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Full text of "Biographical and historical record of Adams and Wells counties, Indiana : Containing portraits of all the Presidents of the United States from Washington to Cleveland, with accompanying biographies of each : a condensed history of the state of Indiana : portraits and biographies of some of the prominent men of the state : engravings of prominent citizens in Adams and Wells counties, with personal histories of many of the leading families, and a concise history of the counties and their cities and villages"

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REYNOLDS HtSTORICAL 
GENEALOGY COLLECTION 




ALLEN COUNTY. PUBLIC, LIBRARY 



3 1833 02413 1937 



Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

in 2009 witii funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 



http://www.archive.org/details/biographicalhistawcty01chic 



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fldams Qtul JDclTs (Eounties, Jndiann . 

Containing Poktraits qf At.i. the PRKsinENTs ok tiiic Uniti'.d Siaiks khom \VAsinN(noN tu 

Cl.EVl;l,ANII, WITH ATI OMl'ANYINi; BlOCKA I'll 1 KS Ol' ICACIi; A C'o.N' I iK.\Sl:i) IIlSTOItV (IF THE 

Si'ATE OK Inihana; PoRritArrs and liuMjiiAi'imos ok S()m i; ok iiik Pkomini:nt 
^^E.\ OF THE Stati;; liNCRAViNcis of Pkomink.nt citizens in Aiiams 

and M'eI.I.S CoI'NTIES, with PeKSONAI, IIlSTOItlJCS (IK MANV 
OF THE LeAUINT. FaMII.IES, AND A CoNt'IsK 

IlisroRV OF THE Counties and their 

Cirii:s AND ^'|LI,A(■.KS. 



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Till:: LEWIS PLn'.LlSlIING CUMTANV 9 

113 Adams Street, Ciiic\(io 

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PRESIDKNTS OF THK INITED 
STATES. 

George 'Washiugton 9 

Johu Atliiins 11 

Thomas Jell'erson -0 

James ^Maiiison -fi 

James 3Ioiiroe Z'i 

Johu Quincy Atlaras ^8 

Andrew Jackson -47 

Martin Van Buren 5- 

AV'illiara Henry Harrison o(i 

John Tyler 00 

James K. Polk (it 

Zachary Taylor 08 

.milliard Fillmore 72 

Franklin Pierce 70 

James Buchanan 80 

Abraham Lincoln 84 

Andrew Johnson 9:i 

Ulysses S. Grant 'JO 



Rutherford B. Hayes 102 

James A. Garfield 100 

Chester A. Arthur 1 i:i 

Grover Cleveland 117 

HISTORY OP INDIANA. 

Former Occupants 123 

Pre-llisloric Races 12;i 

Explorations by the Whites. . . .125 

National Policies 126 

Expeditions o( Colonel George 

R. Clark 127 

Government of the Northwest. 129 
Expeditious of St. Clair and 

Wayne 132 

Organization of Indiana Terri- 
tory 133 

Governor Harrison and the In- 
dians 134 

Civil Matters 130 



i.i'°i.7i lT.?ii .L. 



General Review 130 

Organization of the State 137 

Indiana in the Mexican War. ..138 
Indiana in the War for the 

I'uion 138 

Financial 148 

Internal Improvements 149 

Geology l.io 

Agricultural l,")! 

Educational 151 

Benevolent and Penal Institu- 
tions 154 

PROMINENT MEN OP 
INDIANA. 

Oliver P. Jlorton 101 

Thomas A. Hendricks K!.") 

Schuyler Colfax ido 

James D. Williams 17.! 

Robert Dale Owen 177 



HisToi^Y OF Adams County, 



i«^ 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



Adler, J. G 429 

Allison, R. B 400 

Allison, R. K 283 

Anderson, Joseph 498 

Andrews. Lewis i'A 

Archbold, G. W 2si 

Archbold, Johu 313 

Archbold, J. M 44s 

Arnold, Frauk 4S3 

Aspy, II. :\I ,31(7 

Aspy, Mark 394 

Aspy, W. A 400 

Ayres, D. JI iitl3 

B. 

Bailey, Nathaniel 529 

Barkley, Elias 539 



Barkley, Levi 4."iO 

Barr, J.W 407 

Baughman, A. B 455 

Bears, W. H. H 372 

Beineke, F. W 517 

Berg, Rev. Frederick 300 

Berger, Nicholas 490 

Berber, AVilliam 5US 

Bixier, T. C 501 

Blackburn, Norval 294 

Blakey, V F 291 

Blakej', C. F. W 300 

Blossom, I. A 552 

Bobo, J. R 320 

Boerger, Jacob 432 

Bolds, Alexander 304 

P.olds, D. P yr,3 

BollmaL A. McW 301 

Booher, x. D 333 



Bosse, Herman 409 

Bosse, J. \V 410 

Bower, Jonathan 309 

lirandyberry, John 374 

Bremercamp, Jo.^eph 535 

Bremerkamji, II. H 537 

Bremerkamp, J. H 428 

Bremerkanip, .1. 11 540 

Breneiuauu, Jacob 470 

BriL'gs, A. G 345 

Bri'ci;-*, W. H. II 542 

Brock, Charles 390 

BuhliT, Jacol) 370 

Bunncr, G. A 330 

Bunner, J. A 532 

Burghalter, Christian .■)02 

Burk, J. G 471 

Buurk, Diedrich 4sl 

Byrd, A. J 289 



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Carpenter, Ira 

C'liri^maii, Henry.. . 
C'liri&len, John, t^r. 

C'lii-i.-^tcn, ,I(iliii 

Clirislen, .)- U 

Clark, 15 H 

Clem, ,lulni 

Clem, Joseph 

Cleiideneu, James. 
Clencleuen, Saleu.. 

Cline, G. B 

Cline, Georue 

Collius, F. is' 

Conrad, William. . 

Cook, G. F 

Cook, Jecob 

Cowen, J. C 

Crawforil, John. . . 
Crawford, Josiah . . 

Crist, Klias 

Crist, J. P 

Crozier, Joseph. . . 
Cullev, Adam . . . . 
Culley, J. E 



.395 

.4.-)7 
. 3:i'J 
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.34:5 
.4(iO 
.320 
.444 

.34« 
.511 
.323 
.417 
A-i-i 
.447 
.4.->0 
.38(1 
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AT)') 
.4.'j3 
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.340 
.330 



D. 



Dailey, Nimrod 

Daugiierty, An<lrew.. . . 

PaiiL'herty, A. 15 

Detlenliauixh, John 

I)ell'eiibaui;li, Theodore. 

Deild, San'iuel 

Dent, 15.11 

Derkes, Henry 

l)e Vill.iss, A. I 

Dickerson, G. K 

Dorwin, C. T : 

Drew, U'illiam 

Driimmond, K. A 

DiiimMioiul, \V. D 

Dunhar, Leander 



.364 
.518 
.538 
.5411 
350 
.4115 
.407 
.324 
.352 
.41)2 
. 3C0 
.813 
.430 
.323 
.371 



E. 



Edwards, Lewis . 

Elev, David 

Eh'V, J.W 

Ellsworth, Oscar 

El/.ey, E. V 

El/ev, M.S 

Engle, Miihael.. 

ICrwin, UK 

lOrwin, 'Williani. , 
Evans, Uoliert... 



.335 

.511 



.480 
.530 
.477 

.440 
.342 
.305 



Fetters, Samuel. . 
Eink, Samuel . . . . 

Foimer, J. A 

Ford, A. ]' 

Foreman, A. J ... . 
Foreman, Joseph. 
Fought, W. II.... 

France, J. T 

F.iaiue, W. H. II. 



.328 
.401 
.340 
.438 
.412 
.43:. 
. 52 1 
.41:3 
.2^0 



CONTENTS. 



Frank, George. 
Frank, John... 
Freeh, F. F.... 
Freeman, 15. R. 
Frisloe.J. N... 
Fuelling, II. D. 
Fuelling, J. II. 



.301 
.380 
.538 
.474 
.407 



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Jackson, William. 

Johnson, J. T 

Johnson, L. W . . . . 

Juday, A. J 

Judd, John 



Gallmeyer, F. W. . . . 
Galloway, Covey. . . . 

Gass, J.P 

Geike, F. D. W 

(Gideon Brothers. . . . 

Gideon, J. >I . . 

Gillig, A. S 

Gillig, F. J 

Gladden, G. W 

Gladden, II. L 

Glancy, W. G 

(Jlass,"Noah 

Gottschalk, Andrew . 

Gould, A. J 

Gulick, Amos 



.414 
.551 
.4>J0 
.534 
.501 
.4114 
.510 
.30S 
.485 
.2S1 
..548 
.3S4 
. 359 
.475 
.415 



H. 

Ilaefling, G. W 

Ilain, Simeon 

Hale, J. 1) 

Hale, S. W 

Hall, William 

Harper, William 

Hart, II. 11 

Heaston, N. P 

Hedington, Laben. . . . 
Iledington, Lhamon.. 
Heimbarger, George 
Heimbarger, Isaac . . . 

Heller, D. I) 

Hendricks, Bazil 

Hendricks, J. I) 

Hendricks, J. W 

Hendricks, John ... 
Hendricks, Philip. . . , 
Hendricks, Thomas.. 
Hendricks, ^\■illiam. . 

llerr, M. .M 

Hessler, Gerhard 

Hill, A. J 

nines, Daniel 

Ilisey, John 

Hocker, C. W 

HolVman, I). W 

Iloll'man, Stephen. . . 
Ihdlingsworlh, T. P., 

Ho. low ay, A. G 

Holloway, J. iM 

Ilolihousc, Peter 

Hoo),cr, P. t; 

Ilouk, Benjamin. . . . 

House, T il 

Huser, Albert 



.315 

.447 
.2110 
.443 
.398 
.523 
.4411 
349 
.301 
.289 
.314 
.383 
.311 
.393 
.427 
.404 
.454 
.420 

.4i;5 

.409 
.513 
.527 
.298 
.497 
.3S0 
.424 
.519 
.457 
.4.50 
.421 
.300 
.429 
.318 
.419 
.408 
.370 



Idlewine, Andre 



.439 
.341 
.348 
.362 
.434 



K. 



Kerr, D. M 

Ketcham, John . 
King, John. . . 
Kirby, II. W... 
Kline, Uoberl. . 
Kline, William. 
Kraner, Hiram. 
Kraner, M. N. . 



Lange, C. N 

Lankenau, J. H. . . , 

Lee, J. J 

Lehman, Jeff 

Lewton, L. W 

Liby, Jonas 

Lineiiard, I.awson. 

Linton, D. B 

Linton, J. W 

Linton, San\uel. . . 

Lister, Ezra 

Long, Lewis 

Loid, Ueuben 

Louthan, Moses. . . 
Lutlman, Henry. . . 
Luiz, C. J 



.345 

.517 
372 
.400 
.285 
.532 
.307 
.305 



.428 
.330 
.495 
.499 
.300 
.470 
.333 
.280 
.309 
.284 
.286 
.420 
.543 
.499 
.529 
.396 



M. 



MacWhinuey, F.J 

Magley, J. J 

Malonee, T. W 

Malonee, W. P 

Mangold, Abraham 

Manley, J. L 

Manley, P. 15 

Mann, llarlo 

Mann, J. C 

Mann, J. E 

Mann, J. E 

Mann, J. F 

]\Iartin, Benjamin . . .. . 

Martin, J. A 

Martin, Josepbus 

]\Iartz, G. H 

jilartz, Henry 

.Martz, J. K 

Mason, A. A 

JIatta.x, Lewis 

Manrer, Samuel 

^lav, Emory 

McCunnehey, William. 

M.Conncll, John 

McConnell, M. M .... 

McCnne, James 

McCune, John 

Mc Daniel, Perry 

MrGiili; Michael 



.371 

.388 
.381 
375 
.440 
.329 
.328 
.479 
.334 
.373 
.335 
.491 
.309 
.385 
.539 
.484 
.444 
.449 
.343 
.327 
.283 
.409 
.480 
.410 
.340 
.316 
.305 
.400 
.371 



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CONTENTS. 



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McLeod, Edward 40G 

Meibers.B.J 51'^ 

Jleiliers, Jolin . . .445 

Meeks, W. U 5^0 

Jlenelep, G. W 044 

Jlerrinuin, II. _P 418 

Meriymau, J. T ~78 

Miller, Joseph G.'il 

Miller, L. C 297 

Mortett, E. D L\S4 \ 

Moses, E.S 4.58 I 

Jloses, Samuel 4.51 | 

Moses, \Y.\V 542 1 

Jlosser, Solomon 507 

Mowery, J. B 507 

Myers, C. F 30.S 

Myers, David 371 

Myers, I). W 491 

Jlyers, Henry 317 

Myers, II. H 307 

Myers, Jesse 309 

Myers, W.J 515 



N. 



Neaderhouser, Emanuel 400 

Nelson, Elias 521 

Nelson, Isaac 527 

Neptune, J. (J 454 

Niblick, James 303 

Niblick, Jesse 522- 

Niblick, Robert 3.80 

Numbers, John 279 



Parent, Joseph 330 

Parr, \V. II 493 

Pattcr.son, James 547 

Patterson, J. C .543 

Peel, William "...430 

Peterson, H. S 553 

Pontius, George 298 

Portfi-, Alexander 379 

Porter, CI) 325 

Porter, J. P 399 

Pruden, P. W 294 

Pyle, A.J 302 

Pvle, \V. F 299 



K. 



Uailinu', Abraham 379 

Hailing, Daniel 531 

Hainier, C. T 412 

Ualslon, S. G 510 

Uape, Lafayette 390 

Kawley, Abraham 423 

Hawicy, Tilmon 433 

Hawley, William 470 

Kay, E. M 509 

Pay, G. W 51G 

KaV, J. W 443 

Heber, Kli 433 

Ueljer, E/.ra 514 



Reding, W.E 452 

Reis, Pauhis 394 | 

Rice, Benjamin 509 

Rice, B. P 380 

Rice, W. P 312 

Robinson, Perry 510 

Robison, John 308 

Robison, Naucy 478 

Robison, James 543 

Roebuck. Elienezer 549 

Roll, A. O. A 385 

Rose, J. E. & M 288 

Rugg, Jay 300 

Rugg, S. L 303 

Rumple, Jacob 482 

Rumple, John 494 



S. 



Scheer, J. J 474 

Scheer, J. P 524 

Schlegel, Augustus 419 I 

Schurger, John 308 

Sbackley, 1). K 280 

Shackley, II. \V 405 

Shaler, George 391 

Sheets, J. G 307 

Shepherd, N. B 411 1 

Simison, Robert 477 ] 

Simison, Samuel 492 j 

Smith, A. J 401 | 

Smith, Jehu 202 

Smith, Jesse 473 

Smith, J. W 54t ! 

Smith, Jlorgau 405 

Smith, P. VV 547 

Smith, Samuel 4.59 

Smith, W. R 458 

Smith, Zachariah 514 

Snow, J. B .539 

Snow, J. F 331 

Snow, V. L 533 

Snyder, AVilliam 403 

Spade, Jacob 410 

Spangler, Sylvester 414 

Sprunger, J. A 319 

S|)runger, P. A 493 

Stacy, Henry 481 

Steele, David 315 

Steele, John 382 

Steele, Samuel 316 

Steele, S. S 329 

Steele, Washington 472 

Steiner, J. C 453 

Stephenson, R. R 383 

Studabaker, David 277 

Stalls, Jacob 370 

Stults, W. II 404 

Sy pliers, Adam 523 



Teeter, D. P 437 

Teeters, Rev. Isaac 553 

Thomas, II, S 317 



Thompson, II. W 392 

Tinkhani, Dennison 307 

Todd, Reziu 353 

Townseud, Richard 520 

Tricker, Jeremiah 470 

Trout, 1). G. M 4S0 

Trout, William 479 

Turveer, B. J 344 

Tyudall, J.W 398 

V. 

Vance, M. P 484 

Vance, William 498 

A'oglewede, G. II 521 

Voglewede, J. 11 510 

W. 

Wagner, J. G ,530 

Wagoner, John 520 

Wagoner, Nicholas 432 

Wagoner, S. S 431 

Walser, J. A 512 

Wabs, W. I. B .548 

Watson, J. J 334 

Weaver, Joel 482 

Weldy, Daniel 287 

Weldy, J. P 4;;8 

Weldy, Samuel 304 

AVetler, W. A 490 

Wherry, Joseph 490 

Wherry, Josepli 541 

Wilder, Edwin 351 

Wilken, Rev. M.T 393 

AVilliams, Jesse 389 

Wilson, J. C 388 

AVinans, Hester A 421 

Wibuer, W. x\. 434 

Wolf, Sylvester 439 

Wood, Sylvanus 320 

Woodruir, D. M ,537 

Woy, John 347 

Y. 

Yager, Jacob 3.55 

Y'oung, John. 350 

Young, J. T 310 

Z. 
Zimmerman, Eli 325 

GENERAL HISTORY. 

Introductory 183 

Early and Civil History 188 

Pioneer Life 201 

Political and Ollicial 228 

The Civil War 232 

The Press 242 

Professional 245 

Educational 247 

Miscellaneous 255 

Decatur 259 

Villages 208 



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CONTENTS. 



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^^^ History of Wells Gouoty.^^- 






BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



Abshire, Willimii 760 

Alexander, James 708 

Allen, Hezekiali 85-1 

Alleu, Matthew 807 

Alien, Ransnni '.)2'> 

Archibakl, Tliunias H'JO 

Ai-uolil, Kli T,i 

ArnuUl, Geuiire 700 

AshbaiKlier, Honjaiiiin 1U0« 



B. 



Bachelor, Lemuel 734 

Bailey, I'eler &M 

Baker, C'hristo|)lier 701 

Barchman, \V. F 0'J6 

Batson, B. C 814 

liauingartiier, J. C',. . 78(5 

JSeavers, S. D 800 

Beil,Jacrib 040 

Bender, J. H 'J83 

Bender, Jonathan 964 

Bennett, J. 81', 

Bennett, J. It 858 

Bennett, W. II 804 

Bergman, Noah U'.KJ 

BUie, James !)4o 

Blue, M. C <J8C 

Bowman, John 804 

Bowman, M. W 834 

liraner, l'hili|) 1003 

Bre.hbill, 1). Ci 904 

BrkUley, A.J 700 

Brickley, George 7'J.') 

Brickley, L. A 790 

Buckner, W. N 872 

lUim^'arner, Willinni 789 

Bnnn" Mrs. Sarah A 892 

Bur well, Newton 702 

Bushee, Jacob 836 

Byall, Alexander 937 

Byall, John 920 

C. 

Carger, William 979 

Games. William 1017 

Cartwrijrht, J. S 701 

Caslon, David 747 

Cnark, A. J 730 

C'huk,J.l 885 I 

(Mark, William 796 I 

Cloud, 11. S 817 

Cobburn, J. AV <J48 

C'onuclt, J. I' 807 t 

Conrad, J. H 9,53 | 

Cook, L. 1 1 8.55 1 

Coons, J. A 778 I 



Cory, Nathan 740 

Cotton, C. S 8S<» 

Cover, William 943 

Craig, William 739 

Croasdale, K. C 894 

Crosbie, James 927 

Crouse, Mrs. Dr 971 

Crum, J. II 733 

Crnm, I^amiiel 1021 

Curry, Bobert 844 



D. 



' Jiailey, James 999 I 

Dailey, J. S 088 \ 

Dalrymple, H. W 752 1 

Daveniiort, L. C 1024 [ 

Davis, Josiah 842 | 

I Davis, J. K 901 \ 

Deam, Wilson 708 \ 

I Decker, Isaac 882 j 

j De Long, Alexander 797 i 

Dickason, G. F 701 ; 

Dickey, William 947 1 

Dillman, Andrew 902 I 

j Dillman, S. M 1010 j 

Ditzler, G. C 901 

' Doau, T. A. F 080 

Doster, George 084 ! 

Doster, He/.ekiah 059 

Dougherty, Hugh 070 

Dougherty, John 085 

Dougherty, William 054 

Duglay, Asbury 722 

E. 

Kckart, Grafton 1009 

Edris, Henry 903 

Eichhorn, riiilip 058 

Elkins, B. M 944 

Ellingham, Theodore 852 

Engeler, Frederick 907 

F. 

Falk, Albert 921 

Falk, John 930 

Farling, Jacob 938 

Ferguson, J. H 815 

Fetters, L. H 845 

Fetters, Z. T 974 

Fishbaugh, Isaac 801 

Fitch, W. 1 824 

Fiizpatrick, J. I) 889 

Fleminii, Aaron 823 

Fornahell, U. D 875 

Fousl, A. J 809 

Foust, Samuel 880 

France, CM 700 



Fritz, David 908 

Fryback, George 827 

Fulton, Allison 757 

Fulton, J. C. & G.E 715 

Funk, Absalom 933 

G. 

Gaiser, George 820 

Galyeau, 8. H 771 

Gardiner, G. E 970 

Gardeuoui', Mrs. Martha 0li2 

Garrett, F. W 757 

Garrett, Noah lOOi 

Gavin, J. A 8s;! 

Getty, Jacob 957 

Gilbert, William 790 

Glass, David 894 

Glass, J. T 818 

Good, J.J 1012 

Good, Samuel 1010 

Goodin, J. 1) 904 

Goodspeed, LB 781 

Gordon, John 930 

Gorrell, Joseph 709 

Graham, William 9li0 

Grant, J. J 873 

Gregg, AVilliam 940 

Greenlield, Nathaniel 830 

Griffith, J. M 991 

Griffith, Eli 934 

Grimes, tJ. W 994 

Groves, Joseph 842 

Gutelius. W. A 838 

H. 

Hale, Bowen 051 

Hale, J. P 800 

Hall, Adnah 738 

Harnish, G.A 818 

Harrold, G. E 8.57 

Harper, William 900 

Ilarter, George 079 

Harvey, James 900 

Harvey, J. K 800 

Ilatlield, Hiram 008 

Hedges, J. K 804 

Hedges, K. M 803 

Herrmann, J. C OSj 

Hogg, James 840 

Iloutz, Eli 928 

Houtz, Henry !i29 

Hoover, Levi 780 

Ilortou, E. U 851 

Horton, Theodore 843 

Houael, Mrs Hhoda 874 

Howard, L. L 755 

Howard, R. G 750 

Huffman, D. C 825 



"^•« *ja??i ^jaf* 



Huft'man, Elijah 085 

Huffman, Frederick 749 

Huffman, (i. K 'JIO 

lIuirman,G. \V ISQ 

Huffman, H. li "TO 

Huffman, Levi W'JS 

]Iuffman, Lewis "''J'J 

Huffman, J. J 1001 

Huffman, Samuel lOOT 

J. 

Jarrett, AVilliara 841 

Johnson, A. W liiT 

Johnaou, W.C 'J71 

Johnston, William (J'J3 

Jones, Daniel 0.')4 

Jones, O. P tio'3 

Justus, M. yi y'.l2 

K. 

Kain, Daniel 053 

Keller, S. J 884 

Kellogg, Nelson 705 

Kemp, Joel 875 

Kenagy, J. V 7il4 

Kersliner,'Daviii 087 

King, U H 7S5 

King, g! \V 8-'3 

Kirkwooil, Henry !)40 

KirkwooJ, William 'JUT 

Klingel, Jonathan HSC 

Kunkle, Samuel 7S1 

L. 

Lacey, C. E 947 

Lambert, \i. P 075 

Lancaster, John G55 

Lancaster, Nathan 804 

Leavengooil, P. C 758 

Lee, John i)2(l 

Lee. M. W 73:2 

Lesh, Joseph '.139 

Lipkey, 11. W 075 

Lipkey, William SIO 

Lockwootl, G. A 087 

Lockwoo.l, J. S 711 

Lounsberrv, Sylvester 903 

Luillum, A. W 903 

Ludwick, Joseiih 1009 

Lusk, J. N 955 



M. 



MatUlo.x, J. C 805 

:\Luiao\, L E 738 

.Maddox, W. H 9S2 

Maddox, W. M 715 

JIarkley, 1). F S.s2 

JlarUley, Gabriel 723 

Markley, H. 992 

Markley, Jonathan 077 

Markley, Kev. J. J G74 

Markley, J. W 095 

Jtarj-h, ('. S 901 

Martin, A. N 678 



Martin, H.L 094 

Mason, L 7.50 

Mast, Abraham 904 

McAfee, S.J 847 

McAfee, W.J 075 

McCall'rev, Patrick 787 

McCleary, J. H 009 

JlcConkey, James, 1018 

:\IcCuUick, H. C 972 

McDowell, E. B 050 

Mclntire, Phanuel 729 

.Ale I Mtire, William 920 

.Mc.Mahou, W. P ...■ 707 

.Melsheimer, C. T 720 

Merriman, J. M 805 

^lerriman, J. V 895 

Jlerriman, W. B 080 

Mertz, William 893 

.Alert/. Wilhelm 893 

Metts, J. 1 930 

Mich.ael, Jonathan 798 

MilhoUand, Joseph 1022 

Miller, .Mrs. Catlierine 738 

.Miller, V. .M 1002 

Miller, Henry 742 

.Miller, Jacob 070 

.Miller, N. T 007 

Miller, William 937 

.Miller. W. H 805 

Miunich, Jacob 905 

Minnich, John 973 

.M innich, Peter : 083 

.Mixell, George 1001 

.Mock, Levi.r 099 

Morgan, C. H lOlH 

Morrical, E. P 828 

Jlorria, Thomas 813 

.Mossliurg, Henry S03 

Alossy, John K 902 

Mowery, G. F 814 

]\Iyers, .Joseph 777 

N. 

Neff, Ira 1000 

Nell", I. N 090 

Netf, John 771 

Newliard, W. J 050 

Newman, M. N 093 

Nimmons, W. B 877 

Noe, David 852 

Nusbaumer, George 752 

Nusbaumer, J.J 759 

Nutter, Levi 851 

O. 

O'Brien, John 928 

Ogden, John 871 

Oldfallier, .Michael 900 

Oppenheim, Alliert 857 

Op|ienheiui, Sigmnnd 800 

()rmsby,J.lL..' 782 

Osborn, Levi 712 

P. 

Parker, Mrs. C A 94G 

Parkison, W. J 980 

Perry, Epliraim 1008 



Perry, W.T 

Plessinger, J. B 

Poulsou, W. J 

Poulson, William. . . 

Prilile, J. J 

PriUaman, Lewis. . , 
Prillaman, William. 



703 
057 
7.59 
007 
844 
899 
992 



Quackenbush, T. \V 724 

Quick, Amos 9u8 

Quick, J. W 058 

R. 

Randall, A. C; lOlO 

Heed, H. H 840 

P.eitf, J. K GOO 

Kiddile, S. L 920 

Uinear, J. W 890 

Itineh.irt. J. (' ]012 

Uineharl, J. K 909 

Pioljerts, John S50 

Roberts, Nathan 800 

Robison, 1'. L 770 

Robinson, Robert 7ai 

Rowe, Amos i)09 

Rupright, W. H 881 

S. 

Sale, J. W 934 

Scott, James 7.50 

Scott, T. E 732 

Scotton, Charles 095 

Seaman, Joseph 810 

Seaton, 1{. L 903 

Seabold, G. H 1()03 

Settle, W. S 888 

Shadle, Philip 745 

Shaw, E. B 070 

Shields, Amaziah 746 

Shively, Jacob 922 

Shoemaker, John 740 

Shnui), Jacob 870 

SbroiU, Galiriel 707 

Silver, J. C 829 

Silver, \Y. S 939 

Simmons, Abram 785 

Simmons, L. B 800 

Smith, D. T 770 

Smith, J. H. 878 

Smith, ilcC'oy 808 

Souerwine, Peter 909 

Spaulding, LA 711 

Speece, Jacob 912 

Starr, B. F 834 

Staver, Jonathan • 997 

Stewart, A. J 1020 

Stoops, James 793 

Straw, Samuel 901 

Studabaker, Abraham 700 

Studabaker, John 683 

Studabaker, Peter 704 

Stui-gis, E. V 848 

Slurgis, Thomas. ., . 600 

Sunier, Anlhoii\ 910 

Swaim, D. H..." 907 



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CONTESTS. 



Swaim, William 010 

Swuim, ^V^ T. T 711 

T. 

Taylor, B. F 8G1 

Templetoi), J. F G91 

Tewksbiiry, Hiram 015 

TlioQui, Henry HTo 

Thomas, Uev. D. F 1023 

Thompson, U. H 1011) 

Thurnburg, J.W 077 

TocUl, J.J 003 

Toad, N. K 751 

Travis, John 951 

Twibell, W. M 081 

U. 
Unrne, George 1021 

V. 
Van Emons, A. R : 858 



W. 

Waikel, Levi 778 

Waikel, William (ISO 

WaUln.M, U. A 807 

Walker, J. A 7H« 

Wallace, Thomas 051 

Walser, Uannals 958 

Ware, Jlorgan 1034 

Warner, Q. L 1015 

Warner, Jacob 057 

Wasson, John 853 

Watts, Samuel 880 

Weaver, Branson 725 

Weaver, Harvey 080 

Weisell, W. W 1011 

West, Isham Oil 

Wiley, R. W 835 

Wilkin, William 084 

Wilson, Cyrus 808 

Wilson, Donaldson 700 

Wil3(m, E. U 703 

Wisner, T. L 742 

Wolf, William 000 



Zininierlee, Jacob 705 

Zi(Mi, W. (' 722 

Zoos, Joseph 1007 

GENERAL HISTORY. 

Geolog-y, Topography and Nat- 
ural History 559 

Early Settlement 503 

County Government 570 

Political and Ollicial 574 

Patriotism 578 

Professional 580 

Tlie Press 598 

]\IiscellaneoU9 002 

BlufTton 611 

Ossiau C25 

Liberty Center 631 

Smaller Villages 634 



F^o:^T^]Rj^n^©. 







Adams, John 15 

Adams, John Quincy 30 

Arnold, Eli 773 

Artliur.-.Chester A 112 

Bachelor, Lemuel 735 

Bennett, J. U 859 

Blue, M. C 987 

Bob.), J. R 321 

Buchanan, James 81 

Burghalter, Christian 504 

Burgbalter, Mrs. Mary 505 

(Christen, John 337 

Christen, Mrs. Elizabeth 338 

Cleveland, Grover 110 

Colfax, Schuyler 108 

Cotton, C. S 888 

Crawford, Josiah 488 

Dailey, J. S 689 

Dalrymple, H. W 753 

Dougherty, Hugh 071 

Eugeler, Frederick 90(5 

Fillmore, :\[illard 73 

France, J. T 403 

Fulton, J. C 714 

Fidlon, G. E 719 

Funk, Absalom 932 

Gardiner, G. E 977 

Garfield, James A 108 

Garrett, IS' oah 1005 



Gottschalk, Andrew 358 

Grant, Ulysses S 97 

Greenfield, Nathaniel 831 

Hale, Bowen 050 

Hale, J. P 801 

Hale, S. W 442 

Harrison, William Henry 57 

Hayes, Rutherford B 103 

Hendricks, Thomas A 104 

Hocker, C. W 425 

Jackson, Andrew 40 

Jarrett, William 840 

Jefferson, Thomas 21 

Johnson, Andrew 92 

Kellogg, Nelson 704 

King, G. W 832 

Kirkwood, Henry 941 

Kirkwood, William 900 

Lesh, Joseph 030 

Lincoln, Abraham 85 

Lipkey, William 811 

Madison, James 27 

Melsheimer, C. T 728 

Jliller, L. C 290 

Mock, Levi 008 

]\Iouroe, James 33 

Jlorton, Oliver P 100 

Ogden, John 870 

Ormsby, J. H 783 



Owen, Robert Dale 170 

Pierce, Franklin 77 

I'olk, James K 05 

Rinear, J. W 807 

Hinehart, J. K 008 

Scheer, J. P 525 

Shadle, Philip 714 

Shively, Jacob 923 

Smith," J. H. C 879 

Smith, P. W 540 

Snyder, William 403 

Studabaker, David 270 

Studabaker, John 082 

Studabaker, Peter 705 

Stubs, Jacob 377 

Sturgis, E. Y 849 

Taylor, Zachary 09 

Tewksbury, Hiram 914 

Todd, J. J 002 

Travis, John 950 

Tyler, John 01 

Van Bnreii, Martin 53 

Waber, Uannals 950 

Warner, G. L 1014 

Washington, George 8 

Williams, James D 172 

Wilson, E. R 703 



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%sli;,i^;^hSS^j>/^yj^Qj^^p. WASHING- 
<> TON, tlic " Father of 
Iiis Country" and its 
iirst President, 17S9- 
'97, was born Fcbru- 
%^^^^^^^''=f^^^^f\!£^ 'I'T 2-, 173-, ill Wash- 
■'°.?f','ib-y»"' V ini);ton Parish, West- 

f^iKf£^' moreland Count v, A'irtrinia. 
•a&^lp}" ^I'S fatlicr, Augustine Wasli- 
•^^vV* i'lgton, first married Jane But- 
ler, who bore him four chil- 
dren, and March 6, 1730, he 
married Mary Ball. Of six 
cliildren by his second mar- 
riage, George was the eldest, 
the others being Betty, Samuel, John, Au- 
gustine, Charles and Mildred, of whom the 
youngest died in infancy. Little is known 
of the early j'ears of Washington, be3-ond 
the fact that the house in which he was 
born was burned during his early child- 
hood, and that his father thereupon moved 
to another farm, inlierited from his paternal 
ancestors, situated in Stafford County, on 
the north bank of the Rappahannock, where 
he acted as agent of the Principio Iron 
Works in the immediate vicinity, and died 
there in 1743. 

From earliest childhood George devel- 
oped a noble character. He had a vigorous 
constitution, a fine form, and great bodily 
strength. His education was somewhat de- 



fective, being confined to the elementarv 
brandies taught him by his mother anfl at 
a neighboring school. He developed, how- 
ever, a fondness for mathematics, and en- 
joyed in that branch the instructions of a 
private teacher. 0\\ leaving school he re- 
sided for some time at Mount A'ernon with 
his half brother, Lawrence, who acted as 
his guardian, and who had married a daugh- 
ter of his neighbor at Belvoir on the Poto- 
mac, the wealthy William Fairfax, for some 
time president of the executive council of 
the colony. Both Fairfax and his son-in-law, 
Lawrence Washington, had served with dis- 
tinction in 1740 as officers of an American 
battalion at the siege of Carthagcna, and 
were friends and correspondents of Admiral 
Vernon, for whom the latter's residence on 
the Potomac has been named. George's 
inclinations were for a similar career, and a 
midshipman's warrant was procured for 
him, probably through the influence of the 
Admiral ; but through the opposition of his 
mother the project was abandoned. The 
family connection with the Fairfaxes, how- 
ever, opened another career for the yoimg 
man, who, at the age of sixteen, was ap- 
pointed surveyor to the immense estates of 
the eccentric Lord Fairfax, who was then 
on a visit at Belvoir, and who shortly after- 
ward established his baronial residence at 
Greenway Court, in the Shenandoah Valley. 



'I ' 



'V 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 






I 



1 
1 



I' 



Three 3-ears were passed by young Wasli- 
ingtoii in a roui^h frontier life, gaining ex- 
perience which afterward proved very es- 
sential to him. 

In 175 1, when the Virginia militia were 
put under training with a view to active 
service against France, Washington, though 
only nineteen years of age, was appointed 
Adjutant with the rank of Major. In Sep- 
tember of that year the failing health of 
Lawrence Washington rendered it neces- 
sar}' for him to seek a warmer climate, and 
George accompanied him in a voyage to 
Barbadoes. They returned early in 1752, 
and Lawrence shortly afterward died, leav- 
ing his large property to an infant daughter. 
In his will George was named one of the 
executors and as eventual heir to Mount 
Vernon, and by the death of the infant niece 
soon succeeded to that estate. 

On the arrival of Robert Dinwiddle as 
Lieutenant-Governor of Virginia in 1752 
the militia was reorganized, and the prov- 
ince divided into four districts. Washing- 
ton was commissioned by Dinwiddle Adju- 
tant-General of the Northern District in 
1753, and in November of that year a most 
important as well as hazardous mission was 
assigned him. This was to proceed to the 
Canadian posts recently established on 
French Creek, near Lake Erie, to demand 
in the name of the King of England the 
withdrawal of the French from a territory 
claimed by Virginia. This enterprise had 
been declined by more than one officer, 
since it involved a journey througli an ex- 
tensive and almost unexplored wilderness 
in the occupancy of savage Indian tribes, 
either hostile to the English, or of doubtful 
attachment. Major Washington, however, 
accepted the commission with alacrit)' ; and, 
accompanied by Captain Gist, he reached 
Fort Le Boeuf on French Creek, delivered 
his dispatches and received reply, which, of 
course, was a polite refusal to surrender the 
posts. This reply was of such a character 



as to induce the Assembly of Virginia to 
authorize the executive to raise a regiment 
of 300 men for the purpose of maintaining 
the asserted rights of the British crown 
over the territory claimed. As Washing- 
ton declined to be a candidate for that post, 
the command of this regiment was given to 
Colonel Joshua Fry, and Major Washing- 
ton, at his own request, was commissioned 
Lieutenant-Colonel. On the march to Ohio, 
news was received that a party previously 
sent to build a fort at the confluence of the 
Monongahela with the Ohio had been 
driven back bv a considerable French force, 
which had completed the work there be- 
gun, and named it Fort Duquesne, in honor 
of the Marquis Duquesne, then Governor 
of Canada. This was the beginning of the 
great " French and Indian war,'' which con- 
tinued seven years. On the death of Colonel 
Fry, Washington succeeded to the com- 
mand of the regiment, and so well did he 
fulfill his trust that the Virginia Assembly 
commissioned him as Commander-in-Chief 
of all the forces raised in the colony. 

A cessation of all Indian hostility on the 
frontier having followed the expulsion of 
the French from the Ohio, the object of 
Washington was accomplished and he re- 
signed his commission as Commander-in- 
Chief of the Virginia forces. He then pro- 
ceeded to Williamsburg to take his seat in 
the General Assembly, of which he had 
been elected a member. 

January 17, 1759, Washington married 
Mrs. Martha (Dandridge) Custis, a young 
and beautiful widow of great wealth, and de- 
voted himself for the ensuing fifteen years 
to the quiet pursuits of agriculture, inter- 
rupted only by his annual attendance in 
winter upon the Colonial Legislature at 
Williamsburg, until summoned by his 
country to enter upon that other arena in 
which his fame was to become world wide. 

It is unnecessary here to trace the details 
of the struggle upon the question of local 



GEORGE U'ASIllNGTON. 



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self-government, which, after ten years, cul- 
minated by act of Parliament of the port of 
Boston. It was at the instance of Virginia 
tiiat a congress of all the colonies was called 
to meet at I'hiladclphia Septembers, 1774, 
to secure their common liberties — if possible 
by peaceful means. ' To this Congress 
Colonel Washington was sent as a dele- 
gate. On dissolving in October, it recom- 
mended the colonies to send deputies to 
another Congress the following s])ring. In 
the meantime several of the colonies felt 
impelled to raise local forces to repel in- 
sults and aggressions on the part of British 
troops, so that on the assembling of the next 
Congress, May 10, 1775, the war prepara- 
tions of the mother country were unmis- 
takable. The battles of Concord and Lex- 
ington had been fought. Among the earliest 
acts, therefore, of the Congress was the 
selection of a commander-in-chief of the 
colonial forces. This office was unani- 
mously conferred upon Washington, still a 
member of the Congress. lie accepted it 
on June 19, but on the express condition he 
should receive no salary. 

He immediately repaired to the vicinity 
of Boston, against which point the British 
ministry had concentrated their forces. As 
early as April General Gage had 3,000 
troops in and around this proscribed cit}'. 
During the fall and winter the British policy 
clearly indicated a purpose to divide pub- 
lic sentiment and to build up a British party 
in the colonies. Those who sided with the 
ministry were stigmatized by the patriots 
as " Tories," while the patriots took to them- 
selves the name of " Whigs." 

As earlv as 1776 the leading men had 
come t(j the conclusion that there was no 
hope except in separation and indepen- 
dence. In Mav of that \ear Washington 
wrote from the hcatl of the army in New 
York: "A reconciliation with Great Brit- 
ain is impossible When I took 

command of the armv, I abhorred the idea 



of independence ; but I am now fvdly satis- 
fied that nothing else will save us." 

It is not the object of this sketch to trace 
the militar>' acts of the patriot hero, to 
whose iiands the fortunes and liberties of 
the United States were confided during the 
seven years' bloody struggle that ensued 
until the treaty of 1783, in which England 
acknowledged the independence of each of 
the thirteen States, and negotiated with 
them, jointly, as separate sovereignties. The 
merits of W^ashington as a military chief- 
tain have been considerably discussed, espe- 
cially by writers in his own country. Dur- 
ing the war he was most bitterly assailed 
for incompetency, and great efforts were 
made to displace him ; but he never for a 
moment lost the confidence of either the 
Congress or the people. December 4, 1783, 
the great commander took leave of his offi- 
cers in most affectionate and patriotic terms, 
and went to Annapolis, Maryland, where 
the Congress of the States was in session, 
and to that body, when peace and order 
prevailed everywhere, resigned his com- 
mission and retired to Mount Vernon. 

It was in 1788 that Washington was called 
to the chief magistracy of the nation. He 
received every electoral vote cast in all the 
colleges of the States voting for the office 
of President. The 4th of March, 1789, was 
the time appointed for the Government of 
the United States to begin its operations, 
but several weeks elapsed before quorums 
of both the newly constituted houses f)f the 
Congress were assembled. The city of New 
York was the place where the Congress 
then met. April 16 Washington left his 
home to enter upon the discharge of his 
new duties. He set out with a purpose of 
traveling privatel}', and without attracting 
any public attention ; but this was impossi- 
ble. Everywhere on his way he was met 
with thronging crowds, eager to see the 
man whom they regarded as the chief de- 
fender of their liberties, and everywhere 



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he was hailed witli those public nianifesta- 
lions o[ jov, regard and love whicii spring 
s])ontaneoiisly from the hearts of an affec- 
tionate and gratefid people. His reception 
in New York was marked by a grandeur 
and an enthusiasm never before witnessed 
in that metropolis. The inauguration took 
place A]iril 30, in the presence of an immense 
multitude which had assembled to witness 
the new and imposing ceremony. The oath 
of office was administered by Robert R. 



within its specific and limited sphere, while 
the others were for enlarging its powers by 
.inference and implication. Hamilton and 
Jefferson, both members of the first cabinet, 
were regarded as the chief leaders, respect- 
ively, of these rising antagonistic parties, 
which have ex'isted, 'under different names, 
from that d.ay to this. Washington was re- 
garded as holding a neutral position between 
them, though, by mature deliberation, he 
vetoed the first apportionment bill, in 1790, 



Livingston, Chancellor of the State. When passed by the party headed by Hamilton, 
this sacred pledge was given, he retired | which was based upon a principle construct- 
with the other officials into the Senate ! ively leading to centralization or consoli- 



chamber, where he delivered his inaugural 
address to both houses of the newly con- 
stituted Congress in joint assembly. 

In the manifold details of his civil ad- 
ministration, Washington proved himself 
equal to the requirements ot his position. 
The greater portion of the first session of 
tlie first Congress was occupied in passing 
the necessary statutes for putting the new 
organization into complete operation. In 
the discussions brought up in the course of 
this legislation the nature and character of 
the new system came imdcr general review. 
On no one of them did anv decided antago- 
nism of opinion arise. All held it to be a 
limited government, clothed only with spe- 
cific powers conferred by delegation from 
the States. There was no change in the 
name of the legislative department; it still 
remained "the Congress of the United 
States of America." There was no change 
in the original flag of the countr3',and none 
in the seal, which still remains with the 
Grecian escutcheon borne by the eagle, 
witii other emblems, under the great and 
expressive motto, "if Pluribits Unitin." 

The first division of parties arose upon 
the manner of construing the powers dele- 
gated, and they were first styled "strict 
constructionists" and " latitudinarian con- 
structionists." The former were for con- 
fining the action of the Government strictly 



dation. This was the first exercise of the 
veto power under the present Constitution. 
It created considerable excitement at the 
time. Another bill was soon passed in pur- 
suance of Mr. Jefferson's views, which has 
been adhered to in principle in every ap- 
portionment act passed since. 

At tiie second session of the new Con- 
gress, Washington announced the gratify- 
ing fact of " the accession of North Caro- 
lina" to the Constitution of 1787, and June 
I of the same year he announced by special 
message the like " accession of the State of 
Riiodc Island," with his congratulations on 
the happy event which " united under the 
general Government" all the States which 
were originally confederated. 

In 1792, at the second Presidential elec- 
tion, Washington was desirous to retire ; 
but he yielded to the general wish of the 
country, and was again chosen President 
by the unanimous vote of every electoral 
college. At tlie third election, 1796, he was 
again most urgently entreated to consent to 
remain in the executive chair. This he 
positively refused. In September, before 
the election, he gave to his countrymen his 
memorable Farewell Address, which in lan- 
guage, sentiment and patriotism was a fit 
and crowning glory of his illustrious life. 
After jNIarch 4, 1797, he again retired to 
Mount Vernon for peace, quiet and rci)Ose. 



Ilf 

.1i 



GEOttGE WASHINGTON. 



His administration forthc two terms liad 
been successful beyond the expectation and 
iiopes of even the most sanguine of his 
friends. The finances of tlie country were 
no longer in an embarrassed condition, the 
public credit was fidiy restored, life was 
given to every department of industry, the 
workings of the new system in allowing 
Congress to raise revenue from duties on 
imports proved to be not only harmonious 
in its federal action, but astonishing in its 
results upon the commerce and trade of all 
the States. The exports from the Union 
increased from §19,000,000 to over §56,000,- 
000 per annum, while the imports increased 
in about the same proportion. Tlircc new 
members had been added to the Union. The 
progi'ess of the States in their new career 
under their new organization thus far was 
exceedingly encouraging, not only to tlic 
friends of liberty within their own limits, 
but to their sympathizing allies in all climes 
and countries. 

CM the call again made on this illustrious 



chief to quit his repose at Mount Vernon 
and take command of all the United States 
forces, with the rank of Licutenant-General, 
when war was threatened with France in 
1798, nothing need here be stated, except to 
note the fact as an unmistakable testimo- 
nial of the high regard in which he was still 
held by his countrymen, of all shades of po- 
litical opinion. lie patriotically accepted 
this trust, but a treatv of peace put a stop 
to all action under it. He again retired to 
Mount Vernon, where, after a short and 
severe illness, he died December 14, 1799, 
in tiie sixty-eighth )-ear of his age. The 
whole country was filled with gloom by this 
.sad intelligence. Men of all parties in poli- 
tics and creeds in religion, in every State 
in the Union, united with Congress in " pay- 
ing honor to the man, first in war, first in 
peace, and first in the hearts of his country- 
lucn 

His remains were deposited in a family 
vault on the banks of the Potomac at Mount 
Vernon, where they still lie entombed. 








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J'J!ES/DENTS O^ THE UNITED STATES. 




&^^. 




OHN ADAMS, the second 
President of the United 
States, 1797 to 1 80 1, was 
born in the present town 
of Ouincy, then a portion 
of Braintree, Massachu- 
' setts, October 30, 1735. His 
father was a farmer of mod- 
erate means, a wortliy and 
» industrious man. He was 
a deacon in the church, and 
was ver}- desirous of giving 
his son a collegiate educa- 
- tion, hoping that he would 
become a minister of the 
gospel. But, as up to this 
time, the age of fourteen, lie had been only 
a play-boy in the fields and forests, he had 
no taste for books, he chose farming. On 
being set to work, however, by his father 
out in the field, the very first day con- 
verted the boy into a lover of books. 

Accordingly, at the age of sixteen he 
entered Harvard College, and graduated in 
1755, at the age of twenty, highly esteemed 
for integrity, energy and ability. Thus, 
having no capital but his education, he 
started out into tiie stormy world at a time 
of great political excitement, as France and 
England were then engaged in their great 
seven-years struggle for the mastery over 
the New World. The fire of patriotism 



seized young Adams, and for a tini.r he 
studied over the question whether he 
should take to the law, to politics or the 
army. He wrote a remarkable letter to a 
friend, making prophecies concerning the 
future greatness of this country which have 
since been more than fulfilled. For two 
years he taught school and studied law, 
wasting no odd moments, and at the early 
age of twenty-two years he opened a law 
office in his native town. His inherited 
powers of mind and untiring devotion to 
his profession caused him to rise rapidly 
in public esteem. 

In October, 1764, Mr. Adams married 
Miss Abigail Smith, daughter of a clergy- 
man at Weymouth and a lady of rare per- 
sonal and intellectual endowments, who 
afterward contributed much to her hus- 
band's celebrity. 

Soon the oppression of the British in 
America reached its climax. The Boston 
merchants employed an attorney by the 
name of James Otis to argue the legality of 
oppressive tax law before the Superior 
Court. Adams heard the argument, and 
afterward wrote to a friend concerning the 
ability displayed, as follows: "Otis was a 
flame of fire. With a promptitude of 
classical allusion, a depth of research, a 
rapid summary of historical events and 
dates, a profusion of legal authorities and a 



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prophetic glance into futurity, he luirricd 
away all before him. Aincricaii i)idcpeudcucc 
was then and there born. Every man of an 
immensely crowded audience appeared to 
me to go away, as I did, ready to take up 
arms." 



lishing the principle that the infamous 
royal prerogative of imjiressnient could 
have no existence in the colonial code. 
But in 1770 Messrs. Adams and Josiah 
Quincy defended a party of British soldiers 
who had been arrested for murder when 



Soon Mr. Adams wrote an essay to be I they had been only obeying Governmental 
read before the literary club of his town, ! orders; and when reproached for thus ap- 
upon the state of affairs, which was so able i parently deserting the cause of popular 
as to attract public attention. It was pub- I liberty, Mr. Adams replied that he would a 
lished in American journals, republished j thousandfold rather live under the doraina- 
in England, and was pronounced by the ' tion of the worst of England's kings than 
friends of the colonists there as " one of the ; under that of a lawless mob. Next, after 
very best productions ever seen from Nortli | serving a term as a member of the Colonial 
America." Legislature from Boston, Mr. Adams, hnd- 

The memorable Stamp Act was now j iiig his health affected by too great labor, 
issued, and Adams entered with all the I retired to his native home at Braintree. 



ardor of his soul into political life in order 
to resist it. He drew up a series of reso- 
lutions remonstrating against the act, which 
were adopted at a public meeting of the 
citizens of Braintree, and which were sub- 
sequently adopted, word for word, b}' more 
than forty towns in the State. Popular 
commotion prevented the landing of the 
Stamp x\ct papers, and the English author- 
ities then closed the courts. The town of 
Boston therefore appointed Jeremy Grid- 
ley, James Otis and John Adams to argue a 
petition before the Governor and council 
for the re-opening of the courts; and while j 
the two first mentioned attorneys based 
their argument upon the distress caused to 
the people by the measure, Adams boldly 
claimed tliat the Stamp Act was a violation 
both of the English Constitution and the 
charter of the Provinces. It is said that 
this was the first direct denial of the un- 
limited right of Parliament over the colo- 
nies. Soon after this the Stamp Act was 
repealed. 

Directly Mr. 'Adams was employed to 
defend Ansell Nickerson, who had killed an 
Englishman in the act of impressing him 
(Nickerson) into the King's service, and his 
client was acquitted, the court thus estab- 






The year 1774 soon arrived, with its fa- 
mous Boston "Tea Party," the first open 
act of rebellion. Adams was sent to the 
Congress at Philadelphia ; and when the 
Attorney-General announced that Great 
Britain had " determined on her system, 
and that her power to execute it was irre- 
sistible," Adams replied : " I know that 
Great Britain has determined on her sys- 
tem, and that very determination deter- 
mines me on mine. You know that I have 
been constant in m}' opposition to her 
measures. The die is now cast. I have 
passed the Rubicon. Sink or swim, live or 
die, with my countr}', is my unalterable 
determination." The rumor beginning to 
prevail at Philadelphia that the Congress 
had independence in view, Adams foresaw 
that it was too soon to declare it openly. 
He advised every one to remain quiet in 
that respect; and as soon as it became ap- 
parent that he himself was for independ- 
ence, he was advised to hide himself, which 
he did. 

The next year the great Revolutionary 
war opened in earnest, and Mrs. Adams, 
residing near Boston, kept her husband ad- 
vised by letter of all the events transpiring 
in her vicinity. The battle of Bunker Hill 



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came on. Cont^ress liad to do something 
immediately. The first thing was to 
choose a commander-in-chief for the — we 
can't say " army " — tlie hgiiting men of the 
colonics. The New Kiigland delegation 
was almost nnanimoiis in fav'or of appoint- 
ing General Ward, then at the head of the 
Massachusetts forces, but Mr. Adams urged 
the appointment of George Washington, 
then almost unknown outside of his own 
State. He was appointed without oppo- 
sition. ^^r. Adams offered the resolution, 
which was adopted, annulling all the royal 
authority in the colonies. Having thus 
prepared the way, a few weeks later, viz., 
June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee, of \'ir- 
ginia, who a few months before had declared 
that the British Government would aban- 
don its oppressive measures, now offered 
the memorable resolution, seconded by 
Adams, "that these United States are, and 
of right ought to be, free and independent." 
Jefferson, Adams, Franklin, Sherman and 
Livingston were then appointed a commit- 
tee to draught a declaration of independ- 
ence. Mr. Jefferson desired Mr. Adams 
to draw up the bold document, but the 
latter persuaded Mr. Jefferson to perform 
tliat responsible task. The Declaration 
drawn up, Mr. Adams became its foremost 
defender on the floor of Congress. It was 
signed by all the fifty-five members present, 
and the next day Mr. Adams wrote to his 
wife how great a deed was done, and how 
proud he was of it. Mr. Adams continued 
to be the leading man of Congress, and 
the leading advocate of American inde- 
pendence. Above all other Americans, 
he was considered by every one the prin- 
cipal shining mark for British vengeance. 
Thus circumstanced, he was appointed to 
the most dangerous task of crossing the 
ocean in winter, exposed to capture by the 
British, who knew of his mission, which 
was to visit Paris and solicit the co-opera- 
tion of the French. Besides, to take him- 



self awa)- from the country of which he 
was the most prominent defender, at that 
critical time, was an act of the greatest self- 
sacrifice. Sure enough, while crossing tiie 
sea, he had two very narrow escapes from 
capture ; and the transit was otherwise 
stormy and eventful one. During th'' 
summer of 1779 he returned home, but was 
immediately dispatched back to France, to 
be in readiness there to negotiate terms of 
peace and commerce with Great Britain as 
soon as the latter power was ready for such 
business. But as Dr. Franklin was more 
popular than heat the court of France, Mr. 
Adams repaired to Holland, where he was 
far more successful as a diplomatist. 

The treaty of peace between the United 
States and England was finall}' signed at 
Paris, January 21, 1783; and the re-action 
from so great excitement as Mr. Adams had 
so long been experiencing threw him into 
a dangerous fever. Before he fully re- 
covered he was in London, whence he was 
dispatched again to Amsterdam to negoti- 
ate another loan. Compliance with this 
order undermined his physical constitution 
for life. 

In 1785 Mr. Adams was appointed envoy 
to the court of St. James, to meet face to 
face the very king who had regarded him 
as an arch traitor ! Accordingly he re- 
paired thither, where he did actually meet 
and converse with George III.! After a 
residence there for about three years, he 
obtained permission to return to America. 
While in London he wrote and published 
an able work, in three volumes, entitled: 
" A Defense of the American Constitution." 

The Articles of Confederation proving 
inefficient, as Adams had prophesied, a 
carefully draughted Constitution was 
adopted in 1789, when George Washington 
was elected President of the new nation, 
and Adams Vice-President. Congress met 
for a time in New York, but was removed 
to Philadelphia for ten years, until suitable 



■JO //A'' A/JA.)/S. 



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buildings should be erected at tlie new 
ciipital in the District of Columbia. iMi\ 
Adams then moved his family to Phila- 
delphia. Toward the close of his term of 
office the .French Revolution culminated, 
when Adams and Washington rather 
sympathized with England, and Jefferson 
with France. The Presidential election of 
1796 resulted in giving Mr. Adams the first 
jjlace by a small majority, and Mr. Jeffer- 
son the second place. 

Mr. Adams's administration was consci- 
entious, patriotic and able. The period 
was a turbulent one, and even an archangel 
could not have reconciled tlic hostile par- 
ties. Partisanisni with reference to Eng- 
land and France was bitter, and for four 
years Mr. Adams struggled through almost 
a constant tempest of assaults, in fact, he 
was not truly a popular man, and his cha- 
grin at not receiving a re-election was so 
great that he did not even remain at Phila- 
delphia to witness the inauguration of Mr. 
Jefferson, his successoi\ Tlie friendly 
intimac}' between these two men was 
interrupted for about thirteen years of their 
life. Adams finall)' made the first advances 
toward a restoration of their mutual friend- 
ship, which were gratefuU}- accejited b}' 
Jefferson. 

Mr. Adams was glad of his opportunity 
to retire to private lile, where he could rest 
his mind and enjoy the comforts of home. 
By a thousand bitter experiences he found 
the path of public dut}- a thorny one. For 
twenty-six years his service of the public 
was as arduous, self-sacrificing and devoted 
as ever fell to the lot of man. In one im- 
portant sense he was as much the " Father 
of his Country " as was Washington in 
another sense. During these long years of 
anxiety and toil, in which he was iayingi 
broad and deep, the foundations of the 



greatest nation the sun ever slione upon, he 
received from his impoverished country a 
meager siii)port. The onl}' privilege he 
carried with him into his retirement was 
that of fi'anking his letters. 

Although taking no active part in public 
affairs, both himself and his son, John 
Ouincy, nobl}' supported the policy of Mr. 
Jefferson in resisting the encroachments ol 
England, who persisted in searching 
-American ships on the high seas and 
dragging from them anv sailors that might 
be designated by any pert lieutenant as 
British subjects. Even for this noble sup- 
port Ml'. Adams was maligned b)' thou- 
sands of bitter enemies ! On this occasion, 
for the first time since his retirement, he 
broke silence and drew up a very able 
paper, exposing the atrocity of the British 
pretensions. 

Mr. Adams outlived nearly all his family. 
Though his physical frame began to give 
way many years before his death, his mental 
powers retained their strength and vigor to 
the last. In his ninetieth year he was 
gladdened by the popular elevation of his 
son to the Presidential office, the highest in 
the gift of the people. A few months more 
passed away and the 4th of July, 1826, 
arrived. The people, unaware of the near 
approach of the end of two great lives— 
that of Adams and Jefferson— were making 
unusual preparations for a national holiday. 
Mr. Adams lay upon his couch, listening to 
the ringing of bells, the waftures of martial 
music and the roar of cannon, with silent 
emotion. Only four days before, he had 
given for a public toast, " Independence 
forever." About two o'clock in the after- 
noon he said, "And Jefferson still survives." 
But he was mistaken by an hour or so; 
and in a few minutes he had breathed his 
last. 



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PRESTDEIVTS OF THE UXITED STATES. 



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^ri^-iiiiff son, the third Presi- 
^'>^^^lll dent of the United 
States, 1801-9, ^^''^s 
burn April 2, 1743, 
the eldest child of 
his parents, Peter 
and Jane (Randolph) Jef- 
ferson, near Charlottes- 
ville, Albemarle County, 
Virginia, upon the slopes 
of the Blue Ridge. When 
he -was fourteen years of 
age, his father died, leav- 
ing a widow and eight 
children. She was a beau- 
tiful and accomplished 
lady, a good letter- writer, with a fund of 
humor, and an admirable housekeeper. His 
parents belonged to the Church of England, 
and are said to be of Welch origin. But 
little is known of them, however. 

Thomas was naturally of a serious turn 
of mind, apt to learn, and a favorite at 
school, his choice studies being mathemat- 
ics and tiie classics. At the age of seven- 
teen he entered William and Mary College, 
in an advanced class, and lived in rather an 
expensive style, consequently being much 
caressed by gay society. That he was not 
ruined, is proof of his stamina of character. 
But during 'his second year he discarded 



society, his horses and even his favorite 
violin, and devoted thenceforward fifteen 
hours a day to hard study, becoming ex- 
traordinarily proficient in Latin and Greek 
authors. 

On leaving college, before he was twent}'- 
one, he commenced the study of law, and 
pursued it diligently until he was well 
qualified for practice, upon which he 
entered in 1767. By this time he was also 
versed in French, Spanish, Italian and An- 
glo-Saxon, and in tiie criticism of the fine 
arts. Being very [>olitc and polished in his 
manners, he won the friendship of all whom 
he met. Though able with his pen, he was 
not fluent in public speech. 

In 1769 he was chosen a member of the 
Virginia Legislature, and was the largest 
slave-holding member of that body. He 
introduced a bill empowering slave-holders 
to manumit their slaves, but it was rejected 
by an overwhelming vote. 

In 1770 Mr. Jefferson met with a great 
loss; his house at Shadwell was burned, 
and his valuable library of 2,000 volumes 
was consumed. But he was wealthy 
enough to replace the most of it, as from 
his 5,000 acres tilled by slaves and his 
practice at the bar his income amounted to 
about $5,000 a year. 

In 1772 he mariied Mrs. Martiia Skelton, 
a beautiful, wealthy and accomplished 






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THOMAS JEFFERSON. 



of Congress. Tlie signing of tiiis document 
was one of the most solemn and momentous 
occasions ever attended to by man. Pra3-er 
and silence reigned throughout the hall, 
and each signer realized that if American 
independence was not finally sustainctl by 
arms he was doomed to the scaffold. 

After the colonies became independent 
States, Jefferson resigned for a time his seat 
in Congress in order to aid in organizing 









prcssive toward the American colonies, 
and ^fr. Jefferson was ever one of the most 
foremost to resist its encroachments. From 
time to time he drew up resolutions of re- 
monsti^ancc, which were linally adopted, 
thus proving his ability as a statesman and 
as a leader. B}' the \ear 1774 he became 
quite busy, botli with voice and pen, in de- 
fending the right of the c(jlonies to defend 
themselves. Ilis jjamphlet entitled: "A 
Summary View of the Rights of British 
America," attracted much attention in Eng- 
land. The following year he, in company 
witii George Washington, served as an ex- 
ecutive committee in measures to defend 
by arms the State of Virginia. As a Mem- 
ber of the Congress, he was not a speech-- 
maker, yet in conversation and upon 
committees he was so frank and decisive 
that he always made a favorable impression. 
But as late as the autumn of 1775 he re- 
mained in hopes of reconciliation with the 
parent country. 

At length, however, the hour arrived for 
draughting the " Declaration of Indepen- 
dence," and this responsible task was de- 
volved upon Jefferson. Franklin, and 
Adams suggested a few verbal corrections 
before it was submitted to Congress, which 
was June 28, 1776, only six days before it 
was adopted. During the three days of 



he was chosen Governor in 1779, when he 
was thirty-six years of age. At this time 
the British had possession of Georgia aiul 
were invading South Carolina, and at one 
time a British officer, Tarleton, sent a 
secret expedition to Monticello to capture 
the Governor. Five minutes after Mr. 
Jefferson escaped with his famil}-, his man- 
sion was in possession of the enemy ! The 
British troops also destroyed his valuable 
plantation on the James River. " Had they 
carried off the slaves," said Jefferson, with 
characteristic magnanimity, " to give them 
freedom, they would have done right." 

The year 1781 was a gloomy one for the 
Virginia Governor. While confined to his 
secluded home in the forest by a sick and 
dying wife, a party arose against him 
throughout the State, severely criticising 
his course as Governor. Being very sensi- 
tive to reproach, this touched him to the 
quick, and the heap of troubles then sur- 
rounding him nearly crushed him. He re- 
solved, in despair, to retire from public life 
for the rest of his days. For weeks Mr. 
Jefferson sat lovingly, but with a crushed 
heart, at the bedside of his sick wife, during 
which time imfeeling letters were sent to 
him, accusing him of weakness and unfaith- 
fulness to duty. All this, after he had lost 
so much property and at the same tmie 



the fiery ordeal of criticism through which 1 done so much for his country! After her 

it passed in Congress, Mr. Jefferson opened death he actually fainted away, and rc- 

not his lips. John Adams was the main mained so long insensible that it was feared 

champion of the Declaration on the floor ( he never would recover! Several weeks 



yoLuig widow, who owned 40,000 acres of 
land and 130 slaves; yet he labored assidu- 
ously for the abolition of slavery. For his 
new home he selected a majestic rise of 
land upon his large estate at Shadwell, 
called Monticello, whereon he erected a 
mansion of modest yet elegant architecture. 
Here he lived in luxury, indulging his taste 
in magnificent, high-blooded horses. 

At this period the British Government 
gradually became more insolent and oj)- ' the government of Virginia, of which State f 



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PRES/DS.VTS OF THE U.VITED STATES. 



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passed before he could fully recover his 
equilibrium. He was never married a 
second time. 

In the spring of 1782 the people of Eng- 
land compelled their king to make to the 
Americans overtures of peace, and in No- 
vember following, Mr. Jefferson was reap- 
pointed by Congress, unanimously and 
without a single adverse remark, minister 
plenipotentiary to negotiate a treaty. 

In March, 1784, Mr. Jefferson was ap- 
pointed on. a committee to draught a plan 
for the government of the Northwestern 
Territory. His slavery-prohibition clause 
in that plan was stricken out by the pro- 
slavery majority of the committee; but amid 
all the controversies and wrangles of poli- 
ticians, he made it a rule never to contra- 
dict anybod)' or engage in any discussion 
as a debater. 

In company with Mr. Adams and Dr. 
Franklin, Mr. Jefferson was appointed in 
Mav, 1784, to act as minister plenipotentiary 
in the negotiation of treaties of commerce 
with foreign nations. Accordingly, he went 
to Paris and satisfactorily accomplished his 
mission. The suavity and high bearing of 
his manner made all the French his friends; 
and even Mrs. Adams at one time wrote 
to her sister that he was " the chosen 
of the earth." But all the honors that 
he received, both at home and abroad, 
seemed to make no change in the simplicity 
of his republican tastes. On his return to 
America, he found two parties respecting 
the foreign commercial policy, Mr. Adams 
sympathizing with that in favor of England 
and himself favoring France. 

On the inauguration of General Wash- 
ington as President, Mr. Jefferson was 
chosen by him for the office of Secretary of 
State. At this time the rising storm of the 
French Revolution became visible, and 
Washington watched it with great anxiety. 
His cabinet was divided in their views of 
constitutional government as well as re- 




garding the issues in France. General 
Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury, was 
the leader of the so-called Federal party, 
while Mr. Jefferson was the leader of the 
Republican party. At the same time there 
was a strong monarchical party in this 
country, with which Mr. Adams sympa- 
thized. Some important financial measures, 
which were proposed b}' Hamilton and 
finally adopted by the cabinet and approved 
by Washington, were opposed by Mr. 
Jefferson ; and his enemies then began to 
reproach him with holding office under an 
administration whose views he opposed. 
The President poured oil on the troubled 
waters. On his re-election to the Fresi- 
denc}' he desired Mr. Jefferson to remain 
in the cabinet, but the latter sent in his 
resignation at two different times, probably 
because he was dissatisfied with some of 
the measures of the Government. His 
final one was not received until January i, 
1794, when General Washington parted 
from him with great regret. 

Jefferson then retired to his quiet home 
at Monticello, to enjoy a good rest, not even 
reading the newspapers lest the political 
gossip should disquiet him. On the Presi- 
dent's again calling him back to the office 
of Secretary of State, he replied tliat no 
circumstances would ever again tempt him 
to engage in anything public! But, while 
all Europe was ablaze with war, and France 
in the throes of a bloody revolution and the 
principal theater of the conflict, a new 
Presidential election in this country came 
on. John Adams was the Federal candi- 
date and Mr. Jefferson became the Republi- 
can candidate. The result of the election 
was the promotion of the latter tothe V^ice- 
Presidency, while the former was chosen 
President. In this contest Mr. Jefferson 
really did not desire to have either office, 
he was "so weary" of party strife. He 
loved tiie retirement of home more than 
any other place on the earth. 



I 






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]3ut for four loii^- years liis \'ic(.--I 'resi- 
dency passed joylessly away, wliilc tlic 
partisan strife between Fetleralist and Kc- 
publican was c\'er growing liotter. The 
former party split and tlie result of the 
fourth general election was the elevation of 
Mr. Jefferson to the Presidency ! with 
Aaron Burr as Vice-President. Tliese men 
being at the head of a growing party, their 
election was hailed everywhere with joy. 
On the other hand, many of the Federalists 
turned pale, as they believed what a portion 
of the pulpit and the press had been preach- 
ing — that Jefferson was a " scoffing atheist," 
a "Jacobin," the '■ incarnation' of all evil," 
" breathing threatening and slaughter! " 

Mr. Jefferson's inaugural address con- 
tained nothing but the noblest sentiments, 
expressed in tine language, and his personal 
behavior afterward exhibited the extreme 
of American, democratic simplicity. His 
disgust of European court etiquette grew 
upon him with age. He believed that 
General Washington was somewhat dis- 
trustful of the ultimate success of a populai- 
Government, and that, imbued with a little 
admiration of the forms of a monarchical 
Government, he had instituted levees, birth- 
days, pompous meetings witii Congress, 
etc. JclTci'son was always polite, even to 
slaves everywhere he met them, and carried 
in his Countenance the indications of an ac- 
commodating disjiosition. 

The political principles of the JefTersoni- 
an party now swept the country, and Mr. 
Jefferson himself swayed an influence which 
was never exceeded even b}' Washington. 
Under his administration, in 1803, the Lou- 
isiana purchase was made, for $15,000,000, 
the " Louisiana Territoiy " purchased com- 
prising all the land west of the Mississippi 
to the Pacific Ocean. 

Tiie year 1804 witnessed another severe 
loss in his family'. His highly accomplished 
and most beloved daughter ALiria sickened 
and died, causing as great grief in the 

!SL..,. L.,.,.: 



T//OM.IS JEFFElfSOA'. 
\ 



stricken parent as it was i)ossible for him to 
survi\'e willi any degree of sanit}'. 

The same year he was re-elected to the 
Presidency, with George Clinton as Vice- 
President. During his second term our 
relations with England became more com- 
plicated, and on June 22, 1807, near Hamp- 
ton Roads, tiie United States frigate 
Chesapeake was fired upon by the Brit- 
ish man-of-war Leopard, and was made 
to surrender. Three men were killed and 
ten wounded. Jefferson demanded repara- 
tion. England grew insolent. It became 
evident that war was determined upon by 
the latter power. More than 1,200 Ameri- 
cans were forced into the British service 
upon the high seas. Before any satisfactory 
solution was reached, Mr. Jefferson's 
Presidential term closed. Amid all these 
public excitements he thought constantly 
of the welfare of his family, and longed 
for the time when he could return home 
to remain. There, at Monticello, his sub- 
sequent life was very similar to that of 
Washington at Mt. ^''e^non. His hospi- 
talitv toward his numerous friends, indul- 
gence of his slaves, and misfortimes to his 
property, etc., finally involved him in debt. 
For years his home resembled a fashion- 
able watering-place. During the summer, 
thirty-seven house servants were required ! 
It was presided over bv his daughter, Mrs. 
Randol[>h. 

Mr. Jefferson did much for the establish- 
ment of the University at Charlottesville, 
making it unsectarian, in keeping with the 
spirit of American institutions, but poverty 
and the feebleness of old age prevented 
him from doing what he would. He even 
went so far as to petition the Legislature 
f(3r permission to dispose of some of his 
possessions by lottery, in order to raise the 
necessary funds for home expenses. It was 
granted ; but before the plan was carried 
out, Mr. Jefferson died, July 4, 1S26, at 

12:50 I'. M. ,., , , 



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PRES/DBNTS OF THE V.WITED STATES. 



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a»';,^'^'AMES MADISON, the 

1% fourth President of tlie 

Ijt^"** United States, iSog-'i;, 

was born at Port Con- 

•t'' - ' ll^'J " ^•. ^^'''.V' I'l'ince George 

"T^sjjs^-ii^^jr i^ i' Count)', Virginia, March 

1 6, 1 75 1. His father, 

Colonel James Madison, was 

^\\ljfe ^ wealthy planter, residing 

up(Mi a very fine estate 

, called " Montpelier," only 

^ijy^ twenty-five miles from the 

home of Thomas Jefferson 

at Monlicello. The closest 

personal and political at- 

taciiment existed between 

these illustrious men from their carl)' 3-outh 

until death. 

James was the eldest of a family of seven 
children, four sons and three daughters, all 
of whom attained maturity. His early edu- 
cation was conducted mostly at home, 
under a private tutor. Being naturall\' in- 
tellectual in his tastes, he consecrated him- 
self with unusual vigor to study. At a very 
early age he made considerable proficiency 
in the Greek, Latin, French and Spanish 
languages. In 1769 he entered Princeton 
College, New Jersey, of which the illus- 
trious Dr. Weatherspoon was then Presi- 
dent. He graduated in 1771, with a char- 



acter of the utmost purity, and a mind 
highly disciplined and stored \\ith all the 
learning which embellished and gave effi- 
ciency to his subsequent career. After 
graduating he pursued a course of reading 
for several months, luider the guidance of 
President Weatherspoon, and in 1772 re- 
turned to Virginia, where he continued in 
incessant study for two years, nominally 
directed to the law, but really including 
extended researches in theology, j)hiloso- 
phy and general literature. 

The Church of England was the estab- 
lished church in Virginia, invested with all 
the prei^ogatives and immunities which it 
enjoyed in the fatherland, and other de- 
nominations labored inider serious disabili- 
ties, the enforcement of which was rightly 
or wrongl}' characterized by them as per- 
secution. Madison took a prominent stand 
in behalf of the removal of all disabilities, 
repeatedly appeared in the court of his own 
county to defend the Baptist nonconform- 
ists, and was elected from Orange County to 
the Virginia Convention in the spring of 
1766, when he signalized the beginning of 
his public career by procuring the passage 
of an amendment to the Declaration of 
Rights as prepared by George Mason, sub- 
stituting for " toleration" a more emphatic 
assertion of religious liberty. 



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III 1776 he was elected a member of the 
Virginia Convention to frame tlie Constitu- 
tion of the State. Lilce Jefferson, he took 
but little part in the public debates. Mis 
main strength lay in his Cc^nversational in- 
fluence and in his pen. In November, 1777, 
he was chosen a member of the Council of 
State, and in March, 1780, took his seat in 
the Continental Congress, where he first 
gained prominence through his energetic 
opposition to the issue of paper mone}' by 
the States. He continued in Congress three 
years, one of its most active and influential 
members. 

lu 1784 Mr. Madison was elected a mem- 
ber of the Virginia Legislature. He ren- 
dered important service by promoting and 
participating in that revision of the statutes 
which effectually abolished the remnants of 
the feudal system subsistent up to that 
time in the form of entails, primogeniture, 
and State support given the Anglican 
Church ; and his " Memorial and Remon- 
strance" against a general assessment for 
the support of religion is one of the ablest 
papers which emanated from his pen. It 
settled the question of the entire separation 
of church and State in Virginia. 

Mr. Jefferson says of him, in allusion to 
the study and experience through which he 
had already passed : 

" Trained in these successive schools, he 
actjuired a habit of self-possession which 
placed at ready command the rich resources 
of his luminous and discriminating mind and 
of his extensive information, and rendered 
him the first of every assembly of which he 
afterward became a member. Never wan- 
dering from his subject into vain declama- 
tion, but pursuing it closelv in language 
pure, classical and copious, soothing al- 
ways the feelings of his adversaries by civili- 
ties and softness of expression, he rose to the 
eminent station which he held in the great 
National Convention of 17S7; and in that of 
Virginia, which followed, he sustained the 



new Constitution in all its parts, bearing off 
the palm against the logic of George Mason 
and tiic fervid declamation of Patrick 
Henry. With these consummate powers 
were united a pure and spotless virtue 
which no calumny has ever attempted to 
sullv- Of the power and polish of his pen, 
and of the wisdom of his administration in 
the highest office of the nation, I need say 
nothing. They have spoken, and will for- 
ever speak, for themselves." 

In January, 17S6, Mr. Madison took the 
initiative in proposing a meeting of State 
Commissioners to devise measures for more 
satisfactory commercial relations between 
the States. A meeting was held at An- 
napolis to discuss this subject, and but five 
States were represented. The convention 
issued another call, drawn up by Mr. Madi- 
son, urging all the States to send their dele- 
gates to Piiiladelphia, in Ma}', 1787, to 
draught a Constitution for the United 
States. The delegates met at the time ap- 
pointed, every State exce[)t Rhode Island 
being represented. George Washington 
was chosen president of the convention, 
and the present Constitution of the United 
States was then and there formed. There 
was no mind and no pen more active in 
framing this immortal chjcument than the 
mind and pen of James Madison. He was, 
perhaps, its ablest advocate in the pages of 
the Federalist. 

Mr. Madison was a member of the first 
four Congresses, i789-'97, in which he main- 
tained a moderate opposition to Hamilton's 
financial policy. He declined the mission 
to France and the Secretaryship of State, 
and, gradually identifying himself with the 
Republican jtartv, became -from 1792 its 
avowed leader. In 1796 he was its choice 
for the Presidency as successor to Wash- 
ington. Mr. Jefferson wrote: "There is 
not another person in the United States 
with whom, being placed at the helm of our 
affairs, my mi-nd would be so comi^letcly at 



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rest for the fortune of our political biirk." 
But Mr. Madison declined to be a candi- 
date. His term in Congress had expired, 
and he returned from New York to his 
beautiful retreat at Montpelier. 

In 1794 Mr. Madison married a young 
widow of remarkable powers of fascination 
— -Mrs. Todd. Her maiden naine was Doro- 
thy Paine. She was born in 1767, in Vir- 
ginia, of Quaker parents, and had been 
educated in the strictest rules of that sect. 
When but eighteen years of age she married 
a young lawyer and moved to.Philadelpiija, 
where she was introduced to brilliant scenes 
of fashionable life. She speedily laid aside 
the dress and address of the Quakeress, and 
became one of the most fascinating ladies 
of the republican court. In New York, 
after the death of her husband, she was the 
belle of the season and was surrounded with 
admirers. Mr. Madison won the prize. 
She proved an invaluable helpmate. In 
Washington she was the life of society. 
If there was any diffident, timid young 
girl just making her ajjpearance, she 
found in Mrs. Madison an encouraging 
friend. 

During the stormy administration of John 
Adams Madison remained in private life, 
but was the author of the celebrated " Reso- 
lutions of 179S," adopted by the Virginia 
Legislature, in condemnation of the Alien 
and Sedition laws, as well as of the " report" 
in which he defended those resolutions, 
which is, by many, considered his ablest 
State paper. 

The storm passed away ; the Alien and 
Sedition laws were repealed, John Adams 
lost his re-election, and in 1801 Thomas Jef- 
ferson was chosen President. The great re- 
action in public sentiment which seated 
Jefferson in the presidential chair was large- 
ly owing to the writings of Madison, who 
was consequently well entitled to the post 
of Secretary of State. With great ability 
lie discharged the duties of this responsible 



office during the eight years of Mr. Jeffer- 
son's administration. 

As Mr. Jefferson was a widower, and 
neither of his daughters could be often with 
him, Mrs. Madison usually presided over 
the festivities of the White House; and as 
her husband succeeded Mr. Jefferson, hold- 
ing his office for two terms, this remarkable 
woman was the mistress of the presidential 
mansion for sixteen years. 

Mr. Madison being entirely engrossed by 
the cares of his office, all the duties of so- 
cial life devolved upon his accomplished 
wife. Never were such responsibilities 
more ably discharged. The most bitter 
foes of her husband and of the administra- 
tion were received with the frankly prof- 
fered hand and the cordial smile of wel- 
come; and the inffuence of this gentle 
woman in allaying the bitterness of party 
rancor became a great and salutary power 
in the nation. 

As the term of Mr. Jefferson's Presidency 
drew near its close, party strife was roused 
to the utmost to elect his successor. It was 
a death-grapple between the two great 
parties, the Federal and Republican. Mr. 
Madison was chosen President by an elec- 
toral vote of 122 to 53, and was inaugurated 
March 4, 1S09, at a critical period, when 
the relations of the United States with Great 
Britain were becoming embittered, and his 
first term was passed in diplomatic quarrels, 
aggravated by the act of non-intercourse of 
May, 1 8 10, and finally resulting in a decla- 
ration of war. 

On the iSth of June, 1812, President 
Madison gave his approval to an act of 
Congress declaring war against Great Brit- 
ain. Notwithstanding the bitter hostility 
of the Federal party to the war, the countrj' 
in general approved; and in the autumn 
Madison was re-elected to the Presidenc}' 
by 128 electoral votes to 89 in favor of 
George Clinton. 

March 4, 18 17, Madison yielded the Presi- 



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deiicy to his Secretary of State and inti- 
mate friend, James Monroe, and retired to 
iiis ancestral estate at Montpelier, where lie 
])assed the evening of his da^'s surrounded 
by attached friends and enjoying the 
merited respect of the whole nation. He 
took pleasure in promoting agriculture, as 
president of the county society, and in 
watching the development of the University 
of Virginia, of which he was long rector and 
visitor. In extreme old age he sat in 1829 
as a member of the convention called to re- 
form the Virginia Constitution, where his 
appearance was hailed with the most gen- 
uine interest anc? satisfaction, th(jugh he 
was too infirm to partici[)ate in the active 
work of revision. Small in stature, slender 
and delicate in form, with a countenance 
full of intelligence, and expressive alike of 
mildness and dignity, he attracted the atten- 
tion of all who attended the convention, 
and was treated with the utmost deference. 
He seldom addressed the assembly, though 
he always appeared self-possessed, and 
watched with unflagging interest the prog- 
ress of every measure. Though the con- 
vention sat sixteen weeks, he spoke only 
twice ; but when he did speak, the whole 
house paused to listen. His voice was 
feeble tiiough his enunciation was very dis- 
tinct. One of the reporters, Mr. Stansbury, 
relates the following anecdote of Mr. Madi- 
son's last speech: 

" The next day, as there was a great call 
for it, and the report had not been returned 
for publication, I sent my son with a re- 
spectful note, requesting the manuscript. 
My son was a lad of sixteen, whom I had 
taken with me to act as amanuensis. On 
delivering mv note, he was received with 
the utmost politeness, and requested to 
come up into Mr. Madison's room and wait 
while Iiis eye ran over the paper, as com- 
pany had prevented his attending to it. He 
did so, and Mr. Madison sat down to correct 
the report. The lad stood near him so that 




his eye fell on the paper. Coming to a 
certain sentence in the speech, Mr. Madison 
erased a word and substituted anotiicr ; but 
hesitated, and not feeling satisfied with the 
second word, drew his pen through it also. 
My son was young, ignorant of the world, 
and unconscious of the solecism of which he 
was about to begLiilty, wlien, in all simplic- 
ity, he suggested a word. Probably no 
other i)erson then living would have taken 
such a Hberty. But the sage, instead of 
reoarding such an intrusion with a frown, 
raised his eyes to the boy's face with a 
pleased surprise, and said, ' Thank you, sir ; 
it is the very word,' and immediatelv in- 
serted it. I saw him the next day, and he 
mentioned the circumstance, with a compli- 
ment on the young critic." 

Mr. Madison died at Montpelier, June 28, 
1836, at the advanced age of eighty-five. 
^Vhile not possessing the highest order of 
talent, and deficient in oratorical powers, 
he was pre-eminently a statesman, of a well- 
balanced inind. His attainments were solid, 
his knowledge copious, his judgment gener- 
ally sound, his powers of analysis and logi- 
cal statement rarely surpassed, his language 
and literary style correct and polished, his 
conversation witty, his temperament san- 
guine and trustful, his integrity unques- 
tioned, his manners simple, courteous and 
winning. By these rare qualities he con- 
ciliated the esteem not only of friends, but 
of political opponents, in a greater degree 
than anv American statesman in the present 
centurv. 

Mrs. Madison survived her husband thir- 
teen years, and died July 12, 1849, in the 
eighty-second year of her age. She was one 
of the most remarkable women our coun- 
try has produced. Even now she is ad- 
miringly remembered in Washington as 
" Dolly Madison," and it is fitting that her 
memory should descend to posterity in 
company with thatof the companion of 
her life. 



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^ 'J.'^'AMES MONROE, the fifth 

^j]:-^^^^^/^^: President of the United 

ilS''fk''/ii\tM*^ States, 1817-25, was born 

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''-'- I^P '\. Virginia, April 28, 1758, 

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Monroe, and a descendant 
of a Scottish cavalier fam- 
ily. Like all his predeces- 
sors thus far in the Presi- 
dential chair, he enj(jyed all 
the advantages of educa- 
tion which the country 
could then afford. He was 
early sent to a fine classical 
school, and at the age of six- 
teen entered William and Mary College.. 
In 1776, when he had been in college but 
two years, the Declaration of Independence 
was adopted, and our feeble militia, with- 
out arms, amunition or clothing, were strug- 
gling agaiust the trained armies of England. 
James Monroe left college, hastened to 
General Washington's headquarters at New 
York and enrolled himself as a cadet in the 
army. 

At Trenton Lieutenant Monroe so dis- 
tinguished himself, receiving a wound in his 
shoulder, that he was promoted to a Cap- 
taincy. Upon recovering from his wound, 
he was invited to act as aide to Lord Ster- 
ling, and in that capacity he took an active 
part in the battles of Brandy wine, Ger- 
inantown and Monmouth. At Germantown 



he stood by the side of Lafayette when the 
French Marquis received his wound. Gen- 
eral Washington, who had formed a high 
idea of young Monroe's ability, sent him to 
Virginia to raise a new regiment, of which 
he was to be Colonel; but so exhausted was 
Virginia at that time that the effort proved 
unsuccessful. He, however, received his 
commission. 

Finding no opportimity to enter the army 
as a commissioned ofticer, he returned to his 
original plan of studying law, and entered 
the of^ce of Thomas Jefferson, who was 
then Governor of Virginia. He developed 
a very noble character, frank, manly and 
sincere. Mr. Jefferson said of him: 

"James Monroe is so perfectly honest 
that if his soul were turned inside out there 
would not be found a spot on it." 

In 1782 he was elected to the Assembly 
of Virginia, and was also appointed a mem- 
ber of the Executive Council. The next 
year he was chosen delegate to the Conti- 
nental Congress for a term of three years. 
He was present at Annapolis when Wash- 
ington surrendered his commission of Com- 
mander-in-chief. 

With Washington, Jefferson and Madison 
he felt deeply the inefficiency of tiie old 
Articles of Confederation, and urged the 
formation of a new Constitution, which 
should invest the Central Government with 
something like national power. Influenced 
bv these views, he introduced a resolution 



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that Congress slioiild be cinpowcrcd to 
regulate trade, and to lay an impost dut)' 
of five per cent. The resolution was refer- 
red to a committee of which he was chair- 
man. The report and the liiscussion which 
rose upon it led to the convention of five 
States at Annapolis, and the consequent 
general convention at Philadelphia, which, 
in 1787, drafted tlie Constitution of the 
United States. 

At this time there was a controversy be- 
tween New York and Massachusetts in 
reference to their boundaries. The high 
esteem in which Colonel Monroe was held 
is indicated by the fact that he was ap- 
pointed one of the judges to decide the 
controvers}'. While in New York attend- 
ing Congress, he married Miss Kortright, 
a young lady distinguished alike for her 
beauty and accomplishments. For nearly 
fifty )'ears this happv union remained un- 
broken. In London and in Paris, as in her 
own country, Mrs. Monroe won admiration 
and affection by the loveliness of her per- 
son, the brilliancy of her intellect, and the 
amiability of her character. 

Returning to Virginia, Colonel Monroe 
commenced the practice of law at Freder- 
icksburg. He was ver}- soon elected to a 
scat in the -State Legislature, and the next 
year he was chosen a member of the \'ir- 
ginia convention which was assembled to 
decide upon the acceptance or rejection of 
the Constitution which liad been drawn up 
at Philadelphia, and was now submitted 
to the several States. Dcepl}' as he felt 
the imperfections of the old Confederacy, 
he was opposed to the new Constitution, 
thinking, with many others of the Republi- 
can party, that it gave too much ]:)Ower to 
the Central Government, and nut enough 
to the individual States. 

In 1789 he became a member of the 
United States Senate, which office he held 
acceptably to his constituents, and with 
honor to himself for four years. 



Having opposed the Constitution as not 
leaving enough power with the States, lie, 
of course, became more and more identi- 
fied with tiie Republican p.irty. Thus he 
found himself in cordial co-operation with 
Jefferson and Madison. Tiie great Repub- 
lican party became tlie ihmiinant power 
which ruled the land. 

George Washington was then President. 
England had espoused the cause of the 
Bourbons against tiie {principles of the 
French Revolution. President Washing- 
ton issued a proclamation of neutrality be- 
tween these contending powers. France 
had helped us in the struggle for our lib- 
erties. All the despotisms of Europe were 
now combined to prevent the French 
from escaping from tyrann}' a thousandfold 
worse than tiiat which we had endured. 
Colonel Monroe, more magnanimous than 
prudent, was anxious that we should help 
our old allies in their extremity. He vio- 
lently opposed the President's procla- 
mation as ungrateful and wanting in 
magnanimity. 

Washington, who could appreciate such 
a character, developed his calm, serene, 
almost divine greatness by appointing that 
very James Monroe, who was denouncing 
tiie policy of the Government, as the Minis- 
ter of that Government to tlie republic of 
France. He was directed by Washington 
to express to the French people our warm- 
est sympathy, communicating to them cor- 
responding resolves approved by the Pres- 
ident, and adopted by both houses of 
Congress. 

Mr. Monroe was welcomed b}' tiie Na- 
tional Convention in France with the most 
enthusiastic demonstrations of respect and 
affectiiin. He was publicly introduced to 
that body, and received the embrace of the 
President, Merlin de Douay, after having 
been addressed in a speech glowing with 
congratulations, and with expressions of 
desire that harmony might ever exist be- 



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twceii the two nations. Tlie flags of the 
two reiJubhcs were intertwined in the halt 
of the convention. Mr. Monroe presented 
tlie zVnierican colors, and received those of 
France in return. The conrse which he 
pursued in Paris was so anno3'ing to Eng- 
land and to the friends of England in 
this countr\' that, near the close of Wash- 
ington's administration, Mr. Monroe, was 
recalled. 

After his return Colonel Monroe wrote a 
book of 400 pages, entitled " A View of the 
Conduct of the Executive in Foreign Af- 
fairs." In this work he very ably advo- 
cated his side of the question; but, with 
the magnanimity of the man, he recorded a 
warm tribute to the patriotism, ability and 
spotless integrity of John Jay, between 
whom and himself there was intense antag- 
onism ; and in subsequent years he ex- 
pressed in warmest terms his perfect 
veneration for the character of George 
Washington. 

Shortly after his return to this country 
Colonel Monroe was elected Governor of 
Virginia, and held that office for three 
years, the period limited by the Constitu- 
tion. In 1802 he was an Envoy to France, 
and to Spain in 1805, and was Minister to 
England in 1803. In 1806 he returned to 
his quiet home in Virginia, and with his 
wife and childrenand an ample competence 
from his })aternal estate, enjoyed a few years 
of domestic repose. 

In 1809 Mr. Jefferson's second term of 
office expired, and many of the Republican 
])arty were anxious to nominate James 
Monroe as his successor. The majority 
were in favor of Mr. Madison. Mr. Mon- 
roe withdrew his name and was soon after 
chosen a second time Governor of Virginia, 
lie soon resigned that ofifice to accept the 
position of Secretary of State, offered him 
by President Madison. The correspond- 
ence which he then carried on with the 
British Government demonstrated that 



there was no hope of any peaceful adjust- 
ment of our difficulties with the cabinet of 
St. James. War was consequently declared 
in June, 1812. Immediately after the sack 
of Washington the Secretary of War re- 
signed, and Mr. Monroe, at the earnest 
request of Mr. Madison, assimied the ad- 
ditional duties of the War Department, 
without resigning his position as Secretary 
of State. It has been confidently stated, 
that, had Mr. Monroe's energies been in the 
War Department a few months earlier, the 
disaster at Washington would not have 
occurred. 

The duties now devolving upon Mr. Mon- 
roe were extremely arduous. Ten thou- 
sand men, picked from the veteran armies 
of England, were sent with a powerful fleet 
to New Orleans to acquire possession of 
tlie mouths of the Mississippi. Our finan- 
ces were in the most deplorable condition. 
The treasury was exhausted and our credit 
gone. And 3'et it was necessary to make 
the most rigorous preparations to meet the 
foe. In this crisis James Monroe, the Sec- 
retary of War, with virtue unsurpassed in 
Greek or Roman story, stepped forward 
and pledged his own individual credit as 
subsidiary to that of the nation, and thus 
succeeded in placing the city of New Or- 
leans in such a posture of defense, that it 
was enabled successfully to repel the in- 
vader. 

Mr. Monroe was truly the armor-bearer 
of President Madison, and the most efficient 
business man in his cabinet. His energy 
in the double capacit}' of Secretary, both 
of State and War, pervaded all the depart- 
ments of the countr}'. He proposed to 
increase the army to 100,000 men, a meas- 
ure which he deemed absolutely necessary 
to save us from ignominious defeat, but 
which, at the same time, he knew would 
render his name so unpopular as to preclude 
the possibility of his being a successful can- 
didate for the Presidency. 



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The happy result of the conference at 
Ghent in securing peace rendered the in- 
crease of the army unnecessary; but it is not 
too much to say that James M(Miroe i)laced 
in the hands of Andrew Jackson the 
weapon with which to beat off the foe at 
New Orleans. Upon the return of peace 
Mr. Monroe resigned the department of 
war, devoting himself entirely to the duties 
of Secretary of State. These he continued 
to discharge until the close of President 
Madison's administration, with zeal which 
was never abated, and with an ardor of 
self-devotion which made him almost for- 
getful of the claims of fortune, health or 
life. 

Mr. Madison's second term expired in 
March, 1817, and Mr. Monroe succeeded 
to the Presidency. He was a candidate of 
the Republican party, now taking the name 
of the Democratic Republican. In 1S21 he 
was re-elected, with scarccl3-any opposition. 
Out of 232 electoral votes, he received 231. 
The slavery question, which subsequently 
assimied such formidable dimensions, now 
began to make its appearance. The State 
of Missouri, which had been carved out of 
that immense territory which we had pur- 
chased of France, applied for admission to 
the Union, with a slavery Constitution. 
There were not a few who foresaw the 
evils impending. After the debate of a 
week it was decided that Missouri could 
not be admitted into the Union with slav- 
ery. This important question was at length 
settled by a compromise proposed by 
Henry Clay. 

The famous "Monroe Doctrine," of which 
so much has been said, originated in this 
way: In 1823 it was rumored that the 
Hoi}' Alliance was about to interfere to 
prevent the establishment of Republican 
liberty in the European colonies of South 
America. President Monroe wrote to his 
old friend Thomas Jefferson for advice in 
the emergency. In his reply under date of 



October 24, Mr. Jefferson writes upon the 
supposition that our attempt to resist this 
European movement might lead to war: 

" Its object is to introduce and establish 
the American system of keeping out of our 
land all foreign powers; of never permitting 
those of Europe to intermeddle with tlie 
affairs of our nation. It is to maintain our 
own principle, not to depart from it." 

December 2, 1823, President Monroe 
sent a message to Congress, declaring it to 
be the policy of this Government not t(j 
entangle ourselves with the broils of Eu- 
rope, and not to allow Europe to interfere 
with the affairs of nations on the American 
continent; and the doctrine wasanncHuiced, 
that any attempt on the ])art of the Euro- 
pean powers " to extend their s^'stem to 
an}' portion of this hemispiiere would be 
regarded by the United States as danger- 
ous to our peace and safety." 

March 4, 1825, Mr. Monroe surrendered 
the presidential chair to his Secretary of 
State, John Ouincy Adams, and retired, 
with the universal respect of the nation, 
to his private residence at Oak Mill, Lou- 
doun County, Virginia. His time had been 
so entirely consecrated to his country, that 
he had neglected his pecuniary interests, 
and was deeply involved in debt. The 
welfare of his country had ever been up- 
permost in his mind. 

For many years Mrs. Monroe was in such 
feeble health that she rarely appeared in 
public. In 1830 Mr. Monroe took up his 
residence with his son-in-law in New York, 
where he died on the 4th of July, 1831. 
The citizens of New York conducted his 
obsequies with pageants nvjre imposing 
than had ever been witnessed there before. 
Our country will ever cherish his mem- 
ory with pride, gratefully enrolling his 
name in the list of its benefactors, pronounc- 
ing him the worthy successor of the illus- 
trious men who had preceded him in the 
presidential chair. 




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PRESJDEiVTS OF THE UN J TED STATES. 






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^^-^"OHN OUINCY ADAMS, 
the sixth President of the 
United States, iS25-'9, 

3Vri!</^/J,*^3- was born in tlie rural 

home of his honored 
fatiier, John ^Vdams, in 
Q n i n c y , Massachnsetts, 
July II, 1767. His mother, 
a woman of exalted worth, 
watched over his childhood 
during the almost constant 
absence of his father. Me 
commenced his education 
- at tiie village school, giving 
at an early period indica- 
tions of superior mental en- 
dowments. 

When eleven years cjf age he sailed with 
his father for Europe, where the latter was 
associated with Franklin and Lee as Minister 
Plenipotentiarv. The intelligence of John 
Quincy attracted the attention of these men 
and received from them flattering marks of 
attention. Mr. Adams had scarcely returned 
to this country in 1779 ere he was again 
sent abroad, and John Quincy again accom- 
panied him. On this voyage he commenced 
a diary, which practice he continued, with 
but few interruptions, until his death. He 
journeyed with his father from Ferrol, in 
Spain, to Paris. Here he applied himself 
for six months to study; then accompanied 



his father to Holland, where he entered, 
first a school in Amsterdam, and then the 
University of Leyden. In 1781, when only 
fourteen years of age, he was selected by 
Mr. Dana, our Minister to the Russian 
court, as his private secretary'. In this 
school of incessant labor he spent fourteen 
months, and then returnedalone to Holland 
through Sweden, Denmark, Hamburg and 
Bremen. Again he resumed his studies 
under a private tutor, at The Hague. 

In the spring of 1782 he accompanied his 
father to Paris, forming acquaintance with 
the most distinguished men on the Conti- 
nent. After a short visit to England, he re- 
turned to Paris and studied until May, 
17S5, when he returned to America, leav- 
ing his father an embassador at the court 
of St. James. In 1786 he entered the jun- 
ior class in Harvard University, and grad- 
uated with the second honor of his class. 
The oration he delivered on this occasion, 
the " Importance of Public Faith to the 
Well-being of a Community," was pub- 
lished—an event very rare in this or any 
other land. 

Upon leaving college at the age of twenty 
he studied law three years with the Hon. 
Theophilus Parsons in Newburyport. In 
1790 he opened a law office in Boston. The 
profession was crowded with able men, and 
the fees were small. The first 3'ear he had 



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no clients, but not a moment was lost. The 
second year passed away, still no clients, 
and still lie was dependent upon liisj)arents 
for support. Anxiously he awaited the 
third year. The reward now came. Cli- 
ents began to enter his office, and before 
the end of the year he was so crowded 
with business that all solicitude respecting 
a support was at an end. 

When Great Britain commenced war 
against France, in 1793, Mr. Adams wrote 
some articles, urging entire neutrality on 
the part of the United States. The view 
was not a popular one. Many felt that as 
France had helped us, we were bound to 
help France. But President Washington 
coincided with Mr. Adams, and issued his 
proclamation of neutrality. His writings 
at this time in the Boston journals gave 
him so high a reputation, that in June, 
1794, he was appointed by Washington 
resident Minister at the Netherlands. In 
July, 1797, he left The Ilague to go to Port- 
ugal as Minister I^lenipotentiary. Wash- 
ington at this time wrote to his father, John 
Adams: 

" Without intending to compliment the 
father or the mother, or to censure any 
others, I give it as my decided ojjinion, 
that Mr. Adams is the most valuable char- 
acter we have abroad; and there remains 
no doubt in my mind that he will prove the 
ablest of our diplomatic corps." 

On his way to Portugal, u[K)n his arrival 
in London, he met with dispatches direct- 
ing him to the court of Berlin, but request- 
ing him to remain in London until he should 
receive instructions. While waiting he 
was married to Miss Louisa Catherine John- 
son, to whom he had been previously en- 
gaged. Miss Johnson was a daughter of 
Mr. Joshua Johnson, American Consul 
in London, and was a lady endowed with 
that beauty and those accomplishments 
which fitted her to move in the elevated 
sphere for which slie was destined. 



In July, 1799, having fulfilled all the pur- 
poses of his mission, Mr. .\dams returned. 
In i8o3 he was chosen to the Senate of 
Massachusetts from Boston, and then was 
elected Senator of the United States for si.\: 
years from March 4, 1S04. His reputation, 
his ability and his experience, placed him 
immediately among the most prominent 
and influential members of that body. He 
sustained the Government in its measures 
of resistance to the encroachments of Eng- 
land, destroying our commerce and insult- 
ing our flag. There was no man in America 
more familiar with the arrogance of the 
British court upon these points, and no 
one more resolved to present a firm resist- 
ance. This course, so truly patriotic, and 
which scarcely a voice will now be found 
to condemn, alienated him from the Fed- 
eral party dominant in Boston, and sub-. 
jected him to censure. 

In 1805 Mr. Adams was chosen professor 
of rhetoric in Harvard C(jllege. His lect- 
ures at this place were subsequently pub- 
lished. In i8og he was sent as Minister to 
Russia. He was one of the commissioners 
that negotiated the treat}' of peace with 
Great Britain, signed December 24, 18 14, 
and he was appointed Minister \.o the court 
of St. James in 1815. In 1817 he became 
Secretary of State in Mr. Monroe's cabinet 
in which position he remained eight j^ears. 
Few will now contradict the assertion that 
the duties of that office were never more 
ably discharged. Probably the most im- 
portant measure which Mr. Adams con- 
ducted was the purchase of Florida from 
Spain for $5,000,000. 

The campaign of 18^4 was an exciting 
one. Four candidates were in the field. 
Of the 260 electoral votes that were cast, 
Andrew Jackson received ninetv-ninc; John 
Onincy Adams, eighty-four; \Villiam If. 
Crawford, forty-one, and Hcnr}' Cla\-, 
thirtj'-seven. As there was no choice bv 
the people, the question went to the House 



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of Representatives. Mr. Clay gave the 
vote of Kentucky to Mr. ^Vdams, and he 
was elected. 

The friends of all disappointed candidates 
now combined in a x'cnomoiis assault upon 
Mr. ^Vdams. I'here is nothing more dis- 
graceful in the past history of our country 
than the abuse which was jioured in one 
uninterrupted stream upon this high- 
minded, upright, patriotic man. There was 
never an administration more jnire in prin- 
ciples, more conscientiously devoted to the 
best interests of tlie country, than that of 
John Ouincy yVdams; and never, perhaps, 
was there an atlministration more unscru- 
pidously assailed. Mr. Adams took his seat 
in the presidential chair resolved not to 
know any partisanship, but only to con- 
sult for the interests of the whole Republic, 

lie refused to dismiss any man from of- 
fice for his political views. If he was a faith- 
ful officer that was enough. Bitter must 
have been his disappointment to find that the 
Nation could not appreciate such conduct. 

Mr. Adams, in his public manners, was 
cold and repidsive; though with his per- 
sonal friends he was at times very genial. 
This chilling address very seriously de- 
tracted from his popularit}-. No one can 
read an impartial record of his administra- 
tion without admitting that a more noble 
example of uncompromising dignit)' can 
scarcely be found. It was stated publicly 
that Mr. Adams' administration was to be 
put down, " though it be as pure as the an- 
gels which stand at the right hand of the 
throne of God." Many of the active par- 
ticipants in these scenes lived to regret the 
course they pursued. Some years after, 
Warren R. Davi«, of South Carolina, turn- 
ing to Mr. Adams, then a member of the 
House of Representatives, said: 

" Well do I remember the enthusiastic 
zeal with which we reproached the admin- 
istration of that gentleman, and the ardor 
and vehemence with which we labored to 



bring in another. For the share I had in 
these transactions, and it was not a small 
one, I liopc God -will forgive vie, for I shall 
never forgive myself." 

March 4, 1829, Mr. Adams retired from 
the Presidency and was succeeded by An- 
drew Jackson, the latter receiving 168 out 
of 261 electoral votes. John C. Calhoun 
was elected Vice-President. The slavery 
question now began to assume pretentious 
magnitude. Mr. Adams returned to 
Ouincy, and pursued his studies with una- 
bated zeal. But he was nf)t long permitted 
to remain in retirement. In November, 
1830, he was elected to Congress. In this 
he recognized the principle that it is honor- 
able for the General of yesterday to act as 
Coiporal to-day, if by so doing he can ren- 
der service to his country. Deep as aie 
our obligations to John Ouincy Adams for 
his services as embassador, as Secretary of 
State and as President; in his capacity as 
legislator in the House of Representa- 
tives, he conferred benefits upon our land 
which eclipsed all the rest, and which can 
never be over-estimated. 

For seventeen years, until his death, he 
occupied the post of Representative, tow- 
ering above all his peers, ever ready to do 
brave battle for freedom, and winning the 
title of " the old man eloquent." Upon 
taking his seat in the House he announced 
that he should hold himself bound to no 
party. He was usually the first in his 
place in the morning, and the last to leave 
his seat in the evening. Not a measure 
could escape his scrutiny. The battle 
which he fought, almost singly, against the 
pro-slavery party in the Government, was 
sublime in its moral daring and heroism. 
For persisting in presenting petitions for 
the abolition of slavery, he was threatened 
with indictment by the Grand Jury, with 
expulsion from the House, with assassina- 
tion; but no threats could intimidate him, 
and his final triumph was complete. 



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JOHN SlUINCr ADAMS. 



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On one occnsion Mr. Adams presented a 
petition, signed by several women, against 
tiie annexation of Texas for tiie purpose of 
cutting it up into slave States. Mr. How- 
ard, of Maryland, said that these women 
discredited not only themselves, but their 
section of tlie country, by turning from 
their domestic duties to the conflicts of po- 
litical life. 

"Are women," exclaimed Mr. Adams, 
" to have no opinions or actions on subjects 
relating to the general weKare? Where 
did the gentleman get his principle? Did 
he find it in sacred history, — in the language 
of Miriam, the prophetess, in one of the 
noblest and sublime songs of triuiriph that 
ever met the human eye or ear ? Did the 
gentleman never hear of Deborah, to whom 
the children of Israel came up for judg- 
ment ? Has he forgotten the deed of Jael, 
wiio slew the dreaded enemy of her coun- 
try? Has he forgotten Esther, who, by her 
petition saved her people and her coiui- 
try? 

" To go from sacred history to profane, 
does the gentleman there find it 'discredita- 
ble ' for women to take an interest in politi- 
cal affairs? Has he forgotten the Spartan 
mother, who said to her son when going 
out to battle, ' My son, come back to me 
with thy shield, or upon \.\\y shield ? ' Does 
he remember Cloelia and her hundred com- 
panions, who swam across the river under 
a shower of darts, escaping from Porsena ? 
Has he forgotten Cornelia, the mother of 
the Gracchi? Docs he not remember Por- 
tia, the wife of Brutus and the daughter of 
Cato ? 

" To come to later periods, what sa3's the 
history of our Anglo-Saxon ancestors ? 
To say nothing of Boadicea, the British 
heroine in the time of the Ccesars, what 
name is more illustrious than that of Eliza- 
beth? Or, if he will go to the continent, 
will he not find the names of Maria Theresa 
of Hungary, of the two Catherines of 



Prussia, and of Isabella of Castile, the pa- 
troness of Columbus ? Did slic bring ' dis- 
credit ' on her sex by mingling in politics ? " 

In this glowing strain Mr. Adams si- 
lenced and overwhelmed his antagonists. 

In January, 1842, Mr. Adams presented 
a petition from forty-five citizens of Haver- 
hill, Massachusetts, praying for a peaceable 
dissolution of the Union. The pro-slavery 
party in Congress, who were then plotting 
the destruction of the Government, were 
aroused to a pretense of commotion such as 
even our stormy hall of legislation has 
rarely witnessed. They met in caucus, and, 
finding that they probably would not be 
able to expel Mr. Adams from the House 
drew up a series of resolutions, which, if 
adopted, would inflict upon him disgrace, 
equivalent to expulsion. Mr. Adams had 
presented the petition, which was most re- 
spectfully worded, and had moved that it be 
referred to a committee instructed to re- 
port an answer, showing the reason why 
the prayer ought not to be granted. 

It was the 25th of January. The whole 
body of the pro-slavery party came crowd- 
ing together in the House, prepared to 
crush Mr. Adams forever. One of the num- 
ber, Thomas F. Marshall, of Kentucky, was 
appointed to read the resolutions, which 
accused Mr. Adams of high treason, of 
having insulted the Government, and of 
meriting expulsion; but for which deserved 
punishment, the House, in its great mercy, 
would substitute its severest censure. With 
the assumption of a very solemn and mag- 
isterial air, there being breathless silence in 
the audience, Mr. Marshall hurled the care- 
fully prepared anathemas at his victim. 
Mr. Adams stood alone, the whole pro-slav- 
ery part}' against him. 

As soon as the resolutions were read, 
every eye being fixed upon him, that bold 
old man, whose scattered locks were whit- 
ened by seventy-five years, casting a withei'- 
ing glance in the direction of his assailants. 



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in a clear, slirill tone, trcnniloiis witli sup- 
pressed emotion, said: 

" In reply to this audacious, atrocious 
chari^e of high treason, I call for the read- 
ing of the first paragra])h of the Declaration 
of Independence. Read it ! Read it! and 
see what that says of the rights of a people 
to reform, to change, and to dissolve their 
Government.' 

The attitude, the manner, the tone, the 
words; the venerable old man, with flash- 
ing eye and flushed cheek, and whose very 
form seemed to expand under the inspiration 
of the occasion — all presented a scene over- 
flowing in its sublimity. There was breath- 
less silence as that paragraph was read, in 
defense of whose principles our fathers had 
pledged their lives, their fortunes and their 
sacred honor. It was a proud hour to Mr. 
Adams as they were all compelled to listen 
to the words: 

" That, to secure these rights, govern- 
ments are instituted among men, deriving 
their just powers from the consent of the 
governed; and that whenever any form of 
government becomes destructive of those 
ends, it is the right of the people to alter or 
abolish it, and to institute new government, 
laying its foundations on such principles 
and organizing its powers in such form 
as shall seem most likely to effect their 
safety and happiness." 

That one sentence routed and baffled the 



foe. The heroic old man looked around 
upon the audience, and thundered out, 
" Read tliat again!" It was again read. 
Then in a few fiery, logical words he stated 
his defense in terms which even prejudiced 
minds could not resist. His discomfited 
assailants made several attempts to rally. 
After a conflict of eleven days they gave 
up vanquished and their resolution was ig- 
nominiously laid upon the table. 

In January, 1846, when seventy-eight 
years of age, he took part in the great de- 
bate on the Oregon question, displaying 
intellectual vigor, and an extent and accu- 
racy of acquaintance with the subject that 
excited great admiration. 

On the 2 1 St of February, 1848, he rose on 
the floor of Congress with a paper in his 
hand to address the Speaker. Suddenly 
he fell, stricken by jiaralysis, and was caught 
in the arms of those around him. For a 
time he was senseless and was conveyed 
to a sofa in the rotunda. With reviving 
consciousness he opened his eyes, looked 
calmly around and said, " T/iis h the end of 
earth." Then after a moment's pause, he 
added, " / am eontent." These were his last 
words, and he soon breathed his last, in the 
apartment beneath the dome of the capitol 
— the theater of his labors and his triumphs. 
In the language of hymnology, he " died at 
his post;" he " ceased at once to work and 
live." 



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NDREW JACKSON, 
tlie seventh President 
of the United States, 
i829-'37, wns born at 
the Waxhaw Settle, 
nient, Union Coun- 
ty, North Carolina, 
March i6, 1767. His parents 
were Scotch-Irish, natives of 
Carrickfergus, wlio came to 
America in 1765, and settled 
on Twelve-Mile Creek, a trib- 
utary of the Catawba. His 
father, who was a poor farm 
laborer, died shortly before An- 
drew's birth, when his mother removed to 
Waxhaw, where some relatives resided. 

Few particulars of the childhood of Jack- 
sou have been preserved. His education 
was of the most limited kind, and he showed 
no fondness for books. He grew up to be a 
tall, lank boy, with coarse hair and freck- 
led cheeks, with bare feet dangling from 
trousers too short for him, very fond of ath- 
letic sports, running, boxing and wrestling. 
He was generous U) the j'ounger and 
weaker boys, but very irascible and over- 
bearing with his equals and superiors. He 
was profane — a vice in which he surpassed 
all other men. The character of his mother 



he revered; and it was not until after her 
death that his predominant vices gaincil 
full strength. 

In 1780, at the age of thirteen, Andrew, 
or Andy, as he was called, with his brother 
Robert, volunteered to serve in the Revo- 
lutionary forces under General Sumter, and 
was a witness of the latter's defeat at Hang- 
ing Rock. In the following year the 
brothers were made prisoners, and confined 
in Camden, experiencing brutal treatment 
from their captors, and being spectators of 
General Green's defeat at Hobkirk Hill. 
Through their mother's exertions the boys 
were exchanged while suffering from small- 
pox. In two da)'s Robert was dead, and 
Andy apparently dying. The strength of 
his constitution triumphed, and he regained 
health and vi^or. 

As he was' getting better, his mother 
heard the cry of anguish from the prison- 
ers whom the British held in Charleston, 
among whom were the sons of her sisters. 
She hastened to their relief, was attacked 
by fever, died and was buried where her 
grave could never be found. Thus Andrew 
Jackson, wlien fourteen years of age, was 
left alone in the world, without father, 
mother, sister or brother, and without one 
dollar which he could call his own. He 










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soon entered a saddler's sliop, and labored 
dili<;entlv for six months. But gradually, 
as health returned, he became more and 
more a wild, reckless, lawless boy. He 
gambled, drank and was regarded as about 
the worst character that could be found. 

He now turned schoolmaster. He could 
teach the alphabet, perhaps the multiplica- 
tion table; and as he was a very bold boy, 
it is possible he might have ventured to 
teach a little writing. But he soon began to 
think of a profession and decided to study 
law. With a ver}' slender purse, and on 
the back of a very fine horse, he set out 
for Salisbury, North Carolina, where he 
entered the law office of Mr. McCay. 
Here he remained two years, professedly 
studying law. He is still remembered in 
traditions of Salisbury, which say: 

" Andrew Jackson was the most roaring, 
rollicking, horse-racing, card-playing, mis- 
chievous fellow that ever lived in Salisbury. 
He did not trouble the law-books much." 

Andrew was now, at the age of twenty, 
a tall 3'oung man, being over six feet in 
height. He was slender, remarkably grace- 
ful and dignified in his manners, an exquis- 
ite horseman, and developed, amidst his 
loathesome profanity and multiform vices, a 
vein of rare magnanimit}-. His temper was 
fiery in the extreme; but it was said of him 
that no man knew better than Andrew 
Jackson when to get angry and when not. 

In 17S6 he was admitted to the bar, and 
two years later removed to Nashville, 
in what was then the western district of 
North Carolina, with the appointment of so- 
licitor, or public prosecutor. It was an of- 
fice of little honor, small emolument and 
great peril. Few men could be found to 
accept it. 

And now Andrew Jackson commenced 
vigorously to practice law. It was an im- 
portant part of his business to collect debts. 
It required nerve. During the first seven 
years of his residence in those wilds he 



traversed the almost pathless forest between 
Nashville and Jonesborough, a distance of 
200 miles, twenty-two times. Hostile In- 
dians were constantl}' on the watch, and a 
man was liable at any moment to be shot 
down in his own field. Andrew Jackson 
was just the man for this service — a wild, 
daring, rough backwoodsman. Daily he 
made hair-breadth escapes. He seemed to 
bear a charmed life. Boldly, alone or with 
few companions, he traversed the forests, 
encountering all perils and triumphing 
over all. 

In 1790 Tennessee became a Territory, 
and Jackson was appointed, by President 
Washington, United States Attorney for 
the new district. In 1791 he married Mrs. 
Rachel Robards (daughter of Colonel John 
Donelson), whom he supposed to have been 
divorced in that year by an act of the Leg- 
islature of Virginia. Two years after this 
Mr. and Mrs. Jackson learned, to their 
great surprise, that Mr. Robards had just 
obtained a divorce in one of the courts of 
Kentucky, and that the act of the Virginia 
Legislature was not final, but conditional. 
To remed}' the irregularity as much as pos- 
sible, a new license was obtained and the 
marriage ceremony was again performed. 

It pnjved to be a marriage of rare felic- 
ity. Probably there never was a more 
affectionate union. However rough Mr. 
Jackson might have been abroad, he was 
always gentle and tender at home; and 
through all the vicissitudes of their lives, he 
treated Mrs. Jackson with the most chival- 
ric attention. 

Under the circumstances it was not un- 
natural that the facts in the case of this 
marriage were so misrepresented b}' oppo- 
nents in the political campaigns a quarter 
or a century later as to become the basis 
(jf serious charges against Jackson's moral- 
ity which, however, have been satisfactorily 
attested by abundant e\'idence. 

Jackson was untiring in his duties as 



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United States Attoriie_v, wliicli demanded 
frequent journeys throiigli tlic wilderness 
and exposed iiim to Indian hostilities. He 
acquired considerable property in land, and 
obtained such influence as to be chosen 
a member of the convention which framed 
the Constitution for the new State of Ten- 
nessee, in 1796, and in that year was elected 
its first I'iepresentative in Congress. Albert 
Gallatin thus describes the first appearance 
of the lion. Andrew Jackson in the House: 

"A tall, lank, uncouth-looking personage, 
with locks of hair hanging over his face and 
a cue down his back, tied with an eel skin; 
liis dress singular, his manners and deport- 
ment tliose of a rough backwoodsman." 

Jackson was an earnest advocate of the 
Democratic part}'. Jefferson was his idol. 
He admired Bonaparte, loved France and 
hated England. As Mr. Jackson took his 
scat, General Washington, whose second 
term of office was just expiring, delivered 
his last speech to Congress. A committee 
drew up a complimentary address in rcpl)'. 
Andrew Jackson did not approve the ad- 
dress and was one of twelve who voted 
against it. 

Tennessee had fitted out an expedition 
against the Indians, contrary to the policy 
of the Government. A resolution was intro- 
duced that the National Government 
siiould pay the expenses. Jaclcsou advo- 
cated it and it was carried. This rendered 
him very popular in Tennessee. A va- 
cancy chanced soon after to occur in the 
Senate, and Andrew Jackson was chosen 
United States Senator bv the State of Ten- 
nessee. John Adams was then President 
and Tliomas Jefferson, Vice-President. 

In 1798 Mr. Jackson returned to Tennes- 
see, and resigned his seat in the Senate. 
Soon after he was chosen Judge of the Su- 
preme Court of that State, with a salary of 
S600. This office he held six years. It is 
said that his decisions, though sometimes 
ungrammatical, were generally right. He 



did not cnjov his seat upon the bench, and 
renoui\ced the dignity in 1804. About 
this time he was chosen Major-General of 
militia, and lost the title of judge in that of 
General. 

When he retired from the Senate Cham- 
ber, he decided to tr)' his fortune through 
trade. He purchased a stock of goods in 
Philadelphia and sent them to Nashville, 
where he opened a store. He lived about 
thirteen miles from Nashville, on a tract of 
land of several thousand acres, mostly un- 
cultivated. He used a small block-house 
for a store, from a narrow window of 
which he sold goods to the Indians. As he 
had an assistant his office as judge did not 
materially interfere with his business. 

As to slavery, born in the midst of it, the 
idea never seemed to enter his mind that it 
could be wrong. He eventually became 
an extensive slaveowner, but he was one of 
the most humane and gentle of masters. 

In 1804 Mr. Jackson withdrew from pol- 
itics and settled on a plantation which he 
called the Hermitage, near Nashville. He 
set up a cotton-gin, formed a partnership 
and traded in New Orleans, making the 
voyage on flatboats. Through his hot tem- 
per he became involved in several quarrels 
and "affairs of honor," during this period, 
in one of which he was severely wounded, 
but had tiie misfortune to kill his opponent, 
Charles Dickinson. For a time this affair 
greatly injured General Jackson's popular- 
it)'. The verdict then was, and continues 
to be, that General Jackson was outra- 
geously wrong. It he subsequently felt any 
remorse he never revealed it to an3'one. 

In 1S05 Aaron Burr had visitetl Nash- 
ville and been a guest of Jackson, with 
whom he corresponded on the subject of a 
war with Spain, which was anticipated and 
desired by them, as well as by the people 
of the Southwest generally. 

Burr repeated his visit in September, 
1806, when he engaged in the celebrated 



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combinations wiiich led to his trial for trea- 
son, lie was warmly received by Jackson, 
at whose instance a public ball was given 
in his honor at Nashville, and contracted 
with the latter for boats and provisions. 
Earl}' in 1807, when Burr had been pro- 
claimed a traitor by President Jefferson, 
volunteer forces for the Federal service 
were organized at Nashville under Jack- 
son's command; but his energ}' and activ- 
ity did not shield him from suspicions of 
connivance in the supposed treason. He 
was summoned to Richmond as a witness 
in Burr's trial, but was not called to the 
stand, probabl}' because he was out-spoken 
in his partisanship. 

On the outbreak of the war with Great 
Britain in 18 12, Jackson tendered his serv- 
ices, and in January, 1813, embarked for 
New Orleans at the head of the Tennessee 
contingent. In March he received an or- 
der to disband his forces; but in Septem- 
ber he again took the field, in the Creek 
war, and in conjunction with his former 
partner, Colonel Coffee, inflicted upon the 
Indians the memorable defeat at Talladega, 
Emuckfaw and Tallapoosa. 

In May, 1814, Jackson, who had now ac- 
quired a national reputation, was appointed 
a Major-Generalof the United States army, 
and commenced a campaign against the 
British in Florida. He conducted the de- 
fense at Mobile, September 15, seized upon 
Pensacola, November 6, and immediately 
transported the bulk of his troops to New 
Orleans, then threatened by a powerful 
naval force. Martial law was declared in 
Louisiana, the State militia was called to 
arms, engagements with the British were 
fought December 23 and 28, and after re-en- 
forcements had been received on both sides 
the famous victory of January 8, 181 5, 
crowned Jackson's fame as a soldier, and 
made him the typical American hero of 
the first half of the nineteentii century. 

In iSi7-'i8 Jackson conducted the war 



against the Seminoles of Florida, during 
which he seized upon Pensacola and exe- 
cuted by courtmartial two British subjects, 

Arbuthnot and Ambrister acts which 

might easily have involved the United 
States in war both with Spain and Great 
Britain. Fortunately the peril was averted 
by the cession of Florida to the United 
States; and Jackson, who had escaped a 
trial for the irregularity of his conduct 
only through a division of opinion in Mon- 
roe's cabinet, was appointed in 1821 Gov- 
ernor of the new Territory. Soon after he 
declined the appointment of minister to 
Mexico. 

In 1823 Jackson was elected to the United 
States Senate, and nominated by the Ten- 
nessee Legislature for the Presidency. This 
candidacy, though a matter of surprise, and 
even mcrryment, speedily became popular, 
and in 1824, when the stormy electoral can- 
vas resulted in the choice of John Ouincy 
Adams by the House of Representatives, 
General Jackson received the largest popu- 
lar vote among the four candidates. 

In 1828 Jackson was triumphantl}' elected 
President over Adams after a campaign of 
unparalleled bitterness. He was inaugu- 
rated March 4, 1829, and at once removed 
from office all the incumbents belonging to 
the opposite party — a procedure new to 
American politics, but which naturally be- 
came a precedent. 

His first term was characterized by quar- 
rels between the Vice-President, Calhoun, 
and the Secretary of State, Van Buren, at- 
tended by a cabinet crisis originating in 
scandals connected with the name of Mrs. 
General Eaton, wife of the Sccretai-y of 
War; b}- the beginning of his war upon the 
United States Bank, and by his vigorous 
action against the partisans of Calhoun, 
who, in South Carolina, threatened to 
nullify the acts of Congress, establishing a 
protective tariff. 

In the Presidential campaign of 1832 



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ANDRE]V JACKSON. 



Jackson received 219 out of 288 electoral 
votes, his competitor being Mr. Clay, while 
Mr. Wirt, on an Anti-Masonic platform, 
received the vote of Vermont alone. In 
1833 President Jackson removed the Gov- 
ernment deposits from the United States 
bank, thereby incurring a vote of censure 
from the Senate, which was, however, ex- 
punged four years later. During this second 
term of office the Cherokees, Choctaws and 
Creeks were removed, not without diffi- 
culty, from Georgia, Alabama and Missis- 
sippi, to the Indian Territory; the National 
debt was extinguished; Arkansas and 
Michigan were admitted as States to the 
(Jnion; the Seminole war was renewed; the 
anti-slavery agitation first acquired impor- 
tance; the Mormon delusion, which had 
organized in 1829, attained considerable 
proportions in Ohio and Missouri, and the 
country experienced its greatest pecuniary 
panic. 

Railroads with locomotive propulsion 
were introduced into America during Jack- 
son's first term, and had become an impor- 
tant element of national life before the 
close of his second term. For many rea- 
sons, therefore, the administration of Presi- 
dent Jackson formed an era in American 
history, political, social and industrial. 
He succeeded in effecting the election of 



his friend Van Ruren as his successor, re- 
tired from the Presidency March 4, 1837, 
and led a tranquil life at the Hermitage 
until his death, which occurred June 8, 
1S45. 

During his closing years he was a pro- 
fessed Christian and a member of the Pres- 
byterian church. No American of this 
century has been the subject of such oppo- 
site judgments. He was loved and hated 
with equal vehemence during his life, but 
at the present distance of time from his 
career, while opinions still vary as to the 
merits of his public acts, few of his country- 
men will question that he was a warm- 
hearted, brave, patriotic, honest and sincere 
man. If his distinguishing qualities were 
not sucii as constitute statesmanship, in the 
highest sense, he at least never pretended 
to other merits than such as were written 
to his credit on the page of American his- 
tory — not attempting to disguise the de- 
merits which were equally legible. The 
majority of his countrymen accepted and 
honored him, in spite of all that calumny 
as well as truth could allege against him. 
His faults may therefore be truly said to 
have been those of his time; his magnifi- 
cent virtues may also, with the same jus- 
tice, be considered as typical of a state of 
society which has nearly passed away. 



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PRESIDENTS OF THE U MIT ED STATES. 



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SUd^-V^J^^lF* ARTIN VAN BU- 
REN, the eighth 
-j;<3; President of tlie 
United States, 1837- 
'41, was born at Kin- 
dcrhook, New York, 
December 5, 17S2. 
His ancestors were o( Dutch 
origin, and were among tlie 
earliest emigrants from Hol- 
land to the banks of the 
Hudson. His father was a 
|- tavern-keeper, as well as a 
i^'aSl>*^- farmer, and a very decided 
%^l Democrat. 

'■*' Martin commenced the study 
of law at the age of fourteen, and took an 
active part in politics before he had reached 
the age of twentv. In 1803 he commenced 
the practice of law in liis native village. 
In 1809 he removed to Hudson, the shire 
town of his county, where he spent seven 
years, gaining strength by contending in 
the courts with some of the ablest men 
who have adorned the bar of his State. 
The heroic examjile of John Quincy Adams 
in retaining in office every faithful man, 
without regard \o Iiis political preferences, 
had been thoroughly repudiated by Gen- 
eral Jackson. The unfortunate principle 
was now fullv established, that " to the 
victor belong the spoils." Still, this prin- 
ciple, to which Mr. Van Burcn gave his ad- 



herence, was not devoid of inconveniences. 
When, subsequently, he attained power 
which placed vast patronage in his hands, 
he was heard to say : "I prefer an ofifice 
that lias no patronage. When I give a man 
an office I offend his disappointed competi- 
tors and their friends. Nor am 1 certain of 
gaining a friend in the man I appoint, for, 
in all probabilitv, he expected something 
better." 

In 1812 Mr. Van Buren was elected to 
the State Senate. In 18 15 he was appointed 
Attorney-General, and in iSi6tothe Senate 
a second time. In 181 8 there was a great 
split in the Democratic party in New York, 
and Mr. Van Buren took the lead in or- 
ganizing that portion of the part}' called 
tiie Alban}- Regency, which is said to have 
swayed the destinies of the State for a 
quarter of a century. 

In 1 82 1 he was chosen a member of the 
convention for revising the State Constitu- 
tion, in which he advocated an extension of 
the franchise, but opposed universal suf- 
frage, and also favored the proposal that 
colored persons, in order to vote, shoulil 
have freehold property to the amount of 
$250. In this year he was also elected to 
the United States Senate, and at the con- 
clusion of his term, in 1827, was re-elected, 
but resigned the following 3"ear, having 
been chosen Governor of the State. In 
March, 1829, he was appointed Secretary of 







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MARTIN VAN BUREN. 



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State by President Jackson, but resigned 
in April, 1S31, and during the recess of 
Congress was appointed minister to Eng- 
land, whither he pr(5ceeded in Se|)tember, 
hut the Senate, when convened in Decem- 
ber, refused to ratify the appointment. 

In May, 1832, Mr. Van Buren was nomi- 
nated as the Democratic candidate for Vice- 
President, and elected in the following 
November. May 26, 1836, he received the 
nomination to succeed General Jackson as 
President, and received 170 electoral votes, 
out of 283. 

Scarcely had he taken his seat in the 
Presidential chair when a financial panic 
swept over the land. Manv attributed 
this to the war which General Jackson had 
waged on the banks, and to his endeavor to 
secure an almost exclusive specie currency. 
Nearly every bank in the country was com- 
pelled to suspend specie payment, and ruin 
pervaded all our great cities. Not less than 
254 houses failed in New York in one week. 
Ail public works were brought to a stand, 
and there was a general state of dismav- 
"President Van Buren urged the adoption of 
the independent treasury system, which 
was twice passed in the Senate and defeated 
in the House, but fii.all}' became a law near 
the close of hij r.dmini;tration. 

Another important measure was the pass- 
age of a pre-emption law, giving actual set- 
tlers the preference in the purchase of 
public lands. The question of slaver}', also, 
now began to assume great prominence in 
national politics, and after an elaborate 
anti-slavery speech bv Mr. Slade, of Ver- 
mont, in the House of Representatives, the 
Southern members withdrew for a separate 
consultation, at which Mr. Rhett, of South 
Carolina, proposed to declare it expedient 
that the Union should be dissolved ; but 
the matter was tided over by the passage 
of a resolution that no petitions or papers 
relating to slavery should be in any way 
considered or acted upon. 



in the Presidential election of 1S40 Mr. 
Van Buren was nominated, without opposi- 
tion, as the Democratic candidate, William 
H. Harrison being the candidate of the 
Whig part}-. The Democrats carried only 
seven States, and out of 294 electoral votes 
only sixty were for Mr. Van Buren, the re- 
maining 234 being for his opponent. The 
Whig popular majority, however, was not 
large, the elections in many of the States 
being very close. 

March 4, 1841, Mr. Van Buren retired 
from the Presidency. From his fine estate 
at Lindenwald he still exerted a powerful 
influence upon the politics of the country. 
In 1844 he was again proposed as the 
Democratic candidate for the Presidency, 
and a majority of the delegates of the 
nominating convention were in his favor; 
but, owing to his opposition to the pro- 
posed annexation of Texas, he could not 
secure the requisite two-thirds vote. His 
name was at length withdrawn by his 
friends, and Mr. Polk received the nomina- 
tion, and was elected. 

In 1848 Mr. Cass was the regular Demo- 
cratic candidate. A schism, however, 
sprang up in the party, upon the question 
of the permission of slavery in the newly- 
acquired territory, and a portion of the 
party, taking the name of " Free-Soilers," 
nominated Mr. Van Buren. They drew 
away sufficient votes to secure the election 
of General Taylor, the Whig candidate. 
After this Mr. Van Buren retired to his es- 
tate at Kinderhook, where the remainder 
of his life was passed, with the exception of 
a European tour in 1853. He died at 
Kinderhook, July 24, 1862, at the age of 
eighty years. 

Martin \'a\\ Buren was a great and good 
man, and no one will question his rigiit to 
a high position among those who have 
been the successors ol Washington in the 
faithful occupancy of the Presidential 
chair. , ., , •. , _, : • , ., 









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PJRESfDENTS OF THE U/V/TED STATES. 



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LI AM HENRY 
HARRISON, the 

ninth President of 
the United States, 
I 84 I, was born 
February 9, 1773, 
in Charles County, 
Virginia, at Berkeley, the resi- 
dence of his father. Governor 
Benjamin Harrison. He studied 
at Hampden, Sidney College, 
with a view of entering the med- 
ical profession. After graduation 
he went to Philadelphia to study 
medicine under the instruction of 
Dr. Rush. 
George Washington was then President 
if tiie United States. The Indians were 
committing fearful ravages on our North- 
western frontier. Young Harrison, either 
lured by the love of adventure, or moved 
by the sufferings of families exposed to the 
most horrible outrages, abandoned his med- 
ical studies and entered the army, having 
obtained a commission of ensign from Pres- 
ident Washington. The first duty assigned 
him was to take a train of pack-horses 
bound to Fort Hamilton, on the Miami 
River, about forty miles from Fort Wash- 
ington, He was soon promoted to the 



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rank of Lieutenant, and joined the army 
which Washington had placed under tiie 
command of General Wayne to prosecute 
more vigorously the war with the In- 
dians. Lieutenant Harrison received great 
commendation from his commanding otifi- 
cer, and was promoted to the rank of 
Captain, and placed in command at Fort 
Washington, now Cincmnati, Ohio. 

About this time he married a daughter 
of John Cleves Symmes, one of the fron- 
tiersmen who had established a thriving 
settlement on the bank of the Maumee. 

In 1797 Captain Harrison resigned his 
commission in the army and was appointed 
Secretary of the Northwest Territory, and 
ex-officio Lieutenant-Governor, General St. 
Clair being then Governor of the Territory. 
At that time the law in reference to the 
disposal of the public lands was such that 
no one could purchase in tracts less than 
4,000 acres. Captain Harrison, in the 
face of violent opposition, succeeded in 
obtaining so much of a modification of 
this unjust law that the land was sold in 
alternate tracts of 640 and 320 acres. The 
Northwest Territory was then entitled 
to one delegate in Congress, and Cap- 
tain Harrison was chosen to fill that of- 
fice. In 1800 he was appointed Governor 




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WILL/ AM HENRY IlARIi/SON. 



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of Indinna Territory and soon after of 
Upper Louisiana. I le was also Superin- 
tendent of Indian Affairs, and so well did he 
fulfill these duties that he was four times 
appointed to this office. During his admin- 
istration he effected thirteen treaties with 
the Indians, by which the United States 
acquired 60,000,000 acres of land. In 1804 
he obtained a cession from the Indians of 
all the land between the Illinois River and 
the Mississippi. 

In 1S12 he was made Major-General of 
Kentucky militia and Brigadier-General 
in the army, with the command of the 
Northwest frontier. In 1S13 he was made 
Major-General, and as such won much re- 
nown by the defense of F(jrt Meigs, and the 
battle of the Thames, Octobers, 1813. In 
1814 he left the army and was employed in 
Indian affairs by the Goycrnment. 

In 1816 General Harrison was chosen a 
member of the National Mouse of Repre- 
sentatives to represent the district of Ohux 
In the contest which preceded his election 
he was accused of corruption in respect to 
the commissariat of the arm)'. Immedi- 
ately ujion taking his seat, he called for an 
investigation of the charge. A committee 
was appointed, and his vindication was 
triumphant. A high compliment was paid 
to his patriotism, disinterestedness and 
devotion to the public service. For these 
services a gold medal was })rcsented to him 
with the thanks of Congress. 

In 1S19 he was elected to the Senate of 
Ohio, and in 1824, as one of the Presiden- 
tial electors of that State, he gave his vote 
to Henry Clay. In the same 3-ear he was 
elected to the Senate of the United States. 
In 1828 he was appointed by President 
Adams minister plenipotentiary to Colom- 
bia, but was recalled by General Jackson 
immediately after the inauguration of the 
latter. 

Upon his return to the United States, 
General Harrison retired to his farm at 



North Bend, Hamilton County, Ohio, six- 
teen miles below Cincinnati, where for 
twelve years he was clerk of the County 
Court. He once owned a distillery, but 
perceiving the sad effects of whisk}' upon 
the surrounding poi^ulation, he promptly 
abandoned his business at great pecuniary 
sacrifice. 

In 1836 General Harrison was brought 
forward as a candidate for the Presidency. 
Van Buren was the administration candi- 
date; tiie opposite party could not unite, 
and four candidates were brought forward. 
General Harrison received seventy-three 
electoral votes without any general concert 
among his friends. The Democratic party 
triumphed and Mr. Van Buren was chosen 
President. In 1839 General Harrison was 
again nominated for the Presidency by the 
Whigs, at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Mr. 
Van Buren being the Democratic candi- 
date. General Harrison received 234 elec- 
toral votes against sixty for his opponent. 
This election is memorable chiefl}- for the 
then extraordinary means employed during 
the canvass for popular votes. Mass meet- 
ings and processions were introduced, and 
the watchwords " log cabin " and " hard 
cider " were effectually used by the Whigs, 
and aroused a popular enthusiasm. 

A vast concourse of people attended his 
inauguration. His address on that occasion 
was in accordance with his antecedents, and 
gave great satisfaction. A short time after he 
took his seat, he was seized b}' a pleurisy- 
fever, and after a few days of violent sick- 
ness, died April 4, just one short month after 
his inauguration. His death was universally 
regarded as one of the greatest of National 
calamities. Never, since the death of 
Washington, were there, throughout one 
land, such demonstrations of sorrow. Not 
one single spot can be found to sull}' his 
fame; and through all ages Americans will 
pronounce with love and reverence the 
name of William Henry Harrison. 



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PRES/DEi\TS OF THE UN /TED STATES. 



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'5^*^'0IIN TYLER, the tenth 
President of the United 
States, was born in 
Charles City Count}-, 
Virginia, March 29, 1790. 
I lis father, Judge Jolin 
T^lcr, possessed large 
landed estates in Virginia, 
and was one of the most 
distinguished men of his 
day, filling the oflfices of 
Speaker of the House of 
Delegates, Judge of the Su- 
preme Court and Governor 
of the State. 
At the early age of twelve 
young John entered William and Mary 
College, and graduated with honor when 
but seventeen years old. He then closely 
applied himself to the study of law, and at 
nineteen years of age commenced the prac- 
tice of his profession. When only twenty- 
one he was elected to a seat in the State 
Legislature. He acted with the Demo- 
cratic party and advocated the measures of 
Jefferson and ^Lldison. For five years he 
was elected to the Legislature, receiving 
nearly the unanimous vote of his count}-. 

When but twenty-six years of age he was 
elected a member of Congress. He advo- 
cated a strict construction of the Constitu- 
tion and the most careful vigilance over 



State rights. He was soon compelled to 
resign liis scat in Congress, owing to ill 
health, but afterward took his seat in the 
State Legislature, where he exerted a 
powerful influence in promoting public 
works of great utilitv. 

In 1825 Mr. Tvler was chosen Governor 
of his State — a high honor, for Virginia 
had man}' able men as competitors for 
the prize. His administration was signally 
a successful one. He urged forward inter- 
nal improvements and strove to remove 
sectional jealousies. His popularity secured 
his re-election. In 1827 lie was elected 
United States Senator, and upon taking his 
seat joined the ranks of tlie opposition. He 
opposed the tariff, voted against'the bank 
as unconstitutional, opposed all restrictions 
upon slavery, resisted all projects of inter- 
nal improvements by the General Govern- 
ment, avowed his sympathy with Mr. Cal- 
houn's views of nullification, and declared 
that General Jackson, by his opposition to 
the nullifiers, had abandoned the principles 
of the Democratic party. Such was Mr. 
Tyler's record in Congress. 

This hostility to Jackson caused Mr. 
Tyler's retirement from the Senate, after 
his election to a second term. He soon 
after removed to Williamsburg for the 
better education of his children, and again 
took his Seat in the Legislature. 



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JOHN TVLER. 



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In 1839 lie was sent to the National Con- 
vention at Harrlsburg to nominate a Presi- 
dent. General Harrison received a majority 
of votes, much to the disapjiointment of the 
South, who had wished for Henry Claj-. 
In order to conciliate the Southern Whii^^s, 
John Tyler was nominated for \'ice-Presi- 
dent. Harrison and T\lcr were inaugu- 
rated March 4, 1S41. In one short month 
from that time President Harrison died, 
and Mr. Tyler, to his own surprise as well 
as that of the nation, found himself an 
occupant of the Presidential chair. His 
position was an exceedingly dilHcult one, 
as he was opposed to the main ]:irinciples of 
the party which had brought him into 
power. General Harrison had selected a 
Whig cabinet. ' Shoidd he retain them, and 
thus surround himself with councilors 
whose views were antagonistic to his own.'' 
or should he turn against the party that 
had elected him, and select a cabinet in 
harmony with himself? This was his fear- 
ful dilemma. 

President Tyler deserves more charity 
than he has received. He issued an address 
to the people, wiiich gave general satisfac- 
tion. He retained the cabinet General 
Harrison had selected. His veto of a bill 
chartering a new national bank led to an 
open quarrel with the part}' which elected 
him, and to a resignation of the entire 
cabinet, except Daniel \Vebster, Secretary 
of State. 

President Tyler attempted to conciliate. 
He appointed a new cabinet, leaving out all 
strong party men, but the Whig members 
of Congress were not satisfied, and they 
published a manifesto September 13, break- 
ing oH ail political relations. The Demo- 
crats had a majority in the House; the 
Whigs in the Senate. Mr. Webster soon 
found it necessary to resign, being forced 
out by the pressure of his Whig friends. 

April 12, 1844, President Tyler concluded, 
through Mr. Calhoun, a treaty for the an- 



nexation of Texas, which was rejected b)' 
the Senate ; but he effected his object in the 
closing da\s of his administration b\- the 
passage of the joint lesolution of March i 
1845.^ 

He was nominated tor the Presidency b\- 
an informal Democratic Convention, held 
at Baltimore in May, 1844, but soon with- 
drew from the canvass, pcrceixdng that he 
had not gained the confidence of the Demo- 
crats at large. 

Mr. Tyler's administration was ]iarticu- 
larly imfortunate. No one was satisfied. 
Whigs and Democrats alike assailed him. 
Situated as he was, it is more than can 
be expected of human nature that he 
should, in all cases, have acted in the wisest 
manner ; but it will probably be the verdict 
of all candid men, in a careful review of his 
career, that John Tyler was placed in a 
position of such difficulty that he could not 
pursue any course which woidd not expose 
him to severe censure and denunciation. 

In 18 1 3 Mr. Tyler married Letitia Chris- 
tian, who bore him three sons and three 
tlaughters, and died in Washington in 1842. 
June 26, 1S44, he contracted a second mar- 
riage with Miss Jidia Gardner, of New 
York. He lived in almost complete retire- 
ment from politics until Februar}-, 1861, 
when he was a member of the abortive 
" peace convention," held at Washington, 
and was chosen its President. Soon after 
lie renounced his allegiance to the United 
States and was elected to the Confederate 
Congress. He died at Richmond, January 
17, 1862, after a short illness. 

Unfortunately for his memory the name 
of John Tyler must forever be associated 
with all the misery of that terrible Re- 
bellion, whose cause he openly espoused. 
It is with sorrow that histor}' records that 
a President of the United States died while 
defending the flag of rebellion, which was 
ariayed against the national banner in 
deadly warfare. .^ ,,. 



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J'h'ESIDHNJS OF THE UXlTEl) SIATES. 







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JAMES M. FffiILK3'<- 



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.4'^^^^jf ^^ M ]■: S K N O X 1' () LK, 
<;',;' "j^.i*-/^,^^^^^ the clevcntli President of 
!:■/? y,'/[jyi';M** tlie United States, 1845- 
■j 'i*Mr^|''^p' 49' ^^''''' Iji^rn in Meck- 

?^''' Kl'*'"'^- I'-'iibiir"; County, North 
li^r^-i^H;^;^?-* Carolina, November 2, 
1795- J I'-' ^^''''s the eldest 
son of a family of six sons 
and four daughters, and was 
a grand-nepliew of Colonel 
Thomas Polk, celebrated in 
connection with the Meck- 
lenburg Declaration of In- 
dependence. 
"i^^'T In T 806 his father, Samuel 

Polk, emigrated with his fain- 
i]^' two or tiiree lumdred miles west to the 
valle)' of the Duck River. He was a sur- 
veyor as well as farmer, and gradually in- 
creased in wealth until he became one of 
the leading men of the region. 

In the common schools James rapidly be- 
came proficient in all the common branches 
of an English education. In 18 13 he was 
sent to Murfrcesboro Academy, and in tiie 
autumn of 1815 entered the sophomore class 
in the University of North Carolina, at 
Chapel Hill, graduating in 1818. After a 
short season of recreation he went to Nash- 
ville and entered the law office of Felix 
Grundy. As soon as he had his finished 



legal studies and been admitted to the bar, 
he returned to Columbia, the shire town of 
Maury County, and opened an office. 

James K. Polk ever adhered to the polit- 
ical faith of his father, which was that of 
a Jeffersonian Republican. In 1823 he was 
elected to the Legislature of Tennessee. As 
a "strict ct)nstructionist," he did not think 
that the Constitution empowered the Gen- 
eral Government to carry on a system o( 
internal improvements in the States, but 
deemed it important that it should have 
that power, and wished the Constitution 
amended that it might be conferred. Sub- 
sequently, however, he became alarmed lest 
the General Government become so strong 
as to undertake to interfere with slavery. 
He therefore gave all his influence to 
strengthen the State governments, and to 
check the growth of the central power. 

In January, 1824, Mr. Polk married Miss 
Mary Childress, of Rutherford County, Ten- 
nessee. Had some one then whispered to 
him that he was destined to become Presi- 
dent of the United States, and that he must 
select for his companion one who would 
adorn that distinguished station, he could 
not have made a more fitting choice. She 
was tridy a lady of rare beauty and culture. 

In the fall of 1825 Mr. Polk was chosen 
a member of Congi'ess, and was c(intinu- 



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ousl}' re-elected until 1S39. He then with- 
drew, only that he might accept the 
gubernatorial chair of his native State. 
He was a \varm friend of General Jackson, 
who had been tlefeated in the electoral 
contest by John Quincy Adams. This 
latter gentleman had just taken his seat in 
the Presidentird chair when Mr. Polk took 
his seat in the House of Representatives. 
He immediately united himself with the 
opponents of Mr. Adams, and was soon 
regarded as the leader of the Jackson ])arty 
in the House. 

The four years of Mr. Adams' adminis- 
tration })assed away, and General Jackson 
took the Presidential chair. Mr. Polk had 
now become a man of great influence in 
Congress, and was chairman of its most 
imptjrtant committee — that of Ways and 
Means. Eloquently he sustained General 
Jackstjn in all his measures — in his hostility 
to internal improvements, to the banks, and 
to the tariff. Eight years of General Jack- 
son's administration passed away, anfl the 
powers he had wielded passed into the 
hands of Maitin Van Buren ; and still Mr. 
Polk remained in the House, the acKocate 
of that t)'pe of Democracy which those 
distinguished men upheld. 

During five sessions of Congress Mr. 
Polk was speaker of the Mouse. He per- 
formed his arduous duties to general satis- 
faction, and a unanimous vote of thanks to 
him was passed by the House as he with- 
drew, March 4, 1839. He was elected 
Governor by a large majority, and took 
the oath of office at Nashville, October 14, 
1839. He was a candidate for re-election 
in 1841, but was defeated. In the mean- 
time a wonderful revolution liad swept 
over the country. "W. H. Harrison, the Whig 
candidate, had been called to the Presiden- 
tial chair, and in Tennessee the Whig ticket 
had been carried by over 12,000 majority. 
Under these circumstances Mr. Polk's suc- 
cess was hopeless. Still he canvassed the 



State with his Whig competitor, Mr. Jones, 
traveling in the most friendly manner to- 
gether, often in the same carriage, and at 
one time sleeping in the same bed. Mr. 
Jones was elected by 3,000 majorit)-. 

And now the question of the annexation 
of Texas to our coimtry agitated the whole 
land. When this question became national 
Mr. Polk, as the avowed champion of an- 
nexation, became the Presidential candidate 
of the pro-slavery wing of the Democratic 
party, and George M. Dallas their candi- 
date for the A'ice-l^residencv. They were 
elected bv a large majority, and were in- 
augurated March 4, 1845. 

President Polk formed an able cabinet, 
consisting of James I3uchanan, Robert J. 
Walker, William L. Marcy, George Ban- 
croft, Cave Johnson and John V. Mason. 
The Oregon boundary questit)n was settled, 
the Department of the Interior was created, 
the low tariff ol 1846 was carried, the 
financial SNStem of the Government was 
reorganized, the Mexican war was con- 
ducted, which resulted in the acquisition of 
California .and New Mexico, and had far- 
reaching consequences upon the later fort- 
unes of the republic. Peace was made. 
We had wrested from Mexico territory 
equal to four times the empire of France, 
and five times that of Spain. In the prose- 
cution of this war we expended 20,000 
lives and incjre than §100,000,000. Of this 
mone)' $15,000,000 were paid to Mexico. 

Declining to seek a renomination, Mr. 
Polk retired from the Presiclcnc\- March 4, 
1S49, when he was succeeded by General 
Zachar)' Ta3'lor. He retired to Nashville, 
and died there June 19, 1849, ''^ ^^^ fifty- 
fourth year of his age. His funeral was at- 
tended the following day, in Nashville, with 
every demonstration of respect. He left 
no children. Without being possessed of 
extraordinary talent, Mr. Polk was a capable 
administrator of public affairs, and irre- 
proachable in jirivate life. ■ 



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ACIIARY TAY- 
LOR, the twelfth 
President of the 
United States, 
i849-'50, was born 
in Orange Count}', 
Virginia, Septem- 
, 1784. His father, 
Richard Taylor, was Colo- 
nel of a Virginia regiment 
in the Revolutionary war, 
and removed to Kentucky 
in 1785 ; purchased a large 
plantation near Louisville 
and became an influential cit- 
izen ; was a member of the convention that 
framed the Constitution of Kentucky; served 
in both branches of tlie Legislature; was 
Collector of the ]:)ort of Louisville under 
President Washington ; as a Presidential 
elector, voted for Jefferson, Madison, Mon- 
roe and Clay; died January 19,1829. 

Zachary remained on his father's planta- 
tion until 1808, in which year (Mav 3) he 
was appointed First Lieutenant in the 
Seventh Infantry, to fill a vacancy oc- 
casioned by the death of his elder brother, 
Hancock. Up to this point he had received 
but a limited education. 

Joining his regiment at New Orleans, lie 



was attacked with yellow fever, witii nearly 
fatal termination. In November, iSio, he 
was promoted to Captain, and in the sum- 
mer of i8i2jie was in command of Fort 
Harrison, on the left bank of the Wabash 
River, near the present site of Tcrre Haute, 
his successful defense of which with but a 
handful of men against a large force of 
Indians which had attacked him was one of 
the first marked military achievements of 
the war. He was then brevetted Major, 
and in 1814 promoted to the full rank. 

During the remainder of the war Taylor 
was actively employed on the Western 
frontier. In the peace organization of 18 15 
he was retained as Captain, but soon after 
resigned and settled near Louisville. In 
May, 1816, however, he re-entered the army 
as Major of the Third Infantry ; became 
Lieutenant-Colonel of the Eigiith Infantry 
in 1 8 19, and in 1S32 attained the Colonelcy 
of the First Infantry, of which he had been 
Lieutenant-Colonel since 1 82 1 . On different 
occasions he had been called to Washington 
as member of a military board for organiz- 
ing the militia of the Union, and to aid the 
Government with his knowledge in the 
organization of the Indian Bureau, having 
for many years discharged the duties of 
Indian agent over large tracts of Western 



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country. He served through the Black 
Hawk war in 1833, and in 1837 was ordered 
to take command in Florida, then the scene 
of war with the Indians. 

In i84(') he was transferred to tiic com- 
mand of the Army of the Southwest, from 
which he was relieved the same year at his 
own request. Subsequently he was sta- 
tioned on the Arkansas frontier at Forts 
Gibbon, Smith and Jesup, which latter work 
had been built under his direction in 1822. 

May 28, iS-tj, he received a dispatch from 
the Secretary of War informing him of the 
receipt of information by the President 
"that Texas would shortly accede to the 
terms of annexation," in which event he 
was instructed to defend and protect her 
from "foreign invasion and Indian incur- 
sions." He proceeded, upon the annexation 
of Texas, with about 1,500 men to Corpus 
Christi, where his force was increased to 
some 4,000. 

Taylor was brevetted Major-General May 
28, and a month later, June 29, 1S46, his full 
commission to that grade was issued. After 
needed rest and reinforcement, he advanced 
in September on Monterey, which city ca- 
pitulated after three-days stubborn resist- 
ance. Mere he took up iiis winter quarters. 
The plan for the invasion of Mexico, by 
wa)^ of Vera Cruz, with General Scott in 
command, was now determined upon by 
the Govenrment, and at the nunuent Taylor 
was about to resume actiye operations, he 
received orders to send the larger part of 
his force t(j reinforce the army of General 
Scott at N'era Cruz. Though subsequently 
reinforced by raw recruits, yet after pro- 
viding a garrison for Monterey and Saltillo 
he had but about 5,300 effective troops, of 
which but 500 or 600 were regulars. In 
this weakened condition, however, he was 
destined to achieve his greatest victory. 
Confidently relying upon his strength at 
Vera Cruz to resist the enemy for a long 
time, Santa Anna directed his entire army 



against Taylor to overwhelm him, and then 
to return to oppose the advance of Scott's 
more formidable invasion. The battle of 
Bucna Vista was fought February 22 antl 
23, 1847. Taylor received the thanks of 
Congress and a gold medal, and '• Old 
Rough and Ready," the sobriquet given 
him in the army, became a household word. 
He remained in quiet })ossession (jf the 
Rio Grande Valley until Noyember, when 
he returned to the United States. 

In the Whig conyention which met at 
Philadelphia,June 7, 1848, Taylor was nomi- 
nated on the fourth ballot as candidate of 
the Whig party for President, over Henry 
Clay, General Scott and Daniel Webster. 
In November Taylor received a majority 
of electoral votes, and a popidar vote of 
1,360,752, against 1,219,962 for Cass and 
Butler, and 291,342 for \"an Buren and 
Adams. General Taylor was inaugurated 
March 4, 1849. 

The free and slave States being then equal 
in number, the struggle f(jr supremacy on 
the part of the leaders in Congress was 
violent and bitter. In the summer of 1849 
California adopted in convention a Consti- 
tution prohibiting slavery within its borders. 
Taylor advocated the immediate admission 
of California with her Constitution, and the 
postponement of the question as to the other 
Territories until they could hold conven- 
tions and decide for themselves whether 
slavery should exist within their borders. 
This policy ultimately prevailed through 
the celebrated " Compromise Measures" of 
Henry Clay ; but not during the life of the 
brave soldier and patriot statesman. July 
5 he was taken suddenly ill with a bilious 
fever, which proved fatal, his death occur- 
ring July 9, 1850. One of his daughters 
married Colonel W. W. S. Bliss, his Adju- 
tant-General and Chief of Staff in Florida 
and Mexico, and Private Secretary during 
his Presidency. Another daughter was 
married to Jefferson Davis. 






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I L L A R D FILL- 
MORE, the thir- 
JkI; teeiith President 
of the United 
States, i850-'3, was 
born in Summer 
Hill, Cayuga 
Ojunty, New York, Janu- 
ary 7, 1800. He was of 
New England ancestry, and 
his educational advantages 
were limited. He early 
learned the clothiers' trade, 
but spent all his leisure time 
II ' in study. At nineteen years 
^ of age he was induced b)' 
Judge Walter ^Vood to abandon his trade 
and commence the study of law. Uj)on 
learning that the young man was entirely 
destitute of means, he took him into his 
own office and loaned him such money as 
he needed. That lie might not be heavil)- 
burdened with debt, young Fillmore taught 
school during the winter months, and in 
various other ways helped himself along. 
At the age of twenty-three he was ad- 
mitted to the Court of Common Pleas, and 
commenced the practice of his profession 
in the village of Aurora, situated on the 



eastern bank of the Cayuga Lake. In 1825 
he married Miss Abigail Powers, daughter 
of Rev. Lemuel Powers, a lady of great 
moral worth. In 1825 he took his seat in 
the House of Assembly of his native Slate, 
as Representative from Erie Count)-, 
whither he had recently moved. 

Though he had never taken a very 
active part in politics iiis vote and his sym- 
pathies were with the Whig party. The 
State was then Democratic, but his cour- 
tesy, ability and integrity won the respect 
of his associates. In 1S32 he was elected 
to a seat in tiie United States Congress. 
At the close of iiis term he returned to liis 
law practice, antl in twoyeais more he was 
again elected to Congress. 

He now began to have a national reputa- 
tion. His labors were very arduous. To 
draft resolutions in the committee room, 
and then to defend them against the most 
skillful opponents on the floor of the House 
requires readiness of mind, mental resources 
and skill in debate such as few possess. 
Weary with these e.\hausting labors, and 
pressed by the claims of his private affairs, 
Mr. Fillmore wrote a letter to his constitu- 
ents and declined to be a candidate for re- 
election. Notwithstanding this ccmmuni- 



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cation liis friends met in convention and 
renominated him b}' acclamation. Thougli 
gratified by tliis proof of tiieir a[)preciation 
of his labors he adhered to his resolve and 
returned to his home. 

In 1847 •^I''- Fillmore was elected to the 
important office of comptroller of the State. 
In entering upon the ver}' responsible duties 
which this situation demanded, it was nec- 
essary for him to abandon his profession, 
and he removed to the cit}"^ of Albany. In 
this year, also, the Whigs were looking 
around to find suitable candidates for tiie 
President and \"ice-President at the ap- 
proaching election, and the names of Zach- 
ary Taylor and Millard Fillmore became 
the rallying cry of the Whigs. On the 4th 
of March, 1S49, General Taylor was inaug- 
urated President and Millard Fillmore 
Vice-President of the United States. 

The great question of slavery had as- 
sumed enormous proportions, and perme- 
ated every subject that was brought before 
Congress. It was evident that the strength 
of our institutions was to be severely tried. 
July 9, 1S50, President Taylor died, and, by 
the Constitution, Vice-President Fillmore 
became President of the United States. 
The agitated condition of the country 
brought questions of great delicacy before 
him. He was bound by his oath of office 
to execute the laws of the United States. 
One of these laws was understood to be, 
that if a slave, escaping from bondage, 
should reach a free State, the United States 
was bound to do its utmost to ca])ture him 
and return him to his master. Most Ciiris- 
tian men loathed this law. President Fill- 
more felt bound by his oath rigidly to see 
it enforced. Slavery was organizing armies 
to invade Cuba as it had invaded Te.xas, 
and annex it to the United States. Presi- 
dent Fillmore gave all the influence of his 
exalted station against tlie atrocious enter- 
prise. 

Mr. Fillmore had serious difficulties to 



contend with, since tlie opposition had a 
majority in both Houses. He did cvery- 
tiiing in his power to conciliate the South, 
but the pro-slavery party in that secti(jn 
felt the inadequency of all measures of tran- 
sient conciliation. The population of the 
free States was so rapidly increasing over 
that of the slave States, that it was inevita- 
ble that the power of the Government 
should soon pass into the hands of the free 
States. The famous compromise measures 
were adopted imder Mr. Fillmore's admin- 
istration, and the Japan expedition was 
sent out. 

March 4, 1853, having served one term, 
President Fillmore retired from office. He 
then took a long tour through the South, 
where he met with quite an enthusiastic 
reception. In a speech at Vicksburg, al- 
luding to the rapid growth of the country, 
he said: 

" Canada is knocking for admission, and 
Mexico would be glad to come in, and 
without saying whether it would be right 
or wrong, we stand with open arms to re- 
ceive them; for it is the manifest destiny of 
this Government to embrace the whole 
North American Continent." 

In 1855 Mr. Fillmore went to Europe 
where he was received with those marked 
attentions which his position and character 
merited. Returning to this country in 
1856 he was nominated for the Presidency 
bv the "Know-Nothing" part}'. Mr. Bu- 
chanan, the Democratic candidate was 
the successful competitor. Mr. Fillmore 
ever afterward lived in retirement. Dur- 
ing the conflict of civil war he was mostly 
silent. It was generally supposed, how- 
ever, that his S3'mpath3' was with the South- 
ern Confederacy. He kept aloof from the 
conflict without any words of cheer to the 
one party or the other. For this reason 
he was forgotten by both. He died of 
paral3sis, in Buffalo, New York, March 8, 
1874. 



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"^fJ^ANKLIN PIERCE, 

f the fourteenth Prcsi- 
>-^3 dent of the United 
'^ States, was born in 
Hillsborough, New 
Hampshire, Novem- 
ber 23, 1804. His 
father. Governor 
Benjamin Pierce, was a Rev- 
olutionar)' soldier, a man of 
rigid integrity ; was for sev- 
eral years in the State Legis- 
lature, a member of the Gov- 
ernor's coimcil and a General 
of the militia. 
Franklin was the sixth of eight children. 
As a boy he listened eagerly to the argu- 
inents of his father, enforced by strong and 
ready utterance and earnest gesture. It 
was in the days of intense political excite- 
ment, when, all over the New England 
States, Federalists and Democrats were ar- 
rayed so fiercely against each other. 

In 1820 he entered Bowdoin College, at 
Brims wick, Maine, and graduated in 1824, 
and commenced the study of law in the 
of^ce of Judge Woodbur}', a very distin- 
guished lawyer, and in 1827 was admitted 
to the bar. Hejjracticed with great success 
in Hillsborough and Concord. He served 



in the State Legislature four years, the last 
two of which he was chosen Sjicaker of the 
House b}' a very large vote. 

In 1833 he was elected a member of Con- 
gress. In 1837 he was elected to the United 
States Senate, just as Mr. Van Buren com- 
menced his administration. 

In 1834 he married Miss Jane Means 
Appleton, a lady admirably fitted to adorn 
every station with which her husband was 
honored. Three sons born to them all 
found an early grave. 

Upon his accession to office, President 
Polk appointed Mr. Pierce Attorney-Gen- 
eral of the United States, but the offer was 
declined in consequence of numerous pro- 
fessional engagements at home and the 
precarious state of Mrs. Pierce's health. 
About the same time he also declined the 
nomination Utr Governor by the Demo- 
cratic party. 

The war with Mexico called Mr. I'ierce 
int(3 the arm)'. Receiving the appointment 
of Brigadier-General, he embarked with a 
portion of his troops at Newport, Rhode 
Island, May 27, 1847. He served during 
this war, and distinguished himself by his 
bravery, skill and excellent judgment. 
When he reached his home in his native 
State he was enthusiastically received by 




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tlic aiivocatcs of the war, and coldly by its 
opponents. lie resumed tlie practice of his 
profession, frequently taking- an active part 
in political ([uestions, and "giving- his sup- 
port to the pro-sla\Tr\' wini;- of tlie Demo- 
cratic jiartv. 

June 12, 1852, the Democratic convention 
met in Baltimore to nominate a candidate 
for the Presidencv. For four da3-s they 
continued in session, and in thirtv-five bal- 
lotuig-s no one had received the reipiisite 
two-thirds \'ote. Not a \'ote had been 
thrown thus far for General Pierce. Then 
the \'iii^inia delegation brought forwar<l 
his name. There were fourteen more bal- 
lotings, during which General Pierce 
gained strength, until, at the forty-ninth 
balhjt, he received 2S2 votes, antl all other 
candidates eleven. General \Vinfield Scott 
was the Whig candidate. General Pierce 
was elected \\'ith great unanimity. Only 
four .States — \'ermont, Massachusetts, Ken- 
tuck'N' and Tennessee — cast their electoral 
votes against him. March 4, 1853, he was 
inaugurated President of the United States, 
and William R. King, \'ice-President. 

President Pierce's cabinet consisted of 
William S. Marcy, James Guthrie, Jefferson 
Davis, James C. Dobbin, Robert McClel- 
land, James Campbell and Caleb Cushing. 

At the demand of slavery the Missouri 
Compromise was lepealed, and all the Ter- 
ritories of the Uni(jn were thrown o])en to 
slavery. The Territor\' of Kansas, west of 
Missouri, was settled by emigi'ants mainly 
from the Xorlh. According to law, they 
weix' about to meet and deciile whether 
slavery or freedom should be tlie law of 
that i"ealm. .Slavery in Missoui'i and 
other Southern .States rallied her armed 
legions, marched them into Kansas, took 
possession of the j)olls, drcise away the 
citizens, deposited their own votes by 
handfuls, went through the farce of count- 
ing them, and then declared that, by an 
overwhelming majority, slavery was estab- 



lished in Kansas. Tijese facts nobody 
denied, anil yet i'l'csident Pierce's adminis- 
tration felt bound to respect the decision 
obtained by such voles. The citizens of 
Kansas, the majority of whom were free- 
State men, met in convention and adopted 
tlie following resolve : 

"Rfsohii!, That the body of men who, 
for the jiast two months, have been passing 
laws for the people of our Territory, 
moved, c(junseled and dictated to by the 
demagogues of other .Stales, are to us a 
foreign body, representing only the lawless 
invaders wdio elected them, :md not the 
people of this Territory ; that we repudiate 
their action as the monstrous consummation 
of an act of violence, usurpation and fraud 
unparalleled in the history of the Union." 

The free-State people of Kansas also sent 
a petition to the General (iovernment, im- 
ploring its ]irotectioii. In repl^' the Presi- 
dent issued a proclamation, declai'ing that 
Legisl.ature thus created nuist be recog- 
nized as the legitimate I^egislature of Kan- 
sas, and that its laws were binding upon 
the j)eoi)le,and that, if necessary, the whole 
force of the Governmental arm woidd be 
put forth to inforce those laws. 

James Buchanan succeeded him in the 
Presidency, and, March 4, 1S57, President 
Pierce retired to his home in Concord, 
New Hampshire. When the liebellion 
burst forth Mr. Pierce remained steadfast 
to the principles he had always cherished, 
and gave liis sympathies to the pro-slavery 
])artv, with which he had ever been allied. 
lie declined to do an^'thing, either b}' 
voice or pen, to strengthen the hands ol 
the National Government, lie resiiled in 
Concord until his death, which occun-ed in 
()ctol)er, iSriy. He was one of the most 
genial antl social of men, generous to 
a fault, and contributed liberall}- of his 
moderate means for the alleviation of suf- 
fering and want. lie was an honored 
commimicant of the Episcopal church, 



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- . w ^^ ff 'AMES BUCHANAN, the 
'''^'''^^^WM% fiflcentli President of the 
United States, iS57-'6i, 
was born in Franklin 
Count y, Pennsylvania, 
April 23, 1791. The 
ace where his father's 
cabin stood was called 
Stony Batter, and it was 
situated in a wild, romantic 
spot, in a gorge of mount- 
ains, with towering sum- 
mits rising all around. He 
was of Irish ancestry, his 
father having emigrated in- 
1783, with very little prop- 
erty, save his own strong arms. 

James remained in his secluded home for 
eight years enjoying very few social or 
intellectual advantages. His parents were 
industrious, frugal, prosperous and intelli- 
gent. In 1799 his father removed to Mer- 
cersburg, where James was placed in 
school and commenced a course in English, 
Greek and Latin. His progress was rapid 
and in 1801 he entered Dickinson College 
at Carlisle. Here he took his stand among 
the first scholars in the institution, and was 
able to master the most abstruse subjects 
wnth facility. In 1809 he graduated with 
the highest honors in his class. 

He was then eighteen years of age, tall, 



graceful and in vigorous health,, fond of 
athletic sports, an unerring shot and en- 
livened with an exuberant flow of animal 
spirits. He immcdiatel)' commenced the 
study of law in the city of Lancaster, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1812. He rose 
very rapidly in his profession and at once 
took undisputed stand with the ablest law- 
yers of the State. AViien but twenty-si\' 
years of age, unaided by counsel, he suc- 
cessfully defended before the State Senate 
one of the Judges of the State, who was 
tried upon articles of impeachment. At 
the age of thirty it was generally admitted 
that he stood at the head of the bar, and 
there was no law3-er in the State who had 
a more extensive or lucrative practice. 

In 1 81 2, just after Mr. Buchanan had 
entered upon the practice of the law, our 
second war with England occurred. With 
all his powers he sustained the Govern- 
ment, eloquently urging the rigorous pros- 
ecution of the war; and even enlisHng as a 
private soldier to assist in repelling the 
British, who had sacked Washington and 
were threatening Baltimore. He was at 
that time a Federalist, but when the Con- 
stitution was adopted by both parties, 
Jefferson truly said, " We are all Federal- 
ists: we arc all Republicans." 

The opposition of the Federalists to the 
war with England, and the alien and .sedi- 






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JAMES BUCHANAN. 



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tion lau'S of John Adams, brought the party 
into dispute, and the name of Federalist 
became a leproach. Mr. Buclianan ahnost 
immediately upon entering Congress began 
to incline more and more to the Repub- 
licans. In the stormy Presidential election 
of 1824, in which Jackson, Clay, Crawford 
and John Oiiincy Adams were candidates, 
Mr. Buchanan espoused the cause of Gen- 
eral Jackson and unrelentingly opposed the 
administration of Mr. Adams. 

Upon his elevation to the Presidency, 
General Jackson appointed Mr. Buchanan, 
minister to Russia. Upon his return in 1833 
he was elected to a seat in the United States 
Senate. He there met as his associates, 
Webster, Clay, Wright and Calhoun. He 
advocated the measures proposed by Presi- 
dent Jackson of making reprisals against 
France, and defended the course of the Pres- 
ident in his unprecedented and wholesale 
removals from office of those who were not 
the supporters of his administration. Upon 
this question he was brought into direct col- 
lision with Henr}' Clay. In the discussion 
of the question respecting tiie admission of 
Michigan and Arkansas into the Union, Mr. 
Buchanan defined his position by sa3'ing: 

" The older I grow, the more I am in- 
clined to be what is called a State-rights 
man." 

M. de Tocqueville, in his renowned work 
upon " Democracy in America," foresaw 
the trouble which was inevitable from the 
doctrine of State sovereignty as held by 
Calhoun and Buchanan. He was con- 
vinced that the National Government was 
losing that strength which was essential 
to its own existence, and that the States 
were assuming powers which threatened 
the perpetuity- of the Union. Mr. Buchanan 
received the book in the Senate and de- 
clared the fears of De Tocqueville to be 
groundless, and yet he lived to sit in the 
Presidential chair and see State after State, 
in accordance with his own views of State 



rights, breaking from the Union, thus 
crumbling our Republic into ruins; while 
the unhappy old man folded his arms in 
despair, declaring that the National Consti- 
tution invested him with no power to arrest 
the destruction. 

Upon Mr. Polk's accession to the Presi- 
dency, Mr. Buchanan became Secretary of 
State, and as such took his share of tiie 
responsibilit}' in the conduct of the Mexi- 
can war. At the close of Mr; Polk's ad- 
ministration, Mr. Buchanan retired to pri- 
vate life; but his intelligence, and his great 
ability as a statesman, enabled him to exert 
a powerful influence in National affairs. 

Mr. Pierce, upon his election to the 
Presidency, honored Mr. Buchanan with 
the mission to England. In the year 1856 
the National Democratic convention nomi- 
nated Mr. Buchanan for the Presidenc}'. 
The political conflict was one of the most 
severe in wliich our coimtry has ever en- 
gaged. On the 4th of March, 1857, Mr. 
Buchanan was inaugurated President. His 
cabinet were Lewis Cass, Howell Cobb, 
J. B. Flo3'd, Isaac Toucey, Jacob Thomp^ 
son, A. V. Brown and J. S. Black. 

The disruption of the Democratic party, 
in consequence of the manner in which the 
issue of the nationality of slavery was 
f)ressed by the Southern wing, occurred at 
the National convention, held at Charleston 
in April, i860, for the nomination of Mr. 
Buchanan's successor, when the majority 
of Southern delegates withdrew upon the 
passage of a resolution declaring that the 
constitutional status of slavery should be 
determined by the Supreme Court. 

In the next Presidential canvass Abra- 
ham Lincoln was nominated by the oppo- 
nents of Mr. Buchanan's administration. 
iNIr. Buchanan remained in Washington 
long enough to see his successor installed 
and then retired to his home in Wheatland. 
He died June i, 1868, aged seventy-seven 
)'ears. 



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BRAHAM LIN- 
COLN, the sixteenth 
President of the 
United States, i86i-'5, 
^ . was born February 



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1S09, in Larue 
(then I Lardin) County, 
Kentucky, in a cabin on Nolan 
Creek, three miles west of 
Hudi^ensville. His parents 
were Thomas and Nancy 
-jiji^^A. (Hanks) Lincoln. Of his an- 
-^li^^ cestry and early years the little 
that is known may best be 
given in his own language : " M}- 
parents were both born in Virginia, of un- 
distinguished families — second families, per- 
haps I should say. My mother, wiio died 
in my tenth year, was of a family of the 
name of Hanks, some of whom now remain 
in Adams, and others in Macon County, 
Illinois. My patcrna' grandfather, Abra- 
ham Lincoln, emigrated from Rockbridge 
County, Virginia, to Kentucky in 1781 or 
1782, where, a year or two later, he was 
killed by Indians — not in battle, but by 
stealth, when he was laboring to open a 
farm in the forest. His ancestors, who were 
Quakers, went to Virginia from Berks 
Count}', Pennsylvania. An effort to iden- 



tif}' them with the New England family of 
the same name ended in nothing more defi- 
nite than a similarity of Christian names in 
both families, such as Enoch, Levi, jNIor- 
decai, Solomon, Abi"aham and the like. 
My father, at the death of his father, was 
but si.\ years of age, and he grew up, liter- 
ally, without education. He removed from 
Kentucky to what is now Spencer County, 
Indiana, in my eighth year. We reached 
our new home about the time the State came 
into the Union. It was a wild region, with 
bears and other wild animals still in the 
woods. There I grew to manhood. 

" There were some schools, so called, but 
no qualification was ever icquired of a 
teacher beyond ' readin', writin', and cipher- 
in' to the rule of three.' If a straggler, sup- 
posed to understand Latin, happened to 
sojourn in the neighborhood, he was looked 
upon as a wizard. There was absolutely 
nothing to excite ambition for education. 
Of course, when I came of age I did not 
know much. Still, somehow, I could read, 
write and cipher to the rule of three, and 
that was all. I have not been to school 
since. The little advance I now have upon 
this store of education I have picked up 
from time to time under the pressure of 
necessity. I was raised to farm-work, which 




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AliRAHASt LINCOLN. 



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I c(>ntiiuictl till 1 was twciity-two. At 
twcnty-onc 1 cainc to Illinois and passed 
the first year in Macon County. Then I got 
to New Salem, at that time in Sangamon, 
now in Menard County, where I remained 
a year as a sort of clerk in a store. 

" Then came the Black I lawk war, and 1 
was elected a Captain of volunteers — a suc- 
cess which gave mc more pleasure than any 
I have had since. I went the campaign, 
was elated ; ran for the Legislature t!ic 
same year (183J) and was beaten, the only 
time I have ever been beaten by the people. 
The next and three succeeding biennial 
elections I was elected to the Legislature, 
and was never a candidate afterward. 

" During this legislative period I had 
studied law, and removed to Springfield to 
practice it. In 1846 I was elected to the 
Lower House of Congress; was not a can- 
didate for re-election. From 1849 to 1854- 
inclusive, I practiced the law more assid- 
uously than ever before. Always a Whig 
in politics, and generally on the Whig elec- 
toral tickets, making active canvasses, I was 
losing interest in politics, when the repeal 
of the Missouri Compromise roused me 
again. What I have done since is pretty 
well known." 

The early residence of Lincoln in Indi- 
ana was sixteen miles north of the Ohio 
River, on Little Pigeon Creek, one and a 
hall miles east of Gentryvillc, within the 
present township of Carter. Here his 
mother died October 5, 18 18, and the next 
year his father married Mrs. Sally (Bush) 
Johnston, of Elizabcthtown, Kentucky. She 
was an affectionate foster-parent, to whom 
Abraham was indebted for his first encour- 
agement to study. He became an eager 
reader, and the few books owned in the 
vicinity were many times perused. He 
worked frequently for the neighbors as a 
farm laborer; was for some time clerk in a 
store at Gentry ville; and became famous 
throughout that region for his athletic 



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powers, his fondness for argument, his in- 
exhaustible fund of humcrous anecdote, as 
well as for mock oratory and the composi- 
tion of rude satirical verses. In 1S28 he 
made a trading voyage to New Orleans as 
"bow-hand" on a flatboat; removed to 
Illinois in 1830; helped his father build a 
log house and clear a farm on the north 
fork of Sangamon River, ten miles west of 
Decatur, and was for some time employed 
in splitting rails for the fences — a fact which 
was prominently brought forward for a 
political purpose thirty years later. 

In the spring of 1851 he, with two of his 
relatives, was hired to build a flatboat on 
the Sangamon River and navigate it to 
New Orleans. The boat " stuck " on a 
mill-dam, and was got off with great labor 
through an ingenious mechanical device 
which some years later led to Lincoln's 
taking out a patent lor "an improved 
method for lifting vessels over shoals." 
This voyage was memorable for another 
reason — the sight of slaves chained, mal- 
treated and flogged at New Orleans was 
the origin of his deep convictions upon the 
slavery question. 

Returning from this voyage he became a 
resident for several 3'cars at New Salem, a 
recently settled village on the Sangamon, 
where he was successive!}' a clerk, grocer, 
surve3or and postmaster, and acted as pilot 
to the first steamboat that ascended the 
Sangamon. Here he studied law, inter- 
ested himself in local politics after his 
leturn from the Black Hawk war, and 
became known as an effective "stump- 
speaker." The subject of his first political 
speech was the improvement of the channel 
of the Sangamon, and the chief ground on 
which he announced himself (1S32) a candi- 
date for the Legislature was his advocacy 
(if this popular measure, on which subject 
his practical experience made him the high- 
est authority. 

Elected to the Legislature in 1834 as a 












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" Henry Clay Wliig," he rapidly acquired 
that command of language and that homely 
but forcible rhetoric which, added to his 
intimate knowledge of the people from 
wJiich he sprang, made him more than a 
match in debate for his few well-educated 
opponents. 

Admitted to the bar in 1837 he soon 
established himself at Springfield, where 
the State capital was located in 1839, 
largely through his influence; became a 
successful pleader in the State, Circuit and 
District Courts ; married in 1842 a lady be- 
longing to a prominent family in Lexington, 
Kentucky ; took an active part in the Pres- 
idential campaigns of 1840 and 18.^ as 
candidate for elector on the Harrison and 
Clay tickets, and in 1846 was elected to the 
United States flouse of Representatives 
over the celebrated Peter Cartwright. 
During his single term in Congress he did 
not attain any prominence. 

He voted for the reception of anti-slavery 
petitions for the abolition of the slave trade 
in the District of Columbia and for the 
Wilmot proviso; but was chiefi}' remem- 
bered for the stand he took against the 
Mexican war. For several years there- 
after he took comparatively little interest 
in politics, but gained a leading position at 
the Springfield bar. Two or three non- 
political lectures and an eulogy on Henry 
Clay (1852) added nothing to his reputation. 

In 1854 the repeal of the Missouri 
Compromise by the Kansas-Nebraska act 
aroused Lincoln from his indifference, and 
in attacking that measure he had the im- 
mense advantage of knowing perfectly well 
the motives and the record of its author, 
Stephen A. Douglas, of Illinois, then popu- 
larly designated as the " Little Giant." The 
latter came to Springfield in October, 1854, 
on the occasion of the State Fair, to vindi- 
cate his policy in the Senate, and the " Anti- 
Nebraska" Whigs, remembering that Lin- 
coln had often measured his strength with 



Douglas in the Illinois Legislature and be- 
fore the Springfield Courts, engaged him 
to improvise a reply. This speech, in the 
opinion of those who hcaid it, was one of 
the greatest efforts of Lincoln's life ; cer- 
tainly the most effective in his whole career. 
It took the audience by storm, and from 
that moment it was felt that Douglas had 
met his match. Lincoln was accordingly 
selected as the Anti-Nebraska candidate for 
the United States Senate in place of General 
Shields, whose term expired March 4, 1855, 
and led to several ballots; but Trumbull 
was ultimately chosen. 

The second conflict on the soil of Kan- 
sas, which Lincoln had predicted, soon be- 
gan. The result was the disruption of the 
Whig and the formation of the Republican 
party. At the Bloomington State Conven- 
tion in 1856, where the new party first 
assumed form in Illinois, Lincoln made an 
impressive address, in which for the first 
time he took distinctive ground against 
slaver_v in itself. 

At the National Republican Convention 
at Philadelphia, June 17, after the nomi- 
nation of Fremont, Lincoln was put for- 
ward by the Illinois delegation for the 
Vice-Presidency, and received on the first 
ballot no votes against 259 for William L. 
Dayton. He took a prominent part in the 
canvass, being on the electoral ticket. 

In 1858 Lincoln was unanimously nomi- 
nated by the Republican State Convention 
as its candidate for the United States Senate 
in place of Douglas, and in his speech of 
acceptance used the celebrated illustration 
of a "house divided against itself " on the 
slavery question, which was, perhaps, the 
cause of his defeat. The great debate car- 
ried on at all the principal towns of Illinois 
between Lincoln and Douglas as rival Sena- 
torial candidates resulted at the time in the 
election of the latter ; but being widely cir- 
culated as a campaign document, it fixed 
the attention of the country upon the 




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ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 



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former, as the clearest and most convinc- 
ing exponent of Republican doctrine. 

Early in 1859 he began to be named in 
Illinois as a suitable Republican candidate 
for the Presidential campaign of the ensu- 
ing 3'ear, and a political address delivered 
at the Cooper Institute, New York, Febru- 
ary 27, i860, followed b}' similar speeches 
at New Haven, Hartford and elsewhere in 
New England, first made him known to the 
Eastern States in the light by which he had 
long been regarded at home. By the Re- 
publican State Convention, which met at 
Decatur, Illinois, May 9 and 10, Lincoln 
was unanimously endorsed for the Presi- 
dency. It was on this occasion that two 
rails, said to have been split by his hands 
thirty years before, were brought into the 
convention, and the incident contributed 
much to his popularit)-. The National 
Republican Convention at Chicago, after 
spirited efforts made in favor of Seward, 
Chase and Bates, nominated Lincoln for 
the Presidency, with Hannibal Hamlin 
for Vice-President, at the same time adopt- 
ing a vigorous anti-slavery platform. 

The Democratic party having been dis- 
organized and presenting two candidates, 
Douglas and Breckenridge, and the rem- 
nant of the "American" party having put 
forward John Bell, of Tennessee, the Re- 
jmblican victory was an easy one, Lincoln 
being elected November 6 by a large plu- 
rality, comprehending nearly all the North- 
ern States, but none of the Southern. The 
secession of South Carolina and the Gulf 
States was the immediate result, followed 
a few months later by that of the border 
slave States and the outbreak of the great 
civil war. 

The life of Abraham Lincoln became 
thenceforth merged in the history of his 
country. None of the details of the vast 
conflict which filled the remainder of Lin- 
coln's life can here be given. Narrowly 
escaping assassination by avoiding Balti- 



more on his way to the capital, he reached 
Washington February 23, and was inaugu- 
rated President of the United .States March 
4, 1861. 

In his inaugural address he said: " I hold, 
that in contemplation of imiversal law and 
the Constitution the Union of these States is 
perpetual. Perpetuity is implied if not ex- 
pressed in the fundamental laws of all na- 
tional governments. It is safe to assert 
that no government proper ever had a pro- 
vision in its organic law for its own termi- 
nation. I therefore consider that in view 
of the Constitution and the laws, the Union 
is unbroken, and to the extent of my ability 
I shall take care, as the Constitution en- 
joins upon me, that the laws of the United 
States be extended in all the States. In 
doing this there need be no bloodshed or vio- 
lence, and there shall be none unless it be 
forced upon the national authority. The 
power conferred to me will be used to hold, 
occupy and possess the property and places 
belonging to the Government, and to col- 
lect the duties and imports, but beyond 
what may be necessary for these objects 
there will be no invasion, no using of force 
against or among the people anywhere. In 
your hands, my dissatisfied fcUow-countr}-- 
men, is the momentous issue of civil war. 
The Government will not assail you. You 
can have no conflict without being ^-our- 
selves the aggressors. You have no oath 
registered in heaven to destroy the Gov- 
ernment, while I shall have the most sol- 
emn one to preserve, protect and defend 
it." 

He called to his cabinet his principal 
rivals for the Presidential nomination — 
Seward, Chase, Cameron and Bates; se- 
cured the co-operation of the Union Demo- 
crats, headed by Douglas ; called out 75,000 
militia from the several States upon the fii st 
tidings of the bombardment of Fort Sumter, 
April 15; proclaimed a blockade of the 
Southern posts April 19; called an extra 






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session of CoiiL^rcss for July 4, from whicli | Johnson assumed tlic Presidency, and active 

measures were taken which resulted in the 
death of Bootli and the execution of iiis 
principal accomplices. 

Tiie funeral of I'residcnt Lincoln was 
conducted with unexampled solemnity and 
magnificence. Impressive services were 
held in Washington, after which the sad 
procession proceeded over the same route 
he had traveled four 3'ears before, from 
Springfield to Washington. In Philadel- 
phia his body lay in state in Independence 
Hall, in which he had declared before his 
first inauguration " that I would sooner be 
assassinated than to give up the principles 
of the Declaration of Independence." He 
was buried at Oak Ridge Cemetery, near 
Springfield, Illinois, on May 4, where a 
monument emblematic of the emancipation 
of the slaves and the restoration of the 
Union mark his resting place. 

The leaders and citizens of the expiring 
Confederacy expressed genuine indignation 
at the murder of a generous political adver- 
sary. Foreign nations took part in mourn- 
ing the death of a statesman who had proved 
himself a true representative of American 
nationality. The freedmen of the South 
almost worshiped the memory of their de- 
liverer; and the general sentiment of the 
great Nation he had saved awarded him a 
place in its affections, second only to that 
held by Washington. 

The characteristics of Abraham Lincoln 
have been familiarly known throughout the 
civilized world. His tall, gaunt, ungainly 
figure, homely countenance, and his shrewd 
mother-wit, shown in his celebrated con- 
versations overflowing in humorous and 
pointed anecdote, combined with an accu- 
rate, intuitive appreciation of the questions 
of the time, are recognized as forming the 
best tvpc of a period of American history 
now rapidly passing away. 



he asked and obtained 400,000 men and 
§400,000,000 for the war; placed McClellan 
at the iiead of the Federal army on General 
Scott's resignation, October 31; appointed 
Edwin M. Stanton Secretary of War, Jan- 
uary 14, 1S62, and September 22, 1862, 
issued a proclamation declaring the free- 
dom of all slaves in the States and parts of 
States then in rebellion from and after 
January i. 1.S63. This was the crowning 
act of Lincoln's career — the act by which 
he will be chiefly known through all future 
time — and it decided the war. 

October 16, 1S63, President Lincoln called 
for 300,000 volunteers to replace those 
whose term of enlistment had expired ; 
made a celebrated and touching, though 
brief, address at the dedication of the 
Gettysburg military cemetery, November 
19, 1863; commissioned Ulysses S. Grant 
Lieutenant-General and Commander-in- 
Chief of the armies of the United States, 
March 9, 1864; was re-elected President in 
November of the same year, by a large 
majority over General McClellan, with 
Andrew Johnson, of Tennessee, as Vice- 
President; delivered a very remarkable ad- 
dress at his second inauguration, March 4, 
1865; visited the army before Richmond the 
same month; entered the capital of the Con- 
federacy the day after its fall, and upon the 
surrender of General Robert E. Lcc'g army, 
April 9, was actively engaged in devising 
generous plans for the reconstruction of the 
Union, when, on the evening of Good Fri- 
day, A])ril 14, he was shot in his box at 
Ford's Theatre, Washington, b3'JohnWilkes 
B(X)th, a fanatical actor, and expired early 
on the following morning, April 15. Al- 
most simultaneously a murderous attack 
was made upon William II. Seward, Secre- 
tary of State. 

At noon on the 15th of April Andrew 



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--S ., ,.;A.'^- 7;^'nNDRE\V JOHNSON, 

tlie scvciiteentli Presi- 
dent (jf the U n i te d 
States, iS65-'y, was 
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His fallicr died when 
he was four years old, and in 
liis eleventii year he was ap- 
prenticed to a tailor. lie nev- 
er attended school, and did 
not learn to read until late in 
--..,,, his aiiprenticeshii), when he 
"^^'if^'C suddenly acquired a passion for 
obtainini^ knowledge, and devoted 
all his spare time to reatliiii;'. 

After workiiiLj two years as a jcjurney- 
man tailor at Lauren's Court-House, South 
Carolina, lie removed, in 1S26, to Green- 
ville, Teimessee, where he worked at his 
trade and married. Under his wife's in- j 
structioiis he made rapid progress in his 
education, and manifested such an intelli- 
gent interest in local ]iolitics as to be 
elected as " workingmeu's candiilate " al- 
derman, in 1S2S, and ma\-or in 1S30, being 
twice re-elected to each office. 

During this period he cultiv'atcd his tal- 
ents as a public speaker liy taking part in a 



debating society, consisting largely of stu- 
dents of Greenville College. In 1S35, and 
again in 1839, ''c was chosen to the lower 
house of the Legislature, as a Democrat. 
In 1S41 he was elected State Senator, and 
in 1843, Representative in Congress, being 
re-elected four successive periods, until 
1853, when he was cliosen Governor of 
Tennessee. In Congress he supported tlie 
administrations of Tyler and Polk in their 
chief measures, especially the aiinexati(Hi 
of Texas, the adjustment of the Oregon 
boundary, the Mexican war, aiul the tariff 
of 1846. 

In 1855 Mr. Johnson was reelected Gov- 
ernor, and in 1857 entered the United 
States Senate, where he was conspicuous 
as an advocate of retrenchment and of the 
Homestead bill, and as an opponent of the 
Pacific Railroatl. He was su[)ported by the 
Tennessee delegation to the Democratic 
convention in i860 for the Presidential 
nomination, and lent his intluence to the 
Breckenridge wing of ihatjiarty. 

When the election ot Lincoln had 
brought about the first attempt at secession 
in December, 1S60, Johnson took in the 
Senate a firm attitude for the Lhiion, and 
in May, 1S61, on returning to Tennessee, 
he was in imminent peril of suffering from 






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popular violence for his loyalty to the " old These States accordingly claimed reprcsen- 

Hag." He was the leader of tiie Loyalists' , tation in Congress in the following Dcceni- 

convention of East Tennessee, and during j ber, and the momentous question of what 

the following winter was very active in or- : shoidd be the policy of the victorious Union 



ganizing relief for the destitute loyal refu- 
gees from that rcgicjn, hisown famil)' being 
among those compelled to leave. 

By his course in this crisis Johnson came 
prominently before the Northern public, 
and when in March, 1S62, he was appointed- 



toward its late armed opjioncnts was forced 
upon that body. 

Two considerations impelled the Repub- 
lican majority to reject the policy of Picsi. 
dent Johnson: ' First, an apprehension that 
the chief magistrate intended to undo the re- 



bv President Lincoln military Governor of 1 suits of the war in regard to slavery; and, sec- 
Tennessee, with the rank of Brigadier-Gen- ond, the sullen attitude of the South, which 



eral, he increased in popularity by the vig- 
orous and successful manner in which he 
laboretl to restore onier, protect Union 
men and punish marauders. On the ap- 
proach of the Presidential campaign of 1864, 
the termination of the war being plainly 
foreseen, and several Southern States being 
partially reconstructed, it was felt that the 
Vice-Presidency should be given to a South- 
ern man of conspicuous loyalt3% and Gov- 
ernor Johnson was elected on the same 
platform and ticket as President Lincoln; 
and on the assassination of the latter suc- 
ceeded to the Presidency, April 15, 1865. 
In a public speech two days later he said: 
"The American people must be taught, if 
they do not already feel, that treason is a 
crime and must be punished; that the Gov- 
ernment will not always bear with its ene- 
mies; that it is strong, not only to protect, 
but to punish. In our peacefid history 
treason has been almost unknown. The 
people must understand that it is the black- 
est of crimes, and will be punished." He 
then added the ominous sentence: " In re- 
gard to my future course, I make no prom- 
ises, no pledges." President Johnson re- 
tained the cabinet of Lincoln, and exhibited 
considerable severity toward traitors in his 
earlier acts and speeches, but he soon inaug- 
urated a policy of reconstruction, proclaim- 
ing a general amnesty to the late Confeder- 
ates, and successively establishing provis- 
ional Governments in the Southern States. 






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seemed to be plotting to regain the policy 
which arms had lost. The credentials of the 
Southern members elect were laid on the 
table, a civil rights bill and a bill extending 
the sphere of the Freedmen's Bureau were 
passed over the executive veto, and the two 
highest branches of the Government were 
soon in open antagonism. The action of 
Congress was characterized by the Presi- 
dent as a " new rebellion." In July the 
cabinet was reconstructed, Messrs. Randall, 
Stanbury and Browning taking the places 
of Messrs. Denison, Speed and Harlan, antl 
an unsuccessful attempt was made by 
means of a general convention in Philadel- 
phia to form a new jjarty on the basis of the 
administration policy. 

In an excursion to Chicago for the pui- 
pose of laying a corner-stone of the monu- 
ment to Stephen A. Douglas, President 
Johnson, accompanied by several members 
of the cabinet, passed through Philadelphia, 
New York and Albany, in each of which 
cities, and in other places along the route, 
he made speeches justifying and explaining 
his own polic}', and violently denouncing 
the action af Congress. 

August 12, 1867, President Johnson re- 
moved the Secretary of War, replacing 
him by General Grant. Secretar}- Stanton 
retired under protest, based upon the ten- 
ure-of-ofiice act which had been passed the 
preceding March. The President then is- 
sued a proclamation declaring the insurrec- 



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tion at an end, and that " peace, order, tran- 
quility anil civil authority existed in and 
throughout the United States." Another 
proclamation enjoined obedience to the 
Constitution and the laws, and an aninesty 
was published September 7, relieving nearl)' 
all the participants in the late Rebellion 
from the disabilities thereby incurred, on 
condition of taking the oath to support the 
Constitution and the laws. 

In December Congress refused to confirm 
the removal of Secretary Stanton, who 
thereupon resumed the exercise of his of- 
fice; but February 21, 1868, President 
Johnson again attempted to remove him, 
appointing General Lorenzo Thomas in his 
place. Stanton refused to vacate his post, 
and was sustained by the Senate. 

February 24 the House of Representa- 
tives voted to impeach the President for 
" high crime and misdemeanors," and March 
5 presented eleven articles of impeachment 
on the ground of his resistance to the exe- 
cution of the acts of Congress, alleging, in 
addition to the offense lately committed, 
his public expressions of contempt for Con- 
gress, in " certain intemperate, inflamma- 
tory and scandalous harangues" pronounced 
in August and September, 1866, and there- 
after declaring that the Thirty-ninth Con- 
gress of the United States was not a 
competent legislative body, and denying 
its power to propose Constitutional amend- 
ments. March 23 the impeachment trial 
began, the President appearing by counsel, 
and resulted in acquittal, the vote lacking 



one of the two-thirds vote required for 
conviction. 

The remainder of President Johnson's 
term of office was passed without any such 
conflicts as might liave been anticipated. 
He failed to obtain a nomination for re- 
election by the Democratic party, thougii 
receiving sixty-five votes on the first ballot. 
July 4 and December 25 new proclamations 
of pardon to the participants in the late 
Rebellion were issued, but were of little 
effect. On the accession of General Grant 
to the Presidency, March 4, 1869, Johnson 
returned to Greenville, Tennessee. Unsuc- 
cessful in i87oandiS72 as a candidate re- 
spectively for United States Senator and 
Representative, he was finall}- elected to the 
Senate in 1S75, and took his seat in the extra 
session of March, in which his speeches 
were comparatively temperate. He died 
July 31, 1875, and was buried at Green- 
ville. 

President Johnson's administration was a 
peculiarly unfortunate one. That he should 
so soon become involved in bitter feud with 
the Republican majority in Congress was 
certainly a surprising and deplorable inci- 
dent; yet, in reviewing the circumstances 
after a lapse of so many years, it is easy to 
find ample room for a charitable judgment 
of both the parties in the heated contro- 
versy, since it cannot be doubted that any 
President, even Lincoln himself, had he 
lived, must have sacrificed a large portion 
of his popularity in carrying out any pos- 
sible scheme of reconstruction. 






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LYSSES SIMPSON 
GRANT, the eight- 
eenth President of the 
United States, i869-'77, 
wasborn April 27, 1822, 
at Point Pleasant, 
Clermont County, 
Ohio. I lis father ^\•as of Scotcli 
descent, and a dealer in leather. 
At tiie age of seventeen lie en- 
tered the Military Academy at 
West I'oint, and four years later 
graihiated twenty-first in a class 
of tliirty-nine, receiving the 
commission of Brevet Second 
Lieutenant. He was assigned 
to the Fourth Infantry and re- 
mained in the army eleven years. He was 
engaged in every battle of the Mexican war 
except that of Buena Vista, and received 
two brevets for gallantry. 

1 n I S48 Mr. Grant married J ulia, daughter 
of Frederick Dent, a prominent mercliantof 
St. Louis, and in 1854, iiaving reached the 
grade of Captain, he resigned his commis- 
sion in the army. For several years he fol- 
lowed farming near St. Louis, but unsuc- 
cessfully ; and in i860 he entered the leather 
trade with his father at Galena, Illinois. 

Wiien the civil war broke out in 1861, 
Grant was thirty-nine years of age, but en- 
tirely unknown to public men and without 




any personal acquaintance with greataffairs. 
President Lincoln's first call for troops was 
made on the 15th of April, and on the iQtli 
Grant was drilling a company of volunteers 
at Galena. He also offered his services to 
the Adjutant-General of the army, but re- 
ceived no reply. The Governor of Illinois, 
however, employed him in the organization 
of volunteer troops, and at the end of five 
weeks he was appointed Colonel of tiie 
Twenty-first Infantry. He took command 
of liis regiment in Jime, and reported first 
to General Pope in Missouri. 1 1 is superior 
knowledge of military life ratiier surprised 
his superior officers, wiio had never before 
even lieard of iiim, and they were thus led 
to place him on the road to rapid advance- 
ment. August 7 he was commissioned a 
Brigadier-General of vokniteers, the ap- 
pointment iiaving been made without his 
knowledge. He had been unanimously 
recommended by tiie Congressmen from 
Illinois, not one of whom had been his 
personal acquaintance. For a few weeks 
he was occupied in watching the move- 
ments of partisan fcjrces in Missouri. 

September i lie was placed in command 
of the District of Southeast Missouri, with 
headquarters at Cairo, and on the 6th, with- 
out orders, lie seized Paducah, at the moutii 
of the Tennessee River, and commanding 
the navigation both of that stream and of 




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the Oliid. Tliis stroke secured Kentucky 
to tlic Union; for tlie State Legislature, 
which iiad until then affected to be neutral, 
at once declared in favor of the Govern- 
ment. In November following, according 
to orders, he made a demonstration about 
eiglitcen miles below Cairo, preventing the 
crossing of hostile troops into Missouri ; 
but in order to accomplish this purpose he 
had to do some hghting, and that, too, with 
only 3,000 raw recruits, against 7,000 Con- 
federates. Grant carried off two pieces of 
artillery and 200 prisoners. 

After repeated applications to General 
Hallcck, his immediate superior, he was 
allowed, in Februar)-, 1S62, to move up the 
Tennessee River against Fort Henry, in 
conjunction with a naval force. The gun- 
boats silenced the fort, and Grant immedi- 
ately made preparations to attack Fort 
Donelson, about twelve miles distant, on 
the Cumberland River. Without waiting 
for orders he moved his troops there, and 
with 15,000 men began tiie siege. The 
fort, garrisoned with 21,000 men, was a 
strong one, but after hard fighting on three 
successive days Grant forced an " Uncon- 
ditional Surrender" (an alliteration upon 
the initials of his name). The prize he capt- 
ured consisted of sixty-five cannon, 17,600 
small arms and 14,623 soldiers. About 4,- 
000 of the garrison had escaped in tiie night, 
and 2,500 were killed or wounded. Grant's 
entire loss was less than 2,000. This was the 
first important success won by the national 
troops during the war, and its strategic rc- 
sidts were marked, as the entire States of 
Kentucky and Tennessee at once fell into the 
National hands. Our hero was made a 
Major-Gencral of Volunteers and placed in 
command of the District of West Ten- 
nessee. 

In March, 1S62, lie was ordered to move 
up the Tennessee River toward Corinth, 
where the Confederates were concentrat- 
ing a large army ; but he was directed not 



to attack. Mis forces, now numbering 38,- 
000, were accordingly encamped near Shi- 
loh, or Pittsburg Landing, to await the 
arrival of General BucU with 40,000 more; 
but April 6 the Confederates came out from 
Corinth 50,000 strong and attacked Grant 
violently, hoping to overwhelm him before 
Buell could arrive ; 5,000 of his troops were 
beyond supporting distance, so that he was 
largely outnumbered and forced back to the 
river, where, however, he held out until 
dark, when the head of Buell's column 
came upon the field. The next day the 
Confederates were driven back to Corinth, 
nineteen miles. The loss was heavy on 
both sides ; Grant, being senior in rank to 
Buell, commanded on both days. Two 
days afterward Halleck arrived at the front 
and assumed command of the army. Grant 
remaining at the head of the right wing and 
the reserve. On May 30 Corinth was 
evacuated by the Confederates. In July 
Halleck was made General-in-Chief, and 
Grant succeeded him in command of the 
Department of the Tennessee. September 
19 the battle of luka was fought, where, 
owing to Rosecrans's fault, only an incom- 
plete victory was obtained. 

Next, Grant, with 30,000 men, moved 
down into Mississippi and threatened Vicks- 
burg, while Sherman, with 40,000 men, was 
sent by way of the river to attack that place 
in front; but, owing to Colonel Murph3''s 
surrendering Holly Springs to the Con- 
federates, Grant was so weakened that he 
had to retire to Corinth, and then Sherman 
failed to sustain his intended attack. 

In January, 1863, General Grant took 
command in person of all the troops in tiie 
Mississippi Valley, and spent several months 
in fruitless attempts to compel the surrender 
or evacuation of Vicksburg; but July 4, 
following, the place surrendered, with 31,- 
600 men and 172 cannon, and the Mississip[)i 
River thus fell permanently into the hands 
of the Government. Grant was made a 



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PliESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 






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Major-Gencral in the regular army, and in 
October following lie was placed in com- 
mand of tlie Division of the Mississippi. 
The same month he went to Chattanooga 
and saved the Army of tiic Cumberland 
from starvation, and drove Bragg from that 
part of the country. This victory over- 
threw the last important hostile force west 
of the Alleghanies and opened the way for 
the National armies into Georgia and Sher- 
man's march to tiie sea. 

The remarkable series of successes which 
Grant had now achieved pointed him out 
as the appropriate leader of the National 
armies, and accordingly, in February, 1864, 
the rank of Lieutenant-General was created 
for him by Congress, and on March 17 he 
assumed command of the armies of the 
United States. Planning the grand final 
campaign, he sent Sherman into Georgia, 
Sigel into the valley of Virginia, and Butler 
to capture Richmond, while he fought his 
own way from the Rapidan to the James. 
The costly but victorious battles of the 
Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna and 
Cold Harbor were fought, more for the 
purpose of annihilating Lee than to capture 
any particular point. In June, 1864, the 
siege (jf liichmond was begun. Sherman, 
meanwhile, was marching and fighting daily 
in Georgia and steadily advancing toward 
Atlanta ; but Sigel had been defeated in the 
valley of Virginia, and was superseded by 
Hunter. Lee sent Early to thieaten the Na- 
tional capital ; whereupon Grant gathered 
up a force which he placed under Sheridan, 
and that commander rapidly drove Early, 
in a succession of battles, through the valley 
of Virginia and destroyed his army as an 
organized force. The siege of Richmond 
went on, and Grant made numerous attacks, 
but was only partially successful. The 
people of the North grew impatient, and 
even the Government advised him to 
abandon the attempt to take Richmond or 
crush the Confederacy in that way ; but he 



never wavered. He resolved to " fight it 
out on that line, if it took all summer." 

By September Sherman had made his 
way to Atlanta, and Grant then sent him 
on his famous " march to the sea," a route 
which the chief had designed six months 
before. He made Sherman's success possi- 
ble, not only b)' holding Lee in front of 
Richmond, but also by sending reinforce- 
ments to Thomas, who then drew off and 
defeated the only army which ci^uld have 
confronted Sherman. Thus the latter was 
left unopposed, and, with Thomas and Sheri- 
dan, was used in tiie furtherance of Grant's 
plans. Each executed his part in the great 
design and contributed his share to the re- 
sult at which Grant was aiming. Sherman 
finally reached Savannah, Schofield beat 
the enemy at Franklin, Thomas at Nash- 
ville, and Sheridan wherever he met him; 
and all tliis while General Grant was hold- 
ing Lee, with the principal Confederate 
army, near Richmond, as it were chained 
and helpless. Then Schofield was brought 
from the West, and Fort Fisher and Wil- 
mington were captured on the sea-coast, so 
as to afford him a foothold ; from here he 
was sent into the interior of North Caro- 
lina, and Sherman was ordered to move 
northward to join him. When all this was 
effected, and Sheridan could find no one else 
to fight in the Shenandoah Valley, Grant 
brought the cavalry leader to the front of 
Richmond, and, making a last effort, drove 
Lee from his entrenchments and captured 
Richmond. 

At the beginning of the final campaign 
Lee had collected 73,000 fighting men in 
the lines at Richmond, besides the local 
militia and the gunboat crews, amounting 
to 5,000 more. Including Sheridan's force 
Grant had 1 10,000 men in the works before 
Petersburg and Richmond. Petersburg fell 
on the 2d of April, and Richmond on the 
3d, and Lee fied in the direction of Lynch- 
burg. Grant pursued with remorseless 



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enci"ij;-y, onlv sto])ping to strike fresh blows, 
and Lee at last found himself not only out- 
fouijlit but also out-marched and out-gcn- 
craled. Beini^ completely surrounded, he 
surrendered on the Qlh of April, 1865, at 
Appomattox Court-House, in the open field, 
with 27,000 men, all that remained of his 
army. This act virtually ended the war. 
Thus, in ten days Grant had captured 
Petersburg- and Richmond, fought, by his 
subordinates, the battles of Five Forks and 
Sailor's Creek, besides numerous smaller 
ones, captured 20,000 men in actual battle, 
and received the surrender of 27,000 more 
at Appomattox, absolutely annihilating an 
army of 70,000 soldiers. 

General Grant returned at once to Wash- 
ington to superintend the disbandment of 
the armies, but this pleasurable work was 
scarcely begun when President Lincoln was 
assassinated. It had doubtless been in- 
tended to inflict the same fate upon Grant ; 
but he, fortunately, on account of leaving 
Washington early in the evening, declined 
an invitation to accompany the President 
to the theater where the murder was com- 
mitted. This event made Andrew Johnson 
President, but left Grant by far the most 
conspicuous figure in the public life of the 
countrv. He became the object of an en- 
thusiasm greater than had ever been known 
in America. Everv possible honor was 
heaped upon him ; the grade of General 
was created for him by Congress; houses 
were presented to him by citizens; towns 
were illuminated on iiis entrance into them ; 
and, to cap the climax, when he made his 
tour around the world, "all nations did him 
honor" as they had never before honored 
a foreigner. 

The General, as Commander-in-Chief, 
was placed in an embarrassing position by 
the opposition of President Johnson to the 
measures of Congress ; but he directly man- 
ifested his characteristic loyalty by obeying 
Congress rather than the disaffected Presi- 



dent, although for a short time he had 
served in his cabinet as Secretary of War. 

Of course, everybody thought of General 
Grant as the next President of the United 
States, and he was accordingly elected as 
such in 1 868 "by a large majority," and 
four years later re-elected by a much larger 
majority — -the most overwhelming ever 
given by the people of this country. His first 
administration was distinguished by a ces- 
sation of the strifes which sprang from the 
war, by a large reduction of the National 
debt, and by a settlement of the difficulties 
with England which had grown out of the 
depredations committed by privateers fit- 
ted out in England during the war. This 
last settlement was made by the famous 
" Geneva arbitration," which saved to this 
Government $1 5,000,000, but, more than all, 
prevented a war with England. "Let us 
have peace," was Grant's motto. And this 
is the most appropriate place to remark 
that above all Presidents whom this Gov- 
ernment has ever had. General Grant was 
the most non-partisan. He regarded the 
Executive office as purely and exclusively 
executive of the laws of Congress, irrespect- 
ive of " politics." But every great man 
has jealous, bitter enemies, a fact Grant 
was well aware of. 

After the close of his Presidency, our 
General made his famous tour around the 
world, already referred to, and soon after- 
ward, in company with Ferdinand Ward, 
of New York City, he engaged in banking 
and stock brokerage, which business was 
made disastrous to Grant, as well as to him- 
self, by his rascality. By this time an in- 
curable cancer of the tongue developed 
itself in the person of the afflicted ex- 
President, which ended his unrequited life 
July 23, 1885. Thus passed awa)' from 
earth's turmoils the man, the General, who 
was as truly the " father of this regenerated 
country" as was Washington the father of 
the infant nation. 



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102 PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 






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^^^!^^^^§^.UTHERFORD BIRCH- 
ARD HAYES, thenine- 
' teenth President of 
the United States, 
i877-'Si, was born in 
T^ V^_,'%3.. Delaware, Ohio, Oc- 
'i-'^.yr^ tober 4, 1822. His 
ancestry can be traced as far 
bacl{ as 12S0, when Hayes and 
Rutherford were two Scottish 
chieftains fighting side by side 
with Baliol, William Wallace 
and Robert Bruce. Both fami- 
lies belonged to the nobility, 
owned extensive estates and had 
cvj^rLjl a large following. The Hayes 
■^ family had, for a coat of-arms, a 
shield, barred and surmounted by a flying 
eagle. There was a circle of stars about 
the eagle and above the shield, while on a 
scroll underneath the shield was inscribed 
the motto, " Recte." Misfortune overtaking 
tiie family, George Ha3'es left Scotland in 
1680, and settled in Windsor, Connecticut. 
He was an industrious worker in wood and 
iron, having a mechanical genius and a cul- 
tivated mind. His son George was born 
in Win'tivnr and remained there during his 
lile. 

Daniel Hayes, son of the latter, married 
Sarah Lee, and lived in Simsbur}', Con- 




necticut. Ezekiel, son of Daniel, was born 
in 1724, and was a manufacturer of scythes 
at Bradford, Connecticut. Rutherford 
Hayes, son of Ezekiel and grandfather of 
President Hayes, was born in New Haven, 
in August, 1756. He was a famous black- 
smith and tavern-keeper. He immigrated to 
Vermont at an unknown date, settling in 
Brattleboro where he established a hotel. 
Here his son Rutherford, father of Presi- 
dent Hayes, was born. In September, 1813, 
he married Sophia Birchard, of Wilming- 
ton, Vermont, whose ancestry on the male 
side is traced back to 1635, to John Birch- 
ard, one of the principal founders of Nor- 
wich. Both of her grandfathers were 
soldiers in the Revolutionary war. 

The father of President Hayes was of a 
mechanical turn, and could mend a plow, 
knit a stocking, or do almost anything that 
he might undertake. He was prosperous 
in business, a member of the church and 
active in all the benevolent enterprises of 
the town. After the close of the war of 1 8 1 2 
he immigrated to Ohio, and purchased a 
farm near the present town of Delaware. 
His familv then consisted of In^- wifp aiid 
two children, flH^* ^n uipnan girl \v*^^°'^' ^'^ 
had adupttd. 

It was in 181 7 that the family arrived at 
Delaware. Instead of settling upon his 



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our Presidents was more universally ad- 
mired, reverenced and beloved than is Mrs. 
Ha3'es, and no one has done more than she 
to reflect honor upon American woman- 
iiood. 

In 1856 jVIr. Hayes was nominated to the 
office of Judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas, but declined to accept the nomina- 
tion. Two years later he was chosen to the 
office of City Solicitor. 

In 1 861, when the Rebellion broke out, 
he was eager to take up arms in the defense 
of his country. His military life was 
bright and illustrious. June 7, 1861, he 
was appointed Major of the Twenty-third 
Ohio Infantry. In July the regiment was 
sent to Virginia. October 15, 1861, he was 
made Lieutenant-Colonel of his regiment, 
and in August, 1862, was promoted Colonel 
of the Sevent3'-ninth Ohio Regiment, but 
refused to It ive his old comrades. He was 
wounded at the battle of South Mountain, 
and suffered severely, being unable to enter 
upon active duty for several weeks. No- 
vember 30, 1862, he rejoined his regiment as 
its Colonel, having been promoted Octo- 
ber 15. 

December 25, 1862, he was placed in com- 
mand of the Kanawha division, and for 
meritorious service in several battles was 
promoted Brigadier-General. He was also 
brcvetted Major-General for distinguislicd 



services in 1S64. He was wounded four 
times, and five horses were shot from 
under him. 

Mr. Hayes was first a Whig in politics, 
and was among the first to unite with the 
Free-Soil and Republican parties. In 1864 
he was elected to Congress from che Sec- 
ond Ohio District, which had always been 
Democratic, receiving a majority of 3,098. 
In 1 866 he was renominated for Congress 
and was a second time elected. In 1867 he 
was elected Governor over Allen G. Thur- 
man, the Democratic candidate, and re- 
elected in 1869. In 1874 Sardis Birchard 
died, leaving his large estate to General 
Hayes. 

In T876 he was nominated for the Presi- 
dency. His letter of acceptance excited 
the admiration of the whole country. He 
resigned the office of Governor and retired 
to his home in Fremont to await the result 
of the canvass. After a hard, long contest 
he was inaugurated March 5, 1877. His 
Presidency was characterized by compro- 
mises with all parties, in order to please as 
many as possible. The close of his Presi- 
dential term in 1881 was the close of his 
public life, and since then he has remained 
at his home in Fremont, Ohio, in Jefferso- 
nian retirement frcMii public notice, in strik- 
ing contrast with most others of the world's 
notables. 



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JAMES A. GAR FIELD. 




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^"^'AMES A. GARFIELD, 
twentieth President of 
the United States, i88i, 
was born November 19, 
I S3 1, in tlie wild woods 
o f Cuyahoga Count}-, 
Oliif). His parents were 
Abram and EUza (Ballou) 
GarfieUi, who were of New 
England ancestry. T ii e 
senior Garfield was an in- 
dustrious farmer, as the 
rapid improvements which 
appeared on his place at- 
tested. The residence was 
the familiar pioneer log cabin, 
and the housch(jld comprised the parents 
and their children — Mehetable, Thomas, 
Marv and James A. In May, 1833, the 
father died, and the care of- the house- 
hold consequentlv devolved u[ion young 
Thomas, to whom James was greatly in- 
debted for the educational and other ad- 
vantages he enjoyed. He now lives in 
Michigan, and the two sisters live in Sf)lon, 
Ohio, near their birthplace. 

As the subject of our sketch grew up, he, 
too, was industrious, both in mental and 
phvsical labor. He worked upon the farm, 
or at carpentering, or chopped wood, or at 
any other odd job that would aid in support 
of the family, and in the meantime made the 



most of his books. Ever afterward he was 
never ashamed of his humble origin, nor for- 
got the friends of his }'Outh. The poorest 
laborer was sure of his sympath}', and he 
always exhibited the character of a modest 
gentleman. 

Until he was about sixteen years of age, 
James's highest ambition was to be a lake 
captain. To this his mother was strongl)' 
opposed, but she finally consented to his 
going to Cleveland to carry out his long- 
cherished design, with the understanding, 
however, that he should try to obtain some 
other kind of emplf)3-ment. He walked all 
the way to Cleveland, and this was his first 
visit to the cit}'. After making many ap- 
plications for work, including labor on 
board a lake vessel, but all in vain, he 
finalU' engaged as a driver for his cousin, 
Amos Letcher, on the Ohio & Pennsyl- 
vania Canal. In a short time, however, he 
quit this and returned home. He then at- 
tended the seminary at Chester for about 
three years, and next he entered Hiram In- 
stitute, a school started in 1850 by the 
Disciples of Christ, of which church he was 
a member. In order to pay his way he 
assumed the duties of janitor, and at times 
taught school. He soon completed the cur- 
riculum there, and then entered Williams 
College, at which he graduated in 1856, 
taking one of the highest honors of his class, 



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Afterward he returned to Hiram as Presi- 
dent. In his youthful and therefore zealous 
piety, he exercised his talents occasionally 
as a preacher of the Gospel. He was a 
man of strong moral and religious convic- 
tions, and as soon as he began to look into 
politics, he saw innumerable points that 
coidd be improved. He also studied law, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1859. 
November 11, 1858, Mr. Garfield married 
Miss Lucretia Rudolph, who ever after- 
ward proved a worthy consort in all the 
stages of her husband's career. They had 
seven children, five of whom are still living. 

It was in 1859 that Garfield made his 
first political speeches, in Hiram and the 
neighboring villages, and three 3'ears later 
he began to speak at county mass-meetings, 
being received everywhere with popular 
favor. He was elected to the State Senate 
this 3'ear, taking his seat in Janiiar}', i860. 

On the breaking out of the war of the 
Rebellion in 1861, Mr. Garfield resolved to 
fight as he had talked, and accordingly he 
enlisted to defend the old flag, receiving 
his commission as Lieutenant-Colonel of the 
Fortv-second Regiment of the Ohio Volun- 
teer Infantry, August 14, that year. He 
was immediately thrown into active service, 
and before he had ever seen a gun fired in 
action he was placed in command of four 
regiments of infantry and eight companies 
of cavalry, charged with the work of driv- 
ing the Confederates, headed by Humphrey 
Marshall, from his native State, Kentucky. 
This task was speedily accomplished, al- 
though against great odds. On account of 
his success. President Lincoln commissioned 
him Brigadier-General, Januaiy 11, 1862; 
and, as he had been the youngest man in 
the Ohio Senate two 3-ears before, so now 
he was the youngest General in the arm}'. 
He was with General Buell's army at Shi- 
loh, also in its operations around Corinth 
and its march through Alabama. Next, he 
was detailed as a member of the ereneral 



court-martial for the trial of General Fitz- 
John Porter, and then ordered to report to 
General Rosecians, when he was assigned 
to the position of Chief of Staff. His mili- 
tary history closed with his brilliant ser- 
vices at Chickamauga, where he won the 
stars of Major-General. 

In the fall of 1S62, without any effort on 
his part, he was elected as a Representative 
to Congress, from that section of Ohio 
which had been represented for sixty years 
mainly by two men — Elisha Whittlesey and 
Joshua R. Giddings. Again, he was the 
youngest member of that body, and con- 
tinued there by successive re-elections, as 
Representative or Senator, until he was 
elected President in 1880. During his life 
in Congress he compiled and published by 
his speeches, there and elsewhere, more 
information on the issues of the day, espe- 
cially on one side, than an_v other member. 

June 8, 18S0, at the National Republican 
Convention held in Chicago, General Gar- 
field was nominated for the Presidency, in 
preference to the old war-horses, Blaine 
and Grant; and although many of the Re- 
publican party felt sore over the failure of 
their respective, heroes to obtain the nomi- 
nation, General Garfield was elected by a 
fair popular majority. He was duly in- 
augurated, but on July 2 following, before 
he had fairl}- got staited in his administra- 
tion, he was fatally shot by a half-demented 
assassin. After ver}- painful and protracted 
suffering, he died September 19, 18S1, la- 
mented by all the American people. Never 
before in the history of this country' had 
anything occurred which so nearly froze 
the blood of the Nation, for the moment, as 
the awful act of Guiteau, the murderer. 
He was dulv tried, convicted and put to 
death on the gallows. 

The lamented Garfield was succeeded by 
the Vice-President, General Arthur, who 
seemed to endeavor to carry out the policy 
inaugurated by his predecessor. 






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^MIESTER ALLEN 
f, ARTHUR, the twen- 
L:i^ ty-first Chief Execu- 
a fa tive of this growing 
S|f3 republic, iSSi-'5, was 
born in Franklin 
County, Vermont, 
October 5, 1830, the eldest of a 
family of two sons and five 
P^yJi^'^ daughters. His father. Rev. 
W.&1^ Dr. William Arthur, a Baptist 
clergyman, immigrated to this 
country from County Antrim, 
Ireland, in his eighteenth year, 
and died in 1875, in Newton- 
ville, near Alban\-, New York, 
aftei" serving many years as a successful 
minister. Chester A. was educated at that 
old, conservative institution, Union Col- 
lege, at Schenectady, New York, where he 
excelled in all his studies. He graduated 
there, with honor, and then struck out in 
life for himself by teaching school for about 
two vears in his native State. 

At the expiration of that time young 
Arthur, with S500 in his purse, went to the 
city of New York and entered the law office 
of ex-Judge E. D. Culver as a student. In 
due time he was admitted to the bar, when 
he formed a partnership with his intimate 




friend and old room-mate, Henry D. Gar- 
diner, with the intention of practicing law 
at some point in the West ; but after spend- 
ing about three months in the Westen, 
States, in search of an eligible place, they 
returned to New York City, leased a room, 
exhibited a sign of their business and al- 
most immediately enjoyed a paying patron- 
age. 

At this stage of his career Mr. Arthur's 
business prospects were so encouraging 
that he concluded to take a wife, and ac- 
cordingly he married the daughter of Lieu- 
tenant Herndon, of the United States Navy, 
who had been lost at sea. To the widow 
of the latter Congress voted a gold medal, 
in recognition of the Lieutenant's bravery 
during the occasion in which he lost his 
life. Mrs. Artnur died shortly before her 
husband's nomination to the Vice-Presi- 
dency, leaving two children. 

Mr. Arthur obtained considerable celeb- 
rity as an attorne}' in the famous Lemmon 
suit, which was brought to recover posses- 
sion of eight slaves, who had been declared 
free b}- the Superior Court of New York 
City. The noted Charles O'Conor, who 
was nominated by the " Straight Demo- 
crats" in 1872 for the United States Presi- 
dency, was retained by Jonathan G. Lem- 






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PRESIDENTS OF THE UN /TED STATES. 




mon, of Virginia, to recover the negroes, 
but he lost the suit. In this case, however, 
Mr. Arthur was assisted by William M. 
Evarts, now United States Senator. Soon 
afterward, in 1856, a respectable colored 
woman was ejected from a street car in 
New York City. Mr. Arthur sued the car 
company in her behalf and recovered S500 
damages. Immediately afterward all the 
car companies in the city issued orders to 
their employes to admit colored persons 
upon their cars. 

Mr. Arthur's political doctrines, as well 
as his practice as a lawyer, raised him to 
prominence in the party of freedom ; and 
accordingly he was sent as a delegate to 
the first National Republican Convention. 
Soon afterward he was appointed Judge 
Advocate for the Second Brigade of the 
State of New York, and then Engineer-in- 
Chief on Governor Morgan's staff. In 1S61, 
the first year of the war, he was made In- 
spector-General, and next, Quartermaster- 
General, in both which ofTices he rendered 
great service to the Government. After 
the close of Governor Morgan's term he 
resumed the practice of law, forming first a 
partnership with Mr. Ransom, and subse- 
quently adding Mr. Phelps to the firm. 
Each of these gentlemen were able lawyers. 

November 21, 1872, General Arthur was 
appointed Collector of the Port of New 
York by President Grant, and he held the 
ofifice until July 20, 1878. 

The next event of prominence in General 
Arthur's career was his nomination to the 
Vice-Presidency of the United States, under 
the influence of Roscoe Conkling, at the 
National Republican Convention held at 
Chicago in June, 1880, when James A. Gar- 
field was placed at the head of the ticket. 
Both the convention and the campaign that 
followed were noisy and exciting. The 
friends of Grant, constituting nearly half 



the convention, were e.vceedingly persist- 
ent, and were sorely disappointed over 
their defeat. At the head of the Demo- 
cratic ticket was placed a very strong and 
popular man ; yet Garfield and Arthur were 
elected by a respectable plurality of the 
popular vote. The 4th of March following, 
these gentlemen were accordingly inaugu- 
rated ; but within four months the assassin's 
bullet made a fatal wound in the person of 
General Garfield, whose life terminated 
September 19, 1881, when General Arthur, 
ex officio, was obliged to take the chief 
reins of government. Some misgivings 
were entertained by many in this event, as 
Mr. Arthur was thought to represent espe 
cially the Grant and Conkling wing of the 
Republican party ; but President Arthur 
had both the ability and the good sense to 
allay all fears, and he gave the restless, 
critical American people as good an ad- 
ministration as they had ever been blessed 
with. Neither selfishness nor low parti- 
sanism ever characterized any feature of 
his public service. He ever maintained a 
high sense of every individual right as well 
as of the Nation's honor. Indeed, he stood 
so high that his successor. President Cleve- 
land, though of opposing politics, expressed 
a wish in his inaugural address that he 
could only satisfy the people with as good 
an administration. 

But the day of civil service reform had 
come in' so far, and the corresponding re- 
action against "third-termism" had en- 
croached so far even upon "second-term" 
service, that the Republican party saw fit 
in 1884 to nominate another man for Presi- 
dent. Only by this means was General 
Arthur's tenure of office closed at Wash- 
ingtun. On his retirement from the Presi- 
dency, ilarcli, iNSy, he engaged in the 
practice of law at iS'ew York City, where be 
died KoveiTil.er 18, ISSG. 



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r.llOVER CLEVELAND. 



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""'" "^^"^ ROVER C L E V E - 
LAND, the twenty- 
second President of the 
United States, 18S5— , 
was born in Caldwell, 
Essex County, New 
Jersey, March iS, 
lW^*''^r^P\ ^^37- The house in which he 
■A'Sz-Sixj'S' was born, a small two-story 
wooden building, is still stand- 
ing. It was the parsonage of 
the Presbyterian church, of 
w h i c h his father, Richard 
Cleveland, at the time was 
pastor. The family is of New 
England origin, and for two centuries has 
contributed to the professions and to busi- 
ness, men who have i-eilccted honor on the 
name. Aaron Cleveland, Grover Cleve- 
land's great-great-grandfather, was born in 
Massachusetts, but subsequently moved to 
Phila<icl[)hia, where he became an intimate 
friend of Benjamin Franklin, at whose 
house he died. He left a large family of 
children, who in time married and settled 
in different parts of New England. A 
grandson was one of the small American 
force that fought the British at Bvmker 
Hill. He served with gallantry through- 
out the Revolution and was honorably 
discharged at its close as a Lieutenant in 
the Continental army. Another grandson, 
William Cleveland (a son of a second Aaron 



Cleveland, who was distinguished as a 
writer and member of the Connecticut 
Legislature) was Grover Cleveland's grand- 
father. William Cleveland became a silver- 
smith in Norwich, Connecticut. He ac- 
quired by industry some property and sent 
his son, Richard Cleveland, the father of 
Grover Cleveland, to Yale College, where 
he graduated in 1 824. During a year spent 
in teaching at Baltimore, i\Lar3-land, after 
graduation, he met and fell in love with a 
Miss Annie Neale, daughter of a wealthy 
Baltimore book publisher, of Irish birth. 
He was earning his own way in the world 
at the time and was unable to marr}'; but 
in three years he completed a course of 
preparation for the ministry, secured a 
church in Windham, Connecticut, and 
married Annie Neale. Subsequently he 
moved to Portsmouth, Virginia, where lie 
■preached for nearly two years, when lie 
was summoned t<3 Caldwell, New Jersey, 
where was born Grover Cleveland. 

When he was three years old the family 
moyed to Fayetteville, Onondaga County, 
New Vork. Here Grover Cleveland liyed 
until he was fourteen years old, the rugged, 
healthful life of a country boy. His frank, 
generous manner made him a favorite 
among his companions, and their respect 
was won by the good qualities in the germ 
which his manhood developed. He at- 
tended the district school of the villaire and 









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I'RBSWENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



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was for a short time at the academy. His 
lather, however, believed that boys should 
be taught to labor at an early age, and be- 
fore he had completed the course of study 
at the academy he began to work in the 
village store at S50 for the first year, and the 
promise of $100 for the second year. His 
work was well done and the promised in- 
crease of pay was granted the second year. 
Meanwhile his father and family had 
moved to Clinton, the seat of Hamilton 
College, where his father acted as agent to 
the Presbyterian Board of Home Missions, 
preaching in the churches of the vicinity. 
Hither Grover came at his father's request 
shortly after the beginning of his second 
year at the Fayetteville store, and resumed 
his studies at the Clinton Academy. After 
three years spent in this town, the Rev. 
Richard Cleveland was called to the vil- 
lage church of Holland Patent. He had 
preached here only a month when he was 
suddenly stricken down and died without 
an hour's warning. The death of the father 
left the family in straitened circumstances, 
as Richard Cleveland had spent all his 
salary of $i,oop per year, which was not 
required for the necessary expenses of liv- 
ing, upon the education of his children, of 
whom there were nine, Grover being the 
fifth. Grover was hoping to enter Hamil- 
t(jn College, but the death of his father 
made it necessary for him to earn his own 
livelihood. For the first year (i853-'4) he 
actetl as assistant teacher and bookkeeper in 
the Institution for the Blind in New York 
City, of which the late Augustus Schell was 
for many years the patron. In the winter 
of 1S54 he returned to Holland Patent 
where the generous people of that place, 
Fayetteville and Clinton, had purchased a 
home for his mother, and in the following 
spring, borrowing $25, he set out for the 
West to earn his living. 

Reaching Buffalo he paid a hasty visit to 
an uncle, Lewis F. Allen, a well-known 



stock farmer, living at Black Rock, a few 
miles distant. He communicated his plans 
to Mr. Allen, who discouraged the idea of 
the West, and finally induced the enthusi- 
astic boy of seventeen to remain with him 
and help him prepare a catalogue of blooded 
short-horn cattle, known as " Allen's Amer- 
ican Herd Book," a publication familiar to 
all breeders of cattle. In August, 1855, he 
entered the law office of Rogers, Bowen 
& Rogers, at Buffalo, and after serving a 
few months without pay, was paid $4 a 
week — an amount barely sufficient to meet 
the necessarv expenses of his board in the 
family of a fellow-student in Buffalo, with 
whom he took lodgings. Life at this time 
with Grover Cleveland was a stern battle, 
with the world. He took his breakfast by 
candle-light with the drovers, and went at 
once to the office where the whole day was 
spent in work and study. Usually he re- 
turned again at night to resume reading 
which had been interrupted by the duties 
of the day. Gradually his employers came 
to recognize the ability, trustworthiness 
and capacity for hard work in their young 
employe, and by the time he was admitted 
to the bar (1859) ^^ stood high in their con- 
fidence. A year later he was made confi- 
dential and managing clerk, and in the 
course of three years more his salary had 
been raised to $1,000. In 1863 he was ap- 
pointed assistant district attorney of Erie 
County by the district attorney, the Hon. 
C. C. Torrance. 

Since his first vote had been cast in 1858 
he had been a staunch Democrat, and until 
he was chosen Governor he always made 
it his duty, rain or shine, to stand at the 
polls and give out ballots to Democratic 
voters. During the first year of his term 
as assistant district attorney, the Democrats 
desired especially to carry the Board of Su- 
pervisors. The old Second Ward in which 
he lived was Republican- ordinarily by 250 
majority, but at the urgent request of the 



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party Grover Cleveland consented to be 
the Democratic candidate for Supervisor, 
and came within thirteen votes of an elec- 
tion. The three years spent in the district 
attorney's office were devoted to assiduous 
labor and the extension of his professional 
attainments. He then formed a law part- 
nership with the late Isaac V. Vanderpoel, 
ex-State Treasurer, under the firm name 
of Vanderpoel & Cleveland. Here the bulk 
of the work devolved on Cleveland's shoul- 
ders, and he soon won a good standing at 
the bar of Erie County. In 1869 Mr. 
Cleveland formed a partnership with ex- 
Senator A. P. Laning and e.x-Assistant 
United States District Attorney Oscar Fol- 
som, luider the firm name of Laning, Cleve- 
land & Folsom. During these years he 
began to earn a moderate professional in- 
come; but the larger portion of it was sent 
to his mother and sisters at Holland Patent 
to whose support he had contributed ever 
since i860. He served as sheriff of Erie 
County, i870-'4, and then resumed the 
practice of law, associating himself with the 
Hon. Lymau K. Bass and Wilson S. Bissell. 



The firm was strong and popular, and soon 
commanded a large and lucrative practice. 
Ill health forced the retirement of Mr. Bass 
in 1879, and the firm became Cleveland & 
Bissell. In 1881 Mr. George J. Sicard was 
added to the firm. 

In the autumn election of 1881 he was 
elected mayor of Buffalo by a majority of 
over 3,500 — the largest majority ever given 
a candidate for mayor — and the Democratic 
city ticket was successful, although the 
Republicans carried Buffalo by over 1,000 
majority for their State ticket. Grover 
Cleveland's administration as mayor fully 
justified the confidence reposed in him by 
the people of Buffalo, evidenced by the 
great vote he received. 

The Democratic State Convention met 
at Syracuse, September 22, 18S2, and nomi. 
nated Grover Cleveland for Governor 
on the third ballot and Cleveland was 
elected by 192,000 majority. In the fall of 
1 884 he was elected President of the United 
States by about 1,000 popular majcjrity, 
in New York State, and he was accordingly 
inaugurated the 4th of March following. 



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HISTORY OF INDIANA. 






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HISTORY OF IXDIAXA. 



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History of Indiana. 






PREHISTORIC RACES. 






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^.%^,CIEXTISTS liave as- 
cribed to the MoTiiid 
Builders varied origins, 
and though their diver- 
gence of o])inion may for 
a time seem incompati- 
"' ' hie with a thorough in- 
vestigation of the suliject, and 
^^^ tend to a confusion of ideas, no 

*^'^tr^ doubt whatever can exist as to 
the comparative accuracy of 
conclusions arrived at by some 
of them. That this continent is 
co-existent with tlie world of 
the ancients cannot be ques- 
tioned; the results of all scien- 
tific investigations, down to the present time, 
combine to establish the fact of the co-exist- 
ence of the two continents Historians and 
learned men differ as to the origin of the first 
iidiabitants of the KcwWorhl; the general 
conclusions arrived at are, that the ancients 
came from the east by way of Behring's 
Strait, subsequent to the confusion of tongues 
and dispersion of the inhabitants at the time 
of the construction of tlie Tower of Babel, 
1757 A. .V. The ancient mounds and earth- 
works scattered over the entire continent tend 



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to confirm the theory that the Mound Build- 
ers were people who had been engaged in 
raising elevations prior to their advent npon 
this continent. They possessed religions 
orders corresponding, in external sliow, at 
least, with the Essenes or Theraputs) of the 
pre-Christian and Christian epochs, and to 
the reformed Theraputa', or monks, of the 
present. 

Every memento of their coming and their 
stay wliich has descended to us is an evidence 
of their civilized condition. 

The free copper found within the tumuli, 
the open veins of the Superior and Iron 
Mountain copper mines, with all the imple- 
ments of ancient mining, such as ladders, 
levers, chisels and hammer-heads, discovered 
by the explorers of the Northwest and tlie 
Mississip])i, are conclusive i)roofs that these 
prehistoric people were highly civilized, and 
that many flourishing colonies were spread 
throughout the Mississijipi Valley. 

Within the last few years great advances 
have been made toward the discovery of an- 
tiquities, whether pertaining to remains of 
organic or inorganic nature. Together with 
many small but telling relics of the early 
inhabitants of the country, the fossils of pre- 



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ni.sTOlO' OF INDIANA. 



historic animals liavo licen iineartlied from 
end to end of this continent, many of ■\vliicli 
are remains of enormous animals long since 
extinct. Mai\y writers who have devoted 
their lives to the investigation of the origin 
of the ancient inliabitants of this continent, 
and from whence they came, have iixed a 
period of a second immigration a few centu- 
ries prior to the Cliristian era, and, unlike 
the first expeditions, to have traversed North- 
eastern Asia to its Arctic confines, then east 
to I'ehring's Stiait, thus reaching the Kew 
World by the same route as the first immi- 
grants, and, after many years' residence in the 
North, puslicd southward and commingled 
with and soon acquired the characteristics of 
the descendants of the first colonists. 

The Esquimaux of North America, the 
Samoieds of Asia and the Laplanders of Eu- 
rope are supjiosed to be of the same family; 
and this supposition is strengthened by the 
affinity which exists in tlieir languages. The 
researches of Humboldt have traced the Mex- 
icans to the vicinity of Behring's Strait; 
whence it is conjectured that they, as well as 
the Peruvians and other tribes, came origi- 
nally from Asia. 

Since tliis theory is accepted by most anti- 
quarians, there is every reason to believe that 
from the discovery of wliat may be termed 
an overland route to what was then consid- 
ered an eastern extension of that country, 
that the immigration increased annually until 
the new continent became densely populated. 
The ruins of ancient cities discovered in Mex- 
ico and South America prove that this conti- 
nent was densely populated by a civilized peo- 
ple prior to the Indian or tlie Caucasian races. 

The valley of the Mississippi, and indeed 
the country from the trap rocks of the Great 
Lakes southeast to the Gulf and southwest 
to Mexico, abound in monumental evidences 
of a race of people much further advanced 



in civilization than the ]\Iontezunuis of the 
sixteentli century. 

The remains of walls and fortifications 
found in Ohio and Lidiana, the cartli-works 
of Vincennes and throughout the valley of 
the Wabash, the mounds scattered over the 
several Southern States, also in Illinois, Min- 
nesota and Wisconsin, are evidences of the 
advancement of the people of that day toward 
a comparative knowledge of man and cosmol- 
ogy. At the mouth of Fourteen-mile Creek, 
in Clark County, Indiana, there stands one of 
these old monuments, known as the " Stone 
Fort." It is an unmistakaljle heir-luum of a 
gi-eat and ancient people, and must have 
formed one of their most important posts. 

In Posey County, on the Wabash, ten miles 
from its junction with the Oiiio Iliver, is 
another remarkaljle evidence of the great 
numbers once inhabiting tiuxt country. This 
is known as the " Pone Bank," on account of 
the human bones continually washed out from 
the river bank. This process of unearthing 
the ancient remains has been going on since 
the remembrance of the earliest white settler, 
and various relics of artistic wares are found 
in that portion of Indiana. Another great 
circular earth-work is found near New Wash- 
ington, and a stone fort near the village of 
Deputy. 

Vigo, Jasjicr, Sullivan, Switzerland and 
Ohio counties can boast of a liberal endow- 
ment of works of antiquity, and the entire 
State of Indiana abounds with numerous rel- 
ics of the handiwork of the extinct race. 
Many of the ancient and curiously devised 
implements and wares are to be seen in the 
State ^Museum at Indianajiolis. 

Tiie origin of the red men, or American 
Indians, is a subject which interests all read- 
ers. It is a favorite with the ethnologist, 
even as it is one of dee]) concern to the ordi- 
nary reader. 




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lusroiiv or Indiana. 



Tlie (liirtrL'iicc ol' djiiiiiou cuiiccriiing our 
alioriyiiials, among autlujrs wlio lia\'e made a 
protbinul ptiuly of races, is botli curious and 
iuterestiug. 

Elumenbach treats tliein as a distinct vari- 
ety of the luiinaii family. l)v. Latluun ranks 
tliera among the Monrrolidiv>. Morton, Nott 

DO ' 

and Glidden claim for tlie red men a distinct 
origin. 

Dr. Uobert Brown, our latest authority, 
gives them as of Asiatic origin, which is cer- 
tainly well sustained by all evidence ■which 
has thus far been discovered bearing upon the 
question. 

Dill'erences arising among communities 
produced dissensions, which tended to form 
factions and triljes, which culminated in wars 
and gradual descent frona a state of civiliza- 
tion to tliat of barbarism. 

The art of hunting not only supplied the 
Indian with food, but, like tliat of war, M'as 
a means of gratifying his love of distinction. 
The male children, as soon as they acquired 
EiitHcient age and strength, were furnished 
witli a liow and arrow, and taught to shoot 
birds and other small game. 

Their general councils were composed of 
the chiefs and old men. AVhen in council 
they usually sat in concentric circles around 
the speaker, and each individual, notwith- 
standing the liery passions that raidded within, 
]ireserved an exterior as immoval)le as if cast 
in bronze. Laws governing their councils 
were as strictly enforced and observed as are 
those of similar bodies among modern civil- 
ized and enlightened races. 

The dwellings of the Indians were of the 
simplest and rudest character. 

The dwellings of the chiefs were some- 
times more spacious, and constructed with 
greater care, but of the same materials, which 
were generally the barks of trees. 

Though jirincipally depending on hunting 



for food, th(;y also cultixated small j)atches of 
corn, tlie lalior being jierfornu'd by the women, 
their condition being little better than sla\'es. 

KXl'LOKATIONS ]iV THE WmTKS. 

The State of Indiana is bounded on the 
east by the meridian line which forms also 
the western boundary of Ohio, extending due 
north from the mouth of the Great Miami 
liiver; on the south by the Ohio Iliver, from 
the mouth of the Great Miami to the mouth 
of the "Wabash; on the west by a line drawn 
along the middle of the "Wabash liiver from 
its mouth to a point whore a due north line 
from the town of Yincennes M'ould last touch 
the shore of said rivci', and thence directly 
north to Lake Michigan; and on the north 
by said lake and an east and west line ten 
miles north of the extreme south end of the 
lake, and extending to its intersection with 
the aforesaid meridian, the west boundary of 
Ohio. These boundaries include an area of 
33,809 square miles, lying between 37° 47' 
and -11° 50' north latitude, and between 7° 
45' and 11° 1' west longitude from "Wash- 
ington. 

After the discovery of America by Colum- 
bus, in 1492, more than 150 years passed 
before any portion of the territory now com- 
prised within the above limits was explored 
by Europeans. Colonies M'ere established by 
rival European powers in Florida, A'irginia 
and Nova Scotia, but not until l()70-'72 did 
the first white travelers venture as far into 
the Northwest as Indiana or Lake Michigan. 

These explorers were Frenchmen by the 
names of Claude Allouez and Claude Dablon, 
who probably visited that portion of the State 
north of the Kankakee liiver. In the fol- 
lowing year M. Joliet, an agent of the French 
Colonial Government, accompanied by James 
Marquette, a Catholic missionary, made an 
exploring trij) as far westward as the Missis 



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sippi, the banks of wliicli tliey reached June 
17, 1673. 

In 1082 La Salle explored the AVest, but 
it is nut known that he entered the region 
now embraced within the State of Indiana, 
lie took formal possession of all the Missis- 
sippi region in the name of Louis, King of 
France, and called the country Louisiana, 
which included what is now the State of 
Indiana. At the same time Spain claimed 
all the country in the region of the Gulf of 
Mexico, thus the two countries became com- 
petitors for the extension of domain, and 
soon caused the several Indian tribes (who 
were actually in possession of the country) 
to take sides, and a continual state of warfare 
was the result. The Great ]\Liami Confed- 
eracy of Indians, the Miamls proper (an- 
ciently the Twightwees), being the eastern 
and most powerful tribe, their country ex- 
tended from the Scioto Eiver west to the 
Illinois Itiver. These Indians were frequently 
visited by fur traders and missionaries from 
both Catholic and Protestant creeds. The 
Five Nations, so called, were tribes farther 
east, and not connected with Indiana history. 
The first settlement made by the white 
man in the territory of the present State of 
Indiana Mas on the bank of the river then 
J<nown as the Ouabache, the name given it 
by the Frencli explorers, now the river 
AVaba^h. Francis Morgan de Vinsenne, who 
served in a military regiment (French) in 
Canada as early as 1720, and on the lakes in 
1725, first made his advent at Vincennes, 
possibly as early as 1732. Ilecords show 
hiin there January 5, 1735 He was killed 
in a war with the Chickasaw Indians in 1736. 
The town which he founded bore his name, 
Vinsenne, until 17-1'J, wiien it was changed 
to Vincennes. 

Post Vincennes was certainly occupied 
prior to the date given by Vinsenne, as a 



letter from Father Marest, dated at Kas- 
kaskia, November 9, 1712, reads as follows; 
" The French have established a fort upon tlie 
river Wabash, and M'aiit a missionary, and 
Father Merinet has been sent to them." Mer- 
niet was therefore the first preacher of Chris- 
tianity stationed in tliis part of the world. 
Vincennes lias ever been a stronghold of 
Catholicism. Contemporaneous with the 
church at A^'inceniies was a missionary work 
among the Ouiatcnons, near the mouth of 
the AVea River, which was of but short 
duration. 

NATIONAL I'OLICIKS. 

The wars in which France and England 
were engaged, from 1080 to 1097, retarded 
the growth of the colonies of those nations 
in North America. The English, jealous of 
the French, resorted to all available means to 
extend their dciinain westward, the Frencli 
equally active in pressing their claims east- 
ward and south. Both sides succeeded in 
securing savage allies, and for many years 
the pioneer settlers were harrassed and crnelly 
murdered by the Indians who were serving 
the purposes of one or the other contending 
nations. 

France continued her efibrt to connect 
Canada with the Gulf of Mexico by a chain 
of trading-posts and colonies, which increased 
the jealousy of England and laid the founda- 
tion for the French and Indian war. 

This war was terminated in 1763 by a 
treaty at Paris, by which France ceded to 
Great Britain all of North America east of 
the Mississippi except New Orleans and the 
island on -wliicli it is situated. 

The British policy, after getting entire 
control of the Indiana territory, Mas still 
unfavorable to its growth in population. In 
1765 the total number of French families 
within the limits of the Northwestern Terri- 



HISTORY OF INDIANA. 



127 



toiy did not exceed GUO. Tliese were in 
settlements about Detroit, along the river 
AVabash, and the neighborhood of Fort Char- 
tres on the Mississijuii. 

Of these families, eighty-five resided at 
Post Vincennes, fourteen at Fort Ouiatenon, 
on the "Wabash, and ten at the conHuence of 
the St. Mary and St. Joseph rivers. 

The colonial policy of the British Govern- 
ment opposed any measures which might 
strengthen settlements in the interior of this 
country, lest they become self-supporting and 
independent of the mother countr}'. 

Thomas Jetierson, the shrewd statesman 
and then Governor of Virginia, saw from the 
iirst that actual occupation of western lands 
was the only way to keep them out of the 
hands of foreigners and Indians. 

lie accordingly engaged a scientific corps, 
and sent them to the Mississippi to ascertain 
the point on that river intersected by latitude 
30° 30', the southern limit of the State, and 
to measure its distance to the Ohio. lie 
entrusted the military operations in that 
quarter to General Clark, with instructions 
to select a strong position near the point 
named, and erect a fort, and garrison the same, 
for protecting the settlers, and to extend his 
conquests northward to the lakes. Conform- 
ing to instructions, General Clark erected 
"Fort Jefierson," on the Mississippi, a few 
miles above the southern limit. 

The result of tliese operations was the 
addition to ^'irglnia of the vast Northwestern 
Territiiry. The simple fact that a chain of 
forts was established by tlio Anierieans in 
this vast region, convinced the British Com- 
missioners that wo had entitled ourselves to 
the land. 

During this time other minor events were 
transpiring outside the territory in question, 
which subsequently promoted the early set- 
tling of portions of Indiana. 



On February 11, 17S1, a wagoner named 
Irvin Ilinton M'as sent from Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, to Ilarrodsburg for a load of provi- 
sions. 

Two young men, Iiichard Rue and George 
Ilolnian, aged respectively nineteen and six- 
teen years, accompanied Ilinton as guards. 
"When eight miles from Louisville they were 
surprised and captured by the renegade white 
man, Simon Girty, and twelve Indian war- 
riors. They were marched hurriedly for 
three days through deep snow, when they 
reached the Indian village of Wa-proc-ca- 
nat-ta. Ilinton was burned at the stake. Hue 
and Ilolman were adupted in the tribe, and 
remained three years, when Hue made his 
escape, and Ilolman, about the same time, 
was ransomed by relatives in Kentucky. The 
two men Mere the first white men to settle 
in AVayne County, Indiana, where they lived 
to a good old age, and died at their homes 
two miles south of Ilichmoiul. 



EXPEDITIONS OF 



c'(n.()\i;L 

CLAKK. 



GKoIiGE ROGERS 



In the spring of 177G Colonel George 
Rogers Clark, a native of Virginia, who 
resided in Kentucky at the above date, con- 
ceived a plan of opening up antl more rapidly 
settling the great Korthwest. That portion 
of tlie West called Kentucky was occupied by 
Henderson & Co., Avlio pretended to own the 
land, and held it at a high price. Colonel 
Clark wished to test the validity of their 
claim, and adjust the government of tlio 
country so as to encourage immigration. Ho 
accordingly called a meeting of the citizens 
at Ilarrodstown, to assemble June 6, 1770, 
and consider the claims of the company, and 
consult with reference to the interest of the 
country. 

The meeting was held on the day ap- 
pointed, and delegates elected to confer with 



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12S IIIsrOItY OF INDTAXA. 



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tlic State of Virginia as to tlic propriety of 
attaching the new country as a county to 
that State. 

Many causes prevented a consummation 
of tliis object until 1778. Virginia was 
favorable to the enterprise, but would not 
take action as a State; but Governor Henry 
and a few other Virginia gentlemen assisted 
Colonel Clark all tliey could. Accordingly 
Clark organized his expedition. He took in 
stores at Pittsburg and "Wheeling, and pro- 
ceeded down the Ohio to the " falls," where 
he constructed some light fortifications. 

At this time Post Vineennes comprised 
about 400 militia, and it was a daring under- 
taking for Colonel Clark, witli his small force, 
to go up against it and Kaskaskia, as he had 
planned. Some of his men, becoming alarmed 
at the situation, deserted him. 

lie conducted himself so as to gain the 
sympath}' of the French, and through them 
the Indians to some extent, as both these 
people wei-e very bitter against the British, 
who had possession of the lake region. 

From the nature of the situation Clark 
concluded to tak^ Kaskaslda first, which he 
did, and succeeded by kindness in winning 
them to Ills standard. It was difficult, how- 
ever, for him to induce the French to accept 
the Continental paper in payment for provi- 
sions. Colonel Vigo, a Frenchman who had 
a trading establishment there, came to tlie 
rescue, and prevailed upon the people to ac- 
cept the paper. Colonel Vigo sold coffee at 
?^1 a pound, and other necessaries of life at 
an equally reasonable price. 

Tlie post at Vineennes, defended by Fort 
Sackvilie, was tlie next aiul all-important 
position to possess. Fatlier Gibault, of Kas- 
kaskia, who also liad charge of the church 
at Vineennes, being friendly to the Amer- 
icans, used his inllnence with the peo]ile of 
tlie garrison, and won them to Clark's stand- 



ard. They took the oatli of allegiance to 
Virginia, and became citizens of the United 
States. Colonel Clark liere concluded treaties 
with the several Indian tribes, and placed 
Captain Leonard Helm, an American, iu 
command of Vineennes. On learning the 
successful termination of Clark's expedition, 
the General Assembly of Virginia declared 
all the settlers west of the Ohio organized 
into a county of that State, to be known as 
" Illinois '• County; but before the provisions 
of the law could be made effective, Henry 
Hamilton, the British Lieutenant-Governor 
of Detroit, collected an army of thirty regu- 
lars, fifty Frcncli volunteers and 400 Indians, 
and moved upon and took Post Vineennes in 
December, 1778. Captain Helm and a man 
named Henry were the only Americans at 
the fort, tlie only members of the garrison. 
Captain Helm was taken prisoner, and tlie 
French disarmed. 

Colonel Clark was at Kaskaskia wlien he 
learned of the capture of Vineennes, ami de- 
termined to retake the place. He gathered 
together what force he could (170 men), and 
on the 5th of February started from Kas- 
kaskia, and crossed Wie river of that name. 
The weather was wet, and the lowlands cov- 
ered with water. He had to resort to shoot- 
ing such game as chanced to be found to 
furnish provisions, and use all the ingenuity 
and skill he possessed to nerve his little force 
to press forward. He waded tlie water and 
shared all the hardships and privations with 
his men. They reached the Little "Wabash 
on the 13th. The river was overflowing the 
lowlands from recent rains. Two days were 
here consumed in crossing the stream. The 
succeeding days tliey inarched through water 
much of the time, reaching the Big Waliash 
on the night of the 17th. The 18tli and 
19th were consumed trying to cross the river. 
I-'imdly canoes were constructed, and tlie 



i:^'i<^3^?^i^-j^!Si^iiP'?:j^mf!a^tiB:i:<^ii^sfSi^^ 



in STORY OF INDIANA. 



129 



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entire force crossed the main stream, but to 
liiul the lowlamls under water and ' consider- 
able ice formed from recent cold, llis men 
mutinied and refused to })rocced. All the 
persuasions of Clark had no effect upon the 
lialf-starved, and half-frozen, soldiers. 

In one comjjany was a small drummer Ijoy, 
and also a Sei-gcant who stood six feet two 
inches in socks, and stout and athletic. lie 
was devoted to Clark. The (general mounted 
the little drummer on the slioidders of the 
Sergeant, and ordered him to plnnye into the 
water, half-frozen as it was. lie did so, the 
little boy 1)eating the charge from his lofty 
position, while Clark, sword in liaud, fol- 
lowed them, giving the command as he threw 
aside the lloating ice, '• Forward.'' The effect 
was electrical; the men hoisted their gnns 
above their heads, and plunged into the water 
and followed their determined leader. On 
arriving within two miles of the fort, General 
Clark halted liis little band, and sent in a 
letter demanding a surrender, to which he 
received no reply. lie ne.xt ordered Lieu- 
tenant Bayley with fourteen men to advance 
ami fire on the fort, while the main body 
moved in another direction and took posses- 
sion of the strongest jjortion of the town. 
Clark then demanded Hamilton's surrender 
immediately or he would be treated as a 
murderer. Hamilton made reply, iiidignantl}' 
refusing to surrender. After one hour more 
of fighting, Hamilton proposed a truce of 
three days. Clark's reply was, that nothing 
Would l)e accepted but an unconditional sur- 
render of Hamilton and the garrison. In 
less than an hour Clark dictated the terms of 
surrender, Februai-y 2-1:, 1779. 

Of this expedition, of its results, of its 
importance, as well as of the skill and bravery 
of those engaged in it, a volume would not 
suffice for the details. 

This expedition and its gigantic results 



has never been surpassed, if equalled, in 
modern times, when we consider that by 
it the whole territory now included in tlie 
three great States of Indiana, Illinois and 
Michigan was added to tlie Union, and so 
admitted by the British Commissioners to 
the treaty of peace in 1783. But for the 
results of this expedition, our western bound- 
ary would have Ijcen the Ohio instead of the 
Mississippi. When we consider the vast 
area of territory embracing 2,000,000 people, 
the human mind is lost in the contemplation 
of its eftects; and wo can but wonder that a 
force of 170 men, the whole number of Clark's 
troops, should by this single action liave pro- 
duced such important residts. 

General Clark reinstated Captain Helm in 
command of Vincennes, with instructions tu 
subdue the marauding Indians, which he did, 
and soon comparative quiet was restored on 
Indiana soil. 

The wliole credit of this conquest belongs 
to General Clark and Colonel I'rancis Vigo. 
The latter was a Sardinian by birth. He 
served for a time in the Spanish army, but 
left the army and engaged in trading with the 
Indians, and attained to great popularity and 
influence among them, as well as making 
considerable money. He devoted his time, 
influence aiid means in aid of the Clark 
expedition and the cause of the United States. 

G"Vei:x:«7;nt of thk northwest. 

Colonel John Todd, Lieutenant for the 
Count}' of Illinois, visited Vincennes and 
Kaskaskia in the spring of 1779, and organ- 
ized temporary civil government. He also 
proceeded to adjust the disputed land claim. 
With this view he organized a court of civil 
and crimiiuil jurisdiction at Vincennes. This 
court was com]K>sed of several magistrates, 
and presided over by Colonel J. M. P. Legras, 
who was then commander of the post. 






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130 



insTOIlY OF IN 1)1 AX A. 



Tills court, from precedent, began to grant 
lands to the French and American inhabitants. 
Forty-eight thousand acr^G had been disposed 
of in tills manner up to 1787, wlien the jjrac- 
tice was ]iroliibitcd l)y General Ilarmar. 

In the fall of 1780 La Balma, a French- 
man, made an attempt to capture the British 
garrison of Detroit by leading an expedition 
against it from Kaskaslcia. 

He marched with his small force to the 
British trading-post at the head of the !^[au- 
niee, ■where Fort Wayne now stands, plun- 
dered the British traders and Indians, and 
retired. While in camp on his retreat, he 
Avas attacked by a band of Mlamis; a number 
of his men were killed, and the expedition 
was ruined. In this manner war continued 
between the Americans and their enemies 
until 1783, when the treaty of Paris was 
tfoncdnded, resulting in the establishment of 
the independence of the United States. 

Up to this time the Indiana territory be- 
longed by conquest to the State of Virginia. 

In January, 1783, the General Assembly 
of that State resolved to cede the territory to 
the United States. The proposition made by 
Virginia was accepted by the United States, 
and tlie transfer confirmed early in 1784. The 
conditions of the transfer of the territory 
1o the United States were, that the State of 
Virginia should be reimbursed for all expen- 
ditures incurred in exploring and protecting 
settlers in the territory, that 150,000 acres 
of land should lie granted to General Clark 
and his band of soldiers, who conquered the 
French and British and annexed the terri- 
tory to Virginia. 

After the above deed of cession had been 
accepted by Congress, in the spring of 1784, 
the matter of the future government of the 
territory was referred to a committee con- 
sisting of ^Messrs. Jefferson, of Virginia; 
Chase, of Maryland; and Howell, of Khode 



Island; which committee, among other 
things, reported an ordinance prohibiting 
slavery in the territory after 1800, but this 
article of the ordinance was rejected. 

The ordinance of 1787 has an interesting 
history. Considerable controversy lias been 
indulged in as to who is entitled to the credit 
of framing it. This undoubtedly belongs 
to Nathan Dane; and to Rufus King and 
Timothy Pickering belongs the credit for 
the clause prohibiting slavery contained in it. 

Mr. Jeli'erson had vainly tried to secure a 
system of government for the Northwestern 
Territory excluding slavery therefrom. The 
South invariably voted him down. 

In July, 1787, an organizing act without 
the slavery clause was pending, which was 
supposed would secure its passage. Congress 
was in session in New "i'ork. July 5 Ilev. 
Manasseh Cutler, of Massachusetts, came to 
New York in the interest of some land spec- 
ulators in the Northwest Territory. He was 
a graduate of Yale; had taken the degrees of 
the three learned professions — medicine, law 
and divinity. As a scientist, in America 
his name stood second only to that of 
Franklin. 

He was a courtly gentleman of the old 
style. He readily ingratiated himself into 
the confidence of Southern leaders. He 
wished to purchase 5,500,000 acres of land 
in the new Territory. Jefferson and his ad- 
ministration desired to make a record on the 
reduction of the public debt, and this was a 
rare opportunity. Massachusetts representa- 
tives could not vote against Cutler's scheme, 
as many of their constituents were interested 
in the measure; Southern members were 
already committed. Thus Cutler held the 
key to the situation, and dictated terms, 
which were as follows: 

1. The exclusion of slavery from the 
Territory forever. 






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HISTORY OF INDIANA. 






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2. Providing oue-tliirty-sixth of all tlic 
land fur public schools. 

3. ]]e it forever remembered that this 
compact declares that reliyioii, morality and 
knowledge being necessary to good govern- 
ment and the happiness of mankind, schools 
and the means of education shall always be 
encouraged. 

Dr. Cutler planted himself on this plat- 
form, and would not yield, stating that 
unless they could procure the lands under 
desirable conditions and surroundings, they 
did not want it. July 13, 1787, the bill 
became a law. Thus the great States of 
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, ^Michigan and "Wis- 
consin — a vast empire — were consecrated to 
freedom, intelligence and morality. 

Octolier 5, 1787, Congress elected General 
Arthur St. Clair Governor of the Kortli- 
wcbtcrn Teri'itory. lie assumed liis otHcial 
duties at ^larietta, and at once proceeded to 
treat with the Indians, and organize a Terri- 
torial government. lie first organized a 
court at ^Marietta, consisting of three judges, 
Iiimself being president of the court. 

The Governor with the judges then visited 
Kaskaskia, for the purpose of organizing civil 
government, having previously instructed Ma- 
jor llaintramck, at Yincennes, to present the 
policy of the new administration to the sev- 
eral Indian tribes, and ascertain their feelings 
in regard to acquiescing in the new order of 
things. They received the messenger with 
ciiol iudift'erence, which, when reported to the 
(Governor, convinced him that nothing short 
(if military force would command compliance 
with the civil law. lie at once proceeded to 
Fort Washington, to consult with General 
Ilarmar as to future action. In tlie niean- 
time he intrusted to the Secretary of the 
Territory', Winthrop Sargent, tlie settlement 
of the disputed land claims, who found it an 
arduous task, and in liis report states tliat 



lie found the records had been so falsiiied. 
Vouchers destroyed, and other crookedness, 
as to make it impossible to get at a just 
settlement, which proves that the abuse of 
public trust is not a very recent discovery. 

The (ieneral Court in 1790, acting Gov- 
ernor Sargent presiding, passed stringent 
laws prohibiting the sale of intoxicating Vn.^- 
uoi's to Indians, and also to soldiers within 
ten miles of any military post; also prohib- 
iting any games of chance within the Terri- 
tory. 

"Winthrojj Sargent's administration Avas 
highly eulogized by the citizens. He had 
succeeded in settling the disputed land ques- 
tion satisfactory to all concerned, had estab- 
lished in good order the machinery of a free, 
wise and good government. In the same ad- 
dress ^lajor Ilamtramck also received a fair 
share of praise for his judicious management 
of public affairs. 

The consultation of Governor St. Clair and 
General Ilarmar, at Fort "Washington, ended 
in deciding to j-aise a large military force 
and thoroughly chastise the Indians about 
the liead of the "Wabash. Accordingly Vir- 
ginia and Pennsylvania were called upon for 
troops, and 1,800 men were mustered at Fort 
Steuben, and, M'itli the garrison of that fort, 
joined the forces at Yincennes under Major 
Ilamtramck, Avho proceeded up the "Wabash 
as far as the Yermillion Piver, destroying 
villages, but without finding an enemy to 
oppose him. 

General Ilarmar, with 1,450 men, marched 
from Fort "Washington to the ^laumee, and 
began punishing the Indians, but with little 
success. The expedition marched from Fort 
AV'^ashington September 30, and returned to 
that place Kovember 4, liaving lost during 
the expedition 1S3 men killed and thirty- 
one wounded. 

General Ilarinar's defeat alarmed as well 



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132 



HISTORY OF ISUIAXA. 



as aroused the ci':izeiis in the frontier counties 
of Virginia. They reasoned tliat the sav.- 
age.s' success would invite an invasion of 
frontier Virginia. 

A memorial to this effect was presented 
before the State General Assembly. This 
memorial caused the Legislature to authorize 
the Governor to use such moans as he might 
deem necessary for defensive operations. 

The Governor called upon the western 
counties of Virginia for militia; at the same 
time Charles Scott was appointed Brigadier- 
General of the Kentucky militia, now pre- 
paring for defending their frontier. 

The proceedings of the Virginia Legisla- 
ture reaching Congress, that body at once 
constituted a board of Mar consisting of five 
men. March 9, 1791, General Knox, Secre- 
tary of "War, wrote to General Scott recom- 
mending an expedition against the Lidians 
on the Wabash. 

General Scott moved into the Lidian set- 
tlements, reached the AVabash; the Lidians 
principally fled before his forces. lie de- 
stroyed many villages, killed thirty-two war- 
riors and took flfty-eight prisoners; the 
wretched condition of his horses prevented 
further pursuit. 

March 3, 1791, Congress invested Govern- 
or St. Clair with the command of 3,000 troops, 
and he M-as instructed by the Secretary of 
War to jiiarch to the Miami village and es- 
tablish a strong and ]iermanent military post 
there. The Secretary of War gave him strict 
orders, that after establishing a permanent 
base at the Miami village, he seek the enemy 
Mith all his available force and make them 
feel the eft'ects of the superiority of the wliites. 

Previous to marching a strong force to the 
]\[iami town, Governor St. Clair, June 25, 
1791, authorized General Wilkinson, with 
500 mounted men, to move against the Li- 
dians on the AVabash. General Wilkinson 



reported the results of this expedition as fol- 
lows: "I have destroyed the chief town of 
the Ouiatenon nation, and have made prisoners 
of the sons and sisters of the King; I have 
burned a Kiekapoo village, and cut down 
400 acres of corn in the milk." 

KXI'KDITIOXS OF ST. CLAIR AND WAYNE. 

The Indians had been seriously damaged 
by Ilarmar, Scott and AVilkinson, but were 
far from subdued. The British along the 
Canada frontier gave them much encourage- 
ment to continue the warfare. 

In Sej^tember, 1791, St. Clair moved from 
Fort Washington with a force of 2,000 men 
and a number of pieces of artillery, and No- 
vember 3 lie reached the headwaters of the 
Wabash, where Fort Recovery was afterward 
erected, and here the army camped, consist- 
ing of l,-400 effective men; on the morning 
of November 4 the army advanced and en- 
gaged the Indians 1,200 strong. 

The Americans were disastrously defeated, 
liaving thirty-nine oflicers and 539 men 
killed and missing, twenty-two officers and 
232 men wounded. Several pieces of artil- 
lery and all their provisions fell into the 
hands of the Indians; estimated loss in ])rop- 
erty, $32,000. 

Although no particular blame was attached 
to Governor St. Clair for the loss in his ex- 
pedition, yet he resigned the office of Major- 
General, and was succeeded by Anthony 
AVayne, a distinguished officer of the Revo- 
lutionary war. 

General Wayne organized his forces at 
Pittsburg, and in October, 1793, moved west- 
ward from tliat point at the head of an army 
of 3,600 men. 

He proposed an offensive campaign. The 
Indians, instigated by the British, insisted 
that the Ohio River should be the boundary 
between their hinds and the lands of the 



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niSTORY OF IX DIANA. 



133 



United States, and were sure tliey cnukl 
maintain that line. 

General Scott, of Kentucky, joined General 
Wayne with 1,000 mounted men. Tliey 
erected Fort Defiance at the mciuth of tlio 
Auglaize Elver. August 15 the army 
moved toward the British fort, near the 
rapids of the Mauinee, wliere, on the morn- 
ing of August 20, they defeated 2,000 
Indians and British almost Avitliin range of 
the guns of the fort. Aliout UOO American 
troops were actually engaged. The Ameri- 
cans lost thirty-three killed and 100 wound- 
ed, the enemy's loss being more tlian double. 
Wayne remained in tliat region for tliree 
days, destroying villages and crops, then re- 
turned to Fort Defiance, destroying every- 
tliing pertaining to Indian subsistence for 
many miles on each side of liis route. 

September 14, 179-1, General Wayne 
moved his army in the direction of tiie de- 
serted Jliami villages at the continence of 
St. Jdscpli's an<l St. Mary's rivers, arriving 
October 17, and on the following day the 
site of Fort Wayne was selected. The fort was 
completed Kovember 22, and garrisoned by 
a strong detachmeiit of infantry and artillery 
commanded by Colonel John F. Ilamtramck, 
who gave to the new fort the name of Fort 
Wayne. General Wayne soon after con- 
cluded a treat}' of peace witli the Indians at 
(ireenville, in 1705. 

ORGANIZATION OF INDIANA TERRITORY. 

On the final success of American arms and 
diplomacy in 179G, the principal town within 
the present State of Indiana was Vincennes, 
which comprised fifty houses, presenting a 
tlirifty appearance. Besides Vincennes there 
was a small settlement near where Law- 
reiiceburg now stands. Tliere were several 
other small settlements and trading-posts in 
the present limit's of Indiana, and the num- 



ber of ci\ili/.ed inhabitants in the Territory 
was estimated at •1,875. 

The Territory of Indiana was organized by 
act of Congress, May 7, 1800, the material 
features of the ordinance of 1787 remaining 
in force, and the inhabitants were invested 
with all the rights and advantages granted 
and secured by that ordinance. 

The seat of government was fixed at Yin- 
cennes. ^May 13, ISOO, William Henry Har- 
rison, a native of Virginia, was appointed 
Governor, and John Gibson, of Bennsylvania, 
Secretary of the Territory; soon after AVill- 
iam Clark, Henry Vanderljurg and John 
Griffin Avere apjiointed Territorial Judges. 

Governor Harrison arrived at Vincennes 
January 10, 1801, when he called together 
the Judges of the Territory to pass such laws 
as were deemed necessary for tlic new govern- 
ment. This session began ^larch 3, 1801. 

From this time to 1810, the principal sub- 
jects which attracted the citizens of Indiana 
were land speculations, tlie (|uestion of Afri- 
can slavery, and the hostile views and pro- 
ceedings of the Shawnee chief, Tccumseh, 
and his brother, the Prophet. 

Up to this time the Sixth Article of the 
ordinance of 1787, prohibiting slavery, had 
been somewhat neglected, and many French 
settlers still held slaves; many slaves M-ere 
removed to the slave-holding States. A ses- 
sion of delegates, elected by a popular vote, 
petitioned Congress to revoke the Sixth Ar- 
ticle of the ordinance of 1787. Congress 
failed to grant this, as well as many other 
similar petitions. Wlien it appeared from the 
resultof a popular vote in the Territoiy,that a 
majority of 138 were in favor of organizing a 
General Assemlily, Governor Harrison, Sep- 
tember 11, 1801, issued a proclamation, and 
called for an election to be held in the several 
counties of the Territory, January 3, 1805, 
to choose members of a House of Bepresent- 



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ativcs, wlio slioukl meet at Yinceiines Feb- 
ruary 1. The delegates were clectetl, and 
assoinljlcd at tlic ])lape and date named, and 
pci-t'ectcd plans for Territorial organization, 
and selected five men -wlio sliould constitute 
the Legislative Council of the Territory. 

The first General Assembly, or Legisla- 
ture, met at Yincenncs July 29, 1805. The 
members constituting this body were Jesse 
13. Thomas, of Dearltorn County; Davis 
Floyd, of Clark County, Eenjamin Park 
and John Johnson, of Knox County; Shad- 
rach Bond and AVilliain Biggs, of St. Clair 
County, and George Fisher, of llandolph 
County. 

July 30 the Governor delivered his first 
message to the Council and House of Repre- 
sentatives. Benjamin Park, who came from 
jS'ew Jersey to Lidiana in 1801, was the first 
delegate elected to Congress. 

The ^Vc!itel•n Sun was the first newspaper 
pnblished in Indiana, first issued at Yin- 
connes in 1803, by Elihu Stout, of Kentucky, 
and first called the Luliana Gazette, and 
changed to the Sun July 4, 1801. 

The total population of Indiana in 1810 
was 2-1,520. There were 83 grist-mills, 14 
saw-mills, 3 horse-mills, 18 tanneries, 28 
distilleries, 3 powder-mills, 1,256 looms, 
1,350 spinning wheels. Yaluc of woolen, 
cotton, hemp and flaxen cloths, $159,052; of 
cotton and woolen sp\in in mills, $150,000; 
of nails, 30,000 pounds, 84,000; of leather, 
tanned, $9,300; of distillery products, 35,950 
gallons, $1G,230 ; of gunpowder, 3, GOO pounds, 
$1,800; of wine from grapes, 9G barrels, 
$G,000, and 50,000 pounds of maple sugar. 
During the year 1810, a commission was 
engaged straightening out the confused con- 
dition of land titles. In making their report 
they, as did the previous commissioners, 
made complaints of frauds and abuses by 
officials connected with the land department. 



The Territory of Indiana was divided in 
1809, when the Territory of Illinois was 
erected, to comprise all that part of Indiana 
Territory west of the Wabash Piver, anil a 
direct line drawn from that river and Yin- 
cenncs due north to the territorial line be- 
tween the United States and Canada. For 
the first half century from the settlement of 
Yincennes the ])lace grew slowly. 

The commandants and priests governed 
with almost absolute power; the whites lived 
in peace with the Indians. 

The necessaries of life were easily pro- 
cured; there was nothing to stimulate enei'gy 
or progress. In such a state of society there 
was no demand for learning and science; few 
could read, and still fewer could write; they 
were void of public spirit, enterprise or 
ingenuity. 

GOVERNOR HARRISON AND THE INDIANS. 

Immediately after the organization of In- 
diana Territory, Governor Harrison directed 
his attention to settling the land claims of 
Indians. He entered into several treaties 
with the Indians, whereby, at the close of 
1805, the United States had obtained 4G,000 
square miles of territory. 

In 1807 the Territorial statutes were re- 
vised. Under the new code, the crimes of 
treason, murder, arson and horse-stealing 
were made punishable liy death; burglary, 
robbery, hog-stealingaiul bigamy were punish- 
able by whipjiing, fine and imprisonment. 

The Governor, in his message to the Leg- 
islature in 180G, expressed himself as believ- 
ing the peace then existing between the 
whites and the Indians was permanent. At 
the same time he alluded to the probability 
of a disturbance in consecpience of enforce- 
ment of law as applying to the Indians. 

Although treaties with the Indians defined 
boundary lines, the whites did not strictly 




oliserve tlieiii. They trespassed on the In- 
dian's reserved rights, and tliusgave liini just 
grounds for his continuous complaints from 
isOo to 1810. Tliis agitated feeling of the 
Indians was utilized by La\v-le-\vas-i-kaw, a 
brother of Tecumscli, of the Shawnee tribe. 

lie was a warrior of great renown, as well 
as an orator, and had an uidimitcd influence 
among the several Indian tribes. 

lie used all means to concentrate tlie com- 
bined Indian strength to annihilate the 
whites. Governor Harrison, realiijing the 
progress tliis Prophet was making toward 
opening hostilities, and hoping by timely 
action to check the movement, he, early in 
1808, sent a speech to the Shawnees in 
which lie advised the people against being 
led into danger and destruction by the 
Prophet, and informed them that warlike 
demonstrations must be stopped. 

Governor Harrison, Tecumseh and the 
Prophet held several meetings, the Governor 
charging them as being friends of the British, 
they denying the charge and protesting 
against the further appropriation of their 
lands. 

Governor Harrison, in direct opposition to 
their protest, continued to extinguish Indian 
titles to lands. 

AVhilc the Indians M-erc combining to pre- 
vent any further transfer of lands to the 
whites, the Pritish were actively preparing 
to use them in a M"ar against the Americans. 

Governor Harrison, anticipating their de- 
signs, invited Tecumseh to a council, to talk 
over grievances and try to settle all ditt'er- 
ences without resort to arms. 

Accordingly, August 12, 1810, Tecumseh, 
M'ith seventy warriors, marched to the Gov- 
ernor's house, where several days were spent 
without any satisfactory settlement. On the 
20th, Tecumseh delivered his celebrated 
speech, in which he gave the Governor the 



alternative of returning their lands or meet- 
ing them in battle. In his message to the 
Legislature of 1810, the ({overnor reviewed 
the dangerous attitude of the Indians toward 
the whites as expressed by Tecumseh. In 
the same message he also urged the establish- 
ment of a system of education. 

In 1811 the Pritish agent for Indian af- 
fairs adopted measures calculated to secure 
the Indians' support in a war which at this 
time seemed inevitable. 

In the meantime Govcrnoi' Harrison used 
all available means to counteract the Pritish 
influence, as well as that of Tecumseh and the 
Prophet, M'ith the Indians, but without suc- 
cess. 

The threatening storm continued to gather, 
receiving increased force from various causes, 
until the Governor, seeing war was tlie last 
resort, and near at hand, ordei-ed Colonel 
Boyd's regiment to move to A^incennes, where 
a military organization was about ready to 
take the field. 

The Ciovernor, at the head of this expedi- 
tion, marched from Vincenncs September 21), 
and encamped October 3 near where Terre 
Haute now stands. Here they comjileted a 
fort on the 28th, which was called Fort Har- 
rison. Tills fort M'as garrisoned with a small 
number of men under Lieutenant ililler. 

Governor Harrison, with the nuiin army, 
910 men, marched to the Prophet's town on 
the 29th, where a conference was opened, and 
the Indians plead for time to treat for peace; 
the Governor gave them until the following 
day, and retired a short distanct from the 
town and encamped for the night. The In- 
dians seemed only to be parleying in order to 
gain advantage, and on the morning of Nu- 
vember 7, at 4 o'clock^ made a desperate 
charge into the camp of the Americans. For 
a few moments all seemed lost, but the trocips 
soon realizing their desperate situation, fought 






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HISTORY OF INDIANA. 






with a determination equal to savages. Tlie 
Americans soon routed their savai^'e assail- 
ants, and tiius ended the famous battle of 
Tippecanoe, victoriously to the wliites and 
honorably to General Harrison. 

The Americans lost in this battle thirty- 
seven killed and twenty-tive mortally wound- 
ed, and 12G wounded. The Indians left 
thirty-eight killed on the field, and their faith 
in tlie Prophet was in a measure destroyed. 
November 8 General Harrison destroyed the 
Prophet's town, and reached Yincennes on 
the ISth, wliere the army was disbanded. 

The battle of Tippecanoe secured peace 
but for a short time. The British continued 
their aggression until the United States de- 
clared war against them. Tecumseh had fled 
to Canada, and now, in concert with the Bi'it- 
ish, began inroads upon the Americans. 
Events of minor importance m'C pass here. 

In Se])tember, 1812, Indians assembled in 
large numbers in the vicinity of Fort AVayne 
with the purpose of capturing the garrison. 
Chief Logan, of the Shawnee tribe, a friend 
to the whites, succeeded in entering the fort 
and informing the little garrison that General 
Harrison was coming with a force to their 
relief, which nerved them to resist the furious 
savage assaults. 

September C, 1812, Harrison moved with 
liis army to the relief of Port Wayne. Sep- 
tember 1) Harrison, with 3,500 men, camped 
near tlie fort, expecting a battle the follow- 
ing day.. The morning of the 10th disclosed 
the fact that the enemy had learned of the 
strong force approaching and had disappeared 
during the previous night. 

Simultaneous with the attack on Fort 
"Wayne the Indians also besieged Port Har- 
rison, tlien commanded by Zuchariah Taylor, 
and succeeded in destroying considerable 
pro])erty and getting away with all the stock. 
About the same time tlie Indians massacred 



7W,iT»iKii 



the inliaJjitaiits at the settlement of Pidgeon 
Poost. 

The war now being thoroughly inaugurated, 
lK)Stilities continued throughout the iS'orth- 
west between the Americans and the British 
and Indians combined. Engagements of 
greater or less magnitude were of almost 
daily occurrence, the victory alternating in 
the favor of one or the other ^jarty. 

The Americans, however, continued to hold 
the territory and gradually press back the 
enemy and diminish his numbers as well as 
his zeal. 

Thus the war of 1812 was waged until De- 
cember 24, 1811, when a treaty of peace was 
signed by England and the United States at 
Ghent, which terminated hostile operations 
in America and restored to the Indiana set- 
tlers peace and quiet, and opened the gates 
for immigration to the groat and growing 
State of Indiana as well as the entire North- 
west. 

CIVIL M.vn'KRS. 

The Legislature, in session at Yincennes 
February, 1813, changed the seat of govern- 
ment from Yincennes to Corydon. The same 
year Thomas Posey, who M'as at the time 
Senator in Congress, was appointed Governor 
of Indiana to succeed Governor Harrison, 
who was then commanding the army in the 
field. The Legislature passed several laws 
necessary for the welfare of the settlement, 
and General Harrison being generally suc- 
cessful in forcing the Indians back from the 
settlements, hope revived, and the tide of im- 
migration began again to flow. The total 
white population in Indiana in 1815 was es- 
timated at 03,897. 

GENERAL KEVIEW. 

Notwithstanding the many rights and 
privileges bestowed upon the people of the 
Nortliwestern Territory by the ordinance of 



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lirslOUY OF INDIANA. 



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IT^^T, tlicy WLTc tar t'n>m t'lijnyin^ a full 
i'unii of republican ^ovcTiniiciit. A frcoliuld 
estate of 500 acres of laml was a necessary 
(|iialiticatioii o liecoinc a ineinber of tlie 
Loyislative Coimcil. JCach iiicinber of the 
House of Representatives was required to 
]iossesrt 200 acres of land; no man could cast 
a \-ote for a llepresentative but such as owned 
iifty acres of land. The Governor was in- 
vested with the power of apjiointing all civil 
and inilitia officers, judges, clerks, county 
treasurers, county surveyors, justices, etc. 
lie Jiad the power to apportion the Ifepre- 
sentativcs in the several counties, ;uid to 
convene and adjourn the Legislature at his 
pleasure, and prevent the passage of any 
Territorial law. 

In 1809 Congress passed an act empow- 
ering the people of Indiana to elect their 
Legislative CouTicil by a popular vote; and 
in 1811 Congress a))olished ])ro]>crty qualifi- 
cation of voters, and declared that every 'ivcc 
white male person who had attained to the 
age of twenty-one years, and paid a tax, 
should exercise the right of franchise. 

The Legislature of iSl-i divided the Terri- 
tory into three judicial circuits. The Gov- 
ernor was empowered to appoint judges for 
the same, Avhose compensation should be 
$700 per annum. 

The same year charters were granted to 
two banking institutions, the Farmers' and 
ilechanics' Bank of Madison, authorized cap- 
ital s750,000, and the Dank of Vincennes, 
8500,000. 

t)Kf;ANIZATI()X OF THK STATE. 

The last Territorial Legislature convened 
at Corydon, in December, 1815, and on the 
llth adopted a memorial to Congress, pray- 
ing for authority to adopt a Constitution 
and State Government. Jlr. Jennings, their 
delegate in Congress, iaid the matter before 



that body on the 2Sth; and April 10, ISlC), 
the I'resident approved the bill creating the 
State of Indiana. The following May an 
election was held for a Constitutional Con- 
vention, which met at Corydon June 15 to 
29, John Jennings i)residing, and William 
Hendricks acting as secretary. 

The people's representatives in this As- 
sembly were an able body of men, and the 
Constitution which they formed f(jr Indiana 
in 1816 was not inferior to any of the State 
constitutions which were existing at that 
time. 

The first State election was held the first 
Monday of August, 181(5, and Jonathan Jen- 
nings was elected Governor, Christopher 
Harrison, Lieutenant-Governor, and William 
Hendricks was elected Representative to 
Congress. 

The first State (Tcncral Assembly began 
its session at Corydon November 4, 1816, 
John Paul, Chairman of the Senate, and Isaac 
r>lackford. Speaker of the House of Rej^re- 
scntativcs. 

This session of the Legislature elected 
James Noble and Waller Taylor to the Sen- 
ate of the United States; Robert A. Kew, 
Secretary of State; W. II. Lilley, Auditor of 
State, and Uaniel C. Lane, State Treasurer. 

The close of the war, 181-4, was followed 
by a rush of iinniigi-ants to the new State, 
and in 1820 the State ha<l more than doubled 
her population, having at this time 117,178. 
The period of 1825-'30 was a prosperous 
time for the young State. Immigration con- 
tinued rapid, the crops were generally good, 
and the hopes of the peojile raised higher 
than ever before. 

In 1830 there still remained two tribes of 
Indians in the State of Indiana, the Miamis 
and Pottawatomies, who were much opposed 
to being removed to new territoiy. This 
state of discontent was used by the celebrated 






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IIISTOny OF INDIANA. 






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■warrior, Elack Ilawk, who, hoping to receive 
aid from tlie discontented trilier;, invaded 
tlie frontier and shmghtered many citizens. 
Others lied from tlieir lioines, and a vast 
amonnt of property was destroyed, Tiiis 
was in 1832, and known as tlie IJhick Hawk 
war. 

Tiie invaders were driven away with severe 
pnnislinient, and wlien those who liad aban- 
doned their homes M'ero assured that tlie 
^lianiis and Pottawatoniics did not contem- 
plate joining tlie invaders, they returned and 
again resumed their peaceful avocations. 

In lS37-'38 all the Indians were removed 
from Indiana Avest of the Mississippi, and 
very soon land speculations assumed large 
proportions in the new State, and many ruses 
were resorted to to bull and bear the market. 
Among other means taken to keep out specu- 
lators M-as a regular Indian scare in 1S27. 

In 1814: a society of Germans, under Fred- 
erick Ilappe, founded a settlement on the 
"Wabash, fifty miles above its mouth, and 
gave to the place the name of Harmony. In 
1825 the town and a large quantity of land 
adjoining was purchased by Hobcrt Owen, 
father of David Dale Owen, State Geologist, 
and of Robert Dale Owen, of later notoriety, 
llobert Owen was a radical philosopher, from 
Scotland. 

INDIANA IN TIIE MEXICAN WAR. 

During the administration of Governor 
Whitcomb, the United States became in- 
volved in the war with ]\Icxico, and Indiana 
was prompt in furnishing her quota of vol- 
unteers. 

The soldiers of Indiana who served in this 
war were five regiments, First, Second, 
Third, Fourth and Fifth. Companies of the 
the three first-named regiments served at 
times with Illinois, New York and South 
Carolina troops, under General Shields. The 



other regiments, under Colonels Gorman and 
Lane, were under other commanders. 

The Fourth liegiment comprised ten com- 
panies; was organized at Jcfl'ersonviUe, by 
Captain K. C. (Jatliii, June 5, 1817, and 
elected Major Willis A. Gorman, of the 
Third Regiment, Colonel; Ebenezer Dii 
mont, Lieutenant-Colonel, and W. McCoy, 
j\Iajor. They were assigned to General Lane's 
command, and the Indiana volunteers made 
themselves a bright record in all the engage- 
ments of the Mexican war. 

INDIANA IN TlllO WAU KOIi TIIE UNION. 

The fall of Fort Sumter was a signal for an 
uprising of the people, and the State of In- 
diana was among the first to respond to the 
summons of patriotism, and register itself on 
the national roll of honor. Fortunately for the 
State, she liad a Governor at the time whose 
patriotism has seldom been equaled and 
never excelled. Governor Oliver P. Morton, 
immediately upon receiving the news of the 
fall of Sumter, telegraphed President Lin- 
coln, tendering 10,000 troops in the name oi 
Indiana for the defense of tlie Union. 

The President had called upon the several 
States for 75,000 men; Indiana's quota was 
4,683. Governor Morton called for six regi- 
ments April 16, 1861. 

Hon. Lewis Wallace, of Mexican war fame, 
was appointed Adjutant-General; Colonel 
Thomas Morris, Quartermaster-General, and 
Isaiah Mansur, of Indianapolis, Commissary- 
General. Governor IMortou was also busy ar- 
ranging the finances of the State, so as to 
support the military necessities, and to his 
appeals to public patriotism he received 
prompt and liberal financial aid from public- 
spirited citizens throughout the State. On 
the 20th of April Major T. J. Wood arrived 
from Washington, to receive the troops then 
organized, and Governor Morton telegraphed 



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lIIaTOUr OF INDIANA. 



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the President that he could phice six regi- 
ments of infantry at the disposal uf tlie (iu\'- 
ernniciit; failing to receive a reply, the 
Legislature, then in extra session, April 27, 
organized six new regiments for three 
months service, and notwithstanding the 
fact that the first six regiments were already 
mustered into the general service, were 
known as "The First Brigade Indiana A'^ol- 
iinteers," and were numbered respectively: 
Sixth Regiment, Colonel T. T. Crittenden; 
Seventh Kcgiment, Colonel Ehenezer Du- 
mont; Eighth Iiegiment, Colonel W. P. Een- 
ton; Ninth Iiegiment, Colonel It. II. ^lilroy; 
Tenth Iiegiment, Colonel T. T. Peynolds; 
Eleventh Regiment, Colonel Lewis AVallace. 
The idea of these numbers Mas suggested 
from the f ict that Indiana was represented 
in the Mexican war by one brigade of five 
regiments, and to observe consecutiveness 
the regiments comprised in the iirst division 
of volunteers were thus numbered, and the 
entire force placed under the command of 
Erigadier-General T. A. Morris, with the 
following staft": John Love, Major; Cyrus 
C. Ilines, Aid-de-camp, and J. A. Stein, 
Assistant Adjutant-General. They rendered 
valuable service in the field, returned to In- 
dianapolis July 29, and the six regiments, 
with the surplus volunteers, iiuw formed a 
division of seven regiments. All organized 
for three years, between the 20th of August 
and 20tli of September, with the exception 
of the Twelfth, which was accc])ted for one 
year, under the command of Colonel John M. 
Wallace, and reorgaiiized ^lay, 18G2, for 
three years, under Colonel "W. II. Link. The 
Tliii'teenth Regiment, Colonel Jeremiah Sul- 
livan, was mustered into service in ISCI, 
and assigned to (ieneral ]\IcClellan's com- 
mand. 

The Fourteenth Regiment organized in 

1801, for one year, and reorganized soon 
11 



thereafter for three years, commanded by 
Colonel J\imball. 

The Fifteenth Regiment organized June 
14, 18G1, at La Fayette, under Colonel G. D. 
AV^agner. On the promotion of Colonel 
Wagner, Lieutenant-Colonel G. A. Wood be- 
came Colonel of the regiment in November, 
1802. 

The Sixteenth Regiment organized, under 
P. A. Ilackleman, of Richmond, for one 
year. Colonel Ilackleman was killed at the 
battle of luka. Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas 
J. Lucas succeeded to the command. The 
regiment was discharged in Washington, D. 
C, in May, 18G2; reorganized at Indianapo- 
lis May 27, 18G2, for three years, and par- 
ticipated in the active military operations 
until the close of the war. 

The Seventeenth Regiment was organized 
at Indianapolis June 12, 1801, under Colonel 
Ilascall, who was promoted to Brigadier- 
General in March, 18G2, when the command 
devolved on Lieutenant-Colonel John T. 
Wilder. 

The Eighteenth Regiment was organized 
at Indianapolis, under Colonel Thomas Pat- 
terson, August 10, 1801, and served under 
General Pope. 

The Nineteenth Regiment organized at 
Indianapolis July 29, 1801, and was assigned 
to the Army of the Potomac, under C<jlonel 
Solomon ]\Ieriilith. It was consolidated with 
the Twentieth Regiment Octol)er, 1864, under 
Colonel William Orr, formerly its Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel. 

The Twentieth Regiment organized at La 
Fayette, for three years service, in July, 1861, 
and was principally engaged along the coast. 

The Twenty-first Regiment was organized, 
under Colonel I. ^\ . McMillan, July 24, 1861. 
This was the first regiment to enter New Or- 
leans, and made itself a lasting name by its 
various valuable services. 



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Tlic Twenty-second ]iegiineiit, uiiiler Va<\- 
oncl Jeil". C. iJiivis, joined (ieneral Fremont's 
('orj)S, !it St. Louis, on tlie ITtli of August, 
ISOl, and performed f^allant deeds under (len- 
cral Slierman in the South. 

Tlie Twenty-third Battalion was organized, 
under Cohinel W. L. Sanderson, at jVew Al- 
bany, July 29, 18G1. From its unfortunate 
marine experiences before Fort Henry to 
Bentonville it won unusual honors. 

Tlie Twenty-fourth Battalion was organ- 
ized, under Colonel Alvin V. Ilovey, at Viii- 
cennes, July 31, 1S61, and assigned to 
Fremont's command. 

The Twenty-fiftli Jlegiment was organized 
lit Evansville, for three years, under Colonel 
J. C. Veach, August 26, 1801, and was en- 
gaged in eighteen battles during its term. 

The Twenty-sixth Battalion was organized 
at Indianapolis, under W. M.AVheatlcy, Sep- 
tember 7, 1861, and served under Fremont, 
Grant, Heron and Smith. 

The Twenty-seventh llegiment, under Col- 
onel Silas Colgrove, joined (ieneral Banks 
September 15, 1801, and was with General 
Sherman on the famous march to the sea. 

The Twenty-eighth Ilegiment, or First 
Cavalry, was organized at Evansville August 
20, 1861, under Colonel Conrad Baker, and 
performed good service in the Virginias. 

The Twenty-ninth Battalion, of La Porte, 
under Colonel J. F. Miller, was organized in 
October, 1801, and was under IlousBeau, 
McCook, llosecrans and others. Colonel 
^liller was promoted to the raidv of Ih-ig- 
adier-General, and Lieutenant-Colonel D. il. 
Dunn succeeded to the command of the 
regiment. 

The Thirtieth Ilegiment, of Fort "Wayne, 
under Colonel Silas S. Bass, joined General 
Kousseau October 9, 1861. The Colonel re- 
ceived a mortal wound at Shiloh, and died 
a few days after. Lieutenant-Colonel J. B. 




Dodge succeeded to the command of the 
regiment. 

Tlie Thirty-first liegiment organized at 
Terrc Haute, under Colonel Charles Cruft, in 
September, 1801, and served in Kentucky 
and the South. 

The Thirty-second liegin.ent of German 
Infantry, under Colonel August Willich, or- 
ganized at Indianapolis August 24, ISOl, and 
served with distinction. Colonel Willich was 
promoted to Brigadier-General, and Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Henry A^on Trebra succeeded to 
the command of the regiment. 

Tlie Tliirty-thiixl liegiment, of Indianapo- 
lis, was organized, under Colonel John Coburn, 
September 16, 1801, and won a series of dis- 
tinctions throughout the war. 

The Thirty-fourth Battalion organized at 
Anderson, under Colonel Ashbury Steele, 
September 10, 1801, and gained a lasting rep- 
utation for gallantry during the war. 

The Tliirty-fifth, or First Irish Kegiment, 
organized at Indianapolis, under Colonel John 
C.^Walker, December 11, 1801. On the 22d 
of ^lay, 1802, it was joined by the Sixty- 
first, or Second Irish Regiment, when Colonel 
Mullen became Lieutenant-Colonel of the 
Thirty-fifth, and soon after its Colonel. 

The Thirty-sixth Regiment was organized, 
under Colonel "William Grose, at Richmond, 
September 10, 1801, and assigned to the army 
of the Oiiio. 

TheThirty-seventli Battalion was organized 
at Lawrenceburg, September 18, 1801, Col- 
onel George "W". Ilazzard commanding, and 
was with General Sherman to the sea. 

The Thirty-eighth Regiment was organized 
at New Albany, under Colonel Benjamin V. 
Scribner, September 18, 1801. 

The Thirty-ninth Regiment, or I^ghth 
Cavalry, was organized as an infantry 
regiment, under Colonel T. J. Harrison, 
at Indianapolis, August 28, 1801. In 









JIISTUUY OF INI)IA.\A. 



18G3 it was reorganized as a cavalry reg- 
iment. 

Tlie Fortieth Regiment was organized at 
La Fayette, under Colonel AV. C. AVilson, 
December 30, 18G1, and subsequently com- 
mauded by Colouel J. AV. Blake, and again 
by Colonel Henry Leaming, and saw service 
with Ihiell's ai'uiy. 

The Forty-first Regiment, or Second Cav- 
alry, the first comjjletc regiment of horse 
raised in the State, was organized at Indian- 
apulis, under Colonel Jolm A. Cridgland, 
September 3, ISl^il; was with Cieneral Sher- 
uian through (icorfria, and with General 
AVilson in Alabama. 

The Forty-second Regiment was organized 
at Evansville, under Colonel J. G. Jones, 
C)ctober 9, 1861, and participated in the 
Sherman campaign. 

The Forty-third Battalion was organized at 
Tei-re Haute, under Colonel George K. Steele, 
September 27, ISfll, and assigned to Pope's 
army; was the first regiment to enter Mem- 
])liis, and was with Commodore Foote at tlic 
reduction of Fort Pillow. 

The Forty-fourth Regiment was organized 
at Fort AVayne, under Colonel Hugh B. 
Reed, October 24, 1801, and attaclied to 
General Cruft's Brigade. 

The Fort3'-fifth, or Third Cavalry, was at 
dilTerent periods, 18ni-'C2, under Colonel 
Scott Carter and George II. Chapman. 

The Forty-sixth Regiment organized at 
Logansport, under Colonel Graham 1\'. Fitch, 
in February, 18G2, and M-as assigned to Gen- 
eral Pope's army, and served under Generals 
Sherman, Grant and others. 

Tlie Forty-seventh Regiment was organized 
at Anderson, under Colonel I. R. Slack, early 
in October, 1802, and was assigned to Gen- 
eral Buell's army, thence to General Pope's. 
In December, 1804, Colonel Slack was 
promoted to Brigadier-General, and Colonel 



J. A. McLaughton succeeded to the coinmand 
of tlie regiment. 

The Forty-eighth Regiment was organized 
at Goshen, under Colonel Korman Eddy, 
December, 6 18G1, and made itself a bright 
name at the battle of Corinth. 

The Forty-nintJi Regiment organized at 
Jefl'ersonville, under Colonel J. AV. Ray, 
jN'ovember 21, 1801, and first saw active ser- 
vice in Kentucky. 

The Fiftieth Regiment, under Colonel 
Cyrus L. Dunham, was organized at Sey- 
mour in September, 1801, and entered tiie 
service in Kentucky. 

The Fifty-first Regiment, under Colonel 
Aljel D. Streight, was organized at Indian- 
apolis December 14, 1801, and immediately 
began service with (General Buell. 

The Fifty-second Regiment was partially 
raised at Rushvillc, and completed at Indian- 
ajiolis by consolidating with the Railway 
Brigade, or Fifty-sixth Regiment, February 
2, 1SG2, and served in the several campaigns 
in the South. 

The Fitty-third Battalion was raised at 
New Albany, with the addition of recruits 
from Rockport, and made itself an endurable 
name under Colonel AA'^. Q. Gresham. 

The Fifty-fourth Regiment organized at 
Indianapolis, under Colonel D. J. Rose, for 
three months, June 10, 18tj2, and was assigned 
to GeJieral Kirby Smith's command. 

The Fifty-fifth Regiment organized for 
three months, under Colonel J. R. ^lahon, 
June 10, 1802. 

The Fifty-sixth Regiment, referred to in 
the sketch of the Fifty-second, was designed 
to be composed of railroad men, under Col- 
onel J. M. Smith, but owing to many railroad 
men having joined other commands. Colonel 
Smith's volunteers were incorporated with 
the Fifty-second, and this number left blank 
in the army list. -^ 









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The Fifty-seventh Etittalioii was organized 
by two ministers of the gospel, the IJev. I. W. 
T. McMullen and Rev. F. A. Hardin, of 
liiflinioiid, Indiana, Novenihur IS, l.SOl, 
Colonel Mc]\[ulien conunaiuling. The regi- 
ment was severally commanded by Colonels 
Cyrns C. llaynes, G. W. Leonard, Willis 
Blanch and John S. McGrath. 

The Fifty-eighth Iteginient was organized 
at Princeton, under Colonel Henry M. Carr, 
in October, 18G1, and assigned to General 
Buell's command. 

The Fifty-ninth Battalion was organized 
under Colonel Jesse I. Alexander, in Feb- 
ruary, 1862, and assigned to CJeneral Pope's 
command. 

The Sixtieth Regiment was partially or- 
ganized at Evansville, under Lieutenant- 
Colonel llichard Owen, in Kovembei', IBlll, 
and perfected its organization at Camp !Mor- 
ton in March, 1862, and immediately entered 
the service in Kentucky. 

The Sixty-first Regiment was partially 
organized in December, 18(')1, under Colonel 
B. F. ^lullen. Li May, 1862, it was incor- 
porated with the Tliirty-hfth Regiment. 

The Sixty-second Regiment, raised under 
Colonel "William Jones, of Rockport, was 
consolidated with the Fifty -third Regi- 
ment. 

The Sixty-third Regiment, of Covington, 
under Colonel James McManomy, was par- 
tially raised in December, 1861, and im- 
mediately entered upon active duty. Its 
organization was completed at Indianapolis, 
February, 1862, by six new eomi)anies. 

The Sixty-fourth Regiment was organized 
as an artillery corj>s. The War Department 
prohibiting consolidating batteries, put a stop 
to the movement. Snbsecjnently an infantry 
regiment bearing the same number was 
raised. 

The Sixty-fifth Regiment, xuider Colonel 



J. W. Foster, completed its organization at 
Evansville, August, 1862. 

The Sixty-sixth Regiment organized at 
New Albany, under Colonel Roger ^lartin, 
August 10, 18()2, and entered the service 
immetliately in Kentucky. 

The Sixty-se\enth Regiment was organ- 
ized in the Third Congressional District, 
under Colonel Fi-ank Emerson, and reported 
for service at Louisville, Kentucky, in Au- 
gust, 1862. 

The Sixty-eighth Regiment organized at 
Cfrecnburg, under Major Benjamin C. Shaw, 
and entered the service August 19, 1862, 
under Colonel Edward A. Kinjx, M'ith Major 
Shaw as Lieutenant-Colonel. 

The Sixty-ninth Regiment was orgainzed 
at Richmond, under Colonel A.Bickle; were 
taken prisoners at Richmond, Kentucky; 
when exchanged they reorganized in 1862, 
Colonel T. AV. Bennett commanding. 

The Seventieth Regiment was organized 
at Indianapolis, August 12, 1862, niuler 
Colonel B. Harrison, and at oTice nuirched to 
the front in Kentucky. 

The Seventy-first, or Sixth Cavalr}^ was 
an luifortnnato regiment, organized at Terre 
Haute, under Lieutenant-Colonel Melville D. 
Topping, August 18, 1862. At the battle 
near Richmond, Kentucky, Colonel Topping 
and ]\Iajor Conklin, togetlier Muth 213 men, 
were killed; 317 taken prisoners; only 225 
escaped. The regiment was reorganized un- 
der Colonel I. liittle, ami M'as captured by 
the Confederate (ieneral Morgan on tlie 28tii 
of Decemiier, same year. 

The Seventy-second Regiment organized 
at La Fayette, under Colonel Miller, August 
17, 1862, and entered the service in Kentucky. 

The Seventy-third Regiment, under Colo- 
nel Gilbert Hathaway, was organized at 
South Bond, August 16, 1862, and saw ser- 
vice under (ienerals Rosecrans and Graneer. 



Tlie Suventy-foiu'th liegiinent was par- 
tially organ izL'd at Fort Wayne, and coin- 
jileted at Indianapolis, Augnst 22, 1802, and 
repaired to Kentucky, under coniniand of 
Colonel Charles W. Chapman. 

Tlie Seventy-fifth Ilegiinent was organized 
within the Eleventh Congressional District, 
and inarched to the frcmt, under Colonel I. 
W. Petit, August 21, 1S(;2. 

The Seventy-sixth liattalion was organized 
for thirty days' service in July, 1SG2, under 
Colonel James Gavin, of jVewhnrg. 

The Seventy-seventh, or Fourth Cavalry, 
was organized at Indianapolis, August, 18r)2, 
under Colonel Isaac 1'. (Tray, and carved its 
way to fame in over twenty battle-fields. 

The Seventy-ninth Kegiment organized at 
Indianapolis, under Colonel Fred.. Knefler, 
September 2, 18G2, and performed gallant 
service until the close of the war. 

The Eightieth Ilegiment M-as organized 
within the First Congressional District, un- 
der Colonel C. Denby, August 8, 18G2, and 
left Indianapolis immediately for the front. 

The Eighty-first Ilegiment, under Colonel 
W. \\^. Caldwell, organized at New Albany, 
August 2'J, 1802, and was assigned to (len- 
eral IJuell's comiuaud. 

The iMglity-second Ilegiineut, under Colo- 
nel j\[(irtou C. Hunter, organized at Madison, 
August 30, 18G2, and immediately moved to 
the tVciiit. 

The Eighty-third Regiment, under Colo- 
nel lien. J. Spooner, organized at l^awrence- 
burg, Septembei', 18(12, and began duty on 
the ^lississijipi. 

The Eighty-fourth Itcgiment organized at 
Tlichnuind, Indiana, September 8, 18G2, Colo- 
nel Nelson Truskr commanding, and entered 
the field in Kentucky. 

The Eighty-fifth liegimei\t oi-ganized under 
Colonel John P. P.ayard, at Terre Haute, 
September 2, 18G2 and with Cdburn's liri- 



gado surrendered to the rcliel General For- 
rest in March, 18G3. 

The Eiglity-sixth Regiment left LaFa3'ette 
lor Kentucky under Colonel Orville S. Ilaru- 
ilton August 2G, 18G2. 

The Eighty-seventh Ilegiment organized 
at South Bend, under Colonels Kline G. 
Sherlock and N. Gleason, and left Indianap- 
oplis for the front August 31, 18G2, and was 
with General Sherman through Georgia. 

The Eighty-eighth Regiment organized 
within the Fourth Congressional District, 
under Colonel George Ilumjihrey, and moved 
to the front August 29, 18C2, and M-as pres- 
ent with General Shernuiu at the surrender 
of General Johnston's army. 

The Eighty-ninth Regiment organized 
within the Eleven tli Congressional District, 
under Charles D. ]\Iurray, August 28, 1SG2. 

The Ninetieth Regiment, or Fifth Cavalry, 
organized at Indianapolis, under Colonel 
Felix W. Graham, August to November, 
1SG2, assembled at Louisville in March, 18G3, 
and participated in twenty-two engagements 
during its term of service. 

The Ninety-first P.attalion, under Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel John ]\Iehringcr, organized in 
October, 1802, at Evansville, and proceeded 
at once to the front. 

The Ninety-second Regiment failed to or- 
ganize. 

The Ninety-third Regiment, under Col- 
onel Dc A\'itt C. Thomas, organized at ]\Iail- 
isou October 20, 1802, and joined General 
Shernum's command. 

The Ninety-iburth and Ninety-fifth Regi- 
ments were only partially raised, and the 
ctimpanies were incorporated with other rccri- 
ments. 

The Ninety-sixth Regiment could bring 
together but thi'ce ci^impanies, which were in- 
coijiorated with the Ninety-tiintli at South 
Peiul, and the number loft blank. 



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IIISTORt OF ly 1)1 AX A. 



Tlie Xincty-sevcutli liegiment orgiinizcil 
at Terra Haute, under Colonel llobert ¥. Cat- 
terson, Septenilier 20, 1801, ami took position 
at the front near ileni])liis. 

Tlie Kinety-eiglith licgiment failed to or- 
ganize, and the two companies raised were 
consolidated with the One Ilnndredth liegi- 
meiit at Fort Wayne. 

The Ninety-ninth Battalion organized in 
the Ninth Congressional District, under Col- 
onel Alex. Fawler, October 21, 1SG2, and 
operated with the Sixteenth Army Corps. 

The One Hundredth Heginient organized 
at Fort Wayne, under Colonel Sanford J. 
Stoughton, and joined the army of the Ten- 
nessee November 20, 1802. 

T!ie One Hundred and First Ilegiment 
was organized at Wabash, under Colonel 
"William Garver, September 7, 1802, and im- 
mediately liegan active duty in Kentucky. 

The One Hundred and Second Ilegiment 
organized, under Colonel Benjamin F. Crregry, 
at Iiulianapolis, early in July, ISOl. 

The One Hundred and Third Ilegiment 
comprised seven companies from the counties 
of Hendricks, Jlariou and AVayne, under Col- 
onel Lawrence S. Shulcr. 

The One Hundred and Fourth Begiment 
was recruited from members of the Legion 
of Decatur, La Fayette, Madison, Clarion and 
Hush counties, under Colonel James Gavin. 

The One Hundred and Fifth Begiment was 
formed from the Legion and ilinute ^len, 
furni^^hed by Hancock, Union, Bandolph, 
Putnam, Wayne, Clinton and IMadison coun- 
ties, under Colonel Sherlock. 

The One Hundi'ed and Sixth Begiment, 
under ('olonel Isaac P. (iray, was organized 
from the c<junties of Wayne, Bandolph, Han- 
cock, Howard and Marion. 

The One Hundred and Seventh Begiment 
was organized in Indianapolis, ainder Colonel 
De AVitt C. Buggs. 



The One Hundred and Ei<j-hth Bcfiiment, 
under Colonel AN"^. C. AVilson, was formed from 
the counties of Tippecanoe, Hancock, Car- 
roll, Montgomery au<l AVayne. 

The One Hundred and Ninth Begiment, 
under Colonel J. B. Alahon, was composed of 
companies from La Porte, Hamilton, i^liami 
and Bandolph counties, Indiana, and from 
Coles County, Illinois. 

The One Hundred and Tenth Ilegiment 
was composed of comjjanies from the counties 
of Henry, Madison, Delaware, Cass and Alon- 
roe; this regiment was not called into the field. 

The One Hundred and Eleventh Begiment, 
from Montgomery, La Fayette, Bush, iliami, 
Monroe, ■ Delaware and Hamilton counties, 
under Colonel Bobert Canover, M'as not called 
out. 

The One Hundred and Twelfth Begiment, 
under Colonel Hiram F. Brax, was formed 
from the C(junties of Lawrence, AVashington, 
Alonroc and Orange. 

The One Hundred and Thirteenth Begi- 
ment, from tlie counties of Daviess, Martin, 
AVashington and Alouroe, was commanded by 
Colonel George AV. Burge. 

The One Hundred and Fourteenth Begi- 
ment, under Colonel Lambertson, was wholly 
organized in Johnson County. 

These twelve last-named regiments were 
organized to meet an emergency, caused by 
the invasion of Indiana by the rebel General 
John Morgan, and disbanded when lie was 
captured. 

The One Hundred and Fifteenth Begiment, 
under Colonel J. B. ilahou, was organized at 
Indiaiuipolis August 17, 1803. 

The One Hundred and Sixteenth Begiment, 
under Colonel Charles AVise, organized Au- 
gust, 1803, and served in Kentncky. 

The One Hundred and Seventeenth Begi- 
ment, under Colonel Thomas J. Brady, or- 
ganized at Indianajiolis September 17, 1803. 



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IllSTOin" OF IXDIAXA. 



145 



Tlie One Hundred and Eigliteenth llegi- 
ment, under Colonel George "W. Jackson, 
ori^anized September 3, 1SG3. 

The One Hundred and Nineteenth Ilei^i- 
inent, or Seventh Cavalry, was organized, 
under Colonel John P. C. Shanks, in ( )ctoljcr, 
ISt'iS; made an ciulurahle name on many 
tielils of battle. .Many of this regiment lost 
Iheir lives on the ill-fated steamer Sultana. 

The One Hundred aiul Twentieth Kegi- 
ment was organized in April, ISO-i, and 
formed a portion of Brigadier-General Ho- 
ver's command. 

The One Hundred and Tweuty-tirst liegi- 
ment, or Ninth Cavalry, was organized at 
Indianapolis, under Colonel Cieorge W.Jack- 
son; this regiment also lost a number of men 
on the steamer Sultana. 

The One Hundi-ed and Twenty-second 
llegiment failing to organize, this number 
became lilank. 

The One Hundred and Twent3'-third Ilcgi- 
ment, uiuler Colonel John C. ]\[c(^uiston, 
perfected an organization in IMarch, iSG-i, 
and did good service. 

The (Jne Hundred and Twenty-fourth 
Regiment, under Colonel James Burgess, 
organized at Iliclimond !March 10, 18G4r, and 
served under (rcneral Slierman. 

The One IHindred and Twenty-fifth Regi- 
ment, or Tenth Cavalry, under ("olonel T. J\I. 
Pace, completed its organization at Columbus, 
May, 18(]3, and immediately moved to the 
front. This regiment lost a number of men 
on the steamer Sultana. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-sixth Regi- 
ment, or Eleventh Cavalry, organized at 
Iiulianapolis, under Colonel linbcrt R. Stew- 
art, in March, ISlii, and entered the field in 
Tennessee. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-Seventh 
Regiment, or Twelfth Cavalry, under Colonel 
Edward Anderson, organized at Kendallville 

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in April, ISGi, and ser\'ed in Georgia and 
Alabama. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-eighth 
Regiment organized at ]\[ichigan City, under 
Colonel R. P. De Hart, March 18, 1864, and 
served under General Sherman in his famous 
cam]iaign. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-ninth Reo-i- 
ment organized at Michigan City, under Col- 
onel Charles Case, in April, 1804, and shared 
in the fortunes of the One Hundred and 
Twenty-eighth. 

The One Hundred and Thirtieth Regiment 
organized at Kokomo, uiuler Colonel C. S. 
Parish, Marcli 12, 1SG4, and served with the 
Twenty-third Army Corps. 

The One Hundi-ed and Thirty-first Regi- 
ment, or Thirteenth Cavalry, nujved from 
Indianapolis to the front, under Colonel CJ. 
]\[. L. Johnson, April 30, 1SG4. 

April, 1SG4, Governor ]\[orton called for 
volunteers to serve one lumdred days. In 
response to this call: 

The One Hundred and Thirty-second Regi- 
ment, under Colonel S. C. Vance, moved 
from Indianapolis to tlie front jilay 18, 18G4. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-third Regi- 
ment moved from Richmond to the front 
]\ray 17, 18()4, under Colonel R. N. Hudson. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-fourth Regi- 
ment, under Colonel James CJaviu, moved 
from Indianayiolis to the front May 2d, 18G4. 

The One Iluiulred and Thirty-fifth liegi- 
mcTit, composed of companies from IJedford, 
Noblesville and Goshen, and seven companies 
from the First Congressional District, entered 
the field, under Colonel "\V. C. Wilson, May 
25, 18G4. 

The One Hundred aiul Thirty-sixth Regi- 
ment, from the First Congressional District, 
nu^ved to the front, under Colonel J. AV. 
Foster, ]\ray 24, 1SG4. 

The One Iluiulred anil Tliirtv-seventh 



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HISTORY OF TX DIANA. 



llei^ninunt, under Colonel E. J. IloLiuson, 
moved to the front May 28, ISfji. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-eighth Regi- 
ment perfected its organization at Indian- 
apolis, under Colonel J. 11. Shannon, ]\[ay 
27, 1SG4, and marched immediately to tlie 
front. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-ninth Regi- 
ment was composed of companies from various 
counties, and entered the field, under Colonel 
George Ilumphre}', in June, 1804. 

All these regiments gained distinction on 
many fields of battle. 

Under the President's call of 1804: 

The One Hundred and Fortieth Regiment, 
under Colonel Thomas J. Rrady, proceeded 
to the South Xovember 10, 1801. 
• The One Hundred and Forty-first Regi- 
ment failing to organize, its few companies 
were incorporated in Colonel Brady's com- 
mand. 

The One Hundred and Forty-second Regi- 
ment moved to the front from Fort Wayne, 
under Colonel I. ^[. Comparet, in November, 
1801. 

The One Hundred aud Forty-third Regi- 
ment reported at JS'ashville, under Colonel J. 
T. Grill, February 21, 1805. 

The One Hundred and Forty-fourtli Regi- 
ment, under Colonel G. "W. Riddle, reported 
at Harj)cr's Ferry in IMarch, 180o. 

The One Hundred and Forty-fifth Regi- 
ment, from Indianapolis, under Colonel W. 
A. Adams, joined General Steadman at Chat- 
tanooga, February 23,1805. 

The One Hundred and Forty-sixth Regi- 
ment, under Colonel M. C. Welch, left In- 
dianapolis ]\Iarcli 11, 1805, for the Shenan- 
doah Valley. 

The One Hundred and Forty-seventh Reg- 
ment, under Colonel JMilton Peden, moved 
from Indianapolis to the front ]\Iarch 13, 
1805. 



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The One Hundred and Forty-eiglith Regi- 
ment, under Colonel N. II. Ruckle, left the 
State Capital for Nashville February 28, 1805. 

The One Hundred and Forty-ninth Regi- 
ment left Indianapolis for Tennessee, under 
Colonel W. II. Fairbanks, March 3, 1805. 

The One Hundred and Fiftieth Regiment, 
under Colonel M. E. Taylor, reported for 
duty in the Shenandoah Valley March 17, 
1805. 

The One Hundred aud Fifty-first Regi- 
ment arrived at Nashville, under Colonel J. 
Ilealy, March 9, 1805. 

The One Hundred and Fifty-second Regi- 
ment organized at Indianapolis, under Col- 
onel W W Griswold, and left for Harper's 
Ferry March IS, 1805. 

The One Hundred and Fifty-third Regi- 
ment organized at Indianapolis, under Col- 
onel O. II. P. Carey, and reported immedi- 
ately at Louisville for duty. 

The One Hundred aud Fifty-fourth Regi- 
ment left Indianapolis for AVest Virginia, 
under Major Simpson, April 28, 1805. 

The One Hundred and Fifty-fifth Regi- 
ment, recruited throughout the State, were 
assigned to the Ninth Army Corps in April, 
1805. 

The One Hundred and Fifty-sixth Bat- 
talion, under Lieutenant-Colonel Chaides ^I. 
Smith, moved for the Shenandoah Valley 
April 27, 1805. 

All these regiments made a fine record in 
the field. 

The Twenty-eighth Regiment of Colored 
Troops was recruited throughout the State of 
Indiana, and jjlaced under command of Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Charles S. Russell, who was 
subsequently Colonel of the regiment. The 
regiment lost heavily at the "Crater," Peters- 
burg, but Mas recruited, and continued to do 
good service. 

The First Battery was organized at Evans- 



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villc, under Captain ^lartin Klauss, August 
16, ISOl, and immediately joined General 
Fi'enmnt's army; in ISO-i Lawrence Jacoljy 
was promoted to the cajitainey of the battery. 

The Second Jjattcry, under Captain D. G. 
Itahli, was organized at Indianapolis August 
"J, 18G1. This battery saw service in the "West. 

The Third Battery, under Captain W. "\V. 
Fryberger, organized at Connersville August 
24, ISGl, and immediately joined Fremont's 
command. 

The Fourth Battery recruited in La Porte, 
Porter and Lake counties, and reported to 
General Ihiell early in ISOl. It was first 
commanded by Captain A. K. Bnsh, and re- 
organized in October, ISG-t, under Captain 
B. F. Johnson. 

The Fifth Battery was furnished by La 
Porte, Allen, Whitley and Noble counties, 
commanded by Captain Peter Simonson, re- 
ported at Louisville November 29, ISGl; 
during its term it participated in twenty bat- 
tles. 

The Sixth Battery, amder Captain Fred- 
erick Behr, left Evansville for the front Octo- 
ber 2, ISGl. 

The Seventh Battery was organized from 
various towns: first under Captain Samuel J. 
Harris; succeeded by G. 11. Shallow and O. 
II. Morgan. 

The Eighth Battery, under Captain G. T. 
Cochran, arrived at the front February 2G, 
18tj2, and entered upon its real duties at 
Corinth. 

The Ninth Battery, under Captain N. S. 
Thompson, organized at Indianapolis in Jan- 
uary, 1862, and began active duty at Shiloh 
in January, 18G5; it lost fifty-eight men by 
the explosion ot a steamer above Paducah. 

The Tenth Battery, under Captain Jerome 
B. Cox, left Lafayette, for duty in Kentuck}', 
in January, 18G1. 

The Eleventh Battery organized at La Fay- 



ette, and left Indianapolis for the front, under 
Captain Arnold Sutermeister, December 17, 
18G1; opened fire at Shiloh. 

The Twelftli Battery, from Jeffersonville, 
perfected organization at Indianapolis, under 
Captain G. W. Sterling; reached Nashville 
in ^larch, 1862. Captain Sterling resigned 
in April, and was succeeded by Captain James 
E. "White, and ho by James A. Dunwoody. 

The Thirteenth Battery, under Captain 
Sewell Conlson, organized at Indianapolis 
during the winter of 18G1, and proceeded to 
the front in February, 18G2. 

The Fourteenth Battery, under Captain ^f. 
11. Kidd, left Indianapolis April 11, 18G2, 
entering the field in Kentucky. 

The Fifteenth I'attery, under Captain I. 
C. II. Von Schlin, left Indianapolis for the 
front in July, 1SG3. The same year it was 
surrendered with the garrison at Harper's 
Ferry, reorganized at Indianapolis, and again 
appeared in the field in JIarch, 1862. 

The Sixteenth Battery under Captain 
Charles A. Naylor, left La Fayette for the 
front in June, 1862, and joined Pope's com- 
mand. 

The Seventeenth Battery organized at In- 
dianapolis, under Captain Milton L. Miner, 
May20, 1SG2; participated in the Gettysburg- 
battle, and later in all the engagements in 
the Shenandoah Yalley. 

The Eighteenth Battery, under Captain 
Eli Lilly, moved to the front in August, 
1SG2, and joined General Ilosecrans' army. 

The Nineteenth Battery, under Captain S. 
J. Harris, left Indianapolis for Kentucky in 
August, 1862, and performed active service 
until the close of the war. 

The Twentieth Battery, under Captain 
Frank A. Pose, left the State capital for 
the front in December, 18G2. Captain Pose 
resigned, and was succeeded by Captain 
Osborn. 









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itisTonr OF invianA. 



The Twenty-first Lattery, under Captain 
W. W. Andrew, left the State capital for 
Covini^ton, Kentucky, in September, 18C2. 

The Twenty-second Eattery moved from 
Indianapolis to the front, under Captain B. 
F. Denning, December 15, 1802, and threw 
its first shot into Atlanta, where Captain 
Denning was killed. 

The Twenty-third Battery, uiidcr Captain 
I. 11. !Myers, took a position at the front in 

isn2. 

Tlie Twenty-fourth Battery, under Captain 
J. A. Simnis, moved from Indianapolis to the 
front in M.irch, 18G3, and joined the Army 
of the Tennessee. 

The Twenty-fil'th Battery, under Captain 
Frederick C. Sturm, reported at Xashville in 
December, 18G4. 

The Twenty-sixth, or " "Wilder's Battery," 
was recrui'^ed at Greensburg in May, ISGl, 
and became Company " X " of the Seven- 
teenth Infantry, with Captain Wilder as Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel. Subsequently it was converted 
into the " First Indejiendent Battery," and 
became known as " liigb3'"s Battery." 

The total number of battles in which the 
soldiers of Indiana were engaged for the 
maintenance of tlie Union was 308. 

The part which Indiana jierformed in the 
war tu maintain the union of the States is 
one of which the citizens of the State may 
well be ])roud. In the number of troops 
furnished, and in the amount of contribu- 
tions rendered, Indiana, in proportion to 
wealtli and population, stands equal to any 
of lier sister States. 

Tiio State records show that 200,000 men 
entered the army; 50,000 were organized to 
defend the State at home; that the number 
of military commissions issued to Iniliana 
soldiers was 17,114, making a total of 2G7,- 
114 men engaged in military affairs during 
the war for the Union. 




FINANCIAL. 

In November, 1821, Governor Jennings 
convened the Legislature in extra session, to 
provide for the payment of interest and a 
part of the principal of the public debt, 
amounting to >;20,000. The state of the 
public debt was indeed embarrassing, as the 
l)onds executed in its behalf had been as- 
signed. 

This state of aflairs had been Ijrought 
about in part by mismanagement of the 
State bank, and by speculators. From ISKi 
to 1821 the people had largely engaged 
in fictitious speculations. jS'umerous baid<s, 
with fictitious capital, were estaldished; im- 
mense issues of paper Mere made, and the 
circulating medium of the country was 
increased four-fold in the course of three 
years. 

This inflation produced the consequences 
which always follow such a scheme. Conse- 
quently the year 1821 was one of great 
financial panic. 

In 1822 the new Governor, "William Hen- 
dricks, took a liopefnl view of the situation. 
In consequence of good cro]« and the grow- 
ing immigration, everything seemed more 
promising. 

In 1822-'23 the surplus money was prin- 
cipally invested in home manufactures, M'hich 
gave new impetus to the new State. Xoah 
Xoble was Governor of the State from 1831 
to 1837, commencing his duties amid peculiar 
embarrassments. The crops of 1832 were 
short. Asiatic cholera came sweeping along 
the Ohio and into the interior of the State, antl 
the Black Hawk war raged in the Northwest. 
All these at once, and yet the work ot 
internal imj)rovenients was actually begun. 

The State bank of Indiana M'as established 
January 28, 1834. The act of the Legisla- 
ture, by its own terms, ceased to be a law 
January 1, 1857. i\.t the time of organization 



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the outstanding circulation was .si,20S,7"2o, 
with a debt, duo principally from citizens of 

the State, of !st;,o;i.j,;u;s. 

The State's interest in the hank was pro- 
cured by issue of State hontls, the last of 
which was payable in iSiSf!, the State thus 
placing as capital in the bank si, 390,000. 

The nominal ])rofits of tlie bank were 
S2,7S0,004:. This constituted a sinking fund 
for the payment of the public debt, the e\- 
]>cnses of tiie Commissioners, and for the 
cause of common schools. 

In ISiiG the State l)ank was doing ijood 
service; agricultural products were abundant, 
and markets were good. 

In 184:3 the State was suffering from over 
banking, inflation of the currency and decep- 
tive speculation. 

Governor "Whitcomb, lS43-'4-'J, succeeded 
well in nniintaining the credit of the State 
and elfecting a coniproniise with its creditors, 
by which the State public works passed from 
the hands of the State to the creditors. 

In ISdl a general l)ankiiig law was adopted, 
which again revived speculation and inllation, 
whicli culminated in much dannige. In 1857 
the charter of the State hank expired, and 
the large gains of tlie State in that institu- 
tion were directed to the iiromotion of com- 
mon school education. 

October 81, 1870, found the State in a 
very prosperous condition; there was a sur- 
plus in the treasury of $373,249. The re- 
ceipts of the year amounted to s3,G0i3,G39, 
atul the disbursements to s2, 943,1)00, leaving 
a balance of $1,035,288. The total debt of 
the State in November, 1871, was $3,937,821. 

Indiana is making ra])id ])rogress in the 
vai-io\is manuficturlng industries. She has 
one of the largest wagon ami carriage manu- 
factories in the world, and nearly lier entire 
wheat product is manufactured into flour 
within the State. In 1880 the population 



was 1.978,301, and the true valuation of 
l)roperty in the State for 1880 was $1,584,- 
750,802. 

INTICR.NAI. IMI'KOVKMKNTS. 

This subject began to be agitated as early 
as l>il8, and continued to increase in favor 
until 1830, wlien the ])eople became much 
excited over the rpiestion of railroads. 

In 1832 the work of internal improvements 
fairly commenced. Public roads and canals 
were begun during this year, the Wabash and 
Erie Canal being the largest undertaking. 

During the year 1835 ])nblic impi-ovements 
were pushed vigoi'ously. Thirty-two miles 
of the AVabash and Erie Canal were completed 
this year. 

During 1836 many other projected works 
were started, and in 1837, when Governor 
Wallace took the executive chair, he found a 
reaction among the peojjle in regard to the 
gigantic jilans for public impro\'emeiits. The 
people feared a State debt was being incurred 
from which they could never be extricated. 

The State had borrowed $3,827,000 for 
internal improvements, of which $1,327,000 
was for the Wabash and Erie Canal, the re- 
mainder for other works. 

The State had aniuudly to pay $200,000 
interest on the public debt, and the revenue 
derived which could be thus ajiplied amounted 
to only $45,000 in 1838. 

In 1839 all work ceased on these improve- 
ments, witii one or two exceptions, and the 
contracts MX're surrendered to the State, in 
consequence of an act of the Legislature pro- 
viding for the compensation of contractors 
by the issue of treasury notes. 

In 1840 the system of iinj)rovements em- 
braced ten difi'erent works, the most impor- 
tant of which was the Wabash and Erie 
Canal. The aggregate length of the lines 
embraced in this system was 1,289 miles, 



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in STORY OF INDIAXA. 



ami of tliis only 1 U) luiles liaJ been com- 
pleted. 

In 1840 the State debt amounted to 818,- 
■Ifi'JjllG; lier resources for payment were 
sncii as to place lier in an unfavorable liglit 
before the world, but bo it recorded to Iier 
credit, she did not repudiate, as some other 
States of the Union liave done. In 1850, the 
State having abandoned public improve- 
ments, private capital and enterprise pushed 
forward public work, and although the canal 
lias served its day and age, and served it well, 
yet Indiana has one of the tinest systems of 
water-ways of any State in the Union, and 
her railroad facilities compare favorably with 
the majority of States, and far in advance of 
many ot her elder sisters in the family of 
States. In 1884 there were 5,521 miles of 
railroad in operation in the State, and new 
roads being built and projected where the 
demand justified. 



In 1809 the development of mineral re- 
sources in the State attracted considerable 
attention. Near Brooklyn, twenty miles from 
Indianapolis, is a tine sandstone formation, 
yielding an unlimited quantity of the best 
building material. The limestone formation 
at and surrounding Gosport is of great va- 
riety, including some of the best building 
stone in the world. 

^leu of enterprise worked hard and long 
to induce the State to liave a survey made to 
determine the quality and extent of the min- 
eral resources of the State. 

In 1SG9 Professor Edward T. Cox was ap- 
pointed State Geologist, to whom the citizens 
of Indiana are indebted for the exhaustive 
report on minerals, and the agricultural as 
well as manufacturing resources of the State. 

The coal measures, says Professor Cox, 
cover an area of (),500 square miles, in the 



southwestern part of the State, and extend 
from Warren County on the north to the 
Ohio Iliver on the south, a distance of 150 
miles, comprising the counties of Warren, 
Fountain, Parke, Vermillion, Vigo, Clay, 
Sullivan, Greene, Knox, Daviess, ]\[artin, 
Gibson, Pike, Dubois, Vanderburg, War- 
wick, Spencer, Perry and a portion of Craw- 
ford, Monroe, Putnam and ^Montgomery. 

This coal is all bituminous, but is divis- 
al)le into three well-marked varieties; cak- 
ing coal, non-caking coal, or block coal, and 
cannel coal. The total depth of the seams 
or measures is from GOO to 800 feet. The 
caking coal is in the western portion of the 
area described, ranging from three to eleven 
feet ill thickness. Tlie block coal prevails in 
the eastern pait of the field, and has an area 
of 450 square miles; this coal is excellent in 
its raw state for making pig-iron. 

The great Indiana coal field is within 150 
miles of Chicago or Michigan City by rail- 
road, from which ports the valuable Superior 
iron ores are loaded from vessels that run 
direct from the ore banks. 

Of the caunel coal, one of the tiiiest seams 
to be found in the country is in Daviess 
County, this State. Here it is three and a 
half feet thick, underlaid by one and a half 
feet of block caking coal. Cannel coal is also 
found in great abundance in Perry, Greene, 
Parke and Fountain counties. 

Numerous deposits of bog-iron ore are 
found in the northern part of the State, and 
clay iron-stones and impure carbonates are 
found scattered in the vicinity of the coal 
field. In some places the deposits are of 
considerable commercial value. An abund- 
ance of excellent lime is also found in Indi- 
ana, especially in Huntington County, where 
it is manufactured extensively. 

In 1884 the number of bushels of lime 
burned in the State were 1,244,508; lime- 






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lIISTOUy OF lyDTANA. 



stone quarried for Imildiiirr purposes, 0,012,- 
110 cubic I'eet; cuuieiit made, 3(12,014: 
bushelff; saudstone quarried, 708,376 cubic 
feet; gravel sold, 502,115 tims; coal mined, 
1,722,()N'J tons; value tif mineral ])roducts in 
the State for the year 1884, !?2,500,OOO; 
value of manufactured products same year, 
Sl'13,851,872; of agricultural products, 
S;155,OS5,GG3. Total value of products in 
the State for the year 1SS4, .s321, 437,535. 

ACJKICULTUKAL. 

In 1852 the Legislature authorized the 
organization of county and district agricult- 
ural societies, and also established a State 
Uoard of Agriculture, and made suitable pro- 
visions for maintaining the same, the hold- 
ing of State fairs, etc. 

In 1873 suitable buildings were erected at 
Indianapolis, for a State exposition, which 
was formally opened September 10, of that 
year. The exhibits there displa^'ed showed 
that Indiana was not behind her sister States 
in agriculture as well as in many other in- 
dustrial branches. 

As stated elsewliere in this work, the value 
of agricultural products in the State for the 
year 1884 amounted to !?155,085,663. 

In 1842 Henry AVard Beeclier resided in 
Indianapolis, and exercised a power for good 
aside from his ministerial work. lie edited 
the Indiana Fanner and Gardener, and 
through that medium wielded an influence 
toward organizing a society, which was ac- 
complislicd that year. Among Ilev. I]eech- 
cr's co-laborers were Judge Coburn, Aaron 
Aldridge, James Sigarson, I). Y. Cullcy, 
lieubcn Ragan, Stephen Hampton, Cornelius 
Katliff, Joshua Lindley, Abncr Pope and 
many others. The society gave great en- 
couragement to the introduction of new va- 
rieties of fruit, but the sudden appearance of 
noxious insects, and the waiit of shijiping 



facilities, seriously lield in check the advance 
of horticulture in accordance with the desires 
of its leaders. 

In 1800 there was organized at Indianap 
olis the Indiana I'umolDgical Society, with 
lieuben Ilagan as President, and William II. 
Loomis as Secretary. 

From this date interest began to expand, 
but, owing to the war, but little was done, 
and in Januai-y, 1804, the title of the society 
was changed to tliat of the Indiana Horticult- 
ural Society. 

The report of the society for 1868 shows 
for the first time a balance in the treasury of 
S61.55. 

The society has had a steady growth, and 
produced grand results throughout the State, 
the product of apples alone in the State for 
the year 1884 being 4,181,147 bushels. 

EDUCATION. 

The subject of education is the all-impor- 
tant subject to any and all communities, 
and the early settlers of Indiana builded 
greater than they then knew, when they laid 
the foundation for future growth of the edu- 
cational facilities in the State. 

To detail the educational resources, its ac- 
complishments from its incijiiency to the 
present date, would require a number of 
large volumes; but as space in this. work will 
not permit, and as the people have access to 
annual State reports of the school system in 
detail, we will here give only the leading 
features and enormous growth, as well as 
flourishing condition of Indiana's scliool sys- 
tem to the present time. 

The free-school system was fully established 
in 1852, which has resulted in ])lacing Indi- 
ana in the lead of this great nation in ed- 
ucational progress. In 1854 the available 
common school fund consisted of the congres- 
sional township fund, the surjilus revenue 



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niSTOHY OF INDIANA. 



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fiiiul, the siiliiic fund, the hunk tax t'liiul anil 
niiscelhincdus f'nn<l, Jiniunntiiii,' in all to 
s2,4()O,(i0(). 

This amount w;is incr(>as(!(l fVimi various 
sources, ami entrusted to tho caru of the sev- 
eral counties of tho State, and hy thcni loaned 
to citizens of the county in sums not exceed- 
ing !?ilOn, secured hy real estate. 

h\ 1880 the available school fund <leri\-(Ml 
from all sources amounted to )?8,!J7 l,4-")rj.55. 

h\ 1884 there were in the State children 
of school a,i,'e, 722,840. Numher of Mdiite 
children in attendance at scIkjoI during the 
year, 4G1, 831; numher of colored children in 
school during the year, 7,285; total attend- 
ance, 409,11(5; numher of teachers cm])loyed, 
1;3,015, of ■whom 145 were colored. 

And lastly wc arc pleased to say that Tn- 
dinna lias a larj^er school fund than any other 
State in the Union. The citizens may well 
be ])roud of their system of schools, as well as 
the judicious manaj^'ement of its funds, which 
have been steadily increased, notwithstand- 
ing the rapid increase of population, which 
Inxs demandeu an increased expendituic in 
various ways, which have all been proni[)tly 
met, and the edncationid facilities steadily 
enlarged where any advancement could be 
made. 

In 1802 Congress granted lands and a 
charter to the peojile residing at Vincennes, 
for the erection and maintenance of a semi- 
nary of learning; and iive years thereafter an 
act incorporating the Vincennes Utiiversity 
asked the Lcgislatui'C to appoint a I5oar<l of 
Trustees and empower them to sell a town- 
ship of land in (libson County, granted by 
(/Ongress for the b(nielit of the university. 
The sale of the land was slow and the ])rii- 
ceeds small; the members of IIk; board were 
a])atlictic, and failing to meet, the institution 
fell out of existence and out of memory. 

In 1820 the State J-egislature j.assed an 



act for a State University. I'loomington 
was selected as the site for locating the insti- 
tution. The buildings were completed and 
the institution formally openeil in 1825. 
The name was changed to that of the " In- 
diana Academy," ami subsequently, in 1S2S, 
to the " Indiana Colleger" 'i'lic; institution 
]>rospered until 18.>t, when it was destroyed 
by lire, and y,00() volumes, with all the 
apparatus, were consumed. The new col- 
lege, with its additions, was completed in 
1878, and the routine of studies continued. 

The university may now be considered 
on a fixed basis, carrying out the intention 
of the jiresident, who aimed at scholarship 
ratliei' than numbers. The university re- 
ceives from the State annually ;i;15,000, and 
promises, with the aid of other public grants 
and private donations, to vie with any other 
State university within the republic. 

In 1802 Congress j)assed an act granting 
to each State for college purposes public 
lands to the amount of ;iO,000 acres for each 
Senator and Representative in Congress. In- 
diana having in ('ongress at that time thir- 
teen members, became entitled to 3'J0,000 
acres; but as there was no Congress land in 
the State at that time, scrip was instituted, 
under the conditions that the sum of the; 
]>ro(!eeds of the lands should be invested in 
(lovernment stocks, or other eijually safe 
investment, drawing not less than iive ])er 
centum on the par value of said stock, 
the })rincipal to stand undiminished. The 
institution to be thus founded was to ti'ach 
agricultural and tin; mechanical ai'ts as its 
leading features. It was further prosided 
by (!ongrcs8 that should the principal of the 
fund be diminished in any way, it should be 
ic|ihict'<l by the State to whicli it belongs, 
so that the capital of the fund shall remain 
forever undiminished; and further, that in 
ordci- to a\'ail themselves of the benetits of 



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HISTORY OF INDIANA. 



this net, Status must comply with the pro- 
visos of the act within live years after it 
Ijecamc a hiw, \i/,., to erect suitable buildings 
for such school. 

March, iSlio, the I>egislature accepted of 
the national gift, and appointed a board 
of trustees to sell the land. The amount 
realized from land sales was $212,238.50, 
which sum was increased to 8^00,000. 

ilay, ISfiO, John Purdue, of La Fayette, 
offered sl5U,000, and Tijipecanoe County 
$50,000 more, and the title of the institu- 
tion was established — "Purdue University." 

Donations were also made by the Pattle 
Ground Institute, and the Institute of the 
Methodist Episcopal chni-ch. 

The building was located on a 100-acre 
tract, near Chauncey, wliich Purdue gave in 
addition to liis magnificent donation, and to 
which eighty-si.x and one half acres more 
have since been added. The university was 
formally opened March, 1874, and has made 
rapid advances to the present time. 

The Indiana State Xormal School was 
founded at Terre Haute in 1870, in accord- 
ance with the act of the Legislature of that 
year. 

Tlie principal design of this institution was 
to prepare thorough and competent teachers 
for teaching the schools of the State, and the 
anticipations of its founders have been fully 
realized, as proven by the able corps of 
teachers annually graduating from the insti- 
tution, and entering npon their responsible 
missions in Indiana, as well as other States 
of the Union. 

The Northern Indiana Normal School and 
Business Institute, at A'alparaiso, was organ- 
ized in September, 1873. The school occu- 
pied the building known as the Valparaiso 
^lale and Female College building. This 
institution has had a wonderful growth; tlie 
first year's attendance was thirty-five. At 



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this time every State in the Union is repre- 
sented, the number enrolled being over 3,000. 
All branches necessary to (pudify students for 
teaching, or engaging in any line of busi- 
ness, are tautrht. The (Commercial Colle;re 
connected with the school is of itself a great 
institution. 

In addition to tin; public schools and State 
institutions there are a numlier ot denomi- 
national and private schools, some of which 
liave a national as well as a local reputa- 
tion. 

Notre Dame University, near South Pend, 
is the most noted Catludic institution in the 
United States. It was foumled by Father 
Sorin, in 1812. It has a bell weighing 
13,000 pounds, the largest in the United 
States, and one of the finest in the world. 

The Indiana Asbury University, at Green- 
castle, ^lethodist, was founded in 1835. 

Howard College, not denominational, is 
located at Kokoino; founded in 1809. 

Union Christian College, Christian, at 
Meroni, was organized in 1858. 

Moore's Hill College, Metliodist, at Moore's 
Hill, was foimded in 185-1. 

Earlham College, at Pichmond, under 
the mainigement of the Orthodox Friends, 
was founded in 1859. 

Wabash College, at Crawfordsville, under 
Presbyterian management, was founded in 
1834. 

Concordia College, Lutheran, at Fort 
"Wayne, was founded in 1850. 

Hanover College, Presbyterian, was iuund- 
ed at Hanover in 1833. 

Hartsville University, United Prethren, 
was founded at Hartsville in 1854. 

Northwestern Christian University, Dis- 
ciples, is located at Irvinton; organized i:i 
1854. 

All these institutions arc in a flourishing 
condition. 



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BE.NEVOLKNT AM) I'li.NAL IX.'-TITUIIO.NS. 

Ijy tlie yt'iir 1830 tlie inHux of paupers 
and invalid ])ersons was su lijreat as todoiniind 
li'i^islatioii tt'iidiny tu ]iiake iirnvisioiis for 
tlio care of fucIi ])ei-sons. Thu J^ei;islature 
was at lirst slow to ai-t on the matter. At 
tlie present time, however, there is no State 
ill the Union which can hoast a better system 
of benevolent institutions. 

In behalf of the blind, the first elfort was 
made by James M. Hay in 18-fG. Tiiroiii^h 
liis efl'orts "William II. Clmrchman came 
from Xentucky with blind pupils, and gave 
exhibitions in Jlr. IJeecher's church in Indi- 
anapolis. These entertainments were attended 
by members of the Legislature, and had the 
desired effect. That body passed an act for 
founding an institution for the blind in 1847. 
The buildings occupy a space of eight acres 
at the State capital, and is now in a tlourish- 
ing condition. 

The first to awaken an interest in the State 
for the deaf and dumb was AVilliam AVillard, 
himself a mute, who visited Indianapolis in 
1S43. He opened a school for mutes on his 
own account with sixteen pupils. The next 
year the Legislature a<lopted this school as a 
a State institution, and appointed a board of 
trustees for its management. The present 
buildings were completed in 1850, situated 
east of the city of Indianapolis. The grounds 
comprise 105 acres, devoted to pleasure 
grounds, agriculture, fruits, vegetables, flowers 
and pasture. 

The question in regard to taking action in 
the matter of providing for the care of the 
insane, began to be agitated in 1832-'33. No 
definite action was taken, however, until 18-14, 
when a tax was levied, and in 1815 a com- 
mission was appointed to obtain a site for a 
building. Said commission selected I^Ionnt 
Jaclvson, near the State capitol. 

The Lejrislature of 1810 instructed the 



commission to proceed to construct a suitalile 
building. Accordingly, in 1847, the central 
building was completed at a cost of S75,000. 

Other buildings have been erected from 
time to time, as needed to accommodtite the 
increased demand, and at the present time 
Indiana has an institution for the insane 
equal to any in the AVest. 

The State hospital not aflbrding snfHcient 
accommodations for her insane, March 7, 
1883, an act providing for the location and 
erection of "Additional Hospitals for the 
Insane " was passed by the Legislature, and 
Marcii 21 commissioners were appointed. 
After careful consideration three sites were 
located, one at Evansville, one at Logansport 
and one at Kichmond, called respectively the 
Southern, Northern and Eastern hospitals. 
The Southern Indiana Hospital for Insane is 
located four miles east of Evansville, and is 
built on the corridor ])lan. The buildings 
are situated near the center of the hospital 
domain, which consists of 100 acres of highly 
improved land. The structure proper con- 
sists of a central oblong block, which is prac- 
tically the vestibule of the entire hospital. 
From the first floor and the two galleries 
above, entrance is had into the four lateral 
wings. The total capacity is 162 patients. 
This building has been erected at a cost of 
$301,887.49. 

The Northern Indiana Hospital for the 
Insane is located a mile and a half west of 
Logansport, on a tract of land including 281 
acres, lying on the south bank of the Wabash 
Iiiver, and is built on the pavilion plan. At 
the center of the ridge, in the maple grove, is 
situated the administration house. This is 
flanked on each side by fi\e pavilions, ar- 
ranged in a straight line, which are intended 
and designed for the accommodation of the 
sick and infirm. On either side of the above 
named group, 205 feet distant, are located 



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two pavilions, alike in every particular, in- 
tended for quiet jxitients. Tlii.s hospital has 
a capacity for 312 patients, and was erected 
at a cost of i?-l:17A)!:i2.98. 

The Eastern Indiana Hospital for the In- 
sane is located on a tract of 300 acres, two 
miles west of Ilicliinond, and is constructed 
on the cottage plan. The buildings, seven- 
teen in nu\nlier, are arranged in and around 
three sides of a quadrani^k', 1,000 feet loni,^, 
by 700 feet broad, near the center of the 
farm, the third, i>r northern side, Ijcing closed 
in by a grove. Tiie southern front contains 
the administration house; the eastern front, 
five houses for female patients, and the west- 
ern front, similar houses for male jiatients. 
This hospital lias a capacity of 443 patients, 
and was erected at a cost of .$409,81)7.88. 

The first penal institution established in 
the State, known as the State Prisijn South, 
is located at Jetl'ersonville. It was estab- 
lished in 1821, and was the only prison un- 
til 1859. Before this prison was established, 
it was customary to resort to the old-time 
punishment of the whipping-post. I'Vir a 
time the prisoners were hired to contractors; 
later, they were employed constructing new 
prison buildings, which stand on sixteen 
acres of ground. From 1857 to 1871, they 
were employed manutacturing wagons and 
farm imiilements. In 1871 the Southwestern 
Car Company leased of the State all convicts 
capable of ])erforming laljor pertaining to the 
manufacture of cars. This business ceased to 
be profitable to the company in 1873, and in 
187(5 all the convicts were again idle. 

In 1859 the Legislature passed an act 
authorizing the construction of a State 
prison in the north part of the State, and aji- 
propriated $50,000 for that pur])Ose: Michi- 
gan City, on Lake Michigan, was the site 
selected, and a large number of convicts from 
the prison South, were moved to that point 



and began the work which has produced one 
of the best prisons in the country. It diifers 
widely from the Southern, in so much as its 
sanitary condition has been above the average 
of similar institutions. 

The prison reform agitation, which in this 
State attained telling proportions in 1809, 
caused a legislative measure to be brought 
forward which would have a tendency to 
ameliorate the condition of female convicts. 

The Legislature of 1873 voted 850,000 
for the erection of suitable buildings, which 
was carried into effect, and the building de- 
clared ready in September, 1873, located at 
the State capital, and known as the Indiana 
lieformatory Institution for Women and 
Girls. To this institution all female con- 
victs in other prisons in tlie State were im- 
mediately removed, and the institution is 
one of the most commendable for good re- 
sults to be found in any State. 

In 1807 the Legislature appropriated $50,- 
000, for the purpose of founding an institu- 
tion for the correction and reformation of 
juvenile oU'endcrs. A Hoard of Control was 
aj)pointed b}' the (rosernor, mIio assembled 
in Indianapolis, April 3, 1807, and elected 
Charles F. Coffin as President. Governor 
Baker selected the site, fourteen miles from 
Indianapolis, near Plainfield, where a fertile 
farm" of 225 acres was purchased. 

January 1, 1808, a few buildings were 
ready to receive occupants; the main build- 
ing was completed in 1809. Everything is 
constructed upon modern principles, and 
with a view to health and comfort. The in- 
stitution is in a prosperous condition, and 
the good effects of the training received there 
by the young well repays the tax-payers, in 
the way of improving society and elevating 
the minds of those who would otherwise be 
wrecked on life's stream before attaining to 
years of nuiturity. 






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Prominent Men of Indiana. 




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;^;h,IVER PEP.r.Y MOK- 
T( *X, tlio AV;ir Governor 
(if Iiuliiuia, niid one of 
/Tj tlie most eniiiieiit Unitc<l 
-..yl'S Status Senators, was born 
■i_-CO in Salislinry, AVayne 
County, this State, August -i, 
1S2I5. The name, whicli is of 
Knylisli oriifin, \vas (irii;-inally 
Throfkmorton. Wiicn young Oli- 
ver lieeamo a lad he attended the 
aeademy of ]*rofessor lloshoiir at 
Centrcville, in liis native county, 
hut could not continue lony there, 
as the I'amily was too poor to defray liis 
expenses. At the ago of tifteen, therefore, 
he was placed with an older brother to learn 
the liatter's trade, at which he worked four 
years. I )etermiuin;^ then to enter the pro- 
fession of law, he began to i|ualit'y himself hy 
attending tlie iliami University, in 1S43, 
where ho remained two years. IJeturniui; to 
Centrcville, he entered the study of law 
with the late Judge Newman. Succeeding 
well, he soon secured for himself an inde- 
]iendent pi'actice,agood clientai^fe, and rapidly 
ruse to pi-iiminence. In 1S,")2 he was ekx'ted 
circuit judge; but at the end of a year he 
resigned, preferring to practice as an advocate. 
TJ]-) to 1S54 j\[r. ^lurton was a Democrat 
in his party prcferonces; but the repeal of 
the ^lissouri Compromise caused him to 



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secede, an<l join tlie incoming Republican 
party, in which he became a leader from its 
beginning. He was a delegate to the Pitts- 
burg Convention in 185(], where he so ex- 
hibited his abilities that at the next Itcpub- 
lican State Convention he was nominated for 
(Governor against Ashbel P. AVillard, the 
Democratic nominee. His Jiarty being still 
young and in the minority, was defeated; 
but !Mr. ]\[orton came out of the contest with 
greatly increased notoriety and popularity. 

In 1800 Judge Jlorton received the nomi- 
nation for Lieutenant-Governor of Indiana, 
on the ticket with Henry S. Lane, and they 
were elected; but only two days after their 
inauguration (lovernor Lane was electe<l to 
the United States Senate, and ^h: Morton 
became (iovernor. It was while lilling this 
position that he did his best public work, 
and created tor himself a fame as lasting as 
the State itself. He opposed all compromise 
with the Ilebellion, and when the Legislature 
passed a joint resolution providing for the 
aj)]iointment of peace commissioners, he 
selected men who were publicly known to 
lie ojiposed to an}' compi'omise. 

During tlie dark and tedious days of the 
war, iu iMil, (nivernor ]\Iortou defeated Jo- 
sepih !■]. AIcDonald, in the race for Crovernor, 
by a -majority of 20,8s3 votes. The next 
summer he liad a stroke of ])artial paralysis, 
from which he never fully recovered. The 









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(liseasu so artVcted tlic lower part of liis body 
and liis linilis, that lie was never afterward 
ulile to wallc without tlic assistance of canes; 
but otherwise he enjoyed a hiirli dei^ree of 
])hysical and mental vigor. In December 
following he made a voyage to Europe, M'here 
he consulted eminent physicians and received 
medical treatment, but tudy ])artially recov- 
ered. In ilarch, l^ljli, he returned to the 
executive chair to resume his otlicial duties. 
In January, 1807, (iovernor ilorton was 
elected to the United States Senate, being 
succeeded in his State duties by Lieutenant- 
(lovernor liaker. In 1S73 Senator Morton 
was re-elected, and he continued a member 
of that body while lie lived. In that position 
!Mr. ilorton ranked among the ablest states- 
men, was one of the four or five chiefs of his 
party, and, being Chairman of the Committee 
on Privileges and l-^lections, he did more in 
determining the polic}' of the Senate and of 
the Republican party than any other member 
of the Senate. It was during this period that 
the numy vexed (piestions of the reconstruc- 
tion period came up, and with reference to all 
of them lie favored railical and repressive 
measures in dealing with the rebellious States. 
In the spring of 1877 Senator Morton 
went to Oregon as Chairman of a Senate 
Committee to investigate the election of Sen- 
ator (xrover, of that State, and while there he 
lielivercd, at Salem, the last political speech 
of his life. During his return, by way of 
San Francisco, he suifered another jiaralytic 
stroke, and he was brought East on a special 
car, taken to the residence of his mother-in- 
law, 'Slvs. r>urbanks, at Ilichmond, this State, 
aiul passed the remainder of his days there, 
(lying November 1, 1877. The death of no 
man, with the exception of that of President 
Lincoln, ever created so much grief in Indi- 
ana as did that of Senator l\rorton. The 
lamentation, indeed, was national. The Presi- 



dent of the United States directed the flags 
on public liuildings to be placed at half-mast, 
and also that the Government departments 
be closed on the day of the funeral. The re- 
mains of the great statesman were interred 
at the spot in Crown Hill Cemetery where 
he stood on Soldiers' Decoration Day, in 
May, 1870, when he delivered a great speech 
to a large assemblage. Never before did so 
many distinguished men attend the funeral 
of a citizen of Indiana. 

Personally, Senator Morton was character- 
ized by great tenacity of jnirpose and shrewd 
foresight. Talking his aim, he ceased not 
until he attained it, without compromise and 
without conciliation, if not by the means lirst 
adopted, then by another. As Governor of 
Indiana he exhibited wonderful energy, tact 
and forethought. He distanced all other 
Governors in putting troops in the field, and 
he also excelled them all in providing for their 
wants while there. His State pride was in- 
tense, and in respect to the general character 
of the people of his State he brought Indiana 
"out of the wilderness" to the front, since 
which time the Iloosier State has been more 
favorably known. In the great civil war 
which tried the mettle and jiatriotism of the 
people, Indiana came to the front under his 
guidance, yea, to the forefront of the line. 
As a legislator, he originated and accom- 
plished much, being naturally, as well as by 
self-disci]iline, the most aggressive, bold and 
clear-headed Pepublican politician of his 
time. He was alsii well versed in the sciences, 
especially geology; and even in theology he 
knew more than many whose province it is 
to teach it, although he was not a member of 
any church. 

A statue of Senator Morton is placed in 
one of the public jiarks at Indianapolis by 
the contributions of a grateful common- 
wealth. 



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.vfllOMAS ANDREWS 
HENDRICKS, elected 
A'ice-Pi'esiilent of tlie 
United Stutos iu 1884, 
was Lorn in ^luskin^f- 
uin C'ii\iiity, Oliio, near 
tlie city of Ziinosville, Septcm- 
liLT 7, ISI'J. Tlie foilowinj,' 
S]irinij; tlie family moved to 
AradiftOi), this State, and in 
ls22 to SliflKy Cdinity, \vliere 
Vo tlicy opened np a farm in a 
)arscly settled region near tlie 
center of tlie county. It was 
sC^ \I '\^ lierc that Thomas j^rew to man- 
hood. After the completion of 
ills education at Hanover College ho studied 
aw ill the otttce of his uncle, Judi^e Thomson, 
at Chambershurg-, Pennsyh'ania, ami in 
time was admitted t.i the har. 

Ill 1S48 he w.is elected to the Legislature; 
in 1850, to the convention which framed the 
present Constitution of the State, being an 
active participant in the deliberations of that 
body; in 1851 and 1852, to Congress; in 
1855, was appointed Commissioner of the 



General Land Office, which he resigned in 
185'J; ISC.a-'OO, United States Senator; 1872- 
'77,(;o\eriiur of Indiana; and tinally, July 12, 
1881, he Mas nominated liy tlie Democratic 
National Convention at Chicago as second on 
the ticket ^vith (irover Clevehuul, wliii-h \vas 
successful in tli > ensuing campaign; but a 
few days before he should begin to serve as 
Speaker of the Senate, November, 1885, he 
suddenly died at his Ikjiuc iu Indianapolis. 

Going back for ]iarticulars, we should state 
that in 1800 he was candidate for (iovernor 
of Indiana against licniy S. Lane, and \vas 
defeated by U,7.",7 votes, while the Ucpub- 
licaii majority of the State on the national 
ticket was 23,521, showing his immense 
])0]nilarity. Again, in 1808, Conrad Baker 
defeated him by 1,101 votes, when Grant's 
majority over Seymour in the State was 
0,570, and this, too, after he had so bitterly 
opposed the policy of Lincoln's administration, 
and thereby lost from his constituency many 
L^nion sympathizers. And linally, in 1872, 
his majority for (iovernor over General 
Thomas jM. Brown was 1,148; the same year 
(xrant's majority in the State over Greeley 



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was 22,924. Governor lleiulricks M'as tlie 
only man elected on his ticket that year, 
excepting Professor Hopldns, m-Iiu \vas chosen 
to a non-political office. 

Ill 187G Governor Hendricks was a con- 
spicions candidate for the Presidency, beini^ 
the favorite of the AVestern Democracy; but 
the East proved too powerful, and nominated 
Tilden, giving Hendricks the second place on 
the national ticket, thereby strengthening it 
greatly in the "West. 

During the intervals of official life, Mr. 
Hendricks practiced law with eminent suc- 
cess, being equally at home before court or 
jury, and not easily disturbed by unforeseen 
turns in a case. He had no specialty as an 
advocate, being alike efficient in the civil and 
criminal court, and in all kinds and forms of 
actions. AVlien out of office his voice was 
fre(piently lieard on the political questions of 
the day. Indiana regarded liim "with pi'ide, 
and among a large class he was looked upon 
as the leader of the Democracy of the "West. 
His adherents rallied around him in ISSQ, 
and his name was again prominent for the 
Presidential nomination, and might have 
l)cen carried were it not for the opjwsition of 
the friends of ]\rr. I^fcDonald. 

As his views on governmental affairs were 
ci-itical, definite and positive, lie had many 
iiolitical enemies, but none of them have ever 
(liarrred him with malfeasance in office, or 
incompetency in any of his puldic positions. 
He was a man of convictions, conservative, 
eloquent in public address, careful of his 
utterances, and exceedingly earnest. 



^[r. Hciulricks lielongcd to a family noted 
in the hist(jiy of Indiana. His uncle, AVill- 
iam Hendricks, was secretary of the conven- 
tion that formed the iirst Constitution ot the 
State; was Indiana's first Ilepresentative in 
Congress, lier second Governor, aiul for two 
full terms represented it in the Senate of the 
United States. A cousin, John Abram Hen- 
dricks, fell at the battle of Pea Ilidge while 
leading liis regiment against the enemj'; and 
another cousin, Thomas Hendricks, was 
killed in the Techc country while serving in 
the Union army. ^Ir. Ilendi'icks' lather was 
an elder in the Presbyterian church, and he 
himself was baptized and brought up under 
the auspices of that denomination. He never 
joined any church until IStiT, when ho 
Ix'came a memljer of the Protestant Ejiis- 
copal church, retaining his Calvinistic views. 
In person ^Ir. Hendricks was live feet nine 
inches high, weighed about 185 pounds; his 
eyes gray, hair of a sandy hue, nose large 
and iirominent, complexion fair and inclined 
to freckle, and his mouth and chin were 
expressiv'e of determination and tenacity. 
He wore no beard except a little near the ear. 
He was a man of good habits, liealth good, 
step iirin and ])rompt, and voice resonant and 
steady. 

"After his nomination for the Vice-Presi- 
dency he took an active part in the campaign, 
delivering a number of powerful addresses, 
and while waiting for his term of official 
service to begin, death ended his days and 
cast an indescribable shade of gloom over his 
family. State and nation. 



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-vf HIS eminent statesman 

was bcirn in New \'ork 

City, :\[arcli 23, 18:23, 

tlie (Mily eon of liis 

wiilowL'il inDtlier; was 

taui^'-lit in the coninion 

scliools ot' tlic city, linislieil his 

edncation at a liigli-scliool on 

Crosby street, and at ten years 

of age lie liatl received all the 

sfliool training lie c\er liad. 

^'i\ CiS} ''^ After clerking in a store for 

^P'lf/j-S l,s^ three years, lie removed to In- 

^'{^C-'^"^ iliana with liis mother an<l 

^ o\'S^ strpfather, ]\[r. JIathews, set- 

^ ' tliiig in St. Joseph County. 

Here, in the vilhigo of Xew Carlisle, the 

yontlt sersod four j'ears more as clerk in 

a store; tiicii, at the age of seventeen years, 

he was ap])ointed deputy county auditor, 

and to fullill his duties he moved to the 

county seat. South Bend, wliere lie remained 

a resident until his death. 

Like almost every "Western citizen of 
any mental activity, yomig Colfax took 
a practical hold of jiolitical matters about 
as soon as he could vote. He talked and 
thought, and began to publish liis views, 
from time to time, in the local uewspapcr of 
the place. IHs peculitir faculty of dealing 



fairly, and at the same time pleasantly, with 
men of all sorts, his natui'al sobriety and 
common sense, anil his power of stating 
things plainly and correctly, made him a 
natural newspaper man. He was employed 
during several sessions of the Legislature, to 
report the proceedings of the Senate for the 
Lidianapolis Journal, and in this position 
made many friends. Li 1845 he became 
proprietor and editor of the St. Joseph Val- 
ley llc<j'(Stei', the S(Uith Bend iiewspapei', 
which then had but 250 subscribers; but 
the youthful editor had hope and energy, and 
after struggling through many disappoint- 
ments, including the loss of his ottice by fire, 
he succeeded in making a comfortable living 
out of the enterprise. 

Mr- Colfax was a Whig so long as that 
party existed. In 1848 he was a delegate to 
the convention which nominated General 
Taylor for President, and was one of the sec- 
retai'ies of that body. The next year he was 
a member of the State Constitutional Con- 
vention, being elected thereto from a Demo- 
cratic district. Soon afterward he was 
nominated for the State Senate, but declined 
because he could not be sjiared from his busi- 
ness. His lirst nomination for Congress was 
in 1851, but was beaten by 200 votes, which 
was less than the real Democratic majority 






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PROMINliNT MEN OF INDIANA. 



ill his district. Ilis successful competitor 
was Dr. Ciniliain K. Fitcli, wlio, along \vi*'li 
AFr. P>riglit, liccunc so consjiicnuus in the 
suj)])ort ol' Ihichanaii. In 1S52 lie was a 
ilclcg-atc to the \\'iiiir National Convention 
tiiat nominated (leneral Scott, and was again 
secretary. 

Franklin Pierce, the Deinoeratic nominee, 
was elected President, and during his tei-m 
tlie Whig party w;is dissolved upon the issue 
of slavery, and, naturally enough, Mr. Colfax 
drifted in with the party of freedom. So did 
the people of his Congressional district; for, 
after having given their Democratic repre- 
sentative l,0()t) majority two years before, 
they now nominated and elected Mr. Colfax 
to succeed liiin by about 2,000 majority. 

Tiie Congress to which he was thus elected 
is noted for the tedious struggle in the elec- 
tion of a Speaker of the House, resulting, 
Fehruary 2, 1850, in the choice of N. P. 
Panks. Air. Colfax, who was second in the 
race fur the Speakership, exhibited wonderful 
jiarlianientary tact in staving off the South- 
erners, wlio at tunes seemed on the point ot 
success. As to parties at this time, they 
were considerably broken up, comprising 
" >Vnti-Nebraska" (Tiepublican), Democrats, 
Know-Nothings and nondescripts. During 
this and the succeeding Congress, to which 
AFr. Colfax was elected, he delivered several 
telling speeches, some of which were printed 



almost by the million and distributed to 
the voters througliout the North. These 
siieeches were full of solid facts and figures 
with reference to the Pro-Slavery party, 
especially in Kansas, so tliat, by a sort of 
play upon liis name, the people often re- 
ferred to him as "Cold-facts." 

In 1800 Mr. Colfax was elected to Con- 
gress the third time, and in 1802 the fourtii 
time. In December, 18G3, lie was chosen 
Speaker of the House, which j^osition he re- 
tained to the end of the term for which 
Lincoln and Johnson were elected, exhil>- 
iting pre-eminent parliamentary skill and 
an obliging disposition. Equally polite to 
all, lie M-as ever a gentleman worthy of the 
highest honor. 

The favorable notorict}' gained by his 
"cold facts" against slavery, parliamentary 
ability, his power of debate, and his suavity 
of manner, led the Pepublican party in ISOS 
to ])lace liim on the national ticket, second 
only to the leading soldier of the Union, 
U. S. Grant. Being elected, he served as 
President of the Senate with characteristic 
ability throughout his term. Then, retiring 
from political life, he devoted the remaining 
years of his life to lectures upon miscella- 
neous topics; and it was during a lecturing 
tour in ^Minnesota that he was stricken down 
with liis final illness. He died at Maukato, 
that State, January 13, 1885. 









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ETil'] -we have present- 
ed a praptical illnstra- 
^ tioii of tlie type of man 
])i-oiluced by a young 
and vigorons rcpul)lic, 
m^ wliicli had, but a few 
years precedlno- li'- 



i;VH^v>7 ^''■'^1') asserted, witli justice, and 
5'^>.V!v^ successfully maintained, her claim 
S^7ip^ to assume lier riglitful position as 
^ XOV one of the nations of the earth. 
'' U„ James D.Williams was born in 

T'ickaway County, Ohio, January 
8, 1S08, soon after that State liad 
assumed ^ her ^ilace among that 
galaxy of stars destined to liecome the great- 
est nation in the worhl. 

In childliofid he removed with his parents 
to Knox County, Indiana, where he received 
a common-school education, and grew to 
manhood a tiller of the soil. 

He entered the theater of life at a time 
when the stage scenery Avas of the most 
gigantic grandeur ever beheld by the eye of 
man. Nature in her stujiCTidous splendor 
was around and about the young actor, and 
he readily imbibed the spirit of liis sur- 
roundings, and was filled with enthnsiastic 
ho]ie for the future greatness of the vast and 
beautiful country, which Ijut awaited the call 
of the Inisbandman to answer in bountiful 



harvests to his many demands. "With yonncr 
AVilliams the grandeur of the scene lilled his 
suul with a hopeful determination to act 
well his part in the great drama before him, 
as the reader will iind while following iiim 
down life's pathway. 

AV'hen lie attained to manhood lie engaged 
in agricultural pursuits and stock-raisino-, and 
became widely known as a practical and suc- 
cessful Indiana f^inner. 

lie had closely observed the passing events 
in the clash and conflict of political parties, 
and his fellow citizens saw in him the qual- 
itied elements of a representative man, and 
he was frerpiently elected as a Democrat to 
represent his county in the Lower House of 
the Legislature, where lie discharged the 
duties devolving upon him with marked 
ability and even beyond the e.xpectatitms of 
his constituents. The sagacity and ability 
with which he dealt M'ith ]iublic measures 
in the Lower House opened the avenue to 
higher honors and more weighty responsi- 
bilities. 

In 1859 he was elected to the State Senate, 
where he continuously served liis constitu- 
ency until 18G7, maintaining the reputation 
he had gained in the Lower House for ability 
and the faithful performance of duty, and 
still developing a capacity for a wider Held 
of operations. 



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lie was not pLTmittL'd to long live in the 
liome life which he so niuch enjoyctl. The 
alile and lUithful manner in which lie had 
ditfpluirged his duties as a public servant, his 
common sense and social manner, made him 
tViends even among his political opponents. 
lie hore honors conferred upon hiui noLly 
but meekly, never ceasing to gratefully re- 
member those to whom gratitude was due for 
the positions of honor and trust to which 
tliey had called liim. 

lie was destined to spend his life as a 
public servant. His fellow citizens again 
elected him to the State Senate in 1871, and 
in 1S74 he was again cruwned witli higher 
honors, and was elected tt) represent his dis- 
trict iu the Congress of the United States, 
wiiere he displayed the same ability in deal- 
ing with public (questions that he had in the 
legislative body of his State. During his 
ti'rm in Congress lie served in the impor- 
tant position of chairman of the Committee 
on Public Accounts. 

lie was a ])romiiient and leading member 
of the Indiana State I>oard of Agriculture for 
seventeen years, and served as its president 
for three years. No one citizen of Indiana 
was more deeply interested and active in de- 
veloping and promoting the agricultural and 
(itliei- industrial resources of his State than 
he. < )iie leading feature of his ambition was 
to be in the front rank of progress, and to 
place his State on a plane with the sister 
States of the prosjjerous Union. He was 
eipially active in tlie educational interest of his 
fellow citizens, and advocated facilities for 
diil'using knowledge among the masses, plac- 
ing an education witliin the reach of children 
of the most humble citizen. 

lie gathered liaj)pliiess while promoting 
the weltare of others, and step by step, year 
by year, his friends increased in numbers 
and warmed in devotion to their trusted, 



faithful and grateful servant. lie was rapid- 
ly growing iu State popularity, as lie had 
long enjoyed the confidence of his own county 
and district, and in his quiet, unassuming 
way was building larger than he knew. His 
plain manner of dress, commonly " blue 
jeans," caused him to become widely known 
by the sobriquet of " Blue Jeans," of which 
his admirers were as proud as were those of 
" Old Hickory " as apjdied to Andrew Jack- 
son, or " liough and lieady " as applied to 
General Zachariah Taylor. 

The civil war liad made fearful inroads in 
party lines; the public questions to be set- 
tled immediately following the close of the 
war involved" problems which many leading 
men, who had previously acted witli the 
Democratic party, could not solve satisfacto- 
rily to themselves from a Democratic stand- 
point; hence they cast their fortunes with 
the popular party, the llepublican. 

The Democratic party had been impatient- 
ly but energetically seeking State supremacy. 
James D. Williams, so far as tried, had led 
the column to success, why not make him 
their Moses to lead them to possess the 
promised land, State Supremacy? 

The centennial anniversary of American 
independence, 187G, seemed to them the auspi- 
cious period to marshal their forces under an 
indomitable leader and go forth to conquer. 

They accordingly in that year nominated 
the Hon. James D. AVilliains for Governor, 
and the Republicans nominated General Ben- 
jamin Harrison, a military hero and a lineal 
descendant of General AV. II. Harrison. The 
contest will stand in history as the most ex- 
citing campaign in the political liistory of 
the United States, and resulted in the elec- 
tion of the Democratic leader. His services 
as Governor of the State were characteristic 
of his j^ast public life. He died, full of hoii- 
ors. on November 20, 1880. 



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-*'()( )KING outsule of the 



w>»|^ii!r'A, rL';iliii of statesmen, -we 

,.„)|;|l,^^gte,!, iiciit citizen oflndi- 
V-s^ia-^O.^^^^ ana nnt now living 
' ' '^ '■ ^^^ was the learned 
Scotchman named at the head of 
this sketch. Tlohert Owen, liis 
father, was a great tlieorist in 
social and religimis reforms. lie 
was born in Newtown, ^lontgom- 
ervshire. North A\''ales, ]\rarch 14, 
1771, wliere he died November 
19, 18uS. 

lie (the father) entered upon a 
commercial life at an early age, and subse- 
(pieiitly engaged in the cotton manufacture 
at New Lanark, Scotland, where lie introduced 
important reftirms, having for their object 
tlie improvement of the condition ui' tlie 
laborers in hisemj^loy, afterward he directed 
liis attention to social questions on a broader 
scale, publishing in 1812 '• New Views of 
Society, or Essays ujion the l''ormation of the 
Human Character," and subseijuently the 
" Book of the New Moral World," in whicli 
he advocated doctrines of human equality 



and the abolition of class distinctions. Hav- 
ing W(.in a hu'ge fortune in his business, he 
■\vas able to gi\ e his views a wide circulation, 
and his folbjwers became numerous; but, 
being outs])okcii against many of the gen- 
erally received theidogical dugmas of the 
time, a /.eahius op|Hi^ition was also aroused 
against liim. After the death of his jjatron, 
the Duke of Kent, he emigrated to this 
country, in 1S2.!, and at his own expense 
founded the celebrated communistic soeietv 
at New Harmony, this State. The scheme 
proving a failure he returned to England, 
where lie tried several similar experiments 
with the same result; but in spite of all his 
failures he was universally esteemed for his 
integrity and benevolence. His later years 
were spent in efforts to promote a i-eligiou of 
reason, and to improve the condition of tlie 
working classes. 

His eldest sou, the subject of this biograjihi- 
cal sketch, was born in Glasgow, Scotland, 
November 7, 1801; was educated at Eelleiis- 
berg's College, near TJerne, Switzerland; came 
with liis father to the United States in 1823, 
and assisted him in his efforts to found the 
colony of New Harmony. On the failure of 



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178 



VKOMINENT MEN OF INDIANA. 



tliiit experiiiieiit lie visituil Fniiico and Eng- 
liiiul, but returned tu this country in 1827 
and bcciunc a citizen. In 1828, in partner- 
sliip witli Miss Frances AVriglit, lie founded 
"Tlie Free En(|uirer," a weekly journal do- 
voted to Socialistic ideas, and to 0])position to 
the supernatural origin and claims of Chris- 
tianity. The paper was discontinued after 
aTi existence of three yeai's. In 1832 he 
married Mary Jane lloLinson, of New York, 
who died in 1871. After marriage he settled 
again in New Harmony, where for three suc- 
cessive years (1835-'38) lie was elected a mem- 
lier of the Legislature. It was through his 
iiitluence that one-half of the surplus revenue 
of the United States ajipropriated to the 
State of Indiana was devoted to the support 
of public schools. From 1843 to 1847 he 
represented the First District of Indiana in 
Congress, acting with the Democratic party; 
took an active paat in the settlement of the 
northwestern boundary question, serving as 
a member of the committee of conference on 
that subject, and introduced the bill organ- 
izing the Smithsonian Institute, and served 
for a time as one of the regents. In 1850 he 
was a member of the Indiana Constitutional 
Convention, in which lie took a prominent 
part. It was through his efforts that Indiana 
conferred independent property rights upon 
women. In 1853 he went to Naples, Italy, 
as United States Charcje (VAifaircs, and from 
1855 to 1858 he hold the position of Min- 
ister. 

In 18(j0, in the New York Trihime, ho 
discussed the subject of divorce with Horace 
Cireeley, and a pamphlet edition of the con- 
troversy afterward obtained a wide circula- 
tion. 

After the breaking out of the Hebellion, 
Mr. Owen was a warm champion of the 
policy of emancipation, and the letters which 
he addressed to members of the cabinet and 



the President on that subject were widely 
disseminateil. When the proposition was 
made by certain inlluential })oliticians to 
reconstruct the Union with New Fngland 
"left out in the cold," j\[r Owen addressed 
a letter to tlie people of Indiana exposing 
the dangerous character of the scheme, 
which the Union Leagues of New York 
and Fhiladelphia published and circulated 
extensively. In 18G2 he served as a mem- 
ber of the Comniisson on Ordnance Stores, 
and in 18G3 was Chairman of the American 
Freedmeu's Commission, which rendered val- 
uable service to the country. 

^Ir. Owen was a prominent Spiritualist in 
liis philosophical views, and jjublished sev- 
eral remarkable works inculcating them. 
His mind, in his later years, beginning to 
totter, he was often too credulous. He also 
published many other works, mostly of a 
jxditical nature. To enumerate: he pub- 
lished at Glasgow, in 1824, " Outlines of 
System of Education at New Lanark;" at New 
York, in 1831, "Moral Physiology;" the 
next year, "Discussion with Origen Pachelor 
on the Personality of God and the Authentici- 
ty of the Bible;" and subsequently, "Pocahon- 
tas," an historical drama; "Hints on Public 
Architecture," illustrated; "Footfalls on the 
Poundary of Another World," probably liis 
most wonderful work; "Tiie Wrong of Slav- 
ery, and the Eight of Freedom;" "Beyond 
the P>reakers," a novel; "The Debatable 
Land between this AVorld and the Next," 
and "Threading My Way," an autobiography. 

The giant intellect of Mr. Owen being 
linked to a large and tender heart, his sym- 
pathies were constantly rasped by witnessing 
the boundless but apparently needless amount 
of sull'ering in the world, and chafed by 
the opposition of conservatism to all efforts 
at alleviation, so that in old age he was liter- 
ally worn out. He died at an advanced age. 




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^ ^K- INTRODUCTORY. •:'^.-.- t 



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UN one lirief gene- 

I'iition a duiise and 

nnl>roken wilderness 

has been transformed 

into a cultivated re- 

Q-j/iciis 1 ••;,? \ \ ijion of thrift and 

■^V''?^ iirosiieritv, hy tlie 

f*At'''<^A. untirinir zeal and energy of an en- 
^^CX:^ ,, ' . 

^^•^^y^ terprising people. Tlie trails of 

EwA,^ hunters and U-apjiers have given 

4SM^ ]ihice to railroads and thorough- 

iSkRc^r' fares for veliicles of every deserip- 

''^^^ tion; the cabins and garden patches 

Q of the ])ioneers have been succeeded 
by comfortable houses and broad 
lields of waving grain, with school-houses, 
clinrches, mills, postotiices and other institu- 
tions of eonvenience tor each community. 
Add to these a city of 2.000 inhabitants and 
numerous thriving villages, with e.\tensi\c 
business and manufacturing interests, and 
tlie result is a work of wliiidi all concerned 
nuiy well lie prouil. 

The record of this marvelous change is 
histoi-y, and the most important that can 
be written. For sixty years the people df 
Adams County have been making a hibtory, 



that fiir thrilling iiitei-est, grand ju'aotical 
results, and lessons that may be ]ierused 
with profit Ijy citizens of other regi<in.^, will 
compare lavorably with the narrative of the 
history nf any county in the great North- 
west; and. Considering the extent of teri-itury 
involved, it is as worthy of the jien nf a 
ISancroft as even the stury of luir glorious 
liepublic. 

AVliile our venerable ancestoi's may liave 
said and believed 

" No peut-up Ulicii contracls our powers, 
For tlje wliole boiimiless cuiiliaent is ours," 

they were, nevertfieless, for a long time con- 
tent to occupy and possess a very small 
corner of it; and the great A\'"est was not 
opened to industry and civilization until a 
variety of causes had combined to form, as 
it were, a great heart, whose animating 
principlr was ini])r()vemcnt, whose impulses 
annually sent forward armies of noble men 
and women, and whose ])ulse is now felt 
throughout the length and breadth of the 
best country the sun ever shone upon — from 
the ]Mneries of !Maine to the vineyards of 
Califiirnia, and tVcmi the sugar-canes of Loui- 
siana to the wheat fields of Minnesota. Long 



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IILSTOUY Of ADAMS COUNTY. 



may this lieart heat ami piisli foruavd its 
avtLTics ami veins of cuininerce. 

Not iiiiire iVuin choice than from enforced 
necessity did the old pioneers bid farewell to 
the plaj-groiiml of their childhootl and the 
rrraves of their fathers. One generation alter 
another had worn themselves ont in tJie ser- 
vice of their avaricious landlords. From the 
first Hashes of daylight in the morning, until 
the last glimmer of the setting sun, they had 
toiled unceasingly on, from father to son, 
carrying home each day upon their aching 
shoulders the precious proceeds of their daily 
labor. Money and pride and power were 
handed down in the line of succession from 
the rich father to his son, while unceasing 
work and continuous poverty and everlasting 
obscurity wei-e the heritage of the working 
man and his children. 

Their society was graded and degraded. 
It was not manners, nor industry, nor educa- 
tion, nor qualities of the head and heart that 
established the grade. It was money and 
jewels, and silk and satin, and broadcloth and 
imperious pride that triumphed over honest 
poverty and trampled the poor man and his 
children under the iron heel. The children 
of the rich and poor were not permitted to 
mingle with and to love each other. Court- 
ship was more the work of the parents than 
of the sons and daughters. The golden calf 
was the key to mati'imony. To perpetuate a 
self-constituted aristocracy, without power of 
brain, or the rich blood of royalty, purse was 
united to purse, and cousin with cousin, in 
bonds of matriuKjiiy, until the virus boiling 
in their blood was transmitted by the law of 
inheritance from one generation to another, 
and until nerves powerless and manhood 
dwarfed were on exhibition everywhere, and 
everywhere abhorred. For the sons and 
daughters of the poor man to remain there, 
was to forever follow as our fathers had fol- 




lowed, and nevei' to lead; to submit, but 
never to rule; to obey, but never to cum- 
mand. 

Without money or prestige, or iuHuential 
friends, the ])ioneers drifted along one by 
one, from State to State, until in Indiana — 
the garden of tiie Union — they have found 
inviting homes for each, and room for a 
To secure and adorn these homes more than 
ordinary ambition was recjuired, greater than 
ordinary endurance demanded, and unflinch- 
ing determination was, by the force of neces- 
sity, written over every l)row. It was not 
pomp, or parade, or glittering show that the 
pioneers were after. They sought for homes 
which they could call their own, homes for 
themselves and homes for their children. 
How well they have succeeded after a struggle 
of many years against the adverse tides, let 
the records and ta.\-gatlierers testify; let 
the broad cultivated flelds and fruit-bearing 
orchards, the flocks and the herds, the pala- 
tial residences, the places of business, the 
spacious halls, the clattering car-wheels and 
ponderous engines all testify. 

There was a time when pioneers waded 
through deep snows, across bridgeless rivers, 
and through bottomless sloughs, a score of 
miles to mill or market, and when more time 
was required to reach and return from mai-ket 
than is now requiretl to cross the continent, 
or traverse the Atlantic. The.se were the 
times when our palaces were constructed of 
logs and covered with "shakes" riven from 
the forest trees. These were the times when 
our children were stowed away for the night 
in the low, dark attics, among the horns of 
the elk and the deer, and where through the 
chinks in the "shakes" they could count 
the twinkling stars. These were the times 
when our chairs and our bedsteads were 
hewn from the forest trees, and tables and 
bureatis constructed from the bo.xes in which 



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their goods were brought. These were the 
times when the working man hibored six and 
sometimes seven days in the \veek, and all 
the hours there were in a day from sunrise to 
sunset. 

Whether all succeeded in what they under- 
took is nut a question to be asked now. The 
proof that as a body they did succeed, is all 
around us. Many individuals were perhaps 
disa]i]ioiuted. Fortunes and misfortunes be- 
long to the human race. Not every man can 
have a school-house on the corner of his 
farm; not every man can have a liridge over 
the stream that flows by his dwelling; not 
every man can have a railroad depot on the 
borders of his plantation, or a city in its cen- 
ter; and while these things are desirable in 
some respects, their advantages are often- 
times outweighed by the almost perpetual 
presence of the foreign beggar, the dreaded 
tramj), the fear of tire and conflagration, and 
the insecurity from the presence of the mid- 
night burglar, and the bold, bad men and 
women who lurk in ambush and infest the 
villages. The good things of this earth are 
not all to be found in any one place; but if 
more is to be found in one than another, 
that place is in oiir rural retreats, our quiet 
homes outside of the clamor and turmoil of 
city life. 

In viewing the blessings which surround 
us, then, we should reverence those who have 
made them possible, and ever fondly cherish 
in memory the sturdy old pioneer and his 
log cabin. 

Let us turn our eyes and thoughts back to 
the log cabin days of a quarter of a century 
ago, aiul contrast those homes with the com- 
fortaLle dwellings of to-day. Before us stands 
the old log cabin. Let us enter. Listinct- 
ively the liead is uncovered in token of rever- 
ence to this relic of ancestral beginnings, 
early struggles and fitu^l triumphs. To the 



left is the deep, wide tire-place, in whose 
commodious space a group of children may 
sit by the lire, and up through the chimney 
may count the stars, while ghostly stories ot 
witches and giants, and still more thrilling 
stories of Indians and wild beasts, are whis- 
peringly told and shudderingly heard. On 
the great crane hang the old tea-kettle and 
the great iron pot. The huge shovel and 
tongs stand sentinel in either corner, while 
the great andirons patiently wait for the huge 
back-log. Over tlie fire-place hangs the 
trusty rifle. To the right of the fire-place 
stands the spinning-wheel, while in the fur- 
ther end of the room is seen the old-fashioned 
loom. Strings of drying apples and poles of 
drying pumpkins are overhead. Opposite 
the door in which you enter stands a huge 
deal table; by its side the dresser, whose 
pewter plates and "shining delf" catch and 
reflect the lire-place flames as shields of 
armies do the sunshine. From the corner of 
its shelves coyly peep out the relics of former 
china. In a curtained corner and hid from 
casual sight we find the mother's bed, and 
under it the trundle-bed, while near them a 
laddei- indicates the loft where the older chil- 
dren sleep. To the left of the fire-place and 
in the corner opposite the spinning-wheel is 
the mnther's work-stand. Upon it lies the 
JJible, evidently much used, its family record 
telling of parents and friends a long way off, 
and telling, too, of children 

" SciittereJ like roses in blooui, 
Some at the bridal, some at the tomb." 

Her spectacles, as if but just used, are in- 
serted between the leaves of her Bible, and 
tell of her purpose to return to its comforts 
when cares permit and duty is done. A 
stool, a bench, well-notched and whittled and 
carved, and a few chairs, complete the furni- 
ture of the room, and all stand on a coarse 
but well-scoured floor. 



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IlISTOUY OF ADAMS COUNTY. 



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\.v\ IKS tor ;i iiioinoiit watcli tlio city visitors 
to tlli^ luiinlilc caliiii. The city bride, imio- 
cciit lint tliou^litless, aiul i(j;iii)r:Lnt of ialxjr 
and care, ask.s iier city-lired liusliaud, "Pray, 
■what savages set tliis up T' Honestly con- 
fessing his ignciranee, he replies, " I do iu)t 
know."' lint see the ]iair upon whom age 
sits "frosty, luit kindly.'' l''irst, us they 
enter, they give a rajiid glance about the i 
cabin home, and then a mutual glance of eye 
to eye. Why do tears start and till their 
eves ? AVliy do lips (piiver i There are many 
who know \vhy, but who that has not learned 
in the school of exjiei'icnce the full meaning 
of all these symbols of trials and ])rivations, 
of loneliness and danger, can comprehend 
the story that they tell to the iiioneer ? With- 
in this chinked and mud-daulied cabin we 
read the first pages of our history, and as we 
retire through its low door-way, and note the 
heavy-battened door, its wooden hinges and 
its welcoming latch-string, is it strange that 
the scenes without sliould seem to be but a 
dream 'i l!ut the cabin and the palace, stand- 
ing side by side in vivid contrast, tell their 
own story of tins' people's progress. They 
are a history and a prophecy in one. 

TulMliK.Vl'llY, CI.niATK, KTC. 

Adams (bounty is situated between 40° 30' 
and -41° north latitude. The eightii meri- 
diati of longitude west from Washington 
]>asses through it. Its political boundaries 
are: Allen CJounty, north; Van Wert and 
Mercer counties, Ohio, east; Jay, south, and 
Wells, west. It is twenty-four miles in 
length and fourteen in breadth, and conse- 
quently contains 331) square miles. It has 
twelve townshi])S, viz. : Union, I'oot, Preble, 
Kirkland, Wasliington, St. Mary's, Blue 
Creek, IMonroe, Frencli, Hartford, Wabash 
and Jefferson. The surface is nearly level or 
gently undulating, e.xcej)t near the rivers. 



whei-e it is slightly brcdvcn. I'lie controlling 
topographical feature is its numerous streams, 
of whicli the St. .Mary's and AVabash Rivers 
are the most iinportant. They present sev- 
eral striking coincidences. Each, measui'ed 
by its wiiulings, traverses the county for 
about twenty-live miles; is nearly 150 fet^t 
wide; intersects four townships, aiul tiuws 
from southeast to northwest. The A\'abash, 
within the county, receives the waters of si.\- 
teen and the St. IMary's of twenty-two alflu- 
ents that are worthy of being engraved on a 
map. The Wabash rises in Ohio, passes 
through the southern part of this county, and 
after intersecting the State line forms for a 
long distance its western boundary. Its 
waters are discharged into the Ohio, and car- 
ried by the ^lississippi, the great artery of 
the continent, into the Gulf of ^lexico. The 
St. Mary's rises in Ohio, flows through the 
northern part of Adams Count}', and termi- 
nates at Fort Wayne, where its union with 
the St. Joe forms the Maumee, wliose waters 
are finally discharged through the noble St. 
Lawreiice into the gulf of the same name. 
How opposite the destinations of different 
portions of the rainfall of Adams County ! 
In Jefferson and Wabash Townships branches 
of these two principal streams are very nar- 
rowly separated, and there we find the water- 
shed from which the waters run both into the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence and ]\Ie.\ico. 

The St. Mary's was formerly navigated by 
flat-boats, and all the considerable streams 
teemed with fish. This means of transpor- 
tation was taken away, and tiiis supply of 
healthfid, delicious food diminished by the 
building of mill-dams across our creeks and 
rivers. In the bed of the Wabash, near 
Buena Vista, is found an abundance of fine 
limestone for building purposes. The strata 
runs out two miles south of the Wabash. 

The land groaned under the thick prime- 



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v;il forest by wliicli it w:is well iiigli covered. 
Almost ever}' kiTid of trees iiulii;-eiious to such 
a climate and soil was here in pi-ofiision-- 
beech, oak, ash, hickory, walnut and elm of 
royal dimensions were thickly set among the 
monarchs of many other species. Close un- 
dergrowth, made almost impenetrable by its 
interlaced branches, covered no inconsider- 
able portion of the ground. Such a wilder- 
ness was tlie tit home of the animals which 
inhabited it — the squirrel, opossum, porcu- 
pine, raccoon, deer, fox, wolf, wildcat and 
bear. The work of changing such a forest 
into pleasant fields, gardens and orchards 
must have appalled the stoutest heart. The 
Soil, in fertility, was all that could have been 
wished, but often rather tenacious and too 
retentive of water. It was best adapted to 
corn and gra.ss. From the best information 
accessible we conclude that tlie climate lias 
not lieen greatly changed by the work of the 
woodman's ax. It is true that, in some in- 
stances, in the days of the pioneers, cattle 
subsisted entirely on browse and grass, which 
remained green dui'ing the winter, but veire- 
tation through the summer was luxuriant, 
and the grass near the earth was slieltered by 
that which overtopped it, while all below was 
protected by the tall forest trees. 

But the facts adduced can not be relied on 
to infallibly convey to the mind a very defi- 
nite idea of the tem])erature of the atmos- 
phere. Exact knowledge could only be had 
from a record of the variations of the mercu- 
rial column, and, as no such record seems to 
have been kept by any of the very early set- 
tlers, we are left to judge from circum- 
stances of a very equivocal nature. The 
winds of this region are variable, but those 
from the soutiiwest prevail, and bear with 
them much of the warmth and moisture ac- 
cumulated near the tropics. Ileat and moist- 
ure arc the atmospheric conditions favorable 

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to vegetation, an<l when to tliese is added a 
fertile soil, a combination of rare kindness 
to vegetable life is the result. Tlie yearly 
rainfall averages forty inches, and the mean 
summer temperature of this section of the 
countr}' is fifty degrees. In such a soil and 
climate both orchard and .small fruits, with 
proper attention, it would seem, could not 
but do well, and this has proven true, excejit, 
jiorhaps, with cherries and peaches. For 
these our winters are either too severe or 
changeable. All the cereals of the Xorthern 
and Middle States are successfully cultivated. 
Especially is this true of corn, which seldom 
fails, and frequently yields an immense crop. 
I'ut it is fur the raising of grass and rearing 
of stock that the farmer may receive the 
richest compensation. The soil and climate 
are higlily favorable to the growth of the 
various grasses, and the average amount per 
acre that might be grown, if accurately as- 
certained, would, no doubt, surpass belief. 
These remarks are confirmed by the testimony 
of the most successful farmers of the county. 
In any country of abundant rainfall, rather 
high temperature, numerous turbid and 
slowly running streams, rank and decaying 
vegetation, the atmosphere must be loaded 
with miasma. Such was the case here, and 
many of the early settlers fell victims of the 
diseases thereby engendered. Ague, an epi- 
demic whose unwelcome visitations were the 
prolific cause of suffering, is not yet entirely 
unknown. As the ax did its work the rays 
of the sun fell on the ground and it became 
dry. As tree after tree fell, and the thick 
green canopy covering large areas was re- 
moved, the winds did their work, and the 
primal cause of fever and ague was removed. 
Milksickness, one of the most jieculiar and 
malignant diseases with which the medical 
faculty have to deal, formerly occurred in 
c<,'rtain pai'ts of the county. 



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niaTOUY UK ADAMS COUNTY. 



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li'^Early and Civil History.K^ ;' I 







'ONGRESS, in 1787, 
created tlie historic 
"Northwest Territory," 
including the present 
State of Indiana. Gen- 
eral Arthur St. Clair 
'''^ M'as elected by Congress 

^#?^^ Governor of the Territory. The 
id-.Vjai Indians at this time deserved 
severe chastisement, but both 
Generals Ilarmar and St. Clair, 
in their attempts to administer 
it, suti'ered disastrous defeat, and 
General AVayne, the " Mad An^ 
tliony " of the Kevolution, was 
a])pointed to perform that work. The task 
was an arduous one, and the time from 1792 
until late in 179-4 was spent in preparing the 
army for effective action. 

In August, 1794, AVayne's army passed 
through what is now Adams County, but was 
then a dense wilderness. Every old settler 
is acquainted with the " Wayne trail." It 
is the ancient landmark of the county, and 
its permanence was caused by the slow and 
laborious ailvance of the army, which was 
necessitated by the vigilance of the Indians. 
The army generally halted and pitched- tlieir 
tents about the middle of the afternoon, and, 



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the ground of the encampment being previous- 
ly marked out by the surveyor, each company 
fortitied in front of its position, by cutting 
down trees and erecting a breastwork, so that 
by dark a complete fortification inclosed the 
camp. The army entered the county at a 
point very little north of where the St. Mary's 
River passes from Ohio into Indiana, fol- 
lowed a northwesterly course through the 
southwest part of Union Township, and 
emerged from the county somewhere nearly 
equi-distaiit from the northwest corner of 
Union Township and the point where the 
Cincinnati, Richmond & Fort Wayne (Grand 
Rapids & Indiana) Railroad passes into Allen 
County. 

In 1800 Indiana was made a Territory, and 
a Territorial government organized, and in 
1816 it was admitted into the Union as a 
State. Wayne, Franklin, Dearborn, Switzer- 
land, Jefferson, Clark, AVashington, Harrison, 
Knox, Gibson, Posey, AVarrick and Perry 
were the counties of Indiana at the time of 
its admission into the Union. Out of the 
territory which then formed Knox thirty 
counties have since been formed, of which 
Adams is one. 

Randolph County, when organized, includ- 
ed Allen within its limits, and when Allen 



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EAULY AND CIVIL IIISTURY. 



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was ui-ffauizeil, in lS'23, Adams (Vuinty 
IbriiiL'd a part of it. 

Tiie second road, or rather trail, in the 
county was made some time after Wayne's 
march, and prior to 1.S18. It connected Fort 
AVayne and Fort Recovery, and angled 
througli the county from northwest to south- 
east, passing over the present site of Decatur, 
^[ililary supplies were transported over the 
trail, and some time before 1818 a camp was 
established and about an acre cleared at the 
springs in lioot Township, on what is now 
known as the " old Ileynolds farm." Wayne 
County was settled in 1805, and in 1819 the 
settlers at Richmond, who belonged to the 
society known as Friends, cut out a road 
from AViiichester, Randolph County, to tlie 
military road just described. This road was 
known as the " Quaker Trail," and it struck 
the military road in this county near the 
mouth of Yellow Creek. 

In the year 1819 smoke curled above the 
first cabin ever erected in Adams County. It 
was situated at the head of Tliompson's 
Prairie, in what is now Blue Creek Township. 
The honor of building it, of doing the tirst 
clearing, and of being the first actual settler 
in the county, belongs to Henry Lowe. In 
the year 1820 liobert Douglas, finding about 
one acre of cleared land at the springs on the 
Reynolds farm, where was situated the mili- 
tary camp, cleared a few acres of land and 
built the second cabin in the county. He 
raised a crop of corn during the summer of 
18~0, after which he left the place and went 
to Fort Wayne, which was then a small vil- 
lage. From Fort Wayne he moved to Peru, 
where he died many years ago. It was in 
1820, too, that Henry Lowe's place at the 
head of the prairie was taken by William 
Robinson, who in that year became an in- 
liabitant of the county. He lived on the 
place for about two years, when he moved to 



Fort AVaync. ]>uwe returned to Ohio, where 
he lived to an advanced age. Robinson's 
place was taken by a Mr. Thompson, for 
wliom the prairie was named. 

The next settler was Mr. Ayers, who, in 
1821, settled on the " Wayne trace " where it 
crossed Twenty-four ilile (Jreek. The place 
is now known as the old Acker farm, and is 
situated in St. Mary's Township. Mr. Ayers 
was an Englishman, and is said to have been 
a deserter from the King's service. Trav- 
elers were occasionally furnished lodging and 
meals at J\Ir. Ayer's; hence he is called the 
lirst landlord of the county. Mr. Green also 
settled in the county in the same year that 
ilr. Ayers died. He located near the St. 
Mary's River, not far from Mr. Ayers. 

These are all the settlers that are known 
to have located in the county before 1826. 
Think of it — in that year there were four log 
cabins in 336 square miles of territory. In 
1822-'23 the lands now comprised witliin the 
limits of this county were surveyed into sec- 
tions. This was the original Government 
survey, and was maile by .Messrs. AVorthing- 
ton and Riley, who, during the survey, 
camped in the wooils and had their provisions 
carried to them on pack horses. In 1820 
Captain James Riley commenced his settle- 
ment at AVillshire, Oiiio, near the State line. 
During the years 1822, 1823 and 1824 the 
settlement of which AVillshire was the 
nucleus spread over to very nearly the State 
line. 

In 1824 the first land entry in the county 
was made by Benjamin Ivercliaville, immedi- 
ately above the Rivare Reservation, and com- 
prised five acres and some hundredths. The 
next was made on the 15th day of December, 
1824, by Benjamin Bentley, and comprised 
part of what is now known as the Reynolds 
farm, including the improvements made bj' 
Douglas. The next was made by John Ross, 






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December 20, 1S29, at the mouth of Blue 
Creek, and the two t'ollowiiig entries in order 
were those of Jolin Keynolds, in 1S31, and 
Jerry Hoe, early in 1832. From the last 
mentioned date till 1838 there was a rush of 
land hunters, by which time the lands were 
almost entirely taken n]>. Mr. Bentley, who 
entered tlie second piece of land, was one of 
t!ie(Tovernnipnt surveyors workingforWorth- 
ington; and after entering the land he re- 
turned to Chillicothe, Ohio, his home, where 
he sold it to Jolm Jleynolds, who afterward 
located on it. ^Ir. llcynolds' residence was 
on the old " Quaker trace," which was very 
much traveled for a number of years. ]Iis 
house consequently became a common stopping 
place for the weary traveler. Mr. Reynolds 
was a man of kind heart, excellent character 
and great enterprise. He became extensively 
known; took a jirominent part in the organ- 
ization of the county, and died in Decatur in 
the year 1S44. 

Mr. Ross outlived the most of the early 
settlers of the county, dying since the late 
war cin the same land he purcliased so long 
before. In the year 1833 Mr. Rugg and 
others applied to the Board of Commissioners 
of Allen County, of which Adams then 
formed a part, to have a new township or- 
ganized up the St. Mary's River. Their 
]ietition was granted, and the honor of nam- 
ing the township conferred upon Mr. Rugg. 
The township was called Root, and the name 
originated in this manner, as related by j\Ir. 
Rugg: While they were transacting some 
business one of the party read from a news- 
paper an account of the celebration of the 
completion of the great internal improvement 
in New York known as tlie Erie Canal. In 
the account Governor Root was represented 
as being called on for a toast; he arose and 
said: "The military of the country — may 
they never want," and then stammered and 



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well nigh broke down, when DeWitt Clinton, 
standing near liy, observing his dilemma, 
said, in an undertone, "and may they never 
be wanted." Governor Root, catching it up, 
repeated, " and may they never be wanted," 
which brought down rounds of applause. 

The township, at the close of the reading, 
was by the unanimous voice of the gathering 
named " Root." Soon after the organization 
of the township the tirst election ever held 
in the county took place at the house of Jere- 
miah Roe for the selection of a justice of the 
peace. Esaias Dailey and Samuel L. Rugg 
were candidates, received a tie vote, and 
reached a decision in favor of Mr. Rugg, by 
lot. Mr. Rugg thus became the first justice 
of the peace in the county. 

In 1833 the old Winchester road, leading 
from Winchester to F'ort Wayne, was laid out 
and opened. 

Mr. Thompson, of Thompson's prairie, 
died about 1831, and was buried at his former 
home, Greenville, Ohio. Ilis widow after- 
ward married a man named Baze, but before 
that lier brothers, Daniel and David ^[iller, 
came West to stay with her. A year later 
Daniel Miller married a Miss Blossom, of 
Willshire. About tlie same time David was 
married, and settled near by. These three 
were the only families in the south half of the 
county until 1834. 

John Simison moved from the East and 
settled at Ft. Recovery in 1818. lie was 
one of the earliest and most energetic settlers 
at tliat military post. He died in a few years, 
and Robert Simison, his son, with the remain- 
der of the family, removed from Recovery to 
Greenville. In 1829 Robert returned to Ft. 
Recovery. He went froju there to Wabash 
Township, with Peter Studabaker, in Novem- 
ber, 1833. There was not a settler in tiie 
township, and no roads, only as they were 
cut out by settlers going to their entries 



[H5*'»"««i«MT"«i"^B»»lS'«^«in^i«»n»aia" 



TLm^m'^tA -"«'"«*>•''*«•«.■»! 



EARLY AND CIVIL HISTORY. 



Tlic company were two days making tlie trip. 
The}' crossuil at the conlliR'nee of tlie Liinher- 
lost and Loljjolly. Upon arriving at the end 
of tiieir journey they set about making a 
caliiu; Koliei't cut tlie logs, and his younger 
brother Irwin and John iMcDowell laid them 
up, and Studabaker hauled them. 

It was in this year that the great shower of 
meteors or" shooting stars "' put in an appear- 
ance. Countless multitudes pci-forined cy- 
cles in the firmament. From 11 till 4 
o'clock in the UK^rning the pyroteciinical 
display continued. Their evolutions were 
witnessed with awe ami astonishment by the 
entire party. 

After the cabin was erected, Mr. Studabaker 
returned for his family, inteutling to return 
in a few days. High water came on sudden- 
ly, and he was obliged to defer removing 
until the freshets were over, so Kobert was 
left alone in the cabin until spring opened, 
when Stuilabaker came in with his family. 

liobert was engaged all those long winter 
months in splitting rails, cutting wood and 
clearing the land. lie also put in a share of 
the time hunting. After Studabaker's return 
liobert went back to Oliio to work. In 
Xo\ember, 1830, he married, and went back 
again to Studabaker's, in AVabash Township, 
wliei-e he remained until he erected a cabin 
on his entry in Hartford Township. Siinison 
went to Work as soon as spring opened and 
cleared about three acres and put it in corn. 
The spring following he set out an orchard 
in this clearing. 

No mills were in the country nearer than 
Winchester or Ilichmond, and to go to mill 
then was far more tedious than a trip now to 
thq I'acitic coast. I'ears were plenty and 
troublesome; they cleared the hog- pens of 
many a line porker, and many a settler was 
robbed by bruin of his supplies of winter pork. 
Jlr. Simison has told of a laughable encounter 



with one of them. He had iiorrowed a 
neighbor's horses, ami was returning from 
taking them home. Upon arriving near his 
own clearing, he came ujion several of his 
hogs bearing toward liim, squealing and 
grunting their disapproval, while a large bear 
followed close l)eliind on a loping gallop. 
He was so close upon one of them that he 
would reach out with both paws to take it in. 
Upon coming up with Simison, the bear 
halted. ]\[r. Simison was stantliug on the 
end ot a log, perfectly quiet. Old hunters 
say that a bear will seldom attack a man in 
such a position, ifr. Simison' afterward had 
many a laugh at the ridiculoiis expression on 
that bear's countenance. He looked tirst at 
Simison, then after the retreating porkers, 
and finally struck off toward the river. Simi- 
son ran to his house and got his gun to give 
chase. He went back and followed the trail 
to the river, Just in time to be too late. 
Bruin had swam the Wabash, and was hjping 
off to try and get a dinner from some other 
settler's liogs. 

Wolves were very numerous, and were 
more troublesome, if anything, than bears. 
They attacked the hogs and sheep, and some- 
times, though rarely, man. Frequent hunts 
were planned and e.xecuted to rid the country 
of them. The plan adopted was, after giving 
all the settlers notice of a " wolf-hnnt," to 
take in a large scope of woodland where the 
wolves were most numei-ous, and from four 
sides close in. Whenever a wolf came in 
sight soine one was sure to shoot it. Bounty 
was paid by the county for wolf-scalps. 

"Limberlost" is now notliing more than a 
large ditch; but when the freshets occur it 
overreaches its banks and floods everything. 
Time was when it contained water the year 
around and was a formidable stream. It 
received its name in this wise: A boy of 
about fifteen living near Fort Recovery had 



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HISTOHY OF ADAMS COUNTY. 



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aequireil the iiiune of "Limber Jim," because 
of his suppleness, iiiul finally this was short- 
eneil to " l.iinlier." 

The boy was out in the woods one day, and 
M'as lost for a time. A man on horseback 
saw him and called to him. "Limber" 
thought it was an Indian, and took to his 
heels. The mounted man finally ran him 
down, and brought him to his friends. After- 
M'ard, when coming to the creek, some one 
asked what it should be named, and " Lim- 
ber's" vanity caused him to suggest "Limber- 
lost," which was chosen. 

Colonel AVilliain Vance came in tlie spring 
of 1835, and settled on section 18, AVabash 
Township. He was prominent in tlie early 
history of the cunnt\% and served three terms 
in the General Assembly, representing at 
the same time the counties of Adams, Wells, 
Huntington, Jay and Blackford. He was in 
politics a Whig. His home was always open 
to settlers, and his hospitality and friendli- 
ness to all are well remembered. Colonel 
Vance died in 1848. The first death in the 
south half of the county was that of a child 
of Colonel Vance, in the spring of 1835, very 
soon after the family came to the county. A 
coftin was made of clapboards, as of course 
no plaid<s were within a day's journey. 

Samuel Simison came at the same time 
with Vance, and lived in LLirtford Township 
until after the civil war. The families of 
Studabaker, Simison and Vance were the only 
ones within eight miles at first. 

In 1838 Mr. French settled in the town- 
ship which was named after him. 

In the early settling of AVabash and Hart- 
ford townships many beaver dams were found, 
and some few can yet be seen. ^lany years 
prior to the settling in Indiana, the French 
traders and trappers of Canada passed through 
those townships, depopulating them of the 
industrious animals just referred to. The 



" Loblolly," so called from its jjcculiar form, 
was nothing more nor less than a continua- 
tion of beaver dams. The entire region, in 
an early day, must have been rich in its prod- 
ucts of fur from the beaver and otter. 

Joseph JMartin and John Deffinbaugh 
started from Piqua for Adams County in 
1837. They arrived in AVabash, or what is 
now Hartford Township, in a few weeks, and 
began looking around for a location. Each 
of them found entries to suit near the Wabash 
River, and started for Fort Wayne on horse- 
back, where they entered land and then 
returned homeward. They went from Fort 
AVayne down the Maumee River, by way of 
the old Indian trace, as far as to the con- 
fluence of the Auglaize, up that stream to 
Fort Findlay, in Hancock County, Ohio. 
From there they went to Upper Sandusky, 
then an Indian town inhabited by the AVyan- 
dottes. Garrett, a white man, had married 
an Indian girl, and kept tavern at that place. 

They started for their new homes Septem- 
ber 13. Six liorses and two wagons drew 
their families and household afl'airs. Two 
hands were hired, and the road was cut out 
as they went. They were thirteen days on 
the road. 

Much difficulty was incurred by the settlers 
in entering the south part of tlie county by 
high water and consequent non-fordable 
streams. The most common way of getting 
over these was to build a sort of a pontoon 
bridge. A tree was selected near the bank 
and felled so that it reached the opposite 
shore. Another was placed near, also cross- 
ing the stream. The two were covered with 
puncheons and pinned. It was, when com- 
pleted, quite a substantial bridge, and many 
of these built for temporary use lasted for 
years. Accidents sometimes happened in 
crossing them when the water was high. 
David Studabaker relates an instance wherein 



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EAHI.Y AND CIVIL HISTORY. 



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a boy was (Irowmnl. The f'atlier ami son had 
been to mill. It todk IVuni four to six days 
to make a trip of this kind. The streams 
raised while they wei'e gone. Upon their 
return the little Liniberlost ot" a day previous 
was a raging stream, carryinj^ on its bosom 
trees, 1ol;s and all manner of debris. To 
reach the lirid;xe they were obliged to swim 
their horses, which was exceedingly' danger- 
cms. Nevertheless they tried it. The father 
led out and the boy followed. "When the 
father had reached the center of the stream 
he heard the boy scream, and turned around 
just in time to see botli him and the horse 
disappear. Powerless to assist his son, it 
was with ditticulty that he saved himself. 
He went to the residence of Peter Studabaker. 
The settlers turned (jut in search, and after 
the waters had subsided they succeeded in 
finding the body. This accident occurred on 
the morning of July -i, 1834. 

AVhen JMartin and Detlinliaugh arrived at 
tlieir entries they built a double half-faced 
camp, and lived there until the}' completed 
their cabins. ]\Iartin put on a little style in 
building his, and actually built the mud-and- 
stick chimney above the roof. Such a thing 
was nnheard of in the community, the early 
settlers seldom building them higher than 
six feet. Studabaker, A'ance and the others 
who had assisted in the raising, when they 
saw it declared he must set up the corn juice 
for so much style. 

^lartin was the first justice elected in the 
township. lie had but little business to at- 
tend, yet occasionally some administration of 
the law was required. Thomas AVatson, an 
Englishman, was the first constable. Al'ter a 
civil action at one time, it became necessary 
to issue a writ of execution, and Watson was 
ordered to levy on any proj)erty he could get 
liis hands u])on. According to these instruc- 
tions he went to the house and foimd no one 



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at home, except the "old woman," but she 
was C(]\ial to the emergency. \Vhen he 
stated his business she went for him with 
the poker and drove him out. He went 
back and told the 'stpiire that "The hold 
woman bate me with ha pokiii' stick!" The 
'squire explained that he must get ]iroperty, 
and with many misgivings the dUI English- 
man went back. He went in the house and 
grabbed the clock, and succeeded in getting 
away with it, by using it as a defense, 
though not without several sound whacks by 
a broom-stick in the hands of the irate 
woman. He resigned forthwith, and no 
amount of persuasion would induce him to 
continue in oHice. The " pokin' stick " was 
too much for his love of office. 

A number of settlers inoveil in about the 
same time with 'S(|uire ^lartin. Glendenning 
and AVatson removed from Clarke County, 
Ohio, and settled in the south part of the 
county near the Waliash. Kunjon and Peter 
Kiser came in about this time. The south 
part of the county was settled very slowly, 
and mostly by immigrants from Ohio. 

Charles Hacknian came to Preble Town- 
ship in 1847, and built a log liut on the river, 
and kept a store, with a small stock of goods. 
John K. Evans moved from Xew York to 
Shane's prairie, afterward Shanesville, in 
1826. He lived there three years and moved 
to Root Township, about a mile north of the 
present site of Monmouth. Here he entered 
from that time on nearly 1,000 acres of land. 
Evans figui-ed prominently in the settlement 
and organization of Adams County, and was 
one of the first judges. He removed to Eoi't 
Wayne about 1S52, and died in 1874, at an 
advanced age. Robinson, Daugherty, Gors- 
line, Fonner, Pillars, Rice, Glass and Lewis 
became residents at nearly the same time. 

Samuel S. Rugg, than whom none of the 
first settlers became better known, and who 



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HISTunV oh' ADAMS VOl/XTy 



is frequently inentioiied on tlic (ollowiiig 
pages ill connection with the early liistoiT 
of tlie comity, \v;is at one time a machinist 
ill Cincinnati. ^V man who possessed some 
means suirgested a partnershiji in putting 
tip a mill in this new country. Mr. Kugg 
accordingly came on, meeting with much 
difficulty in traveling to the St. ilary's 
Kiver, at the present site of Decatur, where 
he was told was a good power for a mill. 
When he arrived, lie found that while there 
was a good enough site, there was no demand 
whatever for a mill, there not being a 
l)ushel of grain to grind in the whole country 
around for twenty miles. jMr. Tlngg decided 
to remain and grow up with the county, and 
wrote to his partner suggesting a postpone- 
ment of tlieir mill project. A year or so 
later they gave up the idea entirely, and 
the machinery that was to be used was put 
into a mill in Huntington County. Mr. Ruirg 
was the tirst county clerk, and held the office 
for a great many years. In ls.j4 he was 
elected joint Senator for Allen and Adams 
counties, and a year later he removed to Fort 
"Wayne. In 1858 be was elected superintend- 
ent of public instruction. He died at Kash- 
ville, Tennessee, about 1872, and is buried at 
Decatur. 

The oldest living settlers of the county are: 
Kzra Liste, tirst of Root and now of Wash- 
ington Township; Mrs. Rachel Mann, who 
lives in Decatur, but spent her early life in 
Koot Township; David Studabaker, formerly 
of Wabash Township, but for thirtV-tive years 
a resident of Decatur, and Robert Simison, 
who still lives in Wabash Township. 

A little anecdote, illustrative of some of 
tlie features of jiioneer life, is as follows, and 
relates to one of the very tirst causes ever 
brought to trial in this county: 

Joel lloe and Jehu S. Rhea fell out with 
eacii other at a raising. Roe said to Rhea, 



in the course of the dispute, "D — n you, 
1 never stole saw-logs !" Rhea sued Roe for 
slander. The latter justified, and upon trial 
])roved tliat Rhea, wliile the land on wliich 
Decatur stands still belonged to the Govern- 
ment, had cut logs and rafted them to Ft. 
AVayne, where he sold them. Roe was beaten, 
liowever, because the act proven was trespass, 
and not larceny. The jury gave Rhea one 
cent damages. 

The town of Mtminouth, in Root Town- 
ship, was the first in the county. James 
Lewis, a colored man, figures prominently in 
its earliest and ])alinier days. lie owned a 
mill for cracking corn, among the first mills 
of the kind in the county. lie was vcrv 
obliging, and would let the settlers have corn 
and meal upon their promise to pay, wlien he 
had to buy himself. Decatur was laid off in 
1830. Ale.xander, I^utl'alo and Geneva were 
laid out in 18,58. .lamestown, near Iviser's 
farm, was laid out August 10, 1838, bv 
James riiillips and Wesley Eeauchamj). 
Pleasant JMills was laid out by E. A. Godard; 
Buena "\'ista by Robert Simison, in 1857; 
Salem, in Blue Creek Township, by George 
W. Sypliers; Berne, in 1872, by Abraham 
Schumann and Jcdin llilty; AVilliams, in 
Root Township, in 1871, by David Crabbs 
and B. J. Rice; Ceylon, in 1873, by Dr. D. 
B. Snow and P. N. Collins. The town of 
Ilamlin, which was laid out near the Reynolds 
farm, was never recorded, and as it was laid 
out to secure the county seat, it was vacated 
upon its being located at Decatur. James- 
town was also vacated. 

Peter Studabaker, C'olonel Vance, Ormian 
Perrine, Samuel Simison and Reed Risby, 
in Wabash Township, built the first school- 
house in the county. 

Slowly the sunshine of civilization began 
to shed its genial rays over the once secluded 
wilderness, and the forest toppled and dis- 




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MAltl.Y AND CIVIL HISTORY. 



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appeared, and siiiiliiiij fields, covered with 
Nviniiig grain or t'eediiiy herds, begun to 
mark the settler's home. Day after day the 
liiigc canvas-covered wagons thronged the 
newly-cut roads, di'awn by heavy teams of 
oxen. The hardy emigrants were pushing 
on toward the great unsettled "West, dream- 
ing as they went of new-fonnd wealth, fame, 
a name and a liome in the land where once 
the poor Indian chanted tlie death song 
around the funeral pile of the intruding 
explorer. From 1S32 to 1838 there was a 
steady stream t)f emigration, and at the latter 
date nearly all the really good land was taken 
up. About this time the first brick-kiln was 
put up and burned somewhere in the vicinit}' 
of Monnionth. This was a great convenience 
to the settlers, and it enabled them to do 
awa}- with the mud and stick chimneys and 
put up subbtantial brick ones instead. 



The first matter of record in the court- 
house at Decatur is that pertaining to the 
first meeting of the county commissioners, 
lield Mav 9, 1836, and reads as follows: 

"After the passage of the act organizing 
the county of Adams, which was approved 
January 23, 1836, the Governor, in con- 
formity to law, issued a writ of election for 
the election of the necessary county officers 
on the first Monday in April, 1836, at which 
time Jehu S. Tfhea, Samuel Smith and AVill- 
iam Heath, Sr., were elected county commis- 
sioners in and for said county. 

"Present, Jehu S. Rhea, who presented his 
certificate of office from the sheriff of Adams 
County that he was elected county commis- 
sioner for the term of two years from the 
first ilonday in August next; present also 
Samuel Smith, who presented his certificate 
of office from under the hand of the sheriff 
of the county, certifying that he was duly 



»iiH«?ja»it.*=«.^-tt"iu«.«?Ui»t«» 



elected countycominissioner of Adams County 
for the term of one year from the first 
Jlonday in August ne.xt. And by an 
indorsement on the back of each of the said 
certificates it appears that each of the said 
commissioners has taken the oath of office 
prescribed by law, and they therefore took 
their seats as a T>oard of Commissioners for 
the count}' of Adams, in conformity to law. 

"Present, also, Samuel L. Pugg, Clerk, 
and David McKnight, Sheriff; and the Board 
therefore proceeded to business. 

" Thomas Ruble, Esq., made a report on 
oath of the fines imposed by him since the 
organization of the county, which amounted 
to five dollars. 

" Ordered that David ]\[cKniglit be al- 
lowed the sum of one dollar and fifty cents 
for advertising in the Port Wayne St-ntii'el 
the act oi'ganizing the county of Adams. 

"Orderetl, that John K. Evans be appoint- 
ed Seminary ti'ustee until the first Monday in 
ilay, 1N37, and that he give bond and secur- 
ity in the sum of s25 for the performance of 
his duties in said office. 

" Ordered, that Joshua Major be appointed 
constable in St. Mary's Township until the 
first Monday in April next, and that he ap- 
pear and give security according to law. 

"The Board adjourned till to-morrow at 
nine o'clock. 

" Jkuu S. Phea, 

President, 
" Samup:l L. Rugg, 

Clerk:' 

The second daj''s ])roceedings were as fol- 
lows: 

"Ordered, that Jeremiah Roe be appointed 
treasurer of Adams County until February 
next, and that he be summoned to appear and 
give bond and security for the acceptance of 
the Board for the performance of the duties 
of his office. 



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HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY. 



" Ordered, tliat David McTvnight be ap- 
]>ointed assessor, to serve as such until tlie 
first ^Monday in January, 1837, and that he 
give bond and security fur the performance 
of tlie duties of liis otHce. 

" Ordered, that Jolm K. Evans be appoint- 
ed collector for the State and county revenues 
for one year from the first JVIcjnday in May, 
1836, and tliat he be summoned to appear 
and give bond and qualify according to law. 

" Ordered, that the county be divided into 
three commissioners' districts, as follows, to- 
wit: All that part of the county which is 
north of the township line dividing towns 27 
and 28, north, shall form Commissioners' 
District No. 1. And all that part of the 
county which is north of the township line 
dividing towns 20 and 27 nortli, and south 
of the first mentioned line shall form Com- 
missioners' District No. 2. And all that 
part of the county which is south of the line 
dividing townships 26 and and 27 shall form 
Commissioners' District No. 3. [District 
No. 1 thus included the ]iresent townships 
of Union, Root and l^eble; No. 2 those of 
Kirkland, Washington and St. Clary's; and 
No. 3 those of Jilue Creek, JMonroe, French, 
Hartford, Wabash and Jefferson. The county 
had been previously organized into two civil 
townships. Root included tlie northern quai-- 
ter of the couTity, and St. Mary's the three 
quarters lying south.] 

" Ordered that Root Townsliip be divided 
into two road districts, to-wit: All of the 
township on the east side of the St. Clary's 
river shall form Road District No. 1, and 
Jonathan Roe is hereby .appointed road su- 
pervisor in said district; and all west of said 
river shall form District No. 2, and William 
Ball is hereby appointed supervisor of roads 
in said district. 

•' Ordered, that St. Mary's Township be 
divided into two road districts, to-wit: All 



that part of the township which lies east of 
the St. Mary's River shall form District No. 
1, and Esaias Dailcy is hereby appointed su- 
pervisor of roads Iti said district; and all that 
part of the township which lies on the west 
side of the St. JMary's and east of the north 
and south center line of Adams County shall 
form District No. 2, and Thomas Ruble is 
hereby appointed supervisor of roads in said 
district. 

" Ordered, that Enos W. Butler be and he 
is hereby appointed inspector of elections 
in Root Township until the first I^Ionday in 
March, 1837. 

" Ordered, that Thomas Ruble be and he is 
hereby appointed inspector of elections in 
St. ^Mary's Township until the first ]\Ionday 
in March, 1N37. 

" Ordered, that William Heath, Sr., and 
Eli Zimmerman be appointed overseers of the 
poor in St. Mary's Township )intil the first 
!N[ojiday in April, 1n37. 

" Oi'dered, that Yachel Ball and John AV. 
Wise be appointed overseers of the poor in 
Root Township until the first Monday in 
April, 1837. 

" Ordered, tliat Jonas Pence and Bail W. 
Butler be appointed fence viewers till the 
first i\ronday in April, 1837, in Root Town- 
ship. 

" Ordered, that Joel Roe and Zachariah 
Smith, Jr., be appointed fence viewers in St. 
ilary's Township until the first ilonday in 
April, 1837. 

"Ordered, that the following named men 
are to be grand jurors for the fall term of the 
Adams Circuit Court, 1836: Joel Roe, John 
Ross, Sr., ]\Iichael Roe, Bail W. Butler, 
William Heath, Sr., Jonas Pence, Robert 
Smith, Jehu S. Rhea, Benjamin F. Gorsline, 
Samuel Smith, William Ball, William 
Thatcher, AVilliara Biram, John Catterlin, 
Jonathan Roe, Eli Zimmerman, James Ball 






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KAllLY AND CIVIL IIISTOHY. 



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iuul AIji-uIkuu KlitVits (cii;-litL'fn in ;ill). I'ctit 
jiii-ui>: .liilm W. Wi^e, 'J'lionuis Uulile, .lulin 
AV. (Jooley, Joseph Wise, Joseph Thiiteiier, 
Peter Stiidabalier, Eiios W. 1 hitler, \Villi;iin 
^lajor, Otlia Ciaiidy, JiUiies 11. l!:ili, Ivsaias 
J)aileY, Jaeoli Fitsiiiiinuiis, N^aciiel Uall, 
Ji)sluia ^[ajtir, Joseph Troutner, George Wi- 
iner, lleniaiiiiii 1'". niossoin, Job Wolt", 
Jo.^eph Hill, Jaeoh Kii-huid. Fliilii) Kver- 
inaii, I)aniel liall, 'ilieroii Harper and Zaeha- 
riali Smith (twentj-tbui')." 

The above were all the jiroceedings of the 
tir?t session. May 1^, luUowiiig, a special 
session was held to receive the report of the 
commissioners appointed to locate the county 
seat. Some minor business was transacted. 
Enos AV. Ibitler was ap])oiuted county agent 
for one year, under ,s3,()()l) bonds. The re- 
port of the locatini; commissioners is of threat 
histoi'ical interest, and is here i^^iven in full: 

•' Jlidj IG. The connnissi(jners apjxiinted 
to locate the county seat c)f the county of 
^Vdams agreeably to the provisions of an act 
of the (leneral Assembly of the State (.)f In- 
diana, approved January 23, 1S3(3, met at 
the house of John lieynolds, in said county, 
l^resent, AVilliam Stewart, Joseph II. Mc- 
i[aken, Robert Hood and AVilliani (1. John- 
son; who, being duly sworn according to law 
proceeded to examine the different sites 
offered for the county seat of said county, and 
after examining four sites presented for the 
County seat, to wit, the sites of Thomas John- 
son, n. L. Britton A: Henry Work, Joseph 
^lorgan A: Thomas Pricliard and Samuel I,. 
Itugg, the commissioners returned to tlu; 
house of John Reynolds, as aforesaid, and 
adjourned until to-morrow morning. 

'■'^laij 17. The commissioners aforesaid 
now proceeded as far toward the center of 
said county as they deemed e.xpedient, and 
found it impracticable to estaldish the county 
seat of said county at the center; and after 



retui-ning to the house of John Reynolds 
aforesaid oi'ij;ani/.ed themselves by appointing 
A\'illiam Stewart, I'lesident, and Robert 
Hootl, Secretary, and thereupon notified the 
projirietors of town sites to hand in their pro- 
posals, whereupon Thomas Johnson handed 
in his proposals marked "A;" R. L. Britton 
it Henry Work handed in their proposals 
marked "B;" Samuel L. Rugg handed in his 
proposals marked "C!;'' and Josepli ]\I(irgaii 
I'c Thomas I'l-ichard handed in their propos- 
als marked "!);" and the coujuiissioners ad- 
iourned until to-morrow morning. 

'■^ May IS. The commissioners aforesaid 
met jHirsuant to adjournment; present, the 
same members as yesterday. There being 
no further sites offeretl orjiroposals made, the 
commissioners aforesaid, after due delibera- 
tion, do select the site offered by Thomas 
Johnson as the most suitable, and thereupon 
permanently lix and establish the county seat 
of the county of Adams on the said site, be- 
ing part of the northeast (piarter of section 3, 
township 27 north, of range 14 east, and 
thereupon proceeded to the aforesaid town 
site and marked a white oak tree about two 
feet in diameter with two blazes on four sides, 
on each of which the commissioners individu- 
ally subscribed his name; which tree is to be 
within the said town site. 

"And the commissioners adjourned with- 
out day. 

" William Stewart, 
" JosEi'ii II. McMakkn, 
" William G. Johnson, 
•' RoBKKT Hood." 

The site then chosen is that on which the 
Ijusiness part of Decatur now stands, and 
the wisdom of the selection has never been 
seriously questioned. The center of the 
county, which is in other counties usually 
thought most desirable for the permanent 



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loi'iiticpii of tlie seat tit' justice, n\;is in tlie 
ca.-c (.it' Aihiiiis (i\it tit' tliu ij\iO:^ti()ii. 'I'lie 
land in that vicinity is vci-y flat, and at that 
time, more than a half a century ago, it was 
covereil with standing water much of the 
time. Tlie little village of ^lonroe is now at 
nearly the geographical center, and is a station 
on the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad, 
but has no hopes of ever being the county 
seat. Decatur has two east ami west roads, 
and will soon have more raili'oads, so it is 
secure in the being for all time the cajiital of 
Adams County. Had the first railroad east 
and west through the county crossed the 
(■iraiul Rapids A: Indiana at Monroe, the 
case might be difi'erent. 

The county secured very favoralile terms 
when it selected Thomas Johnson's land for 
a county seat. Mr. Johnson gave his notes 
for s3,100 to the county; $500 payable in 
one year, and the remainder in three years. 
He also donated four lots for churches, speci- 
fyiiig the Presbyterian, Catholic, Methodist 
and Baptist denominations, half an acre for a 
public square, one acre for a county seminary, 
and land for a cemetery. Finally he paid 
the expenses of the locating commissioners, 
and furnished a building for holding court 
and transacting county business until the 
erection of a court-house. Jehu S. Rhea 
donated to the county twenty acres off the 
west end of an eighty-acre lot on the south- 
west quarter of section 2, and Samuel L. 
RugfT donated ten acres adjoining Mr. John- 
son's land. 

At the session of the Board held June 20, 
1836, Jeremiah Roe resigned as county 
treasurer, and John Reynolds was designated 
to till the vacanc}'. Joseph Wise and J(jhn 
AV. Coole}' were appointed constables for 
Root Township. Waliasli Township was 
created out of the territory in the south tier 
of townships, and half of the next tier north. 



This was the thii'd township in the county. 
The first election was ap]iointed for the lirst 
^lontlay in August following, and i)avid 
Studabaker was named as inspector of elec- 
tions. At that election a supervisor, con- 
stable, two overseers of the poor and two 
fence viewers were chosen. 

SheriffDavid ilcKnightwas allowed $8.87^ 
for making the first assessment of property 
in Adams County, and the tax levy for county 
purposes was fixed at one-half of 1 per cent. 
The clerk was directed to advertise for pro- 
posals for building a county jail, to be com- 
pleted by July 1, 1837. 

At the September session John Reynolds 
was allowed $12 for the nse of his house up 
to date for commissioners' meetings and elec- 
tions. Esaias Dailey was appointed county 
road commissioner under the provisions of 
aTi act of the General Assembly, which had 
appropriated to counties a portion of what 
was known as the " three per cent, fund." 
The sum of $600 was appropriated for the 
State road " leading from the State line to 
the Allen County line on the west side of the 
St. ]\Iary's River," and §400 for the State 
road "leading from the State line near AVill- 
shire to the Allen County line on the east 
side of the St. IMary's" These were the lirst 
expenditures in Adams County on account of 
roads. The roads referred to are still in use, 
and are among the leading thoroughfares of 
the county. They run northwest and south- 
east, nearly parallel, with the river between 
them. The road on the east side had been 
cut previous to this appropriation, and only 
needed to be put in repair and supplied with 
bridges. 

The Board fixed the following modest scale 
of licenses: For taverns and grocei'ies, $10 
each; for merchants, $10 for the first $3,000 
capital employed, and in proportion for 
larger amounts; for vending wooden clocks, 



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S."j. .rallies M. AVilsiiii rocL'ived tlie lirot 
licL•n^5u t(i t>v]\ ••spirituous ami stroiiir liquors 
ami tbrt-iyii ami domestic ijroceries.'" 

Tiiu tir.^t uiarriaiije licensu was issued by 
the clcrl; of the court tn Jose])li Troutner 
anil Sarah ^\'eilner. 'i'hey were married 
July 3 liy Thomas liuble, justice of the peace. 
Another licen.^c was issued the 2d of August 
to I'iiilip Evermore and Lydia Liste. They 
were married August 4 by E. W. Butler. 
The first civil action ever tried in the coiirts 
of Adams County was D. F. Ijlossom /',v. 
I'^^aias Dailey. 

At tlie January (1837) session of the Hoard 
tlie fullowino; jnmrs were drawn for the sprino; 
term of court: Grand jurors — ^Vbrahani 
Eli frits, Geori^e Aii'ue, Jose]3li Wise, ^larvin 
(iorsline, James Niblick, Daniel Stevenson, 
Jobliua Majt)r, Levi fiussell, Zacliariali Smith, 
Sr., Jacob Enrrland, James ^I. Fuller, Uuel 
Iiislej-, Thomas IJuble, Theron Harper, Will- 
iam Heath, Jr., William ]jall, Hobert Simison 
and Jonathan Lewis. Petit jurors — iliehael 
lioe, Eli Zimmerman, Robert Niblick, Bos- 
ton Rock, ^[ichael Kock, William ilajor, 
George llopj^le, George Weimer, Jeremiah 
Andrews, Daniel Ball, Samuel Smith, Abner 
Fuller, Joel Boe, David !McKnight, William 
Boram, Aaron Archer, Bail W. Butler, Jau)es 
M. Wilson, James Burdick, Peter Studabaker, 
Jonathan Boe, Robert D. Tisdale, John W. 
Wise and Alexander Smith. 

The first year's receipts and expenditures 
of Adams County footed up as follows: 

Tax in the hands of collector, 8107.22; 
grocery license, slO; total receipts, $117.22; 
sernces and contingent expenses, $157.44; 
bo(jks and stationery, !?(j7.43'^; jury fees, s45; 
total expenditures, s272.27J^. From tliis it 
appears that the balance against the county 
at the end of the tir^t year was Sl.lo.OS^ — a 
small amount in these days, but larger then, 
jn proportion to the revenue of the county. 



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In February, 1837, Esaias Dailey was 
given a license to vend li(jU'irs am] grocoi'ies. 

It cost Sll.Sn to assess the county in 
1837, James M. Willson being allowed that 
amount. The tax levy for county purposes 
was fixed at one-third of 1 per cent, and 
the poll tax at 75 cents per cajjita. For 
State purposes the levy was 20 cents on 
each luindrcd tlollars, and 50 cents per 
capita. 

The county jail w-as completed in Jnly, 
1837, according to contract, and accepted by 
the commissioners. The contractors were 
J)avid McKnight and William Lewis, and 
they were paid $650, out of the mone}' 
donated to the county at the time of the 
location of the county seat. 

At the .^Lu•cll sessicni, 1838, three new 
townships were created, and elections ap- 
pointed for the first Mondaj' in April follow- 
ing, for the choice of a justice of the peace, a 
constable, an inspector of elections, one or 
two supervisors of roads, two overseers of the 
]ioor and two fence \ iewers in each township. 
Township 26 north, range 15 east, was 
designated by the name of Blue Creek. First 
election was held at the house of Samuel 
Flagg, and Pliny Flagg was inspector of 
elections. Township 25 north, range 15 east 
(the southeast corner of the county), was 
named Jefferson, and two tiers of sections on 
the west were attached temporarily. The}' 
were afterwai-d restored to Wabash. Robert 
AVebster was inspector of elections at the 
organization of Jeil'erson. Township 27 
north, range 14 east, was organized as Wash- 
ington, the first insjiector of elections being 
Jacob Ilnfi'er. That ]iart of section 34, 
township 28 north, rangi' 14 east, which lies 
west of St. JMary's River, ami which includes 
a ])art of the town nf 1 'eratiii', Ma> also 
attached to Washington 'J'uwnship, of which 
it has always formed a part. Preble Town- 



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IllsrOUV OF ADAM.'i COUNTY. 



sliip (2S iiortli, raiifjc 1;5 cast] was soon 
iiftei'wunl or^atiizL'il. 

Ill , run nary, IS;)'.), tlie I'oaril of Coiniiiis- 
sioiiers adoptud a seal, wliicli liad been 
purcliased by tlie clerk. Tlie official descrip- 
tion of it was: "It is of brass, five-eightlis 
of an inch thick and circular in ojiposite 
dimensions, one inch and thrce-qnarters in 
diameter. Witliin the periphery are first 
one heavy and one light circnlar lines, within 
which lines are the words ' Adams Board of 
County C'iimmissi(jners, Indiana;' next to 
which words is a heavy circnlar line, then a 
broad ornamental circnlar line, then iinother 
heavy plain line, within which is the tigiire 
of a Dni'ham short-horned cow, represented 
standing with her head to the right hand on 
the seal." This seal was used until consider- 
ably worn, an<l then the one now in use was 
obtained, which is of substantially, though 
not exactly, the same design. 

At the !May session, 183'J, French Town- 
ship was organized, composeil of township 2G 
north, range 13 east, and an additional tier 
of >ections on tlie south. The tii'st election 
was at the house of Joseph Sheldon, and 
Joseph French was inspector of elections. 

It was at this session that the construction 
of the first court-iiouse of Adams County was 
ordered. The record reads: 

•'Ordered, that John Reynolds and Samuel 
L. Rugg be authorized to build a court-house 
on lot No. 9-1 in the town of Decatur, which 
shall be a framed liouse built of good material, 
and thirty feet by forty feet in size, and two 
stories high; the lower story or room to be 
let't whole, without any partitions, and the 



niiper story or room divided into rooms to 
accc^nimoilate tlie grand and ])etit juries, antl 
that tlu^y convey the said lot to the county 
i)y its proper agent, for which lot they shall 
be allowed the sum of 850, the cost of which, 
together with the costs of building the said 
house, shall be paid out of the donation soon 
to beconje due from the said John ReynoKls 
and Samuel L. Rugg. The e.Kpenses of build- 
ing the said house shall be adjusted and 
agreed on by the county agent with tlie, said 
contractors, and the said county agent shall 
e.xercise a kind of superintendence over the 
completion of the said building and adjust 
the costs of the said building with the said 
builders in a fair and equable manner, and 
that tlie said building shall be completed by 
the October term of the Adams CMrcuit Court, 
if possible. Tbe weather boarding on the 
two sides next to the streets shall be 
planed." 

In March, 184-0, township 26 north, range 
14 east, was set ofl' and oi'ganized as Monroe. 
The first election was held at the house of 
Henry ilartz, who was inspector of elections. 
In September following township 28 north, 
ranee 15 east, was set off and organized as 
Union. Benjamin ]\Iiddleton was inspector 
of the first election, which was held at the 
house of David Hinge. A year or two later 
Hartford and Kirkland Townships (25 and 
27 north, range 13 east) were organized, thus 
completing the list of twelve townships 
which still compose Adams County. There 
have been no changes of names, and few of 
boundary lines, in the half century that has 
since elapsed. 



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'>TI1E early settlers of In- 
diana mostly came from 
older States, as Penn- 
s^'lvania, Kentucky and 
and Virginia, where 
tlieir prospects for 
even a competency were 
very poor. They found those 
States good — to emigrate from. 
Their entire stock of furniture, 
I implements and family ueces- 
t,r^ sities Nvere easily stored in one 
wagon, and sometimes a cart 
•S. was their only vehicle. 

THE LOG CABIN. 

After arriving and selecting a suitable lo- 
cation, the next thing to do was to build a 
log cabin, a descrip)tion of which may be in- 
teresting to many of our younger readers, as 
in some sections these old-time structures are 
no mure to be seen. Trees of uniform size 
were chosen and cut into logs of the desired 
length, generally twelve to fifteen feet, and 
hauled to the spot selected for the future 



dwelling. On an appointed day the few 
neighbors who were available would assemble 
and have a " house-raising." Each end of 
every log was saddled and notched so that 
they would lie as close down as possible; the 
next day the proprietor would proceed to 
•' chink and daub" the cabin, to keep out the 
rain, wind and cold. The house had to be 
re-daubed every fall, as the rains of the in- 
tervening time would wash out a great part 
of the mortar. The usual height of the 
house was seven or eight feet. The gables 
were formed by shortening the logs gradu- 
ally at each end of the building near the top. 
The roof was made by laying very straight 
small logs or stout poles suitable distances 
apart, generally about two and a half feet, 
from gable to gable, and on these poles were 
laid the '' clapboards " after the manner of 
shingling, showing about two and a half feet 
to the weather. These clapboards were fast- 
ened to their place by •• weight poles," cor- 
responding in place with the joists just 
described, and tliese again were held in their 
place by "runs" or '-knees," which were 



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JIISTOUr OF AD.LMS COUNTY. 



cliimks of wood about eigliteen or twenty 
inches long, fitted lietweeii tliem near the 
ends. Chij)l)oards were made tVom tlie nicest 
oaks in tlie vicinity, by cliopping or sawing 
them into four-foot lilocks and riving these 
with a frow, which was a simple blade fixed 
at riglit angles to its liandle. This was 
driven into the blocks of wood by a mallet. 
As the frow was wrenched down through tiie 
wood, the latter was turned alternately over 
from side to side, one end being lield by a 
forked piece of timber. 

The chimney to the AVestern pioneer's 
cabin was made by leaving in the original 
building a large open place in one wall, or 
by cutting one after the structure was up, 
and l)y building on the outside, from the 
ground up. a stone column, or a column of 
sticks and mud, the sticks being laid up cob- 
house fashion. Tlie fire-place thus made was 
often large enough to receive fire-wood six to 
eight feet long. Sometimes this wood, es- 
pecially the " back-log,'' would be nearly as 
large as a saw-lug. The more rapidly the 
jiioneer could burn up the wood in his vicin- 
ity the sooner lie had his little farm cleared 
and ready for cultivation. For a window, a 
]iiece about two feet long was cut out of one 
of the wall logs and the hole closed, some- 
times by glass, but generally M-ith greased 
]iaper. Even greased deer-hide was some- 
times used. A door-way was cut through 
one of the walls if a saw was to be had; 
otherwise the door would be left by shortened 
logs in the original building. The door was 
made by pinning clapboards to two or three 
wood bars, and was hung upon wooden 
hinges. A wooden latch, with catcli, tlien 
finished the door, and the latch was raised 
by any one on the outside by pulling a 
leather string. For security at night this 
latch-string was drawn in; but for friends 
and neighbors, and even strangers, the 



" latch-strinc was alwavs liancrincr out," as a 
welcome. In the interinr. over the fire-])lace, 
would be a shelf, called " the mantel,"' on 
which stood tlie candlestick or lam]), some 
cooking and table-ware, possibly an old clock, 
and other articles; in the fire-place would be 
the crane, sometimes of iron, sometimes of 
wood; on it the j)Ots were hung for cooking; 
over the door, in forked cleats, hung the ever 
trustful rifle and powder-horn; in one corner 
stood the larger bed for tlie " old folks," and 
under it the trundle-bed fur the children; in 
anotlier stood the okl-fashioned s]iinning- 
wheel, with a smaller one by its side; in 
anotlier the heavy taljle, the only table, of 
course, there was in the house; in the re- 
maining corner was a rude cupboard holding 
the table-ware, which consisted of a few cups 
and saucers and blue-edged plates, standing 
singly on their edges against the back, to 
make the display of table furniture more 
conspicuous, while around the room wei-e 
scattered a few splint-bottomed or AVindsor 
chairs and two or three stools. 

These simple cabins were inhabited by a 
kind and true-hearted people. They were 
strangers to mock modesty, and the traveler, 
seeking lodgings for the night, or desirous of 
spending a few daj's in the community, if 
willing to accept the rude offering, was al- 
ways welcome, although how they were dis- 
posed of at night the reader might not easily 
imagine; for, as described, a single room was 
made to answer for kitchen, dining-room, 
sitting-rooin, bed-room and parlor, and many 
families consisted .of six or eiglit members. 

SLEEPING ACCOMMODATIONS. 

The bed was very often made byfixing a post 
in the floor about six feet from one wall and 
four feet from the adjoining wall, and fasten- 
ing a stick to this post about two feet above 
i the floor, on each of two sides, so that the 



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otiicv end of oat'li of tlie two stiflis could be 
fai^tcned in tliu ojijiositc wall; cliiptiOiii'ds 
were laid across these, and thus tlie bed was 
made complete, (xuests were yiveii this bed, 
while the family disposed of themselves in 
another corner of the room, or in the "loft." 
When several yiiests were on hand at once, 
they were sometimes kept over night in the 
following manner: A^'hen bed-time came 
the men were re(jnested to step out of doors 
while the women spread out a broad bed upon 
the middle floor, and put tliemselves to bed 
in the center; the signal was given and the 
men came in, and each liusband took his 
place in bed ue.xt his own wife, and the sin- 
gle men outside them again. They were 
generally so crowded that they liad to lie 
" bpoon " fashion, and when anyone wished 
to turn over lie would say " Spoon,'' and the 
whole comjtany of sleepers would turn over 
at once. This was the only way they conkl 
all kec]) in bed. 

COOKING. 

To \^-itness the various processes of cooking 
ill those days would alike surprise and amuse 
those who have grown up since cooking- 
stoves and ranges came into use. Kettles 
were hung over the large fire, suspended 
with pot-hooks, iron or wooden, on the crane, 
or on poles, one end of which would rest 
upon a chair. The long-liandlcd frying-pan 
was used for cooking meat. It was either 
held over the blaze by liand or set down upon 
coals drawn out upon the hearth. This pan 
was also used for baking pan-cakes, also called 
"flap-jacks," "batter-cakes," etc. A better 
article for this, however, was the cast-iron 
spider or Dutch skillet. The best thing for 
baking bread tlupse days, and possibly even 
yet in these latter days, was the flat-bottomed 
bake-kettle, of greater depth, with closely- 
titting cast-iron cover, and commonly known 
as the "Dutch oven." AVith coals over and 



fl^' 



under it, bread and biscuit would quickly 
and nicely bake. Tui'key and spare-ribs were 
sometJmes roasted before the fire, suspended 
by a string, a dish being placed underneath 
to catch the drippings. 

Hominy and samp were very much used. 
The hominy, however, was generally hulled 
corn — boiled corn from which the hull, or 
bran, had been taken by hot lye; hence some- 
times called " lye hominy." True hominy 
and samp were made of pounded corn. A 
popular method of making this, as well as 
real meal for bread, was to cut out or burn a 
large hole in the top of a huge stump, in the 
shape of a mortar, and pounding the corn in 
this by a maul or beetle sus]iended on the 
end of a swing-pole, like a well-sweep. This 
and the well-sweep consisted of a pole twenty 
to thirty feet long, fixed in an upright fork 
so that it coukl be worked " teeter" fashion. 
It was a I'apid and simjile way of drawing 
water. When the samp was sufficiently 
pounded it was taken out, the bran floated 
oft', and the delicious grain boiled like rice. 

The chief articles of diet in early days 
were corn bread, homing', or samp, venison, 
pork, lioney, beans, pumpkin (dried pumpkin 
for more than half the year), turkey, prairie 
chicken, scj^uirrel and some other game, with 
a few additional vegetables a portion of the 
year. AVIieat bread, tea, coft'ee and fruit 
were luxuries not to be indulged in except 
on special occasions, as when visitors were 
present. 

women's work. 

I5esides cooking in the manner described, 
the women had many other arduous duties 
to perform, one of the chief of which was 
spinning. The "big wheel" was used for 
spiiming yarn, and the "little wheel" for 
spinning flax. These stringed instruments 
furnished the principal inusic of the family, 
and wei'e operated by our mothers and granil- 




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JII^TOnr OF ADAMS COUNTY. 



inotliers witli great skill, uttained without 
peeiiiiiary expense and with far less practice 
than is necessary for the girls of our period 
to ac(|nire a skillful use of their costly and 
elej;-ant instrumcuts. lint those wheels, in- 
dispensable a few years ayo, are all now 
su]ierseded hy the mi^^lity factories wliich 
overspread the country, furnishing cloth of 
all kinds at an expense ten times less than 
would be incurred now by the old system. 

The loom was not less necessary than the 
wheel, though the}' were not needed in so 
gi'eat iiunibers. Xot every house had a loom; 
one hionj hail a capacity for the needs of sev- 
eral families. Settlers having succeeded in 
spite of the wolves in raising sheep, com- 
menced the manufacture of woolen cloth; 
wool was carded and made into I'olls by hand 
cai'ds, and the rolls were spun on the " big 
wheel." AVe still occasionally find in the 
houses of old settlers a wheel of this kind, 
sometimes used for spinning and twisting 
stocking yarn. They are turned with the 
hand, and with such velocity that it will I'lin 
itself while the nimble worker, by her back- 
ward step, draws ont and twists her thread 
nearly the whole length of the cabin. A 
common article woven on the loom was 
liiise}', or linsey-woolsey, the chain being 
linen and the filling woolen. This cloth was 
used for dresses for the women and girls. 
Nearly all the cloths worn by the men were 
also home-made; rarely was a farmer or his 
son seen in a coat made of any other. If, 
occasionally, a young nnm appeared in a suit 
of " boughten " clothes, he was susjiected of 
having gotten it for a particular occasion, 
which occurs in the life of nearly every 
young man. 



'P. 



DRKSS AND MANNERS. 



The dress, habits, etc., of a ])eople throw 
so much light upon their conditions and 



limitations, that in order better to show the 
circumstances surrounding the peojtle of the 
State, we will gi\e a short exposition of the 
manner of life of our Indiana people at dif- 
ferent e])Ochs. The Indians themselves are 
credited by Charlevoix with being " very 
laborious" — raising jKiulti'y, spinning the 
wool of the buffalo, and manufacturing gar- 
ments therefrom. These must have been, 
ho\vever, more than usually fa\-orable re])re- 
sentatives of their race. 

" The working and voyaging dress of the 
French masses," says Ke^molds, '• was simple 
and primitive. The French were like the 
lilies of the valley [the Old Ranger was not 
always exact in his quotations] — they neither 
spun nor wove any of their clothing, but pur- 
chased it from the mei'chants. The white 
blanket coat, kimwn as the otpot, was the 
universal and eternal coat for the winter with 
the masses. A cape was made of it that 
could be raised over the head in cold 
weather. 

" In the house, and in good weather, it 
hung behind, a cape to the blanket coat. 
The reason that I know these coats so well is 
that I have worn many in my youth, and a 
working man never wore a better garment. 
Dressed deer skins and blue cloth were worn 
commonly in the winter for pantaloons. The 
blue handkerchief and the deer-skin mocca- 
sins covered the head and feet generally of 
the French Creoles. In 1800 scarcely a man 
thought himself clothed unless he had a belt 
tied round his bhinket coat, and on one side 
was hung the dressed skin of a pole-cat filled 
with tobacco, pipe, flint and steel. On the 
other side was fastened, under the belt, the 
butcher knife. A Creole in this dress felt 
like Tam O'Shanter tilled with usquebaugh; 
he could face the devil. Checked calico 
shirts were then common, but in the winter 
flannel was frequently worn. In the summer 



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PIONEER LIFE. 



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the hiboriiig int'ii anil the voyngers often took I 
their sliirts oti' in iiard work ami hot weatiier, i 
and turned out tlie naked iiaek to tlie air and \ 
sun." 

" Amotii,' tlie Americans," he atlds, " lioine- 
made wool liats were the common wear. Fur 
hats were not common, and scarcely a boot 
was seen. The covei'inc: of the feet in winter 
was chietly moccasins made of deer-skins and 
shoe-packs of tanned leather. Some wore 
shoes, hut not common in very early times. 
In the summer the greater portion of the 
young people, male and female, and many of 
the old, went barefoot. The substantial and 
univei'sal outside wear was the blue linsey 
hunting; shirt. This is an excellent garment, 
and I have never felt so happy and healthy 
since I laid it oti'. It is made of wide sleeves, 
open before, with ample size so as to envelop 
the body almost twice around. Sometimes 
it had a large cape, which answers well to 
save the shoulders from the rain. A belt is 
mostly used to keep the garment close around 
the person, and, Tievertheless, there is nothing 
tight about it to hamper the body. It is 
often fringed, and at times the fringe is com- 
posed of red and other gay colors. The belt, 
frequently, is sewetl to the hunting shirt. 
The vest was mostly made of striped linsey. 
The ctdors were made often with alum, cop- 
peras and madder, boiled with the bark of 
trees, in such a manner and proportions as 
the old ladies prescribed. The pantaloons of 
the masses were generally made of deer-skin 
and linsey. Coarse blue cloth was sometimes 
made into ])antaloons. 

•' Linse}', neat and tine, manufactured at 
home, composed generally the outside gar- 
ments of the females as well as the males. 
The ladies had linsey colored and woven to 
suit their fancy. A bonnet, composed of 
calico, or some gay goods, was worn on the 
head when they were in the open air. Jew- 



elry on the pioneer ladies was uncunimon; a 
gold i-ino; was an ornament not often seen." 

In 1N20 a change of dress began to take 
place, and before 1830, accconling to Ford, 
most of the pioneer costume had disappeared. 
'• The blue linsey hunting-shirt, with red or 
white fringe, had given place to the cloth coat, 
[.leans would be more like the fact.] The 
raccoon cap, with the tail of the animal 
dangling down behind, had been thrown aside 
for hilts of wool or fur. Boots and shoes 
had supplied the deer-skin moccasins; and 
the leather breeches, strajiped tight around 
the ankle, had disappeared before unmen- 
tionables of a more modern material. The 
female sex had made still greater progress in 
dress. The old sort of cotton or woolen 
frocks, spun, W()ven and made with their 
own fair hands, and striped and cross-barred 
with blue dye and Turkey red, had given 
])lace to gowns of silk and calicn. The feet, 
before in a state of nudity, now charmed in 
shoes of calf-skin or slippers of kid; and the 
head, formerly unboimeted, but covered with 
a cotton handkerchief, now displayed the 
charms of the female face nndei- maiiy forms 
of bonnets of straw, silk and Leghorn. The 
young ladies, instead of walking a mile or 
two to church on Sunday, carrying their 
shoes and stockings in their hands until 
within a hundred yards of the place of wor- 
ship, as formerly, now came forth arrayed 
complete in all the pride of dress, mounted 
on tine horses and attended Ij^- their male 
admirers." 

The last half century has doubtless wit- 
nessed changes quite as great as those set 
forth by our Illinois historian. The chronicler 
of to-day, looking back to the golden days of 
1830 to 1810, and comparing them with the 
present, must be struck with the tendencj' of 
an almost monotonous uniformity in dress 
and manners that comes from the easy inter- 



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IIISTORT OV ADAMS COUNTY. 



communication aftbrded by steamer, railway, 
telegia])li and newspaper. Home maiiu- 
t'lictiires iiave been driven from tbe liouse- 
hold by tbe lowei'-prieed fabrics of distant 
mills. The Kentucky jeans, and the cop- 
peras-colored clothing of home manufacture, 
so familiar a few years ago, having given 
place to tbe cassimeres and cloths of noted 
fatories. The ready-made clothing stores, 
like a touch of nature, made the whole world 
kin, and may drajjC the charcoal man in a 
dress-coat and a stovepipe hat. The prints 
and silks of England and France give a 
variety of choice and an assortment of colors 
and shades such as the pioneer women could 
liardly have dreamed of. Godey and Dem- 
orest and Harper's Bazar are fo\ind in our 
modern farm-houses, and the latest fashions 
of Paris are not uncommon. 

FAMILY WORSHIP. 

The ilethodists were generally first on the 
ground in pioneer settlements, and at that 
early da\' they seemed more demonstrative in 
their devotions than at the present time. In 
those days, too, pulpit oratory was generally 
more eloquent and effective, while the gram- 
matical dress and other "worldly" accom- 
plishments were not so assiduously cultivated 
as at jiresent. But in the manner of conduct- 
ing public worship there has probably not 
been so much change as in that of family 
worship, or " family prayers," as it w-as often 
called. We had then most em])haticall3' an 
American edition of that pious old Scotch 
practice so eloquently described in Burns' 
'• Cotter's Saturday Night:" 

The cheerfu' supper done, wi' serious face 
They round the ingle formed a circle wide; 

The sire turns o'er, wi' patriarchal grace, 
The big lia' Bible, ance his father's pride; 

His bonnet reverently is laid aside, 

llis lyrat haifots wearing thin and bare; 

Those strains that once did sweet in Ziou glide; 



He wales a portion with judicious care, 

And "let us worship God," he says with solemn air. 

They chant their artless notes in simple guiso; 

They tune Iheir h»-urts — by far the noblest aim; 
Perhaps" Dundee's" wild warbling measures rise, 

Or plaintive " JIartyrs," worthy of the name; 
Or noble " Elgin " beats the heavenward flame, — 

The sweetest far of Scotia's hallowed lays. 
Compared with these, Italian trills are tame; 

The tickled ear no heartfelt raptures raise: 

Nae unison hae they with our Creator's praise. 

The priest-like father reads the sacred page, — 
How Abraham was the friend of God on high, etc. 

Then kneeling down, to heaven's Eternal King 

The saint, the father and the husband prays; 
Hope "springs e.xulting on triumphant wings," 

That thus they all shall meet in future days; 
There ever bask in uncreated rays, 

No more to sigh or shed the bitter tear. 
Together hymning their Creator's praise. 

In such society, yet still more dear, 

While circling time moves round in an eternal sphere. 

Once or twice a day, in the morning just 
before breakfast, or in the evening just before 
retiring to rest, the head of the family would 
call those around him toorder, read a chapter 
in the Bible, announce the hymn and tune by 
commencing to sing it, when all would join; 
then he would deliver a most fervent prayer. 
If a pious guest was present he would be 
called on to take the lead in all the exercises 
of the evening; and if in those days a person 
who prayed in the family or in public did not 
pray as if it were his very last on earth, his 
piety was thought to be defective. 

The familiar tunes of that day are remem- 
bered by the surviving old settlers as being 
more S])iritual and inspiring than those of the 
present day, sucli as Bourbon, Consolation, 
China, Canaan, Conqtiering Soldier, Conde- 
scension, Devotion, Davis, Fiducia, Funeral 
Thought, Florida, Golden Hill, Greenfields, 
Cranges, Idumea, Imandra, Kentucky, Lenox, 
Leander, Mear, New Orleans, Northfield, 
New Salem, New Durham, Olney, Primrose, 
Pisgali, Pleyel's Tlymn, Rockbridge, Pock- 



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PIONEER LIFE. 



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iii:;lKim, lieHcclioii, Siippliciitioii, Siilvjitioii, 
St. Tlioinas, Salom, Ttinlur Tliouglit, Wiiid- 
lumi, (Ti-et'iiville, etc., as they are named in 
the "^[issoiiri Harmony." 

Members of otlier orthodox denominations 
also had their family prayers in which, how- 
evei', the phraseology of the jirayer was some- 
what different and tlie voice not so loud as 
chai-aeterized the real Methodists, United 
Urethren, etc. 

nOSlMT.\LITY. 

The traveler always found a welcome at the 
pioneer's cabin. It was never full. Although 
there might be already a guest for every 
puncheon, thei'e was still "room for one 
more," and a wider circle would be made for 
the new-comer at the log tire. If the stranger 
was in search of land, he was doubly welcome, 
and his host would volunteer to show him all 
the " tirst-rate claims in this neck of the 
woods," going with him for days, showing the 
corners and advantages of ever}' "Congress 
ti-act " within a dozen miles of his own cabin. 

To his neighbors the pioneer was equally' 
liberal. If a deer was killed, the choicest 
bits were sent to his nearest neighbor, a half- 
dozen miles away, per]uij)S. When a " shoat " 
was butchered the same custom prevailed. If 
a new comer came in too late for "cropping" 
the neighbors would su])ply his table withjust 
the same luxuries they themselves enjoyed, and 
in as liberal cpiaiitity, until a crop could be 
raised. When a new-comer had located his 
claim, the neighbors for miles around would 
assemble at the site of the new-comer's pro- 
posed cabin and aid him in "gittin"' it up. 
One party with axes would cut down the 
trees and hew the logs; another with teams 
would hall the logs to the ground; another 
party would "raise" the cal)in; while several 
of the old men wuuld " rive the clapboards" 
for the roof. I'.y night the little forest 
domicil would be up and ready for a " house- 



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warming," which was tlie dedicatory occupa- 
tion of tlie house, when music and dancing 
and festivity would be enjoyed at full height. 
The next day the new-comer would be as 
well situated as his neighbors. 

An instance of ])rimitive hospitable man- 
ners will be in place here. A traveling 
^lethodist preacher ari'ived in a distant 
neighborhood to lill an ajipointment. The 
house whei'e services were to be held did not 
belong to a church member, but no matter 
for that. Boards were raked up from all quar- 
ters with which to make temporary seats, one 
of the neighbors volunteering to lead oft' in 
the work, while the man of the house, with 
the faithful ritle on his shoulder, sallied forth 
in quest of meat, for this truly was a "ground- 
hog " case, the preacher coming and no meat 
iu the house. The host ceased not to chase 
until he found the meat, in the shape of a 
deer; returning he sent a boy out after it, 
with directions on what " ])int " to find it. 
After services, which had been listened to 
with rapt attention by all the audience, mine 
host said to his wife, " Old woman, I reckon 
this 'ere preacher is pretty hungry and you 
must get him a bite to eat." " What shall I 
git him?" asked tiie wife, who had not seen 
the deer; " thar's nuthin' in the house to eat." 
" Why, look thar," returned he; "thar's a deer, 
and thar's plenty of corn in the field; you git 
some corn and grate it while I skin the deer, 
and we'll have a good supper for him." It 
is needless to add that venison and corn bread 
made a supper lit for any pioneer preacher, 
and was tliankfullv eaten. 



In pioneer times the transactions of com- 
merce were generally carried on by neighbor- 
hood exchanges. Now and then a farmer 
would load a flat-boat with beeswax, honey, 
tallow and peltries, with perhaps a few bushels 



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HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 



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of wheat or corn or a few hundred chipboards, 
and float down the rivers into the Ohio and 
tiience to iSew Orleans, where lie would 
exchange his produce for siilistantiuls in the 
siiape of groceries and a little ready inonej', 
with which he would return by some 
one of the two or three steamboats then 
running. Betimes there appeared at the 
best steamboat landings a number of "middle 
men" engaged in the "commission and for- 
warding " business, buying up the farmers' 
produce and the ti'ophies of the chase and the 
trap, and sending them to the various distant 
markets. Their winter's accumulations 
would be shijjped in the spring, and the 
manufactured goods of the far East or distant 
South would come back in return; and in all 
tliese transactions scarcely any money was 
seen or used. Goods were sold on a year's 
time to the farmers, and payment made from 
the proceeds of the ensuing crops. AVhen 
the crops were sold and the merchant satisfied, 
the surplus was paid out in orders on the 
store to laboring men and to satisfy other 
creditors. When a day's work was done by a 
working man, his employer would ask, '• AVell, 
what store do you want your order on?" The 
answer being given, the order was written 
and aiways cheerfully acce])ted. 



!^^oney was an article little known and sel- 
dom seen among the earlier settlers. Indeed, 
they had but little use for it, as the}' could 
transact all their business about as well with- 
out it, on the " barter " system, ^'herein great 
ingenuity was sometimes displayed. AVhen 
it failed it any instance, long credits contrib- 
uted to the convenience of the citizens. 
Jiut for ta.xes and postage neither the barter 
nor the credit system would answer, and 
often letters were suffered to remain a long 
time in the postoffice for the want of the 25 



cents demanded by the Government. AVith 
all this high price on postage, by the way, 
the letter had not been Ijronght 500 miles in 
a day or two, as is the case nowadays, but had 
probably been weeks on the route, and the 
mail was delivered at the pioneer's postofKce, 
several miles distant from his residence, only 
once in a week or two. All the mail would 
be carried by a lone horseman. Instances 
are related illustrating how misrepresentation 
would be resorted to in order to elicit the 
sympathies of some one M'ho was known to 
have " two bits " (25 cents) of money with 
him, and procure the required Govei'nmental 
fee for a letter. 

Peltries came nearer being money than 
anything else, as it came to be custom to 
estimate the value of everything in peltries. 
Such an article was worth so many peltries. 
Even some tax collectors and postmasters 
were known to take peltries and exchange 
them for the money required by the Govern- 
ment. 

AA'^hen the first settlers first came into the 
wilderness they generally supposed that their 
hard struggle would be principally over after 
the first year; but alas! they often looked for 
"easier times next year" for many years 
before realizing them, and then they came in 
so slily as to be almost imperceptible. The 
sturdy pioneer thus learned to bear hardships, 
privation and hard living, as good soldiers do. 
As the facilties for making money were not 
great, they lived pretty well satisfied in an 
atmosphere of good, social, friendly feeling, 
and thought themselves as good as those they 
had left behind in the East. But among the 
early settlers who came to this State were 
many who, accustomed to the advantages of 
an older civilization, to churches, schools and 
society, became speedily home-sick and dis- 
satisfied. They would remain perhaps one 
Slimmer, or at most two, then, selling wliat- 






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PIONEElt LIFE. 



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ever cliiiin with its iiii]ir<)Vt'inoiitfi they liad 
made, woiilil leturii to the cikler States, 
spreading repurts t)t' the lianlsliips endured 
by the settlers liere and tiie disadvantages 
wliich tliey had found, or imagined they had 
found in the country. These weaklings were 
not an unmitigated curse. The slight im- 
provements they had nnide were sold to men 
of sterner stuff, who were the sooner able to 
surround tliemselves with tiie necessities of 
life, while their unfavorable report deterred 
other weaklings friiui coming. The men who 
stayed, who were willing to endure privations, 
belonged to a ditfereiit guild; they were 
heroes every one, — men to whom hardships 
were things to be overcome, and present 
privations things to be endured for the sake 
of posterity, and they never shrank from this 
duty. It is to these hardy jiioneers who 
could endure that we to-day owe the wonder- 
ful improvement we have made and the 
development, almost miraculous, that has 
brought our State in the past si.xty years 
from a wilderness to the front raid-c among 
the States of this wreat nation. 



Xot the least of the liardships of the ])io- 
neers was the procuring of bread. The first 
settlers must be supplied at least one year 
from other sources than their own lands; but 
the first crops, however abundant, gave only 
partial relief, there being no mills to grind 
the grain. Hence the necessity of grinding 
by hand-power, and many families were 
poorly provided with means for doing this. 
Another way was to grate the corn. A grater 
was made from a piece of tin, sometimes 
taken from an old, worn-out tin bucket or 
other vessel. It was thickly perforated, bent 
into a semi-circular form, rough side upward, 
on a board. The corn was taken in the ear, 



aiul gi-ated before it g<it dry and hard. Corn, 
h(>we\er, was eaten in various ways. 

Soon after the country became more gen- 
erally settled, enterprising men were ready 
to embark in the milling business. Sites 
along the streams were selected for water- 
])Ower. A person looking for a mill-site 
would follow up and down the stream for a 
desired location, and when found he would 
go before the authorities and secure a writ of 
ad qitvd damiLUin. This would enable the 
miller to have the adjoining land officially 
examined, and the amount of damage by 
making a dam was named, ilills being so 
great a public necessity, they were permitted 
to be located upon any person's land where 
the miller thought the site desirable. 

AOKICULTlIiAI. IMI'I.KMENTS. 

The agricultural implements used by the 
tirst farmers in this State would in this age 
of improvement be great curiosities. The 
]dow used was called the " Ijar-share " plow; 
the iron point consisted of a bar of iron 
about two feet long, and a broad share of iron 
welded to it. At the extreme point was a 
coulter that passed through a beam si.x or 
seven feet h>ng, to which were attached 
handles of corresponding length. The mold- 
board was a wooden one split out of winding 
timber, or hewed into a winding shape, in 
order to turn the soil over. Sown seed was 
brushed in by dragging over the ground a 
sapling with a bushy top. In harvesting the 
change is most striking. Instead of the 
reapers and mowers of to-day, the sickle and 
cradle were used. The grain was threslied 
with a tlail, or trodden out by horses or oxen. 

UtiG KILLING. 

Ilogs were always dressed before they 
were taken to market. The farmer, if fore- 
handed, would call in his neighbors some 



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IIISTOHY OF ADAMii VOUyTY. 






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liriglit fall or wintur niDrniim- to help " kill 
lioys."' Iininense kettles of water were lieated ; 
a sled or two, covereil ^^•itll loose hoards or 
])lank, constituted tiie [ilatforiii on which the 
hog was cleaned, and was j)laced near an 
inclined hogshead in which tlie scalding was 
done; a quilt was thrown over the top of the 
latter to retain the heat; froin a crotch of 
some convenient tree a projecting pole was 
rigged to hold the animals for ilisemboweling 
and thorough cleaning. When everything 
was arranged, the best shot of the neighbor- 
hood loaded his rilic, and the work of killing 
was commenced. It was considered a dis- 
grace to make a hog " scjueal " by bad shoot- 
ing or by a " shoulder-stick," that is, running 
the point of the butcher-knife into the 
shoulder instead of the cavity of the beast. 
As each hog fell, the "sticker"' mounted him 
and plunged the butcher-knife, long and well 
sharpened, into his throat; two ])ersons 
would then catch him by the hind legs, draw 
liim up to the scalding tub, which had just 
been tilled with boiling-hot water with a 
shovelful of good green wood ashes thrown 
in; in this the carcass was plunged and 
moved around a minute or so, that is, until 
the hair would slip off easily, then placed on 
the jilatform, where the cleaners would pitch 
into him with all their might and clean him 
as quickly as possible, with knives and other 
sharp-edged implements; then two stout 
fellows would take him up between them, 
and a third man to manage the " gambrel " 
(which was a stout stick about two feet long, 
sharpened at both ends, to be inserted between 
the muscles of the hind legs at or near the 
iiock joint), the animal would be elevated to 
the pole, where the work of cleaning was 
finished. 

After the slaughter was over and the hogs 
had had time t(j cool, such as were intended 
for domestic use were cut up, the lard " tried " 



out by the women of the household, and the 
surplus liogs taken to market, while the 
weather was cold, if possible. In those days 
almost every merchant had, at the rear end 
of his place of business, or at some conven- 
ient building, a " pork-house," and would 
buy the pork of his customers and of such 
others as would sell to him, and cut it for 
the market. This gave employment to a 
large number of hands in every village, who 
would cut and pack pork all winter. The 
hauling of all this to the river would also 
gi\e employment to a large number of teams, 
and the manulacture of pork barrels would 
keep many coopers employed. 

Allowing for the difference of currency and 
manner of marketing, the price of pork was 
not so high in those da3's as at present. 
Kow, while calico and muslin are 10 cents a 
yard, and pork 2 to 4 cents a pound, tlien, 
while calico and muslin were 25 cents a yard, 
pork was 1 to 2 cents a pcjund. AVhen, as 
the country grew older and communications 
easier between the seaboard and the great 
West, prices went up to 2A and 3 cents a 
pound, the farmers thought they would 
always be content to raise pork at such a 
price; but times have changed, even con- 
trary to the current-cy. 

There was one feature in this method of 
marketing pork that made the country a 
paradise for the poor man in the winter time. 
Spare-ribs, tenderloins, pigs' lieads and pigs' 
feet were not considered of any value, and 
were freely given to all who could use them. 
If a barrel was taken to an}' pork-liouse and 
salt furnislied, the barrel would be filled and 
salted down with tenderloins and spare-ribs 
gratuitously. So great in many cases was 
the quantit}' of spare-ribs, etc., to be disposed 
of, that the}' would be hauled away in wagon- 
loads and dumped in the woods out of town. 

In those early times much wheat was mar- 



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I'WNEEll LIFE. 



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ketcd at 2.") to TjO cents ii Imslii'l, oats tlic 
saiiiL' or Ifsj, ami corn 10 ix'iits a Inihlnjl. A 
1^10(1 young milch cow coiiUl hu lioiii^lit for 
-S5 to SlO, and that payaMe in work. 

Those might truly be culled "close times," 
yet the citizens of the country were accoin- 
inodatini!;, and but verj' little suffering for 
the actual nece^sities of life was ever known 
to exist. 

I'iiAiiiii: i-iKi:s. 

Fires, set out by Indians or settlers, some- 
times pui'|>ot;ely and sometimes jiermitted 
through carelessness, woukl visit the prairies 
every autumn, ami sometimes the forests, 
either in autumn or spring, and settlers could 
not always succeed in defending themselves 
against the destroying element. Many in- 
teresting incidents are related. Often a lire 
was started to liewilder game, or to bare a 
piece of ground for the earl}- grazing of stcick 
the ensuing spring, and it would get away 
under a wind, and soon be beyond control. 
A'^ioleiit winds would often arise and drive 
tlie flames with such 'I'apidity that I'iders on 
the fleetest steeds could scarcely escape. (Jn 
the approach of a jM'airie tii'e the farmer 
would immediately set about "cutting otf 
supplies'' for the devouring enemy by a 
" back fire." Thus, by stai-ting a small fire 
near the bare ground about liis premises, and 
kee[>ing it under control ne.xt his property, 
he would burn oft' a strij) around liiiu and 
]M-e\ent the attack of the on-coming flames. 
A few furrows or a ditch around the farm 
constituted a helj) in the work of protection. 

An original prairie of tall and exuberant 
grass on tire, especially at night, was a 
magnificent S[)ectacle, enjoyed only by the 
pioneer. Here is an instance where the 
frontiersman, proverbially tieprived of the. 
sights and pleasures of an old community, is 
pri\ileged far beyond the people of the 
present day in this country. One could 



scarcely tire of beholding the scene, as its 
awe-inspiring t'caturt.'s scemcii constantly to 
increase, and tiie whole panorama unceas- 
ingly changed like tiie dissolving views of a 
magic lantern, or like the aurora borealis. 
Language cannot convey, words cannot ex- 
press, the faintest idea of the splendor and 
grandeur of such a contiagi'ation at night. 
It was as if the pale queen of night, disdain- 
ing to take her accustomed place in the 
heavens, had dispatched myriads upon myr- 
iads of messengers to light their torches at 
tlie altar of the setting sun until all had 
riashed into one long and continuous blaze. 

The following graphic description of ])rai- 
rie fires was written by a traveler through 
this region in 1S4'J: 

"Soon the fires began to kindle wider and 
rise higher from the long grass; the gentle 
breeze increased to stronger currents, and 
soon fanned the small, fiickering blaze into 
fierce toi-rent flames, which curled up and 
leaped along in resistless s]jlendor; anil like 
quickly raising the dark curtain from the 
luminous stage, the scenes before mc were 
suddenly changed, as if by the magician's 
wand, into one boundless amphitheatre 
blazing from the earth to heaven and sweep- 
ing tlie horizon round, — columns of lurid 
flames sportively mounting up to the zenith, 
and dark clouds of crimson smoke curling 
away and aloft till tliey nearly obscured stars 
and moon, while the rushing, crashing sounds, 
like roaring cataracts mingled witli distant 
tliunders, were almost deafening; danger, 
death, glared all around; it screamed for 
victims; yet, notwithstanding the imminent 
peril of prairie fires, one is loth, irresolute, 
almost unable to withdraw or seek refuge." 

WILD nous. 

AYhen the earliest pioneer readied this 
Western wilderness, game was his principal 






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fodil until 111' liad coiujuorod ;i farm from tlio 
fi_iri'St(ir ])rairie-- -rarely, tlifii, from tlio latter. 
As the country settleti game grew scarce, and 
by 1850 lie who would live by his riile would 
have had but a precarious subsistence had it 
not been for "wild liogs.-' These animals, 
left by liome-sick immi<rrants, wlioni the 
chills or fever and ague had driven out, had 
sti'ayed into the woods, and began to multi- 
ply in a wild state. The woods each fall were 
full of acorns, walnuts and hazelnuts, and on 
these liogs would grow fat and multiply at a 
wonderful rate in the bottoms and along the 
bluffs. The second and third imniigration 
to the country found tliese wild hogs an un- 
failing Source of meat supply up to that 
period when they had in the townships con- 
tiguous to the river become so numerous as 
to be an e\il, breaking in herds into the 
farmer's corn-fields or tolling their domestic 
swine into their retreats, where they too be- 
came in a season as wild as those in the 
woods. In 1838 or 1839, in a certain town- 
ship, a meeting was called of citizens of the 
township to take steps to get rid of wild 
hogs. At this meeting, wliicli was held in 
the spring, the people of the township were 
notified to turn out enmasse on a certain day 
and engage in the work of catching, trimming 
and branding wild hogs, which were to be 
turned loose, and the ne.xt winter were to be 
hunted and killed by the people of the town- 
ship, the meat to be divided jyro rata among 
the citizens of the township. This plan was 
fully carried into etlect, two or three days 
being spent in the exciting work in tlie 
spring. 

In the early part of the ensuing winter the 
settlers again turned out, supplied at conven- 
ient points in the bottom with large kettles 
and barrels for scalding, and while the hunt- 
ers were engaged in killing, others with 
horses dragged the carcasses to the scalding 



platforms, where they were dressed; and when 
all that coulil be were killed and dressed a 
division was made, every farmer getting 
more meat than enough for his winter's sup- 
ply. Like energetic measures were resorted 
to in other townships, so that in two or three 
years the l)reed of wild liogs became extinct. 



NATIVE ANIMALS. 



The principal wild animals found in the 
State by the early settlers were the deer, wolf, 
bear, wild-cat, fox, otter, raccoon, generally 
called " coon," woodchuck, or ground hog, 
skunk, mink, weasel, muskrat, opossum, rab- 
bit and S(|uirrel; and the principal feathered 
game were tlie quail, prairie chicken and wild 
turkey. Hawks, turkey buzzards, crows, black- 
birds, were also very abundant. Several of 
these animals furnished meat for the settlers; 
but their principal meat did not long consist 
of game; ])ork and ]joultry were raised in 
abundance. The wolf was the most trouble- 
some animal, it being the common enemy 
of the sheep, and sometimes attacking other 
domestic animals, and even human beings. 
But their hideous bowlings at night were so 
constant and terrifying that they almost 
seemed to do more mischief by that annoy- 
ance than by direct attack. They would keep 
everybody and every animal about the farm- 
house awake and frightened, and set all the 
dous in the neighborhood to barking. As 
one man described it: "Suppose six boys, 
having six dogs tied, whipped them all at the 
same time, and you would hear such music 
as two wolves would make." 

To effect the destruction of tliese animals 
the county authorities offered a bounty for 
their scalps; and, besides, big hunts were 
. common. 

WOLF HDNTS. 

In early days more mischief was done by 
wolves than by any other wild animal, and no 



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small part of their iniscliiot'cDiisisteil in their 
iilmost constant barkiiiy at nii;iit, wliicii 
always seemed so meiiaciiiij; ami iViifhtt'iil to 
the settlers. Like inosfjuitos, the noise they 
made appeared to ))e about as dreatlfiil as the 
real depradations they committed. The most 
eft'ectiial, as well as the most excitinj; method 
ot' ridding the cixmtry of these hateful jiests 
was that known as the "circular wolf hunt," 
by which all the men and boys would turn 
out on an appointed day, in a kind of circle 
com])rising many scpuire niilcs (if territoiy, 
wifli hui-BCS and do^-s, and then close up to- 
ward the center of their lield of operation, 
gathering not only wolves, but also deer 
ami nniny smaller " varmint." Five, ten or 
more wolves by this means would sometimes 
be killed in a single day. The men would be 
organized with as miicli system as a little 
army, e\ery oiic being well jiosted in the 
meaning of every signal ami the ajiplication 
of every rule. Guns were scarcely ever 
alK>wed to be bi-ought on sucli occasions, 
as their use would be unavoidably danger- 
ous. The dogs were depended on for the 
final slaughter. The dogs, by the way, had 
all to be held in check by a cord in the 
hands of their keepers until the final signal 
was given to let them loose, when away they 
would go to the center of battle, and a more 
exciting scene would follow than can be easily 
described. 

np:K HUNTING. 

This wild j-ecreation was a jieculiar one, 
and many sturdy back-woodsmen gloried in 
excelling in this art. He would carefully 
watch a bee as it filled itself with the sweet 
product of some flower or leaf-buii, and notice 
particularly the direction taken by it as it 
struck a '-bee-line" for its home, which when 
found would be generally high up in the 
hollow of a tree. The tree would be marked, 




and in September a party would go and cut 
down the tree and captiiie the honey as 
quickly as they could before it wasted away 
through the broken walls in which it hai 
been so carefully stowed away by the little 
busy bee. Several gallons would often lie 
thus taken from a single tree, and by a very 
little work, and ploasunt at that, the early 
settlers could keep themselves in honey the 
year round. IJy the time the honey was a 
year old, or bef(jre, it would tiii-n white and 
granulate, yet be as good and healthful as 
when fresli. This was It}' some called •• can- 
did " honey. 

In some districts, the resorts of bees would 
be so plentiful that all the available hol- 
low trees wouhl be occupied and many colo- 
nies of bees would be found at work in 
crevices in the rock and lioles in tlie gnnind. 
A considerable (piantity of honey lias even 
been taken from such places. 



In pioneer times snakes were numerous, 
such as the rattlesnake, viper, adder, blond 
snake and many varieties of large blue and 
green snakes, milk snake, garter and water 
snakes, black snakes, etc., etc. If, on meet- 
ing one of these, you would retreat, they 
would chase you very fiercely; but if you 
would turn and give them battle, they would 
immediately crawd away with all possible 
speed, hide in the grass and weeds, and wait 
for a '' greener " customer. These really 
harmless snakes served to put people on their 
(Miaril ai;;unst the nuire dangerous and ven- 
omous kinds. 

It was the practice of some sections of the 
country to turn out in companies, with 
spades, mattocks and crow-bars, attack the 
principal snake dens and slay large numbers 
of them. In early spring the snakes were 
somewhat torpid and easily captured. Scores 



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ol' nittlesriiikes were eoiiietiiiiL's tVigliteiied 
out of a single ileu, which, ;is soon as they 
showed their heads tluough the crevices of 
the rocks, were dispatched, and left to be de- 
voured by the numerous wild liogs of that 
day. Some of the fattest of these snakes 
were taken to the house and oil extracted 
from them, and their glittering skins were 
saved as specifics for rheumatism. 

Another method was to so fix a heavy stick 
over the door of their dens, with a long 
grape-vine attached, that one at a distance 
could plug the entrance to the den when the 
snakes were all out sunning themselves. 
Then a large company of the citizens, on 
hand by apjjointment, could kill scores of the 
reptiles in a few minutes. 



One of tlie greatest obstacles in the early 
settlement and prosperity of this State was 
the " chills and fever," " fever and ague," or 
" shakes," as it was variously called. It was 
a terror to new comers; in the fall of the 
year almost everybody was attlicted with it. 
It was no respecter of persons; everybody 
looked pale and sallow as though lie were 
Irost-bitten. It was not contagious, but de- 
rived from impure water and air, which are 
always developed in the opening of a new 
country of rank soil like that of the North- 
west. The impurities continue to be ab- 
sorbed from day to day, and from week to 
week, until the whole body corporate became 
saturated with it as with electricity, and then 
the shock came; and the shock was a regular 
shake, with a fixed beginning and ending, 
coming on in some cases each day, but gen- 
erally on alternate days, with a regularity 
that was surprising. After the shake came 
the fever, and this " last estate was worse 
than the first." It was a burninsr hot fever 



and lasted for hours. When you had the 
chill you couldn't get warm, and when you 
had the fever you couldn't get cool. It was 
exceedingly awkward in this respect; indeed 
it was. Xor would it stop for any sort of 
contingency; not even a wedding in the fam- 
ily would stop it. It was imperative and 
tyrannical. When the appointed time came 
around, everything else had to be stopped to 
attend to its demands. It didn't even have 
any Sundays or holidays; after the fever 
went down you still didn't feel much better. 
Vou felt as though you had gone through 
some sort of collision, threshing-machine or 
jarring-machine, and came out not killed, 
but next thing to it. You felt weak, as 
though you had run too far after something, 
and then didn't catch it. You felt languid, 
stupid and sore, and was down in the mouth 
and heel and partially raveled out. Your 
back was out of fix, your head ached and your 
appetite crazy. Your eyes had too much 
white in them, your ears, especially after 
taking quinine, had too much roar iu them, 
and your whole body and soul were woe-be- 
gone, disconsolate, sad, poor and good for 
nothing. You didn't think much of your- 
self, and didn't believe that other people did 
either; and you didn't care. You didn't 
quite make up your mind to commit suicide, 
but sometimes wished some accident would 
happen to knock either the malady or your- 
self out of existence. You imagined that 
even the dogs looked at you with a kind of 
self-complacency. You thought the sun had 
a kind of sickly shine about it. 

About this time you came to the conclusion 
that you would not accept the whole State of 
Indiana as a gift; and if you had the strength 
and means, you picked up Hannah and the 
baby, and your traps, and went back " yander " 
to " Old Virginny," the " Jarseys," Maryland 
or " Pennsylvany." 






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" Anil lo-il;i}' the swallows flitting 

Round my cabin see nie sittiuj^ 

Jlooilily within the sunshine, 
Just insiile my silent door, 

Wailing for the ' ager,' >eeniing 

Like a man lorever dreaming; 

And the sunlight on me streaming 
Throws no shadow on the floor; 

For 1 am too thin and sallow 

To maUe shadows on the floor — 

Xary shadow any more ! " 

Tlie above is not a mere ])icttire of the 
iinai^iuiitioii. It is simply recounting in 
ijiiaint phrase wliat actually occurred in 
thousands of cases. "Whole families would 
sometimes be sick at one time and not one 
member scarcely able to wait upon another. 
Labor or exercise always aggravated the 
malady, and it took General Laziness a long 
time to thrash the enemy out. And those 
were the days for swallowing all sorts of 
roots and "yarbs," and whisky, etc., with 
sotne faint hope of relief. And finally, when 
the case wore out, the last remedy taken got 
the credit of the cure. 

EDUCATION. 

Thotigh struggling through the pressure of 
poverty and privation, the early settlers 
planted among them the school-house at the 
earliest practical period. So iinportant an 
object as the education of their children 
they did not defer until they could build 
more comely and convenient houses. They 
were for a time content with such as corre- 
sponded with their rude dwellings, but soon 
better buildings and accoinmoilations were 
provided. As may readily be sujiposed, the 
accommodations of the earliest schools were 
not good. Sometimes school was taught in a 
room of a large or double log cabin, but 
oftener in a log house built for the purpose. 
Stoves and such heating apparatus as are now 
in tise were then unknown. A mud-and- 
stick chimney in one end of the building. 



with earthen heartli and a fireplace wide and 
deep enough to receive a four to six-foot 
back-log, and smaller wood to inatcli, served 
for warming purposes in ■winter and a kind 
of conservatory in summer. For windows, 
part of a log was cut out in two sides of the 
building, and maybe a few lights of eight 
by ten glass set in, or the aperture might be 
covered over with greased pajier. Writing 
desks consisted of heavy oak plank or a 
hewed slab hiid upon wooden pins driven 
into the wall. The four-legged slab benches 
were in front of these, and tlie pupils when 
not writing would sit with their backs against 
the front sharp edge of tiie writing-desks. 
The floor was also made out of these slabs, or 
'• puncheons," laid upon log sleepers. Every- 
thing was rude and plain; but many of 
America's greatest men have gone out from 
■just such school-houses to grai)ple witli the 
world and make names for themselves and 
reflect honor upon their country. Among 
these we can name Abraham Lincoln, our 
martyred President, one of the noblest men 
known to the world's history. Stephen A. 
Douglas, one of the greatest statesmen of the 
age, began his career in Illiiujis teaching in 
one of these primitive school-houses. Joseph 
A. Wright and several others of Indiana's 
great statesmen have also graduated from the 
log school-house into political eminence. So 
with many ot her most eloqtient and erticient 
preachers. 

Imagine such a liouse with the children 
seated around, and the teacher seated on one 
cud of a bench, with no more desk at his 
hand than any other pupil has, and you have 
in view the whole scene. The " school- 
master" has called "IJooks! books! "at the 
door, and the "scholars" have just run in 
almost out of breath from vigorous play, 
have taken their seats, and are for the moment 
'• saying over their lessons " to themselves 



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witli nil tlu'ir iiiiijrlit, tJKit is, in as Uiiul a 
whisper as possihk'. A\'liilc they arc tliiis 
eiigai^eil the teaclier is perhaps sharpening a 
tew (|iiill pens for the pupils, for no other 
kind of writing pen liad been thought of as 
yet. In a few minutes he calls up an urchin 
to say his a 1) c's; the little hoy stands beside 
tlie teacher, perhaps partially leaning \ipon 
liis lap; the teacher with iiis pen-knife points 
to the letter and asks what it is; the little 
fellow remains silent, for he does not know 
what to say; ''A," says the teacher; the boy 
echoes ">V;" the teacher points to the next 
and asks what it is; the boy is silent again; 
" E," says the teacher; " 13," echoes the little 
urchin; and so it goes through the exercise, 
at the conclusion of which the teacher tells 
the little 'Olajor" to go back to his seat and 
study his letters, and when he comes to a 
letter he doesn't know, to come to him and 
he will toll him. He obediently goes to his 
seat, looks on liis book a little while, and then 
goes trudging across the puncheon floor again 
in his bare feet, to the teacher, and points to 
a letter, probably outside of his lesson, and 
asks what it is. -The teacher kindly tells 
him that that is not in his lesson, that he 
need not study that or look at it now; he will 
come to that some other da}', and then he 
will learn what it is. The simple-minded 
little fellow then trudges, smilingly, as he 
catches the eye of' some one, back to his seat 
again. l!ut why he smiled he has no delinite 
idea. 

To pi'event wearing the books out at the 
lower corner, every pupil was expected to 
keep a "thumb-paper" under his thumb as 
he holds the book; even then tlie books weie 
soiled and worn out at this place in a few 
weeks, so that a part of many lessons were 
gone. Consequently the request was often 
made, " Master, may I borrow Jimmy's book 
to get my lesson in* mine liaint in my book; 



it's tore out." It was also customary to use 
book-[)ointers, to jxjinL out tlie letti'i\s or 
woi'ds in study as well as in I'ecitation. The 
black stem of the maiden-hair fern was a 
very popular material from which ]K)i liters 
were made. 

The a-b-ab scholars through with, perhaps 
the second or third reader class would be' 
called, M-ho would .stand in a row in front of 
the teacher, " toeing the mark," which was 
actually a chalk or charcoal mark drawn on 
the tloor, and commencing at one end of the 
class, one would read the first " verse," the 
next the second, and so on around, taking the 
paragraphs in the order as they occur in the 
book. Whenever a pupil hesitated at a word 
the teacher would pronounce it for liim. And 
this was all there was of the reading exercise. 

Those studying arithmetic were but little 
classified, and they were therefore generally 
called forward singly and interviewed, or the 
teacher simply visited them at their seats. A 
lesson containing several '' sums " woidd be 
given for the next day. Whenever the learner 
came to a sum he eonldn't do he would go t(j 
the teacher with it, who would willingly and 
patiently, if he had time, do it for him. 

In geography no wall maps were used, no 
drawing recj^uired, and the studying and reci- 
tation compi'ised only the committing to 
memor}', or "getting by heart," as it was 
called, the names antl locality of places. The 
recitation proceeded like this: Teacher — 
" Where is Norfolk? " Pupil — " In the south- 
eastern part of Virginia." Teacher — " What 
bay is between Maryland and Virginia?" 
Pupil — " Chesapeake." 

When the hour for writing arrived the time 
was announced by the master, and every 
pupil practicing this art would turn his feet 
over to the back of his seat, thus throwing 
them under the writing desk already de- 
scribed, and proceeded to " follow copy," which 



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PIONEER LIFE. 



was invarialily set by the teacher, not liy i-iile, 
but by us nice a stroke of the j)en as hecuiihl 
make. Tlie tirst copies for each j^iipil woiikl 
be letters, and the second kind and last con- 
sisted of maxims. lUue ink on white paper, 
or black ink on blue ])aper, were common; 
and sometimes a pupil would be so unfortu- 



when a pujiil spelled a word correctly, which 
had been nihssed by one or more, he would 
"go up " and take his station above all that 
had missed the woi'd; this was called >' turn- 
ing them down." ,Vt the conclusion of the 
recitation, the head pupil would go to the 
foot, to have another opportunity of turning 



nate as to be compelled to use blue ink on | them all down. Tlie class would number, 

blue paper; and a "blue" time he had of it. and before taking their seats the teacher 

.Vbuut half past ten o'clock the master I would sav, " School's dismissed," which was 

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would announce, " School may go out; " the signal for every child rushing for his 



which meant "little play-time," in the chil- 
dren's parlance, called nowadays, recess or 



dinner, and having the " big play-time." 
The same jjrocess of spelling would also be 



intermission. Often the practice was to have I gone through with in the afternoon just be- 
fore dismissing the school for the day. 

The chief text-books in which the " schol- 
ars" got their lessons were "Webster's or some 



the boys and girls go out separately, in which 
case the teacher would first say, " The girls 
may go out," and after they had been out 



similar privilege in the same way. In call- 
ing the children in from the ]jlay-ground, the 
teacher would invariably stand near the door 
of the school-house and call out "Books! 
books!" IJetween jilay-times the request, 
"Teacher, may I go out?" was often iter- 
ated to the annoyance of the teacher and the 
disturbance of the school. 



about ten minutes the boys were allowed a i otlier elementary spelling-book, an arithmetic, 

maylie I'ike's, Dilworth's, Daboll's, Smiley's 
or Adams', McGuffey's or the old English 
reader, and Roswell C. Smith's geography 
and atlas. Very few at the earliest day, how- 
ever, got so far along as to study geography. 
Now-a-days, in contrast with the above, look 
at the •' ographies " and " ologies !" Gram- 
mar and composition were scarcely thonght 
At about half past eleven o'clock the | of until Indiana was a quarter of a century 

old. ami they were introduced in such a way 
that their utility was always questioned. 
First, old Murra3-'s then Kirkham's grammar 
were the text-books on this subject. " Book 
I'arnin'," instead of practical oral instruc- 
tion, was the only thing supposed to be at- 
tained in the primitive log school-liouse days. 
But writing was generally taught with fair 
diligence. 

" PAST THE 1'10TLKE.S." 

This phrase had its origin in the practice 
of pioneer schools which useil AVebster's Ele- 
mentary Spelling- Hook. Toward the back 
part of that time-honored text-book was a 
series of seven or eight pictures, illustratino- 
morals, and after these again were a few 



teacher would announce, " Scholars may now 
get their spelling lessons," and they would 
all pitch in with their characteristic loud 
whisper and "say over" their lessons with 
that vigor which characterizes the movements 
of those who have first learned that the din- 
ner hour and " big play-time " is near at hand. 
A few minutes before twelve the "little 
spelling-class" would recite, then the " big 
sjielling-class." Tlie latter would comprise 
the larger scholars and the major jiart of the 
school. The classes would stand in a row, 
eitlier toeing the mark in the midst of the 
floor, or straggling along next an unoccupied 
portion of the wall. ()ne end of the class 
was the "head," the other the "foot," and 



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HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY. 



inoro spflliiig exorcises of ;i peculiar l<iiul. 
AViieu ii scholar got over into these he was 
said to be " past the pictures," and was looked 
up to as being smarter and more learned than 
most otlier people ever hoped to be. Hence 
the a]iplication of tliis phrase came to be ex- 
tended to other altairs in life, especially uliere 
scholarshiji was involved. 



Sl'ELI.INU-SCHOOLS. 



The chief public evening entertainment 
for the tirst tliirty or forty years of Indiaiia's 
existence was the celebrated "spelling-school." 
Both young people and old looked forward 
to the next spelling-school with as much an- 
ticipation and anxiety as we now-a-days look 
forward to a general Fourth of July celebra- 
tion; and when the time arrived the whole 
neiglib()rhood, yea, and sometimes several 
neighborhoods, woidd tiock together to the 
scene of academical combat, where the ex- 
citement was often more intense than had 
been expected. It was far better, of course, 
when there was good sleighing; then the 
young folks would turn out in high glee and 
be fairly beside themselves. The jollity is 
scarcely eijualed at the present day by any- 
thing in vogiie. 

When the appointed hour arrived, the 
usual plan of commencing battle was for two 
of the young people who might agree to play 
against each other, or wlio might be selected 
to do so by the school-teacher of the neigli- 
borhood, to " choose sides," that is, each con- 
testant, or " captain," as lie was generally 
called, would choose the best sjjeller from the 
assembled crowd. Each one choosing alter- 
nately, the ultimate strength of the respective 
parties would be about equal. Wlien all were 
chosen that could be made to serve, each side 
would " number," so as to ascertain whether 
amid the confusion one captain had more 
spellers than the other. In case he had, some 



compromise would be made by the aid of the 
teacher, the master of ceremonies, and then 
the plan of conducting the campaign, or 
counting the misspelled words, would be can- 
vassed for a moment by the captains, some- 
times by the aid of tlie teaclier and others. 
There were many ways of conducting the con- 
test and keeping tally. Every section of the 
country had several favorite methods, and all 
or most of these were difl'erent from what 
other commimities had. At one time they 
would commence spelling at the head, at 
another time at the foot; at one time they 
Would " spell across," that is, the first on one 
side would spell the first word, then the first 
on the other side; next the second in the line 
on each side, alternately, down to the other 
end of each line. The question who would 
spell the first word was determined by the 
captains guessing what page the teacher 
would have before liim in a partially opened 
book at a distance; the captain guessing the 
nearest would spell the first word pronounced. 
AVhen a' word was missed, it would be re- 
pronounced, or passed along without re-pro- 
nouncing (as some teachers strictly followed 
the rule never to re-pronounce a word), until 
it was spelled correctly. If a speller on the 
opposite side finally spelled the missed word 
correctly, it was counted a gain of one to that 
side; if the word was finally corrected by 
some speller on the same side on which it 
was originated as a missed word, it was 
" saved," and no tally mark was made. 

Another popular method was to commence 
at one end of the line of spellers and go 
directly around, and the missed words caught 
up quickly and corrected by " word-catchers," 
appointed by the captains from among their 
best spellers. These word-catchers would at- 
tempt to correct all the words missed on his 
opponent's side, and failing to do this, the 
catcher on the other side would catch him up 









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M'itli a peculiar zest, and tlicn there was 
fun. 

Still auotlier very interesting, though some- 
what disorderly, method was this: Each 
word-catcher would go to the foot of the ad- 
versary's line, and every time he " catched" 
a word he would go up one, thus " turning 
them down'' in regular spelling-class style. 
AVlien one catcher in this way turned all 
down in the opposing side, his own party 
was victorious by as many as the opposing 
catcher was behind. This method required 
no slate or blackboard tally to be kept. 

One turn, by cither of the foregoing or 
other methods, would occupy forty minutes 
to an liour, and i)y this time an intermission 
or recess was had, when the buzzing, crack- 
ling and hurrahing that ensued for ten or 
tifteen minutes were beyond description. 

Coming to order again, the next style of 
battle to be illustrated was to "spell down," 
by wliich process it was ascertained who 
M-ere the best spellers and could continue 
standing as a soldier the longest. But ver}' 
often good spellers would inadvertently miss 
a word in an early stage of the contest and 
would have to sit down humiliated, while a 
comparatively poor speller would often stand 
till nearly or quite the last, amid the clieers 
of the assemblage. Sometimes the two par- 
ties first "chosen up" in the evening would 
re-take their places after recess, so that by 
the " spelling-down " process there would 
virtually be another race, in another form; 
sometimes there would be a new "choosing- 
up " for the " spelling-down " contest; and 
sometimes tlie spelling-down would be con- 
ducted without any party lines being made. 
It would occasionally happen that two or 
three very good si)ellers would retain the 
floor so long that the exercise would become 
monotonous, when a few outlandish words 
like " chevaux-de-frise," "Ompom])anoosuc " 



or " Baugh-naugh-claugh-ber," as they used 
to spell it sometimes, would create a little 
ripple of excitement to close with. Some- 
times these words would decide the contest, 
but generally when two or three good spellers 
kept the floor until the exercise became mon- 
otonous, the teacher would declare the race 
closed and the standing spellers acquitted 
with a " drawn game." 

The audience dismissed, the next thing was 
to " go home," very often by a round-about 
way, " a-sleighing with the girls," which, of 
course, was with many the most interesting 
part of the evening's performances, some- 
times, however, too rough to be commended, 
as the boj's were often inclined to be some- 
what rowdy ish. 



SINOING-SCIIOOL. 



Next to the night spelling-school the sing- 
ing-school was an occasion of much j(j!lity, 
wherein it was difficult for the average sing- 
ing-master to preserve order, as many went 
more for fun than for music. This species 
of evening entertainment, in its introduction 
to the "West, was later than the spelling- 
school, and served, as it were, as the second 
step toward the more modern civilization. 
Good sleighing weather was of course almost 
a necessity for the success of these schools, 
but how many of them have been prevented 
by mud and rain! Perhaps a greater part of 
the time from November to April the roads 
would be muddy and often half-frozen, which 
would have a very dampening and freezing 
effect upon the souls, as well as the bodies of 
the young people who longed for a good time 
on such occasions. 

The old-time method of conducting sing- 
ing-scliool was also somewhat different from 
that of modern times. It was more plodding 
and heavy, the attention being kept upon the 
simplest rudiments, as the names of the 






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notes on the statl', and tlioir piti-li, :uul boat- 
ing time, while comparatively little attention 
was givLMi to expression and light, gleeful 
music. The very earliest scale introduced in 
the West was from the South, and the notes, 
from their peculiar, shape, were denominated 
'•patent" or " buckwheat" notes. They were 
four, of which the round one was called sol, 
t!ie square one h/, the ti'ianyular one _/</, and 
the "diamond-shaped" one //;/, ])r(inounced 
me, and the diatonic scalf, or -'gamut" as it 
\vas called then, rau thus: y*/, sol, lu^fa, sol, 
hi, mi, fi(. The part of a tune nowadays 
called "treble," or "sojirano," was then called 
"tenor;" the part now called "tenor" was 
called " treble," and wliat is now " alto " was 
then " counter," and when sung according to 
the oldest rule, was sung by a female an 
octave higher than marked, and still on the 
"chest I'egister." The "old" "Missouri 
Ilarmonv " and Mason's " Sacred Harp " 
were the i)rinci])al books used with this style 
of musical notation. 

In 1850 the " roundpuote " system began 
to " ctune around," being introduced by the 
Yankee singing-master. The scale was do, 
re, mi, fa, sol, la, si, do; and for many years 
thereafter there was much more do-re-mi-ing 
than is practiced at the present day, ;vhen a 
musical instrument is always under the hand. 
The "Carmina Sacra" was the pioneer round- 
note book, in which the tunes partook more 
of German or Puritan chai'acter, and was 
generally regai'ded by the old folks as being 
far more spii'itless than the old " Pisgah," 
" Fiducia," "Tender Thought," "]\'ew Dur- 
luun," "Windsor," " ^[ount Zion, "Devo- 
tion," etc., of the okl " Missouri Harmony" 
and tradition. 

GUAKDINO AGAINST INDIANS. 

Tiie fashion of carrying fii-e-arms was 
made necessary by the presence of roving 



banils of Indians, most of whom were osten- 
sibly friendly, but, like Indians in all times, 
treacherous and unreliable. An Indian war 
was at any time probable, and all the old 
settlers still retain vivid recollections of In- 
dian massacres, murders, plunder, and fright- 
ful rumors of intended raids. While target 
practice was much indulgeil in as an amuse- 
ment, it was also necessary at times to carry 
their guns with them to their daily field 
work. 

As an illustration of the painstaking which 
characterized pioneer life, we quote the fol- 
lowing from Zebulon Collings, who lived 
about six miles from the scene of massacre 
in the Pigeon lloost settlement: ''The 
manner in which I used to work in those 
perilous times was as follows: On all occa- 
sions I carried my rifle, tomahawk and butcher- 
knife, with a loaded pistol in my l)elt. When 
1 went to plow I hiid my gun on the plowed 
ground, ami stuck \ip a stick by it for a 
mark, so that I could get it quick in case it 
was wanted. I had two gnod dogs; I took 
one into the house, leaving the other (jut. 
The one outside was expected to give the 
alarm, which would cause the one inside to 
bark, by which I would be awakened, having 
my arms always loaded. I kept my horse in 
a stable close to the house, having a port- 
hole so that I could shoot to the stable door. 
During two yeai's I never went from home 
with any certainty (jf returning, not knowing 
the minute I might receive a ball from an 
unknown hand." 

THE BRIGHT SIDE. 

The history of pioneer life generally pre- 
sents the dark side of the picture; but the 
toils and privations of the early settlers were 
not a series of unmitigated sufferings. No, 
for while the fathers and mothers toiled hard, 
they were not averse to a little relaxation, 






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PIONEER LIFE. 



iuul li;ul tlieir seasons of I'uii and enjoyment. 
Tliey contrived to do sonietliini^ to lu'eak the 
niunotony of tlieir daily life and furnish them 
a good hearty langli. ^Vniong the more 
general forms of amusements were the 
" (jiiilting-iiee," " corn-husking," "apple-par- 
ing," •• log-rolling," and >• house-raising." 
Our young readers will doubtless be inter- 
ested in a description of these forms of 
amusement, when labor was made to atl'ord 
fun and enjoyment to all participating. The 
" quilting-bee," as its mime implies, was 
when the industrious qualities of tlie busy 
little insect that '• imjiroves each shining 
liour " were exemplified in the manufacture 
of quilts for the household. In the after- 
noon ladies for miles around gathered at an 
appointed place, and wiiile their tongues 
would not cease to play, the hands were as 
busily engaged in making the quilt; and 
desire was always manifested to get it out as 
(piickly as possible, for then tlie fun would 
begin. In the evening the gentlemen came, 
and the hours would then pass swiftly by in 
jjlaying games or dancing. " Corn-huskings " 
were when both sexes united in the work. 
They usually assembled in a large barn, which 
was arranged for the occasion; and when 
each gentleman had selected a lady partner 
the husking began. When a lady found a 
red ear she was entitled to a kiss from every 
gentleman present; when a gentleman found 
one he was allowed to kiss every lady present. 
After the corn was all husked a good supper 
was served; then the "old folks" would 
leave, and the remainder of the evening was 
spent in the dance and in having a general 
good time. The recreation atl'orded to the 
young peojile on the annual recuri'ence of 
these festive occasions was as highly enjoyed, 
and quite as innocent, as the amusements of 
the ].)resent boasted age of refinement and 
culture. 



The amusements of the ])ioneers were 
]ieculiar to themselves. Saturday afternoon 
was a holiday in which no man was expected 
to work. \ load of produce might be taken 
to " town " for sale or tratKc without violence 
to custom, but no more serious labor could 
be tolerateii. When on Saturday afternoon 
the town was reached, " fun commenced." 
Had two neighbors business to transact, here 
it was done. Horses were " swapped," ditti- 
culties settled, and free tights indulged in. 
nine and red ribbons were not worn in those 
days, and whisky was as free as water; 12A 
cents would buy a quart, and 35 or 40 cents 
a gallon, and at such prices enormous quan- 
tities were consumed. (4o to any town in 
the county and ask the tirst pioneer you 
meet, and he would tell you of notable Satur- 
day afternoon fights, either of wliicli to-dav 
would fill a column of the Police jVews, with 
elaborate engravings to match. 

Mr. Sanford C. Cox quaintly describes 
some of the hapjjv features of frontier life in 
this manner: 

We cleared land, rolled logs, burned brush, 
blazed out paths from one neighbor's cabin 
to another and from one settlement to an- 
other, made and used hand-mills and hominy 
mortars, hunted deer, turkey, otter and rac- 
coons, caught lish, dug ginseng, hunted bees 
and tiie like, and — lived on the fat of the 
land. We read of a land of " corn and 
wine," and another " flowing with milk and 
honey;" but I rather think, in a temporal 
point of view, taking into account the rich- 
ness of the soil, timber, stone, wikl game and 
otlier advantages, that the Sugar Creek coun- 
try would come up to any of tliem, if not 
surpass them. 

I once cut cord-wood, continues ^[r. Cox, 
at 31^ cents per cord, and walked a mile and 
a half night and morning, where the flrst 
frame college was built northwest of town 






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HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY. 



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(Cniwfonlsville). Prof. Curry, the lawyer, 
would sometimes come down and help fur an 
hour or two at a time, by way of amusement, 
as there was little or no law^ business in the 
town or country at that time. Header, what 
would yoTi think of going six to eight miles 
to help roll logs or raise a cabin ? or ten to 
thirteen miles to mill, and wait three or four 
days and nights for your grist? as many had 
to do in the first settlement of this country. 
Such things were of frequent occurrence 
then, and there was hut little grumbling 
about it. It was a grand sight to see the log 
heaps and brush piles burning in the night 
on a clearing of ten or fifteen acres. A 
Democratic torch-light procession, or a mid- 
night march uf the Sons of Malta with their 
grand Gyasticutus in the center bearing the 
grand jewel of the order, would be nowhere 
in comparison with the log heaps and brush 
piles in a blaze. 

But it may be asked, Had you any social 
amusements, or manly pastimes, to recreate 
and enliven the dwellers in the wilderness ? 
We had. In the social line we had our 
meetings and our singing-schools, sugar boil- 
ings and weddings, which was as good as 
ever came off in any country, new or old; 
and if our youngsters did not " trip the 
light fantastic toe" under a professor of the 
Terpsichorean art or expert French dancing- 
master, they had many a good " hoe-down " 
on jiuncheon floors, and were not annoyed by 
bad whisky. And as for manly sports, re- 
quiring mettle and muscle, there were lots of 
wild hogs ruiming in the cat-tail swamps on 
Lye Creek and ]\Iill Creek, and among them 
many large boars that Ossian's heroes and 
Homer's model soldiers, such as Achilles, 
Hector and Ajax, would have delighted to 
give chase to. The boys and men of those 
days had quite as much sport, and made 
more money and health b}' their hunting ex- 



cursions than our city gents now-a-days play- 
ing chess by telegraph where the players are 
more than seventy miles apart. 

WHAT THE I'lONEEES HAVE DONE. 

Indiana is a grand State, in many respects 
second to none in the Union, and in almost 
everything that goes to make a live, prosper- 
ous community, not far behind the best. Be- 
neath her fertile soil is coal enough to supply 
the State for generations; her harvests are 
bountiful; she has a medium climate, and 
many other things, that make her people 
contented, prosperous and happy; but she 
owes much to those who opened up these 
avenues that have led to her present condi- 
tion and happy surroundings. Unremittino- 
toil and labor have driven off the sickly 
miasmas that brooded over swampy prairies. 
Energy and perseverance have peopled every 
section of her wild lands, and changed them 
from wastes and deserts to gardens of beauty 
and profit. AVhere but a few years ago the 
barking wolves made the night hideous with 
their wild shrieks and howls, now is heard 
only the lowing and bleating of domestic 
animals. Only a half century ago the wild 
wdioop of the Indian rent the air where now 
are heard the eiigine and rumbling trains of 
cars, bearing away to markets the products of 
our labor and soil. Then the savage built 
liis rude huts on the spot where now rise the 
dwellings and school-houses and church spires 
of civilized life. How great the transforma- 
tion ! This change has been brought about 
by the incessant toil and aggregated labor of 
thousands of tired hands and anxious hearts, 
and the noble aspirations of such men and 
women as make any country great. "What 
will another half century accomplish ? There 
are few, very few, of these old pioneers yet 
lingering on the shores of time as connecting 
links of the past with the present. "What 



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PIONEER LIFE. 



must their thoughts be as with dim eyes tliey 
view the scenes that surroiiiid tlieiii ? ^Ve 
often liear people talk al)oiit the old fogy 
ideas and fogy ways, and want of enterprise 
on the part of the old men who have gone 
through the experiences of pioneer life. 
Sometimes, perhaps, sucli remarks are just, 
but considering the experiences, education 
and entire life of such men, such remarks 
are better unsaid. They have had their 
trials, misfortunes, hardships and adventures, 
and shall we now, as they are passing far 
down the western declivity of life, and many 
of them gone, point to them the finger of 
derision and laugh and sneer at the sim- 
plicity of their ways ? Let us rather cheer 
them up, revere and respect them, for be- 
neath those rough exteriors beat hearts as 
noble as ever throbbed in the human breast. 
These veterans have been compelled to live 
for weeks upon hominy and, if bread at all, 
it was bread made from corn ground in hand- 
mills, or pounded up with mortars. Their 
children have been destitute of shoes during 
the winter; their families had no clothing 
except what was carded, spun, wove and made 
into garments by their own hands; schools 
they had none; churches they had none; 
afflicted with sickness incident to all new 
countries, sometimes the entire family at 
once; luxuries of life they had none; the 
auxiliaries, improvements, inventions and 
labor-saving machinery of to-day they had 
not; and what they possessed they obtained 
by the hardest of labor and individual exer- 
tions, yet they bore these hardships and pri- 
vations without murmuring, hoping for better 
times to come, and often, too, with but little 
prospect of realization. 

As before mentioned, the changes written 
on every hand are most wonderful. It has 
been but three-score years since the white 
man beu;an to exercise dominion over this 



region, first the home of the red men, yet the 
visitor of to-day, ignorant of the past of the 
country, could scarcely be made to realize 
that within these years there has grown up a 
population of 2,000,000 people, who in all 
the accomplishments of life are as far ad- 
vanced as are the inliabitante of the older 
States. Schools, churches, colleges, palatial 
dwellings, beautiful grounds, large, well- 
cultivated and ])roductive tarms, as well as 
cities, towns and liusy manufactories, have 
grown up, and occupy the hunting grounds 
and camping places of the Indians, and in 
every direction there are evidences of wealth, 
comfort and luxury. There is but little left 
of the old landmarks. Advanced civilization 
and the progressive demands of revolving 
years have obliterated all traces of Indian 
occupancy, until they are only remembered 
in name. 

In closing this section we again would 
impress upon the minds of our readers the 
fact that they owe a debt of gratitude to those 
who pioneered this State, which can be but 
partially repaid. Never grow unmindful of 
the peril and adventure, fortitude, self-sacrifice 
and heroic devotion so prominently displayed 
in their lives. As time sweeps on in its 
ceaseless flight, may the cherished memories 
of them lose none of their greenness, but may 
the future generations alike cherish and per- 
petuate them with a just devotion to grati- 
tude. 

MILrrARY DRILL. 

In the days of muster and military drill, so 
well known throughout thecountry,a specimen 
of pioneer work was done on the South Wea 
prairie, as follows, according to Mr. S. C. 
Cox: 

The Captain was a etout-built, muscular 
man, who stood six feet four in his boots, and 
weighed over 200 pounds; when dressed in 
his uniform, a blue hunting-shirt fastened 



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UISTOUY OF ADAMS COUNTy. 












with a wide red snsli, witli epaulettes on each 
slioulder, liis larije swoi-d fastened hy liis 
side, and tall jiliiine waving in the wind, he 
looked like another William Wallace, or 
Roderick Uhu, unsheathing liis claymore in 
defense of his country, liis company consisted 
of about seventy men, who had reluctantly 
turned out to muster to avoid paj'ing a line; 
some with guns, some with sticks, and others 
carrying corn-stalks. The Captain, who had 
but recently been elected, understood his 
business better tlian his men supposed he 
did. 

He intended to give them a thorough 
drilling, and show them that he understood 
the maneuvers of the military art as well as 
he ilid fanning and fox hunting, the latter of 
which was one of his favorite amusements. 
After forming a hollow square, marching and 
countermarching, and putting them through 
several other evolutions, according to Scott's 
tactics, he commanded his men to " form a 
line." They partially complied, but the line 
was crooked. lie took his sword and passed 
it along in front of his men, straightening 
the line. By the time he jiassed from one 
end of the line to the other, on casting his 
eye back, he discovered that the line presented 
a zig-zag and unmilitary appearance. Some 
of the men were leaning on their guns, some 
on their sticks a yard in advance of the line, 
and others as far in the rear. The Captain's 
dander arose; he threw his cocked hat, 
feather and all, on the ground, took off his 
red sash and hunting-shirt, and threw them, 
with his sword, upon his hat; he then rolled 
up his sleeves and shouted witli the voice of a 
stentor, '• Gentlemen, form a line and keej) 
it, or I'll thrash the whole company." In- 
stantly the whole line was straight as an arrow. 
Tlie Captain was satisfied, put on his clotlies 
again, and never had any more trouble in 
drilling his company. 



JACK, "Tin; IMlIl.oSOI'HEK OF TIIK NINKTKKNTIl 
CENTUin." 

In early days in this State, before books 
and newspapers were introduced, a few law- 
yers were at a certain place in the habit of 
playing cards, and sometimes drinking a 
little too much whisky. During the session 
of a certain court, a man named John Steven- 
son, but who was named " Jack," and who 
styled himself the " philosopher of the lOtli 
century," found out where these genteel 
sportsmen met of evenings to peruse the 
"history of the four kings." He went to 
the door and knocked for admission; to the 
question, "Who is there?" he answered, 
"Jack." The in.siders hesitated; he knocked 
and thumped im]iortunately; at length a 
voice from within said, "(4o away. Jack; we 
have already four 'Jacks ' in our game, and 
we will not consent to have a 'cold one' 
wrung in on us." 

Indignant at this rebuff from gentlemen 
from whom he had expected kinder treat- 
ment, he left, muttering vengeance, which 
excited no alarm in the minds of the players. 
At iirst he started away to walk off his 
passion, but the longer he walked the madder 
he got, and finally he concluded tliat he 
wo\ild not " pass " while he held or might 
hold so many trumps in his hands, but he 
would return and play a strong hand with 
them. Accordingly lie gathej-ed his arms 
full of stones a little larger than David gath- 
ered to throw at (loliath, and when he came 
near enough he threw a volley of them in 
through the window into the room where 
they were playing, extinguishing their lights, 
and routing the whole band with the utmost 
trepidation into the street, in search of their 
curious assailant. Jack stood his ground and 
told them that that was a mere foretaste of 
what they might expect if they molested 
him in the least. 



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Next (inv the pnpiiarioiis , Facie was arrested 
ti) answer an iinlietnient for malieicHis inis- 
cliief; and t'ailin;^ to i;-ive bail, was lodged in 
jail. His prosecutors langhed through the 
grates of the prison as they passed. ^lean- 
wliile Jack '' nursed his wrath to keep it 
warm," and indicted a speech in his own de- 
fense. In due time he was taken before the 
court, the indictnieiit was read, and he was 
asked what lie pleaded to the indictment. 
" Not guilty," he answered in a dee]), earnest 
tone. " Have you counsel engaged to defend 
you, ]\[r. Ste\-enson?" inijuired the judge. 
" No; please your honor; 1 desire none; with 
your permission I will speak for myself. 
" Very well," said the judge. A titter ran 
through the crowd. After the prosecuting 
attorney had gone through with the evidence 
and his opening remarks in the case, the 
prisoner arose and said, "• It is a lamentable 
fact well known to the court and jury and to 
all who hear me, that our county seat has for 
maiiv rears buen iid'esteil and disgraced, es- 
pecially durinij court time, with a knot of 
drunken, carousing gamblers, whose JJaccha- 
nalian revels and midnight orgies disturb the 
quiet and pollute the morals of our town. 
Shall these nuisances longer remain in our 
uiiil&t, to debauch society and lead our young 
men to destruction!' Fidly impressed with a 
sense of their turpitude, and my duty as a 
good citizen to the community in which I live, 
I resolved to 'aliate the nuisance,' which, ac- 
cording to the doctrine of the common law, 
with which your honor is familiar, I or any 
other citizen had a right to do. I have often 
listened with ])leasure to the charges your 
honor gave the grand jury to ferret out crime 
an(.l all manner of gaming in ourcommunity. 
I saw 1 iuid it in my power to ferret out 
these fellows with a volley of stones, and save 
the county the cost of tinding and trying a 
half a dozen indictments. Judge, I did 



' abate tlic nuisance,' and consider it one of 
the most meritoi'ious acts of my life." 

The prosecutor made no reply. The judge 
and lawyers looked at each other with a sig- 
nificant ghince. A nolle prosequi was en- 
tered, Jack was acquitted and was ever after- 
ward considered '• trump." — Settlement </f 
the Wuhush Villi eif. 

" TOO FL'I.L FOK UTTEH.\N'CE." 

The early years of Indiana atlbrd to the 
enquirer a rare op])ortunity to obtain a 
glimpse of the ])olitical and even social rela- 
i tion of the Indianians of the olden time to 
1 the n\oderns. As is customary in all new 
countries there was to be found, within the 
limits of the new State, a hajjpy ]>eople, far 
removed from all those influences which tend 
to interfere with the public morals; they pos- 
sessed the courage and the gait of freeborn 
men, took an especial interest in the political 
qiiestio!is att'ecting their State, anil often, 
j when met under the village shade ti'ees to 
discuss sincerely, and lUKjstentatiously, some 
mattei'S of local iniiiortance, accompanied the 
subject before their little convention with 
song and jest, and even the cup which cheers 
but not inebriates. The election of militia 
officers for the P.lack Creek Uegiment may be 
taken for exam]jle. The village school boys 
prowled at large, for on tlie day previous the 
teacher expressed his intention of attending 
the meeting of electors, and of aiding in 
building up a military com]>any worthy of 
his own importance, and the reputation of the 
few villagers. The industrious matrons and 
maids — bless their souls — -donned the habili- 
ments of fashion, and as they arrivetl at the 
meeting gi'ound, ornamented the scene for 
which nature in its untouched simplicity 
did so much. 

Now arrived the moment when the business 
should be entered on. With a jjood deal of 



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HItiTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY 



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urging the ancient Elward Tomldiis took 
the chair, aiid with a ponipou.s air, wlierein 
was concentrated a conscionsiiess of liis own 
importance, demanded the gentlemen entrust- 
ed witli resohitions to open the proceedings. 
By tliis time a respected elector brought for- 
ward a jar and an uncommonly hirge tin 
cup. These articles proved objects of very 
serious attention, and when the chairman re- 
peated his demand, the same humane elector 
tilled the cup to the brim, passed it to the ven- 
erable president and bade him drink deep to 
the prosperity of Indiana, of Black Creek, 
and of the regiment about to be formed. The 
secretary was treated similarly, and then a 
drink all around the thirty electors and their 
friends. This cerenaony completed, the mil- 
itary subject melted into nothingness before 
the great question, then agitating the people, 
viz, "Should the State of Indiana accept the 
grant of land donated by Congress for the 
construction of the Wabash and Erie Canal, 
from Lake Erie to the mouth of the Tippe- 
canoe River f" A son of Esculapius, one Dr. 
Stone, protested so vehemently against enter- 
taining even an idea of accepting the grant, 
that the parties favorable to the question felt 
themselves to be treading on tottering 
grounds. Stone's logic was to the point, uncon- 
querable; but his enemies did not surrender 
hope; they looked at one another, then at the 
young school-teacher, whom they ultimately 
selected as their orator and defender. The 
meeting adjourned for an hour, after which 
the youthful teacher of the young ideas as- 
cended the rostrum. His own story of his 
emotions and efforts may be acceptable. lie 
says: 

" I was sorry they called upon me, for I 
felt about ' half seas over' from the free and 
frequent use of the tin cup. I was puzzled 
to know what to do. To decline would 
injure me in the estimation of the neigbor- 



hood, who were strongly in favor of the 
grant; and, on the otliei' hand, if I attempted 
to speak, and failed from intoxication, it would 
ruin me with my patrons. Soon a fence-rail 
was slipped into the worn fence near by, and 
a wash-tub, turned bottom upward, placed 
upon it and on the neighboring rails, about 
tive feet from the ground, as a rostrum for 
me to speak from. Two or three men seized 
hold of me and placed me upon the stand, 
amidst the vociferous shouts of the friends of 
the canal, which were none tlie less loud on 
account of the frequent circulation of the tin 
and jug. I could scarcely preserve my equi- 
librium, but there I was on the tub for the 
purposeof answering and exposing thedoctor's 
sophistries, and an an.xious auditory waiting 
for me to exterminate him. But strange to 
say, my lips refused utterance. I saw 'men 
as trees, walking,' and after a long, and to 
me, painful pause, I smote m}' hand upon 
my breast, and said, 'I feel to full for utter- 
ance.' (I meant of whisky, they thought of 
righteous indignation at the doctor's efi'ront- 
ery in opposing the measure under consider- 
ation). The ruse worked like a charm. Tiie 
crowd shouted: 'Let him have it.' I raised 
my finger and pointed a moment steadily at 
the doctor. The audience shouted, 'Hit him 
again.' Thus encouraged, I attempted the 
first speech I ever attempted to make; and 
after I got my mouth to go off (and a part of 
the whisky — in perspiration) I had no trouble 
whatever, and the liquor dispelled my native 
timidit}', that otherwise might have embar- 
rassed me. I occupied the tub about twenty- 
tive minutes. The doctor, boiling over with 
indignation and speech, mounted tlie tub and 
harangued us for thirty minutes. The 'young 
school-master' was again called for, and another 
speech from him of about twenty minutes 
closed the debate. A vice voce vote of the 
company was taken, which resulted in twenty- 



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PIONEEH LIFE. 



six for the yr;\iit and tour aj^iiinst it. .My 
two t'rioiuls wure I'lceteil captain ami lieuten- 
ant, and I am back at my boarding-lioiise, 
ready for supper, with a sight headache. 
Strange as it may appear, none of them dis- 
covered that I was intoxicated. Lucky for me 
they did not, or I would doubtless lose my 



school. I now here promise myself, on this 
leaf v( my thiy-book, that / will not drink 
Iti^uor ayuin, except (jiccn as a medical pre- 
scription." 

It is possible that the foregoing incident 
was tlie origin of the double entendre, "Too 
full for utterance." 




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;'s= UK jiolitical liistory of 
Aduins County is almost 
1^" inouotonoiisly s i m ji 1 e . 
'Q, Ever since iJSjO, and gen- 
-^ksj, erally since its organ- 
t-^ ization, in 1836, tlie 
I ^Sr^ county lius ijeen carried by the 
'f'P- Democrats. At eacli election, 
ph"^ there tore, the question as to the 
i)\ v» result is not "what" and " wlio," 
hut " how much." (ieorji-e A. 
Dent, an early auditor, was a 
,'S^ ^Vliig, and occasionally some 
minor otlice has been tilled by 
some other than a Democrat; but 
this can be explained by personal reat^ons. 
During the first few years after the county 
was organized there were no rigid party 
attiliations, no machine conventions under the 
iron rule of '■ bosses," and no disciplinary 
caucuses, whose decrees must be followed, 
under penalty of being read out of the party. 
Candidates for local offices were run almost 
entirely on i)ersonal ])opularity. ]\[ajorities 
were accordingly variable, though as a rule 
small, because the total vote of the county 
was small. JJut forty-nine votes were cast at 
the general election of 183(5. Party lines 
beican to be drawn closer durino the latter 






part of the decade before 1850, and by the 
latter year the usual Denjoci-atic majority 
was nearly '200, in a total vote of between 
800 and 900. From is.lli to 1873, when the 
"'Grange" or "Anti-Monopoly " movement 
began to play .-nine part in politics, the 
Democratic votes were to the IJepublicaii 
about as two to one, in number. During the 
last thirteen years the Republican vote has 
been rather less than one-third of the whole, 
and the Deniocratic majorities liave readied 
very large figures. For example, the vote at 
the last presidential election was: Cleveland, 
2,649; Elaine, 1,148; St. John, 35; Butler, 
24; Cleveland's ]ilurality, 1,501; majority 
ovei' all, 1,442. The majorities for county 
officers have as a rule been much lower than 
those on State and national tickets. The 
Green1)ack and Prohibition parties have a 
vei-y small following in the county. 

Jjelow is given a summary containing the 
political tendencies of the several townships 
in the county, and the majorities at the dif- 
ferent presidential elections (except 1844, 
1852 and 1850, the returns for which years 
are missing). 

Blue Creek is moderately safe for the 
Democratic ticket, having failed but two 
presidential elections. Majorities — 1840, 3 



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POLITICAL AND OFFICIAL. 



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(Whiji); 18-iS, 13; ISHO, l-l-; 1^(54, 2-1; 
IMW, u; 1M72, ii (lii'|)ul.lif;m); 1S7(), 24; 
1S«0, 16; 18.S-4, 22. 

Freiicli gave 3 innjority t'oi- Harrison in 
1840, but has since been overwhelmingly 
Ueinocrutic. The Re])ubliciins niiinber scarce- 
ly one-sixth of the total vote. jMajorities — 
1840, 3 (Whig); 1848, 30; 1860, 12; 1864, 
78 (there were but 3 Kepnblioaii votes that 
year); 1808,64; 1872,14; 1876, 104; 1880, 
101; 1884,111. 

Hartford is very strongly Democratic. The 
la'piililicans !ia\e but one-i'uurth the total 
vote, and have never cai'ried the township. 
Majorities— 1840, 10; 1848, 2; 1860, 23; 
1804,67; 1868, 58; 1872, 31; 1876, 105; 
1880, 102; 1884, 122. 

Jefferson is two-thirds Democratic. JMa- 
jorities— 1840, 11; 1848, 2 (Whig); I860, 
I'J; 1864, 41; 1868, 29; 1872, 28; 1876, 
50; 1880, 51; 1884, 60. 

Kirkland is three-fourths, or more. Demo- 
cratic. Majorities — 1848, 10; 1800, 18; 
1864, 62; 1868, 63; 1872, 57; 1876, 79; 
1880, 109; 1884, 98. 

About onc-tiftli of the votes polled in Mon- 
roe are Republican, and the Democrats are 
always sure of a majority. JMajorities — 1848, 
20; 1860, 27; 1864, 45; 1868, 50; 1872, 
28; 1876, 129; 1880, 137; 1884, 209. 

In Preble Township a Republican is looked 
upon as a natural curiosity. The Democratic 
majority is almost as large as the total vote. 
Majorities— 1848, 49; i860, 112; 1864, 129; 
1868, 164; 1872, 141; 1876, 174; 1880, 
185; 1884, 200. 

Root waslirst AVhig, then Rejniblican, anil 
since the war has been Democratic by increas- 
ing majorities, until now the Democrats are 
nearly twice as numerous as the Republicans. 
Majorities— 1840, 19 (Whig); 1848, 20 
(Wliig); 1860, 20 (Republican); 1864, 2 
(Republican); 1808, 18 (Democratic); 1872, 



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2 (Democratic); 1S76. 82 (Democratic); 
1880, 77 (Democratic); 1884, 89 (Demo- 
cratic). 

St. Mar3''s was Whig in the early days, and 
is now Republican by very substantial figures. 
Majorities— 1840, 1; 1848, 30; 1860, 51; 
1864, 30; 1868, 43; 1872, 43; 1876, 47; 
1880, 44; 18S4, 57. 

Union has been Democratic by increasing 
figures for thirty years. Majorities — 1848, 
7^ (Whig); 1800, 5; 1864, 23; 1868, 24; 
1872, 17; 1876, 28; 1880, 44; 1884, 63. 

AVabash is very strongly Democratic. 
Majorities— 1840,4 (Whig); 1848, 37; 1860, 
2; 1864, 82; 1868, 74; 1872, 35; 1876, 115; 
1880, 114; 1884, 130. 

AVashington, which includes the city of 
Decatur, is the source of a good share of the 
Democratic strength the election returns 
from Adams (bounty show every two years. 
Majorities— 1840, 11; 1848,29; 1860, 92; 
1864, 146; 1868, 200; 1872, 324; 1870, 332; 
1880, 358; 1884, 500. 

OFFICIAL KEGISTKE. 

Below arc given the successive incumbents 
of the several county olfices since the organ- 
ization of Adams County, in 1836. 

COMMISSIONKRS. 

Jehu S. Rhea, Samuel Smith and AA^'illiam 
Heath, 1836 (May to September); Jehu S. 
Rhea, Philip Everman and Samuel Smith, 
1836; Jehu S. Rhea, Philip Everman and 
AVilliam Heath, 1837; Philip Everman, 
AVilliam Heath and I. D. Simison, 1838; 
George A. Dent, E. Dailey and I. D. Simi- 
son, 1839; George A. Dent, E. Dailey and 
AVilliam Vance, 1840; George A. Dent, J 3. J. 
Dritson and AVilliam Vance, 1841; John Len- 
hart, B. J. Britson and AVilliam A''anee, 1842; 
John Lcnhart, James Coffee and A\'"illiain 
Vance, 1843; John Lenhart, James Coffee 






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and Joliii ^[cO.)nuell, IS-U; (iooriiv ( 'askoy, 
James Cott'ee anil Jolin .Mf( "(uukjII, ISiu; 
Ge(:irge (.^^^kev. Oeur^e lli'atli and John 
^[cllonnt'll, 184(1; (ieoi'fre ("aski-y, (ieorge 
Heath and Isaac WheekT, 1847; Andrew 
Dohevty, (ieoi'go Heath and Isaac Wheeler, 
1848; AndreM- JJoherty, M. V. Burkliead and 
Isaac Wheeler, 1849; Andrew Doherty, M. 
l'\ Uiirkhead and Charles Nelson, 1850; 
(ieorge D. Ilackett, ]\I. F. IJurkhead and 
("liarles Nelson, 1851-'52; Geor_£,'-e L). Ilackett, 
;M. F. Burkhead and Jonathan Kelley, 1S53; 
Conrad lieiidv'ini;', ^\. F. Burkhead anil Jona- 
than Kelley, 1854; Conrad Beiidiini^, Joseph 
Ii. ^liller and Jonathan Kelley, 1S55; Conrad 
Keinking, Joseph U. ]\Iiller and David Aber, 
iSolJ; Josiah Crawford, Joseph Ii. ]\Iillerand 
David A her, 1857-'58; Josiah Crawford, 
.losejjh K. Jliller and Conrad lieinking, 
185<J-'0U; Josiah Crawford, M. F. B>urklu-ad 
and Conrad IJeinking, 1861-'l)B; Josiah 
Crawford, JaciJ) Sartf and Conrad lieinking, 
18G4-'07; Josiah Crawford, .lacob Sartf and 
Gcoi'ge Lnckey, ISBS-'LJO; George Lnckey, 
George Fraidv and Josiah Crawford, 1870-'74; 
Joseph Spuller, George Frank and Benjamin 
Ilunyon, 1875; Joseph Spuller, Daniel AVeidy 
and llenjamin Runyon, 187U-'79; Mr. Spuller 
died, and in ^larch, 1880, Jolin Bupright 
was appointed; John Bnpright, Daniel 
Weldy and Lcander Dunbar, 1SS0-'81; John 
Iiupriglit, Jacob Yager and Leander Dunbar, 
l8S2-'85; Air. Bnpright resigned in June, 
188(3, and Henry W. Fuelling was appointed. 
Henry W. Fuelling (from Fir.st District, 
term ex])ires in l8'J0), Jacob Yager (from 
SecoTid District, term expires in 1888) and 
George Pontiiis (from Third District, term 
expires in 1889), 188G. 

AUlUToliS. 

George A. Dent, 1841-'45; William Trout, 
1845-50; John ilcConnell, 1850-'59; AVill- 



iam G. Spencer, 1859-'r)7; Seymour Worden, 
lN07--'75; Godfrey Christen, 1n75 ■S;j; Lewis 
C. Miller, 1S83. 

t'l.KKKS. 

Samuel L. Itugg, 183G-'54; S. S. Alickle, 
1854-'55; JamesB. Simcoke, 1855-'63; .lohn 
McConnell, 1863-'67; A. Judson Hill, 1867- 
'75; Byron II. Dent, 1875-'79; Norval B.laek- 
burn, 1879-83; John D. Hale, 1883. 

I{EL'0]:nKKS. 

Samuel L. Bugg, 1841-'48; Oliver T. 
Hart, lS48-'58; Vvilliam J. Adelspurger, 
1858-'06; Martin Y. B. Simcoke, 18G6-'70; 
John J. Chubb, 1870-74; John Schurger, 
1874-82; Abraham .McW. Bollman, 18S2. 

TKEASUKKItS. 

Jeremiah Boe, 183G; John Beynolds, 
183G-'41; James Crabs, 1841-'47; S. S. 
Mickle, 1847-'48; James B. Simcoke, 1848- 
'52; John Crawford, 1852- '56; David Show- 
ers, 185G-'G0; Charles L. Schirmeyer, 18G0- 
'64; Jesse Niblick, 18G4-"68; John Meibers, 
18G8-'72; John Dirksou, 1872-'7G; Anthony 
Holthouse, 1876-'80; Robert D. Patterson, 
1880-'84; Andrew Gottsclialk, 1884. 

SHEKIFFS. 

David McKnight, 1836; Zachariah Smith, 
183G-'40; Alvin Bandall, 1840-'-42; Alex- 
ander Fleming, 1842-'4:6; James B. Simcoke, 
1840-'-18; John N. Little, 1848-'50; David 
AIcDonald, l850-'54; Jacob King, 1854-56; 
David McDonald, 1856-'58; George Frank, 
1858-'62; Jacob Stults, 1862-'6G; James 
Stoops, Jr., 1866-'70; David King, 1870-'74; 
E. Philison Stoops, 1874-'78; Henry Krick, 
1878-'82; Michael McGntf, 1882-'8G; Perry 
A. Lewton, 1886. 

UKl'RKSKNTATIVES. 

William Yance,1836-'40; Morrison Union, 
1840-'41; Bobert D. Tisdale, 1841--42; 



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POLITIUAL AND OFFICIAL. 



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KHhIkiK. INinvt, IS 1-2 -Vl;!; Samuel S. :\ncklo, 
lSi;J-"4t; i;..lM.|t lliiey, ]n41-'-45; Suimiel 
«. Mickle, 1.S15-'-Kj; .lulni J)<i:un, 18-tr,-'-i7; 
iJavid McDuiiakl, 1847-'48; Samuel Decker, 
184S-'4'J; Samuel S. :Mickle, 184'J-'5U; Ihir- 
kett :M. Elkius, 1850-'51; John Crawt'ord, 
1851-52; William <i. Speiifcr, lS52-'54; 
J)avi(l Studabaker, 185."J-'58; Jdiiathau Kel- 
k-v, ls5'J-');0: I'liiK.meii X. Collins, 18lil- 
■)ii;; James U. IViho, lMi7 -'7U; (ic-or^u'C 
:\Iri>uwoll,lS71-'72; Jdliii Me(^oiiiiell,1873- 
'74; Aui^Mistus N. Martin, l>s75-"7i): David 
.1. Spencer, 1877-'78; Joseph L. Dailey, 
1S7'J-"S0; David RKainand 1 )avid Y. iJakcr, 
1881-82; Levi Mock and David Kiev, 1883- 
'84; ])avid Eiey and Samuel T. JNEcXiovne^*, 
l8S5-'8t;; I'llisha Pierce and Samuel S. 
Selvev. 1887. 

ASSiirlATK JUDGES. 

William El/.ey and T. Hooper, 1838-42; 
John Iv. Evans and Ezekiel iroo])cr, 1842- 
'4't; ^Villiam Stockham and E. A. IJunner, 
184U-'51. Olliee aliolishcd. 

SCHOOL CO.M.MISSIONKRS. 

15. I'\ IMossoin, 1837-'-3y; Ezekiel Hooper, 
lS3y-'43; Ed. G. Coxen, 1843-'4G; John 
Little. 1846-'48; James IL Brown, 1848-51. 
OtKce abolishetl. 

COU NTY SUPERINl ENDKNTS. 

Daniel D. Heller, 1873-'74; William N. 
Walters, l874-'7y; G. W. A. Luckey, 1879- 
":i-6\ John Y. Snow, 1883. 

ASSESSORS. 

David McKnight, 1836-37; Robert D. 
Tisdale, 1838-'40; Zachariah Smith, 1840- 



'43; James I'atter^on, 1S43 '44; John(Jrim, 
1844-'4(;; ^Villiam X'anee, IMti-'lS; (Jeorgo 
Fi'ank, 1848-'50; Samuel Eiey, 1850. OHice 
abolifilied. 

LAND Al'l'UAISEKS. 

George Frank, 18fi3-'G9; Andrew Bai'kley, 
18G9-'75; Ferdinand Ueinking, 1875-"7G. 
Office abolished. 

I'KoliATE .IL'DGES. 

Jacob Barks, lS37-'39; James Crabs, 
1839-'40; Robert D. Tisdale, 1840-'41; 
Josepli Martin, 1841-'42; Alvin Randall, 
1842-'49; David Showers, 1849-'51. Olliee 
abolished. 

SUK\KV()KS. 

Philemon N. Collins, 1852-'58; E. ^\L 
Reed, 1858-'59; H. Hart, 1859-'G0; Chris- 
tian F. Stautier, 18G0-'GS; Clay Peterson, 
lSG8-'70; Harry B. Knotf, 187U-'72; Gabriel 
F. Kintz, 1874-'82; James T. Simcoke, 1882- 
'm; John W. Tyndall, 188G. 

COUONEKS. 

Jonas Pence, 183G-'37; John W. Cooley, 
1837-'3S; Enos ^l. Butter, 1838-'39; Dan. 
AV^inner, 1839-40; James Niblick, 1840-'44; 
AVilliain M. Elzey, 1S44-'4G; Jacoij King, 
184G-'48; Jesse Niblick, 1848-'50; Thomas 
AV. Andrews, lS50-'52; Charles Gorsline, 
1852-'53; Levi Ewing, 1853-'54; Cornelius 
B. Lamasters, 1854-'56; Levi Ewing, 1856- 
'59; J. King, Jr., 1859-'60; D. D. Bernhart, 
1860-'68; AVilliam D. Baker, 1868-'70; 
John E. Smith, 1870-'74; Samuel C. Boll- 
man, 1874-'76; John E. Smith, 1876-'78; 

, A. B. Tullis, 1878-'80; John E. Smith. 

I 1880-'86; Charles Jelletf, 1886. 



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insTOHY OF ADAMS COUNTY 




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The Civil War. :'i 

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ip 12tli of jVpril, 1801, tlie 
ItiPiii stillness of Charleston 
la ^ Bay was disturbed by 




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ay was aistnrbed by 
the firing of a large 
mortar and the shriek 
M^ of a shell as it rushed 
throngh the air. The shell burst 
over Fort Sumter, and the war of 
the great Rebellion was begun. 
In the North the hope had 
^^ been tenaciously clung to that the 
])eace of the country was not to 
"^^^^^ be disturbed. This dream was 
rudely broken by the siege of 
Fort Sumter. The North awakened sud- 
denly to the awful certainty that civil war 
was begun. There was a deep i'eeling of in- 
dignation at the traitors who were willing to 
ruin the country that slavery might be secure. 
There was a full appreciation of the danger, 
and an instant universal determination that, 
iit whatever cost, the national life must be 
jireserved. Personal sacrifice was uncon- 
sidered; individual interests were merged in 
the general good. Political difference, ordi- 
narily so bitter, was for the time almost 
effaced. Nothing was of interest but the 



question how this audacious rebellion was to 
be suppressed and the American nation up- 
held ill tlie great place which it claimed 
among men. 

Two daj's after the fall of Fort Sumter, 
Mr. Lincoln intimated by proclamation the 
dishonor done to the laws of the United 
States, and called out the militia to the ex- 
tent of 75,00U men. The free States re- 
sponded enthusiastically to the call. So 
prompt was their action that on the very 
next day several companies arrived in Wash- 
ington. Flushed by their easily-won victory, 
the Southrons talked boastfully of seizing 
the capital. In a very short time there were 
50,000 loyal men ready to prevent that, and 
the safety of AVashington was secured. 

The North pushed forward with boundless 
energy her warlike preparations. Rich men 
offered money with so much liberalit}' that 
in a few days nearly $25,000,000 had been 
contributed. The school-teachers of Boston 
dedicated fixed proportions of their incomes 
to the support of the Government while the 
war should last. All over the country the 
excited people gathered themselves into 
crowded meetings and breathed forth in 
fervid resolutions their determinations to 



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rilE CIVIL WAU. 



Rneiul I'ortiinc and life in defense of the 
I'uion. N'olunteer eoiiipanics were rapidly 
foi'Hied. In the cities hidies hegan to organ- 
ize themselves for the relief of sick and 
wounded soldiers. It had lieen fahlcd that 
the ]S"ortli would not tight. "With a fiery 
promptitude unknown before in modern his- 
tory, tlie ]ieo])le sprang to arms. 

Adams County had at this time little over 
9,000 inhabitants. With a population mainly 
devuted to agriculture, who knew nothing of 
war except by luster}' or tradition, it could 
hardly be expected that a warlike spirit 
would soon disturb the peaceful population. 
But we know little of the tire that slumbers 
in quiet breasts until occasion calls it forth. 
Immediately alter the news was Hashed 
through this country that civil war was 
begun, public excitement ran so high that it 
coidd no longer confine itself to promiscuous 
expression about the street corners, and peo- 
ple held informal and formal meetings in the 
city halls and country school-houses every- 
where. 

A number of volunteers at once proceeded 
to Kichmond, Indianapolis, and other cen- 
ters, there to enlist in various regiments and 
coinjianies. For these Adams County never 
received credit. It was four or five months 
after the beginning of tlie war before a full 
company was raised in this county. The 
people kept up their contributions of their 
best young men as long as the (Tovernment 
called for recruits, and from first to last not 
less than 700 soldiers were furnished from 
this one little county. The draft was put in 
force but once — in October, 18G2-, then 37 
men were drawn from these townships: 
I'reble, 13; Kirkland, 3; French, 13; Hart- 
ford. S. The county about this same time 
ofi'ercd SlOO bounty to each volunteer, and 
S5 a month to the wife of each, together with 
Si a month for each child under fourteen 



years of age. In January, ls(15, under the 
last call of President Fincoln, when another 
draft was threatened, the lioard of Commis- 
sioners, under authority of a favorable vote 
fiom the ])eo])le at a special election, ottered 
a bounty of i>300 to each volunteer. The 
county thus paid out about $50,000 for boun- 
ties, and $18,359.44 for families as relief, 
ilost of the townships gave bounties at one 
time or another, to fill their quota. The re- 
ported amounts M'ere: Union, $2,000; Root, 
$2,200; Preble, $1,800; Kirkland, $400; 
Washington, $1,600; Blue Creek, $1,800; 
]\[onroe, $400; Hartford, $2,200; Wabash, 
$1,400; Jeft'erson, $400. In all, by county 
and townships, there was expended the hand- 
some sum of $82,894.44. 

FOKTV-SEVENTU KEGIMIONT. 

The first volunteers from Adams County 
did not go in a body, but went to Fort 
Wayne, Indianapolis, and other places, to en- 
list in companies which were credited to 
other counties. Early in the autumn of 1861, 
however, a full company was raised, which 
became Company C of the Forty-sixth Indi- 
ana Volunteer Infantry. As originally or- 
ganized, Esaias Dailey was Captain, Byron II. 
Dent, First Lieutenant, and Henry C. Wei- 
mer, Second Lieutenant. Samuel S. Mickle 
was Major of the regiment, but resigned 
April 12, 1862. Captain Uailey resigned 
Fejruary 5, 1862, and Dent was promoted to 
his place, while Austin Crabbs became First 
Lieutenant. Lieutenant Weimer died at 
Bardstown, Kentucky, February 18, 1862, 
and Calvin 1). Hart succeeded him. April 
12, 1862, Captain Dent resigned, and Lieu- 
tenant Crabbs received another promotion. 
He was Captain until December 81, 1864, 
when, his term having expired, he was mus- 
tered out. Horatio C V. Jennings became 
First Lieutenant when Austin Crabbs was 



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HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY. 



])niiiioted, iiiul served till tliu expinition of 
Ills term. ]jieuteii;uit I lurt resiguetl October 
IS, I.SIVJ, iuiil next diiy William A. Diiiley 
was given his s]Ki\iKler-striij)s. lie resigned 
October 28, ISti-i. Ira A. Jjlussom was First 
Lieutenant from January 1, 18(35, and Cap- 
tain from ^lareli 1 followinir, John T. AVei- 
uier becoming then First JJeutenant. The 
company had originally ninety-eight enlisted 
men, and to these were added, at different 
times, 23 recruits, making:; 121. 

Tlie Furty-seventh liegiment was organ- 
ized at Anderson, on the 10th of (October, 
1SG2, with James R. Slack as Colonel, the 
rci^iment being composed of companies raised 
in the Eleventh Congressional District. On 
the 13th of December it left Indianapolis for 
Kentucky and reached ISardstown on the 
21st, where it was assigned to General AVood's 
brigade (jf IlueH's army. From thence it 
moved to Camp AVickliti'e, arriving there on 
the 81st of December, anil remained there 
until the 11th of February, 18(32, when it 
mai-ched t(i West I'oint, at the mouth of Salt 
River, and there took transports for Com- 
merce, Missouri. Arriving there on the 24th 
of l'\'l)ruary, it was assigned to General Pope's 
army. ii^iiJ marched at once to jS'ew j\radrid, 
and there engaged the enemy, being the first 
regiment to enter Fort Thompson. iMoving 
to Kiddle's Point it participated in the en- 
gagement at that place between the shore 
batteries ami rebel gunboats. From thence 
it moved to Tiptonville, Tennessee, where it 
remained for nearly two months. 

After the capture of Fort Pillow the regi- 
ment was trans])orted to Memphis, reaching 
that place on the 80th of June, and remain- 
ing there during the following month, Colo- 
nel Slack being in command of the post. 
On the 11th of August it had a skirmish 
with the enemy at llrown's plantation, Mis- 
sissippi, losing a few men in killed and 



wounded. ^VFoving to irdena, Ai'kaiisas, the 
regiment remained there until jVfarch, 1808, 
when it took part in (ienend Quinby's ex- 
pedition to Yazoo Pass. Peturning fi'um 
this expedition it joined General Grant's 
army and moved with it to the rear of Vicks- 
burg, engaging in the battles and skirmishes 
of that campaign. In the battle of Cham- 
pion Hills, on the lOtli of ^Fay, it lost 1-43 in 
killed and wounded, (joing iiUo the trenches 
near the enemy's works at Vicksburg, it re- 
mained in them until the surrender on the 
4tli of July, being almost constantly engaged 
in the siege. After this it marched to Jack- 
son with Sherman's expedition, and took part 
in the engagement at that jilace. 

Returning to Vicksburg it took transports 
for ]Vew Orleans in August, from wlience it 
moved to Berwick Bay. While in this por- 
tion of Louisiana, the Fort\--seventh partici- 
pated in Jjaidis' expedition through the Teche 
country, engaging the enemy at Grand Co- 
teau. It then moved to New Iberia, and 
while there in December, 1868, tlie regiment 
re-enlisted and left Algiers on the 9th of 
F'ebruar}', 1S()4, for home on veteran furlough, 
reaching Indianapolis on the 18th, with 416 
veterans. On tlie 19th it was present at a 
public reception given to the veterans of the 
Twenty-first and Forty-seventh regiments at 
^Metropolitan Hall in that city, on which oc- 
casion addresses were made by Governor ilor- 
ton, C'olonel Slack and others. 

Upon its return to the field the regiment 
moved with Bank's army up Red River in 
the spring of 1864, engaging in the marches, 
battles and retreats of that unfortunate cam- 
paign. On the 28th of July it engaged the 
enemy at Atchafalaya Bayou, Louisiana, los- 
ing several wounded. The regiment was tlien 
stationed at Morganza, at wliich post it re- 
mained on duty for some time. On the 31st 
of December, 1864, Colonel James R. Slack 






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wascoimnissidiR'il a r>riM-a(lifr-Gener:il,\v!iere- commissioned 
iiliou ,Iulin A. Mcl-aiiglilin was j)Vom()tud | gcoii). 
(\ilciiiel of tlic rcgiinent. In I'V'liruary, lSl55, 
it was transportL'il to J)aupliin Island, Ala- 
bama, near ^Toliile, and in C'aid)y's campaign 
against that city the Forty-seventh took an 
active part. After the I'all of ]Mobile it 
ino\cd to Shrevejxirt, I.onisiana, with Gen- 
eral llcrron to receive the snrrender of 
General I'rice and the army of the Traus- 
]\Iississi]>pi Department. At this ])lace the 
regiment remained until the 23d of October, 
IfSf'io, when it was mustered ont of service. 
Ileaching Indianapolis with 530 men and 32 
otHcers, it was present on the 1st of No- 
vember at a reception given to the regiment 
in tlie capitol grounds, and was addressed by 
Governor ilorton, General Slack and Colo- 
nels ]\[ilton S. Kobinson and JoIiti A. Mc- 
Laughlin. Tlic next day the regiment was 
finally discharged. 

EKUITV-NINTM KKOIStKNT. 

In the summer of 18r)2, in response to 
the calls made by President Lincoln upon 
the loyal North, Adams County furnished 
three entire companies, in all about 325 
men, for the Eighty-ninth Indiana Volun- 
teers, the Colonel of which was CJharles I). 
!Muri'ay, of Kokomo. On the regimental 
staif there were from this county: I'yron IL 
Dent, Adjutant from August 30, 18G2. till 
he resigned, July G, 18G4: Barnabas Collins, 
Quartermaster from Aiigust IG, 18G2, till he 
resio-neii October 29 followinj^; Jacob M. 
Crabbs, Quartermaster from November 8, 
1804, till the muster out of the regiment; 
Enos "W. Erick, Ciiaplain from August 9, 
1862, till his resiguatioti, July 22, 1863; 
and John P. Porter, Assistant Surgeon from 
August 29, 1S62, till killed by guerrillas, 
November 1, 1804, (he had ])reviously been 



lut not mustered, as Sur- 



The tii'st Captain of Comjiany II was Eiu>s 
W. Erick, who became Chaplain of the regi- 
ment njKjii the organization of the latter, 
and Adoniram J. Hill was promoted from 
Eirst Lieutenant to Captain. At the same 
time James TI. I'rowning was promoted from 
Second to Eirst Lieutenant, his place being 
filled from the ranks by ]\[artin Y. B. Spen- 
cer. Captain Hill was mustered out January 
9, 1865, and Robert D. Patterson commanded 
the company during the remainder of the 
war. Lieutenant Browning resigned Ecbru- 
ary 9, 1865, and AVilliam A. Wisner (Second 
Lieutenant from ilay 1, 1864), was promoted. 
Li the grade of Second Lieutenant, Spencer 
resigned January 16, 1863, and AVilliam ]\fc- 
Dermott succeeded him until September 18 
following. He then resigned, and the ])0si- 
tion was vacant until AVilliani A. Wisuer 
was given his bar. 

There were fewer changes in Company 1. 
The (Japtains were: Henry Banta, commis- 
sioned August 14, 1862, resigned Januarj- 
28, 1863; Peter Litzel, commissioned Janu- 
ary 29, 1863, dismissed January 10, 1865; 
and John J. Chubb, from the latter date un- 
til the liiud muster out. The First Lieuten- 
ants were: Peter Litzel, from August 14, 
1862, to January 29, 1863 (promoted Cap- 
tain); John J. Chubb, from the latter date to 
January 10, 1865 (promoted Captain); and 
John Blood until the close of the war. Chubb 
had been Second Lieutenant from the organ- 
ization of the company until promoted, and 
was followed in tliat rank by Blood, who was 
also afterward promoted. 

Edwin S. Metzger was Captain and Henry 
McLean First Lieutenant of Company K 
during the whole time of service. James 
Stoops, Jr., was Second Lieutenant, but re- 
signed June 3, 1863, and was followed by 



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in STORY OF ADAMS COUNTY. 



Henry II. Hart, who ditnl Au^nist 22, 1S(U, 
of wuiiiids received in action. 

The companies composing the Eighty- 
nintli Regiment were recruited in the Elev- 
entli Congressional District, rendezvoused at 
Waliash, and organized at Indianapolis. The 
regiment was mustered into service on the 
2Sth of August, 18G2, with Charles D. ilur- 
i-ay as Colonel. Proceeding to Louisville, 
Kentucky, in command of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Harvey Craven, the regiment ^vas on the 2d 
of September sent to Munfordville to rein- 
force the garrison at that place, In the 
attack made upon tiie phice b}' the advance 
of JJragg's invading army, under General 
Chalmers, it bore an honorable part, losing 
two killed, fifteen wounded and one missing. 
After a long and stubborn resistance the 
garrison was comjielled to surrender to vastly 
superior numbers on the 16th of September, 
and on the ne.\t day the captured officers and 
men were paroled and marched within Gen- 
eral Euell's lines, from whence they pro- 
ceeded to Brandenburg, on the Ohio River, 
and thence to Jeffersonville, reaching there 
on the 30th of September. 

After a furlough to their homes the officers 
and men of the regiment reassembled at 
Indianapolis on the 27th of October. The 
order for their exchange being received the 
regiment, on the 5th of December, proceeded 
to Meni])his, arriving there on the 8th of 
December. It was at once assigned to tlie 
brigade of General llurliridge in the division 
of General A. J. Smith, and on the 21st of 
December was placed on duty at Fort Picker- 
ing, near Mem])liis, where it remained, doing 
guard and fatigue duty until the 18th 
of October, 1863. It was then transferred 
to the city of Jlemphis, where it was engaged 
on picket duty until the 26th of January, 
1864. During this time, however, the regi- 
ment marched on an expedition to Hernando, 



]\rississi]ipi, leaving on the 16th of August, 
18(i3, ami returning on the 20th. A detach- 
ment of 200 men, under command of jNlajor 
Henry, also left JMcmphis on the 24th of 
December, 1863, skirmished with the rear of 
General Forrest's command at Lafayette on 
the 25th, marched in pursuit to Coldwater, 
and returned on the 31st uf December. 

On the 20th of January, 1864, the Eighty- 
ninth left ilemphis on transports with the 
First Brigade, Third Division, Sixteenth 
Corps, of Sherman's command, for Vicksburg, 
reaching there on the 31st of January. From 
this point it moved on the ^Meridian Raid, 
marching through Jackson, Ilillsboro and 
other towns, and arriving at Jferidian on the 
14th of February, after having skirmished 
with the enemy at Quan's Hill and in the 
vicinity of Meridian without casualty to the 
regiment. After tearing up the Mobile A: 
Ohio Railroad track in that vicinity, it ])ro- 
ceedcd to Marion, where it went into camp 
and remained until the 20th, waiting the 
expected arrival of the cavalry force under 
General W. S. Smith, by land, from Memphis. 
It then broke camp and marched by way of 
Canton for Vicksburg, reaching there on the 
4th of March. The regiment lost, during 
the expedition, one killed, one wounded and 
captured and three missing. 

The Eighty-ninth left Vicksburg on the 
10th of j\Iarch, with General A. J. Smith's 
command, on steamers, for the mouth of Red 
River, reaching Semmesport on Atchatalaya 
Bayou on the 12th, and on the next day 
started for Fort De Russey. Here it joined 
in the assault on that fort, which was cap- 
tured on the 14th, the regiment sustaining a 
loss of one killed and nine wounded. Resting 
at the fort during the next day, and embark- 
ing on that night, it moved up the river and 
arrived at Alexandria on the 16th. On the 
21st the regiment moved with -General 



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grower's coinnuuul tu llendersoii's Hill, and 
there ]>articipatud in the capture uf 270 rebels 
and four pieces of artillery. lieturniiig to 
Alexandria it remained there until ]'.anks' 
army came up, wlien it moved with the united 
armies to Grand Ecore, wliicli place was 
reached on the 3d of April. Ilemaining 
there in cam]i until the 7tli, it again moved 
with the lialance of General A. J. Smith's 
command. On the 9th it rested in line of 
battle awaiting the approach of the rebel 
army under Geneial Itichard Taylor, then 
in pursuit of the Thirteenth and oS'ineteenth 
Army Corps, which he had, the day before, 
inet and defeated at Sabine Cross Roads. In 
the battle of Pleasant Hill, wliicli was fought 
by A. J. Smith's command on the 9th, the 
Eighty-ninth bore a conspicuous part, losing 
seven killed and forty-seven wounded, making 
a total loss of fifty-four. 

On the lOtli of A])ril the regiment fell 
back toward (-irand Ecore, arriving there on 
the 14th, where it remained until the 20th 
awaiting the return of the gunboats and 
transports. It then marched to Nachitoches, 
and there lay in the line of battle until the 
Army of the Gulf marched by, and then, 
from day to day, engaged in covering the 
retreat of that army to Alexandria, which 
place was reached on the 26th of A]iril. 
From thence, on the 1st of May, it marched 
to Hayou lioljcrts, Governor Moore's ]>lanta- 
tion and Bayou La Moore, all within a few 
miles of Alexandria. On the 7th of May 
the regiment met the enemy at Bayou La 
^luore, and after a sharp engagement charged 
and repulsed him, with a loss to the Eighty- 
ninth of four killed and eleven wounded; 
total, fifteen. 

The dam to raise Bed Biver at the falls at 
Alexandria having been completed so as to 
allow the transports to pass below, the com- 
mand of General A. J. Smith resumed its 



march toward the ilississifjpi, the Eighty- 
ninth leaving Moore's plantation on the 14th 
of iMay, and reaching Yellow Bayou, three 
miles from Semmesport, on the Atchafalaya, 
on the 17th. During this marcli it engaged 
the enemy on the prairie, near Marksville, 
on the 16th, with but little loss on either 
side, the enemy retreating at the opening of 
the engagement. On the 18th the regiment 
recrossed the Yellow Bayou, and with other 
troops marched up Bayou De Glaise to Smitli 
6c Norwood's plantation, and there had a 
severe contest with the enemy under com- 
mand of General Poligniac, who was repulsed 
with great slaughter. The regiment lost 
eight killed and forty-live wounded; total, 
lifty-three. On the 19th of May the regi- 
ment reached Red River Landing on the 
]\Iississippi, and embarked the same evening 
for A'^icksl)urg, which place was reached on 
the 24th of May. During the Red River 
expedition the regiment was commanded by 
Lieutenant-Colonel Hervey Craven. 

The Eightv-ninth remained in the vicinity 
of Vicksburg until the 4th of June, when 
it embarked for Memphis, arriving there on 
the 9th, and leaving there on the 23d for 
Collierville. From there it marched as escort 
to a wagon train to Moscow, and then moved 
to Lagrange, Tennessee. Here it remained 
until the 5th of July, and then marched to 
Pontotoc, Mississippi, reaching there on the 
11th. From thence it moved to Harrisburg, 
near Tupelo, where, on the 14th of July, it 
participated in the battle with the rebel 
troops under Generals S. D. Lee and Forrest, 
called the battle of Tupelo. The regiment 
in this engagement lost one killed and twelve 
wounded. 

Returning from this expedition the Eighty- 
ninth reached Memphis on the 23d of July, 
where it rested until the 8th of August. It 
then marched with General A. J. Smith's 



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lIISTUnr OF ADAMS COUNTY. 






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coiniiiiiiul to look iif'tor <iein'i-;il Korix'st in 
Nortlicrn J\lississi])pi, passing tlirongh Holly 
8prini;s to Oxtonl, where news was received 
tliat Fori'est had entered Memphis. The 
command was at once marched back to ileni- 
phis, arriving there on the 3()th of August, 
where it lay in camp until the 8th of Sep- 
tember. At that date the regiment proceeded 
on steamers up the Mississippi, landing at 
Jefferson I^arracks, ^Missouri, on the 19th of 
September. From there it made a brief 
expedition to De Soto, returning on the 1st of 
Octol)er. On the following day the regiment 
started with General A. J. Smith's command 
in pursuit of the rebel General Price, then 
invading Missouri. It marched into the 
interior of the State, passing through the 
towns bordering the jVIissouri River to Inde- 
pendence, and from thence to O.xford, Kansas. 
From there it moved to Ilarrisonville, Mis- 
souri, where the pursuit was abandoned, after 
which the regiment marched to St. Lonis, 
going by way of Lone Jack, Lexington, 
Glasgow, Columbia,AVarrenton and St. Charles. 
During the expedition it marched 720 miles, 
nearly all of whicli was on foot. The regi- 
ment was not in any engagement during the 
march, but had the misfortune to lose Major 
Henry, Assistant Surgeon Porter and Quar- 
termaster Ashley, \vho were murdered by 
guerrillas on the 1st of ^Siovember at Green- 
ton, ten miles south of Lexington. 

The Eighty-ninth remained with General 
Smith's command at St. Louis until the 25th 
of November, when it proceeded by steamer 
to Kashville, Tennessee, reaching there on 
the 30th. Here it went into camp, and on 
the 15th and 16th of December participated 
in the battle near that place. On the first 
day of the engagement the regimeut suffered 
no loss, but on the second, when it was con- 
spicuously engaged, it lost two killed and 
tiftcen wounded. On the 17th it started in 



pursuit of Hood's army, and arrived at Olil"- 
ton, on the Tennessee Kiver, on the 1st of 
January, 18^)5, from whence it proceeded on 
transports to Eastport, Mississippi. Here it 
remained until the 9th of February, when it 
proceeded by steamer to Vicksburg, and 
thence to New Orleans, arriving there on the 
21st of February. 

From New Orleans the regiment moved 
on transports to Dauphin Island, near Moltile, 
reaching there on the .Sth of March. On the 
19th it moved up ilobile Pay by steamer to 
the mouth of F'ish River, and thence up Fish 
River to Don's Mills, where it disembarked 
and remained till the 25th of March. It 
then marched to a point between Spanish 
F^ort and Blakely, wliere it lay, participating 
in the siege until the rebel fortitications 
were taken. The regiment lost during the 
siege two killed and eight wounded. On the 
13th of April the Sixteenth Army Corps, 
under command of General A. J. Smith, 
marched for Montgomery, Alabama, arriving 
there on the 27th of April. Here the regi- 
ment lay in camp, doing some picket duty, 
until the 1st of June, when it marched to 
Providence, on the Alabama River, and there 
took transports to ^lobile, where it did patrol 
and guard duty until the 19th of July, 1865, 
when it was mustered out of service. Pro- 
ceeding homeward, it reached Indianapolis on 
the 4th of August, where, after being publicly 
received by Oiovernor Morton in the State 
House grove, it was finally discharged. 

The remaining recruits of the Eighty-ninth 
were transferred to the Fifty-second Indiana, 
and continued to serve with that organization 
until the 10th of September, 1865, when they 
were mustered out with the regiment. 

During its term of service the Eighty- 
ninth suffered losses as follows: 31 killed, 
167 wounded and 4 missing, making a total 
loss of 202. It nuirched 2,363 miles on fo.it. 



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traveled by steamer 7,112 miles, ami by rail 
1,232 mile?, making the total distance trav- 
eled 10,707 miles. 

KI.l;VKNTII CAVALKV (oNK IlUNDUEn AND TWEN- 
TY-SIXTH kkgi.mknt). 

In the aiitiiiiin of 18f)8 a number of men 
were raised in Adams Cuiinty for the Eleventh 
Cavalry, and became part of Company C. 
James C. AVilsoii, from this county, was 
Second Lieutenant, lie so(.)n aftci-ward be- 
came a Captain in the Thirteenth Cavalr}'. 
^S'oi'val Blackburn, the jiresent postmaster at 
Decatur, and editor of the Deinocrut, was 
Second Lieutenant from iLirch 1, 1864, 
First Lieutenant from August 1, 1861, and 
Captain from June 1, 1865. 

The Eleventh Cavah^ — One Hundred and 
Twenty-si.xth Regiment of Indiana Volun- 
teei's — was recruited under the call of Septem- 
ber 1-4, 1863, tlie several companies being 
raised and organized during the fall and 
M'inter of 1863. On the 1st of March, 1864, 
the regimental organization was perfected at 
Indianapolis, and the command given to 
Robert R. Stewart, wdio was taken from the 
Second Cavalry, in which organization he 
held the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, and pro- 
moted Colonel of the Eleventh Cavalry. On 
tiie 1st of May the regiment left the general 
camp of rendezvous at Indianapolis, and 
moved thence, by rail, to Kasliville, Tennes- 
see, but a small portion of the regiment being 
mounted. Arriving there on the 7th of May, 
it went into campof instruction, and remained 
therein until the 1st of June. It then 
marched into ^'orthern Alabama, and was 
placed on duty along the line of the Memphis 
and Charleston Railroad, with headquarters 
at Larkinsville, Alabama. The regiment was 
kept on this duty until tlie 16th of October, 
when it marched back to Nashville, where it 
wa.s mounted and sent to the front. 



In the campaign in front of Xasliville, in 
November and JJecember, the Eleventh 
Cavalry was actively engaged, and, after the 
defeat of Hood's forces, joined in tlie j)urs)iit, 
going as far as (iruvelly Springs, Alabama, 
arriving there on the 7tli of January, 1865. 
It was then dismounted and jilaced on duty 
in that vicinity until the 7th of February, 
when it crosseil the Tennessee River to East- 
port, ^[ississii)pi, and there I'enuiined until 
the 12th of yWy. 

In obedience to orders to report to J\Iajor- 
General Dodge at St. Louis, tlie regiment 
then enabarked on steamers and proceeded to 
that city, arriving there on the 17th. After 
being I'e-niounted it inarched to Rolla, ]\Iis- 
souri, arriving there on the '26th of June and 
reporting to Colonel jMorell, comnumding 
that district. From Rolla the regiment 
moved to Fort Kiley, Kansas, arriving there 
on the 8th of July. From there it moved to 
Council Griive, Kansas, and was stationed 
along the Santa Fe route across the plans, 
with headquarters at Cottonwooil Crossing. 
The Eleventh ( 'avalry was continued on this 
duty until the lot of September, when it was 
ordered to march to l'\>rt Lea\enworth, wlie:*e 
it arrived on the 11th. On the 19th of Sep- 
tember, 1865, tlie I'egiment was mustered out 
at that place in compliance with telegram 
orders received from the General command- 
ing the I)epartnient of Missouri. 

On the 26tli of September the regiment 
reached Indiaiuipolis with thirty oflicers and 
579 men, under command of Colonel Abrain 
Sharra, for final discharge and j^ayment. On 
the 28th of September, after i)artaking of a 
sumptuous dinner at the Soldier's Home, the 
Eleventli Cavalry marched to the State House, 
wdiere it was publicly welcomed b^' speeclies 
from General Manstield, Colonel Stewart and 
Surgeon Read, to which responses wei'e made 
by Colonel Sharra, Majors Crowiler am! 



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UISTORT OF ADAMS COUNTY. 



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Sliowalter, and Chaplain IJarnliart. After tlie 
reception the regiment was marched out to 
Camp Carrington, where tlie men and officers 
were paid and discharged from tlie service of 
the United States. 

THIRTEENTH CAVALRY (oNE HUNDRED AND 
THIRTY-FIRST REGIMENt). 

A large part of Company G, in this regi- 
ment, was composed of men enlisted in 
xVdams County in the winter of 1864. James 
C. AVilson, previously Second Lieutenant of 
the Adams County company in the Eleventh 
Cavalry, was Captain of this company during 
1864. William l^attenberg, Andrew J. 
Simcoke and Kobert T. Peterson were given 
Lieutenants' commissions during 1865, I)ut 
mustered out before taking the rank thus 
earned. 

Tlie Thirteenth Cavalry, One Hundred and 
Thirty-first Regiment, M-as the last cavalry 
organization raised in tlie State. Ilecruiting 
for the companies composing the regiment 
was commenced in September, 1863, and 
continued during the tall and winter of that 
year. On the 29th of April, 1864, the organi- 
zation of the regiment was completed by its 
muster into service, with Gilbert M. L. -fohn- 
son as Colonel. On the 30th of the same 
month it left Indianapolis, dismounted and 
with infantry arms and accoutrements, for 
Nashville, Tennessee. The I'egiment remained 
in camp of instruction at that place until the 
3l8t of ^[ay, when it was ordered to ILunts- 
ville, Alabama, for the purpose of garrison- 
ing that post. During the stay of the 
command at that place it was engaged in 
several skirmishes witli prowling bands of 
rebel cavalry, and on the 1st of October held 
the place against the entire command of the 
rebel General Buford. 

( )n the Kith of October, companies A, (', 



J), F, II and I, under command of Colonel 
Johnson, proceeded to Louisville, Kentucky, 
for the purpose of drawing horses and eijuip- 
ments for the entire command. Upon their 
arrival there the companies were ordered to 
Paducah, under command of Major Moore, 
to assist in repelling an attack of General 
Forrest. Leaving Paducah on the 1st of 
November, they returned to Louisville, where 
the object of their mission was completed, 
and tlie line of march was taken up for Nash- 
ville, at which point the remaining companies 
from lluntsville reported to regimental head- 
quarters. On the 30th of November, com- 
panies A, C, D, F, II and I, fully mounted 
and equipped, under command of Colonel 
Johnson, ])roceeded to Lavergne, under orders 
from General Thomas, to watch the move- 
ments of Hood's army, then advancing on 
]\'ashville. These companies being cut off 
from the line of retreat, retired, in obedience 
to orders from General AV'^ilson, upon Mur- 
freesboro, reporting to General liousseau, 
under whose direction they participated in 
the battles of Overall's Creek, AVilkinson's 
Pike, and twelve dift'erent skirmishes with 
the enemy, with a loss of sixty-tive men 
killed and wounded, and two men missing, 
from an aggregate present for duty of three 
hundred and twenty-five. During the same 
period companies B, E, G, K, L and M, left 
at Nashville, under command of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Pepper, participated, dismounted, in 
the battle of Nashville on the loth and 16th 
of December, immediately after which they 
were joined by the other six companies from 
Murfreesboro. xVfter effecting an exchange 
of .arms and procuring an entire re-mount, 
the regiment was assigned to the Second 
Brigade, Seventh Division of the Cavalry 
Corps of the Military Division of the Mis- 
sissippi, Colonel Jolmson commanding the 
brigade. 



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On the llth of February, ISOo, the Tliir- 
teeutli Cavuh-y einharked on transports for 
Kew Orleans, but diseuibarked at Vicksburj^, 
under orders of General Caiiby, to prepare 
for a raid on the ^lobile 6z Ohio IJailroad. 
These orders being countermanded, tlie regi- 
ment left \'ick»burg on transports, on tlie 
Gth uf ^[areh, for its original destination, 
and on arriving at New Orleans, re-einbarked 
for NavyCove, j\[obile Bay, where it reported 
to General Canby, and assisted in the opera- 
tions against the forts and defenses of Mo- 
bile. It was also engaged in running a 
courier line to Florida, connecting with Gen- 
eral Asboth. After the fall of ^[obile, under 
command of General Grierson, the regiment 
was placed in condition for a long march, 
and on the 17th of >Vpril started on a raid of 



some 800 miles througli the States of Ala- 
bama, Georgia and Mississipjn, ari'iving at 
Columbus, in the latter State, on the 2"Jd of 
May. Thence it proceeded to ilacon, Mis- 
sissippi, garrisoning that point and the line 
of railroad, sixty miles in extent, and taking 
possession of immense quantities of cap- 
tured commissary, quartermaster and ord- 
nance stores and ordnance. On the Gth of 
June the regiment returned to Columbus, 
Mississippi, and remained there until orders 
were received for muster out, when it pro- 
ceeded to Vicksburg, where it was mustered 
out of service on the 18th of November, 
1865. Proceeding homeward, it reached In- 
dianapolis on tlie 25th of November, with 
twenty-tiiree officers and 633 men for iinal 
discluirge. 




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^■^r?^N the devclopinent of 

X'l'-i^p modern civilization 

^-; "^ f^,.,:,# there is no more jio- 

1 1'- 'fi^ tent factor than tlie 

r''?^3i, newspjiiier, and, at 

■^'" tiie same time, there 

has been no greater 



progress in anything for fifty 
years past tiiau in American 
journalism. Fifty years ago the 
■^\Vvu conntry had few newspapers that 
^^^l/^ conld be considered paying prop- 
>l-i*^ erty. The metropolitan journals 
M^j' devoted about as much space to 
^ foreign as to domestic news, while 
Country weeklies seemed to consid- 
er that which happened at home as of no im- 
portance whatever, and imitated the hirger 
papers in style and contents. The telegraph 
and railroads, assisted by that enterprising 
spirit which is inse]iarablj' connected with 
successful journalistic management, have 
wrought most gratifying results. Local news 
lias become the main feature of weekly coun- 
try news]>apers, and all journals of the better 
class are foremost in advanciiiir the best in- 



terests of the localities from which their suj)- 
port comes. 

In Adams County journalism has kept 
pace in the march of iiiijirovenient with 
otlier professions and industries. Tlie wide 
circulation of these papers at present pub- 
lished, and the large number of outside 
papiers that are taken here, afford the best 
possible evidence that the people are intelli- 
gent, enterprising and progressive. In De- 
catur alone 150 copies of outside daily papers 
are distributed every day by the newsdealer, 
and many come by mail direct to subscribers. 

Altliough many able writers have been 
employed upon the county press in former 
years, without disparagement to any of them 
it can be safely asserted, that the journals of 
the county, taken as a whole, were never 
better conducted than at present. The ed- 
itors are gentlemen who understand their 
business thoroughly, and do their utmost to 
give their jiatrons good, clean, reliable news- 
papers. 

DECATUR GAZETTE. 

The Gazette was the first newspaper in 
Adams County, and was started in IS-IS or 






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1849, with Josliua liundall us ])i'opriL'tor iiiul 
James 11. Smith as eilitur. It was in pi.ilitics 
a Whig slieet, and li\t'<l a little ovlt two 
yeai's, wlu-n it siisnendeil, slun-tly after some 
of Smith's personal enemies gave him a coat 
of tar. The next jiaper was the 

.\n.\MS COUNTY nEMfJf'R.VT. 

It ap])eared first in 1S51 or 1852, and was 
edited and publisiied liy James 1!. Simcoke 
until its suspension after tlie campaign of 
18(J(), in whieli year it was devoted to the 
interests of John C. lireckiiiridge as a presi- 
dential candidate. It was a Democratic 
paper, but its friends had left it soon after 
the establishment of the Juujle, m 1S57, so 
that the Deiiiocrat was forced to give up a 
losing game and :;uspend. 

DEOATDI: KAOI.K. 

The Eatjle was founded in February, 1857, 
by II. ].. Phillips, wlio afterward received 
William G. Spencer into partnership. In 
1859 they sold the concern to A. J. Hill, who 
published the pa])er for iiftecn years. Joseph 
McGonagle bought it in Xo\'ember, 1874, 
and changed the name to the 

DKCATUll DEMOCRAT, 

under which title it lias since been published, 
ilr. ^IcGonagle ceased to be proprietor in 
1879, selling to S. Pay Williams. In Au- 
gust, 1881, A. J. Hill again bought the 
paper and conducted it two years. Messrs. 
Roth i^' Cumniings then published the J)cin- 
ovrut under their names for a ^aw months. 
In ^.'ovember, 1883, jS'orval Blackburn juir- 
chased Mr. Cummings' interest, and in 
February following that of !Mr. Roth. Origin- 
ally a si.x-column folio, the Democrat has 
undergone several changes in size and is now 
a nine-column folio. It is published on 



Fridays, at §1.50 a year, and enjoys a very 
fine patronage from Adams and surrounding 
counties. 



VolNli AMKIMI'A. 



A paper by this brisk title was startetl at 
Decatur in 1858, and discontinued the year 
following. T. J. Tolau was proja-ietor and 
James Smith, eilitor. The jiaperwas Repub- 
lican in politics. 



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DECATUli UEKALI). 

This was a Democratic paper, established 
in 1873 by James R. liobo and Seymour 
AVorden, and suspended the following year. 

DECATUi: JOUKNAL. 

The first number of the Decatur Journal, 
the exponent of Republican jU'inciples in 
Adams County, was iasued Sejitember 27, 
1879, with I), (i. M. Trout as editor and 
George S. Staunton, publisher. Air. Staunton 
remained with the Journal about one year 
disposing of his interest to E. A. Philliiis. 
In February, 1881, 15. W. Sholty purchased 
A[r. Trout's interest, and for two years Sholty 
A: Phillips conducted the publication, thev 
disposing of the paper to Shafler Peterson 
and E. 13. Mofiit. In 1885 Air. Sholty re- 
purchased Mr. Peterson's inteivst and the 
publication continued under the management 
of Sholty eV' Alottit until ilarch, 1887, when 
E. A. Ilofl'man became editor and proprietor 
by purchase from Alessrs. Sholty & Moffit. 
The Jounial was originally a seven-column 
folio, and during A[r. Siiolty's numagement 
was enlarged to eight columns. It ajjpears 
every Fridiiy, at Si. 50 a year, and has a cir- 
culation of about 800. 

GENEVA UERALD. 

The Geneva Ilerahl was established in 
1881, the first issue being dated September 



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lIISTOliY OF ADAMti COUNTY. 



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20, under the name of Geneva Neios, by J ohn 
E. (.'ulley. In j)olitics it was imlependent. 
In the hitter part of October, 1883, J[r. Cul- 
ley sold to 11. S. Thomas, who gave the paper 
its present name, its first issue being No- 
vember 8, 1883. The Herald is still inde- 
pendent in political sentiment. It is an 



ardent su])portcr of prohibition. Its circula- 
tion is about 400. 



OKNKVA KNTERPRISE. 



Ed. Phillips started the Enterprise in 
1885, and suspended the same in the latter 
part of 1886. It was a five-column quarto. 



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THE LEGAL PROFESSION. 



■^i>y^M^.r *: Fl :< ) l-TSSION uhidi ever 
attracts ;i certain percen- 
.yV-4 tage of our Ijriglitest 
•> minds into its ranks is 
tliat of the law. It 
c/|» i/^-F" o:ia.pZ^-t^ -jt- is now rather more 
' ^"'^^r '^' erowded than the other 

~|''v\§^^^ avocations, but this is in itself a 




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proof of the advantages it offers. 
Of late years it has become cu- 
riously Common for people to 
-"SJf^^ disparage lawyers, applying ever}- 
^^^ sort of epithet, and makinir them 
"^^I the excuses fur hundi'etls of jokes 
and sturies; yet these same citizens who jiro- 
fess to have a C(jiitempt fur lawyers will, when 
in any kind of ditKcult}', run promptly to one 
of the profession, place themselves and their 
property entirely in his guidance, and eagerly 
follow his suggestions in tlie weightiest alfairs. 
Adams, having always been a small county, 
has never possessed a large botly of attorneys, 
and those wiio have practiced here have fur- 
nished from their number few wlio would be 
considered brilliant in a large city; yet they 
have been as a rule able, well-read, conscien- 
tious anil painstaking men, and at the j)res- 

17 



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cnt time, as well as in the past, the county 
may be truthfully considered surprisingly 
free from '• sliystci-s." <)ne testimony to 
tlieir ability is the fact that att(n-neys are 
seldom imported fi'om other counties to at- 
tend to important cases. During the early 
years of the county's history, lawyers fre- 
quently came from Fort ^Vayne, and later 
from Jjlnti'ton antl Portland, but this now 
happens less often. 

Ijeatty McClellan came to Decatur in 1840, 
from Greene County, Ohio, remained a few 
months, and removed to Winchester, Ran- 
dolph County. He taught school here, and 
also took wliat legal business he could find; 
hence he may be called the first resident 
attorney of Decatur. Jle afterward became 
a very able lawyer, and when last heard from 
he was leading a retired life at Columbus, in 
Bartholomew County. 

William II. Bufrh and William Carson 

came to Decatur in iS-tS, and left in 1S51. t_t 

Buirh was from Ohio, and went from here to ;[* 

AYisconsin. He was a AViiig, and while here 'J( 

'- «ii 

was a camlidate for Representative, and also i*-. 

clerk. (!arsun was from ]""t. ^\'ayne, whither 'Ja 

he returned from this phiee, and where he is 'J 

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llISTOUy OF ADAMS COUNTY 



still ill tlie priiftice of tin; luw. Ilu was, 
wliile here, a candidate tor Ueprescntative oil 
tlie W'liig ticket, Init afterward alliliated witii 
the Democratic ])arty. 

AV^. Ct. Spencer practiced law from 1849 to 
ISCO, and then was elected comity auditor. 
Since his two otKcial terms of four years each 
he has been a liardware merchant of Decatur, 
lie has always been a Democrat. 

David Stiidabaker studied law with Jud^e 
Jacob IJaynes, of l\irtlaii(l, and in June, 
1S52, chose Decatur as his first location for 
the pursuit of his pi'ofession. lie practiced 
continuously foi' thirty-one years (longer tlian 
any other attorney ever in Adams County), 
and since 1SS3 has given his attention to 
baid<ing. He is politically' a Democrat. 

James K. Uobo studied with ^Ir. Stnda- 
baker in 1S.")S-'5'J, and commenced tlie prac- 
tice in 18G(). He devoted himself to it 
continuousl}' until November, 1877, when he 
took the office of circuit judge, to which he 
had been elected in 1876. He is now serving 
liis second term of six years. Judge J)obo 
is politically a Democrat, lie has been two 
terms in tlie House at Indianapolis, and one 
in tlie Senate. 

The oldest attorney now regularly devoted 
to the profession is Robert S. Peterson, who 
read law with Mr. Studaliaker. The other 
resident practitioners are John T. France, 
Daniel D. Heller, E. A. Huifiiian, Paul G. 
Hooper, J. T. JMerr^-nian, I-llias G. Coverdale, 
Jay Dorwin, John T. Bailey, Judson AV. 
Teeple, Clark J. Lutz, L. C. Devoss, J. F. 
Mann, J. E. Thomas, Philip L. Andrews and 
J. Fred France. Xi Geneva, in the south 
])art of the county, are P. P. Manley and 
William Drew. 

THE MEDICAL PROFESSION. 
There is no calling requiring higher quali- 
fications or involving greater responsibilities 
on the part of its followers than that of medi- 



cine. These reijuircments are none too highly 
compensated, es|iecially in a new country. 
As humanity is everywhere physically imper- 
fect, the first settlers of the county had not 
been here very long, or become very numer- 
ous, before the doctor was needed, to look 
after the "chills and fever," or some other 
ailment. In those days, when people were 
poor and money was scarce, inucli of the 
physician's work was pure benevolence, iii- 
\-olving long trips through a sparsely-settled 
country, at inclement seasons iind fbi- uncer- 
tain remuneration. 

The first physician resident at Decatur was 
named AVilliams. He came in 1887 or 1838 
from Ohio, and after fi\'e or six years moved 
to ^Vill^hire, ()lii(j. ^\'illiaiii Trout caine in 
1840 from Pennsylvania, and ]ii'acticed until 
his death in 1885, iViity-five years after he 
settled. Pomero}' Porter came early in the 
"forties," and was killed while in the ami}', 
during the civil war. William Moore was 
an early physician. He remained until a 
few 3'ears ago, when he went to Iowa. He 
is now at Plufftoii, Ohio. Drs. Little and 
Cliamper were here in an early day, and died 
at Decatur. Among the jJiysicians best re- 
membered in the county were the I*ierces, 
three in number. John Pierce came from 
AV^illshire, Ohio, about 1850, and returned to 
that place, where he is still in practice, about 
twenty years ago. Jacob Pierce was here 
eicrht or ten \'ears, and died before the war. 
Thomas Pierce practiced a few years at De- 
catur, moved away, and is now dead. The 
present physicians of Decatur are: T. T. Dor- 
win, D. G. M. Trout, Jonas Coverdale, P. R. 
Freeman, C. A. JellefF, J. S. Boyers, J. S. 
Mann (llom.), P. B. Thomas and II. S. Cos- 
tello. At Geneva, II. M. -Vsj)y, James Brels- 
ford and S. G. Ralston are all practicing 
physicians. AV. Broadwell has the field to 
himself at Periie. 
















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BY J. F. SNOW, COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT. 




?'"'<r^* v^*^ 1 1 1'^ pioneers of Adams 
"^'tfil County were a moral, 
industrious and relig-- 
ious people. They liad 
great respect for law 
and order tlioiigii their 
educational advantages 
were limited. It mattered not 
what their religious differences 
were, there was a common 
agreement in regard to the re- 
VO (juirements of their children at 
f^^'.'V^ Jj^" home and at school. They 
t-,^><^v$^ were educated to observe trood 



■Q^ vVS^ I'-^hits, polite manners and to 
^ " maintain their honor; men, 

]iati(jns, and even school-boys believe as they 
are educated. The ])ioneer was educated to 
believe that the pugilistic encounters were 
often necessary to maintain his honor. The 
pioneer teacher was not an exception to tiie 
rule, and resorted to frctpient apjilieations of 
the rod to appease his wrath and vindicate 
his honor.' In many of the pioneer schools 



wei'c sown the seeds of education that ha\e 
since grown to ripe IVuit. Xuml)ers of our 
solid citizens relate their experience as 
school-boys and credit the great inconven- 
iences to which they were suljject as useful 
assistants in their preparation for life's school. 

KIKST SCHOOL-HOUSES. 

The early settlers were surrounded by many 
inconveniences that nothing but a develop- 
ment of the country could overcome. Their 
lands were covered with heavy forests; mar- 
kets were distant; roads and bridges were 
unknown and the country was sparsely set- 
tled. As time was required to overcome 
these hindrances it was not until about 1839 
that the tirst school-house was erected in 
Adams County. It was located on section 20, 
Root Township, and is said to have been 
built of hewn logs; it had a ]iuncheon floor, 
and a huge clay chimney and tire-place. The 
clapboard door swung on wooden lunges, and 
greased paper was used as a substitute for 
glass in the windows. 1'lie school enjoyed 



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HISTUllY OF ADAAfS COUNTY. 



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iui ubniidaiicc of fresli iiir, as the vcntil;ition 
was iiiiniR'stionalily gooil. Tlir iiiiRT walls 
were proviiled witli wikkIcii |iiiis ujkhi wliicli 
hats aiiu iliuner nails were lnmg. Tliu suh- 
stantial backless seats eompleteil tlie outtit 
of school furnitni-e. Perha])s near the same 
date the second school-house in Adams 
County was built near the center of section 
20, Wabash ToM'nship. It was built in ac- 
cordance with tlie specifications given in the 
school law of lIS2-lr, and was similar in the 
main to the one previously built in Hoot 
Township. About the same date, 1S39, De- 
catur claims honcirs in the same direction, 
her tirst sc]Kn.)l-housu bein^ a hewed log 
liuiisc of lawful dimensions. J'robalily the 
last log school-house erected in the county 
stands in the southeast corner of section 2, 
Kirkland Townshij). It is yet in rpiite a 
fair state of preservation, and is used as a 
dwelling house by one of the citizens of 
Peterson. The number of school districts 
did not rapidly increase, and when State Su- 
perintendent Larrabee asked for a statistical 
report from the county school commissioner 
in 1S52, lie ascertained that there were but 
seven school-houses within the limits vt' 
Adams t'ouiity. In 1S73 the hist log school- 
house gave place to a commodious brick. 
The old rickety rough bench without a back 
has yielded its place to the improved modern 
folding seat. The days of the log school- 
house and puncheon seat have passed away, 
and but few of the sturdy pioneer school- 
boys are left to relate their history. Most 
of the schools in this county are fairly pro- 
vided with educational appliances and appa- 
ratus. The new Constitution of 1851 made 
provisions for the establishment of a gen- 
eral and uniform system of common schools 
wherein tuition shall be without charge and 
open to all. The school law made in the 
following year was (piite liberal, and was 



founded upon the principle that the property 
of the State shoukl educate the children of 
the State. Provisions were made by which 
free libraries were established in each tu\\n- 
t-hi[); these libraries at the present time con- 
tain about 2,000 volumes, liut they are but 
little used and may be considered wortldess 
as educational assistants. Trustees were em- 
powered to build school-houses inde])endent 
of the vote of any particular district and pay 
their teachers in cash. 

This was an era of prosperity' and hence- 
f(jrlh the schools steadily prospered and 
increased in usefulness. 

The lirst brick school-house in Adams 
County was eri.'cted in 1S78, and is known as 
the Dent School, in Poot Township. At tlie 
]ir('sent time there are thirty brick school 
buildings within the count}', and are distrib- 
uted as follows: Pine Creek Township, 
six; Root Township, five; Washington Town- 
ship, four; St. ilary's and]\Ionroe Townships, 
three each; Preble, Kirkland and Pi-ench 
Townships, two each; Union Township, 
Geneva and Decatur, one each. The remain- 
ing si.\ty-four buildings are frame, live of 
which will likely be supplanted the coming 
year by substantial brick buildings. The 
total estimated value of school property 
within the county in 1885-'8G was §94,1375, 
which includes school a])paratus to the amount 
of $4,975. The estimated value of the 
Geneva buildiug is §4,000. The Union 
School Puilding of Decatur is valued at 
§10,000. 

TE.\CHKRS, EXAMINATIONS, ETC. 

It is not an easy matter to determine who 
taught the first school in Adams County, for 
several persons began about the same time, 
and this before any regular school buildings 
were erected. James Smith is said to have 
been the lirst to honor the leiJ-allv authorized 



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])L'(l;i;;-<ii;iiMl cliair in this fuiiiity. I^iil little 
Ciiii 1)0 asL'L'rtaiiiL'd ut' him u.\i-cpt that his 
stay in these '-hack woods" was of short 
duration, lie tauyht the first sehool in the 
huildiny located in Hoot Township as ahove 
descrihed. Jle taught early and late, shook 
with the ague and fought mosquitos in true 
pioucer style. 'Tis true the pioneer teacher 
had many inconveniences with M-hich to 
contencl and many privations to endure, but 
he was ever exempt from virtue from morn- 
ing till night in an attempt to answer lists of 
questions to test his special fitness to teach 
in the public schools. This important matter 
was carefully weighed by the three township 
trustees until 1837, when the law was changed 
and three school commissioners were ap- 
pointed to en(|uire into the natural and 
acq\iired iibilities of applicants and license 
those considered competent. The qualifica- 
tions of a])jilicants were tested on reading, 
writing and ciphering, or arithmetic; and in 
later years spelling was considered as an 
accomplishment worthy of particular mention. 
Books were scarce and the teacher who could 
j^roduce the best "ciphering book" of his 
own construction and write a fair hand was 
always in demand. The educational pulse 
grew stronger as the county developed, and 
from 185~, under the new school law, the 
number of school districts rapidly increased. 
Eight years later, in 1860, teachers were 
gratilied to learn that they could find cmjiloy- 
ment in the school-room for from ten to 
twelve weeks within the year at a cash salary 
of from si. 40 to .$1.50 a day. Quite a sensa- 
tion was proiluced in the pedagogical 
fraternity when the Legislature of 18G5 
passed the act requiring applicants to pass 
written examinations, and to pass on two 
additional branches: physiology and history 
of the United States. At this time tliosc 
applicants who evinced the special fitness 




were scarce, an<l many trustees had ditlieulty 
in procuring the recpiired teachers for their 
schools. The new rcfjime met with deter- 
mined opposition by the old teachers, but the 
younger ones and new asjiirants to jiedagogi- 
cal honors packed their grip-sacks and stiirted 
in the direction of the Liber College, near 
Portland, Jay County, Indiana, or the JMeth- 
odist Episcopal College at Ft. Wayne, Indiana, 
in order to prepare in the new and objection- 
able branches. This gave a temporary boom 
to those institutions, and Liber College 
esi)ccial!y saw her most prosperous days. 
The same Legislature abolished the school 
commissioner's office and instituted the 
county school e.xaminer in its stead. Tlie 
examiner held fast to the re(piirements of the 
law, and many who wouM not comply with 
the demands of the times wearied by the 
wayside and fell from the pedagogical ranks. 

Since 1850 the German clement has rap- 
idly' increased in several parts of Adams 
County; especially so in Hoot, Preble, French, 
Jlai'tford and AValjash townships. The early 
school laws made no provisions for German 
to be taught in English schools until 1869, 
when an act was passed permitting German 
to be taught as a branch in any public scdiool 
in the State where a desire of the same was 
set forth in a petition to the township trustee 
by the parents or representatives of twenty- 
five or more school children. At the present 
time there arc twelve schools within the 
count}' in which German is taught as a 
branch, and seventy in which German chil- 
dren are pupils. 

Nearly all of the older German pupils can 
read and talk the English language. Until 
1873 there was no uniformity in the lists of 
questions used by county examiners of the 
various counties, in the examination of ap- 
plicants for teacher's license. Each examiner 
made his own list of examination questions; 



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HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY. 



lieiice tliey were light in some counties and 
severe in others. 

In 1S73 tlie State Boiird of Etlnc.fition be- 
•jan tlie publication of uniform lists of ques- 
tions for the examination of teachers in the 
various counties of the State. County ex- 
aminers issued licenses to successful appli- 
cants for six months, twelve months, eighteen 
months and twenty-four months. A general 
average of 65 per cent and not falling below 
55 per cent entitled the applicant to a fourth 
grade certificate or license; a general aver- 
age of 75 per cent entitled the applicant to 
a third grade license; a general average of 
85 per cent entitled the applicant to a second 
grade license; a general average of 95 enti- 
tled the applicant to a tirst grade license. 

The new arrangement was met by strong 
op])osition, Imt it prevailed and caused many 
of the time-honored pedagogues to leave the 
ranks never more to return; others still clung 
with a death grip to their six months' license, 
renewing it semi-annually until June, 1SS3, 
when an act, of the same year, came into 
effect, aiiolishing the eighteen months' license 
and creating the thirty-six months' license, 
and making the six months' license a trial 
license issuable but once to any applicant in 
any county. Again the number of the weak- 
er members was reduced. .Vt the Superin- 
tendents' Convention in Indianapolis June, 
1HS3, it was agreed upon by resolution that 
the success of teachers should be weighed in 
granting licenses, and the success of teachers 
has since been graded and marked upon their 
certificates at examination. The same con- 
vention placed the standard of grading the 
various licenses as follows: Fourth grade, 
general average of 70 per cent; third grade, 
general average of 80 per cent; second grade, 
general average of 00 per cent; first grade, 
general average of 95 per cent; and not 
falling below 60 per cent in the lowest 



branch for a fourth grade license, nor lie- 
low 80 per cent in the lowest branch for 
a first grade license. In November, 1881, 
the general average recpiired to pro- 
cure a fourth or third grade license was 
raised 5 per cent, making the standard at 
the present time 75 per cent for fourth grade 
and 85 per cent for third grade. At the 
May meeting of 1886 the State Board of 
Education made an order that after Decem- 
ber, 1886, all applicants shall furnish a writ- 
ten review or essay of not less than 600 
words upon one of the following subjects: 
Tale of Two Cities, David Copperfield, Ivan- 
hoe, Heart of JMidlothian, Henry Esmond, 
The Spy, The Pilot, The Scarlet Letter, The 
Sketch Book, Knickerbocker's History of 
Kew York, The Happy Boy, Poems of Long- 
fellow, Poems of Bryant, Poems of AVhittier, 
and I'oems of Lowell. Applicants are re- 
quired to place their signatui'es to a state- 
ment that the production is their own original 
work and in their own handwriting; this 
]iroduction is to be graded the same as other 
bi'anches upon which applicants are exam- 
ined. At present the various grades of 
teachers' licenses are represented in Adams 
County as follows: 

There are three teachers holding fourth 
grade or six months' licenses; there are forty- 
two holding third grade or twelve months' 
licenses; there are forty-one holding second 
grade or twenty-four months' licenses; and 
there are twenty-three holding first grade or 
thirty-six months' licenses. As yet there are no 
teachers in the county holding State licenses. 

SCnuOL BOOKS, COUKSE OF STUDY, ETC. 

The public schools previous to 1853 were 
not provided with any uniform series of 
school text-books, but each pupil used as a 
text-book what he happened to have at hand. 
The New Testament met with much favor as 



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a reading hook, and was iiscil in many schools. 
In 185,5 tlie State antliorities made an attempt 
to secure nnit'urmity of hooks under the recent 
statute providing; tbrsucli nnit'ormity. Among 
tlie hooks mamit'actnred tor school use were 
Webster's Spelling Hook, j\[urray's Headers 
and Grammar, and Pike's Arithmetic; later, 
The Eiementai'Y Spelling l^ook, Kirkhani's 
Grammar, 3Iorse's Geographies, Hay's Arith- 
metics and tiie Eclectic lieaders. Until 
1S78 there was but little effort made to 
classify or grade the district schools. At 
tills time apjieared the first regular course of 
study for the district schools of Adams 
County. Its introduction was of natural 
consc(pience very slow, as many pupils could 
be induced to tid^e only those branches for 
which he had a particular taste. The patrons 
also ol>jected to having their sons study any 
branch that they could not directly ajjply to 
evei'v day business life. Arithmetic and 
spelling were made hobbies, and the test of 
a pupil's ability as a scholar was to "spell 
down " all the schools in the vicinity, and 
''work all the suins" in his arithmetic. 
The district school course has been modified 
from time to time to meet the demands of 
the schools. In this county there is also a 
graded school course, which comjirises a 
number of the hicrher brandies in addition to 
those found in tlie district school course. 

COUNTY GRADUATES. 

The subject of graduation from the district 
schools was under discussion by the promi- 
nent edueatoi's of the State for a number of 
years previous to 1S88, at which time the 
plan was put upon a working basis. Tlie 
first examinations held for coiinty diploma 
applicants were held in 1883. Applicants 
were recpiired to pass a creditable examina- 
tion in the eight common school branches. 
As a result of the first examination there 



were twenty-one successful applicants. The 
examinations have been hclil annually ever 
since the plan was perfected, and at the 
present time, February, 1887, there are 107 
graduates from the district schools of this 
county, forty-six of whom have since become 
teachers in the public schools. Since the 
spring of 1885 interesting commencement 
exercises ha\e been given by the graduates 
at Geneva, Linn Gro\e and Pleasant Mills. 
The graded schools of the county, since 1883, 
have annually furnished county graduates. 

SCHOOL TERM AND GRADED .SCHOOLS. 

In the pioneer schools the term was neces- 
sarily short, and as late as 1860 the term 
seldom exceeded ten or twelve weeks in 
duration. As the school advantages multi- 
plied the term was increased until the pres- 
ent time, at which the average length of the 
school term in this county is about six and a 
half months annually. The average wages 
of teachers for winter sessions is about $1.75 
per day. The fall or spring session is about 
.*1.15 per day. A majority of the spring or 
fall terms are taught by beginners and by 
ladj' teachers. 

There are now six graded schools within 
Adams Oouiity, including the city schools of 
Decatur. The first school of more than one 
department was the Decatur school, which 
was orgaiiized in 185-4 in the third school 
building for Decatur, and known as the 
" High School Building." At the beginning 
of this school there were three teachers 
cinjiloyed, but we are unable to learn their 
names. The first attem])t to arrange the 
school with regard to classification or gradu- 
ation was in 1H12. Thomas Wright was the 
principal at that time, and met with strong 
ojiposition in the attempt to accomplish 
his object; hence it was not until 1878, 
under the management of S. G. Hastings, 






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tliat the sclioul was tlmriinglily m'iided. In 
18S1, under tlic inaiia<i;Ginciit ut' 1 )r. Hastings, 
it ^^ent forth seven graduates as its first class. 
In 1S82 tiie sclioul was commissioned by the 
State Jioard of ICducaticm as a liigli school, 
and its graduates invited to enter the State 
educational institutions witlujut farther ex- 
amiiuition. Since 187S it has been under 
the management of S. G. Hastings, C. G. 
"White and G. AV. A. Luckey, the present 
sujierintendent. 

The suho(jl has graduated thirty-eight 
pu])ils in the last six years, in the regular 
course. In 1S85 a post graduate course wa3 
establislied, wliich was completed the next 
year by live of the regular gi-aduates. Of 
the thirty-eight graduates there are seventeen 
who became teachers, ten of whom have 
taught in the primary tlepartments of the 
city schools. Tlie school is composed of ten 
dejiartments, and has an attendance of about 
460 pupils. Tlie j^ast year, by the jiupils' 
entertainments, to which a small admission 
fee was charged, a library of about 100 
volumes has been secured. This is in good 
demand, and is nuicli used by the pupils of 
the school. The present school building was 
erected in 1885, at a cost of about .sl.j,000. 
The Geneva schools were graded about 1873, 
the old Methodist Episcopal church building 
being used for one division of the school. 

]\Ir. Walker was the first principal. In 

1S7!) the Geneva corporation erected a com- 
modious four-roomed brick school building, 
at a cost of about !?4:,000. 1. O. Jones 
was chosen as ];rincipal. The school was 
tlioroughly classified and graded. Mr. Jones 
was followed in turn by W. 0. Ladd, J. F. 
Snow, L. W. A. Luckey, G. AV. Peterson, and 
Vi. A. Aspy, the present princijial. Tliis 
school has furnished a number of graduates 
from the district school course. , It employs 
four teachers, part of whom were graduated 



from the scho(d. The other four grade<l 
schools in this county and the dates of their 
organization are as follows: The Linn (irove 
school is located at IJuena A'ista, in Hartford 
Township. It was organized in 1877, with 
G. AV. ^V. Luckey as principal. The principals 
who followed him are L. AV. A. Luckey, F. F. 
Mendenall, G. AV. Musser, and Geo. AV. Jiolds, 
the present principal. The Monmouth graded 
school is situated at Monmouth, Root Town- 
ship, and was organized in 1S78, with Kay 
Berg as principal. The jirincijials who fol- 
lowed him are J. II. AValters, F. V. Ilocker, 
and G. II. Laugliery, the present princi])al. 
The Pleasant ]\Iills graded school is situated 
at Pleasant ^lills, St. ^Mary's Township, and 
was organized in 1879, with G. AV. Peterson 
as its principal. The principals who followed 
him are 11. AV". Kirby, K. K. Erwin, and 
Charles Dailey, the pi-esent jjrincipal. Tlie 
Ceylon graded school is located at Ceylon, in 
AVabashTownshij). It was organized in 1884, 
with AV. A. Aspy as principal. Its present 
principal is S. McD. Snow. LTnder the man- 
agement of the present principal a school 
library of fifty or sixty volumes was placed 
in the school, and is much used by the more 
advanced pupils. 

The graded schools at Ceylon, Moninoutli 
and Pleasant Alills each support good literary 
societies, in the exercises of which a majority 
of the pupils pai'ticipate. The people near 
these schools fully appreciate their benefits, 
and the near future will add to the number 
of townships possessing them. 

TAKOCniAL scnooLS. 

AVithin the county there are several paroch- 
ial schools. Some of these may be found in 
Union, Hoot and Preble townships, and the 
city of Decatur. The Lutherans began their 
schools with their church organizations in 
Preble Township, about 1840. At present 



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their schools continue in session three days 
witiiin tiic week, and are taiigiit hy tlie min- 
ister in ciiarj^e. The I>iitlierau organizations 
(.>\vn three I'ranie sciiool Imildings in the 
townships iieretot'ore named, and send tlieir 
cliildren to suliool until they are about four- 
teen years of age. A majority of the pujjiis 
of tliese seliools also attend the district puhlic 
schools iluring a part of their sessions. 

The Catholic schools of ])ecatur are con- 
ducted in a neat, substantial, two-story brick 
bniUiing, which is worth perhaps !i;5,0U0. 
These schools are supported by the denomi- 
national congregation. The school, which is 
taught by tlie Sisters, continues about nine 
months of the year, and has an attendance of 
about 225 pupils. But few of the Catholic 
pupils attend the public schools in Decatur. 

RKADIXG CIUCLK AND INSrrm'KS. 

In 1882 tlie teachers of Root Township 
organized a "Shakespearean Club," for the 
purjiose of amusement anil mental improve- 
ment. The i)roject was a success, and con- 
tinned with gtiod results for several years. 

In 1884 tlie Indiana State Reading Circle 
M-as organized, and about forty teachers of 
the county secured the necessary books and 
began the work for which the course pro- 
vided. It was not closely followed, though 
several of the works were lengtliily discussed 
in the township institutes. A great number 
of our teachers could tind no time to pursue 
the course as laid down by the managers, and 
the work was finally abandoned by most of 
them. 

When !^[r. Smith began to wield the birch 
in Adams County teachers' associations, read- 
ing circles and teachers' institutes were but 
little thought of, or unknown. ]5ut as educa- 
tion took no backward stejis teachers began 
the discussion of topics pertaining to their 
work and the lirst teachers' association, of 




whicii there is any accessible record, was 
called by S. C. iJollman, county examiner of 
Adams County, IJeceniber, lK(j(). The asso- 
ciation met at Decatur within holiday week 
and occupied one of the church buildings 
during its sessions. 

There was an attendance of about forty 
teachers and the programme was maile as it 
was used. This was the tirst of what has 
since grown into our County Teachers' Insti- 
tute. Though the teachers' associations be- 
came of annual occurrence we fail to find a 
continuous record of them until 1878. The 
tirst township institute was held in District 
No. 5, Monroe Township, October 27, 1873, 
by D. D. Heller, county superintendent. The 
various townships have held from three to 
six institutes annually since the time within 
named. By them many young teachers have 
received much valuable instruction and 
assistance. The more recent county insti- 
tutes have been well attended; the attend- 
ance for the term amounting to from 125 to 
150 teachers. Foreign instructors are secured 
and a live days' session is annually held in 
the month of August or September, that the 
teachers may have the benetit of the instruc- 
tion before tlie beginning of tlieir fall or 
winter terms of school. 

COUNTY BOARD OK KDDCATION. 

The county board of education was estab- 
lished by an act of the Legislature in 1877. 
It is composed of the township trustees, the 
president of the school board of eacii incor- 
porated city or town within the county, and 
the county superintendent of schools. It meets 
semi-annually, on the first days of May and 
September, to adopt te.xt-books for the use of 
the schools and to consider the general wants 
and needs of the public schot)ls of the county, 
and devise means for their most judicious 
management. The present county board of 






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IITSTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY. 



cduciitioii is cuiuposi'd of tlu' tVilK>\viii<r ikimuhI 
ineml)ers: 

¥. F. Freeh, L. AV. Lewton, Lewis Truclite, 
David Steele, William Blackburn, J. C. 
Cowan, Henry !Myers, C W. Hocker, Samuel 
Hoeker, Lemuel O. IJears, AL M. Tlerr, Sam- 
uel Fettei'S, Anson Iloll, Gotlf'rey Christen 
and J. S. Snow. 

SCnOOL KXAMINEKS AND SUPERINTENDENTS. 

Until 1837 the township trustees had 
charge of the examination of the puhlic 
school teachers. They were relieved of this 
duty by the a]>pointment of three school ex- 
aminers. In 1805 the law was again changed 
and a single examiner was appointed. Among 
those wlio held the positions previous to the 
change to a single occupant were Josiah Ran- 
dall, W. Calderwood, J. IL Kevins, Jaines 
Brown, J. D. Nutman, J. P. Porter, Josiah 
Crawford, David Studabaker and J. R. Bobo. 
In 1805 S. C. Bollman was chosen school ex- 
aminer, and held the position for a number 



of years. lie was followed by D. 0. Heller, 
who afterward, in 1873, became the first 
county su])erinten(ient of scliools in Adams 
County. He resigned in 1874 and was fol- 
lowed by AVilliam JM. AValter, who was suc- 
ceeded in 1879 by (t. W. A. Luckey, who 
served four years. In 1883 he was succeeded 
by J. F. Snow, who is the present incumbent 
of the ofKce. In regard to thoroughness, 
methods of instruction, discipline and man- 
agement we will let otliers judge and s])eak. 
Adams Ccninty was the former Iiome of 
State Superintendent Samuel L. Pugg. He 
was one of the most enterprising and influen- 
tial citizens of the county at an early day and 
held various county offices for nearly twenty 
years. In 1858 he was elected by the Demo- 
cratic party to the State Superintendency of 
Indiana. His ability as a linancier and or- 
ganizer rendered his services valuable to the 
State. Ilis remains now rest in the city 
cemetery, but his memory is ever fresh to the 
friends of education in Indiana and especially 
to those of Adams County. 



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1 9- II E best prosperity a coun- 
ty can liave is agricult- 
>iral. ]\[:inutactures and 
mineral resources are tle- 
^...^■'^^ girable, but where they 
■^ are the main depend- 
^•'■^ encc there will invariably be a 
iT^ poor, ignorant, unenterprising 
^i^ class of citizens controlled by a 
v,^^ lew cajjitalists. Here in Adams 
*J^ County ]>roi)erty is quite eveidy 
distriltuted, with the exception 
of a few large land owners; all 
are comfortably situated, and all 
enjoy educational and social ad- 
vantages. Adams is destined to remain an 
agricidtural county, and it is best so. As a 
farming region it ranks among the best in 
the State. Possessing tlie advantages of a 
good climate, a soil of inexhaustible fertility, 
close proximity to the markets of Ft. Wayne, 
Toledo and other cities, and excellent railroad 
facilities, the county has already attained a 
degree of agricultural development such as 
is seldom found in a country comparatively 



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new. Its wealth and prosperity are steadily 
and rapidly increasing. AVhen we consider 
that but two generations ago the red men 
were the owners of this region wliich now 
supports one of the most flourishing com- 
munities in the United States, we may well 
be astonished at the wonderful results which 
time and an intelligent industry have wrought. 
In many sections of our country, lands whicli 
have been occupied by white inhaliitants as 
long, exhibit not one-half of the imjirove- 
ments and substantial evidences of real pros- 
perity that Adams County can show. Nature 
did much for this region, and a thrifty and 
progressive people have admirably co-ope- 
rated with her eii'orts. Farms, buildings and 
improvements of every kind are of unusual 
excellence in this county. Numerous towns 
and villages scattered over the county furnish 
abundant and convenient trading points and 
home markets, wliile unexcelled educational 
and religious privileges combine to render 
the lot of the Adams Countj' farmer a most 
fortunate one. 

From the latest printed volume of the 



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'> Uiu'OiUi of Statistics " for 1884, the follow- 
ing leading facts arc taken with reference to 
Adams Connty. An area equal to about 
one congressional township, or, to be exact, 
',22,755 acres, was planted to wheat, and the 
production was 2tj'J,o27 bushels, or about 
twelve per acre. An even larger area, 2-1,235 
acres, was planted to corn, producing 755,530 
bushels, or over thirty pei- acre. (Jats were 
raised on 10,284 acres, and the yield was 
386,596 bushels, or nearly forty per acre. 
Kearly 50,000 bushels of Irish potatoes were 
grown. The acreage in timothy was 15,467; 
tons of product, 27,840; acreage in clover, 
9,091; tons of product, 15,911. The timber 
acreage, which once included all the connty, 
is reduced to 70,091. Ab.nit 2,000 acres of 
this is cleared ainiually. Over 12,000 acres 
of plowed land was rejjorted idle, and nearly 
5,000 acres as covered with blue and other 
wild grasses. 

Not less signiticant are some of tlie figures 
as to live stoclc. There are in the county 
4,979 horses, 106 mules, 19,898 stock hogs, 
20,200 fatted hogs (weighing 3,082,997 
])ounds), 13,457 sheep and 5,()91 lambs. The 
wool clip was 57,480 pounds. 

The immense cpiantity of 1,710,077 gal- 
lons of milk, 394,121 pounds of butler, and 
87,715 pounds of cheese, afford some idea of 
the dairy interests of the county. 

The first agricultural society in the county 
was organized in 1853, witii these ofiicers: 
S. S. Mickle, President; George A. Dent, 
Vice-President; D. Studabaker, Secretary; 
John McConnell, Treasurer; D. Irwin, C. S. 
Dorwin, J. Crabs, S. Steele, A. Scales, li. 
"Winnings, L. ilatta.x, L. French, J. Martin, 
J. Crawford, T. Loofborow and A. Summers. 
The society was reorganized in 1875, with 
Emanuel "Woods, President, and John W. 
Kout, Treasurer. Thirty acres of ground 
was leased from the county, and suitable 



buihlings erected. The society did not pros- 
per financially, and finally suspended. The 
fairs of 1885 and 188(j were held by private 
enterjjrise. 

RAILROADS. 

Rapid development of a new country is 
only possii)le through a system of railroads, 
affording speedy, regular, safe and economical 
transportation. To fully open up a district 
like Ohio, Indiana or Kentucky, a whole gen- 
eration must pass away amid the slowly 
improving conditions of pioneer life. A'ow, 
by the aid of railroads, the vast Territory of 
Dakota has within a few years received a half 
a million of inhabitants, and is ready to be 
converted into two new States — stars Xos. 
39 and 40 in our Federal constellation. I^y 
the same agency Asia, Australia, South 
America and .Vfrica are being rapidly civil- 
ized and developed. In short, the known 
world is being wonderfully enlarged. But 
for the iron horse, Africa must remain the 
" dark continent " for countless generations. 
In view of present developments, it is to be 
the land of promise for emigrants in the 
twentieth century. 

It was more than a third of a century after 
Adams County was organized, and a half a 
century after the first settlement, before iron 
rails were laid in the county. 

Grand li<ij)iih tt Indiana. — The Cincin- 
nati, Kichmond & Ft. Wa3'ne Railroad was 
orginally proposed through Elufi'ton; but 
after tlie Muncie road was built through 
"Wells County, the line was so changed that 
the first mentioned road came to Decatur, 
and thence south through Portland and Rich- 
mond to Ft. "Wayne. The work of construc- 
tion through Adams County was performed 
in 1871. The county subscribed for $150,000 
worth of stock, raising the money by tax, 
partly before the building and the remainder 



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after. Tlie stock is still in the comity's liaiiils, 
ami is worthless, Init it is the general opinion, 
nevertlielesSjthat the money was well invested, 
as it brouii^ht ajrooil railroail to a county that 
might have had Tione, else. "I'lie road is 
operated by the (irand Rapids A: Indiana 
Ilailroad C(;m|iany, which, together with the 
Cincinnati, Hamilton tt Dayton, and the 
Pennsylvania Jlailroad Companies, jointly 
guarantee the interest (jn the bonds. For 
some years the net earnings have not met the 
fixed charges, and the deficit has l)een made 
up by the guaranteeing companies. The 
road is kept in excellent condition, and the 
train service is very etticient. Every ]iart of 
the county is within seven miles of the rail- 
road. 

The mileage of main track in the county is 
2i.(il, assessed at Sl-,5(H) per mile, or §110,- 
745. There ai-e "2.93 miles of side track, 
assessed at >!2,50O per mile, or .S7,32i3. The 
rolling stock is assessed at s500 a mile, or 
Sl2,30o. The improvements (depots, etc.) 
are assessed at !i;2,U75, making the total 
assessed value of the road in Adams County 
§132,450. It crosses - Kout, Washington, 
Jlonroe and Wabash townships, and has the 
stations of .Monmouth, Decatur, ]\Itinroe, 
lierne and Geneva. 

Toledo^ St. Luuis cfc Kansas City.- — A 
narrow-gauge railroad was built through this 
county in 1S78, in an east and west direction, 
under the name of the Del])lios, Ulull'ton tV; 
Kokomo liailroad. It was afterward con- 
solidated witli other lines under the name of 
the Toledo, Frankfort & Eurlington, and 
later with still other short roads, forming the 
Toledo, Cincinnati isc St. Louis, a continous 
uarrow-gauge railroad from Toledo to tlie 
Mississippi River. The road did not ]iay, 
and was purchased in 1880 by a reoi'ganized 
company, and renamed the Toledo, St. Louis 
& Kansas City. It is to be widened to a 



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standard gauge road this season (1887). Tlie 
townships interested, and individuals in the 
county, gave §45,000 to aid in the construc- 
tion of this road. It crosses Ivirkland. Root, 
AVashington an<l St. Mary's townships. The 
assessment is as follows: Iti.SO miles of 
main track at s2,000 a mile, §83,000; .42 
miles of side track, at §1,000, §420; rolling 
stock at §000 a mile, §10,080; improvements 
on right of way, §275; total, §44.375. 

Vhiea(jo cL' Atlantic. — This was built 
through the county in 1881 and 1882, and 
received about §35,000 from the townships 
crossed, as aid. It is a very straight road 
from Chicago to ]\hirion (Ohio), and is 
intimately related to the Erie Railway. It 
was built chiefly for through business. It 
crosses Preble, Rout, Wasliington and L'^niou 
townships in an east and west direction. 
The assessment is as follows: 14.38 miles of 
main track at §8,000, §115,040; 2 miles 
of side track at §2,000, §4,000; rolling stock 
at §2,500, §35,050; imjirovement on right 
of way, §820; total, §155,810. 

There are altogether in Adams County 
55.79 miles of main track, assessed at §259,- 
385; 5.35 miles of side track, assessed at 
§11,745; rolling stock, assessed at §58,835; 
improvements on rigiit df way valued at 
§3,170, or, in all, an assessed valuation of 
§332,035. 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

In the part of this history devoted to the 
early years of the county mention is made 
of the first court-house. Tliis stood on the 
corner where A. R. Cell now lives, opposite 
the Miesse House, and has recently been 
moved to First street, where it is used as a 
store-room fV)r the weiolen mill. It was used 
only for holding court, and the county sold 
it aftei' the present court-house was erected. 
In 1849 two small brick buildings, one story 






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in height, were erected in tlie iiortliejist and 
soutlieast edi'nei'S of the sijnaiT. In tlie 
turnuT were the clerk's and recorder's olKces, 
and in the hitter the treasui'er's and auditor's. 

The present tine court-liouse was bnilt in 
1S73. The contract price was about 8S(),0()0, 
but tlie ultimate exjienditure was somewhat 
more. It is a beautiful and comtnodious 
structure of Philadeliihia ]ire.-;sed brick, liei'ea 
sandstone and iron, with hall tioors of marble. 
It is fire-proof, and its court-room is beau- 
tifully frescoed and painted. The building 
is two stories high, with a mansard roof 70 .\ 
120 feet in dimensions, with a tower nearly 
1()0 feet high from the basement. 

The first jail was a log structure, and stood 
on the southeast corner of the square. It 
was used until IST'.I, and then was accident- 
all}' destroyed by lii-e. The new brick jail 
on ^larket street was completed in ISSfi at a 
cost of S25,000. It contains fourteen cells, 
and has a residence for the sheriff. 

In 1875 the county purchased a farm of 
200 acres two and one-half miles southeast 
of l)ecatur, on section 13, AVashington 
Township, for a poor farm. The considera- 
tion was S10,000. The residence already on 
the place has since been used by the su])er- 
intendent as a residence. A temporar}' 
frame building was put up at a cost of s2,000 
to shelter the county charges. A more per- 
manent building is contemplated, and will 
doubtless be built in a few j-ears. W. H. II. 
France is in charge as superintendent, and 
lias lield that position for the past four years. 



There are from twenty-live to thirty ])ersons 
usually kt;pt at the farm, which is nearly 
self-sustaining. 

STATISTICS. 

The larger number of immigrants to Adams 
County came between lS50and 1860, though 
the county was well settled in comjiari.-ion 
with the surrounding counties by the former 
date. The population in 18(50 was 9,252; in 
1870, 11,382; in 1880, 15,385. The popu- 
lation by townships in the latter census year 
was as follows: IJlue Creek, 931; French, 
1,032; Hartford, 1,103; Jefferson, G48; 
Kirkland, 793; Monroe, 1,531; Preble, 997; 
Koot, 1,270; .St. Ifary's, 979; Union, 912; 
Wabash, 1,991 (including Geneva villacre, 
•467); AVashington, 3.159 (including Decatur 
town, 1,905). 

The native-born population in 1880 was 
13,948, of which Tunnber 9,418 were born in 
Indiana, 3,442 in Ohio, 584 in Pennsyl- 
vania, 89 in New York, 44 in Illinois and 22 
in Kentucky. The foreign-born population 
was 1,401, of which 757 were born in Ger- 
many. This gives but an insufficient idea of 
the Teutonic ju-oportion of Adams C'ounty's 
population, which is probably more than one- 
half. 

The assessment for 1886 foots up as fol- 
lows; Acres of land, 212,203.30; value, 
82,201,685; value of improvements, $766,- 
818; value of lots, §176,050; value of im- 
provements, $269,900; value of personalty, 
$1,477,754; number of polls, 3,112; total 
valuation of taxable property, $4,892,207. 




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^^M;('ATU1;, the Oiipital of 
.Vdaius Cuinitv, is 
now over a lialt' 
century old. It is 
eituateil on tlie St. 
^Tary's Kiver, on tlie 
ii^J f-5iti noi-tli lino of Waehiiigton Towii- 
s?;i'lll^ ship, and six miles nortli ol the 
i&ll^fe geogra] lineal center of the county. 
'^'iPv Tliouirli formally laid out and 
^]i*J named (in honor of the well-known 
^j'i^ naval hero) in 183G, it was some 
"^■ifi^ years later before it was even much 
^i'^ of a village. Previous to 183'J 
there were but three cabins and two unfur- 
nished frames here. The residents in the 
spring of 1838 were Samuel L. Kuyg, James 
Crabs, Jacob Ilufi'er, Fittick and Closs. Dur- 
ing the decade from 1840 to 1850 the pojui- 
jation slowly increased to about 250. 

The ])opular election for trustees and otlier 
officers to organize the town of Decatnr oc- 
curred the last day of the year 1853. Jacob 
King, David Ilnmbert and AVilliani G. Spen- 
cer were inspectors of election, and si.vty-six 
votes were cast, resulting in the choice of the 
following trustees: District No. 1, James 



Crabs; District No. 2, James Stoops; District 
No. 3, Thomas J. Pearce; District No. 4, 
Jacob Crabs; District No. 5, Parker L. "Wise. 
"William G. Spencer was chosen clerk and 
also treasurer; and Hamilton J. "\7ise was 
elected marshal and assessor. In May fol- 
lowing the tlrst regular election was held, and 
the ollicers elected were: Trustees, J. D. 
Nultman, Simon Friberger, James Stoops, 
David McDonald and Jacob Bodle; Treasur- 
er, A. Bollinaii; Clerk and Assessor, AVilliam 
G. Spencer; Marshal, A. Bollinan. 

Decatur remained under a town organiza- 
tion for twenty-nine years, the population 
increasing at about the same ratio each dec- 
ade. By 1860 there were 500 inhabitants; 
by 1870, 1,000; and in 1880, the last census 
year, the enumeration footed up 1,905. The 
construction of the Cincinnati, Richmond 
ik Ft. AVayne Railroad in 1871 fixed Decatur 
as the county seat, so that the present sub- 
stantial court-house was built soon after, and 
raised the place to the dignity of an impor- 
tant town. The building of the narrow guage 
road in 1878, and the Chicago &: Atlantic in 
1881 and 1882 added greatly to the prospects 
of the growing county seat, which now has 



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HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY. 






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an assured future, as a residence, liusiiiess 
and iiKUHifactiii'iui^ town. 'J'he |]iij)ulatinn in 
1887 is undoubtedly a,()0(). One, and possi- 
bly two new railroads will be built tlirouy;]! 
])ecatur in the near future. 

DECATUK A CITY. 

Having grown too populous to be satisfied 
with the old town jj;overninent, Decatur M'as 
incorporated as a city September 5, 1882. 
Tlic officers elected and appointed for that 
year and eacli year since liavc l)cen: 

188-2-'83.— ]\[ayor, J.T. Merryman ; Clerk, 
L. J. (last; Treasurer, 11. II. Breinerkainp; 
Marshal, Ilobert j\Ialoney; Street Commis- 
sioner, J. T. Arclibold; Attorney, E. A. 
Ilntfnian; Engineer, J. T. Simcoke. Council: 
iMi'st AVard, D. (). Jackson and G. W. Pat- 
terson; Sei-(aid "Ward, J. II. Vogelwede and 
Sol. Linn; Third AVard, \V. V. ]\[oon and 
Jesse Xililick. 

lSSn-'84.-^-:\Iayor, 1]. II. Dent; Clerk, L. 
J, Oast; ilarshal, Robert Maloney; Treas- 
urer, II. II. I>remerkanij); Street Commis- 
sioner, J. T. Archbold; Attorney, E. A. 
Huffman; Engineer, J. T. Simcoke. Council: 
First AVard, G. W. Patterson and I). O. 
Jackson; Second Ward, II. C. Stetler and J. 
H. A^ogelwede; Third AVard, S. Spangler and 
Jesse !Xiblick. 

1884:-'85. — Same officers as previous year. 
Council: First AVard, G. W. J'atterson and 
D. O. Jackson; Second Ward, Henry Eiting 
and J. II. Vogelwedc; Third Ward, S. Span- 
gler and Jesse jS'iblick. 

188d-'86.— Mayor, D. D. Heller; Clerk, 
J. C. Patterson; Treasurer, II. II. Bremer- 
kamp; Marshal, Robert ilaloney; Attorney, 
A. Iluffnian; Engineer, J.T. Simcoke. Coun- 
cil: P''irst Ward, Henry Krick and G. W. 
Patterson; Second AVard, II. Stetler and 
Henry Eiting; Third Ward, Jesse iXiblick 
and S. Spangler. 



ISSC) -'87.— Same officers as previous yeai-, 
except that .1. W. Tyndall succeeded .1. T. 
Simcoke as engineer in Deceudiei', 188(5. 
Council: First Ward, AV. S. Congleton (suc- 
ceeded by A. L. Do Yilbiss, October 20, 
1886,) and Henry Krick; Second AVard, 
James II. Stone and II. Stetler; Third AVard, 
S. Spangler and Jesse Xiblick. 

KIKK AND FIKE I'UOTECTIUN. 

Decatur has had but one serious conflagra- 
tion. This occurred in 1882, and resulted in 
the loss of the entire row of wooden buildings 
on the east side of Second street, between 
Monroe and Madison. The business part of 
town is now built np solidly of brick, greatly 
reducing the danger from fire. The fire de- 
partment completed its present organization 
in 1885. It includes a hand-engine, hose- 
cart, with 800 feet of hose, and a hook-and- 
ladder truck, each manned by a volunteer 
company. James Hurst is chief of the de- 
partment. 

BANKS. 

The first bank in Dec:itnr was started by 
Joseph D. Nutman, in 1857. Three years 
later it was moved to Ft. AVayne. In July, 
1871, Mr. Nutman and Jesse Xiblick estab- 
lished the Adams County Bank, under the 
firm name of Niblick & Nutman. Four 
months later Robert Allison and David 
Studabaker were admitted as partners, and 
the style of the firm became Niblick, Nutman 
& Co. ]\Ir. Nutman I'etired a few months 
later, and the firm was then Niblick, Studa- 
baker & Co. 

In August, 1874, tlie Adams County Bank 
was organized under the State law, with a 
capital of !?50,000. This was increased in 
1882 to ^75,000. David Studabaker is Presi- 
dent; Jesse Niblick, A^ice- President; AVilliam 
II. Niblick, Cashier; Edward Eiiinger, As- 
sistant Cashier. The directors are: Robert 



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r,. Allison, Jfsso A'ihlick, John Crawford, 
"W^illiaiii Ci. ypfuoer, Ilcni'y Delks, John 
^leiher^ and David Stiulaliakor. The hank 
occupies (juartci'i in a snhstantial hrick htiild- 
iiif^ on the northwest corner of Second and 
Monroe sti-et'ts, hnilt in 1>)7G. 

The ('itizens' ilank was organized in 1872, 
by John ^\'. licjut and others, and ceased to 
do htisiness in 1^17. 

The Decatur National l!a!d< was incor- 
porated ^Vniriist 15, 1S83, with a capital of 
!?50,UOO. It now has a surplus of s5,000. 
T. T. i)orwin is President; i*. \V. Smith, 
^'icc-l'residcnt; 11. C)berweg;ncr, Cashier; 
li. I'. Dorwin, Assistant Cashier. The direc- 
tors are: T. T. Dorwin, John D. Hale, R. S. 
J'eterson, Henry Derkes, Jolin Dirkson, B. 
^y. Sholty an<l P. W. Sinitli. 

MAXIKAC'TUKKS. 

Decatur has already attracted a number of 
these desirable aids to prosperity and popula- 
tion. Amoiii,'' them are the Eagle JMaiiu- 
factiiriiiL^ Conipany, ^\•in(]-mills and road- 
scrajier?-; ^lyer lirothers, woolen mills; J. .S. 
Hart, I^atterson i*c Pillars, and Bremerkamp 
ik Vancanip, grist-mills; Ilobinson ik Gillig, 
P. W. Smith ik Co., JIainmel vfc AVilcox, and 
Johnson Brothers, saw-mills; Johnson Brotli- 
ers and G. Christen, planing mills; M. Buhler, 
flax mill; Hart it Egg, foundry; Henry Krick, 
brick; Elick ilt Boyd, tile; Heni-y flayer, 
brewery; 1\ C. Clever A: Co. and Hite ik 
Adams, slack barrels. • 

IJUSINLSS I>IKK( ToliV. 

The firms doing business in Decatur in 
February, 1887, are (exclusive of ])rofcssional 
men) as follows: 

Adams ('ounty i)ank; L. Auth, jewelry; 
Barkley it Steele, meat market; Jieery lii'oth- 
ers, livery; A. 11. JJell, livery; G. Jierling, 
produce; Norval Blackburn, proprietor De- 



catur DciDvrat ; J. S. Bowers, hardwai-e and 
machinery; 11. II. Brake, saloon; Bremer- 
kamp it \'ancani]i, gri,-.t-nnll; J. H. Bremer- 
kamp, saloon; M. llremerkainn, dry goods; 
John lirock, tin and lianlwarc; Brown iV; 
Colfee, saloon ; M. lluhler, llax mill; A. T. 
Burge, barber; A'. Burns, hai-ness; Pujhnell 
k Cook, l)lacksmiths; P. C. Clever ik (^o., 
slack barrels; Jacoii Clo.-s iV Sou, jewelr^y; 
]\rary ('loss, millinery; ^I. Colchen, baker}"; 
L. A. Contcr, boots ami shoes; Christen & 
(ioodsell, lumber; (4. Christen, planing mill; 
Decatur National Bank; Dono\an it ('(jU'ee, 
grocery; Dorwin A: Holthouse, drugs; C. T. 
Dorwin, photographer; Dr. Marshall ^Medicine 
Co., medicines; Eagle ^lanulactnring Co., 
wind-mills and road-scrapers; James Edding- 
ton, grocery; John Eiting, dry goods; Elick 
i>i lioyd, tile factory; J. E. Elloworth, wagons 
and can-iages; M. S. Elzey, jewelry ; Kvert ic 
Jloo]), grocery; E. Foi-bing, saloon ; Fritzin- 
ger ic Kirscli, lumber; J. S. Ga^jiei-, saloon; 
Glass tV' Alagley, hardwai-c and machinery; 
HammeliV Wilcox, saw-mill ; Hart A- Egg, 
foundry; Hart iV Ei'ance, saloon; J. S. Hart, 
mill; Hite i^; Adams, slack barrels; A. Holt- 
house, boots and shoes; AV. Y. Hubbai'tl, pho- 
tographer; AV. S. Hughes, marble; (J. AV. 
Hidl, dry goods; F. Johns, saloon; Johnson 
lirothers, saw and planing mill; John King, 
wagons and carriages; J. AV. Kleinheinz, 
saloon; Henry Krick, brick; Henry Lang, 
saloon; John Lose, barber; Mann iz Burk- 
head, grocery; Jacob Martin, bakery; Henry 
Mayer, brewery; I. J. iliesse, ^liesse House; 
Ailam ^liller, saloon; Miller Brothers, bar- 
bers; J. A. Mills, grocery; E. I). ISIotlett, 
proj)rictor Decatur ./(;«/•«(//',• ^lyer lirothers, 
woolen mill; AV. II. jVachtrieb A: Bro., drugs; 
Niblick, Crawford iV: Sons, dry goods and 
clotliing; Pattel•s^)n tV Pillars, grist-Tnill; 
Pease A: Colchen, bakery ami restaurant; 
J. W. Place, bakery; A. K. Pierce, drugs; 



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B. Allison, .h-ssc Ts'ibliek, Jdliii Oniwl'ord, 
AVilliiuii G. Spencer, Henry Delks, John 
]\Ieiliei-.-; iind Diiviil Stiidalmker. The hunk 
occiipieri (juartei-s in a snhotantiul hrick buiUl- 
iiif^ on the northwest eoiMier (if Second and 
Monroe t-trei't--. huilt in ISTIJ. 

Tlie ('itl/.eiis" i;aid< was ori;:inized in 1872. 
by John A\'. Ucjut and others, and ceased to 
do business in I'^TT. 

The Deeatnr National ]'aiik was incor- 
])orated .Vuiriist 15, 1883, with a capital of 
;?5(I,UOO. It now has a surplus of S5,000. 
T. T. Jtorwin is President; P. ^V . Smith, 
A^ice-President; II. Oberwegner, Cashier; 
II. P. Dorwin, Assistant Cashier. The direc- 
tors are: T. T. Dorwin, John J). Hale, U. S. 
l^eterson, Henry Derkes, .lohn l)irkson, B. 
^\'. Sholty and P. AV. Smith. 

MAM FACTUUKS. 

Decatur lias already attracted a number of 
these desirable aids to ])rosperity and pcipula- 
tion. Among thein are the Eagle JMaiiu- 
factnring Company, ^^■ind-mills and road- 
6cra])ers; !Myer Prothers, woolen mills; J. S. 
Hart, Patterson i\: Pillars, and Brenierkamp 
6c Vancamp, grist-mills; liobinson & Gillig, 
P. W. Smith it Co., Hammel & AVilcox, and 
Jolitisoii Brothers, saw-mills; Johnson Broth- 
ers and G. Christen, planing mills; JI. Bnhler, 
flax mill; Hart& Egg, foundry; Henry Krick, 
brick; Elick I'c Jjoyd, tile; Henry ilayer, 
brewery; P. C. Clever A: Co. and IHte & 
Adams, slack barrels. 

nUSINESS DIKKCTiitiV. 

The firms doing l)iisiiiess in Decatur in 
FebnK\ry, 1S87, are (exclusive of ])roiessi(inal 
men) as follows: 

Adams County JSank; Ti. Auth, jewelry; 
Barkley it Steele, meat mai-ket; Beery Broth- 
ers, livery; A. K. Jiell, livery; G. Barling, 
produce; ISorval IMackburn, proprietor De- 



catur DctiHicrat ,• J. S. Bowers, harilware and 
machinery; H. H. lirake, saloon; Brenier- 
kamp ik A'ancamji, grist-mill; J. IF. Breiner- 
kamp, saloon; M. Bremerkamj), dry goods; 
John I'rock, tin and hardware; J]rown t*c 
Coifee, saloon ; ]\I. Buhler, llax mill; A. T. 
]5urge, barber; IS'. Burns, harness; Biishnell 
6c Cook, blacksmiths; P. C. Clever iV Co., 
shick barrels; Jacob Closs iV Son, jewelry; 
Jfary ('loss, millinery; M. Colchen, baker}'; 
L. A. Confer, boots and shoes; Christen & 
(loodsell, lumber; G. Christen, jdaning mill; 
Decatur National P)ank; Donovan A: (Police, 
grocery; Dorwin 6c Holthouse, drugs; C. T. 
L)orwin, idiotographer; I)r.]\Iarshall ]\Iedicine 
Co., medicines; Eagle ^Manufacturing Co., 
wind-mills and road-scrapers; James Edding- 
ton, grocery; ifohn Eiting, dry goods; Elick 
iV' Pioyd, tile factory: J. E. Ellsworth, wagmib 
and carriages; .M. S. Elzey. jewelry; Evert 6c 
Itoop, grocery; E. Forbing, saloon; Fritzin- 
ger t*c ivirsch, lumber; J. S. (iaspei-, saloon; 
Glass 6c Magley, hardware and machinery; 
Hammel A: Wilcox, saw-mill ; Hart it Egg, 
foundry; Hart A: France, saloon; J. S. Hart, 
mill; Hite 6c Adams, slack barrels; A. Holt- 
house, boots and shoes; AV. V. Hubbarti, pho- 
tographer; AV. S. Hughes, marble; (J. W. 
Hull, dry goods; V. Johns, s;iloon; Johnson 
Brothers, saw and planing mill; John King, 
waffons and carriacres; J. W. Kleinheinz, 
saloon; Henry Krick, brick; Henry Lang, 
saloon; John Lose, barber; Alann A: Burk- 
head, grocery; Jacob ALirtin, bakery; Henry 
Mayer, brewery; I. J. ^liesse, !Miesse House; 
^Vdam Miller, saloon; Miller Ijrothers, bar- 
bers; J. A. JHlls, grocery; E. D. ]\[otiett, 
proprietDr Decatur ./c^m/v^'c/," ^^yer ]!rothers, 
woolen mill; AV. H. Nachtrieb it liro., drugs; 
Niblick, Crawford A' Sons, dry goods and 
clothing; Patterson A: Pillai-s, grist-TJiill; 
Pease A: Colchen, bakery and restaurant; 
J. AV. Place, bakery; A. K. Pierce, drugs; 












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lIlSTonr iih' ADAMS COUNTY 




II. S. I'lirtc'i-, liiiniet-s; A. 
^;iliiciii; K;iiliiii;iV Iiicc, livvi'v 
(iilliij;, saw-mill; I. Ko>eiitliall, clotliinu-; 
lk0.ss iV' KluL', Macksinithri; AiiL,nist Sciilcgcl, 
biacksiuith; i ). Selile^a'l, tiusniitli; F. Sliattur 
iSi Bro., hanhvaiv iiiid iinpleinents; D. Sliow- 
oi'S, Em])ire House; SmitL ik, Jiryson, meat 
market; P. W. Smitli tV: Co., saM'-inill; W. 
(t. Spencer A: Ero., liard ware; Sprang ik True, 
dry <;oods; Stone A ^langold, liardware; J5. 
J. Tervicr, liardware; I). ('. 'l'own.seiui, Eiirt 
House; Tyrrell iV: ]\roritz, blacksmiths; J. II. 
A'ogelwede, boots and shoes; J. W. Vogel- 
wede, saloon; Yore A: (,V>.\, notions; AVeber 
A: I'uinbcrii-, livery; John "Weltly, grocery; 
Henry Winnes, boots and shoes; "Woodward 
A: Auten, t'nrnitnre; L. Yager, furniture; Eli 
Zimmerman, saloon. 



Decatur had a small district school-liouse 
until 1>^54, in which year a two-story frame 
buililiuLj was put up at a cost of S3,()00. It 
was 40 X W feet in size, and contained six 
rooms. It stood on the site of the present 
brick school-house, and after it finished its 
usefulness as a school building in 1886, it 
was scild to Henry Krick and moved upon 
Second street, where it now stands unused. 
In ISSO, when this buildiiif^ had become 
uncomfortably crowded, a small one-story 
frame house was built on the same lot for the 
primary pupils. This building yet stands 
where it was put up. The present model 
school-house is two stories in height, contains 
eii^ht rooms, is heated by furnace (Smead 6c 
Co., of Toledo), and was completed July 1, 
1S86, at a cost of !?15,0U(). It is all paid 
for, and there are no bonds to pay interest on. 

The course oi' study now in use was adopted 
in In7U, when Dr. S. (\. Hastings was prin- 
cipal. He held that position three years. 
C. G. White was then in charge for two years. 



Rademacher, and CJ. \\ . A. Luckey lias now been principal 
liobinsuii A' for three years. The other teachi'rs for ISSll- 
'S7 arc- Mrs. Ilertlia "Si. Luckey, Mattie A. 
AVolf, llellena Parrot, Lucy Yail, Mrs. Pelle 
Fristoe, Edith Peynolds, Kate Jackson, Hiidc 
Miller and Xettie Moses. 

The persons of school age in the district 
in 1885-'8C were in number, 79C; enrolled in 
school. 521; boys, 250; girls, 265; average 
number belongintr, 3!J6.3; average daily 
attendance, 372.6; average number of pupils 
belonging to each teacher, 41. The teachers' 
pay-roll amounts to ,"^3,216 a year, and the 
total expenditures for school jiurposes fall a 
little below s4,0()0. 

The high school has a three years' course, 
fitting pupils either for college or fur the 
'• school of life." There is also a one year 
post-graduate course foi' the training of those 
who contemplate teaching. The graduates 
from the high school now numbei' thirty- 
eight. They are: 

1881. — Ilufus Allison, Carrie Plackburn, 
Fannie Dorwin, Anna Fitzgerald, Kate Num- 
bers, Emily Numbers and ]\Iaggie Studa- 
baker. 

1882. — Page Plackburn, Manasseh Gerard, 
Kate Jackson, Dink Miller, Flo AVoods, 
Frank Metts and Jolin K. McConnehey. 

1883. — Lizzie Brake, ]\Ielissa ircConnehey, 
George Brock, Dick Dorwin, Craig Miller and 
Manasseh Gerard. 

1884. — Elmer Richmond and Iila France. 
• 1885. — Etta Chubb, Nettie Moses, Edith 
lieynolds and Chrissie AVymer. 

1886. — Alatie Auten, Kittie Christen, 
Mary Heller, Emma Jackson, Lizzie Jackson, 
Ilattie King, Cora Morrow, Jennie Patterson, 
Gi'ace liey nolds, Yic Stone, Ilattie AVilson 
and Homer !Moses. 

The present school board includes: G. 
Christen, President; "\V. G. Spencer, Secre- 
tary, and John Crawford, Treasurer. 






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C'Ml'l!('HI':S. 

A7. jVari/\<< VathoVie Vhxtrch.-Aw tlic 
year of our l.unl 1N87, Henry Hirkus, Henry 
]\[initer, .lusi'pli Sniitli, Aiitlurny Ivnlmi' ;uul ; 
]jei'nard Hdltliaus arrival at Decatur, \vlien 
tlie town ha'l lieeii laid out liut one year 
before, in l^o'I, liy ISauniel L. Ituggs, JdIui 
rieynolds, ami .Idsejjli .lcllln^(ln. At their 
ai'rival, there were but few houses, those ol 
Jacob Iluri'er, Kug^s, Reynolds, '\"ei!ei' and 
James jSTiblick. 

In tlie tbllowini^ year, 1S38, caine (Jeorge 
Fitticli, John Jliiilcr, (TCorge Spnller, Tinio- 
tliy Coffee, Daniel Oofi'ee, Joliii CIoss and 
Ileiiry AVill. In tlie spring of 183S the first 
mass WHS said in (-ieorge Fittich's house by 
Father ]\[ue]ler. In the following year, 1839, 
]\rathias ]\[uller came here. \\\ the following 
year, 18-iO, arri\ed liere Henry lleidemann 
and Heni-y (4rutzl<amp. In 1841 John Mei- 
bers' family came liere. Tiie second priest of 
St. .Mary's congregation was Father Ilamion. 
The tirst Catlmlics baptized at Decatur were 
]\Iinnie Ilolthaus, afterward wife of Conrad 
Brake, ami ^lary Closs, now wife of Peter 
Ilolthans. The first marriage was that of 
Timothy Coffee and Margreth Miiller, by 
Father Ilamion, on the 10th of January", 
ISll. The third priest was Father Josepli 
IJudolph. He took up a subscription for a 
church, and was assisted by Timotliy Coffee, 
who collected s75, and by John Closs and 
Anthony Kohne, who collected s200 at Cin- 
cinnati. The beginning of the new church was 
nnule by the Spullers, who brought with oxen, 
through the then deep mud, the heavy tim- 
ber for the first church. 

Tlie fourth priest here M'as Father iloncina, 
and the lifth was Father Faller. In the year 
1842 the graveyard in the south part of the 
town was bought. Father Faller began to 
build the old cliureh in 184G. Before tliis 
time mass was said in Fittich's house, in the 



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Closs tavern, and in the cdd conrt-liouse. 
During this time l'"atlicr J. IJenoit came here 
to say mass and to jjreach in Ihiglisli and in 
French, and tend to nek calls. In 1847 the 
old frame church was plastei'ed. Father Faller 
also bought the tirst bell at Cincinnati for 
!^00, which bell liati to be shippeil hy c.mal to 
Fort ^Vaync. During Fallicr I'aller's time 
were bought three inuri- int.-, .■,(» the church 
ground consists of six lots. The si.xtli priest 
here was Potter 15. II. Schnltes. He was the 
tirst priest stationed liei'e, and he built in 
1852 the old priest's house. Father Schnltes 
stayed here till August, 185G. 

From August, 185G, till June, 1857, Father 
Faller and Father lindolph paid visits to St. 
]\Iary's congregation. Frmn June, 1857, 
lather Lebastion (-iontez, C. P. P. S., was 
priest here until ^lay, 1n5S. ^Vfter him, in 
the year 1858, came Father L. Schneider, who 
remained here but a ii^w nionths. In 1858, 
in July, came Father Jacob (ireyer, who 
remained here until September, lSl)2. Pre- 
vious to this there were two missions held: 
the liist one in 1857, by Father Andrew 
Kunkler, C. P. P. S. ; the second by Father 
F. X. Wenninger, S. J., in 1859. After 
Father ]\Ieyers, there being no stationary 
priest here, Father Ileikmann t'rom St. llary's 
Church, Fort Wayne, came here off and on to 
say mass. In the year 18t)5, in January, 
Father Julius Becks came, who remained one 
year. After him the congregation was an 
orphan for one year, until in 1865, in the 
fall of the year, Father John Wemhoff came, 
who remained here until September, 1872. 
He took up a subscription for the present 
brick church, and had the foundation laid. 

In the year 1872, in September, Father 
Weinlioff" was succeeded by Father S. A'^on 
Schweiller, who had the new brick church 
built and finished. Father Von Schwedler 
remained until February, 1877, and was sue- 




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cccdeJ l>y l'';itlier .1. Niisliauin, wlio rciiiuiiicd 
liere until July, 1880, wliuii hu was succ-cedoil 
l)y Father II. Tlico. AVilkeii, who iu the same 
year, 18S0, began the new brick school-houde, 
which was finished in 1881. lie also built 
in 1885 a new parsonage. lie is at present 
tlie residing priest at Decatur. 

The St. Mary's congregation, being now 
forty-nine years old, has grown from a small 
beginning into a large congregation, consist- 
ing at ])resent of 200 families and over 1,000 
souls. It also has a good church pi'uperty in 
a good large brick church, a good brick 
school-house with four rooms, and new brick 
pai'Soiiage (at present the best in the diocese 
of Fort Wayne). All the buildings has'e cost 
about $50,000. This congregation will next 
year, 1888, celebrate the jubilee of her lifth 
anniversary. 

2fvthoJi-it Kplscopal Church. — The first 
Methodist class was organized at Decatur in 
1838, and Kev. Hall conducted the first relig- 
ious services. After him the circuit travel- 
ers who came here wei'e llevs. Black, Jesse 
Sparks, Dean, G. W. Boyd, Tillotson, Forbes, 
Ilahn, Doiiglas, Alguire and Clai'k. In 
1851, under Mr. Ilahn's iniluence, a frame 
church was built at the corner of First and 
Jackson streets, costing $600. Soon after, 
Decatur w^as made a charge. The pastors 
since liave been Revs. J. J. Elrod, S. 0. 
Swazzie, C. W. Camp, I. S. Sellers, W. T. 
Smith, E. S. Preston, C. Disbro, N. D. 
Shackleford, C. U. Wilkinson, Y. A. Robinson, 
R. D. Spellman, W. E. McCarty, George 
Adams, J. J]. Cams, IM. S. Metts, M. A. 
Teague, J. Greer and Thomas Stabler. The 
church has now about 200 members in full 
standing. A handsome new brick church 
was built in 1881 and '82, at the corner of 
Monroe and Fifth streets. The contract 
price was $10,000, but the actual cost was 
neai-ly $1-1,000. It is heated by a furnace. 



and has an auditorium fifty feet scpiarc, 
besiiies other rooms for Sunday-school, etc. 
James T. Merryman is superintendent of the 
Sunday-school, which has a membership of 
300, and an average attendance of 175. 

Presbyterian Church. — This church was 
organized September 19, 1840, b3' Rev. Isaac 
A. Ogden, a member of the Presbytery of 
]\Iiami, and by order of that Presbytery, upon 
the petition of several persons residing in 
the village of Decatur and its vicinity. The 
organization was effected iu the court-house, 
and the following thirteen became the first 
members: Samuel A. Patterson, Julia A. 
Patterson, Samuel Allen, Harriet Allen, 
David Allen and wife, William .Vllen, 
George Caskey, Elizabeth Caskey, Mary 
Watkins, Mrs. Elizabeth A. Patterson, ^Irs. 
Rebecca Rice and Adam Showers. Samuel 
A. Patterson and David Allen were elected 
and ordained ruling elders. 

In 1836, four years before the organiza- 
tion of this church, Samuel Johnson offered 
to give a lot to each of the four religions 
denominations as one of the inducements to 
the commissioners to make Decatur the 
county seat. The lot given to the Presbyte- 
rians, located on Fourth street, was afterward 
sold, and out-lot No. purchased. July 1, 
18-l-i, the congregation held a meeting and 
appointed a committee to draft a plan and 
estimate the cost of a church building. De- 
cember 27, 1845, this committee reported in 
favor of a church 30x40 feet in size, to cost 
$800. This plan was adopted, but nothing 
was done in consequence. In 1850 the soci- 
ety decided to build a church 40x60, and the 
year following they bought of Samuel L. 
Rugg two lots (Nos. 329 and 330), for $35. 
On one of these the first house of worship 
was built, and on the same site the present 
one stands. 

The church enjoyed very little preaching 



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tliiriiiy Uic iirtt two years, llev. .1. Kiiss 
proaclifd lor six months of tlu' time. The 
iirst ]iaslor tlie clinrch ever liad was Ilev. 
Joiiii II. Neviiis, who was born in New 
Brunswick, New Jersey, of German descent, 
lie was educated at Miami University, 0.\- 
ford, Ohio, and in July, 1841, soon after lie 
had completed his studies for the ministry, 
he visited the church at Decatur while on a 
missionary tour under the direction of the 
!Miami Presbytery, within the bounds of 
which this church was located at that time. 
Soon after, Mr. Nevius was called to the pas- 
torate, at a salary of 8175. lie remained 
thirteen years. Services during those times 
were generally held in the court-honse. 

The first church was completed early in 
1854, and on Felirnary 6 of that year all tlie 
pews (e.xcejit one reserved for the pastor) were 
sold at auction. The highest price paid for 
a pew was s2G, and the amount received for 
pews was S7U(5.25. The sale was not for one 
year, but for as long as the church should 
stand. 

This was not as long as expected, 
liowever, for Xoveniber 17, 1802, the build- 
ing was Consumed by a lire, which was die- 
covered during the holding of a communion 
service. A neat and comfortable brick church 
was then built at a cost of §4,000. 

After Mr. Kevins left, tlie church was 
witliout regular ])reacliing until 1856, when 
Eev. llobert IMitchell and Ilev. Mr. McCor- 
mick came successively for a short time. 
Rev. Donaldson, of Ossian, and Rev. Lowry, 
of Fort Wayne, preached occasionally until 
(October 19, 1859, when J. A. Mclntyre, a 
licentiate of Allegheny Presbytery, was called 
to the pastorate. lie resigned May 9, 1861, 
and the church was then supplied by Rev. 
Thomas Elcock until June, 1866. Rev. A. 
E. Lowes began his labors here May 1, 1807, 
and ended them October 5, 1868. P^-om 




February, 1870, to October, 1871, Rev. R. 
A. Chirran, D. I)., preached, liev. Norman 
Jones was called to the j)astorate in Februai'y, 
1872, and remained until the autumn ot 
1877. Rev. C. A. Kanouse came from Craw- 
fordsvillc in December, 1877, and left in the 
spring of 1882. Rev. A. J. Reynolds was 
here from September, 1882, to (October, 
1886, and is now at Albion, Indiana. Rev. 1. 
T. Holt, the present pastor, came from Union 
City, Indiana, in December, 1886. 

During Mr. Jones' jiastoratc a $1,400 par- 
sonage was built, and $300 expended on the 
interior of the church. In 1884 the latter 
was again refitted. The elders of the church 
are Samuel IMoses, D. O. Jackson, Ed. S. 
Moses and Charles True; trustees, Robert 
Patterson, Thomas True and James McGon- 
agle. J. F. i\Iann is superintendent of the 
Sunday-school. 

Jiaptist (Jhurch. — The Raptists were organ- 
ized for many years before the war, Init had 
no house of worship, and finally became dor- 
mant. In the summer of 18^4 the society 
was reorganized with eighteen members. 
Revs. "Willard and D. B. Record have been 
the pastors of the church. The last named 
commenced his work here in 1886. A brick 
house of worship was commenced in 1886, 
and when completed will cost not far from 
$3,000. Meetings are now held in a hall 
opposite the court-house. J. il. Archbold, 
A. R. AVolf and L. R. Blossom are trustees, 
and Sylvester AVolf is deacon. A. R. AVolf 
is superintendent of the Sunday-school. 

Evunijel'icdl Association. -The first preach- 
ing in this county by a minister of this de- 
nomination was in 1847. For a number of 
years all services were in the German lan- 
guage, then both languages were used, and 
now English is always used. The member- 
shi]) in the county is now 300, and five 
churches are supported — one in Preble Town- 






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HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY. 



ship, twi> ill Union, one in St. Mary's, and 
ime in the city of JJecatnr. 

I'he jirst preaching in the hitter phiec was 
liy Ilev. S. S. Comlo, in 187 1, iu tlie okl 
court-house. A churcii was organized in 
1872, and a liouse of worship huilt in 1873, 
at a cost of 82,500. It is a wliite frame 
structure, and stands on Wincliester street. 
The pastors have been: Ilev. George Frehafer, 
1872-74 ; llev. John 15aughnian, 187-4-'75; 
Iwcv. Jaincs Wales, 1875-'7r); Tlev. Joseph 
Fisher, 1876-'78; Kev. L. Launer, 1S7S-'7'J; 
Eev. Dill, 1879-'8(); llev. I. B. Fisher, 
18S0-'8l; llev. J. M. Dustman, 1881-'84; 
Kev. A. R. Shafer, 18S4-'S(j; P.ev. J. E. 
Stoops, 1S8G. A parsonage was built \i\ 
1883, just south of the church, at a cost of 
$^800. The association has a membership of 
just 100. A. Gottschalk is superintendent 
of the Sunday-school, which has a member- 
ship of about 150. The trustees of the 
church are S. Linn, Israel Engle and John 
C. CViok. The class leaders are John C. Cook 
and John McConnehey. Tiie stewards are 
David Foreman and James Barkley. 

The- Christian Clmrch was organized in 
1882, with about thirty members, and soon 
after purchased the frame building formerly 
usetl by the Methodists. They paid $700 
for it, and expended §400 in repairing and 
remodeling the same. Kev. JI. M. Gleason 
and Itcv. M. L. Elaney have served as ])as- 
tors of the church, which has been without 
regular services for the past two years. Steps 
are now being taken to secure a pastor. The 
clnircli has now some sixty members. W. 
W. Harris is superintendent of the Sunday- 
school, which has perhaps sixty attendants. 
T. P. Harris and F. T. Gilpin are elders; 
Harvey Segur and W. W. Harris, deauons; 
T. r. Harris, John T. l!ailey and E. N. Tyr- 
rell, trustees. 

Tlie German Reformed C/iu)ch was organ- 



ized here about ISlH, and soon after built a 
liouse of worship. The membership is about 
thirty. Rev. Henry \'itz, tiie present pastor, 
came in Se])tember. 1885. 

Luthcraib CliurcJi. — The Lntlierans have 
effected an organization, but have no build- 
ing yet. 

soci?:ties. 

Decatur Lodye, Xo. 571, A. F. <k A. J/., 
was chartered ilay 27, 1884, with ilonas S. 
Coverdale as "W'orshipful ]\Iaster; John D. 
Hale as Senior Warden, and Benjamin AV. 
Sholty as Junior Warden. It was organized 
under dispensation June 9, 1883, with the 
same ofttcers as under the charter, except that 
Robert S. Peterson was senior warden in- 
stead of Mr. Hale. Tiie officers for 1887 
are: Jonas S. Coverdale, Worshipful blaster; 
John D. Hale, Senior AVarden; Alfred R. 
Pierce, Junior Warden; G. (^Ihristen, Secre- 
tary; R. B. Allison, Treasurer; P. C. Clever, 
Senior Deacon; J. T. Merryinan, Junior Dea- 
con; Levi Barkley, Tyler. The lodge has a 
membership of twenty-six, and meets on 
Tuesday evening on or before each full moon. 
It has a long lease of a hall over T. T. Dor- 
W'in's drug store. This lodge is a reorgani- 
zation of Decatur Lodge, -Xo. 254, which 
was organized before the war, and surren- 
dered its charter in May, 1882. 

St. Marifs Lodge, No. 167, I. 0. 0. F., 
was organized September 1, 1859, with six 
members — W. G. Spencer, David Studabaker, 
Thomas J. Pierce, Dan. Miller, Timothy J. 
Matheiiy and John ilcConnehey. The first 
officers were : Tliomas J. Pierce, Noble 
Grand; Dan. Miller, Vice-Grand; W. G. 
Spencer, Secretary ; John McConnehey, 
Ti'casurer. The officers at the present writ- 
ing are: James F. Mann, Noble Grand; 
Victors. Reed, Vice-Grand; George AV. A. 
Luckey, Secretary; Lewis C. Miller, Perma- 
nent Secretary; James T. Merry man, Treas- 












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DECATUU. 



iirer; AV. (4. Spt'ia'cr, GoiltVi-y Oliristcii iuid 
r\ J. Gillig, Trustees. A[r. Spencer liasl)eeii 
ii trustee eviU' since tlio organization of tlie 
lodge. Tiie lotlge meets every ]\Iondaj even- 
int(, lias a meinljcrsliip of 100, and is worth 
abunt $lt»,000. It owns tiie three-story brick, 
26 X liJ2, at tlie southwest corner of Second 
ami ^lonroe streets. 

J\\'atur Jl iiciniij)iiunt, No. US, I. (). O.F., 
was organized under dis]icnsatioii October 17, 
1875, the first mcniljers being William G. 
Spencer, AV. P. :Nroun, A.J. Hill, 15. JI. Dent, 
Henry AVinnes, Jtietrich Reidcr, Jeremiah 
Archbuh!, Jesse lUitler, D. (). Jackson, D. J. 
Spencer and ]•'. J. Gillig. The first otHcers 
were: AV. G. Spencer, Chief Priest; 15. II. 
Dent, Senior AVarden; J. Archbcdd, High 
Priest; A. .1. Hill, Scribe; Ilenr^' AVinnes, 
Treasurer, and J. P. Aloon, Junior AVarden. 
The olHcers at this writing are: James F. 
!Mann, Chiet Priest; Daniel Sprang, Senior 
AVarden; Jacob I'ldiler, High Priest; Joseph 
E. Thomas, Junior AVarden; John E. Smith, 
Treasurer. The encampment meets the first 
and third Friday evenings of each month. It 
has $800 worth of proj)erty and forty-three 
members. 

OVive Lodge, Rehehih Degree, was char- 
tered June 24, 1872, the first metnbers being 
Jlrs. Mary E. Spencer, Mrs. Mary Simcoke, 
Airs. Harriet Studabaker, Airs. Catlierine 
Gillette, Airs. Sophie Eeider, Airs. A^ictoria 
Hill, AV. G. Spencer, Dan. Aliller, F. J. Gil- 
lig, David Studabaker and G. Reider. The 
lodge meets the first and third AVedncsdays 
of each montli. 

Ktlioitga Lodge, No. G5, K. 1\, was in- 
stituted August 7, 1875, with twenty-eight 
members and the tbllowing otficers: B. S. 
Thompson, Vice-Chancellor; P. A, Curran, 
Prelate; AV. AV. A'an Ness, Past Chancellor; 



AV. AI.AValters, Keeiicr of P.^cords and Seals; 
J. P. (Juinn, Alaster of IvKchequer; L. D. 
Plielps, Master of Finance; C. T. Dorwin, 
Alaster at Arms; Fred Shaffer, Inside (iuard; 
Geoi-ge Alorgret, Outside Guard. Tiie pres- 
ent otficers are: John T. France, Past Chan- 
cellor; P. R. Albers, Chancellor Commander; 
Geoge D. Shigley, Vice-Cliancellor; David 
Ilunsicker, Prelate; P. K. Erwin, Keeper of 
Records and Seals; J. AV. Place, Alaster of 
Exchcfpier: August Schlegel, Alaster of Fi- 
nance; James Ilurst, Alaster at Arms. Tiie 
lodge has about fifty members, and meets 
every Thursday evening in its hall in Derkes' 
building. 

tSniii Henri/ I'ost, No. Go, G. A. Ii. was 
mustered Alay 12, 1882, with thirty mem- 
bers, and the following otHcers were elected: 
Henry Hart, Commander ; D. Layman, 
Senior A'"ice-Commander; I>. AV. Sholty, 
Junior Vice-Commander; John P. Quinn, 
Officer of the Day; J. S. AIcLeod, Officer of 
the Guard; L. A. Counter, Quartermaster; 
AV. Kern, Chaplain; R. J. Freeman, Surgeon; 
A. ('. Gregory, Adjutant. Tlie otficers for 
the year 18S7 are: Henry Hart, Com- 
mander; Alichacl J. AVitzberger, Senior 
A''ice-Commander ; Ezra Cutting, Junior 
A''ice-Commander; R. A. Drummond, Quar- 
terma.-ter; John D. Hale, Adjutant; D. Lay- 
man, Chaplain; D. K. Sliackley, Officer of 
the Day; A. J. Teeplc, Ofiicer of the Guard; 
A. J. Holloway, Sui-geoii. The post has 
mustered in all 129 comrades, of whom 100 
are now in good standing. It meets the first 
and third Satunlays of each month. 

T/ie Wo/iiaii^s Relief Corps, auxiliary to 
the post, was mustered October 5, 1886, with 
twenty-eight members. It meets the first 
an<l third Friday of each month. Mrs. Lou 
KeniUHly is president. 




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HlSTOltY OF ADAMS VUUNTY. 



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GENEVA. 




' I Is rVA, the second place 
■*^ 111 population in Adams 
CoimtY, is in Wabash 
Townshiji. The origi- 
n d town site was called 
" Vlexandria" by Al- 
es ander Hill, the pro 
prietor, about 1843. Some tive 
years later David Studabaker 



j^"?^'^ platted an addition adjoining on 
'"'^^m¥i^ the north. The name " IJuffalo " 



was then adopted and retained 
until the building of the Cin- 
cinnati, Richmond it Fort Wayne 
(Grand Ilapids i^c Indiana) liail- 
road in 1871. Judge Studabaker then ex- 
tended his addition to the north by purchase; 
tlie Ijutcher heirs also platted an addition, 
and when the railroad company established 
a station and named it Geneva, that became 
the name of the village. It is said that the 
greater jjart of the land now covered by the 
village formerly belonged to L>r. Snow and 
1'. iM. Collins, and cost them $9 un acre. 
Judge Studabaker paid them ^20 an acre. 

(ieneva was incorporated by act of the 
Legislature, and the charter election held 




January 27, 1874, when the otticials chosen 
were: IL Todd, John D. Hale and K. P. 
Ileaton, Trustees, of whom R. Todd was 
President; John Q. Anderson, Clerk; Charles 
D. Porter, Treasurer. The othcers at this 
writing are: Xathan Shephard, W. JI. II. 
Beers and M. J. Gottschalk, Trustees; A. G. 
Briggs, Clerk; John C. Hale, Treasurer. 
The population of Geneva is about 500. 

The postoftice was originally established 
under the name of •» Limljerlost," so called 
from the stream of that name, and afterward 
named Geneva when the village was re- 
named. The first postmaster was Jacob 
Conkle,and his successors have been: R.Todd, 
AV. W. Roberts, W. II. Fought and Samuel 
F. I]iteman,the present incumbent. Geneva 
became a money -order office in August, 1880. 
The tirst order issued was August 2, 1880, 
and the first paid was August 21, 1880. 

Geneva has had a newspaper for the past 
six years, and part of the time two papers. 

liUSINESS niKlCCTOKY. 

Tlic lirms doing business in Geneva in 
February, 1887, are: 

II. ]M. Aspy, druggist and physician; Will 





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VII.IAGA'S. 



Hair, jewelry; Charles II. Jicll, grocery; 
LawreiK'O liitoler, luiriiess; S. F. Jiiteiiian, 
j)ostotiice; James IJrelstbrd, physician; A. 
G. Briggs, hardware; J. G. J]urk, livery; 
Jesse Carey, hardware; A. Cnlley it Sons, 
sewing machines; David Dillinger, black- 
einith; AViliiam Drew, attui-ney; Will l'\ 
Fought, stoves and tiii\\:ire; S. Frank, dry 
goods; Garrison A: Drew, t'nriiiture; Gotts- 
chalk »fe Shoemaker, dry goods and clothing; 
John C. Hale, general store; W. 11. Harper, 
hotel; Chris. Ilaviland, meat market; M. F. 
llcaston, hotel; S. W. Ilill »t JJro., grain; 
Kelley Bros., agricultural implements; F. K. 
Kinney, saloon; F. B. Manley, attorney; 
Adam A. Mason, grocery; AV. S. Meeks, 
saw-mill; Feecher Jleibers, saloon; Isaac 
Kelson, poultry; David Folm, shoemaker; 
Charles D. Furter, drugs; E. C. Fyle, gen- 
eral store; S. G. lialston, physician; Alex- 
antler Uoliinson, saloon; A. O. Iloll, barber; 
J. F. Sclicei-, saw-mill; Sutton Sz Striggle, 
blacksmitliy and agricultural implements; 
n. S. Thomas, proprietor Geneva Herald ; 
Watson k, McWhinney, general store; Wat- 
son & Meeks, grocery. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

The iirst school in this part of Wabash 
Township was kept by F. Todd in a log 
school-house on the northeast quarter of sec- 
tion 20. The school-house used in the vil- 
lage tor many years was a frame building. 
This being too small, in l>^7^i the present 
commodious brick house was built at a cost of 
i;3,500. There are four rooms, and four 
teachers are employed. Those for the cur- 
rent year are: W. A. Aspy, FUa Snow, Lulu 
Meeks and Ella Friggs. The principals have 
been, in succession: John II. liuuyon, T. S. 
Walter, George AV. liurk, S. AV. Skeels, AV. 
M. Feed, John AV. AValker, J. T. Smith, J. 



O. Jones, W. C. Ladd, Leonard Luckcy, S. 
Feterson antl \\ . A. Aspy. 

cnuucuES. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church of (tc- 
neva was organized about 1840. The Iirst 
services were at the house of AVilliam Shep- 
hard, Sr., and the '> Shephard class " includ- 
ed AVilliam Shephard and wife, Samuel 
Linton and wife, Henry Judy and wife, Mr. 
Felt and wife, and AVilliam McIIugh and 
wife. llev. G. AV. Bowers was the first 
minister. Other pastors were: Ilevs. G. AV. 
Bowers, AVilliam Anderson, Fenser, F. F. 
Bowman, Al)iah Kerwood, Henry F>radley, 
AVilliam Lash, C. E. Disbro, M. A. Teague, 
N. T. Feddycord, AVilliam Roberts, and W. 
T. Smith. Services were held in neighbor- 
ing houses until 1856, when this class was 
divided. A part went south into Jay County, 
and a part to Fuii'alo, where a hewed-log 
church was erected. Services were held here 
until 1877, when the present house of wor- 
ship was erected. It was dedicated in June 
of that year. The trustees were Joseph 
Anderson, D. B. Linton and John D. Hale. 
The church was begun under liev. Jacob 
ILicklin. His successors have been: lievs. 
J. M. Hush, D. Sawyer, D. F. Stright, AVhit- 
ford and N. Brandenbury. The present 
membership is about 100. The tirst super- 
intendent of the Sunday-school was II. S. 
Judy; the present one is L. AV. AVatson. 
The membership is about 100. 

United Brethren Church. — The first ser- 
vices of this denomination were lield in the 
old log church in 1873, by Rev. l-ieeber, and 
an organization was effected two years later, 
with perhaps ten members. G. AV. Fyle and 
wife were the first belonging to the denomi- 
nation to settle in Geneva. The church has 
now seventy-five members, and has a house 
of worship, built in 1881 at a cost of !?1,700. 



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HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY. 



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rjev. Williiiin ICarrilcdfV. of ]\[ercer County, 
Oliiu, is tlie p;ibtur. 'i'lie Siinday-scliool was 
oi'gaiiized in 18S2. The lirst siipcriutundeiit 
was Adam l>ale. JTc was succeeded byG. W. 
I'yle, who held the pusition until November 
1, 1886, when A. J. Judy was elected. Tlio 
average attendance is about eighty. 



John P. Porter Post, No. 83, G. A. R., 
was inustereil July ~i, 1882, by Colonel R. S. 
llobertson, mustering officer. The first mem- 
bers were Lafayette liape, J. il. llolloway, 
J. P. Scheer, i\. W. 11. Riley, A. J. Judy, 
John D. Hale, S. G. Ralston," John C. Hale, 
George W. Cookerly, AVill. II. Fought, Adain 
Culley, J. T. Young, AVilliam Drew, W. R. 
ileeks, Socrates Cook and William Bair. 
The first officers were: J. M. Ilolloway, 
Commander; Will. 11. Fought, Senior Vice- 
Commander; Lafayette Rape, Junior Vice- 
Commander; John C. Hale, Adjutant; S. G. 
Ralston, Surgeon; W. R. JMeeks, Chaplain; 
(4. W. II. Riley, Otticer of the Day; William 
Drew, Officer of the Guard; A. J. Judy, 
Quartermaster; J. P. Scheer, Quartermaster 
Sergeant; John D. Hale, Sergeant-JMajor. 
In 188-1 William 11. Fought was com- 
mander; in 1885, John Ilalloway, and in 
188(5, Michael O'llarra. The officers in 1887 
are: John R. Scheer, Commander; John M. 
Sullivan, Senior Vice-Commander; I. ]V. 
Vealey, Junior Vice-Commander; J. !Mc- 
Dowell, Sui'geon; S. F. Riteinan, Chajihiin; 
AVill. II. Fought, Adjutant; John C. Hale, 
Quartermaster; Lafayette Rape, Officer of the 
Day; Aaron Rricker, Ofiicer of the Guard; 
W. R. Meeks, Sergeant- ]\Iajor; J. T. Young, 
(Quartermaster-Sergeant. The post has mus- 
tered 124 members, of whom 90 are now in 
good standing. The deaths have been: Jona- 
than Cain, October 1, 1885; Chris. D. Thar]), 
March 14, 1886; Isaac M. ]\IcClellan, April 



5, 1886; John Rolenbaucher, December 21, 
1886. The post mei'ts the second and fourth 
Wednesdays of eacli month, at (iraiid Army 
Hall. 

McP/ierson Camp, No. 11, S. of Y., M-as 
organized May 8, 1884, with sixteen mem- 
bers — Joseph AYagner, Gus. Wagner, Joe W. 
Hendricks, C. E. Lyons, Allen Sholtz, W. E. 
Ihickingham, Charles Rohn, Dan. P. Eolds, 
I. X. Ilavelin, Thomas Drew, William Har- 
ris, W. A. Lyon, J. A. Lyon, A. L. Coolman, 
John Iliff and Atria Ruckinghain. Charles 
Rohn was elected captain for the first term. 
For the second term Charles D. Porter was 
elected. He was re-elected for the year 1886, 
but resigned, ami Joseph A. Hendricks, 
the present captain, was elected. The camp 
has forty members, and meets every Tuesday 
evening in G. A. R. Hall. It has encoun- 
tered many difficulties, but is now in a flour- 
ishing condition. 

BERNE. 

-The village of Perne was platted August 
15, 1871, by Abraham Lehman and John 
Hilty. Additions have been made as follows: 
]\[arch 13, 1873, by John Hilty and Chris. 
Lischty; November 1, 1875, by A. C. Leh- 
man; September 15, 187*J, by John Hilty; 
September, 1880, by John Hilty; October 3, 
1881, by John Hilty; August 7, 1882, by 
John A. Sprunger; February 22, 1883, by 
Chris. Peer; March 20, 1883, by John A. 
Sprunger; "SUxy 25, 1885, by John A. Sprun- 
ger; October 31, 1885, by A. C. Lehman; 
December, 1885, by Daniel Welty. 

The first building erected on the village 
site was a frame store-room, built by Thomas 
Harris, in August, 1871. It is now used by 
J. P. Atz as a harness shop. Mr. Harris 
kept a general stock of merchandise for a 
year or so, and then sold to J. J. Hirschy & 
Co. Perne is now a prosperous village, the 



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VILLAGES. 



271 






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credit for wliicli is lari;oly due to John A. 
Sprunger. It is in tlic inid.st of a large Meii- 
nonite coiinininity, and many of tliosc people 
were opposed to having any town at all, on 
acconnt of the moral corruption supposed to 
pervade all centers of population. In the 
autumn of ISSO a census was taken, showing 
a population in I'erne of 3-11. Steps are now 
being taken toward incorporation, for which, 
at a recent election, lifty-throe votes were 
cast, to twenty-tivc against. Tiie lioard of 
Commissioners are now to act in the matter. 

The postotHce of Berne was estaldished in 
1S72, witJi Philip Sheets as postmaster. His 
successors have been Andrew Gottschalk, 
AVilliam Sheets, Joel Welty and Harvey Ilar- 
rutf, the present incumbent. Berne was 
made a money-order office July 10, 1^83. 
The first order was issued to Adolph Ilutt'er, 
the same day, in favor of L. Brames i^' Co., 
Fort AVayne. Tiie first order paid was Au- 
gust 8, 1SS3, to James Young, issued from 
Troy, Ohio. 

The Iloosicr Holler Mills Company have 
a good fiouring mill, built in the summer of 
18S1:, by a joint stock company consisting of 
A. A. Sprunger, Jeli". Lehman, Levi Moses, 
D. C. Neuenschwander, Abraham Sprunger 
and Samuel Lehman. The company bought 
the grain elevator, which they now operate. 
Tliey also deal in lumber. The capital stock 
of the company is $25,000. The mill has a 
capacity of seventy-five barrels per day, has 
run continuously since it was built, and has 
been a profitable investment for its owners. 

The Eagle House was built during the 
summer of 1882, and opened August 9, by a 
stock company consisting of John A. Sprun- 
ger, Jctf. Lehman, D. S. Witteverand Aaron 
Neuenschwander. My. Wittmer became 
lanillord, and after running the house a few 
months bought the share of Mi'. Lehman, 
thei'eby securing a half interest, which he 



still owns, the other half being owned by 
.lohn A. Sprunger. It is a first-class hotel, 
andcost s3,000. 

ISUSINKSS DIKKCTOKY. 

The firms doing business at Berne in Feb- 
ruary, 1887, are: 

Allison, Morrow <k Co., general store; Eu- 
gene Aschleman, saloon; Jacob Atz, saddler; 
Kerne Manufacturing Company, saw-mill; 
l^avid I lixler, jeweler; M. Boiler, tinner; Ja- 
cob lirannenian, saloon; ^V. Broadwell, pliy- 
sician; P>rown Sc Koenig, blacksmiths; 
Edward Dro, meat market; Joseph Giauque, 
grocer; J. P. Ilabcgger & Co., hardware; 
Harvey Ilarrufl", postmaster; Abram Ilocker, 
blacksmith; Fred. Ilofer, barber; Hoosier 
Holler Milling Co., fiour mill, elevator and 
lumber yard; Hoffman Sc Gottschalk, drugs; 
Lehman A: j\Iuszbaum, meat market; Fred. 
Meistcr, tinnei-; Alendenhall, Ilarrufl' tt Co., 
drugs; Frank jMonosmith, station agent; C. 
D. Sheets, groceries and drugs; Philip Shug, 
agricultural implements; Sprunger, Lehman 
iV: Co., general store; Philip Sprunger, archi- 
tect and builder; John AVagner, boots and 
shoes; Jacob Wegmueller, saloon; AVeltv & 
Sprunger, Mennonite Publishing House; 
Charles Wilson, saloon ; AVittever Sz Yoder, 
livery and feed stal>le; D. S. AVittever, Eagle 
Hotel. 

The Mennonite church liere is a frame 
building, six years old, and cost $2,000. It 
was enlarged in 1880. The membership is 
about 300. Ilev. S. F. Sprunger, the pastor, 
has been in this vicinity nearly twenty years, 
and built the church. The Mennonite Pub- 
lishing House issue the Bu7idesbote (a church 
weekly) and the Kiadcthute (a Sunday-school 
paper) for the general conference. 1. A. 
Sommer is editor. A church almanac, hymn 
books and a Bible histor}' are also published. 
The printing is done in Chicago and the 



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IIISrORT OF ADAMS COUNTY. 



biiuling in Fort Wayne. The Evangelical 
Association has had a class here for four )'ears, 
but have no house of worship. Its member- 
ship is about twenty, llcv. Stoops, of Deca- 
tur, conducts services every two weeks. The 
Uerne Alaeszigkeitsverein, or Temperance So- 
ciety,- has over eighty members and meets 
every two weeks. D. C. Sprunger is presi- 
dent and F. G. Eichcnbergei-, secretary. 

MONROE. 

Monroe is a station on the Grand Rapids 
it Indiana Kailroad, near the south line of 
]Monroe Township, and is almost at tlie 
geographical center of tiie county. If the sur- 
rounding country had possessed more favora- 
ble tojHigraphical features the county seat 
would have been located here instead of at 
Decatur. It is exceedingly flat, however, 
and the first settlers found it very unattract- 
ive. It has ninety-seven inhabitants, accord- 
ing to the latest census. There are three 



general stores, one drug store, two saloons, 
two blacksmith shops, two saw-mills, one 
hub factory, one tile factory and two board- 
ing-houses. A graded-school building is in 
process of erection. The first postmaster was 
George Roup; the present one is J. "W. Hen- 
dricks. The Methodist Episcopal people or- 
ganized a class in 1870, and the following 
year they built a frame house of worshij). 
Rev. Hosea AValpert was the first minister. 
Rev. Joseph Cook is the present pastor. 
Jesse Essex is superintendent of the Sunday- 
school, which has an average attendance of 
100. 

OTUER VILLAGES. 

Monmouth, in Root Township, has seventy- 
nine inhabitants, and its glory is chiefly past. 
Something of its history has already been 
given. Pleasant ilills, in St. Mary's Town- 
ship, has 135 iidiabitants; Ceylon, in Wabash 
Township, 125; Salem, in Blue Creek, sixty- 
one; Williams, in Root, twenty. 







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T?|^.()N. DAVID STUDABAKER, prcsi- 
SjnA tlent of the Ailutns Comity Hank, of De- 
'^.'-L catui', ami a iiroiiiiiioiit and influential 
citizen of Adams County, was born at Fort 
lieeovery, f)liio, the date of his birth being 
Auj;iist 12, \H'1~. At the age of seven years 
he was taken by his parents to Adams County, 
Indiana, they settling in Wabash Township, 
where he was reared to tlie avocation of a 
fanner. His father died when he was bnt 
thirteen years of age, and being the eldest 
child, he aided in the maintenance of his 
mother and family, lie received his primary 
education in the district schools, which ho 
attended during the winter months, being a 
pupil in the tii-st school taught in AVells 
County, Indiana. It was a subscription 
school taught by an Irishman, and held in a 
primitive log cabin, built with puncheon 
floor; a log cut out and the aperture covered 
with greased paper, served as a window, and 
the seats were made of logs. Mr. Studabaker 
attended the liigh school near Greenville, 
Ohio, one term, after which he attended the 
Jay County Seminary, at Portland, Indiana, 
one and a half years, and in the meantime 
taught in the district scliools of Adams and 
AVells counties. He continued to teach school 



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until the spring of 1S51, wiien lie began read- 
ing law in the ofHce of Hon. Jacob il. llaynes 
at J'ortland, Indiana. In June, 1852, he was 
admitted to the bar at the same place, Hon. 
Jei'emiah Smith presiding, and during the 
same month lie settled in Decatur, where he 
began the practice of his chosen profession. 
He was married at Fort Wayne, Indiana, 
October 26, 1S54, to iliss Harriet Evans, a 
daughter of Hon. John Iv. Evans. She was 
born at Shane's Crossing, Ohio, and in 1835 
came with her parents to Adams County, In- 
diana, and received her education in the pub- 
lic schools of her neighborhood, and at the 
Methodist Female (College at Fort Wayne. 
]\Ir. and Mrs. Studabaker have Ave children 
living — Mary J., wife of John Xiblick, a 
merchant of Decatur; Lizzie E., wife of A. 
B. ]\[orrison, a merchant and banker of Eck- 
mansville, Ohio; Ilattie, at home; Maggie, 
wife of AVilliam J. Vesey, an attorney of 
Fort Wayne, Indiana, and David, Jr., a 
student of the grammar school at Lima, In- 
diana. One son, John E., died at Decatur in 
May, 1809, aged eleven years. ^Ir. Studa- 
baker practiced law at Decatur until 1883, a 
pei'iod of thirty-one years, ami during this 
time was associated a number of years with 






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James U. I]ol)0 uiiil ilolm I*, tiuiim, Imtli i)t" 
whom were I'uniierly stiuleiitK in liis ollice. 
In connection witli his hiw pructicc, he at an 
early day beyan dealing in real estate, which 
lie has continued until quite recently. In 
1852 lie was elected prosecuting attorney for 
the district comprising Adams ami Allen 
coimties, serving as such two years, and in 
1854: was elected a member of the State 
Legislature to represent Adams C'onuty in 
the lower house, and was re-elected in 1850. 
In 1S5S he was elected State Senator by the 
district comprising Adams, Jay and Wells 
counties. In 1868 he was elected judge of 
the common pleas court for the district com- 
])rising Adams, Allen, Huntington ami Wells 
counties. In 18G9 he was identified with the 
building of the Richmond A Foi-t AVayne 
IJailroad, and was elected one of its directors, 
which position he still holds. In 1871 he 
became a stockholder in the Adams County 
Uank, which was conducted as a private bank 
until 1871. It was then incorporated under 
the State law, and J\Ir. Stuiiabaker was chosen 
one of its directors, and also vice-president, 
and in 1883 was appointed its president, 
which position he has since filled. Politically 
Mr. Studabaker atfiliates with the Democratic 
party. He is numbered among the active 
and ]niblic-spirited citizens of Decatur, and 
is always interested in any enterprise calcu- 
lated to be of benefit to his town or county. 



fAMES THOMAS iMEPJlY^MAN, attor- 
ney, a member of the firm of France & 
"1^ Merryman, Decatur, Indiana, was born 
in Washington Township, Adams County, 
Indiana, October 1, 1851, a son of Charles 
AVesley and ]\Iary Ann (Archbold) J[erryman. 
His father was born in Tuscarawas County, 
Ohio, July 2, 1827, a son of Zachariah and 



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]\[ary Merryman, of Knglish-Scotch extrac- 
tion, lie obtained a guod common-school 
education by his own efforts, having been 
left an orphan before the age of ten years. 
He came to Indiana in 183G, when he ob- 
tained employment, and when not at work 
devoted his time to study until twenty years 
of age, when he began teaching school, which 
he continued until August, 1862, when he 
enlisted in the defense of his country and was 
assigned to Company II, Eighty-ninth Indi- 
ana Infantry. He served nearly three years, 
when he was discharged at Nashville, Ten- 
nessee, the war being ended. He participated 
in many severe engagements, among the more 
important being those at I'ull Kun, Chicka- 
niauga and Naslnille. After his discharge 
he returned to Adams County and engaged 
in farming until his death, which occurred 
February 5, 1S70. In polities he was a 
Republican. lie was married October 18, 
1818, to ]\Iary Ann Archbold, a native of 
Ohio, daughter of James L. and ]\Ialiiida 
Archbold, of Irish and German descent, who 
came to Adams County in 1836. To them 
were born six children, but four of whom are 
living — Jonathan and Zachariah, farmers of 
AVashington Township; Susie and James T. 
A daughter, Eliza J., died in July, 1878, 
aged twenty-six years, and a son, Henry li., 
died June 5, 1S84, a few days before he 
would have graduated from the Normal 
School at A^'alparaiso, Indiana. The mother 
still lives in Adams County, making her 
home with her children. She has been a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal church 
since her girlhood, her husband being a mem- 
ber of the same church. Jaines Thomas 
ilerryman was educated in the schools of 
Decatur, and when sixteen years old began 
teaching, following that vocation during the 
winter until manhood. In 1876 he was 
de])utized clerk of Adams Circuit Court, by 



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J'vron II. Dent, ;iii<l also served under liis 
sncoessor, Henry Krick, until ISSO, when he 
was eni]>lovi'd ;if^ clerk in the Adams C.'onnty 
ISauk. In the nieaiitinie he devnted his 
leisure time to the study of law, and was 
ailmitted to the liar at Deeatur in liSSl. In 
1S82 he was eleeted the iii-st mayor of Decatur 
and served one term. In JannaiT, 1S83, he 
lircame associated with Jnhn S. {''ranee in the 
]i]-actice of his ]ii-(d'c.-<iiiii. J\[r. Alerryman is 
a niemher of St. Clary's Lotln'e, Ko. 107, and 
Decatur Eiicani])nient, ^'o. 13S, I. O. O. l'\, 
and lias received all the hono."s of both. lie 
lias heen a representative to the grand lodp;e 
and also to tiie grand encampment of the 
State of Indiana. He is also a member of 
Deeatur Lodge, Xo. 511, A. F. it A. M. In 
politics he is a Democrat. lie was married 
August 29, 1878, to .Miss Louisa P. xVlbers, 
a native of "SVillshire, Ohio, daughter of 
August L. and ICve C. Albers. She was 
reared in Ailanis County, and educated in the 
Decatur schools. ^Ir. and Mrs. Merryinan 
have had three children — Matie June, lona 
Dale and Charles August. loiia tlied Sep- 
tembei' 15, ISSi, aged three years. Mr. and 
ilrs. Merryman are members of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal churcli. 



fOHN KUMUEKS, deceased, formerly of 
Hoot Township, was born in Fayette 
".c County, Pennsylvania, in 1826, and 
when a boy was taken by his parents to Ful- 
ton County, Ohio, thence to AVayne County, 
where he grew to manhood and where he was 
married January 31, 1848, to Miss ]\Iary 
Jane Yociun, who was born in Wayne County 
July 4, 1827, where she was reared, educated 
and married. In 1851 they removed to De- 
catur, this State, where they lived two 
months. The family consisted of parents sind 



one child, .Myrtilla Jane, wdio was born in 
Wayne County June 12, 1850, and is now a 
teacher. Elmore L. was born January 10, 
1853, in ^loiimouth, in tiie liouse where the 
father first .settled, and where the widowed 
mother is now living. The father was a 
mason by trade, which he fcdiowcd during 
the summer, and wiu-ked at shiiemaking dur- 
iui^- the winti'r. His parents were John and 
iVaticy (Linton) JS'umber^, both of whom died 
in Wayne County, (Jliio. The mother died 
in the summer of 1880, aged ninety years. 
John K umbers, our subject, died November 
18, 1854, of typhoid fever, and is buried in 
Monmouth cemetery, i^frs. Numbers' ]iar- 
ents were Abraham and Mai-y (Hoffman) 
Yocum. The father was born in Lancaster 
County, Pennsylvania, December 15, 1790, 
and died ilareh 8, ls72, at the house of ^Irs. 
Numbers. The mother was also born in 
Lancaster County, July 4, 1796. After the 
death of her husband she made her home 
with Mrs. Numbers, and died June 20,1881. 
The parents were reared and married in Penn- 
svlvania, removed to Wayne County, Ohio, 
thence to this county in 1851. They had 
six children — John, Kebecca (deceased), Mary 
Jane, Martha, who lives in Ashland County, 
Ohio, Anes, living in Chicago, and Eliza- 
beth. Both ]\rr. and Jlrs. Yocum were of 
German descent. Mrs. Numbers' grandpar- 
ents, Henry and ]\[artha Hoffman, were born 
in Germany. Elmore L. Numbers was reared 
and educated in the schools of Monmouth, 
and commenced teaching at the age of 
eighteen years. He has since followed that 
occupation during the winter seasons. He 
was married ]\Iarch 28, 1870, to Jlary S. 
Vaughan, who was born in Allen County, 
this State, May 24, 1858, daughter of Joel 
and Nancy (Coverdale) Yaughan, natives of 
Ohio. The father died in Jul}-, 1876, aged 
forty-eight years; the mother is living in 



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iiisrony of adams voumy 



Jllite Crcfk Township. i'lii'Y li''^vc '"i"'!' <'liil- 
drcii — W. Knv, Niun-y J., Lintoii V. and 
Etliol D. 



Tn^iAVID i;. LIXTOX, :in active and eii- 
1j ".j\ turprising fanner of AValiasli Township, 
"^ residing on section 33, was born in 

AVabash Tuwnsliip, ^Vdains County, Indiana, | 

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]\rarcli 18, lS4r2, son of Sanniel and Alargart ! 
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(\\'alker) Linton. lie grew to niaidi<jod on 

tlie home farm, receiving his education in tlie j 
eommon schools of liis native county. Mr. \ 
Linton engaged in farming on tiichome farm I 
in W'abasli Townsliip until February, 1865, [ 
wlien he enlisted in Company E, One Ilun- ; 
drcd and Fifty-third Indiana Infantry, serv- I 
ing until the following July, when lie was | 
taken sick with measles, and received his dis- 
charge, when he returnetl to his home in 
"Wabash Township. lie was first married 
Janiuuy 9, ISHD, to Aliss .Margaret O'llar- 
row, who was born in (Tallin County, Ohio, 
and to this union was born one child, who 
died in childhood; Mrs. Linton died Sep- 
tember 14, 1869, and August 24, 1876, lie 
was again married, to Mrs. Amy T. "Wheeler, 
a native of Guernsey County, Ohio, born 
8eptcnd)er 2(!, 1842, a daughter of Jacob and 
Temperance Tedcrick. One child has been 
boiMi to bless this union — Iretta Pearl, who 
was born July 12, 1877. ]\Irs. Linton was 
lirst married January 31, 18G3, to Zeadock 
^I. Wheeler, a native of .lay County, Indiana, 
and to this union were born three children — 
James L.,(ieorge II. (deceased) and A[erton D. 
(deceased). ]\[r. Wheeler died September 13, 
1873. ilr. Linton settled on the farm in 
AVabash ToNvnship after his marriage, ^vllere 
he has since resided, engaged in agricultural 
pursuits. His farm contains sixty acres of 
choice land, all well improved and under tine 



cnltivatiun. Mr. and Mrs. Linton ai'e jiromi- 
neiit members of the ]\[etliodist LpisCopal 
church. In jjolitics ]Mr. Linton is a Kepubli- 
can, and since coming to the county has 
lield several local offices. lie is a comrade 
of John P. Porter Post, No. 88, G. A. Tl. 



ILLIAM II. II. FRANCE, super- 

^ ,. ,,, intendent of the Adams County in- 
i'~{)^w"-) lirmary, was born in Vermont July 
29, 1841, son of Frederick and Alice France, 
the former also a nati\'e of A'ermont and now 
deceased, and the latter a native of Vermont. 
In 1847 the parents emigrated to Licking 
County, Oliio, where they lived until 1853, 
then came to Adams County. They were 
the parents of six children, live of whom are 
living — Charles ^L, attorney at law, living 
in liluffton; Philemon T., of A'an AVert 
County, Ohio; Afartha P., of AVillshire, 
Ohio; Mary M., al.<o of AVillshire, and AVill- 
iam II. II. The mother has made her home 
in Adams County since the death of the 
father. Air. France has always been engaged 
in farming from his boyhood. He received 
a rudimentary education in the early district 
schools. He \yas married August 20, lb6U, 
to ^liss Pliebe Al. ]\Iattliewaon, a native of 
this county, and a daugliter of Joshua ami 
Almira Alatthewson, who were born in New 
England, and were early settlers of Adams 
County-. The father purchased a farm in 
St. Alary's Township, and entered forty acres 
from the Government. Air. and Mrs. France 
have had four children — Edwin AV. ; Alice 
A., wife of Jeremiah Archer; Charles ^I. 
and Osa ]\I. Jlr. France was a resident of 
St. ]\rary's Township until 1883, then re- 
moved to his jiresent home in AVashington 
Township. He served as constable in St. 
Alary's Township, and as justice of the peace 



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eleven years. In 1SS3 lie was appoiiiteJ 
suinTiiitendcnt of the Adams County In- 
lirniary for ^i\ yeai's. He (jwiis a farm v\' 
eighty acres in A\'asliington To\vn>lii[). Po- 
litically lie is a I lemoerat, and is al^o a mem- 
ber of St. Mary's I.od-e. No. Km, I. O. O. V. 



Ij-^.IJIA]\[ L. CiJ.ADDKN, farmer, section 
|[|;)\ 7, Union Township, owns 1(J0 acres of 
"S-i hmtl on the southwest half of tlie section. 
He was horn in Jellerson County, Ohio, ten 
miles west of Steuhenville, August 31, 182~, 
and when four years of aijc was taken by his 
parents to .Vshlaiid Clonnty, where he ^rew 
to manluiod, siiending his time on his father's 
farm. His parents were James and Hannah 
(Dickey) Gladden. The father was horn in 
Jefferson County, and died in -\shland County 
during the war, ai;ed about si.xty years. The 
mother was also born in .letfcrson County, 
and dieil there when her bon Hiram was two 
years okl. He was I'cared by a step-mother, 
M'ho i-esides on the homestead in Ashland 
(bounty. Hii'ain was the toiirth of live chil- 
dren- -Absalom died in infancy; Harriet, 
resides in Macon City, and is the wife of 
Samuel Black; Elizabeth married Adamson 
Tannehill, and died in J3efiance County, Ohio; 
Drusilla married Sriles Winters. The second 
wife had twelve children, nine of whom are 
living — Hannah, llachel, Caroline, Lovina, 
^[artlia, Joseph, Louisa, Emma and Leroy. 
The deceased ai-e — Madison, Margaret and 
Emeline. IHram was marrie<l February 27, 
1^51, to iHss Elinira Snyder, wlio was born 
in A\'asliington County, J\'iinsylvania, Au- 
gust 20, 1S2'J, and when a child went with 
her jKirents to Ashland County, Ohio, where 
she was reared and married. Her parents 
were Samuel and ]\rary (House) Snyder. 
The fatlier was born in Pennsylvania, and 



died in Ashland County, Ohio, aged about 
seventy years. The mother was born in 
AVa-^liinirtoii ("oiiiity, same State, ami also 
ilie<l in .\,-hland County at an ad\-anced age. 
There were five daughters and cjiie son in her 
father's family— -Catherine, Sarah, Elmira, 
Henry, ]\Iary .\. and Eliza; all are living 
except Henry. Mr. and .Mi.-, (i hidden have 
one child -d'^lvaretta .1,, boi'ii December 19, 
l^Su, in Union Township, where she was 
reared and mai-ried December 17, 1874, to 
"William Isl. Scott, who was born in Defiance 
County, Ohio, September 1, 1850. He died 
January 1, 1878, leaving one cliild, Ota May, 
born I'Y'bruary 25, 1877. 'Mr. Scott was the 
son of ilatliew and Sarali A. (^finear) Scott. 
The grandfather of ]\Ir. Gladden, Josejih 
Gladden, was bornin I'ennsylvania, and died in 
Jefferson County, Ohio, liaving been married 
three times. His maternal grandparents 
were born in Ireland. The Snyders are of 
German ancestry, and the (Jladdens of Eng- 
lish, Scotch and Irish. Mathew Scott was 
born in Wayne County, Ohio, December 18, 
1823, and lived with his father until 1841:, 
when he went to York ( 'ounty, Pennsylvania, 
where he married Sarah A. Minear, who was 
born in said State and county August 28, 
1826. In 1850 they settled in Defiance 
County, Ohio, two miles north of Hicksville, 
where he lived until his death, which occurred 
April 17, 187-1. 



,;'r^E()H(;E W. ARCITBOLD was born in 
liryj' Tuscarawas C(junty, Ohio, November 7, 
'4^^ 1837, son of -lolin A. and Elizabetii 
(Gibson) Archbold, of Irish ;,iicestry. His 
brothers were J<jsepli, William and Thomas, 
the latter of whom survives. His sisters 
were Letta Ann, Sarah. Fannie and Rebecca, 
Kebeeca and Fannie surviving. His father 



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was Ikiimi in IHOIK in tlie Stiito of Ohio, juid 
tlio mother in ISO!) als(.i, in the State of Vir- 
f^inia. His mother's ln'otliers were (Teori;-u, 
William anil Hugh; hoi' si.stoi-s were ]\Iary, 
Jane, Susan, Catherine ami Isahelhi. His 
i;raiiilfather, I'atriek Arehbold, emigrated 
from Peiinsylviuiia to Ohio, tlieiice to Wells 
County, this State, where he passed the re- 
mainder of liis days. His maternal graml- 
father, (!e(n-i;e ^V. (iilisoii, removed from 
Pennsylvania to A^irginia, thence to Ohio, 
where he died about the year 1855. His 
T)aternal grandfather served in the war of 
IS 12, receiving an honorable discharge and a 
land-warrant from the (Joverninent. His 
grandfather (Tibson owned 200 acres of land. 
]Hs ancestors were all farmers. Mr. Arch- 
liold came to Adams County in the year 
iSol, and engaged in farming with his father, 
who owned 120 acres of land, which the heirs 
now own. JJesides tlie homestead farm, the 
father gave his son Thomas fort}' acres, Will- 
iam forty acres, and James twenty-six and 
two-thirds acres, the last tract being situated 
in A\'ells County. The father had been a 
member oi' the Presbyterian church a great 
many years at the time of his death, which 
occurred December 23, 1885. He was an in- 
telligent, public-spirited man. Jle held the 
oiKce of justice of the peace in Preble Town- 
ship about twenty years; served as adminis- 
trator and guardian; held ofhcial positions 
in Ohio; aided by contributions and other- 
wise in the erection of various churches, and 
at the time of his death had made a request 
that SlOO be paid toward the building of the 
Presbyterian church in Jelf'ersoii Townsliip, 
Wells County, this State. lie left his wife 
comfortably situated in a pleasant home in 
Decatur, of which she holds a life lease. She 
has been a kind and ati'ectionate wife and 
mother, and has l)een a consistent member of 
the Presbyterian church for many years. 



{•Jcorge coinmeiu'ed teaching school when 
quite young, which profession he pursued 
until after his marriage. Tins occurred Feb- 
ruaiT 10, ls(;0, with IMiss .Martha Ruf:,ell, 
who ilied ,111110 19, 187*). She was a devoted 
member of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
and died in that faith. ^Irs. Archbold's 
father was Levi Russell, and her mother was 
Ibrmerly Melinda Andrews, who died before 
Afartha's marriage. ^Ir. and Mrs. Archbokl 
had eight children — Elizabeth, born January 
8, 18(31; Melinda, born June 30, 1862; Eva- 
line, born July 12, 1804; Enos A\'., born July 
14, 1866, died January 12, 1871; Mary Stella, 
born May 10, 1870, died February 10, 1S71; 
Levi, born ilay 23, 1872, died December 17, 
1874; Edna E., born J uly 31, 1875, ilied June 
7.1870. Elizabeth and Harvey llessler were 
married July 3, 1884, and they have one 
cliild — Mary Christina; ]\Ielinda and Adolpli 
Ilart were married September 2, 1880, and 
they have two children — iJlanche and jjertha; 
Evalineaud David Archer were married June 
8, 1882, and they have had two children — 
Harvey, deceased, and Susan. November 21, 
1878, Mr. Archbold was married to (.'liristina 
Meibers, and they liave had one child — 
Charles L., born March 9, 1880. Mrs. Arch- 
bold's parents, John and Catherine (Heider- 
maii) Jleibers, were born in Germany. Her 
father immigrated to Cincinnati, (Jhio, thence 
to Decatur, where he embarked in the mer- 
cantile trade, which he carried on successfully- 
many years. He served two terms as treas- 
urer of Adams County. He is now retired 
from active business, and has the satisfaction 
of knowing that he shares the confidence and 
respect of all his neighbors and friends. He 
is an extensive property-owner, and a devout 
member of the Catholic denomination, to 
which church his family also belong. ^Ir. 
Archbold's brothers are Thomas, William, 
James, John and Ezra; his sisters are Mar- 






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IIIOGRAI'HICAL SKETUUES. 



giiret, .Muiy .lune, l>eliecc;i Ann, Siirali, Catli- 
ci'ine anil .Martha. Ilu i-eimivcal tVuni JJcfatiir 
to I'lcasaiit Mills in IS^U, at wiiieh villao;c 
lie was appointed jiostmaster under the ad- 
ministration of President Hayes. Tliat same 
year he was also a]i]iointcd station agent of 
the 'J\ J). tV I!. Kiulroad, now known as the 
Toletlo, St. Louis A; Kansas City llailroad, 
at I'ieasaiit jMills. lie retained that otHce 
seven years, daring wlncli time ]ie was agent 
of the American and United States express 
companies, lie retained the office of post- 
master until the election of President Gar- 
field, and in 1S85 was appointed to that office 
under President (Meveland, which position lie 
still holds. He commenced life with little or 
no capital, and despite surrounding circum- 
stances, which Ijy no means have alwaj-s been 
favorable, he has overcome all indelitedness 
and opposition. lie possesses a large stock 
of general merchandise, anil has a rich and 
comfortable home at Pleasant Mills, besides 
his family residence at Decatur, lie is a 
member of Decatur Lodge, is'o. KJT, I. 0. 
(). 1'"., and an accepted candidate of the 
encampment. 




M'FUS K. ALL18UN, a member of tlie 
u general mercantile firm of Allison, Mor- 
^!i row 6c Co., of Berne, is a native of 
Adams County, Indiana, born in Linii Grove, 
September 7, 18lj3, a son of Robert B. Alli- 
son. He was reared to manhood in his native 
county, and received good educational advan- 
tages, and in 18S1 graduated from the Deca- 
tur High School. After leaving school he 
came to lierneand took charge of his father's 
interest in his store, the iirm being II. B. 
Allison & Co., and January 7, 1887, he came 
into possession of his father's interest, the 
Iirm being now carried on under the name 



of Allison, ]\Iorrow iS: Co., this being con- 
sidered the leading mercantile business in 
Berne. Mr. Allison was united in marriage, 
Septendier 7, 18S0, to Miss ^'iola Poster, 
who was born March 16, 18G4, and is a 
daughter of Joseph Foster, who is engaged 
in farming and is a prominent stock dealer 
in St. Mary's Townshi]), Adams County, lii- 
diaiui. 



^I^AMUEL MAUKER, engaged in fann- 
1v^' ing on section 18, Jefferson Townshi]), 
'^^' where he has forty acres of choice land, 
was born in Seneca County, Ohio, November 
2, 1828, a son of Daniel Maurer. When he 
was five years old his parents moved to San- 
dusky County, Ohio, and there he grew to 
manhood, receiving his education in the com- 
mon schools of that county. lie served an 
apprenticeship of three 3'ears at the carpen- 
ter's trade, which he followed for several 
years. lie enlisted in the late war Novem- 
ber 15, 1861, in Company B, Seventy-second 
Ohio Infantry, serving until February, 1863. 
He was at the battle of Pittsburgh Landing, 
where he received three slight wounds. He 
contracted rheumatism wdiile in the army, 
and now draws a pension. After his dis- 
charge he returned to Sandusky County, and 
April 13, 1884, he came to Adams County, 
Indiana, and settled on his present farm, 
which he had purchased two years before 
coming to this county. He has been four 
times married. His first wife was F^lizabeth 
llenricks, a native of Sandusky County, Ohio, 
born August 27, 1831. She died February 
24, 1856, leaving two children — Salome and 
Rebecca. Mr. JMaurer was again married 
May 22, 1858, to Miss Margaret Blyth, who 
died in 1860. He then married Miss Susan- 
nah Vaiitze, a native of Ohio, who died 



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IHSTOHT OF ADAMS COUNTY. 



IVIiiruli 'J, 18G7, aged tweiity-tlii-cu years und 
live iiioiitlis. Two sons were \)uvn to tliis 
iiiiioii — (ieorge 1!. i\[cClellaii, and William 
T. ISliennaii. Mr. _Maiirer was mari'ied the 
loiu-th time -Inly 2'5, ISGT, to j\[rs. Ami 
(Biirket) Reiser, wlio was born July 19, 1832, 
ill Perry ('oiinty, Ohio, ami to this union 
have lieen horn tour children — Phel)e E., 
Sarah A., ]\[ary C. and Emma iS. Mrs. 
]Manrer was first inarrieil to Joseph Selser, a 
nati\-e of Sandusky County, Ohio, his |)arents 
being early settlers of that coimty, and were 
of (ierinan descent, lie died in Sandusky 
County. ]]y her tirst marriage Mrs. Maurer 
had three children — William E., Josepli and 
Nettie J. Both ^fr. and Mrs. Maurer are of 
German descent, and can speak the C-rerman 
laniTuaij-e. 



|0|AMUEL LINTON, deceased, one of the 
"Vi^v^ old and honored pioneers of Adams 
^J:" County, was a native of Ohio, the ilate 
of his birth being November 16, 1807, his 
father lieing a native of Pennsylvania, and 
his mother born in tlie State of Vii'ginia. 
lie was reared to manhood in Darke County, 
Ohit), where he followed agricultural pursuits 
till 18I5S. He was married September 8, 
iSiJl, to Margaret W^alker, who was born in 
what is now Kanawha County, West Vir- 
ginia, September 20, 1815, a daughter of 
James and Hannah (Kincaid) Walker, the 
father born in Greenbrier County, Virginia. 
Her parents were united in marriage in 
Greenbrier County, and removed to Darke 
County, Ohio, being among the early settlers 
of that vicinity. In 1850 they removed to 
Adams County, Indiana, where they died in 
the year 1871. They were the parents of 
twelve children — two of whom died in child- 
hood. To Mr. and Mrs. Linton were born 



eleven children — Hannah ]\[. (deceased), Jane 
U., James W., AV'iUiam A., David IL, Eliza- 
iieth T. (deceased), Samuel 11. (deceased), 
John P. (deceased), Mary E. (deceased), flo- 
seph II. and Sarah M. In November, 1838, 
Mr. Linton came with his family to Adams 
County, Indiana, and entered 120 acres of 
land on section 33, Wabash Township, where 
he resided till iiis death with the exception 
of a short time spent in the mercantile busi- 
ness at Geneva. He came to Adams County 
with limited means, but liy his persevering 
industry and indomitable will he succeeded 
in his farming operations, and left liis widow, 
who still occupies the old homestead, in com- 
fortable circumstances. He died October 2-1, 
1871, respected and esteemed by all who 
knew him. He was a member of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church for thirty-two years, 
and a class leader for twenty years. Mrs. 
Linton is also a member of the Methodist 
li!pisco])al church. 



r^i D. ]\IOEEETT, proprietor and editor 
Xrrji of the Decatur Journal, was born in 
■^ij^t® Fostoria, Ohio, August 7, 1852. His 
father removed with his family to Wood 
County, Ohio, in 1800, and there Mr. Mof- 
fett ])assed his early life, and lived until he 
came to Indiana. He received a thorough 
grounding in English education in tlie pub- 
lic schools and also at Republic, Ohio, in the 
normal school. Beginning at the age of six- 
teen, he taught school during the usual 
school months for eight years. In 1878 he 
established a paper at Weston, Ohio, which 
he published six years. In 1884 he came to 
Decatur and bought the Journal, as above 
stated. ]Mr. Moffett is a Tnember of the Ma- 
sonic Lodge. He was married in 1878 to 
Miss May Phillips, of Millgrove, Ohio, and 



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BIOGIIAPIIICAL SKETCH ICS. 



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tliey lia\X' lour cliiklreii — ]'\xiiclioii, Paul, 
^[ark ami .laniL'S. 



\()I;KIJT IvUXE, tiiriner, resides on sec- 
; tioii 14, Uuot Tiiwiishi]), wliere hu owns 
"^-i^ 120 aures of lanil. lie was bom Feh- 
ruarv 20, 183(3, in Tuscarawas (ounty, Oliio, 
anil in the tail of 1S3.S was broncrht to tliis 
county by lii>' ]iai'ents, who settled n])on the 
farm now owned and occupied liy liiinself. 
His fatiier resides with liim. Xo improve- 
ments had been made up<jn tlie phice. A 
log cabin had l)een erected, in the usual 
primitive style, ]>uncheon floors and doors, 
clapboard roof, etc. In tliis cabin the father 
lived about two years, when lie built a hewed 
log Imuse. which is still standing and is used 
as a summer kitchen. The Piqua road and 
the AVayne trail wei'e all the roads in the 
neii^hborhood. Ilobert was only two and a 
half years old when brought to this county, 
and here he has been reared to manhood, and 
here he was married. His lather, Jacob 
.Kline, was liorn in Somerset County, Penn- 
sylvania, January 12, ISOO, and wlien he was 
eleven years of age his parents removed to 
^Vayne Townsliip, Tuscarawas County. ()liio, 
where he was reared to manhood. In 1883 
he went to Faj'ette County, Pennsylvania, 
where he married Barbara lioliinson, who was 
l)orn in that county in 1807. Mrs. Kline 
tlied in Adams Count}', this State, June 30, 
1873, and is buried in Alpha cemetery. She 
was a noble Christian woman, and in her 
deatli the communit}' suffered a great loss. 
Her kind and afiectionate disposition won for 
her the love antl esteem of all who were so 
fortunate as to make her acquaintance. There 
were seven children in the father's family, 
live of whom are living. Two daughters died 
iti childhood. The father is livinir on the 



old homestead. lie says the first winter he 
came hei'e he could not lose sight of his 
cabin without getting lost. The second year 
he killed a good many deer and wild game. 
The family were never without corn bread, 
but they had no wheat bread until the second 
year, when he raised six acres of wheat. The 
father entered 120 acres of land from tlic 
(Tovernment, but he had only money enough 
to ]iay for eighty acres; Joseph Lewis, an old 
neighboi', lent him money to pay for the ad- 
ditional forty. Although the Piqua Poad 
was the only road in the county at that time, 
it was so cut up by ruts as to be alnnjst im- 
passable. Mr. Kline, Sr., helped to cut niost 
of the roads in the vicinity. The family en- 
dured all the hardships and privations inci- 
dent to pioneer life, and have witnessed all 
tlie changes that have taken place in this now 
prosperous country. The children were — 
Catiierine, who died at an early age; Robert, 
John, AVilliam, (Tcorge, Jonas and Sarah, 
twins; Sarah died when but a few weeks old. 
March 9. 1856, Robert was united in mar- 
riage with iliss Eliza J. Mumma, who was 
Ijorn in Tuscarawas County, (Jhio, October 4, 
1835, and came to this county with her parents, 
John and Catherine (Snyder) !Mumma, after 
she I'eached maturity. Her father was l>oru 
in AVestmoreland County, IVnnsylvania, and 
died in Adams County in 1878, at the age of 
sixty-eight years, eight months and nine days. 
lie is buried in Pleasant Valley cemetery. 
The mother still survives, at the age of sev- 
ent3'-si.\ 3'ears, and lives with her son, Solo- 
mon Mumina. JVIr. and Mrs. Kline have two 
children. The ehlest died at a very early age. 
Sarah Ellen, boi'n .lune 10, 1859, is now the 
wife of I'^ranklin lirokaw, and has one child — 
Vesta Albert, born December 2(5, 1884. 
They are living with Mr. Kline. Mr. 
Kline's graiulfather, Jonas Kline, was born 
in Pennsylvania, and was neai'lv one hundred 



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JI /STORY OF ADAMS COUNTY. 



years old at liis dentil. He was a soldier in 
tile Uevoliitioiiary war. His irraiidinother 
Kline weiirhed over 300 poiiiuls, and died at 
the aire of one Iniiulred rears. 



AXIEL K. SHAOlvLEY, fanner, owns 
forty acres of land on section 19, Union 
Township. He was i)orn in the town 
of Alfred, York County, Maine, Alarcli 2"2, 
1S43, and when nine years of age came with 
liis parents, Joseph and Louisa (Emmons) 
Shackley, to Adams County, who settled on 
the farm wei'e his brother Howard now lives. 
Both parents were born in York County and 
both are deceased. Daniel lived at home 
until 1S(j1, theii went to I'oston, Jlassachu- 
setts, where he engaged in teaming for his 
brother, I'hineas Shackley (now deceased), 
witli wlunu he remained until August 18, 
1S0".3, when he enlisted in the Fifth IJattery 
Light Artillery of JTassachusetts under Cap- 
tain Charles E. Philli])S. His first service 
was at Fort Corcoran, Virginia, and from 
there the Captain marched his comjiany to 
Antietam. ilaryland, although the battle had 
been fought before their ari'ival. He and 
four other recruits, one of wliom was his 
brother Jonas, who now lives in (Juincy, 
Massachusetts, joined the battery and followed 
the x\riny of the Potomac. He was wounded 
at Gettysburg, July 8, 1863, in the right 
lower arm below the elbow, the wound fract- 
nring the bone. He went to llaltimore, 
thence to Philadelphia, ami remained at Chest- 
nut Hill Hospital five months. A part of 
this time he suffered from lung troubles. 
Erora this hospital he went to convalescent 
camp, at Alexandria, Virginia, and remained 
five weeks, when he was discharged on sur- 
geon's certificate of disability, January 8, 
180-1. He then returned to Boston, Massa- 



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chusetts, and engaged in teaming for diti'erent 
persons until 18(J'J. In 1S(!G lie was nuirried 
to ^^ss Margaret C'onnor, who was l)orn in 
Chelsea, Massachusetts, and was about the 
ago of her husband. Tiiey had si.x children 
— Joseph, jMary C, wlio died at tiie age of 
eleven years; William; Martha, who died at 
tJie age of six years; Charles and Ellis G. 
He came back to Indiana in 1881 and com- 
menced farming. November 0, 18S4, ^Ir. 
Shackley was married to ^Miss Emily C. 
Mumma, who was born in Tuscarawas 
County, Ohio, February '29, 1844, and was 
about seven years old wlien her parents 
Ijrought her to tliis county. Her father, 
John ilumma, was born in Pennsylvania 
January 7, 1810, died in September, 1877, 
and is buried in Pleasant Valley cemetery. 
The mother, Catherine (Snyder) ^luinma, 
was born in Maryland, ^Tarch 25, 1811, an<l 
is now living with her son, Solomon J. 
^luiuma, of Boot Township. There were 
four children in their family — Solomon J., 
Eliza J., wife of Bobert Kline; Nancy E., 
wife of "William Kline, and Mrs. Shackley 
wlio is the youngest. Mr. and ]\Irs. Shackley 
are members of the United Brethren church, 
and in politics Mr. Shackley was formerly a 
Democrat, but now a Bepublican. 



Tl^ZRA LISTER, of Washington Town- 
tp', ship, is one of the oldest living pioneers 
^^ of Adams County. He -was born in 
Ross County, Ohio, January 15, 1825, son of 
Joshua and Lydia Lister, natives of ilaryland. 
The father's ancestors were of German origin 
and the mother's of Irish. In 1828 the fam- 
ly immigrated to Adams County, settling two 
and a half miles north of Decatur, where they 
lived until 1830, then removed to (^arroU 
County, Indiana, where the father died in 



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BIOORAPHIGAL SKETCHES. 



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SejiteiDlior, 1S31. One year later tlic family 
retiiriR'il to Adams C'oiiiitv, where our sub- 
ject was rearetl to the scenes of pioneer life. 
The county at that time contained hut i'^tw 
familes. He receiveil a rudimentary educa- 
tion in the early pioneer sciiools, and has 
been a life-long farmer, enduring all the 
trials, hardshijis and privations of the early 
pioiieei'. lie was marrieil December 21, 
ISiS, to Eliza J. Ball, a native of Indiana, 
and they had three cliildren — Sarah E., 
wife of James Jr. Patterson, of Logansport, 
Indiana; Racliel S., wife of John AVoods, 
also of Logansport. One child is deceased. 
Mr. Lister has been four times married. Jlis 
present wife has one son, Thomas T. lie has 
been a resident of Washington Township for 
many years, is a Democrat in politics, and an 
honest, representative pioneer. 



;VXIEL AVELDY, an extensive farmer 
and stock-raiser of Kirkland Township, 
wjiere he resides on section 1, is a 
native of Fairfield County, Ohio, now Hock- 
ing County, born near Lancaster October 3, 
1S2"2, a son of I'eter and Susanna (Ilnddle) 
AVeldy. The father was born in Westmore- 
land County, Pennsylvania, his ancestors 
coming from Switzerland, and the mother 
was born in Shenandoah County, Virginia, a 
daughter of Daniel Huddle, who was a sol- 
dier in the war of the Pevohition. Both 
IMr. and ilrs. AVeldy came with their parents 
to Fairfield County, Ohio, their parentsdying 
in that county. They were married in Fair- 
field County a short time before becoming of 
age, and to thetn were born fourteen cliildren. 
The mother died in lf^37, aged about thirty- 
eight years. She was a member of the 
Brethren in Christ cluirch. Jfr. AVeldy was 
again married to Mrs. Catherine (Grim) 



Sheets. .Mr. AVeldy was reared a farinei', 
which he made the pi'incipal avocation of his 
life, lie was Itorn in 1795, and died in 
1807. ])aniel AVeldj', whose name iieads 
this sketch, was, like his father, reared to the 
avocation of a farmer, and in his youtli re- 
ceived but limited educational advantages. 
lie remained at home till liftten years of age, 
when his mother died, and lie was then prac- 
tically thrown upon liis own resources. He 
rented land from his uncle and raised and 
bought tobacco, which he shipped to Pitts- 
burgh, and the first sl,200 he made he lost 
in tobacco in the Pittsburgh fire in 1S4-1. 
lie came to Adams County, Indiana, in the 
fall of 1845, and the following spring bought 
the farm where he has since lived, whicli then 
contained eighty acres. There was on his 
land a rude log cabin, IG x 18 feet, with 
puncheon floor and mud chimney, in which 
he lived about eight j-ears, when he erected 
a frame house and frame barn. He occupied 
his frame dwelling until 1870, when he 
erected his present fine brick residence at a 
cost of about !?4,0U0. ]\[r. Weldy lias been 
twice married. He was married October 13, 
1840, to Miss Elizabeth Beery, who was 
born in Fairfield County, Ohio, Feljruary 27, 
1823, and to this union were born eleven 
children — Christian ^\, Setli AV., AVilliam 
B., Barbara S., Abraham (deceased), Sarah A., 
Mary E., liachel, Ellen, Daniel, Jr., and Eli 
(deceased). Mrs. AVeldy died December 8, 
1879, and ^\v. AVeldj- was again married 
August 22, 1880, to Mrs. Hester (Blosser) 
Beery, a native of Fayette County, Pennsyl- 
vania, born April 8, 1820. ilrs. AVeldy was 
brought to Fairtield County, Ohio, by her 
parents when she was about ten years old. 
She was first married in Fairfield County, 
Ohio, to Eli Beery, who was born in that 
county June 27, 1818. To this union were 
born fourteen childi'en — JLelinda, Barbara, 



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HISTORY OF ADAMS CoUXTY. 



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^rury W., MiU'tin, JiL'iiben, Sarali, Christian, 
John and iMartha (twins), Franklin, .lonas, 
Daniel ^\'., Lncinila and William .1. Mr. 
I'eery came to Adams Connty, Indiana, with 
^Ir. Wekly, and settled on section 6, Wash- 
ington Townslii]i, his iiO acre farm lying in 
AVashington and Ivirkland townships, where 
lie resided till his death, January 27, 1880. 
lie was one of the leading farmers in his 
township, and took a prominent part in 
public atfaii's. He was a member of the 
lirethren in Chi'ist church, Mr. and Mrs. 
AVeldy beini^ members of the same church. 
Mr. AVeldy, the subject of tliis sketcli, began 
life a poor boy, but by his persevering in- 
dustry and indomitable perseverance he has 
become one of the wealthy citizens of Adams 
County. He owned at one time over 'JOO 
acres of land, the most of which he has 
given to liis children, but still retains 420 
acres (.>f choice land on which lie resides. 
!Mr. AVeldy is also a shareholder in the De- 
catur National Bank, lie has been itlentified 
with the f^rowth and development of Adams 
County from its earliest years, and has wit- 
nessed the wilderness change into well-culti- 
vated fields and thrivinnj villages. In politics 
lie was formerly a Whig, casting his first 
presidential vote for Ilenry Clay, and on the 
organization of the Republicans he voted for 
Abruliam Lincoln in l^tJO and 1864, since 
which time lie lias cast liis suffrage with the 
Democratic party. lie served as township 
trustee nine consecutive years, and hekl the 
office of justice of the peace eleven years, 
wlien he was again elected to the office of 
township trustee, wlien he served six con- 
secutive years. He was then, in 1876, elected 
on the Democratic ticket connty commis- 
sioner, which office he filled acceptabl}' for 
six years. Mr. AVeldy understands (Tcrinan, 
and has been frequently engaged as inter- 
preter by the courts. The brick of which 



Afr. Weldy's residence is l)uilt was biirned 
ou his own farm. Mr. W'eldy is a member 
of the Odd I'tdlows order, belonging to St. 
^^^ary's l^odge. No. 167, at Decatur, Indiana. 



OIIN E. AND MONROE ROSE, man- 
agers of the drug and grocery business of 
Hoffmann it Gottschalk, at Heme, are 
natives of AVells (bounty, Indiana, born in 
Nottingham Townshij); the former Alarch 
1, 1S5M, and the latter January 20, 1861, and 
are sons of Petei' and Mary (Gottschalkj 
Rose. The father was a farmer by occupa- 
tion. He enlisted in Wells County during 
the war of the Rebellion, went South, and 
died in a hosjiital at Nashville, Tennessee. Tiie 
mother was a native of Wurteinberg, Ger- 
many, coming to America with her parents 
when but three years old, they settling in 
AN^ells County, Indiana, in an early day. The 
parents were married in Wells County, and 
to them were born five children, all eons but 
the youngest child. They were among the 
early settlers of Adams County, coining here 
when it was quite new, the land on which 
tliey settled being covered with a heavy 
growth of timber. Here the father erected 
a humble log cabin with puncheon floor and 
cla])board roof. He was a member of the 
Evangelical church. The mother of our sub- 
jects still resides on the old homestead. 
After her husband's death she subsequently 
mairied John Shigley, one of the prominent 
farmers of Nottingham Township, wiio had 
been previously married and had a family of 
several children. Both Mr. and Mrs. Shigley 
are church members, the former being a 
Dunkard, and the latter a member of the 
Evangelical Association. The brothers whose 
names head this sketch were reared to agri- 
cultural pursuits on their father's farm, and 



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BIOGIiAI'HICA L SKETCHES. 



received their ei.hio:itU)ii in tlie (Mumnon 
selidols of their iieiirhhdi-liood. At tlie ai;-e 
of nineteen ye'iirs John K. l)ej;;ui working for 
hiiiiselt', tinilin;^ eni]ilo3'nient anion;^ the 
neighljoring farmers until September 8, 1879, 
when he entered tlie store of lIoiTmau it 
Gottschalk. He was married April 4, 188G, 
to Miss Lizzie I'ebont, who was born in 
Adams County, Indiana, January 16, 1868. 
In January, 1882, ^Monroe Hose engaged in 
his present occupation in the store of Hoff- 
man i\: Gottschulk. This firm was estaltlished 
in 1873, their building being owned by Mr. 
llotfiiian. They carry a well-selected stock 
valued at about ^5,000, and do an extensive 
tratle. 



im.NDRKW J. JU'HL), of Wabash Town- 
;;("\- ship, where he is engaged in farming 
X';~- on section 33, is a native of Fairfield 
County, ()hio, the date of his birth being 
February 24, 1834. Ilis parents, Thomas 
and JMary (Bowers) Byrd, were natives of the 
State of Virginia. They removed to Fairfield 
County, (Jhio, about 1818, being among the 
first settlers of that county. In 1858 they 
settled in Jay County, Indiana, remaining 
there until 1864, when thoy came with their 
family to Adams County, locating on the 
farm whicli is now occupied by the subject 
of tliis sketch. Here both died, the mother 
inl868, in her sixty-sixth year, and the father 
in 1878, aged seventy-eight years. The 
father was a miller by trade, but after coming 
to Adams County followed agricultural pur- 
suits. 15oth were members of the Protestant 
Methodist church at the time of their death, 
but in early life belonged to the United 
Brethren church. ,Vndrew J., our subject, 
grew to manhood on the home farm in 
Adams County, receiving but limited educa- 



tional advantages. He has always followed 
the avocation of a fanner, and since fifteen 
years of age he has run a threshing machine 
with tlie exception of a few falls. He re- 
inained at home until thirty-two years of age, 
when he was married to Caroline Lelir. She 
was born in Fairfield County, Ohio, Febru- 
ary 21, 1847, coming to Indiana with her 
parents when young. To this union were 
born four children — Mary Etta, Knfus ]\r., 
James Wilkinson and Susan A. E. ^Mrs. Byrd 
died May 18, 1875. She was a member of 
the United Brethren church. ^Ir. Byrd is a 
member of the same denomination. In poli- 
tics he is a Oemocrat, and has filled the office 
of assessor of his township to the entire 
satisfaction of his constituents. His farm 
contains forty acres of land, which is well im- 
]U'oved and under good cultivation. 



T^HAMON HEDINGTOX, farmer and 
% Yji stock-dealer, residing on section 32, Blue 
^^5^ Creek Township, is a native of Adams 
County, Indiana, born in Monroe Township, 
April 2, 1846, a son of I^abon Hedington. 
He grew to manhood on his father's farm in 
Monroe Township, his youth being spent in 
assisting his father with the work of the farm 
and in attending the schools of his district, 
where he obtained a common-school educa- 
tion. He was married August 1, 1867, to 
]\[ary Smith, who was born in Adams County, 
Indiana, July 2, 1848, a daughter of Morgan 
Smith, one of the pioneers of the county, 
who is now deceased. They are the parents 
of six children, whose names are — Carrie, 
Thomas, Paifus, Harry, Lucy and Homer. 
After his marriage Mr. Hedington settled on 
the farm where he now resides, which con- 
tains seventy-two acres of choice land. He 
has been engaged in buying and shipping 



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HI6T0nr OP ADAMS COUNTY. 




stock (or ten years, buyiiii;' tlie tirst car-loii(i 
that was shijiped tVoni lieriic, lor David 
Crahlis. J'oliticallv Mr. Ik'diiii^'toii atiiliates 
with the Democratic party, lie was a can- 
didate for slici-itl' in 1S77, and caine within 
lil'ty-four votes of heing nominated. He is 
an active, public-spirited citizen, and in all 
enterprises for the advancement of his town- 
ship or county he takes an active interest. 



# 



fOHN J)EA.M JIALE, clerk of the circuit 
court of Adams County, was born in 
J51uifton, AVells County, Indiana, De- 
cember 27, 1842. He lived in his luitive 
place till fourteen years of age, when his 
parents removeil to a farm in the vicinity of 
lUutfton. He remained on the farm till 
attaining the age of eighteen years, receiving 
his education in the public schools of Bluff- 
ton and vicinity. August 15, 18G2, he en- 
listed in Company I), One Hundred and First 
Indiana Infantry', under Captain Peter Studa- 
baker, his regiment being assigned first to 
Tyrrell's Brigade, Jackson's Division, Army 
of the (3hio, afterward to the Second Brigade, 
Third Division of the Fourteenth Army 
Corps, Army of the Cumberland. On the 
organization of his company he was chosen 
Corporal. He participated in all the battles 
of the Army of the Cumberland until No- 
vember 25, 1863, when he was severely 
wounded at the battle of ^[issionary Kidge, 
the ball passing through his left side and 
perforating his left lung. He lay on the tield 
on the summit of the ridge, about one-fourth 
of a mile north from Bragg's headquarters, 
from 4 1'. M. until about 9 p. m., when lie was 
found by comrades who were searching for 
the dead and wounded. He was then taken 
to the hospital at Chattanooga, where he lay 
unconscious for weeks, and remained there 



until al;out l'"fhrnai-y 1. It having been re- 
ported that lie Wat. dead, his father went to 
Chattanooga, expecting to take the remains 
home, and then remained and nursed him in 
the hospital from January 15 until February 
1, when he received a si.xty days' furlough. 
After sufficiently recovering from his wound 
he rejoined his regimant at Marietta, Geor- 
gia, when he took part in the battle of Teach 
Tree Creek, siege of Atlanta, battle of Jones- 
boro, was with Sherman on his march to the 
sea and through the Carolinas, and also at 
the battle of Bentonville, and was at the 
grand review at AVashington, D. (J., at the 
close of the war. He received an honorable 
discharge at Indianapolis, June 24, 1805, by 
general order of the AVar Department and 
the close of the war. He then returned to 
his father's farm in AVells County, where he 
worked during the summers, and in the win- 
ter months taught school, until October, 
1867, when he engaged in business at Bluff- 
ton. He was married September 8, 1869, at 
Camden, Schuyler County, Illinois, to Miss 
Caroline Holmes, who was born in Hartford 
Township, xVdams County. In her sixth 
year she removed with her parents to Wells 
County, Indiana, and at the time of her mar- 
riage was a teacher at Camden, Schuyler 
County, Illinois. Mr. and Mrs. Hale are 
the parents of four children — Ethelyn, Olive 
Leone, Sarah Blanch and Genevieve, all 
living at home. In 1868 ^Mr. Hale engaged 
in the dry goods business at Bluffton, in 
company with A. Deam, with wliom he was 
associated under the firm name of A. Deani 
ife Co., until January, 1872, when he removed 
to Geneva, Adams County, and formed a 
partnership with his brother, S. W. Hale, 
with whom he has since been associated in 
the grain business under the firm name of 
S. W. Hale A: Brother. ]\[arch 1, 1872, he 
was appointed the first agent at Geneva, and 



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served as ^tatidii ami ('X|)rcss a;;c'iit until 
^lav 1, iNTti, wlii/ii lie re-.i;^-iieil his jiusitiini 
in favor of his brother, S. W. JIale. In 1SS2 
he was eleeteil elerk of the circnit conrt, 
being re-eleeteil to the same otKee in ISSG. 
lie was one of the pioneers of Geneva, and 
to his eH'.irts it owes mncli of its present 
prosjiei'itv. lloth ]\rr. and ^Mrs. Hale are 
active uien:hei-s of the Methodist Episcopal 
chiireh at Heeatiir. .Mr. Hale is a son <.if 
Uowen and .Mary Ann (Deani) Hale, who 
■were among the earliest pioneers of ^Vells 
Ooiinty, Indiana. 



7|^IIPJSTLVN V. IJLAKKV, a farmer 
*illfi residing on section '^1, Knion Township, 
"iyi. owns 400 acres of land in Adams 
County. He came to the county November 
27, 1840, with his ])ai-eiits, who settled on the 
farm now owned by our sul)ject. His father, 
John II. I.lakev. was boi'ii in Prussia, No- 
vember ;3, 17;J7, and died :\rarc,li 8, 1SS3. 
The mother, Christina (Schwei'l Plakey, was 
also born in J'rnssia, May 11, 179S. She 
died 'Mavdi. 6. ISUO. In 1S85 the mother 
came to ^Vmerica witii six children, the father 
having jireceded them in the I'all of 1S34. 
They landed in lialtimore, and went directly 
to AV^cst Virginia, where they met the father, 
who was working by the month among the 
farmers. Here the family lived two years, 
then removed to Cincinnati, where they lived 
three and a half years, where both old and 
young members of the family worked at any- 
thing they could find to do. In the fall of 
183S the father came to Adams Count)', and 
after looking around, borrowed some purchase 
money from a friend and entered the north- 
west (juarter of section 21, Union Township. 
Returning to Cincinnati, he remained there 
until the fall of 1S4U, when, with one horse 



and an ox team, accom]>anied by his family, 
he started to make a pt'iiiianent home in 
Adams County. The roads were so m\uldy, 
and utterly impassalde, that they were 
obliged to lea\e a portion of theii- household 
goods at New itremen, Ohio. They inij)ro- 
vised a cart upon which they ]iai'];cd the 
most necessary articles, and again started for 
their Indiana home, the mother and children 
walking. In this way they made about live 
miles a day, camping out at night, and landed 
in their new home the 27th day of November. 
They cut two crotchet poles, set them on the 
ground, connected thein with a pole, and 
stretched the wagon cover over it. In this 
way they lived until they could construct a 
rough log house, moving iuto it the 24th day 
of the following December, witliont roof or 
Hoor. They lived in this house until 1>S52, 
when they built the house that Christian now 
occupies. They came to the county with 
oidy a few dollars, and, as has been stated, in 
debt for a portion of the purchase money of 
the land first entered. Christian found work 
on the Maumee and Erie Canal, where he in 
part supported the family and assisted in 
paying the borrowed money. ^Ir. Blakey was 
born in Prussia, ^fay 7, 1S21, and was four- 
teen years old when his parents came to 
America. He was married in 1849 to Miss 
Louisa Falsing, who was also born in Prussia, 
in 1833. She came to America in 1842, with 
her parents, Frederick and Louisa Falsing, 
who settled in Preble Township, this county. 
Mrs. Blakey died in 1856, and in 1858 ilr. 
Blakey married ilary A. Hupp, who was 
born in Tuscarawas County, Ohio, in 1833, 
daughter of George and Amanda liujip. By 
the first marriage there were three childi-en 
— ]Mary, Sophia and John II. B}' the second 
marriage wei-e ten children, eight of whom 
are living — Eliza, Charles, Frederick, Martin, 
Theodore, Edward, Matilda and Otto. The 



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dot'Oiisod aro- -Christian luiil Cliristiiie, wlio 
died in iiifaucv- 



fEirU SMITH was born in St. Mary's 
Townsliili. this county, October 12, 1838. 
-Ti Ills i'atlier, luibert Smith, was liorn in 
Ohio in 181(1. His nidthor, ^Fary (liay) 
Smith, was a nati\e of Pennsylvania. His 
paternal gi'andparents, Alexander and ]\[ar- i 
garet (]Moek) Smitli, were natives of Xiv- j 
ginia. The grandfather removed to St. ]\Iary's [ 
Township in the fall of 18.32 and entered 
GIO acres of land, upon which he removed his 
family the following spring. His son Hubert 
was married soon after and settled npon 140 
acres, a gift from his father. The land was 
nnimpi'oved, bnt soon a log honse with 
clapboard roof and the conventional puiicli- 
e^m Hoor was iinislied. and thns comfortably 
situated, the parents of onr subject began 
their home life. Acre after acre was cleared 
iA' and injprovements were made until the for- 



est was converted into a valuable and pro 
ductive homestead. - Jehu's mother died here 
in October, 18GG. The parents had si.x sons 
— Ale.xandei-, Jehu, Samuel, Archibald, Rob- 
ert and William. They also had one daugh- 
ter — Nancy Jane. After the death of his 
wife, Kobert moved upon a sixty-acre tract 
south of the St. ;^^ary's liiver. In 1879 the 
father died, and his son William inherited 
the farm. The father was of Dutch ancestry 
and the mother of Irish. They were pioneers 
in the township, and were land-owners. 
Jehu and ^lary Ann Peterson were united in 
marriage April 19, 18(17. Mrs. Smith was 
born July 26, 1848. Iler father, who is still 
an active citizen of St. Mary's Township, is 
J. W. Peterson, and Mas bern ]\Iarch 29, 
isiy. :\tr. and Mrs. Smith have had five 
children, four of whom are living — Louisa G., 



born i'"ebrnary 22, 18()8; Sylvester, Ixjrii 
November 13, 1S72; Kobert F., born Janii- 
ary 8, 187."); J. dm W., bcrn February 28, 
1879. Mrs. Smith's mother was formerly 
Hannah Smith, who was born November 20, 
1821, and died July 1,1857. Her paternal 
grandfather was AVilliam Peterson, and her 
grandinotlier was June White, born January 
1, 1800. ■John rented a fai-m of his aunt, 
upon which he lived about two years. He 
then moved upon his present farm, consisting 
of sixty acres, lying sontli of St. Clary's 
River. There were only ten acres cleared, 
and a log cabin and log stable had been built. 
He now resides in a neat and commodious 
frame dwelling, and the farm has fifty acres 
cleared; it is conceded to be one of the finest 
farms in the townshi]). Jehu's father had 
one lirother, Samuel Smith, who married 
Nancy Ray, and is now deceased. He had 
eight sisters, two of whom are living — 
L(juisa and ]\Iargaret. His mother's living 
brothers are — Putbert, Archibald, Elias and 
Smith. Her sisters are — Elsie, Elizabeth and 
Jane. J. W. Peterson has six brothers 
living — David, Isaac, James, Jacob, Lafay- 
ette and Cyrus; Henry is deceased, dying in 
the United States service during the war of 
the Rebellion. His sisters were- — Hannah, 
Laura Jane, Mary Ann, Isabella and Eliza- 
beth, the latter of whom is deceased. Alex- 
ander Smith was in the war of 1812, and 
received an honorable discharge and a land- 
warrant. His wife received a pension. Mrs. 
Smith's brothers were — Henry Clay, Robert 
S., Sylvester W. Two of the brothers served 
in the war of the Rebellion, Henry Clay in 
Company I, Eighty-ninth Indiana Infantry, 
and Robert S. served in the Thirteenth Cav- 
alry. Our subject had four brothers who gave 
honorable service to their country during 
the war — Samuel, who died during the siege 
of Vicksburg, was a member of the Forty- 



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BIOGRA PIUCA L HKt:raHE>i. 



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seventli Imliana Int'atitry ; i;<il)ei-t, wIk.i was a 
iiieiiiber tit' tlie li^levuiitli Indiana Cavalry, 
died wliile in tlif service; Areliiliald, wlui 
was a nieiiilier ot' tlie Thirteenth Int'antrv, 
was ca])tnred at Aiitietaiii and died in 
prison. William was also a suldier t'oi- the 
Uniiin. di liu first enlisted in (Jonij)any 1, 
Eighty-ninth Indiana Inl'antJ-y. Captain I'aii- 
ta heing his tiivt (•(uninandei-, and Murray 
being his ( 'uluiiel. .\t'tei- being innstered in 
lit Wabash, the regiment was ordered to In- 
dianapolis, thence to Louisville, thence to 
]\[nnlbrdville, Kentucky, where the entire 
command was captured, September, 18G3, by 
General Bragg, then commanding tlie Con- 
t'eilerate forces. The regiment was paroled 
the tullowing day and ordered to Indianapo- 
lis, where Jehu received a f'urlougli of twenty 
days. When he retained lie was transferred 
to Company I), Eleventh United States Ileg- 
iilars, Captain ('hipnian, and Colonel Jones. 
Jehu was ordered to report at the head- 
quarters of the I'^leventh, which was at l>os- 
ftj ton, ^Massachusetts. In April, 1SG3, tlie 
[^^ regiment, under IJiiniside, who was thou in 
lii conunanil of tlie Army of the Eotomac, uii- 
\i; dertook to cross the Ilap|ialiannock Iliver, 
which etibrt ju'oved unsuccessful, the artil- 
lery being swamped in tliemu<l. (reneral Lee 
took great jniius to inform his followers of 
this incideut by putting up sign-boards on 
trees which read, " liuniside's army is stuck 
in the inud." The artillery, however, was 
Boon taken out of the iiiud, by the boys, and 
General I'uriiside being relieved, General 
Hooker took coininand in May, 1S63. lie 
then crossed the river, takiny first his cav- 
airy, next his infantry, and lastly his artillery, 
and attacked General Lee, who showed great 
resistance; but after two days of desperate 
and bloody contest, the rebels were forced to 
retreat; then began the historical pursuit of 
" Hooker after Lee," throut'h ^Maryland to 



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Pennsylvania, where Lee made the famous 
stand July 1, ISC.H, at Gettysburg, with his 
entire army. In tins, the greatest battle 
t'ought during the war, Jehu participated 
with his regiment, tightingcontinuously un- 
til the third day, when Lee reti'eated. Jlr. 
Smith's regiment entered the tight with CiOO 
men, out of which 300 were killeil and many 
others wounded. It had inaile a forced inarch 
of si.xty miles, marching the entire night and 
during the following day just previous to the 
battle, and on the eve " of July 2, at -t 
o'clock, entered the engagement. Alter this 
memorable battle the Eleventh liegulars 
crossed the Potomac River into A^irginia, 
July 10, 1SG3, when .Mr. Smith was taken 
sick and was sent to Washimi-tnu, where he 
remained about two months. From there he 
was sent to Fort Independence, ]\Iassachu- 
setts, to the headquarters of the Eleventh, and 
remained there until ]May 2, 18(14, when he 
was discharged for honorable, faithful service. 
His family has a good army record, from the 
war of 1812 to the war of the Keliellion. He 
is a worthy member of the Willshire Post, 
Xo. 351, G. A. II. 



PRAYTON M. AYERS, an old settler of 
.\.dains County, was born in ]\Iadison 
--4,^ County, New York, December 28, 1815, 
son of John W. and Catherine Ayers, the 
former a native of Connecticut and the latter 
of ^lassachusetts. Mr. xVyers' father was a 
surgeon in the war of 1812. His parents 
emigrated to AVarren County, Pennsylvania, 
where they lived several years, then removed 
to Relinont County, Ohio, where his fatlier 
practiced medicine about twenty years, after 
wliicli he removed to Medina County, Ohio, 
and there died. Wy. Ayers' parents had si.x 
children, of whom two are living — Mary J. 






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iiiid Draytcin M. Ho reci'ivod a coiniiKm- 
SL'hool education, and his curly lil'c was .-'])ont 
in various occupations, lie was married in 
Kicidaiid Oounty, Ohio, Keljruary 0, 1843, to 
Elizabeth Z. Crabs, born AFarcli 30, 1^523, in 
that county. They liad ten cliildren,ot' wlioin 
six survive — Nathan, l*cri-y, AValtcr, Ida, 
wife of Samuel Teeple, Albert and ^lelvin. 
In 1853 our sul)ject, with his fainily, iinini- 
i^rated to Adams County, Indiana, settling in 
Washington Township, where they have seen 
much of pioneer life. His wife died January 
2, 1878. She was a kind and loving wife 
and mother, and is greatly missed- by tiie 
surviving members of her family. Mr. Ayers 
is a member of the P.aptist church, and for 
several years has officiated as deacon. In 
politics he is a Prohibitionist. He owns 200 
acres of excellent land, and has been a suc- 
cessful farmer. All he has he has earned b}' 
honest industry and good management. In 
his younger years he worked at the cabinet 
maker's trade for some years. 



.1?|0KVAL BLACKBURN, publisher of 
°llw/' ^'"^ -Democrat, is a son of Thomas K. 
'^^'is and Anna Blackburn, natives of Penn- 
sylvania. They were married there, removed 
to Holmes County, Ohio, in 1833, to Stark 
County, same State, in 1849, and in 1850 to 
Indiana, settling in Adams County. They 
resided here, en;ra2ed in farminLr, until 18(55, 
since when they have lived on a farm in 
Newton Count}', this State. They reared a 
large family; Nerval was the fifth child, and 
is the third of those now living. He was 
born January 16, 1843, and lived with his 
parents on the farm until twenty years old, 
receiving a common-school education. In 
September, 1803, he enlisted as a private in 
Company C, Eleventh Cavalry, One Hundred 



and Twenty-sixth IJeginiont Indiana Volun- 
teers, and he was afterward ])romoted suc- 
cessively to Second Lieutenant, First Lieuten- 
ant and Captain. He was mustered out Sep- 
temljer ID, lS('i5. During tiie next nine 
years he was successively engaged in several 
pursuits in Adams County. In Uecember. 
1874, he was ap]ioiiited deputy sheriff, which 
office lie filled for four years. In 1878 he 
was elected clerk of the court, which office 
he entered November 1, 1879, and vacated 
November 1, 1883. A few weeks after the 
latter date he bought a half interest in the 
Democrat, and in February following he be- 
came sole proprietor. May 14, 1885, he was 
appointed postmaster of Decatur, and between 
the postoffice and the conduct of the official 
newspaper of .\dams County, Mr. Blackburn 
is a very busy man. His long service as a 
public official has made him universally 
known in the county, and he is alw.ays spoken 
of as a liberal, popular citizen. He is a 
member of the Masonic order and of the 
Grand Army of the Republic. Mr. Black- 
burn was united in marriage August 21, 
1869, with Sarah J. Stoops, daughter of 
James Stoops, of Decatur. They have been 
given four children; of these, two, Nellie 
and Hattie, arc living. 



i^ 



"\V. PRITDEN, a prosperous agricult- 
■j^Y urist of Adams County, engaged in 
*^^t ® farming and stock-raising on section 
29, Blue Creek Township, was born in Shelby 
County, Ohio, October 29, 1834, a son of 
Peter and Christiana (Amos) Pruden, the 
father a native of New Jersey and the mother 
of Kentucky, and of English and German 
descent. He was reared to the avocation of 
a farmer, which he has made his life-work. 
He was married near Piqua, Miami County, 






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Ohio, I'Vliniai-y 12, ISCl, to ^Fiss :\IimTva 
S. l''i'ost, wliii \va?! Imm-ii ill that coiintv in 
1^40, ami was a daugliter of Ebetiezer and 
Xancy (^^r• Reynolds) I-'rost. Of tliu ei_<,dil 
cliildren born to tlii> niiion seven are living — 
"William ('. mai-ricd I''aiiiiy A. Kitchen, of 
]'i(jiia, <)iiio; {■'rost, Nannie A., tieoi-ge II., 
James, Clara A. and Alfred. Mr. I'riulen 
enlisted in the war of the Reliellion in 16G2, 



I'lastern Indiana. I le was a re>i(U'nt of .\dams 
Connty ovei- forty-two years, and died on the 
homestead, in Hartford To\viislii]>, in August, 
1S81, aged seventy years. He w;is a member 
of no ehnrcli, and althongh iiiHuential in 
public circles was no aspirant for olKce, the 
oidy one lie ever held being town-hip trus- 
tee. Tlie mother of Lewis Cass jliiler was 
a native of Irel.-ind, but was brought by her 



third Illinois Infantry. He participated in 
the two battles of Dotinelson, and was mus- 
tered out at Nashville, Tennessee. lie then 
went to ("hicago, Illinois, and from there 
returned to his home in ()hio. In 1S72 he 
came with his family to ^Vdums ("ounty, In- 
diana, and settled where he has since resided 
in lilue Creek Township. lie purchased 200 
acres of uncultivated land here, which he has 
converted into a tine farm, and is classed 
among the well-to-do farmers of his town- 
ship, lie had l)nt 8300 when he left the 
army, and from this small beginning he has 
acquired his present fine ])roperty, the result 
of ]iersevei'ing energy and good management. 






d was assigned to ('ompanv V, Eighty- parents to America when twoyears of age, and 

was reared in "Westmoreland County, Penn- 
sylvania. She was married to Mr. ]\Iiller 
aliout 1836, in Darke County, Ohio, where 
her ]iarents had remove<l a few years before. 
She survives her husband, and is now living 
with a daughter in Hartford Township. She 
is a member of the Christian church. ^Ii-. 
!Nriller was reared on the homestead in Hart- 
ford Townslii]). where, when not in school, he 
assisted in the woi'k of the farm. He was 
educated in tlie schools of Adams County, 
and when nineteen years of age began teach- 
ing in the district schools. He taught eight 
winters, devoting his summers to farming. 
In the meantime he was married, and settled 
on a farm in liis native township, which con- 
tinued his home until 1883, when, having 
been elected county auditor, he removed to 
Decatur to assume the duties of his office. 
He has proved an efficient and trustworthy 
officer, and is popular with his constituents. 
Reared in the Democratic school of politics, 
he lias always been allied with that party, 
and is a staunch advocate of its principles. 
He is a member of the Adams County Dem- 
ocratic Central Committee. He served Hart- 
ford Townshi]! as trustee twti terms of two 
years each. He is a member of no religious 
denomination, but is an attendant of the Bap- 
tist church, of which his wife is a member. 
He is a nienil)er of St. Clary's Lodge, No. 
ir;7, I. (). O. F. Mr. ^Miller was married 
September 14, 1871, at Hhitfton, Indiana, to 



EWIS CASS MILLER, auditor of Adams 
County, is one of the prominent citizens 
of the county, and one of her most 
])opular native-born children. lie was born 
in Hartford Township, Eebruar\- 19, 1846, a 
son of Daniel and Elizabeth (Dougherty) 
.Miller. His father was an ardent supporter of 
Democracy, and named his son in honor of the 
statesman and Democratic candidate for the 
presidency, Lewis Cass. He was a nati\e of 
Ohio, of (ierman ancestry. When a young 
man he entered (Tovernmcnt land in Adams 
(,'ounty, and in 1830 removed with his fam- 
ily to liis newly entered land and went bravely 
to work to make a home in the wilderness of 



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^liss Nancy A. Russell, a daiinjhter oi' one of 
the prominent citizens of AVells County. 
Tiiey have lour ciiililren — llui;;li, Edinond, 
(irace and Arthur. 



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|I)OXIUAM JUDSOX HILL was horn 
•)fcV'; in Herkimer, Herkimer County, New 
*-^,~^ York, October 'J, 1832. His education 
was obtained in the common and select schools 
and com|iieted by an acailemic course at Lit- 
tle Falls, New York. Li the winter of 
1S4:>> -'49 he emigrated with his father and 
family tu Virginia, settling in the Shenan- 
doah ^'a]le\', near Front Royal, where he re- 
mained until he attained his majority. In 
the fall of 1852 he came to Indiana and set- 
tled in Adams County, which has since been 
liis home. In the spring of 1859 he pur- 
chased a half interest in the Decatur £a(//e, 
and a little later the entire interest in the 
paper, which he conducted until the fall of 
18G2, when he enlisted in the Eighty-ninth 
Indiana Volnnteers and was elected Captain 
of Comjiany II. He took witli him the en- 
tire force of the office, including '-tiie devil" 
for a drummer boy. He continued in com- 
mand of the company until the fall of ISGl, 
when his health failed; and he returned home 
in January, iSfJu. -V draft was pending in 
the county at the time, which was soon wiped 
out by the enlistment of some sixty volnn- 
teers by his personal exertion, which tilled 
all demands made by the President for troops 
during the war. After this he resumed his 
old position on the Eagle, the office having 
been rented during ins absence in the army. 
^Vt the solicitaticju of John j\[cConnell, then 
clerk of the Adams Circuit Court, he was 
made his deputy in the b]>ring of 1865, and 
at the October election, 1857, was elected Mr. 
AlcConuell's successor. Four years after he 



was re-elected, thus serving two terms. His 
iirst presidential vote was cast fur James 
Buchanan, and lie has always been active in 
the interests of tlic Democratic party, having 
been chairman of its central committee for 
some ten years. In the fall of 187-1 he dis- 
posed of his interest in the Eatjle to Joseph 
^IcOonagle and opened a notion store. In 
August, 1881, he re-purchased the Eagle 
(nieanwliile changed to the Democrat) of S. 
Hay Williams, and conducted it two years, 
when it was sold to Roth & Cummings. 
Since that time ill health, the result of ex- 
posure in the army, has kept liim from any 
active business pursuits. 



.if^^EORGE PONTIUS, one of the pros- 
ifUyjf perous farmers of Hartford Township, 
=^1- residing on section 2G, was born in 
Pickaway County, Ohio, February 23, 1827, 
a sou of John and Julia A. (Critz) Pontius, 
who were natives of the sjime county as our 
subject, theii' parents being of Pennsylvania 
origin. They immigrated to Adams County-, 
Indiana, in 1854, settling in Hartford Tovvn- 
sliiii, on section 25, wliere they lived till theii- 
death, the mother dying ilarch 1, and the 
father March 31, 1859, aged respectively 
lifty-four and fifty-three years. They were 
of German descent. I'oth were consistent 
members of the ^lethodist Episcoj)al church. 
The father was a staunch Democrat in poli- 
tics, and during his life held many local 
offices of trust and responsibility. His 
fatlier, George Pontius, was a soldier in the 
war of 1812. He died in Pickaway County, 
Ohio. George Pontius, the subject of this 
sketch, was reared to manhood on the liome 
farm, and in his youth attended the common 
schools of his neighborhood, where he re- 
ceived but a limited education, but later in 






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lite received u i^ooil ])ractic;il ediieaticm, wliieli 
lias well tilted liiiii I'ur tin' duties of lite, lie 
remained at liDine till his inai-riage, Ma}- 13, 
1850, to ^Ii.<s Emily Shoemaker, who was 
horn in Fairticld County, Ohio, January 1~, 
1S32, a daii^diter of J)auiel Shoemaker, a 
native of I'fnn^ylvaiiia, and an eai'ly settler 
of Fairfield ('nunty. Mr. SluxMnalii-r (■;ime 
with his family to Indiana almut 1S55, lirst 
settling in Hartford Township, Adams County, 
and two yeais later removed to Xewville, 
now Vera Cruz, in Wells County, where lie 
hoiiirht a farm and saw and gi'ist-mill, ope- 
rating the mill, in eonnection with his farm- 
ing pursuits, until his death in 1857. lie 
was twiee m irried, his first wife being So})hia 
!Marks, a native of Piekaway County. Ohio, 
by whom he lia<l four sons and two daughters. 
She dieil in February, 1832. She was a 
niemluM- of the (iernian Lutheran eliurch. 
For his second wife Mr. Shoemaker married 
Elizabeth P>aker, and to this union were born 
five sons and two daughters. She died Sep- 
tember 28, 18s5, at the advanced age of 
eighty-three years. She was a member of 
the (ierman Ileformed churtdi. To ^[r. and 
!^^rs. Pontius have been born ten ehildren — 
]\rary Jane (deceased), Daniel, Sylvester, Clin- 
ton, Albert, Edward, Charles, Osaetta, George 
F. and John. After his marriage, in 1850, 
Jlr. Pontius came to Adams County, Indiana, 
and settled on land given liiin by his father, 
located on the northwest quarter of section 
21), llartt'ord Township, which was then 
nnimproved and covered over with a heavy 
growth of timber. His first house here was 
made of hewed logs, 18 x 28 feet in size, and 
in this house he lived till 1871, wdien lie 
built his present large and commodious resi- 
dence. It is built of brick and cost $?J:,000, 
and is one of the finest residences in this 
part of the township. His farm buildings 
for his stock are also noticeablv good. He 



has a line frame barn 45 .\ 108 feet, erected 
in 1873 at a cost of !?3,000, and from a small 
beginning he has accumulated a large prop- 
erty, owning yet 2-40 acres after giving liber- 
ally|tohisehildren. lie has experienced many 
of the hardships and privations incidentto pio- 
neer life, coming to Hartford Township among 
the early .settlers, where he worked hard at 
chopping Wood and c earing land for 50 cents a 
day, his T)resent jjrusperoiis condition having 
been gaint'd by persevering industry and good 
management. In politics, like his father, 
he atKliates with the I)emoeratic party. In 
November, 188G, he was elected commis- 
sioner of the Third Congressional District of 
Adams County, receiving a total of 2,012 
votes, a majority of 748 votes over the Pe- 
jniblican nominee. J'oth IMi-. and ^Irs. 
Pontius are members of the J\lethodist Epis- 
copal church. Their jwstolHce is Geneva, 
Indiana. 



^risrT FPED. PYLE, a popular and suc- 
'\:i\ \\' eessful teacher, residing at Geneva, 
[■^yT^Tj ® is the eldest son of Andrew J. and 
Mary A. Pyle, who were among the early 
settlers of Wabash Township, and was born 
November 22, 1858. He remained at home 
with his parents till attaining his majority, 
receiving in his youth the benefits of the 
common schools of Adams County. In 1879- 
'80 he attended the Northern Indiana Nor- 
mal School at Valparaiso, Indiana, after 
which he engaged in teaching, which he fol- 
lowed till 1883. He then entered the Eastern 
Normal School at Portland, in Jay County, 
o-raduatiniT from that institution in 1884, 
since which he lias been engaged in teaching 
school during the winter term, and reading 
law under the preceptorship of AVilliain 
Drew at Geneva, and at present is teaching 



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ill I )istrii't 'J, Waliash Tiiwiisliip. Novciiilier 
1, ISSy, lie was united in iiiarriafre to Miss 
Clara Vcley, a nati\e of I )f ivalli Cduntv, 
liiiliana, Imni ()et.)i)er 27, IM'.?. Tliuy have 
an infant bun, lidrii April )l'J., 18S7. 



)EV. FREDERICK BEKG, pastor 
' of the (lerniaii Lutheran church in 
'^x^ Rout Townsliip, was hunt in Logan.s- 
poit, Indiana, Marcli "20, 185G, wliere he re- 
mained until fourteen years uf age, then went 
to Concordia Colle^'e, at Fort ^\'ayiie, i.q-adu- 
atini; ill 1^75. Jletlien went to Concordia 
Seminary, at St. i^ouis, .Aiissouri, j^radiiating 
there in 1>S7S. He then became a missionary 
to the colored people at Little Kock, Arkan- 
sas, wliere lie organized the first Lutheran 
ehurcli for colored people in tlie United 
States, lie remained there until he came to 
his present pastorate. The membership is 
seventy-live active, voting members, and 379 
souls in the congregation, with 235 commun- 
icants. In I)ecatur he has an organized 
congregation with eight voting members, lif- 
teen coiumuiiicaiits and twenty-four members 
of the Congregation. The schools number 
sixty-live pujiils. In this school all the com- 
mon branches are taught, and by rule of the 
church pupils are obliged to attend until 
fourteen years of age. They are then con- 
tinned as communicants, and the males at 
twenty-one become voting members. Tlie 
parents of ^Ir. Berg were born in Prussia, 
Germany. The father came to America in 
1853 or 1854 and settled in Logansport, In- 
diana, where he died October 23, 185G, aged 
twenty-eight years. The niother is still liv- 
ing in Logansport with a half-sister, ^Irs. 
.\ngusta Smith. Mr. I>erg was married .Inly 
10, 1S79, to Miss Augusta Jox, who was 
)orn in Jackson County, Wisconsin, August 




10, 1859, where she lived until live years 
of age. She then remo\ed with her parents 
to Logansj)ort, where her father has since 
resided, as pastor u\' the Cierinan Lutheran 
chiirch. Roth her parents were born in (ier- 
maiiy. They were married in this country. 
The father was educated at Fort Wayne Sem- 
inary. The history of the Lutheran ciiurcli 
in this place is as follows: There were two 
men, named Clamor Fuelling and iJietrich 
Gerke, who, in 1S4-1, sold five acres each to 
the congregation for church purposes, about 
three-eighths of a mile southeast of the ])ies- 
ent site of the beautiful Lutheran chui-cli, 
consideration s30. Gn this site they erected 
a log cliurcli in which there was a parochial 
school. The first missionary in this locality 
was Frederick AVyneken, who ]jreached in 
barns. The next was liev. Ivnape, who re- 
sided in Preble Township. In the meantime 
there was a school taught by Messrs. Schlat- 
ermiind, G. II. Jaebker and Rennicke. !Mr. 
Jaebker afterward became tlie pastor of the 
Preble Township Lutheran church. The log 
church was built in 1S41. The church was 
regularly organized in 1M3, and had a deacon 
by the name of Frederick Christianer, and 
also owned property. F. Ilussman succeeded 
Pev. Ivnape, who, in turn, was succeeded by 
Andrew Fritze, who had charge of this con- 
gregation twenty-eight years, and lived in 
the present parsonage twenty-three years. 
Fie died here March 28, 1877. He was born 
in Wurtemberg, Germany, October 11, 181G. 
lie came to America a single man, and was 
educated at F'ort AVayne, at the Lutheran 
Seminary. The second church (frame l)nild- 
ing) was built in 1851, and is now used for 
school jHirposes. It was built during the 
ministry of Pev. Fritze, who was succeeded 
by Theodore Ilahn, who came here in 1877 
and remained until the summer of 18S1. 
During his ministry, in 1879, the present 



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brick clmrcli was erected at a cost of over 
,s(j,()()0. It is -tli x 72 feet in size, iiiul tlie 
jj^roiind consists of the ten acres previously 
mentioned. The church lias an organ, a bell 
and a beautiftd cemetery. The ])reseiit pas- 
tor, Ifev. Frederick ISerg, came to this field 
in >i\>veinl)er, ISSl. 

— — :^►^"^^«^— — 



K0IJ(4E FRAXK, a farmer of Washing- 
ton Township, was born in Northnmber- 
^Tv- land ("oniity, i^nnsylvania, November 
7, 1S15, SDU (if I'eter and Magdalena Frank, 
Tiatives also of Pennsylvania, and of German 
ance.-try. When seventeen years of age he 
ernigiated with his parents to Darke County, 
Ohio, and there they resided five years. He 
received a rudimentary education in the dis- 
trict scluiids, and being a great reader, has 
liecome a well-informed man on the general 
topics of the day. In 1838 he came to Adams 
County, and entered eighty acres of land in 
Blue Creek Townshi]), whei'e he settled in a 
loo- cabin and lived nineteen years. He has 
experienced all tlie hardships of pioneer life. 
His family subsisted on wild ganie for their 
(jJ meat many years. He subsequently removed 
«;. to Washington Township. He was married 
September 29, 1839, in Adams County, to 
iS'ancy Sackett, born August 14, 1823, in 
(-Jreeiie (bounty, Ohio, daughter of Samuel 
and Isaliel Sackett, natives of Ohio. Her 
parents came to xVdams County in the fall of 
1837, settling in JMue Creek Townshij), and 
were among the early pioneers. Mr. and 
!Mrs. Frank have liad seven children, three ot 
whom survive — Peter, Samuel, and Elezan, 
wife of Joel Roe, St. Mary's Townshiji. Mr. 
P'rauk in an early day served as clerk of Blue 
Ci-eek Township, also as justice of the peace 
for several years. In 1848 he was elected 
county assessor. At that time there were 






no township assessors. In 1858 he was 
elected sheritl', served one term and was re- 
elected. He was subsequently appointed to 
till a vacancy in the board of county com- 
missioners, and after his a])pointment expired 
he was elected to that office. He was serving 
the county when the court-house was built, 
and was one of its strongest advocates. It 
was built largely through his intlueuce. He 
owns a good farm of eighty acres on section 
14, in good cultivation. AVhen lie first came 
to this county he had only six dollars in cash 
and the clothes he wore on his back. The 
remainder of his possessions was done u]> in 
a "cotton trunk." He is a member of the 
Masonic fraternity at Decatur, and in polities 
is a Democrat. 



^mBRAHA.M ]\IcWILLIAM BOLLMAN, 
jiWv- recorder of Adams County, Indiana, was 
"s^jr? Imrn near Dalton, Wayne County, Ohio, 
March (), 1845. His father, Abraham Boll- 
man, was a native of ]?edfbrd County, Penn- 
sylvania, of German parentage, and when a 
young man left his native State and located 
in AVayne County, Ohio, where in 1829 he 
married Cliristiann Cook, a native of Ohio. 
In 1852 he came to Adams (Jounty, Indiana, 
and was engaged in the dry goods business at 
Decatur until his death, which occurred in 
August, 1873, aged nearly seventy-three 
years. He was in politics a Democrat, and 
during Buchanan's administration served as 
postmaster at Decatur. He also held the 
ottices of trustee and treasurer of Decatur 
several terms. His widow survived him 
until June 7, 1885, being at her death nearly 
seventy-live years old. They were members 
of the Presbyterian church for a number of 
years. They had a family of thirteen chil- 
dren, all of whom save one lived till maturity. 



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JIItiTOIiV OF ADAMS COUNTY. 






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and eight are still living, lour in Adams 
County, two in ^liaiui ('ounty, one in Jay 
County, Indiana, and one in lieno ('ounty, 
Kansas. A. ^IcW. Bolltnan accompanied liis 
parents to iUlams County in 1852, and was 
liere reared, receiving his education in the 
schools of Decatur. When seventeen years 
old he began teacliing, and taught three win- 
ter terms in Adams, and seven in !Miami 
County, Indiana. In April, 1S73, he was 
deputized county recorder by Captain J. J. 
Clmbb, and again by Jiis successor, John 
Schuj'ger, holding the jiosition six years. In 
July, lS7il, he was appointed deputy circuit 
clerk by 1>. JI. Dent, and in 1S81 by Captain 
Morval Illackburn, serving over tour years. 
In October, 18S2. he was elected county I'c- 
cordcr, assuming the duties ot" his office in 
1883, and was re-elected to the same ottice in 
Xovember, 18S6. In 1873 he made the first 
abstract of title of Adams County, and in 
187G-'77 made the first complete abstract of 
records and titles of the county, and at pres- 
ent is at work on a condensed index of all 
the titles in the county. Jlr. Bollman was 
married October 22, 1874, at Bunker Hill, 
Indiana, to Elsie E. Keegan, a native of 
iS'atick, Massachusetts, daughter of Peter and 
Bridget (Killiam) Keegan, natives of Ireland. 
They have four children — Jennie, Arthur 
]\Ic\V., Frances L. and ^laggie. ^Mrs. Boll- 
man is a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. 



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^^NDREW J. PYLE, one of the old pio- 
jjM'j neers of Adams County, Indiana, resid- 
^j^ ing on section 34r, AVabash Township, 
was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, March 
8, 1829, a son of Robert and Mary Ann (Les- 
lie) Pyle. His father was a native of New Jer- 
sey and was ofETicish descent, his ancestors 



coining to jVmei-ica with AViUiam Penn. The 
motlier was also born in the State of Pennsyl- 
vania, living there till after her marriage. The}' 
removed to AVayne County, ( )hio, about 1831, 
and in 1837 came to Jay County, Indiana, 
and settled in Wabash Townshij), where the 
father entered land, which he sold in 1850. 
He then purchased 300 acres of land in 
Wabash Township, Adams County, on which 
he resided until 1860. In that year he sold 
his Adams County property and removed to 
Itock Creek Township, Wells County, Indi- 
ana, where both parents died, the father in 
1865, aged sixty-live years, and the mother in 
1871, aged sixty-eight years. They had a 
family of six children, four sons and two 
daughters. They were membei's of the J\Ieth- 
odist Episcopal church. The father was a 
carpenter and mill-wright by trade, at which 
he worked in connection with his farming- 
pursuits. Politically he was first a Democrat, 
afterward an old-line Whig, and subsequent- 
ly affiliated with the Kepublicau party. 
Andrew Jackson Pyle, the subject of this 
sketch, was reared on the home farm, receiving 
but limited educational advantages. He 
learned the carjjenter's trade from his father, 
whicli he followed till thirty years of age, and 
superintended the erection of Liber College, 
in Jay (bounty, Indiana. After giving up his 
trade he engaged in farming and dealing in 
stock, which he still follows. For a time he 
followed mercantile pursuits at Jay City. 
August 19, 1855, he was married to Mary A. 
Sivbry, a native of Fairfield County, Ohio, 
born February 25, 1837, a daughter of William 
and Mary A. (Kraner) Sivbry, natives of 
Maryland, her mother born in 1803. Her 
parents were married in Fairfield County, 
Ohio, remaining there till 1839, when they 
came to Indiana and settled in Bear Creek 
Township, Jay Coimty, residing there till 
their death, the father dying April 29 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCnKS. 



18()(!, aivcd sixty-six ycnrs, and tlic mother 
Jiimiary 'JO, lS7;i. Tlii-y inici a family nt'six 
children, four sons and two dangliti'i-s. Mr. 
iSivl)ry \vas a ministorin the United lirethren 
church, and traveled as a circuit preacher for 
several years, lie was of Irish descent. ^Ir. 
and Mrs. I'ylc are the parents of live children 
— Martha A., horn .hine .S, 1856, died Decem- 
ber 1-4, IS.")!!; AVilliain F., born November 22, 
1858; Harvey E., born September 8, 18(31; 
Jenette, born March 29, 1867; and Clara S., 
l)orn August 20, 1877. Mr. Pyle has pros- 
pered in his agricultural pursuits, and has now 
a farm of 1S5 acres, 120 being under excellent 
cultivation, with a good comfortable residence 
and farm liuildings for his stock. In politics 
lie is a Republican with Prohibition senti- 
ments. ]\[r. Pyle remembers of riding on 
the first railway cars, from Philadelphia to 
J'loomington, Pennsylvania, in 1833, tiie cars 
being drawn by liorses. He is said to have 
killeil the largest deer killed in day County, 
Indiana, using an old tiint-lock musket 
W'liich had been carried by his uncle in the 
Revolutionary war. Jlis grandfather was a 
soldier in the same war. Both !Mr. and j\Irs. 
Pyle are members of the United Brethren 
church. 



r£^ A]\IUEL L. liUGCi was an early settler 
Kc^ of A<lams County. He was born in 
V-" Oneida Connty, New York, August 28, 
1805, where lie passed his early life. lie 
prepared himself for college at Waterville, in 
liis native connty, but his father dying about 
this time he was obliged to modify his plans. 
It became necessary for him to make his own 
living, and, being a natural mechanic, he ob- 
tained emjiloyment in a blacksmith shop, in 
his native village. Jlere he worked and 
studied, and developed into a man of rare 



business capacity, which was recognized by 
his emjiloyers. In 1S25 the lu'ie ( 'anal was 
opened, and there was an immense immigra- 
tion wostwaril. During this year he went to 
Cincinnati, wdiere he was employed in a large 
cotton-thread factory. lie was a thorough 
machinist, a good salesman and a skillful ac- 
countant. In 1832 he left the factory and 
came to Indiana, wdiere he entered a tract of 
land in Allen County, near the old fort, and 
commenced at once to improve his land. In 
183t) he petitioned to the General Assembly 
for a new county. Adams County was then 
set off and organized, Decatur being chosen 
as the county seat. He was elected the first 
connty clerk and recorder, and held the ofHce 
eighteen years. The office of recorder was soon 
after separated from that of county clerk, ^fr. 
Rugg was popular in the county, being known 
as a man of honesty, generosity and public 
spirit. In 1854 he was nominated by the 
Democratic piirty for State Senator, and was 
elected. He filled the position with great 
satisfaction to his constituents. In 1858 he 
was nominated for the office of superintend- 
ent of public instruction, and was elected by 
a large majority. He entered npon the 
duties of his office in February, 1859, on 
the retirement of Dr. Larrabee. Jlr. Rugg 
was the third supei-inteiKlcnt of the State. 
At this time the school monies were dis- 
tributed among the different counties, and 
the officers had made proper returns to the 
State. Every county had been provided for 
but his own. ]\Ir. Rugg recovered for the 
use of the jiublic schools $750,000, which 
placed thein on a good footing. In 1860 he 
was defeated by Mr. Jliles Fletcher, who died 
before the expiration of his term of office. 
Another election was ordered, and Mr. Rugg 
was elected, serving until 1864. He died at 
Nashville March 28, 1871, and his remains 
were brought back to his old home at De- 



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HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY. 



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iiitcrineiit. ^\s a [luljlic man ^Ir. 
Itiigg was tlie pi'iiiiiDter (if the l\)rt Wayne 
iSc Uiclmionil Uailroaii, ami the orii;aiii/.er of 
the Foj't ^\'avIle i\: Uecatur I'laiik-road Coiii- 
jKUiy. I lu exhau.stcd all ul' his own resources 
in tiie construction of the two roads, and he 
was left in very poor circunistauces. lie was 
a kind husband and father, a devoted friend, 
and left behind him a hu'i^e circle of friends 
to mourn his loss. The first land he entered 
in Indiana was une-half mile north of De- 
catur, now known as the Tonallie farm. ^Ir. 
liujig lived on this farm when Adams County 
was sot oil' from Allen County. He was 
lirst married in ('incinnati, living with his 
wife only a few years, when she died, leaving 
a young child that soon followed its mother. 
It was after this that Mr. Kugg resolved to 
come to the wilds of Indiana. lie went to 
Piqua, Uhio, by canal, and bought an ox 
team, loading liis eftects on a stone-boat made 
of planks. It was very muddy and the boat 
woidd slide c)\er the mud; in this, way he 
came to the farm, lie was again married to 
Miss ISusan I5all, wlio died leaving four chil- 
dren — J. Kirkland, _ Dewitt Clinton, Julius 
anil Cornelia. .VU are living. His third 
wife, whom he married June 8, 18-47, was 
Catherine ISiggs, who was born in Pennsyl- 
vania January 22, 1822, and died August 7, 
1853, leaving three children — Jay; Jessie, 
born April 3, 1851, and died October 12, 
1853, and Indiana, who was born ^\.ugust 2, 
1853, and died in eleven days. The father 
was formerly a Methodist, but in later life 
was a Presbyterian. Tlie mother was also a 
!Methodist. ]\Ir. Kugg owned and platted 
Decatur, then afterward sold the north part 
to Mr. Reynolds. He donated a lot to the 
Methodist, Presbyterian, Catholic, Baptist 
and German Reformed churches, and also 
donated the public squai-e on which the coui-t- 
house was Iniilt. He set apart live acres for 



a park, and gave the lair grounds. Ax one 
time he engaged in the agricultural imple- 
ment business, but it failed. He was more 
successful in cotton irrowiuir. 



iP^ AMUEL WELDY, farmer, section 22, 
tfS^l Kirkland Township, was born Septem- 
^^ ber 29, 1818, in Eairtield County, Uhio, 
the eldest child of Peter and Susannah Weldy. 
lie grew to manhood on his father's farm in 
bis native county, receiving such education as 
the district schools of that early day afforded. 
He was first married October 20, 1842, to 
JMartha ivenneiiy, who was born in Faii'tield 
County, Ohio, April 3, 1823, but reared till 
her mai'riage in Perry County, a daughter of 
William and Sarah (Henry) Kennedy, who 
were of Irish and German descent respective- 
ly. Her parents died in Perry C(junty. 
They were members of the Presbyterian 
church. Tliey had a family of eight children, 
four sons and four daughters. To ilr. and 
Mrs. Weldy were born seven children — Ra- 
chel E. (deceased), Peter II., William T. 
(deceased), Joseph P., Sarah C, Myron 
(deceased), Peter H. (deceased). After bis 
marriage ilr. Weldy rented his father's farm, 
w'hich be farmed for ten years. lie came to 
Adams County, Indiana, in October, 1857, 
and settled on section 1, Kirkland Township, 
wliich he subsequently sold, and removed to 
section 12. In the fall of 1867 be settled on 
his present farm, which contains eighty acres 
of choice land. AVhen he settled on this 
farm about sixteen acres had been cleared 
and a small log cabin built. He has his 
entire farm now under line cultivation, with a 
good residence and comfortable farm build- 
ings. He was a Union man during the war 
of the Rebellion, and was enrolling oflicer of 
his township. He was bereaved by the death 






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ofliis wife July 2S, 18S3, iiiul July 5, 1884, 
he was niraiu married, to Mrs. Susannah 
ilillii^en. Mr. ^Vel(ly takes an active inter- 
est in any enterprises wliicii he deems tor the 
advancement of his township or county, and 
has filled acceptably several local othces. In 
politics he is a staunch Kepuhlican. 



ICMAKL N. KIJ.VNER, deceased, 
was born in Fairfield County. Ohio, 
'K;i?^ Xovember ~6. lN()9, a son of John 
^I. and Susauiiali (^Vise) Kraner, natives of 
]\Iarvland, the father born near Baltimore. 
Kis parents subsequently settleil in Fairfield 
County, Ohio, where they made their hotne 
till death. Tlie grandfather of our subject, 
^fichael Kraner, was a native of Germany, 
wliei-e he lived for several years after his mar- 
riage. His wife died in that country, after 
which he immigrated with his four cliildren 
to America. He died in Fairfield County, 
(Jliio. r.y trade he was a carpenter. ALichael 
N., our subject, was al)Out seven years old 
when lie was brought by his parents to Fair- 
field County, and there he was reared to 
manhood on the home farm, lie was mar- 
ried June 11, 1829, to Catherine Minehart, 
who was born in JHflli!! County, Pennsyl- 
vania, September 22, ISO'J, a daughter of 
George and Catherine (Roads) Mineliart, the 
father born in York County, Pennsylvania, 
December 11, 1777, and the mother being a 
native of the same State and of German 
descent. Her parents had a family of si.K 
children, one son and five daughters. Her 
fatiier was but a child wlien lie was taken by 
his parents to ^Htllin County, Pennsylvania, 
where he was reared. His pai'ents were resi- 
dents of Fairfield ('ounty, Ohio, at the time 
of their death. Seven children have been 
born to ]\[r. and Mrs. Kraner — Saluda J., 



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Delilah, Hiram, Klender (deceased), Ann C, 
]\Iar_y V,. and .John O. After his marriage 
Mr. Kraner followed farming in Hancock 
County, Ohio, and in 1860 came to Adams 
County, Indiana, arriving here December 25. 
Here he jnirchased a large tract of land and 
erected the first portable saw-mill in the 
vicinity. He died on the homestead farm, 
in Wabash Township, May 14, 1882. He 
was at one time a member of the United 
Brethren church. He was a man of strict in- 
tegrity and honorable in all his dealings, 
and was a man much respected throughout 
the community where lie resided. His widow 
is now livinir at Geneva, Indiana. 



/fTOHX ]McCUNE, deceased, who was one 

f; of the early settlers of Adams County, 
Indiana, was born in Holmes County, 
Ohio, December 23, 1813. He grew to man- 
hood in Kentucky, and received a fair com- 
mon-school education. He came with liis 
father's family to Indiana, they settling in 
Kush County. He was married in UusJi 
County to !Mary Aspey, who was born in that 
county September 11, 1813, a danghter of 
Lawrence Aspey, Sr. Twelve children were born 
to this union, five sons and seven daughters. 
After his marriage ilr. JMcCune located in 
I'^iyette County, Indiana, and from there he 
removed to Hancock County. He subse- 
quently returned to Fayette County, and in 
1845 came to Adams County, and settled on 
section 27 of Monroe Township on land 
which had been entered for him by his father- 
in-law. His land was heavily covered with 
timber when he settled on it, and he imTnedi- 
ately began clearing and improving the place. 
He built a hewed-log house one and a half 
stories high, covered with clapboards, and 
afterward built a more commodious frame 



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HISTORY OP ADAMS COUNTY. 



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rc'sitlencc, in wliicli lie resiilud until his do;itli 
!\oveiiiber 24, ls73, hi» wile surviving,' until 
August 23, 1S74. JJoth were worthy mem- 
bers of the Christian church. Politically 
Mr. ]\IcCuiie was formerly a ^\ hig, hnt later 
attiliated with the Kepnblican party. He was 
active in all enterprises which had for their 
object the advancement of liis township or 
county, and served faithfully as township 
trustee and constable. In the early days of 
the county he was considered quite a luinter. 
.Vt one time he shot three deer from his noi'th 
M'indow. He was successful in his agricult- 
ural pursuits, and at the time of his death 
liad 1()0 acres of choice land. 



^AY RUG CI, farmer, section 26, Eoot 
"jv Township, was born in Decatur, this 
^^ county, April 4, 184S. He lived in his 
native town until 185S, then removed to Fort 
AVayne, where his father, Samuel Kugg, was 
elected State Superintendent of Public In- 
struction. The family then removed to In- 
dianapolis, where they lived four years. 
During the late war he enlisted in Compan}' 
C, Seventeenth Indiana Infantry, and served 
three years, or until the close of the war. 
lie was in the battle of Chickamauga, ^lis- 
sionary Pidge and all the battles and skir- 
mishes of his regiment. They went to Atlanta, 
but returned to Xashville, under General 
Thomas, and was in the battle of Fraidilin. 
lie was discharged in February, 1864; but 
when General Morgan made his raid he en- 
listed in the One Hundred and Thirty-second 
Indiana for 100 days. After his discharge 
he lived a short time in F^ort AVayne, when 
the family removed to Nashville, Tennessee, 
on account of his father's ])ulmonary diffi- 
culties. The}' lived there three years, ■when 
the tather went to Huntsville, Alabama. 



Our subject was then running an enjjine on 
the .Memphis ^- Charleston liailroad. He 
followed that occupation nine years. He 
was married June 26, 1876, to Mrs. 
Catherine Smith, who was born in Clarke 
County, Ohio, October 26, 1836, and when 
she was five years old the family removed 
to this county, settling in Washington Town- 
ship, where she was mostly reared. Her 
parents were natives of Virginia. Her father 
was l)orn in Rockingham County in 1811, 
whore he was reared atid educated. He was 
married in Clarke County, Ohio. He died 
on the old homestead in Wabash Township 
August 26, 1874. The mother was four and 
a half years older than the father, and died 
on the home farm April 16, 1872, and is 
buried in the Crawford cemetery. Mrs. Jtusjg 
was the oldest of eight children. She has 
two brothers living in Wabash Township, 
and one brother in Washington Township. 
A sister lives in Florida. Mr. and ]\[rs. 
Pugg have one child — Gertrude, who was 
born June 9, 1878. 



7j,.^ fri<:derick avillia^i plakey, 

farmer, resides on section 20, Union 
Township, where he owns 320 acres 
of land. He also owns 160 acres on section 
17, making a total of 480 acres. He was 
born in Prussia November 30, 1825, aiid 
came with his parents to Amei-ica when ten 
years of age. He was married in December, 
1854, to Miss Mary Pevalheimer, who was 
born in Pennsylvania in December, 1833. 
Mr. and Mrs. Blakey have nine living chil- 
dren — AVilliam, Louisa, Caroline, Christine, 
Edward, Helena, ilary, Sophia and Fierman. 
Caroline is deceased. His father's family 
consisted of seven children — Christian, F'red- 
erick, who died in Germany at the age of 



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BIOGRAPUIGAL SKETCHES. 



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one and ii lialf V(.'ar>; I'"recliTick, our subject; 
Cliristiiio, Sophia, Mary. amJ Aniulia, who 
was born and died in Cincinnati, being about 
two years old at death. Owv subject was not 
much of a liunter in an early day, but iiis 
brotlier Cliristian was a very skilH'ul liunter, 
and turkeys were so thick that he could not 
shoot without hitting one. Frederick lived 
in the same house with his brother Christian 
until 1870, at which time they separated. 
In 1S50 the brothers embarked in the mer- 
cantile trade, and also conducted an ashery 
under the tirm name of John II. Blakey. In 
1880 they commence<l the tile business, and 
two years later abandoned the mercantile 
trade. They have been very successful in 
the inanufacture of tile. They burn eight 
kilns per year, each kiln containing about 
l,2(t0 rods, including all sizes, from two to 
eig-ht inches. The Blakey family were tlie 
second who settled in Union Township, 
Daniel llines beincr the oldest livinjr settler. 
The Township was organized in 1841, the 
tirst election taking place at the house of 
John r.lakey, there being eight votes cast. 



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.IUA]\I KKANEU, a prosperous farmer 
of Wabash Township, I'esiding on sec- 
^<(| tion 33, was born in Fairfield County, 
Ohio, November 14, 183'), a son of ^lichael 
N. Kraner, an old pioneer of Adams County, 
lie was reared to the avocation of a fanner, 
which lie has followed the greater part of his 
life, and in his youth attended the district 
schools of Hancock County, Ohio, where he 
obtained a limited education. His father 
owned the first portable saw-inill in Adams 
County, Indiana. He subsequently sold a 
half interest in the mill, which was moved 
to Decatur, our subject being engaged in 
running it at that place some three years. 



He also learned the carjjcnter's trade, which 
he followed but a short time. Felji-uary 1, 
1S(J2, he was united in marriage to .Miss 
Sarah E. ^lays, a native of Virginia, born 
Ajiril 28, 1815, and to them have been born 
ten children — Mary C, Charles W., Minerva 
J., Laura E. (^deceased), Delpha E., Ann J., 
John AV., Luda A., Clara E. and Hiram C. 
Mr. Kraner settled on his present farm in 
November, 1873, which contains 1(50 acres 
of well-cultivated land with comfortable resi- 
dence and good farm buildings, besides which 
he owns eighty acres in Jay County. In pcdi- 
tics he is a Democrat. He is a member of 
the Odd Fellows lodge at Decatur. 



^EXRY II. .MYERS, of Washington 
iril) Township, was born in Wayne County, 
^ii Ohio, April IS, 18-43, son of Frederick 
and Christina .Myers, natives of Germany. 
They immigrated to America in the fall of 
1830, and lived in Pennsylvania several years, 
then removed to Wayne County, Ohio; 
thence to Adams County, this State, in the 
fall of 1851, being among the first settleis 
of Washington Township. The parents re- 
mained in this county until their decease, 
the father's death occurring February 2G, 
1859, and the mother's December 5, 1879. 
They were the parents of ten children, si.x of 
whom survive — Frederick, AVilliam J., Henry 
H., David L., Daniel AV. and James M. The 
father was a member of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church, and was one of the founders of 
that churcli in Decatur. He was an honest, 
hard-working pioneer, and at his death left 
quite a large estate. Henry H. Myers was 
reared to manhood in this county, and edu- 
cated in the district schools. He was mar- 
ried October 1(5, 1870, to Elizabeth C. Baker, 
and to this union were born six children 



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Charles C, Jolin T., Uicliurd 1)., AVade II., 
Doi'sey ] ). and Jetiiiie E. F. In Anynst, 
18()"i, Mr. ,M3-ers cidisted in (Junijiany II, 
Ei^lity-nintli Indiana Inlantrj, as a private, 
but was appointed Color-Serij;eant of liis regi- 
ment. His regiment Ijecame a part of the 
Si.xteentli Army Corps of Sherman's army, 
and participated in tlie battle of Munford- 
ville, siege of Vicksbnrg, was in the lied 
Kiver expedition, and took jiart in the prin- 
cipal battles on the Mississippi Eiver. At 
the battle of Yellow Bayou, Louisiana, he 
wa.s wounded in the left leg just below the 
knee, and was for several months in the hos- 
pital at JeflersDii Barracks, Jlissouri. He 
then entered the Veteran Reserve Corps, and 
remained until his discharge in the fall of 
1865. lie returned home to Adams County, 
and has been a resident here ever since. lie 
has served as ditch commissioner for five 
years; is a Democrat in politics, a member 
of the Masonic society at Decatur, and of 
the (t. a. R. post. ilrs. Myers' parents, 
John T. and ilargaret Baker, were earlj' set- 
tlers of Adams County. 



-'I^IIRISTOPIIER F. MYERS, of Wash- 
ilvK ington Township, is a native of (Tcr- 
^^i many, born ^lay 22, 1829, sou of 
Frederick and Christina M3'ers, of wiioni 
mention is made elsewhere in this volume. 
He came to America with his parents in 
1830, and to Adams County in 1851. He 
was reared principally in Ohio, and received 
a rudimentary education in a district school. 
He early learned the tanner's trade, which he 
followed nearly thirty years, and for about 
three years was in business for hitnself in 
AVells County, this State. He has been twice 
married. His first wife was Elizabeth Glancy, 
and they had one child, Sarah. His second 



wife was ]\Iary L. Karnal, and to tliis union 
have been born six children — Rebecca, flohn 
AV., Charles M., Simon, Amanda ,1. and Mary 
E. Mr. flyers owns twenty acres of good 
land, which is well cultivated. He is a mem- 
ber of the Christian church, and has officiated 
as an ordained elder four years. Politically 
he is a Prohibitionist. 



rOHX SCHURGER was born in Seneca 



^ (jeorge A. and Margaret (Rab) Schurger, 
natives of Bavaria. He was the second of 
nine children, but five of whom are living, 
two sons and three daughters — John; Agnes, 
wife of Henry Lang, of Adains County, 
George, a telegraph operator at Creston, Ohio, 
and Catherine and Alary, sisters of grace at 
St. Mary's Catholiclnstitute in Vigo County, 
Indiana. AVhen our subject was but thirteen 
years old his father was taken sick, and the 
family being in indigent circumstances and 
he being the eldest son, he was obliged to as- 
sist his mother in their maintenance. His 
father died in 1852. He remained on the 
farm with his mother until twenty-one years 
of age. He was deprived of all educational 
advantages, his only schooling being forty-two 
days at an English and twenty-two days at a 
German school. He, however, by private 
study acquired a fair business education, ap- 
plying himself, as he says, " while others 
slei)t." In 1861 he came to Adams County 
and bought land in St. Mary's Township, 
where he engaged in farming until the spring 
of 1866, when he sold his farm and went to 
Root Township, near Decatur, where in con- 
nection with farming he engaged in butcher- 
ing. In November, 1874, he was elected 
recorder of Adams County and was re- 
electeil in 1!S78, bedding the office eight years. 



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In iiulitics Mr. Scliiii-ijci- is ;i I )rini)('i-;U. 
yince leuving tlic i-c(.Miik'i'"s oll'u'u liu has liet'ii 
enijMgeil iii tracing and writinj;; up abbtracts, 
titles to jH'iijierty, vU\ ^[i'. Seluirirer was 
married April 2'J, ls02, to A^'atha Fisher, a 
native of 1 laden, Germany, who came with 
her ]Kii-t iits, S. and Theresa Fisher, to Amer- 
ica \\licn >lie 'A'as eiijht years nld. To tliem 
have lieen hum ten ehiklren, ei^'l t ot' whoin 
are livini; (atherine, Kosa, .Vlbert, Lena, 
Anthony, Christina, Louisa and Frederick. ] 
Bridget died ai'ed six weeks :ind Andrew | 
aged two years. Mv. Schui'ger and liis fam- 
ily are memljers of St. Mary's Catholic 
clmrch. lie has been treasurer of the board 
of trustees of St. Joseph's school, which is 
under the auspices of St. Mary's church. ^Tr. 
Schurger's mothei' died at his residence No- 
vember 3, l^Sl), aged eighty-four years. 



fXMES AVALKEIl LLXTON, general 
I'armer, ie>iding on sectitin 18, Jeti'er- 
".c son Townshi]), is a native of Darke 
County, Ohio, born September 17, 1S3G, a 
sou of Samuel and Margaret (^\'alker) Linton, 
old settlers of Adams County. He was 
brought by his parents to Adams Couiitj' in 
183s, and here he grew to manhood, receiv- 
ing his education in the common schools of 
his neighborhood. lie remained on the home 
farm with his parents nntil his marriage J)e- 
ceniber 20, 1858, to iliss Mary Ann Wheeler. 
She was born in Pickaway County, Ohio, 
September 21, 1S3G, a daughter of Amos and 
llebecca (Hedge) Wheeler. Iler father was 
a native of Fennsylvania. lie came to Indi- 
ana when a young man, and helped clear the 
land wdiere Indianajiolis now stands. He 
suljse(piently went to (^hio, where he was 
married. Jle came to ^Vdams County, Indi- 
ana, with his family and settled in ^\'abash 



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Township in iS'.V.i, cnti-ring land on section 
30, on which he lived till his death. lie 
died in the spring of IsTT, aged al)out eifhtv- 
tive years. His wife died in tlic fall of ISTG, 
aged seventy-tive years. They were the par- 
ents of nine children, ti\e .-ons and four 
daughters. Eight children have been bcjrn 
to ilr. and IMi's. Lint<:>n — llebecca .L, born 
February 3, 18()1, died October 3, 1807; 
Charles Sylvester, boi'ii l''ebi-uai-v 2i, 1803; 
Samuel U., boi'n ^farcli IS, I^IJO; ]\Iary E., 
born January 18, ISflS; John W., born A])ril 
2, 1870; James E., born March 24, 1S72; 
Amos W., born December 13, 1873, and Jo- 
seph M., born June 29, 1878. ilr. Linton 
enlisted in the late war Febi-uar}- 11, I'SOo, 
and was assigned to Company E, One Hun- 
dred and F'ifty-third Indiana Infantry. He 
was taken sick with measles at C^amp Car- 
ringtou, at Indianapolis, and was discharged 
there May 23, 1805. After his marriage 
^Ir. Linton engaged in farming on section 33, 
NN'^abasli Township. Since that time he has 
owneil and lived on several different farms, 
and in 1881 purchased the farm in Jefferson 
where he now resides, where he has seventy- 
two acres of choice land. ^Ir. Linton is a 
niemlier of the Oerman Baptist church. In 
politics he was formerly a Kepublican, but is 
now a Prohibitionist, and has held several 
local ottices with credit to himself and satis- 
faction to his constituents. 



jEXJAMIX MARTIN, farmer, section 
j 30, Union Townshi]i, was born in Frank- 
lin County, Pennsylvania, in December, 
1812. In 1835 he removed to Stark County, 
Ohio, wi til his wife and two children, where he 
liveil until 1842, then removed to Union 
Township, Adams County, this State, and 
settled upon the farm he now owns. He 






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HISTORY OF ADAMS COLWrY. 



came witli wife and four children, one child 
liaving died in Stark County, lie came with 
wagon and two yoke of oxen, and cut liis own 
road a part of the way from Decatur. While 
building his log lioiise he lived witii a man 
named Peter Sickafoose. His cabin was one 
and a half stories in height, 20 x 24 feet, 
with puncheon tloor. He lived in that house 
until 1S()2. when lie huilt liis present frame 
house. Mrs. Martin died JSIarch 23, 185+, 
leaving twelve children, three of whom have 
died since her death. One died in Peimsyl- 
vania, and one in Stark County, Ohio. Mary 
C. died in Pennsylvania at the age of thirteen 
ntonths; Thomas died in this county, aged 
about twenty-two years; Penjamin Franklin 
was hum in Xnvember, 1835, and died in 
this county; Peter, born July 6, 1837, died 
November" 7, 1837; .Tolm, born May 22, 
1839; Catherine, born May 13, 1841; liaman 
M., born November 29, 1842; Margaretta, 
born February 23, 1845: Sarah, born April 
17, 1847; William IP, born April 10, 1849; 
Amelia, born December 20, 1850; George 
W., born February 22, 1852, died August 7, 
1853. December -2, 1873, ]\Ir. Martin was 
married to Caroline Courtney, widow of AVill- 
iain Courtney, and daughter of John and 
Sarali (Parks) Leach. Her father died in 
Trumbull County, Ohio, when she was about 
ten years old. Her parents came from New 
Jersey t(j Ohio, settling in Trumbull County. 
The mother died in Greenville, Ohio, in 
1876, aged eiglity-nine years. ]\[rs. Martin 
was born in Trumbull County, April 6, 1822, 
and was reared and educated in that county. 
She lived in Trumbull County some time 
after lier first marriage, and they removed to 
Allen County, this State, where the husband 
died, leaving four cliildren, three of wliom 
are living — Margaret, born ]\[ay 29, 1844, 
now the wife of James Leach; Sarah P., born 
December 22, 1845, died in 1881, leaving 



three children; Mary A., born September 22, 
1847, wife of Jacob Shnll; William H., born 
October 28, 1852. The Martins and Leaches 
are of Fnglish ancesti'y; Mrs. Martin's tirst 
husband was of German ancestry. 



fAMES T. YOUNG, engaged in farming 
on section 29, AVabasli Township, where 
«fc he has thirty acres of choice land under 
a tine state of cultivation, was born in Miami 
Count}', Oliio, April 9, 1847, his parents, 
John and Elizabeth (Thompson) Young, 
being natives of the same State, and of Scotch 
and German descent respectively. Their ances- 
tors were soldiers in the war of the Pevolution. 
AVlien our subject was but a month old his 
mother died, and at the age of seven years lie 
was left an orphan by the death of his father. 
After his father's death he lived at different 
places until February 16, 1864, when he 
enlisted in Company G, Eighth Ohio Cavalry, 
and was with Hunter under Sheridan in the 
Eighth Army Corps, cavalry division. He 
participated in the second battle at Lexington, 
the battles of Charlotteville, Linchburgli, and 
Liberty, wiiere he was wounded, and taken 
prisoner June 19, 1864. He was then sent 
to Anderson ville, where he was imprisoned 
until November 20, 1864, when he was 
paroled, returning home for thirty days. He 
was then exchanged and rejoined his company 
at AVeston, West Virginia, receiving his final 
discharge July 81, 1865, the war being over. 
After receiving his discharge he returned to 
his home in Miami County, Ohio, and later 
went to Darke County, Ohio, where he was 
married May 5, 1868, to Miss Lucretia Eng- 
lish, who was a native of that county, born 
August 4, 1850, a daughter of James and 
Lucretia (Russell) English. Her father was 
born in County Antrim, Ireland, November 




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26, ISll, ami witli liis puiviits. Williutii and 
Elizaliutli (^ Davidson) iMiglisli, ciiiiic to 
Amei-iiM in May, IM'2, iaiuliiig at Cliarlest(ji), 
Soutli ("ai-olina. Tlu'y iirst settled in Ten- 
nessee ill 1818, and moved to AVarren County, 
Oliio, where his mother died. lie then 
with hi> tatlier. two brothers and two sisters 
removed to I)arl^e rounty in 1S23, and 
located on a farm (jf llDi acres all in timber. 
In 18;J2 his father, William Kni^lish, built 
the finest farm liouse then in the county, and 
lived in it until his death, February 23, 
ISotJ. dames KuLcH^h then became possessor 
of the farm, and in 1S8U built another house, 
which is now the finest farm house in the 
County, in which he lived until his death, 
which occurred November 4, 18S0. 15oth 
houses are now owned by the widow and their 
seven heirs. The mother of Mrs. Young, 
Lucretia Russell, was liorn in Cirant County, 
South Carolina, in 1812, and with her parents, 
William and Annie IJussell, moved to Pi(jua, 
Ohi(_i, and thence to Darke County, where 
she was married to James English, in 1830. 
They were members of the United Presby- 
terian cluirch. ]Mr. Engiish was very much 
op])osed to slavery and was a strong Republi- 
can. He was a constant reader of the Bible 
and of liis local paper from its first issue 
until the time of his deatli. Mr. and ^Irs. 
Youncr are the parents of three children — 
Samuel Ottwell, Warren W. and Martha D. 
Just after the war Mr. Young spent a year 
traveling in Iowa and Ivansas. After his 
marriage he engaged in the manufacture of 
tile in Darke County, and subserviently 
engaged in tlie same business in Jay County, 
Indiana. He came with his family to Adams 
County, Indiana, in 1875, locating at Geneva, 
where he was engaged in the manufacture of 
tile from 1878 until 1884. lie then sold 
out his tile factory, and has since followed 
agricultural pursuits on his present farm in 



AVabash Township. In jiolitics lie casts his 
suilrage with the Republican party. lie 
draws a jiension from tin- (uivernment for 
his services during the war of tlir Reliellion. 
lie is a chai'ter member of John P. Porter 
Post, \o. 83, (r. A. II. ^Irs. Young is also 
a charter member of the "Woman's Relief 
Coi'ps, auxiliary to Porter Post. 



,,,'ANIEL DAVID HELLER, attorney at 
thni law, a member of the firm of Heller Oc 

W Hooper, Decatur, Indiana, was born in 
Harrison County, Ohio, :\tarch 29, 1831), a 
son of Henry I!, and !Mary A. (Weyandt) 
Heller, natives of (ireene County, Pennsyl- 
vania. His ])arents were married in Harri- 
son County, < Hiio, where they made a jier- 
manent residence. The mother died in Alay, 
1874, aged tifty-seven years, and the father 
in September, 18S1, aged sixty-four years. 
D. 1). Heller was reared on a farm, I'Cceiving 
his education in the New Hagerstown 
Academy, Carroll County, Ohio. When 
twenty years of age he began teaching school 
and taught several winter terms, and during 
the summer read law with Stambaugh A: 
Partleson, of Xew Philadelphia, Ohio. He 
was admitted to the bar at Carrollton, Ohio, 
in 18(13, and in August of the same year 
located at Millersburg, wdiere he practiced 
until March, 1807, when he removed to De- 
catur, Indiana. He has been connected with 
several firms in the city, and March 30, 18S1, 
became associated with Paul C Hooper, 
forming the ])resent firm of Heller it Hooper. 
In 1872 Mr. Heller was appointed county 
school examiner, and in 1873, when the new 
law creating the office of county superin- 
tendent went into effect, he was the lirst to 
hold that olllce in ,\.dams County, resigning 
after a service of eighteen months. In May, 



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18S5, lie \v:is elected mayor of Decatur for a 
term of two years, ^fr. Heller was married 
July 15, ISG'J, to Anna .1. C'orbus, a native 
of Millersbui-tr, Ohio, daui^liter of John and 
j\[ary (Armstrong-) (lorhus, who before her 
marriage was a teacher in the graded school 
of her native city. ilr. and Mrs. llellei- 
have four children — JMary C)., a graduate, 
with the hoiKirs of her class, of the Decatur 
High School; -lohn II., Henry J5. and Bertha 
V. ^Irs. Heller is a member of the ]\rethodist 
Episcopal cluuvh. In politics Jlr. Heller is 
a Democrat. 



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'■% ■T'lT:^^^^'^'^'^^ ^^- I^^*^'^''' I'-ii'iner, section 
i*Ji VU/mA ^^1 Uoot Township, is the owner of 
i?gi l-'S/^ 285 acres of land, aportion of it 



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lying in AVashington Township and a portion 
in lioot. He came to this State in 1835, 
with an older brother, IJenjamin, and they 
went to work in tlie woods, on some hind 
their father had entered from the Govern- 
ment the previous spring. This land was 
entered oti section 14, Iioot Township. They 
iirst built a log cabin, one story high, witli 
puncheon floor, clapboard roof, and an old- 
fashion wooden chimney, with the back and 
jams of mud. They boarded with a brother- 
in-law, Benjamin Fillers, wlio settled here 
the previous year. They took their dinners 
with them in a basket, and would return at 
night for sujiper and lodging. They lived in 



this way until the rest of the family came in 

the spring of 1836. There were si.\ children 

with the parents, and three already Jiei-e, 

making a total of nine children. In a few 

years the fathei' built a better log house. It 

''e- was a story and a half in height and built of 

' *' hewed logs. Here the father died in 1848. 

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'<il|( He was born in Loudoun County, Virginia, in 

'i*' 1789, and was a soldier in the war of 1812. 

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He was mari-ied in his native State, and four 
of his children were bo)-n there. In 1827 
the father and family removed to Stark, now 
Carroll County, living there until they came 
to Adams County, where they ])asjed the 
remainder of their days. Their MU)ther was 
boi'n in Culpeper County, Virginia, in 1793, 
and died in ls54, at the age of si.Kty-one 
years. William P., our subject, was born in 
Culpeper County, Virginia, January 1, 1820. 
lie remained at home until lie was of age, 
then went to work for himself, doing any- 
thing he could find to do, principally clearing 
land, splitting rails and chopping cord-wood, 
until he earned money enough to enable him 
to enter forty acres of land. lie worked for 
Mr. George A. Dent for .sll a month until 
he could pa}' for it. He then built his 
shanty, cleared his land, married a wife and 
borrowed the mone}' to pay the preacher for 
performing the marriage ceremony. He 
moved into his shanty, and was at a great 
loss to know how he could repay that bor- 
rowed money. He finally went eight miles 
away from home and worked half a month, 
splitting rails, to get ^5 to pay back. 
The following June he went to Fort "Wayne 
and received !?1 per day and niglit for 
burning brick in a kiln. He did not sleep 
day or night until that kiln was burnt. He 
at last fell asleep while walking. When he 
went to housekeeping his household goods 
consisted of the following articles: three 
knives, three forks, si.\ cups and saucers, six 
plates and two tin cuj)S. Their bedstead was 
nnule of poles and lugs, and the bed rope was 
made of bark. He was married in March, 
1843, to Frances Rabbit, who was born in 
Virginia in 1823. When she was nine years 
old her parents removed to Carroll County, 
Ohio, and in 1837 they all came to Allen 
County, Indiana. Her parents were Joseph 
and Hannah (Black) Kabbit, the former a 



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native of .Marylaml ami tlie latter of Vir- 
ginia. The father died in this cmuity at the 
ai(e of seventy-one VL'aro, ami the mother 
died the same year. Mr. liice's grandfather, 
Jesse Rice, died in Virginia; lie has no 
knowledge of his grandmother Rice. His 
jjarents' names \v(;re Sampson and Elizabeth 
C. (Thomjison) Rice, lioth natives of Vir- 
ginia, ^fr. and Mr^. Rice have had nine 
children — Elizahetli II., Mary C, Joseph M., 
Sarah A., William !■'., Xancy J., Samantha 
l'\, James 15., and Charles (i., who died at 
the age of nine years, four months and si.\- 
teen days. 



■ILLIAM DREAV, attorney at law, 
T'V/' >/' t^eneva, was born in Tioga County, 
l"^:):^^) Pennsylvania, July 5, 1833. His 
father, Rufus 11., was born in !Maine, and his 
mother, ^lary A. (Buck) Drew, in ]S'ew York. 
They were married in Tioga County, and 
engaged in farming, and later removed to 
Steuben (.'onnty, 2^ew York, where they still 
reside. They reared a family of six children, 
AVilliam being the second child. He re- 
mained at home on the farm until nineteen 
years of age, and received an education in the 
common schools of New York and at Union 
Academy at Knoxville, Pennsylvania. He 
then came to Ohio, where he was engaged in 
clerking in Pickaway and Fayette counties 
until the summer of 1855, then went to 
Randolph County, Indiana, and followed 
school teaching. He %vas elected to the 
othce of justice of the ])eace, which otlice he 
held twelve years. August 13, 18G2, he 
enlisted in Company E, Eighty-fourth Indi- 
ana Infantry, and served until August, 18G3, 
when he was discharged by reason of disabil- 
ity, having contracted a disease, for which he 
now draws a jiension. He returned to Ran- 



dolph County, and resumed teaching, and 
was also re-elected to his former otHce of 
justice of the peace. While engaged in 
these duties he devoted his spare time to the 
study of the law, passed a successful exami- 
nation, and was admitted to the bar in 1809. 
He at once engaged in the ])ractice of his 
jirofession at Ridgeville, where lie remained 
until the s])ring of Ls7(), then came to Geneva, 
Adams County, where he ha.-5 since resided. 
He has held the office of justice of the peace 
in this county live and a half years and served 
one term as trustee for the town of Creneva. 
j\Ir. Drew was married at Deerfield, Randolph 
County, November 23, 1856, to Miss Rebecca 
A. Vorhis, a native of Hunterdon County, 
Xew Jersey, born April 2, 1835. Ry this 
union they have six children — Annie, Jessie, 
Thomas, Willard, Charlotte and Charles Y. 
Mr. Drew is a charter member of John P. 
Porter Post, G. A. R., and is also a member 
of the i\lasonic fraternity. 



^OlIX ARCHBCLD, who was one of the 
I old and honored pioneers of Adams 
County, now deceased, was born in Har- 
rison County, Ohio, February 11, 1809. 
AVhen a boy he was taken by his parents to 
Tuscarawas County, Ohio, where he was 
reared to manhood, and was married April 
17, 1839, to Elizabeth Gibson. To them 
were born eleven children — Margaret, Thomas, 
]\[ary J., Rebecca, George W., William G., 
James M., Sarah C, Jiartlia F., John M. 
and Ezi-a R. Reside their own family they 
reared a grandchild named Martin Archbold. 
In 1851 they moved to A\'ells County, 
Indiana, settling in Jefferson Township. On 
coming to Indiana Mr. Archbold bought 205 
acres of land in Preble Township, Adams 
County, and until he had cleared a part of his 




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laml iiiui erected a loi; cabin, liis I'ainily lived 
in Weils C'umity for ;t tew iiioiiths. lie then 
removed witli liis liiniilyto Prelde Tu\vnshi]>, 
in which lie matle liis home until Febrnary 
3, 1885. He then rented his tarm on which 
lie had lived so many years, and came to 
Decatur, where he died December 23, 1885, 
his death being a source i.it' universal regret. 
He was an active and enterprising citizen of 
Adams County, and for sixteen years held the 
ofKce of justice of the peace. He was a strong 
temperance advocate. His widow is still 
living in I)ecatur. She was born November 
30, 1808, in Brooks County, Virginia, where 
slie remained till nine years of age. She 
then removed with her parents to Tuscarawas 
County, where she lived till after her mar- 
riage. Ezra I). Archbold, the youngest son 
of John and Elizabeth Archbold, was born 
December IG, 1851, in Preble Township, 
Adams County, where he was reared. In his 
boyhood he attended the scliools of his 
district, and completed his education at the 
Decatur High ydiool. He subsequently 
engaged in teaching school and taught eleven 
terms in his own school district. January 
29, 1874, he was united in marriage to Sidney 
F. Lipes, who was born July 4, 1855, in 
^Marion Township, Allen County, Indiana, 
where slie was reai-ed and married. Her 
parents, David D. and ilary J. (Somers) 
Lipes, were natives of the State of Virginia, 
and when quite young were taken by their 
resj)ective parents, to Allen County, Indiana, 
where they were married. Nine children 
were born to them — Lydia L., Sarah E. 
(deceased), Sidney F., JMary A. (deceased), 
John C. (deceased), Emma U., Ulysses Grant, 
Eva A. and Jennie L. Mr. and JMrs. Arch- 
bold are the parents of Hve children — Cheliis 
11., born March 4, 1875; Jforris J., born 
:May 14, 1877; Dayton V., born July 22, 
1879; Eva E., born March 13, 1882, and 



John 1)., born Eebrnary 11, 1886. In ])olitic8, 
like his fatiier, iAfr. Arcblxdd atliliates witii 
the Democratic party. 

'PliEORGE IIEmUAKGER, general farm- 
wl? *^''' section 31, Jetferson Township, Ad- 
^W^ ams County, was a native of Germany, 
born November 26, 1828, a son of Jacob and 
Louisa (Nei) Heimbarger. AVhen he was 
seven years old his parents immigrated with 
their family to America, settling in Fairfield 
County, Ohio, where they lived till their 
death, engaged in agricultural pursuits. They 
were members of the Allbriglit church. 
They had a family of twelve children, nine 
sons and three daughters. George, the sub- 
ject of this sketch, grew to manhood in Fair- 
field County, Ohio, receiving a limited 
education, attending school only three months, 
he being obliged from an early age to assist 
his father on the farm. When lie was old 
enough to work out he engaged in the manu- 
facture of brick. He finally purchased a 
small farm and engaged in farming for him- 
self. This farm he subsequently sold and 
with the proceeds purchased the farm where 
his widow now lives. He met with excel- 
lent success in his farming operations, and 
to his original purchase of 240 acres he was 
enabled to add till his farm contained 480 
acres of well-improved land, under a high 
state of cultivation, he having resided on the 
same farm from 1805 until his death, ilr. 
Heimbarger was twice married. He was 
first married in 1849 to Mary Baler, who 
was born in Fairfield County, Ohio, by whom 
he had three children — Isaac, Lewis and 
George A., the two latter deceased. Mrs. 
Heimbarger died in 1809, and January 24, 
1801, iMr. Heimbarger married Louisa Law- 
rence, born in Fickaway County, Ohio, Feb- 



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BIOURA FHIUA L ."^ KETCHES. 



niary 2G, 1830, and to tliis iiiiioii were born 
six chilJren — Levi (deceiised), ]Niary, Cinde, 
Aaron and Andrew (twins), and Jacob. Mr. 
Jleimbai-yer, as i» also his M'il'e, was a inein- 
l)er of tlie United iirethren church. Mr. 
lleinibar-er died .\[areli 25, 1S87. 



T^AVID STEELE, residing in Kirkland 
\\ln Townsliip, wiiere he is engaged in gen- 
v:;>= eral farming, was born in Kirkhind 
Township, Adanis County, ISoveniber C, 
1840, a son of Samuel Steele, who was one 
of the old pioneers of Adams County. lie 
grew to maniiood on his father's farm, and 
received a limited education in the public 
schools, wliich he improved by private study 
at home. In August, 18G2, he enlisted in 
Company I, Eighty-ninth Indiana Infantry, 
serving his country until July 22, 1865, 
when lie was discharged at Jetierson Bar- 
i-acks, 3Iissouri. He jiarticipated in a num- 
ber of liattles and skirmishes, including the 
battle of Munfordville and the lied River 
expedition. On receiving his discharge he 
returned to his home in Adams County, 
and resumed farming. He was subsecpiently 
engaged in the saw-milling business near 
Decacur about eleven months. December 
24, 1868, he was married to Jlrs. ]\Iary E. 
(llixoii) Cilliam, born in Guernsey County, 
Ohio, in .Inly, 1844. To this union were 
born nine children — AVillard S., born De- 
cember 3, 186'J; Ethel A., born :\ray 18, 
1871, died February 10, 1880; Lauretta E., 
born December 16, 1872; Millard N., born 
February 13, 1874; Charles F., born October 
14, 1875; Cinderella M., born JMarch 24, 
1877; Lewis V., born October IS, 1879; 
A\''alter E., Ijorn November 14, 1882, and 
Bessie B., born June 23, 1884. ]\[rs. Steele 
was formerly married in Kirkland Township, 



Adams County, to John (iilliam, a native of 
North Carolina, and to them were born one 
daughter named Saraii S. ?,Ir. Gilliam was 
a soldier in the late war, enlisting after his 
marriage, in Com[)any H, L^ighty-ninth In- 
diana Infantry'. He went south with his 
regiment and participated in several battles, 
when he was ta]-;en tick and returned to "liis 
home, dying in 18(15. ^Ir. Steele has resided 
on his jjresentfarm bince his marriage, where 
he has 102 acres, and has always been en- 
gaged in farming. He has also been con- 
nected witii the saw-mill at Peterson for 
twelve years. He is a member of St. ilary's 
Lodge, No. 167, I. O. O. F., at Decatur. He 
is now serving his second term as trustee of 
Kirkland Townshii). 



;EOBGE W. HAEFLING, farmer, "Wash- 
f ington Township, was born in Seneca 



^C^ County, Ohio, December 17, 1839, son 
of Balthas and ilargaret Ilaetling, natives 
of Bavaria, Germany. In 1833 his parents 
emigrated to America, landing at Philadel- 
phia, and resided in Pennsylvania until 1837, 
then removed to Seneca County, Ohio. They 
were among the early settlers of that county, 
and the parents remained there until their 
decease. They had eleven children born to 
them, nine of whom survive — Peter, Adam, 
Leonard, John, Joseph, George, Frances, 
!^[ichael and Maria. Our subject was reared 
among the pioneer scenes of Seneca County, 
and experienced the usual hardships of the 
early settler. He was married May 15, 1866, 
to Miss j^Iargaret Kintz, who was born in 
"Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, April 
3, 1842, daughter of Peter and ]\[ary Kintz, 
the former a native of Pennsylvania, and the 
latter of Maryland. They were early settleis 
of Seneca County, Ohio, having located there 






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in STORY OF ADAMS COUNTY. 



al>()iit the yc;ir IS-M. Tliey wf'i'ti tlie parents 
of nine cliildrcn, cii;lit of avIiohi are livini( — 
Andrew, Peter, (iahriel. Amanda, ^latilda, 
Eli/.abetli, ,^[ari^■a|■et and .losepliine. Tlie 
luotlier is deceased, ^[r. and Mrs. Ilaefling 
have had si.x cliilJreii, of whom five are liv- 
ing — James P., Peter K., Edward U., Thomas 
T. and JJaniel ^[. Georye C. is deceased. 
^\y. and ^Irs. Ilaeflinn- are members of tlie 
lioman Catliolie cljurch, ;ind in ])olitics Mr. 
llaetlinji; is a Democrat. Jle came to Adams 
County in lS(i9. living seven years in St. 
Clary's Township, then came to his present 
farm on section 12, ^\"ashington Township. 
AVhile in St. ]\[ary's Tuwnshi]:) lie served as 
supcrvisoi- fmir years. 



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-if^^AMUEL STEELE (deceased), who was 
f^>^i one of the old and jirominent pioneers 
'^- of Adams County, \vas born in Penn- 
sylvania, and subsequently removed to ()liio 
with his ])arents, they locating near Wooster. 
lie was married in Ohio, to Miss Susannah 
AV'^orlcy, who was a native of that State, and 
of Scotch descent, ]\[r. Steele being tif Crer- 
man origin. To this union were born nine 
children, six suns and three daughters. In 
March, 1S38, Mr. Steele settled in Adams 
County, Indiana, on section 9, Kirklaiid 
Township, where he lived till his death, which 
occurred about the year 1858. "When he first 
settled in the county everything was in a 
state of nature, and here he and his family 
experienced many of the hardships and priva- 
tions incident to pioneer life. His first dwell- 
ing was a rude log cabin which lie erected, 
with puncheon fioor and clapboard roof. Mr. 
Steele took an active part in the affairs of his 
township, and was a member of the board of 
trustees under the old organization, besides 
holding other local oftices. During his life 



he was much interested in agriculture and 
fruit-growing, ami was cuie of the princijial 
actors at the liist agricultural fair lield in 
Adams County. Politically he was a Demo- 
crat. Peligiously he was a Presbyterian till 
his death. 



fAMES JIoCU^'E, a prominent agricult- 
urist of Adams County, residing on 
^-,^ section 26, Monroe Township, was born 
in Rush County, Indiana, the date of his 
birth being August 8, IS-IO, a son of Julin 
jMcCune. AVhen five years old he was 
brouglit by his parents to Monroe Township, 
Adams County, and here he grew to man- 
hood, being reared to agricultural pursuits 
on the home farm, and receiving his educa- 
tion in the common schools of his neighboi'- 
hood. He remained at home till attainincr 
the age of nineteen years, when he went to 
liusli Ciuint.y and S])eiit a year working at 
the carpenter's trade. He then returned to 
Adams County, and engaged in farming. 
March 7, ISGO, he married Miss Emeline 
I'aker, a native of Indiana, born in Shelby 
County May 25, 1838, a daughter of Jesse 
and Lydia (Vance) Baker, natives of Kentucky 
and Ohio respectively, the former born in 
1800, and the latter in 1811. The jiarents 
of Mrs. 3IeCune wei-e married in Shelby 
County, Indiana, removing thence to liush 
County, and when she was a child they moved 
to Iowa and lived in Des Moines County 
about seven years. They then returned to 
Indiana, locating in Hancock County, and 
later went to Wayne Count}', Iowa. In 1858 
they came to Adams County, Indiana, set- 
tling in Monroe Township. In 1880 they 
went to Missouri, returning to Adams County 
two years later, where the father died in the 
fall of 1883. The mother is now makino- 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SK ETCHES. 



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lier Iioinc witli ;i iluiglitcr at ]\r()in-oe. Adams 
(\iniitv. Tliey wore tlio jiareiUs of seven 
cliilili-eii, tour sons ami tliree daughters. 
After their inarriaye -Mr. and Mrs. ]\lcCnne 
settled on tlie farm where they now reside, 
which contains eiglity acres of choice land 
under a tine state of cultivation. Auj^ust 14, 
18(32, ^rr. ,McCune enlisted in Company I, 
Eight^'-ninth Indiana Infantry, serving until 
July 22, 18()5. Jle was taken prisoner at 
the battle of ..Munfordville, ]ventucky, was 
paroled and sent home, and afterward ex- 
changed. He rejoined his regiment at Camp 
Morton, Indiana, and afterward participated 
in the engagements at Big Blue, ^Missouri, 
Pleasant Hill, Louisiana, Tupelo, ^Mississippi, 
- the two days fight at Nashyille, Tennessee, 
and l''iirt Hhikely, beside other battles and 
skirmishes. He received a gunshot wound 
in the left arm, and now draws a pension. 
After his discharge he returned to his lioine 
in .Vdams County, where he has followed 
farming. He is (piite a traveler, and lias 
visited the States of Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, 
Kansas and ^[issouri. In politics ilr. j\Ic- 
Cune is a Republican, and although liis party 
is largely in the minority in the count}', he 
has held several local otiices, including the 
ottice of justice of the peace, which i)osition 
he resigned December 25, 188(5. He is a 
member of Decatur Lodge, Xo. 571, A. F. A; 
A. ^I., and is also a comrade of Jolm P. 



Porter Post, Ko. 83, G. A. 
Adams County, Indiana. 



R., at Geneva, 



r^ENKY Ml'EKS, one of the self-made 



jgj fl^l "^'■'" °^ Blue Creek Township, is a 
M "^i native of Hanover, Germany, born De- 
cember 2-1, 1838, a son of Jacob and Mar- 
garet Myers. He grew to manhood in his 
nati\e country, being reared to the avocation 



of a farmer, and in his youth I'cceived fair 
educationid advantages. In the fall of l>>5i 
he immigrated to America, landing at New 
York City, where he remained about one and 
a half years. .Vfter spending some time in 
Oliio, he, in 185S, came to Adams (Jounty, 
Indiana, and for five years operated a grist- 
mill at Pleasant Mills. In .March, 18G0, he 
was married to ^[iss Barbara Schrank, and of 
the ten children born to this union eight still 
survive — Emma, John, Lewis, JMaggie, Lena, 
Ella, Frederick and George. In the fall of 
1865 Mr. -Myers settled on his present farm 
on section 29, Blue (''reek Township, which 
at that time was almost entirely unimproved. 
Ilis farm now contains 120 acres of well- 
cultivated land, wliich he has acquired by 
years of toil and persevering industry. i[r. 
Myers is one of the active and p\d)lic-sj)irited 
citizens of Blue Creek Township, and is 
always interested in any enterprise which has 
for its object the advancement of his town- 
ship or county. He has served several years 
as school director, and in the spring of 188(5 
he was elected to the ottice of township 
trustee to serve one term of two years. In 
his religious faith Mr. Jlyers is a Lutheran. 
In politics he afHliates with the Democratic 
party. 

Tj^ANSON 8MITH THOMAS, son of 
Sf^u Aaron and Hannah Thomas, was born 
"^SAb in Cape May County, New Jersey, JNFay 
10, 1823. When he was about ten years of 
age his motlier died, and he went to work on 
a farm. When about twelve years of age he 
became a sailoi', and followed that occupation 
for nine years, serving in every position on 
ship-board from " cabin boy " to " first mate" 
of a coasting vessel. Came to Ohio in 184:(); 
was married to JMaria Royal, daughter of 
Mark Koyal, in Crawford County, Pennsyl- 



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llISTUIir OF ADAMS COUNTY. 



viuiia, in April, ISJ^O, wlio lived but a tew 
years after her mai'riage. She was the mother 
of two children, but both died in infancy. 
August 6, 1854, Vir. Thomas was married 
to Martha .Jane i'ennett, d:iughter of Jacob 
Bennett. She died November 29, 1S86, in 
Geneva, Indiana, and was the mother of five 
children — three had preceded her to the bet- 
ter land. The living are William A. and 
Ly<lia M. Soon after SEr. Thomas came to 
Ohio he engaged himself to one George Lud- 
low, nearCincinnati, Ohio, and served two years 
as an apprentice to the house-carpenter and 
joiner's trade. He was converted and joined 
the churcli of the United J5rethren in ("hrist 
when in the thirty-first year of his age. May 
24, 185(3, he received a quarterly conference 
license to preach the gospel. September 14, 
1857, he received an annual conference license 
to preach, and became a member of the Au- 
glaize annual conference, United Brethren 
churcli. Having passed favorable e.xaniina- 
tions of the three years' course of study, lie 
was ordained an elder in said church, Au- 
gust 25, 1860, by Bishop Edwards, and at 
this writing still remains a minister in good 
standing in said conference and church, and 
has been present at every conference session 
but one during the past thirty years, llis 
first circuit contained seventeen preaching 
places, located in Tlandolph, Jay, AVells and 
Blackford counties, in Indiana. There were 
no railroads, no pikes, and but few bridges 
across the rivers in these counties at that 
time. He has served in every office in the 
church from class-leader to presiding elder — 
in the latter office a number of years. For a 
number of years, on account of swimming the 
Salamonie Biver in the month of January, he 
was afHicted with throat disease, which forced 
him to leave the active ministerial work in 
1879. In March of that year he bought a 
half interest in the Delphos (Ohio) Countnt 



printing office, and became associate editor of 
that paper. The business was conducted un- 
der the firm name of Walknp & Thomas. In 
July, 1880, he sold his interest in the Cour- 
ant to his partner, E. B. AV^alkup, and in Au- 
gust of the same year he commenced the 
publication of the Willshire (Ohio) Inde- 
jiendent, buying everything new, being tlie 
tirst one to put a newspaper press in that 
town. During the "second amendment" 
campaign in 1883 he advocated the measure 
so strongly that they starved him out, and 
inducements being oU'ered at Geneva, Indi- 
ana, he moved his presses to that town, and 
November 8, 1883, he published Volume I, 
No. 1, of the Geneva Independent, a seven- 
column folio. Ilis health improving, he 
suspended the paper, sold his presses to C. 
E. Detter, to be taken back to Willshire, and 
for two years served the people on Geneva 
charge of the United Brethren church as pas- 
tor. June, 1886, he bought a new newspaper 
and job outfit, and resumed the publication 
of the paper, but reduced it to a six-column 
folio and called it the Herald, which has at 
this time an increasing patronage. lie is 
now in the sixty-fourth j'ear of his age, and 
having again retired from the active minis- 
try, he expects to devote the remainder of 
his days to the newspaper business. Ilis 
family, if they were all together, would num- 
ber ten, but only three remain. 



AUL GRANVILLE HOOPER, junior 
member of the law firm of Heller & 



Hooper, of Decatur, is a native of Adams 
Gounty, Indiana, born in Root Township, 
November 24, 1857, the only son of Ezekiel 
and Almira 11. (Gosline) Hooper. His father 
was a native of Maryland, born of English 
parents in 1790. He was reared a farmer, 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



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wliicli ;i\o(';itii)n lu' t'dllciwed tlirouirli lite. 
]k' \v;is u solilici- in tlii' war of IM'J. Uu 
came to the part of Allen County that is now 
a part of Adams County in llS3-i, and settled 
in Koot Towiisliip, where he entered a tract 
of Government land, which he improved from 
its wild state, livirig here until his death in 
1871 at the advanced age of eighty-one years. 
As one of the pioneers who took part in 
organizing Adams County in 1842 he was 
commissioned one of the associate judges of 
the Common I'leas Court of the county. In 
polities he was originally a Whig, but later 
affiliated with the llepublican party. For 
many years he was a member of tlie Mon- 
mouth Episcopal Methodist church, and a 
liberal contributor of his means to all worthy 
enterpi'ice.^. The mother of our subject was 
a native of Athens County, Ohio, and of 
French origin, and was reared in her native 
county near Albany'. She was tirst mari'ied 
to Townsend G. IJobo, who died at Crown 
Point, Indiana, in 1853. Ilis widow came 
to Adams County the same year, where she 
married .Mr. Hooper in 1857. She is still 
living, making her home in Decatur. Paul 
G. Hooper, whose name heads this sketch, 
receiveil a fair education in his youth at the 
schools of Monmouth and Decatur, and at 
the age of fifteen began teaching in the dis- 
trict schools of Adams County. At the age 
of nineteen years he began reading law in 
the office of his half-brother, Hon. James II. 
Bobo, of Decatur. In 1879 he was admitted 
to the bar at Decatur, and during the same 
year he was one of the proprietors and editors 
of the^Wa?/(6' Vouiity Union. -aw independent 
pajier published at Decatur. December 25, 
lS7y, he was married at Hoagland, Indiana, 
to Charity E. Ilarrod, a daughter of Morgan 
and Samantha (^Beem) Harrod. She was born 
and reared in Allen County, Indiana, and 
educated at the ^Metiiodist Episcopal College 



at Fort AVayne. She i.-. a member ol' the 
Jlethodist lipiscopal chr.rch. After severing 
his connection with the Union Mr. Hooper 
formed a partnersliip with John T. France, of 
Decatur, with whom he was associated in the 
practice of law until 1881, when retiring 
from the firm he becaine associated with D. 
D. Heller, thus forming the present law firm 
of Heller »fc Hooper. In politics ]\Ir. Hooper 
is ;P Kepublican. He is a member of Keki- 
ouga Lodge, No. fio, K. of P., of Decatur. 



fOHN A. Sl'RUXGEPt, senior member 
of the firm of Sprunger it Lehman, of 
Berne, Adams County, Indiana, is a 
native of Canton Heme, Switzerland, born 
August 12, 1853, a son of Abraham B. and 
Elizabeth (Curcher) Sprunger. In 1855 he 
was brought to America by his parents, who, 
after remaining in Ohio three months, settled 
on section 32, ]\Ionroe Township, Adams 
County, and there our subject grew to man- 
hood on his father's farm, receiving his edu- 
cation in the German schools of his neigh- 
borhood. When twenty years old he bought 
his time of his fatlier, giving his note for 
SlOO. He then engaged in saw milling and 
running a threshing machine, which he fol- 
lowed until 1875, when he began dealing in 
hardware and machinery at Berne. In 1876 
he engaged in general building, and the same 
year erected the grain elevator and several 
dwelling houses at Berne. I)>iringl878 and 
'79 he was engaged in dealing in and ship- 
ping stock. In 1879 he becaine a member 
of the firm of Sprunger, Lehman it Co., of 
which he is manager. He erected the flour 
mills in 1884. In 1883 he built his line 
residence at Berne at a cost of $3,000. Dur- 
incr 1884 and '85 he erected twelve dwelling 
houses, and also built the Champion Block 



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nisrORY OF ADAMS COUNTY. 



in ^\■]lic•ll his firm does hiisiness, and in lfsS3 
lie bnilt tlie Eagle House. ^Ir. Sprnnger 
was united in marriage February 17, 1880, 
to iliss Katie Sprnnger, a native of Wabash 
Township, Adams County, Indiana, born 
September 5, 1859, a daughter of Christian 
V. Sprunger. Two children liave been born 
to this union — Ilillegnnda, and Edmona (de- 
ceased), ^[r. Spi'unger may be classed among 
the seif-niatie men of the county, having 
commenced life for himself a poor boy. 
,\lthough a Comparatively young man he has 
accumulated a com]ietence, which he has 
gained by persevering industry, and strict 
attention to any business in which he has 
l)een engaged, and is now considered one of 
the substantial men of the county. He is an 
active and public spirited citizen, and perhaps 
no man in the county has done more toward 
liuilding up the town of Berne than he. lie 
is a member of the Mennonite church, and 
is a teacher in the Sabbath-school. 



sON. JA:\[ES ROLLIN BOP.O, an act- 
ive and enterprising citizen of Decatur, 
■^\^ who is prominently identified with the 
bar of Adams County, was born in the city 
of Athens, Atiiens County, Ohio, June 4, 
1839. His parents, Townshend GarnierBobo 
and Haiina Almira ((iorslene) I'obo, liaving 
been born in the same State. In 1851 tlie 
family moved to Crown Point, Lake County, 
Indiana, where the father died in 1853, leav- 
his widow and live children, Anna Maria, 
James Ilollin, Caroline A., Helen M. and 
Almira T., all of whom are now married and 
living in Indiana. In 1851 the family re- 
moved from Lake County to Adams County, 
where tliey, e.xcept Caroline and Maria, have 
since resided. James H. Bobo received a 
fair common-school education in his youth, 



attending the school at Crown Point for three 
school years between 1851 and 1851, when 
he accompanied liis family to Adams County. 
From 1851 until 1857 he worked as a farm 
laborer during the summer months and in 
the winter attended the district schools, and 
in the winter of 1857 he taught in the dis- 
trict whcie he had formerly attended as a 
pupil. In 1858 he commenced the study of 
law with Judge David Studabaker, of Deca- 
tur, who was an able, kind and appreciative 
preceptor, and being a zealous student he 
made ra2:>id progress in his studies. During 
the years 1858-'59 and 'GO he studied law 
and attended school at Dccatiir, and part of 
this time taught in the public schools of this 
place, at the same time pursuing his law 
studies, and August 8, ISGO, he was admitted 
in the Adams Circuit Court to practice law. 
September 22, 1861, he was united in mar- 
riage to ISIiss Almira Cayton, daughter of 
William and Maria Cayton. They are the 
parents of eleven children — ]\Irs. Minnie E. 
Eson, living in Kingman, Kansas; Howard 
C. Bobo, deceased; Ivollin T., Jessie P., Ger- 
trude II. F., Helen E., I'jenjamin E., Bere- 
nice E., Eugene I., Erin and James W. In 
September, 1862, the board of commissioners 
of Adams County appointed Judge Bobo 
superintendent of the public schools, which 
position he filled until September, 1866. At 
the October election of 1866 he was elected 
to represent Adams County in the Indiana 
State Legislature, and in 1868 he was elected 
to represent Adams and "Wells counties in 
the State Legislature, and in 1870 he was 
elected to the State Senate from the district 
eomjiosed of xVdams, Wells and Allen coun- 
ties. At the e.\piration of his Senatorial 
term he returned to his home in Decatur, and 
lias since devoted his entire attention to the 
practice of law, establishing a large and 
lucrative practice. In 1876 he was elected 



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Ju(lp;o of tlic T\vciit_v-si\tli .rmlicial Circuit, 
and was re-elt'cted to tlie same ofHre in lf^S2. 
In every enterprise of jirogress ami improve- 
ment in liis locality .Jiul^-e V>oho has given 
his aid and encouragement, and as a citizen 
he is highly respected by all who know him. 
We trust there are yet before him many years 
of labor anil usefulness. 

IS • ^ i 

:T^T.ILL1AM DAXIEL DRUMMOND, 
"lii/'VIl suiierintendent of the lumber yard 
l^^jfer^ of Goodsell A: Christen, at Decatur, 
is a native of Adams Count}', Indiana, born 
in Root Township, November 23, 184:3. His 
parents, Robert and Mary (Rains') Drnm- 
mond, were natives of Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania, and Ohio, respectively, the mother 
bciuij of (Tcrnnui and Scotch ancestry. The 
father was reared in Ohio and came to Adams 
County, Indiana, in 183(), locating on a farm 
in Root Township, where he lived until his 
death in 1874, at the age of si.\ty-fonr years, 
lie was a member of the ^lethodist Episcopal 
church. His widow still survives, and is living 
on their old homestead in Root Township, at 
the age of sixty-seven years. W. D. Drum- 
mond, the subject of this sketch, was reared to 
the avocation of a farmer on his father's farm 
in Root Township, receiving in his youtli a 
common-school education. AVhen fourteen 
years old, though yet making his home with 
liis parents, he began working for himself, 
being employed by the neighboring farmers. 
AVhen eighteen years old, in November, 
1S(V2, he eidisted as a private in Company I, 
Eiglity-ninth Indiana Infantry, to serve three 
years or during the war. He participated 
in many engagements, including the battles 
of Munfordville, Kentucky, Nashville, Ten- 
nessee, and Fort De Russy, Yellow P>ayou, 
Pleasant Hill and Markville Prairie, Louisi- 



ana, and 'i^ipclo, !M ississip])i. He served 
until July, 18G5, when lie was discharged at 
Fort Hlakely, near Mobile, Alabama, at the 
close of the war. He then returned to Adams 
County, and November 1, 1866, he was mar- 
ried to iliss Alartha Bevard, who was for- 
merly of Grant County, Indiana. They are 
the parents of two children — Ulysses S. and 
Robert Clinton. In 1871 Mr. Drummond 
removed to Decatur, and was variously em- 
plo3'ed until 1881, when he accepted the 
position of superintendent of the lumber 
yard of Goodsell A: (Christen, which he has 
since tilled to the entire satisfastion of his 
employers. In politics Mr. Drummond affil- 
iates with the Democratic party. 



.'if^EORGE CLINE, farmer, section 86, 
IjUjp Root Township, is the owner of 135 
^i acres of land. He came to Adams 
County in the fall of 1840, with his old 
neighbors, the Kings. He engaged in farm 
work, taking contracts, and one summer he 
worked in Fort Wayne in a boat yard to run 
on tlie canal. While in Ohio he worked at 
the carpenter's trade, and followed tlie same 
trade to some extent in this county. The 
second year he was liere he bought forty 
acres of land, having earned enough to make 
the first payment. After working along 
awhile longer he was able to buy twenty-five 
acres more. He sold this farm and bought 
eighty-three acres where he now lives, and 
soon afterward bought twenty acres more. 
He has continued to add to this land until 
he now has 137 acres. He came here witli a 
three-year old colt, a rifle and an ax. Money 
was very scarce. He sold his colt for §60, 
bought him some clothes, and the following 
fall made a visit to his parents in Ohio. The 
latter, Jonas and Elizabeth Cline, were na~ 












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HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY. 



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tives of Pennsylvania, and were probably 
born in Somerset County. The mother died 
when George was between two and three 
years old. She died in Tuscarawas County, 
Ohio, in the winter of 1820. Tiie father 
died before tlio war, probably in 1859 or 
1860, and was eighty-two years of age. lie 
died in St. Joseph County, Indiana. George 
was married in June, ISi-i, to Miss Marga- 
ret Crosier, who was born in Northern Ohio, 
and who was a little younger than her hus- 
band. She died in July, 1845, leaving no 
children. She was a daughter of Samuel 
Crosier. August 9, 1846, Mr. Cline was 
married to Elizabeth McConnehey, who was 
born in Tuscarawas Count}', Ohio, September 
7, 1825, and died :\[ay 7, 1871. She is 
buried at Alpha cemetery. Her parents 
were William and Catherine (Clever) ]\IcCon- 
nehey, natives of Pennsj'lvania, the father of 
Irish ancestry and the mother of German 
origin. The father died in 1851, and the 
mother in 1876. Both died in this county 
and are buried in Alpha cemetery. j\Irs. 
Cline left four children, three of whom are 
living — Sarah C, born July 17, 1850, wife 
of A. R. AVolf; Mary A., born November 
30, 1852, wife of William Spuler; Barbara 
A., born November 23, 1854, died February 
5, 1887, and is buried in Alpha cemetery; 
(leorge ]'., born August 13, 1858, died June 
5, 1877. August 12, 1877, .Mr. Cline was 
married to Rebecca Van Buskirk, widow of 
James Van Buskirk, who came to this count}' 
from Ohio. She was first married to Green- 
bury Baxter, who died leaving seven idiil- 
dren, only four of whom are living. By her 
second marriage there were two children; one 
living. Jlr. and Mrs. Cline are members of 
the United Brethren church, and Mr. Cline 
is a Republican. Ilis grandfather Cline was 
American born. His grandmother Cline died 
at the age of over one hundred years, ifrs. 



Cline was born in Carroll County, Ohio, 
Mai-ch 22, 1825. She came to this county 
with her jjarents when she was about ten 
years of age. Tliey settled near Monmouth, 
Root Township, being among the early set- 
tlers of Adams County. Her parents were 
William and Mary (Baxter) Fillers. Her 
father died in Root Township in 1863, and 
the mother died before the war. Both are 
buried in Aljiha cemetery. 



^ENRY DERKES, one of the old and 
\{ihi lionored pioneers of Adams County, is a 
^£11 native of Hanover, Prussia, born 30th 
of October, 1808. lie grew to manhood in 
his native country, being reared to the avoca- 
tion of a farmer, which he has followed the 
greater part of his life. At the age of twenty 
years he with Antoin Kohan sailed for Ameri- 
ca, landing in New York City May 4, 1835. 
He remained in New York two years, work- 
ing in a sugar retinery, and subsequently 
went to Boston, Massachusetts, where he 
found employment until February, 1837. He 
was married in February, 1837, to Miss 
AVilhelmina Kohne, who was born in Han- 
over, Prussia, and shortly after his marriage 
he started with his wife for Chicago, Illinois, 
but the steamer in which they took passage 
becoming impeded by ice after leaving Butfa- 
lo, they were obliged to return to the latter 
place. They then traveled from Buffalo to 
Toledo, Ohio, by team, thence by boat up the 
ilaumee River to Fort Wayne, where he 
heard of the vacant lands in Adams County, 
Indiana, whence he proceeded after a few 
weeks rest. Here he purchased a tract of 
land near the present site of Decatur, which 
he improved and cultivated, living on this 
farm till 1851. He then became a resident 
of Decatur aTid began speculating in lands 



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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



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and lots, anil iluriiii^ liis residence at this 
place built several business houses and resi- 
dences, many of which lie still owns, renting 
them out to tenants. Mr. I^erkes lias gained 
an enviable reputation, by strict integrity 
and honorable dealings, being trusted by all 
who know him, and in any public enterprise 
lie takes an active interest in helpincr the 
good citizens of his county. !Mrs. Uerkes 
died in Decatur, August 2, 1882, at the age 
of seventy-three years. She was a life-long 
Catholic, and at the time of her death was a 
member of St. Mary's Church at Decatur. 
Mr. Derkes was reared in the Lutheran faitli, 
but in 1844, through the influence of Mr. 
Kohan, who was a life-long friend, united 
with the Roman Catholic church at Decatur, 
of which he is still a worthy member. 



^I^IIAIILES DORWIN PORTER, drug- 
"\Ui-^. ffisti Geneva, was born in Decatur, this 
^*^ county, April 8, 1850, tlie eldest son of 
Dr. Jolin Pomeroy Porter. He remained at 
liome and attended tlie common school until 
sixteen years of age, tlien engaged in the 
drug trade at Fort Wayne, remaining in the 
business a few months, and removed to De- 
catur, where he remained until 1872. He 
then came to Geneva and established the first 
drug store in the ])lace. He started with 
limited means, but by good management and 
economy he is aijle to carry a stock of !?6,000. 
Mr. Porter is a staunch Republican, and has 
been a member of the county central commit- 
tee six years; has also served as treasurer of 
Geneva three years; is a member of the Ma,- 
sonic order, and of the Sons of Veterans, 
being a member of McPlierson Camp, No. 
11, Geneva, the G. A. R. post being named 
for his father, who was killed in the war. 
ilr. Porter was married April 21, 1886, to 



Geneva Stratton, a daughter of Mark and 
Mary Stratton, of Wabash, Indiana. She 
was born on a farm near Nortli Manchester, 
in August, 1863; is a member of the .Metli- 
udist Episcopal church. 

rf^Ll ZIMMERMAN, one of the prosper- 
"ipi °"® ^'"^ enterprising agriculturists of 
"^i Washington Township, is a native of 
Adams County, Indiana, born October 23, 
1842, a son of Eli and Polly Zimmerman, 
the father born near Harper's Perry, ^lary- 
land, and the mother a native of Fayette 
County, Ohio. They were the parents of 
eight children, and of this number five are 
living — Nancy, Jane, Polly, Eli and Eliza- 
beth. The father was one of the early pio- 
jieers of AVashington Township, settling on 
section 2, where he entered a section of land 
on which he first erected a log cabin, and the 
first season raised four acres of corn. Year 
by year he, by persevering industry, cleared 
his land until 400 acres had been cleared and 
improved. He then removed to Decatur, 
settling on the St. ]Mary's River when there 
were but three log houses in Decatui-, and 
liere he made his liome until his death, wliicli 
occurred October 29, 1878, his wife dying 
March 24, 1871. In his death Adams County 
lost one of her oldest pioneers and a most 
respected citizen. He had, like all pioneers, 
to undergo many hardships and privations, 
but he lived to enjoy the fruits of his years 
of toil, and liy his honorable dealings and 
strict integrity he gained the confidence of 
the entire community. He was a member of 
the Masonic fraternity. In his religious 
faith he was a Presbyterian. Eli Zimmer- 
man, whose name heads this sketch, was 
reared amid pioneer scenes on liis father's 
farm in AVashington Township. His educa- 



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imsTonr of adams county. 



tional advantages were very limited, his youth 
being spent in working on tlie farm. A,s a 
farmer ho lias met witli excellent sncccss, 
having accnniulated his present fine property 
in AVashiiigton Township, which consists of 
ahont U;35 acres of choice land. Jannary 7, 
1S67, he was united in marriage to ]\Iiss ISTe- 
linda Drayer, a native of Pennsylvania. (Jf 
the three children l)orn to iMr. and ]Mrs. Zim- 
merman two are living — Isaac W. and George 
AV. In his political affiliations Mr. Zimmer- 
man is a Democrat. 



.•;f^YLYAXUS WOOD, section 22, Bine 
K§)1l Creek Township, is a native of Harri- 
"^^ son County, Ohio, born August 22, 
1825, a son of Benjamin and Esther Wood. 
He was reared to manhood in liis native 
county, receiving but limited educational ad- 
vantages, as at that time there were no free 
schools, and his father being a poor man 
could not afford him the advantages he de- 
sired. After reaching manhood he deter- 
mined to try his fortunes in a new country, 
and accordingly came to Adams County, In- 
diana, and settled on a tract of heavily-tim- 
bered land. This he has by hard work and 
perseverance improved, and now has one of 
the best farms in the township, his home- 
stead containing 119 acres of land, and his 
residence and farm l)uildings being commo- 
dious and convenient. He is a representa- 
tive man of the township, and lias served 
efficiently in several official positions of trust 
and responsibility. In politics he is a Ile- 
publican. lie was married November 26, 
1840, to Sarah AVarford, and to them were 
born five children; but three are living — 
Adonirain J., Elizabeth J. and Mary E. His 
wife died, and in April, 1S61, he married 
Eva A. Deaver, widow of George Deaver, 



and daughter of William and ]\Iary A. Bryan. 
They have had six children, five of whom are 
living — Adolphus ^I., Joseph M., George K., 
Charles i\r. and Harvey V. ]\Ir. and Mrs. 
Wood arc members of the Baptist chui-ch. 









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OIIX CLEM, farmer, section 4, Union 
Township, was born in ]\Ionroe Town- 
ship, Allen County, Indiana, July 13, 
1819. He was reared on his lather's farm, 
and has always been a farmer. His father, 
Noah Clem, was born in the Shenandoah 
A'"alley, A''irginia, September 27, 1809, where 
he was reared and married. Soon after his 
marriage he removed to Champaign County, 
Ohio, where he rented a farm. He also 
worked at the shoemaker's trade. He came 
to Allen County, this State, in 1810, with 
wife and five children, and settled on section 
33, Monroe Township, where he is still living. 
He entered the land in the fall of 1839, put 
up a log cabin and returned for his family, 
who came the following spring. He has seen 
the country grow from a wilderness to a cul- 
tivated, flourishing county. There was a 
bounty on wolves in Allen County. Noah 
Clem caught one in Adams County, but dare 
not kill it in that county. So he dragged it 
to liis home in Allen County alive and killed 
him so that he could get his bounty. John's 
mother, Mary ]\I. (Itidenour) Clem, was born 
in Shenandoah County, Virginia, August 18, 
1813, where she was reared and married. 
She died September 27, 1885, leaving her 
husband and eleven children, two having died 
previously — Alfred died in Monroe Township, 
in childhood; Ilenjaniin; Alary, wife of Elias 
Barkley; Margaret, wife of Eli Need; Nancy, 
who became the wife of Kodney Graham; 
Jacob, living in Oregon; Susanna, wife of 
Simon Baker; Noah who died at the age of 



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lUOGRA PIirCAL SKETCIIEti. 



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six yi'iirs; l^lizalu'th, wife ot' .lo.-cpli Murttui; 
.lolili, our sulijcrt; Isabella, keepiiii;- liolieu 
foi' her lather; J(j;e])h and .Jusliua. John 
was married Xt)veinber 18, ISTiJ, to Miss 
Minnie A. Taygart, who was born in Wauke- 
^an, Illinois, April "22, 1^53, and when fifteen 
years of age went to Van AV^ert C'oiinty, Ohio, 
with her parents, where she taught school 
several terms. Jler father, AV'illiam M. 
Taggart, Mas born in >.'ewark, Lieking Coun- 
ty, Ohio, December 21), 1819, where he was 
reared, and was married in liichland County, 
same State, to ]\IaiT A. Brown, ^November 1, 
18-42. Four years later they removed to 
AVaukegan, Illinois, where they lived until 
1808, thence to A'an Wert County, Ohio, 
and is still living on the land lie entered 
from the (4overnment before removing to 
Illinois. Tlie mother was born in Carlisle, 
Pennsylvania, January 9, 1821, where she 
lived until eight or nine years old, when her 
own father tiled. She taught scliool in Ilich- 
land County several years, and was then 
married. 'J'here were six children in the 
father's family — Adaline 13., wife of Jerry 
Swigert; Sarah E., a school teacher; Ellen II., 
widow of Charles Iloeken ; George B. ; Minnie 
A., wife of our subject, and William E., 
living in ]\[issoari. ^Ir. and Mrs. Clem have 
two children — Alice I., born April 4-, 1877, and 
Inez Cr., born April 17, 1880. Mr. Clem was 
elected assessor of Monroe Township in the 
spring of 1875. j\[r. Clem's paternal grand- 
father, David Clem, was born in FowelTs 
Fort, Shenandoah County, Virginia, a son of 
Zetric Clem, who came from Germany when 
a boy, and made his home in Virginia. His 
maternal grandfather was Adam Kideuoui', 
also a native of Virginia, a son of Adam 
Ridenour. Mrs. Clem's paternal grandparents 
were Jonathan and Elizabeth (AIoody)Taggart. 
The former was a native of Winchester, 
Virginia, a son of Francis Taggart, who came 



to America tVcim the luu'tb of Ireland ]irior 
to the Bevolution. The latter was a native 
of Bowling Green, Licking County, Ohio, a 
daughter of William and ^fai-y (Stadden) 
Moody, natives of Fennsylvania. Her ma- 
ternal grandparents were Thompson and 
Sarah (Alspaugh) Brown, the former of Eng- 
lish descent, and the latter a native of Cum- 
berland Count}', Pennsylvania, a daughter of 
Geoi'ge and ^Vlarie (Keller) Alspaugh, natives 
of Germany, the father of liaden and the 
mother of Westphalia, coming to America in 
their youth. George Alspaugh served as a 
soldier through the war of the Revolution. 



-T^i^EWIS ]\[ATTAX, deceased, who was 
wk ""® °^' '^''^ early pioneers of Adams 
"iK- County, was born in Greene County, 
Pennsylvania, January 22, 1811, a son of 
John Mattax, Sr., who was a native of New 
Jersey. The parents were married in Xew 
Jersey, and afterward removed to Pennsyl- 
vania, settling in Greene County, wliere tiiey 
lived till their death. Lewis Mattax grew to 
manhood on a farm in his native county, re- 
ceiving as good an education as could be ob- 
tained in the schools of that early day. On 
attaining his majority he went to Knox 
County, Ohio, and opened a cooper shop at 
Martinsburgh, where he followed that trade 
till he came to .\dams County, Indiana, in 
the fall of 1840. He entered 200 acres ot 
land in Monroe Township, settling on section 
26. He came to the county by team, and 
lived in a tent made of his wagon cover while 
his log cabin was being built. Fie lived with 
j his family several years in this pioneer cabin, 
I when he built a more commodious frame 
j house. In the first years of their residence 
in the county the family passed through 
1 many of the hardships and pri\ations which 



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usually fall to the lot of a pioneer. Game of 
various kinds was in abundance, and was 
about the only meat that could be obtained 
by tiie first settlers, ilr. Mattax took an 
active interest in the ])ublic affairs of his 
township, and for several years served effi- 
ciently as justice of the peace. Jle was also 
postmaster for several years, the postoffice 
being kept at his house. In politics he 
affiliated with the Democratic party. lie 
was also agent for the swamp lands of his 
county, and took charge of the ditching for 
sevei'al years. He was a man of much nat- 
ural ability, and could turn his hand to 
almost anything. Mr. Mattax was married 
August 28, 1835, to Anna Stephenson, who 
was born in Knox County, Ohio, July 24, 
1S15, and to them were born live children — 
Laban, AVilliam Lee, Davidson, Mary E. and 
liuth, the latter now deceased. Both Mr. 
and Mrs. ilattax were members of the Pres- 
byterian church, of which he was an elder, 
and was also superintendent of the Sabbath- 
school. 



■^ETER B. MANLEY, an attorney at law at 
\i Geneva, is a native of Jay County, Indi- 



*^ ana, born August -t, 1854, a son of Jere- 
miah L. and Mary A. (Beckler) Mauley. lie 
received his education in the common schools, 
and also attended Liber College, near Port- 
land, in liis native county. lie studied law 
with his father and was admitted to the bar, 
at Decatur, Indiana, in 1879, Judge Bobo 
presiding. After this event he formed a 
partnership with his father, under the firm 
name of ilanley ifc Son. This partnership 
continued until the death of the father, and 
our subject took charge of the business 
and has since conducted it alone. Mr. Man- 
ley is a Republican in politics, has held the 



office of village clerk, and was a candidate for 
prosecuting attorney for the Twenty-sixth 
Judicial District, and though the district was 
largely Democratic, and he made no effort 
whatever to secure liis own election, he re- 
duced the majority of his opponent several 
hundred. lie was married June 17, 1880, 
to Miss Dora McKaig, who was born in 
March, 1858, in ^Mercer County, Ohio, and 
died in 1884. She was a member of the 
Jlethodist Episco])al church. 



,^AMUEL FETTERS, farmer, Jefferson 
''(^^ Township, was born in Stark County, 
'^ Ohio, May 24, 1847, a son of John AV. 
and Elizabeth (Gross) Fetters. In his third 
year he was brought by his parents to Adams 
County, Indiana, where he \vas reared to 
manhood on the home farm in Jefferson Town- 
ship. March 23, 1865, he enlisted in Com- 
pany E, One Hundred and P^iftj'-tifth Indiana 
Infantry, and was discharged at Dover, Dela- 
ware, August 24, 1865, when he returned to 
his home in Adams County. He was united 
in marriage July 30, 1871, to Miss Luvina 
Woodward, who was born in Columbiana 
County, Ohio, March 3, 1855, a daughter of 
William and Lucinda (Rash) Woodward, who 
were also natives of the same State. They 
came to Adams County. Indiana, in 1863, 
where the father still lives. The mother 
died in Jefferson Township in Feljruary, 
1877. They had a family of eleven children, 
six sons and five daughters. The following 
children have been born to Mr. and !Mrs. 
Fetters — Frank R., Charles M., James F., 
Harry H. and Emma C. Mr. Fetters has 
always followed agricultural pursuits, and is 
a thorough, practical farmer. He settled on 
his present farm in the fall of 1874, which 
contains eighty acres of choice land under a 



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JJJOOJtAl'HIOAL SKETCHES. 



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iiiie stiitt! of cultivation. In politics .Nfr. 
Fetters is a Democrat. lie has served eight 
years as justice of the peace and is now serv- 
ing his first term as township trustee, having 
been elected to that ofiice in the spring of 
188('). Tie is a comrade of John P. Porter 
Post, No, S:i, G. A. K. John \\. Fetter, the 
father of our subject, was a native of Stark 
County, Oliio, Imrn ^Marcli 14, 1818, a son of 
Philip Fetters, who was born in Huntingdon 
County, Pennsylvania, of German descent, 
and died in Ohio. John AV. Fetters grew to 
manhood in Stark County, and was there 
married, in 1840, to Flizaheth (iross, a na- 
tive of ?^ew York City, her parents being 
natives of Germany. To this union were 
born seven chiklren, four sons and three 
daughters. The parents were members of the 
Luther:ui church. The father exchanged 
eighty acres of land in Stark Count}' for 
three eighty-acre tracts in Adams Count}', 
Indiana, locating here in the fall of ISiO, 
and made his home on section 21, Jefferson 
Township, till his death, lie was very suc- 
cessful in his farming operations, and added 
to his land till he had almost 400 acres. In 
politics lie was a staunch Democrat. lie took 
an active interest in public aft'airs, and held 
the oftice of justice of the peace for a period 
of twenty-four years, and also served as town- 
ship clerk during the old township organiza- 
tion, and was a prominent citizen. 



/TTEREMIAII L. MAXLEY, deceased, was 



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born in ]\lnskingum Cotinty, Ohio, No- 



^ vember 15, 1826, son of Pobert and 
Margaret (Lasure) !Manley, early settlers of 
that county, where they lived until their de- 
cease. He remained at home during his 
youth, attending the common school, and 
also attended school at Zanesville, Ohio, and 



studied law there, lie married Mary A. 
IJeckler, September 2, 1.S4U, a native of 
Atiiens County, Ohio, after which he moved 
to Jay County, Indiana, where lie ])racticed 
law, coining to this connty in 1874, and 
opened an othce at Geneva, where he prac- 
ticed until his death, December 0, ISSO. In 
politics he was a Ilepublican, and held the 
otiice of justice of the peace, besides other 
local offices. He was a member of the village 
school board, and was formerly a member of 
the United Brethren church, Imt afterward 
united with the ilethodist Episcopal church. 
Mr. and Mi-s. ^Manley were the parents of 
eight children— Delilah B., Robert J. G., 
Peter B., John C. F., Benjamin F., Maude 
M., Thomas B. and Jennie F. Mrs. ilanley 
married a second time, and resides in "Wood 
County, Ohio. Mr. !Manley was a man of 
strong temperance principles, was opposed to 
secret societies, was an active member of the 
cliurch, and was generally successful in his 
practice — a good reasoner and a forcible 
speaker. 



j^AMUEL S. STEELE, a Tnember of the 
tS^i ^'"^ ^' Steele & Lenhart, proprietors of 
■•^i-' the saw and planing mill at Peterson, 
Adams County, was born in Kirkland Town- 
ship, Adams County, Indiana, January 25, 
185G, the j'oungest son of Samuel Steele, 
who is now deceased. He grew to manhood 
in his native county, receiving a common- 
school education in the schools of his neigh- 
borhood, lie remained at home with his 
parents until seventeen years of age, being 
reared to the avocation of a farmer, wlien he 
begiin working for neighboring farmers by 
the month. In 1870 he engaged in his 
present business with his brotlier David, the 
latter being succeeded by Mr. Lenhart, the 






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fflSTOnr OF ADAMS COUNTY. 



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present member of the firm of Steele & Leii- 
h;ut. ^Ir. Steele Mas married ]\Iarc'h 15, 
ISTU, to ^lins Sarah .1. iCriek, who was born 
in .\(lanis County, Indiana, in l.S()l. Mr. 
and Mrs. Sti'ule liave had live children — 
Harry K. and Harvey K. (twins), horn in 
January, 18>iO; Lana M., born August 2, 
18S1; Ida A., born September 4, 188-1:, and 
]\I. E., born February 21, 18S7. JJesides his 
mill property, ^[r. Steele owns about eighteen 
acres of tine land in Teterson, where he re- 
sides, and his comfortable and commodious 
residence, which was erected in the summer 
of 1886, at a cost of §1,200. i\[r. Steele is 
a member of the Odd l''ellows order, belong- 
ing to St. ilary's Lodge, >.'o. 1G7, I. O. (J. R, 
at Decatur. 



fOSP:Pn PAllENT, a farmer of Wash- 
ington Township, was born in the 
<i Province of Quebec, Canada, October 
11, 1811, son of Paul and Angeline Parent, 
both of whom were born in Lower Canada, 
and of French ancestry. They had seven 
children. si.\ of whom are living — .Joseph, 
Cillert, Matilda, JMilitime, Paul and J\Iary 
L. The mother died August 9, 1859, and 
the father November 5, 18S0. lie was reared 
on a farm in his native country, and educated 
in the early schools of his time. June 22, 
1870, he was married to Pha^be A. Troutner, 
born in Allen County, Indiana, January 4-, 
1854, daughter of John and Frances Trout- 
ner, the former a native of Pennsylvania, and 
the latter of Ohio. The father was a soldier 
in the war of 1812, and a pioneer of Allen 
County, this State, lie used to carry the 
mail over the Government trails between De- 
fiance, Ohio, and Fort Wayne, Indiana. lie 
died March 14, 1870, in his seventy-ninth 
year. To Mr. and Mrs. Parent have been 




born seven children— Joseph A., born De- 
cember 21, 1871; William II., born October 
lit, 1S73; Priscilla, born March 30, 1870; 
Mary A., born .\ugust 2('), 1878; Eddie E., 
born July 20, 1882; A'ivena M., born Feb- 
ruary 5, 1885, and Francis T., born March 
30, 1887. J\lr. Parent came to this county 
in 1.S70, and in 1873 was naturalized. He 
owns a good farm of eighty acres, and is a 
successful farmer. He is a member of the 
Catholic church, and in ])olitics a Democrat. 



OIIN HENRY LANKENAU, a school 
teacher in District No. 1, Preble Town- 
ship, was born in Hanover, Germany, 
September 19, 1842, and in the spring of 
1844 came to America with his parent.s, who 
came via New Orleans, and landed in Fort 
Wayne, Indiana, in August of that year. 
Our subject was reared there until he was 
nineteen years of age, then enlisted as a 
soldier in the army, becoming a member of 
Company D, Fifth Indiana Cavalry. He 
tirst served in Kentucky under General Judah, 
and their tirst hard work was in the Morgan 
raid, lie was captured during the Stone- 
man raid through Georgia August 30, 1804, 
and taken to Anderson ville, where heremained 
until he was removed to Millen, Georgia. 
Thence he, with others, was removed to 
Florence, South Carolina, thence to Wil- 
mington, North Carolina, where he was 
turned over to our forces. He was then sent 
to Camp Chase, and discharged at Columbus, 
Ohio. He then returned to Fort Wayne, 
where he remained until 1875, a part of the 
time employed as a type-setter in a newspaper 
otKce. In 1875 he went to Van Wert County, 
Ohio, and taught school for several terms, 
then came to his present poaition as teacher 
in the common and church school of the St. 






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niOORAPHICAJ. SKETCHES. 



Jolm's German Liitlieraii Clnircli. lie was 
married July IS, ISIIT, to Mit.s ('atlierine 
Sliiimin, wliii was Imi-n in \'an Wert ('miiity, 
Oliiu, .Inly ;il, 1S44. Mr. and Mrs. Lanku- 
iiau liave ten childreir— Fi-ank, Ada, Clara, 
Louisa, I''lora, AuL:ust, Ailolnh and Oscar 
(twins). Alma ami ]']nnii. Mr. Lankcnau's 
parents were l'"i-aijk and ( 'atlierine ( Meislalin) 
Laid<enau, who were natives of (ierniany. 
The father was born in lIano\ei' January 5, 
1818, and came to Anieiiea in IMl. He 
was a carpenter by trade, lie died August 
15, 1880, and is buried at Fort Wayne. His 
mother was born in llanovei' October 30, 
1821, and is living in Fort AVayne with lier 
youngest unmarried son. 



fOIIN FLETCHER SNOW, superinten- 
dent of the public scliools of Adams 
"IK. County, and an active and pul)lic-spir- 
ited citizen of Decatur, was born in Portland, 
Jay County, Indiana, the date of his birth 
being June 17, 1854. In the springof I860 
he was brought to Adams County by his 
parents, they settling on a farm in Wabash 
Township, on which the village of ( 'eylon was 
subsequently platted. Weve he was reared, 
receiving his elementary education in the 
district schools, later attending the Tlidge- 
ville College in Randolph County, Indiana. 
On attaining his maj\)rity he began teaching 
school, and followed the teacher's profession 
in Adams ('ountv, Luliana, for eight years. 
August 25, 1881, he was united in marriage 
to ifiss Sadie Alice Iloskinson, who was 
born near >,'ewark, in Licking County, Ohio, 
a daughter of Andrew J. and INIary (Foster) 
Iloskinson, the father of Irish, and the mother 
of English ancestry. Mr. and ]\Irs. Snow 
are the ])arents of one son, named Edwin 
Earl. In June, 1883, Mr. Snow was elected 



by the township trustees of A<lams County, 
suiierintendent of the public scliools, being 
ri!-elected to the same ollice in 1^85 tor a 
term of two yeai-s, and is .serving with credit 
to himself and satisfaction to his constituents. 
Politically he atliliates with the l)einocratic 
]iarty. His fatlier, Harton 1!. Snow, was a 
native of Westmoreland (^ninty, i'l'iinsyl- 
vania, and of Ijigli^h parentage. A\'iien a 
young man he went to ()liio, and in 1837 
removed to Jay County, Indiana, where he 
began to educate himself, woi-king to obtain 
the means to defray his expenses. In 18-43 
he began the study of medicine in the office 
of Dr. ^lilligan, of Portland, Indiana, and 
in 1854 graduated from the Louisville !Meili- 
cal College at Louisville, Kentucky, after 
taking a tlRirougli course of lectures. In 
1852 he was married to Rebecca Ilanjiah 
McDonalil, who was liorn in Columbiana 
County, Ohio, and was of Scotch-Irish ances- 
try. She came to Adams County with her 
parents, they settling in Decatur, lier father 
afterward being elected to the office of county 
sheriff. She died on the homestead in AVa- 
bash Township in 1873, she having been a 
member of the Methodist Episciipal church 
the greater part of her life. Of the nine 
children born to Mr. and Mrs. Barton Snow, 
only five are living — Solan McD., principal 
of the schools at Ceylon; Ella, teaching in 
the school at Geneva; Addie and Loretta, 
teaching in other districts of Adams County, 
and John Fletcher, whose name lieads this 
eketch. After his graduation Dr. Snow prac- 
ticed medicine at New Corydon, Indiana, for 
several years, when he returned to Portland 
and succeeded his preceptor, practicing there 
until 1860. In that year he came to Wabash 
Townsliip. Adams County, Indiana, and 
platted the village of Ceylon, where he prac- 
ticed ten years, when he abandoned his pro- 
fession. He then engaged in farming and 



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dealing in luinl)er on an extensive seale, 
whicli he tblloweil till iiis tleath, December 
3, 1S75. In ISCii; he was tlie Democratic 
nominee tor ('(ini^ressman in the l''levcntli 
Coni^ressiunal District, Imt was deteated, the 
district being strongly Jiepublican. He was 
ii man widely known throughout this section 
of the county, and few local men possessed 
llie contidence ami respect of the public to a 
greater extent than he. 



,^()IIX W. KLEY, a prominent farmer of 
"Si' Monroe Township, residinjj on section 

Oil, 1 ' o 

^^ 27, was born in Knox County, Ohio, of 
(Tcrnian descent, the date of his birth being 
October 17, ISS'J. "Wiien four yearo old he 
was brought by his parents to Adams County, 
and here he grew to manhood, receiving sucli 
educational ad vantages as the common schools 
of that day atibrded. lie was reared a farmer, 
and has fallowed that avocation through life. 
He settled on hin present farm in Monroe 
Township in 1S71, where lie has 109 acres 
of valuable land, with good improvements. 
February 24, 1871, he was united in mar- 
riage to ifary Ellen Mattax, who was born in 
^lonroe Township, Adams County, January 
■4, 1813, a daughter of Lewis JIattax, wlio 
was one of the first settlers of Adams County. 
The}' are the parents of two children — Lewis 
:\I., born January 7, 1872, and William W., 
born January 12, 1874. Ijoth Mr. and Mrs. 
Eley are members of the Lutheran church. 
Samuel Eley, the father of our subject, was 
one of the pioneers of Adams County, coming 
here in the year 1843, when he settled on 
section 23, ^[onroe Township. He live<l on 
this laud several years, when he returned to 
Ohio, returning a short time later to Adams 
County, locating at Decatur. He subse- 



(piently lived in Line Creek Township, re- 
maining in the county until 1877, when he 
went to AVliitle}' County, and died in that 
ctjunty Xovember 3, 18Stj. He was a native 
of the State of Pennsylvania, born in (ireene 
County in 1818. He was four times mar- 
ried, and by iiis first wife, Susannah Stopher, 
had four chihlren, two sons and two daugh- 
ters, lly his second wife lie had two ciiil- 
dren. Three children were born to his third 
niarriacre, and by his last marriage he liad no 
children. He was a prominent man in his 
day in township and county affairs, and for 
several years served as township trustee, and 
for four years served as county assessor. In 
politics he is a staunch Democi'at. He was 
a worthy inembei' of the ilethodist Ejiiscopal 
church. 



JTaAWSOX LIXHARD, farmer. Root 
1 r/f Township, was born in Tuscarawas 
'^ County, Ohio, March 18, 1820. He came 
to this county with his jjarents and nine 
other children in the fall of 183'J. The fam- 
ily settled on the farm now owned and occu- 
pied by Jay Rugg, which was then in its 
wild state. There were no imjirovements on 
the place, and the family camped out two 
weeks beside a large oak log while a cabin 
was being built. It was made of round logs 
and scotched down on the inside, a puncheon 
floor, clai)board roof and a mud fire-place. 
They lived in this house a few years, when 
the father built the liouse that is now stand- 
ing on the place. After occupying it several 
years, the father sold, and bought the farm 
now owned by widow Dailey, where he died 
at the age of eighty years and two months. 
lie was born in Westmoreland County, Penn- 
sylvania, February 24, 1797, and died May 
18, 1877. A portion of his youth was jtassed 






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ill his native county, ami a jimtion in Tiirt- 
carawas Oounty, Oliin, wlieic lie was nian-ied 
and where nine children were liDrn to tlieni. 
One cliild was lioru in Adams ('oiinty. Our 
subject was the ol(k'st child, and all are liv- 
injj except John. The other children arc — 
Sarah, Peter, Catherine, Mary and Elizabeth 
(twins), Joseph, Ann and \V'illiain. The 
mother was born in Maryland Sejiteinbcr 22 
1801, and died .May 2t), 1n73, ai^^ed seventy- 
two years. Iiotli parents are buried in Alj)lia 
cemetery. J^awson was educated in the com- 
mon schools of his father's district, and his 
occupation Inis always been tanning, lie re- 
mained at home until he was twenty-four years 
of age; then commenced to work for himself, 
working by the day, month or job, just as he 
could hiid the work to do. until lie was mar- 
ried. His wife, wlioinhe married ^lay 3, 1847, 
was Miss Lois Erown, who was born in JTedina 
Countv, Ohio, ]\[arch 10, 1S30, and when she 
was tive years old her mother brought her 
to this County, llcr father died in Medina 
County, and her mother is still living in 
liOOt Township with ]\Irs. JJnhard. Jler 
father, Josi.ih ]]rown, was born in liroome 
County, New York, and was aged about tifty- 
two years ■ at the time of his death. Tlie 
mother, Sarah (AVarner) Brown, was born in 
Greene County, Xew York, May 9, 1811, 
where she was reared and married. Soon af- 
ter her marriage, she and her husband emi- 
grated to .Medina County, Ohio, and were 
among the early settlers of that county. ]\[r. 
Brown opened a farm there. ]\[rs. Linhard's 
paternal grandparents were Josiah and ^Vbi- 
gail (Porter) Brown. Her maternal grand- 
father, Abijah Warner, was born in 
Connecticut, and died in Koot Township, this 
county, ilr. Linhard's parents were John 
and Ilebecca (^Burl) Linhard. Mr. and ilrs. 
Linhard have seven children — John H., 
Samantha A., Mary E., Sanford P., Lawson 



C, Marcus IS', and Artie E. ]\rr. Linhard 
votes the Pepublican ticket. 



TSAAC JJ. BOOHER, a progressive farmer, 
J living on section 10, Jell'erson Township, 
~ .Vdanis ('i)iintv, was b(ini in Dayton, 
Moiitgiiniery County, ( »hio. ( )ctober 23, 18-41, 
a Son of Daniel and Anna (Clark) Boolier, 
who were also natives of Montgomery County, 
and of Ereiich descent. The father was a 
fanner by occupation. He was twice mar- 
ried, his iii'st wife dying October 26, 1841, 
leaving three children. J''or his second wife 
he married Catherine Sears, and to this union 
four children were born, two sons and two 
daucrhters. Isaac D., the subject of this 
sketch, was reared to agricultural pursuits on 
his father's farm, I'eceiving a common-school 
education. He was married in Ohio to Aliss 
Catherine Heinz, a native of liavaria, (Ter- 
many, born February 4, 1841. She came 
with her parents to America when nine years 
olil, they settling in Montgomery County, 
Ohio, where she lived till after her marriage. 
Eight children have been born to ^[r. and 
ilrs. Boolier — Anna M. (deceased), Jacob D., 
"William E., Alvina (X, Emma E., Ida C, 
Sarah A. and Charles (deceased). Mr. Boolier 
followed farming in Montgomery County 
until the fall of 1874, wlien he bought his 
present farm in Jefferson Township, to which 
he then removed with his family, his farm 
containing 120 acres of well-improved and 
well-cultivated land. In polities Mr. Boolier 
is a Democrat, and since coming to Jefierson 
Township has held the office of justice of tlie 
peace. Mrs. Booher is a member of the 
Lutheran church. Their son, Jacob D., was 
born in Montgomery County, Ohio, August 
20, 1869, but was reared from boyhood in 
Adams County, where he received his educa- 



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llISTOItY (IF ADAMS CUL'NTY. 



tiuii in tlic coinmoii scliduls. Miiy 1, 1886, 
lie received a (lijilcnna tVoiti County ynpcrin- 
tenilent Simw. lie lias already taui^lit a suli- 
Serijition >elMiol in liis district, luit is not yet 
old enouijh to teach, accordiiii^ to tlie laws of 
the State. 



fOIIX J. WATSON, of the firm of Wat- 
son A: Mac Whinney, dealers in general 
' ^, inerclumdise, and shippers of railroad 
ties, staves, etc., was born in llamilton, 
Canada, February 3, 184:4, son of Richard K. 
and ^[ary A. (McCarty) Watson, the foriner a 
native of England and the latter of Ireland. 
They came with their parents to Canada 
when yiMing, where they were married. The 
father was an architect anil carpenter, and 
while at work on the cornice of a church 
building in London, Canada, he sustained 
injuries from the effects of which lie died one 
year later. The family remained there until 
John J. was twelve years old, when the mother 
came with her family to St. ^Mary's, Auglaize 
County, Ohio, where they remained four 
years, thence to AVapakoneta, in the same 
county. Our subject enlisted September 26, 
18(51, in Company C, Fifty-seventh Ohio 
Infantry, and served until October 28, 18(J4-. 
After his discharge he was employed in the 
Quartermaster's department at Lexington, 
Kentucky, remaining until about the 1st of 
Feliruary, 1865. lie raised a company in 
Auglaize County, then returned to Columbus 
and assigned his men to the One Hundred 
and Eighty-fit'tli Ohio Infantry, and re-en- 
listed as Sergeant, serving until October 28, 
1865. lie was discharged by general order, 
it being the close of the war. IMr. A\''atson 
returned to his home in Ohio and learned the 
cooper's trade, which he followed until 1871, 
then came to Ceylon, Wabash Township, 



l)iiilt a shop and eni;aged in coopering. In 
IS?'' he engaged in the mercantile business. 
His first st(iid< of goods amounted to s205, 
opening ujt in bis cnojirr simp. 1 1 is bn^illess 
increasi'd so rapidly that he was soon com- 
]jelled to rent a larger business room, and 
afterward bought the building. One year 
later he purchased a still larger building, the 
first one purchased being insufficient to con- 
tain goods to supply his customers. He 
remained in the last building until 18S2, when 
he sold out his stock and buildings, and went 
to Celina, fiercer County, Ohio, aiul engaged 
in the mercantile trade there. He lived 
there one year, then went to Spencerville, 
same State, I'emaining but a short time, then 
returned to Adams County in June, 1885; and 
established his present business in (ieneva. 
He isa member of John P. Porter Post, \o.85, 
(t. a. R. He was married ilaicli 22, 1871, 
to Ella (t. Jackson, born September 7, 1852, 
at ilount Vernon, Ohio. Her father has 
been a prominent attorney of Auglaize 
County, Ohio, for thirty years; he still resides 
there. Mr. and ^frs. AVatson have four chil- 
dren — Eltie K., Susie A., Charles P. and 
Gracie 1^. 



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USTIN C. .MANN, deceased, was born 
in Lorain ('ounty, Ohio, in 1821, a son 
of Enos and Sarah Mann, both of whom 
were natives of Alassachusetts. They settled 
in Adams County, Indiana, in 1836, where 
our subject grew to manhood. He was mar- 
ried August 22, 1816, to a Mrs. Reynolds, 
who was a daughter of Vacliel H. and Sarah 
(Henry) I'all, pioneers of Adams County, who 
came from Virginia, and were of English 
ancestry. ^Irs. iLann was born in I)ela\vare 
County, Ohio, April U, 1818, and was brought 
by her parents to Adams County when tliir- 



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teen ycnrs of ajjje. At the age of eighteen 
slie was mairitMl to John lioyiiolds, wlio died 
on tlioir farm in lioot Townsiii]! in 1843, and 
by him bhe liad foiu- sons and two daughters, 
all of whom yet .survive, and are living in 
Neliraska and Indiana. Eight children liave 
been burn to Mr. and Mrs. j\[ann — Mrs. 
Eliza Knoff, of AV<M,d County, Ohio; Mrs. 
Mary Woodward, of LoL,'ans])ort, Indiana; I 
Vachel l'\, of I)ecatur; Mrs. ("ornelia Elzey, I 
of Deeatiir; .losejjh Iv., of Uecatur; Justin 
E., of ^[eade (Jenter, Kansas: Ida ilay, and 
Jesse E.. a physician of Decatur. After his 
marriage -Mr. Mann settled on a farm that is 
now within the corporate limits of Decatur. 
In 1858 he removed to a farm in AVashington 
Township, adjoining Decatur, wlicre he died 
in the spring of 1884. He was a member of 
the ^Fethodist Episcofial church for many 
years, and one of the old and respected citi- 
zens of the county. Mrs. ]\Iann, who still 
snr\ivcs him, is a resident of Decatui'. She 
is also a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. 



fX EAVIS EDWARDS, one of the self-made 
-'ff men of Adams County, enga^'ed in tarni- 
"^^ ingon section 15, 1'due Creek Township, 
is a native of Fayette County, Pennsylvania, 
born April 2, 1815, a sou of Isaac and Eliza- 
beth (Traer) Edwards, natives of the State of 
Pennsylvania, the father of Welsh and the 
mother of English descent. < )ur subject's 
educational ailvautages were limited to the 
rude log cabin subscription schools of that 
early day. lie was reared to the avocation 
of a farmer, which he has made the principal 
avocation of his life. He was engaged in 
making funning mills for three years. In 
1822 he was brought to Jefferson County, 
Ohio, by his mother, remaining tliere two 



and a half years. The family then removed 
to Guernsey County, Ohio, and there our 
subject grew to nnmhood, I'emaining on the 
same farm in that county foi- forty years. 
lie was married in Guernsey County in 1888, 
to Elizabeth "Wilson, who was burn in that 
county Eel)ruary 27, 18 19, a ihuigbter of 
Jesse and llachel (Ifeed) ^Vilson, who wei-e of 
Irish and Welsh descent. To this union 
were born the following children — liacliel E., 
born in 1839, is the wife of Samuel Hastings; 
ilartha, born in May, 1842, died September 
25, 1872; Elizabeth M., born April 4, 1845, 
died January 17, 1886; Hannali H., wife of 
"William Nutt, was born in 1847; "William, 
born in 1850; Mary C., born in 1853, is the 
wife of Henry J\Ierrinian; Samantha, wife of 
IMartin Suhm, was liorn in 1856; Lewis K., 
born October 15, 1858, and Horace G., born 
in 1863. In 1865 Mr. Edwards came with 
his family to Adams County, Indiana, and 
has since been a resident of the county. He 
has held the office of justice of the peace for 
a period of nineteen years, and has also served 
as township trustee and school director. In 
politics he is Republican and Independent, vot- 
ing for the man whom he considers best fitted 
for office. He and his wife are members of 
the United Brethren church, and his mother 
in her relitrious faith was a (Quaker. 



fESSE ELSWORTIl MANN, M. D., oc- 
ulist and aurist, was born in Decatur, 
,^ Adams County, Indiana, August 18, 
1863, a son of the late Justin C. Mann. He 
was reared and educated at Decatur, attend- 
ing the schools of his native city until 1879. 
In that year he was obliged to leave school 
on account of failing health, when he took 
charge of his father's farm near Decatur, re- 
maining there two years. In the fall of 



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llISTOUr OF ADAMS COUNTY. 



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18S1 he begun the study of iiiediciiie uiuler 
tlie preceptorflup uf S. (i. lliistiiii;!;, A. ^M., 
uM. J)., at Doeiitiir. In 18S2 lie took u 6j)ecial 
couitie of lectures on iinatoiny at the medical 
college at Fort Wayne, Indiana, and in the 
fall t>f the same year he entei'ed Hahnemann 
]\Iedical College, of Chicago, Illinois, from 
which institution he graduated with the de- 
gree of M. I)., February 22, 1884, after 
taking two full and one exti'a course of lec- 
tures. Immediately after his graduation he 
began the practice of medicine at Decatur, 
being associated with Dr. J'h. D. Paul, of 
Chicago, and makes professional visits to 
various places in Indiana. Dr. Mann was 
united in marriage, at Chicago, April 28, 
188"), to Miss Xettie J. Ilolden, of Topeka, 
Kansas, a daughter of Edwin C. and Mary 
L. (Iiichardson) Ilolden. Mrs. Mann was 
born in Butlalo, New York, but was reared 
principally in Minnesota and Iowa, living 
longer at Sioux City, Iowa. She graduated 
from tlie high scjiool of Topeka, Kansas, in 
the class of 1882, and subsequently took a 
course in medicine at the Hahnemann Medi- 
cal College, and graduated as M. D. in the 
class of 1885. 



E0K(;K a. I'.UNNEK is a native of 
'. Pennsylvania, born near Uniontown, 
:^t Fayette (Jounty, October 16, 1841, a 
son of Enoch and Eliza (Archbold) Eunner. 
Ilis great-grandparents, John and Margaret 
Bunner, came to the United States, the for- 
mer from Germany and the latter from Ire- 
land, and settled in ilonongalia County, 
Virginia. His grandparents were John and 
Sarah (Carl) Banner, natives of Virginia, 
the latter of Irish descent. Their son, the 
father of o\ir subject, was born in Virginia 
March 28, 1806, and December 6, 1836, mar- 



ried l']liza Jane Archbold. Their family con- 
sisted of seven children — Eugenius, born 
ISeptember 30, 1.S37; James AVilliam, born 
November 28, 1S3;», died I )ecember 22, 1840; 
George iVlexander, born October 16, 1S41; 
Sarah Frances, born April 'J, 1844, now the 
wife of J. I>. Needham, of Lamar, Barber 
County, ^[issouri; Mary Catherine, V>orn 
March 31,1847, marrie.l AV. H. lieal, and 
died March 22, 1882; John Kandolph, born 
April 2, 1850, died November 23, 1854; 
Enoch Edgar, born I'ebruary 23, 1854, died 
September 19, 18(50. "When George I'unner 
was three years of age his parents moved to 
Adams County, Indiana, and settled in St. 
Mary's Township, on a tract of school land. 
They built a frame house, wliich at that time 
was the best in the neighborhood, and by 
hard work acre by acre was cleared until tlie 
entire farm was under good cultivation. 
George Bunner remained with his father 
until his marriage, when he settled on a farm 
of thirty-three acres which he had bought 
with money earned in the school-room. He 
lived on this farm four years and then sold 
it and bought one of his father-in-law, where 
he lived six years. This farm he improved, 
and after selling it bought the homestead of 
his father, which he sold four years later to 
the Chicago & Atlantic Railroad Company 
for !i^4,518, and bought a fine farm of eighty 
acres joining the town of Rivai'e. His resi- 
dence is a neat and commodious brick building 
and his other improvements are comfortable 
and convenient. He also owns a house and 
lot in the village of Pivare. At present he 
is conducting a grocery and provision busi- 
ness in Rivare, and is also postmaster. His 
father, who now lives with him, has been an 
active citizen of the county. He served two 
terms as township trustee, and has been cir- 
cuit judge of the county. He has lived an 
honest, upright life, and has since his youth 






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l)eeii a meiiilier ot" tlie ]\retliodist Kpiseo])al 
clnircli, in wliioli liu has lor twenty years lieeii 
a trustee. Jlr. JJiimier was married A])ril 21, 
ISOS, to l*li<i'he Wade, a native of St. Mary's 
Towiisliip, liorn ^lareli (J, 1848, a daughter 
of Geoi-ge and llannah illaid';) AVade. Her 
fatlier was horn Deceniher 'J, 1819, and died 
Se]itenilier 10, 1^7ii. Her jiaternal grand- 
parents, ^\'illiani and Mancy Wade, were of 
AVelcli and Englisli ancestry, and her mater- 
nal grandpai-ents, John and Ilehecca (Apple) 
Hank, were Germans. Jlr. and Mrs. George 
IJuiiner have lour children — Enoch Alexan- 
der, liorn Novemher 14, 18G9; AVilliam 
Henry, born January 31, 1872; Lucy Bealle, 
born September 21, 1877, and Harry Sclirock, 
born J[ay 2, 1880. In politics, like his 
father, Mr. Jjunner is a Democrat, and he 
and bis wife are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal church. 






OIIN ('HKISTE\,Sr., farmer, ownsforty 
acres of land on section 10, and eighty 
c acres on section 15, Koot Township, 
making a total of 120 acres. He was born in 
Canton J'erne, Switzerland, August 9, 1812. 
He was reared on a farm, but later in life car- 
ried on a bakery. He was married July 17, 
1835, to iliss Elizabeth Schaad, who was born 
January 17, 1814, in ("anton Heme. The 
family came to Ainei-ica in 1850, landing 
in New York, coming thence to Adams 
County, and settling on the farm they now 
occupy and own. The land was partly im- 
))roved. A log cabin and a log stable had 
been built, and about fifteen acres had been 
cleared. The family lived in that one room 
for nine years, when the father built an ad- 
dition of logs, giving them two rooms on the 
ground floor, besides an upper room, it being 
a one and a half story house. The logs were 



hewed, both for the addition and the original 
liou>c. 'J'be prcj^ent line brici^ ho\lse was 
built in 1875, an(J it is as goo<l a bouse as 
there is in the townsiiip. His nice frame 
barn was built about 18(39. ^^r. Christen's 
parents were John and lilizabeth (Segerzerj 
Christen, who were born in Switzerland, and 
])assed their lives there. Mrs. Christen's 
parents, Andrew and Elizabeth (Christen) 
Schaad, were both born in Switzerland, and 
died in the canton of Berne. Mr. and ^Irs. 
Christen have had twelve children, eight of 
whom are living — Godfrey, born November 
21, 1830; Eliza, born January 5, 1839; John 
A., born iS'ovember 23, 1840; Mary A., born 
Jlay 8, 1843; .Folin, born October 5, 1844; 
William, born August 2, 1840; John K., born 
November 7, 1849; Anna C, l)orn April 20, 
1855. All exce]it the la-t named were born in 
Switzerland. The deceased are — John, born 
xsovember 10, 1835, and died at the age of nine 
weeks; Mary A., born March 22, 1842, died at 
about the age of two months; lloijcrt, born in 
ilarcli, 1848, died at the age of six weeks; 
Edward, born in 1852, died at about the age 
of five months; Emily, born October 7, 1837, 
died when one year old. Mr. Christen had 
two sons in the army, Godfrey and Albright. 
Godfrey served in the Eorty-seventh Infantry, 
and .\lbright in the Eighty-ninth. The for- 
mer was promoted to C-aptain while in the 
service. Mr. Cliristcn has served as town- 
ship trustee for ten years. He is a Democrat 
in politics, and belongs to the (-lerman Ue- 
fornied cliurcli. 



fOHN E. CULLY, founder of the Geneva" 
Herald, and a member of the firm of 
-,<, A. Cully & Son, was born in Mercer 
County, Ohio, October 30, 1807, son of Adam 
Cully, before mentioned. He attemled the 



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HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNTY. 






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liigh t-cliool iit (u'iiova,also tlie I'latitiTii Iiuliaiia 
Ni)riiial Sclioul two tcniLs. Ho liecaiiie his 
father's partner iti business in the spring ol" 
18N-1-. and is at present teaeliing seiiuol in 
])istrict No. 3, Hartford Township, Adains 
County, Indiatia. 



tvDAM CULI.Y, iHeml)er of the firm of 
:■ A. Cully ifc Son, dealers in agricultural 
■^.jPS^ iin])!enients, was born in Crawford 
County, Ohio, October 16, 1842, a son of 
Thomas and Mary (Lyons) Cully, tlie former 
a native of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. 
He removed with his parents to Crawford 
County, Ohio, in aii early day. His grand- 
father, Thomas Cully, was a native of Ireland, 
born near Dublin, and came to America soon 
after the war of 1812, settling in Lancaster 
County, Pennsylvania, wliere he lived until 
ills death. They had only one child — the 
subject of this sketch, ^fr. Cully served as 
justice of the peace eighteen years; was a 
farmer by occupation. Adam Cully was reared 
on his father's faiTn, and received a common 
school education, lie remained at liome un- 
til August, 1802, when he enlisted in Com- 
])any E, Forty-sixth Ohio Infantry, serving 
until the 1st day of June, 1865, when he was 
discharged by reason of expiration of term 
of service, lie joined the Fifteenth Army 
Corps and served under Logan. lie was in a 
number of battles and skirmishes, the more 
important being A'^icksburg, Jackson, ^lission 
Ividge, Atlanta, Dal ton, Snake Creek Gap, 
Alton, Dallas, New Hope Church, Noonday 
Creek, Little and Big Kenesaw JMountains, 
Savannah, Chattahoocliie, Ezra Chapel, Jones- 
boro, Lovejoy, Griswoldsville, Bentonville, 
and was in Sherman's marcli to the sea. He 
was also at the grand review at Washington. 
He received a gunshot wound in the left 

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arm at Kenesaw jMountain, and was ])resent 
at Chattahoocliie July 2~, when McPherson 
was killed. At Atlanta, July ~!8, they captured 
the rebel colors, the Seventieth and Forty- 
sixth Ohio regiments being among the front 
ranks. Before his term of service e.\pired 
he was promoted to Corporal. On receiving 
liis discharge he returned to his home in 
Ohio, and was engaged in the stock business 
three years, then followed farming awhile. 
In 18 — he removed to Marshall County, In- 
diana, and engaged in the grocery trade, and 
in November, 187i, he came to Geneva, 
Adams County, and followed the same busi- 
ness until 1879, when he engaged in his 
present business, with J. D. Hale as partner. 
In 1882 he purchased )iis partner's interest 
and conducted it alone until ^larch, 1SS4, 
when his son became associated with him. 
Mr. Cully married Elizabeth Ilarrod, a native 
of Hardin County, Ohio. Mr. Cully has 
been unfortunate in business on account of 
trusting many wlio have iu>t paid him. He 
tliought all others were as honorable in deal- 
ing as himself. His advice to his fellow 
merchants is to be on the lookout, as they 
had better have their goods on their shelves 
than bad accounts and notes. Mr. Cull}- is 
perfectly honorable, always keeping his word 
to the letter in every business deal. 



[>iARIv MILLS McCONNELL, deputy 
sheriff of Adams County, is a native 
^fi?^ of Adams County, Indiana, born in 
Monroe Township April 23. 1846, eldest son 
of Hon. John and Lucinda (McDermeit) 
]\IcConnell, who were old settlers of 
Adams County, the father coming here in 
1840, and the mother in 1838. .Mark M., 
our subject, from his fourth year was reared 
at Decatur, and was educated at the schools 



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BIOOUAI'HIGAL SKKTVIIKS. 






of Decatur and at the Veriniiliun Institute 
at Ilaysville, Oliiu. On becoming of age lie 
studied dentistry atSoutli IJend, Indiana, and 
afterward practiced at Decatur for two years. 
Dentistry not agreeing witli his health, he 
abandoned it in 1S70, after which he was 
employed as brakesman on the Pittsburgh, 
Fort Wayne it Chicago Railroad until 1871. 
lie then followed farming in Adams and 
Allen counties until 1877, when he was en- 
gaged in the manufacture of wagons and car- 
riages until 1882. In that year he was made 
deputy sherirt' by Sheriff ^lichael McGriff, 
and also lield the same position under his 
successor, Perry A. Lewton, who was elected 
sheriff in 1880. In politics ]\Ir. McC'onnell 
affiliates with the Democratic party. He has 
been twice married. He was first married 
to Miss Samantha J. Grim, at Decatur, Sep- 
tember 6, 18t)8, who died at Fort Wayne in 
1871, leaving one child, ^Maggie, who is a 
student at the Decatur High School. Mr. 
McConnell was married a second time at De- 
catur, December 29, 1872, to Miss Rachel 
Elzey, whose parents, Elislia and Comfort A. 
(Wliitehurst) Elzey, were pioneers of Adams 
County. ]\Ir. ilcConnell is a charter mem- 
ber of Kekionga Eodge, No. Ho, K. of P., of 
Decatur, of which he has passed all the 
chairs, and is a member of the Grand Lodge 
of the State of Indiana. John ]\IcConnel!, the 
father of our subject, was born in Putler 
County, Ohio, January 20, 1819, of Irish 
parentage. He was the eldest of a family of 
three children, and his father dying when he 
was six years old, the care of his mother and 
a sister devolved on him, tlie youngest sister 
dying in infancy. He was early in life in- 
ured to hard work, beginning at the age of 
ten years to drive oxen on a brick yard, for 
which he received the small sum of 6^ cents 
a day. AVhen seventeen years old he worked 
at the blacksmith's trade for Henry Dillon 



for $3 per month. Aftei> coining to Adams 
County he obtained a farm of 160 acres, a 
part of which he entered, an<l purchased the 
remainder. He was married July 10, 1845, 
to I^ucinda !McDermeit, a native of Pennsyl- 
vania, who is still living, making her home 
in Root Township, near ilonmouth. They 
were the parents of six children. In his po- 
litical views the father was a staunch Demo- 
crat. He was a |)rominent and influential 
man in Adams County, and held many pub- 
lic oflices. He served three years as county 
commissioner, and for nine years was county 
auditor, and was clerk of the circuit court for 
four years. In 1872 he was elected to the 
Indiana State Legislature, and served with 
satisfaction to his constituents during the 
special session of 1872 and the regular ses- 
sion of 1873. 



JOSEPH T. JOHNSON, an old settler of 
^ii Adams County, M'as born in Tuscarawas 
^ County, Ohio, August 7, 1834, a son of 
James and Eliza Johnson, the former a native 
of Pennsylvania and now deceased, and the 
latter a native of ]Montgomery County, Mary- 
land. The parents came to Adams County 
in 1837, settling on section 19, "Washington 
Township, where the father entered 160 acres 
of land, having paid the Government 81 per 
acre. . lie first built his log cabin, then com- 
menced to clear his land. His flrst crop 
was Ave acres of corn, and the next year he 
raised some wheat. Later he removed to 
section 14, Washington Township, which is 
the farm now occupied by his son J. T. John- 
son. He endured many trials and hardships, 
and for many years was obliged to go to Fort 
AVayne to do his marketing. He also had to 
go to that point for his bread stuffs. With 
mature years came prosperity, and he became 



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HISTORY OF ADAMS COUNT i 



widely known and universally respected. Tie 
was a nieinbur of the ^Ietliodi>t Episcojial 
chiircii, and one of the founders of that church 
in this comity. JJefore a clinrcli building 
was erected his home was frequently used for 
services. He always took great pains to 
accoininodate the itinerant minister. His 
demise occurred in October, 1853. The 
parents had five children, of whom two are 
living — Joscjih T. and Leonard AV. Our 
subject was reared to manhood in this county, 
and assisted his father in clearing the farm, 
lie was married May 18, 1858, to Miss 
Minerva lieyiiolds, born August 15, 1840, in 
this county, daughter of -lohii and Rachel 
Ileynolds, the former now deceased. Her 
•[larents were among the first settlers of this 
county, locating on section 2fi, Root Town- 
ship, in September, 1827. 'Sir. and !Mrs. 
Johnson have had ten chiklren — "Willis M., 
Rachel E., FlorcTice A., Eliza J., Edwin J., 
Sarah E., Charles AV., Rosa A., Edna E. and 
Cora i[. Jlr. Johnson owns a good farm of 
100 acres in a good state of cultivation. In 
politics he is a Democrat. 



^:^T;1LLIAM ERWIN, farmer and ex- 
vA/;\m teacher, section 21, Union Township, 

r^-;/?H was born in that township April 7, 
1858. lie has been reared in this county and 
was educated in the common schools of his ; 
father's district, and the normal school of , 
Adams County. lie has also taught sixteen 
months in the common schools of his town- 
ship and eleven and one-half months in the 
district where he now resides. His father, 
David Erwin, was born in Trumbull County, 
Ohio, August 15, 1817, and was reared and 
educated in Guernsey and Clarke counties. 
Soon after his first marriage he came to this 
county and entered forty acres of land on 




section 9, from the Government. In the fall 
of 1839 he built his round-log cabin, lGx20 
feet, and one story in height. Ife was first 
married in Ohio, to Miss Mary Mc(,'rnm, 
who was born in that State. She died in 
1855, leaving one child — Joseph T., who died 
July I'J, 1886, of consntnption. He left a 
wife and one daughter, nineteen years of age. 
ilay 22, 1850, the father married Mary E. 
Need, who was born in Carroll County, Ohio, 
October 4, 1836. AVJien a young girl her 
parents brought her to Union Township, this 
county, where she was married. She died 
June 23, 1880. The father's family was the 
second family in Union Township. He 
served as a teamster in the Seminole war in 
Florida, going with a drove of mules. While 
tliere he drove team for several months for 
the army, although he was not an enlisted 
man. r.oth father and mother were members 
of the ilethodist church, and died in the 
Christian faith. The grandfather of our sub- 
ject, William Erwin, was born in Westmore- 
land County, Pennsylvania, January 3, 1788, 
and died July 13, 1845, in Allen County, 
Indiana. The grandmother Erwin died 
April 7, 1856, before our subject was born, 
and he has no knowledge of her birth, but 
she also died in Allen County. His maternal 
grandfather, Solomon Need, died in Union 
Township, this county, and his grandmother, 
Catherine Need, died in Allen County. Roth 
are buried in Clark's Chapel cemetery. 
William Erwin, our subject, was married 
December 23, 1879, to Miss Sylvia Stahr, 
who was born in Hancock County, Ohio, 
September 5, 1859, and when she was a 
child her parents brought her to Adams 
County and settled on section 21, whero. her 
father has lived ever since his arrival. The 
father, Frederick Stahr, was born in Ger- 
many, September 8, 1832, and came to 
America when eighteen years old, settling 



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DIOGRAPJIICAL SKKTCIIKS. 



iii'iir Akron, Ohio. From tliere lio went to 
Iliiiicock ('oimty, aiul in 18()2 Ciiinu to this 
count}'. Tlie mother, Eve (Swartz) Stulir, 
was born in Pennsylvania, iJcceniber 31, 
1835, and when a child was brought by her 
parents to Hancock County, Ohio, where she 
was married. Tiiere are three children in 
their family, of wliom Mrs. Erwin is the 
oldest, and tiie only one living. The parents 
are living, and their farm joins that of our 
subject. There were ten children in the 
family of Mr. Erwin's father, eight of whom 
are living, and AVilliam is the oldest. Mr. 
and Mrs. Erwin have had two children — 
"Williatn Edwin, born February 3, 1882, and 
Arthur Frederick, born October 1, 1884, died 
May IS, 1886. Mr. Erwin is a Democrat in 
politics, and lioth are members of the Evan- 
ffeiical AssoiMution. 



;:yriDAM a. mason, 

;>Yj was born in Fairti 



rocer at Geneva, 
i i^'As "'^° '"-"" '" i"" field County, Ohio, 
April 22, 1839. His father, Joseph 
Mason, was a native of ifaryland, and the 
mother was a native of Pennsylvania. They 
went to Ohio with their parents, wliere they 
were married. The father was a tanner by 
trade, which he followed in Ohio until 18-47, 
wiien he removed with his family to .lay 
County, this State, settling on a farm on 
section 34, J'ear Creek Township. Jle re- 
mained there about nine years. His wife, 
formerly Sarah Jvonkie, died in Wabash 
Township, Adams County, in February, 185'J. 
The father afterward re-inarried and went to 
Ohio, where he died in the S])ring of 1867. 
They had fourteen children, Adam being tlie 
fifth child. He remained at home until 
after the breaking out of the war of the 
Rebellion, and August 8, 1861, enlisted in 
Company C, Thirty-ninth Indiana Infantry, 



and veteranized into the iMghth Cavalry in 
iMarch, 1863. He i)artici|)ated in all the 
battles from Atlanta to the sea; was at the 
surrender of Joiinston at Raleigh, North 
Carolina, where he was thrown from a horse 
and sustained injuries from the etlects of 
which he draws a pension of $2 a month; 
he also received a gunshot wound. He served 
until the close of the war, and was mustered 
out of the service at Lexington, North Caro- 
lina. Upon receiving his dischai-go lie re- 
turned to Adams County and engaged in 
farming, which he followed until September, 
1882, when he etnbarked in the grocery trade 
at Geneva, which occupation he still follows. 
Mr. Mason is a member of the John P. Por- 
ter Post, No. 83, G. A. R. He has been 
married three times. His first wife was 
Mary Jane Ruble, whom he married in 1863, 
and who died March 13, 1869. His second 
wife, whom he married July 21, 1871, was 
Sarah E. Ikolim, who died January 1, 1882. 
To this union six children were born — Will- 
iam Arthur, Jessie Siloam, Fi-ederick M., 
Harry Carlton, Nellie and ]\[amie, deceased. 
Mr. Mason was married Januarj-, 1883, to 
Hester H. Iloudasetel, and to this union 
have been bt)rn three children — James E., 
Earle and Georgia Estella. .Mr. and ilrs. 
Mason are members of the United Brethren 
church. 



fOHN ROBERT CHRISTEN, deputy 
auditor of Adams County, Indiana, is a 
-'i native of Switzerland, born in Canton 
Berne, near the City of Berne, December 7, 
1849. AVhen an infant he was brought to 
the United States by liis parents, John and 
Elizabeth Christen, they locating in Root 
Township, Adams Count}', Indiana, and there 
our subject grew to manhood. His fatlier 



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lUSTUUY UF ADAMS COUNT V. 






beinj^ a farmer, he was reared to tlie same 
iivoeatiun. He recuiveil a iijood commoii- 
sclioul education in tlie schools of his neigli- 
lioriiood, and on attaining tlie age of twenty 
years lie began teaching in the schools of 
.Vdams County, whicli he followed six or 
seven winter terms, and tlnring the siunmer 
worked on his father's homestead, being thus 
engaged until IST'J. xMay 8, 1879, he was 
married near I'ecatur to iliss Edith M. Fon- 
ner, who was born and reared in Root Town- 
ship, her parents, John A. and Elizabeth 
(Pillers) Former, being pioneers of Adams 
(!ounty. Two children iiave been born to 
this rinion, whose names are — Otto Guy, 
born February 29, 188U, and Frederick Allen, 
born March 24, 1884. In June, 1879, Mr. 
Christen was made deputy auditor under his 
brother Godfrey Christen, and was appointed 
deputy auditor by his successor, Lewis C. 
^liller, in LSSli, which position he has tilled 
for the past eight years. Mr. Christen was 
reared in the faith of the German Reform 
church, but now attends the Methodist Epis- 
copal church at Decatur, of which his wife is 
a member. 



ARXEY JOHN TERVEER, hardware 
|f\; merchant, and one of the leading citi- 
'^^ zens of Decatur, is a native of Germany, 
born in Ashendorf, Hanover, the date of his 
birth being July 11, 1843, a son of I'urgart 
and JIary (Kramer) Terveer. The lather 
was a merchant of Ashendorf, and was also 
engaged in the manufacture of cotton and 
woolen goods. He died in his native place, 
Ashendorf, in 1868. The mother was also a 
native of Asheridorf, where she died in 1844. 
])Oth were members of the Roman Catholic 
church. The mother's father and ancestors 
were prominent distillers of Hanover. Our 



subject was reared to mercantile pursuits, 
and was also engaged in the manufacture of 
calicoes in his native city. He received an 
academic education, anil at the age of fifteen 
years he entered his father's store as a clerk. 
When eighteen years old he began traveling as 
a salesman for liis father, which he followed 
for five years, through Hanover and Prussia. 
From 1866 until 1S69 he was engaged in 
the same business at Munster, Prussia, and 
in the S]jring of the latter year he came to 
America, landing at Castle Garden, New 
York, April 1. From there he went to Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, where he worked in a dye 
house until the following fall, when he re- 
moved to La Fayette, Indiana, and was there 
employed as foreman of the woolen mill of 
Dagget, Sample A: Co., for three years. He 
then traveled for the same firm, and in the 
meantime he settled at Decatur, Indiana, 
where in 1874 he became associated with 
James Stone in the hardware business, which 
was carried on under the jirm name of Stone 
it Terveer until 1879, when Mr. Terveer 
purchased his partner's interest, and a short 
time after he admitted John S. Bowers as a 
partner. The firm of Terveer it Rowers 
continued until 1881, since which time !Mr. 
Terveer has conducted the business alone. 
May 7. 1872, Mr. Terveer was married in St. 
jMary's Catholic Church at Decatur, Ijy 
Father AVemhotf, to Miss Mary Brandeweda, 
a daughter of Henry and Elizabeth (Kohn) 
Brandeweda, both now deceased. Her father 
was a Government officer in Hanover. She 
is a native of Allhausen, Hanover, Germany, 
and when very young was taken by lier par- 
ents to Meppen, Hanover, where she was 
reared and educated, coming to America in 
1869. Eight children have been born to Mr. 
and Mrs. Terveer, five still living — Minnie, 
Mar3', Anna, Clara and Emma. Henry died 
August 16, 1877, aged four years; Josie 



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died October 21, 18S t, at tliu iif?e of five j 
years, aiul l.aiinix ilied J)eeemlicr 1, 1SS(), j 
six years did. liotli Mr. and Mrt^. Terveer j 
were reared in the Kohkui Catliidi* taitli, 
and are lunv nieniKers id' St. ]\Iary"s Chiircli 
at Deeatni-. In dune, l^sl, Mv. Terveer 
retui'ned tn liis nathe country, and made a 
tour tlir()UL;-li I'rnssia, Hanover and J*]ngland, 
returniu:; to jVmei'ica three inontlis hiter. 
AlthoUirh ^fr. 'l'er\eei' came to America in 
limited circumstances, lie has been very suc- 
cessful in business, owini^ to his industrious 
liabits and persevering cneri^y. In 1882 he 
pui'chased his business house, which is one 
of the best in Decatur, and has cost him 
8~,000, and in 1885 he erected his present 
substantial brick residence. In connection 
with his extensive hardware business, he 
also deals in ai;iicnltural iinplements on a 
large scale, and by his fair and lioiiorablo 
dealings he lias gained the conlidence and 
respect of all who know him. 



WID M. KEKR, a prominent citizen 
of .Vdams County, engaged in fanning 
on section 23, !Monroe Townsliip, was 
born in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, 
January 24, 1824:. His parents, .lames \V. 
and Rosamia (]\[cLelland) Kerr, were also 
natives of Pennsylvania, and of Scotch ex- 
traction, the father born April 20, 1797, and 
the mother born October 12, 1801. They 
were married June 21, 1821, and to them 
were born eleven children, six sons and tivo 
daughters. The father was a shoemaker by 
trade, lie died in Indiana County, Pennsyl- 
vania, in 184G, and the mother died in the 
fall of 1804 in Crawford County, Ohio. Both 
were members of the Presbyterian church. 
David M. Kerr, the subject of this sketch, 
went to Indiana County, Pennsylvania, when 



eighteen years ohl, and there followed the 
carpenter's trade until 1850, since which time 
he h;is been engaged ])rincipally in farming, 
lie was married November 14, 1851, to 
Nancy Robinson, who was burn in Perry 
County, Pennsylvania, .January 22, 1831, 
going with her ])arents to Crawford County, 
()hio, when young, wdiere she li\-ed until her 
marriage. Of the seven children born to ]\Ir. 
anil Jlrs. KeiT foui- ai'e living — John N., 
William ]\[., Robei't I!, and Irvin. ilr. Kerr 
has given his children good educational ad- 
vantages, and at the ]>resent time three are 
engaged in teaching school in ilonroe Town- 
ship, ilr. Kerr was a soldier in the late 
war, enlisting in Company E, One Hundred 
and Twenty-fifth Ohio Infantry, and was in 
the Fourteenth Army Corps. He received a 
gun-shot wound in his leg September 20, 
18(i3, at the battle of Chickamauga, which 
caused hi- final discharge February 17,1864. 
He then returned to his home in Crawford 
County, Ohio, and in 1805 came to ,Vdams 
County, Indiana, settling on his farm in 
^lonroe Township in November of that year, 
where he has since followed general farming. 
His first jiurchase was forty acres wdiich was 
heavily covered with timber. His farm now 
contains eighty acres of well-improved land, 
which is under good cultivation. In politics 
]\Ir. Kerr is a Democrat, and has held local 
offices. He is a comraile of John P. Porter 
Post, O. A. R., at Geneva. Roth ilr. and 
Mrs. Kerr are members of the Christian 
church. 



,fjr-^NDREW G. BRIGGS, hardware mer- 
iirvV chant, Geneva, is a native of Hancock 
^— - County, Ohio, born January 31, 1860. 
His father, William 11. Rriggs, came with 
his family to Waliash Township, this county, 
in the spring of 1871. He received a com- 



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nioii-sclioul education, and wlioii lit'teen years 
of age went to clerking in the dry goods 
house of E. C. Kern, where he remained un- 
til 1!S7*J. lie then went to Celina, Ohio, and 
clerked in a hoot and shoe and grocery store, 
renuiining until February, 18S2, then came 
to Geneva and jiuri-hased the liardware stock 
of Cxcorge A\'. ])onart, in ls82, whicdi busi- 
ness he still fcilliiws. Mr. liriiriJfs was mar- 
ried November 27, 1^83, to ]\[iss ilargaret 
ri. Day, a luitive of Celina, Ohio, born Octo- 
ber S, ISGi. Her father, James Day, is a 
prominent attorney and common pleas judge. 
He was born in Hancock County February 
10, 184:0. Ilis wife was formerly Fannie M. 
yniall, born in Ilayesville, Ashland County, 
Ohio, December 20, 1841!. She is a member 
of the ^Tethodist Episcopal church. Mr. and 
Mrs. [3ay have four cliildren — Mvs. Briggs, 
Annie L., Elizabetii S. and Edna. 



SOIIN A. FONXER, farmer, sections 27 
and 28, Root Township, owns 210 acres 
- :. of land in one body. lie came to this 
county in 1841, with his parents, two broth- 
ers and five sisters, and one sister was born 
after coming. They settled in the woods, 
which were full of game of all kinds, and 
the river was full of fish. The first scliotd 
]\[r. Fonner attendetl in this county was held 
in a blacksmith shop. It was built of round 
logs and stood at ^Nronmouth. The shop was 
filled with puncheon seats, and writing-desks 
were put around the wall. ^Ir. Fonnei" 
thinks there was no floor in the house either 
before or after it was converted into a school- 
house. This was his first introduction to an 
Indiana school-room. It was a subscription 
school. ]\[r. Fiinner was born in (-ireene 
County, Penn^yh-ania, September 11, 1S2G. 
He lived in his native county until he was six 



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years of age, when his family removed to 
Athens County, Ohio, settling upon an im- 
proved farm, which belonged to the Ohio 
University, which his father bought. Wiien 
he was fourteen years ohl his father sold the 
land, leaving it in the fall of 1840. The 
father would not leave the State until he had 
voted for (leneral Harrison fi)r President. 
He had tbrmerly been a Democrat, but hav- 
ing been a soldier under General Harrison he 
wished to vote for him for President, and lie 
was a Whig ever after. The family spent 
the winter in Troy, iliami County, where 
corn was 12J cents a bushel. Provisions 
both for man and beast were very cheap. 
But when they came to Indiana they found 
corn was from 75 cents to §1.00 per biisiiel. 
They had five horses and several cows and 
young cattle, and they spent the winter, pre- 
vious to coining here, in ( )liio, because they 
could winter their stock so much cheaper in 
that State. Mr. Fonner's parents were John 
and ^lary (Crouse) Fonner. The father was 
born in New Jersey in 1788, and died in 
September, 1852. The mother was born in 
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, in 1799, 
and died in 1854. JJotli were members of 
the JMethodist Episcopal church. The father 
is buried in Alpha cemetery and the mother 
in Monmouth cemetery. The mother was a 
noble Christian woman, and had a great love 
for her family. Her education was superior 
for that day, and she was a teacher by pro- 
fession. ^Ir. Fonner, our subject, was mar- 
ried January 9, 1856, to iliss Elizabeth 
Pillars, who was born and reared in Adams 
County. Her father, Benjamin Pillers, was 
born in Pennsylvania in 1816, and lier 
mother, Sarah A. (Rice) Pillers, in Culpep- 
er County, Virginia, May 27, 1815. Her 
family came here in 1n39 and settled in 
Root Township, on section 14, which was 
then a wilderness. The farm is now owned 



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by F. Kukelliain. T!ic f'atlier built a saw- 
iiiill oil the stream calk'il " Si'veiiteeu-^rile- [ 
Ci'celc,'" which ran thiMiiLch liis I'arm. There \ 
was an imliaii trail tlinuii;ii tlie farm, and 
the nearest neighbor was Jonas Pence, on 
the t'ann imw owiied and occupied by the 
sulijeet lit' this sketeli. They had to ^o to 
Fort A\'ayne tVir their inillinjj. There were 
iive children in her father's family, and all 
are liviiii^- l/iit oiu', Nancy Heartless, who 
died in luiut Township a short time since. 
The others all live in the same township. 
Mr. and Mrs. Fonner have live children — 
Edith ilay, born September IS, 1858, wife of 
J. liobert Christen; Sarah A., born Febrn- 
ary 12, 1802, wife uf A. J. Smith; Mary X., 
born July 27, IStil, liviuij at home; Nellie 
E.. born December 7, 18GG; .lohn IF, born 
July 10, 1872. Mr. and Mrs. Fonuer are 
members of the ^lethodist Episcopal church, 
and ^Ir. Fonner votes the Republican ticket. 
Ilis irrandfather, John Fonner, was probably 
born in New Jersey, and died in Pennsylva- 
nia, lie has no knowledge of his crrand- 
inother Fonner. Ills maternal grandfather, 
John ("rouse, was born in Pennsylvania, and 
died in Missouri, lie knows nothing of his 
maternal grandmother. Mrs. Fonner's grand- 
father, AVilliam Fillers, was born in Pennsyl- 
vania and died in this county. Her 
grandmother, Mary (Baxter) Fillers, died in 
this c<ninty, and both are buried in Alpha 
cemetery. 



fOllN AVOY, farmer, resides on section 
22, Root Township, where he owns 120 
-,<, acres of land. He came to this county 
in the spring of 1851 and settled upon the 
farm lie now owns and occupies. There were 
eighteen acres underbrnshed and a log cabin 
had been built. It was 18 .\ 20, and it is still 



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standing, being used for a stable. He lived 
in this caijin until 1^5^, when he built his 
present frame hon>e. Mr. \\'ov was born in 
Carroll County, ( )liio, .\j,ril 13, 1«29. His 
father died when he was a babe, and he lived 
at home with his mother until his marriage. 
Ilis father, George Woy, was born in Somer- 
set County, Pennsylvania, and died in 1830, 
aged between fifty and si.xty years. His 
mother, Catherine (l''redline) AVoy, was also 
born in Somerset Count}', and was married 
in that State. They removed to Carroll 
County, Ohio, after live of their children were 
born. They settled in the wilderness and 
were amcjng the pioneers of that county. The 
mother died on the farm where they first 
located in 1871, in her eight3'-sixth year. 
I>oth are buried in the Emanuel Church 
ceTiietery. They were members of tiie Lu- 
theran church. The father died from the 
accidental discharge of his gun. John was 
married November 29, 1819, to Miss Eliza- 
beth Worley, who was born in Carroll Coun- 
ty, Ohio, where she was reared and educated. 
She died July 5, 1859, leaving one child — 
Silas Luther, who was born September 19, 
1851, and died in 18G0. Both are buried in 
ilonmouth cemetery. March 15, I860, ]\Ir. 
Woy inorried Hannah Dunlap, nee Bonbrake, 
who was born in Carroll County, Ohio, in 
1836. where she lived until her first marriage 
with AVilliam Dunlap. They went to Hardin 
County to live, where Mr. Dunlap died. 
They had one child that died in early infancy. 
IMrs. Woy was a daughter of Henry and 
Sarah (Bowman) Bonbrake, who were natives 
of Pennsjdvania. The fatlier died October 12, 
1878, in Stark County, Ohio, aged seventy- 
three years, eight months and twenty-nine 
days. The mother is still living in Stark 
County at the age of seventy-four years. Her 
grandfather, Daniel Bonbrake, was probably 
born in Pennsylvania, and he died in Hunt- 



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:i4S HISTORY OF ADAAfS COUNTY. 



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ini^ton Count}', Iiidiaiia. Ilur i^riuidinotlier, 
yurali (Tt'ili'ow) llDulnake, was also bora in 
Pennsylvania anil died in Huntington County. 
Her maternal gran<lparents, Jacol) and Han- 
nah llownian, were natives ol' Pennsylvania, 
and died in Stark Cuuiity, Ohio. They were 
probably of (iernian oi'iyin. Mr. Woy lias 
served as townshi[) trustee two terms, and is 
now serving as jury commissioner. 



^EONARD W. JOITXSOX, of AVash- 
(• in<^ton Township, was born in Tuscara- 
was Count}', Ohio, August 5, 1S3(), and 
canie to Adams County with his pai'ents, 
James and Eliza Johnson, in 1S37. He was 
reared and educated in this county, and en- 
dured all the hardships and privations inci- 
dent t(j pioneer life. In August, 1S62, he 
eiilisted in Company IT, Eighty-ninth Indiana 
Infantry, which was attached to the Six- 
teenth Army Corps in theariny of the AVest. 
lie participated in the battles of Fort De- 
rusa. Yellow Payou, I>a3'ou de (ilaze. Bunker 
Hill, Tupelo, Lafayette, Xashville, Fort 
Plalcely and others of minor importance. He 
was hoiujrably discharged in the fall of 1865 
and returned to Adams Connt}', where he has 
since been a resident. He was married Oc- 
tober 23, 1860, to Miss Priscilla Wisner, a 
native of tliis county, born September 23, 
1S46, and daughter of David and Lydia 
AVisner, who were among the first settlers of 
Adams County. Mr. and ^Irs. Johnson have 
had seven children, five of whom are living — 
James ^I., Martha J., Lena L., Florence A. 
and A'"erna M. ilr. Johnson owns a good 
farm of seventy acres, and is a successful 
fanner. Politically he is a Democrat, and 
religiously a member of the Christian Union 
church. Ilis mother is living, and is in her 
eighty-eighth year. Mrs. Johnson's father. 



David AVisner, was twice married. His first 
wife. Alary Procjks, at her death lett four 
children, two sons and two daughters. In 
1838 he left his native State, Pennsylvania, 
and came to Indiana, and in 1839 married 
Lydia ^Mlen, a native of (.)hio. To them 
were born six children, four sons and two 
daughtei's. The father died in 1868, aged 
seventy-three years. \Vhon he came to Adams 
County he bought eighty acres of land two 
and a half miles south of Decatur. The 
nearest mill at that time was at Fort AVayne, 
and the motlier was often obliged to grind 
buckwheat in the coft'ee-mill with which to 
make bread for the family. 



rf^ALEX CLEXDENEX, one of the pros- 
"^iV^j P^'''""® farmers of Hartford Township, 
s;:" a son of James and _Mehitable (Fox) 
Clendenen, was born in Fairfield County, 
Ohio, the date of his birth being March 9, 
1833. In 1837 he was brought by his par- 
ents to Adams County, Indiana, where he 
was reared on his father's farm on section 
25, Hartford Township, receivijig a common- 
school education. On ari'iving at maidiood 
he engaged in farming for himself, which 
he has since followed. He was married in 
August, 1857, to ^liss Elizabeth Pontius, a 
native of Pickaway County, Ohio, who died 
in June, 1858, leaving one child — Lavinia. 
^Irs. Clendenen was a member of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church. !Mr. Clendenen was 
again married October 1, 1861, to Miss Elsie 
Proutty, who was born in Morrow County, 
Ohio, -March 9, 1836, a daughter of Stej)hen 
and Mary (Barium) Proutty. To this union 
have been born the following children — AA'^ill- 
iam F. (deceased), Sarah J. and John R. Mrs. 
Clendenen's parents are natives of Xew A'ork 
and Maryland respectively. They were mar- 



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ried ill Oliio. simi in iSlS si'ttled in Wells 
('oiinty, Indiana, wIilto hotli died. Tlie 
father was a fanner l>y iK'eu|)ati(.in, and for 
several years \\a^ al>(i in the ministry. ISoth 
were ennsistent ineinhers nf the IJaptist 
chureli. To tliein were iiotn ten children, 
six sons and four daiigliters. Jlr. Ciendeneii 
lias met w ith excellent siieeess in his <^eneral 
farinino;, and now has a tine farm eontaiiiiiig 
'2('>0 acres, l.jit acres lieinir under a hiijli state 
of cultivation. He has a coinfjrtaltle and 
coniinodious frame residence, which was 
erected in 1S74: at a cost uf !ivl,S()0, ami <(ood 
farm IniildiiiffS, the entire surroundings o^ 
his farm proving the owner to be a thorough, 
practical firmer. 



T^ATIIANIEL P. TIEASTON was bom 
"■'\ j in Kandolph County, Indiana, ifay 14, 
*~ L 18-2.J. His fither, David Heaston, was 
a native of ^'irginia, born in 1793. His grand- 
father, John Ileastoii, was born near Frank- 
fort, Uerinany, and immigrated to the United 
States about the time of the llevolntionary 
war. He first settled in Philadelphia, where 
he engaged in the mercantile trade. He re- 
ceived Continental money for liis goods to 
such an extent as to cause his failure. From 
there he went to Rockingham County, Vir- 
ginia, where he followed school teaching. In 
1803 he removed to Butler County, Ohio, 
residing there about four years, then settled 
near Dayton, where he followed school teach- 
ing until his death, which occurred when he 
was about eighty years of age. He was mar- 
ried in (lerniany and his wife died in Phila- 
delphia. They had live children, three girls 
and two boys. He married a second time, 
and they had si.x children, four boys and two 
girls. David Ileaston was a sou of the sec- 
ond marriage. He catne with his parents to 



Ohio in 1803, where he grew to manhood in 
Ilaniiiton and Moiitgonieiy counties, and re- 
ceived a limited education in the common 
schools. He was married at Dayton, in 1817, 
to Catherine J'resscI, a native of Pennsylva- 
nia, who came with her parents to ( )hio and 
settled near Dayton. She wa> born in 17'J4. 
They removed to Kandolph Coiinry, Indiana, 
in 181'J, and were among the earliest settlers 
in that ]iart of the county. They lived there 
until their demise, the father dying Decem- 
ber 18, 1805, and the mother in 1870. They 
had accumulated quite a property, being the 
owners of 000 acres of laml. The mother 
was a member of the Dunkartl church. The 
parents reared three children, onr subject be- 
ing the second child. He was i-eared on a 
farm in Randolph County, and received an 
elementary education in the common schools. 
He also attended the seminary at Cambridge 
City, "Wayne County, and at "Winchester in 
liaiidolph County. He remained at home 
on the farm until 1818, when he joined the 
encrineer's corps, and helped to survey the 
route for the I5ee Line Railroad, from Iii- 
dianap<ilis to Union City, consuming four 
years of time. The last two years he was 
promoted to the i)osition of lirst assistant 
civil engineer, which position he occupied when 
the road was completed in December, 1852. 
He then resumed farming and dealing in 
stock. In 1800, he, with others, erected the 
City Flouring Mills, at Winchester, and in four 
years sold out his interest and came to 
Geneva, where he engaged in the hotel busi- 
ness, ill connection with surveying, an occu- 
pation he still follows. Mr. Heaston was 
married February 19, 1857, to Sarah J. Piil- 
len, born near Liberty, in Union County, 
this State, June 8, 1837. Her parents, David 
and Martha (Williams) Pullen, were natives 
of Virginia, and emigrated to Union County, 
Indiana, in an early day, wdiere they fol- 









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insTOUY OF .iJ)J.)/S COUM'Y. 



lowed farinin;,', and lived there until their 
decease, the lather dyiiii;- Deeeniher lU, InTS, 
ai,^ed sescntv-iiiiie yeai's, and the Miotiiei' 
Februarv -t, I'^'^l, a^ed eii,dity yeai's. Tlicy 
were the jjareuts of twelve children. Mr. iind 
ilrd. Ileaston have had four children — .Joseph 
^Villard. l)orn Xoveniber 11, 1857; Clara 
Idelle, horn Xoveniber 10. 18G1; Martha 
Olive, born Jannary 17, 1S(J7; Charles David, 
born Anj^nist 5, 187-1. died A]jril 1, ls83. Mr. 
lleaston has been a niendier of the ^lasoiiic 
order since 1851), l)eeomiiig a member of 
Winchester Lodire, X(i. SH, A. V. A: A. M., 
of which he is still a member. I'dlitically 
he is a stannch l)einocrat, and an active 
worker in his party. He was a delegate to 
the Democratic Xational Convention in Xew 
York City, held .Inly 4, 18G8, which placed 
Governor Seymour in nominatu:in for the 
Presidency. Ife also takes a gi-eat interest 
in local all'airs and pid)lic improvements. 






01 IX YOUXG was born in the State 
ot Pennsylvania in 1828, and died in 
Blue Creek Township, Adams County, 
Indiana, June 13, 187-I-. He was a son of 
J^eter and ilargaret (Gilbert) Young, wlio 
were of German descent. His father being a 
farmer he was reared to the same avocation, 
which he followed through life, liis youth 
being spent in his native State, in assisting 
with the farm work an<l attending tiie schools 
of that early ilay, where he received but 
limited educational advantages. lu 1852 he 
went to California, where he was engaged in 
mining for six years. lie was united in 
marriage in Adams County, Indiana, in 1860, 
to iliss Catherine Kitsler, a daughter of 
Xathan and Christena (Everett) Kitsler, 
natives of Columhia County, Pennsylvania. 
Of the seven children born to this union six 



are living- I.ucy is the wife of F. A. Fry, of 
llliimi^; .Matlic; A iistiii, attemliiig school at 
N'alparaiso; l''i'anccs K., ClianiH'y M, and 
Agnes K. .\ daughter, Addie, died dune 12, 
1S8G, eight days before her twentieth birth- 
day. She was much beloved by iier com- 
panions, and left many friends to mourn her 
untimely death. ^Ir. Young bought 120 
aci-es ui land in Tllue Creek Township, \vhen 
he first came to Adams County, and to this 
he added until he had accumulated a line 
property consisting of 200 acres, which is 
still occupietl by his widow. The fai-m is 
carried on by her sous with the assistance of 
hired help, and is under a fine state of culti- 
vation. I'eside the home farm the widow 
owns an additional two acres of land. In 
politics Mr. Young affiliated with the Demo-" 
cratic party, lie was a member of the Odd 
Fellows order. Mrs. '\ oungand her ciiildren, 
with the exce]iti()n oi' the youngest child, are 
members of the ^lethodist Episcojial church. 
Their postotHce is AVillshire, Ohio. The 
parents of Mrs. Young were pioneers of 
Adams County. Both are now deceased, her 
father dying in 1872, and her mother in 
August, 1885. 



fOSEPII CPvOZIER, farmer, section 15, 
Union Township, came to this county in 
-.^ October, 18-41, and first settled on the 
farm now owned by Elijah Krick. lie lived 
on that farm two years, then entered his 
present farm from the Government, and has 
occupied it since that time. It was then in 
a perfectly wild state. He built his log cabin 
which stood on the site of iiis present barn, 
ilr. Crozier was born in Dauphin County, 
Pennsylvania, October 5, 1816, and when lie 
was a child was taken by his parents to 
Perry County, same State, where he grew to 






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inanliood. He was iiiaiTieil in Stark County, 
Ohio, May 19, 1S;!'J, to Miss Cliristina Haver, 
wild was liiirn in tiiat cunuty Si'|]ti'nitiiT 11, 
iS'iL. Al'tcr tiicir mai-ria^u they ii\cd in 
Stark (\>nnty nntil tlifii- i-cino\'al to this 
county. Mis. C'rozier dieil .Inne 10, 1858, 
leavingM'Vrn i-liihiren — Samuel, horn Deccni- 
her 4, 1S12; (ieoi-e, h,,rn Fel)rnary 10, ISlo; 
Elias, hurn .March 10, iNlO; James, horn 
Septeinher 2, 1M8; Joseph, born July 7, 
1S50; AVilliam. born February 15, 1852, and 
Sarah Jane, born Februai-y 10, 185(5. Samuel 
died in liospitul, wliile in the army, in New 
Orleans, in February, 1805, being a member 
of tJie Forty-seventJi Indiana Infantry. 
George died at liome. Elias also died at 
home February 22, 1^73. "William Henry 
and l-^lizabeth died in infancy. August 10, 
185S, Mr. Croxier \vas married to Anna Trim- 
ble, who was born in C'rawford (bounty, Oliio, 
August 27, 1820, where she passed her cliild- 
hood. She removed with lier mother to A'au 
AVert (^ouuty, where tlie latter died February 
15, 1873, at the age of seventy-seven years. 
She was born in iluskingum County in 1796. 
The father died in Crawford County, when 
^Mrs. (rtp/ier was quite young, aged over 
seventy years. There were eight children in 
her father's family, Mrs. Cro/.ier being the 
third child; only twu of the children are 
living — Mrs. Ensworth, of Union Township, 
and .Mrs. Crozier. Mr. Crozier's parents 
were Samuel I. and ^ilarj' (Lear) Crozier. 
The father was born in Pennsylvania in 1786 
anil served in the war of 1812. He died in 
Allen County, Iiuliaiui, in July, 1872, and is 
buried near Mapleton. He was a blacksmith 
by trade, and followed blacksmithing most 
of his life. The mother was born in Dauphin 
County, Pennsylvania, and died in Allen 
County, this State, about 1857, aged si.xt}- 
years. Jlr. Crozier and his present wife 
have had no children. His grandfather 



Crozier was born in Ireland, came to America 
and settled on the Susquehanna River in 
Pennsylvania. He died in that State. The 
I.ears were of ( iernian aiii(~try. .M i". < 'rozier's 
grandjiarents, Hugh and .Mary Ti'iinble, died 
in Crawford County, Ohio. They were of 
Irish descent. ]\Ir. Crozier was the oldest of 
eight eliildi'en in his father's family. 



•nD'^VIN WILDER, of Monmouth, came 
\r.' to this C(junty with his mother and two 
"^- brothers, settling on a new farm about 
a mile noi-tli of ]\Ionmouth. This was the 
spring of 1845. There was a log cabin and 
a loij stable on the ]ilaee, which they jnir- 
chased of William Itandall. The first forty 
acres was bought of Judge l^vans, and on 
this i)iece of land they eleai-ed twenty or 
thirty acres before building. The three 
brothers went to work, and in a year and a 
half earned money enough to pay for tiie 
forty acres. In the meantime they lived in 
a house rented of Judge Evans. A few 
months later the brothers bought another 
forty acres. They bought 120 acres of 
Roljert Evans, and a few years afterward 
another forty, which nnide 24:0 acres. The 
oldest brother, Alvin, took eighty acres, and 
the twins, Edwin and Edmond, kept their 
interests together, and are still together. 
The eldest brother was born February 16, 
1820, and died January 3, 1878. Edwin and 
Edmond were born July 16, 1826, in(7enesee 
County, New York, where they lived until 
they were ten years of age. Their father 
died there in 1827, aged about forty-five 
years. The parents, Chauncy and Sarah 
(Davis) Wilder, were born in Springfield, Mas- 
sachusetts. The father was born January 12, 
1780, and the mother July 20, 17S4, and 
died August 17, 1855, in Root Township, 



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tliis C(_)iiiity. Tlio tutlior is huricc 
fiiiilriu, (icnesce Counlv, Ni'W ^ ork. ami tho 
inotlitM' ill ^loiiiiioutli c-L-iriL-tery, tliis county. 
Jildwiii was iiian-icil Octolifr 20, 1S5(J, to 
.Miss ^[ary Berckley, who was horn in Ohio, 
and died in Koot Township in the tall of 
1803, leaving three children- —Sarah E., born 
August 22, 1857; Harriet, born March 2'J, 
185'J, and Chauncy C, born January 5, 1801. 
December (5, iSOo, ^Ir. Wikler was married 
to Miss Mary Thom])son, ^\•ho was born in 
Summit County, Ohio, .laiiuary 3, 183'J, 
where she lise<l until eleven years of age, 
when the family removed to Allegan County, 
ilichigan, where t-he was reared and uuirried. 
ller fatiier, James Thompson, was born Au- 
gu6t 0, 1811, in Vermont, and in early life 
removed to Worcester, JTassachusetts. He 
was married in Cambridge, \'ormont, to i[iss 
Hannah Lord. There were five children in 
lier father's family — Stephen, Sarali, (ieorge, 
Otis and Mrs. Wilder. All are living but 
(Jtis, who \vas the youngest of the family. 
Mr. and Mrs. Wikler have no children. His 
grandfather, Hiram Wikler, and his grand- 
mother AVilder, were born and died in 
Springfield, Massachusetts. His maternal 
grandparents were of English descent, ilrs. 
Wilder's grandparents, James and Mary 
(I)winnell) Thompson, died in Oshkosh, 
Wisconsin. Jler maternal grandfather, lieu- 
ben Lord, was born in ]\[assachusetts, and 
died ill Cambridge, A'^erinoiit. Her maternal 
grandmother, Martha (Divoll) Lord, was 
born February 21, 1779, and died in June, 
1818. Mr. Wilder voted tlie Republican 
ticket until the last two elections, when he 
voted the Prohibition ticket. He died on 
the homestead in Root Township February 
27, 1887. His oklest brother, Dwiglit, re- 
moved to Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, 
where he was married, and where he died at 
the age of tifty-fonr years, leaving a wife and 



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three sons. I''Ji/,a niai-ried, in (lenesee County, 
a man nanu'(l Samurl Holmes, who moved to 
]\[ichigaii. Harriet mai-ried, in (Jenesee 
County, a man named David Davis, whcj 
also moved to Micliigan. ilary married 
William Garrett, and removed to Huntingdon 
County, Pennsylvania, thence to Van AVert, 
Ohio; thence to St. ]\[ary's, Ohio, where she 
died, leaving lier liusband and nine children. 
Laura married Samuel De Witt in Hunting- 
don County, Pennsylvania, and moved to 
Lesvistoii, same State, where her husband 
died. Laura then removed to .Vdams County; 
thence to Wheatland, .Missouri, where she 
lived with a married daughter, and where 
she passed the remainder of her days. 



^^fjLTON LOVEJOY DkVILBISS, 
;'/v\i ^ *• ^'' ^^ I*Gt'atur, is a native of Indi- 
■^i"" ana, born near Spencerville, DeKalb 
(.'ounty, a son of Alexander De Vilbiss, wlio 
was born in Frederick County, ]\Lirylaiid, 
August 8, 1810, and died in DeKalb County, 
Indiana, January 19, 1801, aged forty-three 
years. In his early boyhood the father of 
our subject removed with his parents to 
Licking County, Ohio, where for a time he 
lived in Alexandria. After his father's death 
he was a])prenticed to learn the tanner's trade, 
wliich not agi'eeing with him, he obtained 
liis release and went to Tiffin, Ohio, and for 
a time worked at cabinet-making, when lie 
returned to Ak'xandria and worked on liis 
mother's farm. January 27, 1839, he was 
married to Lydia M. Clogston, who was born 
in Cliarleston, Virginia, now the capital of 
A\^est Virginia, November 4, 1821, and to 
them were born eight children, of whom 
Alton L. was tire seventh child. In June, 
1813, the father removed with his family to 
Michigan, and the same year came to Indi- 






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niOGHAl'lIlCAL ;SKETVUKS. 



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JUKI, li)catiii:^ im a t'arin in tlie \icinity nt' 
Speiiccrvilk', wliero, in cuiiiiecticjii witli t'ai'jii- 
inn;, lie was i-iii^a^-t'il in tiio nianut'acture ot 
I'aiinini^-niills until his death. In his youth 
lie was a niemlier of the Ah'tlKidist Episco- 
pal churcli. In L^.jy he joineii the United 
Brethren cluiitdi, and soon alter was licensed 
to jireach tlie gijspel, of which he was an 
earnest defender, lie was a devout Christian 
and was always charitahle toward the unfor- 
tunate, and ever ready to help the poor and 
needy. He was strictly temperate in his 
habits. ]\Irs. iJe Villii-s still survives liei- 
hushand, and is now a resident of Fort 
"Wayne. Alton L. De Vilhiss, the subject of 
this sketch, was born near Spencerville Sep- 
tember S, ISoo. He began to do for himself 
at the aye of thirteen years, working on 
farms during the summer months, and at- 
tending school in the winter until he was 
fifteen years old. lie then began working 
at the carpenter's trade, which he followed 
tilt reaching;- the age of eighteen years, when 
he l)cgan the study of dentistry at Fort 
AVayrie in the dental rooms of II. V,. Sites, 
with whom he practiced and studied for over 
two years. May 11, 1877, he came to De- 
catur, Adams County, where he has since 
been engaged in the practice oi' dentistry, 
and in his chosen profession has been very 
successful, and has gained the confidence of 
all who know him. He is a member of the 
Dental Association of Indiana. He was mar- 
ried near Monmouth, Adams County, Sep- 
temlier 9, 1879, to Miss Florence Lizzie 
Knnkel, who was born December 20, 18G1, 
and reared in Adams County, and educated 
in the schools of Decatur. They are the 
parents of one cjiild — Fannie, who was born 
at Decatur .Inly 23, 1880. Mr. De Vilbiss 
was elected councilman from the First Ward 
in Decatur in ISSG, which office he still 
holds. He is a worthy member of St. Mary's 



Lodge, No. lCi7, Decatur, and Decatur 
Fncampmcnt, A'o. lljs. I. (). (). F. He waa 
one of the originators and is a director in the 
l)ecatui- Cemetery Association, and is also 
stockholder and director in the Eagle Manu- 
facturing Company of Decatur. Mrs. DeVil- 
j biss is a member of the Evangelical Lutheran 
church. Her parents, Samuel D. and Mar- 
tha (Dorwin) Kunkel, were formerly from 
Ohio, coming thence to Adams County, In- 
diana, in an early day, when they locatefl on 
a farm near Decatur. 



^^^EZIN TODD, deceased, was one of the 
1 P\^ ^'"'^y settlers of Wabash Township, and 
^*4:\ was bom in Pickaway County, Ohio, 
June 24, 1818. He was reared in Ohio, 
and received a good education. He followed 
teaching when young, and came to Adams 
County in 1837 with Isaac Wheeler, for 
wdiom he cleared laud two years. He mar- 
ried Mary IJitler, who was born in >\orthum- 
berland County, rennsylvania, February 22, 
182-t. Her parents, Samuel and ilary 
(White) Bitler, were natives of Pennsyl- 
vania, and of (4erman ancestry. They re- 
moved to Ohio about 1833, settling near 
Lancaster, where the mother died. The 
father again married and went to Jlissouri, 
where he also died. Mr. Todd entered IfiO 
acres of land in what is 7iow Monroe Town- 
ship, and followed school-teacliing in connec- 
tion with farming. He remained on this 
place about seven years, then sold out and 
came to Buffalo, now Geneva, and engaged 
in the mercantile trade, being one of the first 
to open a store in the ]ilaee. He was ap- 
pointed postmaster of Buffalo, succeeding 
Jacob Conkle, who was the first postmaster. 
He held the office until 1870, when he gave 
uj) his business aiul went to fanning, follow- 



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IIISTUHY OK ADAMS COUNTY. 



ing tliiit oPfii]>;iti<)ii until liis doiilli, wliieli 
occurred Feliruiiry 17, 1S75. lie was a 
iiieiuber of the Metliodist Episcopal church, 
^fr. and Mrs. Todd were the parents of eight 
children — xMary J., Sarah A. (deceased), 
Maria II., Hannah M. (deceased), Emma J., 
Martha E., .lohn AV. and (leorge B. (de- 
ceased I. After her lint^ljand's death, !Mrs. 
Todd inarrietl John F. McLellan, who was a 
shoemaker hy trade, and a native of Ohio. 
He served as treasurer ami also as sheritf of 
Hamilton County, Indiana, lie served thi'ee 
years in the late war as Captain, and after it 
closed engaged in the milling business in 
Hamilton County, Indiana. He lived but 
two years after their marriage. Mrs. Mc- 
Lellan again married, October 13, 1880, her 
third husband being J\lr. Tharp, who was 
born in Cayuga County, New York, Febru- 
aiy 11, 1811. He went with his parents to 
Ohio, who settled near Chillicothe, wliere he 
was married. He was engaged in building 
vessels at Cincinnati, and from there went to 
Kentucky, where he studied law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar. He enlisted as a private 
in the Thirty-fourth Kentucky Infantry, and 
was afterward promoted to liegimental Quar- 
termaster, holding this position until the 
close of the war, having served tliree years. 
He also had two sons who served in the war. 
Siion after his discharge lie came to Hunting- 
ton County, this State, and engaged in the 
practice of his profession. From there he 
removed to New Corydon, Jay County, where 
he resumed his practice. His first wife died 
there, leaving a taniily of si.\ children. After 
lier death he came to Geneva, where he re- 
sumed the practice of his profession, which 
he followed until his death, March li, 1S8G. 
Mr. Tharp was a member of the Odd Fellows 
fraternity for many years. He was also a 
member of John P. Porter Post, No. 83, G. 
A. K. Mrs. Tharp is still living at Geneva. 



She is line of the oldest, if nni the oldest 
settler in this section. She well remembers 
the hardships endured by the early settler. 
Neighbors were miles apart, no roads, no 
mills, and no jjostotiice. Mr. Todd taught 
the first school in the township, ilr. Tharp 
was a minister in the Protestant ^lethodist 
church, and Mrs. Tharp is a member of the 
Methodist P^piscopal cluircli. 



fOHN CHKISTEN, Jr., farmer, Root 
Township, owns forty acres of land on the 
southeast quarter of section 16. He 
was born in Canton Berne, Switzerland, Octo- 
ber 5, 184-4, and when he was si.x years of 
age came to America with his parents and 
seven other children, landing in New York 
in July, 1850. They then came to Adams 
County and settled in Hoot Township, where 
the parents are still living. John was reared 
in KootTownship, and educated in the common 
schools. He commenced teaching in the 
winter of 1871, and taught fourteen winter 
schools. In 1885 he was obliged to give 
up teaching, as his health was becoming 
impaired. His parents, John and Elizabeth 
Christen, were born in Switzerland, the 
father August 7, 1812. The mother is a 
few years younger. The father was a baker 
by trade, but has followed farming since 
coming to America. Our subject was 
married July 22, 1870, to Miss Catherine 
Magley, who was born in Pioot Township, 
Adams County, December 25, 1850. Her 
parents were Christian and Alary Magley, 
who were born in Switzerland and came to 
America, settling in Licking County, Ohio, 
thence to this county previous to IbSO. The 
father died in August, 1861, aged thirty- 
nine years, and is buried in Root Township. 
Mr. and Mrs. Christen have si.\ children — 



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BIOORAPHIGAL .^KETCHES. 



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Edward S., born Docciubcr 13, 1871; Arthur 
A., horn Octoljer 12, 1S73; MitDiie (\, horn 
Octoher 14, 1S75; Henry W., horn Novein- 
her 25, 1S77; Wilhurt ('., horn January 21, 
1S84:, and Uayniond 1)., horn Septemljer lU, 
18S5. Mr. and Mrs. (Mii'isten are nienibers 
of tlie Lntheran ehurcli, and in politics Mr. 
C'hri.sten is a Demoerat. In the sjiriiig of 
1886 lie was elected assessor for four years. 
]\[rs. Christen's grandfather, .Jacoh Sliarer, 
was horn in Switzerland, and died in Licking 
County, Oliio. Her grandmother, l\[ary 
Sharer, was also horn in Switzerland, and 
died in Root Township. At the time Jlr. 
Sharer settled in Adams County, game was 
very plenty, he having shot more deer than 
any other man in that jiart of the county, 
and at one time killing two at one shot, and 
often shooting s(piirrels and other game from 
his cahin window, ller grandmother, Jfrs. 
IMagley, on her father's side, died in New 
York soon after the}' landed, and Air. llagley, 
her grandfather, died in Licking, Ohio. 



fACOB YAGER, was born in Huron 
County, Oiiio, September 20, 1837. His 
T^. ])arents, Jacob and Margaret (Wysnp) 
Yager, came to Adams (Jounty in July, 1838. 
His grandfather, John Yager, came from 
Germany when seven years of age and settled 
in Pennsylvania. The grandmother Yager 
])robably came from the old country. His 
ancestors on both sides were of the Protestant 
faith, and were generally farmers. About 
the year 1834 tlie grandfather came to this 
county and entered two sections of land, 
which he divided with his children, who 
were nine in number, six sons and three 
daughters — Francis, Henry, Peter, Samuel, 
Jacob, Sarah, Polly and Catherine. The 
parents were married in Ohio, and began 



I their home lite in the forest of I'reble Town- 
I ship, Indiana. The laml had no improve- 
j ments whatever. \Volves, hears, etc., were 
I uncomfortalily plenty, and deer, and other 
j wild game, had been almost entirely undis- 
! turbed. The tract of 100 acres which Jacob's 
} father received cost about Sl25 at this time. 
I The family went to work with a will; tree 
j after tree was felled ainl acre after acre was 
cleared until this \n\.v\ of the wilderness 
j became a productive farm, and the old log 
cabin, with its puncheon tloor, after many 
years of faithful service was supplanted by 
modern buildings. When the parents came 
to this county there were very few settlers. 
There was no county seat, and papers and 
deeds were recorded at Fort Wayne. Mr. 
Yager's parents had five children — John, 
Jacolj, George, Sarah and Polly Ann; Jacob, 
Sarah and George are living. After remain- 
ing on the homestead until he was twenty- 
five years of age, aiding in the improvement 
and cultivation of the farm, .lacob Yager and 
Mary Jane Archibald were united in marriage 
October 24, 1861. They began domestic 
life in Preble Township, settling upon a 
forty-acre tract which Jacob received from 
his father. The land was partially cleared, 
but had no buildings or other improvements. 
After three or four years forty acres more 
were added to the original tract, and a frame 
barn and a liewed-log house were built. 
Tliey lived on this place eleven years, then 
removed to Decatur, where they resided two 
and a half years, then moved to St. Mai-y's 
Townshiji upon a beautiful tract of land, com- 
prising l'J7 acres, situated about three quar- 
ters of a mile from Pleasant Mills Village. 
It is one of the finest farms in the township, 
having 150 acres of imjiroved land, and being 
well watered by two creeks, or branches, 
which renders it valuable as a stock farm as 
well as for agricultural purposes. ilrs. 



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Ysiger was horn ^Vii^iist 1(5, 1X40, diiiigliter 
(jf Tliuniiis and J'lielie (N'aleiitiiiu) Arcliibalil, 
wIhi wure prtiliaM y natives of Oliio and of 
Irisli ancestry. In a very early day her 
])aternal grand]iarents removed to tlie Terri- 
tory of Indiana and entered 160 acres of 
hind in Weils County, where they lived until 
their death. Her parents removed to the 
same county, prohably in the year 18-t8, 
wliere the father purchased eighty acres of 
land. Her ancestors were all Protestants, 
and one of her uncles, John Nevett, was a 
minister. Her great-grandfather served in 
the war of 1812, and her mother's brother, 
AVilliiim Valentine, served in the war with 
^Mexico, during whicli he received an injury. 
Jacc^b Yager ai\d liis brother John were 
Soldiers in the late war, John serving in 
Company C, Thirteenth Indiana Cavalry, and 
Jacob being a member of Company D, Fifty- 
tirst Indiana Infantrj'. Jacob was mustered 
into the service at Indianapolis in 1863, from 
which point his regiment was ordered to 
Nashville, thence to Pulaski, where the 
regiment was attacked by the rebel Ueneral 
Hood, about the first of December, 1864, and 
was forced to retreat, having only about half 
the force of the enemy. On this retreat 
many very bloody and liotly contested battles 
were fought — Spring Hill, Columbia, and 
otliers, until finally tlie historical stand was 
made at Nashville between Generals Thomas 
and Ilood. Here every precaution was taken 
and every arrangement made for the desperate 
encounter soon to be made. The breast- 
works of the rebels and the federals were in 
close proximity, an<l the men could converse 
with one another, l^fany little trades were 
made by the pickets on both sides. The 
crisis finally came on the 15th of December, 
1864, and on the 16th the battle had its full 
force. Jlr. Yager's regiment was engaged 
almost the entire day, during which time he 



was wounded in the ear. This produced 
paralysis of the jaw. After about six months 
the ball was extracted. On the evening of 
thiit dreadfid day the regiment, which in the 
moi'ning had answered to 900 names, could 
muster only aijout 300 names, the remainder 
having been sacrificed in battle. The dead 
were literally strewn over the grounil and the 
scene of death was all that the imagination 
can picture. Mr. Yager was taken to the 
field hospital, thence to Nashville, thence to 
Jefferson Hospital, Indiana, and August 26, 
1865, lie received an honorable discharge for 
faithful and patriotic service. ^Vllen he 
arrived home he continued the occupation 
of farmii]g, which he has continueil to the 
present time. He has been honored with 
various official positions, viz., constable, 
assessor of Preble Township six years, city 
marshal of Decatur, has also been guardian, 
and at present is commissioner of Adams 
County, serving his second term. His father 
died June 16, 1886, and his mother January 
6, 1887, at the residence of lier son Jacob, 
aged seventy-three years, eleven months and 
five days. She was a member of the Baptist 
church a great many years. Mr. and Mrs. 
Yager have had five children — Ida May, born 
September 8, 1876, died JMarch 1, 1880; 
Charles William, born Angust 5, 1866; 
Margaret Jane, born January 16, 1863; Lydia 
Adaline, born November 2(5, 186*5; Phebe 
Viola, born October 20, 1872. 



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rHEODORE DEFFENPAUGII, de- 



^i j;fc ceased, was an early settler of Adams 
^r'J County, born in Cumberland Count}', 
Maryland, September 20, 1826. His parents, 
John and Eleanor (Martin) Deffenbaugli, 
were also natives of ilaryland, and emigrated 
to Ohio; thence to Adams County about the 



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BIOORAPHIGAL HKETCUKS. 






year 1838, settliiif:,' in Ilarttord Tuwiiship, I 
wliere they liveJ until their death, the father 
(iyinir in 1850, and the niutlier tive years 
hiter. i'lioy liad tive chihlren, and were 
ineuiliers of tlie ^[ethodist Episcopal ehurcli. 
Tiieodore was the eldest child. He remained 
at home nntil he reached his majority and 
received a fjood edncation. lie was married 
July 29, 1852, and for some time engaged in 
school teaching. Jfrs. Deti'enltangh was 
formerly Keziah Clendennin, l)orn in Fair- 
field County, Ohio, August 8, 1835. Her 
parents, James and ilehitable (Fox) Clen- 
dennin, were natives of J'ennsylvania. They 
removed to Fairfield, Ohio; thence to this 
county, settling in Hartford Township, where 
the father died in March, l^^M. The mother 
is still living. They were the parents of 
nine children, ilr. and ^Irs. Deti'enbaugh 
had si.\ children, and were members of the 
Baptist churcii. ^\y. Deffenbangh was a 
soldier in the late war, being a member of 
Company II, Fiftieth Indiana Infantry, and 
participated in several battles, Nashville 
being the last. He died of small-jio.x Jan- 
uary 25, ISGo. Mrs. Deffenbaugh was again 
married to .lesse Carey November 6, 1880, 
and resides in the village of (ieneva. 

4'^-\NDKEW GOTTSCHALK, treasurer of 
tfr/\j ^■^'^^"''' County, is a native of Indiana, 
-^i^ born in Nottingham Townsliip, Wells 
County, November 13, 1850. He was reared 
to the avocation of a farmer, and was educated 
in the district and private schools of his na- 
tive county, remaining on his father's farm 
till reaching the age of twenty years. He 
then engaged in teaching school in Notting- 
liam Township, which he continued till 1872, 
a period of two years. In ^lay, 1872, he 
came to Adams County, Indiana, and engaged 



in the drug business at Linn Grove. In 
November of the same year he removed to 
Uerne, Adams County, where lie has since 
been associated with Peter llott'man in the 
drug business under the firm name of Ilotl- 
man & Gottschalk. During this time, from 
1877 till 1883, he was postmaster at Berne, 
and from 1880 till 1882 he held the office of 
justice of the peace, serving with honor to 
himself and satisfaction to his constituents. 
May 9, 1875, he was married at Botkins, 
Shelby County, Ohio, to ^fiss Laura Sheets, 
a daughter of Philip and Cornelia (ifonger) 
Sheets, who were natives of Germany. Four 
children have been born to this union, three 
of whom are living — Cora B., Thurman and 
Wilda ]\[. Oliver E., their second child, 
died at ]5erne May 15, 1883, aged over four 
years. Mr. Gottschalk was elected treasurer 
of Adams County in the fall of 188-1 on the 
Democratic ticket, and in September, 1885, 
came to Decatur to assume the duties of that 
office, being re-elected to the same oflice in 
the tall of 1886, in which he is serving to the 
best interests of his county. He was a mem- 
ber of the Adams County Democratic Central 
Committee two years, from 1882 until 1881:, 
and in 1884 was a delegate to the Democratic 
State Convention held at Indianapolis. Both 
Mr. and Mrs. Gottschalk are members of the 
Evangelical Association, of which he has been 
superintendent of the Sabijath-scliool for the 
past five years. The parents of our subject, 
Jacob and Christina (Fox) Gottschalk, were 
natives of Wittemberg, Germany, where they 
were reared and married. They immigrated 
to America in 184:5, first locating in Mont- 
gomery County, Ohio, removing shortlj' after 
to Wells County, Indiana, where the fiither 
followed farming till his death 
January 26, 18(i7. The m 
the homestead in Nottingham Township, 
Wells County, in 1855. Both were consistent 



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Tliey wei'e the pan-nts of niiie cliildren, 
eiijht of wlioiii