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^,'T'i,?r',M<i9,yMT,Y PUBLIC LIBRARY 

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Biographical History of 

Biographies and Autobiographies of the 
Leading Men in the State 

Samuel Atkins Elio t, A.M., D.D. 


Volume I 

With opening chapters on 

What Massachusetts Stands for in the History of the Nation 
By Edward Everett Hale, S.T.D., LL.D. 



Copj^righted, 1911, by 
Massachusetts Biographical Society 

All rights reserved 


1198117 ■ 








Editor Boston Transcript 


President Wamsutta Mills 

LOUIS M. DEWEY Westfield 



Vice-President Massachusetts Historical Society 

HON. JOHN R. THAYER Worcester 

Member of Congress 


Editor Harvard Graduates Magazine 


State Librarian 

JOHN C. CROSBY Pittsfield 

Associate Justice Superior Court 

" There is properly no history, only biography." — Emerson. 

" There can be no true criticism of a great American which is not founded 
upon the knowledge of his work in daUy life. Whether it be in the diary of 
the frontiersman or in the elegant studies of the university." 

— Edward Everett Hale. 

" To study the lives of great men is to read history from the personal, vital 
point of view; thus history becomes real, living, and interesting to many for 
whom abstract history possesses no charms." — Wm. R. Harper. 

" Present to the boy such men as he himself would like to be." — Herbart. 

" Give us men of Light and Leading." — Lord Beaconsfield. 

" The proper study of mankind is man." — Shakespeare. 

" Man alone is interesting to man." — Goethe. 

" Universal history, the history of what man has accomplished in this 
world, is at the bottom the history of the great men who have worked here." 

— Carlyle. 

" A sage is the instructor of a hundred ages." 

— Mencius, Chinese Philosopher. 

" The function of the great man is to explain the age, and of the age to 
explain the man." — Barnes. 

" The history of the race is but that of the individual ' writ large.' " 

— Lewes. 

Lives of great men all remind us 
We can make our lives subhme." 



IT is a perfectly legitimate curiosity with which people ask about 
the facts and motives and incentives of a notable life. In every 
man of distinction men see what is possible for all humanity. 
A life first lived, then written, and then read, is the best source of 
inspiration for other lives. 

We do not know the real history of any age or country until we 
have clearly seen its characteristic men. To know^ the heart of any 
event we must see it revealed in the achievements, passions, and 
hopes of individuals. 

The men whose struggles and successes are described in this 
book are not all men of great historic significance, or of special and 
peculiar gifts. They are men who have displayed the virtues that 
have made Massachusetts the sturdy and self-reliant Common- 
wealth that it is; men who possess the healthy and universal qualities 
of human nature that are close to the heart of all sorts and condi- 
tions of men. These lives are near enough to the average life of 
humanity to have lifting power. 

The reader of these brief biographies will find his own resolutions 
and ideals reinvigorated; his own intentions realized, and his own 
manhood, not swamped, but vitalized and given new direction. He 
will broaden his horizon and learn how to enter into S5^mpathy with 
occupations and pursuits that before seemed uninteresting. One 
realm of human endeavor after another will become vivid as it is 
seen through the enthusiasm of men who have there worked and 
suffered and won. 

The selection of the names included in this and the succeeding 
volumes has been made by the Advisory Committee. Most of the 
men described are now active in business and professional careers, 
but a few sketches have been added of men whose achievements are 
still fresh in memory. The biographies have been prepared by 
experienced writers, and are in no small degree autobiographical, 


for each man, in answer to questions, has described in his own way 
his inheritances and environment, and the facts of his career. 

The portraits in this book increase its value. Said Thomas 
Carlyle: "Often I have found a portrait superior in real instruction 
to half a dozen written biographies, ... or rather, let me say, I 
have found that the portrait was as a small lighted candle by which 
the biographies could for the first time be read, and some human 
interpretation be made of them." 

The volume is submitted to the public in the confidence that 
the careers herein described will be found stimulating to patriotism 
and potent to cheer and inspire other lives. 

ofcu^i^c^c.^^ (2. ce<i^^ 



THE popular institutions which grew up almost of them- 
selves in Massachusetts, succeeded so weir that they became, 
one may say, the object lessons for the different American 
States, as they came into being. For this continent, Massachusetts 
became somewhat what Switzerland became in Europe, — an ex- 
ample of Government of the people, for the people, by the people. 
After the death of Winthrop till the outbreak of the Revolu- 
tionary War, no special Leader of the people can be named who 
directed or gave form to the political or religious institutions of the 
colony and province. But when an exigency came that exigency 
was met as well as they knew how to meet it. If a plan for finance 
or commerce, or manufacture worked well, why it worked well and 
it became permanent. If it did not work well, why, it did not work 
well, and it was forgotten. What followed was that the quaint 
charter of a trading company developed into the government of 
a State which was independent. The appointment by the Crown 
of a Governor-general of New England became merely the occa- 
sion of petty local controversy, but the State governed itself. Mr. 
Choate was quite within the strictest bounds of history when he 
said that she showed to the world a church without a bishop and 
a State without a king. 

What she had of the rights and privileges of an independent na- 
tion appeared when she declared war against George Third, who 
thought himself the strongest monarch of his time. In the war 
which followed this State swept the sea with her ships and crippled 
the commerce of England. For long periods in the war, Massachu- 
setts had more seamen engaged against King George's navy than 
were serving in that navy against her. 

As history is made up by the lives of the men who direct history, 
the volumes in the reader's hands are offered as a valuable contri- 


bution to the history of the three centuries which have passed since 
Captain John Smith pronounced the home of the Massachusetts 
Indians to be the Paradise of New England. The name Massachu- 
setts seems to appear first in literature when the Massachusetts 
Indians are thus spoken of by him in 1615. 

He names the Massachusetts Indians among forty or fifty other 
communities which he had seen or heard of in his voyage along the 
shores of what he called Massachusetts Bay. He sometimes spells 
the word with u in the third syllable and sometimes with the let- 
ters ew. The name was then applied to a group of Indians who 
lived around what we call the Blue Hills, — Malta and chusett, 
meaning the Great Hills. Smith says that "their home is the par- 
adise of those parts." The name of the bay has extended since in 
familiar use so that it now comprehends the great bay between Cape 
Ann on the north and Cape Cod on the south-east. Gosnold had 
coasted the shore of that bay as early as 1602. But he does not 
Tjse the name Massachusetts. The natives of those shores were ac- 
quainted in a way with Europeans from the visits of French and 
English fishermen. 

In 1621, when the Pilgrim Fathers were established by a resi- 
dence of a few months in Plymouth, they sent a party to explore 
the shore north-west and north of them and they speak of this voy- 
age as their voyage to the Massachusetts. The phrase meant to 
them what it meant to Smith, the region immediately west of the 
present city of Boston. And nine years later, when in 1630, John 
Winthrop came up the bay to judge of its resources for his colony, 
he speaks of going "from Salem to Massachusetts." 

The company under whose charter he had led out his party of 
emigrants had been called the Massachusetts Company in that char- 
ter two years before. The Massachusetts charter was granted by 
Charles the First to a company of Puritan adventurers who fur- 
nished the capital for the undertaking. Some of them were from 
London, and the east of England, and some more were friends of 
John White, of Dorchester, in the south-west of England. They 
had purchased from an older company, named the New England 
Company, such rights as they had in the premises. The charter of 
1628, which laid the foundation of the present State of Massachu- 
setts, gave what we should call sovereign rights to a territory run- 
ning from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Its boundary on the north 


was to be a line three miles north of the Merrimac River, and on the 
south, a line three miles south of Charles River, From the geo- 
graphical points which showed the northern limit, and the southern 
limit of this grant, the boundaries were to run west till it struck 
the South Sea, the name then given to the Pacific Ocean. South- 
ward, from the very beginning, it was understood that the northern 
boundary of the old colony of Plymouth was the southern boundary 
of Massachusetts. 

In fact, no very accurate account was kept in London of these 
grants. And when it subsequently proved desirable to assign to 
the Duke of York that territory which is still called New York, its 
eastern limit ran north to Canada, and thus were extinguished 
practically, our claims by royal patent to the States of Michigan 
and Wisconsin and other sovereignties west of them as far as Ore- 
gon. The kindred title of Connecticut to territory west of her sur- 
vived far enough to give to that State the property which is still 
called "the western reserve" in the State of Ohio. 

The colony of Massachusetts Bay thus chartered was united 
with the colony of Plymouth under the second charter in the year 
1691. As the province of "Massachusetts Bay" with which was 
connected the Province of Maine, Massachusetts declared war 
against the King in the next century. When in 1780 she estab- 
lished her own constitutional government, the word bay was dropped 
from the title and it is as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts that 
she is one of the United States formed by the Federal Constitution 
in 1787. 

The space occupied by the State upon the map is not consider- 
able. As Mr. Everett said on a celebrated occasion of the domin- 
ions of the House of Hapsburg, it is but a speck on the map of the 
world. But from the very first she has made herself known in 
the rest of the world, and her sons feel that the rest of the world 
has profited by what she has taught them. In the volumes in 
the reader's hands some attempt is made to show her influence in the 
development of the civilization of the world as some of her dis- 
tinguished sons have lived for mankind. 

It should be remembered by all who read American history or 
American biography that the colonists who came into i\Iassachusetts 
Bay with Winthrop and those who followed them in the next ten 
yeai-s were led by idealists who had very distinct views as to the 


government, whether of the church or of the State. These views 
were the advanced views of their time, and that reader is very much 
in the dark who supposes that the radicaHsm of these men is to be 
traced simply in their theological or ecclesiastical opinions. No! 
They were Independents of the Independents; they were such men 
as Cromwell delighted in. Those of them who chose to go back to 
England to join in the great contest of the century generally allied 
themselves at once to Cromwell's party, the party of the Independ- 
ents. In many instances they led that party. As their ecclesias- 
tical leaders in the Westminster Assembly proved to be leaders 
in the proposals for the church, so such men as Hopkins and 
Sedgwick proved to be leaders in the direction of the war 
and of Cromwell's administration. Edward Hopkins, the same 
whose prizes are now distributed at Harvard College every year, the 
godfather of Hopkinton in Massachusetts, was the head of Crom- 
well's Board of Admiralty, which continues as the Board of Admi- 
ralty of England to this day. It was under his direction, for 
instance, that the English took Jamaica which they hold to-day. 

The accurate reader should recollect that the term New England 
for the States which grew up east of New York is first used by John 
Smith after his voyage of 1614. It is now of no great importance 
but it is worth remark that the name Mattachusetts with tt instead 
of ss in the firet syllable is retained in official documents almost al- 
ways for the first century. In the Algonquin dialects these letters 
are sometimes interchanged, as where Miss-issippi means the great 
river to this day. The root is the same as that used in Massachu- 
setts, — the great mountain. 

About ten thousand persons crossed the ocean westward under 
the impulse given by the Massachusetts Company within the first 
ten years after John Winthrop's voyage. But when in 1642, Har- 
vard College sent out eight young men with the degree of Bachelor 
of Arts, four of them "returned home," as they would have said, 
meaning to England. They went back to play their part in the 
country in which they were born, so soon to lose its name as a king- 
dom. And in the twenty years which followed, one of the writers 
of the time says that more persons had emigrated from New England 
to old England than had come westward expecting to find homes 

So close was Cromwell's interest in the New England of that day 


that after his conquest of Jamaica, he wrote an official letter to the 
magistrates of Massachusetts to propose to them that the New 
England Colony should remove to Jamaica. In a conversation with 
Governor Leverett, of which we have Leverett's account in detail, 
"His Highness, the Protector" urged his plan upon the New Eng- 
landers. Leverett replied sturdily that in no plantation of Eng- 
land were settlers so well established as in New England. And the 
General Court, at Leverett's suggestion, wrote a respectful letter 
to the Protector on the 12th of October, 1656, declining his proposal. 
From the whole of the interesting correspondence it is evident that 
the State of Massachusetts was well established, that its rulers were 
confident that they could hold their position, and that while they 
wished to deal with the Protector with all courtesy, they felt that 
they were in no way dependent upon the home government. 
Their complete satisfaction with this position appeared definitely 
when Philip's War broke out in 1674. They never asked the gov- 
ernment of England for a soldier or an ounce of powder or of lead, 
nor for the slightest assistance of any sort by which they should 
maintain their position here. 

The reader must remember from the date of the very first settle- 
ment that every Englishman in Plymouth or in Massachusetts was 
here because he did not want to be in England. They did not like 
the way in which things were done in England. They came here 
because they did not like it. And they found very soon that they 
had white paper to write upon. If the English forms were disagree- 
able, why, they could drop the English form and who should say 
nay? An amusing instance is that of the halberds which poor 
Governor Winthrop tried to use in his escort on state occasions. The 
halberds were "unpopular," as we should say to-day. Winthrop 
had to order his own servants to carry them, and from that 
moment there were no halberdiers. 

It is true that they could hardly appeal to the authority of Eng- 
land if the}^ would. Often, the early settlers were six months with- 
out news from England. But we must observe also that they did 
not want to appeal there. Years after Winthrop's settlement, 
when they were asked to show the royal colors on the arrival of one 
of the King's ships, they had no royal colors to show. They did not 
want to have any. 

This is to say, in other words, that they could carry out their 


own plans for self-government. And they did. When the hun- 
dred persons who established Plymouth arrived in Provincetown, 
in August, 1620, they met together and the men signed the compact 
which has become famous, by which they agreed to obey their own 
governor and to make their own laws. Very soon they had to 
make deeds and wills which transferred real property from one 
owner to another. Now, this matter of probate of wills was one of 
those which in England was left to the ecclesiastical courts, — and 
is left so to this day. But these people had come here because they 
detested the English church and its establishments. The people, 
therefore, established their own courts of registry and for the pro- 
bate of wills. The system which they established has gone over 
all America and no ecclesiastic, as such, has anything to do with it. 

Cases not unlike this turned up constantly in the early legisla- 
tion of the General Court of Massachusetts. That court attended 
to such affairs and very soon had to make their own code. As early 
as May, 1635, it was agreed that a committee should " frame a body 
of grounds of laws in resemblance to a Magna Charta which being 
allowed by some of the ministers and the General Court should be 
received for fundamental laws." In 1641, what is now known as 
the "Body of Liberties" of Massachusetts had got itself prepared. 
Nineteen copies of it were made and they were sold to the separate 
towns for ten shillings a piece for each copy. The session of the 
General Court for December continued three weeks and established 
the code by authority. But this code did not satisfy the people 
and from year to year the " Body of Laws " was enlarged and im- 
proved upon until they were printed in 1660. 

Now of this Body of Laws, as Hon. Francis Calley Gray says 
" in the main, it is far in advance of the times and in several respects 
in advance of the common law of England to this day." The author, 
John Ward of Ipswich had studied the English law carefully. He 
knew what he was about, and if he went beyond its requisitions, so 
much the worse for the common law of England. The common 
law of New England meant to go farther. 

From the restoration of the royal family in England, down to 
the outbreak of the American Revolution, there intervenes a cen- 
tury of history in which so far as political allegiance went the men 
of Massachusetts were not apt to repair to England to establish 
their homes. For, simply, while the principles of feudalism had, on 


the whole, prevailed in England, the principles of the Common- 
wealth had prevailed in New England. The Anglican Church was 
the Established Church of old England, the Congregational Church 
was the Established Church of New England. Such reasons there 
were for chilling the ardor with which the New Englandere of the 
first generation "went home" as a resident on the Pacific coast 
to-day may go back to the Atlantic coast to die. 

But the commercial relations of New England M-ith Old England 
were still very close. The first governor of Massachusetts had had 
the wisdom to see what were the remarkable facilities of the bay 
for the building of ships. He tempted some of the first shipbuilders 
of the time to come to America, and from this time, for a hundred 
and fifty years, the export of ships was a great feature in our in- 
dustries. When Lord Bellomont became the Governor-general of New 
England, at the end of that century, he wrote home in an official 
letter that the maritime commerce of the port of Boston was larger 
than that of all Scotland, that more ships were built and owned here 
than sailed from all the ports of Scotland. 

The colonies, however, were still receiving most of their man- 
ufactured articles from England. Inventories and advertisements 
show that after the year 1700 the Massachusetts people were reading 
English books and were sometimes reprinting them. Bunyan tells 
us that the first edition of the ''Pilgrim's Progress" was reprinted 
in America. Alas, not a single copy of the edition seems to have 
escaped the destructive hands of so many readers. Cotton Mather 
printed the "Magnalia" in London. The first edition bears the date 
of 1702. Its circulation, however, was of course, principally in 
New England and no American edition was printed until 1820. 
Among theologians, Jonathan Edwards's work on "The Will" had 
attracted attention in England and was reprinted there. 

It was, then, with a certain surprise that the thoughtful men 
in England read the first American State Papers which appeared 
in 1760 and later down regarding the subjects at issue between the 
Province of Massachusetts and the King of England. Papers 
written by such men as the two Adamses, James Otis, and Frank- 
lin might challenge comparison easily with any writings of any Eng- 
lishmen of their time. And these papers came from a colony which 
had been most known in General Wolfe's despatches and which sent 
to England ships and furs and potash and fish. As Sir George Tre- 


velyan has recently shown us, the friends of America in England 
at that time were more in number than the advocates of the Crown's 
proposals. Among them there was a little handful of officers who 
had served in the colonies who were not surprised by the dignity 
and effectiveness of the State Papers which came from America in 
the next thirty years. 

This ignorance was due not simply to the condescension which 
Mr. Lowell observes with which to his time all Europe regarded all 
America. It was the personal ignorance in each continent of the 
inhabitants of the other. Illustrations of this ignorance may be 
found even in Lord Chatham's well-known speech in which he re- 
views the American State Papers and in Edmund Burke's acknowl- 
edged surprise when he studied the resources of New England. It 
is pathetic, indeed, to read in the diaries of the loyalists who took 
up their homes in London while the Revolution went on, that the 
men of England regarded them with a sort of pity, only too plainly 
expressed, and wondered what was their business in England. 

Such considerations, although briefly stated, are enough to 
account for the pride with which Massachusetts men look back on 
their own history. They have been encouraged in their pride in 
the history of the Commonwealth by thoughtful men in all parts 
of the world. Carlyle said truly that "Democracy announced on 
Bunker Hill that she is born and will envelope the whole world." 
And in one way and another, that statement is assented to by the 
modern students of history. I was in London in 1859, when we 
heard the news of John Brown's attack on Harper's Ferry. At 
that time the London Times was the most constant enemy of lib- 
eral institutions; and yet that journal, in a leading editorial said, 
"the sympathy of the people of Massachusetts has a title to the 
consideration of the world. No community of which we have any 
knowledge approaches in enlightenment or morality to the inhab- 
itants of this part of the Union." 

"Had it not been for the Puritans, political liberty would prob- 
ably have disappeared from the world." 

This is the brief summary by Mr. John Fiske of the demonstra- 
tion with which he shows that the settlement of Plymouth and 
Massachusetts was not simply one little chapter in the series of in- 
teresting adventures, but that it laid the foundation of what we call 
constitutional liberty in all the world. In the carefully considered 


chapters in which this distinguished philosopher introduces his book 
on the beginnings of New England, he justifies completely the epigram 
of Rev. Mr. Zincke to which Charles F. Adams and Edwin D. 
Mead have called such wide attention. Every event in history is to 
be judged of more or less importance according as it is more or less 
closely connected with the voyage of the Mayfloiver. 

The leading men in Massachusetts and the men who have written 
their biographies in these volumes are well aware that for victory 
Massachusetts is different in foundation and in principle from the 
history of any other part of the world. They are apt to acknowl- 
edge, with a proper pride, this distinction of their position. They 
are often charged with arrogance because they are willing to acknowl- 
edge it. But we cannot help that. History is history. And we of 
Massachusetts gladly accept its verdict with the belief that Gov- 
ernment of the people, for the people, by the people, as it is 
attempted now in the world finds some of its earliest and most 
important lessons in our history. 

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ABIEL JACOB ABBOT, treasurer of the Abbot Worsted 
Company of Westford, Massachusetts, and a member of the 
executive committee of the National Association of Wool 
Manufacturers — the powerful organization which guards the 
interests of this great textile industry — is a business man of envi- 
able standing in his part of Massachusetts. He was born in 
Westford in 1850, on January 8, the anniversary of Jackson's memo- 
rable victory at New Orleans, and has lived in Westford nearly all 
of his busmess life. Mr. Abbot's father was a lawyer, John W. P. 
Abbot, distinguished not only for his professional knowledge but 
for his business sagacity and public spirit. The mother of Abiel 
Jacob Abbot was Catharine Abbot. The family name in Massa- 
chusetts was first borne by George Abbot, who emigrated from 
England about the year 1636, and settled in Andover. It is one 
of the sterling families of the country — a race of devout, thrifty, 
energetic New Englanders. They have been successful in material 
affairs, but not so much engrossed by them as to be unmindful of 
the duties of citizenship. Public spirit has always characterized the 
line to which Mr. Abbot belongs. His family, too, has always been 
possessed of more than average intellectual strength, and has con- 
tributed to the State more than its quota of scholars and profes- 
sional men. 

Mr. Abbot's father believed in teaching his son the importance 
of business methods and the value of economy. He did not wait 
until the youth was about to enter life on his own account, but 
inculcated these principles at home, and their effect upon the busi- 
ness success which Mr. Abbot has since won is great and manifest. 
The influence of his mother in shaping his character and stimulating 
wholesome ambitions in the youth was also very strong. He went 
for the finishing of his education to the academy at Exeter, New 
Hampshire, to Westford Academy and to the Highland Military 
School at Worcester, Massachusetts. At eighteen years of age, by 


his own wish — not desiring to undertake the profession of his 
father — he entered the office of the Robey Manufacturing Company 
of Chelmsford, Massachusetts. His training at home and at school, 
his private reading and study and the acquaintance which he had 
already gained with men in active life gave him a good equipment 
for the exacting business of manufacturing. 

Until 1873 Mr. Abbot remained with the Robey Manufacturing 
Company at Chelmsford. Then he returned to Westford and went 
into business there in the house of Abbot & Company. In 1876 he 
became a partner in the firm of Abbot & Company, and held this 
partnership until 1900, when he became treasurer of the Abbot 
Worsted Company, the post he holds at the present time. From 
1892 to 1898 Mr. Abbot served as chairman of the school committee 
of Westford, and from 1892 to the present time he has been a mem- 
ber, as has been said, of the executive committee of the National 
Association of Wool Manufacturers. 

Mr. Abbot is a Unitarian in his religious faith, and for twenty- 
seven years has served the First Parish Church of Westford as its 
clerk and a member of the executive committee. He is a Republi- 
can in politics, but has contented himself with upholding by his 
vote and influence the principles of the party to which he is devoted, 
and has not desired to secure political office. 

A gentleman of scholarly tastes, Mr. Abbot is particularly well 
informed in English history, the plays of Shakespeare and the biog- 
raphies of eminent men, and he has broadened his mind through 
unusual opportunities of observation as a traveler. He has visited 
every State in the Union east of the Mississippi, and most of the 
Western States, Canada, Mexico, and the islands of the Atlantic. 
He has journeyed extensively also in Europe and in Egypt, and for 
a number of years has made it his practice to go abroad every second 

At his home Mr. Abbot finds pleasure in many out-of-door sports. 
He is fond of sailing, canoeing, baseball, riding and tennis, and for 
the sake of health and the all-around development which these 
pastimes give he devotes to them no small share of his time outside 
of the exactions of business. 

Mr. Abbot was married on April 22, 1880, to Mary Alice Moseley, 
daughter of Edward S. and Charlotte Moseley, who is descended from 
John Maudesley, or Moseley, who came from England with the first 


pioneers to Dorchester in 1630. Mr. and Mrs. Abbot have three 
children — Edward M. Abbot, who is engaged in manufacturing, 
John M. Abbot, who is in the banking business, and a daughter. 

Mr. Abbot's sons have their father's success in business as an 
example and encouragement to them. His advice to the young 
men of his community is " to be diligent in all things, upright in 
business, scrupulous in speech and habits, and unselfish, thinking 
not always of themselves but of their obligations to their fellow- 
men and their duty to be helpful to the community about them." 
This is not only Mr. Abbot's counsel to others, but the substance 
of the principles on which he has sought to order a life which has 
proved to be one of beneficence to his native town and State. 



HOMER ALBERS, a Boston lawyer with a reputation for 
handling cases of large importance, formerly a member of 
the Faculty of the Boston University Law School, and 
lecturer on Business Law at the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, was born at Warsaw, Illinois, February 28, 1863. His 
father, Claus Albers, who was born November 25, 1817, and died 
January 23, 1892, was the son of John Dietrich and Sophia (Lange) 
Albers, and in 1836 came from Zeven, in the Kingdom of Hanover. 
On March 5, 1839, he married Rebecca Knoop, who was born Decem- 
ber 26, 1818, immigrated to America from Zeven in 1838, and died 
July 9, 1896. 

For many years Claus Albers was a prominent flour manufacturer 
at Warsaw. He was a man of great uprightness and exactness in 
his life and his dealings with others, and of thoroughness in his work. 
The training of his sons, which received first the strong moral and 
spiritual influence of their mother, had also his own earnest atten- 
tion. To teach them the value of money and that no honest work is 
degrading, he gave them no allowance until they went to college, but 
paid them for manual labor at his country place, house and flour 
mill. To gain something they had to do something — a practical 
schooling, the value and importance of which they were able to 
appreciate in later years. 

In due time Homer Albers attended the public schools — inclu- 
ding the High School of Warsaw. He then entered the Central 
Wesleyan College at Warrenton, Missouri, and after the usual course 
he graduated in 1882 with the A.B. degree, receiving the honorary 
A.M. degree in 1885. From the age of six years he had expressed 
a determination to become a lawyer. With this purpose still in 
view, he went from college to the Boston University Law School, 
and graduated from this institution in 1885, receiving the LL.B. 
degree. It was while at the Law School that he encountered his 
first real difficulties. His father failed in business, and from that 


time he was obliged to pay his own expenses, which he did by work 
as evening librarian of the Social Law Library of Boston and by 
tutoring in law. 

He was admitted to the Suffolk County Bar in 1885, when his 
work began as attorney-at-law in Boston. At the autumn term of 
that year he was engaged as instructor in the Boston University 
Law School, and soon thereafter was made a member of the Faculty 
and a lecturer in the same institution. His marked success in 
teaching and in practice soon gained him distinction. In 1900, the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology having established a Depart- 
ment of Business Law, Mr. Albers was selected as eminently fitted to 
conduct the course, which he has continued to do from that time to 
the present. He has declined offered professorships in law in Michi- 
gan University at Ann Arbor and in the Northwestern University. 

He was appointed a member of the State Ballot Law Commission 
in 1899, and reappointed by successive governors until the expira- 
tion of the term in 1905. When the Massachusetts Legislature 
created two additional justices of the Superior Court in 1903, there 
was a lively contest for the new places. The appointment of Mr. 
Albers was strongly urged by Judge James R. Dunbar and other 
prominent men of the bench and bar, and he was named in the first 
appointment of a justice ever made by Governor Bates. Mr. Albers, 
however, felt obliged to decline this unsought honor. 

As attorney for Thomas W. Lawson, Mr. Albers has had a varied 
experience with many intricate and perplexing affairs; and he has 
also acted as attorney for C. I. Hood & Company, the Wells & Richard- 
son Company, and other houses having important legal business. 
He conducted the celebrated gas cases in the Legislature. He has 
had numerous trade-mark cases in different parts of the United 
States, and a great variety of other business calling for legal acumen, 
ability and discretion of the highest order. 

Mr. Albers is a steadfast Republican in politics. He is well 
known in professional and social life, and is a member of the Uni- 
versity Club of Boston and of the Boston Art Club, the old Massa- 
chusetts Club, and the Brae Burn Country Club. He attends the 
Episcopal Church. He is fond of travel, from which he gets his most 
delightful relaxation, but also finds enjoyment in such sports as golf. 
His residence is now in Brookline; his office in Boston. 

He was married June 26, 1889, to Minnie M. Martin, daughter 


of Charles H. and Sarah (Goodell) Martin, granddaughter of Hiram 
and Salome (Dunham) Martin, and of Harry and Lucinda (Weaver) 

One so successful as a teacher and a practical business man is 
unusually well qualified to offer suggestions for the strengthening 
of sound ideals in our American life. To young people Mr. Albers 
would advise: "First, good character; second, work; third, more 
work." And he adds: "Don't merely do enough work to fill your 
position; if that is all you do, you are not entitled to a better position." 

£:ri^ by£:a.l4^/iia'r,s iiBr^ /'/y 



EDWIN FARNSWORTH ATKINS, merchant, sugar planter 
and manufacturer, capitalist, was born in Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, January 13, 1850. His father, Elisha Atkins, was 
a son of Joshua and Sally (Snow) Atkins, grandson of Samuel and 
Ruth (Lombard) Atkins and a descendant from Henry Atkins, the 
Pilgrim, who came from England to New England in 1639 and settled 
in Plymouth; of Edmund Freeman, the Pilgrim, who came from 
England about 1650 and located in Sandwich, Plymouth Colony. 
Elisha Atkins was a merchant in Boston and married Mary E. Free- 
man, daughter of William and Elizabeth (Shepherd) Freeman, 
granddaughter of Elkana and Mary (Myrick) Freeman, and a 
descendant from Elder William Brewster of the Mayflower, the 
Pilgrim father of the English settlement in Leyden, Holland, 1608, 
and of the Plymouth settlement in America in 1620. 

Edwin Farnsworth Atkins was brought up largely in the country, 
instructed in private schools in Boston and became a clerk in his 
father's office, in Boston, in 1867. He adopted the business of his 
father through personal preference and he spent much of his life 
in Cuba devoted to the development of sugar planting and manu- 
facturing. He became the owner of the Soledad Estate at Cienfuegas, 
Cuba, and personally managed its large interests, both as a producer 
on Cuban soil and as a shipper. As a sugar refiner he was for ten 
years the president of the Bay State Sugar Refinery Company of 
Boston, and later a director of the Boston Sugar Refining Company; 
after the death of his father in 1888, he succeeded him as a direc- 
tor and vice-president of the Union Pacific Railway system, which 
position he held up to the time of its reorganization. He is president 
of the Soledad Sugar Company; the Trinidad Sugar Company, Cuba; 
the Boston Wharf Company (real estate) ; the Aetna Mills (woolen); 
and a director of the Eliot National Bank, the American Trust 
Company, the Guarantee Company of North America, and the 
West End Street Railway Company. He is a director of the Boston 


Merchants' Association. The Degree of Master of Arts was con- 
ferred upon him June 24, 1903, by Harvard University. 

He was married October 11, 1882, to Katharine, daughter of 
Frank and Helen (Hartshorn) Wrisley, of Boston, and the three chil- 
dren born of this marriage are Robert Wrisley, June 2, 1889, Edwin 
Farnsworth, Jr., April 21, 1891, and Helen Atkins, June 28, 1893. 
Mr. Atkins's home is at Belmont, Massachusetts. He generally 
spends the winter months on his plantation in Cuba. His political 
affiliation is with the Republican party, in the counsels of which he 
is an aggressive champion of tariff reform. His religious faith is 
that of the Unitarian denomination. He is a member of many 
of the social, business and political clubs of Boston, New York 
and Cuba. 

cUy-r7_o^ a 


FREDERICK AYER was the son of Frederick Ayer, a com- 
missioned officer in the War of 1812, a man highly esteemed 
by his fellow citizens on account of his fine character and 
integrity. On his father's side he descends from John Ayer, who 
came from England and settled in Haverhill in 1632, removing to 
Saybrook early in the eighteenth century. His mother, Persis 
(Cook) Ayer, was a descendant of the Cook family which came from 
England and settled at Cambridge, later moving to Preston, Con- 
necticut, where she was born. 

Mr. Ayer was born on the eighth day of December, 1822, and at 
an early age was sent to the public schools in Ledyard, Connecticut, 
and completed his education at a private academy in Baldwinsville, 
New York. He then entered the store of John H. Tomlinson & 
Company, of the latter place, as a clerk. Soon, however, he was sent 
to Syracuse, New York, as manager of a store belonging to the same 
firm, which later took him into partnership. Three years later he 
formed a partnership with Hon. Dennis ]\IcCarthy, under the firm 
name of McCarthy & Ayer, which continued about eleven years, 
Mr. Ayer withdrawing from this firm in the spring of 1855 for the 
purpose of joining his brother. Dr. James C. Ayer, in the manage- 
ment of the business of Ayer's Proprietary Medicines, the firm being 
J. C. Ayer & Company; later, on the death of Dr. Ayer, incorporated 
as the J. C. Ayer Company. Mr. Frederick Ayer was elected the 
first treasurer of this corporation, holding this office until 1893, when 
the pressure of other interests forced him to resign. In 1871 with 
his brother, James C. Ayer, Frederick Ayer bought a controlling 
interest in the stock of the Tremont Mills and Suffolk Manufacturing 
Company of Lowell, consolidating the two companies under the 
name of the Tremont and Suffolk Mills. 

In June, 1885, Mr. Ayer purchased at auction the entire property 
of the Washington Mills at Lawrence, Massachusetts, and subse- 
quently formed a corporation known as the Washington Mills Com- 
pany, and became its treasurer. 


The American Woolen Company was organized by Mr. Ayer on 
March 29, 1899, he being the first president of this corporation and 
continuing in that office until 1905. 

Mr. Ayer has had many diversified interests and has assisted 
largely in the development of new enterprises, for which his advice 
and cooperation are much valued. He was one of the organizers 
of the New England Telephone and Telegraph Company, and served 
as one of its directors until 1896, when he resigned from the board 
and was succeeded by his son. 

Mr. Ayer was one of the organizers and for several years treasurer 
of the Lake Superior Ship Canal Railway and Iron Company, which 
owned upwards of four hundred thousand acres of timber and mineral 
lands in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and was one of its direc- 
tors until its property was taken over by the Keweenaw Associa- 
tion, on whose board of managers he remained for some years when 
he resigned and was succeeded by his son. He was also one of the 
builders of the Portage Lake Canal, which runs from Keweenaw 
Bay across Keweenaw Point, Michigan, connecting Keweenaw Bay 
with Lake Superior. This canal was afterwards sold to the United 
States Government. 

To-day Mr. Ayer is vice-president and director of the American 
Woolen Company (New Jersey); president and director American 
Woolen Company, of New York. Director Boston Elevated Railroad 
Company; vice-president and trustee Central Savings Bank, of Lowell, 
Massachusetts; director Columbian National Life Insurance Com- 
pany; director and vice-i^resident of the International Trust Com- 
pany; director American Loan and Trust Company; president and 
director J. C. Ayer Company; president and director Lowell & An- 
dover Railroad; director Tremont and Suffolk Mills; director United 
States Mining Company. He was one of the organizers of the Lowell 
and Andover Railroad, and has ever since been its president. 

He is a member of the Algonquin Club, Beacon Society and 
Country Clubs of Boston. His favorite exercise is horseback riding. 

In 1858 Mr. Ayer was married to Miss Cornelia Wheaton at 
Syracuse, New York. She died in 1878. There were four children 
of this marriage, Ellen W., James C, Charles F. and Louise R. 
Mr. Ayer was married again to Miss Ellen Banning at St. Paul, 
Minnesota. The children of this marriage are Beatrice B., Katharine 
and Frederick, Jr. 


0-£^ /^, (f^c^Jl, 


HOLLIS RUSSELL BAILEY, lawyer, chairman of the board 
of bar examiners of Massachusetts, was born in North 
Andover, Essex County, Massachusetts, February 24, 1852. 
His father, Otis Bailey, lived in the old Governor Bradstreet house, 
once the home of Anne Bradstreet, the first female poet of America. 
He was a farmer and butcher, a deacon in the Unitarian Church, 
held several town offices and was a man of public spirit, integrity 
and frugality. He married Lucinda Alden, daughter of Alden Loring 
and Lucinda (Briggs) Loring, of Duxbury, Massachusetts, and a 
descendant of Thomas Loring, of Axminster, England, who came to 
Hingham about 1635, and of John Alden of the Mayfloiver, 1620. 
James Bailey, the progenitor of the family to which Hollis Russell 
Bailey belongs was born in England about 1612 and came to Rowley 
about 1640 and his descendant, Samuel Bailey, Jr., was killed in 
the battle of Bunker Hill, June 19, 1775. 

Hollis Russell Bailey was a strong and active child, fond of 
out-door life, including fishing and hunting, and from his earliest 
years was constantly engaged on the farm in strenuous manual labor 
when not in school. He claims that this mode of life had the 
effect to make him strong, self-reliant, industrious and persistent. His 
mother's influence in these early days also made for truth, sobriety 
and willingness to work. His models and ideals of great men were 
derived from reading biographies and autobiographies and his study 
of Goodwin's Greek Moods and Tenses helped him in writing clear 
English. He was obliged to earn money while in college to meet 
his expenses. He attended Punchard Free School, Andover; John- 
son High School, North Andover; Phillips Academy, Andover, where 
he was graduated in 1873, and Harvard University, where he gained 
his A.B. degree in 1877, LL.B. 1878, and A.M. 1879, the latter 
degree being given after a post-graduate year at the Harvard Law 
School. He also studied law with Hyde, Dickinson and Howe. 
Speaking of his choice of a profession he says: "I had no strong 


bent for the law. I could have pursued medicine or engineering with 
equal pleasure. The influence of my oldest sister, Miss Sarah Loring 
Bailey, largely determined my choice and first roused my ambition 
to seek for success in the legal profession. Outside my own fam- 
ily, my college associates were possibly the most helpful factors in 
stimulating and shaping my life." 

He was admitted to the Massachusetts Bar in 1880 and began a 
general practice throughout New England, with an office in Boston 
at No. 30 Court Street. He served for a short time as private secre- 
tary to Chief Justice Horace Gray of the Massachusetts Supreme 
Judicial Court. He was married February 12, 1885, to Mary Persis, 
daughter of the Hon. Charles H. Bell and Sarah A. (Oilman) Bell, 
of Exeter, N. H. Her father was at one time governor of New Hamp- 
shire and United States Senator. One child was born of this mar- 
riage, Gladys Loring Bailey. They lived in Boston up to 1890 when 
they removed to Cambridge. He served as chairman of the City 
Committee of the Non-Partisan Municipal party of Cambridge, for 
one year, 1902; is conveyancer for the Cambridge Savings Bank; 
clerk of the First Church in Cambridge (Unitarian); in 1900 became 
a member of the board of bar examiners of Massachusetts, and in 
1903 became chairman of the board. While in Harvard he was 
elected one of the "first eight" to the Phi Beta Kappa in 1876, and 
was second marshal in 1877. He was also elected to membership 
in the Cambridge Club; the Colonial Club of Cambridge, where he 
served for a time as a member of the committee on admission; the 
American Free Trade League; the Bailey-Bayley Family Associa- 
tion, serving as its president; the Bostonian Society; the American 
Bar Association. He left the Republican party when James G. 
Blaine was nominated for president in 1882, and from that time has 
acted with the Democratic party. His youthful athletic exercise 
was playing baseball and his recreation fishing and hunting. At 
college he was a track athlete, entering the three-mile w^alking race 
and earning second place. He failed to pass the bar examination in 
June, 1879, but was successful in January, 1880. He says: "Every 
lawyer loses some cases. I have always tried to be what is called 
a 'good loser.'" To young men he says: "Be honest; be truthful; 
be public-spirited; be tolerant; be industrious." 


THOMAS BOSCOMBE emigrated from England and settled 
in 1635 in Roxbury. As the population of the State in- 
creased his descendants went, by slow stages, farther west. 
In the sixth generation, Aaron Bascom, a graduate of Harvard 
College, was called as the first pastor to the Congregational Church 
in Chester, Hampshire County. Here he spent his entire life, a 
forceful man of the Puritanical type. He had a family of eight 
children. Three sons, Samuel, John and Reynolds, graduated at 
Williams College. John Bascom graduated in 1807, and at Andover 
Theological Seminary in 1811. He married Laura Woodbridge, the 
daughter of Major Theodore Woodbridge, of the Revolutionary 
Army. The Woodbridges were a distinguished family of Connecti- 
cut, of long standing and especially associated with the ministry. 
He became a home missionary, first in Northern Pennsylvania and 
later in Central New York. He was located during the later years 
of his life at Genoa, Cayuga County. He died early, leaving a family 
of small children in straitened circumstances. After a little, the 
family left its country home and removed to the adjoining village 
of Ludlowville. The daughters were Harriet, Mary and Cornelia. 
The son, the subject of this sketch, was John. Mary was unusually 
ambitious and pushing. She secured admission to the Willard 
Seminary, Troy, paying expenses, according to the custom of the 
school, by the proceeds of instruction given later. She secured the 
admission of her two sisters, and all three taught for a series of years 
in the South. They made the way open and easy for the education 
of their younger brother. 

John was born in Genoa, May 1, 1827. He prepared for college 
at Homer Academy, of which his sister Mary was at that time the 
woman principal. The widowhood of his mother and the limited 
resources of the family gave him, in all his earlier years, an abundance 
of work at home. The local libraries of New York, just being estab- 
lished by the State, served him an excellent turn. He graduated 


at Williams in 1849, in a large class, which has produced able men. 
He spent the first year after graduation in Hoosick Falls as princi- 
pal of Ball Seminary. The second year was spent in the study of law 
at Rochester; and the third in Auburn Theological Seminary. He 
was then called to a tutorship at Williams, which he occupied one year 
and part of the succeeding year. His eyes then failed him, and it re- 
quired a half dozen years before he gained even a partial use of them. 
He completed his theological course at Andover,and was invited to 
the professorship of rhetoric at Williams in 1855. This position he 
held for nineteen years, and was then called to the presidency of the 
University of Wisconsin, where he remained between thirteen and 
fourteen years. Finding the duties more burdensome than he could 
bear, he resigned in 1887 and returned to Williams, where he has 
since given instruction in political and social subjects. 

He married Abbie, the daughter of Rev. Sylvester Burt, of Great 
Barrington, in 1853. She dying shortly after, he was married to 
Emma Curtiss, daughter of Orren Curtiss, of Sheffield, a woman 
especially resourceful and aidful, and who had achieved a position 
as a successful teacher. They have celebrated their golden wedding. 
There are three living children, George, Jean and Florence, all gradu- 
ates of the University of Wisconsin. Florence was the first woman 
to receive the degree of Ph.D. from the Johns Hopkins University, 
and the first to be appointed on the United States Geological Survey. 
She is professor of geology at Bryn Mawr College. 

The earlier instruction given by Professor Bascom at Williams 
College was successful, but not as successful as that given at the 
University on subjects more congenial to his taste, those associated 
with psychology. On these topics he v/as able to make a deep and 
permanent impression. In his college course he was proficient in 
mathematics and physics. Not till senior year did he show that 
taste for philosophy which has been his predominating intellectual 
quality. He has been an extended author, chiefly under this philo- 
sophical impulse. He has published a number of books which have 
grown, directly or indirectly, out of the instruction given by him: 
a treatise on Political Economy, on Rhetoric, on Esthetics, on Psy- 
chology, — later rewritten and published as " Science of Mind " — 
on Ethics, on Natural Theology. In connection with his later in- 
struction in Political Science he published " Growth of Nationality 
in the United States." He has added to these publications a num- 


ber of volumes expressive of his religious thought : '* Science, Phi- 
losophy and Religion "; '' The Philosophy of Religion "; " The Words 
of Christ "; '^ The New Theology "; " Evolution and Religion "; " the 
Goodness of God." The first of this series was given as a course of 
Lowell Lectures; the last, as lectures before the Divinity School at 
New Haven. The book on English Literature was also delivered as 
Lowell Lectures. 

To these volumes he has added others prompted by his interest 
in philosophy : " Problems in Philosophy" ; "Growth and Grades of Litel- 
ligence"; "An Historical Interpretation of Philosophy." His interest 
in sociology has been the outgrowth of the religious and philosophical 
temper and has given occasion to two volumes: "Sociology and Social 
Theory." These books have been chiefly published by Putnam's 
Sons. To these more lengthy works he has added more than one 
hundred and forty published addresses and articles for quarterlies 
and reviews. They have all sprung from a constant study of the 
serious problems of life and reflection on them. His influence on 
young men could not but be colored by these earnest processes of 
thought, nor fail with many of them to be of a lasting character. 

He added to fifty years of teaching the equivalent of about 
twelve years of ministerial work. In his earlier instruction at 
Williams he had charge of a church in the neighboring town of 
Pownal. The open spaces in these occupations were covered by 
writing. Not being a man of robust endurance he maintained his 
health and discharged his duties by promptitude, rigid temperance 
and much activity in the open air. His relaxations were gardening, 
tramping, riding — many miles on horseback. 

Starting with a severe orthodox faith he occupied his life in 
reshaping it, not to suit the times, but to meet the growing knowl- 
edge of the woi'ld. Though he encountered the sharp, nipping 
atmosphere which comes to those who change their religious views 
more rapidly than their neighbors, he has maintained his connection 
with the Congregational Church, suffering no open censure. 

His chief educational work and personal labor has been in philoso- 
phy. Starting with intuitionalism, he has been led to interpret, 
correct and expand it in direct contact with the facts of the world. 
His chief merit lies in this reconciliation of empiricism with the 
rational insight of the mind, yielding neither element to the other. 
While his composition, much of it philosophical, cannot be said to 


be popular, his spoken words have met with much acceptance. His 
habit of mind has chiefly prepared him for close contact with intelli- 
gent and earnest students. 

He has paid little attention to degrees, or to membership in clubs 
and societies. The degree of D.D. was given him by the College of 
Iowa, and the degree of LL.D. by Amherst, Williams and Wisconsin. 

He has been able to show that a Puritan can change his opinions 
without forgetting his Puritanic strain; that a religious man can be 
constantly busy in shaping his beliefs and lose no particle of faith; 
that a philosopher may occupy himself with suiting his principles 
to the growing revelations of human conduct and thereby forfeit 
no sense of the value and reliability of truth, which lies in this change- 
able conformity of our conceptions to the world which embraces us. 

His first vote was cast in connection with the Free Soil party. 
He was a zealous supporter of the Republican party and remained 
in connection with it till it seemed to him to have drifted off into 
general and personal politics. He then claimed the liberty of a 
Mugwump, more frequently voting with the Prohibitionists. He 
has been indifferent to no reform, but has come to understand how 
slow the pace of the world is and must necessarily be. 

He has always been interested in town affairs and was for a con- 
siderable period on the school committee. During this service the 
districts were reformed, new school buildings erected and general 
methods improved. He was active in securing the Greylock Reser- 
vation, and since its commencement has been chairman of the 
Greylock Commission. He has also been attentive to village im- 
provement; helping to organize and maintain the association for 
that object. While he has not sought official work, he has brought 
an intelligent, critical temper to social relations, aiding those who 
conceived of them as a Kingdom of Heaven to be framed into, and 
built upon, the world. He has striven to correct theory by practice, 
and to give scope and force to practice by the over-shadowing 
encouragement and guidance of theory. 

His word to young men is : "Attach more importance to the quality 
of your work than to its reward. Be not unduly distressed by hard 
work; hard work is, for the most part, the school of manhood. Do 
not barter intellectual freedom for any form of emolument, intel- 
lectual freedom means personal power, emolument at the most 
means a recognition of that power." 

■T//,j^!. s^r~ jvy 


SAMUEL AUGUSTUS BIGELOW has been connected for many 
years with the hardware industry of America. Many men 
have been interested in his views and ideas concerning the 
trade because they have felt that his influence was to eventually 
benefit them, and they have learned to trust and depend upon his 
advice. He is a pioneer in the business, and wisely chosen by his 
colleagues for every position of honor or importance that they have 
conferred upon him. The golden anniversary of his career in the 
business world, which occurred on October 12, 1905, was a testimony 
to the universal esteem in which he is held by his friends all over 
the country. Over fifty years of uninterrupted experience gives 
him preeminence as an expert in his line. 

He was brought up at Nonantum Vale on the Faneuil estate. 
Enjoying as he did a life of freedom he naturally sought what was 
most to his liking. His adventurous spirit soon disclosed to him the 
resources within his reach. He indulged his redundancy of good 
health and spirits in out-of-door sports and with the presage of 
youth investigated the mechanical realm. His experiments with 
tools delighted and entertained him. 

Mr. Bigelow inherits the marked business characteristics of the 
father whose name he beai-s. Samuel Bigelow, the father, who was 
largely interested in real estate, was a very successful man. He 
was accredited as possessing marked shrewdness and discernment. 
He was born August 22, 1807, and lived until October 11, 1901. 
His earliest ancestor, who came to this country and settled at 
Watertown, Massachusetts, in 1630, was John Bigelow. Mr. Samuel 
Augustus Bigelow's mother was Anna Jane (Brooks) Bigelow, who 
was a decendant from Captain Brooks, who came to America and 
settled in Concord, Massachusetts, about 1630. Mr. Bigelow's an- 
cestors were represented in many of the Colonial Wars, and con- 
tinued through each succeeding generation to respond to their 
country's call. At Lexington and Bunker Hill their names were 


recognized as belonging to the heroes who were famous in the his- 
tory of those times. The records of the State of Massachusetts show 
these famines to have been prominent in law, medicine and as mer- 

The date of Mr. Samuel Augustus Bigelow's birth is November 26, 
1838. His native city is Charlestown, Massachusetts. His mother, 
so highly esteemed for her gentleness and sincerity, was always his 
best authority in distinguishing betw^een right and wrong, and her 
influence is a lasting legacy which she early bequeathed to him. To 
her example and advice, he refers in the most glowing terms, and 
asserts that " they have always been a guiding influence for all that 
is good." His education was obtained in the public schools of 
Brighton, which now forms a part of Boston. He finished the high 
school course, and prepared himself for further advancement in a 
college course, but his desire to mingle in the business world asserted 
itself, and he gave up the idea of going to college. In the year 1855 
he entered the hardware house of Eaton & Palmer, then located 
on Congress Street, Boston. He worked in the capacity of errand 
boy, shipper and general assistant in the office, doing whatever he 
undertook with accuracy and despatch. His attitude was always 
one of confidence that he would succeed in whatsoever he attempted. 
In 1856 this firm consolidated with Lovett & Wellington, forming 
the house of Eaton, Lovett & Wellington. Mr. Bigelow was the 
only clerk in the old house that remained with the nevv^. He was 
radiant with hope, and although he started on only fifty dollars per 
year, and worked for three years with an increase to one hundred 
and twenty-five dollars per year, he soon became a prosperous sales- 
man, and the time sped rapidly until 1864, when the firm of Homer, 
Bishop & Company was founded in which he became a partner in 
1866. He traveled for eight years over the states of Vermont and 
New Hampshire, making many stanch and reliable friends and 
establishing a large and profitable business, much of which remains 
in connection with his present company. It was in the fall of 1872, 
when the appalling conflagration of Boston destroyed every jobbing 
hardware house in the city, that the firm of Homer, Bishop & Com- 
pany, was dissolved, and the new firm of Macomber, Bigelow & Dowse 
was founded. Through necessity they were forced to occupy cham- 
bers in Batterymarch Street, as there were no available quarters 
on the ground floor left after the fire. In 1873 Mr. Bigelow assumed 


exclusive control of the buying department, and through his general 
sagacity and courteous bearing he has greatly enhanced the oppor- 
tunities of the business, and formed for it a valuable circle of friends 
who hold him in highest respect. In 1884 John F. Macomber 
retired on account of illness, and the new firm of Bigelow & Dowse 
was founded, composed of Samuel A. Bigelow and Charles F. Dowse. 
In 1894 this firm was incorporated under the laws of the Common- 
wealth of IMassachusetts, as the Bigelow & Dowse Company, which 
still continues. One night in Januar}-, 1903, the business house of 
the firm, which had prospered so steadily and surely, was destroyed 
by fire, but Mr. Bigelow and his partner were not long in mastering 
the situation. In temporary quarters they were soon in a position 
to fill all their orders which poured in upon them from their old 
customers as uninterruptedly as though nothing had interfered 
with their fulfilment. Such was the confidence established with 
their customers and the manufacturers, that but little depression 
was caused by the catastrophe, and almost immediately their new 
store was rebuilt on the old site and filled with a new and complete 

A meeting of a few hardware jobbers in 1893 resulted in the New 
England Iron & Hardware Association of which Mr. Bigelow was 
elected first president. He established the precedent of holding 
office only one year, which custom still prevails. He was then 
chosen to represent the Association in the Boston Associated Board 
of Trade. In this capacity he served until 1899, when he was 
again elected to the Boston Associated Board of Trade, completing 
his term in October, 1903. In 1894 he was the only representative 
from New England at that first meeting at Cleveland, out of which 
grew the National Hardware Association. At that meeting he was 
elected a member of the executive committee, which office he held 
continuously, with the exception of one year, until the meeting in 
Atlantic City in November, 1903. There he was elected president. 
He had expressed a wish that his services be exempt from this re- 
sponsibility, but the overwhelming earnestness of the members of 
the association and of his many friends from near and far who were 
present, prevailed, and he quickly rose to the occasion with his 
response of generous acquiescence to their wishes, and assumed the 
duties and honors pressed upon him with a gracefulness and willing- 
ness that endeared him to the hearts of all assembled. He made 


many intimate and lasting friendships as president and member of 
the executive committee. He was reelected president in 1904. In 
1905 he was elected a permanent member of the Advisory Board. 
Mr. Bigelow has seen many changes and evolutions in the hardware 
trade, and settled many problems for himself and others that tended 
to elevate its standard. He states that the hardware man's limited 
sphere has enlarged until now, "he has more need to use his head 
than his hands" to make his business successful. Mr. Bigelow 
belongs to the Republican party, to which he has always remained 
loyal. He is one of the founders of the Anvil Club, afterwards 
changed to the Hardware Buyers Association; also master of the 
lodge of Eleusis; a member of the Eastern Yacht Club; Exchange 
Club; Athletic Club and others. He married Miss Ella H. Brown, 
daughter of Harriet B. and Seth E. Brown, on November 7, 1867. 
Their only child is Samuel Lawrence Bigelow, now a professor of 
chemistry. Mr. Bigelow states that his motto in life is to " Follow 
the Golden Rule." 



.A.J. WuLc(rx^,i3asi.orc, 



MATHEW C. D. BORDEN, cotton manufacturer, was born 
in Fall River, Massachusetts, July 18, 1842. His father. 
Colonel Richard Borden, was a son of Thomas and Mary 
(Hathaway) Borden, grandson of Thomas and Lydia (Durfee) Bor- 
den, who were the founders of the family in Fall River, and a 
descendant in the seventh generation from Richard Borden, the immi- 
grant, who was born in Borden, Kent, England, where the family 
first settled a.d. 1090, and with his brother, John Borden, came to 
New England in 1635 and settled in Portsmouth Island, Rhode 
Island Colony, in 1638. His son Mathew was the first white child 
born in that settlement. Colonel Richard Borden was born in Free- 
town, now Fall River, April 12, 1795, became the owner of a flourish- 
ing grist-mill in that town and in company with Bradford Durfee, 
a ship-builder, engaged in building and equipping sailing vessels. 
The iron and wood used in constructing the vessels were both worked 
out in their yards. This enterprise resulted, in 1821, in the formation 
of the Fall River Iron Works Company. Associated with Richard 
Borden and Bradford Durfee in the business of manufacturing iron, 
building sailing vessels and shipping and trading with Providence 
and other neighboring ports were Holder Borden, David Anthony, 
William Valentine, Joseph Butler and Abram and Isaac Wilkinson, 
of Providence. The original capital stock of $24,000 was depleted 
soon after the inauguration of the enterprise by the withdrawal of 
$6,000, invested by the Wilkinsons, and the remaining partners ran 
on with $18,000 capital. In 1825 the association was incorporated 
under the laws of Massachusetts with a capital of $200,000, increased 
in 1845 to $960,000. This increase was taken from the earnings of 
the business and still left of the earnings not so applied, $500,000. 
All of this had resulted from the use of the $18,000 originally paid 
m as capital stock. This result was largely due to the skill and fore- 
sight of Colonel Richard Borden, the agent and treasurer from the 


The Iron Works Company was thus enabled to become one of the 
largest stockholders in the Wautuppa Reservoir Company, organized 
in 1826; in the Troy Cotton and Woolen Manufacturing Company; the 
Fall River Manufactory; in the Annawan Mill, which it built in 1825; 
in the American Print Works, leasing to that corporation the build- 
ings they had erected in 1834; in the Metacomet Mill, built in 1846; 
in the Fall River Railroad, opened in 1846; in the Bay State Steam- 
boat Line, established in 1847; in the Fall River Gas Works, built in 
1847, besides buildings erected in various parts of the city leased 
to manufacturers and others. 

Colonel Borden inspired the building, in 1827, of the first steam- 
boat, the Hancock, run between Fall River and Providence, 
Rhode Island, to which line the King Philip was added in 1832, 
the Bradford Durfee in 1845 and the Richard Borden in 1874. 
He also constructed various branch railroads to benefit the trade 
of Fall River, including the Cape Cod Railroad from Middleborough 
to Cape Cod, subsequently absorbed by the Old Colony Railroad 
Company. In 1847, with his brother Jefferson, he organized the 
Bay State Steamboat Company with a capital of $300,000, built 
the Bay State and chartered the Massachusetts, building the 
Empire State in 1848, and the Metropolis in 1854. This was the 
beginning of the Fall River Line, which was absorbed by the Old 
Colony Railroad Company through Colonel Borden's suggestion and 

In 1834, in cooperation with Jefferson and Holder Borden and 
the Durfees, he organized the American Print Works Company 
and the works were enlarged in 1840 and the output doubled. In 
1857 the business was incorporated and Colonel Borden was made 
president of the corporation, the Bay State Print Works being added 
to the plant in 1858. In December, 1864, the buildings of the print 
works were destroyed by fire entailing a loss of $2,000,000, but were 
speedily rebuilt. 

In 1874 Colonel Borden died, his death following on the disasters 
felt by the business of Fall River on account of the panic of 1873. 
This necessitated the first contribution of new capital to the Borden 
enterprises, for the profits of the business had furnished the capital 
used up to that time, including the great fire loss. In 1879 the 
corporation was obliged to ask favors from creditors, and at the 
same time Mathew C. D. Borden who had been the New York City 


agent came to the front in conjunction with his brother Thomas J. 
Borden, as responsible for the future guidance of the business of the 
Print Works. In 1886 Thomas J. disposed of his interest to his 
brother and Mathew C. D. Borden became the sole owner of the 
great property. He at once added to the business of printing, that 
of manufacturing the cloths to be printed, and thus became inde- 
pendent of the exactions of print-cloth manufacturers. For this 
purpose he utilized the unused property of the Fall River Iron Works 
Company, on which the print works stood, and he at the same time 
secured control of the water privileges which the charter of the Iron 
Works Company embraced by purchasing a controlling interest in 
the stock of that company. To meet the future exigencies he also 
secured control of contiguous land by purchase, thus securing deep 
water and dock privileges on his own property. In 1889 he built 
Mill No. 1. In 1892 he built Mill No. 2. Mill No. 3 arose in 1893; 
No. 4 in 1894. The four mills afforded a floor space of 840,000 
square feet; were equipped with 265,000 spindles, 7700 looms and 375 
cards turning out 53,000 pieces of cloth per week, spun and woven 
from 1000 bales of cotton. This plant at present, 1908, includes 
seven mills with 13,057 looms and 459,000 spindles. From this 
immense plant he produced calicoes which established the market 
prices of the world for that class of goods, and he was at once inde- 
pendent of any combination print-cloth manufacturers could make, 
as he could sell at a less cost than any other printer in the United 
States, which came to mean in the world. 

The achievements and benefactions of this remarkable man are 
best described in the work accomplished which testifies to the power 
that wrought so much and so well. 



FRANKLIN CARTER was born in Waterbury, Connecticut. 
His father, Preserve Woods Carter, was a native of Wolcott, 
Connecticut; born November 14, 1799, died February 1, 
1859. His mother was Ruth Wells Holmes. The grandfathers were 
Preserve Carter and Israel Holmes. His early ancestors, Hop- 
Idnses and Judds, came from England, the Hopkinses settling in 
the neighborhood of Boston about the middle of the seventeenth 
century. The father. Preserve Woods Carter, was a manufacturer, 
puritanic in his convictions and actions. In early life the subject 
of this sketch was occupied with the customary work of a New 
England lad, caring somewhat for the garden and contributing his 
share to the ongoing of the family life. He owes much, both intel- 
lectually and spiritually, to the influence of his mother; also to a 
saintly half sister, Esther S. Humisston, who drew him closely to 
herself. The character of his youth is expressed in the books which 
quickened his purposes during his school life, Todd's "Student's 
Manual," Beecher's "Lectures to Young Men," and Bunyan's 
"Pilgrim's Progress" and other similar writings. 

He fitted for college at Phillips Academy (Andover), spent nearly 
two years at Yale College, and leaving that institution because of 
physical weakness was graduated at Williams in 1862. He received 
the degrees M.A. and Ph.D. from Williams, and the degree of LL.D. 
in 1904; the degree of A.M. from Jefferson 1864, and Yale 1874; 
LL.D. Union 1881, Yale 1901, and South Carolina College 1905. 

Home influence concurred with personal associations and early 
companionship to make him a teacher. This employment also 
promised a successful line of labor. He received the appointment 
of professor of the Latin Language and Literature at Williams 
College in 1863 and went immediately to Europe where he spent 
eighteen months in study. This position he held until 1872. Then 
he became professor of the German Language in Yale, spent another 
year in Germany and remained at Yale until 1881. His departure 




from Yale was greatly regretted and he received numerous letters 
from the most eminent men connected with that university urging 
him to continue his work in New Haven. But he regarded it as his 
duty to accept the presidency of Williams, his alma mater, and held 
this position for twenty years, until 1901. His resignation of the 
presidency closed his work as an instructor, with the exception of 
lectures on Theism delivered for several years at Williams. 

His career as president of Williams College was one of distin- 
guished success, as is evident from the following statement taken 
from the letter addressed to him by the faculty of the college in 
June, 1901. 

" In comparing the state of the college to-day with that of twenty 
years ago we find that the invested capital has been nearly quad- 
rupled, and that half a million of dollars (actually $675,000) in 
addition has been expended in new buildings and real estate; that 
the number of students has increased by sixty-three per cent., the 
number of instructors by over one hundred per cent. In conse- 
quence of these changes and of the enlargement and enrichment 
of the courses of study the opportunities for instruction have been 
greatly improved, while at the same time the standard of scholarship 
has been gradually raised." 

Extracts from the resolutions adopted by the trustees are here 
added : 

" The trustees desire to communicate to President Carter and to 
place on record the profound and grateful appreciation of the ability, 
faithfulness, high aims and whole-hearted devotion with which for 
twenty years in the midst of many difficulties he has spent himself 
in the review of our beloved alma mater. As a loyal son he has 
freely given her his best. He has been a sldlful and inspiring teacher, 
and a wise and conscientious leader, seeking always the truest in- 
terests and zealous for all the noblest traditions and loftiest ideals 
of the college. 

"No hasty experiments have been tried; no obstinate adherence 
to outgrown methods has been insisted upon, but the college has 
been at once generously conservative and truthfully progressive. 
In all this the trustees gratefully recognize the usefulness, scholarly 
aims and love of good learning with which he has presided over the 



"Great changes have been wrought in society during the past 
twenty years, especially in respect to religious beliefs and experi- 
ences. But though outward manifestations have greatly altered, 
the conviction abides that under President Carter's administration 
the college has been steadily loyal to the great essentials of faith 
and conduct. This is a supreme thing and awakens the gratitude 
not only of the trustees but of the great body of the alumni." 

Similar resolutions were passed by the society of New York 
alumni, by the larger general body of the alumni, by the under- 
graduates, and by special classes. 

He was appointed a member of the Massachusetts Board of Educa- 
tion in 1897, and was chosen presidential elector of the First Massa- 
chusetts District in 1896. While rendering many incidental services 
to his town and State, the great bulk of his labor has been educational. 

He published a text-book, "Goethe's Iphigenie," when teaching 
at Yale in 1878; and a life of Mark Hopkins in 1892. He has also 
furnished numerous newspaper and mazagine articles. He is a 
member of the American Oriental Society; American Philological 
Society; Modern Language Association; University Club of New 
York; Colonial Society of Massachusetts, and Fellow of the American 
Academy. He was president of the Massachusetts Home Mission- 
ary Society for many years; was elected president in 1896 of the 
Clarke School for Deaf Mutes, which position he still holds, and 
was the first president of the Modern Language Association of 
America. He was also for many years trustee of Andover Theo- 
logical Seminary and is still a director of the Berkshire Industrial 
Farm and deeply interested in its work. He is a member of the 
Republican party, and has from youth been connected with the 
Congregational Church. He is a corporate member of the American 
Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. The amusements with 
which he has relaxed this active life have been golf, fishing and 

He married February 24, 1863, Sarah, daughter of C. D. and E. L. 
Kingsbury. There have been four children of this union. Edward 
P. is a physician in Cleveland. Alice R. was married to Paul C. 
Ransom, head-master of the Adirondack-Florida School. The 
youngest son, Franklin, is a graduate of Yale, both from the academi- 
cal and law departments. 


Dr. Carter has been much in earnest in his hancUing of life, and 
very desirous of making the important labors with which he has 
been connected successful and useful. In this effort he has spared 
no exertion, and has shown conspicuous ability. As a teacher and 
executive officer he has been characterized by insight, comprehension 
and push. His labors have been large, especially for a man not 
possessed of a strong physical constitution. He was self-denying in 
personal expenditure, and anxious to understand and relieve the 
pain and misery of his fellow men. These were the methods and 
purposes which he strove to impress on young men. But he believed 
strongly in the value of culture for its own sake. He writes for the 
readers of this work: "I should advise every young man to take up 
early in life, whatever the main line of profession or business is to be, 
one auxiliary object of thought and interest, and carry it on with 
energy until the end. It might be the study of flowers or birds, or 
the collection of engravings or early editions of the eminent writers, 
or chemical investigation, or even the playing of one musical instru- 
ment, some pursuit, at least partly intellectual, which should come 
in as a source of recreation and enjoyment apart from the main work 
of the day. Nothing promotes more pleasantly the usefulness of life 
than devotion to some such pursuit. If our successful men com- 
monly cultivated some such interest in the home, it would greatly 
broaden social relations and add much to the influence guiding tha 
children into a serene mastery of themselves. And when the main 
business is laid down, it would bring delight to the ' last days,' and 
help to make them truly 'the best.'" 

The death of Mrs. Carter broke up the home. He was married 
a second time on February 10, 1908, to Mrs. Frederic Leake, widow 
of Frederic Leake and daughter of the late Dr. H. L. Sabin of 
Williamstown. He still continues his lectures on Theism in the 
college and resides in Williamstown several months in the vear. 


GEORGE WHITEFIELD CHADWICK, student of music in 
Boston and Germany, organist, composer, conductor and 
teacher of music, director of the New England Conservatory 
of Music, was born in Lowell, Massachusetts, November 13, 1854. 
His father, Alonzo Chad wick, was a schoolmaster and afterward 
a business man in Lawrence. His Revolutionary ancestor was 
Edmund Chadwick, of New Hampshire, a soldier at Bunker Hill. 
His mother died when he was an infant. 

He was passionately fond of music from his childhood. He 
attended the public schools of Lawrence, to which place his father 
removed after the death of his wife and gave up school teaching for 
business affairs. When he was eighteen years old he went to Boston 
to study music under Eugene Thayer, having already developed a 
remarkable talent for the piano and organ. He studied under 
Thayer for three years, and in 1876 went to Olivet College Conserva- 
tory of Music, Olivet, Michigan (established two years before), as 
professor of Piano, Organ and Theory. He remained at Olivet one 
year, when he went to Germany and studied at Leipzig under Jadas- 
sohn and Reinecke, 1877-78, and at Munich under Rheinberger, 
1878-79. His first overture: "Rip Van Winkle" he composed just 
before he left Leipzig, and he was honored by its performance at a 
Conservatory concert. 

He returned to Boston in 1880 and his overture was given at a 
Handel and Haydn festival in that city, Mr. Chadwick conducting. 
He was at once made instructor in harmony and composition at 
the New England Conservatory of Music, and in 1881 he conducted 
the music of ffidipus in both Boston and New York. In 1887 he 
was selected as conductor of the Boston Orchestral Club and in 

1890 became conductor of the Springfield Festival Association. 
On the organization of the Columbian Exposition at Chicago in 

1891 he was selected to compose the music of the Ode to be used 
at the dedication of the buildings of the Exposition at the open- 

^^^i^ijr<^^^^ ^ 


ing of the Fair. He submitted his "Symphony in F Major" in 
competition for the three hundred dollar prize offered by the 
National Conservatory of Leipzig to be contested in New York, 
and he won the prize. He composed the music for the comic opera 
"Tabasco" presented by the Cadet Corps in Boston in 1894. 

On the resignation of Carl Faelten as director of the New England 
Conservatory of Music in 1897, Mr. Chad wick was selected as his 
successor and he still holds the position. In 1897 he received degree 
of M.A. from Yale and in 1905 LL.D from Tufts. He was elected 
as one of the vice-presidents to membership in the Institution of 
Art and Science; in the Society of the Sons of the American Revolu- 
tion and of St. Botolph Club, Boston. His recreation he found in 
yachting, tennis and bicycling. He is the author of: "A Treatise on 
Harmony" (1897), which had in 1904 passed through ten editions. 
His choral work includes the following pieces: "The Vikings' Last 
Voyage"; "Phoenix Expirans"; "The Lily Nymph"; "The Lovely 
Rosabella"; "The Pilgrims' Hymn"; "Judith," a lyric drama, and 
"Noel," a Christmas Pastoral, composed for the Litchfield County 
(Connecticut) University Club. His orchestral works besides " Rip 
Van Winkle," "Euterpe," "Adonais," "Thalia and Melpomene" 
overtures, are three symphonies, two suites, a symphonic poem 
"Cleopatra," his symphonic sketches for orchestra, and twelve 
songs from Arlo Bates's "Told in the Gate," besides many songs, 
pianoforte pieces and choruses for mixed and female voices. 


THE career of Caleb Chase presents a happy combination of 
the work of an old-school Boston merchant with that of 
a Twentieth Century business man. Born of Cape Cod 
stock, he inherited the pluck and energy and integrity character- 
istic of that sea-going section of New England. 

He was born in Harwich, Massachusetts, December 11, 1831, 
His father was Job Chase, a shipowner and seafaring man in early 
life, who afterward kept a country store in Harwich until about 
twenty years of his death, which occurred at the ripe age of eighty- 
nine. He was a public-spirited man of more than local influence, 
one of the original stockholders of the old Yarmouth Bank, and 
prominent in the public enterprises of his day. Mr. Chase's mother 
was Phoebe (Winslow) Chase. 

Caleb Chase was educated in the public schools of Harwich, and 
early went to work in his father's store, where he remained until he 
reached his twenty-fourth year. But he was not the type of man 
to live out his life and satisfy his ambitions in a Cape Cod country 
store. Striking out for himself, he came to Boston and entered the 
employ of Anderson Sargent & Company, at that time a leading 
dry goods house of the city. After about five years with this firm, 
during which he traveled in its interests, first through the towns 
of Cape Cod, and later in the West, he became connected with the 
wholesale grocery house of Claflin, Saville & Company, beginning 
in September, 1859. He remained with this house until January, 
1864, shortly after which he engaged in business for himself as a 
member of the firm of Carr, Chase & Raymond then formed. In 
1871 this firm was succeeded by Chase, Raymond & Ayer, and in 
1878 the present house of Chase & Sanborn was organized for the 
importation and distribution of teas and coffees exclusively. Mr. 
Chase has been for many years the head of this house, which ranks 
among the largest importing and distributing tea and coffee houses 
in America. Large branch houses are also established in Montreal 
and Chicago. 


Mr. Chase's name is widely known through the remarkable suc- 
cess of the business house which he formed, and of which he is justly 
proud. It is in his business that a fine combination of integrity 
and enterprise has found scope. Naturally conservative, he has 
ever been jealous of his own good name, and of the reputation of 
everything with which he might be connected. This conservatism 
and integrity has helped to make the firm name the synonym for 
business honor. With integrity, Mr, Chase has coupled a rare 
spirit of enterprise which has enabled him to seize the opportunity 
for business success opened by modern legitimate advertising. He 
knew his goods were right, and he wanted all the world to know it. 
The Boston merchant of the old school was honest, but he was not 
always enterprising. 

Mr. Chase is a Unitarian in religion and a liberal supporter of 
that faith. In politics he is a stanch Republican, and while he 
has often been urged to seek public office, he has invariably declined, 
preferring to devote his leisure to his home and his energies to his 
extensive business interests. He is a member of the Ancient and 
Honorable Artillery and a member of the Algonquin Club. 

Caleb Chase has not been a mere money-maker. He has made 
money that he might use it. While he has been modest to the verge 
of timidity in allowing the use of his name, he has for many years 
lived with an open hand for every good cause. His benefactions 
have been wide and very generous. While he is extremely reticent, 
he is known to have been one of the early benefactors of the Frank- 
lin Square House, and a generous giver to the churches of his town, 
and to the American Unitarian Association. 

He was married in 1866 to Miss Salome Boyles, of Thomaston, 
Maine. They have no children. 


GUY WILBUR COX was born in Manchester, New Hamp- 
shire, January 19, 1871. His father, Charles Edson Cox, 
born December 16, 1847, now retired, is a man of high moral 
character in business and in private life. The mother of Guy W. 
Cox is Evelyn M. (Randall) Cox. His grandparents were Walter 
B. Cox (1816-1878) and Nancy (Nutter) Cox, and Thomas B. Ran- 
dall (1807-1848), and Mary (Pickering) Randall. He is a descend- 
ant from Moses Cox, who came from England about 1640 and settled 
in Hampton, New Hampshire; on his mother's side from John 
Pickering, who came from England as early as 1633 and settled at 
Strawberry Bank, now Portsmouth, New Hampshire. The Picker- 
ing family has had a prominent place in the history of New 
Hampshire from the time of Capt. John Pickering, who settled at 
Portsmouth in 1636, from whom all of that name are descended. 
In 1680 he was a member of the first assembly held in New 
Hampshire, and in 1690 he was a delegate to the convention which 
prepared a constitution for the colony. 

Guy Wilbur Cox had an early taste for music and mathematics. 
He was able without special difficulty to gratify his desire for a 
college education. He graduated from Dartmouth College in 1893, 
with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. He held in college high rank 
in general scholarship, especially in the classics, sciences and mathe- 
matics, and was valedictorian of his class. In regular course he 
received the degree of Master of Arts. He was appointed a teacher 
in the Manchester High School, where he gave instruction in Chem- 
istry and Physics. He held that position from 1893-94. From 
1896-99 he was an instructor in the Boston Evening High School. 
By his own preference he chose the profession of the law for his life- 
work. His circumstances and the varied influences which surrounded 
him confirmed his choice. He entered the Law School of the Bos- 
ton University, where he graduated 1896 with the degree of Bachelor 
of Law, Magna Cum Laude. He was at once admitted to the Bar 



of Suffolk County, and became a partner in the law firm of Butler, 
Cox & Murchie. He entered upon his profession with his inherited 
and characteristic energy, and he has been rewarded with the suc- 
cess which he has earned. He has continued in his practice, giving 
special attention to insurance and corporation law and to the laws 
relating to street railways. His field has been broad and his pro- 
fessional calling has given full exercise to his talent and wide training. 
Mr. Cox regards the influence of home, of contact with men in active 
life, of school, of private study, of early companionship, all as having 
a strong influence upon his own success in life. 

He is a Republican in politics and has been honored by election 
to public office, where he has rendered good service which has been 
recognized. In 1902 he was elected a member of the City Council 
of Boston from Ward 10. He was chosen a member of the Massa- 
chusetts House of Representatives in 1903-04, and in 1906-07 a 
member of the State Senate from the Fifth Suffolk District. In the 
House of Representatives he was a member of the important com- 
mittee on cities, and took a leading part in its deliberations and in 
the advocacy of its recommendations. He was also a member of 
the special committee on the relation of employers and employees. 
In the Senate he was chairman of the committees on election laws, 
metropolitan affairs, and taxation, and a member of the committee 
on education and military affairs. At the close of the session of 
1907 he was made chairman of the State commission on taxation, 
appointed to consider the whole subject of taxation and to revise 
and codify the laws relating thereto. At a later time he was ap- 
pointed by the governor, chairman of the committee to represent 
the state at the National Tax Conference. His legal knowledge 
and ability have in this way had their natural extension in a wise 
and serviceable citizenship. His rare training and experience have 
the promise of continued employment for the benefit of the public 

Mr. Cox is connected with numerous societies: The Dartmouth 
Alumni Association; the University Club of Boston; the Wollas- 
ton Club; the Republican League Club; the New Hampshire Club; 
the Order of Odd Fellows; the Phi Beta Kappa and others. He 
finds recreation in golf and music. He resides at the Hotel West- 
minster, Boston. 


A PUBLIC man who has stepped at once into a commanding 
position in Washington, and yet whose national career has 
scarcely begun, is Winthrop Murray Crane, senator 
from Massachusetts. Though long a leader in the executive coun- 
cils of the Republican party, Mr. Crane was known to the country 
at large chiefly as a notably wise and successful governor of Massa- 
chusetts, until his entrance into the Senate Chamber to fill the place 
left vacant by the death of the venerable George F. Hoar in 1904. 
No senator of this generation has grown more rapidly in solid influ- 
ence and enduring fame within the first years of service. 

Mr. Crane is a fine exemplification of the truth that many of 
the ablest and most sagacious public men of to-day are products 
not of the law but of exact, practical business. He was a manu- 
facturer by profession when he entered upon public life, and he had 
been steadily engaged since boyhood in this calling, a heritage from 
his fathers. It was his grandfather, Zenas Crane, who had founded 
the first paper-mill in western Massachusetts. In 1801 this pioneer, 
who had learned his trade in the mill of his brother at Newton 
Lower Falls, near Boston, and at Worcester, established by the clear 
waters of the Housatonic a new industry in the town of Dalton. 
Forty years later he transferred his business to his sons, Zenas 
Marshall and James Brewster Crane, who were his partners. 

Winthrop Murray Crane is the youngest son of Zenas Marshall 
Crane and of his wife Louise Fanny (Loomis) Crane. He was born 
in Dalton, Massachusetts, on April 23, 1853, and educated in the 
Dalton schools and in Williston Seminary in Easthampton, Massa- 
chusetts. At seventeen he began to work in his father's paper-mill, 
which was an important concern. The Crane paper, made with 
honest thoroughness and the most painstaking skill, had won the 
highest reputation in America. It was the handiwork of this firm 
which was utilized by the Treasury Department, and while a very 
young man Mr. Crane himself went to Washington to demonstrate 



the value of the silk thread in this government paper production. 
The secret of the success which the Crane business had achieved 
was that its managers had been consummate masters of their art 
and had given close personal attention to every process of their 
industry, Mr, Crane himself, as a young man, knew every detail of 
the business, and, as in the days of his fathers, every item of the 
work was done on honor. The Crane family added woolen manu- 
facturing and other interests to its original occupation of the paper 
industry. The relation of these able and far-sighted manufacturers 
to their employees was the ideal one of friends, counselors and 
benefactors. There was an ever-present sense of comradeship, of 
genuine, whole-hearted cooperation. This relation has remained 
to the present day. 

Winthrop Murray Crane from his youth has been an interested 
and active Republican. Long ago his wisdom in counsel came to be 
recognized by the leaders of the Republican organization in Massa- 
chusetts. Years before he himself had entered public life it was a 
fact that no important step in party management in his own State 
was taken without his approval. Soon his fame as a sagacious 
political leader and manager extended to broader fields. 

In 1892 Mr. Crane, though averse to official position of any kind, 
was elected a delegate at large to the Republican National Conven- 
tion in Minneapolis which renominated President Harrison, and he 
was chosen as the Massachusetts member of the Republican National 
Committee. In that circle of keen, practical, sagacious men, 
his remarkable ability gained prompt recognition. In 1896 and 
again in 1904 Mr. Crane was reelected the Massachusetts represen- 
tative in the national organization. In these same years he was 
again a delegate at large to the Republican National Conventions. 
Meanwhile at home Mr. Crane had steadily advanced to posts of 
commanding leadership. He was nominated and elected lieutenant- 
governor of Massachusetts, serving as such with the honored and 
lamented Governor Roger Wolcott in 1897, 1898 and 1899. Then 
Mr. Crane himself was nominated and elected governor for three 
successive terms, for 1900, 1901 and 1902. He gave the State a 
memorable administration. 

The Massachusetts state government has been a good and sound 
one for many years. Its policy has been liberal and progressive. 
Many important metropolitan improvements have been carried 


through, and though these have all been amply justified, yet the 
cumulative cost of them had begun to be a serious burden when 
Governor Crane became chief executive. The State debt had 
increased from $6,140,000 in 1896 to $16,869,000 in 1900. In his 
inaugural address in that year, Governor Crane, speaking of the 
various items of indebtedness, said: "It will be found in almost 
every instance that the object is a worthy one, and I have no doubt 
that the Commonwealth has received full value for the moneys ex- 
pended," but he added, "The question for us to consider, however, 
is not the propriety of past expenditures, but how to take heed of the 
conditions which now confront us. The Commonwealth needs a 
breathing-space for financial recuperation." 

This needful breathing-space Governor Crane, with his prestige 
as a man of business, readily secured. His administration was 
characterized by prudence in financial affairs, rigid scrutiny of new 
undertakings and yet encouragement of all that were essential 
to the well-being of the Commonwealth. His influence with the 
Legislature was extraordinary, and his breadth of view and gracious, 
conciliatory temper so impressed the people of the State that the 
minority party made only the most perfunctory opposition to his 

Retiring from the governorship after the accustomed three terms, 
at the end of 1902, Mr. Crane returned to the management of his 
great manufacturing industries in Berkshire County. There he 
was engaged when, after the death of Senator George F. Hoar, in 
October, 1904, Governor Bates appointed him to fill the vacancy in 
Washington. This choice was so natural and merited that it won 
at once the unanimous approval of the Commonwealth. It might 
fairly be said of Mr. Crane that he had no rival, because the men 
who might have been his rivals recognized his preeminent qualifi- 
cations for the post and his rich deserving of its honors and re- 

Senator Crane took his seat on December 6, 1904. In the follow- 
ing January he was duly elected by the Massachusetts Legislature 
to fill out the term of Mr. Hoar, which expired March 3, 1907. The 
Legislature, on January 15, 1907, elected Mr. Crane senator from 
Massachusetts for the full six-year term, from 1907 to 1913. Several 
members of the opposing party in both branches of the General Court 
cast their ballots with the Republicans for the election of Mr. Crane as 



senator — a distinction unusual in the annals of the Common- 

Before he became a senator there had come tempting oppor- 
tunities to Mr. Crane to enter the national service in Washington. 
When Secretary Gage resigned the Treasury portfolio in December, 
1901, President Roosevelt was desirous that he should be succeeded 
by the sagacious governor of Massachusetts. This Mr. Crane felt 
obliged to decline. He could not then easily arrange a transfer of 
the control of his manufacturing industries which had long held 
important connections with the Federal government. 

The senatorship, however, made a more powerful appeal to him, 
and he was this time enabled so to arrange his affairs at home that 
he could devote his extraordinary energies and abilities to the 
national service. The United States Senate is popularly regarded as 
the closest of close corporations, into whose inner circles of actual 
control no man, however able and powerful, can hope to make his 
way until after years of residence in Washington. Yet there have 
been exceptions to this potent rule, and the most conspicuous ex- 
ception in recent times is that of the junior senator from Massa- 
chusetts. His fellow senators knew him before he came as one of the 
foremost men of business in America, a man of genius for organiza- 
tion, management and leadership. Senator Crane justified this 
reputation. Without aspiring to oratory, and bearing himself ever 
modestly. Senator Crane won instant recognition as a vital force in 
the affairs of government. 

His attitude toward public questions may well be described as 
that of a progressive conservative — an attitude which exactly 
befits Massachusetts. Mr. Crane happened to come to Washington 
when the radical temper was high and strong and threatening to 
sweep everything before it. He met it not in the spirit of a reaction- 
ary, but with courtesy, conciliation, broad and enlightened judg- 
ment. He proved to be the man of all men for the occasion and 
the hour, and before many months his fame was nation-wide and 
Massachusetts gladly, but without surprise, heard him acclaimed as 
one of the most powerful men in Washington. This was, after all, 
only a confirmation of what had long been known of Mr. Crane in 
his own Commonwealth. 

Senator Crane has a beautiful home at Dalton in the Berkshires, 
where he is known to every one and where every one is proud to hold 


him as a friend. His interests, business and political, take him 
frequently to Boston, but during the sessions of Congress he is con- 
stant in his attendance to his pubhc duties. Although young in 
years and service among the senators, he is a member of some of the 
most important committees of the Senate. In 1908 he was elected 
a delegate-at-large to the Republican National Convention at Chicago, 
which nominated Taft and Sherman. 

Williams College honored Mr. Crane with the degree of A.M. in 
1899, and Harvard University with the degree of LL.D. in 1903. 
He is a Congregationalist in his religious affiliations. 

Mr. Crane was married on February 5, 1880, to Miss Mary Benner, 
daughter of Robert and j\Iary Benner, who died February 16, 1884, 
leaving one son, Winthrop Murray Crane, Jr., now engaged in the 
ancestral industry of paper manufacturing. Senator Crane was 
remarried on July 10, 1906, to Miss Josephine Porter Boardman, 
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. William J. Boardman, of Cleveland and 
Washington, descended on the one side from Elizur Boardman, 
United States Senator from Connecticut, and on the other from 
Joseph Earl Sheffield, the founder of the Sheffield Scientific School, 
of Yale University. A son has recently been born to Mr. and Mrs. 


STEPHEN MOODY CROSBY was born in Salisbury, Massa- 
chusetts, August 14, 1827. His father was Nathan Crosby, 
of Sandwich, New Hampshire, born February 12, 1798; his 
mother was Rebecca Moody, born June 18, 1798; the grandfathers 
were Asa Crosby (July 6, 1765-April 12, 1836) and Stephen Moody 
(July 21, 1767-April 21, 1842). The grandmothers were Betsey 
Hoit (1776-April 2, 1804) and Frances Coffin (February 5, 1773- 
March 22, 1858). The father was a lawyer with a judicial mind, 
clearness of thought, integrity of purpose and unfailing good temper. 
He was the descendant of Simon and Ann Crosby who, with their 
son Thomas, came in the Susa7i and Ellen in 1635 from Lancashire, 
England, and settled in Cambridge. 

In boyhood Stephen Moody Crosby spent a few months in a news- 
paper office, and in a bookstore. This gave him an opportunity to 
indulge his taste for reading. His moral nature was strengthened 
by his mother's influence. He had the range of his grandfather's 
old-fashioned library and access to the works of Scott, James, Marryat 
and Cooper. He prepared for college in the Boston Latin School 
and the Lowell High School, and received the degree of A.B. with 
the class of 1849, at Dartmouth College. He was admitted to the 
Massachusetts Bar in 1852. 

Personal tastes and early surroundings united to determine his 
profession, in which he was supported by his contact with men. 
He has been associated in business with the Manchester (N.H.) Print 
Works (1854), Hayden Manufacturing Company (1857), and Massa- 
chusetts Trust Company (1873). 

He was a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives 
in 1869, and of the Senate in 1870-71. He has been State director 
of the Boston and Albany Railroad, and was commissioner of the 
Hoosac Tunnel. He was major-paymaster in the United States 
Army, and Brevet-Lieutenant-Colonel (1862-66). 

He is a member of the Boston Art Club; of the military order 


United States Legion of Honor; Cincinnati Society; University Club 
and Unitarian Club. Of these organizations he has been president 
in turn, and of the Boston Art Club, ten years. His political rela- 
tions have been with the Whig and Republican parties in an unbroken 
line. He is connected with the Second Church, Boston (Unitarian). 
In early life he found hunting and fishing profitable amusements. 

He was married October 12, 1855, to Anna, daughter of Joel 
Hayden and Matella Weir Smith, granddaughter of Josiah Hayden 
and Ester (Halleck) Hayden, and a descendant of John Haidon, 
who came from England to Braintree in the Mary and John, 1630. 
There are no children. 

His counsel to young men is: '' Do well each day's duties and take 
each day's pleasures as fully as you can, and wait patiently for 
results. Be temperate in all things." 


_r Via, ,^:, J B-J \'^ 


JOHN GIFFORD CROWLEY, son of Thomas and Mary Ann 
(Gifford) Crowley, was born in Plymouth, Massachusetts, 
February 19, 1856. His father was a sea captain, and look- 
ing out on the blue waves it was no wonder that all his dreams 
were of the sea, and what was beyond where the sky closed down. 
He had but a limited opportunity for education. There were 
seven children, and John the oldest must work hard. It was 
work, he says, that was all he knew in early life. His grand- 
father and grandmother on both paternal and maternal sides had 
come from that stormy land, Newfoundland, and he, the scion of 
hardy stock, would show his grit in life's battle. At the tender age 
of eleven, frail of hand but firm of heart, he bravely began his part. 
Stepping on board the vessel of which he was later captain, he began 
in the cook's galley. Rising from there, and staying on the same 
ship, he passed the successive grades of ordinary, able seaman, mate, 
and at last at the age of twenty was captain. 

Deprived as he had been in all these years of all that school gives 
the mind, yet he had not been idle. The remembrance of the in- 
tellectual strength and moral rectitude show^n by his parents were his 
inspiration in all his way upward. His principal reading had been 
that which related to his calling. He felt that that American inven- 
tion, the fore-and aft-vessel, the schooner, had not yet come to its 
true place in the world's commercial activity, but with his guidance 
it should. When his young eyes looked out on the Gurnet and the 
white sails passing by it, he saw only "two stickers," as the utmost 
that progress had given in the way of a fore-and-aft ship, since 
when, in 1713, down the ways went the first fore and after, and an 
enthusiast cried, thus giving forever after the name to that type of 
craft, "There she scoons." From the time that vessel slid into the 
water at Gloucester, for fifty years the farthest reach in the progress 
of the fore-and-aft craft toward carrying the coastwise commerce of 
our country had been a vessel which, at the utmost, carried per- 


haps two hundred and fifty tons. There were very few three masted 
schooners on the coast the day he entered the galley of his first 
vessel. Under his guidance, however, and directed by his courage, 
mast after mast was added, each the seamen said " to be the last. " 
But he said each time, " One more stick." And one more it has been 
until now we see the seven-master under her 14,000 feet of canvas, 
instead of the paltry 500 feet spread by the largest schooner on the 
coast when, in 1867, young Crowley began Ufe on the sea. The 
development of the coastwise trade, its success, as competitor with 
the railroads in carrying coal from the ports nearest the mines to 
the seaboard of New England, has been accomplished through the 
wise and far-seeing guidance of this man. 

Captain Crowley has been twice married: first, October 28, 1879, 
second, September 8, 1902. Of the four children born to him, a son 
and daughter are now living. The son is in college at Dartmouth 
and the daughter at home. 

He is in religious faith a Baptist, and while not being active 
politically, has always voted the Republican ticket. Fraternally, 
he is a Mason. 

He is now, at the age of fifty-one, treasurer, secretary, director 
and member of the executive committee of the Coastwise Transporta- 
tion Company, director of the Eastern Fishing Company, general 
manager of all vessels owned by the Coastwise Transportation Com- 
pany. This company owns many vessels that up and down our 
coast set on their six and seven masts their monstrous spread of 
canvas, and all because of the genius of John Gifford Crowley, the 
boy who at eleven, friendless and unaided, stepped into the galley 
as cook. 

Captain Crowley's words of advice to young men are to be "in- 
dustrious, honest and upright in all their dealings." 

^^^^^^^ /f /^^^--z^Z^Z^^ 


FAYETTE SAMUEL CURTIS, vice-president of the New York, 
New Haven and Hartford Railroad Company, was born on a 
farm near Owego, New York, December 16, 1843. His par- 
ents were Allen and Catharine (Steel) Curtis. His father was a 
farmer, esteemed for his industry, patriotism and purity of purpose, 
who emigrated from Massachusetts to the southern tier section of 
the Empire State which was then but sparsely settled. His mother 
was a woman of fine mind and character, who exerted a strong influ- 
ence for good upon the intellectual and moral life of her family. 
His earliest known ancestor in America was Henry Curtis, one of 
the Puritan settlers in Massachusetts Bay Colony. The original 
emigrant of that name with his wife arrived in Massachusetts from 
Stratford-on-Avon in 1643, removing to Windsor, Connecticut, and 
later to Northampton, Massachusetts, where he died in 1661. 

When Fayette Samuel Curtis was old enough to work he had 
tasks that were common to bo3^s on a farm. His health was good 
and conditions for its maintainance were favorable. While indus- 
trious in his work on the farm he was inclined to be studious. The 
school terms were short, but such opportunities as they afforded were 
carefully improved. He was anxious to secure a liberal education, 
but before he was ready for college he decided to become an engineer. 
After receiving his early education at the public and private schools 
of Owego and taking a course of civil engineering at the Owego 
Academy, he became a practical student of engineering, starting in 
1863 at small pay as flagman with a surveying party for the Albany 
and Susquehanna Railroad. Later, as transit man, he demonstrated 
such skill and ability that he was soon promoted to the head of that 
branch of the service. Soon after his services were sought as leveler 
for the Southern Central Railroad of New York in the Lehigh Valley 
section. Changing his location to New York City he was for two 
yeai-s associated with Gen, George S. Green, a prominent member 
of the engineering corps then engaged in the work of surveying and 


laying out the roads, streets and avenues of what is now the 
important section of the Borough of the Bronx. 

Mr. Curtis entered the service of the New York and Harlem Rail- 
road in 1870 as assistant engineer. He held the position but a short 
time being promoted to that of chief engineer of the New York and 
Harlem Railroad, afterwards division engineer of the New York 
Central Railroad, then chief engineer of the New York, New Haven 
and Hartford Railroad Company up to May 1, 1900. Since that date 
he has held the position of second vice-president of that Company 
with headquarters at Boston. Mr. Curtis' career has been one of 
steady advancement. Besides being vice-president of the New York, 
New Haven and Hartford Railroad Company, he is trustee of the 
Boston Terminal Company; a director in the New Bedford, Martha's 
Vineyard and Nantucket Steam Boat Company; New England Rail- 
road Company; New Haven and Northampton Railroad Company; 
New York Connecting Railroad; Old Colony Railroad Company; 
Providence Terminal Company; also president and director Union 
Freight Railroad Company. His club afhliations include the En- 
gineering Club of New York City; Country Club of New Haven; 
Union Club of Boston; Tioga Club of Owego and Quinipiac Club of 
New Haven. Mr. Curtis is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity, 
being a member of the Friendship Lodge of Owego, New York; 
Jerusalem Chapter of Owego, New York, and Constantine Com- 
mandery Knights Templars of New York City. 



RICHARD HENRY DANA, lawyer, philanthropist, political 
reformer, was born in Cambridge, Middlesex County, Massa- 
chusetts, January 3, 1851. His father, Richard Henry Dana 
(1815-1882), was a son of Richard Henry (1787-1879) and Ruth 
Charlotte (Smith) Dana; grandson of Francis (1743-1811) and 
Elizabeth (Ellery) Dana, and John Wilson and Susanna (Tillinghast) 
Smith of Taunton, Massachusetts, great-grandson of Richard (1700- 
1772) and Lydia (Trowbridge) Dana, and of William Ellery, the signer, 
and a descendant from Richard and Ann (Bullard) Dana through 
Daniel their youngest son and Naomi (Croswell) Dana, his wife. 
Richard Dana, the emigrant and progenitor of the Dana family in 
America, was probably of French descent, Richard settled in Cam- 
bridge by or before 1640 and died in 1690. Richard (1700-1772) of 
the third generation was graduated at Harvard 1718, was a Son of 
Liberty, and subjected himself to the penalties of treason by taking 
the oath of Andrew Oliver not to enforce the Stamp Act (1765). He 
was Representative to the General Court and was at the head of the 
Boston bar. He married Lydia, daughter of Thomas, and sister of 
Judge Edmund Trowbridge of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts, one 
of the first to wear the scarlet robe and powdered wig. Francis Dana 
(1743-1811), Harvard 1762, was a Son of Liberty, delegate to Con- 
tinental Congress from November 1776 to 1780 and 1784-85, signer 
of the Articles of Confederation; U. S. minister to Russia 1781-83; 
judge of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts 1785-91 and chief 
justice of Massachusetts 1791-1806; a founder and vice-president of 
the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, LL.D, Harvard 1792. 
Richard Henry (1787-1879) was the author, poet and essayist. He 
was one of the founders of the " North American Review." Richard 
H. Dana (1815-1882) was the defender of Sims and Anthony Burns, 
fugitive slaves; counsel of United States government before the 
International Conference at Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1877, growing 
out of the Geneva Award of 1872; author of "Two Years before the 


Mast" (1840) (1869); "To Cuba and Back" (1859); "Annotations 
to Wheaton's International Law" (1886), etc. 

Richard Henry Dana (born January 3, 1851) was prepared for 
college in public and private schools of Cambridge and St. Paul's 
School, Concord, New Hampshire, and was graduated at Harvard 
University, class orator and A.B,, 1874, and at the law school of the 
University LL.B., 1877. He was stroke oar of the Freshman crew 
1870; for three years stroke oar and for two years captain of the 
University crew, and during his law course at the University he had 
the advantage of extended travel in Europe where he carried letters 
of introduction that brought him into contact with persons of dis- 
tinction in society and statesmanship in every city he visited. He 
continued the study of law in the office of Brooks, Ball & Storey and 
in 1879 made the trip in a sailing vessel from New York to San Fran- 
cisco, in which voj^age he visited many of the scenes so graphically 
described in his father's "Two Years before the Mast." He declined 
the position of secretary of legation at London, proffered by President 
Hayes in 1877, and on January 6, 1878, he was married to Edith, 
daughter of Henry Wadsworth and Frances (Appleton) Longfellow 
and one of the " blue-eyed banditti" of the poet's "Children's Hour." 
Six children, four sons and two daughters, blessed this union. 

Mr. Dana's law practice soon became extensive and his service 
in behalf of various religious, charitable and civil service reform 
organizations was freely given. He became a regular contributor 
to the "Civil Service Record," which he edited 1889-92, and he was 
an uncompromising advocate of tariff and political reform. He was 
for many years secretary of the Massachusetts Civil Service Reform 
League. In 1884 he drafted the act which became the Massachusetts 
Civil Service law; in 1888 he drew up the act which resulted in the 
adoption of the Australian Ballot by the Commonwealth of Massa- 
chusetts, the pioneer movement in the United States in that direction. 
He planned the scheme of work of the Associated Charities of Boston, 
1878-79 and was chairman of its committee of organization. He 
served as president of the board of trustees of the New England 
Conservatory of Music 1891-98, and during that time raised $165,000 
for the institution. He has been president of the Cambridge Humane 
Society; president of the Boston Young Men's Christian Association 
(1890-91) and he was active in trying to introduce into Massachusetts 
the Norwegian system of regulating the sale of liquors. He served as 


president of the Cambridge Civil Service Reform Association 1897- 
1901. He was a member of the Standing Committee of the diocese 
of Massachusetts and was elected a substitute delegate to the General 
Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church in America held in 
Boston in 1904, serving as chairman of the General Convention com- 
mittee. He was made trustee and treasurer of the Episcopal The- 
ological School of Cambridge in 1894, and he has held the office of 
president of the Alumni Association of St. Paul's School, Concord, 
New Hampshire. In 1901 Governor Crane of Massachusetts ap- 
pointed him one of three commissioners to inquire into the question 
of constructing a dam at the mouth of the Charles River, and the 
favorable report of the Commission made in 1903, which led to the 
accomplishment of the great project, was written largely by Mr. Dana. 
In 1901 he was appointed by the board of overseers of Harvard 
University on the visiting committee in the department of philosophy, 
and organized the movement for raising funds for building Emerson 
Hall which resulted in procuring about $165,000. 

He is a member of the executive committee of the Cambridge Good 
Government Club and the Massachustets Election Laws League, 
was president of the Massachusetts Civil Service Reform Association, 
and is chairman of the Council of the United States Civil Service 
Reform League. He is a vice-president of the Massachusetts Reform 
Club; a member of the New York Reform Club; president of the 
Library Hall Association, organized for the improvement of the 
municipal government in Cambridge. His social club affiliations in- 
clude the Union and Exchange Clubs of Boston; the Essex County 
Club; the Oakley Country Club of Watertown, of which he was presi- 
dent, and the Harvard Club of New York. His trusteeships have 
included the New England Conservatory of Music; the Oliver Building 
Trust; the Washington Building Trust; the Delta Building Trust; 
the Bromfield Building Trust and the Congress Street Building Trust. 
He is the author of "Double Taxation Unjust and Inexpedient" 
(1892); "Double Taxation in Massachusetts" (1895); "Substitutes 
for the Caucus " (Forum, 1886) ; " Workings of the Australian Ballot 
Act in Massachusetts" (Annals of American Academy, 1892); "Ad- 
dress on the One Hundreth Anniversary of the town of Dana" (1901); 
and other papers and addresses on civil service reform, taxation, 
ballot reform, election expenses and better houses for working men. 


IN the midst of the second war for independence, on September 
17, 1813, there was born in the village of Sherborn, Massa- 
chusetts, a child who was destined to live on as an old man 
into the succeeding century and to bear an active and conspicuous 
part in its affairs. Edmund Dowse was the son of Benjamin 
Dowse, a leather dresser, manufacturer and farmer of Sherborn, and 
of Thankful (Chamberlain) Dowse, his wife. The family was one of 
stalwart old New England stock, tracing its origin back to the year 
when Winthrop brought his pioneers over seas and the town of 
Boston was founded in 1630. Lawrence Dowse, who came from 
Broughton in Hampshire County, England, made his home not in 
Boston proper, but in the village of Charlestown, on the opposite 
riverside. Here he and his descendants lived until the stirring- 
events of the Lexington fight and the siege of Boston. Their home 
was burned by the British in the battle of Bunker Hill, where three 
of the family fought side by side with the men of Prescott and Stark. 
The family home was then removed to Sherborn. 

The Dowses of Sherborn were men of scholarly tastes. Thomas 
Dowse, especially, is remembered for the gift of his valuable library 
to the Massachusetts Historical Society. This hereditary love of 
learning drew young Edmund Dowse, after he had filled the measure 
of the schools of his native town, to the broader curriculum of 
Wrentham Academy and then to the doors of Amherst College. 
He graduated at Amherst in 1836 with the degree of A.B., and, 
choosing the honorable profession of the clergyman, he studied 
theology with Rev. Dr. Jacob Ide, of West Medway, Massachusetts, 
and with a famous teacher of his day, Rev. Dr. Nathaniel Em- 

Two years after his graduation, in 1838, the pastorate of his own 
home church, the Pilgrim Church of Sherborn, became vacant. He 
was called to the church as its minister, and that same post in his 
own town he retained for sixty-seven years thereafter, an unbroken 


single charge almost, if not quite, without a parallel in the eccle- 
siastical annals of Massachusetts. 

In these times when ihe clergymen of most denominations are 
practically itinerants, always on the move, restless and yearning for 
a change after a service of three or four or half a dozen years — and 
with their flock sometimes yearning for a change also — it is not easy 
to understand how one pastor could preach from the same pulpit, 
and preach, moreover, in the town where he was born and lived as a 
child, for well-nigh the threescore and ten years of allotted existence. 
But Edmund Dowse did this, and he did more, too. He was a 
patriot, alert to the interests of government, a man who did his duty 
at the ballot box and town meeting as well as at the prayer meeting. 
His activity in public affairs and aptitude for public service led to 
his election, in 1869 and 1870, as a member of the Massachusetts 
Senate. And when his term had finished as a Senator, his fellow 
Senators paid him the distinguished honor of electing him as their 
chaplain. That post of chaplain in the Massachusetts Senate Mr. 
Dowse retained unbrokenly for twenty-five years — the longest 
period during which one minister has acted as chaplain of the Senate 
in the history of the Commonwealth. 

Early in his life the young minister had become interested in the 
educational work of Sherborn, and for sixty-five years he was chair- 
man of the school committee of the town. He saw old educational 
methods change to new and an army of children pass through the 
Sherborn schools in those sixty-five years. And all the time his was 
the controlling power that molded the training of this host of youth 
for after life. 

Now if it be asked, how a minister could serve his people so long 
and acceptably, the pulDlic schools so long, and the Massachusetts 
Senate for a quarter of a century, the answer is in the manner of the 
man that Edmund Dowse was and the kind of life he lived. He was 
a fervent Christian, an earnest, interesting and convincing preacher, 
a most faithful pastor of his people, benignant, sympathetic, devoted 
in an extraordinary degree. He had a great brain and a great heart 
with it, and he threw himself with all his energy into every associa- 
tion of life and everything he had to do. The joys of his people and 
his friends were his joys; their sorrows and anxieties were his also. 
He saw the little children of his flock, when he began his pastorate, 
grow up through youth and manhood and womanhood to old age, 


while he still ministered in the Pilgrim pulpit. This unusual experi- 
ence, the warmth of his heart, his tactfulness, his povv'er of discern- 
ment, his fine, strong New England common sense, and, above all, 
his enrapt devotion to his calling as a teacher of religion and a 
minister of Christ, enabled him to live his long life among familiar 
scenes and to do an amount of good work which can be credited to 
few men of any land, in any century. 

In 1886, on the fiftieth anniversary of his class of 1836, Amherst 
College, his alma mater, bestowed upon Mr. Dowse the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Divinity, in recognition of his life of rich achieve- 
ment. The New England parish minister of the years through 
which he had lived belonged to what has well been described as a 
genuine peerage, our one American nobility. The fiftieth anni- 
versary of the pastorate of Dr. Dowse over the Pilgrim Church of 
Sherborn was celebrated on October 10, 1888, by a great and notable 
gathering, not only of leaders of the Congregational denomination, 
but of chief public men of the State. Ex-Governor Long, ex-Gover- 
nor Claflin, Governor Brackett and several Congressmen sent their 

At this anniversary meeting Dr. Dowse said of himself in modest 
reply to the many fervent felicitations: "M}^ early inclinations were 
toward some form of literary and professional life. Before I became 
interested in religion, so far as to regard myself a Christian, I secretly 
formed the purpose to obtain an education in the schools and enter 
the profession of the law. This feeling was so strong that I was 
willing to sacrifice the ordinary amusements and sports of the young 
that I might have the means of pursuing a course of study, and 
acquiring a knowledge of men and the world. But when in the good 
providence of God I decided to become a follower of Christ my mind 
was turned toward the work of the Christian ministry. This was 
in the way of my literary taste and at the same time promised me a 
field for the exercise of that love of God and man which seems now 
to possess my soul." 

At this same time a classmate of Dr. Dowse at Amherst — the 
class of 1836 was a large and distinguished one, ex-Governor Alex- 
ander H. Bullock, of Massachusetts and Roswell D. Hitchcock, of 
New York, and other eminent men were members — gave some 
interesting personal reminiscences of him at college, saying: "I 
remember that he had a good physical development, an average 


size, a fresh countenance, and a rather large head. He was quite 
studious and soon took high rank as a scholar. He was always 
genial and pleasant as a companion, and his deportment was such 
that I am sure he never got into any scrapes, or incurred the disci- 
pline of the Faculty. Mr. Dowse inherited a physical system re- 
markably well-balanced in all its parts. His body must have been 
sound and healthy in every organ so that, like a perfect machine, all 
its operations would work harmoniously, resulting, with care, in 
uniform good health. His brain is relatively large and equally well 
developed in every part, giving harmony and consistency of charac- 
ter. This furnishes the groundwork for strong, social and domestic 
affections as well as for energy and decision of character. This 
development of brain results also in such a manifestation of the 
observing and reflecting faculties as to give a nice sense of pro- 
priety, sound judgment and good common sense. Then, with such 
a brain, the moral and religious faculties are so developed and 
exercised as to give a decided, harmonious and consistent moral 
character. Let external religious influences of the right kind be 
brought to bear upon such an organization, always taking the lead, 
and we have a beautiful, consistent Christian character." 

Again, on October 13, 189S, the sixtieth year was observed with 
equal or greater impressiveness. On that occasion one of the eulo- 
gists. Rev. Dr. F. E. Sturgis, said: "Dr. Dowse is the youngest 
octogenarian I ever knew; no spectacles, no ear trumpet, the hair of 
his youth, erect, vigorous in mind, his natural force hardly abated, 
still in the pulpit, still at the front of every good cause, still interested 
in all the affairs of the State and the Nation. In all our ministerial 
fellowship I scarcely know a man more companionable, more fresh 
in enthusiasm. Through cold and heat and flood and gale he goes 
regularly to his duties at the State House. His modern life is 
shown in his mastery of all present-day educational themes and 
methods. His religious catholicity is shown in his perpetual office 
of chaplaincy in the Senate, elected yenr after year, for his broad 
and brotherly spirit, for the brevity and appropriateness and beauty 
of his prayers. 

" Instead of Dr. Dowse it should be Bishop Dowse, if not Arch- 
bishop Dowse, for he is the patriarch, the metropolitan of all our 
churches. On his shoulders has rested the care of so many of our 
parishes when they have been without pastors. No minister here- 


abouts is so often called upon for services outside his parish, in 
marriages, in funerals. He has served the living and the dead in 
all this section of the country for sixty years, going night and day, 
whenever and wherever requested, and without reward. He is the 
most widely known, the most beloved, the most universally honored 
minister in this part of the State. In how many of our homes and 
churches is his name a household word, spoken with children's 
reverence and remembered with tenderest gratitude. His character 
is an inheritance of faith, charity, righteousness in all this eastern 
Massachusetts. His life has ever been a manifestation of love, 
patience, graciousness, friendship." 

Dr. Dowse continued to serve his parish devotedly to the end of 
his life, on April 27, 1905, and deep was the grief of his people of 
Sherborn and of his friends throughout the Commonwealth when 
they realized that the venerable pastor was no more. Dr. Dowse 
was at that time the oldest Congregational minister in New England 
and the oldest living graduate of Amhei-st College. 

The honored family name has a conspicuous living representative 
in the only son of Dr. Dowse, William Bradford Homer Dowse, 
named for a classmate of his father, who has won reputation as a 
patent lawyer in Boston and New York and is the president of the 
great Reed & Barton Corporation of Taunton, Massachusetts. A 
surviving daughter of Dr. Dowse is Mi-s. Deborah Perry Coolidge of 
Sherborn. Dr. Dowse was thrice married — to Miss Elizabeth 
Reeves Leland in 1838; some time after her death to Miss Elizabeth 
Bowditch in 1843; and after her death, in the anxious years of the 
Civil War, to Miss Caroline D. Davis in 1865. From the birth of the 
Republican party Dr. Dowse was an earnest believer in its princi- 
ples, and he rendered useful service in the struggle for the Union 
cause in the work of the Sanitary Commission in the South. 


To come of distinguished lineage and to add to that distinc- 
tion is to be doubly fortunate. A man thus circumstanced 
has the most substantial cause of pride and thankfulness. 
William Bradford Homer Dowse, eminent patent lawyer of Boston 
and New York, and president of the famous Reed & Barton Corpo- 
ration of Taunton, is the son of one of the most celebrated of Mas- 
sachusetts clergymen, Rev. Edmund Dowse, D.D., who lived to be 
ninety-two years old and yet was always accounted young; who 
served sixty-seven years as pastor of one church, the Pilgrim Church 
of Sherborn, and was for twenty-five years the chaplain of the Mas- 
sachusetts Senate. 

Mr. Dowse, the younger, was born at his father's home in Sher- 
born, Massachusetts, February 29, 1852. His mother, Elizabeth 
(Bowditch) Dowse, daughter of Galen Bowditch, was a fit coworker 
in home and parish for her husband. Their son had the sound 
character and the physical sturdiness of an ancestry which, from 
the foundation of Boston, had borne an honorable part in the affairs 
of Massachusetts. Three of the boy's forefathers fought in the battle 
of Bunker Hill. The family had lived in Charlestown from 1630 to 
1775. Their home was burned and their property destroyed when 
the British fired the town on that battle day of June 17, and they 
removed to Sherborn. 

Here, in this fine, characteristic New England rural community, 
the son of the beloved minister had opportunities both for enjoy- 
ment and for profit that are denied to city lads. He was fond of 
out-door life, and he early developed a keen aptitude for mechanics. 
He could wield the carpenter's tools skilfully, and was exert in vari- 
ous kinds of metal work. One task or another kept him constantly 
employed, but such was his industry that they seemed not tasks, 
but pleasures. His early education he procured easily in the Sher- 
born schools, but when his own ambition and his father's wish led 
him to fit for college he had to walk six miles a day to attend a pre- 


paratory school and, in addition, for several years rode twenty miles 
on the railroad back and forth from his father's home. From Allen's 
English and Classical School he entered Harvard University, winning 
the degree of A.B. in 1873, and of LL.B. in 1875. He was a quick 
and receptive scholar, and was particularly fond of autobiographies 
of distinguished men and of works on history, travel and explora- 

Mr. Dowse had no difficulty in choosing a profession. The law 
was his own preference and his strong tastes for the mechanical 
sciences drew him naturally enough into the important field of 
patent law, where he promptly achieved distinction. He began his 
active practice as a patent lawyer in 1876 in both Boston and New 
York City, and he followed this career assiduously from 1876 to 
1898, with offices in New York and Boston. Other and even weigh- 
tier interests have attracted him. He is president of one of the 
world famed American manufacturing industries, the Reed & Barton 
Corporation of Taunton, Massachusetts, with large salesrooms in 
New York. This company has long had an enviable reputation for 
the beauty and finish of its designs of sterling silver and electro- 
plate, and is one of the American houses which have elevated manu- 
facturing to the dignity of a fine art. 

Mr, Dowse is active and conspicuous also in other large business 
affairs. He is president of the United States Fastener Company, of 
Boston, the Consolidated Fastener Company, the Booth Manufactur- 
ing Company and other concerns. He has taken out a number of 
metal working patents of o-riginality and merit. Not often does 
one man display so much versatility and win such success in both 
profession and business. 

In one of the loveliest neighborhoods of West Newton Mr. Dowse 
has an elegant home, Eswood House, where he and his wife dispense 
a charming hospitality. Mr. Dowse was married on June 20, 1883, 
to Miss Fanny Reed, daughter of Henry G. Reed and Frances (Wil- 
liams) Reed, of Taunton, Massachusetts. Three children have been 
born to them — Dorothy P., Margaret and Beatrice. 

Mr. Dowse is a member of the Boston Merchants' Association, 
the Home Market Club and the National Association of Manufac- 
turers. In social life also he has wide and important associations. 
He is vice-president of the Brae-Burn Country Club of Newton, and 
a member of the Masonic Order; the University Club and the Ex- 


change Club of Boston; the Country Ckib of Brookline; the Newton 
Chib of Newton; the Neighborhood Club of West Newton; the Com- 
modore Club of Maine; the Manhattan Club; the University Club; 
the Harvard Club of New York City and the Massachusetts Auto- 
mobile Club. 

Mr. Dowse is a vigorous Republican, and has represented his 
influential Republican city at many of the important conventions 
of his part}^ in this Commonwealth. His religious affiliations are 
with the Unitarian Church. He and his family have a host of friends 
in their home city of Newton and in Boston. Mr. Dowse retains to 
the full his boyhood love of out-of-doors, and is an enthusiast for 
golf, riding, fishing, shooting and auto-touring. These wholesome 
recreations, he believes, "are a part of the strength of the life of a 
successful business and professional man — as much a part of his 
equipment as a liberal education." A splendid line of long-lived 
ancestry, crowned by the distinguished clergyman, his father, who 
lived to be four score and twelve and was remarkable for physical 
as well as mental activity, is strong confirmation of the soundness 
of Mr. Dowse's philosophy of living. 


CHARLES WILLIAM ELIOT, president of Harvard Uni- 
versity, and the foremost educator in America, is of Bos- 
ton birth and distinguished Massachusetts lineage. He 
was born on March 20, 1834, the grardson of one of the famous mer- 
chant princes of the New England capital and the son of Samuel 
Atkins and Mary (Lyman) Eliot. Fis father was one of the most 
eminent public men of the Commonwealth, having been mayor of 
Boston, a member of Congress, and the treasurer of Harvard Col- 
lege. The family was descended from Andrew Eliot, who came from 
Devonshire, England, about 1632, and settled in Beverly, Massachu- 
setts, very soon after the first Puritan migration. 

To have sprung from such a sterling race is more honor than 
kinship with any titled aristocracy. Through every generation the 
men of the Eliot name have justified their heritage. No youth could 
have had a more fortunate or inspiring environment than that of the 
Boston home whence young Eliot went to the Boston Latin School 
and to Harvard College. His was the class of 1853. Graduating 
with the degree of Bachelor of Arts and an enviable reputation for 
scholarship, second in rank in his class, Mr. Eliot remained at the 
college as a tutor in mathematics, studying chemistry meanwhile 
with Professor Josiah P. Cooke, and in 1856 receiving the degree of 
Master of Arts. For two years more he continued to be an instruc- 
tor in mathematics, applying himself at the same time to research 
in chemistry, but in 1858 he became assistant professor in mathe- 
matics and chemistry in the Lawrence Scientific School at Harvard. 
He had taken up his profession with enthusiasm, and these earlier 
years of precise scientific application and the daily teaching of exact 
truths had a most important effect upon his character. 

In 1861 Mr. Eliot relinquished one part of his double professional 
duty to become assistant professor of chemistry alone, holding this 
post for two years. From 1863 to 1865 he studied chemistry and 
investigated educational methods in Europe. Returning to America, 

S't^ iyS ^ U^/Aams ^^r^- JYY" 



he became professor of analytical chemistry in the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, then a young institution brought into being 
by the progress of New England and the need of a more thorough 
scientific knowledge in the industrial arts. 

For four years, from 1865 to 1869, Mr. Eliot continued in the 
Faculty of the Institute of Technology, passing parts of the years 
1867-1868 in France. His career at the Institute was one of broaden- 
ing success, and his executive capacity, alertness and power of leader- 
ship began to draw attention to him as one sure to be a potent factor 
in the educational development of America. 

Through the stormy years of the Civil War the urgent problem 
of American higher education had been thrust aside, but it came to 
the forefront as soon as the war had ended. There was much of 
dissatisfaction and unrest at Harvard. New methods and new men 
were demanded. The election of a new president of Harvard was 
impending when Professor Eliot printed in the Atlantic Monthly, two 
vigorous and stirring articles on "The New Education," which 
stamped him at once as an iconoclast in the judgment of conser- 
vative Massachusetts. But there were powerful men of progress 
to whom these new ideas appealed, and Professor Eliot, in 1869, was 
elected by the Harvard corporation as president. The overseers 
at first refused to concur, but finally yielded, and Dr. Eliot began 
his great work of educational reformation. 

His path for a long time was beset with difficulties. Those of 
orthodox religious faith dreaded him as a champion of free thought. 
He was not a clergyman and the ancient traditions of New England 
held that none but a minister was fit to be a college president. He 
was a scholar, indeed, but a practical man of affairs also, with such 
conspicuous business talent that he had been besought to take the 
management of a great mercantile corporation. All of these things 
jarred on New England conservatism. The position of the new 
president of Harvard was an exceedingly delicate one, and impos- 
sible to a man without some leaven of tact in his courage and 

President Eliot, once seated, began straightway to broaden the 
curriculum of the university and to give the individual student some 
freedom of choice in the courses which he should pursue. This was 
a perilous attack on immemorial custom. Latin, Greek, mathe- 
matics, a smattering of modern languages and a smattering of some 


of the sciences had been the jDrescribed higher education of New 
England ever since the beginnings of education there. Regardless 
of individual characteristics and regardless of the careers which 
they were to pursue, the young men of one academic generation 
after another were passed through the same mold and rigidly re- 
quired to learn the same things, or try to learn them, whether the 
topics interested them or not. 

President Eliot changed all this, but the process required years 
of patient endeavor. The "elective system," as it came to be called, 
did not win a complete triumph at Harvard until about 1884. Yet 
there was progress from the first; the broadening which the new 
president began was never halted. The graduate school was de- 
veloped, and "That truth should be the final aim of education and 
that without liberty the attainment of truth is thwarted " became the 
guiding principle at Harvard. At the same time, President Eliot 
gave his splendid energies to the allied task of making Harvard a 
genuine university. There were law and medical schools, a divinity 
school, a scientific school and a school of dentistry, but the organiza- 
tion was loose and sprawling, and Harvard in 1869 was still a uni- 
versity only in name. The new president sought to bring these 
scattered departments genuinely together after a new plan which 
was not European, but American. "A university in any worthy 
sense of the term," he said, "must grow from seed. It cannot be 
transplanted in full leaf and bearing. It cannot be run up, like a 
cotton mill, in six months, to meet a quick demand. Neither can 
it be created by an energetic use of the inspired editorial, the ad- 
vertising circular and the frequent telegram. Numbers do not 
constitute it, and no money can make it before its time." 

One of the first points upon which President Eliot insisted was 
that the departments of the university should have a common 
treasury and a uniform and efficient system of government. He 
carried his point, and then went on to modernize the methods of 
instruction in the various schools. He gave his personal attention 
and presence to the various branches of the university. "Well, I 
declare," said Governor Washburn, when the new president first 
appeared officially in the law school, "the president of Harvard 
College in Dane Hall! This is a new sight." Within a few years 
President Eliot had brought about a thoroughly new, centralized 
plan of administration, which has been the model of the organiza- 


tion of American universities. The doubters and cavillers were 
graduall}' silenced. Harvard grew steadily in numbers, authority 
and wealth. Its affairs, administered on sound, progressive busi- 
ness principles, won for the university the confidence of business 
men and a great stream of intelligent and liberal benefactions. 

In justice to the older Harvard it must be said that the progress 
which President Eliot has wrought, while by no means easy of accom- 
plishment, was not so difficult as it would have been elsewhere, 
for even the older and conservative Harvard had responded more 
quickly than other American colleges to the quickening of new and 
better thought. Some of the changes which President Eliot worked 
out had been initiated before his administration. Yet the honor of 
inspiring most of these changes and of guiding and perfecting all 
of them is unquestionably his. His influence has not ceased with 
his own great university. He has been a leader and a reformer in 
the educational thought of all America. He has successfully ex- 
horted other universities to follow the development wrought out 
at Harvard. He has been a prophet and a guide to other college 
presidents, conquering ancient prejudices and winning in these later 
years the utmost regard, gratitude and admiration. 

In 1902-1903 Dr. Eliot was the president of the great National 
Educational Association. The university and its high and noble 
work has not absorbed his entire energies. His genius has helped 
to shape the advance of primary and secondary education. He 
has been a severe but beneficent critic of the public schools and 
academies, and he has lived to see his exhortations heeded and the 
soundness of his ideas recognized in the common school systems of 
a considerable portion of the American continent. This coordinating 
of the higher education of the university with even the humblest 
rural schools, this emphasizing of the idea that the work of education 
wherever it is undertaken is a noble one, deserving of the considera- 
tion of the wisest men among us, is not the least of the great services 
which President Eliot has rendered to his nation and his time. 

The leadership of President Eliot in American education has 
been frankly and graciously recognized abroad as well as at home. 
He is an officer of the Legion of Honor, of France, and correspond- 
ing member of the Institute of France. In this country he is a Fellow 
of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a member of 
the American Philosophical Society and of many other organiza- 


tions for intellectual and social advancement. Williams College and 
Princeton, in 1869, conferred on him the degree of LL.D.; Yale in 
1870, and Johns Hopkins in 1902. In the midst of his administra- 
tive labors he has found time for much notable literary work and 
for a great number of scholarly addresses and orations. Indeed, as 
a public speaker, critical judges regard President Eliot as in the first 
rank of Americans, and his addresses as examples of the most finished 
English of our time. His published works are many. Among them 
are "Five American Contributions to Civilization and Other Essays" 
(The Century Company, New York, 1897); "Educational Reform" 
(The Century Company, 1898); "Charles Eliot — Landscape Archi- 
tect " (the biography of a beloved son, Houghton, Mifflin & Company, 
Boston, 1902); "More Money for the Public Schools" (Double- 
day, Page & Company, New York, 1903); "John Gilley" (American 
Unitarian Association, Boston, 1904); "The Happy Life" (new 
edition, Thomas Y. Crowell & Company, New York, 1905); "Four 
American Leaders" (1906). Throughout all the years of his ad- 
ministration Dr. Eliot's annual reports as president of Harvard, 
have been treasure-houses of the best educational thought. 

No truer message can be given to young Americans than these 
words of the great leader of our modern education: "Cultivate the 
habit of reading something good for ten minutes a day. Ten minutes 
a day will in twenty years make all the difference between a culti- 
vated and uncultivated mind, provided you read what is good. I 
do not mean a newspaper; I do not mean a magazine. I mean by 
the good, the proved treasures of the world, the intellectual treasures 
of the world in story, verse, history and biography." 

President Eliot has been keenly alive to political tendencies in 
Am-erica and outspoken in his views of public men and public policies. 
His personal course has been one of political independence. His 
religious faith has always been that of the Unitarian Church. 
In youth and maturity his physical vigor has been maintained by 
wholesome out-of-door exercise, of which he is very fond, by bicycle 
riding, sailing, walking and driving. Dr. Eliot was married first to 
Ellen (Derby) Peabody, who died in 1869, and afterward to Grace 
Mellen Hopkinson. 

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HENRY HARDWICK FAXON was bom in Quincy, Massa- 
chusetts, September 28, 1823, and died there November 14, 
1905. He was the son of Job and Judith B. (Hardwick) 
Faxon. The name appears frequently on the town records, as borne 
by substantial farmers and trusted town officers, and runs back to 
Thomas Faxon, who came from England at some time previous to 
1647, and settled in that part of Braintree nov/ known as Quincy. 
Job Faxon was a farmer, industrious and frugal, and brought up 
Henry to the hard work befitting a farmer's boy. After a common 
school education, he was, at the age of sixteen, apprenticed to a shoe- 
maker and worked at this trade five years. At the end of this period, 
he, together with one of his brothers, began the manufacture of boots 
and shoes. After three years he gave up manufacturing for mer- 
cantile life and opened a retail grocery and provision store in Quincy, 
where he had a successful business for seven years. In 1854 he dis- 
posed of this business and became a member of the firm of Faxon, 
Wood & Company, retail grocei-s in Boston. This firm afterwards 
was changed to Faxon Brothers & Company, and the business from 
retail to wholesale. 

In 1861, just before the breaking out of the Civil War, he retired 
from this firm and engaged in still larger commercial ventures. In 
Boston, or traveling South to New Orleans and Cuba, Mr. Faxon 
bought and sold in large quantities all sorts of merchandise. It was 
at this time that, with his quick preception of the situation of affairs, 
he anticipated a sharp rise in the price of liquors, and placed in store, 
and later sold at an advance, several hundred barrels. This single 
transaction is the foundation of the charge that Mr. Faxon made 
his money by selling rum. It was not an inconsistency, for up to 
that time he was not a temperance advocate. His fortune was 
made in ordinary mercantile ventures and in real estate dealings. 
As a business man Mr. Faxon seemed to know intuitively the state 
of the future as well as current markets; and the boldness of his 


operations, and the manner of his purchases, though unerringly 
clear to himself, seemed to othere audacious, even wild and reckless, 
and astonished his associates by their successful issues. 

On November 18, 1852, he married Mary Burbank Munroe, 
daughter of the Boston merchant, Israel W. Munroe and Priscilla 
(Burbank) Munroe. To them was born a son, Henry Munroe Faxon, 
who ably continues his father's public spirited activities. Mrs. 
Faxon died in 1885. 

Mr. Faxon's claim to distinction rests mainly upon his incessant 
and uncompromising opposition to the liquor traffic. As he entered 
middle life, those restless energies which, in earlier years, had been 
devoted to the acquisition of a competence, took on a moral earnest- 
ness and launched him upon a new career. 

In 1864 and again in 1872 he was elected to the Massachusetts 
Legislature. He had been bred a Republican and remained so 
nominally, although he never hesitated to bolt a party nomination 
if the interests of temperance, on which his heart became finally 
set, made such a course advisable. In the beginning of his legis- 
lative life he took no special interest in the question of liquor selling. 
He was appointed, however, a member of the committee on liquor 
laws and there took a position favoring restrictive measures. As he 
became interested in the question, his conviction deepened as to the 
wickedness and folly of the traffic, and he entered into a war upon it, 
which occupied him for the rest of his life. To this contest he brought 
all his native energy and vereatility, and his accumulated fortune. 
He soon became distinguished as the most aggressive, independent, 
practical and tireless temperance reformer in the Commonwealth. 
It was in his own town that he made his chief success. Quincy was 
a stronghold of the liquor trade and in the year 1881, with a popula- 
tion of about eleven thousand, granted forty-two licenses for the 
sale of intoxicants. Mr. Faxon got himself appointed constable and 
it was largely through his efforts that the State law was amended 
the same year so that the question whether *' licenses be granted for 
the sale of intoxicating liquors in this town," could be presented 
squarely to the voters. The result was that in 1882 there were 
1057 who voted "No" and 475 who voted "Yes." The no-license 
era thus begun, was resolutely maintained year after year, largely 
at the expense and often at the bodily peril of this "millionaire 


He did broader work. He planned political campaigns, he took 
active part in conventions and caucuses in advocacy of temperance, 
and by speeches and broadsides and money contributions, kept up 
unceasing agitation. On more than one occasion, the course of the 
Republican party was shaped by his moral pereistence. At the 
critical time when Hon. John D. Long was nominated for governor, 
it was Mr. Faxon who was instrumental in turning the weight of 
the temperance vote in his favor. At his Boston office lie collected 
an almost inexhaustible store of temperance literature. One of 
his most valuable publications is a compilation of all the State liquor 
laws and the Supreme Court decisions thereon. 

Personally, Mr. Faxon was a man of many peculiarities, but on 
the whole they served him well and helped him win many a victory. 
Franli; and fearless of speech, unsparing in his attack on individuals, 
deaf to the sarcasm and ridicule that assailed him, he was ready to 
expose himself to physical danger for his cause. Much of his security 
and success was undoubtedly due to his imperturbable good nature. 
He enjoyed giving and taking blows. He kept his temper in defeat. 
He was never malignant, vindictive, or bitter. While many dis- 
believed in his methods and even in his aims, few could deny that 
he was a gallant fighter, honest, sincere and fair. His nature was 
direct, impatient of the insincerities and hypocrisies of many men in 
public life, and the only way he knew of carrying his point was that 
of open, specific and often drastic attack. Yet he only said what 
he believed to be true and was absolutely fearless of consequences, 
— an example of old-time independence and courage. 

With all his plainness of speech, he was of a tender heart and all 
his efforts were bent toward social betterment. He bore no ill-will 
and was desirous of the good-will of others. Young people had a 
large place in his affections and many were the gifts he made them 
through the Sunday schools of the town. He coveted little self- 
gratification; his tastes and habits were simple, but his great delight 
was to make some one happy through his generosity. 

Mr. Faxon was a member of the Massachusetts Total Abstinence 
Society, the New England Free Trade League, the Norfolk Republi- 
can Club, and was connected with the First (Unitarian) Congrega- 
tional Society of Quincy. He was a generous helper of his own 
church and a constant attendant on its services. He took little 
interest in theological doctrines, but showed quick appreciation 


when such subjects were presented as temperance, good citizenship, 
civic righteousness. He supported all good causes, contributed 
largely to the work of the other churches, Catholic and Protestant, 
and to the charities of his town, while the extent of his personal 
and quiet benefactions will never be known. He laid his own town 
under permanent obligation, not only for what he accomplished in 
stamping out the liquor evil, but also in the gift of thirty-three acres 
of land, including a part of the old homestead on which he was born 
and bred, for public recreation, to be known as "Faxon Park." 

By his public spirit, his unselfishness, his humanity, his tireless 
efforts to advance all genuine reforms, he made a lasting impression 
upon his native town and State. 





THOMAS JOHN GARGAN, lawyer, city official, state legis- 
lator, publisher, orator, was born in Boston, Massachusetts 
in 1844. His father, Patrick Gargan (1806-1856), was a 
son of Patrick and Rose (Garland) Gargan who came from Ireland in 
1827 and settled in Boston. Patrick Gargan, Sr., was a patriot and, 
for participating in the rebellion in Ireland in 1798, had his property 
confiscated by the British government. Patrick Gargan, the immi- 
grant, was a mason and builder, a man of rugged honesty, and from 
his great love of reading was known as " Patrick the reader." Thomas 
J. Gargan was a pupil in the Phillips Grammar School of Boston 
until he reached his fourteenth year when his father died and he left 
school to give his help toward supporting the family. Speaking of 
these school days Mr. Gargan says, "To my mother I owe every- 
thing, intellectually, morally, spiritually. After school I studied 
nights taking up Latin, French, history and philosophy under the 
direction of a Jesuit priest. I worked for Wilkinson, Stetson & 
Company, wholesale wool merchants, and for A. & W. Sprague Manu- 
facturing Company, and the discipline taught me habits of industry. 
I read Gibbon's ' Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire/ Mayne's 
' History of the Middle Ages,' Plutarch's ' Lives,' the works of 
Edmund Burke, the 'History of England,' Motley's 'Dutch Repub- 
lic,' Bancroft's ' History of the United States,' Adam Smith's ' Po- 
litical Economy,' and philosophical works." He took up the study 
of law while acting as agent for A. & W. Sprague Manufacturing 
Company, but remained with that corporation until he was twenty- 
two years old. 

He graduated at the Boston University Law School LL.B. 1875, 
and became an attomey-at-law in Boston. He took up the pro- 
fession of law from personal preference and the influence of his home. 
The knowledge gained from private study and his contact with men 
in active business life largely contributed to his success. He served 
his native city as overseer of the poor 1875; as chairman of the board 


of license commissioners 1877-78; member of the board of police 
1880-1881, and as a member of the Boston Transit Commission from 
1894; his reappointed term expiring in 1909. He served in the 
State Legislature as a representative 1868, 1870 and 1876. He 
served his country in the Civil War as a soldier, with the rank of second 
lieutenant, enlisting for three months' service in 1861. 

He was married September 19, 1867, to Catherine, daughter of 
Lawrence and Catherine McGrath, and secondly, December 29, 1898, 
to Helena, daughter of William Nordhoff, a native of Germany. 
He was elected to membership in the University Club, the Papyrus 
Club, the American-Irish Historical Society, of which he was presi- 
dent, the Charitable Irish Society, the Old Colony Club, the Knights 
of Columbus, the Economic Club, the Democratic Club, the Catholic 
Summer School, of which he was a trustee, the Catholic Union of 
Boston, of which he was vice-president, and the New England Catho- 
lic Historical Society. His biography appears in "Bench and Bar 
of Massachusetts" "One of a Thousand," "Irish Race in Boston," 
"Boston of To-day." He is a director of the Columbian National 
Life Insurance Company and of the United States Trust Company, 
and president and director of the Pilot Publishing Company. As 
an orator he became well known and popular. He delivered the 
Fourth of July oration in Boston in 1885. He also pronounced the 
eulogy of Governor Gaston in 1894, and of Mayor Collins in 1905. 
To young men Mr. Gargan gives this message: "Cultivate early in 
life a high idealism, the practical will arrive in due time, love of good 
reading, moderate thrift, not love of money for money's sake, indus- 
try, thoroughness and a belief in something." 

Mr. Gargan died in Berlin, Germany, July 31, 1908. The fol- 
lowing is one of the many tributes to his memory: "He was from 
the first a diligent and faithful guardian of the business interests 
committed to his care, but we shall miss still more the personal 
virtues for which he was so well and widely known in this city of his 
home. To the community at large he was a courageous and public- 
spirited citizen and faithful public official, frank in opinion, eloquent 
in speech, and of large and pervading charity in thought, word and 
act. Beneath and beyond these more conspicuous qualities were 
the cheerful and sunny temperament, sparkling wit, and sincere fel- 
lowship which radiated from him wherever he went." 


FEW men have been held in such high regard as William Gaston, 
and still fewer have enjoyed the confidence of their citizens 
in so many and varied ways as he. His life was a constant 
series of successes, and multitudes cherish the memory of his services. 
He was born in Killingly, Connecticut, October 3, 1820, and died in 
Boston, January 19, 1894. He descended on his father's side from 
the French Huguenot, Jean Gaston, and on his mother's from 
Thomas Arnold, who came from England and settled in New Eng- 
land in 1636, joining Roger Williams in Rhode Island in 1654. 

William Gaston came naturally by his political sagacity and abil- 
ity to call men to his standard, for both his father and grandfather 
had been popular leaders and served in the Legislature of Connecti- 
cut. William Gaston was of a studious habit of mind and stood 
well in his classes while at Brooklyn and Plainfield (Connecticut) 
Academies, and when he graduated from Brown University in 1840, 
his family rejoiced because he carried honors with his diploma of 

Mr. Gaston was admitted to the bar in 1844, and from 1846 to 1865 
practised his profession in Roxbury. From 1857 to 1865 he was a 
member in the firm of Jewell, Gaston & Field in Boston. He became 
known far and wide for his ability and fidelity. In 1853-54 and 56 he 
was representative at the General Court, and later a Senator. Dur- 
ing the years 1861 and 1862 he was mayor of Roxbury, for five years 
previous serving as city solicitor. In 1871 and 72 he was elected to 
the position of mayor of the City of Boston, and then, in recognition 
of his rare abilities as executive and his wise statesmanship, he 
became the choice of the Democratic party for governor of Massa- 
chusetts in 1874. He was elected handsomely, although the State 
was naturally Republican by many thousand. His administration 
was successful from every point of view, though both branches of 
the Legislature were in majority against him. Governor Gaston 
was so much of a man, had such resourcefulness of mind and charac- 



ter, that friend and foe united in respecting and commending his 
efforts as governor. Both Harvard and Brown Universities honored 
themselves by giving Governor Gaston the degree of LL.D. 

On May 27, 1852, in the town of Roxbury, Mr. Gaston was united 
in marriage with Miss Louisa Augusta Beecher, daughter of Laban 
S. and Frances A. (Lines) Beecher. From this union three children 
were born, Sarah Howard, Theodore Beecher and William Alexan- 
der Gaston, who is prominently identified with political and business 
institutions, an able lawyer and president of the National Shawmut 
Bank of Boston, the largest financial institution in New England. 

Governor Gaston was a fine example of the gentleman, scholar, 
and man of affairs. He succeeded in many lines of activity and 
always maintained the confidence of the people. His integrity was 
as unquestioned as his intellectual ability. 


WILLIAM ALEXANDER GASTON, lawyer, publicist and 
president of the National Shawmut Bank of Boston, the 
largest financial institution in New England, was born in 
Roxbury, now Boston, Norfolk, now Suffolk County, Massachusetts, 
May 1, 1859. His father, William Gaston (1820-1894), was a son of 
Alexander and Kezia (Arnold) Gaston of Killingly, Connecticut, and 
a descendant from Jean Gaston, born in France about 1590, a 
French Huguenot, who fled from religious persecution to Scotland; 
through John Gaston, a grandson of the French emigrant, who was 
born in Ireland in 1703, and came to America, landing at Marble- 
head, Massachusetts, and settling in Voluntown, Connecticut, where 
he died in 1783. His maternal ancestor, Thomas Arnold, came to 
New England with his brother, William Arnold, about 1636, and in 
1654 joined his brother William, who had accompanied Roger Wil- 
liams to Rhode Island. Alexander Gaston, a merchant in Killingly, 
Connecticut, and his father, John Gaston, born 1750, were both 
members of the Connecticut legislature for many years. 

The parents of William Gaston, the future governor, removed to 
Roxbury, Massachusetts in 1839, and the son was graduated at 
Brown University in the class of 1840. He was a lawyer in Rox- 
bury, serving as city solicitor for five years and as mayor, 1861- 
1862. He removed his law office to Boston, 1865-92; was mayor of 
Boston, 1871-1872; a Whig representative in the General Court of 
Massachusetts, 1853-1854, and Whig and Fusionest representative, 
1856. He was elected by the Democratic party to the State Senate 
in 1868 and in 1874 to the governorship. In 1870 he was the de- 
feated Democratic candidate as representative to the Forty-second 
Congress. He received the honorary degree of LL.D. from Harvard 
in 1875 and from Brown University the same year. He died in 
Boston, January 19, 1894. His wife, Louisa Augusta (Beecher) Gas- 
ton, daughter of Laban S. and Frances A. (Lines) Beecher, was 


the mother of three children, Sarah Howard, William Alexander and 
Theodore Beecher Gaston. 

William Alexander Gaston was a strong child, brought up in the 
city, and he had the best advantages for acquiring an education in 
the public schools and Harvard College. His mother was a woman 
of strong intellectual, moral and spiritual force and imparted both 
by precept and example these attributes to her son. He graduated 
at the Roxbury Latin School and then at Harvard College, where 
he was a member of the class of 1880. Among his one hundred and 
thirty- five classmates was Theodore Roosevelt. He graduated at 
the Harvard Law School in 1882, entered his father's law office as a 
student and on October 1, 1883, w^as admitted as a partner with his 
father and Charles L. B. Whitney as Gaston and Whitney. He was 
married April 9, 1892, to May Davidson, daughter of Hamilton D. and 
Annie (Louise) Lockwood, of Boston, and of the five children born 
of the marriage, four were living in 1908. He was the unsuccessful 
Democratic candidate for governor of Massachusetts in 1902 and 1903; 
was delegate at large from Massachusetts to the Democratic National 
Convention of 1904 at St. Louis and was the member from Massa- 
chusetts in the National Democratic Committee in that canvass. In 
1905 he was named by the Democratic caucus of the legislature of 
Massachusetts for United States Senator and he received the full 
legislative vote of the party. 

His public service as a director of corporations includes: Manu- 
facturers National Bank; E. Howard Clock Company; Colonial 
National Bank; Eastern Audit Company; Shawmut National Bank, 
where he served on the executive committee as he did on the board 
of the Commonwealth Trust Company; and the American Loan and 
Trust Company, Fore River Ship Company; Columbian National 
Life Insurance Company, where he was a member of the finance 
committee; Boston Elevated Railway Company, serving as chair- 
man of the board of directors and president of the corporation; 
National Rockland Bank; Real Estate Exchange, serving as presi- 
dent of the corporation. He has also been trustee of the Forest 
Hills Cemetery; Institution for Savings in Roxbury and vicinity; 
Simmons Building; City Association and Central Building. He is 
director in several other financial companies, and trustee of a dozen 
or fifteen private estates. His club affiliations include the Somerset, 
Algonquin, Curtis, Exchange, Athletic, Tennis, and Racquet clubs of 


Boston; the Country Club of Brookline; the Manhattan and Har- 
vard Clubs of New York City; the Bostonian Society; Massachusetts 
Horticultural Association; Roxbury Military Association; the Har- 
vard Law School Association ; the Boston Bar Association. He served 
on the staff of Governor William E. Russell, 1890-93. A promi- 
nent leader of the Democratic party, when that party was in a hope- 
less minority in the State; his fidelity and unswerving allegiance 
endeared him to the party and he was honored by the highest nomi- 
nation within its gift. 



LEWIS NEWTON GILBERT, one of the foremost among 
American textile manufacturers, a progressive and public 
spirited citizen of the old school, was born at Pomfret, Con- 
necticut, January 25, 1836. He is in the eighth generation in the 
line of John Gilbert, who came from Devonshire, England, about 
1630, was in Dorchester, Massachusetts, in January, 1635, was made 
freeman of the Plymouth Colony in December, 1638, and was elected 
deputy from Cohannet (now Taunton) to the first General Court 
which assembled at Plymouth in June, 1639. Benjamin Gilbert, in 
the sixth generation, was born August 17, 1767, and died January 8, 
1835, his wife having been Betsey Pierce. Joseph Gilbert, their 
son, who was born May 20, 1800, and died February 13, 1882, was 
an energetic, industrious and conscientious farmer of excellent 
habits, and he married Harriet Williams, daughter of Zephaniah and 
Olive (Howe) Williams. Three children were born to them — two 
daughters and a son, all of whom are still living. 

Lewis Newton Gilbert, the second of these children spent his 
early years on his father's farm, where his time was largely given to 
farm work of all kinds, — such as milking, plowing, harrowing, 
hoeing, and spreading and raking hay, — and in spring and summer 
his labors began at four o'clock in the morning. He attended the 
common schools in his native town, Woodstock Academy and an 
academy in Danielson. 

At the age of fifteen he left the farm, and going to Ware, Massa- 
chusetts, he entered the woolen mill of his uncle, George H. 
Gilbert. At that time — August, 1851 — the establishment was 
employing about one hundred hands. He applied himself diligently 
to his duties, learning the details of manufacture thoroughly, and on 
reaching his majority, in 1857, he was taken into partnership. The 
firm then became George H. Gilbert & Company. The business 
prospered, extended very rapidly during and immediately after the 
Civil War, additional mills were built at Gilbertville, and in 1867 a 



corporation was formed under the present title of the George H. 
Gilbert Manufacturing Company. The number of hands employed 
had reached about six hundred. In 1869 George H. Gilbert died, and 
Lewis N. Gilbert succeeded him as president of the company, which 
position he still retains, after having held it nearly forty years. 

In 1876 he was made a member of the board of managers for 
Massachusetts at the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia, and, 
with well-considered enterprise, he arranged for an important exhibit 
by the Gilbert Company, extending still more widely the reputation 
for a high standard that their products had been steadily gaining. 
The progress has continued. At the mills in Ware and Gilbertville 
not less than 1400 hands are now kept at work, and there are 28 
sets of woolen machinery, 12 worsted combs and 450 broad looms 
in constant operation. The manufactures include both men's and 
women's goods of worsted and woolen. At the present time the 
capital stock is $1,000,000 and the value of goods manufactured 
yearly is $2,800,000. 

Although the demands upon his energies of this rapidl}^ growing 
industry have been great, Mr. Gilbert has been able to fill many places 
of trust and honor. He has been a trustee of the Ware Savings 
Bank since 1869, and since 1892 has served as its president. He has 
been a director of the Ware National Bank since 1887. He was 
chosen a director of the Worcester Mutual Fire Insurance Company 
in 1884, and in 1901 became its president. 

In politics he has taken a prominent part as a Republican. He 
was early elected a member of the Republican State Committee, 
and at different times has served three terms of one year each. He 
was a State Senator from his district in 1877 and in 1878. In these 
two years he was appointed on important committees, including 
those on public charitable institutions, prisons and railroads, and 
was chairman of the committee on manufactures. He was a mem- 
ber of the Board of Trustees of the State Primary School at Mon- 
son for five years, and chairman of the board for three years. He 
has repeatedly declined to be a candidate for any town office, but as 
moderator at the annual town meetings for twenty-seven consecutive 
years he has wielded a potent influence, and has presided over many 
stormy debates with justice and impartiality. Most of the public 
improvements that are the pride of the town have been brought about 
by these meetings. 


Through the early influence of his mother, Mr. Gilbert has always 
taken an active interest in the religious life of his community. He is 
a regular attendant at the Congregational Church at Gilbertville, 
which is a beautiful stone memorial building erected by the Gilbert 
family in 1881. He has been a delegate to four Triennial National 
Councils of Congregational Churches and to one International Coun- 
cil. He has been a member of the executive committee of the 
Massachusetts Home Missionary Society for twelve years, and a 
vice-president of the Massachusetts Bible Society for twenty-six 
years. He is a Mason, a member of Eden Lodge. 

Mr. Gilbert was married December 21, 1864, to Mary D. Lane, 
daughter of Otis and Miranda (Hamilton) Lane, and granddaughter 
of Rev. Otis and Elizabeth (Payne) Lane and of Joshua and Minerva 
(Reeves) Hamilton. Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert, who have no children, 
occupy a handsome residence on South Street, Ware. 

Mr. Gilbert's counsel to young Americans are summed up in his 
own words. "Be industrious, be persevering, be honest, be faithful, 
so as to make the person in whose employ you are feel that he cannot 
afford to lose your service, and you will obtain a good position in 

£-r„^. ^4/ ^^ fH/.^-^s SSra/Vy 

^^:^:^^/^^-0/.^''Cr^^?=''-2^^ ^( 


EDWIN GINN was born in Orland, Maine, February 14, 1838. 
His fatlier, James Ginn, farmer and lumberman, was a man 
of remarkably good judgment. He often acted as arbitrator 
and referee in cases of dispute and had great influence in the com- 
munity in which he lived. His ancestors came from England and 
were among the early settlers of Maryland and Virginia. His 
mother, Sarah Blood, daughter of Daniel and Esther (Rideout) Blood, 
was descended from Puritan stock, and through John Putnam, brother 
of Israel Putnam, claimed descent from John and Priscilla (Gould) 
Putnam, emigrants from England about 1630-34, settling in Salem. 

Edwin, although a rather delicate boy, was bent on obtaining 
an education. As a child his advantages in this cUrection were 
very limited, as his home in the country was far removed from 
good school privileges. His ambition to obtain an education he 
inherited largely from his mother, his keen business insight from his 
father. His early childhood was passed on the farm — where the 
customary chores were a part of his daily duties — in a logging 
camp, and on a fishing schooner to the Grand Banks of Newfound- 
land. In the winter he attended the district school. 

At the age of sixteen his father gave him his time and fifty 
dollars with which to gain an education. He then began to attend 
the country high school, so-called, but as the teacher could not 
instruct him in Latin he entered the Seminary at Bucksport, two 
miles and a half from his home, walking to and from school each 
day. Later he went to Westbrook Seminary, where he finished his 
preparation for college. He graduated from Tufts in 1862, and 
later received the degree A.M. In 1902 his alma mater conferred 
upon him the degree of Litt.D. He is a member of the Phi Beta 
Kappa college fraternity, of the Twentieth Century Club, and of the 
Boston Merchants' Association. 

While in college his eyes failed him and his health broke down. 
The professors urged him to drop out for a year but he objected, 


saying that if he left his class he should never return. His class- 
mates lent a helping hand by reading his lessons to him and he suc- 
ceeded in graduating even above the middle of his class. 

Mr. Ginn had hoped to devote himself to purely literary work 
but, physically handicapped as he was, he abandoned this purpose 
and determined to enter the publishing business. In coming to this 
decision he was actuated largely by a desire to influence the world 
for good by putting the best books into the hands of school children. 

On leaving college he engaged in a small way in a school-book 
agency, buying his books outright, and thus was under obligation 
to no one. His first independent venture was the publishing of 
Craik's English of Shakespeare, which he obtained from the house 
of Crosby and Ainsworth. The study of Shakespeare had just 
begun to be taken up in colleges and secondary schools, and the young 
publisher realized that it was an opportune time to put out this 
book. A little later he secured the services of the Rev. Henry N. 
Hudson, who edited for him twenty-one plays for the use of the 
schools and the Harvard edition of vShakespeare for libraries. 

His second work of importance was Allen's Latin Grammar, a 
book which was very well received. The success of this book led 
the young publisher to apply to Professor Goodwin of Harvard for 
a Greek Grammar. He called upon the professor and made known 
his errand, who at once said to him, "The manuscript you wish is 
in my desk at this moment, well-nigh finished." Professor Good- 
win's " Moods and Tenses " had already established his name among 
Greek scholars, and almost immediately upon its publication his 
Greek Grammar found an entrance into nearly all the leading classi- 
cal schools and colleges in the country. 

The popularity of Allen's Latin Grammar, however, was of short 
duration. It was soon found that the brief course was not sufficient 
for the schools, that a fuller treatise was necessary for the intelligent 
study of the texts. Therefore Professor J. B. Greenough was called 
in to revise and enlarge this book, and to prepare editions of the 
Latin texts, Caesar, Cicero and Virgil. Professor Goodwin also en- 
larged and revised his Greek Grammar, and he and Professor John 
Williams White began the editing of the Greek texts. These Latin 
and Greek books laid the foundation for the success of the house 
of Ginn and Company. 

Among other early publications of special importance might be 


mentioned Luther Whiting Mason's National Music Course, the first 
successful attempt to introduce music into the public schools; the 
series of mathematics by Professor George A. Wentworth of Exeter, 
New Hampshire, which for nearly a quarter of a century has been 
the most popular and extensively used series of books ever published 
in America; Alexis E. Frye's series of geographies, which have revolu- 
tionized the study of that subject; and Myers', Montgomery's and 
Allen's histories, which for years have led all other text-books on 
these subjects in this country. 

The limited space reserved for this sketch forbids a detailed 
account of the many valuable publications on Ginn and Company's 
list, which numbers over one thousand volumes. We would mention 
in passing, however, Collar and Daniell's Latin books, Whitney's 
Essentials of English Grammar, Young's Astronomies, Bergen's 
Botanies, Blaisdell's Physiologies, Kittredge and Arnold's Language 
Series, Lockwopd and Emerson's Composition and Rhetoric, the 
Stickney, Jones and Cyr Readers and Smith's Arithmetics. 

One of the most important works of Ginn and Company along 
educational lines is the editing and publishing of the Classics for 
Children, the first volume of which, an edition of The Lady of the 
Lake, was issued nearly a quarter of a century ago. This series of 
books now consists of fifty-seven volumes, the masterpieces of 
standard authors like Scott, Lamb, Irving, Dickens, Kingsley and 
Ruskin issued as nearly as possible in complete form. The volumes 
are specially annotated and adapted for the use of children of the 
grammar-school grades. They have supplemented the work of the 
ordinary school readers, which are composed of brief selections, 
taken largely from the writers of the day and which for generations 
were the only source of literary culture open to the grammar-school 
pupil. The part which these classics play in the development of 
youthful minds is important beyond measure, since about nineteen 
out of every twenty school children complete their education in the 
grammar school. 

Ginn and Company are also the publishers of a large number of 
interesting nature books, prominent among which are Mr. Long's 
studies of animals. 

Among the books and authors that have been most helpful to 
him in his life-work Mr. Ginn counts the following: Plato, Marcus 
Aurelius, Plutarch's Lives and Morals, Epictetus, Shakespeare, 


Bacon, Combe's Essay on the Constitution of Man, Pope, Swift, 
Burke's Speeches, Scott, Thackeray, Goldsmith, Ruskin, Words- 
worth, Theodore Parker, Sumner, Wendell Phillips, Beecher, Brown- 
ing, Whittier, Gladstone, and the historical works of Guizot, Prescott 
and Motley. 

Philanthropy of all kinds has always appealed to Mr. Ginn. He 
has given especial attention to the housing of the poor in model 
tenements and to the cause of peace and arbitration looking toward 
the disarmament of the world's great armies. This last he counts 
as his greatest effort for the good of mankind and to this work he 
is giving a large amount of time and money. He is now bringing 
out a series of books which it is hoped may prove the foundation 
stone for "An International School of Peace," to be organized on 
broad lines for the education of the peoples of all nations to nobler 
and wiser methods of settling disputes. 

Mr. Ginn's political affiliations have always been with the Repub- 
lican party, but of late years he has differed wdth his party, especially 
with regard to the tariff, voting independently on several occasions. 
His family were Universalists, but his connections are now with the 
Unitarian Church. 

He was married in 1869 to Clara, daughter of Jesse and Martha 
(Bartlett) Glover; and again in 1893 to Francesca, daughter of Carl 
Christian and Maria Christina (Vitriarius) Greb^, of Germany. By 
his first wife he had four children, Jessie, Maurice, Herbert and Clara; 
and by his second wife two, Edwin, Jr., and Marguerita Christina. 

■■,!, i^rC-^ffwr^a SBrsNy^ 



JOHN U. HARLOW was born in Whitehall, New York, Novem- 
ber 25, 1819, and died at his home in Woburn, Massachusetts, 
May 13, 1907. In boyhood he attended the common schools 
of his native town, and later he fitted for college in West Poultney, 
Vermont, and in Ashby, Massachusetts. He engaged for a while in 
teaching and took up the study of medicine in 1840. He pursued a 
special course in a School of Anatomy in Philadelphia, and graduated 
at the Jefferson Medical College in the same city in 1844. He was 
patient, accurate and conscientious in the endeavor to learn all that 
can be known about the human constitution and the best means of 
relieving the many ills that human flesh is heir to. His first out- 
look upon the world was in a country of hills and lakes and streams 
of living water. He caught the sunshine of the hills and carried it 
with him through a long life, shedding brightness and good cheer 
upon the paths of all who traveled with him to the end of the 
journey. The early lessons learned in the great school of nature did 
much to give him serenity of mind and constancy of hope amid all 
the changes that awaited him. 

He began the practice of his profession in Cavendish, Vermont, in 
1845, and there he continued for fourteen years, carrying health 
and good cheer to the homes of the people living along the Black 
River and under the shadow of Ascutney IMountain. The villagers 
in the workshops along the river and the farmers in the fields learned 
to look upon the coming of his carriage, as he flew along the winding 
and wooded roads, as a harbinger of help to the suffering and of 
hope to the afflicted in their scattered homes. 

While engaged in the practice of his profession at Cavendish, 
Dr. Harlow had one case of extraordinary interest to all persons 
who knew of it at the time, and indeed of world-wide repute among 
medical men to this day. A young man was engaged in blasting 
rocks on the Rutland and Burlington Railroad. By some mistake 
in tamping the charge of powder, it took fire while he was sitting 


on the rock, and the force of the explosion drove the tamping iron, 
a bar three feet and a half long and an inch and a quarter in diameter, 
through his head, just in front of the angle of the jaw on the left 
side. The bar pierced the brain in the middle of the head, carried 
away a portion of the bony case at the back of the left eye, and landed 
several rods away from the seat of the wounded man who still re- 
mained upright on the rock. He spoke lightly and jocosely to his 
fellow workmen immediately after the shock, and with a little help 
from them he walked to an ox cart that stood near by, mounted and 
rode in that rude ambulance to Hyde's tavern where he was board- 
ing, a distance of half a mile. Leaving the cart, he Avalked up the 
long stairway to his chamber and deliberately removed his blood- 
stained garments and prepared himself for the bed. There Dr. 
Harlow found him. He immediately applied all the resources of 
medical skill known at the time, although he had little hope of secur- 
ing a recovery for the young man from such a desperate condition. 
The patient himself, however, was so sure of rising to his feet again 
that he sent word to his fellow workmen that he would be back with 
them again in a few days. 

Dr. Harlow gradually grew into the hope which animated the 
patient and joined with him in cherishing the expectation of re- 
covery, although he had never heard an instance of a man coming 
again to the full use of his faculties of body and mind after such a 
rude missile had been shot through his brain. Two months after 
the accident the wounded man was walking again on the street. 
In another month he drove thirty miles to his own home in Lebanon, 
and was none the worse for the journey. The dreadful wound in 
the head had closed, and he was able to pursue his ordinary occupa- 
tion. With a slight change in character and disposition he seemed 
as well as he was before the accident. 

The recovered man went about the country for a few years, ex- 
hibiting the iron bar which had passed through his brain, and telling 
the story of the terrible accident to crowds of people who came to 
hear and who were slow to believe what they heard. At his death 
the bar of iron and the skull of the man whose brain had been pierced 
were placed in the Warren Museum of Harvard Medical School, and 
there they may be seen at this day. Dr. Harlow modestly ascribed 
the wonderful recovery to the extraordinary vitality and the uncon- 
querable will and endurance of the patient. Dr. Harlow's narrative 


of the case was received with great applause when he read it to a 
large gathering of physicians and surgeons at the Massachusetts 
General Hospital, twenty years after the occurrence. 

After fourteen years of hard and exacting service in Cavendish, 
Dr. Harlow was so much reduced in health that he was obliged to 
leave the field which he had learned to love, and to spend three years 
in rest and quiet study and travel, occupying most of the time in 
Minnesota and in Philadelphia. In 1861 he resumed practice in 
Woburn, Massachusetts, and there he continued to hold a foremost 
position both in his profession and in business and social life till the 
close, forty-six years afterwards. 

In the discharge of the duties of his profession. Dr. Harlow was 
prompt and untiring, accurate and conscientious, his extensive 
experience and close observation and thorough knowledge of the 
human constitution made him a welcome and trusted visitor where- 
ever the sick and the suffering needed his aid. He was honored 
and trusted alike by his associates in medical practice and by the 
common people, who looked upon him as the beloved physician in 
sickness and the sympathizing and helping friend in time of need. 
Both in professional and in every-day life he showed himself to be a 
man of large heart, high purpose and very unusual practical sagacity 
in meeting all the demands of individual service for the welfare of 
the community about him and for the world at large. He held 
many important posts as senator, councilor, director, trustee, 
president of bank corporations and medical societies and in them 
all he was found to be a man wise, suggestive, discriminating and 
conscientious in things least and greatest. He knew how to accu- 
mulate property for himself and to use it well for the good of many 
others. He received by descent the great and good inheritance of 
character, and he made it better by the best use of the enlarged 
knowledge and opportunities of his time. The best blood of the 
New England fathers was in his veins, and it made him firm in pur- 
pose and opinion, energetic in action and expression, generous and 
self-denying in spirit and untiring in devotion to the public welfare. 
His memory will stand as an extraordinar}^ record in medical prac- 
tice, an example of high and honorable citizenship in the State, a 
precious treasure in the hearts of all who knew him. 


JOHN CUMMINGS HAYNES, head of the house of Oliver Ditson 
Company of Boston, was bom in Brighton, Massachusetts, 
September 9, 1829 and died in Boston May 3, 1907. His father, 
John Dearborn Haynes, son of EHsha and Betsy (Bartlett) Haynes, 
grandson of John and OUve (Weeks) Haynes, and great grandson of 
Matthias and Hannah (Johnson) Haynes, and a descendant from 
Samuel Haynes, a farmer who resided in Shropshire, England, and 
emigrated with a colony of his neighbors to New England in 1635. 
He was a prominent dissenter and helped to organize the First Church 
at Strawberry Bank (afterwards Portsmouth) New Hampshire, of 
which church he was made a deacon. John Dearborn Haynes married 
Eliza Walker, daughter of Joseph Stevens and a descendant from 
the Gilpatricks who went from Scotland to the North of Ireland and 
thence to America. John Cummings Haynes was a pupil in the 
public and English High Schools of Boston, but his parents needing 
his assistance as a bread winner he was forced to leave school when 
fifteen years of age. In 1845 he entered the employ of Oliver Ditson, 
music publisher, as an errand boy. He learned the business and be- 
came so valuable to his employer that on January 1, 1851, Mr. Ditson 
gave him an interest in the business and on January 1, 1857, he was 
made a full partner, the firm name being changed to Oliver Ditson & 
Company. The death of Oliver Ditson, the founder of the house, in 
December, 1888, led to further change in the business which was 
incorporated as The Oliver Ditson Company with Mr. Haynes as 
president and Mr. Ditson's son, Charles H. Ditson, as treasurer. 
Several of the young men who had grown up in the business were 
admitted to the corporation as stockholders. Besides the house 
established in Boston of The Oliver Ditson Company, music publishers, 
and John C. Haynes & Company, musical instrument manufacturers, 
branch houses were established in New York and Philadelphia; the 
New York concern being known as Charles H. Ditson & Company, 
and the Philadelphia house as J. E. Ditson & Company. 

-^ . /tjC^y^u. e^ 


The business of the corporation showed a remarkable growth from 
its formation and in the Hne of pubhshers of music outclassed all its 
competitors and called for great executive talent in managing its 
business. Mr. Haynes supervised the erection of an immense build- 
ing in New York City on the corner of Broadway and Eighteenth 
Street, and their Philadelphia store was located at 1632 Chestnut 
Street. In 1864 he assisted in the organization of the house of Lyon 
& Healy of Chicago, music dealers and manufacturers of musical 
instruments, and the houses were closely allied from that time. 

Mr. Haynes was married in 1855 to Fanny, daughter of the Rev. 
Charles and Frances (Seabury) Spear, of Massachusetts, and their 
children were: Alice Fanny Haynes, who married Marcus Morton 
Holmes; Theodore Parker Haynes, deceased; Lizzie Gray Haynes, 
who married O. Gordon Rankine; Jennie Eliza Haynes, deceased, 
who married Fred O. Hurd; Cora Marie Haynes, who married Isaac 
Wellington Crosby; Mabel Stevens Haynes who became a physician, 
afterward marrying Konrad Heissig, Captain in the Austrian Army, 
and Edith Margaret Haynes, who married Frederick H. Pratt. 

Few men have carried larger business responsibilities than has 
Mr. Haynes. Yet busy as he has been, at times apparently fairly 
absorbed by his vast responsibilities, few men of affairs have found 
more time for interests which concerned the larger life of the com- 
munity. He was an original member of the Franklin Library Asso- 
ciation, a life member of the Mercantile Library Association, of the 
Young Men's Christian LTnion, of the Woman's Industrial Union, 
of the Aged Couples' Home, a director and vice-president in the 
Massachusetts Homeopathic Hospital, president of the Massachusetts 
Homeopathic Dispensary, a director and treasurer of the Free Re- 
ligious Association of the United States, and a trustee and vice- 
president of the Franklin Square House, the great home for working 
girls and student girls in Boston. 

Here seemed, to the casual observer, to be a man who was pre- 
eminently a money-maker. But John C. Haynes was also a money- 
spender, both in large and small ways. Simple in his tastes to the 
verge of austerity, he had little interest in spending money for osten- 
tation and never for himself. But there was scarcely one of the 
many charitable and religious societies with which he was connected, 
to which he was not a liberal contributor, while to some of them he 
was literally a benefactor. For example, his gifts to the Homeopathic 


Hospital and Dispensary probably aggregated considerably more 
than $100,000, while he gave to the Franklin Square House alone 
$130,000, and it is not too much to say that to his benefactions in 
the beginning this great philanthropy owed its existence. But 
generous as he was to these two institutions, he was not less generous 
toward the institutions associated with the name of Theodore Parker. 
One of the latest of his larger gifts, amounting to many thousands 
of dollars, had for its object the publication of a complete edition of 
Theodore Parker's works. The benefactions of Mr. Haynes were not 
limited to his splendid gifts to institutions. His private charities 
were numberless. Originally associated with Theodore Parker in 
the anti-slavery movement, he was particularly generous toward 
the colored race. Many of their schools of the South knew his kind- 
ness, and many a colored man and woman in the North was helped 
over a difficult place by his generosity. 

His relations to Theodore Parker alone would make a romantic 
story. Originally a pupil in a Baptist Sunday school, in 1848 he 
became interested in the preaching of Parker, who had formed an 
independent church, known as the Twenty-eighth Congregational 
Society. Mr. Haynes joined this society and for many years served 
as chairman of its standing committee. After the death of Mr. 
Parker, Mr. Haynes was an active factor in erecting the Parker 
Memorial Building in Boston, and was also instrumental in transfer- 
ring the building to the Benevolent Fraternity of Churches in Boston 
in order to perpetuate the memory of Theodore Parker and his chari- 
table, educational and religious work. He was likewise one of the 
organizers of the Parker Fraternity of Boston and of the Parker 
Fraternity course of lectures which was sustained for nearly twenty 

Mr. Haynes' financial affiliations included trusteeship in the 
Franklin Savings Bank and directorship in the Massachusetts Title 
Insurance Company. His political affiliations were first with the 
Free Soil party, he voting in 1852 for the candidacy of John P. Hale 
for president and George W. Julian for vice-president. In 1856 he 
followed the Free Soil party into the ranks of the Republican party 
and remained a faithful adherent to the policy of that party during 
his entire life. In the days when the city of Boston thought it 
worth while to call responsible men to its service, Mr. Haynes was 
chosen to serve on the Common Council for three terms. He served 


the city of Boston as a member of the Common Council 1862-65, 
and helped to advance the cause of the Union by firing the patriotic 
spirit of the members to a prompt filling up of the quota of volun- 
teers apportioned to the city. While a councilman he also strenu- 
ously advocated the opening of the Public Library on Sunday, a 
radical departure at the time and one which was adopted soon after 
the close of his term of service as a member of the City Council. 

Mr. Haynes was never a club man in the ordinary sense of the 
term. If he was a member of certain associations, it was on account 
of something beside mere social intercourse that they stood for. 
For example, he was a member of the Unitarian Club, the Home 
Market Club, the Massachusetts Club, the Boston Merchants' Asso- 
ciation, and the Music Publishers Association of the United States, 
but in every case he had at heart, not his own amusement, but the 
promotion of some great interest which he regarded as vital. 



DANIEL COLLAMORE HEATH, long and widely known as 
a leading educational publisher, was president of the D. C. 
Heath & Company publishing house from its foundation in 
1885 to his death. Mr. Heath was always a most loyal son of his 
native State of Maine, but from the time he began his college course 
at Amherst, in 1864, his activities and his interests were largely 
centered in Massachusetts. 

He was born in Salem, Franklin County, Maine, October 26, 
1843, and died in Newtonville, Massachusetts, January 29, 1908. 
He was the second son of Daniel Heath (1814-1902) and Mila Ann 
Record (1816-1907); and grandson of Benjamin Heath (1788-1870) 
and Ruth Hinkley Heath (1790-1859) on the father's side, and Henry 
Record (born 1785) and Mercy Bradley Record (born 1778) on the 
mother's side. His ancestors were among the early settlers of Massa- 
chusetts, coming from England in 1632 and in succeeding years. 

Mr. Heath's boyhood was passed at Salem and Farmington, 
Maine. His father was a man of rugged qualities, both physical and 
mental, full of energy, courage, humor and sterling common sense. 
He was a farmer and blacksmith, was active in his community as 
postmaster, town clerk, and selectman, and was colonel in the State 
militia. After some years in the local schools and in Farmington 
Academy, Mr. Heath went to the Nichols Latin School at Lewiston, 
Maine, and to the Maine State Seminary (now Bates College), where 
he finished his college preparatory work. He was graduated at 
Amherst in 1868 and received the degree of A.M. in 1871. 

Of his early interests and occupations Mr. Heath wrote: "I did 
such work as my father's occupation demanded. I have done all 
kinds of farm work, have helped in making horseshoes and ox-shoes, 
and have shod oxen. This work was clearly wholesome in its influ- 
ence on my character and habits. Application to tasks of suitable 
responsibility I count one of the best things for any boy. I read 
fiction very little, finding books suggested by my text-books and 


courses of stud}' far more interesting and presumably of more use 
to me than others. Therefore, they were the ones I tried to Hkc, and 
more often did Hke. I finally got into the habit of reading only 
books out of which I could get some definite and sure information. 
I began active life at the age of sixteen as a school teacher in Farm- 
ington, teaching in the district schools before and after I went to 
college, through which I had to work my way. In those days we had 
a long winter vacation of six weeks, and we took six weeks out of 
the spring term and taught a 'three months' school,' making up lost 
time and subjects on our return to college. Thus, and in similar 
ways, I earned my tuition and board." 

After graduation from college Mr. Heath was for two years prin- 
cipal of the high school at Southboro, Massachusetts. In 1870-72 
he was a student at the Bangor Theological School, but on account 
of ill health was obliged to leave before graduating. After a year of 
travel in Europe, spent largely in tramping through Switzerland, 
he became superintendent of schools at Farmington, Maine. His 
energetic efforts to introduce there new methods and new text- 
books indirectly brought him into touch with Edwin Ginn, the Boston 
school-book publisher. In 1874 he became the representative of 
the Ginn Brothers with an office at Rochester, New York. In 1875 
he opened their branch office in New York and in 1876 he became 
a member of the firm. For the next nine years the business was 
conducted under the name of Ginn & Heath. ]\Ir. Heath then dis- 
posed of his interest in that firm, and on August 1, 1885, established 
in Boston the publishing house of D. C. Heath & Company. In 
extent of business D. C. Heath & Company ranks among the lead- 
ing school-book publishing houses of America, with offices at Boston, 
New York, Chicago, San Francisco; Austin, Texas; Atlanta, Georgia; 
and London, England. 

Mr. Heath was married January 6, 1881, to Mrs, Nelly Lloyd 
Knox, of Colorado Springs. They made their home at "The Heath- 
cote" on Highland Avenue, Newtonville, jMassachusetts. Three 
sons are living (1908): Arnold C, Daniel Collamore and Warren 
Heath. In Newton Mr. Heath's local interests were innumerable. 
He was a member of the Central Congregational Church, Newton- 
ville; and of the Newton Club, the Tuesday Club, the Every Satur- 
day Club and the Brae Burn Golf Club; and president of the Newton 
Education Association. He always made time for out-door recrea- 


tion — chiefly horseback riding, driving, and golf. He especially 
enjoyed ocean travel and visited often the Old World, the West 
Indies, and Hawaii, as well as distant parts of the United States. 

Mr. Heath's varied interests, his boundless energy, and breadth 
of outlook are evidenced by the many organizations with which he 
was actively allied. He served as president of the Amherst Alumni 
Association, and of the Pine Tree State Club of Boston, and the 
Katahdin Club of Newton. He was one of the founders of the 
Twentieth Century Club; a trustee of the People's Palace; a mem- 
ber of the Boston Athenaeum, of the Boston City Club; the Univer- 
sity Club; the Congregational Club; the Massachusetts Schoolmasters' 
Club, and the Aldine Club of New York City. He identified him- 
self also with the Municipal Reform League; the Massachusetts 
Civic League; two Forestry Associations; the American Free Trade 
League; the National Society for Promoting Industrial Education; 
the National Educational Association, and the Religious Educa- 
tional Association. 

Of his qualities as a man the Boston Transcript, January 29, 
1908, said: 

"His name has stood preeminently for the best scholarship, the 
best taste, the most progressive spirit and the highest honor in the 
educational publishing field. It has stood equally for good citizen- 
ship, public spirit and the most faithful social service . . . His indus- 
try and organizing power were notable, and his natural qualities 
of leadership were recognized and utilized in every circle where he 
touched. ... A frequent visitor to Europe, few American publishers 
were more highly esteemed or more warmly welcomed in London 
and Leipsic. Abroad, as at home, he carried with him ever and 
everywhere that rare geniality, sympathy and quick human interest 
that made him so beloved and so central a magnet in his home, 
business and social life. An ardent reader of books, an earnest stu- 
dent, and a genuine reformer, the educational movements and the 
politics of England and Germany commanded his interest almost as 
warmly as American affairs." 


IT is not every professional man who, in addition to the active 
practice of his profession, undertakes the conduct of exten- 
sive commercial interests and makes a distinct success in both 
directions. Especially is this true when the profession to be con- 
sidered is that of the law. From time immemorial the lawyer has 
been considered the type of conservatism, all his movements being 
supposedly safe-guarded by precedents, and all his decisions given 
with the maximum of deliberation. The business man, however, is 
constantly being called upon to strike out in new lines for which 
there can be no precedent, and to decide matters on the instant 
and where long deliberation would be fatal to his success. Op- 
portunity must be grasped boldly on her first appearance for she 
does not often let her advent depend upon the leisurely operation 
of precedent. Mr. Hellier furnishes an instructive example of one 
who has been eminently successful in the most lesiurely-moving of 
professions as well as in the unprofessional speed and rush of com- 
mercial life. Amemberof the Massachusetts Bar for sixteen years, and 
an active official of a widely-known Kentucky coal mining corporation 
for nearly as long a period, he has proved himself abundantly capable 
of carrying on with no apparent friction the direction of two seem- 
ingly most incompatible occupations. He was born in Bangor, 
Maine, July 8, 1864, a son of Walter Schermerhorn Hellier and his 
wife, Eunice Blanchard (Bixby) Hellier, of Norridgewood, Maine. 
The elder Hellier was a merchant and manufacturer of Bangor, a 
man distinguished alike for firm integrity of character, devotion to 
his family and application to business. He was born October 27, 
1835 and died in his seventieth year on May 29, 1895 The paternal 
grandfather of Charles E. Hellier was a native of Devonshire, Eng- 
land, where he was born March 6, 1802, but leaving there in 1824, he 
settled in Bangor, married Elizabeth Daggett and died on September 
3, 1866. 

Mr. Hellier's mother was a daughter of Rufus Bixby (born Novem- 


ber 5, 1798, died March 20, 1882), and his wife, Betsy Weston Bixby. 
John Daggett, the first of his name in New England, was one of the 
little band of Puritans who in 1630 accompanied Governor John 
Winthrop to this country in the good ship Arabella, and his birth- 
place had been somewhere in the west of England. He settled in 
Watertown as one of a company led by Sir Richard Saltonstall, but 
presently removed to Martha's Vineyard, where he became the 
progenitor of the various Daggett or Doggett families of New Eng- 
land. The earliest of the Bixby's to appear in Massachusetts Bay 
Colony was Joseph Bixby who emigrated from Suffolk in 1637, and 
after first settling in Ipswich removed to the neighboring town of 
Boxford. John Weston, from whom Mr. Hellier's maternal grand- 
mother, Betsy Weston, was descended, was a native of Buckingham- 
shire, England, who crossed the Atlantic in 1644 and made his home 
in Reading, Massachusetts. The Daggetts, Westons and Bixbys 
were all well known Puritan families in the seventeenth century, and 
their descendants were persons much respected in the communities 
in which they lived. Joseph Weston, a great-grandfather of Mr. 
Hellier, served as a volunteer in Arnold's expedition against Quebec 
in the war of the American Revolution, and died from the effect of 
the hardships endured by him on that occasion. 

As a boy Charles E. Hellier was almost equally fond of reading 
and out-door sports, and a fortunate youthful inclination toward 
the perusal of the English classics proved very helpful in preparing 
him for certain phases of his life-work. He graduated in 1882 from 
the Bangor High School at the age of eighteen, and four years later 
from Yale University, with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. He 
matriculated at the University of Berlin in the winter semester 
of 1886-87, and after taking a course in the study of law at the 
Boston University, received the degree of LL.B. in 1887. His 
admission to the Massachusetts bar followed in December of that 
year and not long after he was so fortunate as to become associated 
with one of the most eminent of Massachusetts attorneys, Robert M. 
Morse, Esquire, and his naturally keen, analytical perceptions were 
intensified by this legal connection. No home or other influence 
was brought to bear upon his choice of a career. In adopting the 
legal profession he followed the current of his personal preferences, 
and his decision has been amply justified by results. 

Mr. Hellier had scarcely entered upon a legal career when he 


became interested in the development of a corporation then known 
as the Elkhorn Coal and Coke Company, of Kentucky, but since 1902 
as the Big Sandy Company. Mr. Hellier was chiefly responsible 
for the construction of a hundred-mile extension of the Chesapeake 
and Ohio Railroad, from Whitehouse, Kentucky, the line passing 
through a hitherto isolated district rich both in timber and mineral 

Other important business concerns with which Mr. Hellier has 
been identified are the MetropolitanCoal Company, which he organized 
in 1898; the Massachusetts Breweries Company, formed by him in 
1902; the Dedham and H3^de Park Gas and Electric Light Company. 

On his twenty-second birthday, July 8, 1886, with an interval of 
scarcely a fortnight succeeding his graduation from Yale, Mr. Hellier 
was married to Mary Lavinia Harmon, a daughter of George and 
Mary (Baldwin) Harmon, and a descendant of the famous founder 
of Rhode Island, Roger Williams. They are the parents of four 
children, Mary Louise, Walter Harmon, Edward Whittier and John, 
all of whom are now living. 

The various clubs and societies to which Mr. Hellier belongs are 
the University Club of New York; the University Club of Boston; 
the Graduates Club of New Haven; the Massachusetts Natural His- 
tory Society; and the Beverly Yacht Club. 

Mr. Hellier has always adhered to the Republican party, but since 
his interests in politics began he has never held any political office 
or sought to do so. His religious affiliations are with the Congre- 
gationalists. So far as influences bearing upon his own success 
are concerned he places that of home as the first, and, succeeding 
this, of intelligent contact with older men in active life, of private 
study, of education and of early associates. 

To young men contemplating a business career he suggests as 
powerful factors in securing success, "steadfast application to the 
especial task in hand, but with mind quick to detect opportunities 
for personal advancement as well as courage to profit by them; while 
to such as are looking forward to a professional life he urges the follow- 
ing requisites: the choice of a high ideal, a liberal preliminary edu- 
cation, ability to rise above the mere craving for money getting, 
integrity and temperate habits, and continual hard work." 


WILLIAM HENRY HILL, one of the leading financiers of 
Boston, was born in that city, July 14, 1838. 

Mr. Hill traces his ancestry on the paternal side to 
Peter Hill, planter, who came from Plymouth, England, in 1632, 
and settled at Richmond Island, near Cape Elizabeth, Maine. In 
1644 he leased land at Winter Harbor (now known as Biddeford, 
Pool), and in 1648 was a member of the Court of Lygonia. From 
Peter Hill (1) was descended Roger (2) who came from England 
with his father and lived in Saco, Maine. The eldest son of Roger 
was Captain John Hill (3) born in 1666. He commanded the fort 
at Saco, Maine, during King Philip's War. His second son, Elisha 
Hill (4) was educated as a physician, and had a large practice not 
only in Saco, but in all the surrounding country. James Hill (5) 
son of Dr. Elisha, is named in the records of Portsmouth, New Hamp- 
shire as "one of the twelve citizens elected to receive General George 
Washington when he visited Portsmouth." At two different times 
he took part in the American Revolution. 

On December 13, 1774, Paul Revere was sent by the Committee 
of Safety from Boston to Portsmouth to report that the export from 
England to America of powder and military stores had been for- 
bidden, and on the night of December 14, Capt. James Hill was one 
of the party who went with Col. John Langdon, Major John Sullivan 
and Captain Pickering, to Fort William and Mary, now Fort Con- 
stitution, and captured one hundred barrels of powder and carried 
it to Durham, New Hampshire. Seventeen barrels were carted to 
Boston in ox teams, arriving just in season to be distributed to the 
soldiers the day before the battle of Bunker Hill. 

The Revolutionary records of the adjutant-general's office at 
New Hampshire make the following mention: "The Fourth Con- 
gress voted on the first day of September, 1775, to raise four regi- 
ments of Minute Men by the enlistment of men from the several 
regiments of militia. The men were to be enlisted for four months, 

"■y 61/ E G W!//ia'ts a Bra J^'V 


and then others were to take their places. The troops were stationed 
in Portsmouth, New Castle, Kittery and vicinity, to defend the har- 
bor from any attack that might be made upon it by the enemy from 
seaward. Captain James Hill commanded one of the companies on 
Pierce's Island, November 5, 1775." In a pay-roll of a company of 
volunteers commanded by Col. John Langdon, from September 29, 
1777 to October 31, following, and which joined the Continental 
Army under General Gates at Saratoga, James Hill appears as an 

James Hill (6) (the second of that name) was born in Portsmouth 
and married Abigail Hill, a descendant of the Connecticut branch 
of that family. His son, William H. Hill (7), was a man of marked 
character. From a rare and quaint old volume, published more than 
a half a century ago, entitled: "Names and Sketches of the Richest 
Men in Massachusetts," the following mention appears of Mr. Hill: 
"A native of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. When about nineteen 
years of age, he set up in business for himself and labored with such 
indefatigable application that he soon acquired sufficient capital 
to greatly extend his business, making large importations from Eng- 
land, and dealing extensively in Russia leather. From this beginning 
he built a fortune. The most prominent characteristics of Mr, Hill 
as a business man, are clear perception, energy and untiring per- 
severance, based upon an inflexible integrity. In his social inter- 
course he is high minded and honorable." He married Abbie F. 
Remich, and the future financier was their only son. 

It will be seen by the perusal of the Hill ancestry that it is filled 
with men and women of strong personality, possessed of marked 
integrity and uprightness. These characteristics find full exemplifi- 
cation in the subject of this sketch. 

William H. Hill (eighth generation in America) attended the 
public and private schools of Roxbury and Boston, and graduated 
from the Roxbury High School. Some years before he attained 
his majority he entered business life, taking a position as clerk in 
the publishing house of Sanborn, Carter & Bazin, and continued 
with their successors. Brown, Taggard & Chase. At the age of 
twenty-one Mr. Hill became a partner in the firm of Chase, Nicol & 
Hill, who w^ere engaged in the publishing business. Two years later 
he retired from this firm and continued in the business of book sell- 
ing and publishing on his own account until the spring of 1869. On 


the first of November, in the year named, the present banking-house 
of Richardson, Hill & Company was established, and for nearly a 
half a century it has occupied a place in the foremost rank of Boston's 
private banking institutions. All the present partners were con- 
nected with the firm at its beginning either as members or as clerks. 

Besides attending to the duties of his extensive and constantly 
widening business, Mr. Hill is also a trustee of several large estates, 
and is interested as president or director in numerous corporations. 
He was connected with the Boston & Bangor Steamship Company 
for twenty-five years, first as treasurer, then as general manager and 
president until the foundation of the Eastern Steamship Company 
which is an aggregation of the steamship lines plying between Boston 
and Maine, and is now a director in that company and also in the 
Metropolitan Steamship Company. 

He is a director in the First National Bank, the Boston Insurance 
Company, president of the Renfrew IManufacturing Company of 
Adams, Massachusetts, and a director in many other corporations. 

He is a member of the Archaeological Institute of America; the 
Bostonian Society; the Bunker Hill Monument Association; the Bos- 
ton Stock Exchange; Chamber of Commerce; the Real Estate 
Exchange and other Societies and Associations. 

He does not allow his active business career to interfere with the 
amenities of social and family life. He is a member of numerous 
clubs, including the Algonquin, Art, Athletic, Country and others 
of similar character. In all his business ventures, Mr. Hill's success 
is due to his ability and hard work. He is an excellent specimen of 
a successful Boston financier, and fully deserves a place among the 
representative men of his State. 

He was married on January 8, 1863, to Sarah E., daughter of 
William B. and Susan J. (Warren) May. Eleven children were born 
to them, of whom seven are living. Mrs. Hill died in 1894. His 
second marriage was on April 26, 1906, to Caroline Wright Rogers, 
of Wellesley, a graduate of Wellesley College. 



JOHN HOPEWELL was born in Greenfield, Franklin County, 
Massachusetts, February 2, 1845. His father, also John Hope- 
well, was a native of London, England, and came to the United 
States when he was but fourteen years of age. He decided to learn 
the cutler's trade, and after serving as apprentice for the full term 
of seven years, he became a manufacturer of cutlery. He was, to 
quote the language of his son, "a good mechanic, a great lover of 
books and a well-read man." In 1843 he married Catherine Mahoney, 
of Greenfield, a woman who combined great strength of will and 
moral purpose with a vigorous and engaging personality. 

Six sons were born of this marriage, of whom John Hopewell was 
the oldest. After his twelfth year he worked in the cutlery shop 
six months of the year, and attended school the other six months. 
When he was fourteen he left school and devoted his whole time to 
work. For three years he w^orked for Lamson & Goodnow, table 
cutlery manufacturers, in Shelburne Falls, Massachusetts, and then 
went to Springfield, Massachusetts, where he secured a position in 
the machine-shops of the United States Arsenal. 

It was while he was in Shelburne Falls that Mr, Hopewell, then 
a lad of fifteen, chanced to read the ''Life of Gen. Nathaniel P. 
Banks," who was Representative from Massachusetts in the United 
States Congress and Speaker of the House. The success of the 
"Bobbin Boy," achieved under similar circumstances, and with no 
greater advantages than those which he enjoyed, presented to young 
Hopewell's mind the ideal of an honored and respected citizen, and 
convinced him there were other and higher objects in life than a man's 
daily wage. He determined to fit himself for a larger career, and 
devoted himself assiduously to the reading of books upon history, 
travel, political economy, and especially the biographies of great 

When he went to Springfield he continued to make good use of 
his leisure hours. He attended night school, and also joined a 


debating society. He was a ready speaker, a trait which he inherited 
from both parents. By the time he was twenty-tw^o years of age, 
he had become convinced that he could find something to do more 
in accord with his tastes than working at the bench. He announced 
his decision to his parents, and one day walked out of the shops at 
noon, and went forth, like Abraham of old, not knowing whither 
he was going. He spent a portion of the following year at a busi- 
ness college in Springfield, where he came in contact with a different 
class of men, all intent upon a business career. From the business 
college he went to Albany, where he obtained a position as selling 
agent for a publishing house. Misfortune, however, overwhelmed 
his employers, and so he returned to Springfield and secured a position 
with Josiah Cummings, a manufacturer of saddlery and a jobber of 
blankets and robes, manufactured by L. C. Chase & Company, of 
Boston, with which firm Mr. Hopewell later connected himself. In 
a few years he was admitted to partnership, and in 1885 bought 
out the interest of L. C. Chase & Company, and became the head of 
the house, admitting to partnership his brother, Frank Hopewell, and 
Mr. O. F. Kendall, and at the same time became treasurer of San- 
ford Mills, the large manufacturing enterprise resulting from the 
business alliance of L. C. Chase & Company, and Thomas Goodall, of 
Sanford, manufacturers of mohair plush robes and blankets. 

Mr. Hopewell has been identified with many interests outside 
of his business, and has held many positions of responsibility and 
trust, being president of the Reading Rubber Manufacturing Com- 
pany, president of the Electric Goods Manufacturing Company, a 
large electrical manufacturing corporation of Boston and Canton, 
Massachusetts, director in the National Bank of Redemption, and 
First National Bank, and he has served as director and officer in 
many other industrial corporations. He has always been interested 
in political questions, especially hi subjects connected with the 
manufacturing interests of New England. He was one of the or- 
ganizers of the Home Market Club, of Boston, and has been a 
member of the executive committee or a director ever since its organi- 
zation, also a director of the Boston Merchants' Association. He 
represented his district in the General Court of Massachusetts in 
1892; declined to be a candidate for the Republican nomination as 
Representative to the Fifty-third Congress; was a delegate to the 
Republican National Convention, which met in St. Louis in 1896, 


and has traveled extensively in this country and Europe. His club 
membership has included, besides the Home Market Club, the Cam- 
bridge Club and the Cambridge Republican Club, of both of which 
he was president; the Algonquin Club, of Boston; the Boston Art 
Club; the Boston Athletic Association and the Colonial Club. He 
was also president of the Cambridge Citizens' Trade Association. 
His church affiliation is with the Universalist denomination. 

Mr. Hopewell has a beautiful home in Cambridge, where he 
delights to entertain his many friends. He was married in October, 
1870, to Sarah W. Blake, daughter of Charles Blake, of Springfield, 
and the five children born of the marriage were all living in 1907. 
Mr. Hopewell cultivates a farm at Natick, Massachusetts, where he 
gratifies his taste for agriculture and stock-raising, breeds high- 
grade Guernsey cattle and indulges in his favorite exercise of horse- 
back riding. 

Mr. Hopewell's message to young men is indicative of his own 
experience. He says: " If a young man selects a profession or occu- 
pation which he likes, enters into it with his whole heart, and is 
willing to make some sacrifice of his own personal pleasure, and 
acquire a love of work, as well as a habit of making friends instead 
of enemies, he will never fail to succeed, for work will be a pleasure 
and lead to success; whatever he does, he will do well, and true 
success is the consciousness of work well done." 

The life of Mr. Hopewell is typical of that of thousands of young 
men who, without influence or friends to push them forward, have 
made a place for themselves and won recognition in the business 
world, — not through any special talent or genius, but by pains- 
taking, persistent hard work, never counting the hours, whether 
working for themselves or their employers. 


ANDREW HOWARTH, one of the pioneers among the woolen 
manufacturers of the United States, was born at Rochdale 
England, September 14, 1820. When he was six years of 
age his parents came to America, choosing Andover, Massachusetts, 
as their home. Andrew was educated in the common schools of 
Andover and at Phillips Academy, but that part of his education 
which contributed most largely to his success as a manufacturer 
was obtained in his father's mill, where he worked in all the various 
departments for some years. His father had begun at Andover the 
manufacture of fine dressed flannels, and the training in attention to 
details and the knowledge of the different aspects of the business, 
had much to do in his success in rising from a humble position at the 
beginning of his career to large ownership and great responsibility 
later in life. 

In 1844, at the age of twenty-four, he began his first work inde- 
pendently of his family by taking charge of weaving in a mill at 
Keesville, New York. During the next few years, in his determina- 
tion to perfect himself in the industry which he had chosen as his 
life-work, he held positions in various establishments. In each of 
these positions he showed himself energetic, alert to utilize every 
opportunity to increase his skill and knowledge of his business, and 
faithful to every duty assigned to him. It was in these early years 
that he acquired those habits of industry, persistency and inde- 
pendence which won for him not only success in his business but the 
confidence and respect of the business world. In 1847 he was asked 
to go to Richmond, Virginia, as an overseer for the Virginia Woolen 
Manufacturing Company, Shortly after this he was made superin- 
tendent there, remaining until 1854, when he returned to Oxford, 
Massachusetts, a town which his product was later to make famous. 
A promising situation at Little Falls, New York, was soon offered 
him, and by 1859 he had risen to the responsible position of agent in 
the establishment of the Saxony Woolen Company. He managed 


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the affairs of the company for thirteen years with si<!;nal al)iHty. 
At his retirement from the Little Falls position in 1879, ]\Ir. Howarth 
found himself, as the result of prudence and economy, able to buy 
for himself a mill of two sets at Northfield, Vermont. From this time 
on an ever increasing success rewarded his labors. In ten years from 
his purchase of the Northfield Mill he is again at Oxford, Massachu- 
setts, not as the overseer of weaving, but as the purchaser of the mill, 
formerly owned by George Hodges, in which he had in earlier years 
been an employee. For two years Mr. Howarth operated both mills, 
the one in Vermont and the one in Massachusetts; but in 1884 he 
sold the Northfield concern and removed to Oxford, where he con- 
tinued to live on a beautiful estate among the trees, which is one of 
the landmarks of the town. 

From this time he ranked as one of the big manufacturers of 
Worcester County as well as of the State. In 1890 he purchased 
the plant at Rochdale, Massachusetts, the village which singularly 
enough bore the name of his own birthplace across the water. This 
plant he continued to operate until his death in 1905. 

During the last eight years of his life he w^as a sufferer from rheu- 
matism, but he never wholly disassociated himself from business. 
Even in the last few years of his life his mind w^as alert and his will 
as vigorous as ever, and he kept a close eye upon affairs. 

Mr. How^arth was a man of irreproachable character in all the 
relations of life. He was high minded, generous and public spirited. 
He took liberal views of public affairs, and was in his relations to the 
community and the State the embodiment of the highest ideals of 
civic duty. Mr. Howarth enjoyed the respect and confidence of all 
who knew him. Few men enjoyed in a larger measure the love and 
respect of his children. 

Mr. Howarth was married September 26, 1846, to Martha Moor- 
croft and had one son, Francis A., born in 1849, at Richmond, Vir- 
ginia. After his graduation from Brown University, Francis A. 
Howarth associated himself with his father. One grandson, Andrew 
P. Howarth, and two great great-grandsons, Andrew John Howarth 
and Francis George Howarth, added much to the joy of Mr. Howarth's 
last years. 

His domestic life was as pure, as even and as useful as his public 
life. His home w^as attractive, and in the company of his family he 
was entirely happy. 


JOSEPH JEFFERSON, son, grandson and great-grandson of 
actors, dean of the American stage, his service extending over 
seventy-five years, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
February 20, 1829. The father, Joseph Jefferson (1804-1842), was 
a great actor, especially in the roles of old men. He was as well a 
manager, scene painter, stage carpenter, in fact proficient in every- 
thing connected with the stage. As a boy he preferred the busi- 
ness of architect and draftsman and received instruction in these 
branches as well as in painting. He made his first appearance, in 
1814, at the Chestnut Street Theater in Philadelphia. His son, in 
1905, said of him, "His marked characteristics were simplicity and 
honesty." He was married in 1826 to Cornelia Frances (Thomas) 
Burke, an actress, daughter of M. Thomas, a French refugee from 
the island of Santo Domingo, and widow of Thomas Burke, the actor. 
She was a popular comic actress and vocalist, and their two children, 
Joseph Jefferson and Cornelia Jefferson (1835-1899), adopted the 
profession of the stage. Joseph Jefferson's grandfather, Joseph 
Jefferson (1774-1832), was born in Plymouth, England; son of Thomas 
Jefferson, a successful actor, connected with Drury Lane Theater, 
London, England, where he played with David Garrick. He was 
proprietor and manager of the theater at Plymouth, England, where 
his son Joseph made his first appearance on the stage. He came to 
America under contract with Charles Stewart Powell, who had gone 
to England to procure actors for the Federal Street Theater in Bos- 
ton. Through bankruptcy proceedings the Federal Street Theater 
was closed before the arrival of Mr. Jefferson in Boston, and he made 
his first appearance in America at the John Street Theater in New 
York City, February 10, 1765, as Squire Richard in "The Provoked 
Husband." He married Euphena Fortune, daughter of a Scotch 
merchant of New York City, and she adopted the profession of her 
husband and made her first appearance on any stage at the Park 
Theater, New York City, December 22, 1800, and from there she 

^^^^'^/^^^^^^^^'^^ y, 


appeared with her husband in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Washing- 
ton, District of Columbia, and Richmond, Virginia. He was pro- 
nounced by competent critics, themselves professionals, "the funniest 
comedian of the age in which he lived." 

Joseph Jefferson, the third noted actor of the name and the fourth 
generation of actors in the Jefferson family in America, had delicate 
health as a child and showed an early inclination to paint and to 
act. He had no home life, his waking hours being spent mostly be- 
hind the scenes of a theater. He had, however, the tender care of 
a devoted mother who had a potent influence over his intellectual, 
moral and spiritual life. He never attended school, but was in- 
structed by his mother and other interested professional friends, who 
willingly answered his questions in his process of self instruction. 
His active life began as a property baby; when three years old he 
was "Hercules Strangling a Lion" in a living statue scene. At four 
years "Jim Crow" (Thomas B. Rice) emptied him out of a bag, 
dressed as a negro dancer, and he imitated Rice in his various antics. 
When eight years old he was a "pirate" to another lad "sailor " in a 
sword combat. In 1838 the Jefferson family took charge of a thea- 
ter in Chicago, Illinois, and this proving unprofitable, they became 
strolling players, Joseph and his father painting signs and decorating 
the ceilings of theaters and private residences to help out the support 
of the family when they had no audiences. They followed the United 
States Army into Texas and Mexico, 1846-47, and in 1848 returned 
to Philadelphia, where he played low comedy parts. He was married 
May 19, 1850, to Margaret Clements Lockyer, an actress under 
engagement at the Chatham Theater, New York City. He played 
Marrall to the elder Booth's Sir Giles Overreach in "A New Way to 
Pay Old Debts," in 1851, having in 1849-50 been a stock actor at 
Chanfrau's New National Theater, New York City. He was actor 
and stage manager in different cities in the South and secured for 
his theater such talent as Agnes Roertson, Dion Boucicault, Edwin 
Forrest, Edwin Adams and other notable actors of the time and 
also produced novel stage effects and show-pieces. He was in Europe, 
1856, playing in London and Paris, and opened at Laura Keene's 
Theater, New York City in September, 1857, as leading comedian, 
making his first appearance as Dr. Pangloss in "The Heir at Law," 
when he was severely criticised for interpolation which he excused 
on the ground of its being "good art." From October 18, 1858, he 


played one hundred and forty consecutive nights as Asa Trenchard 
in "Our American Cousin." This play he owned and in this part 
made his first bow to the public as a star, when twenty-nine years 
old. He acted the part of Caleb Plummer in "Cricket on the 
Hearth" under the engagement with Dion Boucicault in 1859, and the 
same year was one of the principals in "The Octoroon." In 1860 he 
appeared in California in " Our American Cousin," and in the East in 
his own version of "Oliver Twist," taking the title role. His wife 
died in March, 1861, and he left his native land for Australia, where 
he starred, 1861-65, as Asa Trenchard and Caleb Plummer; as Rip in 
an old version of Rip Van Winkle and as Bob Brierly in "The Ticket 
of Leave Man" where his audience included over one hundred 
actual ticket of leave men. On reaching England in 1865 he revised 
"Rip Van Winkle" in collaboration with Dion Boucicault, Jefferson 
working over much of the piece and entirely rewriting the third act 
in accordance with his own conception of the legend as narrated by 
Irving. Boucicault was responsible for the ending of the first act 
and of the recognition of Rip by his daughter in the third act, bor- 
rowed from Shakespeare's "King Lear." The revised play was 
presented to a London audience at the Adelphi Theater, September 
4, 1865, and it was an immediate success, running one hundred and 
seventy nights. 

On August 31, 1866, be brought the play back to its home at the 
Olympic Theater, New York City, where it was most heartily wel- 
comed. After enjoying a long run East it was taken to Chicago 
August 31, 1867, where at McVicker's Theater he had a profitable 
four weeks' run when it was withdrawn to make room for "The 
Rivals" with Jefferson as Bob Acres. 

Mr. Jefferson was married secondly on December 20, 1867, to 
Sarah Isabel, daughter of Henry and Sarah (de Shields) Warren, and 
in 1869, with the proceeds from his successful starring tours, he se- 
cured an estate near Tarrytown, on the Hudson River, not far from 
Sunnyside, the home of Washington Irving, who had been dead only 
ten years, and also a farm at Hohokus, New Jersey, and a plantation 
on Bayou Teche, an island west of New Iberia, Louisiana, where his 
fondness for hunting and fishing could be fully satisfied. He was 
in New York from August 15, 1869, to December, 1870, producing 
at Booth's Theater, "Rip Van Winkle," which was witnessed by 
over one hundred and fifty thousand persons from all parts of the 


world. He acted only a part of each season, spending his summer 
vacations at his farm in New Jersey and his winters in Louisiana. 
Later in life he made his summer home at Buzzard's Bay, Massa- 
chusetts, where President Cleveland became a neighbor and com- 
panion in fishing and in social enjoyments. His avocation for many 
years had been painting in oils, and when he retired from the stage 
in 1904 he continued to indulge in his favorite pastime. The products 
of his brush were highly prized by his friends, fortunate enough to be 
favored with a landscape from his easel. In 1900 he placed on exhi- 
bition at Fischer's studio in Washington a considerable number 
of his paintings, and his friends made the occasion one of the social 
events of the Washington season. Of the eleven children born of 
his two marriages seven were living in 1905, as were also fourteen 
of his grandchildren. Mr. Jefferson's characters in the order of their 
popularity probably stood: Rip Van Winkle, Bob Acres, Caleb Plum- 
mer. Dr. Pangloss, Asa Trenchard, Dr. Olapod, Bob Brierly, New- 
man Noggs, Jack Rockford, Goldfinch. He wrote his autobiography 
for the Century Magazine in 1889-90, and it was issued in book form 
in 1891 : He also wrote "Reply to Ignatius Donnelly on the Shakes- 
peare-Bacon Arguments," and contributed articles on the stage 
to magazines. He received the honorary degree of ]\I.A. from Yale 
University in 1892 and from Harvard University in 1895. He was 
affiliated with the Masonic fraternity and belonged to no policital 
party, but voted for " the man and the issue." He was a member of 
the Society of Psychical Research, and his recreations were chiefly 
gardening, fishing and playing with his grandchildren who made their 
home with him at Buzzard's Bay, Massachusetts. To young men he 
says: "Industry and earnestness have helped me." 


ANDREW JACKSON JENNINGS, lawyer, legislator, cotton- 
mill director, was born in Fall River, Bristol County, Massa- 
chusetts, August 2, 1849. His father, Andrew M. Jennings 
(1808-1882), was a son of Isaac and Susan (Cole) Jennings and a 
descendant from John Jennings of Plymouth Colony. Andrew M. 
Jennings was a machinist noted for his industry, firmness and honesty. 
He served as foreman in the machine-shops of Hawes, Marvel & 
Davol for about thirty-five years. His family consisted of eight 
children, four of whom died in infancy, and his eldest son, Thomas 
J. Jennings in 1872, leaving Andrew J., George F., and Anne P. (Mrs. 
J. Densmore Brown), of Milford, Connecticut, with his widow to 
survive him. 

Andrew Jackson Jennings attended the public school, his school 
attendance being liberally interspersed with hard work, his boy- 
hood tasks giving him health, strength and an experience in 
accomplishing things by facing and overcoming obstacles. His 
mother greatly influenced his moral and spiritual life. He was 
prepared for college in the classical school of Mowry & Goff , in Provi- 
dence, Rhode Island, and graduated in 1868, matriculating the same 
year at Brown University where he graduated with special honors in 
1872. While at college he was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon 
Fraternity, and was prominent in the athletic field, being captain 
of the class and of the university nine. While attending college 
he taught night school two winters. He pursued a course in law 
at Boston University after having taught the high school at Warren, 
Rhode Island, from September, 1872, to July, 1874; was a student of 
law in the office of James M. Morton, of Fall River, during the fall 
of 1874 and graduated at Boston University School of Law in 1876. 
His adopting the law as a profession was entirely from personal 

He began the practice of law in Fall River in partnership with 
his preceptor, Hon. James M. Morton, and this partnership con- 


tinued up to 1890, when Mr. Morton went upon the bench, and 
he then formed a partnership with John S- Bray ton, Jr., as Jennings 
& Brayton. His position at the bar was one of marked prominence 
"as an able, painstaking and energetic lawyer and advocate." He 
was a member of the school committee of Fall River, 1875, 1876 and 
1877; a Representative in the Legislature of Massachusetts, 1878 and 
1879; State Senator, 1882, declining reelection. In the House he was 
a prominent member of the judiciary committee and chairman of the 
joint committee on the removal of Judge Day by address of 1882. 
He was active in securing the passage of the civil damage law and 
in introducing the school house liquor law in the Senate. 

He was married December 25, 1879, to Marion, daughter of Cap- 
tain Seth and Nancy J. (Bosworth) Saunders, of Warren, Rhode 
Island, and their children are Oliver Saunders and Marion Jennings. 
Mr. Jennings affiliated with the Baptist denomination, and he has 
been president of the Young Men's Christian Association, Fall River, 
since 1893, clerk of the Second Baptist Society of Fall River since 
1884. He was president of the Brown Alumni in 1891 and 1892, 
and was elected a trustee of Brown University. He is a member of 
the QuequechanClub of Fall River, Massachusetts, and the University 
Club of Providence, Rhode Island. His law practice is extensive 
and he has conducted many notable cases, the largest advertised 
being the Lizzie A. Borden trial for homicide in 1893, he being counsel 
for the defendant from the first. He served the State as district 
attorney for the southern district of Massachusetts from November, 
1894, to fill a vacancy, and from 1895 by reelection to full term of 
three years. Mr. Jennings is a director in several cotton-mill 
corporations. He is also a trustee of the Union Savings Bank of 
Fall River. To young men seeking to attain true success Mr. 
Jennings would give this message: "Keep in good health; work and 
play equally hard; try to diminish your desires; be square, and 
helpful to everybody who needs help." 


PRESTON BOND KEITH, manufacturer and bank president, 
was born in North Bridgewater, Plymouth County, Massa- 
chusetts, October 18, 1847. His father, Charles Perkins 
Keith, son of Charles S. and Mahitable Perkins Keith, and a de- 
scendant from the Rev. James Keith, who came from Aberdeen, 
Scotland, to Plymouth, in 1644, and settled in Bridgewater. His 
mother, Mary Keith Williams, was a daughter of Josiah and Sylvia 
(Keith) Williams of West Bridgewater. 

Preston Bond Keith was brought up in the country and grew up 
a strong and healthy boy fond of play. He was compelled to form 
habits of industry, essential to every successful life, by working in 
his father's shop when not attending the district and high school, 
and he early displayed a greater fondness for manual labor than for 
school instruction. His mother largely influenced his moral and 
spiritual life and grounded him in the evangelical faith. He began 
independent life as a clerk in a Boston boot and shoe store on Pearl 
Street in 1866 and he married December 8, 1869, Eldora Louise, 
daughter of Josiah W, and Margaret (Dunlap) Kingman, of Cam- 
pello, and the one child born of this marriage was living in 1905. 
They made their home in Campello village, Plymouth County, and he 
has been a justice of the peace, city alderman of Brockton, 1883 and 
1884, a boot and shoe manufacturer there from 1871, president of 
the Home National Bank of Brockton from 1894, a director of the 
Brockton Savings Bank, and a member of the Commercial Club 
of Brockton. 

Mr. Keith is a Republican in politics and a member of the South 
Congregational Church. His recreation is in horseback riding and 
playing golf. To young men he commends the principles that made 
Joseph's life in Egypt a success as applicable to-day: "Faith in God 
and a determined purpose to be faithful and earnest in the discharge 
of ever}'- duty will remain the cardinal principles. Willingness to 
apply them is where the rub comes." 




WILLIAM HENRY LINCOLN, son of a Boston shipping 
merchant; student in pubHc and private schools; secretary 
of the Boston Y. M. C. A. four years and vice-president 
one year; president of the New England Shipowners Association for 
several years; member of the school committee twenty-two years, 
and chairman sixteen years; member of the Brookline Park Com- 
mission nine years; bank president twenty-four years; member of the 
Massachusetts Nautical Training School Commission four years and 
chairman two years; president of the Boston Commercial Club three 
years; president of the Boston Chamber of Commerce four years; 
trustee of the Episcopal Theological School from 1894; director of the 
Episcopal City Mission from 1894; member of the corporation of 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1895; trustee of 
Wellesley College from 1898; president of the Economic Club, of 
Boston from 1902, — was born in Boston, Massachusetts, June 13, 
1835. His father, Henry Lincoln, son of Rev. Henry Lincoln and 
Susannah (Crocker) Lincoln, was a shipping merchant, member of 
the Boston City Council, director of the Insane Asylum of Boston, 
a man of integrity and Christian character. His mother, Charlotte 
A. Lewis Lincoln, was the daughter of Leonard French Lewis. His 
first paternal ancestor in America, Samuel Lincoln, came from Hing- 
ham, England, to Hingham, Massachusetts Bay Colony, in 1636. 
Samuel Lincoln was also the ancestor of President Abraham Lincoln, 
Governor Levi Lincoln, of Massachusetts and Governor Enoch Lincoln, 
of Maine. William Henry Lincoln is also descended from the Rev. 
John Robinson, of Leyden, the pastor and leader of the Puritans. 

He began his active business life as a clerk in his father's office 
when eighteen years of age as a matter of duty, his father needing his 
services and he recognizing the beginning of an opportunity to carry 
out an ambition to be useful to the community in which he lived. 
He remained as clerk and from 1856 a partner, with his father in the 
management of a line of sailing packets between Boston and New 


Orleans, Mobile and Galveston up to 1861, when the Civil War 
interfered with their business and the partnership was dissolved. 
Young Lincoln then formed a partnership with Frank N. Thayer 
and the firm of Thayer & Lincoln continued up to the time of the 
death of Mr. Thayer in 1882. Mr. Thayer was engaged in the ship 
chandlery business on Lewis Wharf and Thayer & Lincoln organ- 
ized a line of sailing ships which they built at Newburyport, Massa- 
chusetts, and Kennebunk, Maine, and acquired as many more by 
purchase. They traded with all the principal parts of the world, and 
the last ship they built, the John Currier, cost $120,000, and was 
the last wooden ship launched in Massachusetts. 

Mr. Lincoln, perceiving that the days for wooden ships were 
numbered, secured in 1872 the winter agency of the Dominion Line 
of steamers for Boston, the ice preventing their reaching Montreal, 
and in 1876 the firm completed arrangements with Frederick Leyland, 
under which a fortnightly line of Leyland steamships was estab- 
lished between Liverpool and Boston. Thayer & Lincoln became 
the American agents and subsequently Mr. Lincoln the resident 
director of the Leyland Line of Steamships. In 1877 the business 
made a weekly sailing necessary. 

This experience made Mr. Lincoln anxious for the supremacy of 
American shipping and he was an earnest advocate of the repeal 
of the navigation laws, so as to enable Americans to purchase vessels 
abroad and put them under the American flag. As president of the 
New England Shipowners Association he called a national conven- 
tion of shipowners in 1883 to consider the subject. As president 
of the convention he spoke with authority in favor of free ships, 
but the majority of the convention opposed the proposition. He 
was secretary of the Young Men's Christian Association, 1857-61, 
also serving as vice-president of the association in 1860, which was 
his first experience in office. In 1873 he was made a member of the 
Brookline school committee, serving in that capacity for twenty-two 
years, and as chairman of the board for sixteen years. In 1877 he was 
made president of the Brookline Savings Bank and held the office 
twenty-seven years. He was elected president of the New England 
Shipowners Association in 1880 and served by reelection for several 
years. As president of the Boston Commercial Club his service ex- 
tended from 1883 to 1886 and as vice-president of the Boston Chamber 
of Commerce, 1885-87 and 1899-1900, and as its president from 1900 

S-^Q ia £' '.: . 



to 1904. In 1904 he was in active association with the Boston Insur- 
ance Company as a director, having been a member of the board 
from 1881. He served the Episcopal Theological School at Cam- 
bridge as a trustee for ten years; the Episcopal City Mission as di- 
rector for ten years; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology as a 
member of its corporation from 1895; Wellesley College as a mem- 
ber of its board of trustees about six years; the Mercantile Trust 
Company as a director from 1900; the Economic Club as president 
for two years and the Bostonian society as a director. 

He was married April 21, 1863, to Cecelia Frances, daughter of 
James W. and Elisa N. Smith, of Boston, and they make their home in 
Brookline, Massachusetts, and have four children. 

He was a member of the Independent Corps of Cadets, of Boston, 
during the period of the Civil War and was for a short period in the 
United States service at Fort Warren, Boston Harbor. His club 
and society membership includes the Commercial and Economic 
Clubs, the Bostonian Society and St. Andrews Lodge of Free and 
Accepted Masons. He was always a liberal Repviblican in politics. 
His church affiliation has been with the Protestant Episcopal 
Church. To young men starting out in life he says: "Remember 
life is short at best. True success does not consist in amassing 
wealth. Cultivate high ideals; read lives of men who have been 
the greatest benefactors to mankind and made the best use of time. 
Be diligent, honest and upright — faithful in little things. Cultivate 
a love for the good, the beautiful, the true. Be public spirited, 
unselfish and stand for what's right and just. Make yourself a 
master of your business or profession." 


THOMAS DIXON LOCKWOOD, though so long a distin- 
guished leader in the peculiarly American art of telephony, 
and an electrical expert and inventor of typical Yankee push 
and versatility, is a native of Smethwick, Staffordshire, a suburb of 
Birmingham, England, where he was born, December 30, 1848. He 
is a son of a plate glass manufacturer, and his early craving for knowl- 
edge appears to have developed in later life into a general aptitude 
in varied fields of labor. The father, John Frederick Lockwood, 
was born November 14, 1819, and died in July, 1879, and was the 
son of James Lockwood (1803-1863) and Mary Ann (Barton) Lock- 
wood; he married ^lary Dixon, the daughter of Thomas Dixon (1784- 
1854) and Esther (Rogers) Dixon. 

The story of the career of Thomas Dixon Lockwood reads like 
a romance. With very little education before beginning his active 
work, he yet early acquired a taste for mineralogy, biography, his- 
tory, engineering and chemistry, and by industry and indomitable 
perseverance gained a wide general acquaintance with these sub- 
jects, long ago becoming a recognized authority in his special elec- 
trical branches of study. For a short time he attended a day school 
attached to Messrs. Chances' glass works at West Smethwick. His 
studies here were ended at the age of ten, and since then he has had 
no further instruction, his varied accomplishments having been 
self-acquired by home study and practical experience. 

His first employment was washing emery at the Birmingham 
Plate Glass Works, which he began in 1859. He entered the machine- 
shops of the factory in 1861, and worked there, learning and practis- 
ing the trade of machinist, until 1865. In that year he immigrated 
with his father's family to Port Hope, Ontario. Here he was em- 
ployed at first in a machine-shop and then in a tannery, but soon 
learned telegraphy, and in 1867 became the first operator at Port 
Hope for the Provincial Telegraph Company. Here and in subse- 
quent telegraphic positions he preferred night work as affording 

ri^ iyS.c. »«?«TO i.Brc .^nr 


better opportunity for the study of electricity, which he continued 
steadily and effectively, so that on the invention of the telephone, 
by Bell, he was thoroughly equipped to take a leading part in the 
introduction and improvement of the new instrument. The tele- 
graph company by which he was originally employed having failed, 
he sought other employment, becoming finisher in the mills of the 
Smith Paper Company, at Lee, Massachusetts. 

In 1869 Mr. Lockwood went to New Albany, Indiana, where he 
aided in establishing works for making polished plate glass. This 
was the first American plant of the kind, and he ordered the first 
machinery to be imported for such work. As the Star Glass Works, 
this factory afterwards contributed to the great fortune from which 
W. C. DePauw endowed DePauw University. On the creation of 
this industry, Mr. Lockwood wrote a four-column article on plate 
glass manufacture for the Scientific American, and thus began the 
literary labors that since then have been so productive. 

Working his way East in 1872, he tried life on the railway in 
Connecticut and New Jersey, serving in varied capacities for the 
Housatonic Railroad and the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western 
Railroad. Within a few months he was successively ticket clerk, 
freight clerk, telegraph operator, chief clerk and paymaster in the 
master-mechanic's department, signal operator, and even brakeman, 
and engineer on trains. 

Going to New York in 1875, he first became inspector of a private 
fire-alarm service, from which he was soon called to important 
positions with the Gold and Stock Telegraph Company and the 
American District Telegraph Company. In this work, which he fol- 
lowed until 1879, he had unusual advantages for improving his 
practical knowledge of telegraphy, and he made the most of the 

In 1879 he joined the company of electricians that was being 
enlisted by the telephone industry. He was at first technical in- 
spector of exchanges for the National Bell Telephone Company, 
which soon afterwards reorganized as the American Bell Tele- 
phone Company; but in 1881 he was placed at the head of a new 
bureau of patent and technical information wdiich the company had 
decided to establish. In this position he has found his great op- 
portunities. For nearly thirty years he has continued his invalu- 
able services for the American Bell Telephone Company, and, at 


the headquarters in Boston, he still acts as patent expert and tele- 
phone engineer. 

Mr. Lockwood is the author of several important books on elec- 
trical subjects, and has written innumerable technical articles and 
papers. His clear, forcible and entertaining style Avould have in- 
sured him success as a technical journalist if he had not found a far 
more lucrative field. The first of his books was "Information for 
Telephonists" (New York, 1881), which contains several articles 
of practical value, and was very favorably received. The "Text- 
Book of Electrical Measurements" (New York, 1883) followed. 
"Electricity, Magnetism and the Electric Telegraph" (New York, 
1885) is a treatise in the form of questions and answers, and was 
admirably planned to give a general survey of the theory and prac- 
tice of electricity and magnetism up to the date of its appearance. 
He edited a translation of "Ohm's Law," which was published in 
1890. Among the more noteworthy of his other writings may be 
mentioned a series of articles on "Practical Telephony," that ap- 
peared in the Western Electrician in 1887. "History of the Word 
'Telephone,'" in the Electrician and the Electrical Engineer, in 1887; 
and "Telephone Repeaters or Relays," in the Electrical World, in 

He has made many inventions in electrical methods and appa- 
ratus. These include the Automatic Telephone Call, patented 3\i\y 
11, 1882; and Means for Preventing Telephone Disturbances due to 
Electric Railroads, patented November 20, 1888. He has given 
some attention to burglar alarms and alarm systems. 

Mr. Lockwood is a public speaker of much ability. He is in 
demand for papers at society meetings and as a lecturer, and a reten- 
tive and quick-acting memory gives him great facility of expression 
in extemporaneous addresses. He was lecturer before the Lowell 
Institute, on the Telegraph and Telephone, in the winter of 1883. 
He was Associate Professor of Telegraphy, Telephony and Patent 
Law at the Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute, in 1904-05; and he has 
been an occasional lecturer at many colleges. 

He belongs to the Masonic fraternity. He is a member of the 
Algonquin and Exchange Clubs, Boston; Engineeer's Club, New 
York; American Institute of Electrical Engineers; Institution of 
Electrical Engineers, London; Imperial Institute, London; and 
honorary member of the National Electric Light Association and 


the Association of Railroad Telegraph Superintendents, and life 
member of the American Geographical Society. He has been mana- 
ger and vice-president of the American Institute of Electrical Engi- 

He is identified with no political party, but has always been an 
independent in public affairs. He is actively interested in the First 
Baptist Church at Melrose, Massachusetts, the suburban city which 
has been his home for many years. His recreation takes diversified 
form, and he finds relaxation and pleasure in whist, traveling, read- 
ing, astronomy and chess. 

In reading he found early inspiration in the optimistic biographies 
of Samuel Smiles, especially in the "Lives of Engineers." He has 
owed much also to "The American Telegraph" of Pope, "The En- 
cyclopedia Britannica," Crecy's "Civil Engineering," "The Pilgrim's 
Progress" and Dick's "Christian Philosopher." His needs, tastes 
and opportunities have led him to give much attention to the collec- 
tion of a reference and technical library. This has grown to much 
importance, and is especiall}^ rich in works relating to telegraphy, 
telephony and electricity. 

It seems to Mr. Lockwood that the youth of the present day are, 
to a large extent, educationally pampered. The road to mature life 
is often made too easy to develop strength and hardiness of character, 
but such suggestions as the following, which he has offered for young 
people, are of a kind to be helpful, under any condition, to those 
seeking true success: "Don't be always looking for a 'good time.' 
During the educational period, be it long or short, make the most 
of it. Be earnest in whatever is undertaken, and do whatever you 
have to do with your might. Be considerate of others. Cultivate 
self-knowledge, self-reliance and self-control. Be receptive, or open- 
minded. It is better to change one's mind than to continue to hold 
to a wrong view. Don't value riches, except for what can be done 
with them. Be economical, but don't put money in the first place." 

Mr. Lockwood was married October 29, 1875, to Mary Helm, 
daughter of George Helm, late of Port Hope, Ontario; of two chil- 
dren born, the survivor is Arthur Lockwood, who is with the West- 
ern Electric Company of New York and Chicago. 


HENRY CABOT LODGE, the senior Senator of Massachu- 
setts, is a native of Boston, and of ancestry identified 
with all that is most characteristic of the Commonwealth. 
He was born on May 12, 1850, the son of John Ellerton and 
Anna (Cabot) Lodge. He was named after his maternal grand- 
father, Henry Cabot, a descendant of John Cabot, who came to 
America from the Island of Jersey about 1680. Mr. Lodge's father 
was a merchant of Boston, a son of Giles Lodge, who came from 
England to New England in 1792. 

A youth of this race and environment in Boston turns easily and 
instinctively to scholarship or the public service. Master Dixwell's 
famous private Latin School gave Mr. Lodge his training for Harvard 
College, whence he graduated with the degree of A.B. in 1871. In- 
tJining first to the law, he took his professional course at the Harvard 
Law School, securing the degree of LL.B. in 1875. He was duly 
admitted to practice at the Suffolk Bar in 1876, but the study of 
history had peculiarly appealed to him. Following post-graduate stud- 
ies in history at Harvard, he was given the degree of Ph.D. in 1876 
for a thesis on "The Land Law of the Anglo-Saxons," and for three 
years thereafter remained at Harvard as an instructor in history. His 
historical research bore notable fruit in a Lowell Institute course 
of lectures in Boston in 1880 on "The English Colonies in America." 

Meanwhile Mr. Lodge had broadened his activities through ser- 
vice as editor of the "North American Review" and the " International 
Review," and in 1880 he definitely entered public life as a Repre- 
sentative in the Massachusetts Legislature. Mr. Lodge addressed 
himself to his work with a seriousness of purpose which commanded 
recognition from the older political leaders of the State. In the 
memorable national campaign of 1884, which was very close and 
exciting in Massachusetts as in the country at large, Mr. Lodge bore 
a conspicuous part, and two years later he was elected to the National 
House of Representatives, and took his seat in the Fiftieth Congress. 

In Washington Mr. Lodge, with his scholarly attainments, his 

ACC-^-^ Cc^-t^-/l-T>l 




thorough knowledge of pohtical history and his growing reputation 
as an orator, came rapidly forward into a position of leader- 
ship. Those were difficult years for the Republican party. It had 
managed to win the national election of 1888, but it suffered a ter- 
rible reverse in the congressional elections of two years afterward. 
Mr. Lodge had developed a remarkable power as an incisive and 
aggressive debater, and he became one of the most trusted and 
effective lieutenants of the great Speaker, Thomas B. Reed. 

At home in Massachusetts Mr. Lodge had acquired a more and 
more commanding influence. His career in the National House 
gained for him a national reputation, and on January 17, 1893, the 
Massachusetts Legislature elected him to the United States Senate 
to succeed Henry L. Dawes, who had grown old in the public service. 

Mr. Lodge entered the Senate a young man, in his forty-third 
year. He was fortunate in a great and unusual opportunity, and 
he rose instantly to the level of it. He proved himself anew in the 
Senate, as he already had in the House, to be a keen and vigorous 
debater, quick to detect the weak points in an adversary and mas- 
terly in his power of analysis and reasoning. Moreover, in the seri- 
ous and elaborate oratory on great themes and great occasions, 
wherein the Senate still instructs and delights the country, Mr. 
Lodge achieved distinction as one of the most eloquent and com- 
pelling of American public men. 

Mr. Lodge has studied and traveled widely in Europe, and as a 
member of the committee on foreign relations has dealt authori- 
tatively with public questions affecting the international affairs of 
the United States. He has believed from the beginning of his public 
career that a steadfast and virile foreign policy was the only policy 
consistent with the safety as well as the honor of the American 
people and their government. He has earnestly and successfully 
advocated the development of a strong navy in which Massachusetts 
has an historic interest, and he has been one of the public men who 
have insisted that the nation must meet with patience, firmness and 
courage the unexpected and far-reaching responsibilities that have 
sprung from the Spanish War. 

Through the administration of President Roosevelt, Senator 
Lodge has occupied a place of especial responsibility in Washing- 
ton, because of his long and intimate personal friendship with the 
president and because of the close agreement of their views upon 


many of the largest and most urgent public questions. But before 
Mr. Roosevelt came to the presidencj^, Mr. Lodge had achieved 
unquestioned recognition as one of the leaders of the Senate, and 
indeed one of the leaders of the Republican party in the nation. 
In the organization of the Senate, Mr. Lodge has long held the im- 
portant post of chairman of the committee on the Philippines, and 
has had the working out of some of the most difficult problems 
relating to the East Indian archipelago, which the American people 
are endeavoring to prepare for eventual self-government. Mr. 
Lodge is a member also of the committees on foreign relations, 
immigration, military affairs and rules. He has given much of 
his best thought and effort to the problem of immigration and how 
to regulate and restrict it, and he succeeded in procuring the passage 
of the important bill providing for an educational test, which failed 
to overi'ide the veto of President Cleveland. Mr. Lodge is a member 
of the present Immigration Commission, and he served also as a 
member of the Merchant Marine Commission of 3904-1905, and of the 
Commission on Alaskan Boundary, appointed by President Roosevelt. 

To the political affairs of his own State of Massachusetts, Senator 
Lodge has given close attention throughout his service in Washing- 
ton. He has always had great influence in shaping the policies of 
his party at home, and his counsel has carried weight in the nomina- 
tions for the largest public offices. Together with the junior senator 
of Massachusetts, Hon. Winthrop Murray Crane — and the two 
senators admirably complement each other — Mr. Lodge has held 
a leading part in successive Massachusetts political campaigns, 
which in recent years have almost invariably brought triumph to 
the Republican party. He has seen the opposition in Massachu- 
setts try candidate after candidate and issue after issue in vain, 
until the Republican strength in the old Commonwealth has come 
to be regarded as well-nigh impregnable. 

Senator Lodge has also wielded a powerful influence in the broader 
field of national party management. He was permanent chairman 
of the Republican National Convention which nominated Taft and 
Sherman at Chicago in June, 1908. His address as presiding officer, 
concise and yet comprehensive, with its orderly marshaling of the 
vital issues of the campaign, its precise and scholarly English and its 
passages of distinct eloquence and beauty, was hailed throughout the 
country as a noble oration, worthy of the best of American traditions 


and worth}' of the great theme and great occasion. This convention 
was a vast tumultuous gathering, difficult to control, exacting the 
utmost tact and decision from its presiding officer. This was not his 
first experience of the kind, for Mr. Lodge had been permanent 
chairman of the Republican National Convention which nominated 
McKinley and Roosevelt in Philadelphia in 1900, and chairman of 
the committee on resolutions of the Republican National Convention 
which nominated Roosevelt and Fairbanks in Chicago in 1904. He 
had previously been a conspicuous figure at all of the Republican 
National Conventions between 1884 and 1896. 

Throughout these many years of arduous public ser\dce in posts 
of the very greatest responsibility, Mr. Lodge, with his alertness 
of intellect and habits of systematic industry, has steadily pursued 
literary activities which, of themselves, would have given him en- 
during fame. His first published book was devoted to the career 
of a distinguished kinsman, the " Life and Letters of George Cabot," 
which appeared in 1877, when ]\Ir. Lodge was instructor in history 
at Harvard. Three of the most scholarly and altogether notable 
biographies in the "American Statesmen" series, "Alexander Hamil- 
ton" (1882), "Daniel Webster" (1883), and "George Washington" 
(1889), have come from his busy, exact and powerful pen. More- 
over, Mr. Lodge edited the works of Alexander Hamilton in nine 
volumes, published in 1885. In 1881 he had written a "Short His- 
tory of the English Colonies in America." He published in 1886 
"Studies in History," and in 1891 the "History of Boston" in 
the "Historic Towns" series, published by Longmans. In 1892, 
"Historical and Political Essays," and a volume of selections from 
speeches appeared; and in 1895, in cooperation with Theodore 
Roosevelt, Mr. Lodge published "Hero Tales from American His- 
tory." Another volume, "Certain Accepted Heroes and Other 
Essays," appeared in 1897; and in 1898 the "Story of the Revolu- 
tion," in two volumes. In 1899 Senator Lodge published the 
"Story of the Spanish War," which remains the most vivid, 
stirring and just narrative of that brief but momentous con- 
flict. In the same year, 1899, "A Fighting Frigate and Other 
Essays," was printed; and in 1906 "A Frontier Town and Other 

The historical research which first stirred the imagination of 
Mr. Lodge and absorbed his post-graduate years at Harvard has 


interested him through all the years of maturity. He is a member 
of the Massachusetts Historical Society, the Virginia Historical So- 
ciety, the New England Historic Genealogical Society, and the 
Amerian Antiquarian Society. He is a member also of the Ameri- 
can Academy of Arts and Sciences. During his service in the House 
and again in his service in the Senate, Mr. Lodge has been a regent 
of the Smithsonian Institution. The honorary degree of Doctor 
of Laws has been conferred upon him by Williams College, Clark 
University, Yale University, and Harvard University. These 
distinctions of the senior Senator, like the similar distinctions of 
his long-beloved colleague, George F. Hoar, have brought deep 
gratification to the people of Massachusetts. 

Mr. Lodge was married on April 6, 1872, to Anna Cabot Da\ds, 
daughter of Rear Admiral Charles H. Davis, of the United States 
Navy, and of Henrietta Blake Davis, a daughter of Hon, Elijah 
Hunt Mills, who from 1820 to 1827 was United States Senator from 
Massachusetts. Mr. and Mrs. Lodge have three children — George 
Cabot Lodge, John Ellerton Lodge and Mrs. Constance Gardner, 
the wife of Congressman Augustus P. Gardner, of Hamilton, Massa- 
chusetts. Mr. George Cabot Lodge served in the navy as an ensign 
through the Spanish War. Besides the fervent patriotism of his 
father, this son has the inheritance of literary power, and his writings 
bear unmistakable impress of a true, poetic genius expressed in a 
style of scholarly distinction. 

The Massachusetts home of Senator Lodge and his family is in 
the ocean town of Nahant, a splendid promontory, thrust out into 
the Atlantic, north of Lynn Bay and Boston Harbor. 

Senator Lodge first took his seat in the Senate on March 4, 1893. 
He has twice been reelected, in 1899 and in 1905. In the brief, 
strenuous weeks of a political campaign it might seem that Mr. 
Lodge had many enemies in his native State, but these irritations 
pass and the salient fact remains that the people of Massachusetts 
generally regard their State as fortunate in its representation in the 
upper House of Congress by a public man of the first rank who is 
also a scholar of the first rank, maintaining thus a most cherished 
tradition of the Commonwealth. The career of Senator Lodge 
demonstrates, as indeed does the career of President Roosevelt, that 
the student in our modern American life may also be preeminently 
a leader of practical affairs, a man of action. 


''y^^ OVERNOR LONG/' as Massachusetts affectionately calls 
I T him, though since he was the chief executive here he has 
held other lofty posts, is a native not of this State but of 
Maine, so closely associated with it and for many years a part of it. 
He was born in the town of Buckfield, Oxford County, in Maine, on 
October 27, 1838. His father was Zadoc Long; his mother Julia 
Temple (Davis) Long. The father was a man of marked natural 
abilities, a fine conversationalist, who read much, wrote well in 
prose and verse, kept a diary for fifty years, and was altogether the 
most cultivated man in his region. The mother was a woman of 
high character, and an influence in molding that of her son. 

Mr. Long the senior was a local merchant in Buckfield. He kept 
a village store, was a Justice of the Peace, and in the memorable 
Harrison campaign of 1840 was a Whig elector. Two years before 
he had been the Whig candidate for Congress in his district but had 
been defeated. The family on both sides was of the oldest and 
sturdiest of New England lineage, descended on the part of the 
father from James Chilton of the Mayflower, and Thomas Clark of 
the Ann, and on the part of the mother from Dolor Davis who came 
to New England in 1634. 

The Buckfield home was one of comfort, and Mr. Long as a youth 
did not know those grinding struggles to gain an education through 
which so many New England lads of his time were forced to fight 
their way. However, his parents, like all thrifty New Englanders, 
set a high valuation upon industry, and their son was taught to 
perform the usual boys' chores, chopping at the woodpile in winter, 
driving the cows, milking, etc. These tasks, though useful, were not 
arduous. Mr. Long as a boy was a strong, robust lad of a stocky 
figure, fond of exercise and play and fond, too, of his academic 
studies. He was fortunate in his household environment. The com- 
panionship of his father, with his unusual practical and literary in- 
formation, his clear, shrewd mind and his conversation covering many 


topics and illuminating all, was, in itself a stimulus and an education 
to an active and inquiring boy. The father had more than the 
usual books of such a village, and was himself fond of good reading. 
He was determined that his son should have the best training that 
New England could provide, and he was able to send him through 
the academy and through college. 

The son was an industrious student. He developed quite a 
knack of writing verses, and he was eager and ambitious beyond 
his years. From the Buckfield village schools he went to Hebron 
Academy in Hebron, Maine, and in 1853, at the age of fourteen 
years, he presented himself for entrance to Harvard College. 

Of course the requirements for admission were not so numerous 
and exacting then as they are now. But to have attained these at 
fourteen was a remarkable task, and Mr. Long was younger than 
most of his classmates. Indeed, he has said since, "I entered col- 
lege too young to form those associations which are the best part of 
college life." He has come since into contact with the chief men of 
his State, and with many of the chief men of America, but this kind 
of an acquaintance has been a result or an accompaniment of his 
success rather than a cause of it. His early companionship, outside 
of his own fortunate home, was in no way remarkable. 

At Harvard Mr. Long was a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon 
Fraternity, and of the Phi Beta Kappa. Then, as now, he found 
especial delight and instruction in history, English and American, 
and in fiction, with an old-fashioned liking for Scott, Cooper, Dickens, 
Thackeray, Trollope, etc. Graduating in 1857, at the age of eighteen, 
with the degree of Bachelor of Arts, Mr. Long, after a practice fre- 
quent in that day and not infrequent now, taught school for a while 
in Westford Academy, Westford, Massachusetts, for two years, 1857- 
1859. Then, as he puts it, "I drifted into the law; I had no special 
taste for it, though successful in jury practice. In my boyhood, 
college seemed to lead to one of the three professions, and I had no 
inclination toward medicine or the pulpit." No strong impulse to 
strive for the great prizes of life moved the young graduate. He 
"always had a feeling that the future would take care of itself." 

In 1860-1861 Mr. Long took a post-graduate course in law at 
Harvard, and practised law in his native town of Buckfield for one 
year following. Then, leaving Maine in the fall of 1862, he started 
in the law in Boston, where his professional home has ever since 



remained. In 1869 he took up his residence in Hingham, Massachu- 
setts, a beautiful old town on the southern edge of Boston Harbor, 
quiet and restful and yet not too remote from the great city's activi- 

His intellectual strength and his gracious personality steadily 
won friendly recognition for the young lawyer. When he was w^ell 
established in his profession he turned naturally and easily to public 
life. In his home town of Hingham he was moderator and a member 
of the school committee, and in 1875 he entered the Massachusetts 
House of Representatives. In the following year Mr. Long was 
honored by election as Speaker of the House. He proved to be 
eminently qualified for this position, which he held for three succes- 
sive years. Massachusetts was not slow in realizing that the young 
Hingham lawyer was destined to become a public man of the first 
rank. In 1879 he was chosen lieutenant-governor of Massachusetts, 
and in the following year, governor, holding that post also for three 
years in succession. 

Governor Long showed himself a clear-headed, courageous, 
highly efficient executive, sustaining the best traditions of the Com- 
monwealth. As speaker of the Massachusetts House he had come 
into demand on public occasions all over Massachusetts, and as 
governor he greatly enhanced his reputation as an easy, graceful 
and delightful orator. And Governor Long was not more felicitous 
on social occasions than in the sterner and more difficult work of 
the hard-fought campaigns through which ]\Iassachusetts began to 
pass with the rise of General Butler and the unfortunate division 
in the Republican party consequent on the presidential nomination 
of Mr. Blaine. Governor Long, though a Republican, had sup- 
ported the Greeley independent movement in 1872. In 1884, how- 
ever, he believed that the best course and the wisest course lay in 
loyalty to his party's regular nomination, and his example was one 
of the most potent influences which saved Massachusetts, in that 
year of strenuous revolt, to the Republican party. It was, perhaps, 
the more effective because at the Republican National Convention 
he had opposed the nomination of Mr. Blaine and had there made a 
speech nominating Mr. Edmunds, of Vermont, an address which 
was much praised at the time. 

Relinquishing the governorship in 1882, Mr. Long, in 1883, 
entered the National House of Representatives in Washington, and 


remained through three terms. He was as successful in that 
broader field as he had been in Massachusetts. He was recog- 
nized in Washington as an ideal representative of the old Common- 
wealth, and he came at once into a position of leadership and of 
close friendship with the great men of the House. He was a polished 
and effective debater, and in the routine business of Congress, exceed- 
ingly important though not spectacular, he performed with skill and 
thoroughness every task assigned to him. His fame as an orator 
had preceded Mr. Long to Washington, and it was broadened and 
confirmed by many a scholarly and eloquent utterance. The Na- 
tional House is often a turbulent and seldom an attentive body, but 
it was always glad and eager to listen to the silver tongue of the 
ex-governor of Massachusetts. 

To the keen regret of his constitutents and of all of the people 
of the State, Mr. Long withdrew in 1889 from what had become a 
brilliant career in Congress, and, returning to Massachusetts, resumed 
actively the practice of the law which his public life had so seriously 
interrupted. He came at once to the forefront of his profession, 
renewed old associations here and greatly widened his acquaintance. 
His practice is and has been of the very best and highest character, 
and the most important business interests of the State have been 
proud of his counsel and assistance. 

But there could be no such thing as complete retirement from 
public duties for a man so eminently qualified to meet them. When 
the growing demands of the state government compelled the build- 
ing of a large addition to the historic State House, Governor Long 
was sought for commissioner to control this work, and everybody 
was assured of what the result proved — that the undertaking would 
be efficiently carried out within the bounds of estimates and appro- 

But a far greater honor and responsibility was in store for Mr. 
Long. President McKinley, who had known and admired him in 
Congress, offered to him the post of Secretary of the Navy in his first 
Cabinet. This was a distinction well deserved both by Governor 
Long himself and by the State of Massachusetts, which has always 
been foremost in encouraging and upholding our sea defenses. 
Entering the Navy Department on March 5, 1897, Secretary Long 
remained there for an unusual period, or until May 1, 1902. Though 
he knew it not when he accepted this service, his was to be the great 


task and privilege of general direction of the war fleets of the country 
through a brief though brilliant naval war. Mr. Long, a lover of 
peace, did not hail this conflict but he did not shrink when it became 
inevitable. The splendid efficiency of the American navy in Manila 
Bay and off the coast of Cuba was due in very large degree to the 
administrative talents, the high civic ideals and the fine, practical 
judgment of the Massachusetts Secretary of the Navy, who gave the 
best work of a perfectly ripened life and noble character to the ser- 
vice of his country in that war year of 1898. 

When Spain surrendered and peace came there were left great 
and manifold problems for the government in Washington, and in 
all of these Secretary Long was one of the lieutenants on whom Presi- 
dent McKinley most securely relied. The secretary felt as few other 
men the shock of the tragic death of the President, with so much of 
his greatest work unfinished, but he stood to the post in which he was 
indispensable until he felt that he could be spared from the Cabinet 
of President Roosevelt, on May 1, 1902. Then relinquishing the 
Secretaryship of the Navy to another Massachusetts man, Hon. 
William H. Moody, Mr. Long came home to receive the acclamations 
of his beloved Massachusetts. 

Here, once m.ore after long absence ]\Ir. Long resumed his pro- 
fessional work, which has since fully commanded his activities. 
He has been honored by election as president of the board of over- 
seers of Harvard University and by many other tokens of the con- 
fidence and affection of his people. Harvard and Tufts have both 
bestowed upon him the degree of LL.D. He is the president of the 
old and famous Massachusetts Club and a member of the Union Club, 
the Middlesex Club, the Mayflower Society, the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences and many other organizations. Mr. Long is 
one of the most distinguished of Unitarian laymen and a leader in 
the great, far-reaching work of the American Unitarian Association. 

No citizen of Massachusetts has more friends; none has fewer 
enemies. His is a busy and a fruitful life between his Boston law 
office and his hospitable home in quaint old Hingham. Walking is 
Mr. Long's favorite exercise, but his great delight is a return to the 
Maine woods or to the farm in Buckfield which was his grandfather's, 
a mile from the village on its high hill, with its barn and fields and 
woods and river, and the renewal of old associations with the towns- 
people and his boyhood mates. 


In 1903 an important historical work, "The New American 
Navy/' from the pen of Mr. Long was published by the Outlook 
Company. He had previously written a translation of the ^neid, 
published in 1879 by the Lockwood Book Company, and "After 
Dinner and Other Speeches," published by Houghton, Mifflin & 
Company in 1895. From time to time he has also written notable 
magazine articles. 

Mr. Long was married first to Mary Woodward Glover on Sep- 
tember 13, 1870, and after her death to Agnes Peirce, on May 22, 
1886. Four children, three from the first and one from the second 
marriage, have been born to him, and there are two now living. 

Always Governor Long has been a noble example and inspiration 
to the young people of Massachusetts. His present message to 
them is to value above all things " clean hands, a pure heart, industry, 
courtesy always, courage, good associations with men and books, 
elevated ideals, self-respect." Governor Long would emphasize 
especially the need of a young man's "at once putting himself into 
contact with the best personalities." "He starts with a modest 
notion that men in upper station are beyond him. He should feel 
that they quickly appreciate and respond to any who worthily (but 
not bumptiously) seek them. It is just as easy to get in with the 
best and the highest as the meanest and lowest, and the failure to 
know this often keeps a young man down on low levels." 

Snq. iu r £ m//,„,^.s SBr^ AT"' 


New Hampshire, on the 30th day of June, 1830. His father, 
Samuel Kirkland Lothrop, was born October 13, 1804, and 
died June, 1886. His mother's maiden name was Mary Lyman 
Buckminister. The names of his grandparents were John Hiram 
Lothrop and Rev. Joseph Buckminister, Jerusha Kirkland and Mary 
Lyman. The vocation of Mr. Lothrop's father was that of the 
ministry, being an able, sympathetic and helpful clergyman, es- 
pecially known for his ardent sympathy for all sorts and conditions 
of men. On the side of his paternal ancestry the Rev. John Lothrop, 
an Englishman, came to this country and settled in Scituate in 1634. 
It is thus seen that the choice of the ministry was rather deep seated 
in this distinguished family. The mother of Thornton K. Lothrop 
was endowed with spiritual insight and profound moral principles. 
In these qualities she exerted a deep impression upon her son whose 
life became largely molded through her noble influence. In matters 
of education Mr. Lothrop was fortunate beyond many of his fellows 
in that he found few if any difficulties in gaining the training of the 
best schools. Born and bred in a family of education and refine- 
ment, it was natural that he should have both opportunity and in- 
centive in the direction of liberal culture. He graduated first from 
the Boston Latin School, and then from Harvard in 1849. Continu- 
ing his education by teaching in Philadelphia for two years, he then 
entered the Harvard Law School for a two years' further course, 
being admitted to the bar in 1853, and prior to this receiving the 
degree of A.M. in 1852. 

Mr. Lothrop's professional career was entered upon because of 
his own choice and predilection and not through the influence of 
family or friends. He felt that in this field of effort he could do 
his best work, and therefore entered upon his work with zeal and 
determination to succeed. While his professional career has taken 
time and energy without abatement through many years, Mr. Lothrop 


has not left uncultivated the social side of his nature. He is a mem- 
ber of the Somerset, Union, St. Botolph, Technology, University 
(N. Y.), University (Boston), Essex County Clubs; Massachusetts 
Historical Society; Massachusetts Society of Cincinnati, holding the 
position of vice-president in the latter. In 1859-60 he was also a 
member of the Massachusetts Legislature, and from April 18, 1861 to 
July, 1865, was assistant United States Attorney for Massachusetts. 

In 1896 Mr. Lothrop finished his " Life of Seward " and it was pub- 
lished during that year; a book worthy of its great subject, reflecting 
more than usual credit upon its author. At a glance it is easy to 
perceive that Mr. Lothrop has been a very industrious man, endowed 
with marked versatility, a worthy representative of the distinguished 
family whose name he bears. In politics he has always been a Re- 
publican, finding in that party the best available means by which 
to give expression to his political opinions and desires. 

In the year 1866, on the thirtieth day of April, Mr. Lothrop was 
united in marriage with Anne Marie, daughter of the Honorable 
Samuel and Anne (Sturgis) Hooper, granddaughter of Honorable Will- 
iam and Elizabeth (Davis) Sturgis. Of this union there have been 
four children, three now living in 1908, viz.: Miss Mary B. Lothrop, 
Mrs. Algernon Coolidge, and Thornton K. Lothrop, Jr., a well-known 
attorney. Mr. Lothrop resides on Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, 
and his home is marked by the hospitality of refined generosity, the 
atmosphere of culture and kindliness which have ever distinguished 
the homes of the best type of New Englanders. 

In the life of this successful and high-minded man we have both 
example and inspiration for the youth of America who seek the best 
ways to attain success and gain the best possible in their daily 
activities. " Industry, a high sense of honor, cultivation of mind and 
heart," these are the distinguishing graces which mark the life of 
this man who has developed the art of true and noble living. 

if\x). i/V' y^A^oi^juL^.^^ 


IN the little town of Mount Vernon, New Hampshire, on the ninth 
of August, 1839, Mr. Marden was born. His father was Ben- 
jamin Franklin Marden, of English descent, whose forefather, 
Richard Marden, took the oath of fidelity at New Haven, Connect- 
icut, in 1644. It is presumed he came directly from England or 
Wales. Mr. Marden's great-great-grandfather, David Marden, was 
born in Rye, New Hampshire, and died in Bradford, Massachusetts, 
August 30, 1745. Nathan Marden, grandfather of George A., of New 
Boston, married Susannah Stevens, daughter of Calvin Stevens and 
descendant of Colonel Thomas Stevens, of Devonshire, England, a 
signer of instructions to Governor Endicott, who contributed fifty 
pounds and sent three sons and one daughter to Massachusetts Bay 
Colony. Calvin Stevens fought at Concord and Bunker Hill, enlist- 
ing as a private April 23, 1775, in Captain Abasha Brown's Com- 
pany, and Colonel Thomas Nixon's regiment, serving from April 1, 
1776 to March, 1777. The mother of George A. Marden was Betsey 
Buss, daughter of Stephen Buss, who was a grandson of Stephen and 
Eunice Buss. Her mother was Sarah Abbot, a descendant of the 
tenth generation from George Abbot, one of the first settlers and 
promoters of Andover, Massachusetts. From George the ancestral 
line comes through four generations of John Abbots, of whom the 
last was commissioned captain in the French and Indian War, was 
chosen member of the committee of safety of Andover, November 
14, 1774, and held a captain's commission on an "Alarm" company 
just preceding the American Revolution. 

It was Mr. Marden's good fortune to receive his preliminary 
education in Appleton Academy, Mount Vernon, and later to gradu- 
ate from Dartmouth College in the class of 1861, being the eleventh 
member in a class of 58. He became president of the trustees of the 
Academy and he was the commencement poet of the Phi Beta Kappa 
Society in 1875, and delivered the commencement poem before the 
Dartmouth Alumni in 1877. 


At an early period of his career Mr. Harden was taught the shoe- 
maker's trade by his father, working at this trade at intervals while 
he was fitting for college and during college vacations. At the out- 
break of the Civil War, Mr. Marden enlisted in November, 1861, as 
a private in Company G, second regiment of the United States Sharp- 
shooters. Subsequently transferred to the first regiment of Sharp- 
shooters, April, 1862, he was made second sergeant and continued 
with this regiment during the Peninsula Campaign. On July 10 of 
the same year he was made first lieutenant and regimental quarter- 
master and served in that capacity until June 1, 1863, when he 
became acting assistant adjutant-general of the third brigade, third 
division of the third corps. He served in this position through 
Chancellorsville, Gettysburg and Wapping Heights, and was then 
ordered to Rikers' Island, New York, on detached service. Soon 
after, at his own request, he was sent back to his regiment remain- 
ing there until mustered out in 1864. 

Returning to New Hampshire Mr. Marden entered a law office at 
Concord to study law. He also wrote for the Concord Daily Monitor. 
In November, 1865, he located in Charleston, West Virginia, and 
purchased a weekly paper, the Kanaivha Republican, editing it dur- 
ing 1866, when he again returned to New Hampshire to engage in 
editing and compiling a history of each of the military organizations 
of the State during the Civil War. Meanwhile he wrote for the Concord 
Monitor and was the Concord correspondent of the Boston Advertiser. 
On January 1, 1867, he became the assistant editor of the Boston 
paper, and in September, conjointly with his classmate. Major E. T. 
Rowell, he purchased the Lowell Daily Courier, and the Lowell 
Weekly Journal, both of which he conducted the remainder of his 
life. In 1892 the partnership of twenty-five years was superseded 
by a stock corporation known as the Lowell Courier Publishing Com- 
pany, the two proprietors retaining their interest. Since 1895 the 
Courier Company has been united with the Citizen Company, under 
the caption, the Courier-Citizen Company. The Citizen was made a 
one cent morning paper, and Mr. Marden edited both publications. 

Mr. Marden cast his first vote for President Lincoln. After 1867 
there was no election, state or national, that he did not serve 
his party by public speech. In 1896, with several notable men, he 
campaigned in the Middle West, traveling some eight thousand miles 
through fifteen States and addressed upwards of a million people. On 


great occasions of patriotism he has been in constant demand as an 
orator. He has been prominent in Massachusetts pubUc life since 
entering the Legislature in 1873. He was elected speaker, 1S83 
and 1884, making a notable record as a presiding officer. In 1885 he 
was a member of the State Senate. In 1888 he was elected treasurer 
and receiver general of the Commonwealth and for five consecutive 
years, the constitutional limit of right to this office, he was enthusi- 
astically elected by his fellow citizens. He was a delegate to Uie 
Republican Convention held in Chicago in 1880 and supported 
General Grant with enthusiasm. In 1899 President McKinley ap- 
pointed him Assistant United States Treasurer at Boston, and Presi- 
dent Roosevelt subsequently appointed him for a second term of 
four years. 

Mr. Marden was married in Nashua, New Hampshire, December 
10, 1867, to Mary Porter Fiske, daughter of Deacon David Fiske, of 
Nashua, of English descent, and Harriet Nourse, of Merrimack, also 
of English lineage, stretching back through many generations. Mrs. 
Marden 's ancestry contains many notable names of men and women 
who have made substantial impress on their times. There were 
born of this union two sons, Philip Sanford, born in Lowell, January 
12, 1874, who graduated from Dartmouth College in 1894, and from 
Harvard Law School in 1898; and Robert Fiske, born at Lowell, 
June 14, 1876, who graduated at Dartmouth in 1898. 

Mr. Marden was an unusual man, versatile, strong, able. He filled 
the many positions he was called to occupy with credit to himself, 
and honor to others. He was a citizen of the higher order; keenly 
intelligent and profoundly patriotic. He was a maker of friends, 
and multitudes loved and trusted him. His eventful life closed 
December 19, 1906, and his memory is cherished by all who knew 


WINTHROP LIPPITT MARVIN, of Boston, journalist and 
author, formerly Civil Service Commissioner of Massachu- 
setts and secretary of the Merchant Marine Commission, 
was born on May 15, 1863, in the island town of Newcastle that walls 
Portsmouth Harbor and its naval station from the sea, and forms 
the eastward end of the brief and rugged coast of New Hampshire. 
The Marvin family had been one of sea-loving and sea-faring stock 
for many generations. The first of the race in New England came 
from his island home of Guernsey in the English Channel and sailed 
from Newcastle and Portsmouth in the deep sea fisheries and in the 
carrying trade to Virginia, the West Indies and South America. 
These voyages in the fishing craft to Newfoundland and Labrador 
and in the freighting ships far southward continued to be pursued 
in the Marvin name so long as the industry remained active and 
prosperous beneath the American flag. Captain William Marvin, 
succeeding to the business of his uncle, Captain Thomas Ellison 
Oliver, whose career as sailor, ship owner and merchant reads like 
a romance, had a considerable fleet engaged in this characteristic 
New England commerce down to and during the Civil War. 

Winthrop Lippitt Marvin is the grandson of Captain William 
Marvin, and the oldest son of Colonel Thomas Ellison Oliver Marvin 
and Anna Lippitt Marvin. His boyhood was passed at his parent's 
home in Portsmouth, where his father. Colonel Marvin, was long an 
active man of affairs and mayor of the city in 1872 and 1873. Ports- 
mouth in those years was still a ship-building and ship-owning com- 
munity, launching and sailing not only coast craft but swift and 
stately East Indiamen, and Winthrop Marvin in childhood was more 
keenly interested in the sea and its life than in anything else, though 
he was an attentive student in the Portsmouth schools and an eager 
reader of the books in his father's library and the old Portsmouth 
Athenaeum. His mother, a native of New York, and a member of 
the Lippitt family that came from England in the early settlement of 




Rhode Island, encouraged the scholarly ambitions of her son, and 
persuaded him to turn from the sea to college. 

After a careful preparation in the Portsmouth High School and 
the Roxbury Latin School, Mr. Marvin entered Tufts College, and 
graduated with the degree of A.B. in 1884. Resolved to write, he 
had directed his college course to that end, pursuing especially 
economics, history and literature. His first journalistic work was 
done while still an undergraduate, for the Boston Transcript and the 
Boston Advertiser, and throughout his senior year he served as a 
regular city reporter on the Advertiser, then edited by Mr. Edwin M. 
Bacon. A few weeks after graduation ]\Ir. Marvin became the night 
city editor of the Advertiser, and in a few months assistant night 
editor. In March, 1886, he resigned from the Advertiser to join the 
staff of the Boston Journal, as New England news editor. 

In 1887 Colonel William W. Clapp, editor and pubhsher of the 
Journal, appointed Mr. Marvin an editorial writer. For sixteen 
years thereafter Mr. Marvin gave his main attention to the editorial 
department of the Journal, in which he became in 1895 chief editorial 
writer and associate editor. As an editor Mr. Marvin has always 
believed in leading rather than in following public opinion. His first 
active and aggressive editorial work, in 1887 and the years following, 
was the advocacy of a strong navy, in which New England has a 
vital interest. A thoroughgoing civil service reformer, an earnest 
protectionist — maintaining that a prosperous home trade is the 
best possible basis for a great foreign trade — and a champion of a 
resolute and just foreign policy, an efficient army and stout coast 
defenses, he gave positive expression to these views year after year 
in the columns of the Journal, and had the satisfaction of seeing 
these ideas more and more completely accepted by New England 
and the Nation and embodied in the laws and practice of the govern- 

Not only as an editorial writer but as a contributor to magazines, 
Mr. Marvin has dealt constantly with large public questions, especially 
with those relating to the ocean and its ships of war and ships of 
commerce. In 1902 Charles Scribner's Sons, of New York, published 
an important work written by Mr. Marvin, "The American Mer- 
chant Marine: Its History and Romance," which has been com- 
mended as the most authoritative book upon this subject, and a 
graphic and stirring narrative. 


While busily engaged in his editorial duties Mr. Marvin was 
honored in 1901 by Governor (now Senator) Winthrop Murray Crane, 
with appointment as the Boston member of the Massachusetts Civil 
Service Commission. Two years later when the Boston Journal 
passed to a new ownership and the editor and publisher, Mr. Stephen 
O'Meara, and those long associated with him retired from control, 
Mr. Marvin resigned the editorial chair which he had held since 1887, 
to take up more directly the advocacy of the interests of the mer- 
chant marine. As secretary of the Merchant Marine Commission, 
established by Congress on the recommendation of President Roose- 
velt, Mr. Marvin was engaged in 1904 and 1905 in the thorough and 
impartial inquiry which this commission made into the decline of our 
ocean shipping, and the best methods of upbuilding it, and he has 
since been active in keeping this great and urgent question, involving 
not only our commerce but our defense, before the attention of 
Congress and the country. 

In 1903 Tufts College, his alma mater, gave to Mr. Marvin the 
honorary degree of Litt.D. He is a member of the Phi Beta Kappa; 
Theta Delta Chi; National Geographic Society; Massachusetts Club; 
Home Market Club; Republican Club of Massachusetts and Ports- 
mouth Yacht Club. 

Mr. Marvin was married in 1885 to Miss Nellie Meloon, of Ports- 
mouth, New Hampshire, and he has two sons, David Patterson and 
Theodore Winthrop, and one daughter, Anna Barbara. His resi- 
dence is at Newton ville and his ofhce at 131 State Street, Boston. 

Mi^rx of Mark m Ma 

i/y^rt:i^ o^- cyH 


ROBERT McNEIL MORSE, lawyer, was bom in Boston, 
August 11, 1837. His father, Robert McNeil Morse, was 
a son of Ebeneza and Henrietta H. (Sciverly) Morse, grand- 
son of Rev. Ebeneza and Perses (Bush) Morse and a descendant from 
Samuel Morse who came from England to New England in 1635 
and settled soon after in Dedham, where he was treasurer and select- 
man, 1640-42. Robert NcMeil Morse, Sr., was a respected merchant 
in Boston. He married Sarah Maria, daughter of Fessenden and 
Nabby (Nyo) Clark, of Boston, a descendant from Thomas Clark, 
who came to Plymouth about 1630. 

Robert McNeil Morse, Jr., was prepared for college in private 
schools and the Jamaica Plain High School and was graduated at 
Harvard, A.B., 1857. He began the study of law in the office of 
Hutchins & Wheeler in Boston in 1857-58; was teacher in the Eliot 
High School, Jamaica Plain, 1858-59 and in March, 1859, entered 
the Harvard Law School where he was a student for two terms. He 
was admitted to the Suffolk Bar upon examination in February, 1860. 
He and his classmate, the late John C. Ropes, began practice together, 
but later he formed a partnership with Charles P. Greenough, which 
continued for several years. Mr. Morse early took a leading position 
in the State and United States courts and there have been few im- 
portant trials in Massachusetts for the last forty years in which he 
has not been engaged, while the record of his arguments before the 
Supreme Court extends from the third volume of Allen's Reports, 
published in 1862, to the present time, one hundred and nine vol- 
umes in all, and includes a large proportion of the most important 

Among the famous causes which he has conducted are Wilson v. 
Moen, the Armstrong, Codman, Hayes, Wentworth, Houghton and 
Crocker will cases, suits involving the value of water supplies for 
Braintree, Quincy, Brookline, Lynn, Newburyport, Gloucester, Fra- 
mingham, Falmouth, Hyde Park and other cities and towns and of 


lands taken for park and other public purposes and much complex 
litigation affecting gas, telephone, banking, railway and other cor- 

He has avoided political life, but he was State Senator in 1866 
and 1867, and Representative in 1880. While in the Senate he 
introduced and carried through the bill for the repeal of the usury 
laws and was chairman of the special committee on the prohibi- 
tory law before which John A. Andrew appeared to favor its repeal 
and he made the report providing for a license law. In the House 
he was chairman of the committee on the judiciary and was promi- 
nent in securing the revision of the general laws known as the Public 
Statutes, the grant of the land on which the Boston Public Library 
was built and the enactment of the first law authorizing a great 
capitalization of the Bell Telephone Company. 

In 1880 he was a delegate from the Eighth Congressional District 
to the Republican National Convention at Chicago. He was a 
member of the board of overseers of Harvard University, from 1880 
to 1899, and of the Union, University, St. Botolph, Apollo, Uni- 
tarian and Country Clubs of Boston and of the Harvard Club, New 
York, serving as vice-president of the Union and University Clubs 
and as president of the Unitarian and Apollo Clubs. 

He was married November 12, 1863, to Anna Eliza, daughter 
of James L. and Jerusha A. Gorham, of Jamaica Plain, and they have 
had seven children: Mabel, born August 10, 1864; Arthur Gorham, 
born October 15, 1865, died October 15, 1866; Harold, born Septem- 
ber 13, 1866, died September, 1868; Alice Gorham, born November 
19, 1867; Sarah Clark, born August 12, 1872; Robert Gorham, born 
August 23, 1874 (H. C, 1896); Margaret Fessenden, born November 
28, 1877. 


IN the village of Orford, New Hampshire, December 22, 1839, is 
the record of the birth of this well-known man, and Mr. Niles 
points with pride to the fact that both he and his wife, their 
parents and grandparents and great -grandparents were born in the 
old Granite State. 

Samuel Wales Niles, the father of William Henry Niles, was born 
August 22, 1798, and died December 6, 1843. His mother's name was 
Eunice Newell. The earliest paternal ancestor of the family, so far as 
known, was one John Niles, born in Wales about 1603, settling in 
Braintree, Massachusetts, in 1640. He is believed to be the ancestor 
of all persons bearing the name of Niles in America. Nathaniel 
Niles, great-grandfather of William, was a soldier in the Revolu- 
tionary War, as was also John Niles, the grandfather, the former 
serving as a lieutenant. The father, Samuel Niles, was much inter- 
ested in religion, zealous in promoting agriculture, and deeply in- 
terested in all the affairs of his town. 

When not in school, William Henry Niles worked at farming dur- 
ing the years of his youth, always filling his vacations in this manner. 
He testifies that the habits of industry then acquired have aided 
all through life. In speaking of the influence of his mother, he 
affirms emphatically that in morality, industry and thrift, she 
helped him greatly. 

It was with much difficulty that Mr. Niles succeeded in gaining 
an education, but by persistence and industry he was able to progress 
from day to day and is still an earnest student in the line of his pro- 
fession. Beside the training he received at the public school he 
studied four years with the Rev. R. W. Smith, four years at Provi- 
dence Conference Seminary, and pursued a course in law under the 
direction of Caleb Blodgett, late Justice of the Superior Court, 

Mr. Niles began the practice of his profession, the law, in Lynn, 
Massachusetts, and occupies still the office on the ground where first 
he began practice. He has never regretted that he entered upon 


this line of work, to which he was strongly influenced by the advice 
of Justice Blodgett. 

Mr. Niles has for several years been president of the Essex Bar 
Association and still retains that honorable position. He is also 
a member of the American Bar Association, a director of the Manu- 
facturer's National Bank since its incorporation in 1891, and served 
also several years as member of board of education of the cit}'' of 
Lynn. In politics, Mr, Niles is a Republican. 

For recreation Mr. Niles inclines to out-of-door life and finds 
great help from horseback riding and driving, and the general in- 
terest and activity of country life. In this way he renews himself 
physically and mentally, and so is able to carry on his exacting pro- 
fessional and other labors without breaking of health or impairment 
of faculties. 

Mr. Niles was married September 19, 1865, to Harriet A., daughter 
of Lorenzo D. Day and Harriet Stevens Day, granddaughter of 
Manley and Lavina Stevens. From this union three children were 
born, all daughters. They all married and are Mrs. Florence Moulton, 
Mrs. Grace Henderson and Mrs. Ethel Farquhar. 

Residing at Lynn, Mr. Niles enjoys the returns of a successful, 
well-spent life. He is still actively engaged in his professional 
duties and each day finds him at his desk in his well-known office. 
So with friends and clients and the blessings of a happy family, he 
passes his days with the feeling that each one counts much in the 
making of his life successful in the best way, because each day is a 
real contribution to the welfare and happiness of others. 

The old adage, "The safety of the throne is the welfare of the 
people" may be paraphrased by saying the safety of the Republic 
is in the probity, uprightness and industrious thrift of the people. 
Here we have a fine example of this type and can well hope that 
many like him may arise in days to come for the security and pros- 
perity of the Nation we cherish. 


f? ■ 


ROBERT TREAT PAINE, lawyer, publicist and philan- 
thropist, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, October 28, 
1835. His father, Charles Gushing Paine, was graduated at 
Harvard in 1827, and practised law in Boston, He was the son of 
Charles and Sarah Sumner (Cushing) Paine; grandson of Robert 
Treat and Sally (Cobb) Paine and of Charles and Elizabeth (Sumner) 
Cushing, and married Fanny Cabot, daughter of Judge Charles Jack- 
son (1775-1855). Robert Treat Paine (1731-1814), the Signer, was 
a noted jurist, a founder of the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences of Boston, and he married Sally, daughter of Thomas and 
Lydia (Leonard) Cobb and sister of Gen. David Cobb, aide-de-camp 
to General Washington, and major-general of Massachusetts militia 
in Shay's rebellion. The Signer's father, the Rev. Thomas Paine, 
was pastor of the church at Weymouth, and subsequently a mer- 
chant in Boston, married Eunice, daughter of Rev. Samuel and 
Abigail (Willard) Treat, granddaughter of Robert Treat (1622-1710) 
lieutenant-governor and governor of Connecticut for thirty years; 
prominent in the Charter Oak incident and as commander of the 
Connecticut forces in protecting the settlers of western Massachusetts 
during King Philip's War, and of the Rev. Samuel Willard, colleague 
of the Old South Church, Boston, vice-president of Harvard College, 
1700-01, acting president from the retirement of President Cotton 
Mather to January 14, 1701. The Rev. Thomas Paine was the son 
of James Paine, a member of the expedition against Canada in 1694, 
and grandson of Thomas Paine of Eastham, an only son who with 
his father, Thomas Paine the elder, emigrated (according to tra- 
dition) from the North of England in 1624, and settled on Cape Cod. 
Robert Treat Paine is also descended from Richard Willard, 
who came from England and was one of the founders of Concord in 
1634; of Austin Cobb, who received a deed of a farm in Taunton, 
Massachusetts in 1679; of Jonathan Jackson; and of James Tyng, of 
Tyngsboro, Massachusetts. His childhood was spent, six months 


in Boston and six months in the country at Beverly, Massachusetts, 
and he was carefully nurtured by a wise and prudent mother, who 
permanently shaped both his intellectual and his moral and spiritual 
life. He was prepared for college at the Boston Latin School, gradu- 
ating at the age of fifteen and entering Harvard the same year. He 
shared the honor of the head of his class with Francis C. Barlow, and 
in the class were Alexander Agassiz, Phillips Brooks, Theodore Ly- 
man, James Tyndall Mitchell, Frank B. Sanborn and others, since 
famous in the world of letters, science, law, theology and medicine. 
His father, both grandfathers, his four great-grandfathers and 
fourteen earlier ancestors were graduates of Harvard. He was led 
to practise law through his own inclination, the influence of his 
parents and the tradition of the family. He studied law for one year, 
1855-56, at the Harvard Law School, then passed two years, 1856 and 
1857, in travel and study in Europe and on his return entered the 
law office of Richard H. Dana and Francis E. Parker, of Boston, and 
in 1859 he was admitted to the Suffolk Bar. He practised law in 
Boston, 1859-72, and when he retired in 1872 to take up philan- 
thropic work he was possessed of sufficent wealth to enable him to 
fully gratify his wishes in that direction. Writing of this purpose 
and the impulse that prompted it Mr. Paine says: ''I cannot remem- 
ber the time when I did not have a strong desire to make my life 
useful." His zealous churchmanship pointed out various ways to 
promote the welfare of his fellow man and his experience as a worker 
in the missions where he was a lay-reader prompted many of his 
future benefactions. He had been made a member of the sub- 
committee of three to direct the building of Trinity Church, of which 
he was a vestryman from 1874, becoming junior warden in 1904. He 
was most active in raising funds and buying the land that made 
possible the present Trinity Church, at the time of its completion 
pronounced to be the noblest ecclesiastical edifice in America. The 
inspiration of Phillips Brooks, the rector, the skill and artistic dis- 
cernment of H. H. Richardson, Massachusetts' great architect, and 
the industry, persistence and financial judgment of Mr. Paine, were 
the three most powerful forces that accomplished this great work. 
Mr. Paine was elected the first president of the Associated Chari- 
ties of Boston, when that movement took shape in 1879; was made 
a trustee of the Episcopal Theological School at Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts in 1883, and served as president from 1898. He was elected 


president of the American Peace Society in 1891 . His work in behalf 
of working men and women began to take institutional form in 1878, 
when he was chiefly instrumental in organizing the Wells Memorial 
Institute in Boston and in 1890, he built the Peoples Institute for 
Working Men and Women in Boston. In 1888 he established the 
Workingmen's Building Association and the Workingmen's Loan 
Association in connection with the Wells Memorial Institute and held 
the office of president of the last four-named corporations from their 
beginning. He also organized the Workingmen's Cooperative Bank, 
of Boston, and served as its president from its organization in 1880 
up to 1903. He also built more than two hundred small houses 
for working men and sold them at moderate prices and on easy 
credits. In 1887 he endowed the Robert Treat Paine Fellowship in 
Social Science with $10,000 at Harvard College for "the study of 
ethical problems of society; the effects of legislation; governmental 
administration and private philanthropy; to ameliorate the lot of 
the mass of mankind" and in 1890 together with his wife he estab- 
lished a trust of about $200,000, called the Robert Treat Paine Asso- 
ciation, to maintain institutes for working people; to provide model 
houses for working people; and otherwise to improve their condition. 
He could not content himself by giving away at his death what he 
could no longer use, and so had the pleasure of bestowing his wealth 
while living, and witnessing the ripening fruit of his benevolence. 

He represented the town of Waltham in the General Court of 
Massachusetts in 1884. His club membership included the Twen- 
tieth Century, Round Table; Thursday Evening; Union University 
and St. Botolph Clubs, of Boston; and the Reform and City Clubs, of 
New York City. He was a Republican in political faith up to 1884, 
when "the Democratic national platform seemed more patriotic and 
I could not follow Mr. Blaine and from that time was classed as a 
Democrat, but was always independent." He was the unsuccessful 
Democratic and Independent candidate for Representative from 
Massachusetts to the Forty-ninth Congress in 1884. 

He was married in Boston, Massachusetts, April 24, 1862, to 
Lydia Williams, daughter of George Williams and Anne (Pratt) 
Lyman, of Boston; and of the seven children born of the marriage 
five were living in 1908, the mother dying early in 1897. The eldest, 
Edith Paine, married John H. Storer; Robert Treat Paine, Jr., a 
trustee and associated w^ith his father in philanthropic work was the 


unsuccessful candidate of the Democratic party for governor of 
Massachusetts, in 1903; George Lyman Paine became a clergyman 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church; Lydia Lyman Paine married 
Charles K. Cummings, and as both sons also married, the grand- 
father rejoices in a troop of fourteen grandchildren. Mr. Paine's 
published writings embrace seventy subjects, issued as pamphlets, in- 
cluding reports, addresses, papers, discussions, leaflets and circulars 
issued between 1868 and 1908. His biography has been published in 
"One of a Thousand" (1890); "Boston of To-day" (1892); "Massa- 
chusetts of To-day" (1893); "Professional and Industrial History 
of Suffolk County" (1894); "Men of Progress" (1896); "Judiciary 
and Bar of Massachusetts" (1898); "Representative Men of Massa- 
chusetts" (1898); "Who's Who in America" (1899); "Universities 
and their Sons" (1900); "Lamb's Biographical Dictionary of the 
United States" (1902); "Contemporary American Biography" 
(1902). To young men he offers the following suggestions as gath- 
ered from his own experience: "I should say that in 1872 and there- 
after the conviction was forced upon my mind that we only have 
this life in this world once, and that I was not willing to devote it to 
business when noble uses of it could be found to make the world a 
bit happier around me. In carrying out these aims my life has been 
very happy. No man should be so absorbed in the business affairs 
of life that he cannot devote some share of his interest and energy 
in other and nobler directions." 

^,, i-.jrs ««:-- 


THERE are so many examples of men winning success in 
spite of obstacles, that a father who should wish to see his 
sons evolving sterling character might well pray not for a 
fortune to distribute among them but for difficulties to be overcome. 
If a young man has ability and health and a good start in the path 
of education nothing else seems to be needed. A most striking illus- 
tration of this principle is afforded by the career of Fred Stark Pear- 
son, who has risen to the very top of his profession, and though a 
comparatively young man, has won fame and fortune. 

He was born on the third of July, 1861, at Lowell, Massachusetts^ 
where his father, Ambrose Pearson, a well-known railway engineer, 
was temporarily settled while employed on the Boston and Lowell 
Railroad. Through his father, Ambrose, his grandfather, Caleb, 
and his great grandfather, Thomas, he was descended from John 
Pearson, who emigrated from Yorkshire, England, in 1637, and 
settled in Salem Colony. 

His mother was Hannah, daughter of Samuel and Eliza Edgerly. 
He began his education in the primary schools of his native town, 
but as his father, on account of his professional work in the con- 
struction of railways, not only in New England but also in the 
Western States, was frequently obliged to change his residence, his 
schooling was continued in various places. Between the age of 
eleven and fourteen he was at Wilton, New Hampshire, and there 
his father died in 1876. 

Fred, the elder son, had up to this time cherished the intention of 
pursuing a college career, but his hopes were dashed by this bereave- 
ment as he found that the support of his widowed mother and younger 
brother devolved largely upon him. They removed from Wilton 
to Charlestown, and at the age of sixteen he secured the position of 
station-master at Medford Hillside on the Boston and Lowell Rail- 
road. His family moved to Medford for his greater convenience, 
since the work began before six-twenty in the morning when the first 


train left for Boston and the last one left at ten-twenty in the evening. 
The duties were not very arduous as there was no freight service or 
telegraph station at that point. It occurred to him after he had 
enjoyed a year's experience as station-agent that he might utilize 
the spare moments between trains to continue his studies. Tufts 
College was situated less than a mile from Medford Hillside station, 
and he went to President Capen and asked if he could be permitted 
to attend classes and, when the train-duties called him away, allowed 
to leave the class-room so as to be at the station to sell tickets. The 
intervals between trains varied from forty minutes to an hour and a 
quarter. The president and Faculty, liking the young man's spirit 
and enterprise, granted his request, and for two college years he 
attended classes, every day walking seven times each way between 
the station and the recitation rooms. He has never ceased to hold 
in grateful remembrance the cordial and friendly interest manifested 
by the members of the Faculty whose recitations he attended, and 
attributes no small part of his success to the education which he 
thus acquired and which he would have been unable to acquire had 
his somewhat unusual request been refused. 

He devoted his attention principally to chemistry and at first 
intended to adopt that branch of science as his profession. He be- 
came extremely proficient and at the end of two years was offered 
a position as instructor in qualitative analysis and assistant to Pro- 
fessor William Ripley Nichols at the chemical laboratories of the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He held this position for a 
year, and then wishing to obtain a broader education he decided to 
return to Tufts College and follow the course of civil engineering. 
As it was necessary for him to earn his own living besides heljDing 
his family during all the time required for this course, he applied 
for the position of post-master of the station at College Hill. He 
was still under age and was therefore incapable, in accordance with 
the postal regulations, of holding this office, but it was secured for 
him in his mother's name. Here, though the salary was not large 
the duties were not exacting and he had plenty of time to pursue his 
studies. With no less zeal and energy than he had shown in his 
other undertakings he now took up the course of civil engineering 
and by dint of arduous work succeeded in accomplishing the three 
years' course in two, graduating in 1883 with a " smnma cum laude," 
and receiving the degree of civil engineer. During this time he de- 


voted his attention especially to higher mathematics, in which science 
he showed remarkable aptitude and took the keenest interest. 
This resulted in his being offered the position of Walker Instructor of 
Mathematics in Tufts. He decided to accept this and for three 
years held it, still continuing his studies in electrical and mining 
engineering and mathematics, so that in 1884 he received the degree 
of Electrical Engineer and the following year that of Master of Arts. 

He now abandoned his academic position to take up a more 
active line of work. He found his opportunity right at hand. The 
Somerville Electric Light Company was just organizing and his 
training adapted him to become a valuable factor in the installation 
of all its practical appliances. He was appointed its general manager. 
His success in this new position attracted attention and he was 
shortly afterwards asked to assist in establishing the Woburn Electric 
Light Company. Here again he proved his extraordinary ability both 
as an organizer and a practical worker in the newly developing field of 
electric lighting and power. At this time Henry M. Whitney, Esq., 
was engaged in effecting the consolidation of the numerous lines of the 
West End Street Railway of Boston, IMassachusetts, and was contem- 
plating the installation of an electric equipment for the entire system. 

The plan was almost wholly experimental, its universally wide 
spread success and adoption since being one of the scientific miracles 
of the century. But then only one or two comparatively insignificant 
street railways in this country had tried electricity as a motive- 
power and of course only on a small scale. But Mr. Whitney found 
in the young Tufts College instructor the very man whom he had 
been searching for and at once engaged him as chief engineer to 
undertake this tremendous task. Before a year had elapsed his 
perspicacity had been completely justified. Mr. Pearson had made 
himself so indispensable that he was Mr. Whitney's practical partner 
as chief engineer in the organization of the first great electrical street 
railway system in the world. His grasp upon the multifarious and 
complicated details and his extraordinary intuition in foreseeing 
and overcoming difficulties astonished the veteran master of street 
railway promotion, and Mr. Whitney's readiness to carry out in 
detail any suggestion emanating from his resourceful assistant at- 
tested the confidence which the elder man felt in the superior engineer- 
ing skill of the younger. 

The success attaining the electrification of the street railways of 


Boston was properly attributed to the chief engineer and he was 
immediately overwhelmed with most flattering offers from other 
cities which stood in need of his help under similar conditions. He 
resigned his position as acting engineer and became consulting 
engineer for the West End Street Railway, thus being free for 
undertaking similar work elsewhere. In 1890 he became interested 
in the street railway company of Halifax, Nova Scotia, and organ- 
ized a syndicate for the purchase of this property and for its electrical 
equipment. While engaged in this enterprise he looked into the 
coal-mining industry of the province and saw the great possibilities 
of an intelligent and scientific exploitation of the mines. On his 
return to Boston he laid his plans before Mr. Whitney. From this 
resulted the organization of the Dominion Coal Company, with Mr. 
Whitney as president of the corporation and Mr. Pearson in general 
charge of the management. As soon as the Dominion Coal Com- 
pany was in successful running order, Mr. Pearson again undertook 
the business of general consulting engineer and was employed in 
this capacity by the street railway companies of Toronto, Montreal, 
St. John, New Brunswick and Winnipeg, Manitoba. He was also 
consulting engineer for many similar enterprises in the United States, 
among the most important being the extensive system that was 
planned to meet the needs of Brooklyn, New York, and now con- 
solidated in the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company. 

His reputation crossed the Atlantic and he was summoned to 
England as consulting engineer for the Birmingham tramway sys- 
tems and was also engaged by the municipality to report on the tram- 
ways of Liverpool. From there he was recalled to New York City 
as chief engineer of the Metropolitan Street Railway Company. Here 
he developed and installed the underground slotted conduit system 
which is now in use there. 

His next summons came from a still more distant country than 
England. He was asked to go to Sao Paulo in Southern Brazil, 
and there he organized the Sao Paulo Tramway Light and Power 
Company, Limited. In connection with this enterprise he con- 
structed at a distance of twenty miles from the city a large hydraulic 
power station of 10,000 H. P. capacity, which furnishes the electric 
power for the operation of the street railways, electric lights and 
manufactories. This company with a capitalization of $15,000,000 
has been a most successful enterprise from the start. 


In 1903 he was called to Mexico and there completed the organiza- 
tion of the Mexican Light and Power Company, for which he superin- 
tended the construction of an immense hydro-electric plant of 
48,000 H. P., situated about one hundred miles from the city of 
Mexico, to which power is transmitted over high tension lines. This 
company owns all of the electric light companies in the city and is 
now developing a second station of about 50,000 H. P., capacity, the 
capacity of the first having been speedily absorbed by the power- 

Niagara Falls next attracted his attention and he was engaged 
to utilize the water-power on the Canadian side of the river for the 
benefit not only of the City of Toronto eighty miles away, but also 
of the neighboring places in Ontario. His experiences in Mexico 
and Brazil made him invaluable as consulting engineer in charge of 
the great enterprises known as the Toronto and Niagara Falls Trans- 
mission Company and the Electrical Development Company of On- 
tario, for which he designed and superintended the construction of 
a power-station, planned to produce 125,000 H. P. He was also 
consulting engineer in the organization and construction of the 
Winnepeg Power Company with a power-station of 20,000 H. P., and 
transmission lines sixty miles in length. At the same time he was 
entrusted with engineering projects for electric light, tramways and 
power in many other cities in South America, Mexico and Canada. 
Among these may be mentioned the Mexico Tramways Company, 
controlling the entire street railway system of the City of Mexico. 

In 1904 he completed the organization of the Rio de Janeiro 
Tramway Light and Power Company with a capitalization of $50,- 
000,000, and as its vice-president has had charge of the develop- 
ment of this great enterprise. This company controls the larger 
part of the street railway systems of Rio de Janiero as well as of the 
entire electric lighting and power business and the gas and telephone 
companies of that great and flourishing city, and has constructed 
an hydro-electric power-station of 50,000 H. P. capacity, fifty-one 
miles from the city of Rio, to which the power is delivered by means 
of high tension transmission lines. 

Probably no other American has had a creative hand in so many 
immense industrial enterprises. His ability was recognized by 
Tufts College, which followed his career with justifiable pride, and 
granted him in 1900 the degree of Doctor of Science and five years 


later that of Doctor of Laws. President Capen in conferring upon 
the distinguished graduate the highest honor of his alma mater 
characterized him as "scholar among engineers." 

He married, in 1887, Miss Mabel Ward, daughter of William H. 
Ward, Esq., of Lowell, Massachusetts. Doctor and Mrs. Pearson 
have three children — two sons and a daughter. He has recently 
purchased an estate of about ten thousand acres among the Berkshire 
Hills of western Massachusetts where he has abundant opportunity 
to carry out his ideas of scientific farming and the breeding of high- 
grade farm animals. There he has a fine herd of beautiful Guernsey 
cattle and Shropshire and Dorset sheep. He takes great delight 
in country life. He has devoted much time and thought to restock- 
ing the wilder regions of western Massachusetts with such small 
game as hares, squirrels and partridges as well as English pheasants, 
a large number of which he has imported and turned loose to breed 
and multiply. 

His professional attainments have secured for him membership in 
the Institute of Civil Engineers, of London; the American Society of 
Civil Engineers; the American Society of Electrical Engineers; the 
American Institute of Mining Engineers and the Society of Naval 
Architecture and Marine Engineers; also life-membership in the 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers. He is socially affiliated 
with the Engineer's Club, of New York City; the New York Yacht 
Club; the Larchmont Yacht Club and the University Club. His 
financial investments have made him a director in the Sao Paulo 
Tramway Light and Power Company; in the Rio de Janiero Tram- 
way Light and Power Company, of which he is president; the Do- 
minion Iron and Steel Company, Limited; the Mexican Light and 
Power Company, Limited, of which he is vice-president; the 
Mexico Tramway Company of which he is president and many other 
corporations with which he has been professionally connected. 


RARELY has a man of his age attained, through his own efforts 
and perseverance, the prestige in the business world which 
James Joseph Phelan, member of the firm of Hornblower and 
Weeks, bankers and brokers, of Boston and New York, now holds. 
He was born in Toronto, Canada, October 14, 1871, the son of James 
W. Phelan, of Kilkenny, Ireland, and Catherine (Colbert) Phelan, 
also of Ireland. His ancestors were Patrick Elliot Phelan, James 
Colbert, Catherine Forbes, Ellen Hayes, prominent in their times, 
and from them he probably inherits his capacity for financial affairs. 
His father's reputation as an accountant was widely known. James 
Joseph Phelan attended the public schools until he reached the age 
of fifteen. Then through his own inclination he entered the business 
world. In 1887 he became a messenger on the floor of the Boston 
Stock Exchange which marked the beginning of his successful 
career. After leaving school he was still an earnest student and, 
adding to the moral and intellectual influence which his parents 
exercised over him, continuous reading and research, he became 
fitted for his chosen occupation. Evincing at once energy and direct- 
ness of purpose, Mr. Phelan soon became installed in the offices of 
E.T. Hornblower & Son, where, through his untiring efforts and close 
application to duty, he won the confidence of all with whom he was 
connected. Recognizing his opportunities, he worked faithfully 
and well, giving his best efforts to whatever he undertook. He 
made many valuable business friends, and profited greatly by his 
contact with men in active life. In January, 1900, after continuous 
advancement, he entered the firm of Hornblower & Weeks, which 
in 1888 had succeeded that of E. T. Hornblower & Son. He is also 
a member of the Boston Stock Exchange, Boston Chamber of Com- 
merce, serving as one of the managers gratuity fund and Chicago 
Board of Trade. He helped to organize the Federal Trust Com- 
pany, of Boston, and is its vice-president, and member of the 
board of directors, serving on the executive committee. To this 


organization he has always rendered invaluable service. He is a 
director in the Peoples National Bank of Roxbury; trustee of the 
Union Institution for Savings, Boston; director in Massachusetts 
Bonding and Insurance Company; director of the Big Ivy Timber 
Company, of North Carolina; member Advisory Committee of busi- 
ness men, Boston High School of Commerce. Mr. Phelan is a loyal 
Democrat and has never failed to exert his influence for the cause of 
his party whenever occasion demanded. He belongs to the Roman 
Catholic Church and has been president of the Catholic Literary 
Union of Charlestown. He is also a member of the following clubs 
and societies: Economic Club of Boston; Roxbury Historical Soci- 
ety; CathoHc Club of New York; Point Shirley Club; Boston 
Athletic Association; Clover Club; Exchange Club; City Club; 
member of Finance Committee; Catholic Literary Union of Charles- 
town, and a life member of the Bostonian Society, as well as being 
interested in numerous charitable institutions. Mr. Phelan's advice 
to the young is: "Add to the standard virtues the word hustle, 
and never be afraid of hard work. My belief is more men die from 
too little work, rather than overwork." All out-door sports appeal 
to him, and for nearly three years he was a member of the Massa- 
chusetts Naval Brigade. 

On June 19, 1899, he was married to Miss Mary E. Meade, 
daughter of John and Caroline I. (Green) Meade, of Boston. Their 
three children are James J., Jr. (six), Katharine (five), and Caroline 
J. (three). 


SAMUEL LELAND POWERS, lawyer, and formerly a member 
of Congress from the State of Massachusetts, was born in 
Cornish, New Hampshire, October 26, 1848. He is of the best 
and most sturdy of the old New England stock, a descendant of 
Walter Powers who arrived in the Massachusetts Bay Colony from 
England in 1634, landed at Salem and settled at Littleton in Middle- 
sex County. That Walter Powers, who married Trial Shepard, was 
the forefather of a large and distinguished body of descendants. 
Hiram Powers, the great sculptor, was one of these; so was Abigail 
Powers, wife of President Fillmore; so was Horace Henry Powers, 
Representative to the Fifty-sixth Congress from the first district 
of A^ermont; Llewellyn Powers, governor of the State of Maine and 
Representative in Congress from the same state; Orlando Woodworth 
Powers, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of Utah, besides 
others who have done honor to the name in many walks of life. 

The father of Samuel Leland Powers was Larned, a son of Colonel 
Samuel Powers and Chloe (Cooper) Powers, and grandson of Lemuel 
Powers and Thankful Leland Powers. Larned Powers was a success- 
ful farmer in the town of Cornish, New Hampshire, a man of sterling 
worth, highly respected and prominent in the administering of the 
local affairs of his town. His wife was Ruby, daughter of John A. 
Barton and Achsah Lovering Barton, both of whom were of English 
descent, the father of John A. Barton having immigrated to New 
Hampshire from Worcester County, Massachusetts. 

Samuel Leland Powers grew up as a boy on his father's farm, 
until at the age of sixteen the call for a better education than could 
be furnished in his home town came strongly to him and he was sent 
away to fit for college. He first attended the at that time celebrated 
Kimball Union Academy, remaining there for three years. He 
entered Phillips Exeter Academy in the Senior class, but found it 
possible to leave during that year and enter Dartmouth College. 
His career there was one of distinction in the famous class of 1874. 


Among those who graduated with him are Chief Justice Frank N. 
Parsons, of the Supreme Court of New Hampshire, Attorney General 
Edwin G. Eastman, of the same State, General Frank S. Streeter, 
one of the leaders of the New Hampshire bar, Chief Justice John A. 
Aiken, of the Superior Court of Massachusetts, and Honorable Samuel 
W. McCall, a member of Congress from Massachusetts. Among 
other honors obtained by young Powers while in college was the 
winning of the Lockwood prizes for oratory and composition. 

Mr. Powers commenced the study of law in September, 1874, 
with the Honorable William W. Bailey, of Nashua, New Hampshire. 
There he remained only a short time, for he soon entered the Law 
School of the University of New York. He studied there until June 
of the following year, when he entered the law office of Verry & 
Gaskill, of Worcester, Massachusetts, and was admitted to the bar 
of Worcester County in November, 1875, only a little over one year 
from the time he took up the study of the subject. He began the 
practice of law in partnership with the Honorable Samuel W. McCall, 
a long time and prominent member of Congress from JMassachusetts. 
Later Mr. Powers was for four years associated with Colonel J. H. 
Benton, Jr., and again was a partner with his brother, Erastus B. 

In 1888 he became counsel for the New England Telephone and 
Telegraph Company and for many years devoted himself almost 
exclusively to representing corporations engaged in electrical busi- 
ness. In causes of this sort he almost immediately obtained a very 
high reputation and the knowledge gained by his career at that time 
is still sought and highly prized. In 1897 he formed a law partner- 
ship with Edward K. Hall and Matt B. Jones, which continued until 
1904, when Mr. Jones retired to become the attorney of the New 
England Telephone and Telegraph Company, and a new partner- 
ship was formed under the name of Powers & Hall. This is one of 
the active law concerns of Boston, and is located at 101 Milk Street. 

Mr. Powers became a citizen of Newton, Massachusetts, in 1882. 
There he has since resided and has become prominent and influential 
in social, educational and public affairs. He was a member of the 
Newton Common Council for three years, for two years of which he was 
its president, a member of the board of aldermen for one year and 
a member of the school board for three years. In 1900, in response 
to an imperative demand from his constituency, he ran for Congress 


as a Republican and was nominated almost unanimously. For his 
first term he represented the Eleventh Massachusetts District in the 
Fifty-seventh Congress and for his second, the Twelfth Massachu- 
setts District in the Fifty-eighth Congress, there having been a re- 
districting during his term, which made a change in the district 
from which he originally came. He retired voluntarily from Con- 
gress against the earnest protest of his district, on March 4, 1905, to 
devote himself exclusively to the practice of law. While in the 
National House of Representatives, Mr. Powers achieved promi- 
nence as a hard worker and a keen and able legislator. He was 
one of the sub-committee of five appointed from the judiciary com- 
mittee of the Fifty-seventh Congress to frame the bill for the regula- 
tion of trusts, and was one of the managers appointed by the 
Speaker to conduct the impeachment trial of Judge Swayne, before 
the Senate, in the Fifty-eighth Congress. 

Mr. Powers has always been prominent in social life, for which 
he is naturally well equipped. He was one of the founders and first 
president of the famous Tantalus Club of Washington, an organiza- 
tion composed of new and sometimes necessarily unheard members 
of Congress, and he is at the present time the head of that organi- 
zation. He is president of the Middlesex Club, a strong political 
body of eastern Massachusetts; vice-president of the Massachusetts 
Republican Club and Massachusetts vice-president of the Merchant 
Marine League. He is a member of many of the leading social clubs 
in and about Boston. He is a trustee of Dartmouth College. 

Mr. Powers was married in 1878 to Eva C. Crowell, daughter of 
Captain Prince S. Crowell, of Dennis, Massachusetts. They have 
one son, Leland Powers, born July 1, 1890. 


ABBOTT LAWRENCE ROTCH, founder of the Blue Hill 
Meteorological Observatory and investigator in meteorology, 
was born in Boston, Massachusetts, January 6, 1861. His 
father, Benjamin Smith Rotch (1817-1882), was the eldest son of 
Joseph, of New Bedford, and Ann (Smith) Rotch, grandson of William 
and Elizabeth (Rodman) Rotch, great-grandson of William and 
Elizabeth (Barney) Rotch, and a descendant from Joseph Rotch 
who came from Salisbury, England, to Nantucket, and married Love 
Macy, daughter of Thomas and Deborah (Coffin) Macy. Joseph 
Rotch settled at Dartmouth in 1765 and suggested that it be named 
New Bedford. Benjamin Smith Rotch was graduated at Harvard, 
1838; a merchant in Boston, and a founder of New Bedford Cor- 
dage Company in 1842; overseer of Harvard University, 1864-70; 
trustee of the Boston Athenaeum and Museum of Fine Arts; represent- 
ative in the General Court of Massachusetts, 1843-44; aide-de-camp 
on the staff of Governor Briggs, 1845; accompanied his father-in-law, 
Hon. Abbott Lawrence, to London, when Mr. Lawrence assumed 
the duties of Minister to Great Britain in September, 1849. His son 
in speaking of his characteristics says: "He was reserved and sen- 
sitive, with artistic ability and love of nature, kind, generous and 
religious." He married Annie Bigelow, eldest daughter of Abbott 
and Katharine (Bigelow) Lawrence, granddaughter of Major Samuel 
and Susanna (Parker) Lawrence, of Groton and of Hon. Timothy and 
Lucy (Prescott) Bigelow, of Groton. 

Abbott Lawrence Rotch of the fifth generation from Joseph Rotch 
and the youngest son of Benjamin Smith and Annie (Bigelow) Rotch, 
was as a child fond of scientific study and mechanics. He was 
brought up in town and country and in Europe; and gained in- 
spiration in the direction of intellectual, moral and spiritual growth 
and development from the example and precepts of both parents. He 
pursued his studies abroad and at Chauncy Hall School, Boston, 
preparatory to entering the department of mechanical engineering 


of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he was gradu- 
ated with the degree of S.B. in 1884. 

He founded, in 1885 (at his own initiative and expense) the Blue 
Hill Meteorological Observatory in Milton, Massachusetts, which 
became celebrated among scientists as the pioneer experiment station 
for researches in the upper atmosphere by studies of clouds 
and by means of kites, to which were attached meteorological instru- 
ments capable of recording velocity and direction of currents, tem- 
perature and humidity of the air at different altitudes above the 
earth's surface. He cooperated with the Harvard College Observa- 
tory from 1887, in carrying on observations and investigations in 
meteorology at the Blue Hill Observatory, directed and supported at 
an average cost of $5,000 per annum solely from his private means. 
To explain its relation with the Harvard College Observatory, he was 
named assistant in meteorology in the Faculty of Harvard University 
in 1888, and in 1906 was appointed professor. Harvard University 
conferred on him the honorary degree of A.M. in 1891. The Ameri- 
can Academy of Arts and Sciences, of Boston, of which he is a Fellow, 
made him its librarian in 1899. The Boston Society of Natural 
History, of which he is a member, has several times elected him as 
one of three trustees. He was chosen a member of the corpo- 
ration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1891, and he 
has served for many years on the committees to visit the depart- 
ments of physics and architecture, representing also the Institute 
as a trustee of the Boston Museunx of Fine Arts. He is likewise a 
member of the committee appointed by the overseers of Harvard 
University to visit the Lawrence Scientific School and the Jefferson 
Physical Laboratory. He was appointed a member of several inter- 
national scientific committees, and served as associate editor of the 
American Meteorological Journal, 1886-96. He was created a chevalier 
of the Legion of Honor in 1889 when a member of the international 
Jury of Awards, at the Paris Exposition of that year; in 1902 the 
German Emperor conferred on him the Order of the Prussian Crown, 
in recognition of his efforts to advance knowledge of the high at- 
mosphere, and in 1905 he received from the same source the Royal 
Order of the Red Eagle. He has taken part in various scientific 
expeditions in North and South America, Africa and Europe and, 
cooperating with a French colleague in 1905-06, an expedition was 
sent on a steam yacht, equipped with kites and balloons, to explore 


the atmosphere in tropical regions; Professor Rotch having been 
the first to demonstrate in 1901 that kites might be flown from a 
steam vessel, independently of the natm-al wind, and in this way used 
to explore regions of the atmosphere hitherto inaccessible. During 
the years 1904-07 he obtained with the so-called "ballons-sondes" 
the first observations of temperature at heights of eight to ten miles 
above the American continent. He delivered courses of lectures 
before the Lowell Institute, of Boston, in 1891 and 1898. 

His club membership includes the Somerset and St. Botolph, of 
Boston; the University and Century Association, of New York City; 
the Cosmos, of Washington, District of Columbia, and the Royal 
Societies, of London, England. He is a corresponding member of 
the British Association for the Advancement of Science; and of the 
German Meteorological and Aeronautical Societies, and is an hon- 
orary member of the Royal Meteorological Society, of London, 
and of the French Alpine Club. His religious affiliation is 
with the Protestant Episcopal Church and he served as junior 
warden of Emmanuel Church, Boston, 1904^05. He has been a 
Republican in politics. His recreations are cycling, tennis and 
mountain climbing. He was a member of the First Corps of Cadets, 
M. V. M., 1883-92. He was married November 22, 1893, to Margaret 
Randolph, daughter of Edward Clifford and Jane Margaret (Ran- 
dolph) Anderson, of Savannah, Georgia. Their eldest daughter, 
Elizabeth, born in Boston, June 12, 1895, died June 29, 1895; their 
surviving children being Margaret Randolph, born June 14, 1896, 
Arthur, born February 1, 1899, and Katharine LawTence,born May 
26, 1906. Professor Rotch is the author of "Sounding the Ocean of 
Air," in Romance of Science Series (London, 1900), has edited: 
"Observations and Investigations at Blue Hill," in Annals of Har- 
vard College Observatory (1889 et seq.), and has contributed numer- 
ous articles to scientific periodicals in America and Europe. 


is, jr -? M-W.a-^ 3£r„ A3 


JOSEPH BALLISTER RUSSELL was born in Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, October 24, 1852. He is the son of Hon. Charles 
Theodore Russell, who was born in 1815, and died in 1896. His 
grandfather was Hon. Charles Russell, who married Persis Hastings. 
The mother of Joseph Ballister Russell was Sarah Elizabeth Ballister, 
daughter of Joseph Ballister, a well-known merchant of Boston, and 
Sarah Yendell. Mr. Russell is descended on his mother's side from 
a French Huguenot family. His father's family was English and 
dates back in an almost unbroken line very many years. Both his 
father's and mother's ancestors came to America in the very 
early days of this country and passed through many vicissitudes of 
the early settlers. On Mr. Russell's paternal grandmother's side, 
the first ancestor who came to this country was Thomas Hastings, 
in 1635, the great-grandson of Earl of Huntington. On the paternal 
grandfather's side, William Russell, who came to Cambridge in 1645. 
Mr. Russell's father, who was for many years a prominent lawyer 
and public spirited man, was greatly engrossed in his profession, and 
alert to the duties of an active life. Mr. Russell's mother, who was 
a very intellectual and distinctly religious and moral type, exerted 
a particularly strong influence upon the early life of her son, which 
no doubt awakened his youthful ambitions. As a boy he enjoyed 
the quiet and healthful pleasure of assisting about his father's place; 
taking care of the garden; looking after the live stock; fishing, hunt- 
ing, etc. The Bible and such books as Bunyan's ''Pilgrim's Progress," 
Scott, Dickens, Cooper, Longfellow and English poets were his com- 
panions, and by them he helped to establish his standard. His 
education was acquired in the public schools of Cambridge, through 
the Latin School. He was early interested in politics, and has always 
been a Democrat, although his better judgment has not always 
allowed him to vote for party candidates. He was for three years a 
private in the First Corps of Cadets, Boston. His vocation in life 
was entirely governed by his own inclinations. He began his busi- 


ness career as junior clerk in the Russia Trade firm of William Ropes 
& Company, and profited much from business associations. Mr. 
Russell has been for years a man of manifold business and social 
interests, some of which are: treasurer and general manager of the 
Boston Wharf Company, 1885 to the present time; president Cam- 
bridge Trust Company, for a number of years; vice-president State 
Street Trust Company, of Boston, for many years; president of the 
West End Street Railway Company and director in 1906 of the 
following: the National Shawmut Bank; State Street Trust Company; 
Boston Wharf Company; Conveyancer's Title Insurance Company; 
Fitchburg Railroad Company; West End Street Railway Com- 
pany; Boston Steamship Company; Boston and Philadelphia Steam- 
ship Company; Boston Consolidated Gas Company; Boston Merchants 
Association; Real Estate and Auction Board; Trustee of Massa- 
chusetts Gas Company; Lovejoy's Wharf Trust; New England Gas 
and Coke Company; New England Coal and Coke Company; Quincy 
Market Real Estate Trust; Mount Auburn Cemetery; Cambridge 
Hospital; and acts under many wills and instruments of trust. 
While Mr. Russell has been interested deeply for many years in 
nearly all the great undertakings for the development and improve- 
ment of Boston, such as its street railway systems, its gas business, 
its banking facilities, its steamship lines and steam railroads, his 
great work has been the development of the properties of the Boston 
Wharf Company, some twenty years ago known as the "dump." 

These properties under his management have, from large tracts 
of vacant land and swamp, been formed into a new business section 
of the city, traversed by wide streets and covered by some of the 
finest business buildings and blocks that can be found in any city. 
Under his guidance millions of dollars have been spent in these 
improvements and, notwithstanding large sales of its real estate 
made by the company, its rent-roll to-day exceeds without a doubt 
that of any other single real estate ownership in the city of Boston. 
He is also a member of the following associations: Chamber of Com- 
merce; Merchants' Association, of Boston; Bankers' Association, of 
Boston; Bostonian Society; National Geographical Society. His club 
affiliations are with the Somerset, Union Exchange, Commercial, 
Papyrus, New Riding and City Club, of Boston; Strollers, of New 
York; Country Club, of Brookline and Oakley Club, of Watertown, 
of which club he is the president. He is a regular attendant of 


the Protestant Episcopal Church, and interested in the charities 
and activities of the City of Cambridge, where for many years 
he has resided. In the past having appreciated the joys of 
hunting, fishing and camping out, he now derives much pleasure from 
out-door sports, especially riding and golf. On May 20, 1880, he 
married Lillian Hillyard Tenney, the daughter of Otis Seth and 
Junia (Warner) Tenney. Her ancesters were important factors 
in the history of our nation, among them being: John Hillyard, one 
of William Penn's council in 1682, and William Killen, born in Ire- 
land, came to Delaware of which state he was Chief Justice and first 
Chancellor. Mr. Russell's home has been blessed with five children: 
Charles Theodore Russell, assistant treasurer of the Boston Wharf 
Company; Joseph Ballister Russell, Jr., Senior at Harvard College; 
Otis Tenney Russell, Freshman at Harvard College; Sarah Elizabeth 
Russell and Junia Killen Russell. 

Mr. Russell remarks from his own experience that "honesty and 
fairness " are the best methods to a successful life, with the added 
counsel that "industry and above all the willingness and earnest 
desire to do always a little more than is expected. The faculty of 
not seeing that you are doing a little more than your part; the 
willingness to care for other's interests without thought of recom- 
pense, in my opinion always brings large rewards as well as much 


HARVEY NEWTON SHEPARD, lawyer, was born in the 
North End of Boston, Massachusetts, July 8, 1850. His 
father, William Shepard, was a blacksmith by trade and 
occupation, a man noted for kindness, industry and honesty. He 
married Eliza Crowell, and both husband and wife traced their 
ancestry to emigrants from Boston, England. Harvey Newton 
Shepard was brought up in the city, and early displayed a fondness 
for reading history. The influence of his mother was particularly 
important in developing a love for books and strong moral instincts, 
and his choice of profession was from personal preference. He 
was a pupil in the Eliot Grammar School, prepared for college at 
Wesleyan Academy, Wilbraham, Massachusetts, and graduated 
from Harvard College, A.B. 1871. He then studied in the Harvard 
Law School, but was not graduated, becoming a law student in the 
office of Hillard, Hyde & Dickinson, of Boston in 1873. He paid 
his own way through college and the law school by private tutoring 
and the winning of scholarships. He opened an office for himself in 
1875. He was president of the Boston Common Council, 1880, 
having served previously as a councilman, 1878 and 1879; Repre- 
sentative in the Massachusetts House of Representatives, 1881 and 
1882; first assistant attorney general of Massachusetts, 1883-86, 
and represented the Commonwealth in several law suits, and was 
Fourth of July orator in 1885. He was examiner for the East 
Boston Savings Bank, 1873-80; legislative counsel of the New 
England Telephone and Telegraph Company; and counsel of the 
Trustees of Boston University, Boston Wesleyan Association, and 
other corporations. He was admitted to practice in the United 
States Supreme Court in 1881. He was appointed lecturer in the 
School of Law of Boston University upon Extraordinary Remedies 
and Admiralty in 1904. In 1905 he gave an address before the 
American Bar Association upon Trial by Jury. He served the 
Republican party as a member of the state central committee, 1875- 


C7 CW , 


77, and as president of the Young Men's State Committee, 1879- 
1880. The question of the tariff led him into the Democratic party 
at the time of the candidacy of James G. Blaine and Grover Cleve- 
land and he remained an Independent Democrat and was made chair- 
man of the executive committee of the American Free Trade League. 

His religious affiliation is with the Methodist Episcopal denomi- 
nation. His exercise is walking and mountain climbing. His club 
membership includes the Appalachian Mountain, Union, Boston 
Athletic, Boston Art, and the New England. He has served as 
president of the New England Club, president of the Appalachian 
Mountain Club, chairman of its Trustees of Real Estate, district 
deputy grand master of the first Masonic district, 1883-85; com- 
missioner of trials of the Grand Lodge, 1889-90; deputy grand 
master, counsel to the Boston Athletic Association, and chairman of 
the entertainment committee of the Boston Art Club. He was 
trustee of the Boston Public Library, 1878-79; a member of the ex- 
amining committee, 1888-89; trustee of the Old South Association; 
president of the Eliot school Association, and an officer of many 
other societies and oganizations. He was married November 23, 1873, 
to Fanny May, daughter of Azor and Temperance Woodman, of 
Everett, Massachusetts; and of the five children born of this mar- 
riage four were living in 1908, viz: Grace Florence, Marion, Alice 
Mabel, and Edith May. 

Mr. Shepard offers suggestions to young Americans in these 
words: "That the rule of the people through their elected represen- 
tatives in city, state and nation is the basis of stable and success- 
ful government. To acquire convictions by study and observation 
and to maintain them with courage." 


JOHN SHEPARD, merchant and bank director, was born in 
Canton, Norfolk County, Massachusetts, March 26, 1834. His 
father, John Shepard, 1800-1843, was a son of John and Lucy 
Shepard. Mr. Shepard, in speaking of his childhood and youth, 
says: "I had hard work to get a living, picked berries to sell 
between school hours at nine years old, when father died, and have 
not been out of active work since I was ten years old except through 
sickness. Never went to school after I was ten years old except 
to evening school and earned the money and paid for that myself." 
Mr. Shepard received his rudimentary education by attending the 
Church Hill School at Pawtucket, Rhode Island, where his mother 
resided, and to her he owes much for early moral training and ex- 

When ten years of age he came to Boston, and found his first regu- 
lar employment in the drug-store of J. W. Snow, at fifty cents a week, 
where he remained a faithful and progressive clerk for one year. 
Meantime, he attended the Comers evening school and rapidly ad- 
vanced in his studies. His associates at this early age were much 
older than himself, and he had few companions of his own age. In 
1847 he engaged in the dry goods business as a clerk in the store of 
J. A. Jones, at three dollars a week, and paid a dollar and seventy- 
five cents for board. Here his ambition met its reward by repeated 
promotions. Each year he had his salary advanced one dollar per 
week, and at nineteen years of age he was made partner with J. A. 
Jones in the store next to the one where he was clerk. One year 
later he bought out Mr. Jones, paying him $1000 bonus for his lease, 
and giving his notes for the stock of $3000 on three, six and nine 
months, which were paid before they were due, and at the end of that 
year he had a profit of $3300. In 1861 he bought out the old estab- 
lished concern of Bell, Thwing & Company, on Tremont Row, and 
with his partner, Mr. Farley, established the firm of Farley & Shep- 
ard. In 1865 the firm dissolved, and Mr. Shepard, with unusual 




foresight, determined to change his location to Winter Street, then 
an outlying district, but destined to be a business thoroughfare. 
In making this change he determined to secure as partners the most 
experienced men in the trade, and to that end he invited Henry 
Norwell, salesman of Hogg, Brown & Taylor, and T. C. Brown, sales- 
man of Jordan, Marsh & Company, and opened one of the finest dry 
goods stores in Boston. When Mr. Brown withdrew from the firm, 
Mr. Shepard secured Robert Ferguson, an expert salesman of A. T. 
Stewart & Company, of New York City, to take his place, and the 
house of Shepard, Norwell & Company went on its successful career 
with no further change except a continuous increase in the working 
force and floor space necessary to carry on the volume of business 
that came to them. 

Mr. Shepard was twice married; first, January 1, 1856, to Susan 
Ann, daughter of Perkins H. and Charlotte (White) Bagley,of Boston, 
and they established a home on North Russell Street, Boston. Six 
.children were born of this marriage, a son and a daughter only living 
in 1908. The son, John Shepard, Jr., married Flora E., daughter 
of General A. P. Martin, subsequently mayor of Boston; and he 
became the head of the dry goods corporation of The Shepard 
Company, Providence, Rhode Island; and the daughter, Jessie Wat- 
son Shepard, married William G. Titcomb, son of ex-mayor A. C. 
Titcomb, of Newburyport. Mr. Shepard was married secondly, 
September 11, 1890, to Mary J., daughter of Hannah Herbert (Tit- 
comb) Ingraham, of Newburyport. He is a Republican in politics 
and has never deserted the party. He is affiliated with the Protes- 
tant Episcopal Church. 

His summer home "Edgewater" is a picturesque estate, with 
ample grounds and commodious stables on Phillips Beach, Swamp- 
scott, Massachusetts, where Mr. Shepard has accumulated a string of 
fast trotting horses. His chief relaxation from the care of business 
is driving in the summer over the fine roads of Essex County, and in 
the winter over the superior boulevard drives of the suburbs of Bos- 
ton, where he is a familiar figure on the road and the recognized 
dean of the fraternity of owners and drivers of fast-stepping trotting 
horses. His stables turned out many horses whose names became 
familiar in trotting records. "Old Trot" was well known to all 
horsemen. Aldine became the property of W. H. Vanderbilt in 
exchange for a check for $15,000, and as a mate of Maud S. made 


a mile in 2.15i He sold Dick Swiveller to Frank Work for $12,000. 
His team Mill Boy and Blondine made in 1881 a mile in 2.22, the 
world's record for a team. 

Mr. Shepard is a director of the Boston Chamber of Commerce; 
of the American Pneumatic Service Company; of the Boston 
Pneumatic Transit Company; of the Commercial National Bank 
of Boston; of the New York Mail and Newspaper Transportation 
Company; of the Lampson Store Service Company; of the Boston 
Club and of the Brigham Hospital for Incurables; and a mem- 
ber of the Beacon Society; the Algonquin Club and the Tedesco 
Country Club of Swampscott, of which he is a trustee. He is a 
director of the Association for the Promotion of the Adult Blind, and 
director and chairman of the finance committee of the Boston Young 
Men's Christian Association. He is also a member of the Boston 
Merchants' Association and of other business men's organizations. 
On June 21, 1905, Tufts College conferred on him the honorary 
degree of Master of Arts. To young men Mr. Shepard says: "Be 
temperate in all your habits. Be honest, truthful, thrifty, full of 
energy, ambition and determination to succeed and you certainly 
will. My advice to young people is never to do anything that they 
cannot talk over with their father or mother. If they keep this in 
mind they will never do anything wrong." 









*5, iT ^ fl^//,„„s 3Br« j-^ 




THE above-named man, widely known in the drug-trade of 
New England as S. A. D. Sheppard, was born in Manchester, 
Massachusetts, July 16, 1842. He was the son of Samuel 
Sheppard and Anna M. Marchbank, and his grandfathers were 
David Sheppard and Robert Marchbank. They were descendants 
from well-known families in the north of Ireland. The grandfather 
was at one time captain of an Orangemen's band. 

The father of Mr. Sheppard was an upholsterer by trade and a 
man of fine repute. He was known far and near as a gentle, even- 
tempered and consistent Christian, held in high respect in the com- 
munity and warmest affection by his family, and exerting upon them 
by his life a most powerful influence for good. 

Mr. Sheppard was exceedingly fond of books, especially those 
treating of mathematics, chemistry and botany. Schools and 
teachers were to him a constant delight. His mother was a very 
energetic woman, and she taught her children to love good, hard, 
effective work. Success in life, Mr. Sheppard thinks, for him, has 
largely come from his mother's indomitable energy, and his father's 
goodness. His education was not beset with very great difficulties. 
He was able to pass through the ordinary schools, and graduate 
from the High and Classical Schools of Salem, Massachusetts, at the 
age of sixteen. In 1874 he successfully completed his course of 
study in the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy. Later he became 
an honorary member of the California College of Pharmacy, and the 
Ohio State Pharmaceutical Association. 

In 1858 jMr. Sheppard entered the drug-store of Browne and 
Price, Salem, and remained with them ten years. In 1868 he went 
into business for himself, and is still in the harness in the same loca- 
tion where he started his personal business career. 

He has held the responsible positions of president, secretary, 
treasurer and trustee of the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy, and 
is now chairman of the trustees of the funds of the college. He 


was the first president of the Massacliusetts State Pharmaceutical 
Association, and bears the unusual distinction of being the only 
person elected to this office a second term. He was six years mem- 
ber of Council, and chairman of Finance Committee, and twenty- 
one years treasurer of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 
He was also trustee of Boston Penny Saving Bank, director of South 
End National Bank, and Trustee of the United States Pharmacopoe- 
ical Convention. He served two years as alderman and two years 
on the Board of Health, of the city of Newton, Massachusetts, and 
was appointed to Board of Pharmacy when the board was estab- 
lished by Governor Robinson. 

Mr. Sheppard is a Mason, and has held a number of offices in 
the Blue Lodge and Royal Arch Chapter. In politics, he is a Re- 
publican. His religious affiliations are with the Baptist denomina- 
tion, and in early years he was an active worker in the Young Men's 
Christian Association, and in Sunday school affairs. 

Boating and golf are favorite pastimes for Mr. Sheppard, and he 
commends the latter as the best of out-of-door sports for young and 

In 1869, September 2, Mr. Sheppard was married to Emma J., 
daughter of Oliver D. and Emeline S. Kimball, of Boston, who died 
in 1888; and on September 18, 1890, he married Helen M. Pettingell, 
Salem, daughter of Charles C. and Fannie B. Pettingell. Of the 
first union three children were born, all of whom are living: Clara S., 
wife of E. E. Blake, Saco, Maine; Robert K., of the American Steel 
and Wire Company, Philadelphia; Harwood A., a clerk in San Fran- 
cisco, California. 

Added to all the busy years of official and private enterprise, 
Mr. Sheppard was the one who alone secured for the Massachusetts 
College of Pharmacy the I\Iary Jane Aldrich fund, now of about 
$10,000, and the Warren B. Potter fund of $200,000. 

To the youth of America, Mr. Sheppard gives the following most 
excellent advice: "Learn to work in early life. Get into the habit 
of work during the formative period. Select some one course and 
stick to it, make it your specialty, love it. , Get yourself into right 
conditions, physically, mentally, morally, spiritually, and other 
good things will follow. Be an optimist every time. He who spends 
less than he earns and is content has found the ' philosopher's stone.' " 

, £: £- wMa-ts 3 Bra Ny 



THO^IAS SHERWIN, president of the New England Tele- 
phone and Telegraph Company, was born in Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, July 11, 1839. His father, Thomas Sherwin, was 
a son of David Sherwin, of Westmoreland, New Hampshire, who 
served in Stark's brigade during the Revolution, and took part in 
the Battle of Bennington. 

Thomas Sherwin, Sr., was graduated at Harvard College in 1825. 
A distinguished scholar and instructor, he was long and widely 
known as the principal of the English High School, of Boston, which, 
under his direction during more than thirty years, became one of 
the leading educational institutions of the country. He was one 
of the originators and a president of both the American Institute 
of Instruction, and the Massachusetts State Teachers' Association; 
one of the original editors of the M as sachii sett's Teacher; a prominent 
member of the government of the IMassachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, and a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 
He was the author of two valuable text-books on algebra. He mar- 
ried Mary King, daughter of Colonel Daniel L. and Mary (King) Gib- 
bens, of Boston. Their sons, Henry and Thomas Sherwin, are still 
living. Edward died in September, 1907. 

Thomas Sherwin, the subject of this sketch, was prepared for 
college at the Dedham High and Boston Latin Schools, and gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1860. During his college course he taught a 
winter school at Medfield, and for the year after graduation was 
master of the Houghton High School in the town of Bolton, Massa- 

Upon the breaking out of the Civil War he enlisted with other 
young men of Bolton and the adjoining towns, and was elected 
captain of the company, which for a time formed part of the Fifteenth 
Massachusetts Regiment. He was later commissioned adjutant of 
the Twenty-second Massachusetts Regiment, and took part in most 
of the battles of the Army of the Potomac, with his regiment, until 


the expiration of its term of service in October, 1864, being severely 
wounded in the battle of Gaines' Mill, Virginia, June 27, 1862. 

On the following day he was promoted to be major, and on 
October 17, 1862, to be lieutenant-colonel of his regiment. He 
commanded the regiment during most of the campaign of 1863-64, 
and for a short time acted as division inspector of the First Division, 
Fifth Army Corps. 

He received the commissions of colonel and brigadier-general 
of United States Volunteers, by brevet, for gallant services at Gettys- 
burg, and at Peebles' Farm, Virginia, and for meritorious service 
during the war. 

He resumed for a time the profession of teaching, and was for 
one year an instructor in the English High School. In June, 1866, 
he was appointed Deputy Surveyor of Customs at Boston, and held 
that position till 1875, when he was elected to the newly established 
office of City Collector of Boston. 

In March, 1883, he became auditor of the American Bell Tele- 
phone Company. In 1885 he was elected president of the New 
England Telephone and Telegraph Company, which position he 
now holds. 

General Sherwin is a member of the Union, St. Botolph and 
other clubs in Boston, and the University Club, of New York. 

He was commander of the Massachusetts Commandery of the 
Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States, 1892-93. 
He was the first commander of the Charles W. Carroll Post, Grand 
Army of the Republic, in Dedham, and for some years assistant 
adjutant-general, department of Massachusetts, G. A. R. 

He was married, January 18, 1870, to Isabel Fiske, daughter 
of Hon. Thomas McKee and Mary H. (Fiske) Edwards, of Keene, 
New Hampshire. 

Their children are Eleanor, born February 14, 1871; Thomas 
Edwards, May 15, 1872; Mary King, September 16, 1874; Robert 
Waterston, March 3, 1878; Anne Isabel, September 9, 1880, and 
Edward Vassall, February 4, 1885. 

Eleanor (Sherwin) Goodwin, is the widow of the late William 
Hobbs Goodwin, of Dedham. Their children are William H., Isabel 
and Eleanor Goodwin. Mary King Sherwin was married in June, 
1907, to Philip H. Lee Warner, of London, England. 




CHARLES FRANCIS SMITH, the son of Charles Augustus 
and Eliza Abigail (Jennerson) Smith, was born at Charles- 
town, now a part of Boston, Massachusetts, July 3, 1832. 
His immediate ancestors possessed the strong characteristics of strict 
integrity, unflinching adherence to duty and deep respect for law, 
and these qualities they transmitted to the subject of this sketch. 
Moses Jennerson, his maternal great-grandfather was a soldier in 
the Continental Army and rendered very efficient service. 

Mr. Smith was educated in the local public schools until, at the 
age of fourteen, he decided to make his own way in life. He secured 
a position as boy in a store in Boston, and immediately began to 
show those admirable qualities which have been characteristic of 
him throughout his life. Honest, faithful and industrious, he was 
early marked for promotion. He soon found employment in a bank- 
ing interest, and from that time his rise was steady and notable. 

For four years he was teller of the Eagle National Bank; for 
thirty-eight years he served successively as teller, cashier and manag- 
ing director of the Continental National Bank of Boston; and for 
five years he was vice-president of the Colonial National Bank. 
For the past four years he has been treasurer of the Commonwealth 
Trust Company, and at present holds the same position with the 
Oliver Ditson Company. Having acquired a reputation as a care- 
ful manager of financial institutions, he has been selected in a num- 
ber of instances to serve as trustee for large estates. 

The public service is alv*^ays open to men of the character and 
the ability of Mr. Smith. Therefore, in spite of his modest depre- 
cation of political ambition and the numerous and serious calls on 
his time and energy, we find him often serving his native city. He 
was for fifteen years a member of the school board, for three years 
president of the Common Council, and for three years a member of 
the board of aldermen. The good-will which he won and the emi- 
nent success which followed his efforts in these responsible offices 


naturally brought him into prominence as a candidate for the 
mayoralty of Charlestown, but he found that its duties would inter- 
fere too seriously with his business engagements, and he declined 
further political honors. He had never identified himself particu- 
larly with any political party but held himself rather in an attitude 
of independence. 

Following the example of his mother, a devout Unitarian, whose 
influence was paramount with him, Mr. Smith has been a consistent 
member of that denomination. He has membership also in the 
Bunker Hill Monument Association; the Bostonian Society; the 
Boston Art Club; and the Oliver Ditson Society for the Relief of 
Needy Musicians. In Masonry he has served as trustee in King 
Solomon's Lodge. 

The beauty of Mr. Smith's home life was — and still is, though 
his children have grown up and gone out to make homes of their 
own — very charming and inspiring. His marriage to Lois B. 
(daughter of Samuel and Nancy) Emery, of Bangor, Maine, in June, 
1859, was blessed by a family of eight children. Of the seven sur- 
viving children, five are now happily married and many grand- 
children rise up to call Mr. and Mrs. Smith "blessed." Of Mr. 
Smith's sons, one is, like his father, in banking, and another in the 
boot and shoe interest. 

By sound judgment and signal business success he has achieved 
the highest standing in Boston's business and financial world. 
Finally, by a long and consistently upright life, he has shown him- 
self to be one of Boston's best men. Such men, modest, full of 
the characteristic quiet American humor, affectionate in domestic 
relations, faithful to all trusts, and advanced and liberal in thought, 
make the prosperity of their localities and insure the stability 
of the Commonwealth. 

■ iyS-^M/iH^Tis ^Bm A^j:' 



IN the year 1629 the Reverend Thomas Storer was vicar of the 
small Lincolnshire parish of Bilsby. His sympathies were with 
the Puritan party in the Established Church, and this was a 
season of sore trial and discomfort to those of the Puritan way of 
thinking. Archbishop Land was at this time zealously endeavoring 
to enforce uniformity in the church, and to stamp out Puritanism. 
It was becoming very evident that if the Puritans wished to enjoy 
their faith without molestation they must leave England in order to do 
so. Accordingly all over England, but more especially in the eastern 
counties from Lincolnshire to Kent, the Puritans were considering if 
they should not cast their lot with those of their brethren who had 
already immigrated to the New World. The great migration that 
continued from 1630 till the Civil War in 1642 had not yet begun, 
but here and there persons were quitting their ancestral homes for 
the bleak shores of Massachusetts Bay. Among those was the son 
of the vicar of Bilsby, Augustine Storer, who arrived in the New 
World with his wife and his brother-in-law. Rev. John Wheelwright, 
in 1629, the first of his name to cross the Atlantic. 

Among his descendants were Woodbury Storer, Chief Justice 
of the Court of Common Pleas at Portland, Maine, in the early part 
of the nineteenth century, and his son, David Humphrey Storer, the 
grandfather of the subject of this sketch, a Boston physician of note, 
born March 26, 1804, and died September 10, 1891. From 1854 to 
1868 he was dean of the Harvard Medical School, and was at one 
time president of the American Medical Association. He was also 
a distinguished naturalist and the author of several works on Ichthy- 
ology. He married Abby Jane Brewer (born October 18, 1810; died 
April 27, 1885). Two of their sons rose to distinction in their respec- 
tive lines of research. Francis Humphreys Storer became a chemist, 
and was a professor of agricultural chemistry at Harvard University 
and dean of the Bussey Institute, and the elder, the father of the 
subject of this sketch, was Horatio Robinson Storer, a physician 


and surgeon of note. He was born February 27, 1830, and married 
Emily Elvira Gilmore, born November 2, 1833 and died February 27, 
1872. She was a person of much strength of character as well as 
sweetness of disposition, and although at her death her son John 
was but a boy of eleven years her influence over his moral and 
religious nature had already made itself deeply felt. 

Research amid the annals of the Storer family will reveal many 
names of men who rose to importance in the Colonial period; not a 
few of them were clergymen, several were members of the Great and 
General Court, others served in the early Colonial Wars or in the war 
of the American Revolution, and one was the famous Governor 
Thomas Dudley. A few among the many individuals more or less 
closely connected with the Storer ancestry and who were among the 
earliest of New England settlers, were Edward Starbuck, who came 
to the Bay Colony from Derbyshire in 1629; Tristram Coffin who came 
in 1642; William Woodbury who settled in Salem in 1626; Rev. 
William Walton who came to Hingham in 1635 ; William Patten who 
settled in Cambridge in 1635; Richard Dodge who established him- 
self in Salem in 1629; Edward Spalding who came to Braintree in 
1630; Francis Littlefield, who settled in Woburn in 1635; and John 
Spofford who came to Rowley in 1638; Roger Conant, Plymouth, 
1623; John Thorndike, Boston, 1632. 

Dr. Horatio Storer was the owner of a fine country place at Milton, 
Massachusetts, and his son John, as a boy, liked nothing better than 
to engage in various kinds of farm work. Nor were his activities 
confined wholly to the out-door life of the farm, for carpentry was a 
favorite amusement of his and he spent long hours with saw and 
plane amid the fragrant shavings of the carpenter shop connected 
with the country establishment. Sports of various character de- 
lighted his boyhood, as the games of golf has its charm for him in 
later life, while his reading of history and the study of numismatics 
were other cherished pursuits of his youth. 

Naturally, from the prominence of his family in the community 
and their ample means, the boy John experienced no difficulties in 
the way of acquiring an education other than those incident to the 
pursuit of knowledge everywhere. He was sent to Saint Mark's 
School at Southborough, Massachusetts, passed a year in study at 
Frankfort-on-the-Main in Germany, and graduated from Harvard 
University with the degree of A.B. in 1882. At the bidding of his 


own preference, he decided upon the law as his profession in life 
and after three years of study at the Harvard Law School received 
its degree of LL.B. in 1885. His entrance into active life may be 
said to have begun even before his graduation, for while in the Law 
School he was accustomed to spend his summer vacation studying 
law in the offices of Ropes, Gray & Loring. Since then he has 
devoted himself principally to real estate and the management of 
trust property, and for ten years, from 1885 to 1895, he was in part- 
nership with Richard M. Bradley, under the firm name of Bradley 
& Storer. 

His political allegiance has been given to the Republican party 
ever since he became interested in politics at all, but he has never 
held any political office. He is a loyal member of the Episcopal 
Church and has been for seven years the senior warden of Christ 
Church, Waltham, in which pleasant city he makes his home. 

A man of many clubs Mr. Storer is president of the Episcopalian 
Club of Massachusetts; a member of the Union, Exchange, St. Botolph, 
Boston City; Essex County, and Oakley Country Clubs; as well as 
the Boston Athletic Association, and the New York Athletic Club; 
the Massachusetts State Automobile Association and the Ameri- 
can Automobile Association; the National Geographical Society; 
the American Academy of Political and Social Science; the Ameri- 
can Institute of Civics; the Bostonian Society; the Economic Club; 
the Society of Colonial Wars and the University Club of New York; 
the Harvard Club of New York, the Harvard Club of Boston. In 
former years he was also secretary of the Harvard Club of Rhode 
Island, and treasurer of the Puritan Club of Boston. 

The list of Mr. Storer's positions of trust and responsibility is 
a long one, including directorships in the Boston Cooperative Building 
Company; Boston Water Power Company; Brooklyn Associates; 
Brooklyn Development Company; Greater New York Development 
Company; Harwood Construction Company; Kingsboro Realty 
Company; Montague Builders Supply Company; New England 
Watch and Ward Society; New York Suburbs Company; Point 
Shirley Company; Tuckahoe Associates; Realty Company; State 
Street Trust Company; Wood Harmon Bond Company; Wood 
Harmon Richmond Realty Company; Workingmen's Building Associ- 
ation and Workingmen's Loan Association, as well as trusteeship 
in the Boston Suburban Development Trust; Church Avenue Real 


Estate Association; Merchants Real Estate Trust; Staten Island 
Associates; Winthrop Development Trust; Wood Harmon Associ- 
ates; Wood Harmon Real Estate Association and. Wood Harmon 
Real Estate Trustees. It should be added that Mr. Storer is also 
the treasurer of six of these corporations, and secretary of three 
more. He likewise holds trusteeship in the Peoples Institute; the 
Robert Treat Paine Association and the Wells Memorial Institute; 
and is a director of the Episcopal City Mission and of the New Eng- 
land Watch and Ward Society. 

On the eighteenth of November, 1885, Mr. Storer married Miss 
Edith Paine, a daughter of the widely-known Boston philanthropist, 
Robert Treat Paine, and his wife, Lydia (Lyman) Paine. Mrs. 
Storer is a descendant of Thomas Paine who came to Salem from 
England in 1634, her paternal grandparents being Charles Jackson 
Paine and Fanny Cabot Jackson Paine, while on the maternal side 
she was a granddaughter of George W. Lyman, of Waltham, Massa- 
chusetts, and Anne Pratt Lyman. Six children, three sons and 
three daughters, have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Storer, the eldest 
of them, Emily Storer, being a student at Bryn Mawr College and 
the next oldest, John Humphreys Storer, Jr., a student at Harvard 
College. The other children are Edith, Robert Treat Paine, Theo- 
dore Lyman and Lydia Lyman. 

So far as success in his life-work is concerned, Mr. Storer is in- 
clined to consider that constant association from his earliest youth 
with men of high ideals has been the strongest influence in forming 
his character, and next after this the various influences of home and 
school and study in private. Absolute integrity, energy, self restraint 
and a serene but intelligent optimism he considers the basis of suc- 
cess, and he believes that every man should perform whatever tasks 
demand his attention to the best of his ability, and that one who 
lives nobly and realizes that all things are ordered for the best, can 
never fall short of what constitutes real and lasting success. 




EDWARD AUGUSTINE TAFT was born at Uxbridge, Massa- 
chusetts, April 8, 1845. His father, Augustine C. Taft, was a 
physician, whose early death, at the age of forty, was an in- 
estimable loss. His mother was Dora Millett Taylor, daughter of 
the famous Rev. Edward T. Taylor the "Father Taylor" of the 
Seaman's Bethel, M-hose originality, eloquence and wit amounted 
to positive genius. He received an education first at a school at 
Framingham and afterwards at boarding school at Hopedale. In 
1861, at the age of sixteen, he enlisted in the United States Navy, and 
was appointed paymaster's clerk and, attracting attention by his 
quickness and accuracy, was promoted as captain's clerk. He 
served on the United States Gunboat Cambridge and the United 
States Sloop of War Tuscarora. The Cambridge arrived at 
Hampton Roads on the eighth of March, 1862, when the famous 
Merrimac appeared and destroyed the Cumberland and Congress. 
The Cambridge proceeded under orders from the commanding offi- 
cer to tow the sailing frigate St. Lawrence to its position for action 
against the Merrimac off Newport News. They found the Cum- 
berland and Congress sunk and the Minnesota aground as a result of 
the first day's encounter. On the next day he, with the other 
members of the crew, witnessed the tremendous and epoch-making 
encounter betw^een the Monitor and the Merrimac. 

At the end of the war, in 1865, he entered the express business 
with the Merchants' Union Express Company until it was absorbed 
by the American Express Company. In 1872 he undertook the 
organization of the New York and Boston Despatch Company in 
which at various periods he has been manager, vice-president and 
president until the end of 1905, when he removed to New York. 
During that third of a century he was indefatigable in organizing 
and incorporating various other companies for the purpose of engag- 
ing in the carrying business, all of which have been notably success- 
ful. In 1878 he was one of the incorporators of the Kinsley Express 


Company, of which he was director and president. In 1882 he was 
the organizer and one of the incorporators of the Armstrong Trans- 
fer Express Company of Boston, and was a director and its general 
manager until 1889 when he resigned. In 1886 he was the organ- 
izer and one of the incorporators of the Boston Cab Company, which 
eight years later was reorganized and incorporated as the Charles S. 
Brown Company, and in this he is director and president. This 
same year he became one of the board of managers of the Erie Ex- 
press Company, a joint stock association, the business of which 
was afterwards merged in the Wells-Fargo & Company's Express. 
He is a director in the Rand-Avery Supply Company. 

In 1887 he was one of the incorporators of the Boston Parcel 
Delivery Company and has since been director and president. In 
1905 he resigned his position as director-president and general 
manager of the New York and Boston Despatch Express Company 
in order to accept an appointment of assistant to the president of the 
Adams Express Company. On April 23, 1908, effective May 1, 1908, 
Mr. Taft was appointed manager of express departments of the 
New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad Company, Central 
New England Railway Company, the New England Navigation 
Company, the Hartford and New York Transportation Company, 
the Connecticut Company, the New York and Stamford Railway 
Company, the Rhode Island Company, with offices in South Station, 

The exigencies of such wide-spread and yet concentrated inter- 
ests have not prevented him from taking a part in social life. He is 
a member of the New England Society of New York; the Merchants' 
Club in New York City; of the Algonquin Club of Boston; the Country 
Club of Brookline; the Beverly Yacht Club, and the Old Colony Club. 
He was married in May, 1870, to Adelaide Larrabbee, and has three 
children, two daughters, Mrs. Alice Taft Herrick, Mrs. Cora 
Taft Bryan and a son Edward Augustine, Jr., who is now engaged 
in the practice of the law. 

Mr. Taft is a conspicuous example of a successful specialist. 
When the history of the express business in this country comes to 
be written, Mr. Taft's share in its organization will be found to be 
one of its factors. 


WATERMAN ALLEN TAFT was born at Crown Point, 
Essex County, New York, on August 11, 1849. His 
father, Albert Taft, was a farmer, and carpenter and 
builder, and later in life active as a manufacturer of doors, sashes, 
blinds and general house finish. His mother was Mary Ann (Cum- 
mings) Taft. The Taft family in this country runs back to the 
pioneers of New England, and Albert Taft and his son are descended 
from Robert Taft, who came from England to Uxbridge, Massachu- 
setts, about 1650. 

Waterman Allen Taft lived as a boy on the farm of his father, 
who was an active, aggressive, persevering man — a man who be- 
lieved in incessant industry and practised it. This farm life was a 
good schooling. The experience was good for character and habits. 
The associations brought a knowledge of human nature, and the 
regular daily tasks, though they seemed irksome sometimes to a 
lively boy, were the best foundations for a business career. 

Young Taft had to struggle for his education and appreciated it 
none the less on that account. He was helped and encouraged by 
his mother, who taught him, too, that though learning was a valu- 
able thing it was, after all, not so indispensable as sound and whole- 
some character. The boy attended the Hudson River Institute at 
Claverack, New York, and Castleton Seminary at Castleton, Vermont, 
but he did not graduate. He left school at fifteen years of age and 
began his business life. From the time he was fifteen until he was 
eighteen young Taft remained in the country store at Crown Point. 
Then a new field attracted him, and he went to Whitehall, New York, 
and worked as a telegraph operator, first there and then at Platts- 
burg, New York, and subsequently at 145 Broadway, New York 
City. From the age of tAventy to twenty-three he was engaged in 
a general house finish factory at Burlington, Vermont. 

At twenty-three Mr. Taft connected himself with the large house 
of Bronsons, Weston, Dunham & Company, of Burlington, Vermont, 


and Ottawa, Canada, to learn the general lumber business. He 
remained with this large house for seventeen years, serving in various 
capacities and finally undertaking the management of the Boston 
office of the house and the general direction of their sales. In 1889 
Mr. Taft resigned and took an interest with the Export Lumber 
Company, of New York, Boston, Montreal and Ottawa, Canada — 
an extensive concern whose operations covered a wide area. 

In later years this company became interested, through some of 
the wealthy principals, in business foreign to the lumber industry, 
which, through unforeseen circumstances, necessitated a general re- 
organization of the interests involved, which resulted in receivership 
proceedings in 1902, at which time Mr. Taft, who for many years had 
been a leading figure in the operations of the company, was appointed 
receiver for the purpose of liquidation. The affairs of the Export 
Lumber Company under his able management have been conducted 
in such an efficient manner that with the approach of a final adjust- 
ment of its affairs the creditors of that company express themselves 
as extremely gratified at the prospect of receiving their entire claims 
in full. Mr. Taft and his associates have now organized a new Export 
Lumber Company, of which he is the president. 

Mr. Taft holds a commanding position in the lumber trade and 
has a wide acquaintance among the strong business men of Boston. 
He is a member of the Algonquin Club and of the Exchange Club of 
Boston, Mr Taft is also a member of the Oakley Country Club of 
Watertown, of the Hermitage Country Club of Worcester, and 
the Down Town Club of New York City. He is a Republican in 
politics and is affiliated with the Congregational Church. He is 
particularly fond of horesback riding, golf and automobiling. 

Mr. Taft was married on December 5, 1878, to Sarah E., daughter 
of James and Clara J. Doughty, a descendant of Edward Doughty, 
one of the famous company of the Mayflower, who came from 
Plymouth in the Old World to Plymouth in the New, in 1620. 
Mr. and Mrs. Taft have three children, Clara Cummings Taft, now 
Mrs. R. S. Farr, Helen Taft and W. Allen Taft, Jr. The son has 
followed his father in the lumber business. 

Like most men of deeds, Mr. Taft is not a man of many words. 
His counsel to the young is summed up vividly in this: "The price 
of success is natural ability, character, health, system, economy 
and eternal vigilance." 

ITn^ iL/ E C W;7/iams d,Bro Ny 

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GEORGE ARNOLD TORREY, lawyer, corporation counsel, 
State Senator, was born in Fitchburg, Worcester County, 
Massachusetts, May 14, 1838. His father, Ebenezer Torrey, 
son of John and Sally Torrey, was a lawyer, bank president. State 
Representative and Senator, member of the governor's council, 
treasurer of the City of Fitchburg, a man of integrity, ability and 
industry. His first American ancestor, Captain William Torrey, 
came from Weymouth, England, in 1640, with his wife, Jane (Havi- 
land) Torrey and settled in Wessugausett, Plymouth Colony, Massa- 
chusetts, being among the earlier settlers. He was a prominent 
man in the colony, serving as representative and as commissioner 
of the peace. Ebenezer Torrey married Sarah, daughter of William 
and Hannah Arnold, of Smithfield, Rhode Island. 

George Arnold Torrey was brought up in the village of Fitchburg. 
He was largely influenced for good by the excellent example of his 
mother, as well as by her precepts and superior wisdom. He at- 
tended the public schools and Leicester Academy, where he was 
prepared for college; and he was graduated at Harvard University, 
A.B. 1859; LL.B., 1861; A.M., 1862; delivering an oration at Com- 
mencement; and being elected, by virtue of his standing in the class, 
a member of the Phi Beta Kappa Society. He was married June 
21, 1861, to Ellen M. Shirley, daughter of Daniel H. and Charlotte 
E. Shirley, of Boston. They had no children. 

Mr. Torrey took the place of his father as a partner with Nathaniel 
Wood, at that time one of the leading lawyers in Worcester County, 
The firm of Wood and Torrey had a large and successful practice, 
and continued until 1873 when Mr. Torrey removed to Boston where 
he has since practised alone. The general practice of the firm soon 
developed into the more specific channels of corporation and railroad 
law, to which Mr. Torrey has successfully devoted himself since the 
dissolution of the firm. In 1887 he was elected general counsel of 
the Fitchburg Railroad Company, and had the exclusive manage- 


ment of the legal business of that corporation until the lease of the 
road to the Boston and Maine Railroad in 1900, since which period 
he has served as consulting counsel for the latter corporation. He 
has been counsel in many of the leading railroad cases in Massa- 
chusetts, and has gained an enviable reputation and high standing 
at the bar. 

He was a member of the Massachusetts Senate from Worcester 
County in 1872-73, serving as a member of the committee on judici- 
ary and towns in the former year, and as chairman of the committee 
on judiciary and federal relations in 1873. He took a prominent 
part in the enactment of the general railroad law in 1872, and at a 
special session which was convened on account of the great Boston 
fire in the same year. 

He was one of the directors of the Boston, Clinton and Fitchburg 
Railroad, now a part of the Old Colony system. 

His religious affiliation is with the Unitarian denomination and 
his social affiliation with the Algonquin Club of Boston. 


EDGAR VAN ETTEN, president of the Cuba Eastern Railroad, 
and also president of the Long Acre Electric Light and Power 
Company, of New York, is a descendant of early colonists 
who left their ancient homesteads in Etten, Holland, about 1650, 
to cross the seas, landing at Esopus, New York. 

EdgarVan Etten, born at Milford, Pike County, Pennsylvania, April 
15, 1843, was the son of Amos and Lydia (Thrall) Van Etten. Hisfather 
was a merchant of the old school, "Live and let live; give and for- 
give, "was his favorite saying, and to a great extent his rule of living. 

His son enjoyed a home life in which physical comfort and refine- 
ment went hand in hand with a sincere religious sentiment and love 
of practical knowledge. A certain amount of work was expected 
and willingly given, and athletic sports and fishing were his favorite 
out-of-door diversions. He was an omnivorous reader, with per- 
haps an especial liking for the works of Dickens. He found the 
study of the Bible both interesting and instructive. In his opinion 
it is "the best book that a young man can read." 

At an early age he took up the duties of a clerk in a general store 
and served thus until the great Civil War broke out, when he at 
once became a soldier of the Union. Before he had reached the 
age of eighteen he was commissioned lieutenant and was engaged, 
or with the troops held in reserve, in most of the great battles of the 
Army of the Potomac. 

At the close of his service, circumstances and a personal prefer- 
ence for railroad life impelled him to engage as a brakeman on the 
old Erie Railroad. From this position Mr. Van Etten rose, by his 
ability and ambition, his conscientious service and personal and 
prompt performance of duty, his uniform consideration for the feel- 
ings and rights of others during forty years of railroading, to his 
present prominence. Nearly twenty years of his railroad life has 
been with the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad, which 
he served as general superintendent and vice-president, resigning the 
latter position January 1, 1908, to become president of an Electric 


Lighting and Power Plant in New York City. In the long period 
so utterly devoted to one great specialty, it is natural that Mr. Van 
Etten's inventive powers should concentrate on contrivances to 
improve or expedite railroad transportation. Several patents for 
improvements of this kind have been taken out by Mr. Van Etten. 
His literary tastes have, for the most part, been rather those of a 
reader than a writer, but Mr. Van Etten is now engaged upon an 
autobiographical work "Reminiscences of a Railroad Man," which 
will have a general interest outside of the army of trained and 
intelligent men who manage the great transportation systems. 

Mr. Van Etten is a member of the Holland Society of New York, 
and holds in reverence the memories of those devoted Hollanders 
who dared and suffered so much for a free kirk and the rights of free 
men. He is also affiliated with the Colonial, Transportation, and 
Ardsley Country Clubs. He is a member of the Algonquin, Eastern 
Yacht, and Brookline Country Clubs, of Boston, Massachusetts. 

Mr. Van Etten is never happier than when enjoying manly sport; 
such things have kept him young, fearless, self-reliant and ready 
for aught that may befall. 

Mr. Van Etten is a Democrat in politics, but is ever ready to ignore 
an unworthy candidate or oppose a mischievous policy. In religion 
his family traditions and affiliations are naturally with the Reformed 
Dutch Church, but Mr. Van Etten himself leans toward the Uni- 
tarian belief. 

He married, in 1864, Miss Emma Laurence, of Port Jervis, New 
York, who died in 1895, leaving two daughters, now Mrs. Charles 
Riselay, of Somerville, and Mrs. Charles Slanson, of Chicago. On 
June 30, 1897, he married Frances, daughter of Rev. and Mrs. Ezra 
Cramblett. There are no living children born of this union. 

Mr. Van Etten gratefully bears testimony to the influence of his 
mother, Lydia (Thrall) Van Etten, in directing and inspiring his 
intellectual acquirements, and the formation of his moral and spiritual 
tendencies. Her love, ambition, and encouragement not only 
founded all that made for sterling character, but implanted mem- 
ories which were a tower of defense against temptation. 

Mr. Van Etten's words of advice to the young are: "Live by the 
Golden Rule and let your success stand upon this, together with ability 
and ambition; be just, conscientious, and interested in your work; 
' Always taking the message to Garcia yourself instead of sending it.'" 


GEORGE WASHINGTON WELLS is descended from English 
stock. Both his paternal and maternal ancestors came 
from England less than a score of years after the historic 
landing of the Mayflower. The doings of the generations of the 
Wells and Cheney families are chronicled with all detail in the pub- 
lished genealogical records. Mr. Wells's grandfather, Henry Wells, 
was a captain in the Continental Army and his great-grandfather, 
Batchelder, on his mother's side, was also a Revolutionary soldier. 
His father, John Ward Wells, who died in 1872, at the age of 
seventy-eight, was a carpenter, surveyor and farmer, a man of 
strong, active and decided mind, extremely fond of mathematics 
and a great reader. He lived in Woodstock, Connecticut, where his 
son, George Washington, was born April 15, 1846, the youngest of 
nine children. At the age of four years, a severely sprained ankle, 
followed by a fever sore, confined him to the house for a year, and 
compelled him to go on crutches for nearly eight years more. Dur- 
ing this period his mother, Maria Cheney Wells, died, leaving him to 
the charge of his sister Lizzie, who was a mother to him ever after. 
Her later life was spent at his home in Southbridge, where she died 
October 13, 1905, aged seventy-two years. At the age of thirteen 
he had a severe run of typhoid fever, which held him for three 

His education consisted substantially of six terms in the district 
school and one term at Woodstock Academy. His youth was largely 
employed in farm work; and when he was sixteen, his father being 
disabled, the responsibility of carrying on the farm rested wholly 
on his shoulders for two seasons. At the age of seventeen he started 
out for the first time to earn his own living, having eight dollars in 
cash, and fifty dollars left him by his mother, in the savings bank. 
He taught school for twelve weeks at Navesink Highlands, New 
Jersey, for which he received one hundred dollars. He returned to 
Woodstock in March, 1864, and the next month went to Southbridge, 


where he accepted a position as one of the eleven employees in the 
optical works of R. H. Cole & Company. This mechanical business 
proved the key to his subsequent success. 

Under the instruction of his brother, Hiram, Mr. Wells began 
immediately the making of silver spectacles, without the usual three 
years' apprenticeship. There being no work at the shop the follow- 
ing summer he worked at haying for Daniel Perry, of Charleton, 
about seventeen days, for which he received thirty-five dollars and 
his board. Mr. Perry then secured him a position in the machine- 
shop of the Hamilton Woolen Company, at Globe Village, at one 
dollar per day. 

In April, 1865, he came back to the optical works of R. H. Cole 
& Company, where he soon learned the trade of steel spectacle-mak- 
ing. In the fall and winter he worked with E. Edmonds & Son, 
but in February, 1866, returned to the old company, by whom he 
was employed principally in the making of dies, tools and machinery. 

About a year later he decided to visit his sister, Lizzie, then in 
California. He sailed January 10, 1867, by the way of Panama, 
there being then no railroad across the plains, arriving at San Fran- 
cisco, February 2. Before leaving Southbridge, he had invested 
what small funds he had in gold and steel spectacles, which he sold 
in San Francisco at the same nominal prices he had paid for them 
in Southbridge. But as California was then on a gold basis, the 
profit was about thirty-three per cent., enough to pay his entire 
traveling expenses. He made his home there with his uncle, the 
late David B. Cheney, D.D. He obtained employment in a large 
machine-shop, at four dollars a day in silver. His uncle's family 
having decided to return East, he concluded to come with them, 
but before leaving took a hurried trip to see the big trees, and the 
geyser at Hot Springs. He arrived again at Southbridge in August, 
1867, and resumed his old position with R. H. Cole & Company. 

In the spring of 1869 he purchased a controlling interest in the 
firm of H. C. Ammidown & Company, manufacturers of optical goods, 
and with his brother Hiram, decided to start a new firm in that 
business. Having accepted an offer to join the old firm, a new com- 
pany was incorporated in 1869, under the name of the American 
Optical Company. Mr. Wells was chosen clerk of the new company 
and manager of the steel department, and has continued in the ser- 
vice of the company ever since. He was director for many years, 


and elected treasurer, November 21, 1879. He was chosen presi- 
dent, February 16,- 1891, and held both offices till February 8, 
1903, when his son, Channing, was chosen treasurer. Beginning, as 
we have seen, at the very bottom of the ladder, he has thus risen 
to the active charge of the whole business; and it is admitted by all 
that the success of the company is largely due to his management. 
When he went to Southbridge in 1864 there were but eleven persons 
in the town engaged in producing optical goods, exclusive of the three 
members of the firm; now there are two thousand seven hundred, 
the greater portion of them being in the employ of the American 
Optical Company. Its factory buildings have undergone constant 
enlargement and improvement, until it is now the largest establish- 
ment of the kind in the world and equipped with every up-to-date im- 
provement. For thirty years past its goods have been accepted 
as standard and models in Europe, America, Australia and the 
Orient. The company exports to nearly all countries. Its office 
in London, located in Hatton Garden, surpasses all others in its 
line, not only in elegance but in the extent, variety and beauty of 
the goods displayed. Hardly a generation ago practically all the 
lenses, test cases, etc., used in this country were imported from 
Europe. Now most of the American demand is supplied by American 
producers and not an inconsiderable portion of the foreign demand; 
not because the American goods are cheaper but because they are 
better. This great success has been due in no small degree, Mr. 
Wells believes, to the protective duty on these high-cost goods, and 
in proof that when there is large domestic competition the duty is 
not added to the price, he cites with pride the fact that since the 
goods have been made here in large quantities the prices have fallen 
thirty-three to fifty per cent. Possessing to an unusual degree the 
qualities of natural mechanical skill, joined to industry, judgment 
and energy, Mr. Wells's career could not be otherwise than successful. 
Men who know testify that he stands in the front rank of the "Cap- 
tains of Industry" of this country. 

From his special interest in all mechanical lines, Mr. Wells has 
naturally been a constant and thorough student in matters pertain- 
ing to his particular business, and has taken out many patents in 
connection with the same. He has thus come to be considered for 
many years a patent expert along the lines of optical goods. His 
business trips in the interest of the American Optical Company 


have taken him into nearly every State of the Union, and have 
thus secured him a large acquaintance among the optical people of 
this country, and also in Europe. He has been able to combine 
pleasure with business, and has made three extended trips to Europe, 
accompanied by Mrs. Wells. 

Naturally, and almost of necessity, Mr. Wells has made a thorough 
study of tariff questions in relation to American industries, espe- 
cially his own, and has appeared many times in Washington before 
the tariff committees of both House and Senate, imparting infor- 
mation necessary to forming the tariff schedules in regard to materials 
used in the optical business, and has thus formed a very pleasant 
and valuable acquaintance among the leaders of both branches of 

His election to the presidency of the Home Market Club was not 
sought by him, and his third election in 1907 was an unprecedented 
honor. All his predecessors had been among the most prominent 
business and protectionist leaders in Massachusetts. Another honor 
which came to him unsought, was the giving of his name to a six- 
masted schooner, which was built in Camden, Maine, and is one 
of the finest vessels of that class ever built in the United States. 

In politics, Mr. Wells is a straightforward Republican; not an 
office-seeker, or wire-pulling politician, yet few men can do as much 
as he by proper methods to secure right action in important town 
affairs, whenever he judges best to exert his influence. The high 
esteem in which he is regarded by the business men of Southbridge 
and vicinity may be, in part, suggested by the following offices held 
by him mostly for many years: president, American Optical Com- 
pany, Southbridge National Bank, Central Mills Company; director, 
Southbridge Water Supply Company, Harrington Cutlery Company, 
Warren Steam Pump Company, Worcester Trust Company, Worces- 
ter Manufacturers' Mutual Insurance Company, National Shawmut 
Bank, Boston; trustee and member of Investment Committee of 
Southbridge Savings Bank; trustee Worcester Academy. 

In 1888, at the special request of his old friend, Hezekiah Conant, 
he accepted the appointment as member of the Board of Trustees 
of Nichols Academy at Dudley, Massachusetts. He was also ap- 
pointed by Governor Wolcott, and again by Governor Crane, as 
one of the trustees of the Worcester Insane Asylum. 

Mr. Wells has for many years been an active and highly esteemed 


member of the local Masonic bodies, also of the Worcester Com- 
mandery, and has attained the thirty-second degree in the Massa- 
chusetts Consistory. 

September 27, 1869, Mr. George W. Wells and Miss Mary E. 
McGregory, of Southbridge, were married. In 1894 the twenty- 
fifth anniversary of this event was celebrated by a large gathering 
of the principal people, not only of Southbridge, but of the neighbor- 
ing towns. They have three sons and one daughter. The sons are 
all active workers, holding prominent offices in the American Optical 
Company: Channing M., director and vice-president; Albert B., 
director and treasurer; J. Cheney, director and clerk; the daughter, 
Mary E., being the wife of Frank F. Phinney, treasurer and manager 
of the Warren Steam Pump Company. There are at the present 
time six grandchildren. 

Overlooking the river and valley of the Quinebaug and the 
extensive works that he has been so largely instrumental in building 
up, Mr. Wells and his wife enjoy a beautiful home, characterized by 
simple elegance and good taste, near which are the attractive homes 
of his three sons, whose children are almost as much at home in 
their grandfather's house as in their own. The devotion of his 
sons to business and their efficiency in the different departments are 
among the triumphs which Mr. Wells contemplates with solid satis- 
faction in the ripeness of his career. 

May 1, 1864, Mr. Wells united with the Baptist Church in South- 
bridge, He was a member of the church choir for considerable 
time, and has been one of the principal supporters of the church 
ever since. When the Young Men's Christian Association was 
started in Southbridge, Mr. Wells was chosen its first president, 
holding the office for eleven years; and has also served ten years as 
a member of the Massachusetts State Committee of the Young Men's 
Christian Association. 

The chief factors which must be established in the cultivation 
of true Americanism, are, according to him, — "Honesty, temper- 
ance, industry, determination, perseverance, a home and family if 
possible in early life, a clean and healthy body and mind, developed 
and sustained by needed recreation in which mother, wife or chil- 
dren can join; with these things," he says, "everything is possible, 
and life must be a success." 


DANIEL BAIRD WESSON was born in Worcester in May, 
1825, and died at his home in Springfield, August 4, 1906. 
Behind the personahty, the strenuous force that makes cir- 
cumstances minister to the accompHshment of desired results, lay 
inherited ability as an inventor. Of English origin, the family of 
Wesson has flourished in America for fully two centuries, its early 
home being in New Hampshire. In the history of Fitzwilliam 
(Cheshire County) mention is made of Jonathan and Molly Wesson, 
and of their children Jonathan, Polly, and Josiah, all born between 
1784 and 1786. Rufus Wesson, the father of Daniel B. Wesson, 
was a grandson of Abel Wesson of New Hampshire, and he himself 
was a native of that State. Attracted to Massachusetts by the 
fascinations of the great workshops there, the father of D. B. Wesson 
settled at Worcester in early manhood, and shortly became famous 
in the region for the excellence of his plows. These implements were 
of wood, and yet their construction was so thorough that their 
work was entirely satisfactory to the agricultural community. The 
skill of the inventor and maker was especially shown in the carving 
of the convexed curves, and while furrows were turned with shares 
of wood the Wesson found high favor. When the demand for 
these implements fell off, owing to the advent of the cast-iron plow, 
Mr. Wesson abandoned their manufacture and took up farming. 
A man of brains as well as skill, he never lost his interest in the 
mechanic arts. He died at Worcester in 1874, aged eighty-seven 

Rufus Wesson married Betsey Baird, of Worcester, who came 
on both sides of old local families. Of the same sturdy stock as her 
husband, she too reached a green old age, dying at the home of one 
of her children in Worcester two years subsequent to her husband's 
demise, being then in her eighty-eighth year. There were five 
sons and five daughters. The boys all inherited their father's love 
for mechanics. Edwin, the oldest son, apprenticed himself to the 



trade of gim-making under Silas Allen of Shrewsbury, an expert 
in this line. When out of his time he set up for himself at North- 
boro and acquired considerable reputation as the manufacturer of 
a firearm of his own invention known as the Wesson rifle. He 
died about 1850. Rufus and Martin, two younger sons, engaged 
in shoe manufacturing. 

Daniel B. Wesson shared with his father and elder brothers the 
taste for mechanics and invention. Until he was eighteen years of 
age he lived at home, devoting his time about equally between duties 
on the farm and schooling, slighting neither, yet nursing a hope that 
he might soon be free to follow the bent of his inclination. His 
father seemed to think that the shoe business afforded a fine prospect 
for him and urged him to master it under his brothers, Rufus and 
Martin. While Daniel did not relish this field he was constrained 
to enter it, but he soon found it uncongenial and went back upon 
the farm. There he essayed some boyish pistol-making, with the 
old flint-lock of his father as a model. Wooden stocks patiently 
whittled, and barrels molded from abandoned vessels of pewter, 
were deftly put together and fearlessly tested. The lad hoped to 
be sent off to the shop of his brother Edwin, but his father did not 
readily entertain the notion of a second departure, and in the end 
Daniel had to pay for his time to gain his freedom. He was eighteen 
when he made this bargain, and finding that his father valued his 
time until attaining his majority at one hundred and fifty dollars, 
he paid him that sum out of his savings and went off at once to 
join his eldest brother. It was a good school for the ambitious 
lad, since it opened the opportunity to master the trade of 
gunmaking in every detail. In three years he had completed his 

He then worked for a time as a journeyman under his brother, 
first at Northboro, then at Hartford, Connecticut, being a partner 
and superintendent of the shop at the last-named place. It is 
interesting to note that one of the improvements which was used 
at this period was the invention of the late Alvan G. Clark, the 
world-famous telescope maker, who received a liberal royalty on 
it. This was a small funnel-shaped appliance which -^as attached 
to the muzzle of a rifle when loading and shaped the "patch" or 
bit of cloth in which the bullet was placed before it was rammed 
home. Upon the death of his brother Edwin, in 1850, Mr. Wesson 


formed a partnership with Thomas Warner, a master armorer of 
acknowledged skill, who had long resided in Worcester. Mr. Warner 
retired from business about two years later. Mr. Wesson then 
joined his brother Frank, who had a gun-making establishment 
in the town of Grafton, and there devoted himself to the manu- 
facture of single-barrel target pistols. Thus, step by step, he ac- 
quired a practical mastery of the armorer's craft, and ripened his 
inventive powers in the school of daily experiment and experience. 

About this time a Mr. Leonard began to make a stir with an 
improvement in firearms. Having capital at command he organized 
the Leonard pistol manufacturing company with shops at Charles- 
town, Massachusetts. Mr. Wesson was called to his aid as super- 
intendent of the factory and found a somewhat erratic set of 
inventions submitted for treatment at his skilled hands. Mr. Leonard 
had some idea of a rapid-firing gun, but his plans did not produce 
an arm that could be discharged with regularity or handled with 
safety. He had better success with the old "pepper-box," the 
cluster of barrels fired by a revolving hammer. As the weapon 
had no center of fire it was, of course, inaccurate and useless for 
target practice; yet it obtained some vogue and its manufacture 
was continued at Windsor, Vermont. 

The change released Mr. Wesson, who was now called to Worcester 
by the firm of Allen & Luther, who sought his assistance in turning 
out gun-barrels. It was while with this firm that he became ac- 
quainted with his subsequent partner, Horace Smith. An experi- 
ment about this time came very near costing Mr. Wesson his life. 
It was not made with one of his own constructions, but with the 
invention of a Colonel Porter, who had come up from the South to 
find some gun-maker capable of making practical his so-called 
magazine firing arm. The practical eye of Mr. Wesson saw at a 
glance that the weapon was a thing which no skill could render 
available; but pressed by the colonel he undertook to experiment 
with it and even to exhibit it before a board of ordnance officers. 
Notwithstanding every percaution in handling it, one of the cham- 
bers went off independently, sending a bullet whizzing through 
Mr. Wesson's hat; while another chamber, pointed directly at his 
body, narrowly missed fire. 

While giving his days to labor, Mr. Wesson devoted a large part 
of his nights to thought and study. Out of his reflections and 


experiments came the invention of a practical cartridge that ren- 
dered percussion caps a superfluity. But men without ample means 
at command are forced to go slowly. Mr. Wesson was brooding 
over his invention — convinced of its incontestable merit — when 
Courtland Palmer of New York came forward with a bullet hollowed 
out in part to receive a charge of powder which was held in place 
by a plug of cork, the latter perforated to permit the flash from a 
primer to ignite the explosive. Although believing his own to be 
the better invention, Mr. Wesson felt constrained to accept the 
offer of Mr. Palmer to enlarge his business as a pistol maker, pro- 
vided the Palmer invention was given the preference. While study- 
ing the Palmer cartridge Mr, Wesson made an improvement on 
it for which he received a patent. This improvement was the 
addition of a steel disk on which the hammer could explode the 
fulminate, thus doing away with the primer. 

It was in working out this plan that Mr. Wesson became asso- 
ciated with the late Horace Smith, with whom, in 1852, he formed 
a partnership and established a factory at Norwich, Connecticut. 
It was here that the tv/o men worked out the principles of the arm 
now known as the Winchester rifle, an arm which has been much 
improved, but which in its main points is practically unchanged 
to-day. They made this rifle for a time at Norwich, and later 
applied a similar principle to pistols and other small arms. Even- 
tually they disposed of their patents to the Volcanic Arms Com- 
pany. In 1855 Mr. Smith retired from the business and became 
otherwise engaged in Worcester. Mr. Wesson was at once called 
to the position of superintendent for the Volcanic Arms Company — 
to which the Winchester Arms Company has since succeeded, and 
under its auspices the Smith & Wesson cartridge — the first self- 
primed metallic cartridge that had proved practical — was put into 
use. This cartridge was used in the Spencer rifles during the Civil 
War, although the government was slow to adopt either cartridges 
or rapid-fire guns. For years the inventors received a royalty on it. 

Experimenting and testing his ideas incessantly, Mr. Wesson 
at length succeeded in perfecting a revolver — the peculiarity and 
merit of which consisted in the fact that the chambers ran entirely 
through the cylinder. The opportunity for its manufacture came 
upon the reorganization of the Volcanic Arms Company, who wrote 
Mr. Wesson as follows: 


New Haven, Feb. 8, 1856. 
Daniel B. Wesson, Esq., 
Dear Sir : 

By vote of the Board of Directors of " The Volcanic Repeating Arms 
Company " I am hereby instructed to inform you of their acceptance of your 
resignation of the office of Superintendent of said Company, to take effect on 
Monday next. And also to acknowledge their appreciation of your services as a 
mechanic, and the conscientious discharge of your duties as a man. 
With respect, I am, 

Very truly yours, 

Saml. L. Talcott, Sec. 

Freed from his engagement, Mr. Wesson joined again with his 
old partner, Mr. Smith. They hired premises on Market Street in 
Springfield, in 1857, and with twenty-five workmen began opera- 
tions. In 1860, success having attended their efforts, they built a 
large factory on Stockbridge Street, where, owing to the heavy 
demand for their weapon starting during the Civil War, they came 
in time to employ six hundred workmen. The government, it is 
true, supplied only the old-fashioned arm with percussion caps; 
but the public with less conservatism and m.ore wisdom demanded 
the improved weapon. In 1870 the attention of the wide-awake 
ordnance officers of the Russian government was attracted to the 
Smith & Wesson revolver, and the result was a contract to supply 
the Russian army. Two hundred thousand were required for this 
purpose, and four years were consumed in filling the contract. In 
1874 Mr. Smith retired, selling out his interest to Mr. Wesson, who, 
however, did not care to change the style under which the busi- 
ness is conducted. The contract with the Russian government 
was but the prelude to a succession of contracts from governments 
and firms all over the world, and the filling of these not only brought 
wealth to Mr. Wesson, but prosperity to hundreds of skilful work- 
men and incidentally to the city of Springfield. Since 1874 the 
plant has been materially increased, and it is to-day probably the 
finest and largest in America for pistol manufacturing, and a model 
in point of neatness, order, and thoroughness, presenting the most 
pleasing aspect whether viewed from without or within. 

Mr. Wesson was a man of unflagging industry, and in this respect 
his habits remained practically the same as when he was struggling 
to make his place in the world. His efforts and studies to improve 
his inventions were never relaxed. Out of these came a number 


of notable improvements which make the weapon of his invention 
indisputably first of its kind. One of the most important of these 
is the automatic extractor which expels the cartridge shells. An- 
other is the safety device in the handle which makes it necessary 
to apply force in two directions to fire the weapon, although no 
additional effort is required, a means of preventing the accidental 
discharge of revolvers applied in what is now known as the " ham- 
merless safety revolver." Since their introduction in 1887 at least 
300,000 of these arms have been placed upon the market. The 
device consists in placing the hammer of the arm entirely within the 
lock frame so that no external force whatever can be applied to it; 
and, second, by so arranging the trigger that it cannot be pulled 
except at the instant of deliberate firing and only by this means. 
A pistol of this kind cannot possibly be discharged by an ordinary 
child under eight yeare of age — thus eliminating one painful source 
of calamity, and in the hands or on the person of an individual of 
even a lower grade of intelligence the weapon is scarcely any more 
dangerous to the one carrying it than if it were a block of wood. 
The invention known as the ''rebounding lock" is an additional 
source of safety and protection which lends extra value to this 
perfect construction. Fully one third of the yearly output is of 
the 38-caliber. The other principal models are the 32, 38, and 44, 
or army size. Single- and double-action weapons are made; also 
target pistols and a central fire repeating rifle. All parts are made 
to gage and are interchangeable. Reloading and dismounting tools 
are also manufactured. The self-lubricating cartridge — long desired 
and upon which Mr. Wesson expended great thought — was per- 
fected by him and placed on the market. Through its use the 
highest degree of accuracy is secured with practically no fouling of 
the barrel. 

Two of his sons were associated with Mr. Wesson in business; 
Walter H. Wesson was admitted as partner in 1883 and Joseph H. 
Wesson in 1887, Both have won their place in the community. 
The younger son has an especial bent for mechanics, and to him 
some improvements in machinery are due. One in particular, 
bearing on the drilling of gun-barrels, makes it possible for one 
man to do what it formerly required three to accomplish. The 
loyalty and devotion of the sons was a reenforcement which any 
father would value. Mr, Wesson was married in 1847 to 


Cynthia M. Hawes, daughter of Luther Hawes, of Northboro. They 
had four children: Sarah Janette Wesson, who was married to Dr. 
Bull of Montreal; Walter H. Wesson; Frank Wesson, whose untimely 
death was mourned by all who knew him, and Joseph H. Wesson. 

Mr. and Mrs. Wesson had always been much to each other, and 
the long years of their life together had created an unusual sense of 
mutual dependence. The chief relaxation from business which Mr. 
Wesson allowed himself was in driving with his wife. They were 
intimately acquainted with all the drives about Springfield, and 
in Northboro, where they had their beautiful summer place, and 
both were fond of nature. Two large and perfectly equipped hos- 
pitals will constitute enduring memorials of husband and wife. 
Together they joined, early in 1900, in establishing the Wesson Memo- 
rial Hospital in their house on High Street, which they left for the 
splendid mansion on Maple Street. The hospital building was 
erected by the side of the former High Street home, and on the 
grounds there is the Maternity Hospital, which Mr. Wesson pro- 
jected. Both of these hospitals, one provided to serve the homeo- 
pathic school of medicine, and the other to meet the general need 
of the community, are equipped at all points equal to the best insti- 
tutions of their kind anywhere. The homeopathic hospital was 
completed at a cost of $350,000, and the former Wesson house, 
valued at $50,000 is used as a home for nurses. The Maternity 
Hospital on Myrtle and High Streets cost $400,000. 

Mastership in the invention, development, and perfection of 
modern small arms, during an active business career of over half 
a century, made Daniel B. Wesson notable. He belonged to the 
school of men who preferred to let their work speak for itself, and 
are ever "diligent in business." The Smith & Wesson revolver is 
known wherever firearms are used, and the reticent New Englander 
who devised it and studied out the improvements which one by one 
have gone to making it the most complete modern arm of its kind 
was content with that. Mr. Wesson had his share in developing 
other local enterprises, w^hile his investment interests were extensive. 
He was president of the Cheney Bigelow Wire Works and was one 
of the founders of the First National Bank of Springfield, and for 
many years was one of its directors. In political views he was 
strongly Republican. A man of pronounced views on temperance, 
he has embodied his sentiments in two massive drinking fountains. 


He enforced temperance in so far as he could among his employees. 
His independence of character made him outspoken and free from 
sham and pretence in social life, business, or religion. 

Mr. Wesson was able to give play to his love for architectural 
construction. He built in Northboro a handsome summer residence 
upon an attractive estate, the old homestead where Mrs. Wesson 
was born and lived until her marriage. It is a landmark in central 
Massachusetts, and an object of admiration and pride to the people 
of that region. His Maple Street house in Springfield is one of the 
finest in New England. 

As an inventor and mechanic, Mr. Wesson took his place among 
the exceptional men. In him was the unusual union of an inventor 
who was also a competent manufacturer. Mr. Wesson being of a 
retiring nature never cared to talk about himself, and it was not 
easy to get at the facts of his career. The facts of this sketch 
were obtained from Mr. Wesson and verified by him. They consti- 
tute a most interesting contribution touching the beginnings and 
development of an industry of international scope. 


JOHN WILSON WHEELER is a notable example of what a 
person endowed with intellect, with good physical equipment 
and with a high purpose may accomplish in spite of unfavor- 
able circumstances hampering the beginning of his career. He 
would probably decline to admit that they were unfavorable cir- 
cumstances, since the energy employed in overcoming them becomes 
the most valuable factor in success. Given two boys of equal ability, 
one furnished with every facility that money, family connections and 
influence can procure, and the other with only ambition, stead- 
fastness, and good principles, the odds are that the boy with the 
handicap of circumstances will come out ahead. 

Born of good New England stock — the name of Holmes, Warden, 
Dexter and Harrington occurring among his immediate ancestry — 
he typifies that admirable class of the sturdy yeomanry of this coun- 
try, the fine flower reaching up into an aristocracy of character and 
dignity and rewarded with all the blessings which abundant means 
and honors from his fellow men can bestow. The career of such a 
man is an inspiration. 

His father, Wilson Wheeler, whose life covered a good part of 
the last century, was a carpenter and builder in the town of Orange, 
in the western part of Massachusetts. In addition to his trade 
he served as constable and collector of taxes and for many years was 
deputy sheriff for eastern Franklin County. His wife was Catherine 
H, Warden, of Worcester. There was no race suicide dreamed of in 
those days and though a family of nine strained the resources of 
the parents it was a burden cheerfully borne. Naturally the boys 
and girls, as they developed, began early to help in the exacting 
labors of a country home. 

John Wilson Wheeler was next to the oldest ; he was born Novem- 
ber 20, 1832, From his father he inherited a well-built figure, a 
robust constitution and remarkable powers of endurance, but his 
facial characteristics resembled those of his mother's family. He 


made the most of the extremely limited educational advantages that 
the town offered. The terms of the district school were short, but 
he was an apt scholar and assimiliated the simple but efficient and 
wholesome instruction there given in the old-fashioned manner by 
the teacher that boarded around. His formal education, to misuse 
a term, was polished off with a few weeks at a select school, taught by 
Beriah W. Fay, of New Salem. The months when school ''didn't 
keep " could be hardly called vacation. Every day and every wak- 
ing hour was filled with chores and the variegated work required of 
a healthy boy in such a family. Young Wheeler found time, even 
when quite young, to earn a little supplementary money by driving 
the cows of some of the neighbors to and from pasture. Afterwards 
he obtained chances to work out and was thus enabled to buy his 
own clothes. 

He learned the carpenter's trade, but neither carpentering nor 
farming was very congenial to him, until two years after he had at- 
tained his majority did he find any opportunity to exchange the car- 
penter's bench for commercial life, which seemed to be more in the 
line of his instincts and tastes. At last, when he w^as twenty-three, 
he was offered a position as clerk in a grocery store in Fitchburg, 
at a salary of one hundred and twenty-five dollars a year and board, 
but his employer was so well satisfied with his services that he 
voluntarily gave him an additional twenty-five dollars. 

In 1856 he returned to Orange and entered the general store of 
Daniel Pomeroy with whom he remained three years and whom he 
succeeded. When his business was settled at the end of another 
three years he found that he had made but little beyond his living 
expenses; but he had won a reputation in the community as a young 
man of ability and unimpeachable integrity, so that when, at the end 
of a year's service in the Claim Agency office of D. E. Cheney, an 
opportunity arose for him to purchase a grocery store, fully stocked; 
three gentlemen, including his employer, advanced him the necessary 
funds. This venture fully warranted the confidence which his 
friends had shown and he only relinquished it in 1867 when he en- 
tered the firm of A. F. Johnson & Company, who had established 
in a small way the business of manufacturing sewing-machines 
at Orange. 

This was the turning-point of his life. It was no easy position, 
although the firm at that time employed only about forty workmen. 


The sewing-machine was as yet only in its experimental stage; there 
were all kinds of improvements to be made and troubles regarding 
patents made difficulties. Mr. Wheeler, who was then thirty-five 
3^ears of age and in the prime of his vigorous manhood, took hold 
with tremendous energy. For a long time he did the work of several 
men in the office and when the business was made a corporation in 
1869, under the name of "The Gold Medal Sewing Machine Co a- 
pany," he was selected secretary and treasurer. In January, 1882, 
the name was changed to its present title — "The New Home Sewing 
Machine Company." Of this, as well as of the previous organiza- 
tion, Mr. Wheeler has been the secretary and treasurer, and fro n 
1882 to 1898, vice-president as well as secretary and treasurer. In 
this latter year he was elected to the presidency, consequently the 
secretaryship was given to another. He still holds the office of 
president and treasurer. He has had the satisfaction of seeing the 
business grow from a limited output to a capacity of not less than 
six hundred machines a day, employing an army of over eight hun- 
dred workmen in the various departments. Of late years he has 
been somewhat relieved of the details of the management which 
outstripped the energies of any one man and the affairs of the com- 
pany are now carefully administered by a corps of assistants. 

Being somewhat freer he was enabled to take an interest in other 
enterprises tending to the growth and welfare of his native town. 
He is president of the Orange National Bank and, until the new State 
law compelled him to rehnquish one or the other, was president of 
the Orange Savings Bank, of which he still remains a trustee. He is 
president of the Leavett Machine Company, which has been one of the 
very successful enterprises of Orange. He has been president of 
the Orange Board of Trade, and in order to foster industry he himself 
built a large factory by the railroad and supplied it with steam 
power. It is rented to the New England Box Company which gives 
employment to a large number of hands. The suburb where these 
employees are housed in comfortable dwellings, built especially to 
accommodate them and in convenient access to the mill, perpetuates 
the name of the public-spirited citizen who has done so much for 
them. Another enterprise in which he takes just pride is the laying 
out of a large tract of land, north of the village, into streets and 
building lots. This is known as Orange Highlands, and from the 
advantages of its situation it cannot help becoming the favorite 


residence portion of the town. Nor have his activities been con- 
fined to his native Orange. He is president of the Boston Mutual 
Life Insurance Company which it has been his ambition to make 
the safest and most reUable in the world, and also he is a director in 
the Boston Securities Company. He is one of the directors and 
stockholders in the Athol and Orange Street Railway Company. 
He was one of the founders of the Orange Lodge of Freemasons in 
1869, and was its first secretary and afterwards its treasurer. He is 
a member of the Crescent Royal Arch Chapter and gave several 
years service as its treasurer and he is also a member of the Orange 
Commandery of Knights Templars. 

Mr. Wheeler, as might well be supposed, has taken an active 
interest in politics. Since the organization of the Republican party 
he has been a consistent upholder of its principles and yet, in spite 
of his zeal in promoting its welfare and his prominent cooperation in 
assuring its success, he has in large measure modestly refrained from 
accepting the high public offices which his fellow townsmen would 
have been glad to confer upon him. From 1861 until 1867 he served 
as town clerk. He has been one of the selectmen of Orange and in 
1876 was elected to the Massachusetts Legislature from the First 
FrankUn District and on taking his seat was chosen as a member 
of the committee of finance. In 1888 he was elected as one of the 
delegates from the Eleventh Massachusetts District to the National 
Republican Convention at Chicago, where Harrison and Morton 
received the nomination as presidential candidates. In 1904 he was 
elected alternate delegate to the National Convention at Chicago, 
which placed in nomination Roosevelt and Fairbanks. In 1904 
Mr. Wheeler was elected one of the governor's council from the 
Eighth Councilor District, serving with Governor William L. Douglas, 
and the following year, when Curtis Guild, Jr., was elected governor, 
he was reelected to the same honorable position and served one 
year with his administration. In 1908, being the unanimous choice, 
he was elected delegate from the Second Massachusetts Congres- 
sional District to the National Republican Convention at Chicago. 

Although Mr. Wheeler is extremely social by nature, he has been 
so absorbed in his great financial undertakings that he has had com- 
paratively little time to devote to the demands of society. But 
when he has been able to put aside the cares of business he has 
taken keen pleasure in intercourse with his friends whom he is fond 


of meeting in an informal manner. It is the universal verdict that 
at such times he is a most interesting companion. 

One of his strongest traits is his affection for his native town and 
he is always devising some means of benefiting its citizens in some 
practical way. Few men of his means and with so many temptations 
to take up a residence in Boston or some larger city have resided so 
continuously in their birthplace. His elegant house is one of the 
finest in western Massachusetts. It has been Mr. Wheeler's boast 
that never more than twice, and that when he was a mere youth, 
beginning to make his way, has he been absent from Orange for as 
much as a twelvemonth. He has never crossed the ocean, but he 
has traveled extensively in this country, his widely-extended 
interests taking him to many distant cities. 

Mr. Wheeler was married October 9, 1856, to Almira E., one of 
the seven daughters of Daniel and Almira Porter Johnson, of North 
Orange, at whose house the ceremony was performed by the Rev. 
Levi Ballon. Of the three children born of this union only one, 
the oldest, Marion L., survives, and with her husband, Everett L. 
Swan, continues to have her home with her parents. The other 
two, Clara Jane and Rosa A., died in infancy. 

Mr. Wheeler has always been temperate and free from the injuri- 
ous habits that undermine the health and morals of many men. 
He is fond of saying: "When once a habit is formed it is not an 
easy matter to relieve yourself of it." "A young man should give 
thought to what calling in life he is best fitted for, and if it is clear 
to him and the conditions are favorable he should associate himself 
with that line of work as early as possible and stick to it. He will 
then succeed and life will not seem one of slavery; on the contrary, 
he will enjoy his work." 

He fully believes that no great results can be attained by any 
one without earnest faithful effort in some one direction. He says 
that a man "must have some laudable aim in life. Strive to make 
one's self useful. Select good associations, be willing, if congenial em- 
ployment is offered, to commence the labor, even if it appears near 
the ground floor, then there will be something to aspire to higher up 
the ladder. No one needs to expect great lasting success if he waits, 
expecting to begin at the top without experience. The tongue needs 
to be guarded in its use; it is not well to divulge to everybody all 
your thoughts and plans, work them out thoughtfully and silently; 


if success has attended the efforts you have something of merit to 
present; boasting of what one is going to do rarely produces any- 
thing worthy of credit." He realizes that what he has acquired has 
come through being loyal to the best interests of whatever he under- 
took. One of his most characteristic qualities has been his power 
of application, his ability to stick to his purpose through thick and 
thin, no matter what discouragements may have for the time arisen. 
When he first began life, the work which was laid out for him was 
not all congenial. He felt that in such a vital matter his own desires 
and wishes should prevail and rather than go on in what he knew 
would prove increasingly distasteful to him, he turned his back on 
his trade, "burnt his bridges" behind him and without asking any- 
one's counsel he took up commercial life, knowing in his own heart 
that he was better fitted for that than for mechanical pursuits or 
farming. And he was abundantly justified, not only in the success 
that has attended him, but also in the never-failing pleasure that he 
has taken in going regularly to the engrossing routine of his busi- 
ness. Yet it must not be thought that he despises farming. On 
the contrary, he possesses a large farm, named from the beauty of its 
location " Grand View," not far from his place of business. He can, 
from the broad veranda of his home, overlook the business part of 
his town, and the residence section as well; and here he often re- 
tires to enjoy the quiet and charm of Nature and the luxuries of a 
country diet. 

When a man has capacity to carry out all the details of vast and 
complicated enterprises and to win success from all sorts of diffi- 
culties his methods are worth studying. It will be seen that Mr. 
Wheeler has had splendid vigor, indefatigable energy, keen insight, 
a knowledge of men, and above all a sense of honor which coordinated 
all his dealings with his fellow men. He thus won their respect, 
their admiration, their hearty cooperation. Strict attention to his 
duties, perfect faithfulness to every requirement, signal ability, 
honesty and the courage of his convictions are his distinguishing 
qualities. Life when properly observed is a great university, and 
the training that a man receives in such a career as Mr. Wheeler's 
is the very best kind of education. Happy is the town and the 
State that can number such men as he among those whom they can