame. ^March 2, 1S31, Congress authorized the 
Territory to select ten sections of land and appro- 
p)riate the same toward erecting capitol buildings: 
and in 1S32 it empowered the governor to lease 
the salt springs. With these different funds was 
erected the central building of the present capitol, 
the old representative hall being where is now the 
senate chamber. In \S'.M\ when Arkansas became 
a State, there was yet uo plastering in any part of 
the brick building, and in the assembly balls were 
plain pine board tables and old fashioned split 
bottomed chairs, made in Little Rock. 

In ISStj.at the remarkably small cost of S35,000. 
■were added the additions and improvements and 
changes in the capitol building, completing it in 
its present form. And if the same wisdom con- 
trols the State in tbe future that has marked the 
past, especially in tbe matter of economy in its 
public buildings, there will be only a trifling 
additional expenditure on public buildings during 
the next half century. Tbe State buildings are 
sutficient for all public needs: their plainness and 
cheapness are a pride and glory, fitting monuments 
to the past and present generation of rulers and 
law makers. testifv"ing to their intelligence and 
integrity. 

The State libraiy was started March 3, 1838. at 
first solely as a reference and exchange medium. 
It now has an annual allow-ance of SlOO, for pur- 
chasing books and contains 25,(XI(( volumes, really 
more than can suitably be accommodated. 

The Supreme Court library was established in 
January, 1851. It has 8,000 volumes, including 



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62 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



all the reports and the leading law works. The 
fees of attorneys" license upon admission to the 
bar, of ten dollars, and a dollar docket fee in each 
case in court, constitute the fund provided for the 
library. 

The State Medical Society, as now constituted, 
was formed in May, 1S75. It held its fourteenth 
annual session in 188'J, at Pine Bluff. Edward 
Bentley is the acting president, and L. P. Gibson, 
secretary. Subordinate societies are formed in all 
parts of the State and are represented by regular 
delegates in the general assemblies. In addition to 
the officers for the current year above given are 
Z. Orts, assistant secretary. A. J. Vance, C. S. 
Gray, B. Hatchett and W . H. Hill, vice presidents 
in the order named. 

The State Board of Health was established by 
act of the legislature, March 23, 18S1. It is com- 
posed of six commissioners, appointed by the gov- 
ernor, "a majority of whom are to be medical grad- 
uates and of seven years' practice in the profes- 
sion." The board is required to meet once in 
every three months. The secretary is allowed a 
salary of 81,000 per annum, but the others receive 
no compensation except traveling expenses in the 
discharge of official duties. 

The present board is composed of Dr. A. L. 
Breysacher, president: Dr. Lorenzo R. Gibson, sec- 
retary ; Doctors J. A. Dihrell, P. Van Patton, W. 
A. Cantrell and V. Brunson. 

The beginning which resulted in the present 
elegant State institution for deaf mutes was a school 
established near the close of the late war, in Little 
Kock, by Joseph Mount, an educated mute, who 
gathered a few of these unfortunate ones together 
and taught a private school. The State legislature 
incorporated the school and made a small provision 
for it, July 17, 1808, the attendance that year 
being four pupils. The buildings are on the beau- 
tiful hill just west of the Union Depot, the im- 
provement of the grounds being made in 1869. 
The attendance in 1870 was 48 pupils, which in 
the last session's report. 1888, reached the number 
of 109; and the superintendent, anticipating an at- 
tendance for the current two years of 150, has 
solicited appropriations accordingly. 



The board of trustees of the Deaf Jlnte Insti- 
tute includes: Hon. George E. Dodge, president; 
Col. S. L. Griffith, vice-president; Maj. R. H. Par- 
ham, Jr.. secretary; Hon. W. E. Woodruff, treas- 
urer; Maj. George H. Meade and Col. A. R. Witt. 
The officers are: Principal, Francis D. Clarke; 
instructors; John W. IMichaels. Mrs. I. H. Carroll, 
Miss Susan B. Harwood, .Miss Kate P. Brown, Miss 
Emma Wells, S. C. Bright; teacher of articulation. 
Miss Lottie Kirkland. Mrs. M. M. Beattie is 
matron; Miss Lucinda Nations, assistant ; Miss 
Clara Abl.iott. supervises the sewing, and Mrs. 
Amanda Harley is housekeeper. The visiting phy- 
sician is J. A. Dibrell, Jr.. M. D. ; foreman of the 
printing office, T. P. Clarke: foreman of the shoe 
shop, U. G. Dunn. Of the total appropriations 
asked for the current two years, §80,970, 816. 571) 
is for improvements in buildings, grounds, school 
apparatus, or working departments. 

The Arkansas School for the Blind was incor- 
porated by act of the legislature. February 1, 1859. 
and opened to pupils the same year in Arkadel- 
phia. In the year of 1868 it was removed to Little 
Rock, and suitable groimds purchased at the foot 
of Center Street, on Eighteenth Street. 

This is not an asylum for the aged and infirm, 
nor a hospital for the treatment of disease, but a 
school for the young of both sexes, in which are 
taught literature, music and handcraft Pupils 
between six and twenty-six years old are received, 
and an oculist for the purpose of treating pupils 
is a part of its benefits; no charge is made for 
board or tuition, but friends are expected to fur- 
nish clothing and traveling expenses. 

It is estimated there are 300 blind of school 
age in the State. The legislature has appro- 
priated 8140 a year for each pupil. On this allow- 
ance in two years the steward reported a balance 
unexpended of 81,6M).84. In ls'36 was appro- 
priated 86,000 to build a workshop, store-room, 
laundry and bake-oven. In 1860 the attendance 
was ten — five males and five females: in 1862. 
seven males and sis females. The year 18.S8 
brought the attendance up to fifty males and fifty- 
two females, or a total of 1(I2. During the last 
two years six have graduated here — three in the 



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HISTORY OF AFlKANSAS. 



m 



industrial department, and three in the industrial 
and literary depaitment. Four have l)een dis- 
missed on account of recovered eyesiijht. 

The trustees of the school are: J. R. Ri<;ht- 
sell, S. M. Marshall. W. C. Ratclitt'e. J.W. House. 
and D. G. Tones; the superintendent being John 
H. Dye. 

Another commendable institution, carefully 
providing for the -welfare of those dethroned of 
reason, is the Arkansas State Lunatic Asylum. 
which was authorized by act of the legislature of 
FS73, when suitable grounds were purchased, and 
highly improved, and buildings erected. The in 
stitution is three miles west of the capitol and one- 
half mile north of the Mount Ida road. Eighty acres 
of ground were originally purchased and enclosed 
and are now reaching a high state of improve- 
ment. The resident population of the asylum at 
present is 500 souls, and owing to the crowded 
conditions an additional eighty acres were pur- 
chased in 18S7, making in all 160 acres. A care- 
ful intjuiry shows there are in the State (and not in 
the asylum, for want of room) 198 insane persons, 
entitled under the law to the benefits of the insti 
tution. Of the 411 patients in the asylum in ISSiS, 
only four were pay patients. 

John G. Fletcher, R. K. Walker, A. L. Brey- 
sacher, John D. Adams and William J. Little are 
trustees of the institution, while Dr. P. O. Hooper 
is superintendent. 

In 1SS5 the legislature made an appropriation 
of ?02,o00 for the erection of additional buildings 
and other needed improvements. This fund was 
not all used, but the remainder was returned into 
the State treasury. The total current expenses for 
the year ISST aggregated 845,212.00. The current 
expenses on patients the same year were S2y. 344. SO. 
The comfort of the unfortunates — the excellence of 
the service, the wholesome food given them, and at 
the same time the minimum cost to the tax payers, 
prove the highest possible commendation to those 
in charge. 

The Arkansas Industrial University is the prom- 
ise, if not the present fulfillment, of one of the 
most important of State institutions. It certainly 
deserves the utmost attention from the best people 



of the State, as it is destined to become in time one 
of the great universities of the world. It should 
be placed in position to be self supporting, be- 
cause education is not a public pauper and never 
can be permanently successful on charity. Any 
education to be had must be earned. This law of 
nature can no more be set aside than can the law 
of gravitation, and the ignorance of such a simple 
fact in statesmen and educators has cost our civili- 
zation its severest pains and penalties. 

The industrial department of the institution 
was organized in June, 1SS5. The act of incor- 
poration provided that all males should work at 
manual labor three hours each day and be paid 
therefor ten cents an hour. Seven thousand 
dollars was appropriated to equip the shops. Prac- 
tical labor was defined to be not only farm and 
shop work, but also surveying, drawing and labor- 
atory practice. Mechanical arts and engineering 
became a part of the curriculum. The large major 
ity of any people must engage in industrial pur- 
suits, and to these industrial development and 
enlightenment and comfort go hand-in-hand. 
Hence the real people's school is one of manual 
training. Schools of philosophy and literature will 
take care of themselves; think of a school (classical) 
endeavoring to train a Shakespeare or Burns ! To 
have compelled either one of these to graduate at 
Oxford would have been like clipping the wings 
of the eagle to aid his upward flight. In the edu- 
cation at least of children nature is omnipotent and 
pitiless, and it is the establishment of such train- 
ing schools HS the Arkansas Industrial University 
that gives the cheering evidence of the world's 
progress. In its continued prosperity is hope for 
the near future; its failure through ignorance or 
bigotry in the old and worn out ideas of the dead 
past, will go far toward the confirmation of the 
cruel cynicism that the most to be pitied animal 
pell melled into the world is the new-born babe. 

The University is situated at Fayetteville. 
Washington County. It was organized by act of 
the legislature, based on the "Land Grant Act" 
of Congress of 1862, and supplemented by liberal 
donations from the State, the County of Wash- 
ington, and the citv of Favetteville. The school 



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64 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



was opened in 1872. March 30, 1S77, the legisla- 
ture passed the act known as the " Barkfi- Bill,"' 
which made nearly a complete change in the pur- 
view of the school and brought prominently for- 
ward the agricidtural and mechanical departments. 
"To gratify oiu' amliitious" [but mistaken] 
"youth," says the prospectus, " we have, under 
Section 7 of the act, provided for instruction in the 
classics." 

Under the act of Congress known as the 
"Hatch Bill," an Agricultural E.\()erimeutal Sta- 
tion has been organized. Substantial buildings 
are now provided, and the cost of board in the in- 
stitution is reduced to SS per month. The attend- 
ance at the present time is ninety-six students, 
and steps are being taken to form a model stock- 
farm. The trustees, in the last report, say: "We 
recommend that girls be restored to the privi- 
leges of the institution." The law only excludes 
females from being beneficiaries, and females may 
still attend as pay students. 

A part of the University is a branch Normal 
School, established at Pine Bluff, for the purpose 
of educating colored youth to be school teachers. 
These Normal Schools have for some years been 
a favorite and expensive hobby in most of the 
Northern States. There is probably no question 
that, for the promotion of the cause of education 
among the negroes, they offer unusual attractions. 

The following will give the reader a clear com- 
prehension of the school and its purposes. Its 
departments are: 

Mechanic arts and engineering, agriculture, 
experiment station, practical work. English and 
modern languages, biologv and geology, military 



science and tactics, mathematics and logic, prepara- 
tory department, drawing and industrial art, and 
music. 

To all these departments is now added the med- 
ical department, located at Little Rock. This 
branch was founded in 1871, and has a suitable 
building on Second Street. The tenth annual 
course of lectures in this institutii.n commenced 

1 October 3. 18S8; the tenth annual commencement 
being held March 8, 1880. The institution is self- 

■ supporting, ami already it ranks among the fore- 
most medical schools in the country. The graduat- 
ing class of 1888 numbered twenty. 

The State Board of Visitors to the medical 
school are Doctors W. \V. Hipolite, V,'. P. Hart, 
W. B. Lawrence. J. M. Keller, I. Folsom. 

I The debt of Arkansas is not as large as a cur- 

I sory glance at the tigures might indicate. The 
United States government recently issued a statis- 
tical abstract concerning the public debt of this 

j State that is very misleading, and does it a great 
wrong. In enumerating the debts of the States it 
puts Arkansas at 812,029. 100. This error comes 
of including the bonds issued for railroad and levee 
purposes, that have been decided by the Supreme 
Court null and void, to the amount of nearly 

I S10,000,(H:tO. They are therefore no part, of the 
State indebtedness. 

The real debt of the State is §2,111,000, 
including principal and accumulated interest. 
There is an amount in excess of this, if there is 
included the debt due the general government, 
but for all such the State has counter claims, and 
it is not therefore estimated in giving the real 
indebtedness. 



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HISTOKY OF ARKANSAS. 



65 



f HAPTER ¥tll. 



The Benxh and Bar— Ax AxALYTir View of the Profession of Law— Spanish and French Laws- 
English Common Law— The Lt:f;AL CiRtriT Riders— Territorial Law and Lawyers 
—The Court CiRcriTs— Pearly Court OFKirEi:s— The Supreme Court— Promi- 
nent Members of the State Bench and Bar— The Standard 
OF THE Execution of Law in the .State. 



Laws do not put the least restraint 
Upon our freedom, but maintain 't; 
Or if tLiey do. 'tis for our good, 
To give us freer latitude; 
For wholesome laws preserve us free 
By stinting of our liberty. — Butler. 




►"HE Territory when under 
Spanish or French rule 
was gOYerned by much the 
same laws and customs. 
The home government ap- 
pointed its viceroys, who 
were little more than nomi- 
nally under the control of the 
king, escept in the general laws 
of the mother country. The neces- 
sary local provisions in the laws 
were not strictly required to be 
Kt) submitted for approval to the mas- 
/"Q/ll?*? 'i3%ter powers before being enforced 
'^^)0^^ in the colony. Both govern- 
il^'vV^.*^ ments were equally liberal in 
'v,^«^v«« bestowing the lands upon sub- 
jects, and as a rule, without cost. But the shadow 
of feudal times still lingered over each of them, 
and they had no conception that the real people 
would want to be small landholders, supposing 
that in the new as in the old world they would 
drift into villanage. and in some sense be a part 
of the possession of the landed aristocracy. Hence, 



these governments are seen taking personal charge 
as it were of the colonies; providing them masters 
and protectors, who. with government aid, would 
transport and in a certain sense own them and 
their labor after their arrival. The grantee of cer- 
tain royal rights and privileges in the new world 
was responsible to the viceroy for his colony, and 
the viceroy to the king. The whole was anti-dem- 
ocratic of course, and was but the continued and 
old, old idea of "the divine rights of rulers." 

The commentaries of even the favorite law- 
writers to-day in this democratic country are 
blurred on nearly every page with that monstrous 
heresv, "the king can do no wrong"' — the gov- 
erning power is infallible, it needs no watching, no 
jealous eye that will see its errors or its crimes ; a 
fetich to be blindly worshiped, indiscriminately, 
whether it is an angel of mercy or a monster of 
evil. When Cannibal was king he was a god, with 
no soul to dictate to him the course he pursued. 
"The curiosities of patriotism under adversity" 
just here suggests itself as a natural title-page to 
one of the most lemarkable books yet to be written. 

The bench and bar form a verv- peculiar result 



f • • 






HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



^ 



of modem civilization — to-day figlitinij the most 
heroic battles for the poor aud the oppressed ; to- 
morrow, perhaps, expending eijiial zeal and elo- 
quence in the train of the bloody usurper aud ty- 
rant. As full of inconsistencies as insincerity it- 
self, it is also as noted for as wise, conservative and 
noble efforts in behalf of our race as ever distin- 
guished patriot or sage. 

The dangers which beset the path of the law- 
yer are a blind adherence to precedent, aud a love 
of the abstruse technicalities of the law practice. 
When both or either of these intirmities enter the 
soul of the otherwise young and rising practitioner, 
his usefulness to his fellow man is apt to be perma- 
nently impaired. He may be the '"learned judge,'' 
but will not be the great and good one. 

The historj' of the bench and bar should be 
an instructive one. The inquirer, commencing in 
the natural order of all real history, investigating 
the cause or the fountain source, and then follow- 
ing up the effects flowing from causes, is met at 
the threshold with the question. Why ? What 
natural necessity created this vast and expensive 
supernumerary of civilization ? The institution in 
its entirety is .so wide and involved, so comprehen- 
sive and expensive, with its array of court officials, 
great temples, its robes, ermine and wool-sacks; its 
halls, professors, schools and libraries, that the 
average mind is oppressed with the attempt to 
grasp its outlines. In a purely economic sense it 
produces not one blade of grass. After having 
elucidated this much of the investigation as best 
he can, he comes to a minor one, or the details 
of the subject. For illustration's sake, let it be 
assumed that he will then take up the considera- 
tion of grand juries, their origin, history and present 
necessity for existence. These are mere hints, but 
such as will an-est the attention of the student of law 
of philosophical turn of mind. They are nothing 
more than the same problems that come in every 
department of history. The school of the lawyer 
is to accept precedent, the same as it is a common 
human instinct to accept what comes to him from 
the fathers — assuming everything in its favor and 
combating everything that would dispute "the 
old order." It is the exceptional mind which 



looks ancient precedent in the face and asks cities- 
tions, Whence 'r Why :' A\ hither ? These are gen- 
erally inconvenient queries to indolent coutrnt, 
but they are the drive-wheels of moving civiliza- 
tion. 

One most extraordinary fact forever remains, 
namely, that lawyers and statesmen never unfolded 
the science of political economy. This seems a 
strange contradiction, but nevertheless it is so. 
The story of human and divine laws is much alike. 
The truths have not been found, as a rule, by the 
custodians of the temples. The Rev. Jaspers are still 
proclaiming '"the world do move." Great states- 
men are still seriously regtilating the nation's 
'• balance of trade," the price of interest on money. 
and throtigh processes of taxation enriching peo- 
ples, while the dear old precedents have for KM) 
years been demonstrated to be myths. They are 
theoretically dead with all intelligent men, but 
are very much alive in fact. Thus the social 
life of every people is full of most amttsing curi- 
osities, many of them harmless, many that are not. 

The early bench and bar of Arkansas prodttced 
a strong and virile race of men. The pioneers of 
this important class of community possessed vigor- 
ous minds and bodies, with lofty ideals of personal 
honor, and an energy of integrity admirably titted 
to the tasks set before them. 

The law of the land, the moment the Louisi- 
ana purchase was effected, was the English com- 
mon law, that vast and marvelous structure, the 
growth of hundreds of years of bloody English 
history, and so often the apparent throes of civil- 
ization. 

The circuit riders composed the tirst bench 
and bar here, as in all the western States. In 
this State especially the accounts of the law prac- 
tice — the long trips over the wide judicial circuits; 
the hardships enditred, the dangers encountered 
from swollen streams ere safe bridges spanned 
them; the rough accommodations, indeed, some- 
times the absence of shelter from the raging ele- 
ments, and amid all this their jolly happy-go-lucky 
life, their wit and fun, their eternal electioneering, 
for every lawyerthen was a politician: their quick- 
ened wits and schemes and devices to advantage 



' ^'Ji 



, lo 



'> 5- 



HISTOUY OF ARKANSAS. 



67 



each other, both in and out of. the courts, if all 
could be told in detail, wouhl read like a fascinat- 
ing romance. These riders often traveled in com- 
panies of from three to fifteen, and among them 
would be found the college and law-school gradu- 
ates, and the lirush graduates, associated in some 
cases and opposed in others. And here, as in all 
the walks of life, it was often found that the rough, 
self educated men overmatched the gi-aduates in 
their fiercest contests. While one might understand 
more of the books and of the learned technicalities 
of law, the other would know the jury be.st, and 
overthrow his antagonist. In the little old log 
cabin court rooms of those days, wiien the court 
was in session, the contest pf the legal gladiators 
went on from the opening to the closing of the 
term. Generally the test was before a jury, and 
the people gathered from all the surrounding coun- 
try, deeply interested m every movement of the 
actors. This was an additional stimulus to the 
lawyer politicians, who well understood that their 
ability was gauged by the crowd, as were their suc- 
cesses before the jury. Thus was it a combination 
of the forum and "stump." Here, sometimes in 
the conduct of a noted case, a seat in Congress 
would be won or lost. A seat in Congress, or on 
the "wool sack," was the ambition of nearly every 
circuit rider. Their legal encounters were fought 
out to the end. Each one was dreadfully in earn- 
est—he practiced no assumed virtues in the strug- 
gle; battling as much at least for himself as his 
client, he would yield only under compulsion, even 
in the minor points, and, unfortunately, sometimes 
in the heat of ardor, the contest would descend 
from a legal to a personal one. and then the handy 
duello code was a ready resort. It seems it was 
this unhappy mixture of law and politics that 
caused many of these bloody personal encounters. 
In the pure practice of the law, stripped of polit- 
ical bearings, there seldom, if ever, came misunder- 
standings. 

They must have been a fearless and earnest 
class of men to brave the hardships of professional 
life, as well as mastering the endless and involved 
intricacies of the legal practice of that day. The 
law then was but little less than a mass of un- 



meaning technicalities. A successful j)ractitioner 
required to have at his fingers' ends at least Black- 
stone's Commentaries and Chitty's Pleadings, and 
much of the wonders contained in the Rule.-; of 
Evidence. Libraries were then scarce and their 
privations here were nearly as great as in the com- 
mon comforts for "man and beast." There have 
been vast improvements in the simplifying of the 
practice, the abolition of technical pleadings es- 
pecially, since that tirae, and the young attorney 
of to-day can hardly realize what it was the pio- 
neers of his profession had to undergo. 

A judicial circuit at that early day was an im- 
mense domain, over which the bench and bar 
regularly made semi-annual trips. Sometimes 
they would not more than get around to their 
starting point before it would be necessary to 
go all over the ground again. Thus the court was 
almost literally " in the saddle. " The saddle-bags 
were their law offices, and some of them, upon 
reaching their respective county-seats, would' sig- 
nalize their brief stays with hard work all day in 
the court-room and late roystering at the tavern 
bar at night, regardless of the demurrers, pleas, 
replications, rejoinders and sur-rejoinders, declara- 
tions and bills that they knew must be confronted 
on the morrow. Among these jolly sojourners, 
"during court week" in the villages, dignity and 
circumspection were often given over exclusively 
to the keeping of the judge and prosecutor. Cir- 
cumstances thus made the bench and bar as social 
a set as ever came together. To see them return- 
ing after their long journeyings, sunburned and 
weatherbeaten, having had bitt few advantages of 
the laundry or bathtub, they might have passed for 
a returning squad of cavalry in the late war. One 
eccentric character made it a point never to start 
\tith any relays to his wardrobe. When he reached 
home after his long pilgrimage it would be noticed 
that his clothes had a stuffed appearance. The 
truth was that when clean linen was needed he 
bought new goods and slipped them on over the 
soiled ones. He would often tell how he dreaded 
the return to his home, as he knew that after his 
wife attended to his change of wardrobe he was 
"most sure to catch cold." 



T V 



-,:•■ aK'i 

. ii'.ii ■'■■- 
■■-tin- 



■■i-.ti: 



6S 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



Oq one occasion two members of the bar mft 
at a county seat where court was in session a week. 
They had c me from opposite directions, one of 
them riding a borrowed horse seventy niih's, while 
the other on his own horse had traveled over 100 
miles. Upon starting home they unwittingly ex- 
changed horses, and neither discovered the mistake 
until informed by friends after reaching their des- 
tination. The horses could hardly have been more 
dissimilar, but the owners detected no change. It 
was nearly the value of the animals to make the 
return exchange, yet each set out, and finally re- 
turned with the proper horse. No little ingenuity 
must have been manifested in finally unraveling 
the great mystery of the affair. 

Surrounded as they were with ail these ill con- 
ditions, as a body of men they were nevertheless 
learned in the law, great in the forum, able and 
upright on the bench. Comparisons are odious, 
but it is nothing in disparagement to the present 
generation of courts and lawyers, to say that to be 
equally great and worthy with these men of the 
early bench and bar of Arkansas, is to exalt and 
ennoble the profession in the highest degree. 

Sixty years have now passed since the first 
coming of the members of this calling to the State 
of Arkansas. In 1S19 President Monroe appointed 
James Miller, governor, Robert Crittenden, secre- 
tary, and Charles Jouitt, Andrew Scott and Eoliert 
P. Letcher, judges of the Superior Court, for the 
new Territory of Arkansas. All the^c it si^ems. 
except Gov. Miller, were ])romptly at the post of 
duty and in the discharge of their respective offices. 
In the absence of Mr. Miller, Mr Crittenden was 
actiuc crovernor. These men nut only constituted 
the lirSt bench and bar, but the lirst Territorial otli- 
cials and the first legislature. They were all lo- 
cated in the old French town of Arkan-as Post. 
The lawyers and judges were the legi-lative l.ody, 
which enacted the laws to be enf<jrced in their re- 
spective districts. At their first legislative session 
they established but five statut(> laws, and from 
this it might be inferred that there were few and 
simple laws in force at that time, t.nt the reader 
will remember that from the uiuinent nt tlie I.onis. 
iana purchase all the new teiritory pa---il under 



the regulation and control of the English comm(jn 
law — substantially the same system of laws then 
governing England. 

It is a singular comment on American juris- 
prudence that this country is still boasting the pos- 
session of the English habeas corpus act, wrung 
by those sturdy old barons from King John, — a 
government by the people, universal suffrage, 
where the meanest voter is by his vote also a sov- 
ereign, and therefore he protects himself against 
— whom ? — why. against himself by the English 
habeas corpus act. which was but the great act of 
a great people that first proclaimed a higher right 
than was the "divine right of kings." When these 
old Englishmen presented the alternative to King 
John, the writ or the headsman's ax, he very sensi- 
bly chose the lesser of the two great inconven- 
iences. And from that moment the vital meaning 
of the phrase "the divine right of kings" was 
dead in England. 

In America, where all vote, the writ of habeas 
corpus has been time and time again suspended, 
and there are foolish men now who would gladly 
resort to this ttntoward measure, for the sake of 
party sticcess in elections. There is no language of 
tongue or pen that can carry a more biting sar- 
casm on our boasted freemen or free institutions 
than this almost unnoticed fact in our history. 

One of the acts of the first legislative session 
held in August, 1819, was to divide the Territory 
into two judicial circuits. As elsewhere stated, the 
counties of Arkansas and Lawrence constituted the 
First circuit; Pulaski, Clark and Hempstead Coun- 
ties forming the Second. 

The juilges of the Superior Courts were as- 
signed to the duties of the different circuits. At 
tiie first real Territorial legislature, composed of 
representatives elected by the people, the Territory 
was divided into three judicial circuits. The 
courts, however, for the different circuits, were all 
held at th(> Territorial ca[)ital. There was no cir- 
cuit riding, therefore, at thistime. 

Judicial circuits and judges residing therein 
were not a part of judiciary affairs until 1S28. The 
juil:;es (if tlie First circuit from that date, with time 
of appuiutment and service, were: T. P. Eskridge, 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



09 



Decfinber 10, 1823: Andrew Scott, April 11, 1827; 
Sam C. Roane, April 17, ls2'.)^;iG. The list of 
prosecuting attorneys inehult's: W. B. E. Horner, 
November 1, 1823; Thomas Hubbard, November 
5, 1828, to February 15, 1832; G. D. Royston, 
September 7, 1833; Shelton Watson, October 4, 
1835; A. G. Stephenson, January 23, 1836. 

Of the Second circuit the judges were: Richard 
Searcy, December 10, 1823, and J. W. Bates, 
November. 1825, to 1836; while the prosecuting 
attorneys were R. C. Oden. November 1, 1823; A. 
H. Sevier, January lU, 1824 (resigned); Sam C. 
Roane, September 26. 1826; Bennett H. Martin. 

January 30, 1831; Absalom Fowler. ; D. L. 

F. Royston, July 25, 1835: Townsend Dickin- 
son, November I. Is23; A. F. :\Iay, March 29, 
1825 (died in office); W. H. Panv.tt. April 21, 
1827; S. S. Hall, August 31, 1S31: J. W. Robert- 
son, September 17, 1833; E. B. Ball, July 19, 
1836. 

Samuel S. Hall was judge of the Third circuit, 
serving from December, 1823. to 1836. As pros- 
ecuting attorneys, are found the names of T. Dick- 
inson, January 10, 1823; A. D. G. Davis, June 
21, 1829; S. G. Sneed. Novpmber 11, 1831; David 
Walker, September 13, 1833; Thomas Johnson. 
October 4, 1835; W. F. Denton, January 23. 1836. 

The appointment of Charles Caldwell as judge 
of the Fourth circuit dates from December 27, 
1828; while E. T. Clark. February 13. 1830; J. C. 
P. Tolleson. February 1. 1831: and W. K. Sebas- 
tian, from January 25, 1833, served as prosecuting 
attorneys. 

The Supreme Court of Arkansas has ever com- 
prised among its members men of dignity, wisdom 
and keen legal insight. The directory of these 
officials contains the names of many of those whose 
reputation and influence are far more than local. 
It is as follows: 

Chief justices: Daniel Ringo, 1836; Thomas 
Johnson, 1844; George C. Watkins, 1852 (re- 
si<,'ned); E. H. English, 1854 (also Confederate); 
T. D. W. Yonley. 1S64 rMurphy constitution); E. 
Baxter, 1861 (under ^lurpViy regime); David 
Walker, 1866 (ousted by military); W. W. Wil- 
sliire, 186S (removed); John ilcClure, 1871, (re- 



moved); E. H. English, 1874. Sterling,' R. Cock- 

I rill ia present chief justi"" 

Associate justices: Thomas J. Lacey, 1831): 

i Townsend Dickinson, 1836; George W. Paschal. 

! 1842; W. K. Sebastian, 1843; W. S. Oldham. 
1845; Edward Cross, 1845: William Conway, 1M6: 
C. C. Scott, 1848; David Walker, 1847 and 1874: 

I Thomas B. Hanley, 1858 (resigned); F. I. Batson. 
1858 (resigned); H. F. Fairchild. 18fjO (diedi: 
Albert Pike, 18(51 (also Confederate); J. J. Clen- 
denin, 1866 (ousted); T. :\r. Bowen, 1868; L. 
Gregg, 1868; J. E. Bennett. 1871: M. L. Steph- 
enson, 1872: E. J. Searle, 1872; W. M. Harrison, 
1874: J. T. Bearden, 1874 (appointed): Jesse 
Turner, 1878; J. R. Eakin, 1878: W. W. Smith, 
1882; B. B. Battle. 1885, re-elected. By law 
three additional judges were elected April 2, 1889: 
Simon B. Hughes, W. E. Hemingway and Mont. 
H. Sandels. 

Reporters: Alberl Pike. N. W. Cos, E. H. 
English. J. M. :Moore, L. E. Barber, B. D. Turner 
and W. W. Mansfield (present incumbent). 

Clerks: H. Haralson, L E. Barber. N. W. Cox, 
and W. P. Campbell (in office). 

Special chief justices: William Story, F. W. 
Compton, J. L. Witherspoon, S. H. Hempstead, 

C. B. Moore, Thomas Johnson, R. A. Howard, 
George A. Gallagher, B. B. Battle, Sam W. Will- 
iams. A. B. Williams, G. N Cousin, Isaac Strain, 
N. Haggard, Edward Cross. R. C. S. Brown. L. 
A. Pindall, Sam C. Roane, George Conway, Sack- 
field Macklinin, John Whytock, C. C. Farrellev. 
W. W. Smith, W. I. Warwick. B. B. Morse, 13. 

D. Turner, George W. Caruth, S. H. Harring- 
ton. 

In this list are the names of nearly all earlv 
members of the Arkansas bar. Commencing here 
as young attorneys in their profession, many of 
them have left illustrious n-ames — names that adorn 
the history of the State and Nation, and time 
will not dim nor change the exalted esteem now 
given them. Not one of them but that was an ex- 
ample of that wonderful versatility of American 
genius — the young law_\er liecoming great in the 
jjractice of his profession in the wild wood: or cel- 
ebrated on the bench for decisions that came to the 



-IJI 

• .T I 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



world like beacon lights from the unknown land; 
or as senators holding civilized j>co[,l,- spellbound 
by their wisdom and eloquence; and all. at all times, 
listening for their country's call to play as con- 
spicuous a part in camp and tield as they had in 
the walks of civil life. To undertake all these 
things is not wonderful with a people so cosmopol- 
itan as those of the west, but; to be pre eminent in 
each or all alike is most remarkable. 

Of this brilliant galaxy of pioneer legal lights 
— giants indeed — there now remain as a connect- 
ing link with the present generation only the ven- 
erable Gen. Albert Pike, of Washington City, and 
Judge Jesse Turner, of Van Buren. 

Writing in a reminiscent way of the bench and 
bar, Albert Pike says: "When I came to the bar 
there were William Cummins, Absalom Fowler, 
Daniel Ringo, Chester Ashley, and Samuel Hall, 
at Little Rock. I served on a jury in 1S34 where 
Robert Crittenden was an attorney in the case; the 
judge was Benjamin Johnson, who died in Decem- 
ber, 1834, at Yicksburg. Parrott and Oden died 
before I went to Little Rock. Judge William 
Trimble was an old member of the bar when I en- 
tered it, as was Col. Horner, of Helena. Thomas 
B. Hanley had recently come to Helena from Louis- 
iana. I think Maj. Thomas Hubbard and George 
Conway were practicing at ^Vashiugton in 1S35. 
Judge Andrew Scott had been Territorial judge, but 
retired and lived in Pope County. Frederick W. 
Trapnall and John W. Cocke came from Kentucky 
to Little Rock in 1836, and also William C. Scott 
and his partner, Blanchard. I think Samuel H. 
Hempstead and John J. Clendenin came in 183(5. 
John B. Floyd lived and practiced law in Chicot 
County." Gen. Pike further mentions Judge David 
Walker, John Linton, Judges Hoge and Sneed. 
John M. Wilson, Alfred W. WiLon, Archibald 
Yell, Judge Fowler. Judge Richard C. S. Brown, 
Bennett H !M;irtiu. Philander Little, Jesse Turner 
and Sam W. A\'illiams as among the eminent law- 
yers of the early courts of Arkansas. 

The list of those who have occupied positions 
as circuit judges and prosecuting attorneys in the 
various circuits, will be found of equal interest 
with the names mentioned in couuectiun with a 



higher tribunal. It is as below, the date affixed 
indicating the beginning of the term of service: 

Judges of the First circuit: W. K. Sebastian. 
November l'.». 1840; J. C. P. Tolleson, February 

5, 1843; John T. Jones, December 2.1842; Mark \V. 
Alexander, ; George W. Beasley, September 

6, 1855; C. W. Adams. November 2, 1852; Thomas 

B. Hanley, ; E. C. Bronough, August 25. 

1858; O. H. Gates. March 3, 1859; E. C. Bronough. 
August 23, 1800; Jesse M. Houks. September 17, 
1865; John E. Bennett, July 23. 1868; C. C. Wat- 
ers, February 23, 1871; M. L. Stephenson, March 
24, 1871; W. H. H. Clayton, March 10, 1873; J. 
N. Cypert, October 31. 1874; M. T. Saunders. 
October 30. 1882. Prosecuting attorneys: W. S. 
Mosley, November 14. 1840; A. J. Greer. Novem- 
ber 9, 1841; S. S. Tucker, January 20, 1840; 
Alonzo Thomas, August 5, 1842; W. N. Stanton, 
December 2, 1842; N. M. Foster, December 4, 
1843; A. H. Ringo, March 2. 1849; H. A. Bad- 
ham, March 12, 1851; L. L. Mack, September 
6, 1855: S. W. Childress, August 3(», 1856; Lin- 
coln Featherstone, August 23, 1800; Z. P. H Farr, 
December 1, 1S62: B. C. Brown. January 7, 1865; 
P.O. Thweat, October 15, 1806; C. B. Fitzpatrick. 
March 16, 1871: W. H. H. Clayton, March 23. 
1871; Eugene Stephenson, April 23, 1873; C. A. 
Otey. October 31. 1874; D. D. Leach. October 13, 
1876; P. D. McCulloch (three terms); Greenfield 
Quarles, October 30, 1884; S. Brundridge, October 
30, 188t\ 

Judges of the Second circuit: Isaac Baker, 
November 23, 1840; John C. Murray, August IS, 
1851; W. H. Sutton, January 11, 1845; John C. 
Murray, August 22, 1858; Josiah Gould, Febru- 
ary 26, 1849: W. M. Harrison. May 17, 1865: 
T. F. Sorrells, August 22, 1853; W. C. Hazeldine, 
April 14, 1671; J. F. Lowery, December 12. 
1863: L. L. Mack, October 31, 1874; William 
Story, July 23. IMIS; W. F. Henderson. April 26. 
1874; J. G. Friersun. October 31, 1SS2; W. A. 
Case, vice Frierson. deceased, March 17, 1S84, 
elected Septemlier 1, 18S4: J. E. Riddick. Oc- 
tober 3(X 1SS(). Prosecuting attorneys; John S. 
Roane. Novemlier 15. 1840; Samuel Wooly, Sep- 
tember 19, 1842; J. W. Bocage, November 20, 



.USJi 



•>3 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



IS 43; S. B. Jones, April 20. 1S40; T. F. Sorrells. 
February '2lj, IM'.J; \V. P. (irace, Antjust "J'i, 
]8o■^■, S. F. Ai-iiett, August 23. l.sr.tj; D. W. 
Carroll, August 30, lSt)0: C. C. Godden. Miiy IT, 
1S65; ^\. F. Slcmmoas, Octol>er 15. lS<".tj; D. 
D. Lpach, Docember 10. IS'iS; R. H. Black. May 
0. 1873; J. E. Riddick. October 13, 1S70; W. A. 
Gate. October 14, ISTS; E. F. Brown. Jlay 5. 
ISTO; W. B. Edrington (four terms). October 30, 
ISSO; J. D. Block. October, 1S,S8. 

Judges of the Third circuit: Thomas Johnson, 
November 13, 1S40; William Conway, November 
15, 1844; W. C. Scott. December 11. 18415; R. 
H. Nealy, February 2S, iSol ; W. C. Bevins, August 
23, 1850; W. R. Cain. August 23. iSOi); L. L. 
Mack, March 15. ISOO; Eli^ha Baxter, July 23. 
1808; James AV. Butler. March Kl 1873; William 
Byers, October 30, 1874; R. H. Powell (three 
terms). October'30. 18S2; J. W. Butler, May. IssT. 
Prosecuting attorneys: X. Haggard, November 3(1, 
1840; S. S. Tucker, January 20, 1842: S. H. 
Hempstead. February, 1842; A. R. Porter. Decerc- 
ber2, 1842: S. C.Walker. December 2, 1846; J. H. 
Byers. ]March 5. 1841); W. K. Patterson. August 
30. 1850; F. W. Desha, August 30. 1800; L. L. 
Mack, July 8, 1801; T. J. Ratcliff. July 9, 1S65; 
M. D. Baber, October 15, 1800; W. A. Inman, 
December 8, 1808: J. L. Abernathy, October 31, 
1S74; Charles Coffin, October 14, 1876; M. N. 
Dyer (two terms). October 30. 1882; W. B. Padgett. 
October 30, 1886; J. L. Abernathy October, 1S8S. 

Judges of the Fourth circuit: J. M. Hoge, 
November 13, 1840: S. G. Sneed, November 18, 
1844; A. B. Greenwood. March 3. 1851; F. I. 
Batson, August 20. 1853;" J. M. Wilson. Febru- 
ary 21, 1850; J. J. Green. August 23, ISOO; Y. 
B. Sheppard. May 9. 18C,:): Thomas Boles. 
August 3. 1805; M'. N. :\ray, April 24. ]S08; 
M. L. Stephenson. July 23. 180S: C. B. Filz- 
Patrick, March 23. 1871: J. Huckleberry. April 
10, 1S72; J. M. Pittman. October 31. bs74: J. H. 
Berry, Octolier 21, 1S7>); J. M. Pittman (tliree 
terms), Octolier 31. 1S'^2. Prosecuting attorneys: 
Alfred M. Wilson, November 13, 1841); A. B. 
Greenwood. January 4. 1845; H. F. Thomasson. 
September 0. 1853: Lafayette Gretxg. Augur-r 1'3. 



1856; B. J. Brown, December 1, 1802; J. E. 
Cravens, January 7, 1805; Squire Boon. Octolier 
15. 1806; Elias Harrell, Augu.st 11, 1808; S. W. 
Peel. April 26. 1873; E. I. Stirman, October 13. 
1876; H. A. Dinsmore (three terms). October 14. 
1878; J. Frank Wilson, October 30. 1884; J. W. 
Walker, October 30. 1800; S. M. Johnson. Octo- 

' ber 30, 1888. 

I Judges of the Fifth circuit: J. J. Clendeniu. 

I December 28, 1840; W. H. Field, December 24. 
1846; J. J. Clendenin. September G. 1854; Liberty 

I Bartlett, November 12, 1854; E. D. Ham. July 2H, 

I 1868; Benton J. Brown. September 30. 1874; W. 

; W. Mansfield. October 31, 1874; Thomas W. 

j Pound. September 9, 1S7S; W. D. Jacoway. Oc- 
tober 31, 1878; G. S. Cunningham (three terms i. 

I October 31. 1882. Prosecuting attorneys: R. W. 

[ Johnson. December 20, 1840; George C. Watkius, 
January 11. 1845; J. J. Clendenin, February 17. 

' 1849. to 1854: J. L. Hollowell, Septembers, 1858. 
to 1860; Sam W. Williams, May 10, 1800: Pleas- 

! ant Jordan, September 7, 1861 ; Sam W. Williams. 

! July 0. 1803; John Whytock, December 19, 1805: 

I R. k Dedman. October 15, i860; N. J. Temple, 
August 15, 1868; Arch Young, August 24. 1872; 

j Thomas Barnes. April 23, 1873; J. P. Byers. Oc- 

i tober 31, 1873; A. S. McKennon, October 14. 
1878; J. G. Wallace (two terms), October 31, 
1882; H. S. Carter, October 30. 1886. 

Sixth circuit — judges: William Conway. De- 

: eember 19, 1840; John Field, February 3. 1843: 

j George Couw-ay, August 1, 1844: John Quillin. 
March 2, 1849; Thomas Hubbard, Auc^ust 22, 

I 1854; A. B. Smith, February i. 1850: Shelton Wat- 
son, September 2t). 1858; Len B. Green, April 5. 
1858; A. B. Williams, January 28, 1805: J. T. 
Elliott. October 2. 1805; J. J. Clendenin. October 
31, 1874; J. W. Martin. October 31. 1878; F. T. 
Vaughan. October 31, 1862: J. W. Martin. Octo- 
ber 3(.l, 16M'). Prosecuting attorneys: G. D. Rovs- 
ton. November 11. 1840; O. F. Rainy. June 12. 
1843; Isaac T. Tupiier, January 18. 1844: A. W. 
Blevins. January 11, 1847; E. A. Warner, March 
3. 1851; Orville Jennings, August 23, 1853; E. 
W. Gantt. August 22, 1854: James K. Young. 
Aufru~t :iO, 18r,(); Robert Canigau. September 13. 



-•:; ,.U. 



■\i^> 



n 



'■ i 



^l' f 



HISTOUY OF AKKAXSAS, 



1SG5; J. F. Ritchie, October 15, ISOt); T. B. Gib- 
son, January 11, ISGS; Charles C. ReiJ, Jr., April 
30, 1S71; F. T. Vanghan. September IS. INTO: 
T. C. Trimble, September ;3(), l!STS: F. T.Yaughan. 
September 30, ISSO; T. C. Trimble, October 31. 
1882; E. J. Lea, October 30, 1884; Gray Carroll. 
October 30, 1886; R. J. Lea, October 30, ISSS. 

Seventh circuit — judges: R. C. S. Brown, 1840: 
W. W. Floyd, November 30, 1840. (December 
20, 1849, the State was re districted iuio sis cir- 
cuits. Hence this was abolished for the time.) 
William Byers, July 8, iStW: R. H Powell. May 
11, 1866; " John Whytock. July 23, l^tlS; J. J. 
Clendenin, May 29, 1874; Jabez M. Smith. Oc- 
tober 31, 1874; J. P. Henderson (three termsi. Oc- 
tober 31, 1882. Prosecuting attorneys: John M. 
Wilson, November 20, 1840; J. M. febbetts, De- 
cember 5, 1844; Elisha Baxter. Deceml>T7. 1861: 
W. B. Padgett, August 29. 18<'.5: W. R. Coody. 
October 15, 1866; E. W. Gantt, July 31, 1868; 
J. M. Harrell, May 5, 1873; il. J. Henderson. 
October 31, 1S74: James B. Wood. October 14, 
1878; J. P. Henderson (three- terms). October 31. 
1882: W. H. Martin, October 30, 1^88. 

Eighth circuit — judges: C. C. Scott, December 
2, 1840; William Davis. July 3. 1848 (abolished 
December 20, 1849); James D. Walker, July 25. 
1861; Elias Harrell, May 8, 1865; William Story. 
March 27, 1867; E. J. Earle, July 23. 1868; T. G. 
T. Steele, February 23. 1873; L. J. Joyuer, Octo- 
ber 31, 1874; H. B. Stuart. October 31, 1878; 
R. D. Hearn, October 30, ISiH). Prosecuting attor- 
neys: Richard Lyons, February 5. 1847; N. \V. Pat- 
terson, October 25, 1865; C. G. Reagan. January 
7, 1865; J. C. Pratt, July 23, 1868; T. M. Gun- 
ter, October 15, 1866; Duane Thompson. January 
4, 1874: George A. Kingston. July V>. 1871: J 
D. McCabe. October 31, 1874; J. H, Howard. April 
26, 1873; Rufus D. Hearn (three terms), July 6. 
1874; Lafayette Gregg, November 13, 1S62: W. 
M. Green (three terms). October 30. 1884. 

Ninth circuit — judges: H. B. Stuart. Novem- 
ber 28, 1862; W. N. Hargrave. , 1865: E. J. 

Searle, February 25, 1867; G. W. McCowan. July 
23, 1868; J.T. Elliott, April 26, 1873; J. K. Young, 
October 31. 1874; C. F. ilitchell, October 31, 1882; 



L. A. Byrne, November 4. 1884; A. B. Williams, 
vice Mitchell, resigned, September 10, 1884: C. E. 
Mitchell, October 30, 1886. Prosecuting attorneys: 

A. J. Temple. July 8, 1801; A. T Craycraft, 
January 7, 1865; E. J. Searle. February 19. 1866; 
R. C. Parker, Octolier 15. 1S66; N. J. Temple. 
January 20, 1867; J. R. Page, January 9. 1S69; 
J. M. Bradley. April 26, 1873; Dan W. Jones. 
October 31, 1874; B. \V. Johnson, October 13. 
1876; John Cook. October 14. ISSO; T. F. Web- 
ber (four terms), October 31, LS82. 

Judges of the Tenth circuit: H. P. Morse, 
July 23, 1868; D. W Carroll. October 28. 1874; 
T. F. Sorrells. October 31. 1874; J. M. Bradley. 
October 30, 1882; C. D. Wood, October 30. 1886. 
Prosecuting attorneys: J. McL. Barton, March 

29. 1869; H. King White, April 20, 1871; M. Mc- 
Gehee, April 29, 1873; J. C. Barrow. October 31, 
1874; C. D. Woods, October 30, 1882; M. L. 
Hawkins, rice Woods, October 10, 1886; R. C. 
Fuller, October 30, 1888. 

Eleventh circuit — judges: J. W. Fox. April 

30, 1873; H. N. Hutton, July 24, 1874; John A. 
Williams, October 31, 1874; X. J. Pindall. Octo- 
ber 31. 1878; J. A. Williams (two terms), October 
30,1882. Prosecuting attorneys- H. M. McVeigh, 
April 26, 1873; Z. L. Wise, October 31, 1874; T. 

B. Martin, October 10, 1878; J. M. Elliott (dve 
terms), October 10, 1880. 

Twelfth circuit — judges: P. C. Dooley. April 
26, 1873; J. H. Rogers, April 20. 1877; R. B. 
Rutherford, October 2, 1882; John S. Little, Octo- 
ber 20, 1886. Prosecuting attorneys: D, D. Leach. 
April 26, 1873; John S. Little (three terms), April 
2. 1877: A. C. Lewers (two terms). September 20, 
1884; J. B. McDonough, October 30, 188N, 

Thirteenth circuit — judges: M, D. Kent, April 
26. 1873; B. F. Askew, October 30, 1882; C. W. 
Smith, October 30. 188(1 Prosecuting attorneys: 
W. C. Langfor<l. April 26. 1873: AY. F. Wallace, 
June 5. 1SS3; H. P. Snead (three terms), Octo- 
ber 30. 1884. 

Fourteenth circuit — judges: George A. King- 
ston. April 26. 1873; R. H. Powell. May. 1887. 
Prosecuting attorneys; Duane Thompson. April 
26, 1873; De Ross Bailey, May, 1.S87. 



•1 ■; 






^ 



HISTOUY OF AUKANSAS. 



L. D. Beklen wa.s appointed judge of the Fif- Septemlier 2;, IS. 3; V. B. Sbepanl, April 8(1. 
teouth cucuit April 26, 1S78, the prosecuting at- IST-l. 
torney beiug G. G. Lotta. elected April 23, 1ST;3. By an act of April Ifi, 1S73, the Stale was di- 

Sixteenth circuit — judge: Elisha Mears, April vided into sixteen judicial circuits, but two years 

26, 1873. Prosecuting attorneys; H. X. Withers, , later a reduction to eleven in number was made. 



€BiaPTER IX. 



The L.vte Civil '\V.\i:— An.vlytical View of the TiiorBLOi's TniES— P.\ss.\ge of the Ordinanxe of 
Secession— The Call to Ai:ms— The Fiust Troops to Take the Field— Invasion of the State 
BY the Federal Army— Sketches of the Regiments— Xames of CsFFicEns— Oi'tline of 
Field Operations— Claibi^hkne and Yell— E.xtracts from Private Memo- 
randa—Evacuation OF the State— RE-OccrPATiON-TiiE War of ISl'i— 
The Mexican Wai:— Standard of A.aierican Generalship. 




The cannon's huih'dl nor dium nor clarion sound; 
Helmet and hauburk gleam upon the ground; 
Horsemen and horse lie weltering in Iheir gore; 
Patriots are dead, and heroes dare no more; 
While solemnly the moonlight shrouds the plain. 
And lights the lurid features of the slain. — Montgomery. 



' ■ \ KKAXSAS was not among 
'^p the States that may be call- 
^^^ ed leaders in inaugurating 
the late war. It only pass- 
ed a secession ordinance 
^'t' Mav 6. 1861, nearly a 
V 1^ month after hostilities bad 
commenced, and Lincoln had issued 
his call for 75.090 ninety-day troops 
"to put down the rebellion."" The re- 
luctance with which the State tiually 
joined its sister States is manifested 
l.iy the almost iinanimous refusal of 
the State convention, which met in 
March, ISOI — the day Lincoln was in- 
-and nearly v.nanimously voted down 
secession and passed a series of conservative resolu- 
tions, lookiuw to a national convention to settle in 



someway the vexed ijuestion of slavery, and then 
voting a recess of the convention. When this 
re- assembled war was upon the country, and the 
ordinance of secession was passed, only, however, 
after full discussion, pro and con. There was 
but one vote against secession finally, and that was 
given by Isaac Murphy — afterward the military 
governor of Arkansas. 

Local authorities received instructions to arm 
and equip forty regiments of State troops. The 
ruling minds of the State were averse to war, 
and resisted it until they were forced int<5 the po- 
sition of sidiug with their neighbors or with the 
Union cause. In the South, as in the North, 
there were inconsiderate hot-heads, who simply 
wanted war for war's sake — full of false pretexts, 
but eager for war with or without a pretest. These 
extremists of each party were, unconsciously, per- 



^^ 



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. \ 



HISTOllY UF ARKANSAS. 



haps, but in fact, the two blades of tht> pair of 
scissors, to cut asunder tbi3 ties of the Uuion of 
States. Shivery, possibly not directly the cause of 
the war, was the handiest pretext seized upon at 
the time, with such disastrous results. la the dis- 
pensations of heaven, had the fanatics of the North 
and the tire-eaters of the South been hung across 
the clothes-line, as a boy sometimes hangs cats, 
and left in holy peace to fight it out, what a bless- 
ing for mankind it would have been! 

The history of the late war cannot yet be writ- 
ten. Its most profound effects are not yet evolved. 
The actual fighting ceased nearly a generation ago, 
and the cruel strife is spoken of as over. It is the 
effects that true history observes. The chronicler 
records the dates and statistics, and files these 
away for the future historian. It is highly prob- 
able that there is no similar period in history 
where the truth will be so distorted as by him 
who tells "the storj- of the war." 

Anyone can begin to see that there are many 
things now that were unknown before the war. 
Great changes are still being worked out, and 
whether or not yet greater ones are to come, no one 
knows. The abolitionists thirty years ago hated 
the slave owners, — ^the slave holders loved slavery. 
The former thought to forever end slavery on this 
continent by liberating the slave.^, and now the 
once alarmed slave owner has discovered that the 
great benefits of the abolition of slavery have been 
to the whites far more than to the blacks. 

There is little idea of what the real historian 
one hundred years from now will be compelled to 
say of these ■ ' blessed times. ' " He will most prob- 
ably smile in pity upon all this self-laudation and 
wild boast. If men could have known the effects 
to follow in all the important movements of peo- 
ples, it is highly probable there would have been no 
civil war. Those who " sectioiially hated" may 
Bleep quietly in their graves, beeau-e they died 
unconscious as to whether their sai)pused Moody 
revenge, driven hurtling at the enemy, was a bullet 
or a boomerang. 

The Southern individual may look with envy to 
the pension fund now being poured out in North- 
ern States, while, instead of this, he should only 



remember that the Southern soldier is makmg his 
way unaided in the world. It should not lie for- 
gotten that the rapid development of the South is 
sadly in want of the constant labor of thousands of 
immigrants, and that the New South is just entering 
upon a period of surprising and unexampled pros- 
perity, which certainly mtist continue. 

In Arkansas, as in Illinois, when Fort Sumter 
was fired on, instantly there was a storm of excite- 
ment to "let slip the dogs of war." Action took 
the place of argument. The best men in the com- 
munity, those who had so long talked and pleaded 
against war, closed their mouths, and with sort 
hearts turned their eyes away from the sad outlook. 
The young and the inconsiderate seized the power 
to rule, and (though they knew it not) to ruin. 
Bells were rung, drums were beaten, and fifes made 
strident martial music, and people rushed into the 
streets. Open air meetings for the Confederate 
cause gathered, and songs and speeches inflamed 
the wildest passions of men. Poor men ! they 
little recked the cruel fate into which they were 
plunging their country — not only themselves, but 
generations to come. A fifer and drummer march- 
ing along the streets, making harsh and discordant 
noises, were soon followed by crowds of men, 
women and children. Voltinteers were called for 
by embryo captains, and from these crowds were 
soon recruited squads to be crystallized into armies 
with heavy tramp and flying banners — the noisy 
prologue to one of the bloodiest tragedies on which 
time haS' ever rung up the curtain. 

The first official action of the State was that 
attthorizing the rai>ing and equipping of seven 
regiments. These were soon ready to report with 
full ranks. Seven regiments ! Even after the 
war was well on foot, men were forming companies 
in hot haste, in fear that before they could reach 
the field of action the war would be over. And 
after they were mustered in and at their respective 
rendezvous, without uniforms and with sticks for 
guns, learning the rudiments of drill, they were 
re.stless, troubled seriously with the fear that they 
Would never see or feel the glory of battle. The 
youths of the State had rushed to the recruiting sta- 
tions with the eager thoughtlessness with which 



■ ■iv 



s ! 






HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



they would have put down thi'ir names for picnic, 
huoting or tlshiug espeditioiis. imJ the wikl delights 
of a season of camp life. Perhaps to some came 
indistinct ideas of winning glory on the field and a 
triumphant return home, to lie met by the happy 
smiles of a people saved — when the bells would 
ring and flowers be strewn in the highway. 

The seven regiments tirst authorized by the 
military board (the board consisting of the gov- 
ernor. Col. Sam W. Williams and Col. B. C. Tot- 
ten) had hardly been formed when more soldiers 
were wanted. Ten additional regiments were 
authorized, and of the ten seven were recruited 
and organized. Fourteen infantiy regiments be- 
sides the cavalry and artillery had been a strong 
demand on the people, but the calls for men were 
increased. By voluntary enlistments twenty-one 
infantry regiments were finally in the field. In- 
cluding cavalry and artillery, Arkansas had about 
25,000 volunteer soldiery. 

Then came the remorseless conscription. The 
glamour of soldiering was now all gone. Ragged, 
hungry, wounded and worn with hard marches. 
men had suffered the touch of the hand of the 
■ angel of destruction. The relentless conscripting 
went on. The number of years before old age 
exempted was lengthened, and the age of youth 
exempting was shortened, until as said by Gen. 
Grant, they were ''robbing the cradle and the 
grave" to recruit their decimated ranks in the 
army. 

There are no records now by which can be told 
the number of men Arkansas had in the Confeder- 
ate army, but it is supposed by those best informed 
to have had nearly 4(),000. In addition to this the 
State furnished soldiers to the Union army. In 
the history of wars it is doubtful if there is anything 
to exceed this in the heroic sacrifices of any people. 

The original seven regiments were authorized 
as the first exuberant war expression of the State. 
They were State troops, armeii and equipped by 
the State; but the fact is that the poorest men went 
into the army at their individual expense and armed 
and equipped themselves. This was the iTile — not 
by men only who were fighting for their slave 
proppity, but largely by men who had never owned 



oresjiected to own a slave. When the Union army 
under Gen. Curtis was bearing down to invade Ar- 
kansas, ten more regiments were authorized and 
responded to this call, and seven additional regi- 
ments were raised and mustered into the State's 
service. 

A military board had been provided for, con- 
sisting of three men, the governor and two advis- 
ors, who had a general supervision in organizing 
and equipping the army. 

The first regiment raised in the State is known 
as the Pat Cleburne regiment. Patrick A. Cleburne, 
colonel, was soon made a general, and took his 
brigade east of the Mississippi River The gal- 
lant and dashing leader was killed in the battle of 
Franklin, November 30, 1864. At the first call 
to arms he raised a company and named it the Yell 
Rifles, of which he was tirst captain, and on the 
formation of the first regiment he became colonel, 
rising up and up by rapid promotions to a major- 
generalship. 

The names of Yell and Pat Cleburne are en- 
twined closely in the hearts of the people of Arkan- 
sas. Y'ell was killed at the bloody battle of Buena 
Vista, Mexico, at the head of his charging column. 
The military lives and deaths of the two men were 
much alike. Their names and fames are secure in 
history. There is a touch of romance about Pat 
Cleburne's life in Arkansas. A Tipporary boy', of 
an excellent family, born in IS'28, he had, when not 
more than sixteen years of age, joined the English 
army, w'uere he was for more than a year before his 
whereabouts became known. His friends secured 
his release from the army, when he at once bade 
adieu to his native land and sailed for America. 
Stopping in IS-tO, a short time in Cincinnati, he 
was for a while a drug clerk. In 1859 he came 
to Helena, Ark. , and engaged here also as a pre- 
scription clerk, in the meantime reading law: he 
was made a licensed attorney in 1856. In the 
bloody street affray soon after, between Hindman 
and Dorsey Rice, he was drawn into the fracas and 
was shot through the body by a brother of Rice's, 
who came upon the ground during the mel^e. The 
latter noticed the encounter, and seeing that Cle- 
burne stood at one side, pistol in hand, tired. On 



i!..m1o 





vu.-tK 




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: II 

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turning to see who had shot him, Ch'hurne saw 
James Marriott, a brother-iu law <>f Doisey Kice, 
with pistol ia hand, and under the mi'^take that 
he was the assailant, shot him ilcad. Clt'lniriie 
lingered a long time from his wound but finally 
recovered. 

In the yellow fever scourge in Helena, in bboo, 
he was at one time about the only well person re- 
maining to care for the sick and dying. He was a 
strict member of the church and for >omi^ years a 
vestryman in St. John's Episcopal Church. Helena. 
He was engaged to wed Miss Tarletou, of Muliile, 
when he fell upon the liattle field, and the dead 
soldier lay upon the ground, with his arms folded 
over his breast, as if even in death he would pro- 
tect the sacred tokens of love that lie wore next his 
heart. 

The military board elected two brigadier-gen- 
erals — James Yell and N. B. Pierce. The latter j 
was sent to Northwestern Arkansas, where was ; 
fought the first battle on Arkansas soil — Pea Eidge, j 
or as it is better known in the South, Elkhorn. 
This was a severe engagement, and a decisive one. 

There is yet some confusion in referring to the 
respective numbers of the Arkansas regiments. 
Gen. Pierce, supposing he had full power, gave 
numbers Third, Fourth and Fifth to what the 
board, the proper and only authority, designated 
as numbers Second, Third and Fourth. The fol- 
lowing shows the board's numbering and names 
of the colonels : 

First, Col. P. H. Cleburne: Second, Col. \ 
Gratiot; Third, Col. Duckei'v; Fourth, Col. Davis 
Walker; Fifth. Col. D. C. Cross: Sixth, Col. Lyon: 
Seventh, Col. Shaver; Eighth, Col. W. K. Patter- 
son; Ninth, Col. John Eoane: Tenth. Col. T. D. 
Merrick; Eleventh. Col. Jabez M. Smith; Twelfth. 
Col. E. W. Gantt; Thirteenth. Col. J. C. Tappan; 
Fourteenth, Col. W. C. ilitchell, (never com- i 
pleted); Fifteenth, Col. Dawson; Seventeenth. Col. ' 
G. W. Lamar, Lieut. -Col. Sam W. Williams. 

In the scraps of records now to be found there 
are mentioned as the different arms in the Confed- 
erate service of Arkansas men, in adilition to those j 
above given, the following: Liirht ni-tillery. Hill''^: 
batteries, Blocher's, Brown's. J'tter's. Hughe v's. 



Marshall's and West's; cavalry battalions. Chris- 
man's, Crawford's. Hill's. Witherspoou's; detached 
companies. BrLiwn's, Cuar^er's. Desha's. Pianger's, 
Fitzwilliam's. Miller's and Palmer's; regiments, 
Carroll's, Dobbins', Newton's; infantry, regiments 
from one to thirty-nine, inclusive. 

Four regiments of infantry of Feileral recruits 
were raised in Arkansas, the First commanded by 
Col. M. La Rue Harrison: the Fourth by Elisha 
Baxter. The First Arkansas Light Artillery was 
151^ strong. The Arkansas Infantry -Brigade was 
under command of Col. James M. True. August 
5, 1SG3, Adj't Gen. Thomas made a trip to the 
Southwest for the ptupose of gathering in all the 
negroes possible by scouting bands, and to enlist 
the able bodied men. The First Arkansas Battery 
was commanded by Capt. Dent D. Stark, and the 
First Arkansas Cavalry by Maj. J. J. Johnson. 
The Second Arkansas Cavalry is mentioned. 
Lieut. -Col. E. J. Searle, authorized to raise the 
Third Arkansas Cavalry, reported 400 strong. 
The Fourth Arkansas Cavalry comprised nine 
companies, commanded by Capt. W. A. Martin. 

The Second and Third Arkansas colored in- 
fantry regiments are mentioned, in addition to the 
Second and Third white regiments. 

In the spring of ISiM, the Richmond govern- 
ment authorized Col. T. B. Flournoy to raise a reg- 
iment. It was collected in and about Little Rock 
and Col. Fagan was elected commander. This 
command went to '\'irginia. Gen. Churchill organ- 
ized the first regiment of cavalry, with rendezvous 
at Little Rock. Gen. T. C. Hindman organized 
Hindman's Legion. It consisted of infantry and 
cavalry and had fifteen companies. He took his 
command east of the river. Under the direction of 
the military board Col. Rosey Carroll's regiment 
of cavalry was raised. The Second Arkansas Reg- 
iment of Mounteil Infantry was mustered at Osage 
Springs, by Col. Dandridge McRea. James Mcln 
tosh became colonel and Capt. H. H. Brown, major. 
J. P. Eagle was first lieiitenaat-colonel and after- 
ward colonel. Col. ^Mcintosh was killed at Pea 
Ridge, but had been promoted a brigadier-general 
a few days before his death. 

The absence of war archive-^ from the State. 



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HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



the most of them that were preserved until after 
the war beiug now in Washington, and the pass- 
ing away of so many of the prominent participants, 
and a common fault of human memory, make it 
well-nigh impossible to gather for permanent form 
any satisfactory roster of the different Confederate 
commands or the order of their organization. No 
Arkansan so far, which is much to be regretted, 
has attempted to write a history of the State in 
the civil struggle. 

Gov. J. P. Eagle hap[iened to keep dupli- 
cates of certain reports he made while in the ser- 
vice, and discovered them recently where they had 
been laid away and forgotten among old papers. 
Fortunately when he made the reports the idea 
occurred to him to keep a copy for himself, that 
some day he might look over them and be inter- 
ested. 

' ' This is a list of the killed and wounded in my 
regiment.'' he remarked, "the Second Arkansas, 
from May 8 to August 31. 1864, and the other is a 
report of the same from November 26, 1864, to 
March 21, 1865." 

The Second Arkansas at the beginning of the 
war was a mountrd regiment, commanded by Col. 
James Mcintosh. It was dismounted early in the 
conflict. Col. Mcintosh was promoted to the rank 
of brigadier-general in the spring of 1862. He 
led his brigade bravely into the heaviest lighting 
at the battle of Elkhorn (Pea Ridge), where he 
was killed. He was succeeded by Col. Embry, 
who was soon after succeeded by Col. Flannagin, 
afterwards the '"War Governor" of Arkansas. 
Flannagin was succeeded by Col. James William- 
son, who lost a leg at the battle of Piesaca, Ga., 
May 14, 1864. Col. J. T. Smith then became 
colonel. He was killed July 28 following, in the 
tight at Lick Skillet Road, and J. P. Eagle, now 
governor of Arkansas, became colonel. Col. 
Eagle had been wounded at Moore's Mills, and at 
the time of his promotion was not with the famous 
regiment. He remained in command until the 
regiment was consolidated with other regiments 
and the whole formed into one regiment, with Col. 
H. G. Bunn commanding. Gov. Eagle became 
lieutenant-colonel and George Wells, major. 



The battle of Elkhorn checked the advance of 
Curtis' army into Arkansas, and the Federals re- 
mained hovering in the southwest of Missouri and 
northwest of Arkansas for some time. Immedi- 
j ately after the tight Van Dorn's forces were with- 
i drawn and taken cast of the Mississippi to resist 
the Federal advance down the river to Vicksburg. 
j Gen. T. C. Hindman returned and took command 
', of the Confederates in Arkansas and established 
headquarters at Little Rock and slightly fortified 
i the place. 

Gen. Curtis then moved with the Federal army 
I down the valley of White River, acting in con- 
l junction with the river fleet, and when he reached 
Cotton Plant a flank attack was made on his army 
and the battle of Cotton Plant was fought. The 
Confederates were repulsed, and Curtis moved on 
and took possession of Helena, the Confederates 
retiring. Northern and Northeastern Arkansas 
were then in the possession of the Union array. 
The Federals were in the possession of the Missis- 
sippi down to a point just above Vicksburg. The 
Confederates made a futile effort to re-capture 
Helena. July 4, iS'iS. but heavy rains, swollen 
streams and impassable roads thwarted every 
move. 

June 2, 1862. Gov. Rector issued the following: 

■'It being essential that but one military organization 
shall exist ^vithin the Trans-Mississippi department, all 
Arkansas troops are hereb}' transferred to tlie Confeder- 
ate service." (Signed) H. M. Rector, 

Gov. (fcPiest. Mil. Board. 

The authorities at Richmond, as well as in the 
Trans-Mississippi district, were anxiously awaiting 
news of the war steamer, "Arkansas," then build- 
ing up the mouth of Red River. June 2, 1S62, 
she steamed out of that river and passed the fleet 
guarding the river for the purpose of capturing the 
rebel steamer. The attempt and success in run- 
ning the liery gauntlet was one of the most exciting 
scenes ever witnessed on western rivers. Proudly 
the vessel kept on her course, sending volleys into 
every vessel to the right and left, and at nearly 
every turn of her wheels encountering new enemies. 
A Federal surgeon of the Union fleet said that 
wonderful trip of the "Arkansas" reminded him 



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78 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



of tlio Irishman's advice on yoiii^' into the "free 
ti^'ht" — •• wherever you see a heiul hit it." The 
Confederate reports say two Fedrral fjjuo-boats 
were captured and others disaMi-d. 

August 7, following, the "Arkansas," when five 
miles above Baton Rouge on hor way down the 
river, again encountered Federal guu-lioats. Her 
machinery being tlisabled, after she had fought 
long and well, her crew "blew her up, and all 
escaped. ' ' 

January 3. 1S<)3 Gen. J. M. Scholield wrote to 
Gen. Curtis, from Fayetteville, Ark. : ' ■ The oper- 
ations of the army since I left it have been a .series 
of blunders, from which it narrowly escaped dis- 
aster * * At Prairie Grove (fought iu Decem- 
ber, 1SG2) Blunt and Henoa were badly beaten in 
detail and owed their escape to a false report of 
my arrival with re-enforcements." It now is 
revealed that Hindmau did not know the extent 
of his victory, but supposed he was about to be 
overwhelmed by the enemy. Thus the two armies 
were as secretly as possible running away from 
each other. 

July 13, 1S63. Gen. E. Kirby Smith wrote from 
Shreveport, headquarters of the Trans-Mississippi 
district, to Govs. Thomas C. Reynolds, F. R. Lub- 
bock, H. Flannagin and Thomas O. Moore, calling 
on these, as the heads of their respective States, to 
meet him at Marshall, Tex., August 15. following: 
''I have attempted to impartially survey the field 
of my labor. * * I found on my arrival the 
headquarters of Arkansas district at Little 
Rock. * * Vicksburg has fallen. The enemy 
possesses the key to this department. * * The 
possession of the Mississippi River by the enemy 
cuts off this department from all communication 
with Richmond, consequently we must be self- 
sustaining, and self-reliant in every respect. * * 
With God's help and yours I will cheerfully 
grapple with the difficulties that surround us,'' etc. 

This was a gloomy but a correct view of the 
situation west of the iEississippi River after the 
fall of Vicksburg. 

On January 11, lb03, from Helena, Gen. Fiske 
reported to Washington : ' ' Found Gorman actively 
ortTanizing expedition to go up \\ hite River to 



co-operate with Gen. McClernand on Arkansas 
River. Twenty-five transports are waiting the 
signal to start." 

Fi-om "Prairie Landing, twenty-five mdes up 
Arkansas, January 13, 1803." Amos F. Eno, sec- 
retary pro tetn of Arkansas and adjutant-general, 
telegraphed Staunton: "Left Helena on 11th. and 
took with me books and papers of office of military 
government of Arkansas." 

January 14, lM'i3, the Federals captured St. 
Charles, the Confederates evacuating the day before. 

January is. Gen. W. A. Gorman occupied 
Devall's Bluff, which the Confederates had al.-o 
evacuated. 

These captures and evacuations were the pre- 
liminary movements looking toward Little Eock. 
the Federals clearing out the small outposts, and 
the Confederates gathering in their forces. 

On August 5, 1S63, Gen. .Frederick Steele 
"assumed the command of the army to take the 
field from Helena, and advance upon Little Rock." 

In his order for movement mention is made of 
the following: First division — cavalry under 
commandof Gen. J. W. Davidson; Second division 
—Eighteenth, Forty-third. Fifty-fourth, Sixty- 
first, One Hundred and Sixth, and One Hundred 
and Twenty-sixth regiments, Illinois Infantry; 
Twelfth Michigan, Twenty-second Ohio, Twenty- 
seventh Wisconsin, Third Minnesota, Fortieth 
Iowa and Forty-third Indiana Infantry regiments; 
Third division — Twenty-ninth, Thirty-third and 
Thirty sixth Inwa, Forty-third Indiana, Twentv- 
eighth Wisconsin, and .Seventy first Ohio Infant rv 
regiments: and the Fifth Kansas, First Indiana 
Cavalry, and a lu-igade under Col. Powell Clayton. 
Four batteries of field pieces — five wagons to each 
regiment: 100 rounds of ammunition, 40 rounds to 
each cartridge-bos; 400 rounds to each piece of 
artillery, and sixty days' rations for the whole 
army, were the supplies granted these forces. 

Gen. Steele was occupied in the expedition 
from Helena to Little Rock, from August 5 to .Sep- 
tember 10. The cavalry under Gen. Davidson 
had to scour the country to the right and left as 
they made their slow advance. Twelve miles east 
of Little Rock, at Bavou Meta bridge, was a heavv 



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skirmish, indeed, a regular battle, being the tirst 
seriouri effort to check the Federal advance upon 
the capital. Again there was heavy lighting sis 
miles east of Little Rock, at what is now the 
Brngman place. Here Confederate (^ol. Coffee, 
of Texas, was killed. This was the last stand : 
made in defense of the city, and in a short time i 
Davidson's cavalry appeared in Argenta, and | 
trained their field pieces on the city, and tired a | 
few shots, when the place was surrendered hy the 
civil authorities, September 10, ]>iG8. The Con- 
federates had evacuated but a few hours before 
the Federal cavalry were galloping through the 
streets, and posting sentinels here and there. 

There was no confusion, no disorder, and none 
of the usual crimes of war under similar circum- 
stances. In aa hour after Gen. Steele was in 
possession of the city he had it untjer strict con- 
trol, and order prevailed. Gen. Keynolds was put 
in command of Little Rock.* 

The Confederates wisely retreated to Arkadel- 
phia. They were pursued by the Federals as far 
as Malvern, but no captures were made and no 
heavj' skirmishing occurred. 

It is said that Price evacuated Little Rock un- 
der the impression that his force was far inferior 
to that of Gen. Steele. Those who were Confeder- 
ate officers and in Little Rock now believe that his 
force was equal at least in numbers to Steele's. 

*Ab3tract from consolidated tri-montbly report of the 
Army of Arkansas. Maj.-Geu. Fri'ilerick Steele cummand- 
inc, for September 10, 1S63; headquarteis. Little Hock: 



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Gen Price bad not made a mistake of the comparative 
slrenLTlh of tbe two armies. Tbe commissary informs 
me ibat or. tbe moruinir of tbe evacuation he i?sueJ 8.000 
ratious^full numljer. 



They think that Price had based his idea of the 
enemy's numbers by allowing the usual propor- 
tion of armies of infantry and artillery to cavalry. 
They believe also that the Confederates at Little 
Rock at the evacuation had between 11,000 and 
r2,000 men present — not the nuiul)er for duty — 
basing this upon the nuiuber of rations issued 
that day. 

After the occupation of Little Rock the Federals 
dominated all that portion of the State north and 
east of the Arkansas River, and yet their actual 
occupied posts were the only grounds over which 
Confederate rangers were not frequently roving 
with impunity. 

The Confederates exercised ruling power all 
south and west of the Ouachita River, and for quite 
a while the territory between the Arkansas and 
Ouachita Rivers was a kind of "No Man's Land" 
so far as the armies were concerned. 

Steele early in 1S64, having been re-enforced, 
began to move on Arkadelphia. Price retreated to 
Camden, where the Confederates had several fac- 
tories for the manufacture of war materials. 

Price made a stand against Steele and fought 
the battle of Prairie D'Ann. but there was noth- 
ing decisive in this engagement, although it was 
a severe one. Price withdrew and fell Ijack on 
Rondo, in the southwest corner of the State. 

In the meantime Banks' expedition was as- 
cending Red River, the plan being to catch Price 
between Banks and Steele, and destroy the Con- 
federate army. Price and Gen. Dick Taylor did 
not wait for Banks, but met and overwhelmingly 
defeated him. Having defeated Banks, they turned 
and gave Steele battle at Jenkins' Ferry, and de- 
feated him. This was the great and decisive bat- 
tle of the Trans-Mississippi district. 

Steele retreated and fell back on Little Rock, 
his superior generalship being shown in extricat- 
ing his badly crippled army and saving it on the 
withdrawal. 

The Federal expeditions were well planned for 
"bacrgi n CI-'' the whole Confederate Trans- ^Mississippi 
army, but the vicissitudes of war ordained other- 
wise. Banks" expedition and its overwhelming mis- 
fortunes ruined him as a militarv man throughout 



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80 



HISTORY OF AllKANSAS. 



the North, while the brilliaat successes of Price 
raised the hopes of the Confederacy. Some, how- 
ever, still criticise. " 

Price failed to follow up his advantage and 
either de-.ti-oy or capture Steele's entire army. 
Had ho fully known the condition of affairs at 
Richmond possibl_v he might have adopted that 
course. The Federals were confined within their 
fortified posts and Confederate bands were again 
scouring over the State. 

Price, losing no time, then started on his raid 
back into Missouri to carry out his long cherished 
hope of re-possessing that State. The history of 
that raid and the dissolution and end i)f the Con- 
federacy are a familiar part of the country's 
history. 

Other wars than that mentioned have occupied 
the attention of people of this section, though 
perhaps not to such an extent as the great civil 
strife. There were not people in Arkansas to go 
to the War of IS 12, and the State becomes con- 
nected with that struggle chietiy because Archibald 
Yell, the brave young hero, was at the battle of 
New Orleans, and afterward became one of the most 
prominent citizens of Arkansas. He was born in 
North Carolina, in August, 1TU7, and consequently 
was but fifteen years of age when the second war 
with England began. But the lad then and there 
won the inalienable friendship of Gen. Jackson. 

Arkansas acquired no little fame in the Mexican 
War, chietiy, however, through the gallantry and 
death of Gov. Yell, the leader of the Arkansas 
forces. When troops were called for in the year 
1840, in the war with Mexico. Yell was a member 
of Concrress. A regiment of cavalry was raised 
and he was asked to take the command, and obedi- 
ent to this request he promptly resigned his seat 
to assume leadership. Albert Pike was a captain 
in the regiment. 

At the battle of Bueua Yista, on February 22. 
1847, Yell led his cavalry command in one of the 
most desperate charges in the annals of war. In 
his enthusiasm he spurred on his horse far in 
advance of his men. He was charging the enemy, 
which outnumbered his force more than five to 
one. He reached the ranks of the enemy almost 



alone, and raising himself in the saddle commenced 
to slash right and left, totally unmindful that it 
was one against thousands. Just as the foremost of 
his men came up he was run through the body and 
killed. William A. L. Throckmorton, of Fayette- 
ville. it is agreed, was the first to reach the side 
and catch the falling form of his loved leader. 'Sir. 
Throckmorton says he saw the man who gave the 
fatal thrust and quickly killed him. thus avenging 
so far as the wretched greaser's life could go the 
life of as gallant and noble a knight as ever re- 
sponded to bugle call. He was the dashing cava- 
lier, great in peace, suj^erb in war. Leading his 
trusty followers in any of the walks of life, death 
alone could check him, nothing could conquer him. 

After the war was over the government brought 
his remains and delivered them to his friends in 
Fayetteville, his home, who lovingly deposited 
them beneath the cold white marble shaft which 
speaks his fame. The burial ceremony occurred 
August 3, 1847, and a vast concourse of people, 
the humblest and highest in the State, were the 
sincere and deep mourners on the occasion. 

Arkansas won everlasting laurels through its 
gallant soldiers in the Mexican War. 

Omitting all reference to the Revolutionary 
War, there are conclusions to be drawn from the 
wars our countrymen have been engaged in since 
the days when Gen. Jackson was the national hero. 
None of these were significant enough to be used 
by the philosophic historian from which to draw 
conclusions as to the character of modern or 
contemporary Americans as warriors, or their dis- 
tinguishing characteristics as a warlike nation 
The late Civil War, however, furnishes a wide and 
ample field for such investigation. An impartial 
view of the late struggle presents first of all this 
remarkable fact. In by far the longest and great- 
est war of modern times, neither side has given 
the age a great captain, as some call greatness, 
though one furnished Grant, the other, Lee. both 
men without a superior; whilst in the ranks and 
among the sub-commands, no battles in history- 
are at all comparable for excellence and superior 
soldiership to those of the great Civil War. On 
both sides there were any number of great field 



Lk 



HISTORY OF ARKxVNSAS. 



81 



commauders, as great as ever drew a sword. But 
they received orders, did uot give them, and in 
the execution of orders never were excelled. Lee, 
Grant, Jackson, Sherman, Hancock. Johnston, 
Sheridan and hmidreds of others on both sides, to 
the humblest in the ranks, were immortal types of 
the soldier in the field. These men were like 
Napoleon's marshals — given a command or order 
they would risk life itself to execute it. But on 
neither side was there the least exhibition of the 
qualities of a Napoleon or Von Moltke. 

Napoleon was his own secretary of war, gov- 
ernment, cabinet, and commander in the tield, and 
for this very reason, he was Von Moltke's inferior 
as a great commander, whose genius saw the weak 
point, the point of victory on the map of the 
enemy's country, and struck it with a quick and 
decisive blow. 

Our Civil War and the Franco- German War 
were closely together in time. War was hardly over 
in America when it commenced in Europe. Any 
student of German history who has studied the 
German-Prussian war, can not but know that Yon 
Moltke was the pre-eminent captain in all the his- 
tories of wars. Had Washington or Richmond had 
his peer at the commencement of our struggle, the 
high probabilities are that the war would have 
been over before the first twelve mouths had ex- 
pired. 

In war, it is a fact, that it is the strategy be- 
fore the armies meet in battle array which decides 
the straggle. It is only thus that one man can 



become more powerful than a million with guns in 
their hands. It is in this sense — this application 
of the science of modern warfare, that a com- 
mander wins battles and decides victories. He 
conquers enemies, not Ijy drawing his sword, l)ut, 
studying his maps in his qaiet den when others 
sleep, he directs the movements of his armies and 
leaves the details of the actual fight to others. He 
is indifferent to the actual fighting part of it. be- 
cause he has settled all that long beforehand by 
his orders. 

In all actual battles, as was testified by the 
Federal commanders before Congress about the 
battle of Gettysburg, if victory is not organized 
beforehand, all is chance, uncertainty, and lioth 
armies are little else than headless mobs — ignorant 
of whether they are whipping or being whipped. 
The field commander may save the day and turn 
the tide and gain a victory, btit what is it after all, 
— so many men killed and captttred on either side, 
and then recruited up, and rested a little, only to 
repeat the bloody carnage again and again. 

Let it be assumed that the absence of great mil- 
itary genius on both sides is the highest compli- 
ment that can be paid to American civilization. War 
is barbarism. The higher civilization will eradi- 
cate all practical knowledge of the _ brutality of 
warfare from men's minds. Then there will be 
no wars, save that of truth tipon the false — intelli- 
gence upon ignorance How grandly divine will 
be, not only the great leaders in this holy struggle 
for victory, but the humblest of all privates! 







M 






82 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



SFiAPT'LR X. 



PuELic Enteupkises— The PiEal Estate Bank of Arkansas— State Roads and other IIiGiiwAYt 

The Military Roads — Xavigation Within the State from the Earliest Times to the 

Present— Decadence of State Xa\igation— Steamboat Racing— Accidents to 

Boats — The RisE and Growth of the Railroad Systems— A Sketch 

OF THE Different Lines— Other Important Considerations. 



From the blessings they bestow 

Our times are dated, aud our eras move. — Prior. 




*HE tirst session of the new 
State legislature, among 
other acts, incorporated the 
State Bank, and as if fur- 
ther determined to show 
that the legislature was at 
least in the fmnt in those 
days of wild-cat bank enterprises, 
proceeded to make money cheap 
and all rich by incorporating the 
hrated Real Estate Bank of 
Arkansas. Already John Law's 
Mississippi bubble had been for- 
gotten — the old continental money 
and the many other distressing 
instances ui those cruel but fas- 
cinating tictions of attempts to 
make credits wealth. No statesman in the world's 
history has ever yet made an approach to the 
accomplishment of such an impossibility, and still 
nearly all financial legislation is founded upon 
this basic idea. State and national banks have 
been the alluring will-o'-the-wisps in this per- 
sistent folly. All experience teaches that the 
government that becomes a money-changer soon 
becomes the powerftil robber, and the places of 
just nilers are tilled with tax bandits — there the 



lordly rulers are banditti, and the people the nio^t 
wretched of slaves. 

The State Bank was, as were all such institu- 
tions of that day in any of the States, demoraliz 
ing in the financial affairs of the people, encourag- 
ing extravagance and debt, and deceiving men with 
the appearances of wealth to their ultimate ruin. 

The Real Estate Bank, as its name indicates, 
was for the purpose of loaning money on real 
estate security. I'p to that time the American 
farmer had not learned to base his efforts upon any- 
thing except his labor. To produce something and 
sell it was the whole horizon of his financial educa- 
tion. If, while his crop was maturing, he needed 
suljsistence he went to his merchant and bought 
the fewest possible necessities on credit. It was 
an evil hour when he was tempted to become a 
speculator. Yet there were some instances in 
which the loans on real estate resulted in enabling 
men to make finely improved cotton plantations. 
But the rule was to get people in debt and at the 
same time exhaust the cash in the bank. The 
bank could collect no money, and the real i'st;ite 
owner was struggling under mortgages lie could 
not pay. Both lender and borrower were sufferers, 
aud the double infliction was npon them of a public 
and individual indebtedness. The Eeal Estate 



'J^ 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



88 



Bank made an assignment in 1>>4'2. and for years 
was the source of much litigation. It practically 
ceased to do business years before it had its doors 
closed and was wound up, and the titles to such 
lands as it had become the possessor of passed to 
the State. 

The old State Bank building, in front of the 
State house, is the only reminder of the institution 
which promised so much and did so litth^ for the 
public. The old building is after the style of all 
such buildings — a low, two-story brick or stone, 
with huge Corinthian columns in front, having 
stone steps to ascend to the first tloor. Similar 
structures can be found in Illinois Missouri and 
all the Western and Southern States. The one in 
Little Rock is xtnsightly and gloomy and does little 
else but cuml.)er the ground. It is in the way, ow- 
ing to a difficulty in the title, of such a modern 
and elegant building as would be in keeping with 
the rapidly advancing and beautiful "City of 
Koses. ' ' 

Roads and highways have always occupied pub- 
lic consideration. Being so crossed with rivers 
passing from the west toward the Mississippi 
River, the early settlers all over the confines of this 
State passed up the streams and for some time 
used these as the only needed highways. In the 
course of time they began to have bridle-paths 
crossing from settlement to settlement. 

The United States military road from Western 
Missouri passed through Arkansas and led on to 
Shreveport, La. This extended through East- 
ern Arkansas, and Arkansas Post was an import- 
ant point on the route. It was surveyed and 
partially cut out early in the nineteenth century. 
A monthly mail proceeded over the route on horse- 
back, the mail rider generally being able to carry 
the mail in his pocket. 

A trail at first was the road from the mouth of 
the White River to Arkansas Post. This portage 
soon became a highway, as much of the business 
and travel for the Post was landed at the mouth of 
White River and transported across to the Red 
River. 

In 1821 Congress authorized the survey and 
opening of a public highway from Memphis, via 



Little Rock, to Fort Smith. The work was cotu- 
pleted in 1823. This was the first highway of 
any importance in the Tenitory. The other routes 
mentioned above were nothing more than trails, or 
l)ritlle-paths. A weekly mail between Little Rock 
and Memphis was estal)lished in lS2y. 

In 1S32 a government road leading on a tli- 
rect line from Little Rock to Batesville was cut 
out, and the Indians removed from Georgia were 
brought by water to the capital and taken over 
this road. At that time it was the best public 
course as well as the longest in the State, and be- 
came in time the main traveled road from the 
northern part of the State to its center. 

Arkansas was settled sparsely along the Missis- 
sippi River some years before Fulton invented the 
steamboat. The first steamboat ever upon western 
waters passed ilown that river in the latter part 
of ISII — the "Orleans," Capt. Roosevelt. 

The Indians had their light cedar bark canoes, 
1 and were remarkably expert in handling them. 
These were so light that the squaws could carry 
i them on their backs, and in their expeditions in 
ascending the streams frequently saved much time 
; by traveling across the great bends of the river 
1 and carrying their conveyances. Of course in going 
with the current, they kept the stream, skimming 
j over the waters with great speed. At one time the 
I migratory Indians at stated seasons followed the 
. bufi^alo from the Dakotas to the Gulf, the buffalo 
remaining near, and the Indians on the streams. 
\ The latter could thus out-travel the immense 
I herds and at certain points make forays upon 
I them and so keep an abundant supply of meat. 
I The buffalo had the curious habit of indulging 
I in long stops when they came to a large river in 
j their course, as if dreading to take to the water 
I and swim across. They would gather on the bank 
of the river at the selected crossing place, and 
after having devoured everything near at hand 
and hunger began to pinch, would collect into a 
close circle and begin to move, circling round 
and round, the inside ones ever crowding the out- 
side ones closer and closer to the water. This 
continued until some one, crowded into the deep 
water, had to make the plunge, when all followed. 



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HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



These animals when attacked by other animals. 
or when danger threatened, formed in a compact 
i circle, with the cows and calves on the inside and 
i the bulls on the outer ring. In this battle array 
there was nothing in the line of beasts that dared 
molest them. 

The white man came and to the canoe h" added 
the skiff, the pirogue, the raft, the keel boat and 
the fiat boat. The raft never made but one trip 
and that was down stream always, and when its 
! destination was reached it was sold to be converted 
: into lumber. Other water crafts could be hauled 
back by long tow lines, men walking on the lianks 
j and pulling them up stream. There are those now 
living who can remember when this was the only 
mode of river navigation. The younger people of 
this generation can form no adeqiiate idea of the 
severity of the toil and the suffering necessarily in- 
volved in the long trips then made by these hardy 
pioneers. If the people of to-day were compelled 
to procure the simple commodities of life at such 
hard sacrifices, by such endurance, they would do 
without them, and go back to tig leaves and nuts 
and roots for subsistence. 

When Fulton and Livingston had successfully 
navigated their boat from Pittsburg to New Or- 
leans, they made the claim of a sort of royal patent 
to the exclusive navigation of the Mississippi River 
and its tributaries. This claim was put forth in 
perfect good faith and it was a new question as 
well as a serious one for the courts, when these 
claimants arrested Captain Shreve upon his arrival 
in New Orleans with his boat, and carried him be- 
fore the court to answer in damages for navi- 
gating by steam the river that belonged to them 
as the tirst steam navigators. This curious inci- 
dent indicates how little even the inventor of the 
steamboat appreciated of what vast importance to 
civilization his noble invention really was. To 
him and his friend it was but a small personal 
right or perquisite — a licensed monopoly, out of 
which they could make a few dollars, and when 
they passed away probably the invention too would 
die and be forgotten. How infinitely greater had 
the noble, immortal originator builded than he 
knew! The revolving paddles of the steamboat 



were btit the wheels now whirling so rapidly be- 
neath the flying railroad trains over the civilized 
world. From this strange, rude craft, the "■ Or- 
leans," have evolved the great steamships, iron-clad 
war vessels, and the palatial steamboats plying the 
inland waters wherever man's wants or luxuries 
are to be supplied. The genius and glory of such 
men as Fulton belong to no age, much less to 
themselves — they and theirs are a part of the world, 
for all time. ■ 

In 1812 Jacob Barkman opened up a river 
trade lietween Arkadelphia and New Orleans, car- 
rying his lirst freights in a pirogue. It took six 
months to make a round trip. He conveyed to New 
Orleans bear skins and oil. pelts, and tallow se- 
cured from wild cattle, of which there were a great 
many; these animals had originally been brought 
to the country by the Spaniards and French, and 
had strayed away, and increased into great herds, 
being as wild and nearly as fleet as the deer. He 
brought back sugar, coffee, powder, lead, flints, 
copperas, camphor, cotton and wool cards, etc., 
and soon after embarking was able to own his 
negro crews. He purchased the steamboat ' " Dime 
and became one of the most extensive and enter- 
prising men in the State. With his boat he ascended 
rivers, and purchased the cotton, owning his cargo, 
for a return trip. 

In ISIU, James ^Miller, the first governor of the 
Territory, and a military suite of twenty persons, 
embarked at Pittsburg in the L'nited States keel- 
boat, "• Arkansas." for Arkansas Post. The trip 
occupied seventy days, reaching the point of desti- 
nation January 1, 1S20. It was difficult to tell 
which excited the greatest curiosity among the 
natives — the new governor or the keel-boat. 

The flood-tide of western river navigation 
reached its highest wave soon after the close of the 
late war. The Mississippi River and triljutaries 
were crowded with craft, and the wharves of cities 
and towns along the banks were lined with some 
of the finest boats ever built, all freighted to the 
water's edge and crowded with passengers. Build- 
ers vied with each other in turning out the most 
magnificent floaters, fitted with every elegance and 
luxury money could procure. The main point after 



J., if 



Ja I 






HISTORY OF AKKAXSAS. 



elegance, in which they rivaled most, was the speed 
of their respective craft. From the close of the 
war to 1870. steamboating was the overshadowing 
business on western waters. Of the boats of this 
era, some will go into history, noted for their 
fleetness. but unlike the fleet horses of history, 
they could not leave their strain in immortal de- 
scendants, rivaling their celebrated feats. Racing 
between boats that happened to come together on 
the river was common, and sometimes reckless 
and dangerous, as well as exciting. Occasionally 
a couple of "tulis," as the boys called a slow 
boat, engaged in a race and away they would go, 
running for hours side by side, the stokers all 
the time piling in the most intlammable material 
they could lay hands on, especially pine knots and 
fat bacon, until the eager flames poured out 
of the long chimney tops; and it was often, told 
that the captain, rather than fall behind in the 
race, would seat a darkey on the end of the lever 
of the safety valve, and at the same time scream 
at the stokers to pile on the bacon, pine knots, oil, 
anything to make steam. Roustabouts, officers, 
crew and passengers were all as wildly excited as 
the captain, and as utterly regardless of dangers. 
From such recklessness accidents of course did hap- 
pen, but it is wonderful there were so few. 

Not infrequently commanders would regularly 
engage beforehand for a race of their boats; tixing 
the day and time and as regularly preparing their 
vessels as a jockey trains and grooms his race-horse. 
The two most noted contests of this kind on the 
Mississipjn River were, first, in the early times, 
between the "Shotwell'" and "Eclipse," from 
Louisville to New Orleans. The next and greatest 
of all was just at the time of the commencement of 
the decline in steamboating, between the steamers 
"Robert E. Lee" and "Natchez," from New Or- 
leans to St. Louis. The speed, the handling of 
these boats, the record they made, have never been 
ecjualed and probably never will be, unless steam- 
Iwuting is revived by some new invention. The 
race last mentioned took place in lSf58. 

Fearful steamljoat calamities, from explosions 
and frum tires, like the awfitl railroad accidents, 
huv.> marked the era of steam navigation. 



The most disastrous in history occurred in 1865, 
in the loss of the " Sultana," on the Mississippi, a 
few miles above Memphis, a part of the navigable 
waters of Arkansas. The boat was on her way up 
stream from New Orleans laden principally with 
soldiers, some of them with their families, and 
several citizens as passengers. There were 2,350 
passengers and crew on the vessel. A little after 
midnight the sudden and awful explosion of the 
boilers came, literally tearing the boat to pieces, 
after which the wreck took lire. Over 2,(100 peo- 
ple perished. 

The early decline of the steamboat industry 
kept even pace with the building of railroads over 
the country. Main lines of railroads were soon 
built, the streams being used as natural road beds 
through the rock hills and mountains. In passing 
over the country in trains one will now often see 
the flowing river close to the railroad track on one 
hand, when from the opposite window the high 
rock mountain wall may almost be touched. Then, 
too, the large towns were along the navigable riv- 
ers, lakes and ocean. The sage conclusion of the 
philosopher when he went out to look at the world, 
and was impressed with the curious coincidence 
that the rivers ran so close by the big towns, is a 
trite one: A great convenience to those who used 
water. 

The first railroad built in Arkansas was the 
Memphis & Little Rock Railroad. Work was com- 
menced with the intention of first constructing it 
from Little Rock to Devall's Bluflr", on AVhite 
River, whence passengers might proceed by boat 
to Memphis. It was started at both ends of the 
line and finished in 1859, the next year being 
extended to St. Francis River, and then in 18'!0 
completed to the river opposite Memphis. When 
the Federal army took possession of the ^Mississippi 
River, and their forces began to possess the north- 
eastern portion of the State, the Confederates as 
thev retired toward Little Rock destroyed the road 
and burned the bridges. Indeed, when the war 
ended in 1865, Arkansas was without a mile of 
railroad. Soon after the war closed the road was 
rebuilt and put in operation, and for some time 
was the only one in the State. 



S6 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



The next was the old Cairo & Fulton Railroad, 
now the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern 
Road. It was organized in ]S.!J3, and in 1Sj4-55 
obtained a large Congressional laud grant in aid 
of the enter])rise, and built first from Fulton to 
Beebe, in IST'2; it was completed to Texarkana 
in 1S73, and soon came to be the most important 
line in the State. The Camden branch, from Gur- 
don to Camden, was completed in 1882. The Mem- 
phis branch, from Bald Knob to Memphis, ninety- 
three miles,' was finished and the first passenger 
train passed over the line May 10, 1888. The 
branch from Newport to Cushman. a distance of 
forty-six miles, was built in 1SS2. The Helena 
branch, from Noble to Helena, 140 miles, was com- 
pleted in 1882. 

The main line of the St. Louis & Iron Moun- 
tain Railroad enters the State on the north, at 
Moark (combination for Missouri and Arkansas!, 
and passes out at Texarkana (combination for 
Arkansas and Texas). The distance between these 
two points is 305 miles. 

The first section of the St. Louis, Arkansas & 
Texas Railroad, from Clarendon to Jonesboro, was 
built in 1882, and the next year completed to Tex- 
artana. It was built as a narrow gauge and made 
a standard gauge in 1S86. Its northern terminus 
for some time was Cairo, where it made its St. 
Louis connection over the St. Louis & Cairo Nar- 
row Gauge Road, now a standard, and a part of the 
Mobile & Ohio system. The Magnolia branch of 
this road runs from McNeal to Magnolia, about 
twenty miles, and was built in iSSo. The Althei- 
mer branch, from Altheimer to Little Rock, was 
constructed and commenced operation in 1888. 
The main line of this road enters the State from 
the north in Clay County, on the St. Francis River, 
penetrating into Texas at Texarkana. 

The Little Rock, Mississippi River & Texas 
Railroad, now in course of construction, is a much 
needed road from Little Rock to Pir.e BhifT, on to 
Warren and Mississippi, and will form an important 
outlet for Arkansas toward the Gulf. This was 
built from Arkansas City to Piiu' Bluff, and then 
completed to Little Rock in ISM'. 

The Pine Bluff c!c Swan Lakf iC.-iilroud was 



built in 1885. It is twenty-six miles long, and 
runs between the points indicated by its name. 

The Arkansas Midland Railroad, from Helena 
to Clarendon, was built as a narrow gauge and 
changed to a standard road in 1886. 

The Batesville & Brinkley Railroad is laid as 
far as Jacksonport. It was changed in 1888 to a 
standard gauge, and is now in course of construc- 
tion on to Batesville. 

The Kansas City, Fort Scott A: Memphis Rail- 
road enters the State at Mammoth Spring, and 
runs to West Memphis. Its original name was 
Kansas City, Springfield & Memphis Railroad. It 
now is a main line from Kansas City to BiiTning- 
ham, Ala. 

Work was commenced on the Little Rock li; 
Fort Smith Railroad in 1871 at Little Rock, and 
built to Ozark; later it was finished to Van Buren, 
there using a transfer, and was completed to Fort 
Smith. 

The Hot Springs Railroad, from Malvem, on the 
main line of the Iron Mountain Railroad, to Hot 
Springs, was built and is owned by '"Diamond 
Joe" Reynolds. Operations were commenced in 
1874 

The line of the St. Louis & San Francisco Rail- 
road passes near the west line of Arkansas adjaceit 
to Fort Smith. There is a branch road of this 
line from Jensen to Mansfield, sixteen miles long. 

It looks a little as though the sponsor for the 
name of the Ultima Thule, Arkadelphia & Missis- 
sippi Railroad intended to use the name for a main 
track through the State. It was built in 1S87 for 
the use of the Arkadelphia Lumber Companv. 
Eureka Springs branch runs from Seligman to Eu- 
reka Springs. Another branch goes from Rogers 
to Bentonville. Still another, extending from Fay- 
etteville to St. Paul, is thirty-five miles in length. 
The branch from Fayetteville is now in course of 
building. 

The Russellville \, Dardanelle Railroad is four 
miles lung, extending from the south hank of the 
Arkansas River to Russellville. 

The Southwestern, Arkansas & Indian Terri- 
tory Railroad indicates that there is nothing in a 
name, as this road is but twenty-seven miles long, 



^^ V,:: 



■■sA 



■*>!» — =- 



HISTOllY OF ARKANSAS. 



running from Soutblaud to Okolona on tbo west', 
and also extending east from the main line. 

A line is being surveyed and steps actively 
taken to build a road from Kansas City to Little 
Kock, which is to cross the Boston Mountains near 
the head waters of White Kiver. 

Several other important lines are at this time 



making preparations to build in the near future. 
! Charters for nearly 100 routes in the State have 
I been secured since iSSo. There is not only plenty 

of room, but a great necessity for yet hundreds of 
I miles of new roads here. They will greatly facili- 
I tate the development of the immense resources of 
1 this favored locality. 



iiawE-R XI. 



> * < ■' 



The CorxTiEs of the State— Treir Formation and Changes of Boundary Lines, etc.— Their 

County Seats .\xd other Items of Interest Concerning Them— Defunct Counties— Xew 

Counties— Population of all the Counties of the State at every General Census. 




Not chaos-like, tojrether crusb'd and bruised; 
But as the world, harmonioush' confused: 
Where order in variety we see. 
And where, though all things differ, they agree.- 



-Pope. 



EFiHAPS to many, no more kansas and Pulaski October 13, 1S2T; line between 
interesting subject in the ' Arkansas and Phillips tlefined November 21, 1829; 



history of the .State can be 
presented than that refer- 
ring to the name, organiza- 
tion, etc., of each county 
within its limits. Careful 
le'-earch has brought forth the fol- 
lowing facts presented in a concise, 
but accurate manner: 

Arkansas County was formed 
December 13, 1813. As the tirst 
municipal formation within the 
boundary of the State, in Lower Mis- 
souri Territory, it was tirst a parish 
under Spanish rule and then under 
French. October 23. 1S21, a part 
of Phillips County was added to it: the line be- 
tween Pulaski and Arkansas was changed October 
3(>, IS"^:!; Quapaw Purchase divided between Ar- 



boundaries defined November 7, lS3l3. County 
seat, De Witt; tirst county seat, Arkansas — oppo 
site Arkansas Post. 

Ashley, formed November 30, 1848, named for 
Hon. Chester Ashley, who died a L'nited States 
Senator; line between Chicot changed Januarv I'J, 
ISOl. County seat, Hamburg. 

Baxter, March 24, 1873; line between Izard and 
Fulton defined October 16, 1S75; line between 
Marion changed March 9, 1881. County seat. 
Mountain Home. 

Benton, September 30, 183(3, named in honor 
of Hon. Thomas H. Benton. County seat, Ben- 
tonville. 

Boone, .\pril 9, 1809 ; named for Daniel 
Boone; line between Marion defined Decembei 9. 
187."). Harrison, county seat. 

Bradlev, December 18, 1840: part of Calhoun 



.^ 



88 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



attached October 19, IS(V2; part restored to Ashley 
County January 1, 1S59. Warren, county seat. 

Calhoun, Deceml>er 6, ISoO; named for John 
C. Calhoun; part added to Union and Bradley 
November 19, ISO'i. County seat, Hampton. 

Carroll, November 1, 1833; named in honor of 
the signer of the declaration; boundary defined 
December 14, 1838; line between Madison denned 
January, 11, 1843, and again January 20, 1843; 
line between Marion defined December IS, 1S4G; 
line between Madison defined December 29, 1S54, 
and again January 10, 1>>5T; part of Madison 
attached April 8, 1SG9, Berryville, county seat. 

Chicot, October 25, 1823; boundary defined 
November 2, 183-j; part attached to Drew Decem- 
ber 21, 1846; line between Ashley changed 
January 19, 1861; line between Drew changed 
November 30, 1875; line changed between Desha 
Febniary 10, 1879. Lake Village, county seat. 

Clark, December 15, 1818, while Lower Mis- 
souri Territory; named in honor of Gov. Clark, 
of Missouri; the line between Pulaski and Clark, 
changed October 30, 1823; divided November 2, 
1829: line between Hot Springs and Dallas changed 
April 3, 1868; line between Pike defined April 
22, 1873; line between Montgomery changed April 
24, 1873; line between Pike changed JIarch 8, 
1887. Arkadelphia, county seat. 

Clay, March 24, 1873; named for Henry Clay. 
This county, formed as Clayton County, was changed 
to Clay on December 6, 1875. The act of March 
24, 1873. changed the boundaries of a large num- 
ber of counties. Boydsville and Corning, county 
seats. 

Cleburne, formed February 20, 1883; named 
in honor of Gen. Patrick X. Cleburne. Heber is 
the county seat. 

Cleveland, formed in 1885; named for President 
Cleveland; was formed as Dorsey County. Toledo, 
county seat. 

Columbia, Decemi:>er 17, 1852; part of Union 
County added December 21, iSTiS; line between 
Nevada defined April 19, 1873. ilagnolia, county 
seat. 

Conway, December 7, 1^25: named after the 
noted Conways; the northeast boundary defined 



October 27, 1S27; lino between Pulaski and Con- 
way defined October 20, 1828; part of Indian pur- 
chase added October 22, 1828; line between Con- 
way, Pulaski and Independence defined November 
5, 1831; part added to Pope January 6. 1^53; 
part added to White January 11. 1853: act of 
March, 1873; line between Pope defined May 28, 
1874. County seat, Morrillton. 

Craighead, formed February 19, 1850. Jones- 
boro, county seat. 

Crawford, October 18, 18211; boundary was 
changed October 30, 1823; divided and county 
of Lovely established October 13, 1827; part of 
the Cherokee Country attached to, October 22, 
1828; boundary defined December IS, 1837; line 
between Scott defined; line between W'ashington 
defined November 24, 1846; line between Frank- 
lin defined March 4, 1875; line changed between 
Washington March 9, 1881. Van Buren, county 
seat. 

Crittenden, October 22, 1825; nairted for Rob- 
ert Crittenden; St. Francis River declared to be 
the line between St. Francis and Crittenden Coun- 
ties November, 1831; portion attached to Missis- 
sippi County January, 1861; act, March, 1873. 
Marion, county seat. 

Cross, November 15, 1862, 1S66, 1873. Witts- 
burg, the county seat. 

Dallas, January 1, 1845; lino between Hot 
Springs and Clark changed April 3, 1869. Prince- 
ton the county seat. 

Desha, December 12, 1838; named for Hon. 
Ben Desha; portion attached to Drew January 21. 
1861; part of Chicot attached February Kl, 1879; 
also of Lincoln, March 10, 1879. Arkansas City, 
county seat. 

Drew, November 26, 1846; part Chicot attached 
Decemlier 21. 1846; part of Desha attached Jac- 
uarv 21, 1S61; March, 1873; line between Chicot 
changed November 30, 1X75. Monticello. county 
seat. 

Faulkner, .Vpril 12, LS73; lino defined Deofui- 
7, 1875. Conway, county seat. 

Franklin, Deceml)er 19, 1837; line between 
Johnson df-fined December 14, 1833; line between 
Crawford defined March 4, 1875. Ozark, county seat. 



r 



^1 ,'> 




Fulton, December 21, 1842; part attached to 
Marion County January IS, IS-"),"); part of Law- 
rence attached January 18, lSr)5, March, 1873; 
line between Baxter and Izard defined February 
10, ISTo. County seat, Salem. 

Garland, April 5, 1873; named after Gov. 
A. H. Garland. Hot Springs, county seat. 

Grant, February 4, 186U. Sheridan, county 
seat. 

Greene, November 5, 1833; act March. 1873. | 
Paragould, county seat. 

Hempstead, December 15, 1818. when this 
was Lower Missouri Territory; Lafayette County ' 
carved out of this territory October 15. 1827; line I 
between Pike defined December 14, 1838. Wash- I 
ington, county seat. 

Hot Spring. November 2, 1829; certain lands I 
attached to March 2. 1838; Montgomery taken out 
of December 9, 1842; line between Saline defined 
December 23, 1846; line between Montgomery 
changed December 27, 1848; line between Saline 
changed February 19, 1859, and changed again 
January 10. 1861 ; line between Clark and Dallas 
changed April 3. 1869: March, 1873. ^Malvern, 
county seat. 

Howard, April 17. 1873. County seat. Centre 
Point. 

Independence, October 20, 1820; part of east- 
era boundary defined October 30, 1823; Izard 
County formed of October 27, 1825; part of Inde- 
pendence added October 22, 1828; line between 
Independence and Izard defined November 5, 1831 ; 
line between Independence and Conway. November 
5, 1831 ; between Independence and Jackson, No- 
vember 8, 1836; betweenlzardFebruary 21. 1838: 
December 14, 1840; Lawrence changed December 
26, 1840; March, 1873; Sharp County defined Feb- 
ruary 11. 1875. Batesville, county seat. 

Izard, October 27, 1825; western boundary 
line extended October 13. 1827; part of the Indian 
purchase added October 22, 1828; between Inde- 
p«»ndeace and Izard defined November 5. 1831; 
between Conway and Izard. Novemlier 5. 1831; 
southern boundary established November 11, 1833; 
linn between Independence defined February 21, 
IS-W, and Decemljer 14, 1838. and December 21, 



1840; western boundary line defined December 24, 
1840, March, 1873; between Baxter and Fulton 
defined February 16, 1875; between Sharp changed 
March 9, 1877. Melbourne, county seat. 

Jackson, November 5, 1829; line between In- 
dependence defined November 8, 1836; part of 
St. Francis attached January 10. 1851. Jackson- 
port, county seat. 

Jefferson, November 2, 1829; boundaries de- 
fined November 3, 1831. and again October 29, 
1836; line changed between Lincoln and Desha 
March 20. 1879. Pine Bluff, county seat. 

Johnson, November 16, 1833; southern line 
defined November 3, 1835: east line defined Octo- 
ber 5, 1836; line between Franklin defined Decem- 
ber 14, 1838, 1848; between Pope February 19, 
1859, again March 27, 1871; line between Pope 
re-established on March 6. 1875; Ijetween Pope 
changed March 9, 1877. Clarksville, county seat. 
Lafayette, October 15. 1827: the line between 
Union defined November 26, 1846. Lewisville, 
county seat. 

Lawrence, on January 15, 1815, while Lower 
Missouri Territory; east line defined October 30, 
1823; between Independence changed December 
20, 1840; part attached to Fulton January 18, 
1855; part attached to Kandolph January 18, 
1861; nearly half the county cut off the west side 
to form Sharp County, IStiS. Powhatan, county 
seat. 

Lee, April 17, 1873. Marianna, county seat. 
Lincoln, March 28, 1871; part transferred to 
Desha County. March 10, 1879. Star City, county 
seat. 

Little Kiver, March 5, 1867. Richmond is the 
county seat. 

Locran, originally Sarber County, March 22, 
1871; amended, February 27. 1873: changed to 
Loo-an, Deeemlier 14. 1875; line between Scott 
changed. March 21. 18Sl. Paris, county seat. 

Lonoke, April 16, 1873; named for the lone 
oak tree, by simply spelling phonetically — the 
sugo-estion of the chief engineer of the Cairo & 
Fulton Railroad. Line between Prairie defined 
November 30. 1875, and again, December 7. 1875. 
Lonoke, county seat. 



i-u-i 



.i.I 



1^1 



90 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



Lovely, October 13, 1S2(; abolished October 
17, 182^;." 

MadisoQ, September 30. 1S3G; west boundary 
changed on November 20, 1838; between Carroll 
defined January 11, 1843, and again January 20, 
1843, 1840; between Newton, December 21, 184S; 
between Carroll, April 8, 1869. Huntsville, county 
seat. 

Marion, September 25, 1S30; originally Searcy 
County; changed to Marion, September 29, 1830 
(Searcy County created out of December 13, 1838); 
west boundary delined November 18,1837; between 
Carroll defined December IS, 1846; part of Fulton 
attached -January IS. 1855; between Van Buren 
and Searcy defined January 20, 1S55, and March, 
1873; line between Boone defined December 9. 
1875; line between Baxter changed March 9, ISSl. 
Yellville, county seat. 

Miller, April 1, 1820; the greater portions fell 
within the limits of Texas; county abolished there- 
fore, 1830; re-established. December 22, 1874, and 
eastern botmdary extended. Texarkana, county seat. 

Mississippi, November 1, 1833, 1859; portion 
of Crittenden attached. January 18, 1861. Osceola, 
county seat. 

Monroe, November 2. 1829; boundaries defined 
Decemljer 25, 1840; line between Prairie changed 
December 7, 1850; line changed April 12, 1S69, 
March. 1873, April. 1S73, and May 27, 1874. 
Clarendon, county seat. 

Montgomery, December 9, 1842; line between 
Yell defined January 2, 1845; between Perry, 
December 23, 1840; between Perry re-established 
December 21, 1848; between Hot Spring changed 
December 27, 1848; between Polk changed Feb- 
ruary 7,1859, March. 1S73; between Clark changed 
April 24, 1873; line between Pike defined Decem- 
ber 10, 1874. Mount Ida, county seat. 

Nevada, March 20, 1S71; line between Colum- 
bia defined April 10, 1873. Prescott, county seat. 

Newton, December 14, 1842; line between 
Madison defined December 21, 1848: between Pope 
January 10, 1853. Jasper, county seat. 

Ouachita. November 29. 1842; line between 
Union changed January 0. 1853. Camden, county 
seat. 



Perry, December 18, 1840; line between Pul- 
aski, Saline ami Montgomery defined December 
23, 1840; old line between Montgomery re-estab- 
lished December 21,1848. Perryville, county seat. 

Phillips. May 1, 1820; part attached to Arkan- 
sas County October 23, 1881; west boundary 
defined October 30, 1823; act to divide and create 
Crittenden County October 22, 1825; divided and 
St. Francis County created October 13, 1827; line 
between Arkansas County defined November 21, 
1828, 1840, March, 1873. Helena, county seat. 

Pike, November 1, 1S3S; line between Sevier 
defined November 15,1833; between Hempstead, 
December 14, 1838; between Clark. April 22, 
1873; between Montgomery. December 16. 1874: 
between Clark defined March 8, 1877. Murfrees- 
boro. county seat. 

Poinsett, February 28, 1838, 1859. Harris- 
burg, county seat. 

Polk, November 30, 1844; line between Mont- 
gomery changed February 7, 1859; part of Sebas- 
tian County added by ordinance of convention, 
June 1, 1801. Dallas, county seat. 

Pope, November 2, 1829; part added to Yell 
January 5, 1853; part of Conway attached Janu- 
ary 6, 1853; line between Newton, January 10. 
1853; part of Van Buren attached January 12, 
1853; between Van Buren defined February 17, 
1859; between Johnson. October 19, 1859. March. 
27, 1871; between Conway. May 28, 1874; between 
Johnson re-established March 0, 1S75; between 
Johnson changed March 9, 1877. Dover, county 
seat. 

Prairie. October 25, 1840; between Pulaski 
changed December 30, 1848; between Monroe 
changed December 7, 1850; line changed April 12. 
1809; between White defined April 17, 1873: line 
changed April 26, 1S73, May 27, 1874; between 
Lonoke changed November 30, 1875; separated 
into two districts, 1885. Devall's Bluff, county 
seat. 

Pulaski, December 15. 1818. while a part of 
Lower Missouri Territory; line between Arkansas 
and Pulaski October 30, 1S23: between Clark 
changed October 30, 1823; divided October 2i». 
1825: Quapaw Purchase divided — Arkansas and 



-»pr 




Pulaski, October 13, 1S2T; northwest boundary 
defined October 23. 1^2T•, betweea Pulaski and 
Conway. October 20. ls2S; line between Saline 
defined Feljruary 2~\ 183S, December 1-t, 1S3S; 
between AVbite changed February 8,1843; between 
Saline defined December 21, 1S4G; between Perry 
defined December 23, 184:6; between Prairie 
changed December 30, 1848; between Saline de- 
firu^d April 12, 1873; again. December 7, 1875. 
Little Rock, county seat. 

Randolph, October 29, 1835; part of Lawrence 
attached January 18, 1864, March, 1873. Poca- 
hontas, county seat. 

Saline, November 2, 1835; boundaries defined 
November 5, 1836; between Pulaski, February 25. 
1838, December 14, 1838, December 21, 1846; be- 
tween Hot Spring, December 23, 1846, February 
19, 1859, January 19. 1S61; between Pulaski, April 
12, 1873. December 17, 1875. Benton, county 
seat. 

Scott, November 5, 1833; boundaries defined 
October 24, 1835; between Crawford, December 
16, 1838; part of Sebastian attached by conven- 
tion June 1, 1861; line between Logan changed 
March 21, 1873. Waldron, county seat. 

Searcy, November 5, 1835; boundaries defined 
September 26, 1836; name changed to Marion 
September 29, 1836; county created out of Marion 
December 13, 1838; between Van Buren defined 
October 2, 1853; l>etween Van Buren and Marion 
defined October 20. 1855. March, 1873. Marshall, 
county seat. 

Sebastian. January 6, 1851; part attached to 
Scott and Polk by the convention June 1, 1861. 
Fort Smith and Greenwood, county seats. 

Sevier, October 17, 1828; boundaries defined 
November 8, 1833; between Pike, November 15. 
1833; southeast boundary defined October 29, 
1836. Lockesburg. county seat. 

Sharp, July 18, 1868; act March 3, 1873; be- 
tween Independence defined February 11, 1875; 



line between Izard changed ilarch 9, 1877, 1883. 
Evening Shade, county seat. 

St. Francis, October 13, 1827; St. Francis 
River declared boundary line between Crittenden 
November 3, 1831; part attached to Jackson Jan- 
uary 1, 1851, March, 1873. Forrest City, county 
seat. 

Stone. April 21, 1873. Mountain View, county 
seat. 

Union, November 2. 1829; boundaries defined 
November 5, 1836; line between Lafayette, 
November 26,1846; line between Ouachita changed 
January 6, 1853; part added to Columbia, Decem- 
ber 21, 1851; part of Calhoun attached October 
19, 1862. El Dorado, county seat. 

Van Buren, November 11. 1833; boundaries 
defined November 4, 1836; part attached to Pope 
January 12, 1853; between Searcy and Marion 
defined January 20, 1855; between Pope defined 
February 17, 1859. Clinton, county seat. 

Washington, October 17. 1828; certain lands 
declared to be in Washington County October 26, 
1831; line between Crawford defined November 
24, 1846; line changed between Crawford March 
8, 1883. Fayetteville. county seat. 

White, October 23. 1835; line between Pulaski 
change 1 February 3, 1843; part of Conway at- 
tached January 11, 1853; line between Prairie 
defined April 17, 1873. Searcy, county seat. 

Woodruff, November 26, 1862; but vote, in 
pursuance to ordinance of conventions 1861, 1866, 
1869; line changed April 26, 1873. Aucnista, 
county seat. 

Yell. December 5, 1840; northern boundary, 
December 21, 1^40; line between Montijomerv, 
January 2, 1845: part Pope attached January 6, 
1853. Danville and Dardanelle, county seats. 

The following table will prove valuable for 
comparison in noting the growth in population 
of the counties throughout the State in the various 
decades from their organization: 












■1 i j 






HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



AGGREGATE POPULATION BY COUNTIES. 



AGOREGATE POPULATION BY COUNTIES. 



Counlies in 
the State. 



1S>>0 ' 18T0 1S«0 1S50 I ISJO 
302,525 484,471 435,450. 2i..9,697| i)7,574 



Ark:insas 

Ashley 

Baxter 

Benton 

Boone 

Bradley 

Calbouo -. 

Carroll 

Chicot 

Clark 

Clay 

Coluoibia 

Conway 

Craighead 

Cra^lord 

Crittenden 

Cross 

Dallas 

Desba 

Dorsey 

Drew 

Faulkner 

FrankUn 

Fulton 

Garland 

Grant 

Greene 

Hempstead 

Hot Spring 

Howard 

Independence 

Izard 

Jackson 

Jefferson 

Johnson 

Lafayetie 

Lawrence 



lo.l 



3.2J5 
l',U58 



l.S,8:ll ; 
7,1 '« ! 

8,G4fi 
3,8 '3 

5,:>o 

I 7,214 1 
I 11.953 



3,710 
"3,S2'9 



4,017 
5,115 
4,070 



2,814 
3,8iilj 
2,300 



14 WO 


11.307 


12.439 




l-',7.n5 


8.U2 


U,t»7 


3,383 


7,".37 


4,.577 


.S.lViii 




14.740 


S.l'Ji 


7,8.->i) 1 


7,960 


9,415 


3,831 


4,920 1 


2,648 


5,050 


3,915 






6,5' '5 


5.707 


8.2S3, 


6,877 


8.»73 


6,1-23 


6,459 1 


2,911 



:il •9,9W 9,087] 3,276 



19,01c 
7,775, 
9,917 I 
18,080 
10,857 
10,S77 
22,.'!>6 
11,,V,5 
5,730 



. 3,943 
: 7„573 
13.768 



I 4.921 
1,907 



14,566 1 11,307 I 
6.S"6 7.215 
7,2i,S I 10,493 

15.7 3 I 14,971 



5,9.M , &,J72 



3,212 

3.1 186 ! 
5,834 I 



3,4:i3 
2,2*0 
2,i35 



18,30 ; 1820 1 1810 
0,388 I4,255i 1,062 



1 1860 ' 1870 ] IS60 1850 1840 1830 1S20 1810 

;_ • : j 

802,525 484,471 435,450 209,697 97,574, :30,3S8 14,25'. 1,062 



Counties i 
the .State 



1.426 1,260 ! 1,062 Lee , 



13.288 
9,253 



Lincoln 

Little River. . 

Logan ' 14,8 

Lonoke , 12,1 

Madison | 11,4 

I Marion j 7,9 

Miller I 9,9 

Mississippi 1 7,1 

j Monroe j 9.5 

1 Mont^^omery 5.7 

Nevada 12.0 

Newton 6,1 

' Ouachita ' 11,7 

Perrv 3,^ 

Phillips , 21,2 

i Pike , 6,.; 

Poinsett I 2,1 

Polk 1 6,S 

; Pope ...I 14.3 

Prairie I 84 

■ Pulaski ' S2,ti 



























8,231 ' 
3,979 


7,7401 
6,192 


4.823 
2,.308 


r.'jjs 




3,6,'.3 


3,895 
5.i;57 
;i.l>i3 


2,368 
2,049 
1,958 


1,410 
936 




2,9,S4 





Saline I 8,v 

Si-ott ! 9.1 

.Searcy - 

.Sebastian 



1.266 1 I Union 



978 1 
6.a35 
l.SCl 1 
2,308 I 
1,263 , 
4,710 I 
2,097 



3,547 I 1.152 1.197 

969 

1,320 

2,t56 1,483 



a,657 
3,275 I 
4.457 
3.903 
3,O.S3 
1,979 



2,395 1.921 
i,,5tl3 



Whil 

Woodr 

Y"ell.,,. 



, Buren... 
Qgton_ 



9,970 I 
2,619 




HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



93 



flAPTER XII. 



> ♦ < « 



Education— The Mental Type roxstoERED— TEitniTOKiAL Schools, Laws and FrxDs— Constitutional 

Provisions for Education— Legislative Provisions — Progress since the War — The State 

Superintendents— Statistics— Arkansas Literature- The Aeeansaw Traveler. 




Deliglitful task! to rear the tender thought. 

To teacli the young idea how to slioof; 

To pour the fresh instructions o'er the mind, 

To breathe th' enlivening spirit, and to fix 

The generous purpose in the glowing breast.— Thomson. 



ERE is one subject 
at least in the economic 
institutions of our cotintry 
where men do not divide 
on political lines. To i he 
historian it is a restful 
and refreshinjT oasis in 
' the arid desert. From 
the Canadas to the Gulf commun- 
ities and States earnestly vie with 
each other in the establishment of 
the best public schools. The pres- 
ent generation has nearly sttpplant- 
ed the former great universities 
with the free public high schools 
A generation ago the South sent its 
boys to the North to school; the 
North sent its boys to the old universities of Europe. 
Oxford and Heidelburg received the sons of ambi- 
tious, wealthy Americans of the North, while Yale, 
Harvard and Jefferson Colleges were each the alma 
mater of many of the youths of the South. The 
rivalrj' in the schools between the two sections at 
that time was not intense, but the educa'ed young 
men of the Sotith met in sharpest rivalry in the 
halls of Congress the typical Northern man. As 
the highest types of the North and the South in i 



active political life may be placed Thomas Jeffer- 
son and Daniel Webster. In peace or in war the 
differences in tlie intellectual advancement of the 
two sections were more imaginary than real. The 
disadvantage the South met was the natural ten- 
dency to produce an aristocratic class in the com- 
munity. Cotton and the negro were impediments 
in the Southern States that clogged the way to the 
advancement of the masses. They retarded the 
building of great institutions of learning as well as 
the erection of large manufactories. This applied 
fir more to collegiate education than to the com- 
mon or public school system. The Southern man 
who was able to send his children away from his 
State to school realized that he gave them two ad- 
vantages over keeping them at home; he aided 
them in avoiding negro contact and association, 
and provided the advantage of a better knowledge 
of different peoples in different sections. 

Arkansas may have lagged somewhat in the 
cause of education in the past, but to-day, though 
young as a State, it is far in advance of many older 
commuuities who are disposed to boast greatly of 
their achievements in this direction. 

When still a Territory the subject of education 
received wise and considerate attention. March 
-, 1827, Congress gave the State seventv-two 



':i'--J 



■cij 



94 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



sections of land for the purpose of establishing 
"a semiuary of learning." A supplemental act 
was passed l)y Congress, June 28, lS3l3, one week 
after it became a State, offering certain propo- 
sitions for acceptance or rejection: 1. The six- 
teenth section of every township for school pur- 
poses. 2. The seventy-two sections known as the 
saline lands. By article 9, section 4, State con- 
stitution of 18*39, these lands were given to the free 
schools. 3. The seventy-two sections, known as 
the seminary lands, given to the Territory in 1827, 
were vested and confirmed in the State of Arkansas 
for the use of said seminary. October IS. 1836, 
the State accepted the propositions entire; and the 
legislature passed the act known as " the ordinance 
of acceptance and compact." December IS, 1844, 
the general assembly asked Congress for a modi- 
fication of the seminary grant, so as to authorize 
the legislature to appropriate these seventy-two 
sections of land for common school purposes. 
Congress assented to this on July 29, 1846, and 
the lands were added to the free school fund. 
These congressional land grants formed the basis of 
the State's free school system. 

The first State constitution of 1836 recognized 
the importance of popular education, and made it 
the duty of the general assembly to provide by 
law for the improvement of such lands as are, or 
may be, granted by the United States for the use 
of schools, and to pass such laws as ■" shall be cal- 
culated to encourage intellectual, scientific and 
agricultural improvement." 

The general assembly of 1S42 established a sys- 
tem of common schools in the State, which was ap- 
proved and became a law February 3, 1853, pro- 
viding for the sale of the sixteenth section, and 
election of school trustees in each township, to ex- 
pend the money from the sale of land in the cause 
of education. The act required schools to be main- 
tained in each township "for at least four months 
in each year, and orthoijrapliy, reading, writing, 
Eno-lish grammar, arithmetic and g(wd morals 
should be taught." The trustees were required 
to visit the schools once in each month, and the 
school age was fixed at from five to twenty-one 
years. The act also provided for the estal'li.ihment 



of manual labor schools. It wont to the extent of 
appropriating a sum of money for the purchase of 
text books. This was a long step in advance of 
any other portion of the country at that time. To 
the fund arising from lands the act added "all 
fines for false imprisonment, assault and battery, 
breach of the peace, etc." This act of the assem- 
bly placed the young State in the vanguard of 
States in the cause of free schools. It is an 
enduring monument to the men of that legis- 
lature. Under this law the reports of the county 
commissioners of education were ordered to be 
made to the State auditor, but if so made none can 
be found in the State archives. 

A State board of edtication was provided for 
by the act of 1843, and the board was required to 
make a complete report of educational matters, 
and also to recommend the passage of such laws 
as were deemed advisable for the advancement of 
the cause of education. By an act of January 11, 
1853, the secretary of State was made ex-ojficio 
State commissioner of common schools, and re- 
quired to report to the governor the true condition 
of the schools in each county; which report the 
governor presented to the general assembly at 
each regular session. The provisions of an act of 
January, 1855, relate to the sale of the sixteenth 
section, and defined the duties of the school trus- 
tees and commissioners. Article 8, in the consti- 
tution of 1867, is substantially the same as the pro- 
visions of the law of 1836. 

From 1836 to 1867, as is shown by the above, 
the provisions of the law were most excellent and 
liberal toward the public schools; legislative enact- 
ments occur at frequent intervals, indicating that 
the State was well abreast of the most liberal school 
ideas of the time, and large funds were raised 
sacred to the cause. 

Investigation shows that from the date of the 
State's admission into the Union, until 1867, there 
were many and admirable stipulations and statutes, 
by which large revenues were collected from the 
sale of lands, but the records of the State depart- 
ment give no account of the progress of free 
schools duiing this period, leaving the inference 
that but little practical benefit accrued to the 



if) 



'.JT 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



cause from these wise and liberal measures put 
forth by Congress and the State. 

By act approved May 18, 1S67, the legislature 
made a marked forward movement in the cause of 
education. Considering the chaotic conditions of 
society, and the universal public and private bank- 
ruptcy, the movem-^nt is only the more surprising. 
The act stipulated that a tax. of 2() cents on every 
flOO worth of taxable property should be levied 
for the purpose of establishing and maintaining 
a system of public schools. The second section 
made this fund sacred — to be used for no other 
purpose whatever. The fourth section provided 
for a superintendent of public instruction and 
defined his duties. The eighth section provided 
for a school commissioner, to be chosen by the 
electors of each county, who should examine any 
one applying for a position as school teacher; 
granting to those qualitied to teach a certificate, 
without which no one could be legally em- 
ployed to teach. Prior to this a license as teacher 
was not considered essential, and there was no one 
authorized to examine applicants or gi-ant certifi- 
cates. The Congressional township was made the 
unit of the school district, the act also setting 
forth that in the event of the trustees failing to 
have a school taught in the district at least three 
months in the year, the same thereby forfeited 
its portion of the school revenue. These wise and 
liberal arrangements were made, it must be remem- 
bered, by a people bankrupt liy war and sutTering 
the hard trials of reconstruction. 

No regular reports were made — at least none 
can be found — prior to ISfiT. the date of the ap- 
pointment of a superintendent. Though reports 
were regularly received from the year mentioned, 
the most of them were unsatisfactory and not 
reliable. 

The constitution of 1868 created some wise 
amendments to the previous laws. It caused the 
schools to become free to every child in the State; 
school revenues were increased, districts could have 
no part of the .school fund unless a free, school had 
been taught for at least three months. The leg- 
islature following this convention. July 23. ISfiS, 
amended the school laws to conform to this con- 



stitutional provision. In addition to State super- 
intendent, the otlice of circuit superintendent was 
created, and also the State board of education. 

The constitutional convention of 1874- made 
changes in the school law and provided for the 
school system now in force in the State. The act 
of the legislature, December 7, 1876, was passed 
in conformity with the last preceding State con- 
vention. This law with amendments is the present 
school law of Arkansas. 

Hon. Thomas Smith was the first State super- 
intendent, in office from 1868 to 1873. The 
present incumbent of that position, Hon. T\"ood- 
ville E. Thompson, estimates that the commence- 
ment of public free schools in Arkansas may prop- 
erly date from the time Mr. Smith took possession 
of the office — schools free to all; every child entitled 
to the same rights and privileges, none excluded : 
separate schools provided for white and black; 
a great number of schools organized, school houses 
built, and efficient teachers secured. Previous to 
this time people looked upon free schools as largely 
pauper schools, and the wealthier classes regarded 
them unfavorably. 

Hon. J. C. Corbin, the successor of Mr. Smith, 
continued in office until December 13, 1875. 

Hon. B. W. Hill was appointed December 18, 
1875, and remained in office until 1878. It was 
during his term that there came the most marked 
change in public sentiment in favor of public 
schools. He was a zealous and able worker in the 
cause, and from his report for 1876 is learned the 
following: State apportionment. S213,0OO; dis- 
trict tax, S8S.000; school population, 189.000. 
Through the directors' failure to report the enroll- 
ment only shows 16.000. The total revenue of 
1877 vas 8270,000; of 1878, §276,000. 

Mr. Hill was succeeded in 1878 by Hon. J. L. 
Denton, whose integrity, earnestness and great 
aliility resulted in completing the valuable work so 
well commenced by his predecessor — removing the 
Southern prejudices again.st public schools. He 
deserves a lasting place in the history of Arkansas 
as the advocate and champion of free schools. 

The present able and efficient State superin- 
tendent of public instruction, as previously men- 



^*ir^'m': 






:■■. 3 :Orn 


.^;.,.,i^ii 


.. !.• -Klii 


' .'iXMi 


• ■ ■ sdJ 


, //, 


■ ' 1 U.-^O 


i-J. rJuXl 


i!Vt «tT'--^. 



,ir 



I i 



96 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



tioned, is Hon. AV'ooilville E. Thompson. To his 
eminent qniilitications and tireless energy the 
sch jols of Arkansas are largely indebted for the 
rapid advance now going on, and which has 
marked his past term of office. From his bien- 
nial report are gleaned most of the facts and sta- 
tistics given below. 

The growth of the institution as a whole may 
be defined by the following statistics: In 1S79 
the revenue raised by the State and county tax was 
§271,000; in ISSO, S2S5.0OO; in ISSl, -STIO.OOO; 
in 18S2. $722,000; in 1SS3, S740.0(iO; iu 1SS4. 
S93 1,000; in 1SS5, 81.199,000; in ISSO. s 1,327. - 
000. The district tax iu 1SS4 was 8340 521; in 
1885, 8343.850, and in 18Sr,, 8445.563. The dis- 
trict tax is that voted by the people. 

Arkansas to-day gives the most liberal sup- 
port to her free schools, all else considered, of any 
State in the Union. It provides a two mill tax, a 
poll tax, and authorizes the districts to vote a five 
mill tax. This is the rule or rate voted in nearly 
all the districts, thus making a total on all taxable 
property of seven mills, besides the poll tax. 

The persistent neglect of school officers to re- 
port accurate returns of their school attendance is 
to be regretted. The number of pupils of school 
age (sis to twenty-one years) is given, but no ac- 
count of attendance or enrollment. This leaves 
counties in the unfavorable light of a large school 
population, with apparently the most meager at- 
tendance. The following summaries exhibit the 
progress of the public schools: Number of school 
children, 1869, 176,910; 1870, 180,274; 1871, 
196.237; 1872, 194,314; 1873, 148 128; 1874, 168.- 
929; 1875, 168,929; 1876, 1S9,1:;0; 1877, 203,567; 
1878, 216,475: 1879, 236,600; 1880, 247,547; 1881, 
272,841; 1882, 289,617; 1883. white, 227.538; 
black, 76,429; total, 304,962; 1884. white, 247,- 
173; black, 76,770; total. 323.943: 1885. white, 
252,290: black, 86.213; total, 338,506; 1886, 
white, 266.188; black, 91.818; total, 358.006; 
1887, white, 279.224; black. 98.512; total. 377,- 
736; 1888, white, 288,381; black. 99,747; total. 
388.129. The number of pupils enrolled in 1869 
was 67,412; 1888, 202.754, divided as follows: 
"White, 152,1S;4; black, 50,570. Number of teach- 



ers employed 1869, 1.335; number employed 1888, 
males, 3,431, females, 1,233. Total number of 
school houses, 1884. 1,453; erected that year, 2f)3. 
Total number school houses, 1888, 2,452; erected 
in that year, 269. Total value of school houses, 
1884. 8384,827.73. Total value, 1888, 8705,- 
276.92. Total amount of revenues received, 1868, 
8300.609.63. For the year, 1888: Amount on 
hand June 30, 1887, 8370.942.25; received com- 
mon school fund, 8315.403.28; district tax. 8505,- 
069.92; poll tax, 8146,604.22; other sources, 
§45,890.32; total. 81.683.909.32. 

"While there were in early Territorial days great 
intellectual giants in Arkansas, the tendency was 
not toward tiie tamer and more gentle walks of lit- 
erature, but rather in the direction of the fiercer bat- 
tles of the political arena and the rostrum. Oratory- 
was cultivated to the extreme, and often to the 
neglect apparently of all else of intellectual pur- 
suits. The ambitious youths had listened to the 
splendid eloquence of their elders — heard their 
praises on every lip, and were fired to struggle for 
such triumphs. Where there are great orators one 
expects to find poets and artists. The great states- 
man is mentally cast iu molds of stalwart pro- 
portions. The poet, orator, painter, and eminent 
literary character are of a finer texture, but usually 
not so virile. 

Gen. Albert Pike gave a literary immortality to 
Arkansas when it was yet a Territorial wilderness. 
The most interesting incident in the history of 
literature would bo a true picture of that Nestor of 
the press. Kit North, when he opened the mail 
package from that dim and unknown savage 
world of Arkansas, and turned his eyes on the 
pages of Pike's manuscript, which had been ofFered 
the great editor for publication, in his poem en- 
titled '"Hymn to the Gods." This great but mer- 
ciless critic had written Byron to death, and one 
can readily believe that he must have turned pale 
when his eye ran over the lines — lines from an un- 
known world of untamed aborigines, penned in the 
wilderness by this unknovvn boy. North read the 
products of new poets to find, not merit, but weak 
points, where he could impale on his sharp and 
pitQess pen the daring singer. ^Vhat a play must 






liuj 









ik 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



97 



havp swept over his features as his eye followed 
line after line, eager and more eager from the fir.st 
word to the last. To him could this be possible — 
real — and not the day dream of a disturbed im- 
agination. This historical incident in the litera- 
ture of the wild west — the pioneer boy not only on 
the outer confines of civilization, but to the aver- 
age Englishman, in the impenetrable depths of a 
dark continent, where dwelt only cannibals, select- 
ing the great and severe arbiter of English litera- 
ture to whom he would transmit direct his fate as 
a poet; the youth's unexpected triumph in not 
only securing a place in the columns of the leading 
review of the world, but extorting in the editorial 
columns the highest meed of praise, is unparalleled 
in the feats of tyros in literature. The supremacy 
of Pike's genius was dulled in its brilliancy be- 
cause of the versatility of his mental occujiatious. 
A poet, master of belles lettres. a lawyer and a poli- 
tician, as well as a soldier, and eminent in all the 
varied walks he trod, yet he was never a book- 
maker — had no ambition, it seems, to be an author. 
The books that he will leave, those especially by 
which he will be remembered, will be his gathered 
and bound writings thrown off at odd intervals and 
cast aside. His literary culture could produce only 
the very highest type of effort. Hence, it is prob- 
able that Lord North was the only editor living to 
whom Pike might have submitted his "Hymn to 
the Gods" with other than a chance whim to de- 
cide its fate. 

There was no Boswell among the early gi-eat 
men of Arkansas, otherwise there would exist biog- 
raphies laden with instruction and full of interest. 
There were men and women whose genius com- 
pelled them to talk and write, but they wrote dis- 
connected, uncertain sketches, and doubtless often 
published them in the columns of some local news- 
paper, where they sank into oblivion. 

The erratic preacher-lawyer. A. W. Arrington, 
wrote many and widely published sketches of the 
bench and bar of Aikansas, but his imagination 



I so out-ran the facts that they became mere fictions 

1 — very interesting and entertaining, it is said, 

but entirely useless to the historian. Arrington 

I was a man of superior natural genius, but was so 

near a moral wreck as to cloud his memory. 

Years ago was published NutalFs History of 

Arkansas, but the most diligent inquiry among 

the oldest inhabitants fails to find one who ever 

heard of the book, much less the author. 

i Recently John Hallum published his History 

' of Arkansas. The design of the author was to 

j make three volumes, the first to treat of the 

j bench and bar, but the work was dropped after 

I this volume was published. It contains a great 

amount of valuable matter, and the author has 

I done the State an important service in making his 

collections and putting them in durable form. 

A people with so many men and women com- 
petent to write, and who have written so little of 
; Arkansas, its people or its great historical events, 
I presents a curious phase of society. 

A wide and inviting field has been neglected 
and opportunities have been lost; facts have now 
gone out of men's memories, and important histor- 
■ ical incidents passed into oblivion beyond recall. 
\ Opie P. Read, now of Chicago, will be known 
in the future as the young and ambitious literary 
worker of Arkansas. He came to Little Rock 
from his native State, Tennessee, and engaged in 
1 work on the papers at that city. He soon had 
a wide local reputation and again this soon grew 
to a national one. His fugitive pieces in the news- 
papers gained extensive circulation, and in quiet 
humor and unaffected j^athos were of a high order. 
He has written several works of fiction and is now 
rimningthrouj::;h his paper. The Arkausaw Traveler. 
Chicago, a novel entitled "The Kentucky Colonel,'' 
I already pronounced by able critics one among 
the best of American works of fiction. Mr. Read 
is still a comparatively young man, and his pen 
I gives most brilliant promise for the future. His 
I success as an editor is well remembered. 



*fr-..cT 



fj.-l _L 1 1 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



;iiflEf ER XIII. 



The CHURcnES of Arkansas— Appearance of the ilissioNARiES— Church Missions Established in the 
Wilderness— The Leading Protestant Denominations- Ecclesiastical Statistics- 
General Outlook from a Religious Standpoint. 



No silver saints by dying misers giv'n 

Here bribed the rage of ill-requited Heav'n; 

But such plain roofs as piety could raise. 

And only vocal with the Maker's praise.— Pope. 




N all histories of the early 
? settlers the pioneer preach- 
4'"^ ers and missionaries of the 
Church are of first inter- 
est. Trne missionaries, re- 
gardless of all creeds, are 
a most interesting study, 
and, in the broad principles of Chris- 
tianitv, they may well be considered 
as a class, -with only incidental refer- 
ences to their different creeds. The 
essence of their remarkable lives is 
the heroic work and suffering they so 
cheprfully undertook and carried on 
so patiently and bravely. Among the 
ilrst of pioneers to the homes of the 
•^ red savages were these earnest church- 

men, carrying the news of Blount Calvary to the 
benighted peoples. It is ditKmilt fur us of this 
age to understand the saeritict's they made, the 
privations they endured, the moral and physical 
courage required to sustain them in their vt'ork. 
The chiuches. through their missionaries, carried 
the cross of Chri-^t, extending the spiritual empire 
in advance, nearly always, of the temporal empire. 
They bravely led the way for the hardv explorers. 
and ever and anon a martyr's bi^dy was given to 



if 



the flames, or left ii' the trackless forests, food for 
ravenous wild beasts. 

The first white men to make a lodgment in 
what is now Arkansas having been Marquette and 
Joliet, France and the Church thus came here 
hand in hand. The Spanish and French settlers 
at Arkansas Post were the representatives of Cath- 
olic nations, as were the French-Canadians who 
came down from the lakes and settled aloncr the 
banks of the lower ^Mississippi River. 

After 1803 there was another class of pion- 
eers that came in — Protestant English by descent 
if not direct, and these soon dominated in the 
Arkansas country. The ilethodists. Baptists and 
Cumberland Presbyterians, after the biiildincr of 
the latter by Rev. Finis Ewing, were the pre- 
vailing pioneer preachers. Beneath God's first 
temples these missionaries held meetings, traveled 
over the Territory, going wherever the little col- 
umn of bltte smoke from the cabin directed them, 
as well as visiting the Indian tribes, proclaiming 
Christ and His cause. Disregarding the elements, 
swollen streams, the dim trails, and often no other 
guide on their dreary travels than the projecting 
ridges, hills and streams, the sun or the polar star; 
facing hunger, heat and cold, the wild beast and the 
far fiercer savage, without hope of money compen- 



r 



:19d 






<*J »_ 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



99 



sation, regardless of sickaess and even death, these 
men took their lives in their hands and went forth. 
Could anything be more graphic or pathetic of the 
conditions of these naen than the extract from a 
letter of one of them who had thus served his God 
and fellow man more than fifty yeans: "' In my long 
ministry I often suffered for food and I spent 
no money for clothing. * * The largest 
yearly salary I received was SlOO. " Were ever 
men inspired with more zeal in the cause of their 
Master? They had small polish and were as rugged 
as the gnarled old oaks beneath whose branches 
they so often bivouacked. They never tasted the 
refinements of polite life, no doubt despising them 
as heartily as they did sin itself. Rude of speech, 
what eloquence they possessed land many in this 
respect were of no mean order) could only come 
of their deep sincerity. 

These Protestant missionaries trod closely upon 
the footsteps of the pure and gentle Marquette in 
the descent of the Mississippi, and the visits to 
the Indians amid the cane-brakes of the South. 
Marquette's followers had been the first to ascend 
the Arkansas River to its source in the far distant 
land of the Dakotas in the Northwest. Holding 
aloft the cross, they boldly entered the camps of the 
tribes, and patiently won upon them until they laid 
down their drawn tomahawks and brought forth 
the calumet of peace. These wild children gath- 
ered around these strange beings — visitors, as they 
supposed, from another world, and wherever a 
cross was erected they regarded it with fear and 
awe, believing it had supreme power over them 
and their tribes. 

He who would detract from the deserved im- 
mortality of any of these missionaries on account of 
their- respective creeds, could be little else than a 
cynic whose blood is acid. 

Marquette first explored the Mississippi River 
as the representative of the Catholic Church. 

The old church baptismal records of the mis- 
sion of Arkansas Post extend back to 17*)4. and the 
ministrations of Father Louis Meurin, who signed 
the record as "missionary priest." This is the 
oldest record to be found of the church's recog- 
nition of Arkansas now extant. That Marcpiette 



held church service and erected the cross of Christ 
nearly one hundred years anterior to the record 
date in Arkansas is given in the standard histories 
of the United States. Rev. Girard succeeded 
Meurin. It may bo gleaned from these records 
that in ITSS De La Valliere was in command of 
Arkansas Post. In 1780 the attending priest was 
Rev. Louis Guigues. The record is next signed by 
Rev. Gibault in 1792, and next by Rev. Janniu in 
1796. In 1S20 is found the name of Rev. Chau- 
dorat. In 183-1 Rev. Dupuy, and m 1S38 Father 
Donnelly was the priest in charge. These remained 
in custody of the first mission at Arkansas Post. 
The second mission established was St. Mary's, 
now Pine Bluff. The first priest at that point was 
Rev. Saulmier. Soon after, another mission, St. 
Peter's, was established in Jefferson County, and 
the third mission, also in Jefferson County, was 
next established at Plum Bayou. In order, the 
next mission was at Little Rock, Rev. Emil Saul- 
mier in charge; then at Fort Smith; then Helena, 
and next Napoleon and New Gascony, respectively. 

The Catholic population of the State is esti- 
mated at 10,000, with a total number of churches 
and missions of forty. There are twenty-two 
church schools, convents and academies, the school 
attendance being 1,600. The first bishop in the 
Arkansas diocese was Andrew Byrne, 1S44. He 
died at Helena in 1862, his successor being the 
present incumbent. Bishop Edward FitzGerald. 
who came in 1867. 

From a series of articles published in the Ar- 
kansas Methodist, of the current year, by the emi- 
nent and venerable Rev. Andrew Hunter, D. D. . 
are gleaned the following important facts of this 
Church's history in Arkansas: Methodism came to 
Arkansas by way of Missouri about 1814, a com- 
pany of emigrants entering from Southeast Mis- 
souri overland, and who much of the way had to 
cut out a road for their wagons. They had heard 
of the rich lands in Mound Prairie, Hempstead 
County. In this company were John Henrey. a 
local preacher, Alexander and Jacob Shook, broth- 
ers, and Daniel Props. In their long slow travels 
they reached the Arkansas River at Little Rock, 
and waited on the opposite bank for the comple- 



if -J J 



r,-A 



■1 .ni:f r; 
..JT 



100 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



tion of a ferry boat then building. ^Vhen these 
people reached their destination they soon set up 
a church, and erected the tirst Methodist "meet- 
ing-house" in Arkansas, called Henrey's Chapel. 
"Father Henrey, " as he was soon known far and 
wide, reared sons, all preacher.s. This little col- 
ony were all sincere Methodists, and nearly all 
their first generation of sons became preachers, 
some of them eminent. Jacob Shook and three 
of his sons entered the ministry; Gilbert Alex- 
ander, his sons and grandsons, became ministers 
of God's word, as did two of Daniel Props' sons. 
The small colony was truly the seed of the church 
in Arkansas. 

In 1S3S two young ministers were sent from 
Tennessee to the Arkansas work, and came all 
the way to Mound Prairie on horseback. 

The church records of Missouri show that the 
conference of 1S17 sent two preachers to Arkan- 
sas — William Stevenson and John Harris. They 
were directed to locate at Hot Springs. It is 
conceded that these two missionaries "planted 
Methodism in Arkansas." 

In 1818 the Missouri Conference sent four 
laborers to Arkansas, with William Stevenson as 
the presiding elder of the Territory. The circuits 
then had: John Shader, on Spring River; Thomas 
Tennant, Arkansas circuit; W. Orr, Hot Springs; 
William Stevenson and James Lowrey. Jlound 
Prairie. AVhat was called the Arkansas circuit in- 
cluded the Arkansas River, from Pine Bluff to the 
mouth. After years of service as presiding elder, 
Stevenson was succeeded by John Sciipps; the ap- 
pointments then were: Arkansas circuit, Dennis 
Willey; Hot Springs, Isaac Brooktield; Mound 
Prairie, John Harris; Pecan Point, William Town- 
send. The Missouri Conference, 18"23, again made 
William Stevenson presiding elder, with three itin- 
erants for Arkansas. In lb25 Jesse Hale became 
presiding elder. He was in charge until 1829. He 
was an original and outspoken abolitionist, and 
taught and preached his faith unre.^ervedly: so 
much so that large numbers of the leading fam- 
ilies left the Methodist Episcopal Church and 
joined the Cumberland Presbyterians. This was 
the sudden Iniihling up of the Cumberland Pres- 



byterian Church, and nearly fatally weakened the 
^Methodist Church. Some irreverent laymen desig- 
nated Elder Jesse Hale's ministrations as the 
"Hail storm" in Arkansas. Fortunately Hale 
was succeeded by Rev. Jesse Green, and ho poured 
oil on the troubled Vfaters, and saved Methodism 
in Arkansas. " Green was our Moses." 

The Tennessee Conference, 1831, sent eight 
preachers to .Arkansas, namely: Andrew D. Smyth. 
John Harrell, Henry G. Joplin, William A. Boyce. 
William G. Duke, John N. Hammill. Alvin Baird 
and Allen M. Scott. 

A custom of those old time preachers now 
passed away is worth preserving. When possi- 
ble to do so they went over the circuit together, 
two and two. One might preach the regular ser- 
mon, when the other would "exhort." Under these 
conditions young Rev. Smyth was accompanying 
the regular circuit rider. He was at first diffi- 
dent, and "exhorted" sitnply by giving his hearers 
" Daniel in the lion's den." As the two started 
around the circuit the second time, on reaching a 
night appointment, before entering the house, and 
as they were returning from secret prayer in the 
brush, the preacher said: "Say, Andy, I'm going 
to preach, and when I'm done you give 'em 
Daniel and the lions again." Evidently Andy and 
his lions were a terror to the natives. But the 
young exhorter soon went up head, and became a 
noted divine. 

The Missouri Conference, 1832, made two dis- 
tricts of Arkansas. Rev. A. D. Smyth had charge 
of Little Rock district, which extended over all the 
country west, including the Cherokee and Creek 
Nations. 

The formation of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, occurred in 18-14. This is a well 
known part of the history of our country. In Ar- 
kansas the chui'ch amid all its trials and vicissi- 
tudes has grown and flourished. The State now 
has fifteen districts, with 200 pastoral charges, and. 
it is estimated, nearly 1.000 congregations. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church has a com- 
fortable church in Little Roc'k, and several good 
sized congregations in different portions of the 
State. This church and the Methodist Episcopal 



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j!-"^ '' ,.i. li issnq 

■.■■■A X- jXT s-BW 



HISTORY OF AUKAXSAS. 



101 



Churcb, South, are separate and wholly distinct 
in their orijjanization. 

The Baptists are imtiirany a pioneer and fron- 
tier church pt^ople. They are earnest and sincere 
proselytors to the faith, and reach very effectively 
people in general. The Baptist Church in Ben- 
ton celebrated, July 4, ISSl). its fifty-third anni- 
versary. Orii,aually cbIIimI Sjn-injj; Church, it was 
built about two miles from the town. The organi- 
zation took place under the sheltering branches of 
an old oak tree. One of the first churches of this 
order was the Mount Bethel Church, about six 
miles west of Arkadelphia, in Clark County. This 
was one of the oldest settled points by English 
speaking people in the State. The church has 
grown with the increase of population. 

Rev. James M. Moore organized in Little Rock, 
in 1828, the first Presbyterian Church in Arkan- 
sas. He was from Penn.syhania, eminent for his 
ability, zeal and piety. For some time he was 
the representative of his church in a wide portion 
of the country south and west. He was succeeded 
by Rev. A. R. Banks, from the theological sem- 
inary of Columbia. S. C. , who settled in Hempstead 
County in 1835-30 and organized and built Spring 
Hill Church, besides another at Washington. The 
next minister in order of arrival was Rev. John 
M. Erwin. He located at Jackson, near the old 
town of Elizabeth, but his life was not spared long 
after coming. He assisted Revs Moore and Banks 
in organizing the first presbytery in Arkansas. 

In 1839 Rev. J. M. Moore, mentioned above, 
removed to what is now Lonoke County, and or- 
ganized a congregation and built Sylvania Church. 
His successor at Little Rock was Rev. Henderson, 
in 1840. The death of Rev. Henderson left no 
quorum, and the Arkansas presbytery became /«we- 
tiis officio. 

Rev Aaron Williams, from Bethel presbytery. 
South Carolina, came to Arkansas in 1842, and 
settled in Hempstead County, taking charge of a 
large new academy at that place, which bad been 
built by the wealthy people of the locality. He at 
once re-orgauized the church at ^\'ashington, which 
had been some time vacant. Arkansas then be- 
longed to the synod of Mississippi. In 1842, in 



com[)any with Rev. A. R. Banks, he traveled 
over the swamps and through the forests 400 miles 
to attend the Mississippi synod at Port Royal. 
Their mission was to ask the synod to allow Revs. 
Williams, Moore, Banks and Shaw to organize the 
Arkansas prestiytery. They obtaint-d the permis- 
sion, and meeting in Little Rock the first Sunday 
in January, 1843, organized the Arkansas presby- 
tery. The Rev. Balch had settled in Dardanelle, 
and he joined the new presbytery. In the nest 
few years Revs. Byington and Kingsbury, Con- 
gregational ministers, who bad been missionaries to 
the Indians since ISIS, also joined the Arkansas 
presbytery. The synod of Mem[)his was subse- 
quently formed, of which Arkansas was a part. 
There were now three presbyteries west of Mem- 
phis: Arkansas, Ouachita and Indian. In \^'ii\ 
Arkansas was composed of four presbyteries — two 
Arkansas and two Ouachita. 

Rev. Aaron Williams assumed charge at Little 
Rock in 1843, where he remained until January, 
1845. There was then a vacancy for some years 
in that church, when the Rev. Joshua F. Green 
ministered to the tiock. He was succeeded by 
Rev. Thomas Fraser, who continued until 1859. 
All these had been supplies, and in 1859 Little 
Rock was made a pastorate, and Rev. Thomas R. 
Welch was installed as first pastor. He tilled the 
position the next twenty-five years, and in 1885 
resigned on account of ill health, and was sent 
as counsel to Canada, where he died. About the 
close of his pastorate, the Second Presbyterian 
Church of Little Rock was organized, and their 
house built, the Rev. A. R. Kennedy, pastor. He 
resigned in September, 1888, being succeeded by 
James R. Howerton. After the resignation of Dr. 
Welch of the First Church. Dr. J. C. Barrett was 
given charge. 

Rev. Aaron Williams, after leaving the synod, 
became a synodical evangelist, and traveled over 
the State, preaching wherever he found small col- 
lections of people, and organizing churches He 
formed the church at Fort Smith and the one in 
Jackson County. 

A synodical college is at Bates ville, and is 
highly prosperous. 



up. 



102 



HISTORY OF AllKANSAS. 



sKifiP'Mi xre. 



'■i-h 



Names Illustrious in Arkansas History— Prominent Mention of Xoted Individuals— Ambrose 

H. Sevier— William E. Woodruff— John Wilson— John Hemphill— Jacob Barkman— Dr. 

Bowie- Sandy Faulkner— Samuel II. Hempstead— Trent, Williams. Shinn Families, 

AND Others— The Conways— Robert Crittenden- Archibald Yell— Judge 

David Walker— Gen. G. D. Royston— Judge James W. Bates. 



The gen'ral voice 
Sound3 him. for courtesy, behaviour, language 
And ev'ry fair demeanor, an e.xample; 
Titles of honour add not to his worth, 
Who is himself an honour to his title. — Ford. 




;,_0 history of Arkansas, worthy 
' o, of the name, could fail to 
-0, -1,1 refer to the lives of a num- 
■fA ber of its distinguished 
citizens, whose relation to 
^^'V.J^'-^ groat public events has 
,^ • , -I'T? made them a part of the 
'^^l ['>''^ *''^® history of their State. 

°^ , ' {t'i^ The following sketches uf repre- 
1 ^f^Z^, sentitive men will be of no little 
^-y^' mteie-t to each and every reader 
A tht present volume. 

Ambrose H. Sevier, was one of 
the foremost of the prominent men 
of his day, and deserves especial 
mention. The recent removal of 
the rt mains of Gen. John Sevier from 
Alabama to Knoxville, Tenn. (June I'J. 
ISS'Jj. has awakened a wide-spread inter- 
est in this historic family name. The re-interment 
of the illustrious ashes of the first governor, found- 
er and Congressman of Tennessee, by the State he 
had made, was but an act of long deferred justice 
to one of the most illufitrious and picturesque char- 
acters in American historv. He fuuudfd two States 







and was the first governor of each of them; one of 
these States, Tennessee, he had, in the spirit of dis- 
interested patriotism, erected on the romantic ruins 
of the other— the mountain State of "Franklin." 
A distinguished Revolutionary soldier, he was the 
hero of King's Mountain, where he and four broth- 
ers fought. He was first governor of the State 
of "Franklin," six times governor of Tennessee, 
three times a member of Congress, and in no in- 
stance did he ever have an opponent to contest 
for an oiiice. He was in thirty-five hard fought 
battles; had faced in bitter contest the State of 
North Carolina, which secretly arrested and ab- 
ducted him from the new State he had carved out 
of North Carolina territory; was rescued in open 
court by two friends, and on his return to his ad- 
herents as easily defeated the schemes of North 
Carolina as he had defeated, in many battles, the 
Cherokee Indians. No man ever voted against 
" Nolichiicky Jack,'' as he was familiarly called — 
DO enemy ever successfully stood before him in 
l:>attle. A great general, statesman, and patriot, 
he was the creator and builder of commonwealths 
west of the Alleghauies, and he guided as greatly 
and wisely as did Washiutjton and Jefferson the 






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. )-;IIl, I 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



103 



new States and Territories he formed in the paths 
of democratic freedom; and now, after he has sL'pt 
in an obscure grave for three quarters of a century, 
the fact is beginning to dawn upon the nation that 
Gov. John Sevier made Washington, and aU that 
great name implies, a possibility. 

The name, illustrious as it is ancient, numer- 
ous and wide spread, is from the French Pyrenees, 
Xavier, where it may be traced to remote times. 
St. Francis Xavier was of this family, and vet the 
American branch were exiles from the old world 
because of their revolt against papal tyranny. 
Sturdy and heroic as they were in the faith, their 
blood was far more virile, indeed stalwart, in de- 
fense of human rights and liberty, wherever or by 
whomsoever assailed. 

In France, England and in nearly every West- 
ern and Southern State of the Union are branches 
of the Xaviers, always prominent and often emi- 
nent in their day and time. But it was reser^-ed 
to the founder of the American branch of the 
Seviors to be the supreme head of the illustrioirs 
line. He builded two commonwealths and was im- 
pelled to this great work in defense of the people, 
and in resistance to the encroachments of the cen- 
tral powers of the paternal government. 

In Arkansas the Seviers. Conways and Rectors 
were united by ties of blood as well as by the ever 
stronger ties of the sons of liberty, independence 
and patriotism. Here were three of the most 
powerful families the State has ever had. and in 
public affairs they were as one. The political 
friend and worthy mjdel of Gov. John Sevier was 
Thomas Jefferson. Indeed, Gen. Sevier was the 
fitting and immortal companion-piece to Jeffer^on 
in those days of the young and struggling repub- 
lic. The Seviers of Arkansas and Missouri were 
naturally the admirers of Andrew Jackson cham- 
pions of the people's rights, watchdogs of liberty. 
Ambrose H. Sevier, was the son of John, who 
was the son of Valentine and Ann Conway Sevier, 
of Greene County, Tenn. Ann Conway was the 
daughter of Thomas and Ann Rector Conway. 
Thus this family furnished six of the governors of 
Arkansas. 

In 1S21, soon after Mr. Sevier's coming to Ar- 



kansas, he was elected clerk of the Territorial 
house of representatives. In 1S'J3 he was elected 
from Pulaski County to the legislature, and con- 
tinued a member and was elected speaker in 1S27. 
He was elected to Congress in August, 1S'2S, to 
succeed his uncle, Henry W. Conway, who had 
been killed in a duel with Crittenden. He was 
three times elected to Congress. When the State 
came into the L'uion, Sevier and William S. Fulton 
were elected first senators in Congress. Sevit-r 
resigned his seat in the Senate in 184S, to accept 
the mission of .minister plenipotentiary to Mexico, 
and, in connection with Judge Clifford, negotiated 
the treaty of Guadaloupe Hidalgo. This was the 
last as well as crowning act of his life. He died 
shortly after returning from bis mission. The 
State has erected a suitable monument to his mem- 
ory in Mount Holly Cemetery, Little Rock, where 
sleeps his immortal dust. 

How curiously fitting it was that the Sevier 
of Arkansas should follow so closely in the foot- 
steps of the great governor of Tennessee, his lineal 
ancestor, and be the instrument of adding so im- 
mensely to the territory out of which have grown 
such vast and rich commonwealths. As builders 
of commonwealths there is no name in American 
history which approaches that of Sevier. A 
part of the neglect — the ingratitude, possibly — of 
republics, is shown in the fact that none of the 
States of which they gave the Union so many bear 
their family name. 

William E. Woodruff was in more than unf 
sense a pioneer to Arkansas. He was among 
the distinguished men who first hastened h^rt' 
when the Territory was formed, and brought with 
him the pioneer newspaper press, and established 
the Arkansas Gazette. This is now a flourishing 
dailv and weekly newspaper at the State capital, 
and one of the oldest papers in the country. Of 
himself alone there was that in the character and 
life of Mr. Woodruff which would have made him 
one of the historical pioneers to cross the ^lissis- 
sippi River, and cast his fortune and future in this 
new world. But he was a worthy disciple and 
follower of Ben. Franklin, who combined with the 
art preservative of arts, the genius that lays found- 



^:?17=^ 



I- 



n. I 

i 



rtih 



104 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



ations for empires in government, and the yet far 
greater empires in the tiekls of intellectual life. 

He was a native of Long Island, Suffolk Coun- 
ty, X. Y. Leaving his home in 1S18, upon the 
completion of his apprenticeship as printer, with 
the sparse proceeds of his earnings as apprentice 
he turned his face westward. Reaching Wheel- 
ing, Ya., ho embarked in a canoe for the falls of 
the Ohio, now Louisville, where he stopped and 
worked at his trade. Ending no sufficient open- 
ing to permanently locate in this place, be started 
on foot, by way of Russellville, to Nashville, Teun. , 
and for a time worked at his trade in that place 
and at Franklin. Still looking for a possible 
future home further west, he heard of the Act of 
Congress creating the Territory of Arkansas, to 
take effect July 4, 1819. He at once purchased 
a small outfit for a newspaper office and started to 
the newly formed Territory, determined if possible 
to be tirst on the ground. He shipped by keel-boat 
down the Cumberland river, the Ohio and the 
Mississippi Rivers to Montgomery's Point, at the 
mouth of White River; thence overland to -\rkansas 
Post, the first Teiritorial capital. Montgomery 
Point was then, and for some years after, the main 
shipping point for the interior points of the 
Arkansas Territory. From this place to the capi- 
tal, he found nothing but a bridle-path. He 
therefore secured a pirogue, and with the services 
of two boatmen, passed through the cut-off to 
Arkansas River and then up this to Arkansas Post, 
reaching his point of destination October 31, 1S19. 
So insignificant was the Post that the only way he 
could get a house was to build one, which he did, 
and November 20, 1819, issued the first paper — 
• the Arkansas Gazette. He was the entire force of 
the office — mechanical, clerical and editorial. To- 
day his own work is his fitting and perpetual 
monument — linking his name indissolubly with 
that of Arkansas and immortality. 

His genius was in the direct energy and the 
impelling forces which drove it with the sure cer- 
tainty of fate over every opposing obstacle. Broad, 
strong and great in all those qualities which 
characterize men pre-eminent in the varied walks 
of life; a true nation founder and builder, his 



useful life was long spared to the State, which will 
shed luster to itself and its name by honoring the 
memory of one of its first and must illustrious 
pioneers — William E. Woodruff. 

Reference having been made to John \\ilsou 
in a previous chapter, in connection with his uu 
fortunate encounter with J. J. Anthony, on the 
floor of the hall of the legislature, it is but an act 
of justice that the circumstances be properly ex- 
plained, together with some account of the man- 
ner of man he really was. 

John Wilson came from Kentucky to Arkansas 
in the early Territorial times, 1S20. His wife was 
a Hardin, of the noted family of that State — a sis- 
ter of Joseph Hardin, of Lawrence County, Ark., 
who was speaker of the first house of representa- 
tives of the Territorial legislature. The \Yilsons 
and Hardins were prominent and highly respecta- 
ble people. 

When a very young man, John Wilson was 
elected to the Territorial legislature, where he was 
made speaker and for a number of terms filled that 
office. He was a member of the first State legis- 
lature and again was elected speaker. He was the 
first president of the Real Estate Bank of Arkan- 
sas. Physically he was about an average sized 
man, very quiet in his manner and retiring, of dark 
complexion, eyes and hair, lithe and sinewy in 
form, and in his daily walk as gentle as a woman. 
He was devoted to his friends, and except for 
politics, all who knew him loved him well. There 
was not the shadow of a shade of the bully or des- 
perado about him. He was a man of the highest 
sense of personal honor, with an iron will, and even 
when aroused or stung by injustice or an attack 
upon his integrity his whole nature inclined to 
peace and good will. He was a gieat admirer of 
General Jackson — there was everything in the 
natures of the two men where the " fellow feeling 
makes us wondrous kind." 

The difficulty spoken of occurred in 1830. Wil- 
son was a leader in the Jackson party. Anthony 
aspired to the lead in the Whig party. At that 
time politics among the active of each faction meant 
personality. It was but little else than open war, 
and the frontier men of those days generally went 



^\*>' 



k 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



105 



armed, the favorite weapon being the bowie 
knife —a necessary part of a hunter's equipment. 
Unfriendly feelings existed between AViIson and 
Antiiony. 

Upon, the morning of the homicide (in words 
the substance of the account given by the lata 
Gen. G. D. Royston, who was an eye witness) 
Mr. Wilson came into the hall a little late, evi- 
dently disturbed in mind, and undoubtedly ruf- 
fled by reason of something he had been told that 
Mr. Anthony had previously saiei about him in dis- 
cussing a bill concerning wolf scalps. A serio- 
comic amendment had been offered to the bill to 
make scalps a legal tender, and asking the presi- 
dent of the Real Estate Bank to certify to the 
genuineness of the same, i^nthony had the floor. 
When Wilson took the speaker's chair he com- 
manded Anthony to take his seat. The latter 
brusquely declined to do so. Wilson left the chair 
and approached his opponent, who stood in the 
aisle. The manner of the parties indicated a per- 
sonal encounter. As Wilson walked down the aisle 
he was seen to put his hand in the bosom of his 
vest. Anthony drew his knife. Gen. Royston said 
that when he saw this, hoping to check the two 
men he raised his chair and held it between them, 
and the men fought across or over the chair. They 
struck at each other inflicting great wounds, which 
were hacking blows. AVilson's left hand was nearly 
cut ofF in warding a blow from Anthony's knife. 
Wilson was physically a smaller man than Anthony. 
Royston held the chair with all his strength be-/ 
tween the two now desperate individuals. So far 
Anthony's longer arm had enabled him to give the 
greatest wounds, when Wilson with his shoulder 
raised the chair and plunged his knife into his 
antagonist, who sank to the floor and died immedi- 
ately. It was a duel with bowie-knives, without 
any of the preliminaries of such encounters. 

Wilson was carried to his bed, where for a long 
time he was confined. The house expelled him 
the next day. The civilized world of course was 
shocked, so bloody and ferocious had been the 
engagement. 

Wilson removed to Texas about 1842, locating 
at Cedar Grove, near Dallas, where he died soon 



after the close of the late war. Mrs. A. J. Gentry, 
his daughter, now resides in Clark County, Ark. 
The Hardins, living in Clark County, are of the 
same family as was Mrs. Wilson. 

John Hemphill, a South Carolinian, was born 
a short distance above Augusta, Ga. He immi- 
grated west and reached (now) Clark County, Ark., 
in 1811, bringing with him a large family and a 
number of slaves, proceeding overland to Bayou 
Sara, La., and from that point by barges to near 
where is Arkadelphia, then a settlement at a place 
called Blakeleytown, which was a year old at the 
time of Mr. Hemphill's location. He found living 
there on his arrival Adam Blakeley, Zack Davis, 
Samuel Parker, Abner Highnight and a few others. 

Mr. Hemphill was attracted by the salt waters 
of the vicinity, and after giving the subject intel- 
ligent investigation, in 1814 built his salt works. 
Going to New Orleans, he procured a barge and 
purchased a lot of sugar kettles, and with these 
completed his preparations for making salt. His 
experiment was a success from the start and he 
carried on his extensive manufactory until his 
death, about IS'25. The works were continued by 
his descendants, with few intermissions, until 1851. 
Jonathan O. Callaway, his sonin-law, was, until 
that year, manager and proprietor. 

There is a coincidence in the lives of the two 
men who were the founders of commerce and man- 
ufacturing in Arkansas, Hemphill and Barkman, 
in that by chance they became traveling compan- 
ions on their way to the new country. 

Two brothers, Jacob and John Barkman, came 
to Arkansas in 1811. They worked their passage 
in the barge of John Hemphill, from Bayou Sara, 
La., to Blakeleytown, near Arkadelphia. They 
were a couple of young Kentuckians, full of cour- 
age, hope, and strong sense, seeking homes in the 
wilderness. Their coming antedated that of the 
first steamboat on western waters, and the history 
of the river commerce of this State witb New Or- 
leans will properly credit Jacob Barkman with 
being its foiinder. Considering the times and real- 
izing what such men as Jacob Barkman did, one 
is constrained to the belief that among the first 
settlers of Arkansas were men of enterprise, fore 






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HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



sight and daring in commerce that have certainly 
not been surpassed by their successors. 

Ou a previous page the methods of this pioneer 
merchant in the conduct of his business have been 
noted. His misceUaneous cargo of bear oil. skins, 
pelts, tallow, etc., found a ready market in New 
Orleans, which place he reached by river, return- 
ing some six months later well laden with commod- 
ities best suited to the needs of the people. In- 
deed his "store" grew to be an important institu- 
tion. He really carried on trade from New Orleans 
to Arkadelphia. In 1S'20 he purchased of the gov- 
ernment about 1,200 acres of land on the Caddo, 
four miles from Arkadelphia, and farmed exten- 
sively and had many cattle and horses, constantly 
adding to the number of his slaves. Having 
tilled the field where he was he sought wider op- 
portunities, and in 18-10, in company with J. G. 
Pratt, opened an extensive cotton commission busi- 
ness in New Orleans, building large warehouses 
and stores. Mr. Baikman next purchased the 
steamboat "Dime," a side- wheeler, finely built 
and carrying 400 bales of cotton. He ran this in 
the interest of the New Orleans commission house; 
owned his crews, and loaded the boat with cot- 
ton from his own plantation. In 18-14 his boat 
proudly brought up at New Orleans, well laden with 
cotton. The owner was on board and full of hope 
and anticipated joy at his trip, and also to meet 
his newly married wife (the second), when these 
hopes were rudely dashed by the appearance of an 
officer who seized the boat, cargo and slaves, every- 
thing — and arrested Mr. Barkman and placed him 
in jail under an attachment for del)ts incurred by 
the commission house. His partner in his absence 
had wrecked the house. 

To so arrange matters that he might get out of 
jail and return to his old home on the Caddo, with 
little left of this world' s goods, was the best the poor 
man could do. He finally saved from the wreck- 
age his fine farm and a few negroes, and. nothing 
daiuited, again went to work to rebuild his fortune. 
He erected a cotton factory on the Caddo River, 
and expended some $30,000 on the plant, having 
it about ready to commence operating when the 
water came dashing down the mountain streams in 



a sudden and unusual rise, and swept it all away. 
This brave pioneer sjient no hour of his life in idle 
griefs at his extraordinary losses. Though unscru- 
pulous arts of business sharks and dire visitations 
of the elements combined to make worthless his 
superb foresight and business energy, he overcame 
all obstacles, and died about 1S52, a wealthy man 
for that time. 

When Arkansas was yet a Territory, among its 
early pioneers was Dr. William Bowie, whose name 
has become familiar to the civilized world, though 
not in the way that most men are emulous of im- 
mortality. Dr. Bowie had located, or was a frequent 
visitor, in Helena, Ark., and was a typical man of 
his times — jolly, careless and social, and very fond 
of hunting and fishing. 

Among the first settlers in Little Rock was a 
blacksmith, named Black. He possessed skill in 
working in iron and steel, and soon gained a wide 
reputation for the superior hunting knives he 
made. When nearly every man hunted more or 
less, and as a good knife was a necessity, it will 
be seen that Black was filling a general want. 
The material he worked into knives consisted of 
old files. 

One day while he was just finishing a superior 
and somewhat new style of hunting knife. Dr. 
Bowie happened to enter the shop. The moment 
he saw the article he determined to possess it 
at any price. Black had not really made it to 
sell — simply to gi'atify a desire to see how tine a 
blade he could make, and keep it. But a bargain 
was finally arranged, the blacksmith to complete it 
and put Bowie's name on the handle. The inscrip- 
tion being neatly done read: " Bowie's Knife. " Its 
beauty and finish attracted wide attention, and all 
who could afford it ordered a similar one. the name 
of which was soon shortened into "Bowie Knife." 
Bowie died a patriot's death, fighting for the in- 
dependence of Texas, by the side of David Crockett. 

The one pre-eminent thing which entitles the 
Arkansas pioneer, Sandy Faulkner, to immortality 
is the fact that he is the real, original "Arkansaw 
Traveler. ' ' He was an early settler, a hunter, a wild, 
jolly, reckless spendthrift, and a splendid fiddler. 
He was of a wealthv Kentuckv familv, and settled 



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HISTOUY OF ARKANSAS. 



107 



first iQ Chicot Coant\' and thea on the river only a 
few miles below Little Rock. By inheritance he 
received two or three moderate fortunes, and spent 
them royally. Of a roving nature, a witty and rol- 
licking companion, he would roam through the 
woods, hunting for days and weeks, and then en- 
liven the village resorts for a while. He was born 
to encounter just such a character as he did chance 
to find, playing on a three-stringed fiddle the first 
part of a particular tune. Now there was but one 
thing in this world that could touch his heart with 
a desire to possess, and that was to hear the re- 
mainder of the tune. 

After meeting this rare character in the woods 
what a world of enjoyment Sandy did carry to the 
village on his next return! "With just enough 
and not too much," with fiddle in his hand, the 
villagers gathered about him while he repeated the 
comedy. His zest in the ludicrous, his keen wit 
and his inimitable acting, especially his power of 
mimicry and his mastery of the violin, enabled him 
to offer his associates an entertainment never 
surpassed, either on or off the mimic stage. 

After the war Faulkner lived in Little Rock 
until his death in 1875, in straitened circumstan- 
ces, residing with a widowed daughter and one son. 
Another son was killed in the war; the two daugh- 
ters married and are both dead, and the son and 
only remaining child left this portion of the coun- 
try some years ago. 

When Faulkner died — over eighty years of age 
— he held a subordinate office in the legislature 
then in session, which body adjourned and respect- 
fully buried all that was mortal of the ".^rkansaw 
Traveler,'' while the little morceau from his 
harmless and genial soul will continue to travel 
around the world and never stop, the thrice wel- 
come guest aliout every fireside. 

What a Comment is here in this careless, aim- 
less life and that vaulting ambition that struggles, 
and wars and suffers and sows the world with 
woe that men' s names may live after death. Poor 
Sandy had no thought of distinction; his life was a 
laugh, so unmixed with care for the moiTow and 
so merry that it has filled a world with its cease- 
less echoes. 



Though there may be in this country no titled 
aristocracy, there are nobles, whose remotest de 
scendants may claim that distinction of race and 
blood which follows the memory of the great deeds 
of illustrious sires. It is the nobles whose lives 
and life' s great work were given to the cause of their 
fellowmen in that noblest of all human efforts — 
liberty to mankind. There is something forever 
sacred lingering about the graves, nay, the very 
ground, where these men exposed their lives and 
struggled for each and all of us. All good men 
(and no man can really be called good who does not 
love liberty and independence above everything in 
the world) cannot but feel a profound interest in 
the lineal descendants of Revolutionary fathers. 
"My ancestor was a soldier in the war for inde- 
pendence!" is a far nobler claim to greatness than 
is that of the most royal blue blood in all heraldry. 

W. P. Huddleston, of Sharp's Cross Roads, 
Independence County, has the following family 
tree: Israel McBee was for seven years a soldier 
in a North Carolina regiment in the Revolutionary 
War. He died in Grainger County, Term., aged 
110 years. He was the father of Samuel McBee, 
who was the father of Rachel McBee, who married 
John Huddleston, the grand father of W. P. Hud- 
dleston, Jr. The McBees were originally from 
Scotland. 

Samuel S. Welbom. of Fort Douglas, Johnson 
County, was t'tie youngest son of Elias. Samuel 
was born December 30, 1S42. His grandfather, 
Isaac Welborn, was seven years a soldier in a 
Georgia regiment, and died at Hazel Green, Ala., 
in 1833, aged eighty -four years. 

Samuel H. Hempstead is a name illustrioiis in 
Arkansas outside of the fact that it is descended 
directly from a soldier in the war for independ- 
ence. The above-named was born in New London, 
Conn., in 1S14. and died in Little Rock in 18ti2. 
He was a son of Joseph Hempstead, born in New 
London in 1778, and died in St. Louis in 1831. 
Joseph was a son of Stephen Hempstead, born in 
New London in 1742, and died in St. Louis in 
1832. Stephen was a soldier in the American 
Revolution, serving under Col. Ledyard at the 
battle of Fort Griswold. near New London, when 



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108 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



these towns were captured by the British under 
Benedict Arnold, September G. 1781. Hempstead 
was wounded twice during the encfagement — a 
severe gunshot wound in the left elbow disabling 
him in the arm for life. He wrote and published 
in the Missouri Republican in IS'iO. a detailed ac- 
count of the battle. 

Stephen Hempstead's father was also Stephen 
Hempstead, born in 1705 and died in 1774. The 
records of Connecticut, Vol. YII, show that he 
was made an ensign in a train band company, 
by the colonial council, in October. 1737, where he 
served with distinction through this war, known as 
King George's War. In May, 1740, he was made 
surveyor by the council. He was the son of 
Joshua Hempstead, born in 1078, and died in 
1758. He was a representative in the Connecticut 
council in October, 17()y; a member of the Royal 
council in October, 1712; ensign in train band com- 
pany in 1721; lieutenant in same company in May, 
1724; auditor of accounts in May, 1725. He was 
the son of Joshua Hempstead, Sr. , born in 1649, 
and died in 1709; Joshua Hempstead, Sr. , was a 
son of Robert Hempstead, born in IfiOO and died 
in 1005. The last-named was the immigrant to 
America, one of the original nine settlers of New 
London, Conn., the founder of the town first called 
Hempstead, on Long Island. In 104t'i Robert 
Hempstead built a house at New London for a res- 
idence, which is still standing, an ancient relic of 
great interest. It is occupied by descendants of 
the builder, named Caits, from the female branches. 
Though mttch modernized the old house still shows 
the port-holes used for defense against the Indians. 
A daughter of Robert Hempstead, Mary, was the 
first white child born in New London, March 26, 
1047. 

Fay and Roy Hempstead, Little Rock, are de- 
scendants of this family. Other descendants live 
in St. Louis, Mo. 

Jesse Williams, of Prince William County, Va., 
enlisted under Dinwiddie's call in the Freach- 
Indian War on the English settlers in 1754, 
under then Lieut. -Col. Washington, of the First 
Viro-inia Regiment of 151^ men. The command at- 
temptt'd to reach where is now Pittsburg to relieve 



Trent's command at that place. Two descendants 
of the Trents now live in Washington County. Iq 
this hard march to Fort Duquesne the men dragged 
their cannon, were without tents and scant of pro- 
visions, and deprived of material or means for 
bridging rivers. They fought at Fort Necessity. 
Washington cut a road twenty miles toward Du- 
quesne. On July 3 the fight took place, and July 
4 U ashington capitulated on honoral)le terms. 

In 1755 Jesse Williams again entered the ser- 
vice under Washington and joined Braddock at 
Fort Cumberland. In 1758 he was once more with 
Washington when Forbes moved on Fort Duquesne, 
lieing present at the capture, and helped raise the 
flag and name the place Pittsburg. 

In the Revolutionary War he was one of the 
first to enlist from Virginia, and was commissioned 
captain, and was present in nearly all the battles 
of that long war. 

The maternal ancestor of the Williams family 
was Thomas Rowe, of Virginia, a colonel in the war 
for independence, who was at the surrender of 
Yorktown. 

David Williams, a son of Jesse, married Betsy 
Rowe. He was a soldier in the War of 1812, and 
served with distinction, and also in the Seminole 
War. He settled in Kentucky, Franklin Countv. 
His children were Jacob, Urban V., Betty, Mil- 
lie, Hattie and Susan; the children of Urban V. 
Williams being John. Pattie and Minnie. Bettie 
married Jeptha Robinson, and had children, David. 
Owen, Austin, May, Hettie, Ruth, Sue, Jacob, 
Frank and Sallie. Hettie married Dr. Andrew 
Neat, and had children, Thomas, Estelle (Brink- 
ley), Ella (Ford). Addis and Ben. Sue married 
George Poor, and had children, George. Lizzie, 
Sue and Minnie. Jacob Williams, the father of 
Mrs. Minnie C. Shinn (wife of Prof. J. H. Shinn, 
of Little Rock), Otis AVilliams and Mattie Wil- 
liams. Little Rock; Joseph Desha Williams and 
^laggie Wells, Russellville; Lucian and Virgil, 
Memphis, are all of this family. Jacob Williams 
was a private in the Fifth Kentucky, in the late 
war, under Humphrey Marshall. 

Among the pioneers of what is now the State 
of Arkansas, there was perhaps no one family that 



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HISTORY OF ARKAN.S,\S. 



109 



furnished so many noted characters and citizens 
as the Conway family. Their genealogy is traced 
" backto the reign of Edward I, of England, in the 
latter part of the thirteenth century, to the cele- 
brated Castle of Conway, on Conway River, in 
the north of Wales, where the lords of Conway, 
in feudal times presided in royal style." Thomas 
Conway came to America about the year 1740, 
and settled in the Virginia colony. Henry Conway 
was his only son. The latter was tirst a colonel 
and afterward a general in the Revolutionary War. 
His daughter, Nellie, after marriage, became the 
mother of President Madison, and his son, Mon- 
cui'e D., was brother-in-law to Gen. Washington. 

Thomas Conway, another son of Gen. Henry 
Conway, settled, during the Revolutionary period, 
near the present site of Greenville,' Tenn. He 
married Ann Rector, a native of Virginia, and 
member of the celebrated Rector family. To this 
union seven sons and three daughters were born, 
and all were well reared and well educated. 

In IS 18, Gen. Thomas Conway moved with 
his family from Tennessee to St. Louis, in the 
Territory of Missouri, and soon after to Boone 
County, where he remained until his death, in 
1835. Henry Wharton Conway, the eldest son, 
was born March IS, 1793, in Greene County, 
Tenn., and served as a lieutenant in the War of 
1812-15; subsequently, in 1S17, he served in the 
treasury department at Washington, immigrated 
to Missouri with his father in ISlS, and early in 
1820, after being appointed receiver of public 
moneys, he immigrated in company with his next 
younger brother, James Sevier Conway, who was 
born in 1798, to the county of Arkansas, in the 
then Territory of Missouri. These two brothers 
took and executed large contracts to survey the 
public lands, and later on James S. became 
surveyor-general of the Territory. During the 
twenties Henry W. Conway served two terms as a 
delegate in Congress, and received the election 
in 1827 for the third term, but on the 29th of 
October of that year, he was mortally wounded in 
a duel with Robert Crittenden, from the effects of 
which he died on the 9th of November, following. 
[See account of the duel elsewhere in this work.] 



A marble shaft with an elaborate inscription, 
erected by his brother, James S. Conway, stands 
over his grave in the cemetery at Arkansas Post. 

James S. Conway became the first governor 
of the State of Arkansas, upon its admission into 
the Union, serving as such from 1S3B to 1S40, 
after which he settled on his princely possessions 
on Red River in the southern part of the State. 
He was a large slave holder and cotton planter. 
He died on the 3d of March, 1855, at Walnut 
Hill, his country seat, in Lafayette County. 

Frederick Rector Conway, the third son of 
Gen. Thomas Conway, was a noted character in 
Missouri and Illinois. John Rector Conway, the 
fourth son, was an eminent physician, who died in 
San Francisco in 1868. William E. Conway was 
born at the old homestead in Tennessee, about 1800. 
He was thoroughly educated, read law under 
John J. Crittenden, of Kentucky, and commenced 
the practice at Elizabethtown in that State. He 
moved to Arkansas in 1840, and in 1844 was 
elected judge of the Third circuit. In December, 
1846, he was elected associate justice of the 
supreme court. He died December 29, 1852, and 
is buried by the side of his noble mother, in 
Mount Holly Cemetery, Little Rock. The sixth 
son, Thomas A., died in his twenty-second year in 
Missouri. 

The seventh and youngest son. Gov. Elias N. 
Conway, was born May 17, 1812, at the old home- 
stead in Tennessee, and in November, 1833, he 
left his parents' home in Missouri, and came to 
Little Rock, and entered into a contract to survey 
large tracts of the public lands in the northwest- 
ern part of the State. Having executed this con- 
tract, he was. in 1836, appointed auditor of State, 
a position which he held for thirteen years. In 
1852 and again in 1856, he was elected on the 
Democratic ticket as governor of the State, and 
served his full two terms, eight years, a longer 
period than any other governor has ever served. 
Much could be said, did space permit, of the emi- 
nent services this man has rendered to Arkansas. 
Of the seven brothers named he is the only one 
now living. He leads a retired and secluded life 
in Little Rock, in a small cottage in which he has 






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HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



resided for over forty years. He has no family, 
having never been married. 

Robert Crittenden, youngest son of John Crit- 
tenden, a major in the Revolutionary War, was bom 
near Versailles, Woodford County, Ky. , January 
1, 1797. He was educated by and read law with 
his brother, John J. Crittenden, in Russellville. 
that State. Being appointed first secretary of 
Arkansas Territory, he removed to Arkansas Post, 
the temporary seat of government, where on the 
3d day of ilarch. IS 19, he was inaugurated and 
assumed the duties of his office. On the same 
day James Miller was inaugurated first governor 
of the Territory. It seems, however, that Gov. 
Miller, though he held his office until succeeded by 
Gov. George Izard, in March, 1825, was seldom 
present and only occasionally performed official 
duties. This left Crittenden to assume charge of 
the position as governor a great portion of the 
time while Miller held the office. Crittenden con- 
tinued as secretary of the Territory until succeeded 
by William Fulton, in April, 1S29, having served 
in that capacity a little over ten years. In 1827 
he fought a duel with Henry W. Conway, the ac- 
count of which is given elsewhere. According to 
Gen. Albert Pike with whom he was intimately 
associated, "he was a man of fine presence and 
handsome faoe, with clear bright eyes, anil unmis- 
takable intellect and genius, frank, genial, one to 
attach men warmly to himself, impulsive, generous, 
warm hearted." He was the first great leader of 
the Whig party in the Territory, and continued as 
such until his death, which occurred December 18, 
1834, at Vicksburg. Miss., whither he had gone 
on business. He" died thus young, and before the 
Territory, which he had long and faithfully served, 
became a State. 

Archibald Yell, not unfamiliar to Arkansana, 
was born in North Carolina, in August. 17U7, and 
while very young immigrated to Tennessee, and 
settled in Bedford County. He served in the Creek 
War as the boy captain of the Jacks<;n Guards, 
under Gen. Jackson, also under the -am.- general 
in the War of 1812-13, participating m the battle 
of New Orleans, and also in the S-minoh. War. 
He was a man of moderate educatiun. .-md when 



the War of 1812 closed, he read law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in Tennessee. After the close of 
the Seminole War, he located at Fayetteville, Lin- 
coln County, Tenn. , and there practiced law until 
1832, when President Jackson gave him the choice 
to fill one of two vacancies, governor of Florida 
or Territorial judge in the Territory of Arkansas. 
He chose the latter and in due time located at 
Fayetteville, in Washington County. He was a 
man of fine personal appearance, pleasant and 
humorous, and possessed the faculty of making 
friends wherever he went. He was elected and 
served as grand master of the Masonic fraternity 
in the jurisdiction of Arkansas; was a Democrat 
in politics, and the first member of Congress from 
the State of Arkansas; was governor of the State 
from 1840 to 18-14; was elected again as a member 
of Congress in 1844, and served until 1846, when 
he resigned to accept the colonelcy of an Arkansas 
regiment of volunteers for the Mexican War. He 
was killed in the battle of Buena Vista, February 
22, 1847. 

In his race for Congress in 1844, he was op- 
posed by the Hon. David Walker, the leader of the 
Whig party, and they made a joint canvass of the 
State. Yell could adapt himself to circumstances 
— to the different crowds of people more freely than 
could his antagonist. In 1847 the Masonic fra- 
ternity erected a monument to his memory in the 
cemetery at Fayetteville. Gov. Yell was a man of 
great ability, and one of the great pioneer states- 
men of Arkansas. 

The eminent jurist. Judge David Walker, de- 
scended from a line of English Quakers, of whom 
the last trans-Atlantic ancestor in the male line 
was Jacob Walker, whose son George emigrated to 
America prior to the war of the Revolution, and 
settled in Brunswick County, Va. Here he mar- 
ried a lady, native to the manor born, and be- 
came the first American ancestor of a large and 
distinguished family. One of his sons, Jacob 
Wythe Walker, born in the decade that ushered 
in the Revolution, early in life removed to and 
settled in what is now Todd County, Ky. Here, 
on the 19th day of Febrxiary, 1800. was born un- 
to him and his wife, Nancy (Hawkins) Walker, 



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HISTOKY OF AUKAXSAS. 



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the subject of this sketch — David Walker. Youncr 
AValker's opportunities for obtaiQiaga school edn- 
catioQ in that then frontier country were limited. 
but, being the son of a good lawyer, he inherited 
his father's energetic nature, became self-educated. 
read law and was admitted to the bar in Scotts- 
ville, Ky. , early in IS'29. and there practiced 
until the fall of lS3p, when he moved to Little 
Kock, Ark., arriving on the 10th of October. 
Soon after this he located at Fayetteville. Wash- 
ington County, and remained there, except when 
temporarily absent, until his death. From 1S38 
to lb35 he was prosecuting attorney in the Third 
circuit. He was one of the many able members of 
the constitutional convention of 1880. In lS40he 
rode "the tidal wave of whiggery " into the State 
senate, in which he served four years. In 1844 he 
led the forlorn hope of his party in the ever memor 
able contest with Gov. Y'ell for Congress. In 
1848, while on a visit to Kentucky, and without 
his knowledge, a legislature, largely Democratic, 
elected him associate justice of the supreme court 
over strong Democratic opposition, embracing such 
men as Judges English and William Conway, both 
of whom afterwards succeeded to the office. 

He had always been a lover of the L'nion, but 
when the Civil War came on, having been born 
and reared in the South, and having become 
attached to its institutions, he finally chose rather 
to cast his fortunes with the proposed Confederacy 
than with the Federal Union. In February 1861, 
he was elected a delegate to the State convention 
which convened on the 4th of March, and finally, 
at its adjourned session, passed the ordinance of 
secession. He and Judge B. C. Totten were can- 
didates for the chairmanship of this convention, 
the former representing the Union strength, and 
the latter the disunion element as it was then 
developed. Walker received forty out of the sev- 
enty-live votes cast, and thereupon took the chair; 
but owing to the rapid change of sentiment all ot 
the majority, save one. finally voted with the 
minority, and Arkansas formally withdrew from the 
Union, with Judge Walker as a leader. In 1806 
he was elected chief justice of the State, but in 
less than two vears was removed from thi- olliee bv 



military power. At the close of the reconstruction 
period he was again elected to the supreme bench 
and served thereon until September. 1878, when 
he resigned at the age of seventy-two, and retired 
to private life. He died September 30, 1879. He 
was a pious and conscientious man, an able jurist, 
a pioneer of Arkansas, highly respected by its citi- 
zens. 

Gen. Grandison D. Rcyston, a son of Joshua 
Eoyston and Elizabeths. (Watson) Royston. na- 
tives, respectively, of Maryland and Virginia, and 
both of pure English descent, was born on the 
9th of December. 1809, in Carter Count}-, Tenn. 
His father was an agriculturist and Indian trader 
of great energy and character, and his mother 
was a daughter of that eminent Methodist divine. 
Rev. Samuel Watson, one of the pioneers of 
the Holstein conference in East Tennessee. He 
was educated in the common neighborhood schools 
and in a Presbyterian academy in Washington 
County, Tenn. In 1829 he entered the law office 
of Judge Emerson, at Jonesboro, in that State, 
and two years after was admitted to the bar. Sub- 
sequently he emigrated to Arkansas Territory, and 
in April, 1832, located in Fayetteville, Washing- 
ton County, where he remained on]}* eight months, 
teaching school five days in the week and practic- 
ing law in justices" courts on Saturdays. He then 
moved to Washington, in Hempstead Countv. 
where he continued to reside until his death. In 
the performance of his professional duties he trav- 
eled the circuits of the Territory and State in that 
cavalcade of legal lights composed of such men as 
Hempstead, Fowler, Trapnall, Cummins, Pike. 
Walker, Y'ell, Ashley, Bates, Searcy and others. 

In 1833 he was elected prosecuting attorney 
for the Third circuit, and performed the duties of 
that office for two years. In January, 1836, he 
served as a delegate from Hempstead County in 
the convention at Little Rock, which framed the 
first constitution of the State; and in the fall of 
the same year he was elected to represent his 
county in the first legislature of the State. After 
the expulsion of John Wilson, speaker of the house, 
who killed Representative John J. Anthony, Roy- 
ston was on joint ballot elected to fill the vacant 



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112 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



speakership but declined the ofSce. In 1841 
President Tyler appointed him United States dis- 
trict attorney for the district of Arkansas, which 
ofiSce he held a short time and then resigned it. 
In 1858 he represented the counties of Hempstead, 
Pike and Lafayette in the State legislature, and 
became the author of the levee system of the State. 
In 18(31 he was elected to the Confederate Con- 
gress, serving two years. In 1874 he was a dele- 
gate from Hempstead County to the constitutional 
convention, and was elected president of that 
body. In 1876 he represented the State at large 
in the National Democratic convention at St. Louis, 
and voted for Tilden and Hendricks. He was al- 
ways a Democrat, a man of culture, retinement and 
winning manners, and enjoyed in a large degree 
the confidence of the people. He obtained his 
title as general by serving on the staff of Gov. 
Drew with the rank of brigadier-general. He 
died August 14, 1889, in his eightieth year. He, 
too, was one of the last prominent pioneers of Ar- 
kansas, and it is said he was the last surviving 
member of the constitutional convention of 1830. 
Judge James Woodson Bates was born in 
Goochland County, Ya. , about the year 17SS. He 
was educated in the Yale and Princeton Col- 
leges, graduating from the latter about 1810. 
When quite young he attended the trial of Aaron 
Burr, for treason, at Richmond. Soon after grad- 
uating he read law. In the meantime his brother, 
Frederick Bates, was appointed first secretary of 
Missouri Territory, and was acting governor in 
the absence of Gov. Clark. About 1810 he fol- 
lowed his brother to the West, and settled in St. 
Louis. In 1820 he removed to the Post of Arkan- 
sas and there began the practice of his profession, 
but had scarcely opened his ofBce when he was 
elected first delegate to Congress from Arkansas 
Territory. In 1823 he was a candidate for re- 



election, but was defeated by the celebrated Henry 
W. Conway, an alile man, who commanded not 
only the infiuence of his own powerful family, but 
that of the Rectors, the Johnsons. Roanes and 
Ambrose H. Sevier, and all the political adherents 
of Gen. Jackson, then so popular in the South 
and West. The influence and strength of this 
combined opposition could not be overcome. 

After his short Congressional career closed, he 
moved to the newly settled town of Batesville, and 
resumed the practice of his profession. Batesville 
was named after him. In November, 1825, Presi- 
j dent Adams appointed him one of the Territorial 
judges, in virtue of which he was one of the 
judges of the superior or appellate court organized 
on the plan of the old Fnglish court in banc. On 
the accession of Gen. Jackson to the presidency, 
his commission expired without renewal, and he 
soon after removed to Crawford County, married 
a wealthy widow, and became stationary on a rich 
farm near Van Buren. In the fall of 1835 he 
was elected to the constitutional convention, and 
contributed his ability and learning in the forma- 
tion of our first organic law as a State Soon 
after the accession of John Tyler to the presidency, 
he appointed Judge Bates register of the land 
otfice at Clarksville, in recognition of an old 
friend. He discharged every public trust, and 
all the duties devolved on him as a private citizen, 
with the utmost fidelity. Strange to say, whilst 
he possessed the most fascinating conversational 
powers, he was a failure as a public speaker. He 
was also a brother to Edward Bates, the attorney- 
general in President Lincoln's cabinet. He was 
well versed in the classics, and familiar with the 
best authors of English and American literature. 
He died at his home in Crawford County in 184G, 
universally esteemed. 



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A riONEER LOG CABIN. 



TELL COUNTY. 



113 



;ififff IR X¥. 



Ykll County— Its Foutun'ati: Situation and Giskat Natut.al Advantages— Its Streams— Lands 
TheSuuface of the County— Agiucultukal I'koducts— Timbeh- Mineual— The Mountains— 
Springs- Origin of the Xame I)audanf;i,i,e— Tut: Cherokee Agency'— Pioneer Settlers 
and TiiEiu Indian XEiGiiBor.s— Land Entries Prior to 1845— Early Mills and Cot- 
ton Gins— County Organization— Thk TE:MroRAnY and Permanent Seat of 
Justice— Old and Eater County Buildings— County^ Officers, 1840-90 — 
Bench and Pjar- Congressional and Legislative PiEpresentation— 
The County Pi:kss— Yell County' in the War — A Kecord of 
Death— Yell's Federal Soldiers— Church History 
— I'uBLic AND Academic Educational Insti- 
tutions-Towns— Biographical. 



,•** *~ — Tl Q r-* -f^ 

'We have no title deeds to Louse or lands; 
Owners and occupants of earlier dates 
From graves forgotten stretch their dusty hands, 
And hold in mortmain still their old estates." 








'HIS county* is hounded 
on the nortli by tbo Ar- 
kansas Rivor and Logan 
County; on the east by the 
Arkansas lliver and Perry 
County; on the south by 
Perry, Garland and ^Mont- 
goinery Counties, and on the west 
by S('i>tt and Logan Counties. It 
contains an area of 930 square 
miles, and a population of about 
17,000 souls, of whom about 
l,riOO are colored. The whole 
JjY^ county is embraced in that mag- 
v$i niticentbelt of country lying imme- 
^v^ i^\w^ diately south of the Arkansas 
^ y Piiver, aud between the St. Louis, 

Iron Mountain \; Southern Railroad, and tli.> 
Indian Territory, an empire of wealth within it- 



self, embracing an area of 1'20 miles east and west, 
and from sixty to 100 miles north and south, 
which to the astonishment of the stranger has 
never V)een traversed by a railroad. This belt of 
counties is not inferior in natural advantages t(j any 
part of the United States: it is suscejitible of a 
dense population, and presents an inviting field 
for the home seeker, farmer, mechanic, manufact- 
urer and capitalist. Its fertile lands, navigable 
river, numberless clear creeks and springs of pure 
water, its immense forests of valuable timbers, and 
the vast coal fields extending from the eastern 
lioundary of Yell County to the western border of 
the State; its rapid increase in agi-icultural prod 
nets, to say n.Aiiing of its undeveloped mineral 
wealth, are a sure guarantee that railroads now 

*T1ip \i;ir,i^'raph-; ilcsrriptivc of Veil r.nint>- aiui its rpsimrc-cs are 
pru'tiiilly curulciisfil from a j.aiMT jirfiiariMl by Hou. W. ]>. .lacoway. 
i.f D:iriIaiiPlle. 



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114 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



projected to cross this region will be constructed 
and in running order in tbe near future. 

Yell County is adiuiral)ly siapplied with wa- 
ter courses. Of navigable streams it has the Ar 
kansas River on the nortliem and eastern b()un<l- 
ary; the Petit Jean, which enters the county 
on the west side and flows in a northeasteily direc 
tion through the county into the Arkansas River at 
the northeast extremity, and the Fourche La Fave 
River, which enters the southwest portion and tlows 
in a northeasterly direction diagonally across the 
southern part. Of the non-navigable streams 
which are tributary to the above named rivers are 
Dutch, Spring, Chickalah, Prairie, Delaware, 
Cedar, Piney Mill and numerous other creeks in the 
interior of the county, all of which have their 
winding ways through valleys of as productive 
lands as may be found in the State. 

As shown by the records of the United States 
land office at Dardanelle, there are now in Yell 
County about 240,000 acres of land subject to 
homestead entry. There are in addition about 
35,(^00 acres in the county which constitute a part 
of the grant of the Little Rock ct Fort Smith 
Railroad Company, most of which, fur agricultural 
purposes, is unsurpassed for fertility, and a part 
of which is valuable for its extensive timber tracts. 
All of the tillal)le lands of the county are suscept- 
ible of the highest state of cultivation. The soil 
in the river and creek bottoms is exceptionally rich, 
and it is impossible to estimate the real value of 
these lands when railroads now projected are com 
pleted through the county, and tlie valleys are 
occupied by a class of energetic practical farmers. 
Tbe hills or uplands througln.iut the county possess 
surprising fertility. The surface c.>f the county is 
undulating and broken. About twenty per cent 
is mountains, the tops and slopes of which are 
tillable. Fifty per cent is in uplands, thirty 
per cent is level, most of it alluvial, a small 
portion prairie. About twenty p<-r cent of the 
whole is improved, but a small per cent of the 
lands of Yell County is subject to overflow. 
The peculiar geographical location of the county 
renders it free from cyclones or other destruct- 
ive storms. The seasons are favorable, the 



county is not affected by droughts, the crops are 
not damaged by ravaging insects, and the re- 
sult is, the good farmer always reaps a bountiful 
crop. Cotton, corn, wheat, rye, oats, barley, 
sweet and Irish potatoes, beans, peas, timothy, red- 
to]i, millet and clover do well and yield aluin- 
ilantly. When properly cultivated the average 
yield of cotton in the uplands is from 400 to 1,000 
pounds per acre, and the bottom lands from "'OO 
to l,riO() pounds per acre. Corn yields from thirty 
to sixty bushels, oats from forty to seventy liusli- 
els per acre, potatoes from 200 to 300 bushels per 
acre. The soils are capalile of producing much 
better crops than are raised under the present .sys- 
tem of farming so common in Arkansas.' A lack 
of speedy transportation to market has caused the 
people of this county to neglect the cultivation of 
fruits except for home consumption. Apples, 
peaches, pears, plums, nectarines, cherries, grajies, 
raspberries, strawberries and gooseberries all grow 
to perfection and yield alnmdantly. Much of the soil 
is peculiarly adapted to the cultivation of fruits, 
berries and grapes. Melons and vegetables of all 
kinds grow readily and yield largely. It is amti 
dently predicteil that before many years Yell 
County will be known as one of the most famous 
fruit and wine jiroducing localities iu the Union. 
Railroad facilities only are wanting. The "cotton 
craze" has seriously affected all other interests, 
notwithstanding the fact that grains and grasses 
can be raised as easily and as abundantly as in 
Kentucky and Tennessee. Stock-raising has Vieen 
much neglected, and only during the past few years 
has attained much importance. 

The timbers of Yell County present an almost 
inexhaustible source of wealth, and offer induce- 
ments to the manufacturer which can rarely be 
found in any country. The principal varieties of 
timber in the river and creek bottoms are cotton- 
wood, gum, elm, sycamore, ash, white, red, black, 
post, willow and burr oaks, black locusts, pecan, 
mulberiy, cherry and walnut. On the uplands and 
in the creek bottoms, the hickory, many varie 
ties of the oak, dogwood, buckeye, holly ami other 
growths are in vast qttantities. The mountains 
and ridges are crowned with immense forests of 



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YELL COUNTY. 



115 



v.'llow [liue, which iu the near future, will give re- 
ricucd energy and an activity to the lumber in- 
ttTents of the county. But little can he said of 
tho mineral wealth of Yell County, as no organized 
I'lTorts have been made to develop the same, but 
i-iiciugh is known to indicate very clearly that there 
are vast fields of lead and iron in the county, and 
that coal, which is now only mined for home con- 
sumption, can be had almost anywhere. It is be- 
lieved that gold and silver abound in paying quan- 
tities, and the day is not far distant when Yell 
C'ounty will be classed as one of the most profitable 
mining counties in the State. An approximate 
cliemical analysis of some of the coal of Yell 
County has been reported as follows; "Moulder's 
Prairie Coal" Branch — Volatile matter 28.5, 
water 11.5, gas 17: coke 71.5, tixed carlx)n WJj, 
red ashes 5; total 10(1 J. A. Daker's and B. 

Howell's coal, Section 3"2. Township C> south, 

. . I 

Kaiige 21, eighteen to twenty-two inches thick — I 

Volatile matter 14.4, water 3, gas 8.4; -coke 
SS.C, fixed carbon 78. H. dark red a.shes 10: total j 
100. The outcrop of coal near Moulder's has some I 
fossil plant in the roof-siiales, belonging both to [ 
the family of calamites and ferns, but the coal 
fipenings being filled with water, both the shales 
and the coal were difticult of access. These coals 
belong, in all jirobability, to the same horizon as i 
the coal at the base of the Carrion Crow Mountain' I 
The evidences of the economic geology of the | 
county having been sufficiently indicated for the ; 
purposes of this description, the picturesque topo- 
grui)hical features of the county's geologic forma- j 
lion now claim attention. This county is divided j 
by more elevated lauds into three lieautifnl and 
productive valleys, among the richest. agricTiltur- 
nlly, in the State. These are known, from the 
streams which have given them their names, as the 
Arkansas, the Petit Jean and theFonrcheLa Fave 
> alleys. The pleasant and popular summer resort 
known as :\Iount Xebo, is situated on the Magazine 
-M(nintain, six miles west of Dardanelle. at an al- 
titude above the Dardanelle (Arkansas) Valley of 
1.4 lO feet, and as a natural summer resort has no 
^'Uperior on the continent between the Blue Eidge 
and the Itocky Mountains. Xebo Mountain does 



not look like other mountains; it is simply ;i lofty, 
grand and sublime elevation, which at a distance 
has the appearance, from every point of the com- 
pass, of a huge ethereal dome, which gradually 
slopes from its base to its summit. Upon the top 
there are about 1,000 acres of level land, finely 
timbered and tillable, and abounding with number- 
less chalybeate springs of cold water. Soft water 
is had in great quantity at almost any point on the 
summit by digging or boring ten or twenty feet. 
It has been only a few years since Mount Xebo be- 
gan to attract attention as a summer resort. It is 
now a handsome village above the clouds, with a 
commodious and comfortable hotel, patronizeil by 
hundreds of guests every season, and numerous 
cottages. Many of the springs have been substan- 
tially and handsomely improved for the conven- 
ience and comfort of visitors. A beautiful drive- 
way is laid off bordering the precipice all around, 
which will soon be extended to a distance of about 
six miles, the entire length of which, in every direc- 
tion, presents to the eye scenery and landscapes of 
the grandest and most beautiful character. ^Mount 
Xebo has telephone connection with Dardanelle, 
and a daily mail. The ruad from Dardanelle is 
macadamized, and is in itself a pleasant drive. A 
line of coaches makes close connection with the 
Dardanelle & Eussellville Railroad. This interest 
has been developed almost wholly through Darda- 
nelle influence and primarily upon Dardanelle cap- 
ital. Capt. Joseph Evins is credited with having 
discovered the possibilities of Blount Xebo. and 
having taken the steps leading to its development; 
and he did not stop here, l.iut from first to last has 
been Xebo's most enthusiastic and untiring pro- 
moter. He was the first to pre empt land on the 
mountain, and it was his devoted influence that led 
others to secure summer homes there, and capital- 
ists of Little Rock to erect Xebo's great aereal 
hotel. The beauty, grandeur and sublimity of the 
scenery at Mount Xelio beggars description; it is 
an ever-changing panoramic view, and an admirable 
blending of the lovely, picturesque and sublime. 
From any and all points of this stupendous won- 
der the lieholder's eye never tires, but with a gay 
and happy heart, electrified with feelings of love. 






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110 



HISTOriY OF ARKANSAS. 



pleasure and admiration, commingled with rever- 
ential awe, he drinks deep at the fountain of nat- 
ure's choicest splendors. There are neither dews 
nor fogs at Mount Nebo. The puiity and medic 
inal virtue of the waters, the delightful tempera- 
ture and the cool, bracing breezes are unexct'lled 
anywhere, and serve to make it a charming place 
to sojourn during the summer. Persons who are 
afflicted with asthma, dyspepsia, malarial disorders, 
or general debility, can be permanently cured in 
one season, and those who are sutTering from de- 
bility, or exhaiistion, on account of overtaxed 
mental or physical labor, will be restored to their 
usual strength and vitality in an incredil.ily short 
time. The pure chalybeate waters, the cool brac- 
ing atmosphere, combined with the magnificent 
scenerj', have an invigorating and exhilarating in- 
fluence, purify the blood, give a healthy appetite, 
build up the system and restore general good 
health. The social features of Mount Nebo are 
pleasant and genial, and the visitor can but feel at 
home; whether the stay is of long or short duration, 
it can but be regarded as a continuous May-day 
picnic, an unbroken season of undisturbed pleas- 
ure. This mountain seems to be peculiarly the 
home of the apple, the berries native to this lati- 
tude, and especially of the grape. Wine manufact- 
ured there is of superior quality, and apples grown 
there have taken the premium over Benton and 
Washington County apples at the Fort Smith fair. 
The soil on the mountain produces vegetables in 
great variety and profusion. The Fourche La 
Fave Mountains, in the southern jiast of the coun- 
ty, aie lofty and picturesque, and hi-avily timbered. 
The Magazine Mountain forms a most remarkable 
headland where it terminates, on the Arkansas 
lliver, opposite the site of old Norristown. This 
is known as the '• Uardanelle Rock." This rock is 
composed of ferruginous sandstone, dippiijg at an 
angle of forty degrees toward the river. The bear- 
ing of the comb of the ridge, which is coincident - 
with the strike-line of the strata, is west 10^ north. 
Layers on the summit are of a pale red color, tinged 
by oxide of iron. On the north slope the rock is 
laid otT with numerous concentric hard ferruginous 
veins, disposed in rows of rectangular and trian- 



gular figures with great regularity, giving to the 
surface a tessellated appearand'. The elevation 
of the Dardanelle Rock above th.' mail which winds 
around its base is 250 feet, and aliout 'iSO feet 
above the Arkansas River. At an elevation of 
from 80 to 10(1 feet al)Ove the lia.-e of the main 
ridge, and half a mile northwest of the poitit of 
the Dardanelle Rock, a strong chalybeate spring 
issues from the crevices of the ferruguious sand- 
stone. From the summit of the Dardanelle I'lock 
there is an extensive prospect: The Magazine 
Mountain is in full view, bearing away to the west- 
southwest; the Petit Jean to the south over and be- 
yond which some of the highest peaks of the Four- 
che La Fave range are visible in the far distance 
bearing a few degrees east of south; the Arkansas 
River washing its base on the north, with the ferrv 
landing on the opposite shore, and level farming' 
lands seen behind in perspective; the Arkansas 
River Hke a bright line, winding its way among 
them and conducting the eye to the site of Darda- 
nelle. From a single point on the Arkansas River, 
the outline of the Dardanelle Rock on the south- 
east exhibits a distinct profile, to be remarked on 
attentive observation by any one who mav be 
ascending the river, all the features of a human 
face and the partial outlines of a head beinf rep- 
resented. The Dardanelle Sulphur Springs, ten 
miles west of Dardanelle, at the base of the Ma<'a- 
zine Mountain, together with a tract of 70() acres 
of laud in the Chickalah ^'alley upon which they 
are located, are owned by a company in New York. 
The springs have been elegantly fitted up, and a 
hotel and cottages have been erected for the accom- 
modation of health and i)leasure seekers. Judi'- 
ing from the following analysis of the waters of 
these springs. Dr. Owen, late State geologist, jn-o- 
nounced them for health-giving purposes, not in- 
ferior to the celebrated White Sulpliur Sprimrs of 
Virginia: Bicsn-bonate of soda; bicarbonate of lime; 
bicarbonate of magnesia; chloride of sodium: onlv 
a trace of sulphates; a small quantity of free sul- 
phuretted hydrogen; probably a trace of sulphuret 
of alkali. The northwest spring contains some 
oxide of iron, ilauy remarkable cures have been 
effected by these waters, and with railroad facili- 



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YELL COUNTY. 



117 



ti.'s this will liocoiue a noted resort. At an eleva- 
tion of -570 feetal)Ove Danville, and about twoand 
II liiilf miles from that village, is a leinaikaMe clia- 
I\lieato sprinfj. From the large quantity of carbon- 
ate of the jtrotoxide of iron present it has a most 
powerful deoxidizing etfect, instantly lilackening 
nitrate of silver without even the addition of am 
inonia, and it l)lafkens also chloride of gold and 
tincture of caiu[)eche. Its temperature was found 
\>y Prof. Owen to be Gl2 , the temperature of thi' 
air l)eing 7'J Fahrenheit. It is a saline chalybeate, 
containing as its principal ingredients the bicar- 
bonates of the protoxide of iron, lime and magnesia, 
sulphate soda and chloride of sodium. There are 
in this and other parts of the county several other 
mineral springs which have not been analytically 
examined by competent authority. The time will 
doubtless come when most of them will be exten- 
Hively known, and sought from afar by people for 
whose peculiar atHictions their waters will have 
been found to be beneficial. 

About 1820 Gov. Miller, of the then Territory 
of Arkansas, and Col. D. Brearley, Indian agent. 
made a trip over the Territory and took the census 
of tlio Cherokees. In their journey Agent Brear- 
ley bought the possession of a French hunter, Joe 
I'eran, who was domiciled near the Point of Rocks, 
the[i known as "The Dardonnie" (in English 
"sleep-with-one-eye"' ). The sound of the name 
aijil the peculiar surroundings of the place recalled 
to mind the Strait of Dardanelles, which induced 
the agent to change the name and call it Darda- 
nelle, and at this point he established the agency 
of the Cherokees. After the census, I)y a call 
through the agent, every village sent up a dele- 
gate to a council held at this agency, at which the 
Cherokees decided to confine themselves entirely 
to the north side of the Arkansas River, and at 
til" same time voted delegates to visit the Presi- 
d- lit and have their decision put in treaty form. 
J'l the winter of 1822-23 this delegation ac- 
conij.niiied their agent to Washington City. The 
Ixiiinds c^f the nation were then fixed. Maj. Du- 
wil suc,'..ed,.d Col. Breariey as Indian agent, but 
Ih- latter r.'turned to Arkansas in the winter of 
l^^J. 2S, to tend to the removal of the Creek In- 



dians west of the Territorial line, and with tiim 
came his son, Joseph H. Brearley, as commis- 
sary to the Indians. The latter, in 1831, became 
a permanent citizen at Dardanelle. On his way 
up, in 1827, he had stopped a short time at Dartla- 
nelle, where he had found white inhabitants very 
few. Pearson Brearley, his brother, was then liv- 
ing there, also John Wade (his hireling), and the 
Widow Greenwood and her son and daughter, 
Radford and Maliuda. The Cherokees were in 
hearing distance on tho opposite bank of the river, 
but the nearest white neighbors south of the river 
were eleven miles above — James, Henry and King 
Stinnett, ilaurice Brown and Isaac Hensley. Nine 
miles below, on the Lake Bayou, were Asa and 
Birt Wicker, and at the "Big Fields" were two 
or three families, and Nick Beatty and the Car- 
dons were farther down the river. At Chickalah, 
nine miles back, was Brown, a blacksmith. In 
the spring of 1S2S the Cherokees, by treaty, ex- 
changed the land on the north side of the Arkan- 
sas for the greater portion of the Lovely purchase, 
which at the time was thickly inhabited by whites, 
who were thus summarily ejected therefrom, and 
scattered to various parts. Many came this way, 
among whom w-ere the Morse family, who squatted 
near Dardanelle Rock until the land surveys could 
be completed, so that they could locate. In the 
year 1830 the Cherokees finished moving off, in 
the fall of which year the United States surveyor. 
H. L. Langham, completed several townships on 
the north side of the river. The land on the south 
side had already- been surveyed. At this date furs 
and peltrv still retained princely power with the 
trader (merchant) as a "legal tender." 

The Indians, who occupied the territory now 
composing this county, immediately before its set- 
tlement by the whites and for some time thereafter 
were intruding bands of Cherokees, the territory 
in fact belonging to the Choctaws at the time. 
Roo-ers. a Cherokee chief, settled in or near what 
is now the site of the town of Dardanelle aliont 
1790. with a band of Cherokee hunters and war- 
riors. Some time thereafter Chickalah, another 
chief, settled at the site of the village which bears 
his name. Dutch, also a chief of a branch of the 



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118 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



same tribe, matin liis lieadquartors on Dutch Creek, 
now so called, abuut three miles above DauviUe. 
He included iu his hunting jurisdiction all that ' 
portion of the Fourche valley, now in Yell County. 
These Indians cleared little patches of laud in 
common, which they cultivated separately, each 
one's share being designated liy corner-stones, 
some of which are to be seen in the neighborhood 
of Danville. So far as can be learned, these In- 
dians were peaceable, never having engaged in any 
wars among themselves or with the whites, but oc- 
casionally they were called upon to resist the as- 
saults of the Osages, a warlike tribe living near 
Fort Smith. One of the earliest settlements in the 
interior of the county was made in Fdley Township, 
on the Petit Jean Fiiver, above Danville. The tirst 
permanent settlement was in lS2y by Elijah Baker. 
Josiah Hart came in 1830. The Eileys came in 
1831. In 1836 Abraham McCearly settled on 
Spring Creek, three miles northeast of Danville. 
There were several settlers in that part of the county 
before Col. McCearly. William J. Parks, Joseph 
Gault and William D. Briggs were early near 
Bluffton. These persons, some of whom are men- 
tioned above, entered land in what is now Y'ell 
County prior to 1845. Some of them were among 
the early settlers, others were probably never per- 
manent residents: J. W. H. Huthmance, 18-13: 
Richard T. Banks, 1840; George Bryant. 1830: 
John H. Petitts, 1839; Philip Madden. 1839; 
Thomas R. Shannon, 1830; John Nick, 1831; John 
Wel)ster, 1830; Eli Paschal. 183i); Nicholas Beatty, 
1S3G; Asa Wicker, 1839; Francis Beatty. 1830; 
John E. Metcalf, 1839; John Deck, 1830; Pierre 
Peat, 1830; Allen Summers, 1S;JI); Francis Peat. 
1830; Louis M. Smith. 1839; Michael Hynam, 
1838; Joseph Busehell, 1837; James P. Rogers. 
1837; Louis E. ^loulder, 1S30: James Carden, 
1839; Samuel Ward. 1830; John ifcAlIister, 1839; 
Jesse Low, 1837; William C. Wilson. 1S37; Alex- 
ander BarnhiU, Jr.. 1830; N. Mars, 1830: Joseph 
D. Coml.)s, 1S:',0: George B. Steel, 1837; Daniel 
Gilliland, 1830; William Brown. 1838: Gabriel 
Barnaby, 1880; Elijah Baker, 1^3'); Richard 
Wicker, 1837; John S. Gibson, 1S3S: Wubhington 
Meeks, 183(1; [Margaret Slover, 1^3(1; Elijah J. ; 



Howell, 1838; Thomas Johnson. 1839; Thomas 
Skillen, 1839; Joseph Gil),->ou. 1838; Samuel H. 
Johnson, 1839; Charles H. Fitch, 1839; James S. 
Barrow, 1839; Nichola.s Baremim, 1840; James S. 
Baremon, 1S39; Jonathan Limboeher, 1840; Clai- 
borne Wicker, 1838; John B. Barmore, 1839; 
Rachel Wicker, 1839; Joseph Yalkenberg, 1810; 
Jenkin Williams, 1830; Samuel Norris, 1837; Pe;ir- 
son Brearley, 1831; George Douglas, 1831; John 
J. Morse, 1830; Cyrus T. Smith, 1830: John Hill. 
1842; Hardin George, 1843; David B. Gilliland, 
1844; James S. Jones, 1844; William Jones, 1844: 
Gilbert Moren, 1841; Claiborne Collier, 1843; 
William F. McClure, 1843: Joseph Green, 1838; 
Joseph James, 1839; Philemon Williams. 1839; 
John Critchtield, 1839; Malachi Ford, 1840: John 
McCray, 1840; Joseph Gwinn, 1840; John ]\Ic- 
Creasie, 1844; Redmond Rogers, 1839; Burk John- 
son, 1838: William Collin, 1839; William M. New- 
ton. 1838: John H. Miller, 1842: W. H. X. New- 
ton, 1838; Alexander Byrd, 1839; Samuel Pryor, 
1S39; John Powers, 1840; John Walker, 1839; 
Horace Witt, 1839; Eli Crow, 1839; Ezekiel Boggs. 
1839; John Boggs, 1842: Hiram Gill, 1839; James 
P. Eainor, 1840; Neriah Morse, 1839; Sallie Hall, 
1830; Henry Evins, 1829; Henry Stinnett, 1834; 
Nathaniel Burkhead, 1837; William M. Rea.eoner, 
1838; Isaac Hunley, 1836; John Wilson, 1830; 
Jefferson Van Horn, 1838; Samuel M. Hays, 1839; 
James L. Hardway, 1844: Samuel H. Balch, 1843: 
Reuben L. Stinnett, 1814; John F. Balch, 1S44; 
James B. Crain, 1841; William M. Nunuelly. 1841: 
Thomas Hicks, 1841; Abraham Planing. 1S41; 
Peter Piukston, 1843; Thomas Morse, lS8S; Rus- 
sell Bryant, 1838; John Franklin. bS38; James L. 
Garner, 1842; Joseph McGrady, 1829: William 
H. Haines, 1843; Henry Haney, 1843: John 
Haney, 1840; Elizabeth Crow, 1841; John James, 
1840; Andrew J. Hays, 1840; Robert Cunning- 
ham, 1840; Enoch S. Hazeus, 1840; James Mad- 
den, 1840; Am;wa Howell, 1840; John A. Whpeler, 
1840; Robert M. Roberts, 1S4(); Nehemiah Crav 
ens, 1841; Cravens & Clark, 1841; Aaron Garn_-tt- 
son, 1S44; .\ugustus M. Ward. 1843; John Mc- 
Kay, 1841: RufusC. Sadler, 1-^U: James MiirpLy. 
1844; Lucinda Mur[>hy. 1840: Dooney :M cDaniel, 



■ ftllL ■ 

■ -11/-:!-. 

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■J-U:A. 

.•■•.''AT 



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1 1^;;-; 



iSil I 




1S4(); Fniiicis A. Skelton, 1840; Daniel JoLnson. 
1S31I; Jhiups Morrison, 1S37; Laban C. Howell, 
1,S37; :\I. M. Kuigbt. 1S4;3; James McBride. 1S41: 
G. C. Sadler, 1841; Henry George, 1841; Daniel 
Crownovor. Sr. . 1840; Isaac Mears, 1841: Daniel 
Crownover, 1841: James H. Taylor. 1844: William 
H. Peevy, 1841; Allen Williams, 1S41: Dial 'Sic 
DiitT IVevy, 1843: Hugh McBride, 1811: William 
Witt, 1S4{: Gabriel E. Hays. 1N41; James Will- 
iams, 1843: John Howell, 1841; Thomas Garvey, 
1841; William Aikman, 1841; James A. Hughes, 
1841; George Baldwin, 1S41: D. Wallace, 1841 : 
Taylor Polk, 1844; John Eiley, 1^40; Joseph Hall. 
1841. Some of the persons above named each 
took up several claims in difPereut parts of the 
county. White men located earliest along the 
Arkansas lliver. but general settlements began in 
the interior. The valleys were most fertile and 
most easily accessible, and furnished homes for the 
pioneers as they do to day for the leading farmers. 
planters and business m^n of the county. The 
war put a stop to the progress of settlement 
throughout the county, but the year lSOl*i saw en- 
terprise again planted here, and the gradual return 
of former and the incoming of new settlers fol- 
lowed with increasing rapidity. The tirst marriage 
in this county was that of Pierce M. Butler, of 
South Carolina, to Miss Duval — her father then 
being Indian agent. Tliis marriage took place on 
the lake eight miles below Dardanelle. at the tem- 
porary residence of Mr. Duval. The ceremonv 
was performed by Rev. Cephas Washi)uni. in 1838 
or 1839. The bridegroom became the most dis- 
tinguished of all the South Carolinian governors. 
He was killed in a charge at the head of a South 
Cariilina regiment during the Mexican War. 

In 1839 Col. McCearly l)uilt the first -svater-mill 
in the county, on Spring Creek, six miles north of 
Danville. The first mill in Fourche Valley was 
built by Abihu Reese, on Gafford's Creek, in 1844, 
this being the third water-mill in the county. 
Ho .veil and Jamison bad I)uilt the second one on 
Dutch Creek, two miles above Danville, in 1843, 
The next, or fourth one, was Bogirs' mill, on the 
Chickahih. built by John iliUer, in 1^4r). Then 
followed Beatty's, on Beatty's mill-brauch, by 



Nicholas Beatty. All these mills have long since 
suspended operations. Many other water-mills 
were built later. There were only three steam 
mills in the county up to the close of the late war. 
The tirst was built by John Ball for the Garrisons 
about 1857 or 1858, in what was then Delaware 
Township of this county, but which is now a part 
of Logan County, The next was built by Col. 
George P. Foster and Walton H. Haney, in the 
same township in 1858. and the third liy the Collier 
brothers, on the Chickalah in 1859 or I860, and 
this is believed to have been all the steam power in 
use in the county u[> to bSlJO. The first cotton-gin 
in this county was Ijuilt by William Graham in 
1838 at the place settled by Josiah Hart; the next 
was erected by Thomas Hicks, three miles west of 
Dardanelle, in 1840; the third by Malinda Sadler 
in the same year: the fourth by James Briggs, on 
his old place, six miles east of Bluff ton, "on 
Fourche," in 1843. soon followed by one on the 
farm of Col. T. J. V.'aters, near Dardanelle. 

Yell County was, by an act of the Legislature 
passed December 5, 1840, carved out of a part of 
what then composed Popie and Scott Counties. 
Its northern boundary was defined December 21 
following. The line between Yell and Montgom 
ery Counties was defined January 2, 1845. Dela- 
ware Township was a part of Pope County under 
the name of Dardanelle Township, until 1853, 
when it was transferred by act of the Legislature to 
this county, and named Delaware Township, be- 
cause Yell County already had a Dardanelle Town- 
ship, and because the principal stream running 
through this new territory was called Delaware. 
A portion of Yell was included in Sarber County 
(now Logan) at it? erection in 1873. Changes of 
no great extent have been made in the boumlary 
of the extreme northeast part of the county, along 
the Petit Jean River. The county was named in 
honor of Gov. Archibald Yell. The temporary 
county seat was located at Monrovia, the then resi- 
dence of William Peevy, five miles northwest of 
Danville. The present county seat, Danville, is 
situated on the south bank of the Petit Jean, near 
the uorth base of the Fourche ^lountains, and was 
located and laid off on the property of John How- 



\t^^ 






ell, by three commissioners named James Briggs, 
James M'illiams and Neriab ]\Inrse, in Decemlier. 
IS 41. The first coiirt-houso was a very rude round 
log hut. About 1S50, and possibly a little earlier, 
a commodious frame building was erected for a 
court-house, which is now known as the "old 
court-house," and stands west of the public square. 
The county had log jails at first. One or more of 
them was burned. The present jail has done serv- 
ice since not long after the war. The first record 
referring to the present court-house is one under 
date of December 17, 1872, authorizing the issuing 
of bonds to the amount of S'Jll,0()(), in the sum of 
?100 each, "for the purpose of building a new 
court-bouse in the town of Danville, the county 
seat of said Yell County." On the same day, 
Thomas W. Pound, James M. Watkins and S. O. 
Ciiesney were appointed by the county coiu't com- 
missioners to prepare a plan antl let the contract 
for the erection of a suitable building. February 
24, 1S73, the commissioners were ordered to sell 
the old court-house to the highest and best bidder 
on a credit of twelve months. The sale was 
effected March 17, 1873, to John W. McCarrell, 
for §476 in coiinty scrip. On the same day the 
contract for the erection of the new court-house 
was let to Joseph G. Harrell, the cost to be §11,990. 
The contractor's bond was filed and accepted, and 
a contract was entered into on the same day. Oc- 
tober 7, 1873, the commissioners reported the work 
practically completed according to contract. An 
order was made approving the report and accepting 
the court-house, which is a large brick structure, 
two stories high, one of the most substantial in 
this part of the State. Upon the erection of the 
Dardanelle Judicial District, adei^uate quarters for 
the accommodation of the court were leased at 
Dardanelle, at the expense of the taxpayers resi- 
dent within the district. A jail was built there, 
which was destroyed by fire, since when the jail 
at Danville has done service for the entire county. 
Yell Coirnty is divided into twentj-sis political 
townships, named as follow: Wilson, Galla Rock, 
Dardanelle, Delaware, Chickalah, Mountain, Maga- 
zine, Centerville, Mason, Ward, Danville, Prairie. 
Fergeson, Piiley, Eichland, Herring, Dutch Creek, 



Gravelly Hill, Blutiton, Briggsville, Ftover, Gil- 
key, Lamar. Lower La Fave, Crawford, Irons 
Creek. Wilson, Galla Rock, Centerville, Dardanelle, 
Delaware, Ward, Mason and Chickalah Townships 
and part of Magazine Township constitute tho 
Dardanelle Judicial District. The balance of the 
county is included in tho Danville Judicial District. 
The persons named below have served Yell 
County in its various oflicial positions at the date 
named: lS4l)-42— J. J. Morse, judge; J. C. Gault, 
clerk; T. P. Sadler, sheriff; C. F. Long, treasurer; 
W. D. Sadler, coroner; D. W. James, surveyor. 
1842-44- M. Brown, jtulge; J. C. Gault, clerk; 
T. P. Sadler, sheriff; E. S. Hames, treasurer; W. 
D. Sadler, coroner; D. W. James, surveyor. 1S44 
-40— G. E. Hays, judge; J. C. Gault, clerk: T. 
P. Sadler, sheriff; William Porter; treasurer; W. 
D. Sadler, coroner; D. W. James, surveyor. 184(5 
—48 — B. Johnson, judge; T. W. Pound, clerk; S. 
Kirkpatrick, sheriff; E. Hames, treasurer; L. Mc- 
Daniel, coroner; J. Brearley, surveyor. 184S-5tl 
— C. H. Fitch, judge; T. W. Pound, clerk; S. 
Kirkpatrick. sheriff; E. Hames, treasurer; T. J. 
Haney, coroner; J. F. Perry, surveyor. 1850-52 
— George Magness, judge; T. W. Pound, clerk; 
S. Kirkpatrick, sheriff; J. G. Harrell, treasurer; 
T. J. Haney, coroner; J. F. Perry, surveyor. 
1852-54 — George Magness, judge; T. W. Pound, 
clerk; Joseph Gaiilt, sheriff; T. J. Haney, treas- 
urer; H. B. Rose, coroner; Benjamin Thomas, 
surveyor. 1854-50 — B. Johnson, judge; T. A\'. 
Pound, clerk; J. C. Herring, sheriff; T. J. Haney, 
treasurer (T. J. Daniels from December, 1854); 
J. B. Fudge, coroner; T. R. Jett, surveyor. 
1850-58— H. A. Howell, judge; T. W. Pound, 
clerk; J. Gault, sheriff'; T. J. Daniels, treasurer; 
Joseph Hall, coroner; W. D. Briggs. surveyor. 
1858-<')0 — B. Johnson, judge; T. W. Pound, clerk; 
J. Gault, sheriff; J. G. Harrell, treasurer; A. S. 
Garrison, coroner; W. D. Briggs, surveyor. Ib*'i0 
-02 — B. Johnson, judge; J. C. Gault, clerk: J. 
Gault, sheriff: F. B. Hatchett, treasurer (joined 
the army, and J. C. Ward was elected to fill the 
vacancy); A. S. Garrison, coroner; W. D. Briggs, 
surveyor. 1802-04— J. M. Baird, judge; J. C. 
Gault, clerk; Lor»nzo Fry, sheriff (O. Wood form 



^' 



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,'"> ■ . / I 



YELL C0U>;TY. 



121 



Miirch, 186;^); J. C. Ward, treasurer; George 
Ijeuuett, conjuer; W. D. Briggs, surveyor; 
Tliomns Mouily, assessor. lSri4-l1(') — B. G. Cook, 
judge; J. F. Cboate, clerk; \V. H. Fergeson, 
sheriff; William M. Boles, treasurer; A. Neal, 
coroner; A. Campbell, assessor. IStji'i-rtS — George 
Maguess, judge; J. C. Gault, clerk; W. H. Fer- 
gesou, sheriff; M. S. Cox, treasurer; A. Xeal, coro- 
ner; J. G. Carter, surveyor; Alfred Koss, asses- 
sor. 1808-72— H. W.' Walker." judge; J. F. 
Cboato, clerk; W. H. PVrgeson, sheriff; E. P. 
Johnson, treasurer; William Dacus, corouer; B. 
Johnson, Jr., surveyor (Alfred Boles from Feb- 
ruary, 1871); J. B. Eddington, assessor (A. N. 
Hose from April, 1871). 1872-74— Howard W. 
Walker, judge; J. F. Cboate, clerk; J. A. Wilson, 
sheriff; G. AV. Phillips, treasurer; J. It. G. W. N. 
Adams, surveyer; A. N. Rose, assessor. 1S74 -7t') — 
George Magness, judge; J. W. Pound, clerk; 11. 
E. Cole, sheriff; G. W. Phillips, treasurer: W. C. 
Strayhorn, coroner; J. 11. G. \V. N. Adams, sur- 
veyor; M. S. Cox, assessor. 1870-78 — J. F. Cboate, 
judge; J. W. Pound, clerk; K. E. Cole, sheriff: 
J. J. Robertson, treasurer; J. "M. ^leCarrell. coro- 
ner; J. K. G. W. X. Adams, surveyor: 11. S. Cox, 
assessor. 1878-80 — J. F. Cboate, judge; W. W. 
Brooks, clerk: R. E. Cole, sheriff; M. S. Cox. 
treasurer; T. R. Maxwell, corouer: W. D. Briggs, 
surveyor; K. D. Tizzman, assessor. 1SS(I-S2 — H. 

A. Howell, judge; J. W. Pound, clerk: L. L. 
Briggs, sheriff; M. W. McCIure, treasurer: J. A. 
Cannon, conjner; J. H, Cotton, surveyor: il. S. 
Cox, assessor. 1882-84 — J. Gault, judge; W. H. 
Gee, clerk; J. L. Davis, sheriff: ]\I. W. McClure. 
treasurer; Joe Goodman, coroner. Charles Hunt, 
surveyor; M. S. Cox, assessor. 1S84-S0 — J. E. 
MeCall, judge, W. H. Gee, clerk: J. L. Davis, 
sheriff; H. B. McCarrell, treasurer; C. X. Myers, 
coroner; Charles Hunt, surveyor: J. X. Whitlow, 
assessor. 1886-88— J. E. McCall. judge; W. H. 
Gee, clerk; H. B. McCarrell, sheriff; J. J. Roli- 
ertson, treasurer; E. C. Williams, coroner; Charles 
Hunt, surveyor; J. X. Whitlow, assessor. 1888- 
'.'O-G. L. Wirt, judge; J. H. McCargo. clerk; H. 

B. ^McCarrell, sheriff; J. J. Rol.iertson, treas- 
urer; Robert Toomer, coroner: C. C. Dean, sur- 



veyor; J. N. Whitlow, assessor. 1800-92- G. L. 
Wirt, judge; W. R. Hayden. county clerk; J. H. 
McCargo. circuit clerk; J. H. Howard, sheriff; 
J. J. Robertson, treasurer; J. C. Baley, coroner; 
y. C. Dean, surveyor; G. \V. Piiilliiis, assesstir. 

Yell County is in the Fifth Judicial District, com 
posed of the counties of Yell, Johnson, Pope and 
Conway. The judge is Hon. J. E. Cravens, of 
Johnson County; the prosecuting attorney is H. .S. 
Carter, of Dardanolle. Hon. J. G. Wallace, of Rus- 
ellville, was elected judge, and Jeff Davis of Rus- 
ellville, prosecuting attorney, Septem))er 1, 18VK), to 
succeed ^Messrs. Cravens and Carter. Owing to the 
great area of Yell County, and for the convenience of 
the citizens, it was in 1875, divided into two judicial 
districts. The business of the circuit and i>ro- 
bate court for the southern part of the county is 
transacted at Danville, for the Danville Di-trict, 
and that of the northern part of the county at Dar- 
danelle, for the Dardanelle District. Circuit court 
is held in the Danvill(> District on the fourth Mon- 
days in January and August, and in the Dardanelli' 
District on the second Mondays in February and 
September. County liusiuess is transacted at Dan 
ville exclusively. Prominent among the lawyin- 
who practiced at this bar in the ante bctluin days 
were: J. L. Hallowell, who was prosecuting at- 
torney 1858-00, and e.r-(>lfi'-io attorney general of 
the State; George W. Lemoyue. who was State 
senator; E. G. Walker: AV. X. .May, who was cir- 
euit judge 1808-71: NV. D. Jac(jway, who was 
circuit judge 1S78-S2: and J. T. Harrison. Since 
the war the following have l)eeu among the leading 
practitioners: Thomas Boles, who was circuit judge 
I80r)-()S; T. W. Pound, who was circuit judge 1^7^: 
M. L. Davis: Robert C. Bullock'; W. A. Xolen; 
Georfe S. Cunningham, who was circuit judge 
from 1882 until the comparatively recent appoint- 
ment of Judge Cravens; H. S. Carter, the present 
prosecuting attorney, and J. T. Harrison, L. C. 
Hall, John M. Parker, Robert Toomer, AV. D. 
Jacoway, W. C. Hunt, Walter D. Jacoway and W. 
A. F. May. 

This county, with Crawford. Franklin. Johnson 
andSabastian, constitutes the Fourth Congressional 
District, represented by Hon. J. H. Rogers of Fort 



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■.91 J 






l-I-l 



HISTOllY OF AlCKANSAS. 



Smith. Yt'll was representfil in tlie Constitutional 
Convention of ISfiS b}' ^lourot' liciuiisaville: in that 
of 1874 l)y Josei)h T. Harrison. In the State Leg- 
islature, this county has Ijeen thus represented: 
Upper House — Sessions of lSlt-4"i. 1840. IS48- 
4U, with Pope, by J. Williani-un; l^-'il-.']. with 
Pupe. by J. Williamson; l^"'l-'--"3. with Po]u>. by 
G. W. Lemoyne; ISrii-.jo, with P.ipe, by G. W. 
Lemoyne; l^.^O-TiT, with Couway auil Perry, by 
J. I. Stirman: IS.'iS-.-iU. with Couway and I'er- 
ry, by J. I. Stirnian; iSC,!)-!',!, special lSf,l-0-^, 
with Conway and Perry, by G, \V. Lemoyne: 1^<V2. 
no record: lSn4-<io. with Conway and I'erry. by 
F. M. Stratton; Confederate Legislature. 1S')4. 
with Perry and Couway, by W. C. Hunt; Sixteenth 
Legislature, iSfiG-GT, with Perry and Conway, by 
S. D. Sevier who resigned and was succeeded by 
S. Forrest; ISCS-OlJ, with Xewton and Johnson, 
by J. N. Sarber; 1871, with Newton and Johnson. 
liy J. X. Sarber; 1873. with Xewton and Johnson, 
by Thomas A. Hanks; 1874, with Newton, John- 
sou and Sarber (now Logan), by Thomas A. Hanks; 
lS74-7o. with Sarber, by J. AV. Toomer; 1877 
with Logan, by B. 15. Chism; 187'.>, with Logan, 
by B. B. Chism; ISSl. with Logan,, by J. T. Har- 
ri.sou; 1883, with Logan, by .J. T. Harrison; 1885, 
with Logan, by Theodore F. Potts; 1887, with 
Logan, by Theodore F. Potts; last ses.-ion. witlj Lo- 
gan, !iy \\'. A. CKnnciit. Lower House — session 
of 1842-43, by William J. Parks; 1844-4:., by 
William J. Parks; IStC. by The.ulore P. Sad- 
ler; 1848-4U, by R. Nettles and W. J. Parks; 
lS50-r.t, by P. Nettles and T. P. Saddler; 
1852-53, by D. F. Huckaby; IS.-4 5."i. by B. J. 
Jacoway; lS5f)-57, by William J. Parks; lS'i8-5'J. 
by John A. Jacoway; IM'.d-r, I. ,-:pecial l^i;]-02, 
by John H. Jones; 18('.2, by Wdliam Sisell; 
18f)4-r>5; l)y B. Johnson: Confederate Legisla- 
ture, ISni, by William Sisell; Sixteenth Legis- 
lature, 18('.(1-(j7, by Thomas W. Pounds: 18G8-60, 
with Newton and Johnson, by D. K. Lee (resigned 
and succeeded liy II. W. Wishard.). \\'. N. May 
and Samuel Dial; 1871, with Xfwton and Juhuson, 
by J. L. Garner, B. W. Herring and W. G. Har- 
ris; 1873. with Xewton, Johnson and Sarber (now 
Logan I, by .I'jhn N. Sarber, P. H. Spears and 



James A. Shirgley; 1874, with Newton, Johnson 
and Sarber, liy A. D. King and ]\L Hixon: ISi 1- 
75, by A. M. Fulton; 1877, by Joseph T. Harrison; 
1871', by George S. Cunningham; 1881, by M. L. 
Davis; 1883, by D. F. Huckaby; 1885, by W. A. 
Clement; 18N7, by W . A. Clement; last session, by 
W. A. Noh'u (died and was succeeded by PoViert 
Toomer). J. L. AVilliams was elected Se[)tend)er 
1, 18'J0. 

The following hold, or have until recently held, 
commissions as notaries public resident in Yell 
County: J(jhu A. lloss, J. Green Jackson, il. A. 
Moseley, George A. Harman, H. P. Barry. John 
B. Crownover, J. A. Wilson, T. E. Wilson, D. H. 
Brown, J. C. Michel-on, F. G. Brown, 1\. il. 
Blackburn, L. P. Joue: . John JI. Parker, L. C. 
Adams, W. K. Hayden, W. B. Smith, W. A. F. 
May. 

The first newsjiaper in Y'eli County was the 
original Dardauelle Post, established by F. M. and 
S. C. Coleman in 1853, which had an existence of 
five or sis months. Li February, 18t>'J, the Tran- 
script was established by H. P. Barry. The 
Transcript material in part w-as sold to the Piepub- 
licans, a new outtit was purchased and the publica- 
tion of the paper was continued. The Times was pub- 
lished a few months, beginning late in 1869. In 18 d) 
the Transcript was sold to Col. Withers, of Ozark. 
In 1871 it was repurchased by its original owner. 
It often changed hands and was at one time re- 
moved to Danville, but its press and much of its 
material was long in use on the Independent Ar- 
kansian. Other pajiers published during the next 
few vears were the Laborer, the Chronicle, the 
Spectator, the Star of the West, the Eye of the 
West and the .Argus. The Dardanelle Independ- 
ent was first published January 7, 1875, by D. P. 
Cloyd, proprietor, with M. M. McGuire as associ- 
ate editor. In A[.ril following Mr. ]\IcGuire be- 
came proprietor, and he continued the publication 
of the paper, under the above heading, and those of 
Arkansas Independent and Independent Arkausiau 
until 1884. From the office of the Arkansian 
were issued the Arkansas Methodist, under edito 
rial charge of Rev. James Harralson, from Novem- 
ber, 187'J, until removed to Little Rock, and for a 



r?i 



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YELL COUNTY. 



123 



time a Baptist paper named Tbe Evangel, edited 
by B. K. 'Woniliack, and later by Mr. \\'oml)ack 
and J. B. Searcy. The Western Immigrant was 
established by M. L. Davis, and afterward passed 
to the ownership of J. L. Crownover, and later to 
that of G. R. Williams. In October, ISSl, Mr. 
"Williams changed its title to the Dardanelle Post. 
In November, 18SS, C. W. Dodd became its edi- 
tor. In February, 1SS9, Mr. AVilliams si^'ld the 
paper to Thomas J. Hicks. Eugene Moore be- 
came Mr. Hick's partner ia the enterprise July 1, 
1SS9. The Post is a large eight- column, four- 
page newspaper, devoted to Democratic principles 
and the best interests of Dardanelle and Yell 
County, ably edited and well printed. ]Mr. Davis, 
its founder, has at times, since disposing of it, as- 
sisted materially in its editorial conduct. 

This county was the scene of some exciting 
events of the war of the States. The lirst engage- 
ment at Dardanelle was between Col. Hill's Con- 
federates and Col. Cloud's Kansas Federals, Sep 
tember 12, 1SG3. Hill was surprised and driven 
across the river, which was fordable during most 
of the season of lst53. May 16, ISlU, Shelby 
took the [ilace from the Federals by a surprise, 
driving them across the river. Gen. Price's army 
crossed the river here in September. 1SG4, at 
which time Dardanelle contained little or no popu- 
lation except less than lOd women and children. 
In January, lSo5, Col. ^Villiam H. Brooks, com- 
manding the Confederates, attacked the Federals 
under Maj. Jenks, commander of the post at Dar- 
danelle, and after a fight of three or four hours 
drew off his forces. Capt. Daniels' company of 
Col. Churcliill's regininnt, Capt. Holloway's com- 
pany of McCrary's battalion, and Capt. Law- 
rence's company of Col. Lemoyne's regiment. 
were recruited for the Confederate service, and one 
company of the Third Arkansas was recruited for 
the Federal service, all almost wholly in Yell 
County, while many men from the county were 
connected with other organizations, mostly Con- 
federate. Capt. Daniels' company was Company 
H, First Arkansas Mounted Hides. It was mus- 
tfred in in l>'il, and was not mustered out until 
I'^'io. In all, lis men were enrolled, of whom 



eighty-five were killed and wounded, twenty-five 
died from other causes, only seven were surren- 
dered, and only four are now living. 

From the first religion has found a home in 
this county. School-houses and private residences 
were among the early meeting and preaching 
places. At times there were open air or canip- 
meetings, which were attended l)y the people in 
largo numbers. Of course, the first church houses 
were erected in the earliest and most important 
settlements. The first Methodist sermon at Dar- 
danelle was preached by llev. J. P. Cole in the 
summer of 1851. For some time previous, how- 
ever, the Methodists had had an organization, and 
had met in the "'Apple Tree" School house, near 
the cemetery site. The Presbyterians organized 
in ISoO under the ministration of Rev. H. P. S. 
Willis, of Norristown. Their church, erected by 
C. Lethgo in 1S-j4, was the first in town. It was 
dismantle<l during the war and used as a barracks 
for Federal troops. The Baptists hehl meetings 
early in the fifties, and the first Baptist association 
ever held in the county was held in the Presbyte- 
rian Church at Dardanelle in [S'\7) ur IS-jO. The 
first Baptist Chtirch was built on the present site 
in 1859, mainly by contributions from James, the 
father of Robert Veazy. Capt. John Wood also 
contributed liberally. This building was never 
completed, and having Ijeen used by both armies 
during the war and not being ceiled, being about 
to fall, was sold to !Mr. J. K. Perry immediately 
after the war. and was removed and converted into 
a residence. Tlie Methodist. Baptist, Presbyte- 
rian, Ctimberlaud and Old School, Christian and 
Episcopalian denominations are all well repre 
sented in the county, the numerical strength of 
the respective sects in the order in which they are 
named. A house of worship may lie found in 
every neighborhood. The inhabitants of Yi-ll 
Cotinty are a peaceable, quiet, industrious, law- 
aljiding, church-going people, and are thoroughly 
enthused on the subject of education. 

Educational beginnings were almost coincident 
with those of the church. The early sehueils were 
few in number, scattering, poorly housed and 
equipped, and indifferently taught. But under 



V "V 



^-'.•;'.)3 






lU 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



the operation of the school law of the State, a new ' 
onler of things has come. TLeio are more than 
ninety school districts in the cuiitity, and many of 
them are snpjilied with school bouses. Good 
schools are taught from three to leu months in the 
year. In addition to the general school tax, which 
is uniform throughout the State, the electors of j 
sixty- four of the school districts in Yell County ; 
have availed themselves of the benefits of a pro- 
vision of the State constitution, and, by vote, have 
voluntarily imposed upon themselves an additional 
tax of 5 mills for school purposes. White schools 
and colored schools are taught separately. Imt the 
school fund of the several school districts is pro- 
rated percapita with tlie colored schools. Prof. J. 
G. Smyth, of Eellville,* is county examiner i:if }>ub- 
lic schools. The public school at Danville is well 
equipped, well taught, and efficient. At times 
two teachers are employed, and the course of study 
is much more thorough and coni[)rehensive than 
that which ol)tains in schools in many places in 
the bounty. At Dardanelle the common-school 
building is the crowning beauty and pride of the 
town. It is a brick structure, with a seating ca- 
pacity for fidO pupils. It is one of the best school 
buildings in the State, and is con^trncted with all 
the comforts and conveniences suggested by recent 
improvemerits. The school is graded, and the 
methods of instruction are thoroughly modern and 
progressive. The teachers in the several de[)art- 
ments are among the best employed in the State. 
The first school-house in Dardanelle was Imilt by 
public subscription, in front of the well known 
Methodist Church site, within a few yards of the 
William Toomer residence. It was erected in 1S4S 
or 1S4'.I, and for several years was used by the 
Methodists and other denominations for pul)lic 
worship. The old Dardanelle Institute was liuilt 
in lSo',1, and opened soon afterward, under the 
management of a board of nine trustees, among 
the members of which were H. P. Barry, T. W 
Pound and H. A. Howell. This institution was in- 
corporated. The principal feature of Eellville is 
its academy, established by the generous contribu- 
tions of four citizens: Mr. W. H. Fergeson, Dr. 

»Tlic inKtuI aiitlioriti.-s spoil this i;:inif n.'Ih'\ilU?. 



J. B. Heck, Mr. John F. Choate and Dr. S. O. 
Chesney. The building was erected in IST^l at 
an expense of §:1,500. The institution has been 
most prosperous and successful during all its his- 
tory, but notably so during the past Hve years, 
under the presidency of Rev. J. G. Smyth. The 
academy is now owned and controlled by a board 
of trustees, elected by the Dardanelle District Con- 
ference, of the Methodist Episcopal Church South. 
It has a sightly and most suitable location, amid 
grand scenery, in a healthy section, far away from 
the haunts of vice and dissipation, in a community 
noted for morality, and is protected by a special 
act of Legislature from the poisonous influence 
attendant upon the sale of intoxicants. The build 
ing is a large, three-story structure, 50x70 feet in 
size, well arranged, heated, ventilated and lighted, 
and furnishes ample accommodation for the thor- 
ough work of the academy's several departments. 
Upon the completion of the course of study, in 
which the pupil is greatly aided by the use of all 
needful apparatus, he is given a certificate of pro- 
ficiency. The special object of this school is to 
furnish a thorough and practical education to both 
girls and boys, or when desired to prepare them 
to enter college. The terms for non-residents are 
very low, being, in the primary department, -SLoO 
per month; in the intermediate department. 82; 
in the high-school department, 82.50 to !?3. The 
i[icidental expense per month is only 10 cents, and 
board is furnished at 88 per month. Free tuition 
is given to the children of all ministers, and to 
young preachers properly indorsed by their de- 
nominations. The faculty for the term of IS'.IO- 
01 is constituted thus: Rev. J. G. Smyth, princi- 
pal; Mr. John A. Pless, intermediate; Mr. S. H. 
Russell, second primary. The board of trustees 
is composed of J. J. Briggs, president; J. B. Heck, 
secretary; David Russell, Dr. Kirksey and Rev. 
J. G. Smyth. Too much praise can scarcely be 
given the principal, who has conducted this institu- 
tion so successfully through the experimental years 
of its youth, and under his continued management 
a brilliant future is predicted for it. The Chicka- 
lah Academy opened its tirst session September 1, 
1890. It has three departments: Primary, gram- 



.fft 



-"I .1: 



I.:. 



YELL COrXTY. 



12: 



niar and academic. The first givps thorough in- 
htnictiou in. the primary branches and language. 
The .second teaches all the common-school branches, 
nud gives normal training to teachers. The third 
I'ives instruction in the higher mathematics, lan- 
guage and sciences. The academy is conducted 
with two objects in view — tlrst, to prepare students 
to enter higher institutions of learning; second, to 
give systematic and business education, titting 
students for the practical duties of life. In the 
musical department instruction is afforded in vocal 
music, and lessons are given on piano, origan and 
guitar. The jirineipal is Prof. D. Hays, the secre- 
tary, Mr. L. 13. Jones. 

Dardanelle is situated on the south branch of 
the Arkansas River equidistant from Fort Smith 
and Little Kock, and about eighty miles from Hot 
Springs, has a population of about 2,000 jieople, and 
does a larger comTnercial business than any other 
town in the Arkansas Valley between Little Hock 
and Fort Smith. It has communication by rail 
over the Dardanelle & Russellville Railroad, and 
the ferry and transfer line between the two towns 
mentioned, and telegraphic and telephonic com- 
munication. A prospective improvement is a pon- 
toon bridge designed to provide another means of 
communication with the country north of the river. 
Dardanelle is an incorporated town with numerous 
improvements and conveniences. An efficient and 
well- equipped lire department is well sustained. 
Prominent among those who have been connected 
with Dardanelle's municipal career may be men- 
tioned the following who have held the ofiice of 
mayor: M. A. J. Bonville, W. N. :\ray. J. 'Slort Perry, 
D. W. Starbuck, Ct. R. AViUiams. E. G. Collier, W. 
J. Jacoway. H. A. Howell, SI. L. Davis. H. C. 
Cunningham. T. L. Spencer. Jose|)h Evins. H. C. 
Gil)son. R. C. Bullock, C. P. Thompson, AV. A. 
Nolen, Robert Toomer and L. C. Hall. The first 
store at Dardanelle Rock was opened by the Brear- 
ley Brothers, David. Charles and Pearson, in 1820. 
Its occupation was gone wh'>n the Cherokees left 
the vicinity in 1S30. In 1S31 at the instigation of 
J. H. Brearley, Fred Sangrain was induced to 
move his store from Verdigris to Dardanelle. where 
he continued trading until 1S31I, when he was per- 



r 



suaded by his father-in-law to return to St. Loais. 
]\ro. The remnants of his goods were left in thi> 
hands of his brother, Alfred Saugrain. In a few 
years more there was no store to be found at Dar- 
danelle. At the organization of Yell County there 
were many citizens in the township of Dardanelle 
(among whom where the Johnstons — John B., Joe, 
Jackey and Samuel H.— John and Samuel Balch). 
'■ who had to cross the river to Norristown to do their 
trading; and about lS-t2 George Williams was in 
' duced to move his goods over from Norristown into 
1 a double-log cabin on the spot first occupied by the 
Widow Greenwood in \S?,\. ne.\t Ijy C. T. Smith 
j in 1833, who sold to F. Saugrain in bSSTi, and 
j lastly bv J. H. Brearlev, \\4io crave to Georo-e Will- 
lams the lots on which the buildings would be 
I found to stand when the contemplated town should 
be staked out as an inducement for him to move 
his store there, ^llr. Williams enlarged bv aildimT 
a small frame of sufficient size for his store. This 
: was the nucleus of the town of Dardanelle, which 

was laid off by J. H. Brearley in October. 1N47, ' 
[ on this tract the fractional part of the northwest 
! quarter of Section 32, in Township 7 north, Range 
' 20 west, and extended the town plat onto the ad- 
joining northeast quarter of Section 31, belonging 
: to George Williams, with the understanding that 
the two tracts should be consolidated into one town 
property, and both be equal sharers in the sales of 
1 lots. In 1850 L. D. Parish came to Dardanelle. 
: and opened a store. He found Judge H. A. How- 
I ell here merchandising when he came. Judge 
i Howell came to this {ilaoe in lS-t7. Alwut 187)0 a 
' Mr. James Montgomery and Dudley D. Ma.son also 
I opened a store, which was soon bought out In L. 
[ D. Parish. In IS."! Capt. S. D. Strayhorn and 
Mr. C. M. Murdock built the Kimball & Perry 
I store-rooms, and sulisequently opened a store in 
co-partnership. 

During that year. A. S. Stephenson also opened 
j a store. Dying in lSr)2, he was the first f)erson 
buried with Mast)nic honors in Dardanelle. His 
1 remains were afterward carried by his friends to 
i Van Baren. Dr. E. W. Adams built the <ild 
Judge Howell store in isr)2. The old Parish Store. 
! as it is called, was built bv George Williams in 









1 t 



. .iv*'<oY. 




184:9. All the other old stores ou Front How be- 
tween Howell's and Kimliall's, were built between 
the years ISo'J and 1854. Among the later mer- 
chants who wore in trade at Dardauelle previons to 
the war may be mentioned the following: L. D. 
Parish, Murdock \' Kimball, IJobinson & Spivey. 
Adams Brothers, Levi Arnold, D. J. Jaeoway iSc 
Son and Hunt & Farrell. The leading merchants 
since the war have been KimV)all iV; Perry, John A. 
Ross & Co., E. W. Cunningham, Henry C. Cun- 
ningharu, Josiah Hawkins, Blaokwell, Thompson 
& Co., C. M. Freed and J, D. Goldman. The 
present business interests of the town may be thus 
briefly summarized: Harkey it Meyer, John A. 
Eoss & Co. , W. 11. Veazy & Co. , Collier c^ Black, 
Nunnelly & Kobinson, Pendergrass & Berry, J. D. 
Goldman & Co., John A. Croom, Gault & Co., 
Hart & Bro. , Boyee Bros. tV: Co., H. C. Cunning- 
ham, E. W. Cunningham, Z. J. Pierce, J. Haw- 
kins, Sr., general merchants; \V. U. Yeazy & Co., 
N. Goodier, hardware dealers; T. Wilson, S. Hol- 
stein, family grocers; \V. L. Alley, S. Evins & Co., 
Joseph Goodman, liverymen; Thomas Cox, W. E. 
De Long, machinery and implements; Edgar 
Shinn, transfer and ferry; the Dardanelle Ice Fac- 
tory; Edgar Shinn, coal dealer; Howell lV Leming, 
Wiley & JlcCarroll, J. H. Cook, Lancaster Bros., 
druggists: M. A. J. Bonville, saddler; F. V. Whit- 
tlesey, Robert Toomer, jewelers; Mrs. Dove, Mrs. 
Wishard, milliners; the Dardanelle Bank: A. Mad- 
enwald, undertaker; A. Hudspeth, broom manu- 
facturer; L. C. Hall, D. N. HalliBurton, E. G. 
Collier, insurance agents; L. Smith, meat market; 
Central Hotel, Mrs. M. S. Blaokwell; J. A. Ben- 
nett, marble yard; J. B. Crownover, abstracter and 
real estate dealer; United States land ollice; W. 
A. F. ilay, register, and T. B. Bumgarner, re- 
ceiver; George Peaker, photographer: Cotton & 
Welch, distillers; H. A. Mayer, planing-mills; L. 
Flater, carriage manufacturer; W. S. Waddle, 
George Julian, confectioners: L.E. Love. C. R. Wil- 
son, A. J. Harris, J, H. Wiley, J. D. Hart, J. H. 
Cook, E. Leming, physicians. The tirst child born 
in Dardauelle was Ruel Williams, son of George 
Williams, in 184-t. Jlrs. George Williams, who died 
in 1852, was the first person buried in the Dardan- 



elle graveyard. Dr. B. F. Chandler, who came in 
LSt'tXand died in PS">S, was the first physician in Dar- 
danelle. The great willow on Fi'ont Street was a 
riding switch, used in 18o4 by Coleman Lethgo, 
and by him presented to Mrs. H. A. Howell, who 
planted it where it now stands. Danville was sur- 
veyed early in the history of the county, and the 
locality was soon chosen as the permanent seat of 
justice. Among the pioneers there was William 
Porter, who kept tavern in a log house still remem- 
bered by many old residents. An early merchan- 
dising firm was Bernard & Arn(jld. Another 
early store was opened by John Howell, with L. 
D. Parish in charge. Dr. Floyd was a pioneer 
physician. B. & J. B. Howell, an.l W. H. Fields 
& Dolly were prominent merchants during the 
years "before the war.'' Among later merchants 
were "Ben'' Lang, Briggs, McCarrell & Heck, 
Briggs & Heck, and J. T. Briggs lV Son, W. H. 
Fields, Silas Fields, Robert Featherston, Dr. Bru- 
ton and Kemper & Hoehburn. A tannery was es- 
tablished nearly twenty years ago by W, L. Heck, 
who was succeeded by J. T. Briggs. The business 
of the place at this time may he summarized thus: 
Stores, Capshaw i: Briggs, J. M. McCarrell, J. 
W. Briggs, Gatlin ct Hill, K. Runyan; physicians. 
:\I. T. J, Capshaw, W. J. Stafford; blacksmiths 
and wheelwrights, T. J. Young, J. M. Kinser; 
hotels and boarding houses, Capt. J. B. Howell, 
Dr. W. J. Stafford, H. A. Carter. Danville lies 
in the heart of the county, on the Petit Jean, has 
a thrifty, progressive appearance, heightened some- 
what by Yell County's substantial brick court- 
house, and is blessed with one of the best schools 
in the county. The population is about 2t)0. Its 
favorable location and its long established prestige 
as the county seat can not but give it a veritalile 
"boom," with the advent of railway facilities. 
The projector and in some sense the early " pro- 
prietor'' of Danville was John Howell, who laid 
out the town and gave live acres of land for county 
uses. 

The location here of the seat of justice was the 
end of a memorable struggle for honors between 
different localities within the county limits, the 
details of which incomplete records do not disclose. 



-■t'jai.'ij 



-;) .A 






YELL COUNTY. 



i^ 



Next ill importance is Bellville,* the youngest as 
wi'll US the second largest town and commercial 
center of Yell County, situated twenty miles south 
of Dardaiiolle, the railroad town, and four miles 
north of Danville, the seat of justice, at the iiead 
(if one fork of the Petit Jean Valley, hack in a 
rect'ss of the mountains, which rise on its north 
and west. In twelve years its scenery, mineral 
waters, healthfulness and other natural advantages 
have gathered within its limits about 3(>t> thrifty 
inluiliilants and founded a center of trade and in- 
dustry. Daily mails and telephone bring the place 
in (|uick communication with other parts of the 
countv. Surrounding the town, line agricultural 
lands s[)read their fertility to the husbandman. 
The first settler on the site of this [ilace was Mi-. 
William H. Fergeson who established a saw-mill 
here in ISl'l, and later when he built a hou^e and 
was joined by others, the place by popular consent 
liecame known as Fergeson's Mills, and for some 
years bore that name. Jlr. Fergeson was the tirst 
postmaster, and he now again tills that office. He 
has from the first identified himself actively with 
all measures promising to advance the best inter- 
ests of the locality. He is a large land-owner, 
and still owns the ginning, saw and gi'ist mill in- 
dustry of the place, and is formost in the up- 
building of the town he established eighteen years 
ai^o. The first merchant was !Mr. John F. Choate, 
who came to Bellville in IST^. He is still in busi- 
ness, and at the head of one of the leading firms 
of the place. The business interests of Bellville 
at tlii.s time may be mentioned as follows: Gen- 
eral stores- Choate, Fowler & ^Martin. Heck & 
Briggs, F. C. Jones & Co., O. S. Fergeson, Brnton 
& Lynch; drug stores — Dr. J. H. Harkness, Pled- 
'^^■r A Briggs. Dr. G. C. Parker; blacksmiths- 
Nolan ^V; May, Bunch iS: Welch; steam planing- 
mill— N'ulan cV ]\[ay; steam, saw and grist mill 
and cottdn-giu— W. H. Fergeson; Bellville Hotel 
Tli(^mas McCleskey; Bellville Academy — J. G. 
Smyth, president. Ola, on the Petit Jean Biver, 
<lrav..lly Hill. BlulTton, Briggsville, Hover. Fair 
Hdl and Jinnini's Falls on the Fourche La Fave 



1-) f..r,l 



■111 t" I'nif. .1. 11. SmUli. ill Till- .Vrkuii 
i-ii"f tills skctclKitncUvillP. 



Biver. and Mount Nebo, Chickalah, AValnut Tree 
and Centerville are all fiourishing villages. Ola 
is ju-acticall) the outgrowth of the enterprise nf 
one man, Mr. J. M. Harkey, who came to tin' 
j county in 1847 when liut a small child. H(> 
j erected a mill herein tSi'i'), and began merchandis 
I ing in 1S7U. Here are the largest saw-mill, 
[ Hour-mill and ccjtton-gin in the county, all estab- 
! lished by Mr. Harki'v. The village is sixteen 
I miles south of Dardani'lle. .Souje of the other 
' points mentioned have ijijud local trade, are pro- 
j gressing and have niure than fair prospects for 
the future. All are neat with evidences of thrift. 
! Chickalah is the seat of a new and important edu- 
1 cational enterprise mentioned elsewhere. 
t There is no railroad in Yell Couiity, though 
i the Dardanelle & Kussellville Piailroad, which taps 
the Little Bock & Fort .Smith Piailroad at Bussell- 
1 ville, has its terminus on the north bank of the Ar- 
kansas Biver, opposite the town of Dardanelle, but 
receives and delivers all freight and passengers 
anywhere in the town. The St. Louis & San Fran- 
cisco has projected and surveyed a route from 
Hacket City to Little Bock, which will run along 
the Fourche La Favt- Valley across the entire 
southern part of the county. The St. Louis, Iron 
Mountain k, So\ithern has projected and surveyed 
a route from Little Rock to Fort Smith, which is 
likely to run along the valley of the Petit Jean 
River, across the central part of the county. A 
road has Ijeen chartered from Little Bock to Fort 
Smith by way of Dardanelle. The "Thirty-fifth 
Parallel Koad," leading west from ^Memjihis bv 
Dardanelle, I'ort Smith and Albuipier(iue, to 
Southern California, will necessarily be constructed 
in the near future. The Fort Scott, Natchez A; 
New Orleans road, by way of Dardanelle, and the 
road from Pari--, Te.\. , liy Dardanelle, to .St. 
Louis, which shortens the distance between St. 
Louis and Texas seventy-five miles, will, in all 
probability, soon be put luider construction. The 
projected Springtield \' Gulf Baihoad. from 
Springfield, Mo., via Dardanelle and Hot Springs, 
has lately attractf'd public attention to a consider- 
ai>le extent. It seems safe to predict that in a 
comparatively short tiuje Yell County will be tr.-iv 






■|-:W h 



1:7/ 



1 1 lilt 

hnn 



]2S 



HISTORY OF AllKANSAS. 



ersed by several railroads, arul if this prediction 
come true Dardaiielle can hardly stop short of 
l>ocoming an important railniad city. Nothing 
will so surely and so rapidly pii-,h forward the de- 
velopment of agricultural, commercial and general 
business interests, in all parts of the county, as 
railways. In the absence of railroads the people 
of the county have evinced a laudable spirit in 
constructing and in keepiing in repair the dirt 
roads throughout the county, and have caused to 
be erected two magniticent iron bridges across the 
Petit Jean Kiver, with 100-feet sjian each — one at 
Danville and the other on the main road leading 
from Dardanello to Hot Springs. 



J. C. H. All)r!ght. an eminently successful 
planter of Rover, was born in Geoi'gia in 1S4(I, and 
was the tenth of thirteen children born to Henry 
and Meeky (Blair) Albright, originally of North 
Carolina and Georgia, and whose ancestors were 
of German and American extraction, the grand- 
father, xVlbright, a silversmith by trade, emigrated 
from Germany to America, and settled in South 
Carolina, and later on moved to Georgia, where he 
died; and the maternal grandfather, an American 
by birth, and an Indian trader, live<l and died in 
Georgia. The father, a farmer, which occupation 
he followed all his life, early taught his son, J. C. 
H., the principles of farming, and gave him what 
few educational advantages the common schools of 
his day alT'orded. In 1800 he was married, and to 
himself and wife were born eleven children, six of 
whom are living; Lucy (wife of J. P. Briggs), 
Annie (wife of J. H. Hunt — see sketch), Martha 
Gertnide (wife of "W. C. Pugh), Jake and Eliza- 
beth (twins and deceased), Frank W. (died at the 
age of sixteen), Julia Maud. James Edward, John 
(died at the age of eight raonihs) and Mary Dar- 
ling. The year succeeding his marriage he became 
a soldier in the Confederate Army, enlisting in a 
company of the Fourth Georgia Regiment, under 
command of Capt. Farris, and fought in the battles 
of the Kenesaw Mountain and the Atlanta cam- 
paign; later moved with Gen. Johnston, then with 



I President Davis, and iinally surrendered at Wash- 
ington, Ga., going thence home and re engaging 
I in farming, and in 1870 settled in Yell County, 
subsequently coming to Rover in 187S, wheie he 
purchased some valuable farm property, putting 
iOO acres under a complete state of cultivation, 
and in 1.SS3 built hisjiresent neat and commodious 
residence. Religiously he and his family are mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, 
and socially is an A. F. & A.!M., lielonging to Rover 
Lodge No. 4G7, where he has done duty as wor- 
shipful master. He has always been deeply inter- 
ested in the welfare of his community, doing every- 
thing in his power to aid its growth. 

F. M. Baker, M. D., Riley Township, Yell 
County, Ark., and one of the leading practitioners 
of Marvinville, was born in Catoosa County, Ga., 
August 29, lSt)0, the son of Samuel and Sarah 
(Gill) Baker, natives of Georgia and South Caro- 
lina, respectively. The father followed farming 
and carpentering up to the time of his death, 
which occurred in 18(55 while in the Confederate 
Army. Dr. Baker spent his early days in Georgia, 
farming until 1878, when he removed to Missis- 
sippi. After farming in that State for two j'ears he 
took up the study of medicine, commencing in 
Banner, Calhoun County, of that State, in 1880. 
In 188] he began with Dr. J. Baker, an eclectic phy- 
sician, continuing with him one year, when he came 
to Arkansas and began practicing, meeting with 
good success. In LSS") he went to the Eclectic 
Medical Institute of Cincinnati, Ohio, remaining 
tliere until 1887, when he graduated. Upon leav- 
ing college Dr. Baker returned to Marvinville. was 
well received, has succeeded in building up a very 
good practice, and by saving has managed to pur- 
chase a small farm uf forty acres of land, liesides 
four town lots. He was married in this village in 
1887 to Miss Martha B. Parker, born in 18(')7, a 
daughter of Wesley and Elizalieth Parker, all na- 
tives of Tennessee. Both the Doctor and his wife 
are members of the Christian Church. Socially he 
is a member of the Christen Lodge 811 1, A. F. & 
A. M., and in politics is a Democrat. 

George B. Biggers, a pro.sperous planter of 
Dardanelle Township, tirst saw the light of day in 



.( 

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LOT .■ ) 

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YELL COUNTY. 



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Mississippi, on Miiy 2"), ISod, and is the ehlest 
cliikl of six born to Janios H. and Catherinn A. 
((Jallens) Biggt'i-s, who were nativi\s of tbf Old 
North State and Alalianja. iv^peetivi'ly. the father 
having been born in the former State in 1M!T. 
but was married in ^Mississippi. Ho was a farmer 
by occupation, and came to Arkansas wlien his 
son, George B., was t\v<j years old, entering 121) 
acres of land, which he brnUe and im[>roved for a 
homo. He and his wife (who diet! in lS62)were 
meml.iorsof the "Methodist Episcopal Chnreh. Our 
subject, who was early trairjed in the duties uf the 
farm, followed farming on his arriving to maidiood 
as a means of livelihood, and is now the piissessor 
of 11)3 acres of valualile land, forty-tiv." (if whicli 
are highly improved and cultivated. On Decem- 
ber '24, 1S72. he was nnitetl in marriage to !Miss 
Wellie A. Huff, a resident ol tliis C(3unty. who bore 
him a family of eight children— four sims and 
three daughters living: ]Maggie (born !March Ui, 
1874), Levietie (born Novendier 2S, IST'i), Lordia 

A. (born June 21'), ISS."). George C. (l)orn July 12. 
1878). Johnnie H. (born November 14. isSHi, t'assa 

B. (l)oru May 11, LS'S:!), an infant (born isss. ami ' 
deceaseil), and Denver (I)oru September 14, 1889). | 
He and wife are connected with the ;\Iethodist | 
Episcopal Church, and puliticall}' he votes the | 
Democratic ticket. 

John W. Elovins, Dardanolle P. O., Yell j 
County, one of the prominent lumber merchants of j 
this county, was born in Meigs County, Tenn., Oc- I 
tober 1:], lS4"i, and is the son of Thomas and El 
vina (Gourley) Blevins, natives of the same Slate. '- 
The father, who died in ISC,."), was liorn in ISl."), j 
carried on farming through his entire life in his ! 
native State. The mother is still living in the old | 
homestead in Tennessee. Our subject was reared tci 
maiihooii in his native State, receiving a good com- 
mon school education. There ho followed farming 
until the year 1874, when he came to Yell County, 
bought eighty acres of raw land, and started to 
improve it, l)ut wishing more room, he sold tliis 
and bought ninety-seven acres on the river below 
Dardanello. In the fall of 1881 :\rr. Blevins en- 
gaged in the lumber business, and opened mills 
valued at $l(\()ll(l near Chickalah Yillatre, and in 



this undertaking he was assisted by Mr. George H. 
Cravins and H. S. Cline. Shortly after they 
erected another mill a mile and a half in the valley 
fnjm the tirst, these mills ln'iug connected by a 
railway on which they haul their logs and lniul)er. 
This is one of the tirst of the kind ever introdn.cod 
in this section of the country, and shows the enter- 
prising s[iirit manifested by the firm. The first 
uiill consists of a grist, cotton-gin and lumbor- 
'Iressing department, while the latter has two 
dressers and shingle machinery. They Rre capa- 
l)leof turning out 2(),00U feet dady, but average 
about only 12,000 daily. The tirm also owns 
about 500 acres of pine timberland and has pur- 
chased the timber of a largo number of acres of 
dead land. Mr. J. W. Blevins owns about 30(J 
acres in Delaware Township, of which ITiO acres are 
in a good state of cultivation, and the rest covered 
with lumber, which ho has deadened with a view 
of making it gcjod for cultivation. In ISS'J our 
subject married Miss Ella Sills, daughter of Will- 
iam Sills, native of Kentucky. He is a memljor of 
Bright Star Lodge No. 213, A. F. & A. M.. and is 
a Democrat, politically, supporting all enterprises 
of public nature of benefit to his coimtry. At the 
opening of the war he enlisted iu Company I, Fifth 
Tennessee Cavalry under Capt. W. W. Lillard and 
Col. G. W. McKenzie. Although but fifteen years 
of age he kept with his company, and took part 
in the battles of Chickamauga, Atlanta and a large 
nnmlier of skirmishes. He was wounded in the 
limb, but did not leave his regiment, remaining in 
the army in all about three years, lieing paroled 
in May, 1S<>."). After the war Air. Blevins returned 
home and began his farming pursuits, which he has 
carried on so successfully. Both he aud his wife 
are raemliers of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
aud are esteemed by all who know them. 

William D. Briggs, after whom the township of 
Briggsville was named, was liorn in South Carolina, 
June 20, 1818, and was the eldest son of James and 
Eebecca (George) Briggs, and grandson of Thoimis 
George, of South Carolina. Of the eleven childien 
born to this union five are now living. \Villiam D. 
Briggs came to this State in ISSo, settled first in 
Johnson County, near Clarksville, where ho lived 



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HISTOUY OF xVKKANSAS. 



with bis father, ciiltivatiiii,' the soil, for two years. 
He then begau clerking in a njrocery store in 
Clarksville for AVilliam J. Parks and Saiuut^l 
Hayes, and was thus employed for one vear. He 
then came with his father to Yell County, M'ttled 
in Fouche Valley, and there remained workin;:; on 
a farm with his father, and taking charge of his 
father's business for some time. ^\'ln•u about 
twenty- five years of age he l)ought a farm near his 
present residence, remained on the same for five 
years, and during that time he cleared about fortv 
acres, erected buildings and improved the place. 
Then he engaged in general merchandising with 
his brother at Blutt'ton, this county, and was very 
successful in this venture, but his father, being 
well along in years, wished him to return home 
and assume charge of the farm. This he did, and 
he and his father were engaged extensively in the 
raising of hogs, cattle and horses. Here he re- 
mained seven years, but at the end of live years 
his father died, after which our subject remained 
to take care of his mother and look after the farm. 
Previous to this, in lS4o, Mr. Briggs, with his 
father, erected a cotton-gin on tlie hitter's place. 
This was the first of the kind in the comity, and 
William drove hogs to Ked River, a di-tance of 
110 miles, to exchange them for the gin head 
which he then hauled in a wagon over the mount- 
ains and through an almost trackless forest to his 
home. This took him several weeks, as he was 
obliged to find market for his hogs, consisting of 
300 head, selling to the farmers as they might 
want for their immediate use. The other parts of 
his gin he made on his place. This he worked for 
several years, when he sold it and it was moved to 
Bluflton. Mr. Briggs then erected a large steam 
mill, grist, saw and cotton mill, all costing about 
$7,000, and this was destroyed by fire in ISiTo. 
Being uninsured it was a total lo.'-s. Soon after 
this he erected another mill, which he operated 
about four years, when it took fire and was burned 
to the ground. At the end of a year lie erected 
still another steam-mill which he operated for four 
years, and then sold it to his sous, who still con- 
tinue to operate it. Mr. Briggs was married, 
September 2 I-, 1857, to Miss Celissa A. Coleman, 



who bore him nine children — sis sons ai;d three 
daughters— seven of whom are ^tiil living: James 
C. (born December 25, 185S, and married ^Vliss 
j Amanda Albright Octo1)er 2'.». ISMIj, Anna (wife 
of James Bogle), \\'illiaui (married Jliss Doeia 
Scroggins), Louisa (njarrie<l' J. B. Stevenson). 
Edna (married Eli Gladden). Levi L. and Wallace, 
the last two being single. ANhen tiie war broke 
out Mr. Briggs was ol)liged to leave his home to 
save himself from the bushwhackers who were 
concealed in the mountain districts, and he was 
from home about three years. Returning at the 
close of hostilities he found his projierty laid 
waste and great damage done to the same. He 
did what he could at farming with the stock he 
brought with him. and the first year's work was 
not very successful. However, the next year he 
made §3,000 on his farm and with his gin, the 
latter being the only one in the county. In con- 
nection with his brother ho then opened a store at 
Bluffton, which they conducted for about five 
years, at which time our subject sold out and 
returned to the farm. Since then he has devested 
his time and attention to tilling the soil. He was 
county surveyor of his county hjv twenty-two 
years, and is a Democrat in politics. He and 
family are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, of which he has been steward for many 
years and a member of the board of trustees. He 
is a member of the A. F. tt A. M. lodge at Blufl'- 
ton, and gives liberally of his means to support all 
worthy movements. Soon after his marriage "Slv. 
Briggs purchased 4-tO acres of excellent valley 
land as productive as any in the county, and this 
he has improved until he has 120 acres under cul- 
tivation. He has a good comfoitable farm-house, 
good barns, etc. He added to his land from time 
to time until he was the owner of 1.300 acres, lint 
has divitled with his children, until he now has but 
about 500 acres. 

John W. Brown, owner of a fine seventy acre 
farm, lying in Gallarock Township, four and one- 
half miles south of Dardauelle. and which is nearly 
all improved, was bcjrn in Mississippi, May 7, 
1S40. His father. William Brown, was born in 
Alabama, in liSOO, and his mother, Mary F. Hul- 






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YELL COUNTY. 



131 



lain, was born ia TenuesHee, iu 1811, and married 
ill Hardeman County, Juno '!'>, 1829, and by this 
iiinrrin"(i l)ecame the mother of four sons and live 
ilaiii'liters. In 18r)"2, when Arkansas was nothing 
but a wiKlerness, the family located in Yell County, 
where the father purchased land, and by Lis untir- 
iti" elforts accumulated considerable property, 
which was contiscated during the Civil War. This 
mother, who was a faithftd and earnest member of 
tlie Uaptist Church, was called to her final home 
ill bSi)5, her husband surviving her till March 12, 
IS'iti. Our subject, a patriotic and enthusiastic 
defender of his country, in ISfiS, enlisted in an 
organization of cavalry known as Company D, 
under command of Col. Hill, and fongbt the battles 
of rilot Knob, Jefferson City and Independence, 
also took part in a number of skirmishes, and in 
ISOo laid down his arms of warfare, at Marshall, 
Tex. Ho was twice married, in ISHS, Miss Annie 
OUiver, who was born in Mississippi, in 1840, be- 
pnine his first wife, and in ISSO she died, leaving 
the following family to his care: Neva O. , Elsie 
M., Alvin E. (since deceased), William T. (de- 
ceased), Angle (deceased), Anna (deceased i; and 
in 18S5 for his second wife he wedded Jliss Mary 
Andrews, of Alabamian birth, being born in 1852, 
to Peter and Isabella (Price) Andrews. Two chil- 
dren have blessed this marriage: Anna L. and Hom- 
er. Mrs. Brown is a conscientious Christian woman, 
acid a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and he is an enterprising and respected farmer of 
his township. 

Dr. H. P. Bruton, the well-known eclectic phy- 
sician, and a member of the popular firm of Bru- 
ton & Lynch, general merchants of Bellville, was 
Ixjrn in Po[)o County, in 1840, his parents, James 
and Sarah (.\ngel) Bruton, of Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee, i-espectively, but were married in the latter 
State, came to Arkansas in 1836, liought. entered 
and improved the land on wliich they made their 
home till their deaths, his wife's occurring in 1850, 
aiid he following her demise in 18<)2. He was an 
ai-tive politician, being in the Lower House of the 
'lontTal Assembly for a number of years, and was 
"ii'^ of tho commissioners to locate the seat of jus- 
tice of Pope County at Dover, and for many years 



officiated as a Baptist preache:-, and was famil 
iarly known throughout all Western Arkansas. 
The Doctor's early boyhood was spent on a farm, 
attending the private schools, and when sixteen 
years old began teaching, and for several years 
taught and attended school. When uiiieteon lie 
engaged as clerk in a drug store, and there laid tho 
foundation of his medical profession, by reading 
medicine in connection with his duties at the store. 
In ISnO-Ol he enrolled himself as a student of the 
Eclectic Medical Institute, afterward graduatino-, 
and at once beginning to practice. Locating in 
Danville, in 1807, he opened an office, and in 1872 
started the first driig store in town, withdrawing 
from this to enter into the general merchandise 
business. Going to Russellville in 1878, he en 
gaged in his profession and in merchandising, ami 
remained till ISSl, when he came to Bellville. 
where he has established his present lucrative busi 
ness and built up a good practice. In 18S1J he was 
president of the State Eclectic Medical Society, 
held at Hot Springs, and in January, 1800, took 
into partnership T. C Lynch. His individual 
property consists of a good dwelling and 100 acres 
of land, partially cultivated. He was three times 
married, the first time to Miss Ella Fowler, in 
1873, who died in a few yeai's. leaving him one 
child, Lee; and again in 1878, ]kliss Stafford, 
daughter of Dr. Stafford, became his wife. She 
died, leaving him one child, Arthur, and in 18^5 
he celebrated his third marriage, Miss Jones being 
the contracting party, and who bore him two chil- 
dren: Bertha and IMyrtle. They are members of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church South. 

B. D. Bryson. John P. Bryson was liorn in 
North Carolina in 1820 and reared as a farmer, 
and on arriving to manhood married Miss Ollie 
Jones, and later on emigrated to Georgia, where 
B. D., our subject, was l)orn June 25, 1840. and 
in 1857 came to Izard County, this State, remain 
ing here till 1803, when he changed to Yell 
County, which he m;ide his home till the death of 
himself and wife, which occurred in 1874, they 
being at the time of their demise earnest members 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church. When 
twenty years of ago the siibject of this sketch 



II 



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132 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



learned the boot and shoe trade, and soon after 
became proticient as a harness-maker, working at 
this till the war cry sounded, when ho laid down 
his tools to take up arms in defense of his coun- 
try. In 18'^)2 he enlisted in the cavalry, joining 
Company F, known as an independent orgauiza 
tion of Confederate soldiers under command of J. 
H. Jones. Being granted a leave of ab.^ence in 
1804 he went to Clarion County, Tex., where he 
was united in marriage to Miss Mary E. Warer, 
and on his return to army life remained in service 
till the surrender, when he returned to his home 
and engaged in farming, and now owns "iST acres 
of fine, fertile laud in Gallarock Township. ISO of 
which are thoroughly worked and impnived. and 
he is known as a practical farmer posses.-ed with 
broad and progressive ideas, and for two years of- 
ficiated as constable of his township. In 1SS5 
death robbed him of his worthy consort, who was 
a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
the following year he wedded Miss Sallie A. Law- 
rence, a native of Tennessee, born in I.S06, and 
they have become the parents of two children: 
Cora and Jhobery. Mr. and ]Mrs. Br} son are 
faithful and errnest members of the ?,!ethodist 
Episcopal Church, where he has been steward for 
eighteen years. 

Thomas D. Bumgarnt-r. the geni.d ret-eiver of 
the land office of Dardanelle, was born in Lumpkin 
County, Ga. , the second in a family of tive born 
to Woodford and Rebecca C. (Hei?Dert) Bumgarner, 
of Kentucky and Georgia, respectively, and n(jw 
deceased, the father December 24, 188:!. and the 
mother in 1854. The senior Bumgarner, like all 
early settlers of the pioneer States, followed farm- 
ing as a means of livelihood. In 184'.), thinking to 
better his fortune, he joined the gold-mining [)arty 
en route for California, where he was qnitf success- 
ful, and at the end of two years returned to Arkansas 
and purchased an immense tract of land. oOO acres 
in extent, near Danville, which he cleared and made 
for himself a comfortable home, residing here till 
his death. The paternal grandparents were early 
settlers of Kentucky, which was their home till their 
deaths, which occurred in Russell County, of that 
State. The maternal grandfather, David, of Ger- 



man ancestry, on his arrival to this country, settled 
in North Carolina, and later moved to Georgia, 
thence to Arkansas in 1870. and in a short while 
returned to Georgia, where he died in iSS'), at the 
advanced age of one hundred and eighteen years. 
He was always noted for his intense interest in his 
adopted country's welfare. Our subject was n-ared 
in Yell County, being educated in the country 
schools, and left school in 18*);^ to enter the United 
States Army, j(,iining Com{)any F, Third Arkansas 
Cavalry, as scout in advance of Gen. Steele's army ; 
was captured at Arkadelphia,and soon after paroled. 
On receiving his muster out, June 30, IS'v"), he re- 
sumed his schiiol duties and farmed, and in IMiS 
was elected sheritf, his term of oflice expiring in 
September, ISOU; he went to Normal, 111., and en- 
tered the State Normal University, and after the 
completion of his studies here, became clerk in the 
county clerk's office and otHciated in that cajiacity 
in a store in Danville for a short time, when he 
purchased eighty acres of land, increasing this to 
1,0(10 of fine valley and timberland. 350 of which 
are under cultivation, and makes a specialty <if 
some ti[io grades of stock. He has always vot.'d 
the Republican ticl;et and has held several minor 
offices: Census enumerator in 1880, justice of tlie 
peace and notaiy pnljlic, and received his present 
appointment in the s[iring of 1889, assuming 
charge of the ottice June 1, IS'.'O. Miss Rachel 
Virginia Pound (daughter of Thomas W. Pound, 
one of the pioneer settlers of Arkansas, who died 
December 24, 1S84, his wife dying in I88O1. be 
came his wife January 2'.l, 1S71. and they are the 
parents of the following family: Virginia (died 
when two years old), Julia May (wife of Walter 
Charaliersj, Lelia (died at the age of twoi. Ituth- 
erford Burchard Hayes, Roscoe Conkling, Thomas 
Edgar, and Minneola, and all are consistent mem- 
liers of the Meth(.)dist I'pisco[)al Church South. 

William D. Callan, an eminently successful 
plantei-, prominently identified with the leading 
interests of Dardanelle Township, was born in 
Eastern Tennessee, December 11, 18y<), where Ins 
parents. George and Matilda (Davis) Callan, native 
Carolinians, settled at an early day, subsequently 
going to Alabama, thence to Mississippi, and in 



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YELL COUNTY. 



133 



IS,",() to Yell C'diintv. wliorp the fatlitr ditnl in 1S(VJ. 
Hiul tilt' iDiither. ^-till living, nlakt^s Ikt liomy with 
her children. They were conscientious nji'iuiiers 
of the church. Oar subject was raised a farmer, 
and wlien llalloweH's c>:>iu])ariy was forming at 
Danianelle in 1N(')1, he enlisted and went with it to 
Mi-.^ouri, where he fought in the battles of Oak 
Hill and Elk Horn, or Pea liidge. Farmington, 
(iil)f-on, C'iiampion Hill and Big Black River. 
He was dispatched to Coriuth. Tupelo and Tuka, 
and took part in the second battle of Corinth, also 
lighting at Jackson and Yicksburg, and on July 4, 
ISC);?, was taken prisoner. Paroled and returning 
to Arkansas, he was recajitured near Dardanelle. 
and compelled to join a company of Federal troops, 
commanded by Capt. Bennett, and here he was 
practically discharged from service, but not being 
armed, was consequently seized by the Confeder- 
ates, and sent to Red River, La., sub-eijuently 
joining a company of cavalry, with which he re- 
mained until the surrender. Returning to his 
home, he engaged in farming, purchasing and im- 
proving eighty acres of land, which he has in- 
creased to '210 acres, part timber and seventy-five 
cultivated, and also raises some tine stock. In 
ISfiT he weilded Miss Nancy J. HutT. daughter of 
William L. and Frances Hnti', formerly of Tennes- 
see, but who came to this county in 184S. where 
their daughter was born March 30 of the same 
year. Mr. and Mrs. Callan are the parents of 
eleven children, all living: George Monroe (born 
January 20. 1868), Amanda Ailie (born May Ti. 
• 870), Caroline D. (born December -l, ISTl), Audie 
Matilda (born December 1, 1873), William Ander- 
son (born November 15, 187">), Francis Nareis 
(born April 10, 1877), Clemmie Price (born April 
0, 1^179), Harrison Alexander (born January 11. 
1881), James Burton (born ilarch Id. I^s3), Dor- 
ens Orleane (born June 21. IhSO) and Gus (born 
August 2, 18SS). Mr. Callan is a wide-awake and 
'■iiergetic citizen, and takes an interest in every- 
tliing relating to educational matters, and has 
served as school director. He and wife come from 
a long-lived race, his grandfather living to the 
npo old age of one hundred and ten years, and 
iirs. Callan's grandfather dying at the age of one 



hundred years, and her grandmother at ninety- 
seven years. 

James M. Caviness, farmer, Gravelly Hill, Ark. 
Thoroughgoing and enterprising Mr. Caviness has 
made a complete success of his chosen calling, 
farming, and is to-day one of the substantial agri- 
culturists of Yell County. He was born in Ten- 
nessee, and came to Arkansas with his parents 
when an infant. The parents settled in Scott 
County, and there the father purchased a large 
tract of laud, which he improved and cultivated. 
There James 31. grew to manhood, received his ed- 
ucation, r.nd at the breaking out of the war, when 
but seventeen years of age, he enlisted in Company 
H, De Rosa Carroll's regiment and served through 
the war. Among the important engagements in 
which he took part, were Oak Hill, Elk Horn and 
several other smaller engagements. After this he 
was transferred to Gen. Pike's division, and went 
with him to Indian Territory, where he served for 
about a year. He then returned to Arkansas, and 
the post of Arkansas and Little Rock, and after 
the war he went to Texas, where he ran a ferry 
across Trinity River, also carried on a farm for one 
year. He then returned to Arkansas and settled 
in this township. Soon after, in the fall of 1866, 
he was married to ]Miss Louisa, daughter of Col. 
Parks, one of the earliest settlers of Yell County. 
In 1867 he bought a tract of wild land, which he 
improved and which is still his home. He erected 
good buildings on the same, and from time to time, 
as his means allowed, he has added to his estate 
until he now owns 900 acres of as good land as the 
average in this valley. He raises a great many 
horses, cattle, hogs and sheep, and has been un- 
usually successful. His principal crops are corn, 
cotton and oats. He has on his farm this year 
about 17)0 acres of cotton, which promises a good 
crop, about 300 acres of corn, and about fifty acres 
of oats. To Mr. Caviness' marriage were born 
nine children, six of whom are still living: Willie 
T., John C, James R., Walter G.. Allie L. and 
Chester. Willie T. married ]Miss Lizzie Camp- 
bell. Mr. Caviness and family are members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church South, and he is 
steward in the same. He is a Democrat in his 



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HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



polities, anil is a raerabor of the A. F. & A. i\I. 
lotlge of Gravelly Hill, being treasurer in the 
same. 

Simeon E. CLambers. farmer, Briggsville, Ark. 
All his life Mr. Chambers has followed, with sub- 
stantial success, the occupation to which he was 
reared, and in which he is now engaged — farming. 
A very extensive land owner of Briggsville Town- 
ship, he is also one of its recognized leading agri- 
culturists, and as a man, no less than as a citizen, 
he is highly esteemed. He is a native of this State 
born near Little Rock, on January 2S, 1842, and 
his earliest recollections were uf working on the 
farm. In 1S63 he came to this county with his 
mother and her other children, she being the widow 
of Edward M. Chambers, of Georgia. Mrs. Cham- 
bers settled near Briggsville. and her sons worked 
a farm for the support of the family. About a 
year after their arrival the mother died, and soon 
after Simeon bought ItjO acres of land, one of the 
finest tracts in the valley. This he paid for in 
about five years, and during that time he saved 
sutlicient money to buy eighty acres more, jiaying 
§700 for it. Later yet he bought forty acres for 
$175, and in 1SS9 he purchased eighty acres of 
well-improved land, paying -SI, 000 for this. All 
his land has been paid off the profits of the farm, 
for Mr. Chambers has been engaged in no other 
business. He has good buildings on each farm, 
and besides the cultivated portion of his land, he 
has many aeies of valuable timber lying in the 
valley near Briggsville. He keeps a good tsreeil of 
cattle (Durham), and in the management of every- 
thing connected with his farm he displays excel- 
lent judgment and thoroughness. On April 20, 
1871, he married Miss Laura Hamilton, a native 
of Texas, born November 9, 1852. and who came 
with her father. John Hamilton, of Red River 
County, Tex., to this county in 1S07. Eight chil- 
dren were born to this marriage: Martha C. John 
E., Simeon L. , Amanda C Rebecca. Thomas, 
Warren and Winnie. Mr. Chambers has never 
been active in politics, but takes a decided interest 
in educational matters, having been director for 
several terms. In ISt)'! he volunteej ed in tiju .-amy, 
and was inCapt. Conley's company of Gi'u. Price'-s 



army. Six months later he was discharged fortlis- 
ability, but one year from that time he re-enlisted 
and remained in s(?rvico until the close of the war. 
Pleasant and charitable to all, ilr. Chambers is 
respected and esteemed by the man}- with whom he 
comes in contact. 

John F. Choate, an extensive planter and the 
genial senior member of the firm of Choate, Fow- 
ler & Martin, dealers in general merchandise, was 
born in Robertson County, Tenu., in IS-ll, his 
parents being Gabriel Choate and .Jane Brewer, 
natives of Tennessee, where the father was born 
in IS'iO and married in 1840, and followed farming 
till 1850, when he with his wife and family of sis 
children, John F., being the eldest, came to Ar- 
kansas, settling near Chickalah. Here he and his 
aged wife still live, enjoying their old age in com- 
fort, affording proof of the healthfulness of Arkan- 
sas climate from having lived in this State for over 
forty years, always keeping in the best of health. 
For many years they have been counted among the 
worthy members of the Christian Church, ilr. 
Choate' s grandfather, on both sides, were natives Vir- 
ginians. They came to Tennessee when very young 
men, where Grandfather Choate died. Grandfather 
Brewer emigrated to Arkansas in 1850 and died here. 
Our subject was but nine years old when his parents 
moved to this State, and being placed in school he 
received a very fair education, and on arriving at 
maturity held some of the county's most respon- 
sible ofiicial positions. In IS'io he was elected 
circuit clerk, serving over eight years, and in 1S7<) 
he was elected county judge, tilling this office four 
years with great credit to himself and the county. 
While acting in this capacity he was the means of 
having two iron bridges constructed, which are 
permanent and lasting structures, and a great 
credit to the county. In 1878 he located in Bell 
ville and established a mercantile business, which 
was iii 187t') merged into that of the firm of Choate. 
Fowler & Martin, which carries a stock principally 
of general merchandise, plantation supplies, etc , 
valued at about i!7,000, and does a trade of some 
§20,000 annually. The Judge's personal jiroperty 
consists of the building known as " the store 
house," and other town property. His extensive 



fiirins, comprise 1,000 acres of very fair upland, 
;!i>0 cultivatt'il aiu] iuiproveil with a good dwelling- 
liouse, and suhstantial outbuildings. Tho juar- 
riafoof Judge Choate and Miss Alice StatlVnd \va^ 
c»'!('l)rat('<l iu May. I'^l'iSJ. sbe being a daugliter of 
Dr. Stafford, of Danville, and they are the parents 
of eight children, seven of whom are living: Edith, 
(!ecil S., John B., Roscoe, Garland, Eunice and 
Carl: Lillie J. died iu infancy. ifr. Choate 
and liis family are members of the Methodist 
Ei>iscopal Cliureh South, and he has been steward 
for many years. He affiliates with the Masonic 
fraternity, belonging to Christian Lodge No. — . 
and the Chapter at Dardanelle. Intellectually, 
the Judge is one of the soundest men in the county, 
thoroughly posted in regard to its political and 
educational affairs. His public spirit has been 
demonstrated by the fact that he was one of the 
four to contriluite funds for the erection of the 
IJellville Academy. He is recognized in the com- 
nuinity in which he lives as a genial and coru'te- 
ous gentleman, and is respected by all who know 
him. 

T. J. Choate, an eminent and esteemed citizen 
of Magazine Township, and the owner of the saw- 
mill plant two and a half miles north of Chickalah, 
was born in Tennessee, in 1843, and is the son of 
Gabriel and Jane (Brewer) Choate, also of Ten- 
nessee origin, and born about 1S20 and 1S16, re- 
spectively, and were married in Kobinson County. 
Tho father, a farmer by occupation, emigrated 
from his native State to ^Missouri, thence to Arkan 
sa.s in 1850. Locating in this county he bought 
and entered land, which he improved and he and 
wife, worthy members of the Christian Church. 
make their home in Magazine Township. Our 
subject enlisted in the Confederate Army in 1SG2, 
j')iuing Company B of Infantry, Hawthorne's Reg- 
iment, and at the expiration of eleven mouths 
j<'inpd the Federal Army as a private, and partici- 
pated in the battle of Jenkins' Ferry and a number 
of skirmishes, and discharged ^ilay, ISOo. The 
year following his return from, army life wit- 
nessed his marriage (July S) to Mi.ss Salina AVil- 
-'■n, an Arkansan by birth, born in l^t-t. and a 
duiight.T of William and Minerva (Colei Wilson. 



The fruits of this union are nine children — six sons 
aq^l three daughters — Ilufus, Mattie, Gabriel, Mary, 
John, Charles, Seth, Rual and Blanche, who in 
ISST were called upon to mourn the loss of their 
mother. In connection with his milling business, 
which has a capacity for sawing nearly 10.000 feet 
per day, he owns .'J>(^ acres of land, with some tine 
timber on it, and cultivates 100, his principal 
crops being cotton and corn. He is a member of 
Chickalah Lodge No. 3(U of the Masonic order. 

Jerry Cockrell. Jr., a rising planter of Darda- 
nelle Township, was born in South Carolina iu 
1855, and was the sixth in a family of eight chil- 
dren born to Jerry, Sr. , and Eliza (Millmore) Cock- 
rell, who were natives of the Palmetto State, where 
his father was a very prominent man and planter, 
owning three plantations, 100 slaves, and was also 
the popular sheriff of Fairfield County. Both he 
and wife died in their native State, he in ISOO and 
she in 1SG7. members of the Presbyterian Church. 
The great-grandfather, a very extensive planter, 
was one of the early pioneer settlers of South Caro- 
lina. Our subject, who passed his youthful days 
on a farm and attending school at Louisville and 
other places, came to Arkansas in 1870 and located 
in Dardanelle, and in 1SS3 purchased a tract of 
land eighty-two and one-half acres in extent, situ- 
ated in the woods two miles west of town. He 
immediately began cutting the timber on this land, 
and now has a clearance of over sixty acres, twenty- 
two sown to grass, and the rest cultivated. In 
connection with his farm duties he gives consider- 
able attention to stock-raising, making a specialty 
of some of the finer grades of cattle, hogs and 
sheep, including many of the choice varieties of 
poultry. Our subject began his worldly career 
with compiaratively nothing, but being possessed 
with a determi[ied will and undaunted courage 
combined with hard labor, has accumulated his 
tine, valualjle property. He is an earnest and 
worthy member of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
and a Good Templar. 

Robert T. Compton. Among the native resi- 
dents of the State of Georgia was one John Comp- 
tun, who married Elizabeth Allen, also of Georgia, 
and who became the mother of six children, of 



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130 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



whom Robert T. (subject of onr ski'teli) was tlio 
youngest, l)eing born in Hall County, Ga., Scpteyj- 
ber 13, 1853, and being left an iir|ihan af the age 
of nine, made Lis home \vith bis luothiT-in law, 
L. J. Pugli, and came witL hini. in I MIS, to Yell 
County, remaining with them till hf was nineteen 
years old, when be hired tu a farnivr, anil fallowed 
this occupation till ISil. when, on October 4. of 
this same year, ho married frances H. iJiiford, who 
was born September 13. is'i-". and is tlie daughter 
of Rev. W. L. Buford. of Snuth Carolinian na- 
tivity, being born in that State September •">. ISdS, 
and died in Y'ell County, Septenilier lii, 1^"^!, her 
mother having died in l^t']l. To the marriage of 
Robert Compton and wife were burn four boys and 
four girls: Nancy E. (born Octolier 3, 1N75. and 
died December 13, 18Ti'i). l-ney L. |b(irn March 
10, 1877, died March "JS, 1n7'.»). :\Iary Uell (l)orn 
January 18, 1879), Robert S. (lu.ni April I.'.. l^Sl ), 
William G. (born July S, 1^S3, .lied X.,veniber l-j, 
1889), Lucinda R. (born April -JU. Issr,, died Sep- 
tember 7,1889), Reuben Anderson (born ^lay 2, 
1887), and Buford (born September Id. iss'.i). At 
the time of this worthy couple's marriage they 
did not possess a dollar's worth "f this world's 
goods, but by determiiiati.m. industry and ec.niumy, 
they have accumulated a farm uf 3:'m .\ acres in 
Fourche La Fave Valley, 17^1 of which he has 
thoroughly improved, and are nmv residents of 
Rover Township. In politicb he i-^ an enthusiastic 
Democrat, and has served a^ justici' of tlie peace 
for eight years on the local ticket, Him-nlf and 
wife are consistent memliers of the .^b■thodi>t Epis- 
copal Church South, and i> a citizen deeply in- 
terested in the upbuilding of schools and eliurches, 
always liberally contributing to the^e and all tilings 
for the benefit of his community'^ good. 

William Cowger, a thrifty farmer of Yell 
County, emigrated with his part-nts. Ira and iCIiza 
(Proctor) Cowger, fatherof Teinie.~>ee. aiul mother 
of Alabama, from Mississippi to Arkan-as in Isorj, 
locating in Yell Cotinty. They were nnit-d in 
marriage in Alabama, and were tin' parent-, of 
twelve children, he whose name heads thi-^ sketch 
being the secmd child, and wa-. born in the latter 
State, March b, Lb39. The fatlier, a farmer, was 



killed by the Federals in 1S((3, his widow surviving 
him till lbS7. Both were members of the Method- 
ist Episcopal CJhurch. South. Our subject wa> a 
soldier in the late war, enli--ting in L'omjiany D, 
Fifteenth Arkansas Regiment, and lieing wounded 
was discharged from service in lSi'i3. In bSOS he 
was joined in marriage to .Miss Nancy .Jones, also 
of tliis county, and wiio was born August "J'J. IM'.^, 
and they were the parents of f<jur children: Ro!)- 
ert P., Eliza E., and a son and daitghter deceased. 
Hinjself and wife are worthy communicants of the 
Ba^itist Church. He has eighty-four acres of good 
land, all well improved, ami is a high minded and 
public-spirited man, upholding the Imildiug of 
churches and schoiils. and doiuites lilierally to the 
support of the same. 

James A. Ciuw, a resident planter of Center- 
ville Township, whose liirth place was in M<,irgan 
County, Ala., was horn .August 11, 1^17, a son of 
James \V. and ilary .V. (Kyle) Crow, who were 
married in the Stale of Alabama. l.)ecember 1». 
1841. The mother was liorn in 1n19. and the 
father July "il, l^'-!3, both in Alabama. The for- 
mer was a farmer, car[ienter and an active poli- 
tician, and while a soldier in the Confederate Army 
way taken pri-^oner, and carried to Rock inland. Ilk, 
where he died in l^iil. his widow joining him in 
1875. They were con>i;.tent and worthy members 
of the Methodist Episeo[ial Church. Our suliject 
emigrated from Mi.-sissii)i>i to Yell County iti lStJ9, 
and purchased 1 K) acres of fertile land, breaking, 
clearing, and putting under thorough cultivation 
eighty acres, and in 1^^S Ijuilt th<' large two-story 
frame house in which he now lives, all of which he 
has accunmlated by hard work and good manage- 
ment. His marriage to .Mi^s Nancy McKinzie, 
formerly of North t'arolina, t(jok place in this 
county, and ^he i-^ the mother of eight chikhvn, 
seven of whom are living: !Mary R., James A,, 
.^b■lville L., David T., Laura O, , Leslie H. and 
Leiinia H. ilr. and Mrs. Crow are members of 
the Ab4hodist E(Mscopal Church South. Air. 
Crow's maternal grandmother, lived to be one 
hundred and ti'ti years of age, and dejiarti'd this 
life in Alaliama. Our bubject is highly oteemed 
by his friends for his many good ([Ualities. 



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YELL COUNTY. 



137 



Joba T. Crowiiover, ono of the successful till- 
ers of the soil, um\ owuer of a TJH-aere farm situ- 
ated iu Fergesou To\vn^lii]i, came to this tii\vushi[) 
ill ISSO and bought his laml. which at the time 
was mostly in its natural state, and which by liard 
work and perseverance he has cleared, cultivated 
and improved with a comfortable house, good barn 
and other outbuildings. He raises principally cot- 
ton, corn and small grains, which yield abundantly 
•and give him good returns for his lab'ir. He was 
boru in South Carolina April 10. 1^-JS, and came 
with his parents, Daniel D. (Ijorn in the Palmetto 
State March 2, ISIS) and Polly (daughter of John 
George) Crownover. to this State iu LS40. Here 
ho received a very limited education, and at the 
breaking out of hostilities was among the tirst to 
respond to the call for men. and enlisted in Com- 
pany l'\ Third Arkansas Regiment of Cavalry, 
where he fought till his discharge in June, lSfi-"i. 
He tljen returned to his home, and on June ■'• of 
the following year was united iu marriag(^ to iliss 
Jane Schwilling, who bi ire him live children: \\ ar- 
reu Henry (l_)orn ill ISliT), Mary W. (born in 1S7I), 
Robert K. (born in LST7), Ralph H. (born in ISSl), 
and Alice May (Ijuru in ISs;!). He is not identi 
tied with any one church, but is a generous dcjnator 
to all, and is a man well i[if<irmed un the leading 
events of his day; is charitable, h(jspitalile. and in 
his dealings with his fellow-crt-atuies is governed 
\i\ the teachings of the Golden Rule. 

S. L. Crownover, the senior member of the 
tinn of S. L. Crownover & Co., was born in Rover 
in 1S17. his parents, Henry T. and Jane (Briggs) 
Crownover, of South Carolina, came to Yell County 
with their parent.s prior to lS4tl, where they were 
married about ISlo, and located on a farm near 
Danville, where the father was accidentally killed 
by a Inirse in IS-'i'.l, the mother still living and re- 
sidiiig in Texas. The principal of this biography 
was raised on a farm and educated in the common 
schools, and at the age of twenty began farming 
for himself, and in lS7l» started merchandising at 
HlulTton, which he conducted for fourteen years; 
then was two years at Briggsville, where he was 
appointed ii'i^tmaster, when he moved the business 
to Rover, and carries a stock of $(i,()00, which 



brings iu a trade of §12,000 annually, drawing 
customers from all along the valley of the Fourche. 
His personal property consists of a storehouse, 
2lx.'"i0, two dwellings in town, and l,2ll<) acres of 
tine river bottom land with HTiO culti\ated and im 
proved, and it is all tlue to hard w<_)rk and guod 
management. He was married in lNi2 to Miss 
Nannie T. Burt, daughter ui W. T. Burt, of South 
_(,'arolina. and who has borne him eight chihbcn: 
Mary Ida. Sydn.-y B. (decease.!). John Wyatt 
(deceased), Ada Bell, Penelope May, Pearl Lado- 
nia, Effie and William Leander. Mrs. Crownover 
is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and socially he belongs to the A. F. & A. M. , hav- 
ing joined Rover Lodge No. 4(W, and politically is 
a stanch Democrat, doing all in his power f(!r its 
success, and has represented his State in conven- 
tion twice. 

Dr. Hiram Dacus. In giving a sketch of the 
lives of the representative men of the various 
trades, occupations and professions, the history 
of Yell County would I'e inc(3mplete were that of 
Dr. Dacus, of Chickalah, omitted. He was the 
eldest sou of fourteen children boru to James A. 
and Martha J. (Burton) Dacus. boru, respectively, 
about 1S20 and bS'J5 in the State of Tennessee, 
this also being the birthplace of our subject, who 
tirst saw the light of this world in Tipton County 
in 1S40, and when three years old his father moved 
his family to Arkansas and entered a large tract of 
land, and began at once the preparations of what 
in the future ]iroved to be a very comfortable 
home. Farming and its many duties occupied his 
attention till ]S77. when he departed this life, a 
worthy communicant of the Church of Christ, and 
a meml)er of the Masonic order. His widow still 
lives and makes her home on the old homestea<l. 
The Doctor attended the schools of his county 
and received a thorough education in the common 
branches, and having chcsen medicine as his life- 
work, attended lectures at a medical institute in 
Cincinnati, Ohio, and about ISGl opened an otlice 
in the old town of Lewisburg and Plummervillo, 
Conway County. About this time the call for 
troops being sent over the land, he put aside hi-^ 
professional duties for service iu defense of hi-- 



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138 



HISTORY OF AliKlNSAS. 



country's bonor ami eulisted iu Company F. TLird 
Arkansas lleginioiit of Cavalry, rfuiaiuinfr in tlu' 
army till Juni^ 1^0, ISC),"), when In- was discbari^ed 
as lieutenant, bavinj^^ rt'Ceived this title as an award 
for bis bravery and fiiitbful services wbih' a soldier. 
On bis return bonie be re.-nUiued bis praetiee, and 
in connection witb bis professional duties assi>ted 
in tbe reconstruction of tbe States as ilepnty clerk, 
and in 1S68 was elected justice of tbe peace of 
Dardanelle Township. In 1ST9 be again at- 
tended lectures, and in ISS-") was chosen ])y his 
fellow-citizens to represent tbe State in tbe Legis- 
lature. In ISS'J be led to tbe altar as bis chosen 
bride. Miss Sarah E. Patey, of Tennessee, and a 
consistent member of tbe Church of Chri.-t, and 
who died in ISSl, having borne him the following 
family: Rosa B. (wife of A. D. Malonel, Ida il., 
James A., Martha (deceased), Mary M. (deceased), 
and Emma A. (deceased). He was again married, 
to Mary L. Durham, of Missouri, born in 1864, 
and daughter of Thomas J. and Josejibiue (Staf- 
ford) Durham, and who became tbe mother of two 
children by this marriage: William M. and Roy 
B, Tbe Doctor and wife are united in fellowship 
with tbe Church of Christ, and socially be belongs 
to tbe Masonic fraternity, having been initiated in 
tbe Plummerville-Howard Lodge No. 25o, and as 
a citizen and physician has tbe respect of bis 
many friends and patrons. 

Dr. Robert H. Daeus was born in Tipton 
County. Tenn., Oet(j!)er7, 1S43. In ^larch, 1851, 
bis fatlier having died in 1S4S, bis mother came to 
Arkansas, settling in Yell County, where she died 
in lSr)l2. He and his sister, Julia A. (now Mrs. 
Gillette), who was three years youngnr than him- 
self, went to live with their half-brother, James A. 
Dacus. Here be remained, working upon tbe 
farm and attending school when opportunity 
afforded until tbe breaking out of the war iu 1801. 
He then entered the Confederate Army, enlisting in 
Company H, First Arkansas Mounted Rilies. witb 
which he served until the close of tbe war. He 
was in tbe battles of Oak Hills, Mo., and Elk 
Horn, Ark. Soon after tbe latter battle be was 
transferred east of the Mississippi River. Here he 
served under Beauregard, Bragg, Johnston and 



Hood, and was engaged in tbe Ijattles of Farming- 
ton, Tenn., Richmond, Ivy. (where ri,(30() Confed- 
erates under Gen. Kirby Smith, on an open tield, 
fought and captured 7,0(ltl of the enemy), was at 
the battle of ]Murfreesboro, Tenn., the siege of 
Jackson, Mii-s., and tbe battle of Chickamanga, 
Ga. , where be was severely wounded. Afterward 
be was witb Johnston on his cam}iaign in Northern 
Georgia during tbe spring and summer of 1S(J4, 
known as Johnston's retreat through Georgia. It- 
would be too tedious to mention all tbe battles 
and skirmishes in which he participated during 
this three months' campaign. Suffice it to say 
that every time the roll was called bo was there to 
answer to his name: and as evidence of the part 
Reynolds' brigade, to which he belonged, took 
part iu tbe tigbting done during this, one of the 
hardest as well as tbe most noted campaigns of tbe 
war, it is only necessary to state that when tbe 
campaign began at Dalton they re})orted 1,000 men 
for duty, and when they retreated from Atlanta, 
three months later, their official report showed SOO 
killed and wounded on tbe campaign. During the 
follow ing winter Dr. Dacus went with Hood on his 
campaign into Tennessee, carrying the colors of 
his regiment. Here he was engaged in the battles 
of Franklin, Nashville and Sugar Creek. In the 
spring of 18Ijo tbe little remnant of tbe Army of 
Tennessee was transferred to North Carolina. Here 
be was in the battle of Bentonville, the last regular 
engagement of the war. The company to which 
be belonged consisted of IIS men. Of that num- 
ber, 85 were killed and wounded; and 25 died 
from other causes. When, at tbe tinal surrender 
and close of the war, the last roll was called, tbeie 
were but seven to answer to their names, he being 
one of that number. On their way home tbe 
freight train upon which they were being trans- 
ported was wrecked, and ten of his comrades were 
killed and fifty others injured, he being one of tbe 
latter receiving injuries at that time, from which 
be will never fully recover. After coming home 
be spent about eight months in school. The bal- 
ance of the time he spent partly on the farm and 
partly as salesman in a general mercantile business 
until 1870, when be entered tbe medical depart- 



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YELL COUNTY. 



i3y 



inont of the University of Louisiana (now Tulane 
l^niversitv). In tLe fall of ISTl bo went to the 
Cherokee Nation and began the practice of niedi- 
ciuo. He remained here seven years, when, his 
health failing, he returned to his old home in Yell 
County, where he has, up to the present time, 
been following his profession, and has l)een favored 
with quite a lucrative practice. December 23, 
ISli'i), he married iliss Hettie A. McCarty at Evans- 
ville, Washington County, where she had moved in 
1S(')7 from Charleston, East Tenu. , with ber 
mother and family, ber father having died in 
prison during the war. From this marriage they 
have had born to them four children: Lena M. 
(deceased), llinuie L. (now in her sixteenth year), 
Walter P. (deceased) and Hugh (now in his fourth 
year). Dr. Dacus is a member of the Baptist 
Church, and serves as deacon and corresponding 
secretary. His wife and daughter are members of 
the Baptist Church also. Socially, he is a mem- 
ber of the Masonic fraternity and K. of H. Both 
the Doctor's and Jlrs. Dacus' parents were among 
the pioneer settlers of Tennessee. His grand- 
father, though but a boy at the time, was with his 
father in the army during the latter part of the 
war of the Revolution. 

Dr. Thomas Jefferson Daniel is one of the well- 
known physicians of the I'etit Jean Valley, lo- 
cated at Waveland, Yell County, this State. He 
is a native Arkansan, born near Quitman, Van 
Bureii County, December 'J, 1S57, the son of Will- 
iam and Jane (Haney) Daniel, natives of North 
Carolina and Tennessee. res[)ectively. The father 
followed farming in Van Buren County until 1S5S, 
when he moved to White County, and died there 
in the fall of 1805. at the age of sixty-six years, 
the mother dying in IS-'.O, at the age of tiftytive 
years. After his father's death. Dr. Daniel re- 
mained with his brother, John W., in White 
County until he married. Remaining a student 
until he was seventeen years of age, he received a 
g«-d common school education, and in IST-'i moved 
t'l Mount Vernon, where he followed carpentering 
and farming, si ill studying when he found time. 
Ill 1^1'.' he cniiiiuencedthi' study of m<"liciue uuder 
I-'r- J. F. Powers, of Mount Vernim, remaining 



with him one year, when he decided to change bis 
course, and took up the study of the eclectic s\ s- 
tem instead of the regular course. Ho stuilied 
three years, passed the medical board in ISS'J. and 
then located in Faulkner County, practicing there 
until lSSr>, when be removed to Riley Township, 
this county, soon building up a large practice in 
this and adjoining townships. He was married on 
September IS, 1873, to Eliza C, Harrison, born 
December 2U, 1S"0, daughter of Ca[it. Joe and 
Matilda Harrison, the father a native of Georgia, 
and the mother of Kentucky. To Dr. Daniel and 
his wife have been born three children: James Wash- 
ington, Alice Luellen and William Elmer Scudder. 
He is a Democrat in bis political views, and 
socially is a member of the ^Magazine Lodge No. 
09, I. O. O. F., and Magazine Lodge, A, F. .V A. 
M. , also the Farmers' Alliance. He was formerly 
a member of the Missionary Baptist Church, but 
in 1878 joined the Second Adventist, and was or- 
dained a minister of same in 1879. He has held 
five noted religious discussions, first, with Elder P. 
Hammit, in Van Buren County; second with p]lder 
Blaylock, a Yell County Missionary Baptist divim-. 
on ''The state of the dead," lasting three days, aiid 
at the close of which bo had forty additions; third, 
with Dr. Calico, of Scott County, a Chri>lian 
preacher; fourth, with Elder J. T. Garland, also 
a Christian preacher of YeJl County. In the last 
three vearsbe has been instrumental in receiving and 
baptizing 300 in the church of bis faith. He is at 
present pastor of the Waveland Church (1(^() mem- 
bers) valued at >^50t\ is superintendent of same, and 
• is a most respected citizen of this township. 

Mrs. Asie Dove. Among the business enter- 
prises of Dardanelle, is the popular millinery em- 
porium of Mrs. Dove, widow of the late John C. 
Dove, who was born in Mississippi, June IS, 1^11, 
and whom she married in Smith County of the 
same State, December 17, 1803, He was a me- 
chanic by trade, and in 1872 emigrated to .Ar- 
kansas, locating in this county. Being a victim 
of that insidious disease, consumption, and think- 
ing to improve or regain bis failing health, in com- 
pany with his family started for I'lorida. but, grow- 
inti- worse while e(j route, was obliged to stop in 



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HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



Scott County, Miss., where, after a loiic^ ami severe 
illness, departed this life .June 1 t. ISTS. He served 
in tbe late war, enlistiui^' at the youthful a^'e of 
sixteen, in Company H, Sixteenth Mississippi In 
fantry, and participated in nineteen regular battles, 
and a niiml)er of skirniishe-; was cajitured at 
i'eter.sl)urj^ and taken to Point T.<>ok..ut, and hehl 
a prisoner for nine months, and discharged in 
1NG5. His parents were natives ..f the Old North 
State, and of Scotch descent. .Mrs. Dove was 
born in Noxubee County, Jliss., November "J", 
1847, a daughter of Richard and :\rary ColI)ert. 
Her father, born in Caroline Countv, Mi>s., .lune 
(5, ISll, and her motlier in Montgoniery County. 
Ala., May ■">, 1S"_'1, were married in Noxubee 
County, January 10. IS^'.I. and were the parents 
of nine children. Mr. Colbert was a farmer and 
an enthusiastic Democrat, politically, taking an 
active part in all political issues of the day, and 
acted as deputy clerk for Noxubee County. He 
and his faithful consort are still living in Missis- 
sippi, at a ripe old age, and he enjoys a mem 
bersliif) in the Primitive Baptist Church, while she 
enjoys the jirivileges of the Methodist EjiisCopal 
Church, ilrs. Dove's maternal grandfather was 
an Englishman by the name of Johnston, jiossesseil 
of great wealth and vast estates, and fought in the 
Revolutionary War. Her maternal grandmother 
was of French extraction. To the marriage of ifr. 
and ]Mrs. Dove were born four children, whom 
their \yidowed mother has given every advantage 
for a thorough education and personal imjirove 
ment: John C, Jr. (born ^ilay 14. I^Td. and a 
student in the Fayetteville Iiidu-^trial Uiiiver-ity ). 
Sadie A. (born October ]'_\ 1^7:!. a graduate from, 
and teacher in, the Whitwnrth College, llrcji.'kham. 
Miss. She is a young lady of rar^ intellectual, and 
musical attainments, and [io--sessing the attributes 
of an affectionate manner and an amiable ili:,po,i 
tion, and an altogether lovely character, is an uni 
versal favorite among lier many friend-l. Howard P>. 
(bom May 4. lS7ni, ami Robert K. fboni July Ki. 
1S7S). After the d.^ath of her husban.l. ^frs. Do\e 
returned to Dardanelle. and opened her |>re-.ent 
establishment, consisting of a stock of th.' ino-t 
fashionable millinery, and is doing a thriving and 



lucrative trade. She is a woman full of energy 
and determination, with phrasing manners, and 
as a business woman wt>]l woithy the patronage 
received from her many customers, and as a mother 
and fri(>nd, deserves the liigh encomiums conferred 
upon her by her well wishers. She witii her de- 
ceased liusband wor-^hipc'd as memlit'rs of tlie 
Christian Church, and her daughter, Sadie, is a 
professor in the Methodist Episcopal Church Soutli. 

Hoj>e T. Driskell, one of the early settlers of 
IJluft'tou Townshi[). and one of its most successful 
farmers, came to this county and settled on the 
farm where he now lives in ISCb. He came from 
Alabama, in which State he was reared and edii- 
cated. He was reared on a farm, and at the age of 
twenty-one he began liusiness for himself as an 
agriculturist, renting land, and succeeding as well 
as any in his vicinity. ^\ hen he first came to this 
county he Ijought eighty acres of land, and to this 
he has added to froui time to time, until he now 
has 269 acres. 100 acres of which are under cultiva- 
tion. He has erected a good bouse, 31x31 feet, 
has substantial barns and other outbuildings, and, 
take him all in all, he is one of the most progressive 
and enterprising farmers in tbe county. He was 
born May 22, 1830. in Gwinnett County, Ga. , re- 
ceived a limited education, and was married Sep- 
tember 13, IS.'S. to Miss Sarah Hemphreys, who 
died in J.anuary, 1^S'.>. They bad five children — 
two sons and three daughters — who are named as 
follows: Noah C. (married ]\Iiss Margaret Brum- 
metf). Victoria (deceased), Josephine, Martha A. 
(married Silas Wilkinson), and S. H. (married Miss 
Emily Robinson). The sons and daughters are 
settled near our subject, and are prosperous and 
succe-sful. 'Sir. Driskell is a member of the Bap- 
tist Church, and has been clerk of tbe same for 
many years. He is a member of tbe Masonic fra- 
ternity, Concordia Lodge No. 310, and of this he 
is treasurer. He is a Democrat, but has never 
taken an active part in political strife. Commenc- 
ing life as a poor boy, and a farmer's boy at that. 
\sith scarcely any a<lvantages for an education, 
Mr. Driskell is now in possession of a comfiirtable 
com[ietence. 

Henrv W. Duncan, a citizen and mill-owner, of 



■I lMl»i 






TELL COUNTY. 



141 



Dutch Creek Valley, was horn in CLeriikec County, 
Gn., July 30, l>>7y2, ami is the son of I'.lijah ami 
Amanda (Cluirch) Duncan. als(j of (.leor;,na, and 
who had a family of eleven eliildven. Onr suliject 
was raised on a farm, ami received Imt a slii^lit 
pdiicatiou, and on becomiu;,' of a^'e. started for the 
greatest State in the Union (at that da_\ ), Arkan- 
sas, and located in this county, and pre-empted llid 
acres of land on Dntch Creek, in what is now know n 
as Danville. This Le improved irntil he had about 
fifty acres under a tine state of cultivation, and has 
a comfortalile dwelling house and barn. He has 
increased his original ItiO to "iC'J acres of as good 
land as will be found in the valley, and his unim- 
proved lan<l contains some of the line^t wagon and 
stave timber in the State, and in bSSo Imilt a saw- 
mill and cotton-gin, vrhich he operated in connec- 
tion with his farm, in iSC/.), erecting the .-aw mill 
and cotton-gin situated about a mile and a half 
from his first mill site, and he mjw has a milling- 
plant estimated at something over §20(1, and is a 
good source of revenue, his gins turning out nearly 
TiUO bales of cotton annually. He was married 
October 18, 1874, to Etta, daughter of Isaac 
Hutchinson, formerly of Alaliama, but now a resi- 
dent of Scott Ccjunty. To them have Iieen boru 
five children: William Elijah, Charles H., Emer- 
ine, Itobert "W. and Francis M. , all born on the 
farm. Our subject votes with the Democratic 
party politically, and as a man and citizen pos- 
sesses a character above reproach, and is noted for 
the hospita!)le manner in which he entertains his 
gue.-ts. 

Dr. Andrew J. Dj-er. In the comjiilation of 
the history of Yell County and its representative 
nien. particularly auKjiig the medical profe.ssion. 
it has been found that the name of Dr. A. J. Dyer 
ranks as that of one of the l^est known physicians 
of Dardanelle, thoroughly conversant with, and well 
posted in, medicinal lore. Dr. Dyer was i)orn in 
Smith County, Tenn., January \-',, l^^ii. l)eing the 
second child in a family of five liorn to James S. 
and Martha (Hallum) Dyer. The paternal graml 
fatiier, Joel Dyer, originally of Virginia, was 
brought with his parents to Tennessee when but a 
niere youth, and was what the world terms a self- 



j made man. Ueing very [iO(^nlar with his fellow- 
j Citizeiis. he was twice elected to the Senate. ]ire- 
siding over that august liody as a si)ecial officer or 
chairman one term. Hi> was ever active as a citi- 
' zen and died at a ri[)e old age. The maternal an 
cestiirs, the Hallums, wcie fui-merly of North Car 
oliua, it is believed, l)nt for many years have lieen 
\ numbered among Smith County's (Tenn.), most 
prominent citizens. Dr. D_\er"s sister Mattie. mar 
j ried John Hallum, the histc'rian of .\rkansas, and 
! was of valuable assistance to him in the compila- 
j tion of that work. Dr. James S. Dyer, onv subject's 
j father, was born in Smith Countv. Tenn., where 
! he studied medicine, anil practiced in that and 
Sumner County for fifty years. Being a recognize. 1 
member of the :\Iethodi-t Episcopal Church, Le 
was prominently identilifd with its w..>rking inter- 
ests as class leader and Sunday-school superintend- 
ent for many years, and (jften ofKciated as lav 
delegate to the annual conferences of the church. 
Both he and his wife are deceased, his wife dying 
November (^ ]K)C>. and he April 20. LSTo. The 
subject of this sketch was reared and educated in 
Tennessee, being an att'^'udaut at the Academy of 
Hartsville. and other schools of Sumner Countv 
and ^^'ilson County. Being seiz(-d with the gold 
fever in 1S50, he juuineyed to California to seek 
his fortune in the gdld njine^of that State, remain 
ing here but a year, at the ex]iirati(>n of which he 
returned to Tennessee matriculated and was one of 
the first in the medical department of the Nashville 
University. Graduating in 1853, heat once begaTi 
the practice of mediciiie, locating at Hartsville, and 
in 1854 came to Arkansas, settling at Dardanelle, 
where on December •">. of this same year, he mar 
ried Miss Margaret E. Tnomer, daughter of Co]. 
Joshua Toomer, known as one of the earliest and 
most extensive planters of this section. Not hav- 
ing any children of their own, this worthy couple 
have reare<l several, and now have three oriihan> 
under their su])ervision, to whom they are giving 
every advantage which will make them usfful and 
ereditaVJo citizens in any community to which kind 
fortune w'ill lead tiiem. Dr. i>yer remained in .\r 
kansas till ISot'j. when he again went to Tenne>>ei.. 
sojourning there until the outbreak of the war. when 





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142 



HISTOKY OF ARKANSAS. 



ho once more camo to Dardanpllo, ami in response 
to his conntry's call took his plnce in Ca[)t. Dainel's 
company, First Arkansas Rifles, i;niler commaml 
of Col. Churchill. Soon after his enlistment, he 
was appointed assistant siiri^'eon, serving in this 
capacity till 1S04, when ill health compelled him 
to leave the army, and return home. Settling on 
a farm eight miles from Dardanelle, which consist- 
ed of some 600 acres, 200 under enltivation. he 
resumed his practice, which extended over the 
country about twenty miles. In 1S75 he retired 
from active practice, and in 18S1 he purchased the 
beautiful home in town, where he now resides. 
Buying property on the bench of Mount Nebo, he 
erected a house on it, in which he takes his sum- 
mer's recreation. The Doctor fellowships with the 
Methodist Episcopal Church South, being one of 
its most earnest workers, and for the past sixteen 
years has been chosen as a lay d(>legHte to repre- 
sent its interests in the annual conference. At the 
last annual conference he was elected one of the al- 
ternates to the general conference. Politically he 
is a Democrat. 

Zachariah (1. Dyer. Many years ago Dr. James 
Dyer, a graduate in medicine from an institute in 
Nashville, Tenn., and under directorship of Prof. 
Bowlings, established himself in Sumner County, 
and opened an office for the practice of medicine, 
which he successfull}' conducted for forty-tive 
years, winning the confidence of his patients and 
the esteem of his fellow-men, and here was born to 
himself and wife, JInrtha (Hallum) Dyer, their son, 
Zachariah, the subject of this sketch, his birth oc- 
curring January 17, 1835. He was placed in the 
schools of his native home and given a good com- 
mon-school education, and on arriving at maturity 
busied himself with merchandising and learning 
the tanner's trade, till the threatening cloud of 
war burst forth in all its fury, when he cast aside 
all business to become a soldier in the Confederate 
Army, enlisting in the Bennett Cavalry, Company 
F, of the Seventh Battalion, under command of 
Capt. Puryear, and participated in the battles of 
Shiloh, Corinth Nos. 1 and 2, luka, Okalona, and 
with Gen. Price on his raid through ilissouri, and 
a number of skirmishes, and was taken prisoner in j 



I North Alal)nnui. Mhile luider command of Col. C. 
R. Barton, who had charge of the Second Tennes- 
see Regiment, ho was again captured at Tuscuml)ia, 
by the Fifth Ohio boys, remaining with this co!u- 
pany till the death of the captain, when he was 
paroled. Returning home he reopetied his tun- 
yard, which he operated for ten nioutlis, sub.-^e- 
quently joining the army again and doing duty in 
Desha County till peace onco more reigned over 
the land, when he accepted a position with Col. 
Joe Branch. Serving him for ten months he went 
back to Tennessee and farmed, making two crops, 
and Jearning of the healthful climate and product- 
ive soil and the many other advantages to be gained 
on becoming a resident of Arkansas, emigrated to 
Dardanelle Townshiji. December 27, 1807, where 
he purchased 120 acres of tine laud, which he im- 
proved and cultivated, and commodious barns and 
buildings for stock, a good, comfortable dwelling 
and a prolific orchard, plaute<l to some of the finest 
and best known varieties of plums, peaches, etc., 
and several kinds of the smaller fruits, are positive 
proofs of his determination to make his home one 
of the finest in the State. He was married Decem- 
ber 27, 1857, to Miss Ellen P. Harrison, who was 
born in Wilson County, Tenn., December 20, 1S35, 
and daughter of E. R. Harrison, and to them were 
born Martha R. (wife of M. A. Banks), E. H., 
Joel, Mary (wife of Thomas Alley), Jackson W., 
Gibbs W. and Grace. After a lingering illness of 
many years Mrs. Dyer passed to her final home 
October 1, 18SS, and was laid to rest in New Hope 
Cemetery, her resting place being marked by 
an elegant monument as a lasting tribute to the 
memory of one who though gone, is still loved and 
cherished by a mourning husband and family. He 
is a man honored and respected in religious, social 
and political circles, being connected with the 
Methodist Episcopal Church South, and is stew- 
ard, class-leader and trustee of the same; and as 
an A. F. & A. M. afiiliates with Centerville Lodge 
No. 41)2. and was its efficient secretary for a num- 
ber of years; is a stanch Democrat, always vcjting 
with that party; is also a trusted member of the 
building committee, and a liberal supporter of all 
religious, charitable and educational enterprises. 



'F^ 



■,j..( 






YELL COUNTY. 



143 



John ^V. Eidson, one of the pioneers and pros- 
porous cotton-growers of Yell Couutj', and a cilizeu 
of Centerville Township, was l)orii in Alabama on 
November 15, 1S43, and son of Edward and Mary 
( Mame) Eidson, natives of the Palmetto State. 
In INT)! his father, thinking to better his fortunes, 
moved his family to Texas, settling on a farm 
which proved to be a profitable investment, and 
operated it till his death in ISlij. The principal 
of this biography spent his youth in his native and 
adopted States, where he obtained but a limited 
education, and on reaching manhood engaged in 
farming till April, 1861, when he enlisted in Com- 
pany A, First Texas Infantry, Commandants Col. 
Wakefield and Capt. Bobo, doing duty in some 
of the departments under Gen. Hood, and partici- 
pated in many of the principal engagements, 
namely Seven Fines, West Point, the seven days' 
tight around Richmond and others, Ijeing in the 
noted battles of Bull Run and Gettysburg, and 
here was discharged from service. In 1802 he re- 
enlisted in the cavalry service in the Department 
of Mississippi, whose movements were controlled 
by Col. Hodges and Gens. West and Adams, and 
did duty as a scout till the surrender in July, 186r>. 
Remaining in Mississippi till the next year, he 
Went to Northeast Texas, thence came to this State 
and purchased eighty acres of land, to which he 
has since added forty acres more, 100 of it being 
fine, productive land, yielding good crops of cotton, 
corn, wheat and oats, and he has an orchard of 
peaches, apples and plums, and altogether a very 
valuable farm and comfortable home. He was 
married in 1808 to Lurilla Huekaby, born in 1848 
in Mississippi, and they have been the parents of 
eleven children, eight of whom are living: Suvanal 
(wife of Frank Sloan), Phoebe E.. John A., Will- 
iam A., Walter E., Roy, Ira and Ora. In religion 
bo and wife are members of the Missionary Baptist 
Church, and politically he is a Democrat, an<l in 
l^Si served his party as justice of the peace, and 
has been elected to the second term of office. So 
cially he is connected with the Grange and Whi^el, 
atul gives liberally to the support of all cbaritalile, 
educational and religious institutions. 

Stephen Nathaniel Evans. Nathaniel Evans, 



Sr. , grandfather (jf thi' sul)j(>ct of this sketch, came 
to North .Vluliama when the Tennessee River was 
the dividing line between the whites and the In- 
dians, was a soldier iti the AVar of 1812, and 
fought with Jackson at the baftir of New Orleans, 
and was known as (in(> of the sulistantial planters 
of his day. In 185(5 he immigrated to Mississippi, 
and busied himself with planting in De Soto Coun- 
ty, remaining there until his death, which occurred 
in 1873, when nearly one hundred years old. 
Stephen M. Richarils, maternal grandfather of S. 
N. Evans, was born in Southern Alabama, his par- 
ents coming to this ten itory when it was avast 
wilderness, and have witnessed it rise and grow to 
its present magnitude. Stephen 'SI. Richards on 
gaining his majority went to North Alabama, wiiere 
he, in company with his son-in-law, established a 
mercantile business, which netted them a handsome 
income. He was highly esteemed and honored 
as a citizen, and noted for his integrity and piety, 
being a faithful member of the ilethodist Episco- 
pal Church until his death. In bSOO he came to 
Arkansas settling in St. Franci^^ County, where he 
died in 1871, when nearly eighty years old. 
Stephen Nathaniel Evans, named in honor of his 
illustrious ancestors (a short sketch of whom ap- 
pears above), was born in Morgan County, Ala., in 
1848, the eldest child of his parents, Nathaniel 
Evans and Sarah (Richards, also of Alaliama). 
The senior Evans was a farmer by occupation, aud 
came to Arkansas in 1802, locating in St. Fraticis 
County, where he died in l'^(')3, a member of the 
Old School Presbyterian Church. The care of his 
widowed mother and an infant sister falling on our 
subject, then a youth of but fourteen, he took up 
farming which he carried on till 1870, when he re- 
moved the family to Russellville to engage in the 
livery business, which he conducted for ten years, 
having a well-eijuipped stable and doing a good 
trade. Closing out the livery establishment he 
again commenced farming in 1880, this time set- 
tling in the Arkansas Valley opposite the town <>( 
Dardanelle, and not being able to obtain good 
reliable help on which the success of his farm de- 
pended, he decided to reenter the livery business 
and in 1888 ran the first hack to ]\Iount Nebo, a 



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144 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



watering place sevea milos west of Danlanello. 
and the next year found liim a partner in the 
estal)lisbnient of ^[r. Shinn and Col. Hiij^'bes. 
They built a larj^e liaru for the purpose nf carry- 
incT on a general livery and baek Imsini'^^-, bandliiif,' 
during the year sonic 4i ti, ("10 pouud> of freight 
for the Summit Park Hotel. Ou December 1, 
1S8U, the firm bought out the Transfer Company, 
now kn')wn as the Dardanelle Transfer Company, of 
which onr subject is recognized as one of its most 
efficient members. This company has under its 
management one of the largest and best equipped 
livery stcd>Ies in all Arkansas, owning some seven- 
ty head of horses and mules and a numlier of 
buggies and hacks, buses and transfer wagons, also 
doing general freighting and expressing, carrying 
mail, passengers, running hacks to and from the 
mountain, and handle on an average of 700,000 
pounds of freight per month, transporting some 
12,000 to iri,O0(> bales of cotton tn the trains. He 
has ever been an active supporter of the Demo- 
cratic party, and in local politics served as raayor 
of Russellville from 187^^ to ISSl, and was justice 
of the peace for four years; socially is in afliliation 
with the K. of H. He is counted aniung his fel- 
lowmen as a man of good jiractical sense and busi- 
ness ability. He was married in June, IS (0, to ]\Iiss 
Susie B. Gray, of Germantown. Tenii.. and the 
daughter of Dr. J. ^1. Gi-ay, a pliysician of thirty 
years' standing in Tennessee, but now residing in 
Texas. To the marriage of Mr. and .Mrs. Evans 
have been born the following interesting family: 
Bessie, Clara, Sallie, Lewis, Nathaniel, Charles 
and Stephen. Himself, wife and three daughters 
are worthy members of the Missionary Baptist 
Church. 

Capt. Joseph Evins was born in KHiitncky in 
1834, the seventh in a family of twelve children 
born to Lewis and Bethena (Smith) Evins. The 
parents were of East Tennessee origin. The 
father, a planter by occupation, came to Arkansas 
in ISl'iO, locating at Dardanelle, where he made his i 
home with (.'apt. Evins for several yeais, then tro- j 
ing to the home of his s(_)n, Willia?n S.. in Mis.souri, 
where he died in ISS'J. at eighty two \ I'urs nf .-irro, 
his wife having preceded hiiii tn tiu-ir linal home , 



in lK>'-i. He was sheriff of one of the counties in 
Kentucky, which otlice he filled f^r many years. 
Capt. Evins. who was known far and wide- as a 
jirominent citizen, a government contractor, capi- 
talist, speculator, and the original and at jiresent 
principal owner of the romantic aiul popular sum- 
mer resort known as Blount Ni'lio. was reared on a 
farm, attending seh(X>l Imt a slidit time, when, at 
the age of sixteen, he songht and fdund a p(.i>ition 
as clerk, and at the expiration <jf seven years le- 
sigued to accept the c]erkshi[) on a steamboat on 
the Cumberland River, tilling this jiosition three 
years, when he was placed in charge of a vessi>l. 
and up to 18(30 served as captain on steamers ply- 
ing on the Arkansas, Mississi|([)i, Ohio. Cumberland 
and Tennessee Rivers, and during the late war was 
appointed by the Cnnfederate Gcjvernnient to take 
charge of transportation on the Arkansas River. 
Subsecpieutly opening a stock of merchandise in 
Dardanelle, he was engaged in trade from ISOfi to 
1873, then took charge of a steamer, and at the 
expiration of three years was again under Govern- 
ment employ, contracting and assisting in the work 
of the Mississippi River improvement in the Lake 
Provielent reach and ether points. The Cajitaiu is 
the owner of some line real estate in and about 
Dardanelle. having a handsome residence in town 
and a most productive farm near the place. In 
1^7S the Captain was the sole owner of the entire 
site of Mount Nelw. 7'-|t> acres in extent. He 
erected a house, cleared and planteil forty acres 
in an orchard of over 2.(101) ap[ile. peach and plum 
trees, which an^ liighly piolitic: ami he has also 
many varieties of the choicest small frnits. which 
yield an abundance in their season. The scene 
which greets the eye fri.uu the summit of tliis love- 
ly mountain is grand and [iictures(pie. Below, the 
outstretching valley, the [ilains and undnlatiiii^ 
hills, clothed in verdure, und where 

Before nu- ro^i' .-in ;ivi'MUf 

Of t.ill and SDiiiliicms pines; 
Abroad tlieir fan like lir-iiulies ixnnv. 
And. wluTO the siui.st'ine darted ilireiiL;li. 
Spread a vapor soft and blue, 

In I(.m;; ami sleiiin;; lines. 

Much of this propertj' has lieen disposed of to 



-f 



iiiMinli' who bav« improved it with line suiunier 
ri"siili<uci's nnd wull laid-ont drivrs. Here also is 
the summer Normal School, and a lar<ro and com- 
iiiodioUH hotel always tilled to overtiowing. In 
\>i7>7> Miss Beulah Foley, a native of Kentucky, 
hecame the Captain's wife, who died eleven months 
after, leaving one child, Davidella Virginia (wife 
of S. H. Howell, of Dardanelle). He was again 
married, in 1S5T, to Miss ilary E. Hart, also of 
Kentucky. She has liorne him ten children: 
Charles F., Ida A., llohert L. (deceased in 1^S4). 
Eugene L., Cora B., Samuel Hart, Joseph Arthur, 
Henry David, Mary B. and William Barnard. In 
relir'ioii the family worship with the Methodist 
Episcopal Church .South, of which they are con- 
sistent members. The Captain is in affiliation with 
the Odd Fellows socially, and at one time was Dar- 
danelle's most honored mayor. 

Itev. Nathan E. Fair, local minister of the 
Jfothodist Episcopal Church South, was born in 
Sullivan County, Tenn. , December 16, 184'.l, and 
came with his parents, Ellis and Nancy H. (Eas- 
leyj Fair, of South Carolina and Teimessee, re- 
spectively, to Benton County, Ark., in 1850. Owing 
to the Civil War, which began in 1801 and con- 
tinued four years, causing the death of his father 
and the breaking up of his mother, his educational 
advantages were very limited. His father was a 
farmer Ijy occupation, which he followed up to 
1801, when he was killed by the Pin Indians, a 
branch of the Cherokees, who raided the country, 
robbing houses and killing all the old men and 
lnjys, they could lind at home. Being concealed 
in n thicket of small bushes, Mr. Fair counted the 
gunshots, eight in all, that brought his father to 
a most cruel death. He barely escaped discovery 
as one Indian passed within twenty steps of him. 
This was the 7th day of May, and in the fall, 
wlieii ho Could remain at home no longer, he joined 
his four brothers in the Confederate Army, where 
he reiuained till the close of the war, then went 
t'> Texas, and after an absence of sixteen mouths 
r>-luriii'd to his mother's in Benton County, Ark. 
Ill the spring of 1S08 he was licensed to preach, 
•ind in thf fall of the same year was admitted on 
trial liy the .Vrkan.-^as annual conference at Jack- 



sonport, and, although not yt eighteen year.-, of 
age, he was at once placed in charge of the BlnlT- 
ton Mission in Yell County. His labors were so 
blessed that the mission was raised to a circuit, 
and he was returned the next year. During these 
two years he ap[)ired himself very closely to his 
school books, as well as to the study of divinity, 
.stopping frequently uneler the shade of a tree to 
get up his lessons. The marriage ceremony of our 
subject and Amada Hamilton, who was liorn in 
Red River County, Tex., August 'II. 18.j4, took 
place December 15, 18T(), and to them have been 
born eight children: Laura A., John E. (deceased). 
Mary L., Minnie M., Oracle Y., Carrie H., Katie 
E. (deceased), and the baby, Edwin L. In 1885 
he moved to Bellville to send his children to 
school, and taught for some time with Prof. J. G. 
Smyth, M. A., in the Bellville Academy. In 
connection with his ministerial duties and school 
teaching he has bought and improved a small 
farm adjacent to the town of Bellville, where 
he and his family are now living very contentedly. 
While he is a Prohibitionist by faith and practice, 
he is also a Democrat, and for some years has op- 
posed, both on the rostrum and through the news- 
papers, the organiz.ition of a Prohibition political 
party, claiming that the Democratic party can, 
and will do more for the temperance cause in 
this State than a third party could do. He is 
also an A. F. & A. M. . belonging to Christian 
Lodge No. 3il4. He is a man of sterling integrity, 
and fully qualified to discharge the duties which 
devolve upon him as a minister of the gospel. 
While he is fearless in i)r( ■claiming what he be- 
lieves to be right, yet he is always respectful in 
dealing with the opinions of others, believing that 
men may differ widely and still both be honest. 
W. H. Fergeson, a successful planter and the 
owner of the cotton-gin, saw and shingle mill 
and flour mill of Bellville, all being thoroughly 
equipped to carry on a good bitsiness, was born in 
Yirginia in ]8ol1 t.i Joseph K. and Jane (Ayresi 
Fergeson, also native Yirginians. His paternal 
ancestors (were of Scotch descent and his maternal 
of Irish lineage) early came to -\iuerica. His 
father, a fanner and merchant of Yirginia, emi- 



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146 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



fjrated to Kpiitucky in 1S|S, resiilinrrLoit' till iN'jn, 
wbeuce hf luuvod iiis family to Aikaiisas. locating 
in Yell County, remainini^ till his death in IStl, 
his wife having died the year previons. Our sul)- 
ject having early been rewed as a farmer, on arriv- 
ing to manhood btill followed this ('CcinKitinn. buy- 
iog a farm in Riley Towiu-hip. wLicli lie operated 
till his tirst wife's death in l^fil (Miss Euphema 
Watkins, of Kentucky), to whom he was married 
in ISo'i, and who bore him seven children, but one 
living, Mollie, wife of James Thompson, a resi- 
dent of this county. Her son, Benjamin Lee. 
became a Methodist preacher of some prominence 
and popularity, and died in ISSd while stationed 
at Ozark. In lS6o be moved to Danville, and this 
same year was elected sheriff, serving fijur years, 
when be resigned. This year also witnessed his 
second marriage to Miss Sarah E. Stout, a daugh- 
ter of old pioneer settlers of Viqn- County, and are 
the parents of the following chihlren: William H. 
(deceased), Addie (wife of N. J. Buckman). James 
C. and Sallie (twins and deceased), Charley, Fan- 
nie Pearl and Lillie Irene. In religion the family 
are members of the Bajitist and 'Methodist Epis- 
copal Churches. In 1S72 our subject erected the 
plant known as Ferges(jn's ilills, about five miles 
west of Danville, and the year folhjwing estab- 
lished the first mercantile Im^inos in the place and 
built a residence to which he moved his family, 
and was appointed postmaster of the Mills, whicli 
bas had a rapid and astonishing giowth. and is 
now known as Bellville. In conueeti(jn with his 
milling interests be owns some '.I.odO acres of val- 
uable land in different portions of Yell County, 
1,2(10 near Bellville, with l.OiH) in a single tract, 
3fl() of which are highly cultivated, and the re- 
mainder tine timlier land. He with many others j 
was instrumental in securing the tine acaileniy of ! 
this place, which makes Bellville the tliriving town 
it is. Socially, he fellowsliips with the Masonic 
fraternity, and as a citizen is deserving of the 
good wishes and worthy of any attention he may 
receive at the bands of bis townspeople. 

O. S. Fergeson, one of the most successfal and 
prosperous dealers in general nierchaiidise. was 
born in Virginia in bb4'.l, and was the youngest iu 



his parents" family. Joseph and Jane (Ayres) 
F('rgeson [see sketch of W. H. Fergeson] soon 
after their son's (O. S. ) l>ii-tli moved to Kentucky, 
where he was given a very fair start in education, 
and when twelve years old they came to Arkansas, 
and here he resiimed his studies, taking a term at 
Russellville and Danville, and at the age of twf'iity 
began teaching, following this and fa.rniitig for 
nearly ten years. Buying a tract of land of 1<')0 
acres live miles west of Bi'Ilville. he cleared sixty 
acres and otherwise im]iroved it and made a very 
comfortalJe home, where be lived till called upon 
to mourn his wife's death, on December 30. ISSS, 
he having married, iu ISTl), Miss Mollie Smith, a 
daughter of James Smith, formerly of Tennessee, 
but now of Yell County. To Mr. and Mrs. Fer- 
geson were born a family of three children: Edgar 
Lee, Johnnie May and Olive James. On the tirst 
of the present year (ISOl)) be opened his present 
flourishing business in Bellville, carrying a full 
line of goods pertaining to general merchandise, 
such as groceries, crockery, dry goods and geneial 
plantation supplies, etc. In 'connection with his 
farm on the outskirts of Bellville he owns 240 acres 
in one tract, 100 in another, Laving 240 cultivated, 
and a residence and forty acres in Bellville. As a 
citizen he fully realizes the benefits to be derived 
from the free-school system, and is an active snj)- 
porter of this and all other interests of his town. 

Benjamin L. Ford, jirominently identified with 
the farming interests of Dardanelle Townshi[). was 
born in Pope County, in ISoO, the eighth child 
iu a family (jf twelve Ijorn to ]\Ialachi and Sarah 
Frances (Dawson) Furd, originally of Tennessee. 
but who came to Arkansas in 1S40, settling in 
Yell County, subsequently moving to Pope County, 
coming back to Arkansas, settling on a clearance of 
loO acres, where they remained till their death-, 
the mother dying iu INTO, and the father in ISM, 
being memliers of the ^letbodist Episcopal Church, 
be an officer in the church, aiul politically vesting 
the Republican ticket. The principal of this sketrli 
was reared in his adopted ccuinty. having acquired 
but three months' schooling, and what knowleilge 
be now possesses has l)een gained by his own ef 
forts. In 1877 l\e settled on 121 acres of land 



^. 



...xiv. 



r.iJ i| 



YELL COUNTY. 



147 



fi>iir mid one-half miles northwest of Danlanene, 
ami soon put thirty acres under a good state of 
cultivation, and in 1887 built for himself a neat 
cottage; he raises such stock as cattle, horses and 
hogs, also owns 200 acres on the La Fave, and 
twenty-seven in Delaware Township. When nine- 
teen years old he wedded Amanda Ellen Brewer, 
Iwm in Yell County, and a daughter of John and 
Nancy Brewer, formerly of Tennessee, but after- 
ward residents of Y'ell County, where they lived 
until their deaths. To the union of Mr. and Mrs. 
Ford were born nine children — three sons and six 
daughters — three of whom are living: Beliecca 
Jane, Nancy (who died at the age of fifteen), Hor- 
ace, Harvey (died in infancy ), Eliza (died in infancy), 
Alice, Ethel, Amy and Genie. The entire family are 
members of the Methodist E[)iscopai Church, the 
father tilling the office of steward. Socially he 
belongs to the Masonic fraternity. 

Z. P. Ford, a prosperous planter of Lamar 
Township, was born in Lincoln County, N. C, 
June 22, 1831, and received a limited education in 
the common schools, and came to Yell County in 
the fall of 1S57, having been married in North 
Carolina, and to whom a family of nine children 
has been born: Catharine J., Eli Martin. Jonas 
Laban, Joseph E., ^Nlary Ann, Susan E. , Sarah 
Lavina and Barbara M. (twins), and William Lee. 
Catharine, Eli, Susan and Lavina are deceased. 
Our subject has a very fine tract of land of 320 
acre.s, of which he farms and cultivates 100. Him- 
self and wife are most exemplary meuil)ers of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church South, and lining a 
pul)lic-spirited man, aids and contriliutes to schools_ 
churches and all worthy enterprises of his town- 
ship. The Democratic party claim bini as one of 
its stanchest voters, politically. His parents, Isoin 
niid Erixna (Beard) Ford, lived in North Carolina 
for a inimber of years, and the father was known 
ftsa<|uietand unostentatious farmer and mechanic. 
trtking no part in the war, and died soon after its 
close. The maternal grandfather was also of North 
^'anilina, and married a young lady by the name 
of Martin. 

C. (!. Frisbee, an energetic and pmgressive 
farmer of Centerville, first saw the light of driv in 



Buncoml)e County, N. C, in 1813, and is a son of 
Josiah and Mary (Herron) Frisbee, who were born 
and married in North Carolina, and were the par- 
ents of seven children, three of whom are now liv- 
ing. The father, a carpenter and farmer by ocon- 
pation, and the efTicient sheriff of Bureau County 
for niany pears, emigrated from his native State to 
Georgia in 1S50, thence to Arkansas in 1807, where 
he resided till his death, in 1882, his wife having 
passed to her final home in 1859, and thev dying 
in full membership of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. At the outbreak of the late war our sub- 
ject joined Company B, of the Sixty-fifth Georgia 
Regiment, jiarticipating in all the principal en 
gagements, and while in service was wounded in 
his right hand by a gunshot, and in 186-") he le- 
ceived his discharge, and in 18G7, going to Hamil 
ton County, Tenn., met and married Miss Emily 
Carson, of Georgia, and who died in 1873, ha/ing 
been the mother of three children: Mary J., 
Martha E. and one who died in infancy. He was 
again united in marriage, to Miss Sarah J. Carson, 
a sister of his deceased wife, and himself and wife 
are trusted metubers of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. He operates a farm of (VIO acres, 240 
acres being planted principally in corn and cotton, 
and a few acres sown to wheat and oats. His farm 
is well supplied with good outbuildings and a large 
and commodious barn for the convenience of his 
stock. He is a njan. who. having the welfare of 
his county at heart, donates lil)erally to all public 
enterprises which so materially add to its growth. 
!Mrs. Frisbee' s parents were natives of South Caro- 
lina and North Carolina, respectively, liut were 
married in (ieorgia. where she was born in 18-1.7, 
one of ten children, and came with her parents to 
Arkansas in 1S.(')7, locating in Yell County, where 
her father di(>il in ISMI, lior mother dying in 1SS4, 
They were members of the Baptist and Methodist 
Episcopal Churches, respectively. 

Judge Joseph Gault, one of the pioneer citi- 
zens of Yell County, as well as one of tlie' leading 
merchants of D.-nil.-inelle, was born in South Car- 
olina to William and Winnie (Cooper) tiault, of 
that State, in 1M2. and when old enough was 
placed in the common schools an.l received what 



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U8 



HISTOKY OF AUKANSAS. 



scbooliuf,' tlii'so atTordPil, and when twrutv yt'ars 
old started out in the world for himself. In is:^4 
be married his first wife, IMiss Bird, of Soutli Car- 
olina, and three weeks after the cereniony was 
performed embarked overland for Arkansas, l>einj^ 
nine weeks on the way. Locating in Jolinson 
County he broke ground for a farm, wliifh he 
worked for three years, then came to Yell County 
and entered and made the necessary improvements 
on 100 acres of land, and soon estaljlished a {gen- 
eral merchandise store on hi.s plantation. In 1S41 
he was called upon to part with his wife, who had 
borne him a family of four children, and soon 
after he was united in marriage the second time to 
Miss Mary Briggs, daughter of James Briggs, who 
passed to her final home in ISTO. In ISo'l he was 
elected sheriff and tilled this otHce till the bursting 
of the war cloud, when he joined the Confederate 
Army, serving but a short time, when he returned 
home and resumed his mercantile dnties. In De- 
eemlier, 1870, Mrs. Boles (daughter of Thomns 
May, an old settler of Johnson County as far back 
as 1S34, and a well known stock-owner, planter 
and merchant, and member of the Cumberland 
"Presbyterian Church) became his third wife. In 
1878 he established the business known as the tirm 
of J. L. Gault & Co. His individual property is 
a fine tract of bottLim land, and several hundred 
acres of upland and a lovely home on 'Mount Nebo, 
and a tine residence in Dardanelle, wheie he lives 
with his wife and several children. lu ISSlihe 
was elected county and probate judge, aiul served 
with great credit to himself and the county. The 
Judge has been the father of many children, eight 
of whom live in Yell County, the sons being mer- 
chants and farmers. His descendants and those 
of the present Mrs. Gault (she having had a large 
family by a former marriage) number nearly 100. 
and are all worthy antl respected citizens in their 
respected communities, and their children give 
promise of inheriting the intellect and ca[<abilities 
of their honored ancestors. The family are mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, and 
Mr. Gault enjoys the social pleasures found within 
the mysteries of the Masonic fraternity. The 
Judge, full of years and honors, is enjoying the 



fruits of a long life ol active labor and the atten- 
tions of his many loving and appreciative friends. 

J. J. Geiger, a planter living in Herring Town- 
ship, was born in Alabama, Deceml>er T2. IS'27. 
His parents, Abraham and Aniui ^\'. (Pence) (jei- 
ger, were born in the Palmetto State in lsi)l and 
1812. and were married in 1825, and were the 
parents of nine children. In 18o8 the family came 
to Arkansas and settled in Y'ell County, where the 
father carried on his farm till his death in IS'V?, 
his wido(V surviving him till 187N. Both were 
members of the ^Methodist Episcopal Church 
South. Our subject owns and operates 100 acres 
of land, seveuty-tive of which are highly pro- 
ductive, yielding a good crop of corn and cotton 
each season. He has been twice married, tirst in 
18-J5 to Miss ^lury A. Herrill and who died in 
18I.U, leaving four children to his care: Mary J. 
(wife i)f W. A. Sinclair), George O., Anna N. (de 
ceased), and Sarah F. (deceased), and in ]St;2 
Miss Sarah Morse, of Tennessee, became his sec- 
ond wife, and has liorne him eight children: Vina 
(wife of William Crabtree), James A. and Robert 
(living). Quandary, Polly A., John X.,Saudford 
and Lucy (all deceased). He Si.-cially Ijelongs to 
the Masonic order, having been initiated into the 
mysteries of Dutch Creek Lodge No. 209. 

Noah A. Geiger, farmer, Danville, Ark. Mr. 
Geiger, one of the representative farmers of the 
countv and a man respected and esteemed for his 
many good qualities, was born in Alabama on De- 
ceml.ier lit, l,S:i7 (Dallas County), and is the son 
of Al»raham Geiger. He came with his parents to 
Fayette County, Miss., when three years of age, 
and there he was reared to the arduous dnties of 
the farm. In the fall of 1857, or when twenty- 
one vears of age, lie. in company with others, came 
to and settled in Yell County, Ark. He entered 
10() acres of land in the Dutch Creek Valley and 
there remained, improving the same until the 
breaking out of the war. About that time he sold 
his farm and bought 100 acres on the south side 
of the creek, about two miles from his former 
home, and there he still resides. He improved 
sisty-tive acres of land, erected a good frame 
house and a large, commodious barn, bur, these. 



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YELL COUNTY. 



149 



|„.«.-v.T, w<'i«' (K'^tioved I>y a storm of wind in 
IvsTi. Since tlii'n iii' li:'-' ri'l)nilt and ha^- a tine 
i.lii,-.'. Mi-, pi iiicipal erojis aii> corn auil cotton. 
li, \^>'<\ lit- was married to Miss l! lizatietb Axloy 
•rtho ilii-d in l^i'il, l.'aviii^' one child, a little sun. 
wijo -iirvived iii> motliev only alioiit two inoiitlis, 

S 1 after this Mr. Gei^'er was [nostrati'd with 

(,\,r and was nnaltle to atteixl to his work or any 
l.ii'inf--. f(jr five uiontlis. In ]SO\ he was a^'ain 
iii.'irried. to Mrs. Elizabeth Lee, who died in 
Novuiher, ISTT, leaving two children, lioth sous. 
|>tirinj^her lifetime Mr. Geiger was engaged in 
the milling l)Usinoss and in the fall of ISliO' he 
. :.---teil II cotton gin and corn mill which was run 
\.\ h.'!-!' power. This was the first gin or mill 
.recli'd 111 that valley after the war. This he 
..|,.i r.ite.l two seasons and then enlarged his mill, 
|iitiiiig ill a small engine and added a saw mill. 
■|\ni jears later, finding that this did not supply 
I lie deiiiaiids of the country, he sold out his ma- 
rhiiiery and bought a large engine and enlarged 
his liusiness by adding a tloiiring-mill. The vent- 
ure was a paying one and a good source of rev- 
enue. After the death of his wife in 1877 he sold 
"lilt ihe jiroperty and devoted his attention entirely 
1." his family and his farm. He has now one of the 
tiie'st and most productive tracts of land in the 
vjdley and a vast amount of valuable timber, con- 
^i•.ting princifially of the ditrerent varieties of oak. 
interspersed, however, with walnut. Some of the 
liiii>~t wagon timber in the World is found in this 
>ieinity. Staves have been made by the settlers 
nnd .'liip|)ed in large (piantities down the river to 
Little Hock. On December 3, 1S7S, Mr. Geiger 
wiiH married to ^liss A\'illie Dewitt, daughter of 
.laiues Di'witt. of this C(junty. Three years later. 
N"vemb.T •'.. ISSl, tire broke out in the ilwelling- 
h. .11-,. and everything was destroyed, the loss be- 
ing alKjut $l,.".l)l). The same fall Mr. Geiger 
• "■gan making preparations for building another 
iion>i>, which was completed aiid ready for occu- 
l iin.-y in the fall of INM'. Mr. Geiger now has a 
•-..mfortahle house, which he has insured for 
*I.'~'H>. and which is the best in the neighborhood. 
He was the first man to bring a cooking stove in 
li" vall..y. This was an old fashioned Step stove 



No. S and cost ?3o, besides having to be freighted 
thirty miles across the country, across the river 
through an almost trackless wilderness. Mr. 
Geiger has never been an active politician, but he 
has voted the Republican ticket since the war. 
He is not connected with any church, but is a 
truly good man and is living a Christian life. He 
is a memlier of the A. E. A: A. !M. at Dutch 
Creek. To his last marriage were born two 
daughters, oue of whom died at the age of six 
years. He now has three living children: Jesse 
A. (born August 18, 18tj7), Elbert M, (born Feb- 
ruary 14, 1S71, and the husband of Elizabeth 
Ivey), and^Iyrtle (born January '.^2, 1SS8). Jesse, 
the eldest, lives with his father and has bought 
and operates the mill property formerly owned by 
his father. Elbert works a part of his father's 
farm. Mr. Geiger is a strictly temperate man and 
is opposed to the sale of liquor in his county. 
He is pnbl^spirited and a liberal contributor to 
all worthy enterprises. He is a remarkably peace- 
ful gentleman, never had a ease in court, and is 
noted for his honesty, sobriety and his desire to 
do as he would wish to be done by in dealing with 
his fellow men. He is highly respected and is 
one of the best citizens. 

H. C. Gilison, a farmer and manager of the 
Western Arkansas Hedge and Wire Fence Com- 
pany of Dardanelle, is a native of Arkansas, being 
born September 18, 1848, sis miles south of Dar- 
danelle. His father was a native of Kentucky, 
was born ^lay 24, 1794, and came to Arkansas 
when eighteen years of age, where he continued to 
live until his death, which was October 2r). 1S74. 
He joined the Presbyterian Church in July, IStiO. 
at the age of seventy-five years. His mother. 
Nancy (^\'el.)uru) Gibson, was of an old family of 
Conway County, where she was born December in, 
1813. She sur\ived her husband a little over a 
year, dying in the Christian faith in Dardanelle, 
November 23, 187."!. Our subject was brought up 
on a farm and received but little schooling, the 
educational advantages of his youth being very- 
meager. When twenty years of age he accepted a 
position as clerk in a drug store in his native town, 
remainin" in this store two years, when he mar- 



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ir.o 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



ried aud engaged in farming. He owns 4(l0 acres 
of good bottom land, '20() under eultivation and 
well improved. In 1S7S bo erected a cottage on 
his property on Mount Nebo, where be spends his 
summers, and has done much to improve and 
beautify this lovely resort. He has been officially 
connected with the Arkansas Summer Xormal School 
of Mount Nebo since its organization, serving 
as director and secretary of the Express Company. 
On December IS, 1S70, bo married Miss Alice A. 
Hawkins, daughter of J. Hawkins, a merchant of 
Dardanelle. This marriage resulted in the birth 
of the following children: Carrie May (deceased), 
Eolin Daisy, Freeman Irby and Gertrude Jlay. 
Mrs. Gibson was born in Helena, Ark. , April '22, 
1848, moved to Panola County, Miss., with her 
parents in 1S50, and in INTO returned to her native 
State. She joined the Methodist Church when 
young, and lived a conscientious Christian until 
her death, which was on December 21, ISSS. 

John A. Grace, one of the pioneer settlers of 
Dardanelle Township, emigrated from Gibson 
County, Tenn., in 1849, with bis father and mother, 
Jesse G. and Phoebe (Gatley) Grace, and seven 
children, he being the youngest of the family. His 
parents were natives of Kentucky, the father born 
July 27, 1805, the mother deceased in this State, 
in 1857. On arriving in Yell County, the father 
bought and settled on 160 acres of tiinberland? 
adjoining his son's present farm, and has since added 
100 acres more to this, one-half of which is tilled. 
Our subject was born in Gibson County, Tenn., 
September 5, 1843, where he grew to manhood. 
The advantages for an education lieing very lim- 
ited, he remained with bis parents. a.~sisting in the 
farm duties, till July, ISGl, when be responded to 
the war-cry, and enlisted in the Fifteenth Ar- 
kansas Regiment, Company D, commanded by 
Capt. Hollowell and Col. McRay. He was a par- 
ticipant in the battles of Oak Hill aud Elk Horn, 
thence crossing the Mississippi River to take part 
in the engagements of Corinth No. 1 and 2, and 
luka, and Baker Creek. Soon after, just before 
the siego of Vicksburg, he, with one-half of his 
regiment, was captured by Gen. Grant, and on 
May 17, 1803. were taken to Indianapolis, thence 



to Fort Delaware, and Point Lookout, Md. In 
Deceuiber of this same year, tln'v received tlirir 
paroles, and started for Richmond; upon reaching 
this city they were given a New Y'ear dinner l)y the 
ladies of that place. Leaving Richmond for their 
homes, they were obliged to travel in a round- 
about way, going through the Carolinas, Georgia, 
Alabama and Jlississippi. From Jackson, Miss. , 
they were comj)elled to walk the entire distance, 
arriving safely at home after many trials. During 
this journey, they found it necessary to pass 
through the Jlississippi swamps, breaking the ice 
and wading through water, which was from tin' 
shoetop to the arm's pit in depth. On bis arrival 
at home, our subject purchased the eighty acres cm 
which bis homestead now stands, adding to it till 
he now owns 300 acres, 170 being tilled and pro- 
ducing such commodities as cotton, corn and 
wheat. On his farm will bo found a good resi- 
dence, barns and sheds. In October, 1807, he 
was joined in matrimony to Rettie Thomas, being 
born in Middle Tennessee, November 23, 184*), 
and a daughter of C. Thomas (see sketch). To 
this union were born ten children: John, Jessie, 
Bennie, William, Mollie, Anna, Ray, Allen, Colum- 
bus and Maggie. He and wife are members of 
the Missionary Baptist Church. John A. is com- 
fortably fixed with this world's goods, enjoying 
life and the confidence of bis fellow-citizens, which 
be justly merits; all charitable enterprises, and 
any enterprise contributing to the welfare of his 
count}-, receives bis most liberal support. Politic- 
ally he is a Democrat, casting his vote with that 
party. 

F. M. Hale, prommently identified with the 
planting interests of Yell County, was boin in 
McNairy County, Tenn., February 22, 1848. His 
father, James Hale, a native Virginian, and his 
mother, Elizalieth, of Tennessee, were married in 
McNairy County of the latter State, somewhere 
about the year 1840, and located on a farm, where 
they lived and died and raised a family of three 
boys, our subject being a twin and the eldest. 
The father was a minister of the gospel, having 
been licensed to preach by the Methodist E[ii.sco- 
pal Church South. Being left to his own re- 



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l-y .-qeO 
. ! icqioit 



YELL COUNTY. 



151 



M)iirct>s Ht tL(> aije of nineteen, aiul having r^ained 
uhiit little education the common scbools uf Lis 
county conld give, engaged as a farm band, and 
the siicceedin;,' year man'ied Isabel Owens, daugh- 
ter of James Owens, of Henry County, Tenn., 
and who bore him six children: John Robert, !Mary 
Susan. James M., William Washington, Sarah 
\nu and Charles (deceased). In 1S7T. thinking 
to Ill-tier his furtuues.he moved to Faulkner County, 
Ark , and rented a farm, which he worked for 
live years, and here was called to monrn the loss 
of his wife. Moving to Y'ell County, he rented 
a farm of Joliu Albright, in Rover Township, 
then purchased eight\ acres from Dr. Clement, 
in Fourche Valley, and soon man'ied Mrs. Shir- 
ley, widow of Milton Shirley, and who died in April. 
ISSy, her two daughters dying while very young. 
He continued still to farm and increased his eighty 
acres to lli-'>. with si.xty under cultivation. Mrs. 
HensoQ, widow of James ^^'. Henson, became his 
third wife, and they are the parents of one son, 
Francis. He has been a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church South, for many years, and his 
wife is a member of the Missionary Baptist Church. 
He is an e.xemplary citizen, and a lil.ieral patron 
of education and religion, doing much to su[iport 
hchools and churches, and all public interests of 
h!s county. 

M. M. Hale, one of the many prosperous plant- 
ers of Yell County, and a citizen of ^Magazine 
Township, was born in Georgia, March *), 1S84, 
his parents, Thomps(ju and Elizabeth (Johnson) 
Hale, were also natives of this State, and were mar- 
ried in Gwinnett County, where they raised a 
family of seven children, and here the parents, 
worthy consistent memliers of the Baptist Church, 
difd, the mother in 1N14 or 1S15, and the father 
111 IS'.IO. The jirincijial of this sketch was earlv 
traiiied as a farmer, and when twenty-one rented 
land in his native State, which he worked for two 
years and suli.se(|ueQtly purchased land. He was 
united in marriage, December 2:5, IS-")*;, to Miss 
Iti-becca S. Wright, who was I)orn in the Palmetto 
•Statu in lS3d. the daughter of Berry and Polly 
(Christopher) Wright, and they became the parents 
"f the following family: Matthew T., Durlin<' P., : 



Sarah E. (wife of William Renington), Irena, 
James B. , Mary E., George A. and Selete O. 
Our stiliject served his country faithfully as a 
soldier in the Confederate Army, enlisting in Com- 
pany B, Forty-second Georgia Regiment of In 
faotry, commanded by Capt. Putnam Weaver, 
and fought in the i)attles of Vicksbnrg, Franklin, 
Chickasaw, Missionary Ridge, Atlanta, Nashville, 
and a number of minor skirmishes, and was pa- 
roled at Atlanta in ISG-'i, and at the close of the 
war returned to his farm. In 1869 he came to Ar- 
kansas, and located in this county, where he bought 
100 acres of land, clearing and improving seventy- 
two acres, which yield an abundant crop, and has 
a fine orchard of about four acres, and his farm 
gives evidence that he is a man of thrift, and is 
possessed of broad, progressive ideas, and is well 
posted on all methods of modern farming. He and 
wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church South. 

Joseph Hall, a planter of Dutch Creek, is a na- 
tive of Arkansas, being born in Y'ell County, Au- 
gust 111, 1854, his parents, H. M. and Elizabeth 
(Williams) Hall, of Tennessee and Indiana nativity, 
were among the early pioneers of Arkansas, and 
were united in marriage in this county, and became 
the parents of four children: Oiu- subject, Loitis, 
Henry M. and Isaac. H. M. Hall followed farm- 
ing as an occupation, and during the late war 
served twelve months in a company of infantry in 
the Confederate Ai'my when he was discharged on 
account of disability, and in ISST departed this 
life, his widow still living in this county, and is a 
member of the ilissionary Baptist Church. Our 
subject was married in Scott County, January 2">. 
ISTT, to ]Nriss Mary F. Rodgers, daughter of 
Thomas and Mary (Tate) Rodgers of Alabama, 
where their daughter was born in ISGO. This 
union resulted in the birth of one child, Thomas 
W^ Mr. Hall owns a fine tract of land, some 12(1 
acres in e.^tt-nt, with forty acres thoroughly culti- 
vated, and harvests a good crop of corn and cotton 
each season. Mrs. Hall is an exemplary Christian 
woman, and a member of the Baiitist Church, and 
he is a wide-awake and thrifty farmer. 

David Nicholas HalliBurton, a citizen of Darda- 



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HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



nelle, was born at tho Post of Arkansas, Arkansas 
County, April IS, ]SyO. His parents, Jndfje 
Thomas and Margaret M. (Damewortb) HalHBur- 
tun, were natives of Virginia and Tennessee, re- 
spectively, and his paternal grandfather, David 
HalliBurton, was a Scotchman by birth, and while 
on bis way to school, in Edinlmrgh, in company 
with his brother, was decoyed on board a ship, 
bound for America, and upon its landing in Vir- 
ginia, this country, was put off. Here he married, 
and upon the outlireak of the Revolutionary War, 
enlisted in the Virginia line, and was with Greene 
in his celebrated retreat. The maternal grand- 
father, George Dameworth, was of sturdy old 
Pennsylvania-Dutch stock, and emigrated to Ten- 
nessee very early in life, and busied himself with 
farming, and was known as a sound, substantial, 
honest and industrious citizen. The father of our 
subject learned the saddler's trade in Virginia, but 
man-ied his first wife in North Carolina, and then 
moved to Tennessee, where she died, leaving him 
and five children to mourn their loss. He married 
the second time in Humphreys County, Tenn., and 
this wife bore him live children, of whom our sub- 
ject was the youngest. Soon after this marriage 
(some time in 1844) he came to the Post of Ar- 
kansas, where he engaged in merchandising. He 
was elected county and probate judge of Arkansas 
County in 1846. He was a merchant at the post 
for several years before his removal to Grand 
Prairie, and later settled on a plantation near Swan 
Lake, where he spent the remainder of his days in 
agricultural pursuits, and died in September. ISoU, 
his widow surviving him until 1SS2, her death oc- 
curring in Pranklin Parish, La., at the residence 
of her daughter. Jixdge HalliBurton was a mem- 
ber of the Baptist Church, and his wife of the Pres- 
byterian Church. Our subject received his early 
educational training at home, and when seventeen 
years of age, entered a school at Dewitt, then 
worked in a printing office for one year, after which 
he went to Jlemphis. Tenn., and accepted a posi- 
tion in a railroad office as shipping elerk. and in 
November, 186'J, went to Louisiana, where he was 
engaged as shipping and receiving clerk for a firm 
in Madison Parish; thence to Franklin Parish, here 



teaching school for six months. He was deputy 
circuit clerk, and afterward deputy sheritf of this 
jiarish, and later became a traveling salesman for 
a wholesale house in Vicksburg, and in 1875 re- 
turned to Arkansas, sinc(( which time he has fol- 
lowed various pursuits, and in 1S78 settled in 
Dardanelle, Yell County, Ark., and since ISSS has 
been the special agent of the Mutual Life Insur- 
ance Company, of New York. He was married 
January 7, 1SS(\ to Mattie J. Cotton, daughter of 
Jesse H. and Rebecca Cotton, who settled in this 
county in 1S61. To this couple have been born 
the following interesting family: Thomas Jesse 
(deceased), Fannie Lou Alice, Minnie Margaret, 
Harold Fordyce. Susan Rebecca and Anna. His 
wife is a member of the Cumberland Pres!>yterian 
Church, and he is a Mason, affiliating with Bright 
Star Lodge No. 213, of Dardanelle, also a Knights 
of Pythias, belonging to Easley Lodge No. 1 7, of 
Dardanelle, and is a member of Lodge No. 1233, 
of the Knights of Honor, of this town. Politically, 
he is an aggressive Democratic worker, always striv- 
ing for tho interests of his party. Ho is a courte- 
ous and al?able gentleman, who extends a hand of 
welcome to all, and is a lil)eral supporter of all 
laudable enterprises. 

Clarence E. Haney was born February 0, 1844, 
in this county, and is the son of Thomas J. Haney, 
who came to this State in 1842, from Unionville, 
S. C, and entered 100 acres of land, which he im- 
proved at the rate of five acres a year until his 
death twelve years after, and his widow still owns 
the land and resides upon it, and here our subject 
lived, and at the breaking out of the war, being but 
eighteen years of age, was conscripted into Com- 
pany F of Col. Hawthorne's regiment, serving two 
years and participating in the battle of Prairie 
Grove, then deserted the Confederate side and 
joined the Federal Army at Little Rock, and fought 
in a number of battles and skirmishes and was 
wounded and taken prisoner at Prairie Grove; was 
exchanged and given a furlough, and received his 
final discharge July IS. 1SG5, at Lewi.sburg (now 
Morrillton). He returned to his home and resumed 
farming, ami bought 4-10 acres <>[ laud, paying S3 
an acre, and not having a dollar to pav down he 









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YELL COUNTY. 



153 



gave Lis note for it, and in ISSO made bis last pay- 
lut-nt, every dollar of wbieli has come out of this 
laud. Ho has under cultivation I'lO acres, forty- 
livt< of these being devoted principally to cotton, 
nnil the remainder planted to corn and the small 
j^rains, and as a usual thiiij; his crops avcra_,'e 
well, and he also raises some cattle, bdgs. and has 
a tine flock of Cotswold sheep. On his farm is a 
nicely painted bouse, a good liarn, liesides several 
outl)uildings. On September "JU. IS7l>. he lirouijht 
bis bride, Mary J. Madden, daughter of Sauiuel J. 
Ma<lden, to reign over this place, and who. after 
fourteen months of happiness here, die<l leaving 
an infant daughter to his care, and on July '-jO. 
iSTf), man'ied Miss Lovina C. IJounsaville. and 
they are the parents of the following family: Edwin 
|l)orn May 20, LSTT). Laura (born July 27, IST'.I), 
Lydia (born December 31. ISSOl, Robert E. Lee 
(born May 11, 1SS3, died :\lavch 2, bS90), Martha 
A. (born September, 1SS-"), Grover Earl (born 
^Iarch 7, 1S8S). The family are connected with 
the Methodist Episcopal Church Soutli. and he is 
a liberal supporter oi churches and schools, and is 
a Democrat in politics. 

Thadeus L. Haney, farmer, Chiclcalah, Ark. 
Mr. Haney is a South Carolinian by liirth and 
bringing up, having l)eea born in that State June 
3, 1S35. His father, Timothy Haney, was a native 
of the Old Domiui'ju, but was reared in South 
Carolina. Thadeus came to this State with his 
father in 1S3'J, was reared on the farm and re- 
mained with his father until twenty -one years of 
age. About that time his father died, leaving a 
largo landed property which was divided among 
his nine heirs, aliout 200 acres falling to our s'll)- 
j''ct. Mr. Haney has improved this farm and 
ndiled to it from time to time, until he now owns 
iW acres, besides giving to his chiKlreu each a 
farm of 200 acres. His dwelling, outbuildings. 
• •tc., indicate a thrifty and progressive owner. His 
farm, principally bottom land, is very productive, 
aiul on this he raises cotton, corn and hay. He is 
largely engaged in stock-raising — horses, cattle, 
sheep and hogs — and is one of the most enterpris- 
ing and successful farmers of this sfcti'.n. ^Mr. 
Haney was married, in lS"><'i. to ^Miss Amanda L. 



George, daughter of Jackson George, of the Pal- 
metto State, and to this union have been born four 
children: Julia, Emma, Virginia and Macey. tlie 
eldest three being married and residing near their 
father. In 1S()2 ilr. Haney enlisted in the army 
and served until the close. He was in a numln'r 
of small battles and skirmishes, the most impurt 
ant being Arkansas Post and Prairie De Hand At 
Arkansas Post he was taken prisoner, and lay at 
Chicago, 111., for six months, when he was ex- 
changed. He returned to his command in Jlay, 
1,S<>8. He takes very little part in political atfairs. 
biTt votes with the Demociatic party. He. witli 
his family, are njembers of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church. He, in connection with others, formed 
a company and erected a large school building at 
the village of Chickalah, where he resides. 

Dr. J. H. Harkness, another of Bellville's pro- 
gressive physicians claims Northern Georgia a- his 
birthplace, he being born in that State in lsr,(). 
His parents, E. W. and Eveline (Bacon) Harkness. 
were natives of South Carolina and Georgia, re- 
spectively, and were farmers by occupation. The 
father served his country as a private in the late 
war, and came to Arkansas in 1S60, and settled on the 
La Fourche Ris'er, owning one of the tinest farms 
in this countv, and on which he still resides, his 
wife having departed this life in 'Slay, 1S88. They 
are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
South. The paternal grandfather, Robert Hark- 
ness. of Irish descent, early came to this country 
and located in Charleston, S. C, and engaged in 
business, and later, moving thence to Georgia, was 
a soldier in the Revolutionary ^\ ar. The maternal 
grandfather, ^\'illi;^n H. Bacon, was a Geori^ian 
by birth, and a planter. The Doctor was early 
taught the rudiments of farming, and attended 
school till ten years old, when he was obliged to 
drop his studies, and did not take them up again 
till attaining his majority, when he worked and 
studied, and in 1S73 began the study of his chosen 
profession with an uncle, in Georgia, and the next 
year attended lectures at Atlanta, and in the spring 
of 1874, while yet a student, he came to Arkansas, 
luid began to practice, and in 1S^"> returned to 
Little Rock to complete his studies, graduating 



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HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



liero with liigii honors. On coniint,' to Bt'llvillo he j 
established a pniftice ami upi'ueil a drug stort", ' 
carryini^ja full liiii' of drugs. He owns a tine tract of 
land, 1(10 acres in extent, seventy of which are culti- , 
vated, and five acres and a residence in town. }[<• ; 
man-ie'd Miss Kate Hamilton in the fall of IST."), 
who bore him one child. Edna. The Doctor, wife 
and daiirrhter wor.shiji with the ;\Iethoili>t Episco- j 
pal Church South, to which they belong, and he is | 
well worthy the reputation he has earned as a citi- i 
zen and phy.^ician. j 

Hon. J. T. Harrison, of Dardanelle. was born 
in Virginia in IS'JT. His parents. Joseph and 
Athana (Kollins) Harrison, were of Virginian na- 
tivity, but came to Tennessee in IS^S (jr 1S;:>U, and , 
here followed farming as a means of maintenance, ; 
the father dying in b^4(.). His motli^'r was a mem- : 
ber of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and died j 
in 1SG2. Our subject's early life was spent in 
Tennessee, where he received but a limited educa- 
tion, and at the age of fourteen began life's career as 
a farmer. After a complete mastery of the study 
of law, which he had chosen as his profession, ho 
was admitted to the bar for practice in ISo-"). In 
1S5S he came to Arkansas, and purchased land in 
what is now Logan County (then Scott), and 
cleared and improved some forty acres of his 40l'. 
At the bursting of the war cloud in iSfil, he enlisted 
in the Confederate Army, taking pnrt in the bat- 
tles of Oak Hill, and Elk Horn, was dispatched east 
of the ^lississippi liiver. and after the battle of 
Corinth his company was reorganized, choosing him 
as its captain: was a participant in battles under 
Gen. Bragg in Kentucky, and fought at Richmond 
and Jackson, Miss. Ill liealth soon overtaking 
him, the Captain was obliged to resign, and com- 
ing home joined the State troops as lieutenant, re- 
maining with this till the close of the war. In 
I'^OO he moved to Danville and resumed his law 
practice, and about 1870 changed to Dardanelle, 
where he bought his present place of residence, 
besides owning 'iC() acres in Carden bottom, sixty 
of which are under cultivation. He has served 
his State in many of its otlicial positions, being a 
member of the State Constitutional Convention in 
1874, and a representative in IS77, and in L'^sn 



was State Senator for four years, and since the 
expiration of this oDice has again taken up his 
practice. He is a most estimal)le citizen, vigorous 
Democrat in politics and recognized by that jiarty 
as a leader, and has a most enviable re[iutation as 
an otiice holdei-, and is the citizens' friend. He 
married Miss Mary C. Hill, of Perry County, in 
February, ISt')'), she l)eing the daughter of Dr. 
L. D. Hill, one of the early settlers. To the 
marriage of Mr. and ]Mrs. Harrison were liorn six 
children, four living: ilattie G., ilary A., Cora 
L. and John Hill. 

W . L. Heck, planter and senior member of the 
well known firm of Heck & Briggs, general mer- 
chants of BellviUe, was born two and one half 
miles south of that village. His parents, A. S. and 
Sarah (Brown) Heck, were originally from Penn- 
sylvania and Ala!)ama, but the father, whose an- 
cestors were from old Pennsylvania stock of the 
same family with prominent people still residents 
of that State, came to Arkansas in 1828, locating 
at Morrison's Blutl'. now in Logan County, wliich 
was at that time the only trading post and settle- 
ment for miles around. The following year mov- 
ing his family and effects to the site which he made 
his permanent home, he started a tan-yard, the 
only one within a radius of tifty miles, which at- 
tracted a good trade from the surrounding country, 
until Heck's tan-yard was one of the best known 
localities in all Western Arkansas. He died Janu- 
ary 4, 1861, having been married three times, his 
Urst wife having been a iliss Saddler, who l)ore 
him three children, one of whom is dead, those liv- 
ing beiuif S. S. Heck (who married Simeon Pledger 
about 1854 or I8"it5), and Nancy M. Heck (who 
married N. J. Buckman about 1850 or 1851, and 
now lives on her father's old homestead): his sec- 
ond wife having l>een our subject's mother, who 
died in 1845, leaving two children to his care; and 
Mrs. Saddler, nee Balch, became his third wife. 
He w-as an u[iright, honest, sturdy pioneer, and 
just such a character as was necessary to lay the 
foundation of a future community. Our subject, 
W. L. Heck, was brought up on a farm and -etlu 
cated in the common schools, and early taught the 
: trade of his father. In July, 1861, he enlisted in 



.f 



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YELL COUNTY. 



lot 



('apt. I>;i\vriMiCi>'s cc.>iu[>aii_v and ';v;is stTit to Soiith- 
\M-.lcrii .Mi»<iuii, wIh'Ii' 111' f(ini,'lit in the liriitlo of 
Oak Hill. "ihI oh Au<,aist 1(>. IMll, retnriioil iiuiiie. 
Hh enlisting iu Feln'nary, ISIiL'. he was sent east 
of the ^lississippi Itiver, {laitieijjatin^j in the hattles 
i.f luku anil Corinth, liein^' \V(.)Uii(lt'il anil eaptuieil 
at tlio latter jilaee. He was conveyeil to the hos- 
pital at luka ami, upon reeovery, was taken to the 
iiiilitarv prison at CoUunlms, Ky., where he re- 
iiiaiueil until ho was e\chan;^'eil at Viekshurg in 
Heoeiiilier, where ho was given a furlough and re- 
turned honie. .Joining a cavalry oonipany tlie fol- 
liiwing -lane, went to the Indian Territory, taking 
part iu the Back Bone tight in August. IStit. Re- 
l liming homo he went to Little linck. where he 
remained until the close of the war. when he re 
sumed his farming duties once more, and !May 17. 

IS'lS, estalilished a general store ou his farm, remov- 
ing his stock, however, the nest year to Danville, 
taking J. T Brigg.s into the business as partner, 
under the tirm name of Briggs & Heck. At the 
expiration of a year J. T. Briggs withdrew and 
.Mr. Heck continued the business alone till IST'i, 
wlien ho sold out and retired to his farm, where ho 
liusied himself improving and clearing large tracts 
'if land for seven years when, in 1S7'-I, he again 
went to Danville and entered into business, which 
he moved to Bellville, iu -January. 1SS4, luiitiug 
with the tirm of .J. B. Heck .V ilartin, not chang 
ui;^' the name (jf the tirm, which was dissolved in 

1^^'i. In September of the same year Mr. Heck 
opened a general store, and in 1890 the present firm 
I'f Heck & Briggs was organized, our suliject and 
L. L. Briggs being the members. They carry a 
^tock of about ?o,0t>0 value, and do a busines.s 
"f •'^1■"),0(J0 annually. His individual [irojii-rty is 
"Miue 1,:]I)0 acres of good, fertile, seeding and fair 
limberland, ;3oO of which are cultivated, and also 
a tine residence iu Bellville. Miss Lydia Little- 
john, daughter of Marcellus Littlejohn, became 
ills wife .January 3, ISi'iT, and they have become 
'lie parents of two children; Laura (widow of 
l»r. William H. Fergeson, Jr.). and Ladouia. Mr. 
'''■(•k and family are consistent members of the 
M-th..di-t Episcopal Church H..uth. he lilb'r.- the 

■:l:cH of steward of the same; he belon'^s t" Dan- 



ville Lodge No. 11, of the :Masonie fraternity. 
Ho is courteous and all'abh', and in his dealings 
with his fellow-men, has always proved worthy 
any trust reposed in him. 

Dr. -lohn B. Heck, a nu'rchant nf wide ex[ieri- 
enoe. and the trustworthy and honoied' physician 
iif Bellville, was born and reared in Yell County, 
his birth occurring in ISjd, within three miles of 
his jireseut Imiue, and is the only chiM of Abra- 
ham S. and Allleda (Calch) tfeck. c.f Bennsylvania 
and Tennessee, respectively, and deceased, the 
mother iu ISCid and the father in bS<il. The sen- 
ior Heck came to Arkansas in its pionei^r day, and 
as a means of livelihood busied himself with tan 
ning, having the only lanyard in the county. The 
Doctor's early educational advantages were ex- 
ceedingly few, Imt being possessed with a strong 
spirit of determination and the desire to become a 
physician, in 1871 he began the study of medicine 
at home, and the succeeding year went to Nashville 
and entered the medical college, and later thence 
attended lectures at a Louisville institute, from 
which he gradttated in 1S7-J-74. Returning to 
Arkansas, he opened an otllce at Danville, practic- 
ing here for some nine years, and in 18, , the tirm 
of Heck & Briggs was formed, and was so known 
till February, 1881, when the Doctor withdrew 
and came to Bellville. where he and Isaac N. 
Martin opened a general store, which they con 
ducted till lS8,j, wdien he sold out his interest, and 
October of 188G became one of the firm of F. C. 
•Jones & Co. , general merchants, carrying a well- 
selected stock, invoicing some ^y.lltlO, and doing 
an annual business of 815,(100. In ISS'i he erect- 
ed his present handsome residence, costing him 
83, 0(10. Besides this property he owns several 
farms, comju'ising 5tW acres, with 150 cultivated. 
He was one of the founders of the town's beautiful 
institution of learning — a most excellent place of 
its character. The Doctor has lieen twice married: 
First to Miss Alice T. Logan, daughter of Jona- 
than Logan, one of the earliest settlers of this 
county, who died in April, ISSl, leaving him the 
father of one child, Alice. In 1883 Miss Fannie 
L., daughter of Dr. D. F. Huckaby, also a pionrer 
of Yell Couutv, became his second wife, and she 



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HISTOEY OF AKKANSAS. 



boie liiiii the folluwicij fiuuily: Enla Mazfi, John 
anil Barbara Wave. Dr. HiH'k and liis wife and 
family are couinuinicauts of tli.> Mftliudist Episco- 
pal Church South, and In' lH'](.>nf;s to the Masonic 
fraternity, ijeinjj ;t uu'Uilierof ("hrihtian Lodj^e No. 
31)4, of Bellville, and of the Ciiaiiter and Council 
of Dardanelle. He i.s a ni(.'.-^t exeni[ilary citizen, 
aiding and supporting all of his town's interests. 

James W. Hogau, a wide awake citizen and 
successful planter of Hover, was liorn in Yell 
County August, }■'. 1S()3. and is the son of James 
W. and Jjlizaheth (Rounsaville) Hogan. The 
senior Hogan was a planter owning I'it^ acres of 
land, on which he made his home and died in 
isfi;!, leaving a widow and twn children; (our subject 
and Martha A., who married Alliert F. Humphrey 
in 1877 and moved to Indian Territory, where 
they now live). After his mother's death, which 
occurred some time in 1877, having survived her 
husband some fotirteen years, our subject made his 1 
home with his uncle. Woodson li. Hogan, remain- , 
ing with him tdl attaining his majority, when he i 
began the world for himself on a farm lying in the 
Fourche Valley, and has folh-)wed this calling ever 
since, living a quiet, uneventful life. He was 
married, October 1. ISNTi, to Mrs. Margaret A. 
Purcelly, widow <if James S. Purcelly, and they 
have become the jiarents of two children: Bertha 
A. (aged four years) and Anna L. (an interesting 
child of eighteen months). They are members in 
good standing of the Missionary Baptist Church. 
Not having had other than the advantages the 
common schools afforded fi.ir an education, and 
realizing the importance of having good institutions 
of learning, he is a liberal contributor to schools 
and churches and everything that will promote the 
growth of his community. I'ulitiealiy he is a Demo- 
crat, voting always with that party. 

George H. Holder, a farmer of Dutch Creek 
Township, was born ^^ay 1-. IS-J'.I. and is the 
tifth child in a family of eleven born to H. H. and 
Malicia A. (Carr) Holder, also of Alabamian na- 
tivity, and now deceased, the mother i[i l^'i-i and 
the father in 1^70. lioth worshiping with the Bap- 
tist Church. Our subject received a good business 
education in Mississippi, and being left to his own 



resources, at twenty three, commenced life for him- 
self as a farmer on his own land. He was mar- 
ried, in ISiil, to ;\Iiss MaryFlott, who was bi>rn in 
Mississijjpi in 1S4j!, and this marriage has been 
blessed with nine children: William J., Caladouia 
(deceased), Bennett L., Walter L. (deceased), Sa- 
rah L,, Clementine B., Archie C, Minnie J., 
Georgia H. and oni' unnamed (deceased). On the 
alarm of war sounding our subject severed all 
business connection and home ties to l>ecome a 
defender of his country, and was one of Company 
B, Twenty-sixth Mississi{)pi Begiment of cavalry 
(Confederate Army) to participate in the following 
battles: Harrisburg (Miss.), Cross lloads tight, 
Athens, Pulaski, and a number of minor skir- 
mishes, and while in a skirmish on the battle- 
ground of Shiloh received a wound in his left 
hand. After his muster out he returned lo his 
farm in Tennessee, which he conducted till 1S7S, 
when he came to this county, and erected for him- 
self and family a ciim fort able and homelike cot- 
tage in the little village of Walnut Tree. His 
farm lying in Dutch Crei'k Township comprises 
seventv live acres of fertile land, tifty-tive of 
which are highly cultivated and sown to cotton, 
corn and wheat, which yield a very good harvest. 
He and wife are memliers oi. the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, and he is an A. F. & A. M., belong- 
ing to Dutch Creek Lodge No. 2G9. 

Richard Hood, a prosperous merchant of Yell 
Count v, Ark., came to Richland Township in 1872 
from Monroe County, this State, where ho has re- 
sided since 18o6, He was engaged in farming up 
to his removal to Y'ell County, when he o[iened a 
ireueral merchandise store, keeping a good line (if 
all kinds of j)roduce and dry goods, and has met 
with very good success, having laid up a comforta- 
ble fortune to keep him in his older days. He was 
born in ilareugo County, Ala., April 27, 1829, the 
son of Iloliert and Rebecca (Bates) Hood, natives 
of Virginia. Tlie father followed farming all his 
life, dying in 18(30 at the age of fifty-eight years, 
the mother passing to her tinal home in ISiOat 
the a^i-e of fifty-seven years. Richard Hogd spent 
the early part of his life in De Kalb County, Ala., 
receiving but a very limited education, his first oc- 



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YELL COUNTY. 



<-ii|.:itii)ii l)oiii>,' farming, as above stated. He on 
listeil in tlio army in IMII uuiler Gen. Price, ful - 
liiwiiig liiiu in liis raid, also taking part in the bat- 
tli'S of Helena |.\.rk. ), I'ilot Kaoh (Mo.), Prairie 
(irovo (.\rk.). and a great many skirmishes, remain- 
ing ill the army until the close of the war, when he 
returned home. He was married in IS-'S to ]Miss 
.\[artha C. Williams, daughter of J. Williams, a 
native of Tennessee, and although they have no 
children of their own they have raised and taken 
euro of a number of orphans: James Hood (a 
nephew) and Emma Hood lof Monroe County), 
also Urico James Beckit. Out subject and his wife 
are both members of the Missionary Baptist 
Ciiurch. !Mr. Hood is also a member of Baker 
Creek Lodge, A. P. ^: A. M., and in j^^olitics sup- 
ports the Democratic party. He is ever ready to 
assist in matters of a public nature that would be 
of l>enelit to his county or [larly, ami is one of the 
.successful and representative citizens of this town- 
ship. 

Joseph H. Howard. Among the otHcial repre- 
sentatives of Yell County is Joseph H. Howard, 
whowas elected to the office of sherifT September 
1, ISDO, and although a resident of Magazine 
Township was a native of Van Buren County, 
Tenn., born January 31, 184U His father, Will- 
iam Howard, a gnnsmith by trade, was also born 
in this .State April 15, ISIG, and married about 
1^12 Melinda Haston, a native Teimesseean, being 
born December 26, 1815, and they were the par- 
ents of nine children. Here the father died July 
2.), 1S5U, a member of the Presbyterian Church, 
and his widow, seventy-fonr years of age and in 
full fellowship with the Christian Church, lives in 
this comity with her youngest son, Thomas F. 
Oiir subject began supporting himself at the early 
age of fourteen, remaining under the parental roof 
till hi.s marriage, December IS, IST^i, to Miss Sa 
inantha J. Cam|)bell. She was born in Tennessee 
l».-<-ember 2, 1S53, a daughter of Willis N. and 
Louellyu E. Campbell, who were l)orn and married 
in this State. Her father participated in the late 
war, and de])arted this life April 15, 1875, a mem 
'x-r of, and an elder in, the Presbyteiian CLnii-h; 
Ills widow, also of like faith, lives with her daa<'h 



ter, Mrs. Miller, of this county. To our suliject 
and wife were born tivo sons and three daughters, 
four of wh(jm are living; Johnnie E., Joseph H., 
James W. and William J., and they have had under 
their care for many years an orplran to whom thrv 
are giving a parents' loving watchcare, and a good 
home. He owns 100 acres of very valuable land, 
with forty under cultivation, and has a mo.st mag- 
nificent orchard of many of the .sterling varieties of 
fruit, and altogether enjoys the fruits of his hard 
labor in a prolific farm and comfortable home. 
For four years he served as deputy sheriff, and 
was elected constable of his townshiji for a like 
period of years. Mrs. Howard is a member in 
good standing in the Presbyterian Church. 

John B. Howell. Sr., owner of the large and ex- 
tensive mill plant of Danville, was born on a farm 
in Logan County. Ky., May 12, 1815; here his 
early youth was spent assisting his father in the 
duties of the farm, ami in lN3(i came with his par- 
ents, John and Mary (Jones) Howell, to Johnson 
County, this State, and settled on land which they 
farmed, and in connection with this ran a store 
of general merchandise, which they had opened at 
Pittsburgh. In 1888 our subject severed his con- 
nection with this business to go to Yan Buren and 
take charge of the mail route between Old Dwight. 
Mo., and Fort Smith, I. T., carrying the semi- 
weekly mail for four years, when he changed to 
the triweekly stage running between Little Rock 
and Hot Springs, in it, passing over a stretch of 
country for thirty miles without a post-otlice. and 
while acting as mail carrier was associated with 
Lewis Snap in the inland service, known as the 
pack routes, the mail being carried on horseback. 
In 1840-47 he ran the steamer on the White River, 
from Napoleon to Rock Craw Creek, where it met 
the stage line. His health failing,he sold his boat at 
the expiration of two years and came to Danville, 
and settled on a farm, and when that terribh' 
scourge of the sixties visited the laud, was wt41 
fixed financially, owning 8, 000 acres of land, 5()0 
of which were in a thorough state of cultivation, 
the labor of this immense plantatiiin being per 
formed In' seventy- five servants. Soon this was 
laid waste bv the devastating armies of the war. 



I .! 



:-v/,,:i-.^ :'.."> 



'in Til' ' 

vj.l ilit 

I 1. , ,i>o-^ .■ 



ms 



HISTORY OF AKKANSAS. 



stock contiscated, bouses and other l)nildings de- 
stroyed, and soon nothing remained of this once 
beautiful and vast estate but the land. At the 
c]<}so of this long and bloody struggle, he returned 
to Danville, ami engaged in farming and milling, 
erecting, in 18(5'.), his large mills, compri-^iiig a 
tlouring-mill, ginning and wool-carding tnachinery, 
and a saw-mill attached, all costing in the neigh- 
borhood of ?10,0()0. and in IS'^l'i this entire plant 
with all its contents, was destroyed by tire, it be- 
ing a total loss to him, as it was not insured. In 
1S72 he opened the popular Danville, famed 
throughout the county for its genial proprietor, its 
good cheer, and its tirst-class accommodations. He 
was wedded to Miss Eliza Hnrd, of Crawford 
County, who lived to bless his home with her 
presence hut a short time. She departed this life 
in 18t2, leaving an infant son to the care of her 
husband, who lived to be but two years of age. 
He is not connected with any church, and, although 
voting the Democratic ticket, has never held any 
political office. Our subject has one brother, who 
resides at Clarksville, at the advanced age of 
eighty-one years, and three sisters, all deceased. 

Dr. Daniel F. Huckabiy. Among the self-made 
men of Arkansas and Yell County, is the subject 
of this interesting sketch. Although not a native 
Arkansan, he is one whom Yell County has every 
reason to lie pmud of. for coming to this State in 
the early days of ls3-), he has dune much to ad- 
vance its growth, and is j'ecognized liy the old 
pioneers as one of the founders of the county. He 
was born in Union District, S. C, October 4, 
1818, and is a son of Rciliert and Snsan (Fitch) 
Huckaby, also of South Carolina. He was raised 
on a farm and given but a few wi'cks' seho(jling, 
and when twenty years old his father gave him his 
freedom, when he went to llecdstown on Broad 
River, and apprenticed himself fur two years to a 
cabinet-maker; working for him a year and a iialf 
he bought his time and went to Pinckneyville, and 
accepted a position at his tr;ide at •"?4() pi>r month. 
At the expiration of fu\irteen mouths h'ft this posi- 
tion to accept one at Packilett River, where he re- 
mained three years, and during this time (Octol)er 
2o, IS^iS) he njarried Cynthia E., daughter of John i 



Haney, of South Carolina, and she became the 
mother of four children; Helen, Dolphus, Rebecca 
and Myrtle. About a year after his marriage, he 
and nine families from his neighborhood made up 
a train of nine wagons and started overland to Ar- 
kansas. They were seven weeks on the way. the 
weather being all tliey could wish and everything 
in their favor they arriveil safely at Danville, this 
State, thence journeyed to Spring Creek, near the 
present site of Rellville: here the colony settled, and 
our subject went to Pitt>.burgh, Johnson County,and 
worked one year at his trade; subsequently returning 
to his 160 acres of land, which he had pre-empted, 
he began improving it, alternating this with work 
at his trade or at carpentering. About this time 
the settlement petitioned the Legislature to divide 
Pope County, and form a new one; this l.ieitig 
granted, Y'ell County was organized; meeting with 
such success, they also prayed the United States 
Government to bring their land into market. Then 
came the momentous question of deciding the loca- 
tion of the county seat, which was tiually settled at 
Monroe and afterward moved to Danville. The 
Doctor soon received an appointment from the 
Government as commissioner of public buildincr, 
and let the contract for the erection of a court- 
house, he himself l.ieing one of the workmen. By 
this time the farms of the colony were yielding 
good crops of cotton, which were conveyed to the 
nearest gin (six miles away), and ginned and l)aled, 
one-tenth of the cotton lieing paid as toll for gin- 
ning, and §1 per bale for baling. This was hauled 
twenty-two miles to the river, and shipped on the 
"Governor Moorhead '" to New Orleans, and ex- 
changed for the necessary commodities of pioneer 
life. On Septemlier 'I'l. lSr)7, the Doctor was 
called upon to part with his loving and faithful 
wife, and remaining a widower till October 1, ISTiS, 
marricil Miss Sarah Meers, who bore him the fol- 
lowing children; Fannie, Anna, IMinerva and 
Effie, all living near their parents. He l)egan his 
medical studies in I'icktieyviUe, S. (J., while a resi 
dent in the home of Dr. McGovern, ilevoting all 
his spare time to his studies, and in 1S(il attended 
lectures at McDowells' Me.lical College at St. 
Louis, but l)eing taken ill was obliged to abandon 



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'1^ ?■ 



yp:ll county. 



15'J 



his stii^lii's iiiid leave for Lome, anil while going 
ilown the river to Memphis was captured and com- 
i«-Il<'d to take the oath of allegiance to the I'nited 
Slates Government, after which he was permitted 
to return home, where he • fully rrcovercd his 
licalth, and liegan his practice; but war having 
Imm-ii declared, and the country in a fearful state of 
ii"itution, he, a sworn defender of the United States 
(iDwrnmeiit, was obliged to ilei' to tlie Pu'd liiver 
count rv, where he practiced till the cessation of 
hostilities, and in May, ISC,.", returned to Yell 
Count V, whei-e his family had been during the en- 
tire struggle. On the succi^eding year he i-ntered 
tlie Medical University of Louisiana at New Or- 
Icuns, where be took a regular course, then re- 
turned to his farm, which he worked in connection 
with his practice, attending lectures from time to 
time till 1SS2. when he left his farm (2^0 acres of 
Iftiid, with ItH) under improvement and with good 
liuildiugs, it being to a great extent the work of 
his own hands), and moved to the village of Bell- 
ville and opened an oflice. In 18-'i3 he was elected 
to the Legislature by a large majority, and was an 
etiicient and active worker for the good of his State, 
and in 1878 was again sent to represent it in the 
liegislative body. He is a member of the !Meth 
odist Episcopal Church in religion, and a Dem- 
ocrat, [)()litically ; is a pulilie spirited citizen, and a 
Ii<is]iitable entertainer of his many friends. 

A. (r. Hughes, of the Dardanelle Transfer Com- 
pany, and a well-known citi^^en of the town, was 
Ixirn in Na>hville, Tenn., in 1S4S, and is the 
Niiun^^i'st member of the family liorn to J. L. and 
Nancy (Little) Hughes, originally of Tennessee 
and Virginia. The maternal grandfather was an 
extensive Virginia planter, and died in that State. 
The paternal grandfather, David Hughes, was one 
"•f the piuneer farmers of Tennessee, and was the 
propriptor of the livery and transfer V)usiness at 
NiL-.hvilIe, to which his son, J. L. , succeeded, and 
f^iiitiniiod in it fcjr ten years, then took up steam- 
l"'a(int,', and for tive years was captain and owner 
of tin- •• Kiito May," which ran from Loui-^ville to 
N.i-ihviUe. Disjiosing of this he again established 
liinisclt ii, ^\^p transfer business, carrying this on 
till l^.)5, whi-n death called him to his tinal home. 



A. G. Hughes was reared in Nashville, receiving a 
good common-school education, and when l)ut tif 
teen assumed the management of a ferry-boat for 
the Government; later on was pilot on a boat on 
the Cumberland River. Being a victim of the Ar- 
kansas fever, in IS'iS he came to this State and 
accepted a position on the Arkansas River, subse- 
quently going to Gainesville, Tex., he started a 
business of merchandise, which he closed out in 
about eighteen months' time, aiid again coming to 
Dardanelle occupied himself with well-digging, 
farming, and a business which was burned out, 
then farmed for three years, at the es[)iration of 
which time he engaged as traveler and collector 
for C. M. Freed, in 1S88, leaving him to form a 
partnership with S. N. Evins (see sketch). In 
ISSO Edward Shinn was admitted to the tirm. He 
is the owner of two large staliles, a lot, and a cot- 
tage on Mount Nebo. Politically he is a Democrat, 
and as a citizen is active and energetic, and thor- 
oughly awake to the interests of his townsmen. 

John H. Hunt, a wide awake merchant and the 
genial postmaster of Rover, claims this village as 
his native heath, he having ))een born here in 
ISCO, to Richard and Elizabeth (Green) Hunt. 
His grandfather. Hunt, a fanner, who came to 
Arkansas as early as ISTiT, settled in the little vil- 
lage of Rover, and is thought to have given the 
place its name, was the first postmaster here. His 
father, a native Georgian, l)eing lujrn, educated 
and married there, was a resident farmer of Ar- 
kansas till the call for troops in the early sixties, 
when he enlisted in the Federal Army and died in 
Little Rock in ISIU; his widow still survives him, 
and is a member of the ]\Iethodist P'piscopal Church 
South. Our suliject was reared and educated here. 
Beginning the life "f a farmer at tlie early age of 
twelve, he continued in this till twenty-two, when 
he became proprietor of a mercantile business, 
handling hardware, queensware and groceries, etc., 
doing a good trade, and is the owner of some 
valuable land and a tine dwelling in the village. 
In January, IS-SS, he received the appointment of 
postmaster, and the year following witnessed lii- 
marriage to Miss Annie AUiright, daughter . .f 
John Albright, at one time a resident of the State 









,1 ;( r,',v 



100 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



of Guoigia. but now a citizen of Rover. To thi.s 
union were born three children: Ruby (living), 
and John Richard and Toimuie (deceased). Mrs. 
Hunt fellowships with the 3Iethodist Episcopal 
Church South, and Mr. Hunt is a member of the 
Rover Masonic Lodge No. 46 i . 

J. M. Hutchins claims the little State of 
Georgia as the home of his nativity, iieing born in 
1S27, to Redmon and Cassey (Pierson), who alsi.i 
claim Georgia as the land of their birth and mar- 
riage. Redmon Hutchins, a farmer, was a soldier 
in the War of 1812, and in lHo'I emigrated to Mis 
sisaippi, where he died the following year, his wife 
having departed this life previous to his removal 
to this State. Both were earnest and faithful 
members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. In 
lS44the marriage nuptials of our subject and Miss 
Mary E. Hearn. of Georgia, were celebrated, and 
to them one child has been born, Mary (wife of 
L. M. Ladd). Being a farmer he followed this 
calling till 1S62, when he ottered his services and 
life, if need be, to Company D, Third Missis- 
sippi Regiment of cavalry, and being accepted 
did duty as a private till the close of the war, when 
he returned to Mississippi and farmed till 1807, 
then moved to Arkansas, locating in Dutch Creek 
Township, where he has 120 acres of land with 
sixty under cultivation, and in iMiS, being ap- 
pointed postmaster of Walnut Tree, which ap]>oint- 
ment he filled for twenty years, moved to this vil- 
lage and built him a neat residence, where he now 
lives, and in 1872 met with a severe loss in the 
death of his wife, who was a njember of the ileth- 
odist Episcopal Church, and sulise<piently Miss M. 
W. White, born in Alabama in ISTiO, and daugh- 
ter of J. H. and L. A. (Heru) White, who were 
natives of Georgia, liecame his second wife, and 
they are consistent members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church South. He is a man respected 
and honored in political and social circles, having 
been elected justice of the peace of his township in 
187.""), and is now acting as worshipful master of 
Dutch Creek Lodge No. 209, of the Masonic fra- 
ternity. 

Judge William D. Jacoway. Prominently 
identified among the legal prnfi'ssiou <■! Yell 



County is Judge Jacoway, the well known lawyer 
of Dardanelle. He was the fourth child in a 
family of ten born to B. J. and Margaret (Wilkin- 
son) Jacoway, respectively of North Carolina and 
Tennessee, his birth occurring in the latter State 
in 1835. The paternal grandfather. Archil >ald 
Jacoway, of Scottish descent, emigrated to Nurth- 
Carolina from bonnie Scotland, thence to Alabama, 
where he died. He was a captain in the Indian 
War in Florida. The maternal ancestors were 
among the early settlers of Tennessee. The 
father was a planter, early going from Tennessee 
to Mississippi, subsequently coming to xVrkausas, 
and settling near Dardanelle, where he purchased 
a large tract of river-bottomland, which he put un- 
der improvement. He filled many official positions, 
being marshal of the Western District of Arkansas 
during President Buchanan's term; was twice a 
member of the Legislature, and departed this life in 
1861, while en roufc to his son, Henderson M., a sold- 
ier in the Confederate Army, encamped at Rich- 
mond with his brothers, John A. and B. J., Jr., and 
a brother-in-law, J. L. HoUowell. John A. because 
of his bravery and faithfulness, was commissioned 
lieiitenant-colonel under Gen. Kirby Smith, and 
B. J. was killed while crossing the Arkansas River 
sis miles below Dardanelle. Our subject received 
his schooling at Tennessee's institirtions of learn- 
ing, graduating from Irving College ia 185'"), and 
two years later from Lebanon Law School, here 
being admitted to the bar, and on his arrival in 
Dardanelle formed a partnership with his brother- 
in-law, and were known as the firm of Hollowed 
& Jacoway. Dnring the troul>lous times of ]'>>'''■] 
he removed his family and effects to Texas, and 
when peace was declared he returned to Arkansas, 
and from 1878 to 1882 filled the office of circuit 
judge of his district, and has built one of the 
finest dwelling houses in town. In bSuS he was 
wedded to Miss Elizabeth D. Parks, daughter of 
Walter D. Parks. To this couple have been born 
eleven children: Walter D. (lawyer). Mary E. 
(deceased in Texas), Beur.ie (deceased in l^^li. 
Martha J. (deceased in 1881), LillieD., Earl C. 
(deceased in 1872), William D . Jr.. H. M.. Jr.. 
Irene (attending school at Winchester, Teuu.), 



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T ' 






T Af. 



1o mi 



.k 



YELL COUNTY. 



IGl 



KtLt'l and Nina S. The Judge religiously wor- 
ships with the iUethoilist Episcopal Church, being 
a nicniher in good standing in that organization. 
AVilliaiu D. Jennings is one of the early settlers 
in Yrfl Coun-ty, his parents, Nathaniel and Mary 
(Craig) Jennings, natives of the Old North State 
and Tennessee, respectively, coming to Dardauelle 
in 1850, from Memphis, Tetui., where he was born 
May 14, 1S3G, in INIarion County. His father was 
a carpenter, builder and mechanic by occupation, 
and died in 1858, his widow surviving him some 
fifteen years. Our subject's early life was spent 
in bis native State, where he received the advan- 
tages of the common schools, and on his coming to 
Arkansas finished his schooling and learned the 
carpenter's trade, which he followed till the out- 
break of hostilities, when he enlisted in Company 
H, Capt. Daniels and Col. Reynolds commanding, 
and fought in many of the famous battles; particu- 
larly was with Gen. Johnston on his renowned 
march to the Atlanta, thence to Tennessee, light- 
ing in the battles of Franklin and Murfreesboro, 
and in the fight at Georgetown (Ky. ), .skirmishing 
around Cincinnati, and took part in a few minor 
engagements, and while in the service was pro- 
moted to the rank of corporal and sergeant. He 
remained with Gen. Johnston's command till the 
surrender at Jonesboro. On his return to Arkan- 
sas he purchased sixty acres of good tillable land. 
and breaking and cultivating thirty acres began 
farming, his principal product being cotton. He 
was married in 18G7 to Miss Jennie E. Hall, who 
was born in Shelby County, Tenn., in 1840, and 
they have become the parents of six children: 
William H. , Lizzie, Wallace. Edgar, ilaud and 
Orella. In religion his wife worships with the 
t."uinl)erland Presbyterian Church, while he is a 
member of the Methodist Epi.scopal Church S(juth. 
nnd politically is a Democrat, being elected on the 
local ticki't of his party in 18SS, as justice of the 
[M-ace. As a citizen, having the growth of his 
••i>iiiity at heart, he supports all j)ublic enterprises, 
and withlKjlds not his aid from the distressed and 
iiwdy, and all find in him a friend and comforter 
iu time of tronlile. 

JimiHs Y. Jones. Among the early settlers of 



Arkansas were "William and Isabella f Kcrley) Jones, 
originally of Tennessee, bttt eame to Yell County 
in lS5li, bringing with them a family of ten chil- 
dren, James Y., who was liorn in Hardeman Coun- 
ty, Tenn., in February. IS 10, licing about twelve 
\ears old. Here the father bought land and im- 
mediately began farming, his son (our subject) 
remaining with him till he was twenty years old, 
when he was married to Miss Inez Adcock, daughter 
of W. K. Adcock, also of Yell County, and to them 
were born eight children: Cynthia Ann Isabella. 
James R., William A., Edward A. (deceased), Mar 
tha F.. Irene Elizabeth, Levi (deceased), and 
Thomas Henry. In December, 18TU, he was l)e 
reaved of this wife, and some time after married 
the widow of John Simmons, one child, Anderson, 
being the result of this marriage, and for his third 
and present wife he married the widow of John 
Hogan. Our subject has always been a farmer, 
following this from his boyhood days up t<_i man- 
hood, receiving but very little schooling, and he 
now owns 120 acres in the Foureln^ River bottoms, 
fifty of which are highly iujproved. During the 
Rebellion he became a soldier in the Confederate 
Army, enlisting in Company E, of the Twenty-first 
Arkansas Regiment, and was captured at Vicks- 
burg and sent to Indianajiolis, from there to Fort 
Delaware, thence to Foint Lookout, and kept in 
confinement nine months, at the expiration of which 
time he was paroled and returned home, never 
going into service again, but after twelve months 
at home was again taken prisoner, and detained 
for two weeks, when he escaped and served as a 
scout till the close of the war, then came home and 
took up his farm duties again. He is a Democrat 
in politics, and a member of the Baptist Church in 
religion. 

W. B. Lemoyne. In ISri'2 there came to Dar- 
danelle, George W. and I'enelope P. (Walton) Le- 
moyne (natives of Virginia and Tennessee, respect- 
ively) and family. ( leurgi> W. was educated in Vir- 
ginia, but on couiiug to Arkansas secured a school 
in Johnson County, which he taught for some time. 
Studying law and lining admitted to the bar in 
Johnson (now Yflli County, he soon became known 
as one of the leading lawyers of his section and 



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ICi 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



time; being very prominent and pronounced in his 
political views be was returned to both branches of 
the General Assembly of the State again and again. 
He at one time recruited a company from Dardaiielle 
he l)eing chosen as colonel, which was dispatched 
east of the Mississippi lu\t'r; sulisecjuently resign- 
ing, he returned home. He was a faithful and con- 
sistent worshiper of the church, and an etiicieut 
member of the ^Masonic order. His wifr died in 1 S()3. 
W. B. Lemoyne, the genial agent for the Pacific 
Express and Dardanelle tt Russellville Railroad, 
was born in 1S47, in Conway County, Ark., and 
was the eldest son in his father's family, being 
reared in this and attending the private schools of 
the same till his majority, wlien he entered into the 
mercantile business,- which he conducted for three 
years, then settled on a farm, which he now rents, 
devoting his entire time to the railroad and express 
business, to which he was appointed agent in 1SS3. 
During President Cleveland's administration he 
was made postmaster of Dardanelle. In ISjO he 
wedded Mrs. Johnnie B. Gordon, daughter of Rob- 
ert Cunningham, an old and highly resjiected citi- 
zen of Yell County. To Mr. and Mrs. Lemoyne 
were born the following family: Stacy, Anita, Jane 
Penelope, Basil, Morand and Lavanche. all living, 
Mattie being a child by her foi mer husband. In 
religion the family wor.-hip with the Old School 
Presbyterian Chiirch. Our subject is a conscien- 
tious voter of the Democratic party. l)eing one of 
its most active workers, anil socially is connected 
with the K. of P. and K. of H. 

Joseph S. Lotland, farmt-r, (jravrlly Hill. Ark. 
Mr. Lotland is possessed of tli()s(> advanced ideas 
and progressive principles regarding agricultural 
life, which seem to be among thf^ chief character- 
istics of those of Arkansas nativity. He was born 
in Y\'ll County, BlutTton Township, i'el)ruary H, 
lSr)4, and here he was reared to mature years. He 
received but a limited educaliuu in the common 
schools, and at the age of twenty three years he 
began working for himself as a tiller of the soil. 
He tirst bought eighty acres of land which he im- 
proved and cultivated, but later he uiuved to Grav- 
elly Hill Township, settling where he now resides. 
He has in his homestead ITU acres of laud, all im- 



proved, and has a g(jo>l residence, substantia' 
barns and other buildings. He is progressive in 
his ideas, and is possessed of those sterling quali- 
ties which make a true man and a valuable citizen. 
In bSST he bought 420 acres of good bottom land, 
lying in BluFFton Township, has about eighty-five 
acres of this under cultivation, and rents it out. 
While an agi'iculturist of advanced ideas, he does 
not lose sight of the stock-raising industry, and 
raises horses, mules, cattle, sheep and hogs. He has 
a good orchard and plenty of fruit for family use. 
His principal crops are corn, cotton and oats. This 
} ear he has forty acres in cotton and thirty acres 
in corn, all promising a good crop. In February, 
ISTS, Mr. Lotland was married to INIiss T. J. 
Crawley, of Gravelly Hill Township, and they 
have three children: Wilburn, Walker and Battis. 
In polities Mr. Lotland is a Demcjcrat. He is a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and is 
liberal in his support of all pulilic enterprises. 

W. S. Lofland, senior member of the tirni of 
W. S. Lotland & Co., general merchants at Blutf- 
ton, established the business in this town in I'^fiT, 
and here he has since continued. He began with 
a caiiital of ab<rat Sl,2()0, but l)usiness has in 
creased until the firm now sells >ir).t)0(^ worth of 
goods jier aiiiuim. They have a well assorted 
stock consisting of dry goods, groceries, hats. caps, 
boots, shoes, harness, saddles, etc, Mr. Lotland 
is also interested in two other stores, one at Dar- 
danelle and another at ilineral Springs, ten miles 
from BlutTton. When Mr. Lofland commenced 
business in this county his entire worldly goods 
would not exceed •':^1,"20<I. To-day he values his 
property at •t'To.OOO, which shows what can lie ac- 
complished on the sea of life when a determined 
hand is at the helm. He is also a stockholder and 
one of the directors of the Dardanelle Bank, the 
largest banking establishment in the county. He 
is the owner of about 3,()<>0 acres of land, I'll'd of 
which are under a good state of cultivation and 
which he rents out. !Mr. Lotland was bon, in 
Western Tennessee on April 21, 1S31, and was 
reared to manhood on the farm. He received a 
limited education, and when about thirteen years 
of age moved to this county with his mother. He 



r 



if 



■.li! 



=^^ 



YELL COUNTY. 



103 



was (ililigod to walk livo luilt^s to a poor country 
wli(H)l to i^et bis education. He began working 
for liinisi'lf in 1853, and the same year went to 
('iilifonua wbere he was engaged in luinirig for 
four years. He met with moderate success and 
then returned home where he was married in ISoS 
to llisa Emily Gault. daughter of Judg(* Gault. 
He lived with her twenty-sis years, when she died, 
leaving live children — four daughters and a sou; 
Mary li. (wife of A. Edwards), Dora C. (married). 
Surah A. (wife of L. Kelley), Lilly May and Si'th 
\V. After his marriage ^Ir. Lotland worked a 
farm until the breaking out of the war, anil in 
August, 18(31, he enlisted in Company I). Hill's 
regiment, serving during the war. Sonje of the 
leading battles in which he engaged were t)ak Hill. 
Prairie Grove, Jenkins' Ferry, Marks Mill and oth- 
ers of lesser note. He remained in service until 
the close of the war and then returned to his home 
where he entered the business as above mentioned. 
On January 13, 1888, he took for his second wife 
Miss Louie E. Kelly. Mr. Lofland is in no way 
connected with politics, but votes the Democratic 
ticket. Ho is a Mason, Bluffton Lodge, and is 
liberal in his support of all churches and other 
enterprises of a public nature. 

Thomas \V. Lucas, of the well-known tirm of 
Funk, Sewell, Lucas & Hays, proprietors of the 
}[oward Mill, came to the State of Arkansas in 
December, 1878, settling first in Franklin County, 
where he remained until 1882, when he removed 
to Yell County, and followed farming until August 
of that year, when he bought an interest in the 
iil>ove firm, remaining with it ever since. He was 
l")rn in Carroll County, Tenn., in Decemljer, 1847, 
tlie son of John Lucas, a native of South Carolina, 
but who was born and reared in Tennessee, and 
in 1S.>7 removed to Mississippi, and remained there 
twenty one years, when he came to this county. Our 
•nliject was married in November, 187S, in ^lar- 
>h:ill County, Miss., to Miss Sallie Quinn, daugh- 
*••'■ of James O. Quinn, born in December, IS-'iO. 
»'> thfin have been born three children: Ida, John 
15. niul Thomas E. They are all members <if the 
.\dvnt CLuroh. of Waveland. Mr. Lucas is a 
I'-'uiocrat. He is always ready to assist and sup- 



port any enterprise of a iiul)lic natniedf interest 
of his town or county. The tirm of which he is a 
member owns the Howard saw, planing and grist 
mills and cotton-gin, which embrace a plant cost- 
ing .8">.»i(lO. They have capacity to turn out 10,000 
feet of lumber daily, and sell to the trade in their 
own and adjoining counties. 

James P. Lyingo, one of the most prominent 
farmers of the Fourche Valley, came to this county 
from Georgia in Lb-jl, and settled on the farm 
where he now lives. He bought forty acres of land, 
and to this he has added from time to time, until 
he is now the owner of 430 acres, all good valley 
land. He has erected good, substantial buildings, 
keeps a good breed of stock, and in the manage- 
ment of everything connected with his farm he 
displays excellent judgment and thoroughness, 
qualities which can not fail of success. He was 
born April 5, 1830, and fnun an early age he has 
been familiar with the duties of the farm, it being 
quite natural, perhaps, thar he should select this as 
his chosen calling. In the year KSTil his marriage 
with Miss Alvira Molder was consummated. They 
have no children. ]\Ir. Lyingo"s advantages for 
an education were very limited during his youth, 
but this he has improved very materially in later 
years. He is a Democrat, but does not take a very 
active part in politics. He held the office of con- 
stable for some time, and tilled that position in a 
very satisfactory manner. Although not a mem- 
ber of any church, he is a liberal contributor to 
all, and is honored and resjiected far and near for 
his hospitality and kindness to the needy and dis- 
tressed. As a tiller of the soil he has been un- 
usually successful, and has 1 -jO acres of his fine 
farm under cultivation. His principal crops are 
corn and cotton. 

T. C. Lynch, the popular memlier of the firm 
of Brunton A; Lynch of Bellville, was born in Yell 
County in 1858, his father Ijeing James H. Lynch, 
of Tennessee, who married Martha Evans of North 
Carolina, she bearing him a family of ten children, 
T. C. being the seventh child. Coming to Arkan- 
sas in 1852, and locating in Yell County, they 
bought and broke land for a homestead, where the 
father died in 1875, and the mother is still living. 



10,: 






-* >> 



164 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



They wore Gomiuniiicauts of the ]Mi'thoili-^t Episco- 
pal Church Smith. Onr sulijecl wus early reared 
aa a farmer, ami on attainincr his luajiirity still fol- 
lowed this calliiiLr, inning a farm in l^"^7. which 
he sold in ISSlt, and ptirehased a place in town. 
where he established his present Im-^iness. In 
1882 he married Mis.s Julia Bird of (leor-;,na. who 
bore him five children: Oscar Wallace, Martha 
Emma, Malinda Altha, Alice Laura and an infant 
son unnamed. 

Judge J. E. McCall. an agriculturist of Herring 
Township, was horn in Alabama, ilarcli 11, ]N"_'t), 
and is a sou of John and Sarah (JfcCall) ilcCall, 
who were born in liichraond County. N. C, in IMK) 
and March 4, 1S04, respectively, but were wedded 
in Alabama. The father, on hi-j ai rival in Alaba- 
ma, was elected county comnjissioTier of Lowndes 
County, and was justice of the peace of Lowndes- 
boro Township for many years, and died in this 
State in 1840; his widow, still surviving and living 
in Alabama, is eighty-sis years old, and of the 
Presbyterian faith, having been connected with 
that church for over seventy years. The subject 
of this sketch was united in marriage, in Dallas 
County, Mo., December 'JU, I'^i'ii), to !Miss Eannie 
Wood, born in Johnson County, this State, Janu- 
ary 4, 18:!U, daughter of Isaac and Anna (Denton) 
Wood, and they became the parents of four chil- 
dren: Sarah (born in August, ISSO, and deceased), 
Paul (born December Ki, I'^iu). John C. (I)orn Oc- 
tober 1, 1S72), and William P. (burn in 1^74). In 
ISO I he enlisted in the ^Missouri State Guards, 
serving six months, when he entered the Confed- 
erate Army, and joined Comjiany G, Eleventh Mis- 
souri Regiment of Infantry, and took part in the 
following l)attles: Elk Horn, Prairie (irove, Hel- 
ena. Pleasant Hill, Jenkin.-.' Feriy, and was parc'led 
at Shreveport. June, iMiTi. \\hen [leace was once 
more restored to the land \i.o caiue to -\ikun.--as and 
engaged in farming, which has been his occu[iation 
ever since, and owls 235 acres of land, cultivat- 
ing sixty. In 1SS4, as an api)reciation of the 
esteem in which he was held by his fellow-citizens, 
he was elected county judge, served two terms, 
and thus earned his p)resent titl.ii>f Jud^'.-. He 
has been a local preacher of the Methodist l^pisco- 



pal denomination fur twenty two years, and iiini- 
self, wife and sons are members ot a church of tho 
sanjo faith, and he socially belongs to the Masonic 
fraternity. 

Dr. William H. McCall. physician, Briggs- 
ville, Ark. Dr. McCall. an energetic i>ractitioner. 
is recognized thioughout this county as a friend 
and laborer in the cause and advancement of the 
medical profession, and lias ac(piired a tlattering 
reputation as a physician. He came with his 
father's family to this State from South Carolina 
in 18(50, settled at INIount Holly, Union County, 
was reared on a farm, and remained with lii> 
father until his majority. His e<lucational ad 
vantages in youth were good and when he came lo 
Arkansas, when seventeen years of age, he was 
fully prepared to enter college. But he was 
de[)rived of this privilege for several years on ac- 
count of the breaking out of the war. In iSt')] 
he engaged to teach a country school for ?4("l per 
m(jntli and continued this employment for about 
three years. About this time (October, 1S<U) his 
father died leaving a large family to siipport, 
and as he was the eldest child the care of the 
family devolved upim his shoulders. He gave up 
teaching and returned to the farm, where he re- 
mained for three years, being very successful 
in this pursuit. During this time he had taken 
up the study of medicine. In 18')7 he became ;', 
clerk in the general mercantile store of C. L. Mc 
Rae A: Co. at Mount Holly, Union County, antl 
there he continued for six mouths, but being in 
terested in the study of medicine, he left the tirm 
in the fall of that year, to attend a course of lect- 
ures at Jlemphis, Tenn. The following spring he 
came to Briggsville Township. Yell County, and 
commenced the practice of medicine, which bu?i 
ness he has continued up to the present time, 
meeting with excellent success. About two vears 
after his arrival he bought a tract of land contain- 
ing llill acres, and in connection with his practici' 
carried on agiicnltural pursuits. In lS7rihehad 
sixty-live acres under cultivatiiai. liut in this year 
he sold his ]'lace and bought in the same neigh- 
borhood • I'iil acres. ."lO acres of which were im- 
proved. He has added to that improvement until 



^f 



III. now lias abcjiit 'M) acres cleared, with i^'ood 
|]ini~e, liaiiis and uutlmililiiij^s. He Las, hoiu 
lime lo time, made other purchases until he iiuw 
iiNsiis aliout l.snO ;ieres of laud, lyiny in this and 
u.ljoiniii;^ townships. His principal crops are cot- 
t<iu and corn and he has about tiDO acres under 
(•iiltivati(.n this year. He is also engaged in gen- 
I'la! mer<-ha[idi--ing at Briggsville. where he now 
resides, and is selling about ?10,0O(» worth of 
goods p(>r year. In 1SS2 he with J. H. Waldron 
^tarted a grist mill and cotton-gin. the tirst in the 
tii-igliliorhood. but Dr. McCall has since sold out 
his interest. Ur. JlcCall was born on May 28, 
ISi;!, and was the son of Malcorub and Lydia 
(John) McCall, the latter a daughter of Daniel 
John. On July 27, lSTt5, our subject was married 
to Miss Mary C McEae, formerly of North C'aro- 
jinti. His political preferences are Democratic, 
and he was chairman of the central committee. 
He is an Old School Presbyterian and gives lib- 
erally of his means to churches and schools, as 
well as all other enterprises for the advancement of 
social and pul)lic interests. 

J. H. McCargo, the etKcieut and popular cir- 
cuit clerk of Yell County, was born in Charlotte 
County, Ya. , the seventh in a family of eight born 
lo John M. and Mary Ann (Ellis) McCargo. of 
\irginia. His parents were planters by occupa- 
tion. The father died in ISCi."), just before the sur- 
ri'ndiT of Gen. Lee, at Appomattox, and the mother 
in lS."i2. a worthy and consistent member of the 
Baptist Church. His paternal grandfather, Heze- 
kiah McCargo, an extensive and very prominent 
I'ianter, died in Yirginia, and his maternal grand 
father, also a planter, and a descendant of a 
Scotch Irish family. Mr. .McCargo spent his youth 
in attendance upon the common schools of his 
native town, and at the Eockingham High School 
"( North Carolina, where he was a student three 
\eurs, thus gaining a mo^t excellent etlucatioa, 
which lifted him for teaching, which he soon took 
"p. Ileing prevented through lameness from tak- 
ing a viTv active part, yet very anxious to serve in 
d.fcnse of his country, he entered the Confederate 
.\riny in IMU. and was assigned to some of the 
bghtiT <lntics uf army life, \\hen peace once more 



reigned, he took up the study of dentistry, and, 
upon receiving his diploma, established an oflice 
and practiced for eight years. On coming to Grav- 
elly Hill, this State, he at once began negotiations 
for the erection of a building, to be used for scho<jl 
purposes and known as the Piedmont High School, 
in which he opened one of the best schools in the 
county, and which he taught for live years. The 
building is not only an ornament to the county, 
but retiects great credit on the founder of the in- 
stitution. In the fall of l.bS2 he changed his resi- 
dence to Danville, where for six years he served as 
circuit clerk, Maj. Gee's deputy, and at the expi- 
ration of Mr. Gee's term of ofiice, was elected cir- 
cuit clerk, which oflice he filled for two years, and 
again in 1S90 he was the successful nominee, being 
elected without an opposing vote. He was mar- 
ried in July, 1SS5, to Miss Ellen E. Pound, daughter 
of the Hon. T. ^Y. Pound, formerly of North Caro- 
lina, but since 1S41 a resident of Arkansas, and a 
lawyer of excellent repute, who before the war was 
circuit clerk for many years, and after its close was 
circuit judge, and in 1SG6 was the first Democrat 
elected to the General Assembly. Prior to his 
death in 1884, he was a resident and practitioner 
of Danville. His wife having preceded him to 
their tinal home in 1876, after having borne him a 
family of seven ehiliiren, three of whom live in 
Yell County. Mr. and Mrs. McCargo are members 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, and be- 
longing to the Masonic fraternity, he afliliates with 
the Danville Lodge No. 41. As a public official, 
he is most exemplary, discharging his duties in a 
manner befitting the oflice to which he is called, 
and he is everywhere recognized as a pleasant, ed- 
ucated and refined gentleman, an acipiisitiou to the 
community in which ho lives. 

Hugh B. McCarrnll, the faithful and able sheriff 
of Yell County, was born in West Tennessee in INlfi, 
his parents, Greene L. and Eliza (Duckworth) ^Ic- 
Carrell, were of Alabamaiaa and North Carolinian 
nativity, but were married in Tennessee, where the 
father followed farming till 1S4S, when he emi- 
grated to AVhite County, thence in ISoO to Yell 
County, locating three miles west of Danville, 
where he bou<rht laud and worked it till 180'-. 



-» 1^ 



lOG 



HISTORY OF AllKANSAS. 



when in response to Lis countrv's call he enlistod 
in Col. Lemoyue's First Mississippi Cotupany, and 
while stationed at Little Ilock was taken sick and 
died. His widow joined him in death in 18S2. 
Our subject's school-days were somewhat of a very 
limited character, spending scarcely more than 
twelve months in the school-room, bat by self-ex- 
ertion and close observation has obtained a very 
fair education. Iti 1SG8 entering the Federal 
Army, remained till the close of hostilities, when 
he returned home and again took up farm duties, 
and in 1SG7 married Miss Louisa J. Briggs, duugh- 
of J, T. Briggs, also of Yell County, and who 
bore him the following family: ]\Iary Lee (who 
died at the age of four), John ]M.. William Sydney 
and Ada Elizabeth. The wife and two young- 
est children are members of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church South. In 1870 he moved to Danville 
and purchased the E. Haney farm of 2sO acres 
with fifty cultivated, and a tract of 215 acres, with 
sixty acres under cultivation, two and one-half 
miles from town, and his residence. His land 
produces some of the finest timber in the county, 
and yields from one-half to one bale of cotton per 
year. In politics he is a stanch Democrat, and since 
his residence in town has been a most active State 
and local politician, in 1S84 being electee! county 
treasurer on his ticket, serving for two years, and 
then elected county sheriff, which ofHce he filled 
for two terms, ably performing the duties which 
fell upon him while in this office. As a man he 
is possessed of good sound judgment, and well 
worthy the honors which have been conferred upon 
him by his fellow-citizens. 

M. "NV. McClure. Among the early prominent 
settlers of Arkansas were Samuel and Mary (Cala- 
han) McClure, of North Carolina, and farmers by 
occupation, and who came to this State in 184t', 
locating in Fergeson Townsnip, Y'ell County, where 
the father entered VM) acres of land, making slight 
improvements, subsequently adding and improving 
200 more, on which they resided till their deaths, 
the father's occurring in 1857, and the mother fol- 
lowing him in 1858, dying in the Presi)\teriaa 
faith. The father was a very active politician. 
Our subject, who was born in Tennessee, May 8, 



1820, was reared on n farm and when eighteen 
years of age started out to make his own way in the 
world, and on arriving at twenty-one (1847) l)ought 
eighty acres of his present farm, situated in the 
woods, clearing and improving this and adding to 
it till he now owns 127 acres, with thirty-five under 
cultivation. In the sixties, when the call f(;r 
troops was given, he entered a company com- 
manded by Capt. (lault. remaining in it till it 
reached Little Uock, some time in 1802, when he 
went home. Soon after joining Capt. Daniel's 
company of cavalry, was in service in Indian Ter- 
ritor\', and with Gen. Price on his famoiis raid 
throughout Missouri, and for twentj'-one days was 
in continual hearing of battle, and at the time of 
the surrender was with the command in Texas, 
and at its disbandmeut came home and once more 
took up farming. He was twice married. His 
first marriage taking place in February, 1847, to 
Miss Louisa Haney, daughter of John Haney, a 
pioneer from South Carolina. She died in Sep- 
temVier, 1802, leaving three children to her hus- 
band's care: "Winfield (a resident of this county), 
Arkansas (wife of John Ward), Henry (married 
and lives in this county), and John (deceased at the 
age of eight years). His second occurring in iM'iG 
to Mrs. Mary A. McClure, widow of John McClure, 
and daughter of Edmond Jones, who came from 
South Carolina in 1842 to Arkansas, and died in 
1SG4, his widow dying in 1877. To them were 
born four children: Clara (wife of Anda HuotT, 
and who died when only nineteen), Willie, ilamie 
and Samuel, He and family are members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. He has always taken 
an active interest in politics, and was the successful 
candidate for county treasurer in 1880, serving two 
terms; and is deeply interested in school matters, 
being a director of the first free school in the coun- 
ty; is a Mason, belonging to Christian Lodge No. 
394. 

Dr. A. H. McKenzie. In 1832 Arthur A. 
McKenzie, a native of Y'ork County, S. C, born in 
18ll8, was united in marriage to Rachel E. Barnett, 
also of that county and State, and born in 1^10, 
and they became the happy parents of eight chil- 
dren, of whom Dr. A. H. McKenzie is the youngest 



■» "V 



ill*r=b: 




h.iii, liaviii;^' Ihm'ii bom ill bis pareuts' native 
i-.piiiitv April 1^. list'-'. TliH seiiiof McKeuzic was 
II furintT, luillri- and stoclc- dealt' r liy oecujiatioii, 
and in l^<'l enlisted in Company B of the Fifth 
Ki-"inii'nt of till' South Carolina Volunteers, eom- 
ni.ihdcd I'V ('apt. \\'. H. Bowen, and in LSt'il! was 
ili-.cliur<'e<l on aci'ount of old a;^e. He died in his 
native State in ISToa believer of the I'reshv teriau 
f.iilli. iM-in;^' an elder in the Old School Church of 
that denomination. His widow al^o died in this 
State in ISM* a member of the Presbyterian 
Church. The Doctor was educated in the Kings 
Mountain Military School, and acquired his pro^ 
fi'jisional knowledge in the medical department of 
tlie University of Maryland. Graduating !March 

4, l!S7"2, be cboae as bis tirst place of settlement 
bis native county, where be opened an office and 
began bis practice. He came to Arkansas in June, 
Is72, and January U of the succeeding year mar- 
rieil Miss Mary J. McKenzie, who was born August 
;(1, ISo-t, and is tbe daughter of David T. and 
Iteliecca (Nolen) McKenzie. To Dr. S.. H. and 
.M. J. McKenzie have been born ten children: 
l)avid A., Samuel A., Joseph B. (deceased), Carrie 
K , Walter M., Bergie H., Hattie E., Irvin A., 
.\rcbie S. and James I. Soon after be settled in 
this county the Doctor bought 170 acres of land 
and bas improved seventy. He is a Mason of high 
ilcgree, being worshipful master of Centerville 
Lodge No. 402, scribe of Dardanelle Chapter Xo, 
IjI. and a member of tbe Eastern Star. He and 
wif.' wor-hip with tbe Presbyterian Church, and as 
It physician he is tbe trusted friend of his many 
patrons, and bis influence for good is felt througb- 
• <ut tbe community. He bas recently taken up his 
i>-id.'nce in Dardanelle to educate bis children and 
practice bis profession. 

James M. JIcKenzie was born in York County, 

5. C, N'.jvemlier 20, 1851, and is the youngest son 
"f David and Rebecca (Nolen) McKenzie, origi- 
'••dly of South Carolina and North Carolina, tbe 
father born in ISlS and the mother in 1821. David 
M'-Kenzie was a farmer and emigrated from South 
'■' Nuitb Carolina at an early day, thence to Ar- 
l^^m-Hs in lS.-,7, settling on land in Yell County. 
Hhere be died in 1871), a member in good standing 



in the Old School Presbyterian Church. His 
widow surviving and living with her daughter, Mrs, 
Cain, of this county, is also a member of this church. 
When twenty-two years old our suliject bought a 
farm and liegan life for himself on his own land, 
and is now the owner of H')0 acres of fine fertile 
land, with eighty-tive acres in a good state of culti- 
vation, and in 188U erected a sulistantial two story- 
residence on his farm. In 187:-; he married Miss 
Lucretia Scarlett, who was born in Pope Country 
in 1840, and is a daughter of William and Jane 
Scarlett, and the result of this marriage is a family 
of sis children: Uriah, Edgar, Leroy, Lelar, 
Ernest and Verna. Mr. and Mrs. ^McKenzie, like 
tbeir parents, are faithful members of tbe Presby- 
terian Church, and be is a progressive farmer and 
carpenter, and takes an interest in public improve- 
ments, contributing liberally to all charitable and 
educational institutions. Politically be votes the 
Democratic ticket. 

David S. McNeely, farmer, Gravelly Hill, Ark. 
Mr. ^McNeely, one of the principal farmers of 
Gravelly Hill Township, was born in Humphreys 
County, Tenn., on August 80, 1844, and moved 
with his father to Graves County, Ky., in 1852. 
There be grew to manhood. On August 30, 1S02, 
he entered the Confederate .\rmy. Company B, 
Second Kentucky Cavalry Regiment, and served 
until peace was declared. He was in tbe battles 
of Providence, Fort Donelson. Red Hill, Union 
City. Cbickamanga, Shelbyville, and others of 
minor importance. He was with Gen. Bragg in 
his retreat from Shelbyville, Tenn., to Chattanooga, 
and during that retreat be was in tbe fight at Elk 
River Bridge. He was cut off from bis command 
at Shelbyville, and was three days getting back 
again, traveling by night. He was with AVbeeler's 
command in tbe raid through Central Tennessee. 
At Missionary Ridge be was taken jJrisoner and 
retained for fourteen months at Rock Island. He 
was to be exchanged in March, 1805, but before 
this could be effected peace was declared. He 
then returned to bis borne in Kentucky, where he 
again resumed bis occupation as a tiller of the soil. 
In 180)8 be was married to Miss Louisa Hendon, 
who died in 1870. She was the daughter of Aaron 



-* h> 



IfiS 



HISTOllY OF ARKANSAS. 



Hendou. In Jauuary, ISTO, Mr. ^IcXetly movod 
to Drew Couuty, Ark., aud ptuebascd a tiact of 
500 acres of land which ho .■settled on and improved, i 
He resided there about four years and then sold i 
out and came to Yell County where he now resides. 
He purchased a farm of 120 acres, which he has ; 
improved and made a pheasant home. In the j-ear ; 
ISS], while walling a well, he had his right leg 
broken by the falling of rock, and was laid up for 
five weeks. The following year, while helping a 
carpenter, a piece of timber fell breaking the same 
leg, which laid him up for seven weeks. In Jan- 
uary, 1S72, he was married, the second time, to 
Miss Adelia Julian, daughter of Dr. T. J. Julian, 
and the fruits of this union were seven chikli'en, 
all sons, four of whom are now living. I\Ir. Mc- 
Neely is a member of the Primitive Baptist Church, 
and has been deacon in the same for ten years. 
He holds license to preach, and is clerk and treas- 
urer of the association. In politics he affiliates 
with the Democratic party, and was at one time 
deputy sheriff of his county. In ISTf) he was 
elected justice of the peace, and has held that posi- 
tion ever since with the exception of two years. 
He has been an earnest worker in educational mat- 
ters, and is president of the board of education of 
the Piedmont High School. He is thoroughly im- 
bued with the spirit of the Master, and doing all 
that he can for the cause of Christianity in this 
and adjoining counties. He is in every sense of 
the term a good man, and his worth is recognized 
in his vicinity. 

Mitchell Malone, deceased. This gentleman, 
who was one of the honored and esteemed citizens 
of the county, was born in Alabama, on Feliruary 
2, 1^25. He was reared on the farm and received 
a limited education in the common schools. In 
November, 1S70, he emigrated to Arkansas and 
bought a tract of land containing l'.»l> acres in Yell 
County the following year. This he iiufiroved un- 
til he had about thirty-three acres under cultiva- 
tion, erected a bo.v house and other small Imildiugs. 

He was twice married, tirst to Miss ^lary , 

who died in 1858, leaving four children, and on 
November 2, 1858, he was married to iliss Eliza- 
beth Cruwell, who l)ecame the mother of eight chil- 



dren, six of whom are living: Phdcbo C, James 
H. , Orena Bell, George. Rosa and Anna. Phoebe 
and James are married, and the others ai-e at home 
with their mother. Thi' father of these children 
died in Yell Conr.ty. Ark., in 1S77, and in his 
death the county keenly felt the loss of one of her 
much esteemed citizens. His widow, Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Malone, was burn August 18, ISS'.t, in Ala- 
bama, and is the daughter of Harris Crowell, one uf 
the successful farmers of that State. She was 
reared on the farm, and although her educational 
advantages were not of the best, she was faithfully 
drilled in industrious habits, which beaten track 
she has ever since followed. At the death of her 
husband she was left with eight small children, the 
eldest not over fourteen years of age, and with her 
own hands and the help of her children, she cleared 
seventy acres, which she cultivated. She paid 
§1,500 for the farm, erected a good house, 4(^x42, 
with a wing ISxlS feet, and also erected a good 
barn besides other outbuildings. She has a good 
apple and peach orchard which she planted, and 
which now supplies her with abundance of fruit, 
and has many other luxuries which are the work 
of this wonderfully determined and resolute lady. 
Although she received limited educational advant- 
ages herself, she is giving her children the benetit 
of a liberal schooling. She is a member of the 
Baj^tist Church, and is among the foremost to aid 
all who are helpless and in need, giving liberally 
of her means to all enterprises of a laudable nature. 
She has the respect and best wishes of the entire 
community. 

Hon. William N. May. one of the representative 
judges of Dardauelle, and kuov.-u as a man of high 
moral character, anil in no way belittling his repu- 
tation for strict integrity and uprightness, was 
born in Carroll County, Tenn., January 12, 1*^27, 
and is the son of William May, a farmer, boin in 
Anson County. N. C, and ^lary Anima King, lioru 
in Humphrevs County, Tenn.. in ISIO, the daugh- 
ter of James and Isabella King: she departed this 
life in Johnson County, .:\j-k., in 1S55, leaving a 
family of ten children to the care of her hnsban,!. 
The paternal grandfather was a soldier in the War 
of the Revolution, aud some of his sous fought in 



U[ I 



Wi^ 



YELL COUNTY. 



109 



tli.> War of 1812. Ju(l;,'o May s[ient. his b.nliood 
(lavs on a fanii, and being exceptionally bri^'ht and 
iutellii'eut, and very fond of books and study, he 
t<Hik a four years' course in the academy of Harde- 
man County, Tenn., mathematics, history and 
craiuiiiar being his specialties. In his youth he 
formed the idea of becoming a merchant, and with 
this ol)ject in view, acceiited the positions of clerk 
in Clarksville and Danville, winning an unenviable 
business reputation, and at the expiration of three 
years, partly on credit, and partly with money fur- 
nished by himself and partner, he established a 
mercantile business at Danville, which he cju- 
diicted for eight years, when he retired, worth 
S.'i.nOO. Purchasing books, he began the reading 
of law, under preceptors, and in bSoT was admitted 
to the bar in Danville, and in 18-38 came to Darda- 
nelle, making it his permanent home. He has a 
large and extensive practice, practicing in the cir- 
cuit, supreme and federal courts of the State, and 
in ISOS was elected to the Arkansas Legislature, 
and during his term of oBice introduced several 
bills, which passed and liecanie statute laws: was 
chairman of the committee on rules, and on July 
-'■\ while still a member of the Legislature, he re- 
ceived an appointment from Gov. Clayton, as judge 
of the Sixtli Judicial Circuit of the State, tilling 
this office acceptably and well for many years. 
July S, 1874, he tendered his resignation to Gov. 
Baxter, who refused to accept it, thus obliging 
liim to remain in oflice till the ensuing election, 
which took place November 10, 1874, since which 
date he has served as school director, and was a 
m.'inberof thellepublican State Central Committee. 
He makes a specialty of real estate suits, and his 
iinly decision ever carried to the United States Su- 
preme Court was sustained, it being on the ques- 
tion. Whether a note given for negroes in l'^59 
WHS collectible under the constitution of ISOS. At 
the outbreak of hostilities between the North and 
•"^"Uth, the Judge, with a number of others, being 
'■bli^'cd to leave Arkansas, removed his family (o 
( liicago. where they sojourned for eighteen months, 
imd while here, busied himself in com[)iling a di- 
g-'st of the reports of the Supreme Courts of Ar- 
tatisas, arranging the work in twenty two volumes. 



After thcf surrender, and peact' once more leigiifd, 
he returned to Dardanelle. and resumed his prac 
tice, which brought him an income of between 
sr>.OllO and ?ti,000 a year. In .March, IMVl, he 
received an appointment as commissioner of elec- 
tion of Yell Cottnty from Gov. ^lurphy, and in 
Apiil, IS^iS, the same executive couimi>sioned him 
circuit judge, but he never qualilied. Commenc- 
ing life with scarcely $100. he now owns a very 
tine residence in Dardanelle, woith >-r_*,l*"". '""^1 
7,0i)() acres of land in Yell and adjoining coun- 
ties, including mnch valuable river bottom lantl. 
Judge May has been twice married, his first wife 
being iliss Martha C. Perry, born in Tennes- 
see, and daughter of Jeremiah Perry, a planter, 
and Liative of North Carolina, to whom he was 
married in Yell County, February U'. ISo;!, ami 
who died in I&'h, leaving one child, Martha 
Cherry (born in this county November G, 1857). 
On April 2. IbGO. he took for his second wife, Maiy 
A. E. Hast, of Montgomery County, Tenn. In 
his early political career the Judge was a Demo- 
crat, but during the progress of the llebellion, he 
became a Republican of the most pronounceil ty[)e, 
and was a tirm friend and stanch supporter of 
Gov. Clayton, when serving as governor and United 
States Senator. Socially, he is a Master Mason, 
being initiated into the mysteries of the Danville 
Lodge No. 41, in the year 1S51, and has been an 
honored official, filling all the chairs in this so- 
ciety, and in 18-'J4 was a member of the Grand 
Lodge. In religion, his parent.3 being strict mem- 
bers of the Methodist Church, he was raised in 
that belief, joining the church when eleven years 
old, and is now serving as steward of that denomi- 
nation, and in July, 1881, he was chosen as lay 
delegate to represent his church in the general 
conference. The Judge is held in high esteem 
throughout the community, and is noted for the 
hospitable and unostentatious manner of entertain- 
ment of his guests, which are many. 

\Vill A. F. ilay, known to the bench and bar 
of Yell County as one of the most promising young 
lawyers ami ever popular register of the United 
States Land Office, was l)orn in Chicago, November 
5, 18lU, and is the ordy child of Jadge William N. 



mV/ ••!)■ 



^>1,^ 



•ill /l ■■■■ 
•1 -..l 
iJ..il 



170 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



and llai-y A. E. (Hnst) :Miiy. (See skotcli of fa- 1 
tber.) William May, Jr.. was reaicd ami k'dacatpil 
ia bis adopted town, where his eiliu-atii)iial advan- 
tages wei'e very gocd. he lieing a student and , 
graduate from the hii,'h sehocil of the |>lac'e. At ] 
the age of eighteen, prejiaratory to eutiTing the ' 
law department of the Ann Arlmr University of 
Michigan, be began reading law under his father. 
Graduating from this university with the degree 
of LIj. B. , July 1, ISSG, he formeil a partiier- 
sbi]i with his father and were known as William N. 
May i^" Son. He continued as a memln'r of this 
firm till August ^j, IS^'.', when he received his 
present governmental appointment. Like the ma- 
jority of residents of Yell County, he owns bis 
home, a neat cottage, six town lots, and manages a 
200-acre tract of tine river bottom land, IGO acres 
being thoroughly cultivated, and is the happy pos- 
sessor of a cottage on beautiful Mount Nebo, where 
he and family sojourn for their summer's outing. 
His marriage with Mibs Lillie B. Mepham, of St. 
Louis, took place in that city, October 13, ISSH; she 
is a daughter of William G. Mepham. a large paint 
manufacturer of St. Louis. This marriage has 
been blessed with one child, .Vrthur Kuport. Mrs. 
May is a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church South. Our suliject politically votes with 
the Republican party, and is in every way worthy 
the respect aud esteem conferred upon him by his 
fellow-citizens. 

Napoleon B. Mills, one of the progressive 
agriculturists of Dardanelle Township, came to 
this State in the fall of 1S78 from Tennessee, the 
home of his grandparents and jiarents, the latter 
having been Russ and Surliua (Keesee) Mills, all 
farmers by occupation, and who lived and died 
there, the father dying May I'i. Isl-, his widow 
surviving him till March 1!"^. bSsT. They were 
the parents of live children, their, son, Xapoleon, 
who was born in Oliion County, in Ib'-V-i, being the 
third in order of birth. He was reared on a farm 
and educated in the common schools of his native 
State, and when twenty years old began life for 
himself as a car[)enter, aud when twenty-two mar- 
ried ^li^s !Mary Marlow, also of Tennessee, and 
daughter n( William Marlow, who departed this 



life in IS'VJ, his widow surviving him but a short 
time. This union resulteil in the l)irths of the fol- 
lowing family: I'ulvxna (liorn February ■], IH'tS, 
aud wife of Frank Findley. of Tennessee). Nannie 
(born :\rarch 7, iNi'^O. an<l wife of J. H. Swindle, 
of Arkansas I, Laura (born March 12. \S>')2. and 
wife of A. L. Junes), Itobert Lee (boru INIarch ^il, 
1S04, and died in infancy), Hinton (born April 'I'-i, 
1SG6, and wife of B. L. Holder, of Tennessee), 
William Russell (born January tj, iSC);.)), George 
Keesee (born ilay 4, ISiJ), Lillie (born December 

11, 1S73), Katie May (born April '-!0, lS77l, Mary 
Ida (born March 20. 1879), Emma (l)orn August 

12, ISS-J), and Mama Belle (burn Se[)tember 7, 
1SS3). The year following his marriage he 
bought J 00 acres of land in West Tennessee, 
which he farmed till his removal to Arkansas, 
when he purchased ICiO acres, I'lO of which he 
cleared, and set out sume fruit trees, which have 
proved a good investment as an orchard, and is the 
owner of some fine stock. He has also a neat and 
commodious residence on his place. In IS'S'J he 
bought forty acres of river Ijottom land, which 
yields about a bale nf cotton and sixty or seventy 
bushels of corn to the acre. He is a thorough 
business man. a liberal donator to all educational 
interests, and has been school director for some 
time. Himself and family are communicants of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. Mr. Mills has 
always been a stanch Democrat and a true South- 
ern man. He did not take an active part in the 
Civil War, from the fact that he had a large 

I rupture in the side, which he received while in an 
I unfortunate difliculty. He is opposed to high 
protective' tariff and all trusts. 

Dr. John E. ilitchell, of Marvinville, one of 
the leading and most successful physicians in Yell 
I County came to the village in which he now lives 
i in January, 1SS3. from Conway Station. He be- 
can the study of medicine with Dr. Kincheloe, of 
Conway Station, staying with him one year, when 
he took a course of lectures in the Missouri Medical 
Collecre, of St. Louis, Mo., remaining there two 
terms, aud graduating in 18s2. After receiving 
his diploma he came to this county, aud, locating 
at Marvinville, succeeded in building up a practice 



■■lii 



Itc- 



YELL COUNTY. 



171 



that aiiitimits to alimit ?:?,()(ll> per year. In ISSC) 
Dr. Mitchell purcliased the ilarvitiville ilill, which 
Lo coiiiIucttHl until December, ISb'.t. wlien he sold 
it to its present owuers. Al)out the same time ho 
sold bis first residence and bouj,'ht his present 
Lome. Dr. Mitchell was born in (^)aitman, Van 
IJiiren County, January 21, ISOl, thesoQ of Robert 
D. an<l Anna (England) Mitchell, natives of Ala- 
bama and Missouri, respectively. His father 
worked at the carpenter's trade most of his life, 
and at the breaking out of the war enlisted in the 
army, and was kllleil at the battle of Shiloh in 
1802. Dr. J. E. Mitchell was reared to mauh(jod 
at Quitman, where ho remained until ISTS, when he 
went to Conway Station, there beginning his pro- 
fessional career, as above stated. He was married 
on April 14, ISSo, to Miss Anna M. Smith, daugh- 
ter of J. M. Smith, a native of Tennessee, born 
on November 1, 1867. They have two children: 
Eroy M. and John E. In his political views the 
Doctor is a Democrat. 

Joseph Mitchell. Samuel and Harriet (Cavin- 
der) ^Mitchell, parents of him whose name heads 
this sketch, claim Tennessee as the land of their 
birth and marriage, Samuel being born in 1815, 
and his wife in 1817, and were the parents of sev- 
en children. OiTr suliject, being lifth in order of 
birth, was born in Hamilton County, March 20, 
184'.). The senior Mitchell, being induced by the 
fertility of the soil and the invigorating climate of 
the State of Arkansas, emigrated from his native 
heath in IS-" 4, and settled in this county, where be 
entered 120 acres of land, built a log cabin and 
began to improve his land, which, later on, he sold, 
and bought 200 acres in the same neighborhood, 
which he cultivated and worked till his death, in | 
1805, bis widow surviving him till lSfi7, when she 
passed to her long home, a memlier of the Baptist 
Church. Oar subject, also a farmer, which calling 
he has followed all his life, is the owner of three 
line tracts of land, IGO acres on his home place, 
twenty-eight cultivated, and two in orchard of 
.M)me of the well-known varieties, of peaches, ap- 
ples and plums; has eighty acres on Dutch Creek, 
with fifty improved and two tenement houses, and 
120 in this same neighlwrhood, Iving about three 



miles from his homestt-ad, and here he has lifty 
acres broken, a productive orch;ii"d, one tenement 
house, thirty head of cattle, five horses and a uum- 
l)er of hogs. On February 21, ISSl, he was wed 
ded to !Mrs. .Margaret A. Oatlin. widow of William 
Gatlin, who had one daughter by her former uiar- 
riage, Ursey. To them were burn four children: 
Samuel, Harriet A., James (deceased) and Foley A. 
His wife and her daughter are members of the 
Baptist Church, and he is the township's popular 
justice of the peace, having bi'en elected to this 
office in 1872; socially is a Mason,. belonging to 
Dutch Creek Lodge No. 2()U, wherein he has been 
worshipful master and tilled the chair of senior 
warden and senior deacon for some time. 

Dr. John 31. Montgomery, Sr. , one of the old- 
est practitioners in the county of Yell, and like 
many other prominent citizens of the county, a na- 
tive of Tennessee, was born in Giles County on 
March 11, 1823. He was reared on a farm in 
Hardeman County, Tenn., and liis early opportu- 
nities for an education were limited. In 1841 he 
began for himself as a farmer, but feeling the need 
of a better education he entered the college at 
Bethel, Tenn., in the fall of that vear. He re- 
mained there until March, 1843, when his father 
died, and he was obliged to return home to take 
care of the estate. He left home in 1844, and on 
January 1, 1845, he was married to Miss Angelene 
G. Strickland, daughter of S. S. Strickland of Tip- 
pah County, Miss. The Doctor settletl in the last 
named county, and was there engaged in farming 
and teaching school until lS5o, when his wife died 
leaving him with four children — three sons and a 
daughter: James Scott', Mary G., Samuel J. and 
John M. The eldest died in Texas, and the re- 
mainder are married, and two are living in Arkan- 
sas. The other is in the Lone Star State. After 
the death of his wife Dr. Montgomery was given 
a circuit and began preaching for the ileth- 
odist Church, leading the life of an itinerant 
preacher for two years. He was at this time lo- 
cated in North Mississippi, and during this lime 
he began reading medicine. In the fall of IS.il 
he took a course of lectures at ^lempliis. Tenn.. 
and later began practicing in Mar.-hall County, 



f 



i i'f-1 


■1 Jvi.. • 


'■ ('•.'' i 


■ :.^>^?x'! 


'rtmJ; > 



1-72 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



Miss. Hi' t(M)k a .'secoD<l coiirso of Ifc-turos in \S7to ' 
at Ciuciiinati, Ohio, ami ^railuatfil in Isri.'i. In 
the fall of that year. Oetol)er 17, ln> was luariicd 
to Jliss Martha V. Nirhols of ilarshall County, 
Miss. He eontiiiued the [iractici' of nifdiciui' for 
tiv(< years in that couuly and tlu-n reuKjvt'd t(i Fay- 
ette County of that State, whore he remained until 
1S')5. when ho removed to Al)l)eville on the Mis- 
sissippi Central Railroad, eontinnincr his practice 
at that place for fifteen years. From thert' he 
move<l to Conway Station, Faulkner County. Ark., 
continuing there tive years, and in the fall of IsS'i 
he came to Rover Township, Yell County, Ark. 
On Decemlier 3, 18S7, he moved to Gravelly Hill, 
where he now resides and where he has continued 
his practice until the present time. During all 
this time he has also given his attention to minis- 
terial work. When he came to this town--iiic> he 
bought a tract of patially improved land, and si[ice 
then he has erected buildings, and made many im- 
portant changes. Part <.if this tract he has sold off 
into town lots. He is the father of twelve living 
children, all grown up and married but two. He is 
a Jacksoniau Democrat in polities. He is one of a 
company endowing the academy at this place. 

Dr. H. L. Montgomery, the popular physician 
of Heniiig Township, was born in ^Mississippi on 
September "29, ISGo, and is a son of John M. and 
Martha (Strickland) Montgomery, who were natives 
of McNairy County, Tenn., and Marshall Countv', 
Miss., respectively, and were married in the latter 
State, and to them were born a famil}- of thirteen 
children. His father a Methodist minister for 
many years, and a member of the ^Masonic frater- 
nity, emigrated to Arkansas in 1S70, locating in 
Faulkner County, and himself atul wife worship as 
members of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
South. The Doctor received the greater part of 
his education at Oxford, Miss., and liegan his med- 
ical studies in ISSO and commenced practice in 
ISSl on the Arkansas bottoms, thence South Bush 
in 18S:5-S4, and attended lectures at Little Rock 
in ISS.j-SO, and on August V2. oi the next year, 
was united in marriage to iliss Lucy Hes.-ing, who 
was born in this county December 2S, ]>>f')7. Her 
parents, JjiigLt W. and Sarah (Ivey) Hessing. were 



natives of Hayw(.iod Cnunty, T(.'nn., and were born 
January S, lS?/_>, and May U, ISv(>, and were the 
parents of ten children. Her father was captain of 
Company F, of Third Arkansas Regiment of Cav- 
alry, and belonged to the ^lasonic order. The 
Doctor and wife are the happy parents of two chil- 
dren: Lawrence E. and Ohma. In religion he and 
wife worship with the same denomination as did 
their deceased parents — MethodistEpiseopalChurch 
South. As a medical adviser the Doctor is held 
in high estei/m by his many patients, and is hon- 
ored throughout his community for his courteous 
and gentlemanly dealing with his fellow-men. 
Mrs. Montgomery is the (iwuer of ;i fourth interest 
in a 218 acre tract of land in this county. 

^Villiam E. :Nrurdock, farmer, Gravelly Hill, 
Ark. Among all classes and in every condition of 
life where the struggle for a livelihood is going on, 
where can we find independence more forcibly il- 
lustrated than in the life of the industrious, enter- 
prising farmer. Mr. Murdoek, one of the foremost 
tillers of the soil in this locality, was born in 
AValker County, Ga., July IS, lSri5, and he was 
early trained to the duties of the farm. His edu 
cational advantages during youth were not of the 
best, but this he has imjiroved very materially since 
growing up, and is to day a well-informed man. 
His father, Daniel Murdoek, died about ISOl, and 
left a widow and four small children — two sons and 
two daughters — of whom our subject was the eldest. 
The father was killed in the battle of Chickamauga. 
About six years later the mother removed from 
there, and four years later removed with her faui- 
ily to this county. At that time William E. was 
about seventeen years of age and he started out to 
ti^ht the battle of life for himself, as a hired hand. 
While serving iu that capacity he made arrange- 
ments to attend school during the winter, and 
worked on the farm during the summer season. 
This he continued for four years. From there 
he went to work for H. C. Haney, with whom he 
remained one year. August 2.", 1S7S, he married 
]Miss Martha C. Haney, daughter of J. J. Haney, 
who was killed while in the army. Mrs. Murdoek 
was born near Danville, this county, January 'J. 
1802. After his marriage ]\Ir. Murdoek bought 



^ 



^ , 



YELL COUNTY. 



173 



ili<« |.Itic<' wlicro li(> HOW lives, and now has eighty 
nrry- iiii.l'T cultivation. Ho erected a good house, 
larii-^ iinil utliiT uiithuildings, an<l is prosperous 
iM,d suc<-i".srnl. His farm consisted uf Kit) acres, and 
III l"^*^? hi' hoiiL,'ht another tiact of forty acres, 
wiii.h is valiialile for its timlier. His princi[)al 

I (..(.r. aie corn and cotton. To his marriage have 
(-■.•ii horn livechildren, all sons: Jordan E., Lutlier 
N . (Ir.'ver C, Herbert O. and Chester S. Mr. 
Mur.lcick is a Democrat. He has been elected jns- 

I, ,f the peace for live buccessive terms, giving 

il>.- iM'ht of satisfaction. He has also been elected 
•.liiKil director for two successive terms, an<l takes 

II d.-i-p interest in educational matters. He is 
,'ii.irdiuii of the estate of All.iert S. Haney. son iif 
l( ('. Haiii'V (deceased). Though he has lived in 
thi- (••Hiiity most of his life, he has never been sick, 
.iiid ha-, never found it necessary to have a physi- 
i-i»ii in his house. 

John iJ. Xeelly is counted as one of the most 
pri)^|)eroiis merchants and successful planters of 
N'o'lly I'ost ofTice, a station six miles below Darda- 
in-!h'. Hi' was l)orn at Oxford, Miss., in 1S47, 
and \\as the youngest child and second son in a 
faiiiily of nine born to Eli and Ellen (Craig) Xeelly, 
"•f 'IV'MiH'Ssee nativity, and now deceased, the 
f.ithiT in ISSS at the age of eighty two, and the 
iii^tlier in IS.'iT. The senior Neelly was born in 
M.'iiirv Cciunty, Tenn., where he grew to manhood, 
iwid in isTiU l,.ft Mississippi to go to Arkansas, 
l«-atiiig near Dardanelle, this .State, subsequently 
i.ikiii;; up liis residence on the farm now owned by 
lo-< •■iiii. Ml' was a member in good standing and 
:\u ••Id.-r in the Presliyterian Church, and was one 
••( til.' nuiiilicr who assisted in the organization of 
•'-•• cliur.-li uf this faith at Dardanelle. Our sub- 
j'-<-t fciMV.Mi liis c.-irly training and schooling in 
I'.itd.viM-llf. During this p.Tlod of his life the 
«lir.-iitriiiiiirs i,f \v;i,- l„.eaiii.- a reality, and his 
"Indi.., w,.re susp,.iidfd till the cluse of the gn-at 
•■•''i!lii-t. wh'^n lie again touk them up. becoming a 
'«'id.-nt m th.. school at Chuksville and other insti- 
'•■.!• - ..f l.'arinng in Arkansas. On the completion 
• f l.i'' -<-Ii.>.j1 days our subject began farming on 
>••'•• plai'e purchased conjointly by himself and 
-»'i'r. ai.l i, now the possessor of 4tl() acres of 



I land cleared and thoroughly improved with a line 
residence and good substantial outbuildings. In 

I 1882 he opened a store on his farm, here doing a 

I bu.siness of iglO.OOO annually. The j.ost office at 
Neelly (named in honor of him), of which he is 
the etficient postmaster, was established in 188(). 
In 1877 he. in company with several others, bought 
a tract of forty acres on the bench of Mount Nebo. 

J and he was the second to settle on the mountain, 
building the first frame house there and doing 

; much to enhance the value and popularity of the 
locality. From his cottage is commanded a most 

! magnificent view of the surrounding country. In 

I I'olitics he affiliates with the Democratic party. 
He has been twice married, first in lS7tJ to ilrs. 

, Nannie (Gibson) Stone, daughter of Joseph Gib- 

I son, one of Yell County's eminent pioneers. After 
a marriage of three short years this wife died, 

I leaving him childless, and in 1SS2 he led to the 

i altar Miss Hallie Talbert, of Mississippi, whose 
father afterward removed to Arkansas, where he 
died. To this union have lieen given four chil- 
dren: John Eli. Bessie Grace. Mary Hellen ami 
Lila Irma. Himself and family are member.i of 
the Presbyterian Church. 

William T. Nolan, a Ijlacksmith and war,'on- 
maker by trade, being attracted by the rich for.'sts 
of oak and hickory, which grew in and aiiout Yell 

' County, came to IJ.-Ilville in 1SS2 for the purpose 

I of engaging in l)usiness. After prospecting and 
looking around he connected himself with Mr. Ma\'. 
and is now known as the senior member of the 
firm of Noland & Jlay, wagon-makers, cabinet- 
makers and blacksu)iths, and also owners of tie' 

I extensive planing-mill plant, which was addi'd to 
their immense business in 1888, and is fully >up 
plied with machin.'ry fi.ir cutting out sjKikes and 
felloes, and making a greater part of th(> wood 
work of the wagons manufactured in his sliops. 
the material being supplied from the native timlier. 
He was born in 18r)r), in the State of ^Mississippi. 

' to Javid and Enima P. (Ueese) Nolan, also of ilis- 
sissippi, and who followed farming as an occupa- 
tion. After the father's death. January ITi, 1870. 
our subject left school with a very limiti'd edur.-i 

, tion, and assumed the care of his witlowed mother 



■, > . / 



174 



HISTORY OF ARKANSxVS. 



aod an infant sister, wbo, having grown to maturity, 
has since married and resides in this county, his 
mother remaining with him till her death, August 
3, 1.890, being lifty-two years old. He was mar- 
ried Noveml)er 10, 1S7S, to Tennessee Payne, who 
was bom December 21, ISfiO, and was a daughter 
of Marcus and Nancy Payne, of Arkansas and Mis- 
sissippi nativity. To this union were born seven 
children: Idella Vincent, Jessie, Cleveland and 
Mary Annie (living); Bulling, Ada and Javid (de- 
ceased). He and family are worthy members of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church South, and so- 
cially he has been initiated into the Christian Lodge 
No. 394, of the A. F. & A. M., and politically votes 
with the Democratic party. As a citizen he is active 
and enterprising, doing everything in his power to 
aid and promote the interests of his county. 

Henry J. Page, one of the pioneer farmers of 
this county, emigrated to this State in 1S5S, when 
it was very sparsely settled, and pre-empted 320 
acres of Government land in what is now Prairie 
Township, paying 50 cents an acre. He came 
with his family and household goods in a prairie 
schooner, and unloaded them within iifty feet of 
where his house now stands, in the fall of the 
above-mentioned year, since which time he has im- 
proved and cultivated ninety acres of as good land 
as there is in the township, on which are a com- 
fortable house, barn and other buildings. He was 
born in the Palmetto State, February 20, 1S23, 
and is the great-grandson of Nathaniel Page, who 
was born in England iu 1730; when twelve years 
old he was brought to this country and raised to 
manhood in Virginia. His eldest son, Richard 
Page, was father of John Page, the father of our 
sul)ject, the father born in Virginia, December 17, 
1779, and was married to Elizabeth Vaughn, in 
1822, and were the parents of nine children, seven 
of whom came to this county, three having since 
died. H. J. Page, the eldest son of John Page, 
was united in marriage to Miss Susan, daughter of 
Robert Page, of South Carolina, she having borne 
him ten children, all of wh.'m are living: .John J. 
(born Octol)er 21, 1S")7, and married Aim Hanks), 
Martha E. (born October 1, I'^'i'.), and married 
James Towel). Robert N. (born Xovenilicr 2, IMJI, 



and married Mollio Lynn), Mary A. (born Febru- 
ary 12, 18G4, and married E. B. Harris), Henry 
R. (born July 10, living at home, and a partner in 
the store with his father), Susan A. E. (born Feb- 
ruary 21, 1809, and married to William Evans), 
Nathaniel E. (born September Ti, 1S71). Lydia I. 
(born April 18, 1874), Amos T. (born August 22, 
1877), and Arthur A. (born April 13, ISSO). Our 
subject did not take any part in the late Rebellion 
on account of ill health, yet was a victim to the 
depredations of both armies, and saw his last 
horse taken from him. He is a quiet and peaceful 
citizen and belongs to the Masonic lodge of Chick- 
alah. 

John Murfree Parker, a well-known member c.f 
the bar of Dardanelle. was born near Danville, Ark., 
November 24, 1849, to George W. T. and Matilda 
C. Parker. His paternal grandfather, King I'ar- 
ker, and grandmother, Martha, removed from 
Hertford County, N. C, in the year 1817, and set- 
tled near Gallatin, Tenn., and raised a family of 
live sons and three daughters. The youngest son, 
the said George W. T., studied medicine, gradu- 
ated at the Louisville iledical College; came to the 
State of Arkansas, and in 1 844 married Miss Matilda 
C. Simpson, in what was then known as Jefferson 
County; moved to and settled on the farm where 
his son, John M. , was born, and, being strictly 
temperate and quite energetic, he soon became 
very popular, acquiring an extensive practice in 
his profession, and became the owner of a large 
body of land, on which ho established a comfort- 
able home, and with slave labor opened up and 
cultivated a good farm. During the late war the 
dwelling-house and afterward much of the fenc- 
ing around the farm was destroyed. To them, 
the said George W. T. Parker and wife, were born 
eight children: Mary J., Alcinda E., John ^1.. 
Adelia F., Cherry Wilna, George C. and two other 
sons who died in infancy. The said John M. Par 
ker's maternal grandfather, Thompson Simpson, 
and grandmother, Frances, removed from Fairfax 
County, Va., and settled on the Arkansas River. 
iielow the present site of Pine Blntf, at an early 
day, and the said Thompson Simpson engaged in 
selling goods and planting. He raised a family of 



-^^ 



i( ■ ' I 






1 ;, ■..;f. 



YELL COUNTY. 



two Hons and five daucrbters. The subject of our 
hkotcL atteuiU'd school prior to ISOl, but during 
tho jicriod of more than four 3ears, while the war 
was going on, he had the misfortune to be entirely 
deprived of educational facilities, and to sustain 
the loss of his mother, whose death occurred in 
August, lS('i:3; and his father, whose death oc- 
curred in March, 1S()4. After the war he was 
placed under a guardian, and attended school at 
Dardanelle a'nout nine months. In ^Slarch, 1S<')8, 
he began the study of medicine, and in the winter 
of lSf)S-fi9 attended a course of lectures at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., but. not liking this profession, he 
abandoned it in the spring of 186'J, and at once 
commenced the study of law. borrowing books for 
the pursuit of this study. He had his disabil- 
ities, as minor, removed for the purpose, and was 
udmitted to the bar in May. ISTO, and at ouce be- 
gan practice in Danville. In the fall of 1871 he 
entered into partnership with Hon. Thomas W. 
Pound, which proved both pleasant and profitable, 
and continued for several years. In the latter part 
of 18Sy he removed to and opened an office in Dar- 
danelle. He is the owner of much valuaUe real 
estate, consisting of about 1.2(itl acres, also has a 
block with residence in Danville, and property in 
other towns. He was county attorney for a short 
time soon after his admission to the bar. In 188() 
he wiis an independent candidate for State senator, 
but was defeated. In 1888 was a candidate for 
presidential elector on the Prohibition ticket. 
With the exception of the active race made for 
senator, he has taken little interest in politics; has 
ever been strictly temperate, an active temperance 
wcirkiT, and is now an ardent Prohibitionist. He 
married a daughter of 11. J. and Mary J. Wood- 
ar<l, who are old pioneer residents of the county. 
His marriage to Miss Malinda I. ^^■oodard was eel- 
el)rated July 1, 187-"). and to this union liave been 
iKirii six children: J. Holiart. Harley M., Cordelia 
•I., Herbert \V., Olan and cme unnamed (deceased). 
He and his wife are members of the Methoilist 
Hpi-copal Church South. 

Dr. (Icorge C. Parker takes his {>lace in the 
history of Yell County as one i.f its rising and 
'ni>Nt promising voung d(jctors. He was born and 



raised in this county, his birth taking place in IS-'iS 
near Bellville, his present home, and was the sixth 
child in a family of eight born to G. W. T. and 
Cordelia (Sinip.-ou) Parker. [See sketch of John 
Murfree Parker.] The Doctor's educational a<l 
vantages were better than the average boy's of liis 
time, early attending , the State University at 
Fayetteville, and in 1882 commencing the study of 
medicine with Dr. J. M. Rose, and later on taking 
a course of lectures at the Louisville Medical Col- 
lege, began the practice of his profession at Dan- 
ville in 18S4, and on August 5 of the same year 
changed his location to Bellville, where he opened 
up a large practice, established an eclectic drug 
store, and built a business, which has grown to 
such magnitude that he contemplates enlarging 
his store in the near future. In LSST he erected 
his pleasant and commodious residence in town. 
In 1884 Emily C. Clark became his wife, mid dv- 
ing in 1887 left him one child, Clark, who sur- 
vived his mother but a short time. On October G, 
1887, he was again married, this time to Ellen M. 
White, of Yell County, and daughter of J. B. 
White, an old settler here, becoming his wife, one 
son being the result of this marriage, John Cland 
Earl Scuilder, named for Dr. Scudder, of Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. The Doctor though still young is 
rapidly acrj^uiring a vast practice, and sustains an 
excellent reputation throughout the county. Much 
of his leisure is spent in study and improvement of 
self, and he is also a member of the State Eclectic 
Medical Association. 

Henry M. Pugli, a citizen of Rover, wasliornin 
Hall County, Ga., in 1S?.7. his father. E. W. Pugh 
being born near (ireenville, S. C, removed with 
his parents when a mere boy to Hall County, Ga., 
,and when grown to maturity followed farming, and 
at the age of twenty-one married Cynthia Wilson, 
the daughter of Newman Wilson, and after living 
in Georgia for fifty years, emigrated to Yell Conn 
ty, and homesteaded eighty acres of land and im- 
proved the same. He died in 1S7'^; his widow still 
survives, having passed her three score years and 
ten. Our subject, on coujing to Arkansas, bought 
a small tract of land in ^lont^oniery County, wliich 
he disposed of and came to Veil County in bS'jo. 



J.-. in 



,j- 



1-. ..I:.," 1 



17(5 



HISTORY OF AFyKAXSAS. 



ami settled on the 100 acres which is now his 
hniuo. During the troublous times of the sixties. 
he enlisted in Company I, of the Ccjufech^rate 
Army, commanded by Col. Griustead, taking part 
in the battles of Helena, Prairie Grove, and 
marclied to Little Rock, and immediately after the 
tight he took the oath of allegiance to the United 
States Army, and joined Comjviny E. of the Third 
Arkansas Cavalry, under command of Col. Rines, 
doing duty as a scout until the Camilen raid, when 
the Federal forces, commanded by Gen. Steele, 
circumvented and repulsed Gen. Price on his raid 
through Missouri, and on June 30. ISfiri, received 
his discharge at Lewisl)urg, Ark. He was thrice 
married, his first marriage being to Sarah E. 
Kirkes. November 13, 1S59, and died, having 
borne him two children: W. T. and Henrietta (de- 
ceased). In 1SG6 Miss Ellen Simons became his 
wife, and in February, 1870, died, leaving three 
children to his care: James M. , Ida and George 
W., and his third marriage to Savannah E. Payne, 
resulted in the birth of the following family: John 
S., Andrew J., Sarah Ellen, Edward Newton. 
Wesley C, Grover C, Arthur Lee and Emma El- 
dora. His principal occupation is farming a tract 
of land of It)-"! acres in Rover Township, seventy- 
tivo of which are fenced and under cultivation. 
He has been a faithful member of the ^Methodist 
Episcopal Church South, for thirty years, and is a 
liberal contributor to schools and clmrches, and 
aids in all things conducive to the welfare of his 
community. 

Rev. Jonathan C. Eagon is one of the promi- 
nent farmers and cotton-growers of Yell County. 
Coming to this State in 1850, he settled in John- 
son Count}', where he remained thirty-seven years, 
owning at that time 140 acres of good land, which 
he sold, then removed to Riley Township, this 
county, and liought 167 acres. Of the land pur- 
chased ho has al)Out forty acres under cultivation, 
upon twenty five of wiiich he raises corn and fif- 
teen cotton, besides renting out quite a number of 
acres. Mr. Ragon was born in Tei!ne>see, July 
24, lS2-"i, the son of EH Ragon, and was there 
reared to manhood, receiving a common-school 
education. He later learned the carpenter's trade, 



in that line his work being principally gin and 
and press building. He was married in Hamilton 
County, Tenn., in 1S47, to :\Ii>s Elizabeth Rogers, 
also a native Tennesseean, her liirtli occurring in 
; 1S30, a daughter of Elisha Rogers, of Virginia. 
I She died in 1SS4, leaving three children to muurn 
I their loss, two having preceded her. Those living 
are: Martha O. (widow of T. B. Smith), Cordelia 
' (wife of J. G. Stevens), and Penelope (wife of 
I "William Moseley). Later (in the year 1SS4) Mr. 
Ragon took for his second wife Miss Annie E. 
Elliott, and liy her has three children: Mary M.. 
Lottie E. and W. S. During the late unpleasant- 
ness between the States, our subject enlisted in 
First Arkansas Infantry on the Federal side, un- 
der Col. J. M. Johnson and Capt. Parker, his 
regimental commander being Gen. Thayer. He 
participated in the engagements at Fayetteville, 
Hogewood Prairie and a great many skirmishes. 
On account of ill health he was discharged in 
ISOo, just before the surrender. Socially he is a 
member of the A. F. & A. M., and is also a mem- 
l>er of the Missionary Baptist Church, of which he 
has been a minister for over twenty-five years in 
different parts of the State. In politics he af- 
filiates with the Republican party. ^Vhen Jlr. 
Ragon came to this State it was comparatively new, 
and there was little preaching and schools were 
few. He has lived through its wonderful period 
(jf development to see schools on every hand and 
churches in every hamlet and to witness a pros- 
perous people living under just laws. 

James P. Ramer, a well -to do planter of Cen- 
terville Township, was born in Morgan County. 
Tenn., October 7. ISIS, and was the eldest son of 
John and Mary l!amer, who were married in Ala- 
bama, and the parents of five sons and five daugh- 
ters, eight of whom are living. The fiither was a 
farmer by occupation, and he and wife deiiarted 
this life in Tennessee, being faithful worshipers 
of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Our 
subject was first married while a resident of .Mc- 
Nairy County, Tenn.. tc) Miss Martha Walker, also 
of this State, and to this marriage were born the 
following children: Andrew, Elizabeth (deceased l. 
Myra, Ellen. Martha. Clarissa, and one unnanied 



Y' 






J-:-'/" 



■t. ■ ( 



YELL COUNTY. 



177 



(ilt'Ct'ii.siHl). Tiio mother of this family ditnl about 
ISS.'i, (I member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
'IV'ii venrs after his tirst wife's death Mrs. Eliza- 
lieth White became his second wife, and liore him 
eifjlit children: George, Iletter, James, Sydney, 
Keul)cn, Aueritta (deceased), Samuel (deceased), 
and one unnamed (deceased), and he was called to 
mourn his loss in 1SS2, she being also a communi- 
cant of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and subse- 
(juently was married the third time to a Mrs. Vicey 
Kidd, who died a year after mamage, leaving one 
child, jNLaggie, to his care. He and deceased wife 
were members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
und he was the efficient assistant class leader of the 
same. He owns some 200 acres of valuable land, 
with about fiftj- of it in cut timber. 

James G. Eay, one of the most successful mer- 
chants of Riley Township, but a resident of Mar- 
viiisville, Yell County, this State, came to this 
county in 1859 from Gibson County, Tenn., and 
settled on the tract of land he now owns. After 
taking up his residence here he followed farming 
until three years ago, when he entered the mer- 
chandising business, opening with a stock at Mar- 
vinsville: he conducted business there until May, 
when he sold out. Tpon leaving there he went to 
llentley and, in July, 1890, opened with a good 
stock and has been doing a very successful busi- 
ness since. He was born in Wake County, N. C, 
October 3, 1832, the son of David and Eda I Joplin) 
lUy, who were also natives of that State. His 
father followed farming in North Carolina, where 
he remained until 18 tU, when he moved to Tennes- 
"••e, and came to Arkansas in IS.V.I. where he spent 
the remainder of his life and died in October, 
is*')-)-, his widow survived him only four years. 
Jiiiues G. received his limited education in Ten- 
nohspp, but was married in Logan County, Ark., 
ui lsH3,'to Catherine, daughter of James Lattie, 
l»>ni Decendier 15, 1833. To them have been 
••"rn six children, five of whom are living: Eliza 
'wife of ArchMaGorgen). James, Joseph, Priscilla, 
nnd John, and Ella (deceased). He and Lis wife 
•ire m.'mhers of the Missionary Baptist and Meth- 
'"U-t Episcopal Churches, respectively. Uur sub- 
J-'tiMili^ted at Danville, July 1 7.,ivr,2, in Company 



H, under Capt. Harrod and ('..1. King-, and took 
part in the battle of Prairie (Jrove; was also in a 
number of skirmishes, and surrendered at Fort 
Smith at the close of the war, when ho returned 
home. He is a member of the Baker Creek Lodge 
388, A. F. & A. M., and was elected magistrate 
and constable for several years in which offices he 
has always performed the duties incuml)ent upon 
him to the best of his ability. 

Prof. L. B. Reynolds, Gravelly Hill, Ark. It 
has been truly said that "a good education is the 
best inheritance that parents can leave to their chil- 
dren.'" Riches may take to themselves wings and 
Hy away, but a good education will last through 
life. Prof. L. B. Reynolds, one of the most 
prominent and successfnl educators of the county, 
is a native of Cole County, Mo., and came to Ar 
kansas in the fall of 1872, since which time he has 
given his entire attention to school work. He was 
born on May 25, 1850, and his father was a farmer. 
When lifteon years of age our subject was sent to 
Lansing, Mich., to complete his education, and 
there he remained a student for six years in the 
Michigan University, graduating with the class of 
1S()0. During his time in school he had tau"-ht 
several terms, and was thus enabled to continue his 
studies. He then returned to his home in Mis- 
souri, where he made a short visit and then started 
for Arkansas, being stimulated to this move by 
learning that there was a good opening in that 
State for teachers, which pnjfession he had decided 
to take up. He settled at Excelsior, Sebastian 
County, and there engaged in teaching a country 
school. As he could not prevail on the directors 
to employ him. a young boy as it were, he was 
thrown on his own resources and opened a suli- 
scription school. The tirst month he had eleven 
pupils, the second month eighteen, and the third 
month tifty-four. He then was engaged for one 
year l)y the board, and the fourth month he found 
himself teaching 1<)() scholars, and was oliliged to 
hire an assistant. There he remained with excel- 
lent results for ten years. Then having an offer 
of an increased salary from Hacket City, and find- 
ing himself hampered on account of lack ijf room, 
he resigned his position and located at Hacket 



.::^.iy-■^l' 1 



ITS 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



City, where he received ifSOO for ten months. He 
remained here two year.s nnd then resigned his po- 
sition. Later he entered the school at Cochran, 
Scott County, where he was employed as principal 
of their graded schools, and three years later his 
leaving was a source of universal regret. He then 
came to Gravelly Hill to take charge of the Pied- 
mont Academy, at a salary of ¥1,000 per year, un- 
der contract for live years, two (jf which have al- 
ready expired. He has a wide reputation as an 
instructor, and his services are always in demand. 
He is a Democrat in politics, and is a memlier of 
the Jlethodist Episcopal Church South. In Oc- 
tober, ISSO, he was married to Miss Sally Riidoll, 
daughter of Edward Rudell, of Excelsior, where 
the Professor was teaching at the time. They 
have had tive children, four of whom are living at 
the present time — a son and three daughters; Mary 
E., Edward A., Myrtle A. and Laura Fay. So- 
cially the Professor is a member of the I. O. O. F. 
He is an educator in the fullest sense of the term. 
Ho sees the need of a higher grade of education in 
the county, and is doing all that he can to build 
up the school interests. He cordially invites all 
who want to engage in the profes^i.'n of teaching 
to come to Arkansas, where their services will be 
appreciated. 

Americus Ye.->pucius RiefF, postmaster of Wave- 
land, Ark., received his appointment as such in 
ISSl during Garfield's admiuistration. He came 
to this township in 1S74. where he erected the 
present large mill, comprising saw-mill, grist-mill 
and cotton-gin, with a planing-mill added, valued 
at S7,000. This l)nsiness was established in the 
early days, and in connection with hi? mill he hatl 
a general stock of merchandise. In looking 
around for a location for his Franklin County 
mills, he selected his present farm on account of 
lumber, land and water, the timber consisting 
principally of pine and oak. He was bom in Nash- 
ville, Tenn., July 1, 1S:!0, being the son of Joseph 
and Lydia (Burton) RietT. His father was born in 
the Shenandoah Valley, Va., and in ls20 moved 
to Nashville and was a noted builder and con- 
tractor, having constructed with others ': Andy 
Jackson Hermitage"' in Wilson County (this build- 



ing being still in a good couditioiO. He remained 
in this county until 1830, when he moved to 
Washington County and settleil in Fayetteville, 
where be engaged in farming, his farm being 
worked by .slaves. Hero he built a beautiful resi- 
dence, a numl>er of lutsiness blocks and the State 
Bank building. In !.S3'2 he lost his wife in Nash- 
ville. He died in Fayetteville in ISofj, when he 
was seventy-tive years old, as the result of being 
kicked by a horse and having both legs broken, 
living but a short time afterward. Americas V. 
RiefF was educated in Fayetteville, Ark., and at 
the age of s(>venteen years joined a company un- 
der Capt. S. B. Knyart, serving in the Mexican 
\Var one year an<l was in several skirmishes, but 
not any battles of ■'mj)ortani;e. At the close of 
this war the company was discharged, when onr 
subject returned home and entered the Ozark In- 
stitute, where he finished his education. After 
leaving school he went into the contracting and 
building business with his" brother, Fenelon (who 
was afterward killed in the Confederate service at 
Pine Blutf. being a captain in Col. Jordan's regi- 
ment), and continued in this lousiness for ten 
j'ears. In 1855 he erected Cane Hill College, a 
very large brick building costing i^lO.OOO. In the 
spring of ISfil he raised a cavalry company, 
which were the tirst State troops that entered 
JIissouri,-and he assisted in erecting a pole ninety 
feet high at Fayetteville upon which was rai-ed 
the Coiifederate flag. He took part in a great 
many important battles, being in Gen. ]\Ii-Cul- 
loch"s command, and was with Gen. Price in his 
famous raid: was elected captain of a cavalry 
company, joining Col. J. F. Fagaii"s regiment and 
participated in seventeen engagements. He as- 
sumed command at Pilot Knob, fi>ught in the bat- 
tles of Dug Spring, Oak Hill, Cane Hill, Back 
Bone. Prairie de Ann, Poison Springs, Mark"s [Mill-;. 
Little ^Missouri, Franklin, JetTerson City, I'rairie 
Grove and other engagements and skirmishes. 
In 1S(')"2 A. V. Rietf was appointed master me- 
chanic in the (bivenunent woikshops, which po-i 
tion he held until the retreat of _Gen. Price in 
^Missouri, when he re-entered the army. At the 
approaching evacuation of Fayetteville he re- 



^. 



■ : 'jiii 



a .'■/n. -t!-. 



»*•■ 






YELL COUNTY. 



ITU 



tnnic'il hi>iiie urul iiKjveil liis family to Washing- 
ton, Hfinpsteacl Comity, later was paroled there 
niid relnrneil to his borne in ISt)t). It can safely l>e 
^^i(l that there are few in this county who have 
iloiie better or more faithful work in the defense 
of lii> eumitry's rights than Mr. liielf, or one who 
has taken part in more engagements. In the fall 
(if 181)0 bo moved to Little Hock and took a brief 
contriict for the Government, and one year later 
west to Van Winkle's Mill. In ISTO he went to 
Franklin County, opened a mill there, remaining 
until 1S74. and then moved to bis present home. 
In bSTiI he was married to Miss Mary J., daugh- 
ter of Isaac and P. H. (Mobley) Spencer, natives 
of Tennessee and Kentucky, respectively. To 
them bave been born ten children. Those living 
are: Ollie S., William L., Maurice B., Joe Meek, 
Hiram F., Nellie P. and Katie S. Those deceased 
are: Fannie B. (wife of T. A. Pettigrew), Mary 
K. and Hiram. Mr. Kiel? is a member of Revilee 
Lodge No. (10. I. O. O. F., Washington Lodge 
No. 1, A. F. & A. M. , and in politics is a Demo- 
vTat. He has a tine residence of plantation style, 
elegant flowers, trees and a beautiful borne, lying 
at the foot of the Magazine Mountains, wbicb are 
2,S()0 feet bigb, and named so from the Spanish, 
owing to tbe rumbling noises. They are quite 
steep, and at tbe top are situated tbe Meda Springs, 
a summer resort. It can be safely said tbat tbe 
postmaster of Waveland, Ark., has bad an inter- 
esting and eventful life. 

David E. Roberts, a successful tiller of the soil 
living in Magazine Townsbip. and an adopted son 
of Arkansas, claims Madison County. Tenn.. as tbe 
land of bis nativity, being born in that section of 
Country May 2S, IS^IS, and here received bis train- 
ing as a farmer, wbicb bas been bis life's occupa- 
tion, and in lSl')l, while still a resident <jf Madison 
County, was united in marriage to Miss Margaret 
.Viidrews, also of Tennessee, a worthy Christian 
Woman, and member of tbe Methodist Episcopal 
<'bnrcb. By this union they became tbe parents 
of seven children: Wilson, John, James, Tolly, 
IJoUie H. (deceased), Lenora Ideceased) and Ida 
Idfceased). Soon after bis man-iagehe '-nlistiil ia 
Company D (Infantry) of the Confederate Army, 



wbicb consolidated with the Fifty second Ucgiment. 
and while in service took part in some of the 
famous battles and skirmisbes, and in April, ISiYt, 
receiving bis discbarge from army life, returned to 
his farm in Tennessee, which be worked till IST'.t^ 
when he moved to Arkansas, selecting a tract of 
ISO acres in Yell County, ninety of which he cul- 
tivates, and in January of tbe following year met 
with a sore bereavement in tbe loss of bis estimable 
wife. He remained a widower for two years, then 
wedded Miss Almira Andrews, who was born in 
Tennessee in 184N, and by this marriage became 
tbe mother of six cbildren, four of whom are still 
living (two having died in infancy): F'enner, I"'lera 
ings, Fletcher and Flora. Himself and wife are 
members in regular standing in tbe Methodist 
Episcopal Church, and as a planter be is known 
throughout tbe county as a man of broad intellect, 
and well versed in all tbat relates to tbe practical 
side of farming, and politically is a Democrat. Our 
subject's parents. Jacob and Mary (Freeman) 
Roberts, were born and married in tbe Old North 
State, tbe former born in IsOl, and tbe latter in 
ISO'2, and were the parents of twelve cbildren. 
The father a ;\Ii'thodist minister by profession, left 
his native home and settled in Madison County, 
Tenn., where be died in lN4'i. bis widow surviving 
him till 1870, when she too jiassed to ber tiual 
home, dying as she lived a consistent member of 
tbe Methodist Episcopal Church. 

John J. Robertson, one of the prominent resi- 
dents of Yell County, was born in York County, S. 
C, September '20, 1835, and is the son of James 
and Nancy Robertson, also natives of South Caro- 
lina. His father followed farming up to tbe time 
of bis death, wbicb occurred in 1849 at the age of 
fifty years, his mother passing from life in 1S53. 
Tbe early part of John J. Robertson's life was 
spent in Alabama, but in 1859 bo went to Florida, 
and in 1802 when tbe call for troops came be en- 
listed in C^impany D, un<ler Capt. J. L. Haj-es and 
Col. J. J. I'"'inley, serving in tbe Sixth Florida 
Regiment, and taking part in tbe battles of Chick- 
amauga, three days in Bragg's Army, and was one 
of the number who opposed (ten. Sherman on his 
famous march to the sea, and also served under 



' .'n_ 



1.' v;J 




: -fl 


f ." 


vn! 





ISO 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



Jobnston, Beauiefjanl and IIuoil. He was woiimlixl 
at Calbonn, Ga., May H). IS'U, Ihmii^t shot in the 
rii^ht. arm, losiog that mi'mlnn- at Mdutj^oiniTy, 
Ahi., three days lator. Ho was phiced in the con- 
valescing company, and upon his recnvery he re- 
turned to his home |ilace and went to farniiui^. 
Reniainini:; in Calhoun County. Ala., until the fall 
of 1871. he moved with his family to Yell County, 
locating in Kiley Township, where he continued 
farming, anil he now owns ■VIO acres of land, 111!) 
acres j)ine land, '2^^^) acres bottom and "20 acres 
upland, upon which he raises corn, grasses and 
cotton. In lS7<i he was elected county treasurer. 
He was again elected in ISS'i, and has lieen re- 
elected at each election since. He was married in 
ISjfj, in Alabama, to Sarah J. Sharp, by whom he 
has two children living: Sarah E. (wife of James 
Slay) and John S. His first wife died in 1874, 
and in 187(] he married Miss Susan Gatling, 
daughter of Phillip Gatling, a native of Arkansas. 
They have had six children, four of whom are 
living: Jay, Essa, Thoma.s O, aiiil Julia, and 
those deceased were Minnie and an infant un- 
named. The family are members of the Mission- 
ary Baptist Church, and in his political views Mr. 
Robertson is a Democrat. He takes an active part 
in all enterprises of a public nature promising to 
benefit his town or county. 

Joseph J. Kogei's. The aliove mentioned gen- 
tleman is a member of the tirm of Itogers i\: Son, 
consisting of J. J. Rogers and C. C. Rogers, own- 
ers of Marviuville saw and grist mills and cotton- 
gin. They have rebuilt the mill, njaking it one of 
the best in the county, the plant being valued at 
|3,0t)O, and, being in a very good location, they 
do the majority of the business in their line. The 
boiler has a capacity of '25-horse power, and is 
capable of turning out 10,01 it) feet of lumlier daily, 
but the average run is about o.OiH) fct^t, mostly 
pine lumber. The capacity of the cotton gin is 
000 bales per season, and they grind corn and 
wheat two days of each week. Jose[ih J. Rogers 
is an old resident of this State, having moved here 
when quite young, living until last year in Logan 
County, where he moved with his parents in 1S.'')S, 
when he tlifu came to this countv. He was born 



in Carroll County, Ga., February 1, l^ilT), tlie .^ou 
of Henry and JIaria Rogers, natives of Virginia. 
The father followed farming all his life, and died 
in Springtield, Mo., after a great deal of sutferiiig, 
while in the United States .\rmy. Oar subject 
enlisted in lS<)'i, in t'ompany I, First Arkansas 
Infantry, under Col. Johnson, Lieut. -C(jI. Searles 
and Capt. " Wild'' Bill Heavington. He took part 
in the liattle of Fayetteville and quite a numbiT 
of skirmishes, and while at Prairie de Ann, was 
taken with the mumps, but still remained with his 
company, and was in the raid at Saline. -\fter 
the war he returned homr, and was married Feb- 
ruary 18, 180(k to ^liss Mary Hodges, a native "f 
Tennessee, and to thf^m have been born five chil- 
dren: Jeremiah R., Calvin C Flora M., Ca.ssandra 
E. and Mary J. Mr. Rogers and wife an<l three 
daughters are members of the Missionary Bapti.-t 
Church. After living hajtpily together for twenty- 
tive years, his wife died June '2-. 1800. In poli- 
ties Mr. Rogers is a Repuldican, and is one of the 
representative citizens of this county. 

Walter W. Scott, one of the successful planters 
of A'ell County, and a resident of Herring Town- 
ship, is native-born, his parents. James and Ari- 
minta (Bell) Scott, of Tennessee and North Caro- 
lina, respectively, and who were married in Tennes- 
see, came to Arkansas as early as 1838, liuying 
and settling upon land in this county, where in 
1847 their son, Walter, was burn. Here the father 
farmed, and in INTi i the family was called to mourn 
the loss of wife and mother, a worthy commniiicaut 
of the Presbyterian Church, and in 1SS7 the fa- 
ther died. Our subject, l)eing taught the principles 
of farming in his boyhood days, on reaching man- 
hood still followeil it, and now owns 120 acres of 
land, fifty of which are under cultivation; corn, cot- 
ton and oats are the principal commodities raised. 
His marriage to Miss Martha Shepherd, who was 
born in Gforgia. March 8, IS.")!, was celebratt-d 
during the year ls7"J. She is a daughter of -Ji.i- 
seph and Rachel (Wilson) Shepherd, of North Car- 
olina, who were the parents of ten children, snven 
of whom are living. Her mother died in Georgia, 
in June, ISIH, and her father is still living, and is 
a resident of Missouri. To the union of ^Ir. and 



'■h 



. :^,oi 






YELL COUNTY. 



181 



Mr''. Sciitt liavi' l)tHTi liDin two chiMrou: William 
W. niul Olivia A. Himself :iud wife are iiieinlierM 
in I'ooil titaniliiif,' uf the ^Missionary Baptist Chnreb, 
in wliicli lie serves as clerk. Having thu welfare 
of his ciuiiity at heart, he taki>s an active part in all 
pulilic iuiprov.'iueiits. ami yives lilierally of his 
iiiraiis to the needy and distressed, and all char- 
itahlc institutions tind in him a ready and. willing 
li.'Ipi'r. In polities votes the rie|.nl)lican tick"t. 

G. M. Shepherd, a planter living in Magazine 
Township, was iMirn in Noith t'ai'olina in 1847, 
His father, John Shepherd, was lioru iu the Old 
Dominion Jlay Itl, ISIO, and his mother. Temper- 
nnce (Kpps) Shepherd, was tiorn in the Old North 
Slate May 23, 1S14, and was married April 1(), 
\^.V2. and became the parent of eleven children. 
In l^T'.l the family settled in this county, and here 
the father, a member of the Baptist Church, was 
laid to rest in ISSO. His mother was the tifth 
ciiild born to her parents, who were married in 
Virginia, and died in North Carolina about 1831 
and October 12, 18.")7, resjiectively. Our subject 
followed farming as a business, and on January 17, 
ISfiU, his marriage to Miss Margaret Haston was 
celfhrated. She was born in Tennessee December 
."), IS.'O, and a daughter of W. C. and Jane (Denny) 
Haston, who were born and married in the above 
State, and were the parents of ten children. Her 
father was a planter, and for many years was olfi- 
cially identilied with the public interests of Van 
Buren County, Tenn., tilling the office of sheriff 
four years, also that of county judge and magis- 
trate. He and deceased wife were members of the 
I'resbyterian Church. To the union of Mr. and 
Mrs. Shepherd were l)orn the following family: 
Martha J. (wife of J. A. Blakenship), Temperance, 
Dalton, Fannie M.. John C. and William C. He 
is the owner of a line eighty acre farm with forty- 
s'-v.'ii under cultivation, and about an acre planted 
to orchard, and cotton and corn are the principal 
commodities raised on his place. He is a faithful 
church worker, is superintendent of the Sabbath- 
school and trustee of the churcL property, and 
gives libfrally to all public enterprises. Socially 
h<' aii<l wife are connected with the Faruier^" Alii 

Hlice. 



Rev. J. C. Shipp, living in Dutch Creek Town 
ship, and a licensed minister of the Methoilist 
Episcopal Church South denomination, was born in 
Holmes County, Miss., January 15, 1835. His par- 
ents, Josiah and Susan (Smith) Shipp, were origi- 
nally of Tenn., the senior Shipp born April 5, 1S04, 
and his wife August 13, 1812, but were married in 
Mississippi about 1831, and followed farming as 
an occupation, and in 1815 left Mississippi for 
Hardin County, Tenn., where the family remained 
till the death of the father, in 18r)S, the widow dy- 
ing in this county Octoljer 2'.'. 18S(\ They were 
members of long standing in the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, he having united with it some thir- 
ty-two years before his death and she walking in 
its doctrines for fifty years. When twenty-one 
the principal of this sketch accepted as bis starting 
point in this world's warfare, a position in the dry- 
goods house of A. C. Wiuingham & Co., at Ham- 
burg, Tenn. Here he remained clerking till the 
outbreak of the Rebellion, when he joined the 
Confederate Army, enlisting in Company E, Fourth 
Regiment of Infantry, Capt. J. O. Tarkington, 
commander; he took part in many of the battles 
in Mississippi, at Memphis, and particularly with 
Hood in his raid to Nashville; was wounded at the 
liattleof Okalona (Miss.), and taken prisoner twice, 
but managed to escape each time, and while at 
Gainesville, May 10, 1805, was paroled. On receiv- 
ing bis tinal discbarge from army life, he returned 
to his home and engaged in farming, and Decern 
ber 10, 1865, witnessed bis marriage to Mrs. Saluda 
J. Leeth, widow of Harrison L. Leeth, who was ac- 
cidentally killed. She was born in the Old Domin- 
ion, October 11, 1838, and is the daughter of Peter 
and Mary Ashworth, and who were born in Vir- 
ginia, in 1804 and 1805, respectively. Emigrating 
to Tennessee the year of their daughter's birth, 
they died June 3, and October 17, 1855. Our sub- 
ject and wife have these children, among others: 
Sarah (wife of Jacob Sweeney), John B., Emily 
(wife of JI. B. Brooks), Martha (wife of F. Beech), 
^lollie (wife of P, Alley), living; and James, Alden 
and Susan (deceased). He received bis license to 
preach while a resident of Teunesr.ee, and followed 
this callini' till 1878, when he located in Yell 



•I vA 



'U>\ 









182 



HISTOllY OF ARKANSAS. 



County, where he now lives and owns ISO acres of 
rich hind, forty of whieh are thoroni^'hly cultivated 
and improved with good barns, outhoii>es, and the 
most essential of all things, good wells of water, 
and a line orchard of some 400 fruit-l)earing trees. 
Mrs. Shii)j) is an earnest INIethodist, belonging 
to the same church as her husband, and he 
socially afliliates with the Datch Creek JIasonic 
Lodge No. '20U. 

William Sills, one of the prominent citizens of 
this county, is the owner of the Sills' saw and grist 
mills and cotton-gin. He was born near Milford, 
Ohio, January 2, 18:30. the son of William and 
Elmira (Davis) Sills, natives of Ohio. His father's 
occupation was that of ship carpentering up to 
the time of his death, in 183,"), when the rest of the 
family came to Arkansas with our subject's grand- 
father, Mr. William Davis, and settled in Craw- 
ford County. In this county William Sills was 
reared to manhood. He received a very limited 
education, and at an early age learned the printer's 
trade, but his health failing, he was compelled to 
give that up, and took to farming. At the break- 
ing out of the war Mr. Sills enlisted in Company 
B, First Arkansas Cavalry, under Ca[>t. Powhatan 
Perkins and Col. De Rosta Carroll, and went with 
the regiment to Oak Hill, where he was taken sick, 
and was discharged. He then returned to Van 
Buren, Crawford County, and continued farming 
until 1882, when he sold out, coming to Yell 
County. Here he invested in 200 acres of land, 
in company with his son-in-law, J. W. Blevins, 
who owned 500 acres at the time, well cultivated, 
and on which he had liuilt a comfortable frame 
residence, good barns and sheds necessary for his 
stock. Owing to the fact that Mr. William Sills ia 
the proprietor of the largest mills in his county, 
he does a largo share of the work, and has the 
contract for furnishing the lumber for the new 
pontoon bridge to be built across the Arkansas 
River. His mills are patronized by the farmers 
from Logan and other counties in the neighbor- 
hood, the ginning-mills producing from 32-'"i to 500 
bales of cotton. Of his farm land, ^Ir. Sills has 
100 acres under cultivation, forty acres of'corn and 
sixty acres of ccjltcin. The subject of this sketch 



was married in ]8(i;5, to Miss Kh'iiora Biishong, a 
native of Kentucky, but of I'rench descent. Of a 
family of nine children born to them, six are now 
living, viz.: AVillie A., Mary Iv (wife of J. W". 
Blevins), James E., Ollie, Reuna and Harry. Those 
deceased are Eugene, Le Roy and Emma. Both 
he and wife are members of the Christian Church. 
In politics Mr. N\'illiam Sills is a Democrat, hav- 
ing been elected sheritl' of Crawford County in 
ISGf^) on that ticket. He is the supporter of all 
enterprises of a jiublic nature that would be of 
benefit to his county, and being a very charitable 
man is ever ready to help the needy. 

John X. Smith, njiller, Briggsville, Ark. This 
prominent business man was born in Chattooga 
County, Ga. , on June 10, 184tl, and Ijecame famil- 
iar with the duties of farm life at an early age. 
His father, J(.)hn Smith, was liorn in North Caro- 
lina in 1S17, and his mother, whose maiden name 
was Rebecca Jane Eddingt<jn, was the daughter 
of Daciiel Eddington. of North Carolina. John N. 
Smith came to Arkansas in 1871, settled in Scott 
County, and there purchased 100 acres of land, 
which he improved, clearing 140 acres and erect- 
ing good buildings, etc. This he sold and in 
1883 moved to this county, located in this town- 
ship, and hero engaged in milling. The mill con- 
sists of a saw-mill, cotton-gin and grist-mill, and 
with all the late improvements for carrying on the 
work. This property is worth S3,00(J. Mr. Smith 
was married in 1802 to Miss Elizabeth, daughttr 
of Jackson Green, of Spartanburg, S. C and the 
fruits of this union were three children. Mr.^. 
Smith died in 1881, and Jlr. Smith has since mar- 
ried Mrs. Emma David, who has borne him two 
'children. The children to both marriges are 
named as follows: J. B. (who married Miss Eliza- 
beth Allen), J. E.. E. C. (who married Eptha Sul 
livan), Rebecca Jane and Joseph Michael. ]Mr. 
Smith and family are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, of which he is steward. In 
March, 18<)2, Mr. Smith enlisted in Compiiny F, 
Thirty-ninth Georgia Regiment Infantry, and 
was in service until the close of the war. He was 
at the siege of Vicksbuig, battles of Franklin, Mis 
sionary Ridge and Chickamanga. He was never 



<hi-J 






M 1 J 



YELL COUNTY. 



1S3 



wiMitulwl, but was takoti piisouor at Vicksl)nrg. lu 
ipiilitics ho is a staucb Democrat. He is sharp ami 
^lln>wcl in making a trade yet strictly honest, and 
never goes hack ou a contract. 

James (t. Smytli, president of the Belleville 
Academy, or Dardanelle High School, under the 
fiupervisiou of Arkansas Conference South, was 
\><>cn ill East Tennessee in the year 185'.t, and is the 
I'lilest in a family of three l)orn to J. T. and Eliz- 
alieth J. (Morrison) Smyth, who were of North 
Carolina and A'irginia origin. The father was an 
itinerant preacher of the Methodist Episcopal de- 
nomination, iu charge of the Holston Conference 
of Tennessee. He died in North Carolina, in 1SS8, 
his widow still surviving him and residing with her 
son James. Mr. Smyth received his early training 
and schooling iu Tennessee, tiuishiug his educa- 
tion at the Hiwassee College. In ISTSi he was 
licensed as a minister of the ^lethodist Ejiiscopal 
(.!hurch South, and in IST'J graduated, taking the 
degree of M. A. For a short time he was engaged 
in teaching, and the following year witnessed his 
location in Bradley, Ark., whence he went to El- 
doiado, and there organized the Indejiendent High 
School. Subsequent!}' he came to AVarren and 
founded the M'arren Graded High School, and in 
ISSo assisted in the establishment of the noted 
Belleville Academy, with a department for train- 
ing and graduating pupils, which will admit them 
to college. This school oi)ened its first session 
with eighteen students enrolled, and in ISSit, 200 
names were found upon the attendance list, forty 
of which were those of boarders. In ISSS Jlr. 
Sjiiyth was chosen county examiner, doing much 
whiK- in otHce to raise the grade of teachers and 
materially benefit them. On November 27, 18S0, 
he h'd to the altar :\Ii-s Amanda Neal. of Bradley 
County, daughter of Orilla Neal, formerly of 
(ieorgia, but later an Arkansan pioneer. This mar- 
riage has been blessed with four children: Victor 
Siimmerfield (who died in infancy), Vasco (who 
died at the age of four), Lano and Lud Bolford. 
Mr. and Mrs. Smyth are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church South. The former is a Democrat 
politically, and has served as chairman of the 
Democratic E.'cecutive Central C(lmIuitt^■o. He is 



a whole souled gentleman, and has the reputation 
of being one of the best educators in the State. 

Benjamin F. Start, merchant. Gravelly Hill, 
Ark. Mr. Start was born in Hempstead County, 
Ark., November 30, 1S5(), and was reared to man- 
hood on the farm. At the age of twenty years he 
began for himself, as a farmer, on rented land, 
and three years later purchased eighty acres of un- 
improved land, which he settled xipon and improved 
by clearing thirty acres, erecting a comfortal)le 
house, barns, etc. There he remained for fourteen 
years, and in the meantime bought aa adjoining 
tract of IGO acres, which he also improved. At 
the end of the time mentioned (ISSIV| he entered 
the mercantile business at Gravelly Hill, where he 
has continued successfully ever since, his annual 
sales equaling §3,000. In connection with this 
he still continues agricultural pursuits, and has 
been connected with the steam-mill (saw, grist and 
cotton-mill) at this place. He started out for him- 
self with limited means, and by his industry, per- 
severance and strict attention to business, he has 
been unusually successful. He was married, Sep- 
tember 3, 1876, to Miss Hannah Garner, daughter 
of Elijah Garner of this township. Mrs. Start 
died August 17, 1888, leaving two children, one of 
whom has since died. In August. IS'JO, Mr. Start 
was married to Mrs. L. M. Garner, widow of Will- 
iam Garner, ilr. Start and his estimable wife are 
members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, of 
which he is steward, and socially he is a member 
of the A. F. & A. M. lodge of this place. In pol- 
itics he affiliates with the Democratic party. He 
is liberal iu his support of all worthy enterprises. 

E. D. M. Stevenson, a planter by occupation, 
and formerly of Carroll County, Tenn. , was born 
in that State April 3, 1834, and is the eldest son 
of Samuel G. and Eliza (Seret) Stevenson. The 
senior Stevenson, of French descent and a farmer, 
was born in 17y2 in South Carolina, and was mar- 
ried in Tennessee in 1832, where his- wife died 
July 4, 1842, leaving five children to the care of 
her husband, who, with his family, emigrated to 
Arkansas in 1870 and settled in White County, re 
siding here till his death in 1872, being in com- 
munion with the Methodist Episcopal Church, his 



iisl.- .1 



184 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



wife worsbiiiirii,' with tlit> Baptist Chuicb. Our 
subject served as a soldior in the Coufeilerato 
Army, enlisting in Company 13 ol the Fifty- fifth 
Infantry. Being taken prisoner at Island No. 10, 
he soon effected hi.s escape and returned home, 
subsequently joining a company of cavalry, took 
part in the battles oi lied ilouud (Tenn.), Cold 
Springs (Ala. ), and after his muster out came home 
to his farm duties, which he has followed ever 
since, having some "200 acres under his supervision 
in Galla Kock Township, 100 of which he most suc- 
cessfully cultivates. His marriage took place in 
this county February 7\ ISTl, to Miss Jennie Me- 
Mullen, who was born in Tennessee, June IT), 1S35, 
and this union resulted in the birth of two chil- 
dren: Henry Beutress (deceased) and Samuel F. 
In religion he and wife worship with the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, and socially he is an A. F. & 
A. M. , belonging to Bright Star Loilge Xo. 101, 
and be is an honest, industrious and upright citizen 
of his township. 

P. N. Strait, a pioneer planter and general 
merchant of Magazine Township, was born in Ken- 
tucky, December "29, 1840, his parents, Wright 
and.^Iaria (Ross) Strait, were also born and mar- 
ried in this State, the father's birth occurring in 
1811, and the mother's in 1814. and were the par- 
ents of five children, be whose name beads this 
sketch being the only son. The senior Strait, a 
farmer and house-builder, emigrated to Arkansas 
as early as 1S49. Settling in Clark County, be re- 
mained here till 1801, when be changed his loca- 
tion to Yell County, and during the succeeding 
year was killed by bushwhackers, bis widow sur- 
viving him till I8tj3. They were members of the 
Missionary Baptist Church, and for many years be 
was justice of the peace in bis township. Our sub- 
ject was reared a farmer, which calling he pursued 
nearly his entire life, and during the troublous 
times in the sixties, put aside bis farm duties for 
active service in the Federal Army, enlisting in 
1862, iu Company I. First Arkansas Regiment of 
Infantry, Samuel il. Bard, captain, and was in the 
battles of Fayetteville, Poison Springs and a num- 
ber of skirmishes. Receiving his discharge in Au- 
gust, IS'U, he returned to bis home and resumed 



his work cm the farm, and is now the prospert'us 
owner c.if five tracts of land, com[)rising some MIO 
acres, +'•!• highly cultivated, and on which he raises 
cotton, corn and fruits of all varieties, and in con- 
nection with bis farm has o[)ened a store, carrying 
a stock of such goods and wares as are found in a 
store of general merchandise. Jliss Olive Whattey, 
who was born October 27, 1814, in the State of 
Mississippi, became bis wife in 1805. She was a 
daughter of James and Sarah Whattey, who fol- 
lowed farming in (recjrgia. To the union of o;ir 
subject and wife were l)orn nine children: Eujma 
A. (deceased), Viola (wife of W. L. Dale), William 
R., Charles W., Jerusha, Bookee, Matbulda, Le 
ona, and an infant (deceased). In 18'JO he reeeivi-il 
his appointment as postmaster, and is well worthy 
the honor conferred upon him. 

James A. Taylor, one of the leading and most 
prominent farmers of Blutl'ton Township, was born 
in this county ten miles south of Dardauelle, on 
March 21, 1800, and received but a limited educa- 
tion. He was reared ou the farm, and as a conse- 
quence is familiar with the duties of the same in 
every particular. His father, Benjamin F. Taylor, 
was born in Tennessee, and came to this county iu 
1848. Here he was married, and here he resided 
for many years, active and successfully engaged in 
cultivating the soil. In November, 1862, he en- 
listed in the Federal Army, Company F, Third 
Arkansas Cavalry, and was in the battle of Saline 
besides numerous smaller engagements. He was 
then taken with the measles, had a relapse, and 
died in April, 1803, leaving a widow and three chil- 
dren, who were named in the order of their births 
as follows: Roxie. James A. and Amos Franklin. 
The tirst and last named are deceased. James A. 
Taylor remained with bis mother near Dardauelle 
for about three years, and then movetl with her to 

Township in the La Fouche Valley, where 

he attended school as the opportunity offered. 
At the age of eleven years be moved with bis 
mother to Bluffton Township, and there be has 
continued to reside. When about eighteen years of 
age he commenced working for himself, and at that 
time bought eighty acres of land in connection 
with his brother. This he improved by clearing 



-ft ry 



,i^.!5:^ 






YELL COUNTY. 



ISo 



fiirty-fivp acres which ho iidw has in cultivatiijii, 
ami iTt'cttul a teuaut house, haviiicj rented a pur- 
tiou of hi-s land. About the time he bought this 
land a good school was opened, and Mr. Taylor, 
fei'lin" a desire to have a better education, rented 
liis farm, and that of his m(^ther over which ho 
liiiil control, and enrolled himself among the ear- 
liest students of Gravelly Hill High School, as the 
school was called. He had atteiuh-d about only 
eight months, when sickness in his family caused 
him to abandon his long-cherishod desire for a hot- 
ter education. He remained on the farm until twen- 
ty-four years of age, and was then married to Miss 
Samantha Elliott, daughter of J. J. Elliott, of 
I'orsytho County, Ga. He then bought a farm of 
rjO acres farther dowa the valley, and four years 
from the time of his marriage his wife died, leav- 
ing one child, a daughter, seven days old. His 
iie.vt luarriage was in 18S8, to Miss Susan Daniels, 
daughter of T. A. Daniels, of Mississijapi, and by 
this union he has two children. Mr. Taylor is a 
Democrat in politics, and socially is a member of 
the ^lasonic lodge at Concordia. No. 310. in which 
organization he holds the office of worshipful mas- 
ter. He has held the office of justice of the peace 
three different times, and is filling that position at 
the present time. He has been school director for 
several years, and is doing all that he can for the 
advancement of education in his township. In his 
support of churches and all enterprises of a piiblic 
nature he has always been very liberal and extends 
a helping hand to those less fortunate in life. 

Columbus Thomas claims Yell County as his 
home by adoption, coming here as early as 1S51, 
frimi his native heath, Sumner County, Tenn. , 
where he was born April 0, 1S50, to Benjamin and 
Sarah C. (Gambling) Thomas, who were born in 
th«> siimo county and State, the father's birth oc- 
curring January IS, 182(1, and the mother's in De- 
'•.•iiil)er, 1824; both deceased, the father in ISiJS 
"inl the mother in 1878. The early life of our 
Mibject's father was spent in Tennessee, being 
'•diieated under his father (a Virginian by birth, 
and his wife an Englishwoman), who taught school 
• n Siimn(>r County for twenty-one years, and com 
pl"tely mastering the various English branches 



and surveying, and upon his grailuation emigrated 
to Arkansas, where he was elected county surv(>yor, 
and in connection with the duties of this office he 
tauglit school and farmed, buying KIO acres of 
land, which he increased to 8<50: selling this he 
lived in retirement the rest of his days. The priii 
ci[)al of this l)iography was given a good common 
school education in the schools (jf his day, and after 
leaving these engaged in farming, being the ]ii>s 
sesscjr of 12() acres in his homestead on which is a 
handsome dwelling, 1(10 of these being sown to cot 
ton, corn and wheat, two devoted to an orchard uf 
apples and peaches, and forty- live acres in their 
natural state. In 1871 he led to the altar 'Mi.-.s 
ilary M. Adams, born in Georgia, January 'J, 
iSol, and the daughter of J. K. and G. W. W. 
Adams. Her father, ex county surveyor, and prom- 
inent in his county, is a resident of Morrillton. 
To Mr. and Mrs. Thomas, Jr., have been Ixirn the 
following family: Benjamin (living), Ida, and Will 
iam (deceased). In 1S74 be and wife I)ecame 
members of the Missionary Ba|itist Church. He 
is a stanch Democrat, and is an enthusiast con- 
cerning the growth and welfare of his county. 

William H. Yandiver, a planter of Galla Hock 
Township, was born in Mississippi, May 20, \^l'l. 
His parents, Elijah and Malinda (Cos) Yandiver, 
were born and married in South Carolina, the 
former's birth occurring December 12, 1812, and 
the letter's about 1810. His father followexl farm 
ing, negro speculation, and stock-dealing, as a 
means of livelihood, and in order to better his 
fortunes, moved his family to Mississippi, where 
he lived until 1885, when he died. The death of 
his wife occiirred in 18(57. Both were respected 
members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
he was an honored Mason, having been connected 
with that order for some forty years or more, and 
was quite an active politician of his day. Our 
subject served in the Confederate Army, in defense 
of the Southern cause, enlisting in Blythes' Ninth 
Mississippi Infantry Itogiineut. He was actively 
engaged for nearly one year, and at its expiration 
was transferred to Maj. Saunders' cavalry. He 
served as an escort to Jell'ersou Davis, while > it 
route to Georgia, and was in many of the note,l 




■w 






18(3 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



battlt's iiiul skiruiislics, partienlarly in the battle 
of Thompson Station, where ■_'.;'"" soldiers sur- 
lentleied. While in service, he was woimtleil live 
tiiiios, and was paroled in IS'io, and returned to 
llississippi and resumed his farm duties, continu- 
ing there till 18GS, when he moved to Memphis, 
Teiin., and started a mercantile store, which he 
carried on till 187"^, when he again changed his 
location, this time settling on a farm in Yell County, 
where he and wife conjointly own 120 and sixty- 
nine acres of very valuable and well improved land. 
In 1S77 he was mariied to Mrs. Madora Bryson, 
who was born in Pope County, in isr>'2, and is the 
eldest daughter of George Parish. To this mar- 
riage was born a son, William. ;\[r. and Mrs. 
Vandiver belong to the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and he is a Knight of Pythias, atliliating 
with Easley Lodge No. 17. Mrs. Vandiver has a 
daughter by her former marriage. Miss Minnie 
Bell Bryson, born December 24, 1872. 

John C. Vinsett is the proprietor of the Vinsett 
saw and grint mills and cotton-gin, located in Yell 
County. He was born in Calhoun County, Miss., 
October 25, 1846, the sou of John Vinsett, a native 
of South Carolina, from where he removed to 
Woodruff County. Ark., in ISoS, and remained 
there until 1871, when he came to this county. 
John C. received what little education he had in 
this county, and the advantages were very poor. 
In July, 18<)4, he enlisted in Company E, under 
Ca})t. Wilsim and Col. McGee, and took part in the 
battle of Pilot Knob and a number of skirmishes; 
was with Price on his famous raid, when he was 
taken prisoner and brought to Camp Douglas, 
Chicago; was detained there four months, when he 
was exchanged at Red River and returned home. 
He followed farming until ISSi'i, when he put up 
his present mills, at a cost of s:-,,()00. These mills 
have a capacity of 10,000 feet of lumber daily, but 
average only (5,000 feet, and 150 bales of cotton, 
grinding only one dav of each week. He owns 140 
acres of land, seventy live acres of which are tilla- 
ble, and he rents this out in shares. He was mar- 
ried in 181)4 to Miss Amanda Celack, a native of 
Arkansas, born in 1845. Four of the nine children 
born to them are now living: William, Mary (wife 



of William Choate), ^Martha (wife of J. W. Jones) 
and Angeline (wife of \\'illiani Lony). Our subject 
lost his tirst wife in isy 1. He was married again in 
1 883, and by this union has one son. He and his wife 
are members of the Missionary Baptist Church, and 
in politics he is a Democrat, and has held the othce 
of justice of the peace for two terms, also that of 
bailitr. Socially he is a member of Baker Creek 
Lodge No. 388, A. F. & A. M. He is one of the 
influential men of Riley Township, and is respected 
bv all with whom he comes in contact, either 
socially or in business. 

James H. Walkup, one of the pioneer settlers of 
Riley Township, came to this county in November, 
18(30, and has resided here ever since. He was 
formerly a resident of Mississippi. He bought 120 
acres of land, improved it and made other pur- 
chases at different times since the war, until he 
now owns 780 acres, a great portion of which is 
improved, and upon which he has built comfort- 
able dwellings, barns, etc. James H. Walkup 
was born in fnion County, N. C, March 21, 1823, 
the son of David M. and Jane (Huey) Walkup, na 
tives of the two Carolinas, and was reared within a 
few miles from Gen. Jackson's birth2:)lace. Re- 
maining in his native home until he was twenty- 
two years old, he had very few educational advan- 
tages, but in later years read a great deal, and in 
. this way became well posted. On leaving his home 
he went to South Carolina, remaining twelve years^ 
taking a position as overseer. He married Miss 
M. T. Ranson in South Carolina, removing from 
there to Mississippi early in 1857, where he put in 
four crops, and then came to Y'ell County, as above 
stated. At the opening of the war he enlisted 
and remained until he was compelled to go home 
on account of sickness, but in October, 1863, he 
entered the Federal service in the Third Arkansas 
Cavalry, under Capt. Eddington, but later Lieut. 
Peas took command; then Col. Ryan and Lieut.- 
Col. Fuller, commanding the regiment. They 
were detailed as a guard along the Arkansas 
River. Mr. Walkup was in quite a number of 
skirmishes, being discharged June 30, 1805, when 
he returned home and once more turned his atten- 
tion to farming and cotton-raising. Mrs. Walkup 



A^. 



YELL COUNTY. 



1S7 



is 11 (Inu^'liter of William and C. (Tavlor) Eaason, 
uativi'sof Irelaiui and Sontli Carolina, respectively. 
Ei^'ht cliiklreu have been born to Mr. and ilrs. 
Walkiip, namely: Mary E. (wife ofC. P. Hudson), 
William A., Jane Alice, Parilla A., Robert L., Lou, 
Ida. Huey B., and Julia E. (deceased). Mr. Wal- 
kiip, witli his wife and live ebiklren, are members 
of the xVssociato IJeformed Presbyterian Church, of 
which he is an elder. He has been a school direc- 
tor some time, and in politics affiliates with the 
Uomocratic party. 

Paschal P. "West. On April 10, 1S45, was 
liorn in South Carolina the subject (if this sketch. 
He was raised to manhood in Georgia, and given 
the benefit of the common schools, and learning the 
blacksmith's trade, at the age of nineteen, started 
in business for himself, following this trade, more 
or less, in connection with his farming and milling 
interests. Soon after the establishment of his busi- 
ness he was married to Miss llebecca Westree, 
daughter of Samuel Westree. of Eorsythe County, 
Cia. TLiis union has been blessed with seven chil- 
dren, four of whom are living: Alpha (liorn in 
Georgia, in LSGo, and given a good common .sehu<5l- 
ing, at the age of nineteen married John Crown^ 
over, a farmer, living in the vicinity of her i>ar- 
ents), Eddie (born in ISTO), Effie L. (l)orn in 
1S|>S), and George (born in ISSO). All have been 
given the advantages of the pulilic schools. Our 
sulijeet fought in defense of his country in Com- 
pany E, Eorty-third Georgia Kegiment of ^'olun- 
tecr Infantry; was in some small skirmishes, and 
wliile fighting at Eesaca was wounded, and taken 
to the hospital, where he was discharged, on ac- 
count of disability, ai]d returned to his home in 
Gr(,rgia. Iii the fall of 1874 he came to this 
county, and purcha.-ed 11-". acres of valuable land, 
forty of which are in a high state of cultivation, 
and tlie remainder good timber land. Here he 
lias not only carried on the business of farming, 
I'lit erected mills, and entered quite extensively 
int ) milling tlour, lumber, and ginning cotton, his 
I'lant being estimated at ?2,r>(W. In ISS'J he met 
with a sevi^re lo-s in the <lestructiou of his entire 
prnpiTty l,y lire, together with eighteen bales of 
cotton and 150 bushels of wheat. Our subject, be- \ 



I ing a man of iudomital)l(> energy and push, imme- 
I diately set to work to repair his 1'jss, and there 
i now stands on the old site new and bulistantial 
l)uildings, valued at ■'?l,S(l(t, which are in constant 
operation. He has never been connected with any 
religious organization, but gives libfrally of his 
means for the support of churches, schouls anil all 
worthy public enter[)rises. In political and social 
' circles he is respected and esteemed by his fellow- 
citizens, and, although a Democrat, does not take 
any active jiart in politics, but votes for the liest 
man: is an A. F. i^ A. M. , affiliating with a lodge 
at Bellville, and is postmaster at the little village 
of Milan, which h;ul its origin on his farm. !Mrs. 
West is an energetic worker and member of the 
Baptist Church, and, with her husband, enjoys the 
contidence of the community in which they live. 
Francis M. White is a well known farmer of 
, Fergeson Township, and cami' with his parents, 
William B. and Sophia (Gault) White, from South 
Carolina to this State in ISoT, and in ISGl bought 
'100 acres of land, paying S7 an acre for the entire 
tract, which he has iru[iroved from time to time 
until he has 152 thoroughly cultivated, and good 
buildings on his farm. In January, ISGl, he was 
married to Miss Nancy Crownover. daughter of 
Daniel Crownover, and they have become the [)ar 
ents of live children, three of whom are living — 
two sons and one daughter. He, like all of his 
])atriotic countrymen, was a soldier in the late un- 
pleasantness, operating with Company F, Third 
Arkansas Cavalry, Federal Army, Capt. Fuller 
Commanding, and from the date of his enlistment. 
January 1, lSt>!, was in the following battles: 
Prairie de Ann, Saline Piiver and Princeton. At 
the latter place he was disabled by the fall of his 
horse, from which he has never entirely recovered, 
and every day from April 1, till June 1, 18Ij4, saw 
him in some sort of engagement. He was taken 
prisoner and released on parole, and finally dis 
charged at Danville in May, 1805. He has never 
belonged ti) a church or secret society, but con- 
tributes liberally toward the erection of churches 
and all matters of public interest, and is ever 
readv to lend a hel|>ing hand and speak a word of 
cheer to those in need or distress. He and his 



r 



H .M 



•■■'' 

frft/1 



I>i8 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



family are ro;,'H:cli'c] as aruon^ tho most prosfipr- 
oiis and re>|H'cte(l ]ii.'opk' of their iit-it^'liborhood. 

Isaac S. Wliitfurd. Amont^ the early pioneer 
settlers to the grand nld State i.if Arkansas, was one 
Isaac S. WLitford. wiio L.icated in this county soon 
after his marriai;e to !Miss Mary E Wyatt, which 
was solemnized in Carroll County. Mis^. .alu.iut IS.j", 
who bore bim ten children: Charles W. (deeea-.edl. 
Sarah L. (deceased), Lewis H. (deceased), John A. 
(deceased), Elizabeth S. (wife of Hamilton M. Mor 
ris), I^^aac E.. Mary C. (deceaseil), and Alonzo (_'. 
He served in the late war in Company D, of the 
Third Arkansas Caxalry. <jf the Confederate Army, 
participating in the battle of Backl)one, and a num- 
ber of skirmishes, and at the surrender in 1865, re- 
turned to his home, where he mirt with a severe 
l<:>ss in the death of his wife, who died July HI, of 
this year, and soon after he married Mary A. Cobb. 
They i)ecame the parents of four children: Robert 
H. , Francis M., Enmia J. (deceased), and Berry D., 
and on August I'.l, IST-'i, was called to moiu'n the 
loss of tliis wife, who died in full fellowship with 
the Baptist Church, and on Feliruary 24, 187(3, 
he married Jtrs. Louisa F. Coats, his present wife, 
and who had one son, John W. Coats (now de- 
ceased), by a former marriage. Himself and wife 
are members in good standing of the Missionary 
Ba[>tist Church, in whieh he has tilled the office of 
deacon for many years. He has followed farming 
nearly all his life, living upon his present farm 
since l^-"i-l, which is a highly cultivated and very 
productive tract of land. In his community he is one 
of its most trusted and honored citizens. Our sub- 
ject's parents, Charles G. and Mary (McKinney) 
Whitford, were born October IS, ISO;-!, in North 
Carolina, and November 9. IStlt'i. in South Caro- 
lina, respectively, but were married in Stewart 
Count\, Tenn., October '.I, 182;). and were the par- 
erils of six children, their S')n, Isaac, who was born 
in Stewart County, March 17, \S-^2, l)eing the only 
child living. The father was a farmer, and active- 
ly interested in politics, and he and wife were con- 
sistent memlters of the Baptist Church. 

Frank V. Whittlesey, the popular jeweler of 
Dardanelle, owes his nativity t" Indiana, b.-ing 
liorn in Viucennes of that State, in \^'i\. and was 



the youngest of six children l)urn to Isaac N. and 
Elizabeth V. (Buntin) Whittlesey, natives of Con- 
necticut and Indiana, respectively. His paternal 
ancestors were English by birth, being descended 
from a noted family of that country, and crossed the 
ocean in the grand old '" Mayflower. " The grand 
father, Samuel, was a law\er by profession, lieing 
at one time a celebrated member of the supreme 
liench of New Jer>ey, whence he came to Indiana. 
where he died. The maternal grandfather was of 
Irish descent, being born in Cork, emigrated to 
America at an early day, was anotlicer in the Revo- 
lutionary War, and being a surveyor was elected as 
a commissioner to the Northwest Territory, making 
Yincennes his headquarters, this being his home 
till his death. The tield notes of that day show 
his title and signature. Isaac Whittlesey learned 
the trade of watchmaker and jeweler in Watertown, 
N. Y.. and when twenty-two years of age came to 
Yincennes. and started a business for himself, 
continuing thus till lS(iS; he then retireil and 
lived in retirement till his death in 1870. The 
principal of this sketch was reared, educated and 
learned his trade in Yincennes, Ind., the latter be- 
ing accomplished in his father's shop, and under 
his supervision. Being desirous to begin the world 
for hiujself, he opened a business at Mount Yernon, 
Ind., in 18ii8, which he conducted till 187n, when 
he went to Missouri, staying for one year, thence 
to Harrisburg, 111., for two years. In lSSl>. his 
eyes troubling him, he went to Eureka .Springs. 
Ark., for treatment, and upon their recovery en- 
tered into business here, and at Fayetteville, in 
which he continued but a short time, coming to 
Dardanelle, in IsSl, and established his j)resent 
lucrative business, carrying a stock of about §;!,(>C0. 
his annual receipts amounting to !?"2,r>00; he is the 
owner of the store building, and is erecting a tine 
dwelling house; liesides this property he owns 
eighty acres of land, partially cultivated, nine val- 
uaiile lots, and two cottages on the summit of 
Mount Nelio, and gives much of his time to the 
improvement of that beautiful resort. He was 
joined in matrimony in 1SS2 to Miss Mattie C. 
ilav, only dau.ghter of Judge ^Villiam N. Jlay 
I see sketch]. Their marriage has been blessed 



n- 



1 



v.ltijV/ 



'« 



.,,,0 
J.I'> 

1,1 ; , 




with four cbilihou: William N. (living), Mattio 
Kli/alieth, Francis Vigo and Effie (decoasod). He 
and faniilv are worthy members of the Methodist 
Kpiscopal Church. Socially, subject is in atlilia- 
lii.n with the followiug lodges of the Masonic order: 
IJri.'ht Star No. 213, Dardanelle Chapter tU, Brill- 
iant Star Council and Palestine Commandery No. 
7. He is also a prominent member of the Order 
of K. of P. ; has held, or is holding, the highest 
fpflice, and is now tilling the chair of most excellent 
high priest of the Chapter of K. A. M., and is em- 
inent commander of the commandery. 

I>ucas Wieser, the prominent fruit and wine- 
grower, near Dardanelle, was born in Baden. Ger- 
many, in 1S37, and is the only son born to Julian 
and Varona Wieror, also of Baden, and deceased, 
tlie father in 1S44, and the mother in 1803. Lucas 
received his early training in Germany, in 180(5 
bicoiuing a member of the army of that country, 
where he remained till 1871, taking part in the 
battle of Tanberliishofsheim, here receiving a 
severe wound in the shoulder. In 1872 he came 
to America, locating in Pennsylvania, sojourning 
here but two years, thence going to Indianapolis, 
where he secured a position as boss iron- worker, 
w(jrking on some of the public buildings. In 1876 
lie decided to come to Arkansas, which he did, set- 
tling at Dardanelle; here he bought land and 
planted an orchard and vineyard of about forty 
acrns, which are well improved, and on this land 
are some good substantial buildings, erected by 
liitiiself. At present he is actively working at the 
trade of a stonemason, having laid the foundation 
of many of Mount Nebo's massive buildings. In 
Is73 Miss Sophia Wieser became his wife, and the 
fruits of this marriage have been live children, two 
of whom survive: Frank Herman and Herman 
Frank, the others dying in infancy. The family 
lire members of the Catholic Church. 

J. L. \\ illianis. There was born to the union 
of James N. and ilary Ann (Springer) Williams, 
of South Carolina and Lauderdale County, Ala., 
r.'S|iw?tivply, a family of sixteen children, he whose 
'■am.' heads this sketch being the third child, his 
I'Ttli oi-curriiig in Union County, S. ('.. in I'-PJ. 
'Hid he is the lineal descendant of the fullowin.' 



illu.strious persons: His grandfather, Williams, al- 
though born in South Carolina, was an otTspring 
of an old Irish family, his father coming to this 
country at an early day, and locating in the latter 
State, where his family is known as one of the 
oldest in the State, and as one of renowned musical 
talent. The grandfather on the mother's side, 
Jonathan Springer, also of South Carolina, and a 
planter by occupation, came as early as 182(1 to 
Alabama, his father being from Virginia, and his 
grandfather from Delaware, whoso father, Carroll 
or Lorentz, is supposed to have founded Wilming- 
ton, this State, in 177(1 The Springer family is 
said to be direct descendants of Charles Christo- 
pher Springer, a Swedish baron, and who is said 
to trace his ancestry as far back as 410 A. D., to 
Louis, the Pius, of France. The name of Springer, 
says tradition, is derived from this Louis, who, be- 
ing guilty of some misdemeanor, as a punishment, 
was imprisoned, from which he escaped by spring- 
ing or jumping from the third-story window of his 
prison into the lake, and his cousin, the emperor 
of Germany, hearing of this wonderful feat, par- 
doned him, and conferred upon him the name of 
Springer. Our subject's father, soon after his 
marriage, which took place in Alaljama, moved 
to South Carolina, where they remained for two 
years, thence returning to Alabama, where his son 
was reared and given a very limited education. 
Here the family continued to make their home till 
the death of the parents, the father departing this 
life August 7, 18(5U, and his widow surviving him 
till 1889. In 18'j1 he enlisted in Company I, of 
the famous old Ninth Alabama Regiment, and par- 
ticipated in the battles of Forts Henry and Donel- 
son, and was captured at the latter place, and sent 
to the military prison at Chicago, from which, 
after three months" continement, he was the tirst 
man to make his escape, which was largely com- 
mented upon by the press. Going by the way of 
Wheeling, Va., and crossing the mountains to Rich- 
mond, he returned home; subsequently returuini; 
to Virginia, joined his original company, and took 
part in many of the famous battles and skirmishe.s. 
Being again taken prisoner at S[iottsylvanin. he 
was held for two mouths, and tinallv sent to El- 









v.> ■ I 



190 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



iiiiia, N. Y., where be escaped by way of a tunnel, 
which h« assisted ia digging. On regaining his 
h<.)me, after the close of the Relx'Uiun, he engaged 
in trading, earning enough to enable him to take 
a course of two terms in the \Vest Pcjint High 
School, of Lawrence County, Tenn., and to enter 
Shoal Creek Academy, of Giles County, same State, 
and on completion of his studios, engaged in teach- 
ing, after which he farmed in Alabama fur a few 
years, and in 1S73 started the store of general 
merchandise at Lexington, and known as the tirm 
of Dobbins, Clack & Co. In IST-') the tirm dis- 
solved, and he again taught scIuhjI, and for eiglit- 
een months served as clerk <if public works, on 
Mussel Shoals canal, and it was while here em- 
ployed that he saw the notorious outlaws, Jesse 
and Frank James, who robbed the canal company. 
In 18S2 he came to Prairie Township, where he 
purchased 202| acres, on which he has made good 
improvements. On September 21, bS'^iU, he led 
Miss Emma S. Skipworth (daughter of John W. 
Skipworth, a prominent planter, trader and cap- 
italist, of liussellville, Ky. ) to the altar, and to 
them have been born five sons and three daughters: 
John Henry, James Turner. Lona, Bennie Taylor, 
Thomas Jefferson. Robert A., Cora Lee and Lula 
Madora, and on February 20, IS'JO, were called 
to mourn the loss of this most excellent mother, 
who was an exemplary member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church South. Her husl)and was a 
member of the I'rimitive Baptist Church, and 
since his residence in this county has been an ag- 
gressive politician of the Democratic party, and in 
18U0, being the candidate on the Democratic ticket 
to the Lower House of the General Assembly, re- 
ceived the nomination by 600 or SOO majority. 

R. R. Williams. In lS:iil Philemon Williams, 
a farmer by occupation, emigrated from Tenner:see 
(the State of his nativity) to Arkansas, and entered 
320 acres of land in Johnson County, and in ISSS 
was united in marriage to Eleanor M"ard, a native 
of the Old Dominion, and he and wife conducted 
this farm till about 1840, when they changed their 
location to Yell County, settling 'in ;'.O0 acres of 
land, built a log cabin, and made many improve- 
ments, and hi're were born their two children, our 



subject (who was born Decemlier 10, IStl), and his 
brother, Henry (now ileceasrd). Mr. Williams 
died about IS 14 or ISb"!, and his wid(jw, who lie- 
canie the wife of James M. Beard, survived 
him till 1888, when she too [)a-^sed to her linal 
homo. Our subject ado[)ted the calling of his 
father as a means of livelihood, and continued in 
it till 1801, when he joined the Confederate Army, 
and his war record is as follows: Enlisting in Com- 
pany' H, First Arkansas ititlemen, as a private, he 
took part in the battle of Oak Hill, and several 
others and a nunjber uf skiiniishcs, and received 
his final muster out in 1805. After his return to 
his farm was married to Miss Sarah J. Harring- 
ton born in Tennessee in 18:34, and five children 
were born to bless this union: Ella J. (wif;^ of A. J. 
Withers), Louis, Ida 'SI.. Eugene and James O. 
His wife died in 1874, a membi^r of the Primitive 
Baptist Church. Remaining a widuwer till June 
27, 1870, he wedded !Mrs. Amanda C. Orre, who 
bore him five children: Stella, David S., Sallie G. 
John P. (deceased) and Henry O. On July 9^ 
1885, he was again called to mourn the loss of his 
wife, she dying in communion with the Presby- 
terian Church, and on July 9, 1889, he married 
his third and present wife, born in Tennessee, Sep- 
tember 15, 1872, and a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, and they are the parents of a 
son and daughter: Amanda C. and Redmond H. 
His home is situateil two and one-half miles east of 
Chickalah, and his farm com])rises 190 acres of 
land, with some 100 under cultivation. 

George L. Wirt, merchant, Briggsville. Ark. 
Among the business men (.)f Yell County, Ark., 
who have won distinction as successful merchants, 
and who have, by personal industry and genuine 
business ability, succeeiled in establishing a desir- 
able trade, may be mentioned Mr. Wirt, whoso 
name heads this luief biography. Hr was born in 
Alabama on November 25. ISll. and was the son 
of Samuel and Martha (Woo.l) Wirt, the latter a 
daughter of Joseph Wood, of Alabama. Onr -ubj^ct 
was married in Alabama on November 28. l'^l>l, !o 
Miss Ann E. Sanford. daughter of T. J. Sanford, 
of AlabauiH, and to thom were Ix^rn one living 
child, Benjamin F. In 1878 Mr. Wirt left his 



t 



..lit 
Plii) 



YELL COUNTY. 



191 



imtivf State ami came to Yell County, where for 
two or three years he was enj^aged in agricultural 
piir^-uits. Ill L^SO he was elected justice of the 
iii'a(>c', serving in that capacity for six years, aud 
ili>cl]ar"iiig the duties incuiulient uyinn that ulliee 
ill a lii"hly satisfactory manner. His strong good 
sense, his knowledge of human nature, his calm 
conservatism, and in fact his genuine aliility were 
soon perceived, and in ISSS be was ele<'tfd county 
judge and re elected in ISOO. He is an ecjual 
partner in the general merchandise liusiness with 
Dr. \V. H. McCall and D. L. Castleberry, trans- 
acting a lMrsine..=3 of ahout $10,000 or SrJ.OOO per 
year, and is a representative and successful liusiness 
man. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity 
of Briggsville, known as Concordia Lodge, and he 
is a lil)eral sufiporter of all worthy movements, es- 
pecially educational and religious enterprises. 

Dr. liipley E. Woodard, the young and rising 
practitioner of Chickalah, and graduate from Van- 
lierhilt College, at Nashville, Tenn., was l)orn in 
this County March 4, IS^VP,. His parents, Ripley 
J. and Mary (Rol)inson) Woodard, were born in 
Mississippi and North Carolina, respectively, but 
were united in marriage in Yell County, where 
were born their family of six children. The senior 
Woodard is a merchant of Danville, and for the 
[last twenty years has successfully conducted a 
general merchandise business, and for lifteen years 
has been Danville's popular postmaster. He en- 
listed in 1SIj2, and served until 1805, as a soldier 
in the late Rebellion; is an enthusia.st in politics, ■ 
always voting for the best man in his party. Him- 
self and wife worship with the ^lethodist Epis- 
copal Church vSouth, and he belongs to the society 
<<( Ma-^ons. Dr. Woodard (our snl>jeetl began his 
nii-dical studies in ISSf), under tin' direction oi 
l>rs. StalTurd aud Capshaw. of Danville, subse- 
'iu.-ntly matriculating at Vanderbilt Clh-ge. and 
taking two cc.iursesof lectures, reci'ivecl his diploma 
in iss'.i, and in 1S',)0 o[iened an office and began 
his practice, which bids fair to liecome a most ex- 
••'iisive and lucrative profession in the near future. 
llie Doctor is full of energy, aud by his courteous 
inatiiier and kindness of heart is bound tu ri-f lo 
'h'- t()pmo.-,t round in the ladder of medcial fame. 



Commodore l\"rry Woodard, merchant, (havel- 
ly Hill, Ark. This successful and popular busi 
ness man was born at Danville, Ark., on March "21, 
iNiiO. His father was a merchant, and. having a 
large stock of general merchandise, sold out a frw 
years ago, and later was appointetl postmaster at 
Gravelly Hill, which [josition he holds at the jires- 
ent time. He allowed his children to have all they 
could make in legitimate work. aud. as a conse- 
quence. Commodore P.. at the early age of ten 
years, hired himself oat to a mail contraet(jr. carry 
ing the mail from Danville t(j Ola. FL.r his services 
he received .".(» cents a day. arid since that time he 
has clothed and taken care of himself, being no 
expense to bis father. When not employed in this 
way be worked for farmers in the vicinity. Ho 
continued in the mail service until fourteen years 
of age and then entered the schools at Danville, 
where be continued his studies until eighteen years 
of age, working during vacations to [)ay his way. 
In 1884 be hired to J. C. Carter to clerk in his 
store at Bragg, then a country place, but about 
eighteen months afterward a ])ost ofKce was estab- 
lished, and the place given its present name. 
There be remained eighteen months, after which he 
returned to Danville, and hired as a clerk to the 
firm of Runyan & Rriggs of that place. Six mouths 
later be went to Dardauelle to attend the high 
school, but after being there a few months he was 
recalled home by the sickness of his father. He 
then again entered the em})loy of Rnnyan & Brigi's, 
with whom be remained six months, after which he 
went to Bellville, and clerked for W. L. Heck six 
month.s longer. From there he went to Rover, 
clerked for J. ^\'. Gladden six months, and then 
returned to Danville, where be entered the emplov 
of Briggs & Capshaw, continuing with this firm 
for foiirteen mouths. During that time be was 
married to Miss Jliimie Elms, daughter of Eliza 
betb Elms, of Dan\ille. Later he moved to (irav 
elly Hill, formed a co [tartnership with L. L. Brigi^~. 
and has since made this jilace bis home. The tirm 
carries a well-assorted stock of goods, consisting of 
dry-goods, groceries, hats. caps, bouts, shoe-, liar- 
ui'ss, saddles and assorted hardwaif and cpieens- 
ware. During the [>aJ t nine mouths thrir sales 



^« 



192 



HISTOEY OF ARKANSAS. 



bavo amounted to about §4,000. To Mr. and Jlrs. j pal Church, and in polities be is a Democrat. Ho 

Wooilard have been born one child, a son named | has held the position of assistant postmaster at two 

Olya M., whose birth occurred on July 25, ISSU. I different times, and at two diH'oicut otKccs, and is 

He and wife are members of the Methodist Episco- j now notary public. 







•^ 



'A'. 



POPE COUNTY. 



193 



SlfiiTIrt Xli 



Pope County, Its Siti'atiox, Boundaries, Rksoukcks and Piiospects— Its Timber and Its Stueams— Its 
aouicui.tukal pliodui'ts and mlnflllals — its political townships and tlieik auea — countv 
Ougan'ization— The Several Seats of Justice— County Buildings— Pope County's Civil Pist— 
Judges, Clerks, Siiep.ifi-s, Coroners, Suuveyoiis — The Pope County Circuit Cdukt, its 
Officers and Lawyers — Representatives in Senate and Lower House and in Consti- 
tutional Conventions — County- Politics— Tue Dwigiit Mission and The Ciikrokke 
Settlement — Beginning and Progress of Settlement — Land Entries in Pope 
Cottnty Piuor to 184.")- Educational History and School Statisti(;s— Rail- 
ways— Incorpouated Towns, Villages and Post-Offices— Old Xorrls- 
TOWN and Other Once Important Points— Churches— The War 
AND Reconstruction Period— The Press. 



1 f,i:<r^r. 




Bounteous nature loves all lands. 

Beauty wanders everywhere, 
Footprints leaves on many strands. 
But her home is surelv there. — Fah-oner. 



■OPE COrXTY is situated 
north ot the Arkansas Riv- 
er, wliicb is its sontbern 
Ixnindary. It is bounded 
OD the north h\ the coun- 
ties of Xewton and Searcy; 
on the east by Van Buren 
and Conway Counties, and on the 
west by Johnson County and the 
Arkansas liiver. It has aQ area 
of al.iout r.pJ/lOO acres. The sur- 
face of the county is ccjnsiderably 
broken, one-third of the area be- 
ing mountainous and billy, one- 
third level and one-third alluvial. 
The entire southern portion of the 
county is underlaid v,-ith a bed of 
: "black diamonds" have been dug 
out in liberal quantities in many localities; but 
thus far Coal has been developed only for local con- 
sunintioii. Of timber there is an abundance in the 



and tb 



county, of all the valuable varieties, including 
white oak, pine, cypress, toilet her with red, lilack 
and post-oak, while the river and railroad transpor- 
tation afTord the l)est of shipping facilities. There 
are about twenty saw-mills in Pope County. They 
cut about ly,0()IV)()() feet of lumlier per year, 
which is worth 88 per l.(»l«l feet or §120,000 for 
the aggregate amount. From the production of 
cotton and lumber this county realizes §6S<\()00, 
which equals $87.44 for each inbalntant. The 
money derived from these sources ought of itself 
to enrich the country. Iron is also known to exist 
here, but no effort has been made to ascertain if it 
is in any considerable quantity. Large quantities 
of very fine building stone are found at a depth i:if 
from one to two feet. This stone is used for the 
construction of chimneys and for laying the founda- 
tions of liuildings, l>ut. as the supply seems to be 
inexhaustible, the day is not far distant when it 
will be used for building purposes. 

The northern portion of Pope County, about 



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tL 



Al 



k 



iL^ 



194 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



sixteen miles in width, is monntaiuons, the eleva- 
tion pushing clown from the north i.in the eastern 
liorder, in the shape of a foot, eighteen or twenty 
. miles. The mountainous portions of the county 
include all of Allen, Freeman, North Furk and 
Independence Townships and portions uf Lilierty 
and Martin Townships. The only valley lands in 
the townships named are those of Indian Creek 
and the Big Piney. in Allen Township, and the 
valleys of the North Fork, in North Fork Town- 
ship, and the lliddle and East Forks of the Illi- 
nois Bayou, in Independence Township. The val- 
leys of these creeks are generally narrow, hut rich 
and productive. The creeks wind from one side to 
the other, cutting the valleys into tracts of land of 
from eighty to 120 acres, occupied by small but 
thrifty farmers. The Crow Mountain is formed bv 
the land at the headwaters of Gum l^og Creek, rising 
to an altitude of 200 to 250 feet. It is from three 
to four miles wide and about ten miles long. It 
sets on a line from the northwest to the southeast. 
It breaks abruptly off a mile northwest of the town 
of Atkins, its rugged bluffs and cliffs presenting a 
majestic view from that point. This mountain is 
flat on top, and the plateau is jiretty densely popu- 
lated. The county court long ago established a po- 
litical township, emljracing and running with this 
mountain, called Gum Log Township. 

Perhaps thei-e is not a county in the State that 
has a better supply of running water than Pope 
County, affording the greatest abundance for stock 
in the dryest seasons. Besides the Arkansas River, 
which belts the entire southern boundary, the prin- 
cipal water-courses of the county are Big Piney, ' 
Illinois Bayou, Point Remove, Galla Creek and 
their tributaries. Big Piney is a water-course of 
considerable magnitude. It is lOil miles in length 
or longer. It rises far back in the Boston Mount- ' 
ains, in the counties of Newton and Madison, and 
empties into the Arkansas River, almut two miles 
west of the Pope County line. It courses from the 
northwest to the southeast, entering Pope County 
on the west about eight miles south of the north- 
west corner. It then turns north, running a little 
west of south, along the entire western border of 
the county, to a point within aliout six miles of the 



Arkansas River, when it turns abruptly to the west, 
running duo west, or nearly so, for about f(jur 
miles. Crossing the county line, it continues its 
westerly course in Johnson County for about three 
miles, when it makes another al)rupt turn to the 
south, and empties into the Arkansas River, in 
Johnson County, about two miles west of the lino 
dividing the counties of Pope and Johnson. In- 
dian Creek, a tributary of Piney, is a stream abdut 
eleven miles in length. It heads at the north 
boundary of the county, about two miles east of 
the western border, and runs due south eight miles, 
then flows to the west three miles, emptying into 
Piney near the county line. The next principal 
watercourse in the county is the Illinois Bayou, 
which is formed at the base of the mountain, near 
the center of the county, east and west, and about 
five miles north of the center, north and south, ijv 
the confluence of the waters of the North Fork, 
Middle Fork and East Fork. The North Fork, 
which is really the parent stem of Illinois Bavou, 
heads in the mountains, at the extreme northern 
boundary of the county, and about the center east 
and west, coursing due south through the mount- 
ains, dividing the center of the county for sixteen 
miles to the base of the mountains, where it is in- 
tersected by the waters of the Middle and East 
Forks. The Middle I'ork has its source in Searcv 
County, near the northeast corner of Pope Countv, 
and the East Fork in Pope County, at the eastern 
border, aliout four miles south of the northea-t 
corner. These streams run convergent from the 
northeast to the southwest, coming together in the 
mountains, about fourteen miles south of the north- 
ern boundary. Continuing their soutliwesterlv 
course for four miles, they abruptly turn north- 
west, hugging the base of the mountain for about 
three miles, to where they intersect the waters of 
the North Fork, which has its course due south, 
at which point it ma}' be said the Illinois Bavou 
proper Ijegins. Then, as if to compromise between 
the directions of these streams, the Illinois Bavou 
adopts a southwesterly course, running almost on 
a parallel with Piney, from six to eight miles east, 
emptying into the Arkansas River live miles south- 
west of Russellville. 






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i.'i I 



POPE COUNTY. 



195 



IJij^ Piney auJ the Illiuois Bayou supply the 
entire -western half of the country with pure spark- 
linf; water for stock. Besides, these streams have 
numerous tributaries which, throughout the year. 
afTord plenty of water for stock, convenient and 
accessible to all that portion of the county west of 
the center north and south. Point Remove, a 
tributary of the Arkansas liiver. rises in the Bos- 
ton Mountains at the headlands of Little Red 
River in Van Bureu County, and empties into the 
Arkansas River in Conway County lielow the Pope 
County line. This stream is noted fur its slight 
fall, its slow running v\-aters. its meanderings and 
its fertile, wide and extended valleys. It enters 
Pope County on the east, about sis miles south of 
the base of the mountains, and opens up a wide 
and productive valley onto the valley of the Ar- 
kansas River in this county. Hecker's Fork, a 
tributary of Point Remove, rises in this county, 
near the eastern border, in the Oak Mountain, and 
runs due south from the base of the mountain 
about six miles, emptying into Point Remove. 
Gum Log, a tributary of Point Remove, rises about 
the center of the county, runs a little south of east 
about twelve miles, emptying into Point Remove, 
near the line dividing Pope and Conway Counties. 
The Crow Mountain constitutes the headlands 
of Galla Creek, which drains the country south of 
the mountain to the Arkansas River. It is a short 
stream and runs through a Hat but densely popu- 
lated country, and affords stock water in good sup- 
ply. From this view of the principal water-courses 
and their windings, it will be seen that there are 
few counties that have so many clear running 
streams as Pope County, or whose water.s are more 
eipially distributed. While the western half of the 
county is better watered than the eastern, it can 
not be truly said that there is any place in Pope 
County where there is any very great scarcity of 
water or inconvenience to it, even in the dryest 
seasons. Wells are relied on chiefly for drinking 
water. The average well is from twenty to thirty 
feet in depth and it is very rare to tind a well forty 
feet deep. The greatest abundance of pure water 
i.-- t'btaiued at these depths; the cost of sinking a 
well is from SLSO to §2 per foot. In the mount- 



^' 



ainous portion of the county springs are .juite 
common. 

There are about 512,000 acres of land in Pope 
County, only aliout half of which is occupied. 
There are about 75,000 acres of railroad land, 
20,000 acres of State land, 5,000 acres of school 
land, and 10U,000 acres of Government land, ag- 
gregating 269,000 acres, which leaves 243,000 
owned and occupied by the people. The Govern- 
ment land, which in a technical sense constitutes 
the public domain, is subject to homestead: but in 
the broader sense the railroad, school and State 
land might be said to constitute part of the public 
domain, for it is all unoccupied and for sale. The 
railroad lands sell at from S2 to S7 per acre, the 
State land at $1.25 per acre, and the school land, 
to the highest bidder, at not less than Si. 25 per 
acre. Land belonging to individuals can be 
bought, bottom lands from 815 to S^O per acre, 
river bottom lands from §25 to 850 per acre, and 
uplands from §5 to SIO per acre. The mountain 
lands are all subject to homestead, except such as 
belong to individuals, which can be bought re- 
markably cheap. 

This county is a " sand formation." This 
term is here used in contradistinction to calcareous 
formation. The soil in the valleys, and especiallv 
the river valleys, is alluvial, and has a sandy sub- 
soils. In the hills or uplands the soil is a sandv 
loam, and in the mountains it is a clay loam, with 
clay subsoils. Silica and alumina enter into the 
composition of the soil in about equal proportions, 
silica slightly predominating in the valleys, and 
alumina in the mountains and uplands. The mount- 
ains and uplands are more retentive of moisture 
than the bottoms, Imt this is partially due to the 
difference in the character of their subsoils. The 
soil of this country possesses all the chemical in- 
gredients neee.ssary to the wants and growth of 
plants, but each jiarticular character of .soil excels 
in the growth of certain species. The valley lands 
excel in the growth of com and cotton. The clay 
loams are une<[ual for the production of wheat, 
beans, i)eaH, cabbage, turnip.s, etc., and fruits of all 
kinds; the sandy loams in the production of pea- 
nuts, rye, oats, sweet and Irish potatoes, strawl)er 



af^ 



196 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



ries, peaches, melons and perennial pastures. The 
river bottoms, the richest soil of the countr_y, are 
owned usually by large landholders, who live in 
the uplands, their farms being worked by tenants 
and "share-croppers." All the colored people of 
the county engaged in agriculture are found on 
the river. Land rents from ?.") to SO per acre. 
The production of cotton and corn constitutes the 
exclusive industry. No thought is given to the 
production of fruit or any other luxuries of life. 
Though Pope County is naturally a fine stock 
country little thought is given to stock-raising. 
Cotton holds sway and shuts out all other enter- 
prises. The planters produce a bale of cotton to 
the acre for which they realize on an average ?40. 
They usually plant what they deem a sutllcient 
acreage of corn to supply their farms. If the sea- 
son is favorable they have an abundance of corn, 
and if unfavorable they have a scarcity. With 
favorable seasons they can raise from sixty to 
seventy-five bushels of corn per acre. 

The people in the uplands are generally thrifty 
and prosperous. Their farms are small, consisting, 
usually, of from forty t(5 100 acres. The occu- 
papts are the owners. There are few renters in 
the uplands in any portion of the county. They 
are in the valleys, especially on the large river 
farms. The general comforts of life are more 
equally distributed among the people residing in 
the uplands than among any other class. Owning 
their homes, they produce their own consumptions, 
have their little orchards and variety of luxuries 
so essential to the comfort and happiness of a 
people. They have good society, church and edu- 
cational facilities. The uplands are exceedingly 
healthy. Improved uplands sell from ?5 to §10 
per acre. There are a great deal of these uplands 
subject to homestead. The finest openings for in- 
dustrious people of small means are the mountains. 
The lands are rich and fertile and can be home- 
steaded or bought at low prices. Stock can be 
raised with but little attention. There is no country 
that nature has done more for. It is as fine an 
apple, peach and grape eoiuuiy :is can bo found 
anywhere. Grapes grow almost spontaneou-slv. 
The peach and the apple in size, beauty and flavor 



grow to perfection. The chief industries of the 
people are corn, wheat and fruit culture and stock- 
raising. The soil is retentive of moisture, and the 
drouth seldom affects the mountain district. The 
mountains are also noted for honey. The Big 
Piney is one of the mo.st beautiful streams of water 
in the State. Rising far back in the mountains, 
in the lime formations, its waters are peculiarly 
clear and crystal-like, and is an excellent stream 
for fish. It is fordable on horse except in times 
of high water, but footmen can pass over it dry- 
shod only in the dry seasons. The valleys are 
wide and productive and some of the best farms in 
the county are situated on this stream. It is 
claimed that the land here is stronger for the sup- 
posed reason that it contains more lime than the 
soil in other portions of the county. While the 
Illinois Bayou is not as long as the Piney, it is 
aljout the same breadth, its valleys are wider, 
mere extensive and continuous. The valleys of 
the Piney are more like a basin from the fact that 
every few miles the hills close in on both sides of the 
stream. On the contrary. Illinois Bayou is not 
closed in by the hills shutting out the valleys ex- 
cept in one place, and for but a short distance, 
and forms one continuous valley of rich and fertile 
'ands, extending the full length of the county north 
and south, splitting the center to the base of the 
mountains, thence extending a little west of the 
center to the Arkansas River. Its valleys produce 
from three-fourths to a bale of cotton per acre, 
and from forty to seventy bushels of corn per acre, 
and grow oats, rye and all kinds of grasses well. 
They are of about the same productive capacity as 
the valley of Piney, and this is the most cheerful 
and delightful farming country in the county. The 
valleys of Indian Creek are rich and fertile but 
narrow, except at its mouth where the mountains 
draw back, forming a basin called Leonard's Val- 
ley, which is rich and productive. The most at- 
tractive of these creeks is the North Fork. Its 
valleys are wider than the others, and the creek is 
not BO shifting. Its farms are larger, and its 
farmers are a well to-do class of people, and Lave 
good society, church and school facilities. It will 
thus be seen that the county's principal crojis are 






■oT ,-i 



..^^. v; 




cotton and corn. Cotton produces well; on hill 
laiuls 700, on bottoms, 1,400 pounds of seed cot- 
ton to the acre; the average yield of corn is from 
■JO to 50 bushels, of wheat from 8 to 10, of oats 
from 18 to i)0, of rye from 25 to 30 bushels, pota- 
toes, both Irish and sweet, from 200 to 3(10, tur- 
nips 30(1, and held peas 40 bushels per acre; to- 
bacco produces about 200 pounds; timothy, 2,000 
pounds; redtop, 2,()00 pounds; millet and Hun- 
^'arian grasses, 3,000 pounds to the acre, and sor- 
ghum yields about lOO gallons of syrup on average 
land. All varieties of fruit are successfully culti- 
vated. Peaches are a sure crop; apples do well, 
and grapes will produce anywhere in the county. 

In the matter of health, Pope County compares 
favorably with other sections. The lands, as a rule, 
are high uplands, with no swamps or stagnant pools, 
and are easily drained. All who have any practical 
regard for the laws of health, in their modes of liv- 
ing, are rarely sick. The diseases of the country, as 
a rule, are easily controlled. Following is the testi- 
mony of one of Russellville's leading physicians: 
"I have lived a resident of this county since 1854, 
and have been a practicing physician for thirty- 
four years past of that time, having had a large 
and varied experience. The diseases met with here 
are mostly of malarial origin, prevailing more dur- 
ing the summer and fall months than at any other 
time. Those who live in the bottoms along the 
water-courses suffer the most, while the residents 
of the uplands are comparatively exempt. Epi- 
demics are almost unknown, as a rule, and, when 
thiydo prevail, are generally mild and easily man- 
aged. Whooping-cough and measles, with a case 
of mumps now and then, constitute the entire cata- 
logue of epidemic diseases in this country. Among 
the inflammations, pneumonia is the most prevaleiit 
iluring the winter and early spring mouths, but it 
does not prevail to a great extent, and taken in 
time, is easily managed. Not one physician in ten 
will average, one year with another, more than six 
or eight cases in any one season, at least that has 
been my experience." There are, in different lo- 
calities in the county, tine chalybeate springs, val- 
uablo for the health-producing qualities of their 
waters, which have been found e^p.'cially effective 



in various chronic diseases. With additional rail- 
way facilities, these springs will, some of them, in 
time, doubtless be developed into popular resorts. 

Following are the names of the several political 
townships into which the county is divided. The 
figures in connection with the name of each town- 
ship represent the area of that township in square 
miles: Allen, 50; Bayliss, IT; Clark, 2S; Con- 
venience, 20; Dover, 50: Freeman, 51; Galla 
Creek, IS; Galla Rock, 21; Griffin, 32; Gum Log, 
14; Holly Bend, 17; Independence, 90; Illinois, 
40; Lee, IS; Liberty, 120: Martin,.59; Moreland, 
20; North Fork, 02; Sand Springs, 11; Vallev, 
29; Wilson, 32. 

At the- close of the year 1825, the then Territory 
of Arkansas consisted of the counties of Arkansas, 
Conway, Chicot, Crawford, Crittenden, Hemp- 
stead, Independence, Izard, Lawrence, Miller. 
Pulaski and Phillips. Conway had been erected 
as recently as October 25 of that year. Lovely 
County was erected October 13, 1827, and was 
alrolished October 17, 1S28. Five days later part 
of the Indian purchase was added to Conway 
County. More than a year after the wiping out 
of Lovely County, Pope County was formed princi- 
pally from Conway. An old record book of deeds 
containing the evidence of real estate transactions 
in Lovely County, in 1828, is among the curiosities 
of the Pope County clerk's office. Pope County 
was erected November 2, 1829. In 1840, Yell 
County was formed out of Pope, by making the 
Arkansas River the line from the mouth of Petit 
Jeau up to the crossing of the Miltary road at the 
Dardanelle Rock; thence to the point of Magazine 
Mountain; thence with said mountain westward; 
and not until 1853 did Pope County relinquish to 
Yell all her lands south of the River. This con- 
cession was made under an act of Legislature 
passed January 5, 1853. Part of Conway County 
was attached to Pope January 6, 1853. The line 
between Pope and Newton Counties was defined 
January 10, 1S53. Part of Van Buren County 
was attached to Pope January 12, 1853. The line 
between Pope antl Van Buren Counties was de- 
fined February 17, 1859; the line between F^'pe 
and Johnson Counties, October 19, 1859, and 



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198 



raSTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



March 27, 1S71. The line between Pope and Con- 
way Counties was defined Jlay 2S, 1874. The line 
between Pope and Johnson Counties was re-estab- 
lished March (J, 1S75, and changed March 'J, 1877. 
The temporary county seat of Pope Coimty 
was established at John Eolinger's, on the Arkan- 
sas River, near Hon. John R. Homer Scott's 
" Scotia " farm, and the courts were held there in 
1829-30. One early court was held at the old 
Dwight Mission, on Illinois Bayou. Some time in 
1830 the county seat was established at old Nor- 
ristown and remained there about ten years. No 
county buildings were ever erected at Norristown. 
The courts were held in a small frame building 
leased for the purpose, and prisoners were con- 
fined in the jail of neighboring counties. The first 
court-house at Dover was a log structure. It was're- 
paired and improved from time to time and served 
the county until some time during the war, when 
it was burned. Courts were for a time held in 
churches, until the erection of the brick court- 
house, which stands there still, now in use as a 
school-house, it having been sold by the county to 
Dover for the nominal price of §100. There is 
also at Dover a now useless log jail. The con- 
struction of the Little Rock lV Fort Smith Rail- 
road built up Russellville and Atkins and drew 
away from Dover^ the local commerce that had 
made it the business center of the county. The 
removal of the seat of justice to some point on the 
railroad followed as a most natural consequence. 
July !21, 1880, upon the petitions of C. S. Bell 
and 1,500 others andL. D. Ford and 2, 100 others, 
legal voters of Pope County, it was ordered by the 
county court that an election be held September 
t), 1886, at which the following questions should 
be submitted to the people: First, shall the county 
seat be removed or changed '" Second, shall the 
county seat be removed from Dover to Russellville? 
Third, shall the county seat be removed from 
Dover to Atkins? Each of these petitions con- 
tained a proposition to build a court-house at the 
town mentioned therein in case the county seat 
should be removed thereto, and the people of 
Russellville and Atkins proposed for their re 
spective towns to execute a go(jd and sufficieut 



bond for the use of Pope County, payable to such 
commissioners as might be by the courts appointed 
to erect without cost to the county a comfortable 
and convenient building suitable and sutficient for 
all county purposes and donate the same to the 
county. The court apjjoiuted R. O. Morton, W. M. 
Bell and Joseph Howard, comuiissioners, to whom 
said bonds should bo made payable for the use of 
Pope Count}', and ordered that said bonds should 
be filed with the clerk of the court. This election 
did not result in a choice of a new location for the 
county seat, though there was a majority for re- 
moval from Dover. At the October term of the 
county court, ISSO, T. M. Neal and others, after 
due notice, filed their petition contesting said 
election, and the court, upon hearing, sustained 
the contest and set aside the election, and J. L. 
Shinn and others, as contestees, appealed to the 
Pope Circuit Court. The time for holding the 
Pope Circuit Court, as fixed by law, was the first 
Monday (the first day) of November, ISSO: 
hut the court was not opened until the third 
day (Wednesday), when the circuit judge appeared 
and proceeded to open and hold the court. On 
the fifth day of said month M. L. Davis was 
elected special judge, and on the twelfth he pro- 
ceeded to try the contest upon the amended peti- 
tion of the contestants and demurrer of the con- 
testees thereto, and sustained the demurrer and so 
rendered judgment; and thereupon ordered an 
election to be held March 19, 1887. Such an 
election was then held, and a majority of the 
voters of the county voted to locate the county 
seat at Russellville, the ballot standing 1.3'J9 for 
Russellville as against 1,271 for Atkins. In July, 
18S6, J. L. Shinn presented to the county court a 
deed conveying to Pope County " all that portion 
of Lot 13 beginning on Oak Street on the east and 
nmning back west to a point parallel with a line 
running through the center of Lot 18; also the 
east half of said Lot 18: also Lots 19, 20 and 21, 
all of said lots being in Block ' K " in J. M. Shinn's 
Addition to the town of Russellville." At the 
same time Mr. Shinn offered another site, but the 
one above described was chosen and aceeptt^d by 
; the county court, April 1, 1S87. It was ordered 



•.;.,}/ 



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VJjIiJ'T' 






that tbe county court-house and jail should be 
built on this site, and J. M. Hauey, M. H. 
Johnson and L. D. Ford were appointed commis- 
hioners to inspect said structures and receive them 
in behalf of the county when they should be tin- 
i-,hcd. July 5, rSST, J. L. Sliinu, 11. J. Wilson, 
W. Ci. AVhite and others represented to the court 
that they were preparing to erect the jail and 
court-house in corujiliance with the obli^'atiou of 
their bond, tiled with the county clerk August 17, 
IsSf'i, and that they had procured and then ten- 
dered to the court for the temporary use of the 
county, while the buildings should be in course of 
erection, free of cost or rent to the county, suita- 
ble apartments for the holding of the courts and 
the safe keeping of the records of the county, lo- 
cated on the second floor of R. J. Wilson's brick 
building at the corner of Main and Jefl'erson 
Streets in Ilussellville. This proposition was re- 
ferred by the court to the commissioners above 
mentioned, who were instructed to meet at Eus- 
hellville July 9, 1SS7, and inspect the apartments 
so tendered and report to the court, July I'i, 
whether thej' were suitable and safe for the tem- 
porary use of the county. The report of the com- 
missioners being favorable, on July 25, 1SS7, it 
was ordered that " the clerk of the circuit court 
and ex-officio clerk of the county and probate 
courts and recorder of Pope County remove his 
office and the records, papers and seals therein 
contained from Dover to said apartments so ten- 
dered; " and it was further ordered that thereafter 
the county court and all other courts of record of 
I'ope County be held •' at said temporary court- 
house " until tlie completion of the permanent 
court house. 

May 16, 1SS8, the commissioners reported to 
the county court the completion and acceptance of 
the new court-house and jail, as follows: '"The 
undersigned commissioners, heretofore by this court 
appointed to examine and receive the new court- 
hi)ii!.e and jail, proposed to be erected for the use 
of the county at Russell ville, in said county, by the 
citizens of said town, the erection of which was 
secured by the bonds of J. L. Shinn and others, 
respectfully report that, jiur.suant to the order 



of this court heretofore made, they have examined 
and received said court-house and jail erected for 
Pope County pursuant to said bond, and tind that 
said court-house and jail are well and substantially 
built in compliance with the terms of said bond, 
and wo for said county accei)t the said court-house 
and jail as being in full compliance with the re- 
quirements of said bond and recommend that the 
obligors on said bond be discharged from lia- 
bility thereupon." The court accepted and acted 
upon the recommendation of this report and or- 
dered that the county offices and the various 
courts should be removed to the new court-house, 
and that the nest, and all other terms of the coun- 
ty court, and of all other courts of record of the 
county be there held. The county buildings are 
among the tinest in the State, and reflect great 
credit upon the many enterprising citizens who 
contributed toward their erection. 

Pope County civil list is as follows: 1S29-30 — 
Andrew Scott, judge; Twitty Place, clerk; H. 
Stennett, sheriff; W. Garrott, coroner; AV. Mitchel, 
surveyor. 1830-32— S. K. Elythe. judge; E. A. 
Pace, clerk; J. J. Morse, sheriff; F. Heron, sur 
veyor. 1832-33 — Thomas Murray, Jr., judge; 
E. A. Pace, clerk; J. J. Morse, sheriff; S. M. 
Hayes, coroner; R. S. "Witt, surveyor. 1833-35 — 
Isaac Brown, judge; R. T. Williamson, clerk; W. 
W. Rankins, sheriff; S. S. Hayes, coroner; R. S. 
Witt, surveyor. 1835-30 — J. J. Morse, judge; 
J. B. Logan, clerk; S. M. Hayes, sheriff; W. C. 
Webb, coroner: R. S. Witt, surveyor. 1830-38— 
Benjamin Langfurd, judge; J. B. Logan, clerk; S. 
M. Hayes, sheriff; J. R. H. Scott, treasurer; J. 
Baker, coroner; R. S. Witt, surveyor. 1838-41)— 
B. Johnson, judge; J. Ferguson, clerk; S. M. 
Hayes, sheriff; D. F. Williamson, treasurer; E. 
Baker, coroner; R. S. Witt, surveyor. 1840-42 — 
W. Bryan, judge; J. Ferguson, clerk; S.M.Hayes, 
sheriff; D. F. Williamson, treasurer; E. Ba- 
ker, coroner; R. S. Witt, surveyor. 1842-44 — 
Isaac Brown, judge; J. R. H. Scott, clerk; S. JI. 
Hayes, sheriff; D. F. Williamson, treasurer; R. R. 
Fleming, coroner; R. S. AVitt, surveyor. 1844-40 — 
Jesse Mallory, judge; J. R. H. Scott, clerk; J. 
W. Jones, sheriff; D. F. ^\■ill^am'iou, treasurer: 









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:,,. ; . , nil I 




M. Tackett, coroner; R. S. Witt, surveyor. 184G- 
48— David West, judge; J. R. H. Scott, clerk; J. 
W. Joues, sheriff; D. F. Williamson, treasurer; 
J. S. Banker, coroner; J. H. Brearley, surveyor. 
1848-50 — A. J. Bayli.ss, judge; Williaui Stouti 
clerk; J. Hiekey, sheriff; J. H. Patterson, treas- 
urer; J. S. Banker, coroner; J. H. Brearley, sur- 
veyor. 1S50-52 — A.[J. Bayliss, judge; AVilliam 
Stout, clerk; J. Hiekey, sheriff; D. F. Williamson^ 
treasurer; J. Bradley, coroner; J. A. Brearley sur- 
veyor. 1852-5-1; — A. J. Bayliss, judge; William 
Stout, clerk; R. H. Howell, sheriff; G. R. Davis, 
treasurer; J. S. Banker, coroner; J. Ferguson, 
surveyor. 1854-56 — Cabel Davis, judge; R. H. 
Howell, clerk: J. L. Linton, sheriff; W. S. John- 
son, treasurer; J. S. Banker, coroner; J. W. Mil- 
ler, surveyor. 1856-58 — N. D. Shinn. judge: R. 
H. Howell, clerk; J. L. Linton, sheriiY; W. S. 
Johnson, treasurer; J. A. Bradley, coroner; J. 
W. Miller, surveyor. 1858-60— N. D. Shinn, 
judge; R. H. Howell, clerk; J. L. Linton, sheriff; 
D. M. Horubeak, treasurer; J. A. Bradley, coro- 
ner; J. W. Miller, surveyor. 1860-62— N. D. 
Shinn, judge; R. H. Howell, clerk; D. C. Brown, 
sheriff; W. S. Johnson, treasurer; W. A. Walker, 
coroner; J. W. Chambers, surveyor. 1862-64 — 
J. B. Brooks, judge; A. J. Bayliss; clerk: J. B. 
Erwin, sheriff; \V. S. Johnson, treasurer; L. ]tla- 
comb, coroner; J. W. Miller, surveyor. 1864-66 
^J. B. Brooks, judge; A. J. Bayliss, clerk; G. B. 
Fondren, sheriff; D. F. Williamson, treasurer; L. 
Macomb, coroner; J. Brearley, surveyor. (During 
this term W. A. Strickland was judge; \V. H. 
Williams was sheriff, James Bradley was coroner, 
and J. W. Stout was surveyor, from July. 1S()5. ) 
1866-68 — Cabel Davis, judge; A. J. Bayliss. clerk; 
J. Petty, sheriff; S. R. Parker, treasurer; L. Ma- 
comb, coroner; J. W. Miller, surveyor; 1868-72 — 
W. T. Brown, judge; W. H. Hickox, clerk: J. W. 
Stout, sheriff (J. F. Clear from March, 1870); 
John Hughes, treasurer; J. A. Bradley, coroner; 
L. M. Hale, surveyor; J. F. Clear, assessor (J. 
H. Martin from July. 1S70). 1872-74— E. H. 
Poe, clerk; J. B. Erwin, sheriff; W. L. D. Ewing, 
treasurer; William 'White, coroner; James Potts, 
surveyor; C. £. Toby, asbea.sor. 1874-76 — Frank | 



Thach, judge; H. A. Bayliss, clork; Joe Petty, 
sheriff; S. R. Parker, treasurer; J. P. Laugford, 
coroner; James Potts, surveyor; ii. W. O. Davi~, 
assessor. 1876-78 — Frank Thach, judge; A. J. 
Bayliss, clerk; II. B. Hogins, sheriff'; S. R. Park- 
er, treasurer; C. N. Eeuetield, coroner; James 
Potts, surveyor; W. M. Peeler, assessor. (^Judge 
Thach died and R. B. Wilson was elected in March, 
1878. Treasurer Parker died and F. C. Falls 
was elected in September, 1877.) 1878-80 — It. B. 
Wilson, judge; A. J. Bayliss, clerk; R. B. Hogins, 
sheriff; F. C. Falls, treasurer; J. W. Jones, coro- 
ner; James Potts, surveyor; W. M. Peeler, assessor. 
1880-82- E. C. Bradley, judge; W. J. Reynolds, 
clerk; R. B. Hogins, sheriff; F. C. Falls, treas- 
urer: D. R. Grant, coroner; James Potts, survey- 
or; A. R. Robinson, asses.sor. 1882-84 — E. C. 
Bradley, jiidge; James Potts, clerk; J. W. Quinn, 
sheriff; Joe Petty, treasurer; D. R. Grant, coro- 
ner; W. R. Hale, surveyor; A. R. Robinson, as- 
sessor. (P. J. Rollow from March 13, 1884.) 
1884-86 — J. S. Liuzy, judge; James Potts, clerk: 
J. W. Quinn, sheriff; George Baird. treasurer; G. 
A. Jamison, coroner; W. R. Hale, surveyor; P. 
M. Austin, assessor. 1886-8>>— J. T. Bullock, 
judge: James Potts, clerk; John R. Young, sheriff; 
Joseph Petty, treasurer; James H. Shinn, coroner: 
W. R. Hale, surveyor; J. A. Hickman, assessor. 
1888-90— J. T. Bullock, judge; R. B. Hogins. 
clerk; John R. Young, sheriff; W. N. Peeler, 
treasurer; D. R. Grant, coroner; A. Q. Davis, 
surveyor; J. A. Hickman, assessor. 1SU<.MI2 — G. 
W. Berryman, judge; G. E. Howard, clerk; J. T. 
Bullock, circuit clerk; W. J. Johnson, sheriff; D. 
R. Grant, coroner: J. I. Simpson, assessor; W. 
M. Peeler, treasurer. 

Pope County is in the Fifth Judicial District, 
composed of tbe counties of Pope. Yell, Johnson 
and Conway. Tlie judge is Hon. J. E. Cravens, 
of Johnson County; the prosecuting attorney is H. 
S. Carter, of Dardanelle. Hon. J. G. Wallace, of 
Russellville, was elected judge, and Jeff Davis, of 
Russellville, prosecuting attorney, September 1. 
18'j0. to succeed the officials above mentioned. 
The court opens on the tirst Mondays of April and 
November. It is in the Second Congressional Di.-- 






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POPE COUNTY. 



201 



trict, composed of tlie couotips of Pope, Cleveland, 
Lincolu, Grant, Jert'erson, Arkcansa.s, Monroe, Prai- 
rie, Lonoke, Woodruff, White, Faulkner, Coinvay, 
Van Buren, Stone and Cleburne, represented by 
Hon. C. K. Breckinridge. Pope County was repre- 
sented in the Constitutional Convention of l^-]f'i by 
Thomas Murray, Jr. : in the Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1S61 by AN'illiam Stout; in the Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1S<)4 by William Stout; in the 
Constitutional Convention of 1S68 by Walter ^V. 
Brashear; and in the Constitutional Convention of 
iNT-t by John E. Homer Scott. 

In the Territorial and State Legislatures thi.s 
county has been represented thus: L^pper House 
(Territorial), session of '1831, by Isaac Hughes; 
1833, by John Williamson; 1S3j (journals of this 
session missing); 1830-38 (State) with Johnson, 
by J. Williamson; 1840, with Conway, l)y J. Will- 
iamson; 1842-43, with Conway, by J. Williamson; 
1844-45, with Yell, by J, Williamson; 1840, with 
Yell, by J. Williamson; 1848-49, with Y'ell, by J. 
Williamson; 1850-51, with Yell, by J. Williamson; 
1852-53, with Yell, by G. W. Lemoyne: 1S51-55, 
with Y'ell, by G. W. Lemoyne; 1850-57, with 
Johnson, by W. W. Floyd; 1858-5'.t. with Juhn- 
son, by W. W. Floyd: 1800-01, special; ]8f.l-02, 
with Johnson, by A. M. Ward; 18*'i2, with John- 
son, by Ben T. Embry; 1804-05, with Johnson, by 
William Stout; Coafederate Legislature, 1804, 
with Johnson, by Ben T. Embry; Sixteenth Legis- 
lature, 1800-07, with Johnson, by J. E. Cravens; 
lS(i8-09, with Searcy and Conway, by Z. Keeton; 
1S71, with Searcy and Conway, by A. D. Thomas; 

1873, with Searcy and Conway, by A. D. Thomas; 

1874, with Searcy and Conway, by J. Pi. H. Scott: 
1874-75, with Johnson, by C. E. Toby: 1877, 
with Johnson, by C. E. Toby; 187U, with John- 
son, by John F. Hill; 1881, with Johnson, by John 
F. Hill; 1883, with Johnson, by B. T. Embry; 
1885, with Johnson, by B. T. Embry; 1887, with 
Johnson, by G, T. Cazort; last session, with John- 
son, by G. T. Cazort; J. M. Harkey is Senator 
elect. Lower House (Territorial! — session of 1831, 
by Andrew Scott; 1833, by W. Garrett; 1835 
(journals of this session missing); 1830-38 (State) 
'>y M. G. H. Teevault and J. J. Moose; 1838. bv 



B. H. :Martin and A. C. Sadler; 1840, by John 
Bruton and C. G. Sadler; 1842 43, by il. T. Logan 
and P. Tackett: lsU-45, by .Jam.'s B. Logan: 
1S40, by J. B. Aunis and James Bruton: 18t.S-l'.l, 
by J. M. Shinn and J. J. Stirmau: 1850-51, by J. 
G. Bruton and C. E. Toby; 1852 5:!. by J. S. Bow- 
den and James Bruton; 1851-55, by James Brunot 
and William D. Poe; 185(1-57, by W. A. Barker 
and J. S. Bowden; 1800-(il, special; lSOl-02, by 
J. S. Bowden; 1862, l)y John McFadden; 1801-05, 
by Robert White; Confederate Legislature, 1804, 
; by John McFadden; Sixteenth Legislature, 1860- 
07, C. E. Toby; 1808-09, with Searcy and Conway, 
by W. W. Brashear, J. 11. Hall and H. W. Hodges; 
1871, with Searcy and Conway, by A. D. Thomas; 
1873, with Searcy and Conway, by Benton Turner, 
Y. B. Sheppard and J. F. Stephenson; 1874, with 
Searcy and Conway, by L. W. Davis and J. S. 
Venable; 1874-75, by N. D. Shinn: 1877, by L. 
W. Davis; 187U, by E. L. McCracken; 1881, by 
H. C. Howell; 1883, by N. W. Kuhn; 1885. by C. 
j:. Toby; 1887, by W. L. Sibley: last session, by 
W. L. Sibley. Lawrence Russell was elected Sej)- 
temberl, 1890. 

The following hold, or have until recently held, 
commissions as notaries pul>lie in Pope County: 
E. C. Bradley, J. S. Bailey, H. L. Rayburu, 
John W. White, J. T. Bulluck, John A. Erwin, 
H. il. Cardeu, H. Cohen, G. W. Berryman, 
Thomas J. Russell, A. M. Gibson, Robert Chastine, 
J. D. Cleveland. J. E. Joyner, Eugene Moore, 
James H. Shinn, John Boanes, J. J. Lester. 

There are more than 3,000 voters in this county: 
about one-third are Republicans. The Democratic 
ticket has not been defeated in this county since 
reconstruction, except in 1884, it was partially de- 
feated by a comliination of the Labor and Repub- 
lican parties. 

W'hen the old Dwight mission station was es- 
tablished on Illinois Bayou, north of the river, in 
Pope County, the Rev. Cephas Washburn, a Pres- 
byterian minister, took charge of it. The Cherokee 
settlement, under their chief. Black Hawk, thi'u 
extended for tive miles down the river, and at some 
distance from it. The settlement was like a town. 
of live miles in length. Each Indian family had 



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202 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



its wigwam ami patch of lantl, containing from one | 
to five acros attached. All these patches adjoined 
each other, so that it was one continued field, com- 
posed of patches of a few acres, iu the midst of 
which was a wigwam or cabin, in which the fam- 
ilies resided. This accounts for the young growth 
of timber which has been cleared within the mem- , 
ory of sorne of the present inhabitants. | 

The first explorers and temporary occupants of 
what is now Pope County were hunters and trap- ; 
pers. They conveyed information of its many j 
beauties and advantages to the [)osts and older set- 1 
tlements. ^lust of the earliest settlement was ! 
along the Arkansas River and in some of the in- j 
terior valleys. The pioueers were, in the main, | 
men of worth and determination. Their work was | 
in a wilderness, where they were often compelled i 
to combat savage beasts, and sometimes fiercer 
men. Perhaps some made but a brief tarry, and 
then pushed on into a newer field, leaving no de- 
scendants here. The majority, however, have left 
a record in the county's history, and the names of 
many are in the lists of county officials to be found 
elsewhere in these pages. Many reared large 
families, whose descendants may look backward 
now and think with pride of the skill and endur- 
ance disi)layed by their ancestors in laying the 
foundations upon which modern Pope County 
stands. Never were there more honest or more 
hospitable people than these pioneers who broke 
tlie forest and began to open the way before ad- 
vancing civilization. While such a life as theirs 
might not satisfy the present generation, they seem 
to have been suited to it. Were some of the re- 
fined and cultured people of to-day suddenly taken 
back to the log cabin of their forefathers, what a 
contrast would be presented to them between the 
old order of things and the new. Open-hearted, 
generous hospitality, instead of formality and sus- 
picious welcome then prevailed; personal incon- 
venience was not then thought of; a desire to 
assist others rather than himself characterized the 
average early settler, and to a thoughtfu mind it 
is indeed a serious question, whether or not, with 
all boasted advancement and progress, people of 
to-day are superior to their ancestors in those 



nobler elements of moral courage, deference to 
others and the consideration of the community be- 
fore the individual. The life of the pioneers was 
anything but dull, though, as a rule, not one in 
ten saw a newspaper more than once or twice a year, 
and the only news that reached them from the East 
was brought by the last newcomer, by some trav- 
eler through the country, or perhaps, by letters, 
that did not arrive until about three weeks after 
they had crossed the Mississippi. Notwithstand- 
ing such deprivations, their very surroundings and 
the life they lived furnished excitement that ex- 
actly fitted them, and if any people filled well the 
place assigned them iu life, the founders of Pope 
County did. The following reference to the pi- 
oneer epoch is from the pen of Hon. John R. 
Homer Scott, of Russellville: "I look back to the 
good old days with wonder, astonishment and sad- 
ness at the change. No bolts or bars, no locks or 
keys, no shotguns, pistols or bowie-knives were then 
necessarj' to guard against the evils which, in this 
day and ago beset us on every hand. Killing, 
stealing, incendiarism and other heinous crimes, of 
the most atrocious and heartrending description, 
as constantly portrayed through the public press 
of the present day, were then almost unknown and 
unheard of, to shock our sensibilities, and cause 
sorrow, trouble and distress. But all was peace 
and quiet, and the hearthstone and fireside, the 
sanctuary of domestic happiness, love and enjoy- 
ment. The people were united and cemented in 
the strongest ties of friendship and brotherhood. 
There were then no scandalous misrepresentations 
or bitter partisanship; no animosities, rancors, en- 
vies or jealousies, private or political; no desire or 
animus to pull neighbors down or traduce char- 
acter. But each and every one seemed intent upon 
an honest and laudable ambition and pursuit, 
which might result in the betterment of his own or 
his neighbor's happiness, welfare and prosperity. 
"Would to God that such a state of affairs as was 
embraced in our early pioneer code yet existed, 
for honesty, integrity, morality and virtue, as dis- 
tinguishing and prominent characteristics, marked 
the advent of the early original settlers of the long 
ago — that we might again realize ami enjoy the 






1 



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jii 




I>lt'ssin;^s and satisfaction which were once so very 
i)leasaut, even amid primeval for(^sts and deuse 
and lofty caaebrakes. and have with us a^^aiu as 
then, at all times, such graud, cougeniul and noble 
men for fellowship as Uncle Davy Harkey. Itansom 
and iladison Shinn, George ^\'. Lemoyue, David 
W'e.st, John Wilson, John and Mathew T. Logan. 
Dr. Thomas Kussell. Dr. J. McFadden, Dr. G. 
Ji. Davis, Dr. J. II. Bre.irley. Samuel Norris, 
IJenjamin Langford, George Williams, John, Rob- 
ert T., John L. and D. F. Williamson, Mahlon and 
John M. Bewley, Richard S. Witt, E. W. Duval, 
Thomas Murray, L. N. Clarke, J. L. Cravens, 
Kirkbride Potts, Stephen D. Lewis, William Ran- 
kin, James, Thomas and Philip ^Madden. Jesse and 
Thomas May, Dick Adams. John Howell, John and 
James Brewton, Andrew Scott, James and William 
Garden, Daniel Gilmore, A. J. Bayliss, Sam Hays, 
Hillary Herring, Abram and John I. Smith, Will- 
iam Parks, Charles and Josiah Perry, John Brad- 
ley, the Howells, Bernards, Jamisons, Logans, 
Sullivans and many other dear old friends fondly 
remembered, but now no more, whose smiles, pres- 
ence, company and counsel once served to enliven, 
cheer and gladden our hearts. Peace to their 
ashes." 

Ever since the war there has been a constant 
stream of home-seekers flowing in this direction 
from other States as well as from other counties in 
this State, which has added greatly to the wealth 
and general prosperity of the county. New towns 
are growing up in communities where a dozen 
years ago the solitude was almost unbroken by the 
presence of man. Railways, not alone in the 
county, but in all parts of the New West, have 
c..ntril)uted largely to this advancement. All 
parts of the county are now settled, and schools and 
churches are everywhere. The increase in popu- 
lation has been gradual, yet quite steady, and at 
this time the county seems fairly well peopled. 
Notwithstanding this, many magnificent acres re- 
iiiaii) unoccupied, to which the attention of all who 
wi^li to settle in a fertile land, a genial climate 
and a moral community is directed, and a cordial 
invitation is extended by the citizens h-rn t- . all wLo 
liiiiy \vish to occupy these lands and unite their 



fortunes with theirs. Following are the names of 
those who are recorded as having entered laud in 
Pope County previous to IS 45. Tiio orthography 
of the names as given in the records has been pre- 
served and in a few instances may ditt'er from the 
modern orthography of the same family names: 
18:]3 -Ste[ilien D. Lewis; 1S34 — Samuel Norris. 
John J. Morse, John Drennen; 1S35 — Thomas 
Russell. Alexander Madden, ]\Iary N. Norris, 
George I'opliii: T^;!n — Joseph H. Brearley, Kirk- 
bride Potts. Augustus W. Scott, Robert Davidson, 
Andrew Scott, John It. Homer Scott, Francis Lo- 
gan, Jr., Bnrr H. Zachary, James Allen, Thomas 
Butler, Keziah Mason, Isaac Hughes, J. Clark, 
Willis J. Wallace, William L Albright, L. C. 
Howell, Sheldon Wooster, James and Pliilip Mad- 
den, Peter Thornberry, Eliza Evans. David Slink- 
ard, James Madden; 1S37 — Samuel Norris, En- 
glish J. Howell, Jesse May, John Burkhead, \\'ill- 
iam G. H. Teevault, Cyrus F. Smith, Robert Da- 
vidson, Samuel Davidson, Levi G. Spear, J. D. 
Rose, Alfred Wallace; 1S3S — Wilson and Barnett, 
James Tittsworth, Robert Tweedy, Kirkbride 
Potts, Isaac W. McConnell, Joseph Potts, Thomas 
Russell, Ellen P. Bryan, John R. Bryan, James 
Allen, Thomas, James and Philip Madden, Hum- 
phrey P. Rose, Persis Lovely, Aaron Clark, Thomas 
Butler, Bartlett Zachary; 1S39— Joseph P. Ring, 
Thomas Campbell, James Campljell. Moore iV 
Blaisdell, Richard H. Blaisdell, Willbourn and 
Thompson, A. Barnett, John Aplin. ^^'illiam G. 
Barnett, William Aplin, Polly Roberts, William 
L. Wharton, Richard T. Banks, James Menifee, 
A\ illiam H. Boyer, B. H. Thompson, Joseph Chan- 
dler, Elisha W. Owens. James J. Tweedy, Benja- 
min Moore. James Hollytield, Jesse Bernard, Yin- 
cents J. Hutton, Abram Bernard, John E. Met- 
calf, K. J. Blounts, Elizabeth Carter, James Car- 
der, Daniel Gilmore, Joseph Parr, George W. 
Carter, Carter and Pattillo, Blake H. Thompson, 
Littleton Pattillo, John F. Burns, Aaron Clark, 
P. H. Smithson, William J. McCormack, Robert 
A. Logan, Isaac N. McConnell, Elizabeth Ewing, 
Cyrus Ewing, James A. Howell, Thomas A. How- 
ell, Joseph D. Combs, David A. Logan, Jesse 
JIay. Johnson Gibson, Moses Hough. Robert Da- 






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I ,VJill'i>-> 

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204 



HISTORY OF AllKANSAS. 



vidson; 1840 — Samuel Norris, Haines A. Howell. 
Amasa Howell, James A. Howell, English J. How- 
ell, Nicholas Beatty, Thomas J. Dart, Aaron Clark, 
Thomas Ilussell, Coke B. Darnell, Thomas H. An- 
drews, William A. Logan, Benjamin D. K. Shinn, 
Josiah S. 11. Honeyeutt, Cyrns Gilison, Elizal)eth 
Parkett, Demjisa Taylor, Nancy Clark; 1841 — 
Owen Williams, Ephraim Lemley, Thomas J. Dare, 
William A. Logan, Charles Himina. James Bru- 
ton, Thomas B. AVade. Eobert B. Koss, John Brn- 
ton, Adam Ross. Jephtha Johnson, Ellis A. (Gard- 
ner, James McCoy, Isaac Brown, \\'illiani A. Bark 
er, Lewis Potter, Edmond Tyler, Benjamin Lang- 
ford, John Rowland, Nathan B. Rowland. Robert 
S. Buley, John L. Goates, John Petrie, George 
P. Williamson, John Logan, Meredith Webb, John 
A. Bryan, William Bryan, Richard Young, John 
Williamson, William Phillips, Philip C. Hollidger, 
"William O. Bryan, David S. Williamson, Augustus 
N. Ward, W'illiam Ennis, James G. Williamson, 
Alexander D. Crews, John S. Williamson, Ellen 
P. Bryan, William Bryan, Horatio Bernard, Henry 
Phillips; 1842 — Henderson Benetield, John Sulli- 
van, Peter Pless, Joseph D. Tate, Joshua A. 
Hearne, Garrett Pless, John Harkey, Robert Mc- 
Anulty, Leonard Maddox, Samuel H. Howell, 
James M. Shinn. James L. Hardaway, Samuel 
Battentield, John Battentield, Elijah T. Timmons, 
Richard A. Bryan, David F. Williamson, Robert 
T. Williamson, George M. P. Williamson, Richard 
Ennis, John E. Shinn, John S. Williamson, James 
Allen; 1843 — Joseph C. Johnson, Horatio Ber- 
nard. William O. Bryan, Samuel H. Balch. Na- 
thaniel D. Shinn, William L. Poyuter, Calvin Yir- 
dan, Caleb Davis; 1844 — W. A. Saphamore, 
George H. Feeter, William A. Logan, Joel Jones, 
William S. Johnson, A. Cochran, Miranda Tackett, 
James F. Hill, Candez Reynolds, Stephen Mat- 
thews, R. D. Ashmore, Samuel C. Strickland, Sam- 
uel Maloney, John H. Williams, A. A. Price, 
John S. Williamson. Elijah I'rnitt, John Howell, 
James E. Harville, Moses AV. Harville, James G. 
Williams, Samuel M. Hays, William H. Logan, 
R. W. Jamison, William C. Dison, John Ewbanks, 
^Villiam J. Farriba, Robert Edmiston, Joseph Wil- 
son, R. Cunningham, Adam Ross, George Rush- 



ing, Sarah Hays, William M. Mason, John Wilson, 
Tristram Rye, William Rye, Enoch A\'ood, Jesse 
Dunlap, Samuel Leonard, Hiram A. Linzey, Isaac 
Brown. In 187'J-80 Pope County participated 
with Faulkner and Conway Counties in a <piite 
extensive German immigration. 

During pioneer times in this county there was 
a small class of men who with propriety might 
have been called itinerant school masters. One of 
these would tind a settlement where enough chil- 
dren lived within a reasonable distance to consti- 
tute a small school. Yisiting parents and guard- 
ians, he would organize a subscription school, usu- 
ally agreeing to teach a term of three months for 
a stipulated juice per pupil. After having ob- 
tained enough suljscribers to support a school of 
from fifteen to thirty pupils, this traveling educator 
would begin his school, board around with his pa- 
trons, teach for the time agreed iipon, and then 
pass on and tind another settlement where he would 
in like manner organize and teach another school, 
thus keeping himself almost always employed. An 
old surviving pioneer says that, though they were 
all strangers, these pedagogues were usually hon- 
est and gave satisfaction as teachers. As they 
kept constantly on the move, it was seldom that 
one of them was employed twice in the same set- 
tlement. By the time the settlers could afford a 
second term of school, the first teacher had passed 
beyond recall, and his place would be tilled by 
another stranger. This county had to depend 
upon subscription schools entirely until the estab- 
lishment of the present free- school system. Some 
of the parents sent their children away for educa- 
tional advantages. The public schools of Arkan- 
sas are a 2)0st bt'lluni organization. Prior to that 
epoch, the educational facilities of Pope County 
were very limited and primitive. The scarcity of 
population rendered permanent schools impractica- 
ble, and a small log cabin, 18x20 feet in size, 
would accommodate all the children within a ra- 
dius of six to ten miles, and a teacher did not have 
to be far advanced educationally toseciire a school. 
The school-houses served also as a place of public 
worship. Now Arkansas has a well organized 
public school system with a State superintendent 



Ill >i 



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POPE COUNTY. 



205 



•.if public instruction, ami a county examiner in 
each county. Provision is made in tbo Constitu- 
tion of the State for the support of public schools, 
ri'iiuirinjjf an annual tax of twenty cents upon each 
$l(H)of taxable property, to be levieil and collected 
for that purpose, in addition to a i>er capita tax of 
one dollar upon each adult male inhabitant. The 
territory of each county has been laid off liy the 
respective county courts into convenient school 
districts, which are managed by three directors 
elected b}' the electors of the district. In addition 
to the amount raised by State tax. each school dis- 
trict, by vute. can levy a tax not to exceed tifty 
cents upon the i}U)0 for the >iUpport of its school. 
A large portion of the districts vote the full 
amount allowed by the law. paying in the aggre- 
gate for this laudable purpose seventy cents on the- 
?lt^O of taxable property together with a poll tax 
of one dollar. In towns and densely populated 
neighborhoods this enables the schools to bo kept 
ojien for nine months in each year. 

Pope County has made great advancement un- 
der the operations of this law, and her public 
schools are in a tlourishing condition. New dis- 
tricts have been added almost every year, until 
nciw there are about 100. About the same number 
of teachers are employed, and the county has 
nearly tifty school-houses. There are over 7,000 
children of the school age in the county, of whom 
not t)0() are colored. The latter are taught sepa- 
rately. New school-houses are being built in 
nearly all parts of the county, and an almost unan- 
imous desire is manifested by the citizens to build 
up and protect that bulwark of the peojde's intel- 
lectual advancement — the public free school. In 
the llussellville Graded School are enrolled uearlv 
H'*l pupils. Prof. A. E. Lee, principal, is tilling 
his second term with marked acceptability. His 
assistants are Profs. M. H. Baird and R. A. Ross, 
iin.l Miss Teeter of Ohio, :\riss McClure of Vir- 
ginia, and Miss Lillie Rankin of Russellville. 
There lire about 30(1 pupils enrulled in the Atkins 
SiIkioI. Prof. J. H. Fry is principal and also 
C'.iinty examiner. Jfr. T. D. Bullock is teacher in 
th- int.Tmediate department, and iliss Scarlett in 
the primary de[)artment. Dover also has a good 



l>ublic school. Its last principal was Prof. J. E. 
Howard, 1889-00, who was elected county clerk at 
the September election. 189t). These schools are 
carefully graded and thoroughly equipped. 

The Little Rock & Fort Smith Kadroad was 
completed through Pope County in 1872-73. It has 
stations in this county at Atkins, Ru.ssellville and 
several other convenient points. This railway has 
done much to develop the county and advance its 
best interests. It has had an influence upon set- 
tlements, the growth of towns, and in removing 
the center of trade and the seat of justice from 
the interior of the county to the Arkansas Val- 
ley. Russellville is on this line of railroad and 
has one of the largest and most fertile districts 
in Arkansas or any other State tributary to her, 
which promises shortly to be further opened up 
by a line of railway from Kansas City to Hot 
Springs, thus crossing the State transversely to 
the Little Rock & Fort Smith Railroad, and mak- 
ing Russellville the distributing point for an im- 
mense area of as rich and fertile territory as pre- 
sents its upturned face to the beams of Phoebus. 

The following are the names of the several 
post-offices in Pope County: Allegan, Appleton, 
Atkins, Augsburg, Caglesville, Dover. Economy, 
Freeman, Gum Log, Hector, Holly Bend, Laurel. 
London. Moreland, Pearl. Northwood, Potts Sta- 
tion, Russellville, Santos, Scottsville, Silex Smyr- 
na. Atkins, Dover and Russellville are money- 
order offices. Several of the places mentioned 
are business and trading points of importance. 
Three of them are incorporated towns. Rus- 
sellville is a flourishing little city of about l,r)0O 
inhabitants, situated in a lovely, fertile vallev be- 
tween the Crow and Norristown ranges of mount- 
ains, for healthfulness and picturesque scenery 
hard to be surpassed. The town is immediatelv 
on the line of the Little Rock & Fort Smith Rail- 
road, seventy-five miles from Little Rock. The 
place is l)eautifully laid out. The streets are wide 
and run at right angles and are lined with shade 
trees, which present an appearance of comfort and 
tranquility during the long summer days. Tlie 
sidewalks are paved with flagging, of which there 
is an aluuidant sujinly near the town. The Imild- 



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200 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



■ ings are in the most part eoiistrncted of wood, hut, 
with the exception of a few which look like old 
family relics, they are constructed after modern 
designs, and some of them are really lieautiful and 
attractive. The dwellings generally are comforta- 
ble and conveniently arranged and display a 
refined taste in keejiing with the high culture and 
progress of the inhabitants. The principal busi- 
ness houses are of brick, and some of them are de- 
cided ornaments in an architectural way and would 
be an honor to any city in the State. Russellville 
is one of the principal business towns in the county 
and is the county seat. It is an old town, having 
been settled as far back as 1S40. The town has 
made rapid improvement since the completion of 
the raih'oad in 1872-73, and is now one of the 
most prosperous in this part of the State. The 
past few years have marked many improvements 
in the aspect and commercial importance of the 
place. The population has largely increased, the 
town has spread over a mile of territory, and 
numerous broad streets have been laid out and 
many handsome and commodious business houses 
and residences have lieen erected. Russellville is 
justly famous for its freedom from contagious or 
serious local diseases. The moral and social status 
of the people is not surpassed in the State; her 
educational facilities are of the best; the public 
school Iniilding, a handsome two story edifice, is 
one of the largest and tinest in Western Arkansas. 
The city is under excellent municipal control, and 
strict sanitary measures are enforced. Its scrip is 
worth 100 cents on the dollar and it has no out- 
standing debts. In the matter of churches, Rus- 
sellville is well to the front. It has seven religious 
denominations represented, a.s follows: Christian, 
Methodist South, Methodist Episcopal, Baptist, 
Primitive Baptist, Cumberland Presbyterian and 
Presbvterian, the latter denomination possessing 
as yet no church buihling. 

An advantage possessed by Russellville is the 
wealth of the coal district surrounding it, one of | 
the Ouita Coal Company's mines l)eing distant just j 
two miles west, and undeveloped coal fields a short i 
distance southeast, so that it is exceedingly favor- 
ably situated respecting manufacturing, fui-i (either j 



wood or coal) being cheap and alMindant; and its 
present and prospective transportation facilities 
surpass those of any other town between Little 
Rock and Van Buren, possessing as it dors the 
Little Rock & Fort Smith Railroad, and the Dar- 
danelle & Russellville Railroad, the latter road 
connecting Russellville with the Arkansas River 
four miles distant. The seat of justice of Pope 
County was located at Russellville in 1S87, and the 
county buildings were erected by the citizens of the 
town, and, together with the land on which they stand; 
presented by them to Pope County. Russellville 
was incorporated June 7, 1S70. The following 
named persons have been mayors; B. W. Cleaver, 
L. S. Poe, J. E. Battentiel.l, A. E. Luker, G. E. 
Burney, J. B. Erwin. J. H. Battentield, S. N.Evans 
Robert H. Jamison, J. A. Erwin, J. E. Richards. J. 
W.Russell. Several additions to Russellville, known 
as J. L. Shinn's addition, J. M. Shinn's addition, 
S. M. Shinn's addition, Luker' s addition. Russell's 
addition and Torrence's addition, have been platted 
with a view to furnishing cheap and comfortable 
homes, inducing ah increase of population, and 
extending the visiljle limits of the town as well as 
enhancing its real estate interests. J. L. Shinn's 
addition is the largest and most important, em- 
bracing most desirable territory and affording op- 
portunities to home-seekers seldom equaled. It is 
probable that Mr. Shinn has done more than anr 
other one man to build up Russellville' s interests. 
During recent years the capitalists of Russell- 
ville have to a consideralile extent turned their at- 
tention to manufacturing. Perhaps the most im- 
portant industry is that of the INIelrose Manufaetur 
ing Company, of which J. L. Shinn is president: 
J. JI. Haney, superintendent, and J. E. Battt-n- 
field, secretary and treastu'er, and which gives em- 
ployment to from fifty to seventy-tive operatives. 
Incorporated in 1SS2. the annual business has 
shown a decided rise each year. The plant is situ- 
ated on the line of the Little Rock & Fort Smith 
Railroad, and occupies a one-story brick building 
52x2132 feet in dimensions, with a boiler-room 
24x^)0 feet. The olJicers of the company are busi- 
ness men of recognized ability. Rope and twine 
are manufactured. L. M. Smith's tlourincr-mill 



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has a capacity of about forty barrels of flour per 
dav. lu conopctioa with this mill is a carding 
factory, ono of the best in the State, which pro- 
pares the raw wool for the making of all kinds of 
woolen goods. Under the same management are 
a planing-mill, re-sawing machinery, a fruit-box 
manufactory, and a cotton-gin which can gin and 
bale twenty-tive bales of cotton per day. Brown, 
Settle & Co.'s foundry and machine shop is one of 
the most profitable enterprises of the city. They 
work a large force of hands. The Rtissellville Can- 
ning & Evaporating Company have an extensive 
plant here, and employ a large force putting up 
berries, fruits and vegetables. This enterprise will 
be an inducement to farmers to devote more time 
to the cultivation of these products than hereto- 
fore. Another important enterprise is the wagon 
and plow factory of Luker, Davis t*i: Co., with a 
capacity of over 400 wagons a year. The Citizens" 
Savings Bank was organized under the name of the 
Weimer Savings Bank, in 1SS7, with a capital of 
§10,000, and conducted as a private bank by AV. 
G. Weimer, its founder, until April 1, 1S90, when 
it was reorganized by a stock company with a 
capital of ?r)0,00<>. It is the oldest bank in Rus- 
sellville, and has been very successful since its 
opening. II does considerable business with sur- 
rounding counties, and contemplates early reorgan- 
ization under the national banking system. Its 
officers are G. W. Harkey, president; E. F. Roys, 
vice-president; W. G. Weimer. cashier; -lames A. 
Potts, assistant cashier. The People's Exchange 
Hank was organized March 2-, Is'jO, with R. J. 
Wilson as president; John M. Harkey, vice-jiresi- 
dent; .John W. White, cashier, and W. J. Rey- 
nold^, assistant cashier. Its directors are 11. J. 
\\ ilson, W. J. White, J. M. Harkey, W. H. Hill, 
W. M. Gates and Charles S. McKinuey. The 
People's Exchange Bank does all branches of 
general Ijanking business. About December 1 
\^W. it will move into its new three-story brick 
building, on the corner of Main and Jefferson 
Streets, which, when completed, will be one of the 
handsomest bank buildings in the State. Besides 
those mentioned, the principal business interests 
of Russellville may be thus summarized: General 



stores, J. L. Shinn, White & Son, Morton & Co., R. 
M. Gates & Co.,. J. B. Everts & Co., R. H. Taie.R. J. 
Wilson, T J. Russell & Bro., M. Jacobson, Wooten 
it Gates; grocers. Perry & Son, C. C. Winn, Smith 
&Brown, Bernard Bros., Tucker & Son, M. L. Gard- 
ner; butchers, Baird Bros.; liverymen, Rodgers A; 
Rankin; stationer, W. W. Brashear; wagon-makers, 
C. C. Lukes, J. A. Jami.son; dentists, J. W. G'Kellv, 
H. Sherman; hotels. White House, Judd House, 
Central House. Buck House, Bottom House; lum- 
ber dealer, G. E. Howell; mill and gin, A. E. 
Luker & Co. ; printers and piiblishei-s, Democrat 
Printing Company, Methodist Herald establish- 
ment; physicians, R. M. Drummond, J. W. Pruitt, 
J. M. Yancey, W. H. Hill; druggists, Weimer Drug 
Company, J. W. Wells; cigar manufacturer, A. C. 
Lawton; photographer, J. H. Ganner; milliners, 
Mrs. Webb, Mrs. Perry; jeweler, H. C. Wilkey; 
furniture, J. A. Erwin & Co. ; hardware. Love & 
Roys Hardware Co. Rn.ssellville is no "mush- 
room " town. The natural causes that build up 
all cities have been at work here from the tirst. and 
the place has never had a "boom," so called. Its 
growth has been strong and vigorous. Its busi- 
ness men as a class have had life-long training in 
their special pursuits, and to their sagacity and en- 
terprise the future of the town may be safelv en- 
trusted. Russellville dominates a magnificent sur- 
rounding country. The xVrkansas River bottoms 
for miles are tributary to its trade, while it sup- 
plies the interior country to the north for miles, 
the people bringing in their cotton, and trading in 
exchange. In view of these manifest advaufaces, 
it reijuires no prophet to look even a few years 
into the futttre and see a busy little city of ."i. ()()() 
or more on the foundation which has lieen laid so 
deeply and so well. The second town in the 
county in size is Atkins, situated on the Little 
Rock & Fort Smith Railroad, twelve miles from 
Russellville, and prettily locateil at the foot of the 
Crow range of mountains. From the summit uf a 
spur of Crow ilountain. and within a mile of the 
town, a pictttre of rare lnvt'liness stretches out over 
forest and tield as far as tlie eye can reach, and on 
all sides are fertile farms. Tlie town is onlv live 
miles from the famous Arkansas River bottumg. 






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20S 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



whero evervthirifr grows so abunilantly. The 
health of tlie town is excellent; chills and fever 
are rarely ever known. Atkius has a hircre mer- 
cantile trade and is a shipping point of large quan- 
tities of cotton. Considerable live-stock is handled 
here. The manufacture of wagons and carriao-ps 
has been a leading industry. Atkins was incor- 
I)orated October 23, 1876. The following named 
additions to the original town plat have lieen 
platted: Reynolds", Eeeson's and Cahiir.s addi- 
tions. The gentlemen here mentioned have served 
the town as mayor: J. F. Darr, W. H. McCul- 
lough, James Cagle, William Reynolds. JI. Kirt- 
ley, J. A. Westertield, W. A. Wilson, A. M. Gib- 
son. Following is a list of the principal business 
interests of Atkins: Lester & Riggs, general mer- 
chants; A. J. Sisney, furniture dealer; A. Arnn, 
tinner; "\V. S. Hinton & Son, druggists; ^^". A. 
Galloway, druggist; A. J. Croom, general mer- 
chant; Matthews & Matthews, grocers: Bledsoe 
& Ford, druggists and grocers; J. F. Darr, gen- 
eral merchant; E. A. Darr, general merchant; J. 
C. Darr, general merchant; Reynolds Bros., hard- 
ware dealers; M. F. Cleveland, general merchant 
and furniture dealer; Avera Bros., grocers: C. 
Bell, general merchant: E. Epstein, general mer- i 
chant; Paul Rei.ss & Co.. grocers; J. V. Dunn. ; 
dealer in meat; W. S. Jones & Co.. grocers; 
Weaver & Son, wagon manufacturers; Beckham 
& Hammond, blacksmiths and wagon-makers; the 
Scerlett House and Leatherwood House, hotels; 
Weaver & Son, proprietors of saw-mill, planing- 
mill and grist-mill; M. Alewine, cotton-gin and 
grist-mill; J. H. Potts, J. H. Westerfield. J. M. 
Yandall, R. B. Wliiteside and D. J. Warren, 
physicians; B. F. Wilson, dentist. The Meth- 
odist Episcopal, the Baptist, the Cumberland 
Presbyterian, the Methodist Episcopal South and 
the Catholic Churches all have organizations and 
hold regular meetings at Atkins. Some of their 
houses of worship are very tine buildings. The 
population of this town is about 1.(10(1. Dover, 
long the county seat of Pope County, was incor- ' 
porated December 3, 1S52, and its incorporation : 
lapsed some years ago. It was once the seat of i 
Dover College, an educational institution of more ; 



; than local celebrity. In the i>eriod " before the 
war " it grew to be a town of considerable iniport- 
, ance. The principal business men since the war 
: until a few years ago were W. C. McKune, Pettv 
! & Hollinger, Scott & Howell, West & Brcnvii, 
j Young & Hale and Bayliss & Young. The leading 
! business men of the present time are T. M. Xeul 
' &Co., Dan C. Brown, I. L. Hicks, general mer- 
chants; John R. Homer Scott, steam saw-niill, 
grist-mill, planing-mill and cotton-gin; W. A. 
j Baird, druggist; H. Kirchhof. hotel keeper. The 
town has three church organizations: Presbyterian, 
Methodist and Baptist. Brown's and Davis" ad- 
1 ditions and West Dover were platted some years 
j ago. 

j There were towns and villages in this count v 

j which do not now exist or do not exist under their 
I former names. The chief of these old towns was 
Norristown, once the county seat, which came with- 
in a vote or two of being chosen as the capital of 
Arkansas. It was nearly opposite the present site 
of Dardanelle. At the time, F. Saugrain set up 
his store at Dardanelle, Samuel Xorris opened an- 
other on the north bank of the river. It survived 
the Saugrain store and had a monopoly of trade on 
both sides of the river for a few years subsequent- 
ly. Norristown was founded in 1837, and was for 
a time the county seat of Pope. This influenced a 
number to locate there, among whom was a youno- 
man, from a store in Little Rock, by the name of 
George Williams, who purchased several lots in 
Norristown. opened a store, boarded for a few years, 
then married a woman of the Haney family. S\il> 
sequently, in the days of Norristown's decadence, 
he was a pioneer merchant at Dardanelle. Noth- 
ing remains to mark the site of this once ambitious 
settlement. Other once promising places have also 
disappeared before that irresistible march of civili- 
zation, which destnns that it may build up, makim' 
the interests of the few contribute to the welfare 
of the many, and compelling the present to yield 
triiiute to the future. 

From an early day religion has had a strong 
hold on the people of Pope County. Churches of 
nearly all popular denominations are to be found 
within the county limits, and Sunday schools are 



:fr 




lil'llAl. .M11'^(^MM[;K 







POPE COUNTY. 



200 



iiltiio^t as [>leutifiil as day schools. The principal 
cliiuvh organizations are mentioned elsewhere. 

Some of the most celebrated lawyers of Arkan- 
f-a- have practiced at the bar of Pope County, and 
tl,(t resident attorneys have long taken rank with 
tlic best in the Fifth Judicial District. The cir 
cuit jud^e and prosecuting attorney elect are both 
Ur.ssellville lawyers — Hon. J. G. Wallace and Jeff 
l)avis. The oldest member of the local bar is 
.Judge L. W. Davis. Col. Dan B. Granger has 
practiced here neaily twenty years, and he and 
.ludge K. li. Wilson are partners. W. S. Moore 
was a later partner of Mr. Granger's. Hon. Law- 
rence llussell, recently elected to represent Pope 
County in the State Legislature, is the only mem 
ber of the bar who is both a native of the State and 
H graduate of an Arkansas educational institution. 
Other members of the bar are Horace Bradley, J. 
K. Joyner, John D. Cleveland, J. J. Lester and 
K. C. Bradley. 

In the Civil War, Pope County did its part 
|>ri)Uiptly and nobly, at first espousing the cause of 
the State, and later the cause the State espoused. 
Tlie following companies organized in this county 
did lirave service: Capt. John E. Homer Scott's, 
Capt. Thomas J. Linton's, Capt. B. T. Embry's, 
Capt. Caleb Davis', Capt. James A. Stout's, Capt. 
.John liandall's, Capt. E. B. Harrell's, Capt. J. 
L. Adams', Capt. David Rye's (afterward Capt. 
.\. H. Scott's), and Capt. Dan C. Brown's. The 
ordy incident of importance in connection with the 
war, other than the organization and equipment 
of tha above mentioned comi)anies, which took place 
in this county, was the skirmish at Williamson's 
('amp Ground, three miles north of I'ussellvillc. 
Ill the latter part of the war, after the Federals 
wiTe in jxissession of Little Kock, some of the citi- 
/.iTis of this county did service for the Union cause 
in Capt. E. W. Dodson's, Capt. James Clair's, and 
other rompanie.s. The period for the close of the 
<'ivil War to the adoption of the present State Cou- 
■^titution was a dark one in the history of Arkansas. 
l'"Iitical interests were practically in a state of an- 
archy, and all business interests were consequently 
t-ri.iusly affected. In all of the ills of this j^.-rind. 
1 "pi' Ciinnty suffered more or less, and all classfs 



of her people gladly hailed the brighter and more 
prosperous era that has come since. Now they 
know no South, no North. The development of 
the country and the upbuilding of its interests are 
the dearest objects of their solicitude. 

The first newspaper published in Pr.pe County 
was established at Dover, in ISIVJ, l>y Capt. H. P. 
Barry. It was called the Dover Transcript, and 
lived but a few weeks. The next venture was at 
Russellville, where, in 1S70, B. W. Cleaver and J. 
K. Perriman started the liusscllville Herakl, a 
four column folio. In about a year the Herald was 
suspended, and in 1871 the National Tribune was 
established by J. H. Battenfield. In 1S72 the 
office of the National Tribune was totally destroyed 
by incendiaries. A new outfit was immediately 
purchased, and the publication of the paper was 
resumed, but a few issues having been missed. In 
1S73 the Tribune was edited liy Judge L. W. Da- 
vis, and in 1874 by David P. Cloyd, after which it 
suspended. In 1875 a stock company was organ- 
ized, which purchased the National TriliTine mate- 
rial, and established the Kusrellville Democrat, 
with J. E. Battenfield as editor arid B. F. Jobe as 
business manager. In ISSl ^Ir. Battenfield re- 
signed the editorship of the Denjocrat, and was 
succeeded by B. F. Jobe and John II. Homer Scott. 
They edited the paper uiifil 1SS"2, \\hen W. L. 
Morris succeeded them. In January, 1888, Mr. 
Morris resigned, and Uev. H. B. iMilner mounted 
the tripod. Mr. Milner retired in about twelve 
months, and was succeeded l)y Mr. J. F. Munday. 
He continued as editor until 1887, when he re- 
signed, and was succeeded by B. F. Jolie, who has 
had editorial charge of the paper ever since. In 
1877 D. O. Bell established the Atkins News. It 
passed through several hands. Ernest Jennings, J. 
E. Joyner, O. C. Ludwig, John A. Woolen and W. 
W. Gill having at different times been its editors. 
Some time in 1'>S3 its name was changed to the 
Pope County Bellector, and its publicatiim was con- 
tinued by Gus and W. \V. Gill. In lS8t> the pa- 
per was moved to Dardauell(>. In November, 18S1, 
the Biblical View, a paper published in the infer- 
•-■-t of the Christian denomination, w:is '-^ned at 
Russellville bv J. Tolbert Garlaml. It difd in three 



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months. The Arkansas Evangel, edited by Rev. 
B. R. Womack. was moved from Dardanelle to 
Russellvillo in March, 18S2, and was issued from 
the ot^ice of the Democrat. It was taken to Mor- 
rilton in 1SS3. Our Paper, a lii-monthly in the 
interest of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, 
was launched January 1, ]SS4. at Russellville. It 
lived but a few months. January l'>, I'^^i, Prof. 
J. H. Shinn, of Russellville, recently elected super- 
intendent of public instruction of the State of Ar- 
kansas, commenced the publication of the Arkan- 
sas Teacher, a monthly devoted to education. The 
paper was issued regularly for a year, and removed 
from Russellville to Little Rock. The Revivalist, 
a religious monthly, was established at Russellville 
by Revs. H. B. Milner and W. M. Robison, in 
June, 1SS5. It suspended January 1, ISSO. In 
August, 1887, Eugene Moore established the 
Mail at Atkins, which he published until May, 
1SS9, when the paper passed into the hands of a 
stock company, known as the Atkins Printing 
Company. Messrs. Ben G. Sevier and George L. 
StilHer managed the paper for a few months, it 
tiually passing under the control of !Mr. Robert W. 
Leigh, manager of the ^Morriltun Printing Com- 
pany, who leased the office. It is still under his 
management. The Methodist Herald, a journal 
whose title sufficiently indicates its character, is 
issued at Russellville, weekly. Nuw in its second 
volume, it is well printed and well conducted un- 
der charge of W. J. McAnally, editor and pub- 
lisher. 



Ben H. Allen. In sketching the life of this 
gentleman it is but just to say that his good name 
is above reproach, and that he has won the confi- 
dence and esteem of all who know him. As a 
tiller of the soil he has been ipiite succt^ssful, and 
is still followiog that calling. He was burn in 
North Carolina, Feliruary lU, l^;iS, to \\illiam 
and Nancy (Crump) Allen, both of whom were born 
in North Carolina, the father being an agriculturist 
by occupation. Their marriage took place in their 
native State in 1885, and resulted in the birth of 
ten children, niae of whom are now living, the sub- 



ject of this sketch being the eldest. The other 
members of the family living are Frank, Bettie 
(wife of J. J. Micenhimer), Lucy (wife of John 
Thompson), Sallie (wife of J. Burns), Cara (wife 
of Phil Randel), Fannie (wife of G. Lanier), and 
Maggie (wife of Mr. Bennett); George is deceased. 
About 1856 the father of these children was judge 
of Stanly County, and was magistrate for a num- 
ber of years. He died in 1885, a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church South, also a Mason. 
His wife died iu 18T(), a member of the same church 
as himself. Ben H. Allen was married in ISO'J, to 
Miss Bettie Howell of Pope County, and to this 
marriage two children have been born: Minnie and 
Bettie. He was called upon to mourn the death 
of his wife in 187-1, she being a member of the 
^Methodist Episcojial Church South, and iu Stan- 
ly County, N. C, ho was married, in 1877, to 
Miss Eugenia Randel, by whom he has four cliil 
dren: Bennie, Randel, Samuel and Loy. Mr. 
Allen is a well-to do farmer, and is the owner of 
320 acres of land, of which 155 acres are under 
I cultivation. He emigrated from North Carolina 
1 to Arkansas in 1S59, and has since been a resident 
of Pope County. In 1861 he enlisted in Company 
B. Second Arkansas Cavalry, and served as a 
private soldier on the Confederate side until I'^Oo, 
taking part in the battles of Murfreesborc, Chick- 
i amauga, Jone.sboro and Nashville. Since the war 
' he has devoted his time to farming, and not onlv 
is his land valuable for farming, but it is also 
heavily underlaid with coal. Mr. Allen and his 
wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and he is a member of Russellville Lodge 
No. -254, of the A. F. & A. M. 

M. H. Baird, a prominent educator of Po])e 
County, was originally from Georgia, his birth oc- 
curring in 1845, and was the second of eight chil- 
dren born to 'William and Christian (Campbell) 
Baird, natives of Tennessee and Georgia, respect- 
ivel}'. The father was a farmer and lived in Ala- 
bama nearly his entire life. He came to Arkansas 
in 1808. settled near Russellville in Pope County. 
and there resided until his death in 1^88. The 
mother is still living and makes her home with 
a daughter in Russellville. M. H. Baird was 



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rcnrpd iii Ahibiima, where he had fair advanta- 
I'.'s for an education, and when seventeen years 
oi n"e he enlisted in the Confederate Army, Com- 
pany G, Nineteenth Alabama Infantry, in the 
Western Department. He was in the battles of 
Shiloh, Miirfreesboro, Missionary llidge, Chiek- 
amani^a and all the engagements of the Georgia 
campaign with Johnston. After this he was with 
lliiod and surrendered at Greensborough, X. C. 
Ketnrning to Alabama, he was engaged in the boot 
and shoe manufacturing business until ISGS, when 
he came to Arkansas with his parents. He then 
followed farming for a year or two, attended 
school a year in Russellville, and in ISTO taught 
liis first term of school in Conway County. Since 
then he has been almost constantly engaged in 
teaching, principally in Pope County, and is one 
of the most popular and successful educators in 
that county. He is now teaching his fourth year 
as first assistant of the Kussellville public school, 
and has been connected with the public schools of 
Pope County since 1S70. The first county teachers' 
association was organized in Pope County in 1872, 
and our subject was elected secretary, serving in 
that office in every institute or association since. 
He has been a most earnest advocate of the free- 
school system since its adoption. Mr. Baird was 
married in 1875 to Miss Mary Quinn, a native of 
.Arkansas and the daughter of Robert Qninn, one 
of the early pioneers from South Carolina. Mr. 
/Kaird owns a fine farm of 1'20 acres one, mile and 
a half ea'^t of town, and has seventy-five acres of this 
under cultivation. He also owns a comfortable 
residence iri town. To his marriage have been born 
three children — a son and two daughters: Delia, 
Dai-iv and Max. The family are members of the 
Cnmberland Presbyterian Church, and Mr. Baird 
has been an earnest worker in the Sunday -school. 
Ijaving organized many schools in various parts of 
the county. He is now a teacher in the school. He 
is a member of the Masonic fraternity, Russellville 
L(j<lge No. 247. is an Odd Fellow. Chosen Friends 
No. :',(■), and is a memlier of the K. & L. of H. , 
No. .)3,). The Professor is a stanch Democrat, 
nnil is a consistent worker for that party. 

>\ illiam A. Baird is one of the self-made and 



influential men of Dover. Ark. He was born in 
Cherokee County, Ala., December 2. 1SG3. and in 
1809 moved with his father to Arkansas, his earlv 
education being completed in the high school of 
Russellville, under the instruction of Prof. J. H. 
Shinn, now State superintendent of public instruc- 
tion. His father, William Baird, was a farmer of 
Cherokee County. Ala., but was born in East Ten- 
nessee. William A. was reared on his father's 
farm, and at the age of nineteen, havin"- obtaineil 
a sufficient education, he began teaching in the 
common schools, and carried on this calling in con- 
nection with farming for two years, when he was 
elected to the honorable and trustworthy position 
of county treasurer, a position he filled with marked 
ability for two years. He was then chosen one of 
the county examiners of schools, but at the expira- 
tion of two years he emljarked in the drug business, 
at Dover, which he has successfully continued up 
to the present day. Starting on a small capital, he 
has steadily increased his business, until now his 
annual sales amount to $6,000, and he hasac([uired 
the reputation and title in his town of being a 
"hustler." Outside of his business, he is the 
owner of considerable property, in the north part 
of the town, besides ether property, and, as he has, 
at all times been strictly honorable and endeav- 
ors to please his patrons, his success is fully 
merited. On January 14, ls8t'), he was united in 
the beads of matrimony to Miss ilaggie West, a 
daughter of D. P. and Katie West, of Dover. To 
Mr. and Mrs. Baird two children have been born: 
Porter L. (born October 19, 1S8G), and George H. 
(born December 12, 1888). ;Mr. Baird is a mem 
ber of the Christian Church, and his wife is con- 
nected with the ISIethodist Episcopal-Church South. 
He is a member of the Union Labor party, and has 
always shown himself to be public spirited and, 
liberal in the support of worthy enterprises. 

E. A. Bell, merchant. Potts Station, Ark. 
This prominent and most successful Imsiness man 
owes his nativity to Lincoln County, N. C, his 
birth occurring in 1817, and is the .son of Alex- 
ander and Mary lOates) Bell, natives also of the Tar 
Heel State. The father was one of the early set- 
tlers of North Carolina, and was a farmer by occu- 



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pation. He removed with bis family to Pope 
County, Ark., iu the year 1S51, purchased land 
and continued agricultural pursuits. His wife re- 
ceived her final summons in 18S1, and he followed 
her to the grave iu 1884. The paternal grand- 
parents were natives of the Emerald Isle, and the 
maternal grandparents were pioneers of North 
Carolina. E. A. Bell was reared principally in 
Arkansas, received his education in that State, and 
in the fall of 1863 he enlisted in Company F, 
Stermon's battalion under Geu. Joe Shell)y, and 
was principally in State service. He was dis- 
charged at Louisl)urg in June, 1S65, after which 
he returned to his home in Pope County, and was 
engaged in farming. In the fall of 18()5 Miss 
Rebecca Dickey, daughter of Alexander Dickey of 
Pope County, became his wife, and the fruits of 
this union were four children: William S., Martha 
C, one deceased, and Macy H. He was en- 
gaged in farming until the year 1882, when he 
moved to Potts Station on the Fort Smith A: Lit- 
tle Rock Railroad, and there he has been engaged 
in merchandising ever since in partnership with 
his brother, Calvin Bell, under the firm name of 
Bell & Bro. They have a lucrative trade and are 
pushing, enterprising business men. Onr subject 
still carries on his farm by hired help, and is one 
of the county's best citizens. In politics he affili- 
ates with the Democratic party. He and Mrs. 
Bell are members of the Associate Reformed Pres- 
byterian Church, and is a liberal contributor to all 
worthy movements. 

William T. Blackford has had an active career 
as a merchant, and by bis advanced and progressive 
ideas has done not a little for the mercantile inter- 
ests of this section. He tirst saw the light of day 
in White County, 111., January '2, ISoS, being born 
to A. J. and F. E. (Honn) Blackford, who were 
also born and reared in that county. In 1S72 
William T. Blackford moved from Illinois to 
Jackson County, Ark., with his parents, and here 
began the battle of life for himself at the age of 
twenty-two years. Although he was not given 
much of a chance for acquiring an education, he 
has since remedied this defect in a great measure 
by contact with the world, by business life of act- , 



ivity, and by thoroughly reading up the general 
topics of the day. In 1884 he opened a general 
mercantile establishment at Scottsville, Ark., and 
this together with farming, which is his principal 
occupation, has received his attention up to the 
present time. He owns and controls about 'H)C} 
acres of fine land in Pope County, the proceeds of 
which, together with his .S3,0<)0 stock of general 
merchandise, amounts to a handsome annual in- 
come. He was married in ISSl to Miss F. E. 
Sherrell, a daughter of Sam and Ellen Sherrell, 
and in time the following family of children 
gathered about their board: A. J., Harry, Oscar 
C. and Minnie A., the first two named beincr de- 
ceased. Mr. Blackford has always been a faithful 
and zealous Democrat, and at all times strives to 
promote the interests of his party. 

James C. Bonds is one among the substantial 
farmers of Pope County, and is a man of recognized 
worth and progressive spirit. He was born on the 
farm on which he now lives, two and a half miles 
west of Dover, January 24, 1837. to Robert and 
Mary E. (Dickson) Bonds, who were liorn in Dick- 
son County, Tenn., in ISll and 1814, respectively. 
In 1834 they came to Arkansas, and settled on the 
farm on which James C. is now living, where they 
reared their family consisting of three sons, James 
C. , Robert C. and Hugh D., and one daughter, 
Sarah A. A., of whom the subject of this sketch is 
the eldest, and the only one now living. Although 
his early opportunities were very limited, he ob- 
tained such an education as to enable him to carry 
on the business of the farm successfully, and be- 
ing reared from his earliest youth to a knowledge 
of the business he has been successful. The year 
following his father's death, which occurred in 
1852, he went to California, and was engaged iu 
farming and mining for nine years, but with no 
very favorable tiuancial result, and in IS^.ti he re- 
turned home and once more began following the 
plow on the old homestead, where he has remained 
up to the present time. In his early days he 
walked three miles to school, the same being held iti 
a log building erected for the purpose of holding 
meetings and schools, and his first teacher was 
Andi'ew J. Bavliss. This building' was about one 



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iiii!i> north of Dover at the grave yard. Logs split in 
hiilves formtnl tlie seats, and the cabin was without 
windows. The books iised were mostly the old blue- 
hacked speller or elementary spelling book of Web- 
.ster. The year oi his return from California, Mr. 
Bonds married and settled down to life on his moth- 
er's farm. At the end of three years she divided the 
land among her three sons for farming purposes, 
although she was still the owner, and each paid 
rent for the use of the same. She afterward 
deeded her place, which consisted of 240 acres to 
her four children, and until her death, which oc- 
curred in 1877, made her home with her son, James 
C. The latter has since purchased 160 acres ad- 
joining his land, and on this farm he raises cot- 
ton, corn, oats, bay, potatoes, etc., diversifying the 
crops as much as possible. His marriage, which 
took place on November 21, 1SU6, was to Miss La- 
vina Elizabeth Rye, a daughter of Tristram and 
I'eggy G. Rye, who were among the earliest settlers 
of this county. To Mr. Bonds' union the follow- 
ing children have been born: Jessie Yiola and 
Jeania Leola (twins, born September 4, 1S67, the 
former being married to Samuel W. Winingham of 
this county, and the latter to Prof. J. A. Evans 
also residing here), Maggie A. (was born June 27, 
ISi'i'.l, and was married to P. F. Winingham, a 
dealer in general merchandise at Morrilton), and 
Mary E. (born February 24, 1^73, still residing 
with her parents, and is president of the Young 
I'tHjple's Christian Endeavor.) The family are 
members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, 
in which Mr. Bonds holds the office of ruling 
elder. He is a member of the A. F. & A. M. , the 
K. of H. and the Farmers' Alliance; in the fornK'r 
he has tilled every station in the lodge. He is 
Sumlay-school superintendent, a Democrat, and as 
he and his wife are hospitable and kindly, they are 
highly re.ipected in this community. Mr. Bonds' 
grandfather, Drury Bonds, and wife Sarah came 
to this country in 1834. The family consisted 
of the f(jllowing children: Dobert, James G. , 
Drnry K., Sarah E., Mary and George J. The 
latter and Drury K. became Biinisters of the gospel. 
The graiidrather built the tirst water mill in Pope 
County, it lieing two and one-half miles west of 



the town of Dover, and consisted of a cotton gin and 
grist-mill. He died in 'ls7t^. and his widow in 
1S()3. Robert Bonds, the father of the immediate 
. sul^ject of this sketch, became associated in the 
general mercantile business with John Wilson and 
T. J. Paxton immediately after coming here, and 
continued thus associated a number of years. 

Rev. J. J. Bowden, farmer, Moreland, Ark. 
Mr. Bowden, who is familiarly known as "Uncle 
Jacky Bowden," was born in Georgia, January 22, 
1814, and is the son of John and Anna (Blackburn) 
Bowden. both natives also of Georgia, and of En- 
glish and German descent, respectively. The fa- 
ther -was born in 1751, and was married about 
179(3. He and wife emigrated from Georgia to 
Tenne.ssee, and here they received their tiual sum- 
mons, the father dying at the age of ninety-tive, 
and she at the age of sixty-tive years. Their fam- 
ily consisted of fifteen children, eight sons and 
five daughters of whom grew to mature years. 
Two died in infancy. Those living are named as 
follows: Polly, William, Feriba, James, Anna, 
Jane, John S., Jackson J., Charles, Newton, Wiley, 
Lucinda and Allen. The paternal grandfather of 
these children emigrated from England to America 
at an early day, and fought for independence in 
the Revolution. When about six years of age Rev. 
J. J. Bowden emigrated with his parents to Ten- 
nessee, and there remained until 1S44, when he 
moved to Arkansas. While a resident of Tennes- 
see he met and married Miss Salina Lay, a native 
of Georgia, who bore him six children, two of 
whom are now living, one in Texas, and the other 
in Conway County, Ark. After coming to Arkan- 
sas Mr. Bowden settled in Gum Log Valley, but 
afterward purchased eighty acres of land on Crow 
Mountain, where he resided six years. He after- 
ward purchased 80t) acres at Gravel Hill, and gave 
eleven acres of this to the Methodist Episcopal 
Church South, the land, at the present time, being 
valued at SlOO per acre, upon which he has ex- 
pended on his own account, and out of his own 
pocket, at least §oOO. Later he sold this farm, 
and retired to his farm at Gravel Hill, where he 
now resides, and where, despite his increasing 
vears, he still carries on his occupation of farming. 



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HISTOKY OF ARKANSAS. 



though in a limited way, having rented most of 
his land to tenants. When Jlr. Bowden lir.'^t lo- 
cated on his present farm, the country was thinly 
settled, and in all the country from Cross Plains 
to Dover there were but two families. On Crow 
Mountain, where there are now about 200 families, 
there were at that time just two families. Mr. 
Bowden joined the church in 1S28, and has always 
taken a deep interest in church work. When leav- 
ing Tennessee he brought letters from his church, 
which he deposited in Gum Log Valley, in what 
is now known as David Chapel, where he assisted 
in erecting the first church edifice in Valley Town- 
ship, and probably the first in Pope County. Mr. 
Bowden was licensed to preach in 1S4S, by Dr. A. 
Hunter; ordained a deacon by Bishop Paine in 
1852, and ordained an elder by Bishop Early in 
1857. His first ministerial work was on Crow 
Mountain, where he organized and erected the first 
church. In 1S65, after the close of the war, owing 
to the unsettled condition of affairs, Mr. Bowden 
was called upon to take in hand the organization 
of the churches of Dover circuit, on which there 
were twenty-four appointments, and to which it 
was difficult or impossible to send a regular itin- 
erant. Mr. Bowden found the churches in a de- 
moralized condition, but undertook the work, which 
he successfully accomplished in about a month, 
presiding over that circuit only a year. He organ- 
ized the Sunday-school at Gravel Hill, or Bowden 
Chapel, directly after the war, and also assisted 
in the organization of several others. He went to 
Little Red River in 1849, where Methodism had 
never penetrated, and established a church, which 
has grown from the seed thus sown to a fiourish- 
iug circuit. His first wife dying in 1S52, Mr. 
Bowden was married, in August of the same year, 
to Miss Narcissa E. Bewley, daughter of R. S. 
Bewley, of Pope County. The fruits of this union 
were ten children, three of whom died in infancy. 
The remainder are all married, with the exception 
of one son and a daughter. They are named as 
follows: Robert S. , Benjamin B., Charles D., 
George A., Anhana C. , Miles E. and Sallie F.. all 
but one of whom are members of the ilutLodist 
Episcopal Church .South. From lS4ri up to the 



beginning of the Civil War, in which he took uo 
part, ]\Ir. Bowden was militia captain. Ho was 
appointed postmaster at Moreland post-oflice in 
ISdC), which position he held for three or four 
years. He joined a temperance organization at 
Dover in ISliT, and as this is a subject in which 
he takes a great interest, temperance organizations 
have been established all over Pope County. Al- 
though in his seventy-seventh year and somewhat 
deaf, Mr. Bowden can read ordinary print without 
the aid of glasses. He lost his wife in ]Ss5. She 
was a member of the Methodist Ejiiscopal Church 
also, and was an active worker in the same. 
Despite his old age, he raised, the present year, 
with his own hands, two and one-half bales of 
cotton, thirty bushels of corn and forty bushels of 
sweet potatoes, besides he preached nearly every 
Sunday. 

C. L. Bowden, farmer, Allegan, Ark. Among 
the successful agriculturists of Pope County, 
whose merits are such as to entitle him to repre- 
sentation in the present work, is Mr. Bowden, the 
sul)ject of this sketch. He is a native-born resi- 
dent of Arkansas, his birth occurring in 1850. and 
is a son of Hon. John S. and Elizabeth (Reynolds) 
Bowden, both natives of the Big Bend State, where 
they were united in marriage. They emigrated to 
Arkansas about 1840, settled in Marion County, 
where they remained for about two years, and in 
1842 came to Pope County, settling in Gum Log 
Township. From there they afterward removed to 
Valley Township, where they entered and bought 
200 acres of land, and the father had about ninety 
acres of this cleared at the time of his death, which 
occuiTed in 18G5. He was a prominent man and 
was a member of the Legislature three terms. 
Both he and wife were members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. Of the twelve children born 
to their marriage, eight are now living: Mrs. Ann 
]\Iullens, Mrs. Caroline Brashear. James H., Allen, 
Charles L., W. Franklin, Mrs. Bell Doughit and 
Margaret. Charles L. Bowden. subject of this 
sketch, was reared and educated in Pope County. 
and in 1S6U began working for himself as a tiller 
of the soil. On Christmas of that year he was mar- 
ried to Miss Margaret L. Ashmore, daughter of 



1 '1 
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POPE COUNTY. 



215 



Jamea and Denia (Mathews) Ashinore, both natives 
of Tennessee. Mr. Bowden purchased ei^jhty acres 
of land in 1872, and of these he soon cleared twen- 
tv-tive acres, and erected an excellent frame house, 
outbuildings, etc. Later he bought ninety acres 
more, improved about tifieen acres of this, and now 
altogether has about eighty- live acres under culti- 
vation. He is one of the thoroughgoing, enter- 
[irising citizens, and a man of good, sound judg- 
ment. To his marriage were born nine children: 
Denia (wife of R. J. Barrett), Minnie May (de- 
ceased), John S., William J., Frank O., Clifton 
H. , George E., Virgil R. and Emory. Mr. and 
Mrs. Bowden are worthy members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, of which he is a trustee, and he 
is also a member of the Sunday-school board. Dur- 
ing an average season Mr. Bowden' s farm will 
yield twenty-tive bushels of corn, or one-half a 
Ijale of cotton to the acre. 

Hon. Walter W. Brashear, postmaster at Eus- 
sellville, and a prominent citizen and planter of 
Pope County, Ark., was born in Marion County, 
Ark., in 183'J, and was the eldest of eleven chil- 
dren born to M. M. andSallieL. (Yaughan) Brash - 
ear, the father a native of the Blue- Grass State, 
and the mother of Tennessee. The father was a 
farmer by occupation, and came to Arkansas in 
1838, locating in Marion County, where he re- 
mained until 1847. He then came to Pope County, 
settled in the northern part on 120 acres, and be- 
ing something of a speculator became the owner 
of several tracts of land. In 1S62 he entered the 
Federal Army as a recruiting officer of the Second 
Arkansas Cavalry, continuing in that duty and 
ranking as major until August. 18')4, when he was 
killed in an engagement in Searcy County. The 
mother is still living in this county with her 
daughter. She is a meml)erof the Jlethodist Epis- 
copal Church, of which the father was also a mem- 
ber. The father was a very progressive and 
active citizen, and was something of a lawyer as 
well as a tiller of the soil. Walter W. Brashear 
WiLs early initiated into the duties of farm life, and 
bis educational advantages were limited to the 
common schools of Pope Coimty. At the age of 
iw.'uty-one years he started out for himself as a 



farmer, but just previous to his twenty-first birth- 
day he was married to Miss Mary Rackley, a na- 
tive of Tennessee, who lived but three years, leav- 
ing two children, both of whom are grown and mar- 
ried. The eldest one, Sallie, became the wife of 
Wiley Duvall and resides in this count}", and the 
second, Melviua, is the wife of Henderson H. Pigg, 
a farmer of this county. During the Civil War ilr. 
Brashear entered the First Arkansas Cavalry, Com- 
pany L, Federal Army, under Col. M. La Rue Har- 
rison. He was captured near Prairie Grove, Ark. , 
December 9, 18*32, and was kept a prisoner three 
months, and upon his return to his command he 
was commissioned quartermaster-sergeant, tilling 
that position until peace was declared, and operat- 
ing principally in Arkansas. He was wounded 
near Prairie Grove. He was mustered out at 
Fayetteville, Ark., on August 23, 1805, after 
which he returned home and resumed farming. 
He was married, the second time, in July, 1865, to 
Miss Nancy W. Brewer of Arkansas. On his re- 
turn to Arkansas Mr. Brashear purchased 2CX) 
acres of land in the geographical center of the 
county and made many improvements adding about 
sixty acres. He has 125 acres under cultivation 
and has erected two tenant houses. Mr. Brash- 
ear has always been active in the county's im- 
provements, and has always been a vigorous and 
conscientious Republican. He was a member of the 
Constitutional Convention in 1808, and was a mem- 
ber of the Lower House of the General Assembly 
in that year. He has 'oeen justice of the peace of 
Moreland Township for eighteen years, and was 
appointed postmaster at Russellville under Presi- 
dent Arthur. Upon the election of Grover Cleve- 
land he resigned, but was again appointed on 
March 27, 1889, by President Harrison. This 
is a distributing office for tifteen offices, is an 
office of the third grade and is being elevated 
in business. To Mr. Brashear" s second marriage 
were born thirteen children, nine of whom are 
living: Mary E. (married A. C. Bowden and died 
in 1888, leaving one daughter), Mortimore (died at 
the age of three years), Maggie (became the wife 
of C. H. Dunn), Victoria (became the wife of 
Cinclair Perrv, and resides with our subject), 



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Lincoln (dieil at the age of two years), Martha 
Lue, Adam C. , Ford, Ursly, Warren, Lilliaii, 
Thomas and Mama are the others. Mr. Brashear 
was baptized in the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
in February, 1840, and has been an active mem- 
ber since. He was a delegate to the general con- 
ference in Cincinnati in ISSO, and to many local 
conferences. Mrs. Brashear and the children are 
members of the same church. ^Ir. Brashear is a 
Mason, a member of Blue Lodge No. 274, Chapter 
No. 70, and Palestine Commandery No. 7, all of 
Rnssellville. He has been master of the Blue 
Lodge and secretary of the chapter. He assisted 
in the organization of Cross Plains Lodge and was 
its first master. 

D. C. Brown, merchant of Dover, Ai'k. In the 
preparation of this brief outline of the life history 
of one of the most worthy residents of Pope 
County, appear facts which are greatly to his credit. 
His intelligence, enterprise, integrity as well as 
many other worthy qualities, have acquired for 
him a popularity not derived from any factitious cir- 
cumstances, but a permanent and spontaneous 
tribute to his merit. He was born in Randolph 
County, N. C, April 12, 1837, and with his father, 
Samuel Brown, a mechanic, came to Arkansas, 
when five years of age, and as he was compelled 
to labor on a farm in his youth, he received only 
the advantages of the common schools near his 
home. At the age of twenty-one years he began 
doing business for himself, entering the general 
mercantile store of D. James as a clerk, and after 
remaining there two years, he severed his connec- 
tion with this establishment and went to Clarks- 
ville, where he entered the store of B. F. Hershey, 
two years also being spent here, at the end of 
which time he had been elected sheriif of Pope 
County, and in August, 1860, gave up his clerk- 
ship and entered upon his duties as a public otfi- 
cial, which position he tilled in a highly satisfactory 
manner for two years. He then resigned his 
office to enter the Confederate Army as first lieu- 
tenant of Company A, Williamson's battalion of 
Arkansas Volunteers, and was sent to Mississippi, 
where in the fall of 1862 he was discharged on ac- 
count of disability resulting from sickness. In 



December of the same year he had recovered sutii- 
cieutly to re-enlist, and was elected first lieutenant 
of Company A, Hill's regiment, Arkansas Cavalry, 
and was immediately placed on active service, and 
was in the battles of Pine Blutf, Poison Springs, 
]\Iark's Mills, and was with Price on his raid in 
Missouri in 1x04. While on that raid near Dover 
he was promoted to the rank of captain, after 
which he took part in the battles of Pilot Knob, 
Boonville, Jefl'erson City, Independence, Fayette- 
ville, afterward going to Camp Monroe, where 
they remained for some time. They were dis- 
mounted near Spring Hill, Ark., and were assigned 
to duty in Gen. Roan's iufantr}' regiment, and 
were marched to Camp Magruder, La., thence to 
Shreveport and afterward to Marshall, Tex., where 
they were discharged. ]Mr. Brown then returned 
home to find his property scattered and every- 
thing laid waste. After teaching a three months' 
term of school on Big Piney Creek he returned to 
Dover and entered into partnership with D. P. 
West in t'ue mercantile business, but this partner- 
ship was dissolved by mutual consent after a tew 
years. Since that time Mr. Brown has been iu 
business alone. Although he began with a very 
small capital at the close of the war he has accumu- 
lated a good property, and is the owner of a tract 
of land comprising eighty acres, lying near the 
town. He was married on Jantiary 10, 1858. to Mi-s 
R.E.Hagins.of Dover, but she and their infant child 
died while Mr. Brown was in the army. He was 
remarried on February 7, 1806, to !Mrs. A. -J. 
Rankin, of Dover, and one child, a daughter 
named Marie, blessed their union, she being c.jw 
the wife of J. A. Miller, of Rnssellville. Mr. 
Brown and his wife are members in good st-iu<ling 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, in which 
he holds the office of Sunday-school superintendent. 
He is chaplain in the A. F. & A. M. lodge of 
Dover, is a Democrat politically, and at all times 
gives liberally of his means in the support of 
worthy enterprises. 

J. J. Brown (deceased) was one of the most 
successfttl and progressive farmers of Pope County, 
Ark. His father and mother were born in .Ala- 
bama and came to this county, and at a very early 



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POPE COUNTY. 



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(liiy settled in Martin Township with their parents. 
The early educational opportunities of the subject 
of this sketch were very limited, yot he improved 
his opportunities to the best of his ability, so 
that he was enabled to transact all necessary busi- 
ness connected with his farm. He entered the 
army when but sixteen years of age as a private, 
and served three years, but during this time was 
promoted to first lieutenant. Ujion his return 
homt>, at the close of the war, he rented and 
worked his father's farm, which had been laid 
waste during the war. During this time he was 
married to Miss Sallie L. Hushing of Dover Town- 
ship, who proved to him a helpmate indeed. They 
lived together for twenty-one years in perfect 
harmony, and it was as much by the help of his 
wife as by his own perseverance and energy, that 
he made so great a succe.ss of his life. He pur- 
chased lands at different times until he at one 
time was the owner of l,(lilt.) acres, which land was 
in his possession at the time of his death, on 
which he still owed SI, 0(10, which sum of money 
^Irs. Brown has since jiaid, so that she is the 
owner of the place, free from all incumbrance. 
She has about 350 acres under cultivation, which 
she rents out, but as she is an intelligent and 
shrewd business woman, she has personal super- 
vision of her property. Mr. Brown was reared in 
the Baptist faith, and although not a member of 
any church, was a moral, upright man in every 
worthy particular and had the thorough good-will 
and respect of his fellow-men. He was born on 
March U, 1S44, and died in 18SS, his marriage 
having taken place in 1807. He and his wife 
became the parents of four children; Joseph 
O., Maggie B., Willie G. and I. J. The eldest 
son, Joseph, is attending school at Dover, and is 
now twenty-two years of age. Maggie is married 
to Edward Truitt, and is living in Newton County. 
Ark., and all the children have received good 
• ducational advantages. Mrs. Brown was born in 
this county August 15, 1848. but on account of 
the war .she attended school but little in her girl- 
hood. She has been a member of the Presbyter- 
ian Church since before her mairiage, and is in 
pvery respect a worthy, Christian lady, being con- 



pcientions, charitable and kin<lly in disposition. 
The buildings on her farm are among the best in 
the county, and it is also improved by a tine poach 
and apple orchard, and, in fact, ever} thing abuut 
the place bespeaks thrift and intelligent industry. 

Dr. J. AV. Bruton. As a man of business Mr. 
Bruton's name and fame is co-extensive with Pope 
County and the surrounding country. He has been 
closely identified with every interest of this sec- 
tion, and as a merchant has built u[i a large and 
paying business by his ability and foresight. He 
was born in Pope County, Ark., on January 15, 
1837, to James and Sallie (Angel) Bruton, who 
were born in Kentucky and Tennessee in 17U<) and 
ISOG, respectively, the former passing to his long 
home in 1802, and the latter in 1854. James Bra 
ton was a minister of the Ba[)tist Church, and rep 
resented Pope County in the State Legislature for 
three terms, being one of the leading citizens of 
this section during his day. J. W. Bruton has 
spent the most of his life in Pope County, and, 
notwithstanding the fact that his early advantages 
were poor, ho has by self application become a 
well-i)0sted and intelligent man. Upon attaining 
his majority he began making his own way in the 
world, and after devoting considerable time to the 
study of medicine he, in 18<)5. began practicing 
that profession, but in 188*) was compelled to give 
up this calling on account of failing health. He 
then threw open to the public a general mercan- 
tile store at Appleton with a stock of goods worth 
about S2,000, and this calling he has continued 
with flattering success up to the present time. Dr. 
Bruton is also a minister of the gospel, and tir^t 
began preaching the doctrines of the Cumberlaml 
Presbyterian Church in 1878. He was married 
in October, 1858, to ^liss Jennie Montgomery, a 
daughter of John C. and Matilda (Grayson) Mont- 
gomery, by whom he became the father of these 
children: Elliot B., James H., Elnora V. (de- 
ceased!, Viola E. , Theora A., Nettie L. and Mit- 
tie M. Dr. Bruton volunteered in the Confederate 
Army in 1802, but was discharged at the end of 
three months on account of ill health. 

James Bruton, father of Dr. J. W. Bruton. as 
a minister was elected chaplain of the State Senate 





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of Arkansas in 1^51, and filled tbo position with 
credit to himself, fj;iving satisfaction to all inter- 
ested. He organized very nearly all of the Baptist 
Churches that existed in Pope, Conway and John- 
sou Counties before the war. He moderated the 
convention that constituted the tirst Baptist asso- 
ciation in that part of Arkansas. Politically he 
was ever a tirm Democrat, and as a legislator he 
was always earnest, working for the interest of the 
people. His name will be long remembered l>y the 
older citizens of Arkansas. John C. Montgomery, 
father of Mrs. Jennie Bruton, held the office of 
clerk of Monroe County, Ark., for eight successive 
years, and until his death. He was a prominent 
man in said county. Dr. J. W. Bruton' s children 
are as follows: Elliot K. Bruton (was married to 
Mr. J. J. Williams, who is in the mercantile busi- 
ness at Appleton, Ark. j, James Homer Bruton (is a 
young man with good business qualifications, who 
has written much for different newspapers; he is a 
merchant of Appleton, Ark. ), Viola E. Bruton 
(married John A. Lewis, Esq., a prominent lawyer 
of Appleton). 

A. P. Bryau. Pope County, Ark., is one of the 
most fertile counties of the State, and in this highly 
productive region Jlr. Bryan has resided from his 
birth and has become well known to the inhabitants 
of this section. His birth occurred November S, 
1845, to Darius and Susan (Hamilton) Bryau, the 
former being a native and farmer of North Caro- 
lina, but was married in this county, his union re- 
sulting in the birth of seven sons and three daugh- 
ters, the following members of the family being 
now alive: Miranda R., (wife of L. D. Cannon), L. 
D., A. P., James, Algianun, Ilobert, Belle Z. (wife 
of James Grantham), and William E. Nora is dead. 
Mr. Bryan came to this State at a very early day 
and f(.ir several years was constable of the township 
in which he settled. He became well known and 
highly honored throughout this section. He and 
his wife both died of small pox in February, 187(3. 
A. P. Bryan has always been a resident of Pope 
County, and for the conscientious discharge of 
every duty in every relation in life no man is more 
worthy of respect and esteem than he. In 1808 
he was united in marriage to Miss Nancy A. Mul- 



lins. a native of the State of Georgia, born in 1845, 
and in duo course of time a family of sis children 
gathered about their fireside, their names being as 
follows: Eliza E. , Charles D. , Elizabeth, Finis, 
William F. and George W. By hard work and 
good management Mr. Bryan has become the owner 
of 25"2 acres of land, UO of which he has suc- 
ceeded in putting under cultivation, and on which 
he has erected a substantial frame residence and 
good barns. He also has an excellent orchard of 
apple, peach and plum trees and a good vineyard. 
He is a member of Kussellville Lodge No. 1353 of 
the K. of H. 

Amos Bullock has given his attention to farming 
throughout life, and as a result of his years of hard 
labor he now has a good home and is well fixed 
financially. He was born in Weakley County, 
Tenn., in 1842, to W. J. and Mary A. (Wallace) 
Bullock, who were born in Tennessee and Ken- 
tucky, respectively, their removal to Arkansas tak- 
ing place about 1857. They '■ pitched their tent " 
in Pope County, Ark., and here the father resided 
imtil his death in 1883, of typhoid fever. He and 
his wife reared a large family to honored manhood 
and womanhood, their sous numbering nine and 
their daughters two. Owing to their large family, 
and the rather hard time they had to properly 
feed and clothe their children, the latter did not 
receive much of an education. In 180U Amos be- 
gan doing business for himself, and as above 
stated has devoted his life to farming. He was 
first married in 18GS to Miss Lydia F. Rowland, a 
I daughter of G. W. and Lavina (Candle) Rowland. 
j and to their union these children were born: Mary 
L. (who died at the age of seven), and Sarah E. 
(who passed from life at the age of eight). Mr. 
; Bullock's second marriage took place November 23, 
i 1871, Mary E. Ro.ss, a daughter of Melton H. and 
I Rachel (Brown) Ross, becoming his wife. In 1802 
I Mr. Bullock enlisted in the Confederate Army, and 
I served until the war was over. He has been justice 
[ of the peace for six years, and on Septeml)er 1, 
I lS"Jt>, was elected for another term by the Demo- 
i cratic party, of which he has always been a mem 

ber, as are his eight brothers. 
; Jackson T. Bullock, clerk of the circuit court. 



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Kns.scllville, Ark. Mr. Bullock, the present effi- 
cient incumbent of the otllco of clerk of the circuit 
court, is a man of sober, sound judgment, progres- 
sive ideas, and one who attracts the regard of all 
who approach him. He was originally from Weak- 
ley County, Tenn., his birth occurring on Sep- 
tember 22, 1S55, and was the sixth of eleven chil- 
dren born to William J. and Mar}' Ann (Wallace) 
Bullock, natives, respectively, of Virginia and Teu- 
uesseCi The parents were manied in the last 
named State, and the father followed agricultural 
pursuits until I'^'iG. when he came to Marion 
County, Ark., and from there to Po]>e Ci^uuty in 
the following year. His death occurred in this 
county in 1SS3. The mother is still living on the 
olil homestead, three miles north of Dover. The 
paternal great-grandfather of our subject, William 
Bullock, was an Englishman, and came to the 
United States about the time of the Revolutionary 
War. He settled in Virginia, and followed farm- 
ing there until his death which occurred when our 
subject's father, William Jefferson Bullock, was an 
infant. Amos Bullock, grandfather of our subject, 
was born in the Old Dominion, emigrated to Ten- 
nessee at an early day, followed farming, and there 
his death occurred about ISoS. Jackson T. Bul- 
lock's educational advantages were limited, for he 
attended only the common three months' schools. 
Ho began teaching at the age of seventeen years 
and followed that as his principal occupation until 
the age of thirty one when he was elected county 
judge. He taught many years in one school and 
was a popular and very successful educator. He 
held the office of county judge for two terms 
(four years), and on September 1, 1S90, he was 
elected circuit clerk of the county. He has ever 
lieen an active worker for the Demricratic party. 
He was married on October 1, lSy2, to Miss Win- 
nie Price, a native of this county and daugh- 
ter of Allen A. Price, one of the early settlers 
i>f Tennessee. The fruits of this union were four 
children: Zola ^fay (who died at the age of seven 
nionths), Allen Jefferson, Tillie and ^klary Frances, 
ifr. Bullock is a Mason, of Scottville Lodge Xo. 
112, and was master of that lodge for live years. 
He has taken the chapter degrees. Mrs. Bullock 



is a memljer of the Presbyterian C'iiurch. Mr. 
Bullock is the owner of a small farm, has forty 
acres under cultivation, and has a pleasant home in 
Kusseliville. 

George Byerly, farmer, Atkins, Ark., was born 
in Germany in July, ISll), and has all the promi 
nent characteristics of those of German birth, be- 
ing thrifty, industrious and enterprising. Ho is 
the son of Conrad and Elizabeth (Schmidt) Byerly, 
natives of the old ctaintry, who emigrated to 
Aiiierica in IS^fl. The parents located in Clarke, 
Intl., bought land and there tilled the soil until 
their deaths in IS-fS. Of the six children born to 
their marriage, tive were sons and one a daughter. 
The daughter, Mary, married a man by the name 
of Caufman, and is now deceased. The sons were 
named Michael, David, George, Paul and John. 
The last named died in Louisville, Ky., several 
years ago. David wont to Boston, Mass., on a visit 
and died while there, and Michael died in Indiana 
about 1878. George Byerly removed from Indi 
ana to Louisville, Ky., about 1848, but prior to 
this, in 1843, he was married to Miss Margaret 
Edlin. He became disgusted with farming in In- 
diana, being obliged to sell corn at 12J cents and 
wheat for 37j cents per bushel, after going a dis 
tance of eight miles to market, and after moving 
to Kentucky he engaged in hack driving in Louis- 
ville, accumulated some money, and then moved to 
Arkansas in 1854, pausing for about two years in 
Conway County before permanently locating in 
Pope County. He here bought land and has been 
engaged in tilling the soil ever since. He now owns 
320 acres of land and has 210 acres under culti- 
vation. He has also 112 acres in Conway County. 
When the war broke out he had seventy-five head 
of cattle, twenty four horses and mules and 2, (.)()() 
bushels of corn, all of which were appropriated by 
the Union troops, Mr. Byerly never receiving a 
cent of money for his property. To his marriage 
were born ten children, tivo of whom are now living: 
John, Michael, America, Mary and Georgia. John 
is married and resides in Logan County, where he 
is engaged in the drug business at National Springs; 
Michael is clerk in a dry-goods store in MoiTiUton; 
America resides in ilorrillton and is the wifi> of 



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220 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



Richard Brooks wlio is thoownerof a large amount 
of real estate; Mary marrieil Calliuun Strong.a pros 
perous merchantof Morrillton, and Georgia married 
James Collins, a farmer of Pope County. INIr. Byer- 
ly has retired from active business, and is living in 
Atkins where he is honored and esteemed. He is 
now seventy-one and bis wife seventy years of age. 
Both are church members, ho of the ]Metbodist 
and she of the Regular Baptist Church. They 
are liberal contributors to all laudalile enterprises, 
and are among the leading citizens of the com- 
munity. 

A. J. Collins, farmer. Holly Bend, Ark. Pope 
County, Ark., is acknowledged by all to be one of 
the best agricultural portions of the State, and as 
such its citizens are men of advanced ideas and 
considerable prominence. A worthy man among 
this class is found in the person of Mr. Collins 
who was born in the Old Dominion, Botetourt 
County, in March, 1840. He removed from Vir- 
ginia to Alabama in IS'il, and there be was oc- 
cupied in repairing telegraph line and was engaged 
in the same business in Mississippi and Tennessee 
until 1871. After that be bad charge of a gang 
of section bands on the M. it C. R. R. for two 
years. He then returned to ^Mississippi, bought 
land and was engaged in farming until 1880. In 
1865 he was married to Miss Matilda Feagin, 
daughter of Thomas Feagin, of Mississippi, and to 
them were lioru ten children, viz. : William F., A. 
J., J. D., Minnie J., Fanny Ann, George S., Lily 
D., Lulu 3Iay, Luther J. and Ann Elizabeth. 
Three of these children are deceased: Lulu May, 
Luther J. and Ann E. William F. and A. J. are 
residing in Texas, but the other cliildren are at 
home with tbeir parents. Mr. Collins lost his 
lirst wife in September, 18S5, and was left with 
eight children to care for. In January, 1SS6. be 
was married to Miss ilary J. McMasters, daughter 
of Jonathan McMasters of Mississippi. Our sub- 
ject returned to the last named State on purpose 
to marry Miss McMasters, having formed her ac- 
quaintance some years before while in that State. 
To the last union were born two children: Anna 
Eliza and Luther Franklin, the latter deceased. 
Mr. Collins now owns 120 acres of good laud situ- 



1 ated in Holly Bend Township, Pope County, and 

near Holly Bend post-office, and has sixty-live acres 

[ under cultivation. He and iirs, Collins are mem- 

j hers of the Missionary Baptist Church. Mr. Col- 

j lins was one of twelve children, eight now living, 

i two besides our subject residing in Arkansas, born 

I to the union of John D. and Nancy (Perry) Collins, 

both natives of Virginia. The paternal grandpar 

j ents were of Irish and the maternal of German 

descent. 

William L. Crow, farmer, Caglesville, Aik. 
Mr. Crow is a man of dgcidod intellectual ability, 
and bis progressive ideas and energetic, wide- 
awake ujanner of taking advantage of all new meth- 
ods have had not a little to do with bis success in 
life. He was born in Jackson County, Ark., in 
1865, and is one of twelve children, five of whom 
are living, born to Stephen and Tempy A. (Boyd) 
Crow, the father a native of South Carolina, and 
the mother of Georgia. The cliildren besides our 
subject now living are Mrs. Sarah L. Benton, Mrs. 
Mary A. Sherrell, Mrs. Miley D. Pearson and Mrs. 
Dulcina Howard. The parents moved to Arkan- 
sas in 1860, settled in Jackson County, where they 
purchased 120 acres of land, of which they cleared 
about seventy acres, and then sold out and came 
to Pope County in 1872. There they purchased 
120 acres of land, homesteaded eighty acres more, 
and at the time of his death, which occurred in 
1887, the father had cleared about sixty acres. 
The mother is still living. At the age of nineteen 
years William L. Crow removed to Russellville, re- 
mained there for nearly two years, and then went 
to Center Township, where in connection with 
farming he taught school, engaging in the latter 
occupation about six months each year. He is sole 
heir to his father's estate, in which his mother holds 
a life interest, and he has made many improve- 
ments, erecting barns, cribs, and clearing land. 
His principal crops are corn, cotton and oats, and 
he is also engaged in stock-raising. Mr. Crow is 
a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
South, is vice-president of Pope County Sunday- 
school Association for Center Township, and is 
also vice-president of the Singing School Associa- 
tion for said township. He has been secretary of 



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tlio Siiiulay-seliool Association three terms, secre- 
tary of the homo Sumlay-school for seven or eight i 
years, and superintendent of the same for a year. 
At a special election he was made justice of the 
peace in 1S8S, and was re-elected to that position in 
18'.((). He has been chairman of the township con- 
vention, and is a member of the Democratic central 
committee of Pope County, ilr. Crow has been on 
the staff of the Russellville Democrat ff^r ten years 
ns correspondent and rej)orter, and by a system of 
short-hand of his <jwn, is able to report speeches, 
etc. This he has frequently done for the Demo- 
crat, and also writes for the Pope County Mail, 
and for the City and Country, an Ohio publication, 
devoted to farming interests. He has also reported 
for other papers on special occasions. At the pres- 
ent time Mr. Crow is turning his attention to fruit- 
raising, having planted 1,2()0 apple and some 
peach trees, and now has an orchard of about 300 
trees. His land is nicely adapted to fruit-raising, 
all varieties thriving in this section. 

John C. Darr, merchant, Athens, Ark. Prom- 
inent among the successful business concerns of 
Athens stands the mercantile establishment con- 
ducted by Mr. Darr, who is one of the city's most 
enterprising and popular business men. He was 
born in the Tar Heel State, Lincoln County, in 
1833, and of the six children born to his parents, 
Henry R. and Ann (Blackljurn) Darr, he was 
second in order of birth. He attained his growth 
on the farm, was educated in the country schools, 
and at the age of eighteen years he left his home 
to learn the trade of plasterer and bricklayer. 
After finishing his apprenticeship, in l^^oS. he 
came with his family to Arkansas and settled in 
Pope County. In 185U he went to Mississippi, 
remained there for one year, and then returned to 
Pope County, where he was residing at the break- 
ing out of the war. He enlisted in Dodson's com- 
pany, and was in a number of skirmishes in 
.\rkaiisas, but was soon taken sick and discharged. 
After a time he joined Company E, Gordon's 
regiment, Cabell's brigade (cavalry) and served in 
tilt' Trans Mississippi Department, and on outpost 
duty. He was in several skirmishes in Louisiana. 
was in the battles of Poison Spring and Marks- 



ville, was at Jenkins' Ferry, but not in battle, and 
was in nearly all the engagements of Price's raid 
through Missouri. He was captured near Pisgah 
Church in Pope County in the winter of 1804, was 
sent to the military prison at Little Kock, and was 
released at Gen. Lee's surrender. He then camo 
home and for a year was in bad health, and on 
this account went to Texas where he remained 
until 1S71. He went to Hot Springs in 1871, 
and was engaged in mercantile Ijusiness there until 
spring of 1874. "While residing in Texas he was 
engaged in contracting and building and erected 
many of the first buildings in Waco and Jefferson. 
In 1874 he came to Atkins, and at once engaged 
in business with his brother, J. F. Darr, the 
partnership continuing until ISSl, when they sep- 
arated, and Mr. Darr has been in business alone 
ever since. Mr. Darr now occupies a large build- 
ing, 25x100 feet, with warehouse, and owns another 
building which he erected. 2Gxl20 feet, for a store- 
room. He carries a full line of general merchan- 
dise of about §11,000, and does an annual business 
of about •'?3r),000, buying cotton and doing a plan- 
tation supply trade. In 1880 he erected a neat 
residence in town and owns considerable other 
town property besides a farm of 200 acres which 
he rents. He was married in 1871 to Miss S. D. 
Wilson, of this county, a daughter of James Wil- 
son, who is one of the old settlers of this section. 
It was in honor of the latter' s grandfather, who 
came here at an early day, that Wilson Township 
was named. To this union were born six chil- 
dren, four of whom are living and two dead: 
Emmett L., Claude W., John E., Lizzie and 
Annie (twins). Annie died at the age of six 
months, and the first born child died unnamed. 
Mrs. Darr, who died in 18S3, was a meml)er of 
the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Mr. Darr 
was married the second time in 1885 to Jliss M. 
E. Scarlett, who was born and raised in this town- 
ship (\\"iIson). 

E. A. Darr, merchant, Atkins, La. This pop- 
ular and very successful business man was origi- 
nally from North Carolina, his birth occurrihcr in 
183t), and was the third in a family of sis children 
orn to Henry K. and Ann (Blackburn) Darr. lioth 



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of whom were natives also of North Caroliua. 
The father was a farmer, was quite a prominent 
citizen, and held several county offices of trust. 
Ho died in his native State in lS-1-5. The mother 
is also deceased. The paternal grandfather, Henry 
Darr, was of German descent, and was a farmer 
by pursuit. He was a soldier in the Revolution- 
ary War. His wife lived to he ninety-nine years 
of age, and often told her grandson, E. A. Darr, 
many interesting events of the Revolution. She 
had a number of relics of that eventful period. 
The maternal grandfather, David Blackburn, was 
of English descent, and was also a soldier in the 
Revolutionary War. E. A. Darr was taught the 
rudiments of farm labor, but at an early age he 
learned the trade of bricklayer and mason. He 
was married in ISTd to Miss L. C. Plott, a native 
of the Old Tar State, and to them were born eight 
children, live now living: Guy, Ida (died at the 
age of sixteen years), Roy (died in infancj'). Fay; 
Ora, Ira, Ree and Ott (who died in infancy). Af- 
ter learning his trade Mr. Darr worked at that I 
until 1800. He came to Arkansas in ISriS, settled 
near Atkins with mother and family, and at the I 
breaking out of the war in 1S61 enlieted in the I 
Confederate Army, Company B, Second Arkan- | 
sas Mounted Kitlemen. He was in the battles of I 
Oak Hill (Mo.), Pea Ridge (Ark.), and the command ; 
then crossed the ^Mississippi, where Mr. Darr was i 
in the battles of Farmingtmi and Richmond, Ky. 
He was wounded at the last named place on Au- ' 
gust 30. ISlVi, and reached home in 18(i3. After 
the war he worked at his trade for a year, and 
then engaged as clerk for R. A. Dowdle, at Galla 
Rock. The next year he became a member of the 
firm, and has since been an active merchant. In 
1873 he came to Atkins, cleared the land, and was 
the first to make a settlement. He was among the 
first merchants. In ISSO he erected his fine brick 
store, 25x140 feet, and carries a full line of gen- 
eral merchandise and plantation supplies. He car- I 
ries a stock of goods valued at -S^rJ.OOO, and does 
an annual business of from sTiO.Oi)!) to .^7.1, 000. 
He is an energetic business man, al)undantly worthy 
of the large measure of success achieved. Aside 
from this he i.s the owner of aLuUt "^.(KH) acr.-s in 



diti'erent tracts, with considerable under culliva- 
: tion and all of which he rents. He was made post - 
i master at Atkins in 1S7:1 and was also the first 
I railroad agent at that place. He owns one of the 
best residences in the town, and a number of other 
residences. Jlr. Darr is a sclf-mado man in the 
fullest sense of that much-abused term, and is en- 
terprising, progressive and public spirited. He is 
a member of the A. F. & A. M. . Galla Rock Lodge 
No. 172, is a K. of P., of Arcadia Lodge No. 24, 
and is a member of the I. O. O. F., Lodin? No. -'S. 
He is an active supporter of the principles of De- 
mocracy. 

James F. Darr, merchant, Atkins, Ark., is 
another prominent business man of Atkins, and as 
such he has the confidence and respect of all. His 
birth occurred in North Carolina in 1841, and of 
the six children born to bis parents, Henry and 
Ann (Blackburn) Darr (sec sketch of J. C. Darr), 
he was fifth in order of birth. He attended the 
schools of his native State, and there remained 
until 1S5S, when he came to Arkansas, and there 
followed farming until 1374. At the opening of 
the war in ISGl, be enlisted in Company I, King's 
regiment, and was in the battles of Prairie Grove, 
Helena and Little Rock, after which he went to 
Louisiana. Later he returned to Arkansas, and 
was in the battle of Jenkins' Ferry, and numerous 
skirmishes. He surrendered at Marshall, Tex. 
Returning to Arkansas he first engaged in farming, 
and in 1874 he came to Atkins, where he has since 
been engaged in merchandising. He first was in 
partnership with J. C. Darr, but they dissolved 
partnership in IN^l. and our subject has since 
been in business alone. In 1881 he erected his 
fine two-story brick liusiness house, 25x140 fe..r. 
and has a large warehouse. He carries a stuck of 
goods valued at S 14,000, and does an annual iuisi- 
ness of aljout $8( 1,000. He buys cotton, and does 
a general furnishing business. Aside from his 
mercantile interest he is the owner of 100 acres of 
land, and has sixty-five acres under cultivation. In 
18^4 ho erected a. neat two-story residence, and has 
a pleasant, comfortable home. He is also the 
owner of fifteen acres in town, r.i'.d two tenant 
houses. He was married in 18I'»8 to Miss Marv J. 



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POPE COUNTY. 



223 



Hearin, a native of Pope County, and the daiii^'hter 
of J. A. Hearin, who is a pioneer of this county. 
To Mr. and ;\Irs. Darr were born nine chiklren, sis 
of whom are living: John E. (liook-keeper in Mr. 
Darr's store), William E., James L., lioy W., 
Alva C. and Earl. Enj^'ene, Carl and an infant 
are deceased. Mr. Darr wa.s the tirst mayor of 
Atkins. He is a member of the K. of P., Arfadia 
Lodi^e No. 44, and has been chancellor com- 
uiaudor. Mrs. Darr is a member of the ^Methodist 
Episcopal (3hurch, South. 

John W. Daniel, farmer, Atkins, Ark. Mr. 
Daniel was horn in Cherokee County, Ala., on 
February \), 1 S5i), and is the son of Thomas 
Y. and Elizabeth (Clifton) Daniel, the father 
a native of South Carolina, and the mother 
of Georgia. The parents were married in Chero- 
kee County, Ala., and resided there until ISGO, 
when they removed to Pope County, Ark. They 
bought large tracts of land, 265 acres in Lee 
Township, Pope County, lying on Arkansas Kiver, 
and 440 acres partly in Conway and partly in 
Pt)pe Counties. They reared a family of four 
children, \Villiam M. , Mary D., Thomas Y. and 
John W., all of whom are living in Pope County, 
and engaged in tilling the soil. William married 
Miss Ada Tobey, and is the father of three chil- 
dren. Mary D., married John White, a stanch 
Democrat, who is deputy sheriff and has served in 
that capacity for ten years. Thomas Y. is not 
married, and is also an agriculturist. John W. 
Daniel was married in November, 1887, to Miss 
Lucy H. Talkington, whose parents died several 
years ago. To this marriage have been born two 
cliildren, a son and daughter, Connie and Thom- 
as Y. , the former about two years old and the 
latter two months. Mr. Daniel has 200 acres of 
land in Lee Township, lying on the river, all rich 
bottom land and worth at least §40 per acre. On 
this he raises corn and cotton, producing easily a 
bale of cotton to the acre. ^Mr. Daniel farms 
f^miH himself, but rents the most of his land. He is 
"He of the most prosperous farmers in Pope Coun- 
ty, and one of its most liberal contributors to all 
iauilalile enterprises. In politics he is strictly 
Di'mocratic. 



Caleb Davis, planter, Gum Log, Ark. I'he par- 
ents of Mr. Davis, Caleb and Catherine (Henderson) 
Davis, were natives of Maryland and South Caro- 
lina, respectively. The father was a farmer, and left 
Tennessee for Missouri in 1S09, settled near New 
Madrid, where ho experienced the earthquake shock 
two years later, his hoiise being destroyed by the 
same. He followed farming, and died in 1810. 
The mother died at the same place in ISO."). Both 
were members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and reared their son Caleb to that belief. The lat- 
ter was born in Tennessee in ISOS, movct with his 
parents to Missouri in 1809, and there resided un- 
til 1831, when he came to Arkansas, settling in 
Pope County, on the same farm where he now re- 
sides, the following year. At that time the country 
was a wilderness, and in that year Mr. Davis built 
the first house in Gum Log Valley. He entered 
900 acres of land, cleared 300 acres, and as his 
children grew up he gave them farms, so that at 
the present time he owns but a small portion of 
the original tract. He organized the first Sunday- 
school in this section in 1839, and has been super- 
intendent of that school ever since, lieing elected 
annually since the first school. On the fiftieth 
anniversary of this school an entertainment was 
given, at which many Sunday-school workers from 
all parts of the State were present. He has also 
been an earnest advocate of public schools, and 
has been director for years. Mr. Davis was a sol- 
dier in the Mexican War, was on frontier duty, and 
was also a Confederate soldier in the Civil War. 
He raised a company and was in the battle of Pea 
Ridge, Corinth, Grand Gulf, Baker Creek, Black 
River, luka, and was through the siege of Vicks- 
burg. He had been promoted to colonel, but dar 
ing the siege he commanded a brigade. He was 
captured, paroled, and came home, after which he 
did not return to the army. He was married in ^lis- 
souri, in 1827, to Miss Elizabeth Tackett. who liore 
him ton children, three now living: William P. 
(died at the age of thirty-five years), James Lewis 
(has been farming in California for fifty years), 
Andrew Jackson (died at the age of eleven years), 
John Alvin (died in Texas when forty years of agei. 
George W. (a minister of the Methodist Episcopal 



-^iv 






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■J , J i T-lli' 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



Church South), Caleb Marion (killf J ou his way 
home after the war), Narcissus P. (died iu 18S4), 
Sarah E. (Jiod at eleven j-ears of age), one died 
in infancy, and Alliert Q. (the youngest, a success- 
ful farmer on the old homestead). Mr. Davis has 
l)epn a steward in the iMethodist Episcopal Church 
South foi' forty years, class leader for thirty years, 
and has always been a liberal contributor to church 
and Sunday-school. He was county judge for 
six years, first in 1847, serving two years, again in 
1800, for two years, and still again in 1S(><j, for 
two more years. He has been an extensive stock- 
raiser, a piosperous farmer, and run a cotton-mill 
and gin fur years. He had a hi_>rse-mill at first, 
and served the whole country. In ISTl he se- 
cured a special post route to Gum Log, once a week, 
and was the Urst postmaster at that place. They 
now have mail three times a week, and "Mr. Davis 
has been postmaster all the time. Ho is one of the 
oldest and most eminently respected citizens of the 
county. Although considerably over three-score 
years and ten, the allotted age of man, time has 
dealt very leniently with him. and he is in compar- 
atively good health, bidding fair to live many years 
longer. 

Samuel B. Dickey, farmer. Potts Station, Ark. 
The subject of this sketch is one of the honored 
pioneers of Pope County. He has been located here 
for thirty-four years, and has not only Ijecome well- 
known, but the respect and esteem shown him is 
as wide as his acquaintance. His linely improved 
farm of 240 acres is adorned with a commodious 
residence, and everything about the place indicates 
to the beholder a prosperous owner. Mr. Dickey 
was born in Lincoln County, N. C, in ISIO, and is 
the son of Alexander and ilargaret (Blackwood) 
Dickey, natives of Ireland and North Carolina, re- 
spectively. They both received their final sum- 
mons in the last named State. Samuel B. Dickey 
was married in his native State to iliss Mary 
Oates, daughter of John Oates, and the fruits of 
this union were six children: JIargaret .\nn, Eliza- 
beth J., John O., Alexander B., Nancy andAVill- 
iam, all of whom died in North Carolina except 
William. Mr. Dickey removed with his family to 
Pope County, .\rk. , in 1S5G, and here his daughter 



Katie was born. She married William Ferguson 
and died in ISST leaving her hiisl)and and three 
children. Mr. Dickey is now one of the oldest and 
most respected citizens of the county. His chil- 
dren are all deceased, but he has one grandson liv- 
ing with him. This child is named John C. Fails, 
and is the son of their daughter, Elizabeth J. 
Honored and esteemed by all, this worthy couple 
will pass the sunset of their days iu Pope County, 
where so many years of their lives have been 
passed. 

Thomas H. Elgin has been a resident of Pope 
County, Ark., since the year 1878, having come 
hither from Quincy, 111. He first settled at Potts 
Station, and was engaged as a commercial traveler 
until 1882, when he took up his abode at Eussell- 
ville, and opened a marble shop. From that time 
until the present he has had a constantly increas- 
ing trade which extends the entire length of the 
Little Bock Railroad, and his annual sales amount 
to about §10,000. His work has a wide reputation, 
and the demand is constantly increasing, a fact 
which speaks for itself as to the merit of the 
work done in his shop. His latest work of merit 
is the monument erected at Galla Rock for Col. 
Taylor, which is fifteen feet in height, and is of 
the finest Italian marble. A fine monument was 
also erected in memory of D. C. Williams and wife 
of Van Buren, this monument being of Rutland 
marble, and compares favorably with any work in 
the cemetery. Mr. Elgin also irses in his business 
the Georgia marble. Rutland Blue and White. He 
is now under contract to furnish stone trimmings 
for the Peoples' Exchange Bank of this county. 
He was born in Palmyra, Mo., November 18, 1841), 
and his early opportunities for acquiring an edu- 
cation were rather limited, being obtained in the 
common schools. He was taking a collegiate course 
when the war broke out, but left school to enlist 
iu the State Guards under Price, but later was in 
the commissary department of detached service. 
He next became a member of Company E, Marma- 
duke's division of cavalry, and l)efore the close of 
the war was promoted to first lieutenant, taking 
part in the battles of Pea Ridge, Corinth, luka. 
Grand Gulf, Vicksburg and many others of less 



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POPE COtlNTY. 



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iiiii»-ii'taiiec\ Ho was takeu {iribouer at Vickslmri^, 
liiit was jiaioleJ immeJiati'ly. Altboui^h he re- 
ceived several llesh wonuds, be was never serious- 
ly injured, and ^vas always soon able to resume Lis 
duties. At the close of the war he returned to 
(^iiincy, 111-, where his father resided, and after- 
ward heyan traveling in the interests of a uiarhle 
firui, and has been connected witli that work ever 
since. He is a member of the Christian Chnrnli of 
Kiissellville, and socially belongs to the lUr-sell- 
villo Lodge No. 7G of the A. F. .t A. :Sl and Kus- 
sellville Lodge No. ii of the K. of P.. in each of 
which he holds prominent offices. In politics he 
is a Democrat, and as a business man has not his 
superior in this section of the country, for iiesides 
being perfectly honorable in every particular he is 
wide-awake and enterprising, and at all times 
strives to meet the wants of his patrons. He is 
uurnarried. 

J. B. Evants is the senior member of the gen- 
eral mercantile firm of Evants cV Co., of Eussell- 
ville. Ark., and was born in Pope County. !March 
IT, 1S3*J, to William Evants and wife, who moved 
to this county from Middle Tennessee, in iS-iO, the 
father's death occurring here in January. ls^4. at 
tlio age of seventy-one years. Of a family of ten 
children born to him and his wife, three sons and 
Jive daughters are still living, all but one son and 
one daughter, who live in Texas, l)eing residents 
of this county. J. B. Evants was given the ad- 
vantages of the common schools for a short jieriod 
each year, the rest of the time being devoted to 
farm labor. He began earning liis own living at 
the age of seventeen years, and in IS-JT started 
across the plains to California, where he was en- 
gaged in mining and stock-raising for ten years. 
In 1807 he returned to Russellville, Ark., and pur- 
chased a farm of eighty acres, on which he settled 
nri<l began to improve. After attending to its cul- 
tivation for one year he opened a store at Dover, 
but at the end uf one year's residence was married 
tli'Tc and moved with his family to California and 
'■'igagfd in the raising of sheep. He started for 
Nevada with 8,0(10 head of sheep, but while in one 
of the [ia>ses of the Sierra Nevada Mountains he 
was overtaken by a snowstorm and every sheep 



jieri^-hed. He imniediati'ly returned t.' .Vrk.-iiisas. 
and her(> followed merchaudi<iiig until .State 
troubles in 1S72, when his wliule stock <jf gcjods 
was taken from him. leaving liiuj involved to the 
extent of s-J.OdO. He tlien turned to the soil f„r 
a way out of his ditlicultie-^. and during tlie ten 
years that he devoted to farming he paid olf all his 
indel)tedness, and at tlie end of that time (in bSM ) 
resumed merchandising, and has since received an 
abuudaid share of fortune's favors. He now does an 
annual business of $20,000, and is tlie owner (;f oiiO 
acres of land in this county. -lilOof •^\-hich ai'o under 
cultivation. In addition tcj thishe has a good home 
in the west part of Ilussell ville, and a numliei- of 
tenement houses and store buildings wliich he 
rents. He has ? 1.000 stock in the cotton factory 
of this place, besides being interested in some other 
prosperous investments. In January. ISO'.), he 
was married to Miss Louisa, a daughter of John 
Petty, of Dover, and liy her he has two sons and 
two daughters. The eldest. Franklin Q., is at- 
tending school in Tennessee, but tlie other mem- 
bers of the family are attending school in Bussell- 
ville. The family are members of the Presbyterian 
Church, and Mr, Evants belongs to the K. of P., 
ami in his political views i- a Democrat. Although 
he has met with many liu-^ine-- reverses be has 
never despaired, but has de\oted all his energies 
to bending circumstances to his will, and the 
hanilsiju;o fortune of which he is now the possessor 
is the result of unswerving fidelity t > every detail 
of his work. 

Loyd D. Ford, merchant and planter. Atkins, 
Ark. This prominent business man and planter 
first saw the light <_if day in Tennessee, May 21, 
l^o2. and of the ten rhildren born to his parents 
he was the ycjungest in order of birth. The father, 
Thomas Ford, wa^ l)i_)rn in 1 iS7, in ^laryland, and 
was married in Teimessee to !Miss JIargaret Chap- 
man, a native of Tennessee, her birth occurring in 
1702. In 1S;U they moved to Kentucky, and the 
father followi'il farming and lilacksmithing until 
INU. wh.'n he niovedto Arkansas, settling in Poin- 
sett County, where he had eight children living. 
He was killed in 1 ^o 1 by a fall from a hor-e. The 
mother died in Kentucky in ^larch. l^t^J. Lovd 



a. Ill 



I'A 



226 



HISTOEY OF ARKANSAS. 



D. Ford resided with his brother until twviity- 
six years of age. and was theu married to Miss 
Catherine McClcde. a native of Pope County. He 
then entered a farm of eighty acres in the western 
part of Pope Courity and theie resided for tive 
years when his wife died, leaving two children, luith 
of whom are also deceased. In lS(i"2 he enlisted 
in Hill's liattalion and served in Arkansas. He 
was in very poor health, and on this account was in 
service only about a year. He was married the 
second time in July, 1S'>3, to !Mrs. Elizabeth Grif- 
fin, daughter of Charles Carrell. and a native of 
Tennessee. In ] S6-J Mr. Ford bought a farm of 
200 acres on Point Eemove Creek, and to this has 
since added until at the present time he is the 
owner of 3l^>0 acres in one tract and has 120 acres 
under cultivation. The remainder is in timber. He 
also owns eighty-one acres in the bottom lands, has 
sixty-live acres of this under cultivation, and is the 
owner of land in Faulkner and Conway Counties. 
He resided on his farm until 1870 and then moved 
to Atkins, where he erected a residence and Las 
since made his home. In 1SS4 he engaged in gen- 
eral merchandising with J. A. Bost, with whom he 
continued for fifteen mouths. jlr. Ford's time is 
now mostly occnjiied in renting and overseeing his 
land, but he has retired from active business. 
When ilr. Ford tirst came to Po[)e County he was 
sick and did not own a dollar. All he has made is 
the result of his own enterprise and industry. In 
ISTt) ho, with Mr. Bost, built the tirst steam-mill 
and cotton-gin in Atkins, which was well patro- 
nized, and this they conducted for nine years. T , 
the second marriage of ^Ir. Ford were born ten 
children, seven of whom died in infancy. Those 
living are: Lizzie Ford (wife of Hugh C. Bledsoe, 
a druggist of Atkins), Kittie Brown and Lord D. 
Jr. Mary Arkansas, a daughter of his tirst wife, 
died at the age of nine yt^ars. Besides his own 
children Mr. Ford has reared several orphan chil- 
dren. In politics he is a Democrat, ami he and 
family are members of the Cumberland Presbyte- 
rian Church. He has been a strong advocate of 
schools and is a public-spirited citizen. He is a 
Mason, a member of Galla Rock Ll"1_;o 172. chap- 
ter at Atkins, and is a charter member. He is also 



a member of the K. of H. Mr. Ford owns an in- 
terest in two brick buildings and other town prop- 
erty in Atkins. 

J. T. Fowler is one of the prominent members 
of the Pope County bar, and is a living example 
of the fact that the profession of law has attracted 
the best talent of the country. He is the junior 
member of the well known legal firm of Bradley 
& Fowler, and as he has resided in this county from 
his birth, which occurred June 17, 1852, the peo- 
ple of this section have had every opportunity to 
judge of his character and qualilications, and have 
for him the highest regard and respect. His 
father, Pinkney Fowler, was horn in South Caro- 
lina, and during the Rebellion was a soldier for the 
Confederate cau-;e and lost his life at the battle of 
Elk Horn, Mo. J. T. Fowler resided on a farm 
until seventeen years of age and obtained a fair 
education, only, in the common schools. In 1S74 
he began making his own w-ay in the world as a 
clerk in the establishment of Russell i Bro., of 
Russellville, remaining with them during the 
winters and teaching school during the summers f._n- 
two years. He then embarked in merchandising 
in partnership with J. L. Shinn, which connection 
lasted harmoniously for tive years, Mr. Shinn be- 
ing, during this time, a silent partner. At the 
end of three years Mr. Fowler was enabled to 
buy out Mr. Shinn's interest in the business, pay- 
ing STi.OOO for his share, which he earned during 
the three years, as his capital'at the commencement 
of his business amounted to only S300. They car- 
ried a general mercantile stock, and here Mr. Fow- 
ler continued until ISSC), when he sold out liis 
business and moved to Garden's Bottom. Ark., 
where he followed the same calling for four years. 
and became the owner of 1,000 acres of fine liot- 
tom land. In 1S0() he disposed of his stock of 
goods at this place and returned to Russellville. 
also disposing of his landed estate for SSS.CliO. it 
being the largest land and property sale ever made 
in this section of the State. During the la--t tive 
years of his mercantile life he gave considetabie 
attention to the study of law, and upon his return 
to Russellville he began practicing, and this has 
been his chief calling U[) to the [iresent time. He 



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POPE COUNTY. 



22-; 



ili'Vutos the same iiQtiring energy to this pursuit 
tlint made bim so successful in mercautile life, and 
is provinc;; himself to he a talented and tboroughly 
competent attorney. He is the owner of real estate 
in I'ope County to the amount of USO acres, besides 
his law olKce — a tine brick btisiness building, cen- 
trally located in the town of Itussellville. His res 
idence is in the pleasantest part of town, and is 
commodious, substantial and pleasant. Besides 
this, he has four good tenement bouses and a store 
building, which he rents. He has dealt extensively 
in horses and mules, and has Slii^OOO iu stock in 
the Citizens' Savings Bank at Russellville. His 
property is now valued at about ■':f<)0.(lOO, the entire 
amount having been accumulated through his own 
exertions. He is very careful in all business trans- 
actions, has always been an untiring worker, and 
these in connection with strictly honorable princi- 
jiles have placed bim in bis present most hon- 
orable position. He had one brother and two 
sisters. The brother is in the stock business in 
California, one sister is married, and lives in Se- 
dalia, Mo., and the other resides in Russellville. 
Mr. Fowler was married in ISSO, the maiden 
name of his wife being Sallie Carden, a daughter 
of Maj. Carden, of this county. Mr. Fowler has 
shown his approval of secret organizations by be- 
coming a member of the I. O. O. F. , and as an up- 
right, honorable, and public-spirited citizen, has 
not his superior iu this section of the State. He 
is liberal in bis contributions to enterprises which 
he deems worthy, and is ever found ready to lend 
a helping band to the poor and distressed. 

J. F. Fronaberger, farmer. Atkins. Ark. This 
name is not unfamiliar to the citizens of Pope 
County, for be wbo bears it has been a resident of 
the same for many years, and is one of the most 
esteemed and respected citizens. He was liorn in 
Lincoln County, N. C. in 1820. and was the son 
of John and Anna (Blackwood) Fronaberger, both 
natives of North Carolina. The parents removed 
to Arkansas in 1851, settled in Pope County, and 
there reared seven children: J. F. , P. J., Jane. 
J. L., Mary, Barl)ara and Margnrt't. J. L. and 
Jane are living in ^lissouri, the former in Taney 
Coiinty engaged in farming, and the latter in Scott 



County, a widow. The otiiers are living in Arkan- 
sas. Barbara married George Cupp, a farmer, 
and resides in Polk County; Mary resides in Pope 
County, and is the wife of Roliert Boarlield, a 
farmer, and Margaret rt'sides in Pope County and 
is the wife of J. T. Clauncb. J. F. Frona- 
berger came to Arkansas in iS-'t), followed farm- 
ing in this State for two years, and then crossed 
the plains to the gold regions of California, 
where he remained for eighteen years engaged in 
mining. Although he made thousands of dollars, 
on account of the high price of everything, be 
saved only S2,000 to return to bis home in .\rkan- 
sas. He has paid as high as lo cents per pound 
for flour, and other things in proportion. He re- 
turned to Arkansas, and in 1ST4 was married to 
Miss Sarah Scott, daughter of William Scott, of 
Pope County. To them have been !)orn tive chil- 
dren, three now living, John. Jcse[)b and Anna. 
Jacob died in infancy, and the fourth child also 
died while yonng. Mr. Fronaberger is now the 
owner of 320 acres of land. a[id has sixty-live 
acres under cultivation. He raises some cotton, 
but mostly corn and wheat and devotes some time 
to stock-raising, j)riucipally cattle and bocs. Mr. 
Fronaberger is one of the ni">t prosperous farmers 
in Galla Rock Township. In politics he is a 
stanch Republican. He atid Mrs. Fionaberger are 
members of the ^Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
are active workers in the same. 

.Allen S. (xarrison is a proper representative of 
the energetic and successful business men of Pope 
County. Ark., which element has done, and i.s do- 
ing, so much for the advancement of the material 
interests of this section. He was born in Yell 
County, Ark., Noveml)er 17, 1852, to William H. 
and Mary A. (Turner) Garrison, wbo were born, 
reared and married in Tennessee, the last named 
event taking place in l^-tT. Eleven children, eight 
of whom nre living, were liorn to this union: Fran- 
cis J.. Allen S.. Susan A.. Samuel J., Rachel T., 
William (i.. C.)Iuml)as R., Abraham P., Sarah J. 
(deceased). Masonri (deceased), and Thomas J. (de- 
ceased). In 1S4S the father moved to Arkansas, 
and settled in Pope County, but the following year 
purchased and settled on land in Yell County. 



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HISTOllY OF ARKANSAS. 



The fathor learned thi> trade cif a macliim'st in bis 
yontli, I)ut afterward studied medicine, and prac- 
ticed some twelve year.s. tLe latter part uf his life, 
dying in Lni^'an County in I'^'^l, an earnest mem- 
ber of the ^Tethodist Epi-copal Church. He was 
a Mason, and durinrr the lielielh'on, \ir served on 
the river for "Uncle Sam." His widow still re- 
sides in Logan County, Ark., and is a member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church also. Allen S. 
Garrison was married Junf H. ISTS. to ]\[iss Cy- 
rinthia liook. a native of Mississijipi, liorn June 
19, 1S57, a daughter of Benjamin and Sarah (Wil- 
son) Rook, the latter also being Mississippians. 
To Mr. Garrison and his wife six chililren iiave 
been born: Arthur T., Nancy E., Sherman. Ger- 
trude, Daisy (deceased), and Susan F. (deceased). 
Mr. Garrison has been in the saw-milling l)nsiness 
for some twenty-one years, and is a member of 
the mill and lumber tirm of Forrest, Turner &Co., 
and is the owner of three mills, one on Illinois 
Creek, one at ]\Iill Creek and the other near Mount 
Hope Church. In 1*^^3 Mr. Garrison engaged in 
merchandising, at Mill Creek Station, as manager 
for the store of F()rrest. Turner A: Co. The ca- 
pacity of the mills are some 2tl.0()0 feet ]ier day, 
and besides this the trm owns some Sdlt acres of 
land, with 250 under cultivation, and the rest good 
timberland. 3Ir. Garris.^n is a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and socially, belongs 
to Russellville Lodge, of the A. F. .V A. M., and 
Russellville Lodge No. 47. of the K. of J'. While 
a resident of Logan County. Ark., he was magis- 
trate of Delaware Town-hip during 1ST<)-T7. 

Daniel B. Granger, attorney. R\issellville. Ark. 
Mr. Granger, a prominent attorney at law at Rus- 
sellville, Ark., is among those who eoLitri!)Ute to 
the strength of the .\rkansas bar. He is a native 
of Allegany County, N. Y.. was born "ti Jauuarv 
28, bS3l), and is the sixth in order of l)irth of a 
family of ten children i>orn to Giiden and Nancy 
(Flanigan) Granger, natives of N^'w York luid 
Pennsylvania, respectively. The father was a 
mechanic and erected a great many ImiKlings, be- 
sides engaging in various other enterprises. He 
was justice of the peace for many y.-n,-. and luade 
his home in New York, until hi.s il.'atu in ISTii, 



when nearly seventy six years old. The mother 
died in ISM at tiie age of eighty-three years. 
She was for many years a memlier of the Free 
A\'ill Baptist denomination, but later, united with 
the Methodist Church at Wiscoy, N. Y., where 
.she died. The paternal grandfather, Peter Gran- 
ger, was lioiii in Vermont, and was a carpenter 
and builder by trade. The maternal grandfather. 
James Flanigan, was a native oi Ireland, and 
born near Londonderry. He was an educated 
gentleman, and came to America in early life, lo- 
cating at Norfolk', Va. Later he moved to Hai-- 
per's Feriy, Va.,then to Yorktown, Penn., and af- 
terward to .\llegany County, N. Y., where he dii^d 
at the age of seventy-eight years. E)aniel B. 
Granger was reared to bis father's trade, attended 
the common schools of New Y'ork, and al.'^o pur- 
sued his studies and readings at the home tireside 
under his father's direction. In 1S55 he weijt to 
Fairmont. Va. (now West Virginia I, and there be- 
gan reading law under Hon. E. B. Hall. In 
December. LS-'b, he returned to Allegany County. 
N. Y'.., and embarked in mechanical pursuits and 
photographic business until the latter part of IMIO. 
when he went to Ija Grange, Mo. In the sunnuer 
of iStU he was a member of the La Grangt' 
(I'uion) Home Guards, and in the fall of isi'il li.. 
entered the employ of S. N. Marshall, suttler of 
the Third ^Missouri (I'nited States) Cavali'} ^"ol^n 
teers. commanded by C(jI. John M. Glover, and 
remained with this command until bS62. He then 
entered the Thirty sixth Missoui'i ( United States) 
Infantry Vohmti^eis. (then being raised by Col. 
H. C. Wormoth at Rolla. ^lo. ) as first lieutenant 
of Company A., and served in this capacity, prin 
cij)ally engaged in recruiti[ig service, until the 
latter (iart of October, 1 MJ2, when the ri'gimeiit 
was consolidated at .St. Louis, ]Mo. , with the 
Thirty second Misscjuri Infantry Volunteer,-, com- 
manded by Col. ^Manter, at which time ]\Ir. 
Granger wa- on detached duty in charge of fur- 
loughed njen and recruits and the barracks at 
ItoUa, :Mo. V.hen the consolidation of the Thirty- 
sixth and 'J'hirty second regiments of Missouri 
Infantry ti.iok place the [)o.sition ...f nrst lif-ntenant 
of Company A was tilled liy the muster in of 






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POPE COUNTY. 



229 



aiiotlicr ])prson. and Mr. GraiifTfT dpcliiiiuo; to 
"jiromote baokwurcl," hy accepting a similar 
position in Cotupauy K of the consoliilateil regi- 
ment, lie then retiirneil to the employ of ^Tr. Mar- 
^liall in the sutUer Inisiness and continned in this 
until the sjM-Ing of \S*y4. He then left the army 
at I'ijot Knoh. ]Mo., and went to Carthage, 111., 
where he engage.l in merchandising. Sulise. 
(piently in June, ISIi.j. he went to Little liock. 
Ark., and on June ITi >if that year engaged in the 
collecting liu^iness. and began practicing law, hav- 
ing continued his law ri\'uliugs until that time, 
lie was licensed to practice in the .Supreme Court 
of Arkansas Xovemlier 3. liSC)."), and the next spring 
in the United States Circuit Court at Little Eock, 
Ark. He remained in Little Itock until May, 
Is7:i, and then removed to Kussellville. Pope 
County, .\rk. . where he has since been in the 
active practice of his profession. During this time 
lie has been an earnest adherent to the }>rinciples 
of Democracy, but has never been a candidate for 
office. He has been elected by the bar, and served 
a.s special circuit judge on several occasions, and 
is at present city attorney for Kussellville, having 
served in that position since June 1. ISsT. He 
was married on the lOth, LSijO, to Miss Alice C. 
AVills, of Palmyra, Mo., the daughter of Claiborn 
C. and Amelia Wills. To this union were born 
four children — two sons and two daughters — viz. : 
Ijizzie Belle, Edward Jennings (died in infancy), 
.\melia Alice, and Harrison Wills (who died at the 
age of sixteen months), ilr. (.Traiigei- and his 
wife are members of the Missionary Baptist Church 
at Kussellville. !Mr. Granger during his residence 
in Arkansas has been a freijuent contributor to the 
local pres.s, and in 1ST4 edited the National Trib- 
une published at Russellville, in the interest of 
what was known as the "Baxter"' movement in 
the celebrated "Brooks and Baxter war." and was 
a strong advocate of the adoption of the present 
constitution of Arkansas. He is a member of Kus- 
st-llville Lodge No. 47, of the order of K. of P., 
and was the tirst chancellor commander of that 
lodge. He is now special deputy grand chancellor 
f'T tliat hnlgp and a memlier of the (irand Lodg^ 
"f tlie State. He owns both farm and tnwn pi-.,p- 



erty. In l^TS he erected his residence, and in 
ISNI^) he had this remodeh-d and improved. 

Capt. J. M. Harkey, a prominent citizen of 
Kussellville and Senator for the Fourth Senatorial 
District, was born in North Carolina on June II. 
IS32, and was the eighth of eighteen children boi-n 
to David and S. Elizabeth (Shinn) Harkey, both 
natives of North Carolina. David Harkey, famil- 
iarly known as "Old Uncle Davy " Harkey, was 
born in Montgomery County on .June 20, 171)7. and 
died at Palmer, Tex., on Juno 10,- 1SS4. He 
moved from North Carolina in December, IsSll, 
and settled within a mile and a half of the present 
flourishing town of Kussellville. Ark., then a wild 
prairie waste, with only one or two families living 
within its present corporate limits. He married 
Miss S. E. Shinn, who preceded him to the grave 
in ISoU. and by whom he had eighteen children — 
seven sons and eleven daughters — seventeen of 
whom, by a kind Providence, he was permitted to 
rear to manhood and womanhood. At the time of his 
death, which occurred when be was about eighty- 
seven years of age, he had 121 grandchildren, 
ninety-nine of whom are now living, and eighty- 
three great-grandchildren, sixty-eight of whom are 
living. He was a worthy and exemplary member 
of the Lutheran Church for many years, or until 
about his eightieth year, when, in consequence of 
there being no church sutficiently near him in his 
new home, with no probability then for one in the 
near future, and regarding it as an indispensalJe 
duty devolving upon him to attach himself to some 
organized religious body, he connected him-elf 
with the Christian Church, of which he was a de- 
vout and worthy member until the time of his 
death. Many of the old citizens of Pope County 
well remember "Old Uncle Davy" Harkey, his 
noble, generotis nature and disposition, his social, 
friendly relations with all, and his kindly welcome 
to those who visited his hospitable home. He had 
one son, Silas ]\[i.inroe, who volunteered for the 
Mexican War and who was taken sick and died at 
San .\utonio. Tex., on his way to Buena Vinta. 
He had two sons. Dr. George W. Harkey and Capt. 
•lames M. Harkey (our subject), whc' are now liv- 
ing at Kussellville. The former is ;. physician of 



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230 



HISTORY OF AEIvANSAS. 



some pi'omini'nce. though not pursuing bis profes 
siou as ii business, and is a local preacher in the 
Christian Church, and the latter we will learn more 
of fartlier on. " Uncle Davy " has live daughters 
living in Pope County, namely: Jlrs. John M. 
Bradley, Mrs. J. E. Shinn, Mrs. A. Iteed, Jlrs. G. 
A. Eeed and Miss Vina Harkey. He has three 
sons and four daughters living in Texas: John, 
Jacob and Henry Harkey, and Mrs. "\V. H. Mc 
Keever, Mrs. "William Davis. Mrs. Joel Epps and 
Mrs. H. S. Maddux. Capt. James M. Harkey was 
reared to the duties of the farm and had limited 
educational advantages. He planted fourteen sea- 
sons for his father. At the age of twenty-two 
years he began farming for himself, and was mar- 
ried in \So~> to Miss Elizabeth P. Walker, a native 
of Pope County. In 1S59 he engaged in the drug 
business at Dover, and was thus engaged at the 
outbreak of the war. In 1862 he enlisted in the 
army, but was petitioned to return by the citizens, 
as a dj'Uggist. In the spring of 1SC3 he again en- 
tered the army, assisted in raising a regiment, and 
was elected second lieutenant of Company B, Caf- 
feo's regiment. He participated in the battles of 
Arkansas and Missouri, and in the fall of 1SG4 be 
was promoted to the rank of captain, serving in 
outpost duty in Southern Arkansas until the ter- 
mination of hostilities. He at once resumed farm- 
ing, in which he continued until ISHS, and then 
came to Eussellville where with bis brother. G. W. 
Harkey, he started a drug store in that town. For 
many years this firm thrived, and prospered, as 
Harkey Bros., and had a good jobbing trade, put- 
ting up many of their remedies as Harkey' s Ague 
Pills, Chill Tonic, Liver Medicine. Pile Remedy, 
Eye Tonic, Diarrhea Cordial. Granger Liniment 
Vegetable Liver Pills and Cough Syrup, all pro- 
prietory medicine and belonging to the tirm, which 
they still prepare and sell wholesale throughout 
Western Arkansas. During that time, the tirm 
erected two brick buildings, but on March 20, 
1S90, they sold out the business and the store- 
house, but contin\ie the manufacture of the above 
named remedies. Capt. Harkey bought a farm of 
220 acres near town, has lilO acres uad<^r cultiva- 
tion, and has a very pleasant home, owning also 



other lands elsewhere. He is a raiser of blooded 

horses, and has a stallion "Coldeck,"' one of the 

be.st horses of this section, and seven brood mares. 

He has a good stock farm. He is one of the promi 

nent men of the county, is a jirosperous merchant 

and a good citizen. He was nominated by the ' 

Democratic party as State Senator for Pope and 

! Johnson Counties, and was elected on September 

I 1, ISDO, by a majority of L3GS votes. He was 

i chairman of the Democratic Central Committee of 

' Pope County for many years, and has done much 

by his honesty and integrity to strengthen that 

1 party locally. The family are members of the 

Christian Church. Capt. Harkey has beenamem- 

i ber of the Masonic fraternity since bis twenty- first 

' year and has been district deputy grand master for 

many years. He was also most puesant grand master 

i of the Grand Council of the State of .Arkansas, and 

'■■ served two years as worthy grand patron of the 

'; Grand Cba]->ter Eastern Star of the State, and is now 

I district deputy grand patron of the Twelfth Dis- 

I trict. To his marriage were born five children, 

! one of whom is deceased: Alice P., Mary Scatbie, 

i Charley D. (who was scalded to death at the age 

of three years), Reuben M. and Floy Lee. Alice 

P. Harkey is thirty years old, is married and has 

four children; Mary Scatbie Harkey is twenty-two 

years old. married, and has one child; Reuben M. 

! Harkey is nineteen years old. and is now attending 

medical college; Floy L. Harkey sixteen years old, 

; is now in Glasgow, Ky. , at school. Capt. Harkey 

I was twice taken prisoner during the war. The 

'■ first time he was soon exchanged; the second time 

; he was led out with a rope around his neck to be 

hanged. While his captors were tying a rope to 

■ the limb of a tree he gave the sign of distress as a 

' Mason, and was rescued by a second lieutenant of 

Federal troops, who was a Mason and a friend. Mr. 

Harkey says: "' He said he was raised in Indiana, 

; but I have forgotten his name and post-otliee 

address; I would be very glad to meet him in si.me 

Masonic lodge or Grand Lodge. I would most 

assuredly tell him that the latch string of my 

• door hangs on the outside, and I would be glad if 

he would pull it and walk in at any time and sn[) 

with me and I with him. If I meet him no more 



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POPE COUNTY. 



231 



in this world I hope to meet hiiu where parting 
will be known no more."' 

Starling G. Harris. It is a fact well recognized 
among all intelligent people that a thorough edu- 
cation and advanced accjuaiutance with books of 
learning are of great material benefit to man, no 
matter in what channel oi life his path may lie. 
The career of Mr. Harris is a striking illustration 
of this truth, for although his early educational 
opportunities were not of the best, yet he has at 
all times been a thoughtful reader, and has made 
a practical use of the knowledge thus gained. He 
was born on March 16, 1S42, in the State of 
Georgia, and in the month of March, 1S75, became 
a resident of Pope County, Ark., settling on land 
that is now known as Colony Mountain. He was 
reared to a farm life in his native State, and in 
18(j2 began doing for himself. In June of that 
year he enlisted in the Confederate Army, becom- 
ing a memlier of Company A. Thirty-eighth Georgia 
Regiment, afterward taking part in the engage- 
ments at Cold Harbor, Malvern Hill, Gettyslnirg, 
the Wilderness (where he was wounded, and on this 
account was transferred to the State Troops, being 
commissioned second lieutenant of Dyer's battal- 
ion). He remained in the service until the close of 
the war, then returned to his home in De Kalb 
County, Ga., and there was engaged in milling for 
about one year. At the expiration of this time he 
went to Blount County, Ala., and after farming 
there for about three years moved to Birmingham, 
in which place he was engaged in the timlier busi- 
ness for some three years. Since then he has resided 
on his present farm. His first purchase was fifty 
acres of land, to which he has added from time to 
time, until he now has 310 acres of good farming 
land which he has nicely improved with good resi- 
dence, barns and other necessary buildings, a fine 
young orchard, which is already producing enough 
fruit for family use, and substantial fences. Nine- 
ty-five acres are under cultivation, and in ISSo he 
erected thereon a good grist mill and cotton-gin, 
which he has operated successfully. He is now 
erecting a building in which he intends to open 
a general mercantile business, and expects to 
have everything in working order bv October 15. 



He was married on November 11, ISOT, to Eliza 
Jane Bagwell, with whom he lived for eighteen 
years, when she departed this life October IS, IHS-"), 
leaving besides her husband five .'-:oas and three 
daughters to mourn their loss. May 12, ISSO, 
!Mr. Harris remarried, his wife being Mrs. ilartba 
F. Mason, a daughter of James M. and Mary Tate 
of this couuty. the latter being now a resident of 
Johnson Couuty, Ark. The names of the children 
by his first wife are as follows: Charley V., Lavo- 
nia v., Ettie L.. Oscar G., Gordon P., Sallie A., 
Albert J. and John C. Lavonia is the wife of Pd- 
ley Leavell, and resides in Johnson County, and 
Charley Y. is clerking for the firm of F. C. Jones 
& Co., of Bellville. Yell County, Ark. Mr. Harris 
and his family are members of the Baptist Church, 
and he belongs to the A. F. & A. M. , and is a 
Democrat. His parents were John and Sarah 
(Brown) Harris. 

William Stanhope Harris, farmer and stock- 
dealer, Eussollville, Ark. Farming has been Mr. 
Harris' principle occupation thus far through life, 
and the energetic and wiele-awake manner in which 
he has taken advantage of all methods and ideas 
tending to the enhanced value of his property has 
had a great deal to do with his success. He is a 
native-born resident of Pope County, his birth 
occurring on August 21. 1S52, and is the son of 
Adolphus and Margaret R. (Hoffman) Harris, ua- ' 
tives of North Corolina. To the parents were born 
foTTr living children, who are named in order of 
birth as follows: William S. , Sarah A. B. (wife of G. 
T. Brown, who is residing at Potts Station), L. D. 
(residing in Cannon County, Tex.), and Josephine 
(wife of A. M. Shinen, deceased). The parents 
emigrated from North Carolina to Pope County, 
Ark., in iSol, purchased eighty acres of unim- 
proved land, and the father carried on agricultural 
pursuits in connection with cabinet-making. He 
is deceased. The mother is now residing with the 
subject of this sketch. \\'illiam S. HaiTis started out 
to tight life's battles for himself at the age of twen- 
ty-one years, and as he had been trained from early 
boyhood to the dtities of the farm, it was quite 
natural, perhaps, that he should select agricult- 
ural pursuits as his chosen calling. He also held 



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A 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



the offiw of coustabl.' of Wilson Township, Yell 
Coviuty, iluriii;^' tbc years of LS"^') auJ ISST, re- 
maining in tliat c-onuty from ISTT to ISSS. He 
then came to Pope t'ounty. Ark., ami began stock- 
raising and stock-dealing in which occupation, to- 
gether with farming, he contiuui s at the present 
time. He is the owner of tifty-iivo acres of land 
in Wilson Townshiji, Yell County, and has forty 
of this improved. He rtiises principally cotton and 
about one and one third bales to the acre. He is 
thrifty and enterprising, and a man of excellent 
judgment. 

F. J. Harvill. Among the many sturdy "sons 
of the soil'' of I'ope County, Ark., who have at- 
tained a good competency in their calling by the 
sweat of their brow and who comi-iand an enviable 
social position, is ^Ir. Harvill, who was born in 
this county Octol.ier 15, 1S4T, to M. W. and Eliza- 
beth (Luton) Harvill. both of whom were born in 
Tennessee, the former in 1S12. He was a farmer 
and was married in this county, his union resulting 
in the birth of five children — two sons and three 
daughters — of whom the subject of this sketch is 
the eldest, and the only child now living. Those 
dead are Polly A., Sarah E., Nancy and one un- 
named. The mother of these ehildi-en was called 
from the scene of her earthly lalwrs in IS-jij, and 
two years later Mr. Harvill married Mrs. Jane 
Itoss, and of the following naujed children born to 
them, live are now living: William R., G. J., Eliz- 
abeth (wife of G. T. Brooks), Edgar and Tennessee. 
M.W., John, Louis and a child imnamed are deceas- 
ed. At the time of her death, in ISsii, ^Mrs. Harvill 
was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
South, and in 1SS9 ^Mr. Harvill married a third 
time, his wife being Mrs. Mary Gilmore, a Hiember, 
as was her husband, of the Primitive Raptist 
Church. On March 17. IS'.jit, he w;is called from 
life. He had come to this State from Tennessee 
in 1830, and until his demise was a resident of 
Pope County, and helped carry the stirveyor's chain 
over the whoh- of the southern part of this St;/te. 
His sou, P. J. Harvill. was married in Po[h. County 
March .">, ISTl, to .Aliss Cynthia S. Brooks. She 
w-as born in this county. 0:ti_>l)i-r !•>, Is'.:;, ^ da.igh- 
tt;r of J. H. and Harriet (Yarberrv) Brooks, who 



were Ttnmesseeans, and came to Arkansas with 
their parents, their marriage taking phice in Fi.>[ie 
County and five of their nine chihlreu survive thi^m: 
James C. O., Cynthia S. (wife of Mr. Harvill). G. 
T., Henry F. and T. A. .Martha L., Laura, Wil- 
lie E. and Etlie T. are deceased. The father dh-d 
in 1871 and the mother in J.S70, the lattnr having 
been a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church. To Mr. and ilrs. Harvill nine children 
have been born: George H. (l)uru January 10, 
1S72), Eler E, (born August U, 1S7-1. and died Oc- 
tober U.1S74), Ollie (born December 18, 187-3). Xura 
(born July ^10, 1878), Sarah (born November 11. 
18n.)), S. M, (born March 21, 1883), Ider P. (born 
October 7, 1885 and died July IVI, 1S8(J). Floyd E. 
(born May 28.1887), and Hattie F. (born March !•=;. 
iSOt)). In 1803 Mr. Plarvill enlisted in the Federal 
Army in the Third Arkansas Cavalry, Company 
A, and served until 18(')5, being at one time wound- 
ed in the right arm by a pistol shot. Since the 
war he has devoted his attention to farming and is 
DOW the owner of 200 acres of land with eighty un 
der cultivation. In 1882 he erected thereon a nice 
frame residence and besides this his farm is other- 
wise improved with good barns and an excellent 
young orchard of about two acres. He has served 
as justice of the peace six years, and for the last 
seventeen vears has been a school director in his 
district. He belongs to the Methodist Episcopal 
i Church South, in which he is steward and trustee, 
I and he is a Royal Arch Mason, belonging to Rus- 
1 sellville L.ulge No. 271. 

A. K. Henry. The social, political and busi 
ness hi.story of this section is tilled with tlie ileeds 
and doings of self-made men, and no man in Pope 
County is more deserving the appellation than ^Ir. 
Henrv, for he marked out his own career in youth, 
and has steadily followed it up to the present, his 
prosperity being attributable to his earnest and 
persistent endeavor, and to the fact that he has 
alwavs consistriitly tried to follow the teachings of 
the Golden Rule. Although a resident of this 
parish he was born in York District, S C, October 
20, 1812, to Charles W. and Margaret (Carr) Henry, 
both of whom were also Ijuiii in the Palmetto 
State. The father was a farmer an.l a lilaeksmith 



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POPE COUNTY. 



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liv occupation, aini his father \vas a follower of the '■ 
fiiriner occupation aial was of Scotch descent. Tlie ; 
wife of the latter was a Vir;j;inian. Th'' grand- 
parents ou the mother's side were of Irish descent. 
Tho mother was born in IT'.JO, and the father in 
ITST, their union taking [ilace in York I)istrict, S. 
C, in ISll, and resulted in the liirth of live chil ' 
(Iren, two of whom are now living, the subject of 
thi.s sketch being the eldest. The other memlier i 
is A. M., who was born October o. 1811). G. AV. , 
I'.ii/.abeth 13. and Catherine are deceased. The 
fatlier of these children passed from life in his na- 
tive State in 1S4S, being a member of the Old 
School Presbyterian Church, and his wife died in 
ISSS, having been a member of the same church 
since ISOO. The immediate subject of this biog- ; 
raphy was married in Union District. S. C, May 
".^S, 1840, to Miss Elizabeth S. Parker, who was i 
liorn in South Carolina January 0. ISIU. a daugh- : 
ter of Silas R. and Martha (Akins) Parker, also 
South Carolinians, and to whom seven sous and two 
daughter were born, Elizaljetb (wife of Mr. Henry), i 
and W. P. being the only ones now living. The i 
following are deceased: Isaac, Allison S., ^Valter 
L., S. K., William R., Eleasa and .Sarah A. Mr. 
Parker died about IS'iT, and his wife in 1858, both 
earnest members of the Presbyterian Church. To 
Mr. Henry and his wife ten children have been 
born: Silas H., Martha A. (wife of C. G. Gates), , 
Margaret (deceased), Sarah E. (deceased), Cathe- 
rine C. (wife of William O. Ferguson), Nancy E. I 
(deceased), Mary A. (deceased ), Margaret E. ( wife of | 
William Henry), Sarah (widow of A. Pi. Ferguson), ! 
and Charles W. Mr. Henry enlisted in the Con- j 
federate Cavalry in lS(i:^, and served until the close I 
of the war, taking part in a number of engage- 
ments. He emigrated from South Carolina to Ar- 
kansas in 185'>, and settled on the farm of *J4(t 
acres, oF which he is now the owner, 10(3 acres be- 
ing under cultivation. He and his w^fe are mem- 
lnTsof the Old School Presbyterian Church. | 

Silas A. Henry, farmer. Potts Station, Ark. \ 
There are uiany successful agriculturists repre- 
sented within tlie pages of this volume, but none 
niore de'^erving of mention than Silas A. Hcury, 
who is one of tho pioneers of this State. He was ; 



born in York County, S. C. in June, ISU, and 
was the eldest of ten children, six of whom are now 
living and residing near Kussellville, Po[)e County, 
Ark. Silas A. receiveil his education in Arkansas. 
In July, IMJl, he enlisted in the Confederate 
Army, Company 15, Seci_)nd Arkansas Itegimeut 
Infantry, Capt. Parker's company, and under Col. 
.Mcintosh. In the spring of lN<i2 he was sent 
east of the Mississippi Itiver in the Army of 
Tennessee under Gen. Bragg, and was in the 
battles of Chickamauga, AN'ilsou Creek, Pea Itidge, 
Richmond, Murfreesboro, Jackson, and was then 
with Johnston and Hood in the Georgia campaign. 
He went with the latter general to Tennessee, was 
in the battles of Franklin and Nashville, and then 
went with Gen. Johnston to North Carolina, ami 
fought the battle of Bentonville. He surrendered at 
Greensboro, N. C, as second lieutenant of his com- 
pany, which had at the beginning IQi' men, but at 
the close only fourteen were left, he In-ing the only 
commissioned officer left in the company. He 
arrived home on July 5, IS'jo, and since then 
has been engaged in cultivating the soil. He 
makes a complete success of this occupation, as a 
o-lance over his place will indicate to the beholder, 
and of the I'iO acres he now owns, 70 acres 
are under cultivation. Miss Nancy M. Bigham, 
daughter of Dr. Robert Bigham, became his wife 
in 18<V,J, and the fruits of this union have been 
nine children, eight now living: Irene E., Robert 
B., Andrew K.. C. Walter, Jennings M. , John Mc, 
Joseph G., Disou B. and Lily Mc. John Mc. 
died at the age of two years. Irene married W. 
R. McArthur, son of Joseph McArthur of Pope 
County, Ark., and the remainder of the children 
are at home with their parents. Mr. and Mrs. 
Henry are members of the Associate Reformed Pres- 
bvterian Chtirch, and he is a strong adherent to 
the Democratic princii>los. His parents, A. K. 
and Elizabeth (Parker) Henry, were natives of 
South Carolina. They removed to Arkansas with 
a family of live children in 1857, bought land in 
Pope County, and there they reside at the present 
time. The paternal grandfather, C. \\'. Henry, died 
m South Carolina at an early day, and his wife 
came to this State and county with her son, A. M. 






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234 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



Houry, abuut 187.". ,S1r> died iu ISSS, at the age of ! 
iiiuefcy-eiybt years. TLe materual graodjiareuts 
came to Arkansas from South Carolina in 1859. set- 
tled in Pope County, the place where Capt. Parker 
now resides, and there they received their tinal 
summons, the grandmother iu 18G(\ and the grand- i 
father in LSt'.t'i. j 

J. D. Hogan is one of the wide-awake, enter- 
prising and substantial men of the county. He 
was born in Kershaw county, S. C, September 13, 
1838, to S. S. and Margaret J. (Cronktield) Hogan, , 
who were born and reared in the Palmetto State, 
and there spent their lives, being earnest members 
of the ]\Iethodist Episcopal Church at the time of 
their deaths. J. D. Hogan was reared in his 
native State, his education, which was rather lim- i 
ited, being also received there, but in 185U he 
commenced doing for himself and determined to 
better his education. Accordingly, when he had 
obtained sufficient means he entered school in Co- { 
lumbia, but was taken sick in October, ISOO, with , 
typhoid fever, and upon thoroughly recovering did 
not again enter school, but helped to swell the '. 
ranks of the Confederate Army, l:)ecoming a mem- 
ber of Butler's command in the spring of 18(J1. 
Farming has been his })riucipal occupation in life, 
at which he has been (juite successful, and he is 
now the owner of 280 acres of land, a considerable 
portion of which is under cultivation and well im- 
j)roved. He was married March l.j, ISQG, to Cyn- 
thia M. Cloud, and the following are their children: 
Jlinnie T., Hattie E., .\Jice O. , F. B., Sallie S., 
^Nlattie J., Walton W. , Lionel D. , Nannie Lois, 
May Allierta, and James D. All are living with 
the exception of May Alberta and James D. Mr. 
Hogan is a stanch Democrat, and for ten years 
held the otSce of trial justice. He and his 
wife have been members of the ^Methodist Episco 
pal Church South ever since childhood, and their 
eldest four children are also members. He has 
been a resident of this county since December 24, 
J 888, and here expects to .spend the rest of his 
days. His wife is a daughter of Franklin D. and 
Sarah (Hogan) Cloud. 

Reese B. Hogins, circuit and county clerk of 
Vope County, Ark., was born in Dover of this 



county on April ITi, 1847, and was the youngest 
of eight children born to A. D. and Louisa 
(Boweri) Hogins both native Teiinesseeans. He 
received his education at home, and in Septem- 
ber, 18r33, he enlisted in Company A, Fifth Arkan- 
sas Cavalry of the Confederate Army, and was in 
the battles of Pine Bluff, Marks" Mill, Poison 
Springs, Prairie de Ann, and was with Gen. Price 
in his Missouri campaign. He was wounded at 
the battle of Pilot Knob, taken prisoner and con- 
tined at St. Louis and Alton until February 17, 
when he was exchanged at Richmond. He regained 
his command in time to surrender at Marshall, 
Tex. After this he came home and followed farm- 
ing until 1874, and was then deputy sheriff, for two 
years. In 187() he was elected sheritf, and served 
six years in succession, after which he farmed for 
the same length of time. In 1888 he was elected 
county and circuit clerk, which position he tills at 
the present time to the satisfaction of all. He is 
the owner of 100 acres of land near Dover, with 
eighty acres under cultivation, and has 420 acres iu 
Yell County with 100 acres under cultivation. His 
marriage occurred on November 21, 1S67, to 
Miss Josephine White, a native of this county 
and the daughter of Robert White, who came to 
Pope County as early as 1840. Mr. White was a 
merchant for many years, both at Norristown and 
Dover. He died in 1864. Mr. and Mrs. Hogins 
are the parents of six children: Mary R. (wife of 
A. J. White of Dover), John F., Augustus S., 
William R., Emma and Hallie. Mr. Hogins is a 
member of the Masonic fraternity, Dover Lodge 
No. 17 and Russellville Chapter No. 76. He is a 
member of the K. of P., Russellville Lodge No. 
47, in which he is chancellor commander, and is also 
a member of the K. of H. No. 1353, in which he 
is F. R. The family are members of the Method 
ist Episcopal Church South, and are held in high 
estimation in the community. Mr. Hogins has 
taken an active interest in jiolitical matters for 
years and is a wide-awake, enterprising citizen. 

W. R. Hudlon, farmer and ginner.'Moreland, 
Ark. Mr. Hudlon is another of the many repre- 
sentative citizens of Pope County, who owe their 
nativity to Tenne.s.see, his birth occurring iu 182'.i. 



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POPE COUNTY. 



2To 



ami is tho son of George \V. aucl Lucy (Hurht) 
Hiiinou, both natives of the Okl Douiiiuou. The 
seveu ehililreri lioni to thi-ir marriaije are named 
ill the onler of their births as follows; Nancy C. 
(wife of N. Hubbonl), W. U., Elizabeth (wife of 
Daviil lievis), George W. , Sarah E. (wife of 
Henry Plemons).Fann3' (wife of James Silvortooth), 
and Joseph (deceased). W. K. Hudlou received 
n limited education in his native State, but this lie 
has remedied to a great extent by observation and 
study, being now a well-posted man on all impor- 
tant topics of the day. He began working for him- 
.s(_'lf in 1850. and in that year he was wedded to 
Jliss Elizaljeth Goble, daughter of John and Pieban- 
ua (Mayiiard) Goble. To them were born ten chil- 
dren, six now living: George, John. Jose]ih. Francis, 
Allen. James and ]Mary M. Mr. Hudlon came to 
Arkansas in 1S57, purchased 120 acres of land. 
cleared twenty acres, and erected a house and other 
buildings. He then sold this land aud bought 300 
acre.s, partly improved, which he further improved 
by clearing about fifty acres, and on this he has a 
good house and suljstantial outbuildings. Subse- 
quently he sold 100 acres of this. In ISSl) he 
erected a gin, which be operated until 1S^^. when 
he purchased a large gin at Cross Plains, the ca- 
pacity of which is ten bales per day. He also looks 
after his tine farm of 200 acres, eighty acres under 
cultivation, on which he raises cotton and corn. 
He lost his wife in 1S73. She was an estimable 
lady and a devout memljer of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church. In 1S73 ^Ir. Hudlon married Mrs. 
Mary Ferror, a native of Georgia, and the daugh- 
ter of Samuel J. Harris. The result of this union 
have been ten children, seven of whom are living: 
Ulysses L.,Miu (lie M.. Sally D., Arthur S.. Charley, 
Uiley D. and Homer. Mr. Hudlon enlisted in the 
Federal service. Company C, Fourth Arkansas Cav- 
alry, but was rejected on account of condition of 
health. He and wife are members of the Methodist 
F4>iscopal Church, in which he is a steward, and 
he was postmaster at Moreland for eighteen years. 
He was also justice of the peace of Moreland Town- 
ship fur eight years. 

B. F. JoI.e, editor of the Kussellville Demo- 
crat, Russellville, Ark. Under the etHcient man- 



agement of .Mr. Jobe, the Kussellvill(> Democrat has 
come to be regarded as one of the representatise 
counti'y journals, and the paper is found to be a 
welcome visitor iti the numerous homes in which it 
enters. Mr. Jobe was born at Itinggold, Ga. , on 
Jul\ 7, ISiO. and removed with liis parents to Ar- 
kansas in 1S.',7. On July 10. 1S70, he enter.Ml 
the oflice of the Des Arc (Arkansas) Citizen and 
began work as an apprentice under the tutorship 
of Allen C. Matthews. In February, 1S72. he took 
charge of the mechanical department of tho lius- 
sellville National Trilnme, edited by J. H. Batten- 
tield. a position he occufiied until 1S74. \Vhen 
the Russellville Printing Association was organized 
in 1S75, he was elected manager and continued in 
charge of the l)usincss department until ISS". 
when in addition to his other duties he assumt'd 
the editorial management of the Democrat, which 
position he still holds. He is a member of the 
Masonic fraternity, and has been secretary of Pais- 
sellville Lodge No. 27-i for seventeen years. He 
is at present recorder of the city council, a posi- 
tion he has held for eight years, and is now serving 
his fourth term as protector of Ashby Lodge No. 
33-j, K. & L. of H. He is second vice president 
of the Arkansas State Press Association. On Sep- 
tember 3, 1873, he was married to Miss S. F. 
Bonds, and to them have been boin the following 
children: Cora Edna (born July l(t, 1S74) anil 
Floy B. (born October 10, 1S7G). The family are 
members of the ('umberland Presbyterian Church. 
Mr. Jobe's parents tirst located in Columbia 
County. Ark., in lSri7, remained there one year 
and then moved to Des Arc, Prairie County, where 
the father followed merchandising until ISOl. 
He then moved to Pope County, settling three 
miles from Atkins, but remained there only until 
181)3, when he moved to Searcy, Mhite County. 
and there his death occurred in 1888. The mother 
resides in Russellville. Mr. Jobe is one of Russell - 
villa's most valued citizens, polite, courteous and 
pleasant to all, and has a host of warm friends. 

P. M. Johnson is one of the honored ''sons of 
the soil," and as he was reared to this occupation 
by his father, he has made it his chief occupation 
through life. He was ushered into life in Smith 



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236 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



County, Teiui., in IS;^,"). and in that Stato his par- 
ents, D. M. and E. G. (Lue) Johnsun, wore also 
born, tLt' former lioiufr a native of Overton 
County. The luatornal grandfather of the sul>- 
ject of this sketch wa.s a Virginian, luit was one 
of the early pioneers of Teune.-see, and in that 
State reared his family. P. M. Joliiison at- 
tained manhood in Pupe County, Ark., and 
notwithstanding the fact that his early opjMir- 
tunities were of the most meager der^criptiou, 
he was naturally intelligent, and upon attaining 
manhood was well titted to make Jiis own way in 
the world. In ]8-")4 he went to Califurnia, l)ut 
returned to Pope County, Ark., four years later. 
After remaining here until ISoU, he returned to the 
"Eldorado of the West" and was also in Nevada 
for some time, but in iMiil went to Montana Ter- 
ritory, where he continued to make his home for 
six years. At the end of that time he was satisfied 
to return to Pope County, Ark., to make his home. 
He was married, the year following his return, to 
Miss Susan M. Langford, and unto them the fol- 
lowing children were born: E. C, Emma. A. S., 
E. P., i[. A.. M. v., L.W., E. M. and B. M. E. 
C, PI P. and Emma are deceased. !Mr. Johnson 
has always been a very enthusiastic Democrat, anil 
all his relatives agree with him in their political 
views. He has always been a public-spirited citi- 
zen, has always been the soul of honor, and is a 
patron of education and all worthy enter[>rises. 

George W. Johnstone. Nowhere in Pope 
County, Ark., is there to l>e found a man of 
more energy, determined will or force of char- 
acter than Mr. Johnstone possesses, and no agri- 
culturist is deserving of greater success in the 
conduct anil management of a farm than he. He 
was born in the State of New York. April 12. 
184-1, to Samuel D. and Mary J. (^Uerchant) John- 
stone, both of whom were burn in England, the 
former's birth occurring in 1S(M, and the hitter's 
in InOT. They were marrli'(l in North Carolina, in 
1S30, and to them two sii[is and two daughters 
were born: Ruth .\. (wife of Thomas Keiteni, 
James H. , Martha (deceased), and George \V. 
The father emigrated with his family to Louisiana 
at an earlv dav, and from there to Arkansas in 



1S8S, entering 160 acres of land in Pulaski 
County, greatly increasing this amount in later 
years. He died on June 10, 1S73, anil his wife 
in 1S4I'>, a member of the Episcoj)al Church. 
On March 31. ISCU, George W. Johnstone was 
united in the bonds of matrimony to Miss Mary ^^ 
Gargiss. by whom he became the father of one 
child, a daughter, Mary J., wife of Robert Laster, 
of the Cherokee