(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Biographical and historical record of Jay and Blackford Counties, Indiana : containing ... portraits and biographies of some of the prominent men of the state : engravings of prominent citizens in Jay and Blackford Counties, with personal histories of many of the leading families and a concise history of Jay and Blackford Counties and their cities and villages"

Q^ti 



ATTENTION! 
BAR-CODE AND LABEL 
ARE LOCATED ON INSIDE PAGES 



3 1833 03687 6735 

Gc 977.201 J33bi 



Biographical and historical 
record of Jay and Blackford 



■• fs 




e-' 




I^E<50I^D 



JAY AND BLACKFORD COOHTIES, INDIANA, 



Containing Portraits of all the Presidents or the United States from Washington to 
Cljtveland, with accompanying Biographies of each; A Condensed History of the i 
State of Indiana; Portraits and Biographies of some op the Prominent 
Men of the State; Engravings of Prominent Citizens in 

Jay and Blackford Counties, with Personal Histories •' 

of many of the Leading Families, and a Con- 
cise History of Jay and Blackford . 
Counties and their Cities 
AND Villages. 



1 




i) 








■) 








h f 







Hi) 
i' 



THE LEWIS PUBLISHING COJIPANY, 

113 Adams Street, Chicago. 
1887. 



INOTE: PlbotOOTfaii 



a^es Ibetweeim 6ii6 & 



ipag. 



are jmnssiimiij 



n 



"ia*^M» M^M**0' 



Allen County Puolic Liixaijf 
900 Webster Street ,^ 
PO Box 2270 ^ 

Fort Wayne, IN 46801-2270 



rs' 



f , 




„«■„■« jft„Mi«Ha««n 






g=fJ-P pi"g|";Bg 



M I 




PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED 
STATES. 

George Washington 9 

John Adams H 

Thomas Jefferson 20 

James Madison 26 

James Monroe 23 

John Quincy Adams ..." 38 

Andrew Jackson 47 

Martin Van Buren 52 

William Henry Harrison 56 

John Tyler 60 

James K. Polk 61 

Zachary Taylor 68 

Millard Fillmore 73 

Franklin Pierce 72 

James Buchanan 60 

Abraham Lincoln 84 

Andrew Johnson 93 

Ulysses S. Grant 96 



Rutherford B. Hayes 102 

James A. Garfield 109 

Chester A. Arthur 113 

G rover Cleveland 117 

HISTORY OF INDIANA. 

Former Occupants 123 

Pre-Historic Races '. 123 

Explorations by the Whites 125 

National Policies 126 

Expeditions of Colonel George 

R. Clark 127 

Government of the Northwest. 129 
Expeditions of St. Clair and 

Wayne 133 

Organization of Indiana Terri- 
tory 133 

Governor Harrison and the In- 
dians 134 

Civil Matters 136 



General Review 136 

Organization of the State 137 

Indiana in the Mexican War. ..138 
Indiana in the War for the 

Union 138 

Financial 148 

Internal Improvements 149 

Geology 150 

Agricultural 151 

Educational 151 

Benevolent and Penal Institu- 
tions.. . . 154 

PROMINENT HEN OF 
INDIANA. 

Oliver P. Morton 161 

Thomas A. Hendricks 165 

Schuyler Colfax 169 

James D. Williams 173 

Robert Dale Owen 177 



■ 'l - :"i - > 



1401453 



^^ 



EiBTOB^Y OF Jay County, 



K<- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



Abel, 0. E 322 

Abel, W. H 554 

Adair, O. H 371 

Albertson, Benjamin 504 

Alexander, Alfred 363 

Allen, A. W 623 

Andrew, H. A 660 

Antles, D. A 492 

Armstrong, J. V 536 

Aruistrons, S., C. H. & J 456 

Arthur, C.'S 016 

Axe, Frederick 679 

Ayers, Henry 463 

B. 

Bailey, J. C 537 

Baker, D. V 3o4 



Banta, J. L 429 

Barnell, J. W 539 

Barnett, A. J 436 

Barr, J. D 561 

Barr, J. H 6:}8 

Barrett, E.E 532 

Barrick, I. G 303 

Beard, Lewis 324 

Beard, W. P .5.55 

Bechdalt, P. C 589 

Beck, Nathan 515 

Bell, John Z-Yi 

Berkheimer, W. F 639 

Bickel, A.J 623 

Bickel, Jacob 631 

Bickel, J. A 662 

Bimel, Fritz 457 

Birdsall, Joel 632 

Birdsall, W. P 503 

Bishop, Josephus 511 



Blazer, Samuel _ . . .3.53 

Bonnel, L. B 421 

Bost, Elias 342 

Bosworth, Augustus 636 

Bosworth, Jacob 6U 

Bosworth, J. M 559 

Bosworth, Thomas 590 

Bowman, R. W [443 

Bradley, BR 333 

Bradley, John 317 

Brake, A. J 309 

Branstetter, John 339 

Briscoe, S. M 300 

Briscoe, T.S .";!..,'.305 

Brown, John 514 

Brown, M. A 668 

Brown, O. B 631 

Brubaker, J. R 490 

Bruner, L. J !399 

Bryan, John s99 






,.j),a_»,M„u„J 



^«,a„«8„H„*. 



BnU— aiLi' 




Buirley, Miller 397 

Bunker, F.S 404 

Burr, Adam 351 

Burris, Albert 653 

Burris, John 6^8 

Butcher, G. W 

Butcher, Ira 

Butcher, W. W 695 

Byrcl, Mounce 571 

C. 

Carson, William 377 

Caster, H. E 538 

Caster, James 357 

- Castor, W.A 3S8 

Castle, Isaac 588 

Chandler, Asahel 372 

Christman, Adam 525 

Christmun, J. H 684 

Clinger, Jacob 542 

Coffin. Nathaniel *J0 

Cole, C. P 458 

Collett, C.W 637 

Collett, N. W 631 

Collins, Cornelius 478 

Constable, Robert 609 

Coons, M. V -■ 415 

Corwin, Cornelius 423 

Coulson, J. R 490 

Coulson, Lot 434 

Cox, Sherman 645 

Craig, L.J 5 12 

Craig, P. K '_;84 

Cring, John 503 

Crow, R. C 439 

Crowell, J. G 659 

Current, William 488 

D. 

Darby. J. R 464 

Darby, S. H 443 

Davis, E. Q 682 

Dftvi.s, R. P 319 

Davis, S.E 682 

Denney, Ira. 516 

Detamore, John 336 

Be Tray, J. H 3.58 

De Wees, B. L 659 

Dickes, Philip 331 

Dougherty. John 470 

Downing. Charles 5.5S 

Drake, Ebenezer 604 

E. 

Edger, G.N 384 

Ehrliart, Timothy 650 

Eley, Michael 640 

Elliott, Jonathan 453 

Emmons, J. S 354 

Ertol, T. P 6(!3 

Evans, Evan 32fi 

Ewalt, John 480 

F. 

Farhor. G. W 394 

Faul, D. E 405 



Ferner, Daniel 51i 

Fields, Jonathan 

Fifer, Benjamin 549 

Fifer, Jacob 664 

Fleming, W. S 430 

Flesher, Adam 627 

Foltz, J. W 671 

Fulton Brothers 325 

G. 

Gable, N, H 691 

Gammill, G. F... 645 

Gardner, William 643 

Gaunt, Jacob 452 

Gaunt, Joseph.. . . ; 308 

Gibson, William 608 

Gigandet, F. V 554 

Gillum, James 557 

Giltinger, W. P 615 

Glentzer, M. A 384 

Goss, Noah 425 

Grav, Bayard 547 

Gray, I. P 532 

Gray, T. 1 626 

Gray, Thomas 538 

Greenwalt, Wes 693 

Greist, William 531 

Gritath, L A 469 

Grimes, Washington 304 

Grisell, Albert 648 

Grisel I, Lewis 537 

Grisell, Samuel 496 



Haines, James 365 

Haley, G. W." 665 

Hall, J. W..... 630 

Hall, Samuel 657 

Hammitt, Martin 635 

Hammons, R. T 433 

Hammons, William. 402 

Hanlin, James 336 

Hanlin, J. P 641 

Hanlin, J. R 309 

Hanlin, J. T 493 

Hanlin, Samuel 625 

Hardy, G. W 413 

Hardy,John 321 

Harris, Benjamin 415 

Harris, David 541 

Hart, J. R 4.50 

Hartley, W.W 613 

Hawkins, B. W 487 

Hawkins, J. C 454 

Hawkins, J. B 425 

Hawkins, N.B 076 

Hayes, John 578 

Haynes, Elwood .535 

Haynes, J. M 302 

Haynes, Sumner 486 

Headingtou, J. W 437 

Ileadiiigton, Nimrod 597 

Hearn.J. P 349 

Hesirn, P. M 339 

Heister, Daniel 593 

Heister, D. G 572 

Hnisl.'r, Henry 581 

Henderson, James 579 



Henry, John. 
Henry, J. M. 
Hiatt, E. M. 
Hickman, Calvin 
Hickman, Joseph . 
Hickman, W. R.. 

Hidy, Nathan 

Hilton, William 

Holloway, G. M.... 

HoUoway, G. P 

Holmes, C. W 

Holmes, L. L 

Holmes, L. G 

Hoover, D. F 

Hopkins, A. H 

Hopkins, A. W 

Hoppes, Elijah.. . . 

Hoppes, John 

Hoppes, J. H 

Hoppes, J. W 

Hoppes, Sylvester. . , 

Horner, S. L 

Houck, W.J 

Houser, Amos 

Huart, N. B , 

Huckeriede, Henry. 

Hudson, A. D 

Hudson, J. T 

Huey, Isaac. .". 

Huey, Robert 

Hughes, Charles. . . . 

Hunt, Mahlon 

Hunt, Sylvester 

Hutchinson, J. A. . . 
Hutzler, Jacob 



..450 
..314 
..214 
.511 
..507 
..509 
.550 
.464 
,.623 
..461 
.628 
,.474 
.516 
.637 
.679 
.635 
.677 
.574 
.657 
.643 
.646 
..534 
.341 
.381 
.675 
.478 



Jaqua, J. B 

Jenkins, W. Z 

Johnson, Levi 

Jones, J. V 

Jones, W. G 

Jordan, David 

Journey, R. R 

Journey, Stephen. 

K. 



.691 
.396 
.406 
.530 
.333 
.463 
.380 
.560 



Karns, Henry. . 
Karns, Henry. . . 
Kellv, Daniel . . . 
Kenilrick, G. R. 
Kennedy, A". W, 
Kidder, J.F.... 
Kidder, Joseph.. 
Kikendall, E. B. 
Kinsey, D, S. . . . 



.398 
.549 
.058 
.358 
.436 
.573 
.4.58 
.393 
.378 



Lacv, P. H 

La Follette, J, J. M 
La Follette, John... , 

Landes. S. S 

Lare, Charles 

Letts, A. W 

Letts, James 

Lewis, Enos 

Lewis, Joseph 



.40.) 
.3.50 
.435 
.491 
.694 



.520 
.477 
.666 



W: 



\ii 



i ,ia« j i -««t » ^ta,.« i aa.»a-Mi-a.. a«iii»n»M-n..a— ii^»5ngs 



CONTElfTS. 



.■«M„a.j.i»„i» r. 



Lewis, Syra 522 

Lewis, T. G 475 

Liukliauer, Nicliolas 414 

Logan, JoliD 513 

Loniiwith, J. H 450 

Loscli, J. D. R. G 671 

Loscli, C. F 381 

Lotz, L B 335 

Lucas, G. AV 572 

Lupton. A Jelma 544 

Lutes, T. M, C 563 

Luttmann, Michael 688 

Lynch, A. T 620 

Lynch, Norman 476 

Lyons, Elijah 373 

Lyons, Thomas 311 

M. 

Slackey, C. \f 382 

Macklin, G. W 441 

Macklin, Israel 398 

Macklin, Jacob 410 

Macklin, Philip " 420 

MaliD & Schwartz 345 

ilanning. William 540 

Marsli, E.J 212 

Mason, Samuel 339 

M.itchett, J. F 468 

Mutchett, Richard 4S5 

Maynard, El'.ra ...,'.. 390 

McAdama, J. L. C 582 

McCoy, Nathan 367 

McKennett, J. S 403 

McKinley, Robert 672 

McLaughlin, E. F 539 

McLaughlin, F. M 357 

McLaughlin, John 307 

McLaughlin, J. S 323 

McLaughlin, W. H 395 

McLaughlin, William 308 

McNior, William CIO 

Mendenhall, J. W 34G 

Meranda. D. C 61G 

Meredith, P. S 34H 

Motzner, John 585 

Melzner, J. A 347 

Melzner, L. N 357 

Metzner, W. F 526 

Miles. J. S 340 

Miles, J. T 591 

Miller, Daniel 411 

Miller, David 577 

Miller, Eli 629 

Miller, G. F 442 

Miller. W. P 57S 

Milligan, J. N 502 

Milligan, S. H 504 

Milligau, W. B 493 

Milli-an, Wilson 419 

Mills B.F 427 

Miiieh, J. M 410 

Miurks, F.W 576 

Mtiimt, P. W 008 

Money. Das-id 690 

Money, Samuel 680 

Jloney, William 580 

Moon, E. W 689 

Mo(U-e, William 520 

Morehouse, C. A 370 



Morehous, S. A 410 

Moudy, M. V 215 

Mowrey, John 535 

Mundh'enk, Augustus 679 

Munsey, S. E 656 

N. 

Nape, E. R '..477 

Newcomer, Benjamin 575 

Ninde, Samuel 621 

Nixon, J. P 323 

0. 

Oliver, H 216 

Overmeier, Ephraim 388 

P. 

Parsons, Georse 361 

Payton, W. WT 318 

Pensinger, Daniel 591 

Perdieu, J. R 673 

Pettyjohn. W. T 310 

Phillips, Jesse 505 

Pingry, S. S 548 

Poiry,John 647 

Poling, William 379 

Polley, J. W 667 

Powell, J. W 592 

Powers, Abraham 404 

Powers, Abraham 546 

Powers, J. H 413 

Premer, Isaac 088 

Premer. Isaac 510 

Premer, Hiram 630 

Prillaman, J. K 514 

Pyle, Cheyne 386 

R. 

Ralston, Augustus 303 

Rarick, I. N 6S7 

Ray, L.T 49j 

Ray. Zaeharias 510 

Ravn, Ale.xander 535 

Rayn, William 394 

Rees, A. G 597 

Renbarger, Elisha 5b9 

Renbarge r, G eorge 421 

Rines, Eli 595 

Roach, Isaac 502 

Roach, Joseph 4'.i6 

Roberts, A. W 587 

Roberts. D.R 475 

Rook. W.J 564 

R.iss. G. B 528 

Roush. .lohn 368 

Rnve. B R 696 

Kuckweiill, Chri.^toplier 553 

Rupol, Jacob 340 

Rupel, Janie^ ■i.-|7 

Rupel, M. L 441 

Rus-ell, AlliPil 317 

S. 

Sage. I. T 409 

Sanders, J. II ....374 

Sanders. W. Iv 546 



Schmuck. John 338 

Schrader. C. F. D 453 

Scott, J. J 61D 

Sebring Brothers 520 

Sees, H. W 473 

Selvey, S. S 378 

Shanks, J. P. C 598 

Shepherd. G.W 570 

Shepherd, T. S 348 

Sherman, Lorenzo 383 

Shewalter, Elias 465 

Shewalter, J. W 553 

Shook, E. A . . 569 

Shrack,G. W 547 

Silvernale, Isaac 680 

Simmons, Isa.ac 479 

Simmons, T. W 385 

Simpson, G. W. . .• 521 

Sims, L G 403 

Skinner, D. T 444 

Smith, A. C 481 

Smith, D. G 467 

Smith, Enos 576 

Smith, J. M 374 

Smith, Jloses 507 

Smith, P. J 336 

Smith, W. F 406 

Smith, William 647 

Snyder, F. H 630 

Snyder, Jesse 662 

Somers, A. L 492 

Spade, D. F 449 

Spahr, Matthias 654 

Stanton, D. S 574 

Steed, L. N 452 

Steed, O. P 096 

Steed, Robert 428 

Steed, W. W 312 

Stephenson, R. M 543 

Stevenson, R. B 683 

Stevenson, William 029 

Stewart, J. J 360 

St. John, C. B 463 

Stolz. George 504 

Stolz. Nicholas 046 

Stolz. Philip 661 

Stoltz. P. P 467 

Stone, W. 1 643 

Stoner, Henry 399 

Straly, George 506 

Straly, Samuel 409 

Straly, Stephen 512 

Straly, Sutphen 539 

Stratton, II. S 342 

Stratton, T. L 333 

Stranshurg, Frederick 420 

Slrausburg. Jacob 661 

Stuart, Perry 045 

Siults. John 538 

Stults. Peter 542 

Sullivan. J. A 558 

Suman. George 057 

Sullon, U.J 693 

Sulton, W. G 330 

T. 

Tlieurer, Matthaus 523 

Thoruburg, A. C 521 

Thoruburg, Isaac 614 



i 









bOifTBNtS. 



Thornton, E. C 506 

Tipton, D 634 

Towlo, Tliomas 690 

Townaeud, W. J 6a0 

Turner, W. H 675 

U. 

Uphuus, Joseph 581 

Ullom, Henry 524 

Underwood, Isaac 482 

V. 

Vail, I. M 456 

Valentine, William 582 

Vance, E.E. 443 

Vans, J. W 216 

Via, W. O.... 621 

Votaw, Jonas 297 

W. 

Wagner, Joseph 624 

Wagner, Peter 594 

Walker, A. D 594 

Wallins, H. V 538 

Walters, Abraham 626 

Walters, C. E 663 

Walter, Daniel 685 

Walter, Peter 644 



Walter, Rev. T. S 489 

Ware, J. E 677 

AVatson, C. C 306 

Weaver, Jeremiah 370 

Weber, B. L 401 

Weldon, H. O 686 

Wells, Thomas 425 

West, H. C 481 

West, H. F 473 

West, J. L 466 

Whipple, Olery 340 

White, T. C 432 

Whitely, J. W 505 

Whiteman, William 426 

Whitenack, Isaac 692 

Wickersham, H. C 420 

Wickersham, J. G 426 

Wilhelm, J. H 544 

Wilkinson, S. R 387 

Wilkin, W^ O 337 

Williams, C 690 

Williams, George 575 

Williams, Jes'e 592 

Williams,,). W 363 

Williams, M. L 412 

Williams & Kendrick 362 

Williams, S. K 377 

Wilt, J. S 455 

Wingate, C. C 627 



Wirt, W. W 640 

Woods, J. F 683 

Woodward, A. B 305 

Worgura, Henry 503 

Worth, Rev. Aaron 509 

Woten, E. B 440 

Woten, Hugh 613 

Wright, E. C 422 

Wright, Jesse 620 

Z. 

Zeigler, Adam 470 

GENERAL HISTORY. 

Introductory 183 

Settlement 188 

County Government 198 

Professional 206 

The Press 211 

Natural Gas 217 

The Civil War 227 

Miscellaneous 235 

Portland 243 

Pennville 254 

Dunkirk 26 1 

Smaller Towns 266 



History of Blaskfoj^d Sounty, 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



th' 



A. 

Alexander, C. C 845 

Alexander, John 780 

Alexander, J. T 824 

Armstrong, A. JI 867 

Arnistroncf, Thomas 891 

Atkinson,"H. C 825 

Atkinson, Joseph 831 

Atkinson, W. A 861 

B. 

Baird, J. G.. .'. 835 

Beath, W. A 803 

Blount, J. H 821 

Bonhain, G. W 857 

Eonhaui, J. A 787 

Bonhani, W. A 705 

Boyd, Amor 786 

Brannuni. W. S 808 

Briscoe, T. S 736 

Briscoe, S. il 736 

Brotherton. J. T 873 

Bugh, W. J 825 

Butcher, C. L 895 

lUuler, Kdwin 833 



C. 



Caldwell, D. C 810 

Carrell, S. S 8'Jl 

Carroll, W. H 875 

Clapper, William 841 

Cloud, William 852 

Clouser, N. D 815 

Cooley, C. R 794 

Cooley, W. B 875 

Cortright, Isaiah 376 

Creek, Jacob 855 

Creek, Joseph 8i;6 

Creek, Marion 875 

D. 

Davison, II. C 867 

Dildine, Jesse 849 

Dildine, Joseph 887 

Dowell, J. H 882 

Drayer, P 807 

E. 



Ell 



nh, William. 



800 



Ervin, R. V 804 

Ervin, W. L 856 

F. 

Fear, H.N 779 

Feaster, Joseph 831 

Fogle, Hiram 892 

Ford, J. H 787 

Ford, E. H 880 

Frazier, W. F. M 788 

Fulkerson, A. N 783 

Fuller, J. S. & H.J 849 

Fuqua, Tiieodore 896 

Futrell, Joseph 807 

G. 

Gadburv, A. K 893 

Gadbury, J. A 881 

Gadburv, S. L 889 

Gartiu, G 772 

Geisler, Frank 737 

Gettys, J. R 796 

Gettys, John 809 

Groenendvke, Montirnmerv . . . .856 



^ 



■ n-»«,g ^™g»«i» 



iBaianUaaaWs". 



^mg^m^ta^K - 



U. 

Hadden, William 771 

Hallam, J. M 862 

Harrold, J. R 881 

Hart, William 886 

Haverfl,^Id, T. H S17 

Hellyer, J.J 8« 

Hess, David 862 

Hess, J. C 897 

Hiatt, 0. H 896 

HoIme.H, W. W... 893 

Huffman, Elwood 737 

Hugfjins, John 858 

Huggins, Isaac 791 

Huggins, Samuel 868 

Hughes, Eli 885 

; Inman, Isaac 774 

; ^' 

! Kegerreis, J. C. . . : 773 

• Kelley, B. F 870 

' Kelley, J. T 814 

' Kitterman, Gabriel 865 

; Kline, H. J 822 

Knight, A. T 887 

I Knox, William 840 

L. 

Lanniiig, M. W 898 

Lanning, Robert 799 

lewis, J. D 775 

Lillibridge, Thomas 769 

, Listenfellz, Daniel 836 

M. 

j Maddox, J. C 805 

Maddox, J. J 880 

Marker, Samuel 818 

McCarthy, Thomas 834 

I McCombs, James 824 

iMcCoukey, A. J 784 

picConkev, David 785 

BIcFarland, J. E 815 

aicGeath, J. P 814 

ffllcGrew, J. 1 793 

SMcKeeh.an, Rev. J. Q 834 

ilcVicker, J. A 884 

Wilier, F. G 84G 



3, John 15 

s, John Quincy 39 

r, Chester A. .". 112 

( ^r, C. S 617 

t all, Joel 633 

flElias 343 

»(n, M. A 609 

( Vuau, James 81 



Moon, J. W 846 

Moore, O. K 823 

Morris, Theophilus 776 

Morrison, J. A 828 

Morrison, Leander 899 

N. 

Neal, T. C 841 

Needier, John 837 

Newb^mer, J. A 785 

Noonan, William 844 



Payton, Samuel 772 

Peck, A. J 859 

Peck, Samuel 861 

Peck, S.J 864 

Pierce, Elisha 767 

Pugh, William 852, 901 



jian. 

>X. I 



d. Grover 116 



Quackenbush, Andrew 792 

R. 

Rayn, J. W 860 

Reasoner, J. M 883 

Reasoner, W. F 832 

Rhoades, J. H 788 

Rickelts, I. M 770 

Robbins, M. H 888 

Rollf, G. B 847 

Ruckman, J. M 735 



Sage, J. W 809 

Saxon, John 842 

Seelig. Henry 8o6 

Shannon, A. J 831 

Shelton, S. R 817 

Shiekls, Adam 795 

Shinn, B. G 706 

Hhinn, Darius 870 

Shinn, P. A 864 

Shull, C. Q 870 

Shull, W. T 770 

Simonton, S. S 826 

Slater, James 855 

Smith, H- B 868 

Smith, Ji-remiah 872 

Snyder, J. O 837 

Slallsmith, D. E 774 



Colfax, Schuyler 168 

Craig, L.J 533 

Detray, J. H 359 

Ellsworth, William 801 

Evans. Evan 327 

Fillmore, Millard 73 

Garfield. James A 108 

Grant, Ulvsses S 97 

Grisell, A'lbert 650 

Grisell, Jlrs. Albert 651 



Stroble, Richard. 



Tarr, Leander 894 

Taughinbaugh, William 819 

Templin, J. S 894 

Thompson, G. H 848 

Thompson, M.M 863 

Townsend, J. S 797 

Twibell, Lewis 866 

Twibell, William 843 



Van Cleve, Millon 827 

W. 

Walmer, D. A 812 

Waring, L. C 834 

Waugh, James 850 

Wheatley, J. F 899 

Whetsel, A. S 859 

White, R. B 784 

Williams, A. M 816 

Williams, W. A 812 

Williams, Z. T 820 

Willman, Lewis 879 

Wilson, Abram 791 

Wilson, J. W 792 

Wilt, W. W 797 

Wood, J. G 813 

Woodard, J. D 864 

Woodard, Oliver 874 



Younts, G. W 845 

Younts, J. W 811 

GEXERAL HISTORY. 

Introductory 703 

Indians 710 

Settlement 717 

Coimty Government 724 

Professional 731 

The Press 734 

The Civil War 738 

Hartford City 744 

Montpelier 752 

Around the County 757 

Miscellaneous 759 



Grisell, Samuel 498 

Grisell, Mrs. Samuel 499 

Hammons, R. T 433 

Harrison, William Heurv 57 

Hayes, Rutherford B. . .'. 103 

Hendricks, Thomas A 164 

Hoover, D. F 551 

Hoppes, J. W 5li 

Jackson, Andrew 46 

Jetferson. Thomas 21 



I 



i 



m-f 



i 




% 




Johnson, Andrew . 
Johnson, Levi. . . . 
Lincoln, Abraham 
Madison, James. . 

JIarsh, E.J 

Maynard, Ezra. . . 
McAdams, J. L. C 
Milligan, Wilson 
Jtonroe, James. . . 
Morrison, J. A. . . 
Morton, Oliver P. 



Owen, Itobert Dale 
Pierce, Franlilin. . 

Pollf, James K 

Piigh, William.... 
Shanks, J. P. C. . . 
ShanUs, Huldah. .. 

Shull.C.Q 

Shall, AV.T 

Skinner, D. T 

Smith, J. M 

Stolz, George 



.601 

.877 
.777 
.445 
.375 
.506 



Stolz, Mrs. George... 

Steed, W. W 

Steed, Eliza I 

Taylor, Zacharv 

Tyler, John 

Underwood, Isaac 

Van Biiren, Martin. . . 

Votaw, Jonas 

Washington, George.. 
Williams, James D. . . 
Zeigler, Adam 



.ai4 
.315 
. 69 
. 61 
.483 
. 53 
.296 
. 8 



^^^ 




i{TS5iH5££Hi 



if 



a - " -»-"- a » " - '' M '^J*S» 



GEORGE U'ASJ/rXGTOX. 



P 

1i 



!■!) 



^^'. 




IE©MBE 



(iT^ i -4-!! .'*c<:t 



^ 



I 
11^ 



Ml! 



;[S; 






I 
il 





EORGE WASHING- 
TON, the " Father of 
his Country" and its 
first President, 1789- 
'97, was born Febru- 
ary 2_', 1732, in Wash- 
ington Parish, West- 
'^>S^sm^ moreland Co u n ty, Virginia. 
3C^^53^ His father, Augustine Wash- 
ington, first married Jane But- 
i^%?'^^'^^ ler, who bore him four chil- 
.,>i-.-:aii^/^ dren, and March 6, 1730, he 
married Mary Ball. Of six 
children by his second mar- 
riage, George was the eldest, 
the others being Betty, Samuel, John, Au- 
gustine, Charles and Mildred, of whom the 
youngest died in infancy. Little is known 
of the early years of Washington, be3'ond 
the fact that the house in which he was 
born was burned during his early child- 
hood, and that his father thereupon moved 
to another farm, inherited from his paternal 
ancestors, situated in Stafford County, on 
the north bank of the Rappahannock, wliere 
he acted as agent of the Princlpio Iron 
Works in the immediate vicinity, and died 
there in 1743. 

From earliest childhood George devel- 
oped a noble character. He had a vigorous 
constitution, a fine form, and great bodily 
Strength. His education was somewhat de- 



fective, being confined to the elementary 
branches taught him by his mother and at 
a neighboring school. He developed, how- 
ever, a fondness for mathematics, and en- 
joyed in that branch the instructions of a 
private teacher. On leaving school he re- 
sided for some time at Mount Vernon with 
his half brother, Lawrence, who acted as 
his guardian, and who had married a daugh- 
ter of his neighbor at Belvoir on the Poto- 
mac, the wealthy William Fairfax, for some 
time president of the executive council of 
the colony. Both Fairfax and his son-in-law, 
Lawrence Washington, had served with dis- 
tinction in 1740 as ofificers of an -American 
battalion at the siege of Carthagena, and 
were friends and correspondents of Admiral 
Vernon, for whom the latter's residence on 
the Potomac has been named. George's 
inclinations were for a similar career, and a 
midshipman's warrant was procured for 
him, probably through the influence of the 
Admiral ; but through the opposition of his 
mother the project was abandoned. The 
family connection with the Fairfaxes, how- 
ever, opened another career for the 3-oung 
man, who, at the age of sixteen, was ap- 
pointed surveyor to the inmiense estates of 
the eccentric Lord Fairfax, who was then 
on a visit at Belvoir, and who shortly after- 
ward established his baronial residence at 
Grcenwav Court, in the Shenandoah \'aile\-. 



m 






•M -t^^a' 



»T.™».»»— n- 



T^ 



.m„«„a»«>^ 



»^a.«j, B.i: 



SF 



Sjij 






I) 



Pi 

! 



PRESIDEX-JS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



Three years were passed by young Wash- 
ino-ton in a rough frontier life, gaining ex- 
perience which afterward proved very es- 
•sential to him. 

In 1/5 1, when the Virginia militia were 
put under training with a view to active 
service against France, Washington, though 
only nineteen years of age, was appointed 
Adjutant with the rank of Major. In Sep- 
tember of that year the failing health of 
Lawrence Washington rendered it neces- 
sary for him to seek a warmer climate, and 
George accompanied him in a voyage to 
Barbadoes. They returned early in 1752, 
and Lawrence shortly afterward died, leav- 
ing his large property to an infant daughter. 
In his will George was named one of the 
executors and as eventual heir to Mount 
Vernon, and by the death of the infant niece 
soon succeeded to that estate. 

On the arrival of Robert Dinwiddle as 
Lieutenant-Governor of Virginia in 1752 
the militia was reorganized, and the prov- 
ince divided into four districts. Washing- 
ton was commissioned by Dinwiddle Adju- 
tant-General of the Northern District in 
T753, and in November of that year a most 
important as well as hazardous mission was 
assigned him. This was to proceed to the 
Canadian posts recently established on 
French Creek, near Lake Erie, to demand 
in the name of the King of England the 
withdrawal of the French from a territory- 
claimed by Virginia. This enterprise had 
been declined by more than one officer, 
since it involved a journey through an ex- 
tensive and almost unexplored wilderness 
in the occupancy of savage Indian tribes, 
either hostile to the English, or ot doubtful 
attachment. Major Washington, however, 
accepted the commission with alacrit}- ; and, 
accompanied by Captain Gist, he reached 
Fort Le Boeuf on French Creek, delivered 
his dispatches and received rcpl)-, which, (jf 
course, was a polite refusal to surrender the 
osts. This rcplv \vas of such a charactci' 



as to induce the Assembly of Virginia to 
authorize the executive to raise a regiment 
of 300 men for the purpose of maintaining 
the asserted rights of the British crown 
over the territory claimed. As Washing- 
ton declined to be a candidate for that post, 
the command of this regiment was given to 
Colonel Joshua Fry, and Major Washing- 
ton, at his own request, was commissioned 
Lieutenant-Colonel. On the march to Ohio, 
news was received that a party previously 
sent to build a fort at the confluence of the 
Monongahela with the Ohio had been 
driven back bv a considerable French force, 
which had completed the work there be- 
gun, and named it Fort Duquesne, in honor 
of the Marquis Duquesne, then Governor 
of Canada. This was the beginning of the 
great "French and Indian war,'' which con- 
tinued seven years. On the death of Colonel 
Fry, Washington succeeded to the com- 
mand of the regiment, and so well did he 
fulfill his trust that the Virginia Assembly 
commissioned him as Commander-in-Chief 
of all the forces raised in the colony. 

A cessation of all Indian hostilitv on the 
frontier having followed the expulsion of 
the French from the Ohio, the object of 
Washington was accomplished and he re- 
signed his commission as Commander-in- 
Chief of the Virginia forces. He then pro- 
ceeded to Williamsburg to take his seat in 
the General Assembly, of which he had 
been elected a member. 

January 17, 1759, Washington married 
Mrs. Martha (Dandridge) Custis, a young 
and beautiful widow of great wealth, and de- 
voted himself for the ensuing fifteen years 
to the quiet pursuits of agriculture, inter- 
rupted onh' by his annual attendance in 
winter upon the Colonial Legislature at 
Williamsburg, until summoned by his 
country to enter upon that other arena in 
wliich his fame was to become world wide. 

It is unnecessary here to trace the details 
of the struggle upon the question of local 



i 



-'^^^T^'^'^'lJ^t:,^"^:^? ^.'■i:.-^tSti'y^':^\^-^-. 



GEORGE WASH/yGTOiV. 



HJJ 



<»1) 



self-government, which, after ten years, cul- 
minated b}' act of Parliament of the port of 
Boston. It was at the instance of Virginia 
that a congress of all the colonies was called 
to meet at Philadelphia September 5, 1774, 
to secure their common liberties — if possible 
by peaceful means. To this Congress 
Colonel Washington was sent as a dele- 
gate. On dissolving in October, it recom- 
mended the colonies to send deputies to 
another Congress the following spring. In 
the meantime several of the colonies felt 
impelled to raise local forces to repel in- 
sults and aggressions on the part of British 
troops, so that on the assembling of the ne.xt 
Congress, May 10, 1775, the war prepara- 
tions of the mother country were unmis- 
takable. The battles of Concord and Lex- 
ington had been fought. Among the earliest 
acts, therefore, of the Congress was the 
selection of a commander-in-chief of the 
colonial forces. This office was unani- 
mously conferred upon Washington, still a 
member of the Congress. He accepted it 
on June 19, but on the express condition he 
should receive no salary. 

He immediately repaired to the vicinity 
of Boston, against which point the British 
ministry had concentrated their forces. As 
early as April General Gage had 3,000 
tniops in and around this proscribed city. 
During the fall and winter the British policy 
clearly indicated a purpose to divide pub- 
lic sentiment and to build up a British party 
in the colonies. Those who sided with the 
niinistry were stigmatized by the patriots 
as '• Tories," while the patriots took to them- 
selves the name of " Whigs." 

As early as 1776 the leading men had 
conic to the conclusion that there was no 
hope except in separation and indepen- 
dence. In May of that year Washington 
wrote from the head of the army in New 
Y(5ik : "A reconciliation with Great Brit- 
ain is impossible When I took 

conuiiand of the armv, I abhorred the idea 



of independence ; but I am now fully satis- 
fied that nothing else will save us." 

It is not the object of this sketch to trace 
the military acts of the patriot hero, to 
whose hands the fortunes and liberties of 
the United States were confided during the 
seven years' bloody struggle that ensued 
until the treaty of 1783, in which England 
acknowledged the independence of each of 
the thirteen States, and negotiated with 
them, jointly, as separate sovereignties. The 
merits of Washington as a military chief- 
tain have been considerably discussed, espe- 
cially by writers in his own country. Dur- 
ing the war he was most bitterly assailed 
for incompetency, and great efforts were 
made to displace him ; but he never for a 
moment lost the confidence of either the 
Congress or the people. December 4, 1783, 
the great commander took leave of his offi- 
cers in most affectionate and patriotic terms, 
and went to Annapolis, Maryland, where 
the Congress of the States was in session, 
and to that body, when peace and order 
prevailed everywhere, resigned his com- 
mission and retired to Mount Vernon. 

It was in 1788 that Washington was called 
to the chief magistracy of the nation. He 
received every electoral vote cast in all the 
colleges of the States voting for the office 
of President. The 4th of March, 1789, was 
the time appointed for the Government of 
the United States to begin its operations, 
but several weeks elapsed before quorums 
of both the newly constituted houses of the 
Congress were assembled. The city of New 
York was the place where the Congress 
then met. April 16 Washington left his 
home to enter upon the discharge of his 
new duties. He set out with a purpose of 
traveling privately, and without attracting 
an}- public attention ; but this was impossi- 
ble. Everywhere on his way he was met 
with thronging crowds, eager to see the 
man whom thev regarded as the chief de- 
fender of their liberties, and everywhere 



' r'-%*-w^J^-J..iU.,M-j .,.tj.„Tir^grT3^ <^ijllj-"j- Br. ^« Ij C i^^ 



■,a„»1S»,m.iia«.Ji ^M»Mi,ji M«S«^ 



, M_i»„ia„j«a»M_a„M,«„ M„-a 



i.ij^»iKi*cM,«i,M„a^ 



—""■^■j™™* 



Presidents of rfiE UNrTEO states. 






he was hailed with those public manifesta- 
tions of joy, regard and love which spring 
spontaneouslv from the hearts of an affec- 
tionate and grateful people. His reception 
in New York was marked by a grandeur 
and an enthusiasm never before witnessed 
in that metropolis. The inauguration took 
place April 30, in the presence of an immense 
multitude which had assembled to witness 
the new and imposing ceremony. The oath 
of office was administered by Robert R. 
Li vingston, Chancellor of the State. When 
this sacred pledge was given, he retired 
witli the other officials into the Senate 
chamber, where he delivered his inaugural 
address to both houses of the newly con- 
stituted Congress in joint assembly. 

In the manifold details of his civil ad- 
ministration, Washington proved himself 
equal to the requirements of his position. 
The greater portion of the first session of 
the first Congress was occupied in passing 
the necessary statutes for putting the new 
organization into complete operation. In 
the discussions brouglit up in the course of_ 
this legislation the nature and character of 
the new system came under general review. 
On no one of them did any decided antago- 
nism of opinion arise. All held it to be a 
limited government, clothed only with spe- 
cific powers conferred by delegation from 
the States. There was no change in the 
name of the legislative department; it still 
remained "the Congress of the United 
States of America." There was no change 
in the original flag of the country, and none 
in the seal, which still remains with the 
Grecian escutcheon borne bv the eagle, 
with other emblems, under the great and 
expressive motto, '' E Pluribiis Unnin." 

The hrst division of parties arose upon 
the maiuier of construing the powers tlcle- 
gated, and they were first styled " strict 
constructionists" and " latitudinariau con- 
structionists." The former were for con- 
fining the action of the Government strictl\- 



within its specific and limited sphere, while 
the others were for enlarging its powers by 
inference and implication. Hamilton and 
Jefferson, both members of the first cabinef- 
were regarded as the chief leaders, respect 
ively, of these rising antagonistic parties 
which have e.-cisted, under different names 
from that d.a}' to this. Washington was re 
garded as holding a neutral position between 
them, though, by mature deliberation, he 
vetoed the first apportionment bill, in 1790, 
passed by the party headed by Hamilton, 
which was based upon a principle construct- 
ively leading to centralization or consoli- 
dation. This was the first exercise of the 
veto power under the present Constitution. 
It created considerable excitement at the 
time. Another bill was soon passed in pur- 
suance of Mr. Jefferson's views, which has 
been adhered to in principle in every ap- 
portionment act passed since. 

At the second session of the new Con- 
gress, Washington announced the gratif}'- 
ing fact of " the accession of North Caro- 
lina" to the Constitution of 17S7, and June 
I of the same year he announced by special 
message the like " accession of the State of 
Rhode Island," with his congratulations on 
the happy event which " united under the 
general Government" all the States which 
were originally confederated. 

In 1792, at the second Presidential elec- 
tion, Washington was desirous to retire ; 
but he yielded to the general wish of the 
country, and was again chosen President 
by the unanimous vote of every electoral 
college. At the third election, 1796, he was 
again most ui-gently entreated to consent to 
remain in the executive chair. This he 
positively refused. In September, before 
the election, he gave to his countrvmen his 
memorable Farewell Address, which in lan- 
guage, sentiment and patriotisin was a fit 
and crowning glory of his illustrious life. 
After March 4, 1797, he again retired to 
Mount \'cnion Inr peace, quiet and repose. 



i^,m.a*ia',. ^-..nM^i-ar„ j„Ua,'M»JJST^I ' 



y~•^ .'^.■■\'^-^ ! ;^'^ '; ?;v ' n.^^^.^S•- ' - ' -'c- : 



WTi* 



i«i»jg»i«jj»j»»»ni»Mia» iiJnf ■ 



,*i„.a„ia,a_iM„a„»r; 



JjPaiJr." 



•<b^l 



GEORGE WASHINGTON. 



His administration for the two terms had 
been successful beyond the expectation and 
hopes of even the most sanguine of his 
friends. The finances of the country were 
no longer in an embarrassed condition, the 
public credit was fully restored, life was 
given to every department of industry, the 
workings of the new system in allowing 
Congress to raise revenue from duties on 
imports proved to be not only harmonious 
in its federal action, but astonishing in its 
results upon the commerce and trade of all 
the States. The exports from the Union 
increased from §19,000,000 to over §56,000,- 
000 per annum, while the imports increased 
in about the same proportion. Three new 
members had been added to the Union. The 
progress of the States in their new career 
under their new organization thus far was 
exceedingly encouraging, not only to the 
friends of libertv within their own limits, 
but to their sympathizing allies in all climes 
and countries. 

C>1 the call again made on this illustrious 



chief to quit his repose at Mount Vernon 
and take command of all the United States 
forces, with the rank of Lieutenant-General, 
when war was threatened with France in 
1798, nothing need here be stated, except to 
note the fact as an unmistakable testimo- 
nial of the high regard in which he was still 
held by his countrymen, of all shades of po- 
litical opinion. He patriotically accepted 
this trust, but a treaty of peace put a stop 
to all action under it. He again retired to 
Mount Vernon, where, after a short and 
severe illness, he died December 14, 1799, 
in the sixty-eighth year of his age. The 
whole country was filled with gloom by this 
sad intelligence. Men of all parties in poli- 
tics and creeds in religion, in every State 
in the Union, united with Congress in " pay- 
ing honor to the man, first in war, first in 
peace, and first in the hearts of his country- 
men." 

His remains were deposited in a family 
vault on the banks of the Potomac at Mount 
Vernon, where they still lie entombed. 



ISi 







JV- 



'■"^-*r^ji^»cc 



■ •»"«»'■«»"«■•»*'■- ■■«»-«■■"»' 



^■"M^ca^g*^ 










^'C 





OHN ADAMS, the second 
President of the United 
States, 1797 to 1 80 1, was 
born in the present town 
of Quincy, then a portion 
of Braintree, Massachu- 
setts, October 30, 1735. His 
father was a farmer of mod- 
erate means, a worthy and 
industrious man. He was 
a deacon in the church, and 
was very desirous of giving 
his son a collegiate educa- 
tion, hoping that he would 
become a minister of the 
gospel. But, as up to this 
time, the age of fourteen, he had been only 
a plav-boy in the fields and forests, he had 
no taste for books, he chose farming. On 
being set to work, however, by his father 
out in the field, the very first day con- 
verted the boy into a lover of books. 

Accordingly, at the age of sixteen he 
entered Harvard College, and graduated in 
1755, at the age of twenty, highly esteemed 
for integrity, energy and ability. Thus, 
having no capital but his education, he 
started out into the stormy wc^rld at a time 
of great political excitement, as France and 
England were then engaged in their great 
seven-years struggle for the mastery over 
the New World. The fire of patriotism 



seized young Adams, and for a tini- he 
studied over the question whether he 
should take to the law, to politics or I he 
army. He wrote a remarkable letter to a 
friend, making prophecies concerning the 
future greatness of this country which have 
since been more than fulfilled. For two 
years he taught school and studied law, 
wasting no odd moments, and at the early 
age of twenty-two years he opened a law 
office in his native town. His inherited 
powers of mind and untiring devotion to 
his profession caused him to rise rapidly 
in public esteem. 

In October, 1764, Mr. Adams married 
Miss Abigail Smith, daughter of a clergy- 
man at Weymouth and a ladv of rare per- 
sonal and intellectual endowments, v/ho 
afterward contributed much to her hus- 
band's celebrity. 

Soon the oppression of the British in 
America reached its climax. The Boston 
merchants employed an attorney by the 
name of James Otis to argue the legality of 
oppressive tax law before the Superior 
Court. Adams heard the argument, and 
afterward wrote to a friend concerning the 
abilit}' displayed, as follows : " Olis was a 
flame of fire. With a promptitude of 
classical allusion, a depth of research, a 
rapid summary of historical events and 
dates, a profusion of legal authorities and a 



m 









![« 



'■^ iJLsA^s^ai ^^n « '*.t« ^ q ^ -a *'■*'?■ ^ M ^'^^^'iP'W^' V i*'^*'^ ^'jn ** ■!■-*■« ■'^ ''g *io"'* -^i *^T ^ ^*"»ir^''^^^^ 



^^i 




Jr/i/iL Jdmw 



i lg.gj'JulJjM^ 



iHiHSESHi! 



yO//.V ADAMS. 



ai 



11 
1 



(fa' 



m 



prophetic glance into futurity, he hurried 
a\va\" all before him. American independence 
zuas then and there born. Every man of an 
immensel)' crowded audience appeared to 
me to go away, as I did, ready to take up 
arms." 

Soon Mr. Adams wrote an essay to be 
read before the literary club of his town, 
upon the state of affairs, which was so able 
as to attract public attention. It was pub- 
lished in American journals, republished 
in England, and was pronounced by the 
friends of the colonists there as " one of the 
very best productions ever seen from North 
America." 

The memorable Stamp Act was now 
issued, and Adams entered with all the 
ardor of his soul into political life in order 
to resist it. He drew up a series of reso- 
lutions remonstrating against the act, which 
were adopted at a public meeting of the 
citizens of Braintrec, and which were sub- 
sequently adopted, word for word, by more 
than forty towns in the State. Popular 
commotion prevented the landing of the 
Stamp Act papers, and the English author- 
ities then closed the courts. The town of 
Boston therefore appointed Jeremv Grid- 
ley, James Otis and John Adams to argue a 
petition before the Governor and council 
for the re-opening of the courts; and while 
the two first mentioned attorneys based 
their argument upon the distress caused to 
the people by the measure, Adams boldly 
claimed that the Stamp Act was a violation 
both of the English Constitution and the 
charter of the Provinces. It is said that 
this was the first direct denial of the un- 
limited right of Parliament over the colo- 
nies. Soon after this the Stamp Act was 
repealed. 

Directly Mr. Adams was employed to 
defend Ansell Nickerson, who had killed an 
Englishman in the act of impressing him 
(Nickerson) into the King's service, and his 
client was acquitted, the court thus estab- 



lishing the principle that the infamous 
royal prerogative of impressment could 
have no existence in the colonial code. 
But in 1770 Messrs. Adams and Josiah 
Quincy defended a party of British soldiers 
who had been arrested for murder when 
they had been only obeying Governmental 
orders; and when reproached for thus ap- 
parently deserting the cause of popular 
liberty, Mr. Adams replied that he would a 
thousandfold rather live under the domina- 
tion of the worst of England's kings than 
under that of a lawless mob. Next, after 
ssrving a term as a member of the Colonial 
Legislature from Boston, Mr. Adams, find- 
ing his health affected b}' too great labor, 
retired to his native home at Braintree. 

The year 1774 soon arrived, with its fa- 
mous Boston " Tea Party," the first open 
act of rebellion. Adams was sent to the 
Congress at Philadelphia ; and when the 
Attorney-General announced that Great 
Britain had " determined on her system, 
and that her power to execute it was irre- 
sistible," Adams replied : " I know that 
Great Britain has determined on her sys- 
tem, and that very determination deter- 
mines me on mine. You know that I have 
been constant in my opposition to her 
measures. The die is now cast. I have 
passed the Rubicon. Sink or swim, live or 
die, with my country, is my unalterable 
determination." The rumor beginning to 
prevail at Philadelphia that the Congress 
had independence in view, Adams foresaw 
that it was too soon to declare it openly. 
He advised every one to remain quiet in 
that respect; and as soon as it became ap- 
parent that he himself was for independ- 
ence, he was advised to hide himself, which 
he did. 

The next year the great Revolutionary 
war opened in earnest, and Mrs. Adams, 
residing near Boston, kept her husband ad- 
vised by letter of all the events transpiring 
in her vicinitv. The battle of Bunker Hill 



m. 



{•X-.i 



11= 



"^•* 'a -»..■= 



i««j,a 



■*""*'*'**^ 



ra-^ra-S^S 



»1I1J» — »!■"»■«■ tl*^ 



ir sm^u^jj„[».„M^ij:;;r^j^jr7;^^rCT:; 



PRESIDE.VTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



m 






°^S 



m 



'^ T^T^ /^- ^ ^ 



■ t g- | b ^ p ^V- ^ p i ^-^ ?P 7J -^ - ;j-^ r- r? ?? PFH HHg^a: 



^^*S^§S 



eh^hehIhs 







UH 



I 



I 




fHOMAS JEFFER- 

son, the third Presi- 
dent of the United 
States, i8oi-'9, was 
born April 2, 1743, 
the eldest child of 
his parents, Peter 
and Jane (Randolph) Jef- 
ferson, near Charlottes- 
ville, Albemarle Count}', 
Virginia, upon the slopes 
of the Blue Ridge. When 
he -was fourteen years of 
age, his father died, leav- 
ing a widow and eight 
children. She was a beau- 
tiful and accomplished 
lady, a good letter-writer, with a fund of 
humor, and an admirable housekeeper. His 
parents belonged to the Church of England, 
and are said to be of Welch origin. But 
little is known of them, however. 

Thomas was naturally of a serious turn 
of mind, apt to learn, and a favorite at 
school, his choice studies being mathemat- 
ics and the classics. At the age of seven- 
teen he entered William and Mary College, 
in an advanced class, and lived in rather an 
e.xpcnsive style, consequently being much 
caressed by gay society. That he was not 
ruined, is proof of his stamina of character. 
But during his second year he discarded 






society, his horses and even his favorite 
violin, and devoted thenceforward fifteen 
hours a day to hard study, becoming ex- 
traordinarily proficient in Latin and Greek 
authors. 

On leaving college, before he was twenty- 
one, he commenced the study of law, and 
pursued it diligently until he was well 
qualified for practice, upon which he 
entered in 1767. By this time he was also 
versed in French, Spanish, Italian and An- 
glo-Saxon, and in the criticism of the fine 
arts. Being very polite and polished in his 
manners, he won the friendship of all whom 
he met. Though able with his pen, he was 
not fluent in public speech. 

In 1769 he was chosen a member of the 
Virginia Legislature, and was the largest 
slave-holding member of that body. He 
introduced a bill empowering slave-holders 
to manumit their slaves, but it was rejected 
by an overwhelming vote. 

In 1770 Mr. Jefferson met with a great 
loss ; his house at Shadwell was burned, 
and his valuable library of 2,000 volumes 
was consumed. But he was wealthy 
enough to replace the most of it, as from 
his 5,000 acres tilled by slaves and his 
practice at the bar his income amounted to 
about SSiOOO a year. 

In 1772 he married Mrs. Martha Skelton, 
a beautiful, wealthy and accomplished 



im 



ill 



la; 

81: 

I 





'/^^'TZ^ 



i 



>]! 



Jg-m".. 



"je"™". 



^<B-«<l^rari] 



aia-Si„JJ. 






'Jj 



i 

! J; 






THOMAS JEFFE/iSO.V. 



young widow, who owned 40,000 acres of 
land and 130 slaves; yet he labored assidu- 
ously for the abolition of slavery. For his 
new home he selected a majestic rise of 
land upon his large estate at Shadwell, 
called Monticello, whereon he erected a 
mansion of modest yet elegant architecture. 
Here he lived in lu.xury, indulging his taste 
in magnificent, high-blooded horses. 

At this period the British Government 
gradually became more insolent and op- 
pressive toward the American colonies, 
and Mr. Jefferson was ever one of the most 
foremost to resist its encroachments. From 
time to time he drew up resolutions of re- 
monstrance, which were finally adopted, 
thus proving his ability as a statesman and 
as a leader. By the year 1774 he became 
quite busy, both with voice and pen, in de- 
fending the right of the colonies to defend 
themselves. His pamphlet entitled: "A 
Summary View of the Rights of British 
America," attracted much attention in Eng- 
land. The following year he, in company 
with George Washington, served as an e.\-- 
ecutive committee in measures to defend 
by arms the State of Virginia. As a Mem- 
ber of the Congress, he was not a speech- 
maker, yet in conversation and upon 
committees he was so frank and decisive 
that he always made a favorable impression. 
But as late as the autumn of 1775 he re- 
mained in hopes of reconciliation with the 
parent country. 

At length, however, the hour arrived for 
draughting the " Declaration of Indepen- 
dence," and this responsible task was de- ' 
volvcd upon Jefferson. Franklin, and 
Adams suggested a few verbal corrections 
before it was submitted to Congress, which 
was June 28, 1776, only si.x days before it 
was adopted. During the three days of 
the fiery ordeal of criticism through which 
it passed in Congress, Mr. Jefferson (opened 
not his lips. John Adams was the main 
champion of the Declaration on the floor 



of Congress. The signing of this document 
was one of the most solemn and momentous 
occasions ever attended to by man. Prayer 
and silence reigned throughout the hall, 
and each signer realized that if American 
independence was not finally sustained by 
arms he was doomed to the scaffold. 

After the colonies became independent 
States, Jefferson resigned for a time his seat 
in Congress in order to aid in organizing 
the government of Virginia, of which State 
he was chosen Governor in 1779, when he 
was thirty-six years of age. At this time 
the British had possession of Georgia and 
were invading South Carolina, and at one 
time a British officer, Tarleton, sent a 
secret expedition to Monticello to capture 
the Governor. Five minutes after Mr. 
JelTerson escaped with his family-, his man- 
sion was in possession of the enemy ! The 
British troops also destroyed his valuable 
plantation on the James River. " Had they 
carried off the slaves," said Jefferson, with 
characteristic magnanimity, " to give them 
freedom, they would have done right." 

The year 1781 was a gloomy one for the 
Virginia Governor. While confined to his 
secluded home in the forest by a sick and 
dying wife, a party arose against him 
throughout the State, severely criticising 
his course as Governor. Being very sensi- 
tive to reproach, this touched him to the 
quick, and the heap of troubles then sur- 
rounding him nearly crushed him. He re- 
solved, in despair, to retire from public life 
for the rest of his days. For weeks Mr. 
Jefferson sat lovingly, but with a crushed 
heart, at the bedside of his sick wife, during 
which time unfeeling letters were sent to 
him, accusing him of weakness and unfaith- 
fulness to duty. All this, after he had lost 
so much i)ropcrty and at the same time 
done so much for his country! After her 
death he actually fainted a\vav, and re- 
mained so long insensible that it was feared 
he never would recover! Several weeks 



as( 



i 

m 



-^a-a^ Jtni>a-wg1.^X 



■■«-"M*^*a^ 



.g„M„M,Ji_«i,a, 



PRESIDE. VTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



a-,M-m-9i- 



"»-^=,«ji«i 






^1 

J3 



passed before he could fully recover his 
equilibrium. He was never married a 
second time. 

In the spring of 1782 the people of Eng- 
land compelled their king to make to the 
Americans overtures of peace, and in No- 
vember following, Mr. Jefferson was reap- 
pointed by Congress, unanimously and 
without a single adverse remark, minister 
plenipotentiary to negotiate a treaty. 

In March, 1784, Mr. Jefferson was ap- 
pointed on a committee to draught a plan 
for the government of the Northwestern 
Territory. His slavery-prohibition clause 
in that plan was stricken out by the pro- 
slavery majority of the committee; but amid 
all the controversies and wrangles of poli- 
ticians, he made it a rule never to contra- 
dict anybody or engage in any discussion 
as a debater. 

In company with Mr. Adams and Dr. 
Franklin, Mr. Jefferson was appointed in 
May, 17S4, to act as minister plenipotentiary 
in the negotiation of treaties of commerce 
with foreign nations. Accordingly, he went 
to Paris and satisfactorily accomplished his 
mission. The suavity and high bearing of 
his manner made all the French his friends; 
and even Mrs. Adams at one time wrote 
to her sister that he was " the chosen 
of the earth." But all the honors that 
he received, both at home and abroad, 
seemed to make no change in the simplicity 
of his republican tastes. On his return to 
America, he found two parties respecting 
the foreign commercial policy, Mr. Adams 
sympathizing with that in favor of England 
and himself favoring France. 

On the inauguration of General Wash- 
ington as President, Mr. Jefferson was 
chosen by him for the office of Secretary of 
State. At this time the rising storm of the 
French Revolution became visible, and 
Washington watched it with great anxiety. 
His cabinet was divided in their views of 
constitutional Sfovernracnt as well as re- 



garding the issues in France. General 
Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury, was 
the leader of the so-called Federal party, 
while Mr. Jefferson was the leader of the 
Republican party. At the same time there 
was a strong monarchical party in this 
country, with which Mr. Adams sympa- 
thized. Some important financial measures, 
which were proposed by Hamilton and 
finally adopted by the cabinet and approved 
by Washington, were opposed by Mr. 
Jefferson ; and his enemies then began to 
reproach him with holding office under an 
administration whose views he opposed. 
The President poured oil on the troubled 
waters. On his re-election to the Presi- 
dency he desired Mr. Jefferson to remain 
in the cabinet, but the latter sent in his 
resignation at two different times, probably 
because he was dissatisfied with some of 
the measures of the Government. His 
final one was not received until January i, 
1794, when General Washington parted 
from him with great regret. 

Jefferson then retired to his quiet home 
at Monticello, to enjoy a good rest, not even 
reading the newspapers lest the political 
gossip should disquiet him. On the Presi- 
dent's again calling him back to the office 
of Secretary of State, he replied that no 
circumstances would ever again tempt him 
to engage. in anything public ! But, while 
all Europe was ablaze with war, and France 
in the throes of a bloody revolution and the 
principal theater of the conflict, a new 
Presidential election in this country came 
on. John Adams was the Federal candi- 
date and i\Ir. Jefferson became the Republi- 
can candidate. The result of the election 
was the promotion of the latter to the Vice- 
Presidency, while the former was chosen 
President. In this contest Mr. Jefferson 
really did not desire to have either office, 
he was "so weary" of partv strife. He 
loved the retirement of home more than 
any other place on the earth. 






a^Ta^ie J^H-w- a^M^ 



J^«M-**a^ 



rT^sa-df*™* 



"ra-w^ta^p-J 



=*MJ*=a«fi -J 



(^ 



a*gi'niy^^iy *^ n < 



nWg^»^^^-M^*I^M^,i^^M^■^■^ .la^^^ll^,J,^^J]^■„fc^,^^a„a^a„a 



;p~'" 



THOA/AS ySFFE/eSOX. 



=5 



J 






m 



i 

J If 



But f(ir four long years his Vice-Presi- 
dency passed joylessly awa^*, while the 
partisan strife between Federalist and Re- 
publican was ever growing hotter. The 
former party split and the result of the 
fourth general election was the elevation of 
Mr. Jefferson to the Presidency! with 
Aaron Burr as Vice-President. These men 
being at the head of a growing party, their 
election was hailed everywhere with joy. 
On the other hand, many of the Federalists 
turned pale, as they believed what a portion 
of the pulpit and the press had been preach- 
ing — that Jefferson was a " scoffing atheist," 
a "Jacobin," the "incarnation of all evil," 
" breathing threatening and slaughter ! " 

Mr. Jefferson's jnaugural address con- 
tained nothing but the noblest sentiments, 
expressed in fine language, and his personal 
behavior afterward e.xhibitcd the e.\treme 
of American, democratic simplicity. His 
disgust of European court etiquette grew 
upon him with age. He believed that 
General Washington was somewhat dis- 
trustful of the ultimate success of a popular 
Government, and that, imbued with a little 
admiration of the forms of a monarchical 
Government, he had instituted levees, birth- 
days, pompous meetings with Congress, 
etc. Jefferson was always polite, even to 
slaves everywhere he met them, and carried 
in his countenance the indications of an ac- 
commodating disposition. 

The political principles of the Jeffersoni- 
an party now swept the country, and Mr. 
Jefferson himself swayed an influence which 
was never exceeded even by Washington. 
Under his administration, in 1803, the Lou- 
isiana purchase was made, for $15,000,000, 
the " Louisiana Territory " purchased com- 
prising all the land west of the Mississippi 
to the Pacific Ocean. 

The year 1804 witnessed another severe 
loss in his family. His highly accomplished 
and most beloved daughter ^Laria sickened 
and died, causing as great grief in the 



stricken parent as it was possible for him to 
survive with any degree of sanity. 

The same year he was re-elected to the 
Presidency, with George Clinton as Vice- 
President. 'During his second term our 
relations with England became more com- 
plicated, and on June 22, 1807, near Hamp- 
ton Roads, the United States frigate 
Chesapeake was fired upon by the Brit- 
ish man-of-war Leopard, and was made 
to surrender. Three men were killed and 
ten wounded. Jefferson demanded repara- 
tion. England grew insolent. It became 
evident that war was determined upon by 
the latter power. More than 1,200 Ameri- 
cans were forced into the British service 
upon the high seas. Before any satisfactory 
solution was reached, Mr. Jefferson's 
Presidential term closed. Amid all these_ 
public excitements he thought constantly 
of the welfare of his family, and longed 
for the time when he could return home 
to remain. There, at Monticello, his sub- 
sequent life was very similar to that of 
Washington at Mt. Vernon. His hospi- 
tality toward his numerous friends, indul- 
gence of his slaves, and misfortunes to his 
property, etc., finally involved him in debt. 
For years his home resembled a fashion- 
able watering-place. During the summer, 
thirty -seven house servants were required ! 
It was presided over by his daughter, Mrs. 
Randolph. 

Mr. Jefferson did much for the establish- 
ment of the University at Charlottesville, 
making it unsectarian, in keeping with the 
spirit of American institutions, but poverty 
and the feebleness of old age prevented 
iiim from doing what he would. He even 
went so far as to petition the Legislature 
for permission to dispose of some of his 
possessions by lotterj:, in order to raise the 
necessary funds for home expenses. It was 
granted; but before the plan was carried 
out, Mr. Jefferson died, July 4, 1826, at 
12:50 P. M. 



tr?; 



¥ 



I 
i 

i 
si; 



M 






r^^^M^M^^^^. 



J-i^- ^M c-.i-c j^g-^Ta"-!! — ^Ji^J 



-■a-J^j— -jg'-.^ J 



ES3sHa5aE2 



j6 PRESlDEiVTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



^P- 

3J^ 



^m.r 











'AMES MADISON, the 
fourth President of the 
» United States, iSog-'i;, 
was born at Port Con- 
way, Prince George 
County, Virginia, March 
i6, 1751. His father, 
Colonel James Madison, was 
a wealthy planter, residing 
upon a very fine estate 
called " Montpelier," only 
twent3'-five miles from the 
home of Thomas Jefferson 
at Monticello. The closest 
personal and political at- 
tachment existed between 
these illustrious men from their early youth 
until death. 

James was the eldest of a family of seven 
children, four sons and three daughters, all 
of whom attained maturity. His early edu- 
cation was conducted mostly at home, 
under a private tutor. Being naturally in- 
tellectual in his tastes, he consecrated him- 
self with unusual vigor to study. At a very 
earlv age he made considerable proficienc}' 
in the Greek, Latin, French and Spanisli 
languages. In 1769 he entered Princeton 
College, New Jersey, of which the illus- 
trious Dr. VVeatherspoon was then Presi- 
denl. He graduated in 1 771, with a char- 



acter of the utmost purity, and a mind 
highly disciplined and stored with all the 
learning which embellished and gave effi- 
ciency to his subsequent career. After 
graduating he pursued a course of reading 
for several months, under the guidance of 
President Weatherspoon, and in 1772 re- 
turned to Virginia, where he continued in 
incessant study for two years, nominally 
directed to the law, but really including 
extended researches in theology, philoso- 
phy and general literature. 

The Church of England was the estab- 
lished church in Virginia, invested with all 
the prerogatives and immunities which it 
enjoj'ed in the fatherland, and other de- 
nominations labored under serious disabili- 
ties, the enforcement of which was rightly 
or wrongly characterized by them as per- 
secution. Madison took a prominent stand 
in behalf of the removal of all disabilities, 
repeatedly appeared in the court of his own 
county to defend the Baptist nonconform- 
ists, and was elected from Orange County to 
the Virginia Convention in the spring of 
1766, when he signalized the beginning of 
his public career by procuring the passage 
of an amendment to the Declaration of 
Rights as prepared by George Mason, sub- 
stituting for "toleration" a more emphatic 
assertion of religious libertv. 



4 






'r ! 




/ 



/ 



O^Zj^--— ■i-C{ Oo-^'^ 



»l!^1^n«»■»|T^.»JCn.■^^^ 



m) 



m 



iTMS^g^^J jIgS.^g. fcM J«i'>» »'^o-"t.."» aM'"m-« »■"■»"■» J-lf 



y.lAfES AfAD/SOiV. 



Jm*'cQjJ^'' 



a^&iaaiBM^a^Mr 



W 



i\3i 



§\ 



In 1776 he was elected a member of the 
Virginia Convention to frame the Constitu- 
tion of the State. Like Jefferson, he took 
but Uttle part in the public debates. His 
main strength lay in his conversational in- 
fluence and in his pen. In November, 1777, 
he was chosen a member of the Council of 
State, and in March, 17S0, took his seat in 
the Continental Congress, where he first 
gained prominence through his energetic 
opposition to the issue of paper money by 
the States. He continued in Congress three 
years, one of its most active and influential 
members. 

In 1784 Mr. Madison was elected a mem- 
ber of the Virginia Legislature. He ren- 
dered important service by promoting and 
participating in that revision of the statutes 
which effectually abolished the remnants of 
the feudal system subsistent up to that 
time in the form of entails, primogeniture, 
and State support given the Anglican 
Church ; and his " Memorial and Remon- 
strance" against a general assessment for 
the support of religion is one of the ablest 
papers which emanated from his pen. It 
settled the question of the entire separation 
of church and State in Virginia. 

Mr. Jefferson says of him, in allusion to 
the study and experience through which he 
had already passed : 

" Trained in these successive schools, he 
acquired a habit of self-possession which 
placed at ready command the rich resources 
of his luminous and discriminating mind and 
of liis extensive information, and rendered 
him the first of every assembly of which he 
afterward became a member. Never wan- 
dering from his subject into vain declama- 
tion, hut pursuing it closely in language 
pure, classical and copious, soothing al- 
ways the feelings of his adversaries by civili- 
ties and softness of expression, he rose to the 
eminent station which he held in the great 
National Convention of 17S7; and in that of 
Virginia, which followed, he sustained the 




new Constitution in all its parts, bearing off 
the palm against the logic of George Mason 
and the fervid declamation of Patrick 
Henry. With these consummate powers 
were united a pure and spotless virtue 
which no calumny has ever attempted to 
sully. Of the power and polish of his pen, 
and of the wisdom of his administration in 
the highest office of the nation, I need say 
nothing. They have spoken, and will for- 
ever speak, for themselves." 

In January, 1786, Mr. Madison took the 
initiative in proposing a meeting of State 
Commissioners to devise measures for more 
satisfactory commercial relations between 
the States. A meeting was held at An- 
napolis to discuss this subject, and but five 
States were represented. The convention 
issued another call, drawn up by Mr. Madi- 
son, urging all the States to send their dele- 
gates to Philadelphia, in Ma)', 1787, to 
draught a Constitution for the United 
States. The delegates met at the time ap- 
pointed, every State except Rhode Island 
being represented. George Washington 
was chosen president of the convention, 
and the present Constitution of the United 
States was then and there formed. There 
was no mind and no pen more active in 
framing this immortal document than the 
mind and pen of James Madison. He was, 
perhaps, its ablest advocate in the pages of 
the Federalist. 

Mr. Madison was a member of the first 
four Congresses, i7S9-'97, in which he main- 
tained a moderate opposition to Hamilton's 
financial policy. He declined tlie mission 
to France and the Secretaryship of State, 
and, gradually identifying himself with the 
Republican party, became from 1792 its 
avowed leader. In 1796 he was its choice 
for the Presidency as successor to Wash- 
ington. Mr. Jefferson wrote : '■ There is 
not another person in the United States 
with whom, being placed at the helm of our 
affairs, my mind would be so completely at 






m 

I 
I 



aa»a«B»Tf 



,j»Mj i a»a» a » B»n,.»jani 



.■nJe,H»fcl.. 3l »a aW 



'"*'"*'™™ — ' 



atiit»i<i=ai-a-*~a. 



w 

11 






PRES/DE.VTS OF THE UN/TED STATES. 



rest for the fortune of our political bark." 
But Mr. Madison declined to be a candi- 
date. His term in Congress had e.xpired, 
and he returned from New York to his 
beautiful retreat at Montpelier. 

In 1/94 Mr. Madison married a young 
widow of remarkable powers of fascination 
— Mrs. Todd. Her maiden name was Doro- 
thy Paine. She was born in 1767, in Vir- 
ginia, of Quaker parents, and had been 
educated in the strictest rules of that sect. 
When but eighteen years of age she married 
a young lawyer and moved to Philadelphia, 
where she was introduced to brilliant scenes 
of fashionable life. She speedily laid aside 
the dress and address of the Quakeress, and 
became one of the most fascinating ladies 
of the republican court. In New York, 
after the death of her husband, she was the 
belle of the season and was surrounded with 
admirers. Mr. Madison won the prize. 
She proved an invaluable helpmate. In 
Washington she was the life of society. 
If there was any diffident, timid young 
girl just making her appearance, she 
found in Mrs. Madison an encouraging 
friend. 

During the stormy administration of John 
Adams Madison remained in private life, 
but was the author of the celebrated " Reso- 
lutions of 179S," adopted by the Virginia 
Legislature, in condemnation of the Alien 
and Sedition laws, as well as of the " report" 
in which he defended those resolutions, 
which is, by many, considered his ablest 
State paper. 

The storm passed away ; the Alien and 
Sedition laws were repealed, John Adams 
lost his re-election, and in iSoi Thomas Jef- 
ferson was chosen President. The great re- 
action in public sentiment which seated 
Jefferson in the presidential chair was large- 
ly owing to the writings of Madison, who 
was consequently well entitled to the post 
of Secretary of State. With great ability 
he discharged the duties of this responsible 



office during the eight years of Mr. Jeffer- 
son's administration. 

As Mr. Jefferson was a widower, and 
neither of his daughters could be often with 
him, Mrs. Madison usually presided over 
the festivities of the White House; and as 
her husband succeeded Mr. Jefferson, hold- 
ing his office for two terms, this remarkable 
woman was the mistress of the presidential 
mansion for sixteen years. 

Mr. Madison being entirely engrossed by 
the cares of his office, all the duties of so- 
cial life devolved upon his accomplished 
wife. Never were such responsibilities 
more ably discharged. The most bitter 
foes of her husband and of the administra- 
tion were received with the frankly prof- 
fered hand and the cordial smile of wel- 
come; and the influence of this gentle 
woman in allaying the bitterness of party 
rancor became a great and salutary power 
in the nation. 

As the term of Mr. Jefferson's Presidency 
drew near its close, party strife was roused 
to the utmost to elect his successor. It was 
a death-grapple between the two great 
parties, the Federal and Republican. Mr. 
Madison was chosen President by an elec- 
toral vote of 122 to 53, and was inaugurated 
March 4, i8og, at a critical period, when 
the relations of the United States with Great 
Britain were becoming embittered, and his 
first terra was passed in diplomatic quarrels, 
aggravated by the act of non-intercourse of 
May, iSio, and finally resulting in a decla- 
ration of war. 

On the i8th of June, 1S12, President 
Madison gave his approval to an act of 
Congress declaring war against Great Brit- 
ain. Notwithstanding the bitter hostility 
of the Federal party to the war, the country- 
in general approved; and in the autumn 
Madison was re-elected to the Presidency 
by 128 electoral votes to 89 in favor of 
George Clinton. 

March 4, 1S17, Madison yielded the Presi- 






'M 






rtiii ii^-ty-^-jLii 



■s ^gi^.K fa-j 



m 






(31 



dcncy to his Secretary of State and inti- 
mate friend, James Monroe, and retired to 
his ancestral estate at Montpelier, where he 
passed the evening of his da^'s surrounded 
by attached friends and enjoying the 
merited respect of the whole nation. He 
took pleasure in promoting agriculture, as 
president of the county society, and in 
watching the development of the University 
of Virginia, of which he was long rector and 
visitor. In extreme old age he sat in 1829 
as a member of the convention called to re- 
form the Virginia Constitution, where his 
appearance was hailed with the most gen- 
uine interest and satisfaction, though he 
was too infirm to participate in the active 
work of revision. Small in stature, slender 
and delicate in form, with a countenance 
full of intelligence, and expressive alike of 
mildness and dignity, he attracted the atten- 
tion of all who attended the convention, 
and was treated with the utmost deference. 
He seldom addressed the assembly, though 
he always appeared self-possessed, and 
watched with unflagging interest the prog- 
ress of every measure. Though the con- 
vention sat sixteen weeks, he spoke only 
twice ; but when he did speak, the whole 
house paused to listen. His voice was 
feeble though his enunciation was very dis- 
tinct. .One of the reporters, Mr. Stansbury, 
relates the following anecdote of Mr. Madi- 
son's last speech: 

" The next day, as there was a great call 
for it, and the report had not been returned 
for publication, I sent my son with a re- 
spectful note, requesting the manuscript. 
My son was a lad of sixteen, whom I had 
taken with me to act as amanuensis. On 
delivering my note, he was received with 
the utmost politeness, and requested to 
come up into Mr. Madison's room and wait 
while his eye ran over the paper, as com- 
pany had prevented his attending to it. He 
did so, and Mr. Madison sat down to correct 
the report. The lad stood near him so tliat 



his eye fell on the paper. Coming to a 
certain sentence in the speech, Mr. Madison 
erased a word and substituted another ; but 
hesitated, and not feeling satisfied with the 
second word, drew his pen through it also. 
My son was young, ignorant of the world, 
and unconscious of the solecism of which he 
was about to be guilty, when, in all simplic- 
ity, he suggested a word. Probably no 
other person then living would have taken 
such a liberty. But the sage, instead of 
regarding such an intrusion with a frown, 
raised his eyes to the boy's face with a 
pleased surprise, and said, ' Thank you, sir ; 
it is the very word,' and immediately in- 
serted it. I saw him the next day, and he 
mentioned the circumstance, with a compli- 
ment on the young critic." 

Mr. Madison died at Montpelier, June 28, 
1836, at the advanced age of eighty-five. 
While not possessing the highest order of 
talent, and deficient in oratorical powers, 
he was pre-eminently a statesman, of a well- 
balanced mind. His attainments w-ere solid, 
his knowledge copious, his judgment gener- 
ally sound, his powers of analysis and logi- 
cal statement rarely surpassed, his language 
and literary style correct and polished, iiis 
conversation witty, his temperament san- 
guine and trustful, his integrit}' unques-. 
tioned, his manners simple, courteous and 
winning. By these rare qualities he con- 
ciliated the esteem not only of friends, but 
of political opponents, in a greater degree 
than any American statesman in the present 
century. 

Mrs. Madison survived her husband thir- 
teen years, and died July 12, 1S49, '" t'^e 
eighty-second year of her age. She was one 
of the most remarkable women our coun- 
try has produced. Even now she is ad- 
miringly remembered in Washington as 
" Dolly Madison," and it is fitting that her 
memory should descend to posterity in 
company with thatof the companion of 
l;er life. 



pa ^n„M„.a^J i ^u,,i«„a„.j^u„a i„aj,w,a„a«J,a„Ai„-»aJ'B 



Pres/de,vts of The united states. 







rTO -.y.'\v-v;-VN\;.tiEgME2 



algssa;ss■Jl^^v^■T^^^^=^sT^^■v■■.'■^^■FT'=SF^^^<^^^fVA!V^ 



fl^M^KS MEMieBI^, 





(is; 



m 







""'" "^'aMES MONROE, the fifth 
President of the United 
|^» States, i8i7-'25, was born 
in Westmoreland County 
Virginia, April 28, 1758. 
' He was a son of Spence 
Monroe, and a descendant 
of a Scottish cavalier fam- 
il)-. Like all his predeces- 
sors thus far in the Presi- 
dential chair, he enjoyed all 
the advantages of educa- 
tion which the country 
could then afford. He was 
early sent to a fine classical 
school, and at the age of six- 
teen entered William and Mary College.. 
In 1776, when he had been in college but 
two years, the Declaration of Independence 
was adopted, and our feeble militia, with- 
out arms, amunition or clothing, were strug- 
gling against the trained armies of England. 
James Monroe left college, hastened to 
General Washington's headquarters at New 
York and enrolled himself as a cadet in the 
array. 

At Trenton Lieutenant Monroe so dis- 
tinguished himself, receiving a wound in his 
shoulder, that he was promoted to a Cap- 
taincy. Upon recovering from his wound, 
he was invited to act as aide to Lord Ster- 
ling, and in that capacity he took an active 
part in the battles of Brandywine, Ger- 
mantown and Monmouth. At Germantown 



he stood by the side of Lafayette when the 
French Marquis received his wound. Gen- 
eral Washington, who had formed a high 
idea of young Monroe's ability, sent him to 
Virginia to raise a new regiment, of which 
he was to be Colonel; but so exhausted was 
Virginia at that time that the effort proved 
unsuccessful. He, however, received his 
commission. 

Finding no opportunity to enter the army 
as a commissioned officer, he returned to his 
original plan of studying law, and entered 
the office of Thomas Jefferson, who was 
then Governor of Virginia. He developed 
a very noble character, frank, manly and 
sincere. Mr. Jefferson said of him: 

"James Monroe is so perfectly honest 
that if his soul were turned inside out there 
would not be found a spot on it." 

In 1782 he was elected to the Assembly 
of Virginia, and was also appointed a mem- 
ber of the Executive Council. The next 
year he was chosen delegate to the Conti- 
nental Congress for a term of three years. 
He was present at Annapolis when Wash- 
ington surrendered his commission of Com- 
mander-in-chief. 

With Washington, Jefferson and Madison 
he felt deeply the inefficienc}' of the old 
Articles of Confederation, and urged the 
formation of a new Constitution, which 
should invest the Central Government with 
something like national power. Influenced 
by these views, he introduced a resolution 



'[8 5 



<8. 







-^^^^/ y A'^-^^^-^-y^f^ 



aA'i,J^M„cr^j: ??a^a;^B„jii 



^a.-^B.,i i ^m„a^u„x i 



3Mt»rjJ«'Ja-fc 



)il( 



al? 



.4^ 



I 
i 

I 

i 
p 



y.l.VES MONROE. 



J3jilJ.M^^.,A'175g^ 



1401453 






that Congress should be empowered to 
regulate trade, and to lay an impost duty 
of five per cent. The resolution was refer- 
red to a committee of which he was chair- 
man. The report and the discussion which 
rose upon it led to the convention of five 
States at Annapolis, and the consequent 
general convention at Philadelphia, which, 
in 1787, drafted the Constitution of the 
United States. 

At this time there was a controversy be- 
tween New York and Massachusetts in 
reference to their boundaries. The high 
esteem in which Colonel Monroe was held 
is indicated by the fact that he was ap- 
pointed one of the judges to decide the 
ci^ntrovers}-. While in New York attend- 
ing Congress, he married Miss Kortright, 
a young lady distinguished alike for her 
beauty and accomplishments. For nearly 
fifty years this happy union remained un- 
broken. In London and in Paris, as in her 
own country, Mrs. Monroe won admiration 
and affection by the loveliness of her per- 
son, the brilliancy of her intellect, and the 
amiability of her character. 

Returning to Virginia, Colonel Monroe 
commenced the practice of law at Frcder- 
icksbiirg. He was very soon elected to a 
seat in the State Legislature, and the next 
year he was chosen a member of the Vir- 
ginia convention which was assembled to 
decide upon the acceptance or rejection of 
the Constitution which had been drawn up 
at Philadelphia, and was now submitted 
to the several States. Deepl}- as he felt 
the imperfections of the old Confederacy, 
he was opposed to the new Constitution, 
thinking, with manv others of the Republi- 
can party, that it gave too much power to 
the Central Government, and not enough 
to the individual States. 

In 1789 he became a member of the 
United States Senate, which office he held 
acceptably to his ci^nstituents, and with 
honor to himself for four vears. 




Having opposed the Constitution as not 
leaving enough power with the States, he, 
of course, became more and more identi- 
fied with the Republican party. Thus he 
found himself in cordial co-operation with 
Jefferson and Madison. The great Repub- 
lican party became the dominant power 
which ruled the land. 

George Washington was then President. 
England had espoused the cause of the 
Bourbons against the principles of the 
French Revolution. President Washing- 
ton issued a proclamation of neutrality be- 
tween these contending powers. France 
had helped us in the struggle fijr our lib- 
erties. All the despotisms of Europe were 
now combined to prevent the French 
from escaping from tyranny a thousandfold 
worse than that which we had endured. 
Colonel Monroe, more magnanimous than 
prudent, was an.xious that we should help 
our old allies in their extremity. He vio- 
lently opposed the President's procla- 
mation as ungrateful and wanting in 
magnanimity. 

Washington, who could appreciate such 
a character, developed his calm, serene, 
almost divine greatness by appointing that 
very James Monroe, who was denouncing 
the policy of the Government, as the Minis- 
ter of that Government to the republic of 
France. He was directed b^' Washington 
to express to the French people our warm- 
est sympathy, communicating to them cor- 
responding resolves approved bv the Pres- 
ident, and adopted by both houses of 
Congress. 

Mr. Monroe was welcomed by the Na- 
tional Convention in France with the most 
enthusiastic demonstrations of respect and 
affection. lie was publicly introduced to 
that body, and received the embrace of the 
President, Merlin de Douav, after having 
been addressed in a speech glowing with 
congratulations, and witli expressions of 
desire that harmony niicrht ever exist be- 



m 



Jrti; 

i 



I 
11 



Ta^HSHSSm 



36 






.ia<.M„M,M.«,l 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



.■„j,a^H.»Mj » ci; 



tween the two nations. Tlie flags of the 
two repubUcs were intertwined in the hall 
of the convention. Mr. Monroe presented 
the American colors, and received those of 
France in return. The course which he 
pursued in Paris was so annoying to Eng- 
land and to the friends of England in 
this country that, near the close of Wash- 
ington's administration, Mr. Monroe, was 
recalled. 

After his return Colonel McEnroe wrote a 
book of 400 pages, entitled " A View of the 
Conduct of the Executive in Foreign Af- 
fairs." In this work he very ably advo- 
cated his side of the question; but, with 
the magnanimitv of the man, he recorded a 
warm tribute to the patriotism, ability and 
spotless integrity of John Jay, between 
whom and himself there was intense antag- 
onism ; and in subsequent years he ex- 
pressed in warmest terms his perfect 
veneration for the character of George 
Washington. 

Shortlv after his return to this country 
Colonel Monroe was elected Governor of 
Virginia, and held that office for three 
years, the period limited by the Constitu- 
tion. In 1802 he was an Envoy to France, 
and to Spain in 1805. and was Minister to 
England in 1803. In 1806 he returned to 
his quiet home in Virginia, and with his 
wife and children and an ample competence 
from his paternal estate, enjoyed a few years 
of domestic repose. 

In 1S09 Mr. Jefferson's second term of 
office expired, and many of the Republican 
part}' were anxious to nominate James 
Monroe as his successor. The majority 
were in favor of Mr. Madison. Mr. Mon- 
roe withdrew his name and was soon after 
chosen a second time Governor of Virginia. 
lie soon resigned that office to accept the 
position of Secretary of State, offered him 
b\' President Madison. The correspond- 
ence which he then carried on with the 
British Government demonstrated that 



there was no hope of any peaceful adjust- 
ment of our difficulties with the cabinet of 
St. James. War was consequently declared 
in June, 1812. Immediately after the sack 
of Washington the Secretary of War re- 
signed, and Mr. Monroe, at the earnest 
request of Mr. Madison, assumed the ad- 
ditional duties of the War Department, 
without resigning his position as Secretarj- 
of State. It has been confidently stated, 
that, had Mr. Monroe's energies been in the 
War Department a few months earlier, the 
disaster at Washington would not have 
occurred. 

The duties now devolving upon Mr. Mon- 
roe were extremely arduous. Ten thou- 
sand men, picked from the veteran armies 
of England, were sent with a powerful fleet 
to Mew Orleans to acquire possession of 
the mouths of the Mississippi. Our finan- 
ces were in the most deplorable condition. 
The treasury was exhausted and our credit 
gone. And yet it was necessary to make 
the most rigorous preparations to meet the 
foe. In this crisis James Monroe, the Sec- 
retary of War, with virtue unsurpassed in 
Greek or Roman story, stepped forward 
and pledged his own individual credit as 
subsidiary to that of the nation, and thus 
succeeded in placing the city of New Or- 
leans in such a posture of defense, that it 
was enabled successful!}' to repel the in- 
vader. 

Mr. Monroe was truly the armor-bearer 
of President Madison, and the most efficient 
business man in his cabinet. His energy 
in the double capacity of Secretary, both 
of State and War, pervaded all the depart- 
ments of the country. He proposed to 
increase tlie army to 100,000 men, a meas- 
ure which he deemed absolutely necessary 
to save us from ignominious defeat, but 
which, at the same time, he knew would 
render his name so unpopular as to preclude 
the possibility of his being a successful can- 
didate for the Presidency. 






'^"ij^q Jji — — "n* 



'"^ — ■^q* 



■•-■•»'°"'''-°-»^'' 






>■«■•■> 



r»5^-a-i».»i«w. 



■h 






13) 









JAMES MONROE. 



The happy result of the conference at 
Ghent in securing peace rendered the in- 
crease of the army unnecessary; but it is not 
too much to say that James Monroe placed 
in the hands of Andrew Jackson the 
weapon with which to beat off the foe at 
New Orleans. Upon the return of peace 
Mr. Monroe resigned the department of 
war, devoting himself entirely to the duties 
of Secretary of State. These he continued 
to discharge until the close of President 
Madison's administration, with zeal which 
was never abated, and with an ardor of 
self-devotion which made him almost for- 
getful of the claims of fortune, health or 
life. 

Mr. Madison's second term expired in 
March, 1817, and Mr. Monroe succeeded 
to the Presidency. He was a candidate of 
the Republican party, now taking the name 
of the Democratic Republican. In 1821 he 
was re-elected, with scarcely any opposition. 
Out of 232 electoral votes, he received 231. 
The slavery question, which subsequently 
assumed such formidable dimensions, now 
began to make its appearance. The State 
of Missouri, which had been carved out of 
that immense territory which we had pur- 
chased of France, applied for admission to 
the Union, with a slavery Constitution. 
There were not a few who foresaw the 
evils impending. After the debate of a 
week it was decided that Missouri could 
not be admitted into the Union with slav- 
ery. 'This important question was at length 
settled by a compromise proposed by 
Henry Clay. 

The famous ".Monroe Doctrine," of which 
so much has been said, originated in this 
way; In 1823 it was rumored that the 
Holy Alliance was about to interfere to 
prevent the establishment of Republican 
liberty in the European colonies of South 
America. President Monroe wrote to his 
old friend Thomas Jefferson for advice in 
the emergency. In his reply under date of 



October 24, Mr. Jefferson writes upon the 
supposition that our attempt to resist this 
European movement might lead to war: 

" Its object is to introduce and establish 
the American system of keeping out of our 
land all foreign powers; of never permitting 
those of Europe to intermeddle with the 
affairs of our nation. It is to maintain our 
own principle, not to depart from it." 

December 2, 1S23, President Monroe 
sent a message to Congress, declaring it to 
be the policy of this Government not to 
entangle ourselves with the broils of Eu- 
rope, and not to allow Europe to interfere 
with the affairs of nations on the American 
continent; and the doctrine was announced, 
that any attempt on the part of the Euro- 
pean powers " to e.xtend their system to 
any portion of this hemisphere would be 
regarded by the United States as danger- 
ous to our peace and safety." 

March 4, 1825, Mr. Monroe surrendered 
the presidential chair to his Secretary of 
State, John Quincy Adams, and retired, 
with the universal respect of the nation, 
to his private residence at Oak Hill, Lou- 
doun County, Virginia. His time had been 
so entirely consecrated to his country, that 
he had neglected his pecuniary interests, 
and was deeply involved in debt. The 
welfare of his countrv had ever been up- 
permost in his mind. 

For many years Mrs. Monroe was in such 
feeble health that she rarely appeared in 
public. In 1830 Mr. Monroe took up his 
residence with his son-in-law in New York, 
where he died on the 4th of July, 1S31. 
The citizens of New York conducted his 
obsequies with pageants more imposing 
than had ever been witnessed there before. 
Our country will ever cherish his mem- 
ory with pride, gratefully enrolling his 
name in the list of its benefactors, pronounc- 
ing him the worthy successor of the illus- 
trious men who had preceded him in the 
presidential chair. 



m. 



■^■»-w^J^-» 



5H^' 



^ as^LT^^CT'g-ti3fcV,:itf g*J^g..a 



III; 



s^,»w„aj-iMi 



, aF_j jJKa-a^i.^'-j-'^ 






P RES I DEN TS OF THE UNI TED S TA TES. 



a J-pCJ^saaa 






t[ii 



t 



11 







?'1JIB>, 







|.^^c,^tr^t^^^t^^J?^C,t^^^^..;^^^4^^S;^^^v,^^fl^ 



>=?-,^t^q^^^ 




;t3 



OHN QUINCY ADAMS, 
the sixth President of the 
United States, 1825-9, 
was born in the rural 
home of his honored 
father, John Adams, in 
Quincy, Massachusetts, 
July II, 1767. Hismother, 
a woman of exalted worth, 
watched over his childhood 
during the almost constant 
absence of his father. He 
commenced his education 
at the village school, giving 
at an early period indica- 
tions of superior mental en- 
dowments. 

When eleven years of age he sailed with 
his father for Europe, where the latter was 
associated with Franklin and Lee as Minister 
Plenipotentiarv. The intelligence of John 
Quincy attracted the attention of these men 
and received from them flattering marks of 
attention. Mr. Adams had scarcely returned 
to this country in 1779 ere he was again 
sent abroad, and John Quincy again accom- 
panied him. On this voyage he commenced 
a diary, which practice he continued, with 
but few interruptions, until his death. He 
journeyed with his father from Ferrol, in 
Spain, to Paris. Here he applied himself 
for six months to studv; then accompanied 



his father to Holland, where he entered, 
first a school in Amsterdam, and then the 
University of Leyden. In 1781, when onlv 
fourteen years of age, he was selected by 
Mr. Dana, our Minister to the Russian 
court, as his private secretary. In this 
school of incessant labor he spent fourteen 
months, and then returned alone to Holland 
through Sweden, Denmark, Hamburg and 
Bremen. Again he resumed his studies 
under a private tutor, at The Hague. 

In the spring of 1782 he accompanied his 
father to Paris, forming acquaintance with 
the most distinguished men on the Conti- 
nent. After a short visit to England, he re- 
turned to Paris and studied until May, 
17S5, when he returned to America, leav- 
ing his father an embassador at the court 
of St. James. In 1786 he entered the jun- 
ior class in Harvard University, and grad- 
uated with the second honor of his class. 
The oration he delivered on tliis occasion, 
the " Importance of Public Faith to the 
Well-being of a Community," was pub- 
lished — an event very rare in this or any 
other land. 

Upon leaving college at the age of twenty 
he studied law tliree years with tlie Hon. 
Theophilus Parsons in Newburyport. In 
1790 he opened a law office in Boston. The 
profession was crowded with able men, and 
the fees were small. The fiisr year he had 



i 




J, r . Au^ 



=^5 



!bi) 



IS 

i 

il 



pi; 
Si 



La; 



p 



no clients, but not a moment was lost. The 
second year passed away, still no clients, 
and still he was dependent upon his parents 
for support. An.xiously he awaited the 
third year. The reward now came. Cli- 
ents began to enter his office, and before 
the end of the year he was so crowded 
with business that all solicitude respecting 
a support was at an end. 

When Great Britain commenced war 
against France, in 1793, Mr. Adams wrote 
some articles, urging entire neutrality on 
the part of the United States. The view 
was not a popular one. Many felt that as 
France had helped us, we were bound to 
help France. But President Washington 
coincided with Mr. Adams, and issued his 
proclamation of neutralit}'. His writings 
at this time in the Boston journals gave 
him so high a reputation, that in June, 
1794, he was appointed by Washington 
resident Minister at the Netherlands. In 
July, 1797, he left The Hague to go to Port- 
ugal as Minister Plenipotentiary. Wash- 
ington at this time wrote to his father, John 
Adams: 

" Without intending to compliment the 
father or the mother, or to censure any 
others, I give it as my decided opinion, 
that Mr. Adams is the most valuable char- 
acter we have abroad; and there remains 
no doubt in my mind that he will prove the 
ablest of our diplomatic corps." 

On his way to Portugal, upon his arrival 
in London, he met with dispatches direct- 
ing him to the court of Berlin, but request- 
ing him to remain in London until he should 
receive instructions. While waiting he 
was married to Miss Louisa Catherine John- 
son, to whom he had been previously en- 
gaged. Miss Johnson was a daughter of 
Mr. Joshua Johnson, American Consul 
in London, and was a lady endowed with 
that beauty and those accomplishments 
which fitted her to m(n'e in the elevated 
sphcic for which she was destined. 



In July, 1799, having fulfilled all the pur- 
poses of his mission, Mr. Adams returned. 
In 1802 he was chosen to the Senate of 
Massachusetts from Boston, and then was 
elected Senator of the United States for six 
years from March 4, 1804. His reputation, 
his ability and his experience, placed him 
immediately among the most prominent 
and influential members of that body. He 
sustained the Government in its measures 
of resistance to the encroachments of Eng- 
land, destroying our commerce and insult- 
ing our flag. There was no man in America 
more familiar with the arrogance of the 
British court upon these points, and no 
one more resolved to present a firm resist- 
ance. This course, so trulv patriotic, and 
which scarcely a voice will now be found 
to condemn, alienated him from the Fed- 
eral party dominant in Boston, and sub- 
jected him to censure. 

• In 1805 Mr. Adams was chosen professor 
of rhetoric in Harvard College. His lect- 
ures at this place were subsequently pub- 
lished. In 1809 he was sent as Minister to 
Russia. He was one of the commissioners 
that negotiated the treaty of peace with 
Great Britain, signed December 24, 18 14, 
and he was appointed Minister to the court 
of St. James in 1815. In 1817 he became 
Secretary of State in Mr. Monroe's cabinet 
in which position he remained eight years. 
Few will now contradict the assertion that 
the duties of that office were never more 
ably discharged. Probably the most im- 
portant measure which Mr. Adams con- 
ducted was the purchase of Florida from 
Spain for §5,000.000. 

The campaign of 1S24 was an exciting 
one. Four candidates were in the field. 
Of the 260 electoral votes that were cast, 
Andicw Jackson received ninetv-nine; John 
Ouincy Adams, eighty-four; William H. 
Crawford, forty-one, and Henry Clay, 
thirty-seven. As there was no choice bv 
the people, the ([uestion went to the House 



p 



I 

ill 



;[«• 



of Representatives. Mr. Clav gave the 
vote of Kentucky to Mr. Adams, and he 
was elected. 

The friends of all disappointed candidates 
now combined in a venomous assault upon 
Mr. Adams. There is nothing more dis- 
graceful in the past history of our country 
than the abuse which was poured in one 
uninterrupted stream upon this high- 
minded, upright, patriotic man. There was 
never an administration more pure in prin- 
ciples, more conscientiously devoted to the 
best interests of the country, than that of 
John Quincy Adams; and never, perhaps, 
was there an administration more unscru- 
pulously assailed. Mr. Adams took his seat 
in the presidential chair resolved not to 
know any partisanship, but only to con- 
sult for the interests of the whole Republic, 

He refused to dismiss any man from of- 
fice for his political views. If he was a faith- 
ful officer that was enough. Bitter must 
have been his disappointment to find that the 
Nation could not appreciate such conduct. 

Mr. Adams, in his public manners, was 
cold and repulsive; though with his per- 
sonal friends he was at times very genial. 
This chilling address very seriously de- 
tracted from his popularity. No one can 
read an impartial record of his administra- 
tion without admitting that a more noble 
example of uncompromising dignity can 
scarcely be found. It was stated publicly 
that Mr. Adams' administration was to be 
put down, " though it be as pure as the an- 
gels which stand at the right hand of the 
throne of God." Many of the active par- 
ticipants in these scenes lived to regret the 
course the}' pursued. Some years after, 
Warren R. Davis, of South Carolina, turn- 
ing to iVIr. Adams, then a member of the 
House of Representatives, said: 

'■ Well do I remember the enthusiastic 
zeal with which we reproached the admin- 
istration of that gcntlcinan, and the ardor 
;'.n(l vehemence with which \vi' labored to 



UNITED S TA TES. 

bring in another. For the share I had in 
these transactions, and it was not a small 
one, I hope God will forgive inc, for I shall 
never forgive myself. 

March 4, 1S29, Mr. Adams retired from 
the Presidency and was succeeded by An- 
drew Jackson, the latter receiving 168 out 
of 261 electoral votes. John C. Calhoun 
was elected Vice-President. The slavery 
question now began to assume pretentious 
magnitude. Mr. Adams returned to 
Quincy, and pursued his studies with una- 
bated zeal. But he was not long permitted 
to remain in retirement. In November, 
1S30, he was elected to Congress. In this 
he recognized the principle that it is honor- 
able for the General of yesterday to act as 
Corporal to-day, if by so doing he can ren- 
der service to his country. Deep as are 
our obligations to John Quincy Adams for 
his services as embassador, as Secretar}- of 
State and as President; in his capacity as 
legislator in the House of Representa- 
tives, he conferred benefits upon our land 
which eclipsed all the rest, and which can 
never be over-estimated. 

For seventeen years, until his death, he 
occupied the post of Representative, tow- 
ering above all his peers, ever ready to do 
brave battle for freedom, and winning the 
title of " the old man eloquent." Upon 
taking his seat in the House he announced 
that he should hold himself bound to no 
party. He \yas usually the first in his 
place in the morning, and the last to leave 
his seat in the evening. Not a measure 
could escape his scrutiny. The battle 
which he fought, almost singly, against the 
pro-slavery party in the Government, was 
sublime in its moral daring and heroism. 
For persisting in presenting petitions for 
the abolition of slavery, he was threatened 
with indictment by the Grand Jury, with 
expulsion from the House, with assassina- 
tion; but no threats could intimidate him, 
and his final triumph was complete. 



ifat 



;u^Tars»S»nM-«. 






;rdj 



'6i 






1 



(is; 



I'J! 



■,»_a,a„!j^.i 



JOHN ^C/.VCr ADAMS. 



'^ 






On one occasion Mr. Adams presented a 
petition, signed by several women, against 
the annexation of Texas for the purpose of 
cutting it up into slave States. Mr. How- 
ard, of Maryland, said that these women 
discredited not only themselves, but their 
section of the country, by turning from 
their domestic duties to the conflicts of po- 
litical life. 

"Are Nvoiuen," exclaimed Mr. Adams, 
" to have no opinions or actions on subjects 
relating to the general welfare? Where 
did the gentleman get his principle? Did 
he find it in sacred histor}', — in the language 
of Mii-iam, the prophetess, in one of the 
noblest and sublime songs of triumph that 
ever met the human eye or ear? Did the 
gentleman never hear of Deborah, to whom 
the children of Israel came up for judg- 
ment ? Has he forgotten the deed of Jael, 
who slew the dreaded enemv of her coun- 
try ? Has he forgotten Esther, who, by her 
petition saved her people and her coun- 
try? 

" To go from sacred history to profane, 
does the gentleman there find it ' discredita- 
ble ' for women to take an interest in politi- 
cal affairs? Has he forgotten the Spartan 
mother, who said to her son when going 
out to battle, ' My son, come back to me 
ivitk thy shield, or upon thy shield ? ' Does 
he remember Cloelia and her hundred com- 
panions, who swam across the river uni^er 
a shower of darts, escaping from Porsena ? 
Has he forgotten Cornelia, the mother of 
the Gracchi? Does he not remember Por- 
tia, the wife of Brutus and the daughter of 
Cato ^ 

" To come to later periods, what says the 
history of our Anglo-Saxon ancestors? 
To say nothing of Boadicea, the British 
heroine in the time of the Cxsars, what 
name is more illustrious than that of Eliza- 
beth ? Or, if he will go to the continent, 
will he not find the names of Maria Theresa 
Ot Hungarv, of tlic- two Catherines of 




Prussia, and of Isabella of Castile, the pa- 
troness of Columbus ? Did she bring ' dis- 
credit ' on her sex by mingling in politics ? " 

In this glowing strain Mr. Adams si- 
lenced and overwheliued his antagonists. 

In January, 1842, Mr. Adams presented 
a petition from forty-five citizens of Haver- 
hill, Massachusetts, praying for a peaceable 
dissolution of the Union. The pro-slaverv 
party in Congress, who were then plotting 
the destruction of the Government, were 
aroused to a pretense of commotion such as 
even our stormy hall of legislation has 
rarely witnessed. They met in caucus, and, 
finding that they probably would not be 
able to expel Mr. Adams from the House 
drew up a series of resolutions, which, if 
adopted, would inflict upon him disgrace, 
equivalent to expulsion. Mr. Adams had 
presented the petition, which was most re- 
spectfully worded, and had moved that it be 
referred to a committee instructed to re- 
port an answer, showing the reason why 
the prayer ought not to be granted. 

It was the 25th of January. The whole 
body of the pro-slavery party came crowd- 
ing together in the House, prepared to 
crush Mr. Adams forever. One of the num- 
ber, Thomas F. Marshall, of Kentucky, was 
appointed to read the resolutions, which 
accused Mr. Adams of high treason, of 
having insulted the Government, and of 
meriting expulsion; but for which deserved 
punishment, the House, in its great mercy, 
would substitute its severest censure. With 
the assumption of a very solemn and mag- 
isterial air, there being breathless silence in 
the audience, Mr. Marshall hurled the care- 
fully prepared anathemas at his victim. 
Mr. Adams stood alone, the whole pro-sIav- 
ery party against him. 

As soon as the resolutions were read, 
every eye being fixeii upon him. that bold 
old man, whose scattered locks were whit- 
ened by seventy-five years, casting a wither- 
ing glance in the direction of his assailants. 






(rs 



'11 



m 



mi 



i 



ill a clear, shrill tone, tremulous with sup- 
pressed emotion, said: 

" In reply to this audacious, atrocious 
charge of high treason, I call for the read- 
ing of the first paragraph of the Declaration 
of Independence. Read it ! Read it! and 
sec what that says of the rights of a people 
to reform, to change, and to dissolve their 
Government.' 

The attitude, the manner, the tone, the 
words; the venerable old man, with flash- 
ing eye and flushed cheek, and whose very 
form seemed to expand under the inspiration 
of the occasion — all presented a scene over- 
flowing in its sublimity. There was breath- 
less silence as that paragraph was read, in 
defense of whose principles our fathers had 
pledged their lives, their fortunes and their 
sacred honor. It was a proud hour to Mr. 
Adams as they were all compelled to listen 
to the words: 

" That, to secure these rights, govern- 
ments are instituted among men, deriving 
their just powers from the consent of the 
governed; and that whenever any form of 
government becomes destructive of those 
ends, it is the right of the people to alter or 
abolish it, and to institute new government, 
laying its foundations on such principles 
and organizing its powers in such form 
as shall seem most likely to effect their 
safety and happiness." 

That one sentence routed and baffled the 



foe. The heroic old man looked around 
upon the audience, and thundered out, 
" Read that again ! " It was again read. 
Then in a few tiery, logical words he stated 
his defense in terms which even prejudiced 
minds could not resist. His discomfited 
assailants made several attempts to rally. 
After a conflict of eleven days they gave 
up vanquished and their resolution was ig- 
nominiously laid upon the table. 

In January, 1846, when seventy-eight 
years of age, he took part in the great de- 
bate on the Oregon question, displaying 
intellectual vigor, and an extent and accu- 
racy of acquaintance with the subject that 
e.xxited great admiration. 

On the 2ist of February, 1848, he rose on 
the floor of Congress with a paper in his 
hand to address the Speaker. Suddenly 
he fell, stricken by paralysis, and was caught 
in the arms of those around him. For a 
time he was senseless and was conveyed 
to a sofa in the rotunda. With reviving 
consciousness he opened his eyes, looked 
calmly around and said, " T/iis is the end af 
earth." Then after a moment's pause, he 
added, " / am content." These were his last 
words, and he soon breathed his last, in the 
apartment beneath the dome of the capitol 
— the theater of his labors and his triumphs. 
In the language of hymnology, he "died at 
his post;" he " ceased at once to work and 
live." 



II 
m 



m 






'k 
si? 

i 



mi 

I 









%t 



i^-3.S:a.-?ls 




^, / 



--/^ ^ <^^<^ ^. /c:^ 



C' -e^fc^^z 



3P.^ 









"■»"'a"M^«J 



'-.."■j.g^J'jiJ-j.iT ^a^Tj; 



A.\D/iE\y JACKSON. 



'Mi 

;&3 



il|i 



1: 







XDREW JACKSON, 

the seventh President 

of the United States, 

iS29-'37, was born at 

9. «4iiii^-.sji3tAW» ''^^ Waxhavv Settle. 

«^|i8^ynif|teK£';&f nient, Union Coun- 

>^J|3wS* i-j^-^ t,^.^ j^Q^j[^ Carolina, 

March i6, 1767. His parents 
were Scotch-Irish, natives of 
Carrickfergus, who came to 
America in 1765, and settled 
on Twelve-Mile Creek, a trib- 
utary of the Catawba. His 
father, who was a poor farm 
laborer, died shortly before An- 
drew's birth, when his mother removed to 
Waxhaw, where some relatives resided. 

Few particulars of the childhood of Jack- 
son have been preserved. His education 
wasof the most limited kind, and he showed 
no fondness for books. He grew up to be a 
tall, lank boy, with coarse hair and freck- 
led cheeks, with bare feet dangling from 
trousers too short for him, verv fond of ath- 
letic sports, running, boxing and wrestling. 
He was generous ti) the younger and 
weaker boys, but very irascible ami over- 
bearing with his equals and superiors. He 
was profane — a vice in which he surpassed 
all other men. The character of his mother 




he revered; and it was not until after her 
death that his predominant vices gained 
full strength. 

In 1780, at the age of thirteen, Andrew, 
or Andy, as he was called, with his brother 
Robert, volunteered to serve in the Revo- 
lutionary forces under General Sumter, and 
was a witness of the latter's defeat at Hang- 
ing Rock. In the following year the 
brothers were made prisoners, and confined 
in Camden, experiencing brutal treatment 
from their captors, and being spectators of 
General Green's defeat at Hobkirk Hill. 
Through their mother's exertions the boys 
were exchanged while suffering from small- 
pox. In two days Robert was dead, and 
Andy apparently dying. The strength of 
his constitution triumphed, and he regained 
health and vigor. 

As he was getting better, his mother 
heard the cry of anguish from the prison- 
ers whom the Britisii held in Charleston, 
among whom were the sons of her sisters. 
She hastened to their relief, was attacked 
by fever, died and was buried where her 
grave could never be found. Thus Andrew 
Jackson, when fourteen years of age, was 
left alone in the world, without father, 
mother, sister or brother, and without one 
dollar which he conld call his own. He 






m 



'PJ! 

$ 



m 



•I' 



1; 

-i'a' 

'3l'. 

I <s/ 

jii; 



,a„B„«.. a,.«,^»^t 



I 



mi 
i 

m 



t 



m 



m 






PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



soon entered a saddler's shop, and labored 
diligently for six months. But gradually, 
as health returned, he became more and 
more a wild, reckless, lawless boy. He 
gambled, drank and was regarded as about 
the worst character that could be found. 

He now turned schoolmaster. He could 
teach the alphabet, perhaps the multiplica- 
tion table; and as he was a very bold boy, 
it is possible he might have ventured to 
teach a little writing. But he soon began to 
think of a profession and decided to study 
law. With a very slender purse, and on 
the back of a very fine horse, he set out 
for Salisbury, North Carolina, where he 
entered the law office of Mr. McCay. 
Here he remained two years, professedly 
studying law. He is still remembered in 
traditions of Salisburv, which say: 

" Andrew Jackson was the most roaring, 
rollicking, horse-racing, card-playing, mis- 
chievous fellow that ever lived in Salisbury. 
He did not trouble the law-books much." 

Andrew was now, at the age of twenty, 
a tall young man, being over six feet in 
height. He was slender, remarkably grace- 
ful and dignified in his manners, an exquis- 
ite horseman, and developed, amidst his 
loathesome profanity and multiform vices, a 
vein of rare magnanimity. His temper was 
fiery in the extreme; but it was said of him 
that no man knew better than Andrew 
Jackson when to get angry and when not. 

In 1786 he was admitted to the bar, and 
two years later removed to Nashville, 
in what was then the western district of 
North Carolina, with the appointment of so- 
licitor, or public prosecutor. It was an of- 
fice of little honor, small emolument and 
great peril. Few men could be found to 
accept it. 

And now Andrew Jackson commenced 
vigorously to practice law. It was an im- 
portant part of his business to collect debts. 
It required nerve. During the first seven 
vcars of his residence in those wilds he 



traversed the almost pathless forest between 
Nashville and Jonesborough, a distance of 
200 miles, twenty-two times. Hostile In- 
dians were constant!}' on the watch, and a 
man was liable at any moment to be shot 
down in his own field. Andrew Jackson 
was just the man for this service — a wild, 
daring, rough backwoodsman. Daily he 
made hair-breadth escapes. He seemed to 
bear a charmed life. Boldh', alone or with 
few companions, he traversed the forests, 
encountering all perils and triumphing 
over all. 

In 1790 Tennessee became a Territory, 
and Jackson was appointed, by President 
Washington, United States Attorney for 
the new district. In 1791 he married Mrs. 
Rachel Robards (daughter of Colonel John 
Donelson), whom he supposed to have been 
divorced in that year by an act of the Leg- 
islature of Virginia. Two years after this 
Mr. and Mrs. Jackson learned, to their 
great surprise, that iSIr. Robards had just 
obtained a divorce in one of the courts of 
Kentucky, and that the act of the Virginia 
Legislature was not final, but conditional. 
To remedy the irregularity as much as pos- 
sible, a new license was obtained and the 
marriage ceremony was again performed. 

It proved to be a marriage of rare felic- 
ity. Probably there never was a more 
affectionate union. However rough Mr. 
Jackson might have been abroad, he was 
always gentle and tender at home; and 
through all the vicissitudes of their lives, he 
treated iNIrs. Jackson with the most chival- 
ric attention. 

Under the circumstances it was not un- 
natural that the facts in the case of this 
marriage were so misrepresented by oppo- 
nents in the political campaigns a quarter 
or a century later as to become the basis 
of serious charges against Jackson's moral- 
ity which, however, have been satisfactorily 
attested by abundant evidence. 

Jackson was untiring in his duties as 



11 



r tmHSH52GiES3^StH5i5S2S5 



^i''-"^ -■'■"■"■»■' 



''^^"■■^'«-*^* 



.^m 



"■'■'■'"•''«■' 



I 
I 



[a5Hii5SSS3£55Si3HaSMH™H5!a555S 



H_ji„a«« 



fjypaJiaiW-M' 



.«nai«»ai^«i^s> 



K«raM«Mai Urn 



!«.a-£l_Ur. 



L'i 






AXDREW JACkSO.V. 



United States Attorney, which demanded 
frequent journeys through the wilderness 
and exposed him to Indian hostilities. He 
acquired considerable property in land, and 
obtained such influence as to be chosen 
a member of the convention which framed 
the Constitution for the new State of Ten- 
nessee, in 1796, and in that year was elected 
its first Representative in Congress. Albert 
Gallatin thus describes the first appearance 
of the Hon. Andrew Jackson in the House: 

"A tall, lank, uncouth-looking personage, 
with locks of hair hanging over his face and 
a cue down his back, tied with an eel skin; 
his dress singular, his manners and deport- 
ment those of a rough backwoodsman." 

Jackson was an earnest advocate of the 
Democratic party. Jefferson was his idol. 
He admired Bonaparte, loved France and 
hated England. x\s Mr. Jackson took his 
seat. General Washington, whose second 
term of office was just expiring, delivered 
his last speech to Congress. A committee 
drew up a complimentary address in reply. 
Andrew Jackson did not approve the ad- 
dress and was one of twelve who voted 
against it. 

Tennessee had fitted out an expedition 
against the Indians, contrary to the policy 
of the Government. A resolution was intro- 
duced that the National Government 
should pay the expenses. Jackson advo- 
cated it and it was carried. This rendered 
him very popular in Tennessee. A va- 
cancy chanced soon after to occur in the 
Senate, and Andrew Jackson was chosen 
United States Senator by the State of Ten- 
nessee. John Adams was then President 
and Thomas Jefferson, Vice-President. 

In 179S Ml-. Jackson returned to Tennes- 
see, and resigned his scat in the Senate. 
Soon after he was chosen Jiii-lge of the Su- 
preme Court of that State, with a salary of 
S600. This office he held six years. It is 
said that his decisions, though sometimes 
ungrammatical, were generally right. He 



did not enjoy his seat upon the bench, and 
renounced the dignity in 1804. About 
this time he was chosen Major-General of 
militia, and lost the title of judge in that of 
General. 

When he retired from the Senate Cham- 
ber, he decided to try his fortune through 
trade. He purchased a stock of goods in 
Philadelphia and sent them to Nashville, 
where he opened a store. He lived about 
thirteen miles from Nashville, on a tract of 
land of several thousand acres, mostly un- 
cultivated. He used a small block-house 
for a store, from a narrow window of 
which he sold goods to the Indians. As he 
had an assistant his office as judge did not 
materially interfere with his business. 

As to slavery, born in the midst of it. the 
idea never seemed to enter his mind that it 
could be wrong. He eventually became 
an extensive slave owner, but he was one of 
the most humane and gentle of masters. 

In 1804 Mr. Jackson withdrew from pol- 
itics and settled on a plantation which he 
called the Hermitage, near Nashville. He 
set up a cotton-gin, formed a partnership 
and traded in New Orleans, making the 
voyage on flatboats. Through his hot tem- 
per he became involved in several quarrels 
and "affairs of honor," during this period, 
in one of which he was severely wounded, 
but had the misfortune to kill his opponent, 
Charles Dickinson. For a time this affair 
greatly injured General Jackson's popular- 
ity. The verdict then was, and continues 
to be, that General Jackson was outra- 
geously wrong. If hesubsequently felt any 
remorse he never revealed it to anyone. 

In 1805 Aaron Burr had visited Nash- 
ville and been a guest of Jackson, with 
whom he corresponded on the subject of a 
war with Spain, which was anticipated and 
desired by them, as well as by the people 
of the Southwest generally. 

Burr repeated his visit in September, 
1806, when he engaged in the celebrated 



J 



tsS'.si^.a.i^ii 



,:i/™a_-ji,,'*» 



J a^„jaCT«t.it~*«.s'» '"'-^"<n Jig" =«»■«•' 



■ •«i»*pqJ»» Jgi^t^ *««'«« q 



PnBJIDE.VTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 






m 



^ 
t 






i 



S: 



combinations wliich led to his trial for trea- 
son. He was warmly received by Jackson, 
at whose instance a public ball was given 
in his honor at Nashville, and contracted 
with the latter for boats and provisions. 
Early in 1S07, when Burr had been pro- 
claimed a traitor by President Jefferson, 
volunteer forces for the Federal service 
were organized at Nashville under Jack- 
son's command; but his energy and activ- 
ity did not shield him from suspicions of 
connivance in the supposed treason. He 
was summoned to Richmond as a witness 
in Burr's trial, but was not called to the 
stand, probably because he was out-spoken 
in his partisanship. 

On the outbreak of the war with Great 
Britain in 1S12, Jackson tendered his serv- 
ices, and in January, 1813, embarked for 
New Orleans at the head of the Tennessee 
contingent. In March he received an or- 
der to disband his forces; but in Septem- 
ber he again took the field, in the Creek 
war, and in conjunction with his former 
partner, Colonel Coffee, inflicted upon the 
Indians the memorable defeat at Talladega, 
Emuckfaw and Tallapoosa. 

In Ma}-, 1814, Jackson, who had now ac- 
quired a national reputation, was appointed 
a Major-General of the United States army, 
and commenced a campaign against the 
British in Florida. He conducted the de- 
fense at Mobile, September 15, seized upon 
Pensacola, November 6, and immediately 
transported the bulk of his troops to New 
Orleans, then threatened by a powerful 
naval force. Martial law was declared in 
Louisiana, the State militia was called to 
arms, engagements with the British were 
fought December 23 and 2S, and after re-en- 
forccments had been received on both sides 
the famous victory of January S, 1S15, 
crowned Jackson's fame as a soldier, and 
made him the typical American hero c,[ 
the first half of the nineteenth century. 

In iSi/-'!.? Jackson conriucted the war 



against the Seminoles of Florida, during 
which he seized upon Pensacola and exe- 
cuted by courtmartial two British subjects, 

Arbuthnot and Ambrister acts which 

might easily have involved the United 
States in war both with Spain and Great 
Britain. Fortunately the peril was averted 
by the cession of Florida to the United 
States; and Jackson, who had escaped a 
trial for the irregularity of his conduct 
only through a division of opinion in Mon- 
roe's cabinet, was appointed in 1S21 Gov- 
ernor of the new Territory. Soon after he 
declined the appointment of minister to 
Mexico. 

In 1823 Jackson was elected to the United 
States Senate, and nominated by the Ten- 
nessee Legislature for the Presidency. This 
candidacy, though a matter of surprise, and 
eyen merryment, speedily became popular, 
and in 1824, when the stormy electoral can- 
vas resulted in the choice of John Quincy 
Adams by the House of Representatives, 
General Jackson received the largest popu- 
lar vote among the four candidates. 

In I S28 Jackson was triumphantly elected 
President over Adams after a campaign of 
unparalleled bitterness. He was inaugu- 
rated March 4, 1829, and at once removed 
from ofHce all the incumbents belonging to 
the opposite party — a procedure new to 
American politics, but which naturalh' be- 
came a precedent. 

His first term was characterized by quar- 
rels between the Vice-President, Calhoun, 
and the Secretary of State, Van Buren, at- 
tended by a cabinet crisis originating in 
scandals connected with the name of Mrs. 
General Eaton, wife of the Secretary of 
War; by the beginning of his war upon the 
United States Bank, and bv his vigorous 
action against the partisans of Calhoun, 
who, in South Carolina, threatened to 
nuUifv the acts of Congress, establishing a 
protective tariff. 

In the Presidential campaig-u of iS;2 




n. 



'Mt 






31 




m 



f 

i 

'I 



I 
ii 






Jackson received 219 out of 288 electoral 
votes, his competitor being Mr. Clay, while 
Mr. Wirt, on an Anti-Masonic platform, 
received the vote of Vermont alone. In 
1S33 President Jackson lemoved the Gov- 
ernment deposits from the United States 
bank, thereby incurring a vote of censure 
from the Senate, which was, however, ex- 
punged fouryears later. Duringthis second 
term of office the Cherokees, Choctaws and 
Creeks were removed, not without diffi- 
culty, from Georgia, Alabama and Missis- 
sippi, to the Indian Territory; the National 
debt was extinguished; Arkansas and 
Michigan were admitted as States to the 
CJnion; the Seminole war was renewed; the 
anti-slavery agitation first acquired impor- 
tance; the Mormon delusion, which had 
organized in 1829, attained considerable 
proportions in Ohio and Missouri, and the 
country experienced its greatest pecuniary 
panic. 

Railroads with locomotive propulsion 
were introduced into America during Jack- 
son's first term, and had become an impor- 
tant element of national life before the 
close of his second term. For many rea- 
sons, therefore, the administration of Presi- 
dent Jackson formed an era in American 
history, political, social and industrial. 
He succeeded in effectin£r the election of 



his friend Van Buren as his successor, re- 
tired from the Presidency March 4, 1837, 
and led a tranquil life at the Hermitage 
until his death, which occurred June 8, 
1845. ^ 

During his closing years he was a pro- 
fessed Christian and a member of the Pres- 
byterian church. No American of this 
century has been the subject of such oppo- 
site judgments. He was loved and hated 
with equal vehemence during his life, but 
at the present distance of time from his 
career, while opinions still vary as to the 
merits of his public acts, few of his country- 
men will question that he was a warm- 
hearted, brave, patriotic, honest and sincere 
man. If his distinguishing qualities were 
not such as constitute statesmanship, in the 
highest sense, he at least never pretended 
to other merits than such as were written 
to his credit on the page of American his- 
tory — not attempting to disguise the de- 
merits which were equally legible. The 
majority of his countrymen accepted and 
honored him, in spite of all that calumny 
as well as truth could allege against him. 
His faults may therefore be truly said to 
have been those of his time; his magnifi- 
cent virtues may also, with the same jus- 
tice, be considered as typical of a state of 
society which has nearly passed away. 









m 






4i 



M 



il?S 



ili 



11 
Si 






PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 




j ^J 



5fJ2j^Vg*!<CbSV<iV2!l2i: 



'i£^^iV2!^^^^S!^ 



g-^ i 



K- \\ -V -T-WTrT; iSEii^ 



a£;;^.\.\.A^'\-^X^£S^-\-^-\£\'i!i:'S3S 



>(Dai^tin Uan Bai^EN.^4-^ 



i!^,i^ij^i^^li^i^^ 






SS'tsS'iSS'iSiSSffS 



gaaa^gsB^i 



«j)*'iii<sSi'!Sit^<^a«iei<s§i=^ 




'^5^'f 



• Slj 




>^ ART IN VAN BU- 
REN, the eighth 
m President of the 
United States, 1837- 
41, was born at Kin- 
r derhook, New York, 
December 5, 1782. 
His ancestors were of Dutch 
origin, and were among the 
earliest emigrants from Hol- 
land to the banks of the 
Hudson. His father was a 
tavern-keeper, as well as a 
farmer, and a very decided 
Democrat. 
* • Martin commenced the study 
of law at the age of fourteen, and took an 
active part in politics before he had reached 
the age of twentv. In 1803 he commenced 
the practice of law in his native village. 
In 1809 he removed to Hudson, the shire 
town of his countv, where he spent seven 
3-cars, gaining strength by contending in 
the courts with some of the ablest men 
who have adorned the bar of his State. 
The heroic example ol J(jhn Ouincy Adams 
in retaining in office every faithful man, 
without regard to his political preferences, 
had been thoroughly repudiated by Gen- 
eral Jackson. The unfortunate principle 
was now fully established, that "to the 
victor belong the spoils." Still, this prin- 
ciple, to ^vhich Mr. Van Burcn gave his ad- 



herence, was not devoid of inconveniences. 
When, subsequently, he attained power 
which placed vast patronage in his hands, 
he was heard to say : " I prefer an office 
that has no patronage. When I give a man 
an office I offend his disappointed competi- 
tors and their friends. Nor am I certain of 
gaining a friend in the man I appoint, for, 
in all probability, he expected something 
better." 

In 1812 Mr. Van Buren was elected to 
the State Senate. In 18 15 he was appointed 
Attorney-General, and in 18 16 to the Senate 
a second time. In 1818 there was a great 
split in the Democratic party in New York, 
and Mr. Van Buren took the lead in or- 
ganizing that portion of the party called 
the Albany Regency, which is said to have 
swaved the destinies of the State for a 
quarter of a century. 

In 1 82 1 he was chosen a member of the 
convention for revising the State Constitu- 
tion, in which he advocated an extension of 
the franchise, but opposed universal suf- 
frage, and also favored the proposal that 
colored persons, in order to vote, should 
have freehold property to the amount of 
S250. In this year he was also elected to 
the United States Senate, and at the con- 
clusion of his term, in 1S27, was re-elected, 
but resigned the following 3-ear, having 
been chosen Governor of the State. In 
March, 1829, he was appointed Secretary of 






m 

m 

mi 
.3,; 

'■hi 



m 

ml 

'fl' 

M 







7 ? -Z^^^/-^ 



■y <>cc.^^. 



'■Ha»s'<B^'E 






** i W^"Sl'^'M-^*^'^^'*Kl'*g 



.»„[JoJi^» i„J„U_»,J_». 



MARTIN VAN BUR EN. 



55 



!^|) 



State by President Jackson, but resigned 
in April, 183 1, and during the recess of 
Congress was appointed minister to Eng- 
land, whither he proceeded in September, 
bat the Senate, when convened in Decem- 
ber, refused to ratify the appointment. 

In iVIay, 1832, Mr. Van Buren was nomi- 
nated as the Democratic candidate for Vice- 
President, and elected in the following 
November. May 26, 1836, he received the 
nomination to succeed General Jackson as 
President, and received 170 electoral votes, 
out of 283. 

Scarcely had he taken his seat in the 
Presidential chair when a financial panic 
swept over the land. Many attributed 
this to the war which General Jackson had 
waged on the banks, and to his endeavor to 
secure an almost exclusive specie currency. 
Nearly every bank in the country was com- 
pelled to suspend specie payment, and ruin 
pervaded all our great cities. Not less than 
254 houses failed in New York in one week. 
All public works were brought to a stand, 
and there was a general state of dismay. 
President Van Buren urged the adoption of 
the independent treasury system, which 
was twice passed in the Senate and defeated 
in the House, but finally became a law near 
the close of his rxlm:ni;tration. 

Another important measure was the pass- 
age of a pre-emption law, giving actual set- 
tlers the preference in the purchase of 
public lands. The question of slavery, also, 
now began to assimie great prominence in 
national politics, and after an elaborate 
anti-slavery speech bv Mr. Slade, of Ver- 
mont, in the House of Representatives, the 
Southern members withdrew for a separate 
consultation, at which Mr. Rhctt, of Soutli 
Carolina, proposed to declare it expedient 
that the Union should be dissolved ; but 
the matter was tilled o\cr bv the passage 
of a resolution that no petitions or papers 
relaliiig to slavery should be in an_\- way 
considered or acted upon. 



In the Presidential election of 1S40 Mr. 
Van Buren was nominated, without opposi- 
tion, as the Democratic candidate, William 
H. Harrison being the candidate of the 
Whig party. The Democrats carried only 
seven States, and out of 294 electoral votes 
only sixtv were for iSIr. Van Buren, the re- 
maining 234 being for his opponent. The 
Whig popular majority, however, was not 
large, the elections in many of the States 
being very close. 

March 4, 1841, Mr. Van Buren retired 
from the Presidency. From his fine estate 
at Lindenwald he still exerted a powerful 
influence upon the politics of the country. 
In 1844 he was again proposed as the 
Democratic candidate for the Presidency, 
and a majority of the delegates of the 
nominating convention were in his favor ; 
but, owing to his opposition to the pro- 
posed annexation of Texas, he could not 
secure the requisite two-thirds vote. His 
name was at length withdrawn by his 
friends, and Mr. Polk received the nomina- 
tion, and was elected. 

In 1848 Mr. Cass was the regular Demo- 
cratic candidate. A schism, however, 
sprang up in the party, upon the question 
of the permission of slavery in the newly- 
acquired territory, and a portion of the 
party, taking the name of " Free-Soilers," 
nominated Mr. Van Buren. They drevv* 
away sufificient votes to secure the election 
of General Taylor, the Whig candidate. 
After this Mr. Van Buren retired to his es- 
tate at Kinderhook, where the remainder 
of his life was passed, with the exception of 
a European tour in 1S53. He died at 
Kinderhook, July 24, 1S62, at the age of 
eighty years. 

Martin Van Buren was a great and good 
man, and no one will question his right to 
a high position among those who have 
been the successors nf Wasliin^;ton in the 
faithful occupancv of tlie Presidential 
chair. 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



m 



=''a"-w-a-a"-'-a-- 



ii 







■,\ji 



s 



f'' 
m 

I 



< 




LLIAM HENRY 
HARRISON, the 
ninth President of 
the United States, 
I S4 I, was born 
February 9, 1773, 
m Charles County, 
Virginia, at Berkeley, the resi- 
dence of his father, Governor 
Benjamin Harrison. He studied 
at Hampden, Sidney College, 
with a view of entering the med- 
ical profession. After graduation 
he went to Philadelphia to study 
medicine under the instruction of 
Dr. Rush. 
George Washington was then President 
if the United States. The Indians were 
committing fearful ravages on our North- 
western frontier. Young Harrison, either 
lured by the love of adventure, or moved 
by the sufferings of families exposed to the 
most horrible outrages, abandoned his med- 
ical studies and entered the army, having 
obtained a commission of ensign from Pres- 
ident Washington. The first duty assigned 
him was to take a train of pack-horses 
bound to Fort Hamilton, on the Miami 
River, about forty miles from Fort Wash- 
ington. He was soon promoted to the 



rank of Lieutenant, and joined the armv 
which Washington had placed under the 
command of General Wayne to prosecute 
more vigorously the war with the In- 
dians. Lieutenant Harrison received great 
commendation from his commanding offi- 
cer, and was promoted to the rank of 
Captain, and placed in command at Fort 
Washington, now Cincmnati, Ohio. 

About this time he married a daughter 
of John Cleves Symmes, one of the fron- 
tiersmen who had established a thriving 
settlement on the bank of the Maumee. 

In 1797 Captain Harrison resigned his 
commission in the army and was appointed 
Secretary of the Northwest Territory, and 
ex-officio Lieutenant-Governor, General St. 
Clair being then Governor of the Territory. 
At that time the law in reference to the 
disposal of the public lands was such that 
no one could purchase in tracts less than 
4,000 acres. Captain Harrison, in the 
face of violent opposition, succeeded in 
obtaining so much of a modification of 
this unjust law that the land was sold in 
alternate tracts of 640 and 320 acres. The 
Northwest Territory was then entitled 
to one delegate in Congress, and Cap- 
tain Harrison was chosen to fill that of- 
fice. In iSoo he was appointed Governor 






jalJ 




u^\ /f /ya 



i5«aS5SaSS3i 



a»5?='5^S^ 



aJ^ai^sRi 



j^^(ia^B».'g^j>a< »,.m»a^aii.3„jjj,ji..je.; Mj^j. 



.([ai 



;&! 



Ml 



m 



WILLIAM HENRT HAURISOX. 



S() 



of Indiana Territory and soon after of 
Upper Louisiana. He was also Superin- 
tendent of Indian Aflairs, and so well did he 
fulfill these duties that he was four times 
appointed to this office. During his admin- 
istration he effected thirteen treaties with 
the Indians, by which the United States 
acquired 60,000,000 acres of land. In 1804 
he obtained a cession from the Indians of 
all the land between the Illinois River and 
the Mississippi. 

In 1S12 he was made Major-General of 
Kentucky militia and Brigadier-General 
in the arrav, with the command of the 
Northwest frontier. In 1813 he was made 
Major-General, and as such won much re- 



North Bend, Hamilton County, Ohio, six- 
teen miles below Cincinnati, where for 
twelve years he was clerk of the Countv 
Court. He once owned a distillery, but 
perceiving the sad effects of whisky upon 
tlie surrounding population, he promptly' 
abandoned his business at great pecuniary 
sacrifice. 

In 1836 General Harrison was brought 
forward as a candidate for the Presidency. 
Van Buren was the administration candi- 
date; the opposite party could not unite, 
and four candidates were brought forward. 
General Harrison received seventy-three 
electoral votes without any general concert 
among his friends. The Democratic party 



.vn by the defense of Fort Meigs, and the triumphed and Mr. Van Buren was chosen 



battle of the Thames, Octobers, 1813. In 
1S14 he left the army and was employed in 
■ Indian affairs b}' the Government. 

In 1S16 General Harrison was chosen a 
member of the National House of Repre- 
sentatives to represent the district of Ohio. 
In the contest which preceded his election 
he was accused of corruption in respect to 
the commissariat of the army. Immedi- 
ately upon taking his seat, he called for an 
investigation of the charge. A committee 
was appointed, and his vindication was 
triumphant. A high compliment was paid 
to his patriotism, disinterestedness and 
devotion to the public service. For these 
services a gold medal was presented to him 
with the thanks of Congress. 

In I S 19 he was elected to the Senate of 
Ohio, and in 1824, as one of the Presiden- 
tial electors of that State, he gave his vote 
to Henry Clay. In the same year he was 
elected to the Senate of the United States. 
In 1828 he was appointed by President 
Adams minister plenipotentiary to Colom- ■ 
bia, but was rccalli-d by General Jackson | 
immediately after the inauguration of the 
latter. I 

Upon his return to the United States, 
General Harrison retired to his farm at ' 



President. In 1839 General Harrison was 
again nominated for the Presidency by the 
Whigs, at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Mr. 
Van Buren being the Democratic candi- 
date. General Harrison received 234 elec- 
toral votes against sixty for his opponent. 
This election is memorable chiefly for the 
then extraordinary means employed during 
the canvass for popular votes. Mass meet- 
ings and processions were introduced, and 
the watchwords "log cabin" and "hard 
cider" were effectually used by the Whigs, 
and aroused a popular enthusiasm. 

A vast concourse of people attended his 
inaugurati(3n. His address on that occasion 
was in accordance with his antecedents, and 
gave great satisfaction. A short time after he 
took his seat, he was seized by a pleurisy- 
fever, and after a few days of violent sick- 
ness, died April 4. just ona short month after 
his inauguration. His death was universally 
regarded as one oi the greatest of National 
calamities. Never, since the death of 
Washington, were there, throughout one 
land, such demonstrations of sorrow. Not 
one single spot can be found to sully his 
fame; and through all ages Americans will 
pronounce with love and reverence the 
name f)f William Henry Harrison. 






\%-, 



W. 



m 



n 

% 
I 

I 



,a,aWM*«i ™ 'ai g^^ *^*^ 



a«^vU«.S7«,9BJx 



■j- g -a-a- 



PRES/DE.VT3 OF THE UNITED STATES. 










^'ii^lS-^" ^j ^l l^^^S^ ^^S S--l-^-y ' 



i^' 



ii 




^^ 



^'^^5,^,/OHX TYLER, the tenth 
President of the United 
States, was born in 
Charles City County, 
Virginia, March 29, 1790. 
His father. Judge John 
Tyler, possessed large 
landed estates in Virginia, 
and was one of the most 
distinguished men of his 
day, filling the offices of 
Speaker of the House of 
Delegates, Judge of the Su- 
preme Court and Governor 
of the State. 
"^ At the early age of twelve 
yovnig John entered William and Mar}- 
College, and graduated with honor when 
but seventeen years old. He then closely 
applied himself to the study of law, and at 
nineteen years of age commenced the prac- 
tice of his profession. When only twenty- 
one he was elected to a seat in the State 
Legislature. He acted with the Demo- 
cratic party and advocated the measures of 
Jefferson and Madison. I-'or five years he 
was elected to the Legislature, receiving 
ncarlv the unanimous V(3te of his county. 

When but tv.-enty-si.\ years of age he was 
elected a member of Congiess. He advo- 
catcil a strict construction of the Constitu- 
tion and the most careful vigilance over 



State rights. He was soon compelled to 
resign his seat in Congress, owing to ill 
health, but afterward took his seat in the 
State Legislature, where he exerted a 
powerful influence in promoting public 
works of great utility. 

In 1825 Mr. Tyler was chosen Governor 
of his State — a high honor, for Virginia 
had many able men as competitors for 
the prize. His administration was signally 
a successful one. He urged forward inter- 
nal improvements and strove to remove 
sectional jealousies. His popularity secured 
his re-election. In 1827 he was elected 
United States Senator, and upon taking his 
seat joined the ranks of the opposition. He 
opposed the tariff, voted against the bank 
as unconstitutional, opposed all restrictions 
upon slavery, resisted all projects of inter- 
nal improvements by the General Govern- 
ment, avowed his sympathy with Mr. Cal- 
houn's views of nullification, and declared 
that General Jackson, by his opposition to 
the nullifiers, had abandoned the principles 
of the Democratic part\\ Such was Mr. 
Tvler's record in Congress. 

This hostility to Jackson caused Mr. 
Tyler's retirement tn^m the Senate, after 
his electi(5n to a second term. He soon 
after removed to Williamsburg for the 
better education of his children, and again 
took his scat in the Leo-islature. 










\.'(nu/"i M. 



2' /' 



■ -■«°~'°'"-— ■'-"■n-'«»'---*I 



^^1 



JOHN TTLER. 



■ "■■'■■- "■■■"'^ 



63 



i^a1 



'a 



(as 



3 



(&S 



(i1 



I 



([ai 



111 1839 he was sent to the National Con- 
vention at Harrisburg- to nominate a Presi- 
dent. General Harrison received a majority 
of votes, much to the disappointment of the 
South, who had wished for Henry Clay. 
In (jrder to conciliate the Southern Whigs, 
John Tyler was nominated for Vice-Presi- 
dent. Harrison and Tyler were inaugu- 
rated March 4, 1S41. In one short month 
from that time President Harrison died, 
and Mr. Tyler, to his own surprise as well 
as that of the nation, found himself an 
occupant of the Presidential chair. His 
position was an exceedingly difficult one, 
as he was opposed to the main principles of 
the party which had brought him into 
power. General Harrison had selected a 
Whig cabinet. Should he retain them, and 
thus surround himself with councilors 
whose views were antagonistic to his own? 
or should he turn against the party that 
had elected him, and select a cabinet in 
harmony with himself? This was his fear- 
ful dilemma. 

President Tyler deserves more charity 
than he has received. He issued an address 
to the people, which gave general satisfac- 
tion. He retained the cabinet General 
Harrison had selected. His veto of a bill 
chartering a new national bank led to an 
open quarrel with the party which elected 
him, and to a resignation of the entire 
cabinet, except Daniel Webster. Secretary 
of State. 

President Tyler attempted to conciliate. 
He appointed a new cabinet, leaving out all 
strong party men, but the Whig members 
of Congress were not satisfied, and they 
published a manifesto September 13, break- 
ing off all political relations. The Demo- 
crats had a majority in the House; the 
Whigs in the Senate. Mi'. Webster soon 
found it neccssar\' to rcsii;;-n, being forced 
out by the pressure of his XVhig friends. 

April \2, 1S44, President Tyler concluded, 
through Mr. Calhoim, a treaty for the an- 



nexation ot Texas, which was rejected by 
the Senate ; but he effected his object in the 
closing days of his administration by the 
passage of the joint resolution of March I 
1845- 

He was nominated for the Presidency b)' 
an informal Democratic Convention, held 
at Baltimore in May, 1844, but soon with- 
drew from the canvass, perceiving that he 
had not gained the confidence of the Demo- 
crats at large. 

Mr. Tyler's administration was particu- 
larly unfortunate. No one was satisfied. 
Whigs and Democrats alike assailed him. 
Situated as he was, it is more than can 
be expected of human nature that he 
should, in all cases, have acted in the wisest 
manner; but it will probably be the verdict 
of all candid men, in a careful review of his 
career, that John Tyler was placed in a 
position of such difficulty that he could not 
pursue an}- course which would not expose 
him to severe censure and denunciation. 

In 18 1 3 Mr. Tyler married Letitia Chris- 
tian, who bore him three sons and three 
daughters, and died in Washington in 1S42. 
June 26, 1844, he contracted a second mar- 
riage with Miss Julia Gardner, of New 
York. He lived in almost complete retire- 
ment from politics until February, 1861, 
when he was a member of the abortive 
"peace convention," held at Washington, 
and was chosen its President. Soon after 
he renounced his allegiance to the United 
States and was elected to the Confederate 
Congress. He died at Richmond, January 
17, 1S62, after a short illness. 

Unfortunately for his memory the name 
of John Tyler must forever be associated 
with all the misery of that terrible Re- 
bellion, whose cause he openly espoused. 
It is with sorrow that historv records that 
a President of the United States died while 
defending the flag of rebellion, which was 
arrayed against the national banner in 
deadly warfare. 



% 






IS' 



P- 



■■"M-'a 



x_j„ai5, 



aU„S„J_^. 



■jgiJ=f3a.-ga^ajaraia..J^M^ j„g,i.M.^a-.a 



"^^^••''a^'r^ 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 









L.^xf 





'AMES KNOX POLK, 
the eleventh President of 
the United States, 1845- 
'49, was born in Meck- 
lenburg County, North 
Carolina, November 2, 
1795. He was the eldest 
son of a family of six sons 
and four daughters, and was 
- a grand-nephew of Colonel 
Thomas Polk, celebrated in 
'' connection with the Meck- 
lenburg Declaration of In- 
dependence. 

In 1S06 his father, Samuel 
Polk, emigrated with his fam- 
ily- two or three hundred miles west to the 
valley of the Duck River. He was a sur- 
veyor as well as farmer, and gradually in- 
creased in wealth until he became one of 
the leading men of the region. 

In the common schools James rapidiv be- 
came proficient in all the common branches 
of an English education. In 1S13 he was 
sent to Murfreesboro Academy, and in the 
autumn of 1815 entered the sophomore class 
in the University of North Carolina, at 
Chapel Hill, graduating in iSiS. After a 
short season of recreation he went to Nash- 
ville and entered the law office of Felix 
Grundy. As soon as he had his finished 



legal studies and been admitted to the bar, 
he returned to Columbia, the shire town of 
Maury County, and opened an office. 

James K. Polk ever adhered to the polit- 
ical faith of his father, which was that of 
a Jeffersonian Republican. In 1S23 he was 
elected to the Legislature of Tennessee. As 
a " strict constructionist," he did not think 
that the Constitution empowered the Gen- 
eral Government to carr^- on a sj'Stem of 
internal improvements in the States, but 
deemed it important that it should have 
that power, and wished the Constitution 
amended that it might be conferred. Sub- 
sequently, however, he became alarmed lest 
the General Government become so strong 
as to undertake to interfere with slaver v. 
He therefore gave all his influence to 
strengthen the State governments, and to 
check the growth of the central power. 

In January, 1824, Mr. Polk married Miss 
Mary Childress, of Rutherford County, Ten- 
nessee. Had some one then whispered to 
him that he was destined to become Presi- 
dent of the United States, and that he must 
select for his companion one who would 
adorn that distinguished station, he could 
not have made a more fitting choice. She 
was truly a lady of rare beauty and culture. 

In the fall of 1 82 5 Mr. Polk was chosen 
a member of Conc^ress, and was continu- 



m 






;ai' 

i 






J^in^JT.J.a' 




^ 



OC- "-^- 











?,a-. 
-si: 
'.Hi 


^AWES A'. POLK. 67 'SJ 



' J- 

% 

% 
I 



ii 

ifs' 

i 

Is 






m 
k 



ously re-elected until 1S39. He then with- 
drew, only that he might accept the 
gubernatorial chair of his native State. 
He was a warm friend of General Jackson, 
v/ho had been defeated in the electoral 
contest by John Quincy Adams. This 
latter gentleman had just taken his seat in 
the Presidential chair when Mr. Polk took 
his seat in the House of Representatives. 
He immediately united himself with the 
opponents of Mr. Adams, and was soon 
regarded as the leader of the Jackson party 
in the House. 

The four years of Mr. Adams' adminis- 
tration passed away, and General Jackson 
took ttie Presidential chair. Mr. Polk had 
now become a man of great influence in 
Congress, ana was chairman of its most 
important committee — that of Ways and 
Means. Eloquently he sustained General 
Jackson in all his measures — in his hostility 
to internal improvements, to the banks, and 
to the tariff. Eight years of General Jack- 
son's administration passed away, and the 
powers he had wielded passed into the 
hands of ^fartin Van Buren ; and still Mr. 
Polk remained in the House, the advocate 
of that type of Democracy which those 
distinguished men upheld. 

During five sessions of Congress Mr. 
Polk was speaker of the House. He per- 
formed his arduous duties to general satis- 
faction, and a unanimous vote of thanks to 
him was passed by the House as he with- 
drew, Afarch 4, 1839. He was elected 
Governor by a large majority, and took 
the oaih of office at Nashville, October 14, 
1839. He was a candidate for re-election 
in 1 84 1, but was defeated. In the mean- 
time a wonderful revolution had swept 
over the country. W. H. Harrison, the Whig 
candidate, had been called to the Presiden- 
tial chair, and in Tennessee the Whig ticket 
had been carried by over 12,000 majority. 
Under these circumstances Mr. Polk's suc- 
cess was hopeless. Still he canvassed the 



State with his Whig competitor, Mr. Jones, 
traveling in the most friendly manner to- 
gether, often in the same carriage, and at 
one time sleeping in the same bed. Mr. 
Jones was elected by 3.000 majority. 

And now the question of the anne.\ati(jn 
of Texas to ourcountr}' agitated the whole 
land. When this question became national 
Mr. Polk, as the avowed champion of an- 
nexation, became the Presidential candidate 
of the pro-slavery wing of the Democratic 
party, and George M. Dallas their candi- 
date for the Vice-Presidency. They were 
elected by a large majority, and were in- 
augurated March 4, 1845. 

President Polk formed an able cabinet, 
consisting of James Buchanan, Robert J. 
Walker, William L. Marcy, George Ban- 
croft, Cave Johnson and John Y. Mason. 
The Oregon boundar}- question was settled, 
the Department of the Interior was created, 
the low tariff ot 1846 was carried, the 
financial system of the Government was 
reorganized, the Mexican war was con- 
ducted, which resulted in the acquisition of 
California and New Mexico, and had far- 
reaching c<jnsequences upon the later fort- 
unes of the republic. Peace was made. 
We had wrested from Mexico territory 
equal to four times the empire of France, 
and five times that of Spain. In the prose- 
cution of this war we expended 20,000 
lives and more than $100,000,000. Of this 
money §15,000,000 were paid to Mexico. 

Declining to seek a renomination, Mr. 
Polk retired from the Presidency March 4, 
1S49, when he was succeeded by General 
Zachary Taylor. He retired to Nashville, 
and died there June [9, 1S49, '" t'le fifty- 
fourth year of his age. His funeral was at- 
tended the following day, in Nashville, with 
every demonstration of respect. He left 
no children. Without being possessed of 
extraordinary talent, Mr. Polk was a capable 
administrator of public affairs, and irre- 
proachable in private lil'e. 



11 



!L9 



,M„ia„iE.,x^Xa^„JM^u„Mr:rtr 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 




j@^rf.-^t?7^r,,>»)»y-Tin^r-;7«)rf;^:^gW£^^^^^^(-r.'i-r 



y ^^ i-\^jS:r^r^v7ri';^\'' 



g--F^^^^E5;ES- \-\- \- \\J^\K- \- '<1A.:C 



% S.^LsPH2il^'^ StM^-L©-Ea i 



2SSJSI5 



fS3:^^S3igsatf?>^^sa^:a!SSM 



m^ 



<Si?iSi?t^tSf<S^^i?(^^(M 



i)<£<Si'^<Sgl'^'^<^'^^ 




.,3^Mi 



m 




J^ •\CHARY T A Y- 
" LOR, the twelfth 
President of the 
United States, 
i849-'50, was born 
in Orange Count}', 
Virginia, Septem- 
17S4. His father, 
Richard Taylor, was Colo- 
nel of a Virginia regiment 
in the Revolutionary war, 
and removed to Kentucky 
in 1785; purchased a large 
plantation near Louisville 
ad became an influential cit- 
izen ; was a member of the convention tliat 
framed the Constitution of Kentucky ; served 
in both branches of the Legislature ; was 
Collector of the port of Louisville under 
President Washington; as a Presidential 
elector, voted for Jefferson, Madison, Mon- 
roe and Clav; died January 19,1829. 

Z.ichary remained on his father's planta- 
tion until iSoS. in which year (May 3) he 
was appointed First Lieutenant in the 
Seventh Infantry, to fill a vacancy oc- 
casioned by the death of his cider br(jther, 
Hanc(5ck. Up to this point he had received 
but a limited education. 

Joining his regiment at New Orleans, he 



was attacked with yellow fever, with nearly 
fatal termination. In November, 18 10, he 
was promoted to Captain, and in the sum- 
mer of 1812 he was in command of Fort 
Harrison, on the left bank of the Wabash 
River, near the present site of Terre Haute, 
his successful defense of which with but a 
handful of men against a large force of 
Indians which had attacked him was one of 
the first marked military achievements of 
the war. He was then brevetted Major, 
and in 1814 promoted to the full rank. 

During the remainder of the war Taylor 
was actively employed on the Western 
frontier. In the peace organization of 18 15 
he was retained as Captain, but soon after 
resigned and settled near Louisville. In 
JSIay, 1816, however, he re-entered the army 
as Major of the Third Infantry ; became 
Lieutenant-Colonel of the Eighth Infantry 
in 1 8 19, and in 1832 attained the Colonelcy 
of the First Infantry, of whicli he had been 
Lieutenant-Colonel since 1S21. On different 
occasions he had been called to Washington 
as member of a military board for organiz- 
ing the militia of the Union, and to aid the 
Government with his knowledge in the 
organization of the Indian Bureau, having 
for many years discharged the duties of 
Indian agent over large ti-acts of Western 



I 

n 

ill 
%\ 

!3 h 




~7^i,<:y/Cc3o^?-y/J^i^ - 



ilT a«ai..»tai»»J»,«..:g^a»«^g«.»» 



-K„J „.dl.aWa3agJ, 



ZACHART TAT LOR. 



'31' 
'&' 

ii 



i 




ii 


'.i' 


lii 

/9I< 



% 



'pj' 



ifS' 



;aj; 






(rail 



country. He served through the Black 
Hawk war in 1S32, and in 1S37 was ordered 
to take command in Florida, then the scene 
of war with the Indians. 

In 1846 he was transferred to the com- 
mand oi the Army of the Southwest, from 
which he was relieved the same3'ear at his 
own request. Subsequently he was sta- 
tioned on the Arkansas frontier at Forts 
Gibbon, Smith and Jesup, which latter work 
had been built under his direction in 1S22. 

May 28, 184:5, he received a dispatch from 
the Secretary of War informing him of the 
receipt of information by the. President 
."that Texas would shortly accede to the 
terms of annexation," in which event he 
was instructed to defend ami protect her 
from " foreign invasion and Indian incur- 
sions." He proceeded, upon the annexation 
of Texas, with about 1,500 men to Corpus 
Christi, where his force was increased to 
some 4,000. 

Taylor was brevetted Major-General May 
28, and a month later, June 29, 1S46, his full 
commission to that grade was issued. After 
needed rest and reinforcement, he advanced 
in September on Monterey, which city ca- 
pitulated after three-days stubborn resist- 
ance. Here he took up his winter quarters. 
The plan for the invasion of Mexico, by 
way of Vera Cruz, with General Scott in 
command, was now determined upon by 
the Govenrment, and at the moment Taylor 
was about to resume active operations, he 
received orders to send the larger part of 
his force to reinforce the army of General 
Scott at Vera Cruz. Though subsequently- 
reinforced by raw recruits, yet after pro- 
viding a garrison for Monterey and Saltillo 
he had but about 5,300 effective troops, of 
which but 500 or 600 were regulars. In 
this weakened condition, however, he was 
destined to achieve his greatest victory. 
Confidently relying upon his strength at 
Vera Cruz to resist the enemy for a long 
time, S.uita Anna directed his entire armv 



against Taylor to overwhelm him, and then 
to return to oppose the advance of Scott's 
more formidable invasion. The battle of 
Buena Vista was fought February 22 and 
23, 1847. Taylor received the thanks of 
Congress and a gold medal, and " Old 
Rough and Ready," the sobriquet given 
him in the army, became a household word. 
He remained in quiet possession of the 
Rio Grande Valley until November, when 
he returned to the United States. 

In the Whig convention which met at 
Philadelphia, June 7, 1848, Taylor was nomi- 
nated on the fourth ballot as candidate of 
the Whig party for President, over Henry 
Clay, General Scott and Daniel Webster. 
In November Taylor received a majority 
of electoral votes, and a popular vote of 
1,360,752, against 1,219,962 for Cass and 
Butler, and 291,342 for Van Buren and 
Adams. General Taylor was inaugurated 
March 4, 1849. 

The free and slave States being then equal 
in number, the struggle for supremacy on 
the part of the leaders in Congress was 
violent and bitter. In the summer of 1849 
California adopted in convention a Consti- 
tution prohibiting slavery within its borders. 
Taylor advocated the immediate admission 
of California with her Constitution, and the 
postponement of the question as to the other 
Territories until the}- could hold conven- 
tions and decide for themselves whether 
slavery should exist within their borders. 
This policy ultimately prevailed through 
the celebrated " Compromise Measures" of 
Henry Clay ; but not during the life of the 
brave soldier and patriot statesman. July 
5 he was taken suddenly ill with a bilious 
fever, which proved fatal, his death occur- 
ring July 9, 1850. One of his daughters 
married Colonel W. W. S. Bliss, his Adju- 
tant-General and Ciiicf of Staff in Florida 
and Mexico, and Private Secretarv during 
his Presidency. Another daughter was 
ni.'irried to JelTerson Davis. 






i; 



'is' 



ii 



m 



I 



■ ''■'■»n-"»'°'»"r«''i» "31 "jJ^M-i "-*„•» ■„B _<i„a,3^a],,Jg,» - 



PnES/DE.WTS OF THE U.VITED STATES. 








^Td^^ 






^! 



U 



{?y> 






til 



ml 

I 

i 

i 

i 







IB) 



ILLARD FILL- 
MORE, the thir- 
teenth President 
of the United 
States, i850-'3, was 
born in Summer 
Hill, Cayuga 
County, New York, Janu- 
ary 7, i8oo. He was of 
New England ancestry, and 
his educational advantages 
were limited. He early 
earned the clothiers' trade, 
but spent all his leisure time 
in study. At nineteen years 
age he was induced bv 



Judge Walter Wood to abandon his trade 
and commence the study of law. Upon 
learning that the young man was entirely 
destitute of means, he took him into his 
own office and loaned him such money as 
he needed. That he might not be heavily 
burdened with debt, young Fillmore taught 
school during the winter months, and in 
various other ways helped himself along. 
At the age of twenty-three he was ad- 
mitted to the Court of Common Picas, and 
commenced the practice of his profession 
in the village of Aurora, situated on the 



eastern bank of the Cayuga Lake. In 1825 
he married Miss Abigail Powers, daughter 
of Rev. Lemuel Powers, a lady of great 
moral worth. In 1825 he took his seat in 
the House of Assembly of his native State, 
as Representative from Erie Countv, 
whither he had recently moved. 

Though he had never taken a very 
active part in politics his vote and his sym- 
pathies were with the Whig partv. The 
State was then Democratic, but his cour- 
tesy, ability and integrity won the respect 
of his associates. In 1832 he was elected 
to a seat in the United States Congress. 
At the close of his term he returned to his 
law practice, and in two years more he was 
again elected to Congress. 

He now began to have a national reputa- 
tion. His labors were very arduous. To 
draft resolutions in the committee room, 
and then to defend them against the most 
skillful opponents on the floor of the House 
requires readiness of mind, mental resources 
and skill in debate such as few possess. 
Weary with these exhausting labors, and 
pressed by the claims of his private affairs, 
Mr. Fillmore wrote a letter to his constitu- 
ents and declined to be a candidate for re- 
election. Notwithstanding tliis ccmmuni- 



m) 






i'st 




L 5 



^^.^fO^..-.C^ J?^..c<rz^) 



'■"■■■a»i^ 



-a i -a*^iagga a — a - 



MILLARD FILLMORE. 



s|: 



(&! 



i 









;^ 



cation his friends met in convention and 
renominated him by acclamation. Though 
g^ratificd by this proof of their appreciation 
of his labors he adhered to his resolve and 
returned to his home. 

In 1847 -^Ii". Fillmore was elected to the 
important office of comptroller of the State. 
In entering upon the very responsible duties 
which this situation demanded, it was nec- 
essary for him to abandon his profession, 
and he removed to the city of Albany. In 
this year, also, the Whigs were looking 
around to find suitable candidates for the 
President and \'ice-President at the ap- 
proaching election, and the names of Zach- 
ary Taylor and Millard Fillmore became 
the rallying cry of the Whigs. On the 4th 
of March, 1849, General Tavlor was inaug- 
urated President and Millard Fillmore 
Vice-President of the United States. 

The great question of slavery had as- 
sumed enormous proportions, and perme- 
ated every subject that was brought before 
Congress. It was evident that the strength 
of our institutions was to be severely tried. 
July g, 1S50, President Taylor died, and, by 
the Constitution, Vice-President Fillmore 
became President of the United States. 
The agitated condition of the country 
brought questions of great delicacy before 
him. He was bound by his oath of office 
to execute the laws of the United States. 
One of these laws was understood to be, 
that if a slave, escaping from bondage, 
should reach a free State, the United States 
was bound to do its utmost to capture him 
and return him to his master. Most Chris- 
tian men loathed this law. President Fill- 
more felt bound by his oath rigidly to see 
it enforced. Slavery was organizing armies 
to invade Cuba as it had invaded Texas, 
and anne.\- it to the United States. Presi- 
dent Fillmore gave all the influence of his 
e.xalted station against the atrocious enter- 
prise. 

Mr. Fillmore h.id serious difficulties to 



contend with, since the opposition had a 
majority in both Houses. He did every- 
thing in his power to conciliate the South, 
but the pro-slavery party in that section 
felt the inadequency of all measures of tran. 
sient conciliation. The population of the 
free States was so rapidly increasing over 
that of the slave States, that it was inevita- 
ble that the power of the Government 
should soon pass into the hands of the free 
States. The famous compromise measures 
were adopted under Mr. Fillmore's admin- 
istration, and the Japan expedition was 
sent out. 

March 4, 1853, having served one term, 
President Fillmore retired from office. He 
then took a long tour through the South, 
where he met with quite an enthusiastic 
reception. In a speech at Vicksburg, al- 
luding to the rapid growth of the country, 
he said: 

" Canada is knocking for admission, and 
Mexico would be glad to come in, and 
without saying whether it would be right 
or wrong, we stand with open arms to re- 
ceive them; for it is the manifest destiny of 
this Government to embrace the whole 
North American Continent." 

In 1S55 Mr. Fillmore went to Europe 
where he was received with those marked 
attentions which his position and character 
merited. Returning to this country in 
1856 he was nominated for the Presidency 
by the "Know-Nothing" party. Mr. Bu- 
chanan, the Democratic candidate was 
the successful competitor. Mr. Fillmore 
ever afterward lived in retirement. Dur- 
ing the conflict of civil war he was mostly 
silent. It was generally supposed, how- 
ever, that his sympathy was with the South- 
ern Confederac}'. He kept aloof from the 
conflict without any words of cheer to the 
one party or the other. For this reason 
he was forgotten bv both. He died of 
paralysis, in Buffalo, New York, March 8, 



1 

I 



;5i 



mi 

I 

'rJ' 






m 
mi 



$1 

fit' 



<i'' 



J^.i:^Ta=T*5 



PffES/DEiVTS OF THE UNITED STAJES. 




'~[~'^'^nm'^'^'^ ■ — I I ' i.h < , ;. I ' i . ' ■< ■ ' . ' ' ' , ■■.. , , -7^ jIZIT rj-.; ^r- /■■■ ""*"'■ 

i F^:H]]I^IiII] PIE^GE. I 



"^^^^W^ 




Si 



![<!? 



13 

Vit 

Ml 




'RANKLIN PIERCE, 
the fourteenth Presi- 
■^ dent of the United 
States, was born in 
Hillsborough, New 
Hampshire, Novem- 
ber 23, 1S04. His 
father. Governor 
Benjamin Pierce, was a Rev- 
olutionary soldier, a man of 
rigid integrity; was for sev- 
eral years in the State Legis- 
lature, a member of the Gov- 
ernor's council and a General 
of the militia. 
Franklin was the sixth of eight children. 
As a boy he listened eagerly to the argu- 
ments of his father, enforced by strong and 
ready utterance and earnest gesture. It 
was in the days of intense political excite- 
ment, when, all over the New England 
States, Federalists and Democrats were ar- 
rayed so fiercely against each other. 

In 1S20 he entered Bowdoin College, at 
Brunswick, Maine, and graduated in 1824, 
and commenced the study of law in the 
office of Judge Woodbur}-, a very distin- 
guished lawyer, and in 1827 was admitted 
to the bar. He practiced with great success 
in Hillsborough and Concord. He served 



in the State Legislature four years, the last 
two of which he was chosen Speaker of the 
House by a very large vote. 

In 1833 he was elected a member of Con- 
gress. In 1837 he was elected to the United 
States Senate, just as Mr. Van Buren com- 
menced his administration. 

In 1834 he married Miss Jane Means 
Appleton, a lady admirably fitted to adorn 
every station with which her husband was 
honored. Three sons born to them all 
found an early grave. 

Upon his accession to office. President 
Polk appointed Mr. Pierce Attorney-Gen- 
eral of the United States, but the offer was 
declined in consequence of numerous pro- 
fessional engagements at home and the 
precarious state of Mrs. Pierce's health. 
About the same time he also declined the 
nomination for Governor by the Demo- 
cratic party. 

The war with Mexico called Mr. Pierce 
into the army. Receiving the appointment 
of Brigadier-General, he embarked with a 
portion of his troops at Newport, Rhode 
Island, May 27, 1S47. He seived during 
this war, and distinguished himself by his 
bravery, skill and excellent judgment. 
When he reached his home in his native 
State he was enthusiastically recei\'ed bv 





/^A ^Jc^yi 



,;. jm™t»^ »i-»a'JS««JMMafa-i«^.?rsa;..ji»,j»»»M,j<t ,jiMjjtj,i.aiaJo .- i.«j-j»MiJipM.j-aarir«^i'JTia' .],iJ.j. a^ a.nj ; -,a- 



FRANKLTN PIERCE.. 



'SI* 

iSh 
■SI? 

'M 
(^) 
PI 






m 



the advocates of the war, and coldly by its 
opponents. He resumed the practice of his 
profession, frequently taking an active part 
in political questions, and giving his sup- 
port to the pro-slavery wing of the Demo- 
cratic party. 

June 12, 1S52, the Democratic convention 
met in Baltimore to nominate a candidate 
for the Presidency. For four days they 
continued in session, and in thirty-five bal- 
lotmgs no one had received the requisite 
two-thirds vote. Not a vote had been 
thrown thus far for General Pierce. Then 
the Virginia delegation brought forward 
his name. There were fourteen more bal- 
lotings, during which General Pierce 
gained strength, until, at the forty-ninth 
ballot, he received 2S3 votes, and all other 
candidates eleven. General Winfield Scott 
was the Whig candidate. General Pierce 
was elected with great unanimity. Only 
four States — Vermont, Massachusetts, Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee — cast their electoral 
votes against him. March 4, 1S53, he was 
inaugurated President of the United States, 
and William R. King, Vice-President. 

President Pierce's cabinet consisted of 
William S. Marcy, James Guthrie, Jefferson 
Davis, James C' Dobbin, Robert McClel- 
land, James Campbell and Caleb Cushing. 

At tlie demand of slaverj' the Missouri 
Compromise was repealed, and all the Ter- 
ritories of the Union were thrown open to 
slavery. The Territor)' of Kansas, west of 
Missouri, was settled by emigrants mainly 
from tlie North. According to law, tiiey 
were about to meet and decide whetlicr 
slavery or freedom should be the law of 
that realm. Slavery in Missouri and 
other Southern States rallicil her armed 
legions, marched tliem into Kansas, took 
possession of the polls, (lri)\-e away tlic 
citizens, deposited their own votes by 
handfuls, went through the farce of count- 
ing them, and then declareil that, by an 
overwhelming maprilv, slavery was estab- 



lished in Kansas. These facts nobody 
denied, and yet President Pierce's adminis- 
tration felt bound to respect the decision 
obtained by such votes. The citizens of 
Kansas, the majority of whom were free- 
State men, met in convention an(J adopted 
the following resolve : 

"Resolved, That the bod}- of men who, 
for the past two months, have been passing 
laws for the people of our Territory, 
moved, counseled and dictated to by the 
demagogues of other States, are to us a 
foreign body, representing only the lawless 
invaders who elected them, and not the 
people of this Territory ; that we repudiate 
their action as the monstrous consummation 
of an act of violence, usurpation and fraud 
unparalleled in the history of the Union." 

The free-State people of Kansas also sent 
a petition to the General Government, im- 
ploring its protection. In reply the Presi- 
dent issued a proclamation, declaring that 
Legislature thus created must be recog- 
nized as the legitimate Legislature of Kan- 
sas, and that its laws were binding upon 
the people, and that, if necessary, the whole 
force of the Governmental arm would be 
put forth to inforce those laws. 

James Buchanan succeeded him in the 
Presidenc)', and, March 4, 1857, President 
Pierce retired to his home in Concord, 
New Hampshire. When the Rebellion 
burst forth Mr. Pierce remained steadfast 
to the principles he had always cherished, 
and gave his sympathies to the pro-slavery 
party, with which he had ever been allied. 
He declined to do anything, either by 
voice or pen, to strengthen the hands ot 
the National Government. He resided in 
Concord until his death, which occurred in 
October, 1S69. He was one of the most 
genial and social of men, generous to 
a fault, and contributed liberally of his 
moderate means foi- the alleviation of suf- 
fering and want, lie was an honored 
communicant of the Episcopal church. 






I 



'I 






-'~^ ' l!^\^5 S^' ^^^'f,^j^"'^ ' lj'^'°'^^ 



-^•j.°«'.'«j"n "■>«•«-»'«-. 







^zr:;;a;s ^nia:»»,ai.J..»»JJ»J»Ji» a»ai«»~*»"n'«»"aiJ'ij 



PPESfDENTS OF THE U,V!TED STATES. 



-,. ^,;|, 

'Pjl 



A@V5 



MX^l 



s^g^'.'.'^l'gii^'gi'T.'h'Vg&g, 






'<rae'jetfes>i.-^^(fi>^ 








n^^ 




^ .i^'^' A.MES BUCHANAN, the 



fifteenth President of the 
United States. i857-'6i, 
was born in Franklin 
County, Pennsylvania, 
■Vpril 23, 1791. The 
place where his father's 
cabin stood was called 
Stony Batter, and it was 
situated in a wild, romantic 
spot, in a gorge of mount- 
ains, with towering sum- 
mits rising all around. He 
was of Irish ancestry, his 
father having emigrated in- 
783, with very little prop- 
ei'ty, save his own strong arms. 

James remained in his secluded home for 
eight 3'ears enjoj-ing very few social or 
intellectual advantages. His parents were 
industrious, frugal, prosperous and intelli- 
gent. In 1799 his father removed to Mer- 
ccrsburg, where James was placed in 
school and commenced a course in English, 
Greek and Latin. His progress was rapid 
and in iSoi he entered Dickinson College 
;it Carlisle. Here he took his stand among 
the first scholars in the institution, and was 
ahlc to master the most abstruse subjects 
v.ilh facility. In 1809 he graduated with 
the highest honors in his class. 

lie was then eighteen rears of aijc, I.tII, 



graceful and in vigorous health, fond of 
athletic sports, an unerring shot and en- 
livened with an exuberant flow of animal 
spirits. He immediately commenced the 
study of law in the city of Lancaster, and 
was admitted to the bar in 18 12. He rose 
very rapidly in his profession and at once 
took undisputed stand with the ablest law- 
yers of the State. When but twent\--si.\ 
years of age, unaided b}' counsel, he suc- 
cessfully defended before the State Senate 
one of the Judges of the State, who was 
tried upon articles of impeachment. At 
the age of thirty it was generally admitted 
that he stood at the head of the bar, and 
there was no Iaw3-er in the State who had 
a more extensive or lucrative practice. 

In 1S12, just after Mr. Buchanan had 
entered upon the practice of the law, our 
second war with England occurred. With 
all his powers he sustained the Govern- 
ment, eloquently urging the rigorous pros- 
ecution of the war; and even enlisfing as a 
private soldier to assist in repelling the 
British, who had sacked A\'ashington and 
were tlireatening Baltimore. He was at 
that time a Federalist, but wheii the Con- 
stitution was adopted bv both parties, 
Jefferson trulv said, " We are all Federal- 
ists; we are all Republicans." 

The opposition of the Federalists to the 
war with England, and the alien and sccli- 







(Z^^/^iT^ u-'^'/O 



c y?.^ /z-^cx 



-^ 



lCT~l«.-a,i.^a»n 



»»aJio«J'»ii«»i-i'-»<a.»J'..idfijJj 



m^a^MtgJ^^ 



, 13 Id J la J «, a, 



c«"»"«i"«»-»-"-' 






yj.1/£-5 BUCHAXAy. 



Sj 



tion laws of John Adams, brought the party 
into dispute, and the name of Federalist 
became a reproach. Mr. Buchanan almost 
immediately upon entering Congress began 
to incline more and more to the Repub- 
licans. In the stormy Presidential election 
of 1S24, in which Jackson, Clay, Crawford 
and John Ouincy Adams were candidates, 
Mr. Buchanan espoused the cause of Gen- 
eral Jackson and unrelentingly opposed the 
administration of Mr. Adams. 

Upon his elevation to the Presidency, 
General Jackson appointed Mr. Buchanan, 
minister to Russia. Upon his return in 1S33 
he was elected to a seat in the United States 
Senate. He there met as his associates, 
Webster, Clav, Wright and Calhoun. He 
advocated the measures proposed by Presi- 
dent Jackson of making reprisals against 
France, and defended the course of the Pres- 
ident in his unprecedented and wholesale 
removals from office of those who were not 
the supporters of his administration. Upon 
this question he was brought into direct col- 
lision with Henry Clay. In the discussion 
of the question respecting the admission of 
Michigan and Arkansas into the Union, Mr. 
Buchanan defined his position by saj-ing: 

" The older I grow, the more I am in- 
clined to be what is called a State-rights 
man." 

M. de Tocqueville, in his renowned work 
upon "Democracy in America," foresaw 
the trouble which was inevitable from the 
doctrine of State sovereignty as held by 
Calhoun and Buchanan. He was con- 
vinced that the National Government was 
losing that strength which was essential 
to its own existence, and that the States 
were assuming powers which threatened 
the perpetuitv of the Union. Mr. Buchanan 
received the book in the Senate and de- 
clared the fears (..■! Do Tocqueville to be 
groundless, and yet he lived to sit in the 
Presidential chair and see vState after State, 
in acc(3rdance with his own views of State 



rights, breaking from the Union, thus 
crumbling our Republic into ruins; while 
the unhappy old man folded his arms in 
despair, declaring that the National Consti- 
tution invested him with no power to arrest 
the destruction. 

Upon Mr. Polk's accession to the Presi- 
dency, Mr. Buchanan became Secretary of 
State, and as such took his share of the 
responsibility in the conduct of the Mexi- 
can war. At the close of Mr. Polk's ad- 
ministration, Mr. Buchanan retired to pri- 
vate life; but his intelligence, and his great 
ability as a statesman, enabled him to exert 
a powerful influence in National affairs. 

Mr. Pierce, upon his election to the 
Presidency, honored Mr. Buchanan with 
the mission to England. In the year 1856 
the National Democratic convention nomi- 
nated Mr. Buchanan for the Presidenc3'. 
The political conflict ^vas one of the most 
severe in which our country has ever en- 
gaged. On the 4th of March, 1857, Mr. 
Buchanan was inaugurated President. His 
cabinet were Lewis Cass, Howell Cobb, 
J. B. Floyd, Isaac Toucey, Jacob Thomp- 
son, A. V. Brown and J. S. Black. 

The disruption of the Democratic party, 
in consequence of the manner in which the 
issue of the nationality of slavery was 
pressed by the Southern wing, occurred at 
the National convention, held at Charleston 
in April, 1S60, for the nomination of Mr. 
Buchanan's successor, when the majority 
of Southern delegates withdrew upon the 
passage of a resolution declaring that the 
constitutional status of slavery should be 
determined by tlie Supreme Court. 

In the next Presidential canvass Abra- 
ham Lincoln was nominated by the oppo- 
nents of Mr. Buchanan's administration. 
Mr. Buchanan remained in Washington 
long enough to see his successor installed 
and then retired to his home in Wheatland. 
He died June i, 186S, aged seventy-seven 
years. 



<'J; 






^ Tt « '^ * >■ '.a J^ ^ 



'^ T ap. ^ ^g' *'""•«"''■* 



i;i-*a>^^-^n-^'CT-'rT^' 



i.^4J^^^i^^^^^^^Srr^S^ 



i 
ill 



(fa 



m 



% 

!si! 

([El 
.',6/ 



i,iaiiiH-,igj,ian.t.?-,M„.Jm>j^a„a i ,r,aaJiq' g5 



,<j^i»„a„a^a^M»ai„a,iia.n«j„B,a„Bi„3i„a^.H.«gn»»a r. 



PRESlDEiVTS OF THE ON/TED STATES. 



^fiiwUBliailMMJiBiMi I 










■I 




B R A H A M LIN- 
COLN, the sixteenth 
President of the 
United States, iS6i-'5i 
54iy/^^^aM^£v^^ was born February 
'I'^ifepW^r^, 12, 1809, in Larue 
' (then Hardin) County, 
Kentuck}', in a cabin on Nolan 
Creek, three miles west of 
adgensville. H i s parents 
3re Thomas and Nanc}- 
tanks) Lincoln. Of his an- 
5try and early years the little 
that is known may best be 
iven in his own language ; " My 
parents were both born in Virginia, of un- 
distinguished families — second families, per- 
haps I should say. My mother, who died 
in my tenth year, was of a family of the 
name of Hanks, some of whom now remain 
in Adams, and others in Macon Count}', 
Illinois. Mv patcrna' grandfather, Abra- 
ham Lincoln, emigrated from Rockbridge 
County, Virginia, to Kentucky in 1781 or 
17S2, where, a year or two later, he was 
killed by Indians — not in battle, but by 
stealth, when he was laboring to open a 
farm in the forest. His ancestors, who were 
Ou.ikers, went to Virginia from Berks 
Ciiuntv, Pe!uisvl\'ania. An effort to iden- 



tify them with the New England family of 
the same name ended in nothing more defi- 
nite than a similarity of Christian names in 
both families, such as Enoch, Levi, Mor- 
decai, Solomon, Abraham and the like. 
My father, at the death of his father, was 
but six years of age, and he grew up, liter- 
ally, without education. He removed from 
Kentucky to what is now Spencer County, 
Indiana, in my eighth year. We .reached 
our new home about the time the State came 
into the Union. It was a wild region, with 
bears and other wild animals still in the 
woods. There I grew to manhood. 

" There were some schools, so called, but 
no qualification was ever required of a 
teacher beyond ' readin', writin', and cipher- 
in' to the rule of three.' If a straggler, sup- 
posed to understand Latin, happened to 
sojourn in the neighborhood, he was looked 
upon as a wizard. There was absolutely 
nothing to excite ambition for education. 
Of course, when I came of age I did not 
know much. Still, somehow, I could read, 
write and cipher to the rule of three, and 
that was all. I have not been to school 
since. The little advance I now have upon 
this store of education I have picked up 
from time to time under the pressure of 
necessity. I was raised to farm-work, which 



i&; 




-^^ 



■J I _/f^'~C- v^--^ <fi^' t---- 



Q^yvToc^ ^^'^-<,--i^' 



.BIm*=.'"«H5 



■■.jiJinJinJ 



"a^a-*»-^ 



■ ^■^D-^wi^a 



B„a»Mj HaaaIIjMjJlnJ „a..ag.a„iB,a^B,^ fg^ 



.IHRAHAM Ll.XCOLX. 



87 






y 



I continued till I was twentv-two. At 
twenty-one I came to Illinois and passed 
the first vear in Macon County. Then I got 
to New Salem, at that time in Sangamon, 
now in Menard Count}', where I remained 
a year as a sort of clerk in a store., 

"Then came the Black Hawk war, and I 
was elected a Captain of volunteers — a suc- 
cess which gave me more pleasure than an}- 
I have had since. I went the campaign, 
was elated ; ran for the Legislature the 
same year (183-') and was beaten, the only 
time I have ever been beaten by the people. 
The next and three succeeding biennial 
elections I was elected to the Legislature, 
and was never a candidate afterward. 

" During this legislative period I had 
studied law, and removed to Springfield to 
practice it. In 1846 I was elected to the 
Lower House of Congress; was not a can- 
didate for re-election. From 1849 to ■854' 
inclusive, I practiced the law more assid- 
uously than ever before. Always a Whig 
in politics, and generally on the Whig elec- 
toral tickets, making active canvasses, I was 
losing interest in politics, when the repeal 
of the Missouri Compromise roused me 
again. What I have done since is pretty 
well known." 

The early residence of Lincoln in Indi- 
ana was sixteen miles north of the Ohio 
River, on Little Pigeon Creek, one and a 
half miles east of Gentrvville, within the 
present township of Cai'ter. Here his 
mother died October 5, iSiS, and the next 
year his father married .Mrs. Sally (Bush) 
Johnston, of Elizabcthtown, Kentucky. She 
was an affectionate foster-parent, to whom 
Abrahatn was indebted for his first encour- 
agement to study. He became an eager 
reader, and the few books owned in the 
vicinity were manv times perused. He 
worked frequentlv for the neighbors as a 
farm l.iborer ; was for sonic time clerk in a 
store at Gentrvville; and licrame famous 
throu'dKTut that rcirion for his athletic 



powers, his fondness for argument, his in- 
exhaustible fund of humerous anecdote, as 
well as for mock oratory and the composi- 
tion of rude satirical verses. In 1828 he 
made a trading voyage to New Orleans as 
"bow-hand" on a flatboat; removed to 
Illinois in 1830; helped his father build a 
log house and clear a farm on the north 
fork of Sangamon River, ten miles west of 
Decatur, and was for some time employed 
in splitting rails for the fences — a fact which 
was prominently brought forward for a 
political purpose thirty years later. 

In the spring of 1S51 he, with two of his 
relatives, was hired to build a flatboat on 
the Sangamon River and navigate it to 
New Orleans. The boat "stuck" on a 
mill-dam, and was got off with great labor 
through an ingenious mechanical device 
which some years later led to Lincoln's 
taking out a patent for "an improved 
method for lifting vessels over shoals." 
This voyage was memorable for another 
reason — the sight of slaves chained, mal- 
treated and flogged at New Orleans was 
the origin of his deep convictions upon the 
slavery question. 

Returning from this voyage he became a 
resident for several years at New Salem, a 
recently settled village on the Sangamon, 
where he was successively a clerk, grocer, 
surveyor and postmaster, and acted as pilot 
to the first steamboat that ascended the 
Sangamon. Here he studied law, inter- 
ested himself in local politics after his 
return from the Black Hawk war, and 
became known as an effective "stump- 
speaker." The subject of his first political 
speech was the improvement of the channel 
of the Sangamon, and the chief ground on 
which he announced himself (1S32) a candi- 
date for the Legislature was his advocacy 
of this popular measure, on which subject 
his practical experience made him the high- 
est authi)iit\ . 

F.lect(>d to tlic r,e>;i?l.iture in 1S34 as a 



%''- 



m* 

!« 



''J; 

^ 









-ia; 



41. 



>a^ar^m^u^.U'mXi-> 



_Z^ J1„3I« 



«^ui„M,iii^a„x^m^m^a„a„!j;iB^ 



PRESIDE\TS OF THE UN f TED STATES. 






!ai; 



;?^ 



" Henry Clay Whig," he rapidly acquired 
that command of language and that homely 
but forcible rhetoric which, added to his 
intimate knowledge of the people from 
which he sprang, made him more than a 
match in debate for his few well-educated 
opponents. 

Admitted to the bar in 1837 he soon 
established himself at Springfield, where 
the State capital was located in 1839, 
largely through his influence ; became a 
successful pleader in the State, Circuit and 
District Courts ; married in 1842 a lady be- 
longing to a prominent family in Lexington, 
Kentucky; took an active part in the Pres- 
idential campaigns of 1840 and 1844 as 
candidate for elector on the Harrison and 
Clay tickets, and in 1846 was elected to the 
United States House of Representatives 
over the celebrated Peter Cartwright. 
During his single term in Congress he did 
not attain any prominence. 

He voted for the reception of anti-slavery 
petitions for the abolition of the slave trade 
in the District of Columbia and for the 
Wilmot proviso ; but was chiefly remem- 
bered for the stand he took against the 
Mexican war. For several years there- 
after he took comparatively little interest 
in politics, but gained a leading position at 
the Springfield bar. Two or three non- 
political lectures and an eulogy on Henry 
Clay (1852) added nothing to his reputation. 

In 1854 the repeal of the Missouri 
Compromise by the Kansas-Nebraska act 
aroused Lincoln from his indifference, and 
in attacking that measure he had the im- 
mense advantage of knowing perfect!)' well 
the motives and the record of its author, 
Stephen A. Douglas, of Illinois, then popu- 
larly designated as the " Little Giant." The 
latter came to Springfield in October, 1S54, 
on the occasion of the State Fair, to vindi- 
cate his policy in the Senate, and the " Anti- 
Nebraska" Whigs, remembering that Lin- 
coln had often measured his strcnglh with 



Douglas in the Illinois Legislature and be- 
fore the Springfield Courts, engaged hini 
to improvise a reply. This speech, in the 
opinion of those who heard it, was one of 
the greatest efforts of Lincoln's life ; cer- 
tainly the most effective in his whole career. 
It took the audience by storm, and from 
that moment it was felt that Douglas had 
met his match. Lincoln was accordingly 
selected as the Anti-Nebraska candidate for 
the United States Senate in place of General 
Shields, whose term expired March 4, 1855, 
and led to several ballots ; but Trumbull 
was ultimately chosen. 

The second conflict on the soil of Kan- 
sas, which Lincoln had predicted, soon be- 
gan. The result was the disruption of the 
Whig and the formation of the Republican 
party. At the Bloomington State Conven- 
tion in 1856, where the new party first 
assumed form in Illinois, Lincoln made an 
impressive address, in which for the first 
time he took distinctive ground against 
slaver}' in itself. 

At the National Republican Convention 
at Philadelphia, June 17, after the nomi- 
nation of Fremont, Lincoln was put for- 
ward by the Illinois delegation for the 
Vice-Presidency, and received on the first 
ballot no votes against 259 for William L. 
Dayton. He took a prominent part in the 
canvass, being on the electoral ticket. 

In 185S Lincoln was unanimously nomi- 
nated by the Republican State Convention 
as its candidate for the United States Senate 
in place of Douglas, and in his speech of 
acceptance used the celebrated illustration 
of a "house divided against itself " on the 
slavery question, which was, perhaps, the 
cause of his defeat. The g-reat debate car- 
ried on at all the principal towns of Illinois 
between Lincoln and Douglas as rival Sena- 
torial candidates resulted at the time in the 
election of the latter ; but being widely cir- 
culated as a campaign document, it fixed 
the attention of the country upon the 



m 






7»5»5Mi«3 



„a.a ,M,»ini 



ABRAfFAM L/XCOJ..V. 



^ 



I 






farmer, as the clearest and most convinc- 
uvr exponent of Republican doctrine. 

Early in 1S59 he began to be named in 
Illinois as a suitable Republican candidate 
fur the Presidential campaign of the ensu- 
ing year, and a political address delivered 
at the Cooper Institute, New York, Febru- 
ary 27, i860, followed by similar speeches 
at New Haven, Hartford and elsewhere in 
New England, first made him known to the 
Eastern States in the light by which he had 
long been regarded at home. By the Re- 
publican State Convention, which met at 
Decatur, Illinois, May 9 and 10, Lincoln 
was unanimously endorsed for the Presi- 
denc}'. It was on this occasion that two 
rails, said to have been split by his hands 
thirty years before, were brought into the 
convention, and the incident contributed 
much to his popularity. The National 
Republican Convention at Chicago, after 
spirited efforts made in favor of Seward, 
Chase and Bates, nominated Lincoln for 
the Presidency, with Hannibal Hamlin 
for Vice-President, at the same time adopt- 
ing a vigorous anti-slavery platform. 

The Democratic party having been dis- 
oiganized and presenting two candidates, 
D(5uglas and Breckenridge, and the rem- 
naiit of the "American" party having put 
forward John Bell, of Tennessee, the Re- 
publican victory was an easy one, Lincoln 
being elected November 6 by a large plu- 
rality, comprehending nearly all the North- 
ern States, but none of the Southern. The 
secession of South Carolina and the Gulf 
States was the immediate result, followed 
a few m.onths later by that of the border 
slave States and the outbreak of the great 
ci\il war. 

1 he life of Abraham Lincoln became 
thenceforth merged in the history of his 
country. None of the details of the vast 
coiillict which tilled the remainder of Lin- 
coln's life can here be gi\en, Narrowlv 
escaping a'^sassin.uion liv avoiflintj- R.-ilri- 



more on his way to the capital, he reached 
Washington February 23, and was inaugu- 
rated President of the United States March 
4, 1S61. 

In his inaugural address he said: " I hold, 
that in contemplation of universal law and 
the Constitution the Union of these States is 
perpetual. Perpetuity is implied if not ex- 
pressed in the fundamental laws of all na- 
tional governments. It is safe to assert 
that no government proper ever had a pro- 
vision in its organic law for its own termi- 
nation. I therefore consider that in view 
of the Constitution and the laws, the Union 
is unbroken, and to the extent of my ability 
I shall take care, as the Constitution en- 
joins upon me, that the laws of the United 
States be extended in all the States. In 
doing this there need be no bloodshed or vio- 
lence, and there shall be none unless it be 
forced upon the national authority. The 
power conferred to me will be used to hold, 
occupy and possess the property and places 
belonging to the Government, and to col- 
lect the duties and imports, but beyond 
what may be necessary for these objects 
theie will be no invasion, no using of force 
against or among the people anywhere. In 
your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countr}-- 
men, is the momentous issue of civil war. 
The Government will not assail you. You 
can have no conflict without being your- 
selves the aggressors. You have no oath 
registered in heaven to destroy the Gov- 
ernment, while I shall have the most sol- 
emn one to preserve, protect and defend 
it." 

He called to his cabinet his principal 
rivals for the Presidential nomination — 
Seward, Chase, Cameron and Bates; se- 
cured the co-operation of the L'nion Demo- 
crats, headed by Douglas ; called out 75,000 
militia from the several States upon the first 
tidings of the bombardment of Fort Sumter, 
.\pril 15: pnx-laimcd a blockade of the 
Soiithci-n po^t-^ AiM'i! ro: called an extra 



fBI; 



i^^^^a; 



laL^lra^jc^jtr 



J^aa^grj - 



PnES/DENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



t 

i 

m 



la 

1 






^3i( 






session of Congress for July 4, from which 
he asked and obtained 400,000 men and 
8400,000,000 for the war; placed McClellan 
at the head of the Federal army on General 
Scott's resignation, October 31; appointed 
Edwin M. Stanton Secretary of War, Jan- 
uary 14, 1S62, and September 22, 1862, 
issued a proclamation declaring the free- 
dom of all slaves in the States and parts of 
States then in rebellion from and after 
January i, 1S63. This was the crowning 
act of Lincoln's career — the act by which 
he will be chiefly known through all future 
time — and it decided the war. 

October 16, 1863, President Lincoln called 
for 300,000 volunteers to replace those 
whose term of enlistment had expired; 
made a celebrated and touching, though 
brief, address at the dedication of the 
Gettysburg military cemetery, November 
19, 1S63; commissioned Ulysses S. Grant 
Licutenant-General and Commander-in- 
Chief of the armies of the United States, 
^L^rch 9, 1864; was re-elected President in 
November of the same 3'ear, by a large 
majority over General McClellan, with 
Andrew J(jhnson, of Tennessee, as Vice- 
President; delivered a very remarkable ad- 
dress at his second inauguration, March 4, 
1S65; visited the armv before Richmond the 
same month; entered the capital of the Con- 
federacy the day after its fall, and upon the 
surrender of General Robert E. Lee'; armv, 
April 9, was actively engaged in devising 
generous plans for the reconstruction of the 
Union, when, on the evening of Good Fri- 
dav, April 14, he was shot in his box at 
Fold's Theatre, Washington, byJohnWilkes 
Booth, a fanatical actor, .nnd expired early 
on the following morning, April 15. Al- 
most simultaneoush' a inurdcr(_His attack 
was made upon William II. Seward, Secre- 
tary of State. 

At noon on the 15th ol April y\ndrew 



Johnson assumed the Presidency, and. active 
measures were taken which resulted in the 
death of Booth and the execution of his 
principal accomplices. 

The funeral of President Lincoln was 
conducted with unexampled solemnit}- and 
m;ignificence. Impressive services were 
held in Washington, after which the sad 
procession proceeded over the same route 
he had traveled four years before, from 
Springfield to Washington. In Philadel- 
phia his body lay in state in Independence 
Hall, in which he had declared before his 
first inauguration " that I would sooner be 
assassinated than to give up the principles 
of the Declaration of Independence." He 
was buried at Oak Ridge Cemetery, near 
Springfield, Illinois, on Mav 4, where a 
monument emblematic of the emancipation 
of the slaves and the restoration of the 
Union mark his resting place. 

The leaders and citizens of the expiring 
Confederacy expressed genuine indignation 
at the murder of a generous political adver- 
sary. Foreign nations took part in mourn- 
ing the death of a statesman who had proved 
himself a true representative of American 
nationality. The freedmen of the South 
almost worshiped the memory of their de- 
liverer; and the general sentiment of the 
great Nation he had saved awarded him a 
place in its affections, second only to that 
held by Washington. 

The characteristics of Abraham Lincoln 
have been familiarlv known throughout the 
civilized world. His tall, gaimt, ungainly 
figure, homely countenance, and his shrewd 
mother-wit, shown in his celebrated con- 
versations overflowing in humorous and 
[lointed anecdote, combined with an accu- 
rate, intuitive appreciation of the questions 
of the time, are recognized as forming the 
best tvpe ot a period of American history 
now rapidly passing away. 



?[« 



m 







'-/ ?^'/\J^C^( -■ 



v-'^<lt(:^t 



$ 



;[ai 



HI 



•5H5HS5Q 



pey-EBniaH 



?S»55S?«^!: 



ANDh-EU' JOH.VSO.W 










1^ 



i 



ai 

m 




^^^^^■'^'''^^NDREW JOHNSON, 
the seventeenth Presi- 
dent of the United 
States, 1865-9, w a s 
born at Raleigh, 
North Carolina, De- 
c e m b e r 29, iSoS. 
Hisfatherdied when 
he was four yeais old, and in 
» K^^ his eleventh 3-ear he was ap- 
^i 5,s>^ prenticed to a tailor. He nev- 
-|(';;^' er attended school, and did 
"iC^S not learn to read until late in 
,;;ift^^ his apprenticeship, when he 
'^^^IT suddenly acquired a passion for 
obtaining- knowledge, and devoted 
all his spare time to reading. 

Alter working two years as a journey- 
man tailor at Lauren's Court-House, SoLith 
Carolina, he remo\'cd, in 1S26, to Green- 
ville, Tennessee, where he w(jrked at his 
trailc and married. Under his wife's in- 
structions he made rapid pr(jgress in his 
education, and manifested such an intelli- 
gent interest in local politics as to be 
elected as " workingtucn's candidate " al- 
derman, in 1S2S. and [ua\()r in 1S30, being 
twice re-elected to each oflice. 

During this period lie cultivated his tal- 
ents as a public sjieakcr b\- taking part in a 



debating society, consisting largely of stu- 
dents of Greenville College. In 1835, and 
again in 1S39, he was chosen to the lower 
house of the Legislature, as a Democrat. 
In 1S41 he was elected State Senator, and 
iniS43, Representative in Congress, being 
re-elected four successive periods, until 
1S53, when he was chosen Governor of 
Tennessee. In Congress he supported the 
administrations of Tyler and Polk in their 
chief measures, especially the annexation 
of Texas, the adjustment of the Oregon 
boundary, the Mexican war, and the tariff 
of 1S46. 

In 1855 Mr. Johnson was re elected Gov- 
ernor, and in 1S57 entered the United 
States Senate, where he was conspicuous 
as an advocate of retrenchment and of the 
Homestead bill, and as an opponent of the 
Pacific Railroad. He was supported by the- 
Tennessee delegation to the Democratic 
convention in 1S60 for the Presidential 
nominati(5n, and lent his influence to the 
Breckenridge wing of that party. 

When the election of Lincoln had 
brought about the hrst attempt at secession 
in December, 1S60, Johnson took in the 
Senate a firm attitude fi)r the I'nion, and 
in May, 1S61, on returning to Tennessee, 
he was in imminent peril i>( sulTcring from 






ifsi 



§ 

ysr, 



i 



.»„i»„M^Hni 



»_M _»^«„ M»a,a 



t!Srr,' :t!?:^.^ z^.^" ; * f?? I'^Tirr, i b ) 



PliES/DEyrS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



ifii 



popular violence for his loyalty to the " old 
flag." He was the leader of the Loyalists' 
convention of East Tennessee, and during 
the following winter was very active in or- 
ganizing relief for the destitute loyal refu- 
gees from that region, his own family being 
among those compelled to leave. 

Bv his course in this crisis Johnson came 
prominently before the Northern public, 
and when in March, 1862, he was appointed 



These States accordingly claimed represen- 
tation in Congress in the following Decem- 
ber, and the momentous question of what 
should be the policy of the victorious Union 
toward its late armed opponents was forced 
upon that body. 

Two considerations impelled the Repub- 
lican majority to reject the policy of Presi. 
dent Johnson: First, an apprehension that 
the chief magistrate intended to undo the re- 



by President Lincoln military Governor of 1 suits of the war in regard to slavery; and, sec 



Tennessee, with the rank of Brigadier-Gen- 
eral, he increased in popularity by the vig- 
orous and successful manner in which he 
labored to restore order, protect Union 
men and punish marauders. On the ap- 
proach of the Presidential campaign of i S64, 
the termination of the war being plainly 
foreseen, and several Southern States being 
partially reconstructed, it was felt that the 
Vice-Presidency should be given to a South- 
ern man of conspicuous loyalty, and Gov- 
ernor Johnson was elected on the same 
platform and ticket as President Lincoln; 
and on the assassination of the latter suc- 
ceeded to the Presidency, April 15, 1S65. 
In a public speech two days later he said: 
" The American people must be taught, if 
the}- do not already feel, that treason is a 
crime and must be punished; that the Gov- 
ernment will not always bear with its ene- 
mies; that it is strong, not onlj- to protect, 
but to punish. In our peaceful history- 
treason has be^n almost unknown. The 
IJeopIe must understand that it is the black- 
est of crimes, and will be punisiied." He 
then added the ominous sentence; " In re- 
gard to mv future course, I make no prom- 
ises, no pledges." President Johnson re- 
tained the cabinet of Lincoln, and exhibited 
considerable severity toward traitors in his 
earlier acts and speeches, but he socju inaug- 
urated a policy of reconstruction, proclaim- 
ing a general amnesty to the late Confeder- 
ates, and successively establishing provis- 
ional Governments in the Southern States. 



ond, the sullen attitude of the South, which 
seemed to be plotting to regain the policy 
which arms had lost. The credentials of the 
Southern members elect were laid on the 
table, a civil rights bill and a bill extending 
the sphere of the Freedmen's Bureau were 
passed over the executive veto, and the two 
highest branches of the Government wei"e 
soon in open antagonism. The action of 
Congress was characterized by the Presi- 
dent as a " new rebellion." In July the 
cabinet was reconstructed, Messrs. Randall, 
Stanbury and Browning taking the places 
of Messrs. Denison, Speed and Harlan, and 
an unsuccessful atteinpt was made by 
means of a general convention in Philadel- 
phia to form a new party on the basis of the 
administration policy. 

In an excursion to Chicago for the pur- 
pose of laying a corner-stone of the monu- 
ment to Stephen A. Douglas, President 
Johnson, accompanied by several members 
of the cabinet, passed through Philadelphia, 
New York and Albany, in each of which 
cities, and in other places along the route, 
he made speeches justifying and explaining 
his own polic)-, and violently denouncing 
the action of Congress. 

August 12, 1S67, President Johnson re- 
moved the Secretary of War, replacing 
him by General Grant. Secretary Stanton 
retired under protest, based upon the ten- 
ure-of-office act wiiich had been passed the 
preceding March. The President then is- 
sued a proclamation declaring the insurrec- 



f 



m 



?j; 



g|C^ra»^-' 



■»M|«B'«iaai*««". 



A.VDREIV JOHNSON. 



tion at an end, and that " peace, order, tran- 
quility and civil authority existed in and 
throughout the United States." Another 
proclamation enjoined obedience to the 
Constitution and the laws, and an amnesty 
was published September 7, relieving nearly 
all the participants in the late Rebellion 
from the disabilities thereby incurred, on 
condition of taking- the oath to support the 
Constitution and the laws. 

In December Congress refused to confirm 
the removal of Secretary Stanton, who 
thereupon resumed the exercise of his of- 
fice; but February 21, 1868, President 
Johnson again attempted to remove him, 
appointing General Lorenzo Thomas in his 
place. Stanton refused to vacate his post, 
and was sustained bj' the Senate. 

February 24 the House of Representa- 
tives voted to impeach the President for 
" high crime and misdemeanors," and March 
5 presented eleven articles of impeachment 
on the ground of his resistance to the exe- 
cution of the acts of Congress, alleging, in 
addition to the offense lately committed, 
his public expressions of contempt for Con- 
gress, in " certain intemperate, inflamma- 
tory and scandalous harangues" pronounced 
in August and September, 1866, and there- 
after declaring that the Thirty-ninth Con- 
gress of the United States was not a 
competent legislative body, and denying 
its power to propose Constitutional amend- 
ments. March 23 the impeachment trial 
began, the President appearing by counsel, 
and resulted in acquittal, the vote lacking 



one of the two-thirds vote required for 
conviction. 

The remainder of President Johnson's 
term of office was passed without any such 
conflicts as might have been anticipated. 
He failed to obtain a nomination for re- 
election by the Democratic party, though 
receiving sixty-five votes on the first ballot. 
July 4 and December 25 new proclamations 
of pardon to the participants in the late 
Rebellion were issued, but were of little 
effect. On the accession of General Grant 
to the Presidency, March 4, 1869, Johnson 
returned to Greenville, Tennessee. Unsuc- 
cessful in 1S70 and 1872 as a candidate re- 
spectively for United States Senator and 
Representative, he was finally elected to the 
Senate in 1875, and took his seat in the extra 
session of March, in which his speeches 
were comparatively temperate. He died 
July 31, 1875, and was buried at Green- 
ville. 

President Johnson's administration was a 
peculiarly unfortunate one. That he should 
so soon become involved in bitter feud with 
the Republican majority in Congress was 
certainly a surprising and deplorable inci- 
dent; yet, in reviewing the circumstances 
after a lapse of so many years, it is easy to 
find ample room for a charitable judgment 
of both the parties in the heated contro- 
versy, since it cannot be doubted that any 
President, even Lincoln himself, had he 
lived, must have sacrificed a large portion 
of his popularity in carrying out any pos- 
sible scheme of reconstruction. 









IS 



sg: 




.M«W5,«1SU^3 



^Lt„ji„a„a^m. 



m^at^^acjjinKjg^ 



Pn«l»^t>l-^M^-Mn 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 














^^^^^^'LYSSES SIMPSON 
'' GRANT, the eight- 
eenth President of the 
United States, i869-'77, 
was born April 27, 1822, 
at Point Pleasant, 
;i^ Clermont County, 
Ohio. His father was of Scotch 
descent, and a dealer in leather. 
At the age of seventeen he en- 
tered the Military Academ}' at 
West Point, and four years later 
graduated twenty-first in a class 
of thirty-nine, receiving the 
commission of Brevet Second 
Lieutenant. He was assigned 
to the Fourth Infantiy and re- 
mained in the army eleven years. He was 
engaged in every battle of the Mexican war 
except that of Buena Vista, and received 
two brevets for gallantry. 

In 184S Mr. Grant married Julia,daughter 
of Frederick Dent, a prominent merchant of 
St. Louis, and in 1S54, having reached the 
giade of Captain, he resigned his commis- 
sion in the army. !'^or several 3'ears he fol- 
lowed fanning near St. Louis, but unsuc- 
cessfully ; and iti 1S60 he entered tiie leather 
trade with his father at Galena, Illinois. 

When the civil war broke out in 1S61, 
Grant was thirtv-nine years of age, but en- 
tirely unknown to public men and without 



any personal acquaintance with great affairs. 
President Lincoln's first call for troops was 
made on the 15th of April, and on the 19th 
Grant was drilling a company of volunteers 
at Galena. He also offered his services to 
the Adjutant-General of the armv, but re- 
ceived no reply. The Governor of Illinois, 
however, employed him in the organization 
of volunteer troops, and at the end of five 
weeks he was appointed Colonel of the 
Twenty-first Infantry. He' took command 
of his regiment in June, and reported first 
to General Pope in Missouri. His superior 
knowledge of military life rather surprised 
his superior officers, who had never before 
even heard of him, and they were thus led 
to place him on the road to rapid advance- 
ment. August 7 he was commissioned a 
Brigadier-General of volunteers, the ap- 
pointment having been made without his 
knowledge. He had been unanimously 
recommended by the Congressmen from 
Illinois, not one of whom had been his 
personal acquaintance. For a few weeks 
he was occupied in watciiing the move- 
ments of partisan forces in Missouri. 

September i he was placed in command 
of the District of Southeast jNIissouri, with 
headquarters at Cairo, and on the 6th, with- 
out orders, he seized Paducah, at the mouth 
of the Tennessee River, and commanding 
the navigation both of that stream and of 



*ia! 




V ^" 'Z,^'^-^ 



»•• = '" T!'=!l 



ULrSSES S. GRAiVT. 



mi 

k 
\f\'> 



k 

I 



S^ 



;S 



ir 
I' 

'la 



the Ohio. This stroke secured Kentucky 
to the Union ; for the State Legislature,, 
which had until then affected to be neutral, 
at once declared in favor of the Govern- 
ment. In November following, according 
to orders, he made a demonstration about 
eighteen miles below Cairo, preventing the 
crossing of hostile troops into Missouri ; 
but in order to accomplish this purpose he 
had to do some fighting, and that, too, with 
only 3,000 raw recruits, against 7,000 Con- 
federates. Grant carried off two pieces of 
artiller}' and 200 prisoners. 

After repeated applications to General 
Halleck, his immediate superior, he was 
allowed, in February, 1862, to move up the 
Tennessee River against Fort Henry, in 
conjunction with a naval force. The gun- 
boats silenced the fort, and Grant immedi- 
ately made preparations to attack Fort 
Donelson, about twelve miles distant, on 
the Cumberland River. Without waiting 
for orders he moved his troops there, and 
with 15,000 men began the siege. The 
fort, garrisoned with 21,000 men, was a 
strong one, but after hard fighting on three 
successive days Grant forced an " Uncon- 
ditional Surrender" (an alliteration upon 
the initials of his name). The prize he capt- 
ured consisted of sixty-five cannon, 17,600 
small arms and 14,623 soldiers. About 4,- 
000 of the garrison had escaped in the night, 
anti 2,500 were killed or wounded. Grant's 
entire loss was less than 2,000. This was the 
first important success won by the national 
troops during the war, and its strategic re- 
sults were marked, as the entire States of 
Kentucky and Tennessee at once fell into the 
National hands. Our hero was made a 
Major-General of Volunteers and placed in 
command of the District of West Ten- 
nessee. 

In March, 1S62, he was ordered to move 
up the Tennessee River toward Corinth, 
where the Confederates were concentrat- 
ing a large army ; but he was rjirectcd not 



to attack. His forces, now numbering 38,- 
000, were accordingly encamped near Shi- 
loh, or Pittsburg Landing, to await the 
arrival of General Buell with 40,000 more; 
but April 6 the Confederates came out from 
Corinth 50,000 strong and attacked Grant 
violently, hoping to overwhelm him before 
Buell could arrive ; 5,000 of his troops were 
be_vond supporting distance, so that he was 
largely outnumbered and forced back to the 
river, where, however, he held out until 
dark, when the head of Buell's column 
came upon the field. The ne.xt day the 
Confederates were driven back to Corinth, 
nineteen miles. The loss was heavy on 
both sides; Grant, being senior in rank to 
Buell, commanded on both days. Two 
days afterward Halleck arrived at the front 
and assumed command of the army, Grant 
remaining at the head of the right wing and 
the reserve. On May 30 Corinth was 
evacuated by the Confederates. In July 
Halleck was made General-in-Chief, and 
Grant succeeded him in command of the 
Department of the Tennessee. September 
19 the battle of luka was fought, where, 
owing to Rosecrans's fault, only an incom- 
plete victory was obtained. 

Next, Grant, with 30,000 men, moved 
d(jwn into Mississippi and threatened Vicks- 
burg, while Sherman, with 40,000 men, was 
sent by way of the river to attack that place 
in front; but, owing to Colonel Murphy's 
surrendering Holly Springs to the Con- 
federates, Grant was so weakened that he 
had to retire to Corinth, and then Sherman 
failed to sustain his intended attack. 

In January, 1863, General Grant took 
command in person of all the troops in the 
Mississippi 'V'alley, and spent several months 
in fruitless attempts to compel the surrender 
or evacuation of Vicksburg; but Julv 4, 
following, the place surrendered, with t,\,- 
600 men and 172 cannon, and the Mississippi 
River thus fell permanently into the hands 
of the Governmejit. Grant was made a 



fa 

IV- 

)!S!» 



% 



m 



)?■■ 



IK^ 



hit 

tm 
ifr, 

i3l-, 

m 



■■^•*gl «W* 



PRESJDEiYT^ UF IHK UNITED STAJES. 



M 



Major-General in the regular army, and in 
October following he was placed in com- 
mand of the Division of the Mississippi. 
The same month he went to Chattanoog-a 
and saved the Army of the Cumberland 
from starvation, and drove Bragg- from that 
part of the country. This victory over- 
threw the last important hostile force west 
of the AUeghanies and opened the way for 
the National armies into Georgia and Sher- 
man's march to the sea. 

The remarkable series of successes which 
Grant had now achieved pointed him out 
as the appropriate leader of the National 
armies, and accordingly, in February, 1S64, 
the rank of Lieutenant-General was created 
for him by Congress, and on March 17 he 
assumed command of the armies of the 
United States. Planning the grand final 
campaign, he sent Sherman into Georgia, 
Sigel into the valley of Virginia, and Butler 
to capture Richmond, while he fought his 
own way from the Rapidan to the James. 
The costly but victorious battles of the 
Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna and 
Cold Harbor were fought, more for the 
purpose of annihilating Lee than to capture 
any particular point. In June, 1S64, the 
siege of Richmond was begun. Sherman, 
meanwhile, was marching and fighting dail}' 
in Georgia and steadily advancing toward 
vVtlanta ; but Sigel had been defeated in the 
valley of Virginia, and was superseded by 
Hunter. Lee sent Early to threaten the Na- 
tional capital ; whereupon Grant gathered 
up a force which he placed under Sheridan, 
and that commander rapidly drove Early, 
inasuccessionof battles, through the valley 
of Virginia and destroyed his army as an 
organized force. The siege of Richmond 
went on, and Grant made numerous attacks, 
but was only partially successful. The 
people of the North grew impatient, and 
even the Government advised him to 
abandon the attempt to take Richmond or 
crush the Confederac\- in that wa^• ; but he 



never wavered. He resolved to " fight it 
out on that line, if it took all summer." 

By September Sherman had made his 
way to Atlanta, and Grant then sent him 
on his famous " march to the sea," a route 
which the chief had designed six months 
before. He made Sherman's success possi- 
ble, not only by holding Lee in front of 
Richmond, but also by sending reinforce- 
ments to Thomas, who then drew off and 
defeated the only army which could have 
confronted Sherman. Thus the latter was 
left unopposed, and, with Thomas and Sheri- 
dan, was used in the furtherance of Grant's 
plans. Each e.\ecuted his part in the great 
design and contributed his share to the re- 
sult at which Grant was aiming. Sherman 
finally reached Savannah, Schofield beat 
the enemy at Franklin, Thomas at Nash- 
ville, and Sheridan wherever he met him ; 
and all this while General Grant was hold- 
ing Lee, with the principal Confederate 
army, near Richmond, as it were chained 
and helpless. Then Schofield was brought 
from the West, and Fort Fisher and Wil- 
mington were captured on the sea-coast, so 
as to afford him a foothold ; from here he 
was sent into the interior of North Caro-, 
Una, and Sherman was ordered to move 
northward to join him. When all this was 
effected, and Sheridan could find no one else 
to fight in the Shenandoah Valle}-, Grant 
brought the cavalry leader to the front of 
Richmond, and, making a last effort, drove 
Lee from his entrenchments and captured 
Richmond. 

At the beginning of the final campaign 
Lee had collected 73,000 fighting men in 
the lines at Richmond, besides the local 
militia and the gunboat crews, amounting 
to 5,000 more. Including Sheridan's force 
Grant had 110,000 men in the works before 
Petersburg and Richmond. Petersburg fell 
on the 2d of April, and Richmond on tl;c 
3d, and Lee fled in the direction of Lynch- 
burg. Grant pursued witii remorseless 



I 













m^K^M^m ^a^sri 



ULrSSES S. GRANT. 






p. 



i 



![a-' 



I 

% 
% 

■13; 

(La- 



energy, only stopping to strike freshi blows, 
and Lee at last found himself not only out- 
fought but also out-marched and out-gen- 
eraled. Being completely surrounded, he 
surrendered on the gth of April, 1S65, at 
x\ppomattox Court-House, in the open field, 
with 27,000 men, all that remained of his 
army. This act virtually ended the war. 
Thus, in ten days Grant had captured 
Petersburg and Richmond, fought, by his 
subordinates, the battles of Five Forks and 
Sailor's Creek, besides numerous smaller 
ones, captured 20,000 men in actual battle, 
and received the surrender of 27,000 more 
at Appomattox, absolutely annihilating an 
army of 70,000 soldiers. 

General Grant returned at once to Wash- 
ington to superintend the disbandment of 
the armies, but this pleasurable work was 
scarcely begun when President Lincoln was 
assassinated. It had doubtless been in- 
tended to inflict the same fate upon Grant ; 
but he, fortunately, on account of leaving 
Washington early in the evening, declined 
an invitation to accompany the President 
to the theater where the murder was com- 
mitted. This event made Andrew Johnson 
President, but left Grant by far the most 
conspicuous figure in the public life of the 
country. He became the object of an en- 
thusiasm greater than had ever been known 
in America. Every possible honor was 
heaped upon him ; the grade of General 
was created loi' him by Congress; houses 
were presented to him by citizens; towns 
were illuminated on his entrance into them ; 
and, to cap the climax, when he made his 
tour around the world, "all nations did him 
honor" as they had never before honored 
a foreigner. 

The General, as Commander-in-Chief, 
was placed in an embarrassing position by 
the opposition of President Johnson to the 
measures of Congress : but he directly man- 
ifested his characteristic loyalty by obeying 
Congress rather than the disaffected Presi- 



dent, although for a short time he had 
served in his cabinet as Secretary of War. 

Of course, everybody thought of General 
Grant as the next President of the United 
States, and he was accordingly elected as 
such in 1 868 "by a large majority," and 
four years later re-elected by a much larger 
majority — the most overwhelming ever 
given by the people of this country. His first 
administration was distinguished by a ces- 
sation of the strifes which sprang from the 
war, by a large reduction of the National 
debt, and by a settlement of the difficulties 
with England which had grown out of the 
depredations committed by privateers fit- 
ted out in England during the war. This 
last settlement was made by the famous 
" Geneva arbitration," which saved to this 
Government $1 5,000,000, but, more than all, 
prevented a war with England. "Let us 
have peace," was Grant's motto. And this 
is the most appropriate place to remark 
that above all Presidents whom this Gov- 
ernment has ever had, General Grant was 
the most non-partisan. He regarded the 
Executive office as purely and exclusively 
executive of the laws of Congress, irrespect- 
ive of "politics." But every great man 
has jealous, bitter enemies, a fact Grant 
was well aware of. 

After the close of his Presidency, our 
General made his famous tour around the 
world, already referred to, and soon after- 
ward, in company with Ferdinand Ward, 
of New York City, he engaged in banking 
and stock brokerage, which business was 
made disastrous to Grant, as well as to him- 
self, by his rascality. By this time an in- 
curable cancer of the tongue developed 
itself in the person of the afflicted ex- 
President, which ended his unrequited life 
July 2j. 1SS5. Thus passed auav from 
earth's turmoils tlie man, the General, who 
was as truly the " father of this regenerated 
country" as was Washington the father of 
the infant nation. 






■g'-»i"»i — j' 



Vi\) 



m 



P/IES/DEM rS OF THE UNITED S'/ATES. 



mm^^^'- 






"sssasssMsafffi^KHsaafsssSi 



i^Hl'^E^ffi^^ElloEt) B. ^^¥^s,->i^ 



^"^^l^^i^ 







w 

I 

i 

i 




UTHERFORD BIRCH- 
ARD HAYES, the nine- 
teenth President of 
the United States, 
i877-'Si, was born in 
,'^ Delaware, Ohio, Oc- 
'^''^§^'' tober 4, 1822. His 
ancestry can be traced as far 
back as 1280, when Hayes and 
Rutherford were two Scottish 
chieftains fighting side by side 
with Baliol, William Wallace 
and Robert Bruce. Both fami- 
ies belonged to the nobility, 
owned extensive estates and had 
a large following. The Hayes 
family had, for a coat of-arms, a 
shield, barred and surmounted by a flying 
eagle. There was a circle of stars about 
the eagle and above the shield, while on a 
scroll underneath the shield was inscribed 
the motto, "Recte." Misfortune overtaking 
the family, George Hayes left Scotland in 
16S0, and settled in Windsor, Connecticut. 
Me was an industrious \vorker in wood and 
iron, having a mechanical genius and a cul- 
tivated mind. His son Gcoigc was born 
In Windsor and remainctl there during his 
life. 

Daniel Hayes, son of the latter, married 
Saiali Lcc, and lived in Simsbui-v, Con 



necticut. Ezekiel, son of Daniel, was born 
in 1724, and was a manufacturer of sc3'thes 
at Bradford, Connecticut. Rutherford 
Hayes, son of Ezekiel and grandfather of 
President Hayes, was bora in New Haven, 
in August, 1756. He was a famous black- 
smith and tavern-keeper. He immigrated to 
Vermont at an unknown date, settling in 
Brattleboro where he established a hotel. 
Here his son Rutherford, father of Presi- 
dent Hayes, was born. In September, 1S13, 
he married Sophia Birchard, of Wilming- 
ton, Vermont, whose ancestry on the male 
side is traced back to 1635, to John Birch- 
ard, one of the principal founders of Nor- 
wich. Both of her grandfathers were 
soldiers in the Revolutionary war. 

The father of President Ha\-es was of a 
mechanical turn, and could mend a plow, 
knit a stocking, or do almost anything that 
he might undertake. He was prosperous 
in business, a member of the church and 
active in all the benevolent enterprises of 
the town. After the close of the war of 1S12 
he immigrated to Ohio, and purchased a 
farm near the present town of Delaware. 
His family then consisted of his wife and 
two children, and an orphan girl whom he 
had adopted. 

It was in 1817 that the family arrived at 
Delaware. Instead of scttlinir upon his 



m 



(L^ 



«lf 



'<a"'^«'pi'«:!P ' 



S^H^H^HHi 




S Jl^C^^ 



'f(,mc- 



■y^ 



■ g^a,. Jti j-mJ' jc'J^ 



.a„j^,a^a^j^j»ajg;; 



513^33^5^? 



RUTHERFORD P. HAYES. 



farm, Mr. Il.iyes coiicluiicd to enter into 
business in the villag-e. He purchased an 
interest in a distillery, a business then as re- 
spectable as it was profitable. His capital 
and recognized ability assured him the 
highest social position in the communit\-. 
He died July 22, 1S22, less than three 
months before the birth of the son that was 
di=stined to fill the office of President of the 
United States. 

Mrs. Haves at this period was very weak, 
and the subject of this sketch was so feeble 
at birth that he was not e.xpected to live 
beyond a month or two at most. As the 
months went bv he grew weakerand weaker 
so that the neighbors were in the habit of 
inquiring from time to time "if Mrs. 
Hayes's baby died last night." On one oc- 
casion a neighbor, who was on friendly 
terms with the famih , after alluding to the 
boy's big head and the mother's assiduous 
care of him, said to her, in a bantering wav, 
"That's right! Stick to him. You have 
got him along so far, and I shouldn't won- 
der if he would reallv come to something 
yet." " You need not laugh," said Mrs. 
Hayes, " vou wait and see. You can't tell 
but I shall make him President of the 
United States yet." 

The boy lived, in spite of the universal 
predictions of his speedy de?.th; and when, 
in 1.S25, his elder brother was drowned, he 
became, if possible, still dearer to liis mother. 
He was seven vears old before he was 
place(l in school. His education, however, 
was not neglected. His sports were almost 
wholly within doors, his plavmates being 
his sister and her associates. These circum- 
stances tended, no tloubt, to foster that 
gentleness of disposition and that delicate ; 
consideration [ov the feelings of others 
which are marked traits of hi-; character. 
At school ho was ardentlv devoted to his 
=tudics, obedient to the teacher, and care- 
la! to avoid the quarrels in \vliicli manv of 
lii'i «elioi)linates were inv(>l\iMl. He was 



always waiting at the school-house door 
when it opened in the morning, and never 
late in returning to his seat at recess. His 
sister Fannie was his constant companion, 
and their affection for each other excited 
the admiration of their friends. 

In 1S38 3'oung Hayes entered Kenyon 
College and graduated in 1842. He then 
began the study of law in the office of 
Thomas Sparrow at Columbus. His health 
was now well established, his figure robust, 
his mind vigorous and alert. In a short 
time he determined to enter the law school 
at Cambridge, Massachusetts, where for 
two years he pursued his studies with great 
diligence. 

In 1845 he was admitted to the bar ai 
Marietta, Oliio, and shortly afterward went 
into practice as an attorney-at-law with 
Ralph P. Buckland, of Fremont. Here he 
remained three years, acquiring but limited 
practice, and apparently unambitious ol 
distinction in his profession. His bachelor 
uncle, Sardis Birchard, who had always 
manifested great interest in his nephew and 
rendered him assistance in boyhood, was 
now a wealthy banker, and it was under- 
stood that the young man would be his 
heir. It is possible that this expectation 
ma\- have made Mr. Hayes more indifferent 
to the attainment of wealth than he would 
otherwise have been, but he was led into no 
extravagance or vices on this account. 

In 1S49 1^^ removed to Cincinnati where 
!iis ambition found new stimulus. Two 
events occurring at tliis period had a pow- 
erful influence upon his subsequent life. 
One of them was his marriage to Miss 
Lucy \Vare Webb, daughter of Dr. James 
Webb, of Cincinnati; the other was his 
introduction to the Cincinnati Literary 
Club, a body embracing such men as Chief 
Justice Salmon P. Chase, General Jolm 
l\)pe and Guvernor Edward F. Novcr. 
The marriage was a fortunate one asever\- 
bodv knows. Not one of all the wives of 



I 



i 

i 
i 



i 
1 

p> 






'■!^--°-C1-"-»^ 



.a^aaaraw; 



,B.,r„»„^^J I ^axa':^^ -!iiJ*'a»m^<B^tm ^aiS^a-m' ' Jtsaci, ' -aaa^Sl^aaJta3 S ; 



ir/y 



PliESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



our Presidents -.vas more universally ad- 
mired, reverenced and beloved than is Mrs. 
Hayes, and no one has done more than she 
to reflect honor upon American woman- 
hood. 

In 1S56 JNIr. Hayes was nominated to the 
office of Judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas, but declined to accept the nomina- 
tion. Two years later he was chosen to the 
ofTice of City Solicitor. 

In 1S61, when the Rebellion broke out, 
he was eager to take up arms in the defense 
of his country. His military life was 
bright and illustrious. June 7, 1S61, he 
was appointed Major of the Twentv-third 
Ohio Infantry. In July the regiment was 
sent to Virginia. October 15, 1861, he was 
made Lieutenant-Colonel of his regiment, 
and in August, 1S62, was promoted Colonel 
of the Seventy-ninth Ohio Regiment, but 
refused to leave his old comrades. He was 
wounded at the battle of South Mountain, 
and suffered severely, being unable to enter 
upon active duty for several weeks. No- 
vember 30, 1S62, he rejoined his regiment as 
its Colonel, having been promoted Octo- 
ber 15. 

December 25, 1862, he was placed in com- 
mand of the Kanawha division, and for 
meritorious service in several battles was 
promoted Brigadier-General. He was also 
brevetted Major-General for distinguished 



services in 1S64. He was wounded four 
times, and five horses were shot from 
under him. 

Mr. Hayes was first a Whig in politics, 
and was among the first to unite with the 
Free-Soil and Republican parties. In 1864 
he was elected to Congress from the Sec- 
ond Ohio District, which had always been 
Democratic, receiving a majority of 3,098. 
In 1866 he was renominated for Congress 
and was a second time elected. In 1867 he 
was elected Governor over Allen G. Thur- 
man, the Democratic candidate, and re- 
elected in 1869. In 1874 Sardis Birchard 
died, leaving his large estate to General 
Hayes. 

In 1876 he was nominated for the Presi- 
dency. His letter of acceptance e.xcited 
the admiration of the whole country. He 
resigned the office of Governor and retired 
to his home in Fremont to await the result 
of the canvass. After a hard, long contest 
he was inaugurated March 5, 1877. His 
Presidency was characterized by compro- 
mises with all parties, in order to please as 
many as possible. The close of his Presi- 
dential term in 1881 was the close of his 
public life, and since then he has remained 
at his home in Fremont, Ohio, in Jefferso- 
nian retirement from public notice, in strik- 
ing contrast with most others of the world's 
notables. 



y.t.tfES A. GARFIELD. 



.M.^atjJ^ii'fltH'J'^ 






'I 



I 













[-.tj*^;! (i^,1 1**-^ ^^ii^) 



r:v:-T^gL--'^AV-V'V^l:^ 



^r^--x:^^S^S^yv:\'i;r5-'^''^-^^^At^V-'Xi-^ 



'j .A-w,^ .:: ^-'^^ 



^•IdE&S 4^ <i4lif]t^lk®'<5^ 



ass:^5 



1^^ 



(Si'it:yiapi!£»'(a.'isS'iS}'^(Vj 



r^-?5?(i^^^:gfe^Tg!aa'^^'ai^??iJsajf?^"ai 



^t;)<&t£gi<^>s§i>^j<^ut«itsgi- 



i% 



-^^f 




'AMES A. GARFIELD, 
twentieth President of 
the United States, iSSi, 
was born November 19, 
1 83 1, in the wild woods 
of Cuyahoga Count}', 
Ohio. His parents were 
Abram and Eliza (Ballon) 
Garfield, whi5 were of New 
England ancestrv. The 
senior Garfield was an in- 
dustrious farmer, as the 
rapid impro\-ements which 
appeared on his place at- 
tested. The residence was 
the familiar pioneer log cabin, 
and the household comprised the parents 
and their children — Mehetablc, Thomas, 
Mar}- and James A. In INIay, 1S33, the 
father died, and the care of the house- 
hold consequently devolved upon 3-oung 
Thomas, to whom James was greatly in- 
debted for the educational and other ad- 
vantages he enjiivcd. He now lives in 
Michigan, and th.e two sisters live in Solon, 
Ohio, near their birthplace. 

As the subject uf our sketch grew up. he, 
loo, was industriiius, both in mental and 
physical labor. He worked upon the farm, 
nr at carpentering, or chopped wood, or at 
any other odd job that would aid in support 
of the family, and in the meantime made the 



most of his books. Ever afterward he was 
never ashamed of his humble origin, nor for- 
got the friends of his youth. The poorest 
laborer was sure of his sympathy, and he 
always exhibited the character of a modest 
gentleman. 

Until he was about si.xteen years of age, 
James's highest ambition was to be a lake 
captain. To this his mother was strongly 
opposed, but she finally consented to his 
going to Cleveland to carry out his long- 
cherished design, with the understanding, 
however, that he should try to obtain some 
other kind of emploj'ment. He walked all 
the way to Cleveland, and this was his first 
visit to the city. After making many ap- 
plications for work, including labor on 
board a lake vessel, but all in vain, he 
finalh' engaged as a driver for his cousin, 
Amos Letcher, on the Ohio & Pennsyl- 
vania Canal. In a short time, however, he 
quit this and returned home. He then at- 
tended the seminary at Chester for about 
three years, and next he entered Hiram In- 
stitute, a school started in 1850 by the 
Disciples of Christ, of which church he was 
a member. In order to pay his way he 
assumed the duties of janitor, and at times 
taught school. He soon completed the cur- 
riculum there, and then entered Williams 
College, at which he graduated in 1856, 
taking one of the highest honors of his class. 



?&! 



sSi 






V3\ 



m 

y.ti 

% 

I 

fli 



If 



m'> 



mi 

3li 



BiM -M« njg7 



55C55S»iS»™3QiM«? 



ajaMsn-sB 



ag JgijaawB J»f*1l^»«-»»*»*J^g^Jd^^ Ji 






PnES/DB,VTS OF THE U.VTTED STATES. 



%\ 



m 



tw 



i 

■PJ' 

I 

i! 
11 






Afterward he returned to Hiram as Presi- 
dent. In his youthful and therefore zealous 
piety, he exercised his talents occasionally 
as a preacher of the Gospel. He was a 
man of strong moral and religious convic- 
tions, and as soon as he began to look into 
politics, he saw innumerable points that 
could be improved. He also studied law, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1S59. 
November 11, 1858, Mr. Garfield married 
Miss Lucretia Rudolph, who ever after- 
ward proved a worthy consort in all the 
stages of her husband's career. They had 
seven children, five of whom are still living. 

It was in 1859 that Garfield made his 
first political speeches, in Hiram and the 
neighboring villages, and three years later 
he began to speak at county mass-meetings, 
being received everywhere with popular 
favor. He was elected to the State Senate 
this vear, taking his seat in January, i860. 

On the breaking out of the war of the 
Rebellion in 1861, Mr. Garfield resolved to 
fight as he had talked, and accordingly he 
enlisted to defend the old fiag, receiving 
his commission as Lieutenant-Colonel of the 
Fortv-second Regiment of the Ohio Volun- 
teer Infantry, August 14, that year. He 
was immediately thrown into active service, 
and before he had ever seen a gun fired in 
action he was placed in command of four 
regiments of infantr\- and eight companies 
of cavalry, charged with the work of driv- 
ing the Confederates, headed by Humphrey 
M;irshall, from his native State, Kentucky. 
This task was speedily accomplished, al- 
though against great odds. On account of 
his success. President Lincoln commissioned 
him Brigadier-General, January 11, 1862; 
and, as he had been the youngest man in 
the Ohio Senate two years before, so now 
111- was the voiingcst General in the arniv. 
lie was with General Buell's arniv at Slii- 
liili.also in its operations around Corinth 
a;!.l its march tlu-ough Alah.inia. Next, he 
NV.1-. detailed as a member "f the iicneral 



court-martial for the trial of General Fitz- 
Jnhn Porter, and then ordered to report to 
General Rosectans, when he was assigned 
to the position of Chief of Staff. His mili- 
tary history closed with his brilliant ser- 
vices at Chickamauga, where he won the 
stars of Major-General. 

In the fall of 1S62, without any effort on 
his part, he was elected as a Representative 
to Congress, from that section of Ohio 
which had been represented for si.xtv years 
mainly by two men — Elisha \Vhittlese3' and 
Joshua R. Giddings. Again, he was the 
youngest member of that body, and con- 
tinued there by successive re-elections, as 
Representative or Senator, until he was 
elected President in 1880. During his life 
in Congress he compiled and published by 
his speeches, there and elsewhere, more 
information on the issues of the day, espe- 
cially on one side, than any other membei'. 

June 8, 1880, at the National Republican 
Convention held in Chicago, General Gar- 
field was nominated for the Presidency, in 
preference to the old war-horses, Blaine 
and Grant ; and although many of the Re- 
publican party felt sore over the failure of 
their respective heroes to obtain the nomi- 
nation, General Garfield was elected by a 
fair popular majorit}-. He was duly in- 
augurated, but on July 2 following, before 
he had fairly got started in his administra- 
tion, he was fatally shot by a half-demented 
assassin. After very painful and protracted 
suffering, he died September 19, 1881, la- 
mented by all the American people. Never 
before in the history of this country had 
anvthing occurred which so nearly froze 
the blood of the Nation, for the moment, as 
the awful act of Guiteau, the murderer. 
He was dulv tried, convicted and put to 
death on the gallows. 

Tlie lamented Garfield was succeeded bv 
the Vice-President. General Arthur, who 
seemed to endeavor to carry out the policy 
inaugurated by his predecessor. 



11 

il 

m 



k 

¥ 



i=H^if=ia3 



-J^JJ^Jq-lM — ^^M..IUa Jll*M^a^M.api.ai^ 



CHESTER A. ARTHVll. 



«-pi»eo..«— a^JJ 



■■■■l^aM^JtSa^ 



IS; 






I 



^31 









0"! 



!3 i 

I?: 

3j( 

<IS: 

i 

i; 

'la 









^WllCMESl'EMAoAM^MUMoiitt^- 





•r^HESTER ALLEN 
ARTHUR, the twen- 
tv-first Chief Execu- 
tive of this growing 
republic, iSSi-'5, was 
born in Franklin 
County, Vermont, 
5, 1S30, the eldest of a 
familv of two sons and five 
daughters. His father. Rev. 
Dr. William Arthur, a Baptist 
clergvman, immigrated to this 
country from County Antrim, 
Ireland, in his eighteenth year, 
and died in 1875, in Newton- 
ville, near Albany, New York, 
after serving manv years as a successful 
minister. Chester A. was educated at that 
old, ci^nservative institution. Union Col- 
lege, at Schenectady, New York, where he 
excelled in all his studies. He graduated 
there, with honor, and then struck out in 
life for himself by teaching school for about 
two years in his native State. 

At the expiration of that time young 
Arthur, with S300 in his purse, went to the 
city of New York and entered the law office 
of ex-Judge E. D. Culver as a student. In 
due time he was admitted to the bar, wi;cn 
he formed a partnership with liis intimate 



friend and old room-mate, Henry D. Gar- 
diner, with the intention of practicing law 
at some point in the West; but after spend- 
ing about three months in the Wester.. 
States, in search of an eligible place, they 
returned to New York City, leased a room, 
exhibited a sign of their business and al- 
most immediately enjoyed a paying patron- 
age. 

At this stage of his career Mr. Arthur's 
business prospects were so encouraging 
that he concluded to take a wife, and ac- 
cordingly he married the daughter of Lieu- 
tenant Herndon, of the United States Navy, 
who had been lost at sea. To the widow 
of the latter Congress voted a gold medal, 
in recognition of the Lieutenant's bravery 
during the occasion in which he lost his 
life. Mrs. Artnur died shortly before her 
husband's nomination to the Vice-Presi- 
dency, leaving two children. 

Mr. Arthur obtained considerable celeb- 
rity as an attorney in the famous Lemmon 
suit, which was brought to recover posses- 
sion of eight slaves, who had been declared 
free by the Superior Court of New York 
City. The noted Charles O'Conor, who 
was nominated bv the "Straight Demo- 
fiats" in iSjJ iov the United States Presi- 
dencv, was retained bv Jonathan G. Lem- 



(5 



w. 



g^ ^■a»«**^> 



'-\i; 



,s'. 



m 



a^M — ShOI-, j!,. 



.'B^H-S^.a, 



Presidents of the united states. 



mon, of Virginia, to recover the negroes, 
but he lost the suit. In this case, however, 
Mr. Arthur was assisted by WilHam M. 
Evarts, now United States Senator. Soon 
afterward, in 1856, a respectable, colored 
woman was ejected from a street car in 
New York City. Mr. Arthur sued the car 
company in her behalf and recovered $500 
damages. Immediatel}- afterward all the 
car companies in the city issued orders to 
their employes to admit colored persons 
upon their cars. 

Mr. Arthur's political doctrines, as well 
as his practice as a lawyer, raised him to 
prominence in the party of freedom; and 
accordingly he was sent as a delegate to 
the first National Republican Convention. 
Soon afterward he was appointed Judge 
Advocate for the Second Brigade of the 
State of New York, and then Engineer-in- 
Chief on Governor Morgan's staff. In 1S61, 
the first year of the war, he was made In- 
spector-General, and ne.xt, Quartermaster- 
General, in both which offices he rendered 
great service to the Government. Alter 
the close of Governor Morgan's term he 
resumed the practice of law, forming first a 
partnership with Mr. Ransom, and subse- 
quently adding Mr. Phelps to the firm. 
Each of these gentlemen were able law3'ers. 

November 21, 1S72, General Arthur was 
appointed Collector of the Port of New 
York by President Grant, and he held the 
office until July 20, 1S78. 

The next event of prominence in General 
Arthur's career was his nomination to the 
Vice-Presidency of the United States, under 
the influence of Roscoe Conkling, at the 
National Republican Convention held at 
Chicago in June, i.SSo, wlien James A. Gar- 
field was placed at the head of the ticket. 
Both the convention and the campaign that 
followed were noisy and exciting. Th.e 
friends of Grant, constituting nearly half 



the convention, were exceedingly persist- 
ent, and were sorely disappomted over 
their defeat. At the head of the Demo- 
cratic ticket was placed a very strong and 
popular man ; yet Garfield and Arthur were 
elected by a respectable plurality of the 
pi^pular vote. The 4th of Ivlarch following, 
these gentlemen were accordingly inaugu- 
rated ; but within four months the assassin's 
bullet made a fatal wound in the person of 
General Garfield, whose life terminated 
September 19, 1881, when General Arthur, 
ex officio, was obliged to take the chief 
reins of government. Some misgivings 
were entertained by many in this event, as 
Mr. Arthur was thought to represent espe 
cially the Grant and Conkling wing of the 
Republican party ; but President Arthur 
had both the ability and the good sense to 
allay all fears, and he gave the restless, 
critical American people as good an ad- 
ministration as they had ever been blessed 
with. Neither selfishness nor low parti- 
sanism ever characterized any feature of 
his public service. He ever maintained a 
high sense of every individual right as well 
as of the Nation's honor. Indeed, he stood 
so high that his successor, President Cleve- 
land, though of opposing politics, expressed 
a wish in his inaugural address that he 
could only satisfy the people with as good 
an administration. 

But the day of civil service reform had 
come in so far, and the corresponding re- 
action against " third-termism" had en- 
croached so far even upon "second-term" 
service, that the Republican partv saw fit 
in 1 884 to nominate anothci' man for Presi- 
dent. Only by this means was General 
Arthur's tenure of office closed at Wash- 
ington. On his retirement from the Presi- 
dency, ilarcli, l^S.5, he cncraged in tl;c 
practice of law at ^cw lork City, where ho 
i died ^'ovenilier 1^. l^Ml 



m 







ROVER CLEVE- 
LAND, the twenty- 
second President of the 
United States, 1SS5— , 
was born in Caldwell, 
Essex Count}', New 
Jersey, March 18, 
The house in which he 
was born, a small two-story 
wooden building, is still stand- 
L ing. It was the parsonage of 
the Presbyterian church, of 
which his father, Richard 
Cleveland, at the time was 
pastor. The family is of New 
England origin, and for two centuries has 
contributed to the professions and to busi- 
ness, men who have reflected honor on the 
name. Aaron Cleveland, Grover Cleve- 
land's great-great-grandfather, was born in 
Massachusetts, but subsequentlv moved to 
Philadelphia, where he became an intimate 
friend of Benjamin Franklin, at whose 
house he died. He left a large family of 
children, who in time married and settled 
in different parts of New England. A 
grandson was one of the small American 
force that fought the British at Bunker 
Mill. He served with gallantry through- 
out the Revolution and was honorably 
discharged at its close as a Lieutenant in 
the Continental army. Another grandson, 
William Cleveland (a son of a second Aaron 



Cleveland, who was distinguished as a 
writer and member of the Connecticut 
Legislature) was Grover Cleveland's grand- 
father. William Cleveland became a silver- 
smith in Norwich, Connecticut. He ac- 
quired by industry some property and sent 
his son. Richard Cleveland, the father of 
Grover Cleveland, to Yale College, where 
he graduated in 1824. During a year spent 
in teaching at Baltimore, Maryland, after 
graduation, he met and fell in love with a 
Miss Annie Neale, daughter of a wealthy 
Baltimore book publisher, of Irish birth. 
He was earning his own way in the world 
at the time and was unable to marry; but 
in three years he completed a course of 
preparation for the ministry, secured a 
church in Windham, Connecticut, and 
married Annie Neale. Subsequently he 
moved to Portsmouth, Virginia, where he 
preached for nearly two years, when he 
was summoned to Caldwell, New Jersev, 
where was born Grover Cleveland. 

When he was three years old the familv 
moved to Fayetteville, Onondaga County, 
New York. Here Grover Cleveland lived 
until he was fourteen years old, the rugged, 
healthful life of a country boy. His frank, 
generous manner made him a favorite 
among his companions, and their respect 
was won by the good qualities in the germ 
which his manhood developed. He at- 
tended the district school of the villatre and 






mi 

i 

(31, 



..M 



I 









a~,!3-W.I' 



PRESIDEMTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



m. 



m 









was for a short time at the academy. His 
lather, however, believed that boys should 
be taught to labor at an early age, and be- 
fore he had completed the course of study 
at the academy he began to work in the 
village store at $50 for the first year, and the 
promise of §ioo for the second year. His 
work was well done and the promised in- 
crease of pay was granted the second year. 

Meanwhile his father and family had 
moved to Clinton, the seat of Hamilton 
College, ^vhere his father acted as agent to 
the Presbvterian Board of H(5me Missions, 
preaching in the churches of the vicinity. 
Hither Grover came at his father's request 
shortly after the beginning of his second 
year at the Fayetteville store, and resumed 
his studies at the Clinton Academy. After 
three years spent in this town, the Rev. 
Richard Cleveland was called to the vil- 
lage church of Holland Patent. He had 
preached here only a month when he was 
suddenly stricken down and died without 
an hour's warning. The death of the father 
left the family in straitened circumstances, 
as Richard Cleveland had spent all his 
salary of S'.ooo per year, which was not 
required for the necessary expenses of liv- 
ing, upon the education of his children, of 
whom there were nine, Grover being the 
fifth. Grover was hoping to enter Hamil- 
ton College, but the death of his father 
made it necessary for him to earn his own 
livelihood. For the first year (i853-'4) he 
acted as assistant teacher and bookkeeper in 
the Institution for the Blind in New Y(5rk 
City, of which the late Augustus Schell was 
for manv years the patron. In the winter 
of 1S54 he returned \.o Holland Patent^ 
where the generous peijple of that place, 
Favetteville and Clinton, had purchased a 
home for his mother, and in the following 
spi'ing, borrowing S-5. he set out for the 
West to earn his living. 

Reaching Buffalo he paid a hasty visit to 
an uncle, Lewis F. Allen, a well-known 



stock farmer, living at Black Rock, a few 
miles distant. He communicated his plans 
to Mr. Allen, who discouraged the idea of 
the West, and finallv induced the enthusi- 
astic boy of seventeen to remain with him 
and help him prepare a catalogue of blooded 
short-horn cattle, known as " Allen's Amer- 
ican Herd Book," a publication familiar to 
all breeders of cattle. In August, 1855, he 
entered the law office of Rogers, Bowen 
& Rogers, at Buffalo, and after serving a 
few months without pay, was paid $4 a 
week — an amount barely sufficient to meet 
the necessary expenses of his board in the 
famil}' of a fellow-student in Buffalo, with 
whom he took lodgings. Life at this tiine 
with Grover Cleveland was a stern battle 
with the world. He took his breakfast bv 
candle-light with the drovers, and went at 
once to the office where the whole day was 
spent in work and study. Usually he re- 
turned again at night to resume reading 
which had been interrupted by the duties 
of the day. Gradually his employers came 
to recognize the ability, trustworthiness 
and capacity for hard work in their young 
employe, and by the time he was admitted 
to the bar (1859) he stood high in their con- 
fidence. A year later he was made confi- 
dential and managing clerk, and in the 
course of three 3ears more his salary had 
been raised to §1,000. In 1863 he was ap- 
pointed assistant district attorney of Erie 
County by the district attoniev, the Hon. 
C. C. Torrance. 

Since his first vote had been cast in 1S5S 
he had been a staunch Democrat, and until 
he was chosen Governor he always made 
it his dutv, rain or shine, to stand at the 
p<ills and give out ballots to Democratic 
voters. During the first \ear of his term 
as assistant district attorney, the Democrats 
desired espcciallv tii carry the Board of Su- 
pervisors. The old Sccontl Ward in which 
he lived v.-as Republican- ordinarily bv 250 
majority, but at the urgent lequcst of the 



'Pi 






I 



i 

k 



m 






til; 



tilt 
(IB; 



/la 

<3J 






il3: 



party Grover Cleveland consented to be 
the Democratic candidate for Supervisor, 
and came within thirteen votes of an elec- 
tion. The three years spent in the district 
attorney's ofifice were devoted to assiduous 
labor and the extension of his professional 
attainments. He then formed a law part- 
nership with the late Isaac V. Vanderpoel, 
ex-State Treasurer, under the firm name 
of Vanderpoel & Cleveland. Here the bulk 
of the work devolved on Cleveland's shoul- 
ders, and he soon won a good standing at 
the bar of Erie County. In 1S69 Mr. 
Cleveland formed a partnership with ex- 
Senati;r A. P. Laning and ex-Assistant 
United States District Attorney Oscar Fol- 
som, under the firm name of Laning, Cleve- 
land & Folsom. During these years he 
began to earn a moderate professional in- 
come; but the larger portion of it was sent 
to his mother and sisters at Holland Patent 
to whose support he had contributed ever 
since i860. He served as sheriff of Erie 
Count v, iS70-'4, and then resumed the 
practice of law, associating himself with the 
Hon. Lvniaii K.. Bass and Wilson S. Bissell. 



The firm was strong and popular, and soon 
commanded a large and lucrative practice. 
Ill health forced the retirement of Mr. Bass 
in 1879, and the firm became Cleveland & 
Bissell. In 1S81 Mr. George J. Sicard was 
added to the firm. 

In the autumn election of 1S81 he was 
elected mayor of Buffalo by a majority of 
over 3.500 — the largest majority ever given 
a candidate for mayor — and the Democratic 
city ticket was successful, although the 
Republicans carried Buffalo by over 1,000 
majority for their State ticket. Grover 
Cleveland's administration as mayor fully 
justified the confidence reposed in him by 
the people of Buffalo, evidenced by the 
great vote he received. 

The Democratic State Convention met 
at Syracuse, September 22, 18S2, and nomi- 
nated Grover Cleveland for Governor 
on the third ballot and Cleveland was 
elected by 192,000 majority. In the fall of 
1 884 he was elected President of the United 
States by about 1,000 popular majority, 
in New York State, and he was accordingly 
inaugurated the 4th of March following. 



i 






ill* 



pi 

i 
I 

Ik 

n 

i 

tip 

5a' 

tSli 

11 






,ji„ai~,jr; 



SJ?5H5?S5H5i 



^^-u.u. 






;i: 



■? 







if 

W 
m 
mi 

M) 

m 
'Li' 



!|i,-,- 



<r:i 






t |. ia,n i ^M...»„M_j^j..»„j.^a^j„a„a i ..«„ ■ „■, Ai»ij„»„a „«^ 



$ 
ill 



ii 



m 




i 

i 



mi 



it] 

ill 



(lai 



HISTORY OF INDIANA 



^-^i^^^^ 




I 

i 



II 



ipji 




I 
:a ■ 






■»-"-a«-ai»M^ 



l3±iXL=.2a:f 



, S V3 ^ W^3^ 



,H«xi-,a.tif« 



^>a*'-q-*w' 



■■ia™ga"q"«^ 



W*»"w«»^»fflaJg^^lJ 



.I^TaLT^a' 



■a-gqJ^-T-g 













?|3 



K»j.»»iJ» — ■Ul^ ^..»..Jn««»«io.»'Mmji« 



»'*J"W™-«-«m'J< 



!?]; 






!l! 



'^^i 



HiSTOiiY OF lyniAyA. 




t 

i 



^ll 



i-imMs® m^msw^mi 



m 



It 









i 









PREHISTO 

^^i^^^^^^CIENTISTS have as 
'iS^^^^^S^lw' cribed to the Mouiul 
Builders varied origins, 
and though tlieir diver- 
gence of opinion may for 
a time seem incompati- 
ble with a thorough in- 
vestigation of the subject, and 
tend to a confusion of ideas, no 
doubt wliatever can exist as to 
the comparative accuracy of 
conclusions arrived at by some 
of them. That this continent is 
co-existent with the world of 
the ancients cannot be ques- 
tioned; the results of all scieu- 
titic investigations, down to the present time, 
combine to establish the fact of the co-exist- 
enco of the two continents Historians and 
learned men difler as to the origin of the first 
iidiabitants of the New World; the general 
conclusions arrived at are, that the ancients 
came from the east by way of Eeliring's 
Strait, subseijuent to the confusion of tongues 
and dispersion of the inhabitants at the time 
of the construction of the Tower of Babel, 
1757 A. it. The ancient mounds and earth- 
worlcs scattered over the entire continent tend 




PJC RACES. 

to confirm the theory that the Mound Build- 
ers were people who had been engaged in 
raising elevations prior to their advent upon 
this continent. They possessed religious 
orders corresponding, in external show, at 
least, with the Essenes or Theraputte of the 
pre-Christian and Christian epochs, and to 
the reformed Theraputis, or monks, of the 
present. 

Every memento of their coming and their 
stay which has descended to us is an evidence 
of their civilized condition. 

Tlie free copper found within the tumuli, 
the open veins of the Superior and Iron 
Mountain copper mines, with all the imple- 
ments of ancient mining, such as ladders, 
levers, chisels and hammer-heads, discovered 
l.)y the explorers of the Northwest and the 
Mississipjii, are conclusive proofs that these 
prehistoric people were highly civilized, and 
that many flourishing colonies were spread 
throughout the Mississippi Valley. 

Within the last few years great advances 
lia\e been maile toward the discovery of an- 
tiquities, whether pertaining to remains of 
orcranic or inorganic nature. Toi;:ether witli 
many small but telling relics of the early 
inhal.iitants i.f tln^ couiitrv, tln^ foi-jls of pre- 






iist 

It 
m 



I 'J I 



HISTORY OF INDIA]^'A. 



1 



i 



historic unimals lui\-e been unearthed I'roui 
end to end of this continent, many of which 
are remains of enormous animals long since 
extinct, ilany writers who have devoted 
their lives to the investigation of the origin 
of the ancient inhabitants of this continent, 
and from whence they came, have lixed a 
period of a second immigration a few centu- 
ries prior to the Christian era, and, unlike 
the first expeditions, to have traversed North- 
eastern Asia to its Arctic confines, then east 
to Behring's Strait, thus reaching the New 
World by the same route as the first immi- 
gi'ants, and, after many years' residence in the 
North, pushed southward and commingled 
with and soon acquired the characteristics of 
the descendants of the first colonists. 

The Esquimaux of North America, the 
Samoieds of Asia and the Laplanders of Eu- 
rope are supposed to be of the same family; 
and this supposition is strengthened by the 
affinity which exists in their languages. The 
researches of Humboldt have traced the Mex- 
icans to the vicinity of Behring's Strait; 
whence it is conjectured that they, as well as 
the Peruvians and other tribes, came origi- 
nally from Asia. 

Since this theory is accepted by most anti- 
quarians, there is every reason to believe that 
from the discovery of what may be termed 
an overland route to what was then consid- 
ered an eastern extension of that country, 
that the immigration increased annually until 
the new continent became densely populated. 
The ruins of ancient cities discovered in Mex- 
ico and South America prove that this conti- 
nent was densely populated by a civilized peo- 
ple prior to the Indiai; or the Caucasian races. 

The valley of the ilississippi, and indeed 
the country from the trap rocks of the Great 
Lakes southeast to the Gulf and southwest 
to Mexico, abound in monumental evidences 
rf a race of ]i('ople mneh further advanced 



in civilization than the Montezumas of the 
sixteenth century. 

The remains of walls and fortifications 
found in Ohio and Lidiana, the earth-works 
of Vincennes and throughout the valley of 
the "Wabash, the mounds scattered over the 
several Southern States, also in Illinois, Min- 
nesota and Wisconsin, are evidences of the 
advancement of the people of that day toward 
a comparative knowledge of man and cosmol- 
ogy. At the mouth of Fourteen-mile Creek, 
in Clark County, Indiana, there stands one of 
these old monuments, known as the " Stone 
Fort." It is an unmistakable heir-loom of a 
great and ancient people, and must have 
formed one of their most important posts. 

In Posey County, on the Wabash, ten miles 
from its junction with the Ohio River, is 
another remarkable evidence of the great 
numbers once inhabiting that eountiy. This 
is known as the " Bone Bank," on account of 
the human bones continually washed out from 
the river bank. This process of unearthing 
the ancient remains has been going on since 
the remembrance of the earliest wliite settler, 
and various relics of artistic wares are found 
in that portion of Indiana. Another great 
circular earth-work is found near New AYash- 
ington, and a stone fort near the village of 
Deputy. 

Vigo, Jasper, Sullivan, Switzerland and 
Ohio counties can boast of a liberal endow- 
ment of works of antiquity, and the entire 
State of Indiana abounds with numerous rel- 
ics of the handiwork of the extinct race. 
Many of the ancient and curiously devised 
implements and wares are to be seen in the 
State Museum at Indianapolis. 

The origin of the red men, or American 
Indians, is a suljject which interests all read- 
ers. It is a favorite with the ethnologist, 
even as it is one of deep concern to the ordi- 
Uiirv reailer, 



m 



% 



m 



■«-■-«-» J^SM- "..■■. 



.««».»» »'ai»»» 



HISTORY OF I.VDIASA. 



!^^ 



ii 



([si 

i' 
k 

([■! 



(&( 

'rJ' 
-La| 









The dili'erence of opinion concerning our 
aboriginals, among authors who Lave made a 
profound studj of races, is both curious and 
interesting. 

Blumenbach treats them as a distinct vari- 
ety of the human family. Dr. Latham ranks 
them among the Mongolidce. Morton, Nott 
and Glidden claim for the red men a distinct 
origin. 

Dr. Robert Brown, our latest authority, 
gives them as of Asiatic origin, which is cer- 
tainly well sustained by all evidence which 
lias thus far been discovered bearing upon the 
question. 

Difierences arising among communities 
produced dissensions, which tended to form 
factions and tribes, which culminated in wars 
and gradual descent from a state of civiliza- 
tion to that of barbarism. 

The art of hunting not only supplied the 
Indian with food, but, like that of war, was 
a means of gratifying his love of distinction. 
The male children, as soon as they acquired 
sufficient age and strength, were furnished 
with a bow and arrow, and taught to shoot 
birds and other small game. 

Their general councils were composed of 
the chiefs and old men. "When in council 
tiicy usually sat in concentric circles around 
the speaker, and each individual, notwith- 
standing the fiery passions that rankled within, 
preserved an exterior as immovable as if cast 
in bronze. Laws governing their councils 
wore as strictly enforced and observed as are 
those of similar bodies among modern civil- 
ized and enlightened races. 

The dwellings of the Indians were of the 
simplest and rudest character. 

The dwellings of the chiefs were sonie- 
tiiiies more spacious, and constructed with 
greater care, but of the same materials, which 
were generally the barks of trees. 

Tliough principally dependiiirr on hunting 



for food, they also cultivated small patches of 
corn, the labor being performed by the women, 
their condition being little better than slaves. 

EXPLORATIONS BY THE WHITES. 

The State of Indiana is bounded on the 
east by the meridian line which forms also 
the western boundary of Ohio, extending due 
north from the mouth of the Great Miami 
River; on the south by the Ohio River, from 
the mouth of the Great Miami to the mouth 
of the Wabash; on the west by a line drawn 
along the middle of the Wabash River from 
its month to a point where a due north line 
from the town of Yincennes would last touch 
the shore of said river, and thence directly 
north to Lake Michigan; and on the north 
by said lake and an east and west line ten 
miles north of the extreme south end of the 
hike, and extending to its intersection with 
the aforesaid meridian, the west boundary of 
Ohio. These boundaries include an area of 
33,809 square miles, lying between 37° 47' 
and -H" 50' north latitude, and between 7^ 
45' and 11" 1' west longitude from Wash- 
ington. 

After the discovery of America by Colum- 
bus, in 1492, more than 150 years passed 
before any portion of the territory now com- 
prised within the above limits was explored 
by Europeans. Colonies were established by 
rival European powers in Florida, Yiro-inia 
and iS'ova Scotia, but not until 1670-'72 did 
the first white travelers venture as far into 
the iS'orthwest as Indiana or Lake Michio-an. 

These explorers were Frenchmen by the 
names of Claude AUouez and Claude Dablon, 
wlio probably visited that portion of the State 
north of the Kankakee River. In the fol- 
lowing year M. Joliet, an agent of the French 
Colonial Govenunent, accompanied by James 
Marquette, a Catholic missionary, made an 
exploring trip as far westwari] as the 3Ii3.=;is 



$ 
I 



i 



$ 
il 

'8' 



'>?2> 






'^"■■"•--■-■' 



UltiTORY OP ISDIAXA. 



sippi, the banks of which they reached June 
17, 1673. 

In 1682 La Salle explored the West, but 
it is not known that lie entered the region 
aow embraced within the State of Indiana. 
He took formal possession of all the Missis- 
sippi region in the name of Louis, King of 
France, and called the country Louisiana, 
which included what is now the State of 
Indiana. At the same time Spain claimed 
all the country in the region of the Gulf of 
Mexico, thus the two countries became com- 
petitors for the extension of domain, and 
soon caused the several Indian tribes (who 
were actually in possession of the country) 
to take sides, and a continual state of warfare 
was the result. The Great Miami Confed- 
eracy ot Indians, the Miamis proper (an- 
ciently the Twightwees), being the eastern 
and most powerful tribe, their country ex- 
tended from the Scioto River west to the 
Illinois River. These Indians were frequently 
visited by fur traders and missionaries from 
both Catholic and Protestant creeds. The 
Five ^Nations, so called, were tribes farther 
east, and not connected with Indiana history. 

The first settlement made by the white 
man in the territory of the present State of 
Indiana was on the bank of the river then 
Jinown as the Ouabache, the name given it 
by the Frencli explorers, now the river 
Wabash. Francis Moi'gan de Vinscnne, who 
served in a military regiment (French) in 
Canada as early as 1720, and on the lakes in 
1725, first made his advent at Yincennes, 
possibly as early as 1732. Records show 
him there Junuar\' 5. 173.5 lie was killed 
in a war with the ('hicl;asaw Indians in 173G. 
The town which In; founded bore his name, 
Vinsenne, until 17-t'J, when it was clianged 
to A'incennes. 

Post Vincennes was certainly occupied 
prior to the date given by Yinsenne, as a 



letter from Father Marest, dated at Kas- 
kaskia, November 9, 1712, reads as follows: 
"The French have established a fort upon the 
river Wabash, and A\uiit a missionary, and 
Father Mermet has been sent to them," Mer- 
met was therefore the first preacher of Chris- 
tianity stationed in this part of the world. 
Yincennes has ever been a stronghold of 
Catholicism. Contemporaneous with the 
church at Yincennes was a missionary work 
among the Ouiatenons, near the mouth of 
the Wea River, which was of but short 
duration. 

^•ATIONAL POLICIES. 

The wars in which France and England 
were engaged, from IGSO to 1697, retarded 
the growth of the colonies of those nations 
in iS'orth America. The English, jealous of 
the French, resorted to all available means to 
extend their domain westward, the French 
equally active in pressing their claims east- 
ward and south. Both sides succeeded in 
securing savage allies, and for many years 
the pioneer settlers were harrassed and cruelly 
murdered by the Indians who were serving 
the purposes of one or the other contending 
nations. 

France continued her efibrt to connect 
Canada with the Gulf of Mexico by a chain 
of trading-posts and colonies, which increased 
the jealousy of England and laid the founda- 
tii)n for the French and Indian war. 

This war was terminated in 1763 by a 
treaty at Paris, by which France ceded to 
Great Britain all of jN'orth America east of 
the Mississippi except Isew Orleans and the 
island on which it is situated. 

The British policy, after getting entire 
Control of the Indiana territory, was still 
unfavorable to its growth in population. In 
176-5 the total number of French families 
within the limits of t!ie Xorthwestern Terri- 



?La^_aL5aj52i5 



■j-°gJ'ii'»»'»jJCT» 



'■-""~-- 



■ «3a«mn 



3J»l«™«i ■-««"« 



■*-"■»"..»=»:= 



n/sTnnr of lyniAXA. 



'9 



>L" 



i 






tory (lid not exceed 600. These were in On February 11, ITSl, a wagoner named 

settlements about Detroit, along the river Irviii Ilintoii was sent from Louisville, Ken- 
\^ abash, and the neighhorhood of Fort Char- , tacky, to Ilarrodsburg for a load of provi- 
ti'es on the Mississippi. sions. 

Of these families, eighty-five resided at Two young men, Richard Hue and George 
Post Vincennes, fourteen at Fort Oiiiatenon, i Ilolman, aged respectively nineteen and six- 
on the AYabash, and ten at the confluence of i teen years, accompanied Hinton as guards, 
the St. Mary and St. Joseph rivers. "When eight miles from Louisville they were 

The colonial policy of the British Govern- , surprised and captured by the renegade wliite 
ment opposed any measures which might j man, Simon Girty, and twelve Indian war- 
strenrrthen settlements in the interior of this i riors. They were marched hurriedly for 



country, lest they become self-supporting and 
independent of the mother country. 

Thomas Jefferson, the shrewd statesman 
and then Governor of Virginia, saw from the 
first that actual occupation of western lands 
was the only way to keep them out of the 
hands of foreigners and Indians. 

He accordingly engaged a scientific corps, 
and sent them to the Mississippi to ascertain 
the point on that river intersected by latitude 
3G^ 30', the southern limit of the State, and 
to measure its distance to the Ohio. He 
entrusted the military operations in that 
quarter to General Clark, with instructions 
to select a strong position near the point 
named, and erect a fort, and garrison the same, 
for protecting the settlers, and to extend his 
conquests northward to the lakes. Conform- 
ing to instructions, General Clark erected 
'' Fort Jefferson," on the Mississippi, a few 
miles above the southern limit. 

The result of these operations was the 
addition to Virginia of the vast Northwestern 
Territory. The simple fact that a chain of 
forts was established by the Americans in 
this vast region, convinced tiie British Com- 
missioners that we had entitled ourselves to 
the land. 

During this time other minor events were 
transpiring outside the territory in question, 
wliich subsequently promoted the early set- 
tling of portions of Indiana. 



three days through deep snow, when they 
reached the Indian village of "Wa-proc-ca- 
nat-ta. Hinton was burned at the stake. Rue 
and Holman were adopted in the tribe, and 
remained three years, when Rue made his 
escape, and Holman, about the same time, 
was ransomed by relatives in Kentucky. The 
two men were the first white men to settle 
in "Wayne County, Indiana, where they lived 
to a good old age, and died at their homes 
two miles south of Richmond. 



EXPEDITIONS OF 



COLONEL 
CLARK. 



GEORGE ROGERS 



In the spring of 177G Colonel George 
Rogers Clark, a native of Virginia, who 
resided in Kentucky at the above date, con- 
ceived a plan of opening up and more rapidly 
settling the great iS'orthwest. That portion 
of the "West called Kentucky was occupied by 
Henderson & Co., who pretended to own the 
land, and lield it at a high price. Colonel 
Clark wished to test the validity of their 
claim, and adjust the government of the 
country so as to encourage immigration. He 
accordingly called a meeting of the citizens 
at llarrodstown, to assemble June 6, 1776, 
and consider the claims of the company, and 
consult with reference to the interest of the 
eounti'v. 

The meeting was held on the dav ap- 
pointed, and delegates elected to coi!!,-]- with 






>aaam«iB<Jil 



.■,jN,aa.j.i«„M^M„a.«»iB„M,ci.,*i«.*i«J»«'ii..n-a „a„»i,«i. .a«,a.,M r 



IIISTOBT OF IXDIAS-J. 









till; State of Virginia as to the propriety of 
attaching the new country as a county to 
tliat State. 

Many causes prevented a consummation 
of this object until 1778. Virginia was 
favorable to the enterprise, but would not 
take action as a State; but Governor Henry 
and a few other Virginia gentlemen assisted 
Colonel Clark all tliej could. Accordingly 
Clark organized his expedition. He took in 
stores at Pittsburg and Wheeling, and pro- 
ceeded down the Ohio to the " falls," where 
lie constructed some light fortifications. 

At this time Post Vincennes comprised 
about 400 militia, and it was a daring under- 
taking for Colonel Clark, with his small force, 
to go up against it and Kaskaskia, as he had 
planned. Some of his men, becoming alarmed 
at the situation, deserted him. 

He conducted himself so as to gain the 
sympathy of the French, and through them 
the Indians to some extent, as both these 
people were very bitter against the British, 
wlio had possession of tlie lake region. 

From the nature of the situation Clark 
concluded to take Kaskaskia first, which he 
did, and succeeded by kindness in winning 
thein to his standard. It was difficult, how- 
ever, for him to induce tlie French to accept 
tlic Continental paper in pa^'ment for provi- 
sions. Colonel Vigo, a Frenchman who had 
a trading establisliment there, came to the 
rescue, and prevailed upon tlie people to ac- 
cept the paper. Colonel Vigo sold cofi'ee at 
81 a pound, and other necessaries of life at 
an equally reasonable price. 

The post at Vincennes, defended by Fort 
Sackville, was the iie.\t and all-impoi-fant 
po.^ition to posse^s. Fatlier Gibault, of Kas- 
kaskia, who also had charge of the churcli 
at Vincennes, being friendly to the Amer- 
icans, used his inllnence with the people of 
llii> gnrrison. and won them to Clark's stand- 



ard. They took the oath of allegiance to 
Virginia, and became citizens of the United 
States. Colonel Clark here concluded treaties 
with the several Indian tribes, and placed 
Captain Leonard Helm, an American, iu 
command of Vincennes. On learning the 
successful termination of Clark's expedition, 
the General Assembly of Virginia declared 
all the settlers west of the Ohio organized 
into a county of that State, to be known as 
"Illinois"' County; but before the provisions 
of the law could be made effective, Henry 
Hamilton, the British Lieutenant-Governor 
of Detroit, collected an army of thirty regu- 
lars, fifty French volunteers and 400 Indians, 
and moved upon and took Post Vincennes in 
December, 1778. Captain Helm and a man 
named Henry were the only Americans at 
the fort, the only members of the garrison. 
Captain Helm was taken prisoner, and the 
French disarmed. 

Colonel Clark was at Kaskaskia when he 
learned of the cajjture of Vincennes, and de- 
termined to retake the place. He gathered 
together what force he could (170 men), and 
on the 5 th of February started from Kas- 
kaskia, and crossed the river of that name. 
The weather was wet, and the lowlands cov- 
ered with water. He had to resort to shoot- 
ing such game as chanced to be found to 
furnish provisions, and use all the ingenuity 
and skill he possessed to nerve his little force 
to press forward. He waded the water and 
shared all the hardships and privations witli 
his men. They reached the Little "Wabash 
on the 13th. The river was overflowing the 
lowlands from recent rains. Two days v.-ere 
here consumed in crossing the stream. The 
succeeding days they marchi d through water 
much of the time, reaching the Big Wabash 
on the night of the 17th. The ISth and 
19th were consumed trying to cross the river. 
Finallv canoes were constructed, and the 






if 

k 






|iij«^«Sj«31^HS5 



^w.^^^-.a**M-^q^ 






m. 



'- s 






?ii 



.l « alU; ^f :Hlir5"t »'» l B|M<B'Tq"i«' ' n i'''i»'''ai'''in'^'»"5'''g«'*i«il3 3«*'<i 



HISTORY OF lyDlAXA. 



)L 



!3IJ 



entire force crossed the main stream, but to 
find tlie lowlands under water and consider- 
able ice formed from recent cold. His men 
mutinied and refused to proceed. All the 
persuasions of Clark had no effect upon the 
half-starved, and half-frozen, soldiers. 

In one company was a small drummer boy, 
and also a Sergeant who stood six feet two 
inches in socks, and stout and athletic. Pie 
was devoted to Clark. The General mounted 
the little drummer on the shoulders of the 
Sergeant, and ordered him to plunge into the 
■water, half-frozen as it was. He did so, the 
little boy beating the charge from liis lofty 
position, while Clark, sword in hand, fol- 
lowed them, giving the command as he threw 
aside the floating ice, '• Forward."' The eflect 
was electrical; the men hoisted their guns 
above their heads, and plunged into the water 
and followed their determined leader. On 
arriving within two miles of the fort, General 
Clark halted his little band, and sent in a 
letter demanding a surrender, to which he 
received no reply. He next ordered Lieu- 
tenant Bayley with fourteen men to advance 
and fire on the fort, while the main body 
moved in another direction and took posses- 
sion of the strongest portion of the town. 
Clark then demanded Hamilton's surrender 
immediately or he would be treated as a 
murderer. Hamilton made reply, indignantly 
refusing to surrender. After one hour more 
of fighting, Hamilton proposed a truce of 
three days. Clark's reply was, that nothing 
would be accepted but an unconditional sur- 
render of Hamilton and the garrison. In 
less than an hour Chirk dictated the terms of 
surrender, February 24, 1770. 

Of this expedition, of its results, of its 
importance, as well as of the skill and bravery 
of those engaged in it. a \-()liiine wouW not 
suffice for the details. 

This expedition and its ^Mi^-imti.; results 



has never been surpassed, if equalled, in 
modern times, when we consider that by 
it the whole territory now included in the 
three great States of Indiana, Illinois and 
Michigan was added to the Union, and so 
admitted by the British Commissioners to 
the treaty of peace in 1783. But for the 
results of this expedition, our western bound- 
ary would have been the Ohio instead of the 
Mississippi. "When we consider the vast 
area of territory embracing 2,000,000 people, 
the human mind is lost in the contemplation 
of its effects; and we can but wonder that a 
force of 170 men, the whole number of Clark's 
troops, should by this single action have pro- 
duced such important results. 

General Clark reinstated Captain Helm in 
command of Yincennes, with instructions to 
subdue the marauding Indians, which he did, 
and soon comparative quiet was restored on 
Indiana soil. 

The whole credit of this conquest belongs 
to General Clark and Colonel Francis Vigo. 
The latter was a Sardinian by birth. He 
served for a time in the Spanish army, but 
left the army and engaged in trading with the 
Indians, and attained to great popularity and 
influence among them, as ■well as making 
considerable money. He devoted his time, 
influence and means in aid of the Clark 
expedition and the cause of the L'nited States. 

GOVERXMEXT OF THE KUKTIl WE.ST. 

Colonel John Todd, Lieutenant for the 
County of Illinois, visited Yincennes and 
Kaskaskia in the spring of 1770, and organ- 
ized temporary civil goveriiniciit. He also 
proceeded to adjust the disputed land claim. 
"With this view he organi/.eil a court of civil 
and criminal jurisdiction at Yincennes. Thin 
court was composed of si'\-i'i-;d magistrates, 
an.l presi.led over by Coin,, el J. M. P. Legras, 
who was tlien eominanJer of the post. 



i 



»3I 



■'-»'>^.'»'*'gi« 



This court, from precedent, began to grant 
lands to tlie Frencli and American inliabitants. 
Forty-eight thousand acroG liad been disposed 
of in this manner up to 1787, when the prac- 
tice was prohibited by General Ilarmar. 

In the fall of 1780 La Balma, a French- 
man, made an attempt to capture the British 
garrison of Detroit by leading an expedition 
against it from Kaskas]s;ia. 

He marched with his small force to the 
British trading-post at the head of the Mau- 
mcc, where Fort "Wayne now stands, plun- 
dered the British traders and Indians, and 
retired. While in camp on his retreat, he 
was attacked by a band of Mi am is; a number 
of his men were killed, and the expedition 
was ruined. In this manner war continued 
between the Americans and their enemies 
nntil 1783, when the treaty of Paris was 
ioufliided, resulting in the establishment of 
the independence of the United States. 

Up to this time the Indiana territory be- 
longed by conquest to the State of Virginia. 

In January, 1783, the General Assembly 
of that State resolved to cede the territory to 
the United States. The proposition made by 
Virginia was accepted by the United States, 
and the transfer confirmed early in 1784. The 
conditions of the transfer of the territory 
to the United States ^vere, that the State of 
Virginia should be reimbursed for all expen- 
ditures incurred in exploring and protecting 
settlers in the territory; that 150,000 acres 
of land should be granted to General Clark 
and his band of soldiers, who conquered the 
French and British and annexed the terri- 
tory to Virginia. 

After the above decrl of cession had been 
accojited by Congress, in the spring of 1784, 
the matter of the future government of the 
territory was referred to a committee con- 
sisting of ilessrs. Jefi'ersou, of Virginia; 
Chase, of Maryland; and Howell, of PJiode 



Island ; which committee, among other 
things, reported an ordinance prohibiting 
slavery in the territory after 1800, but this 
article of the ordinance was rejected. 

Tlie ordinance of 1787 has an interesting 
history. Considerable controversy has been 
indulged in as to who is entitled to the credit 
of framing it. This undoubtedly belongs 
to Nathan Dane; and to Eufus King and 
Timothy Pickering belongs the credit for 
the clause prohibiting slavery contained in it. 

Mr. Jefferson had vainly tried to secure a 
system of government for the Northwestern 
Territory excluding slavery therefrom. The 
South invariably voted him down. 

In July, 1787, an organizing act without 
the slavery clause was pending, which was 
supposed would secure its passage. Congress 
was in session in New York. July 5 Eev. 
Manasseh Cutler, of Massachusetts, came to 
New York in the interest of some land spec- 
ulators in the Northwest Territory. He was 
a graduate of Yale; had taken the degrees of 
the three learned professions — medicine, law 
and divinity. As a scientist, in America 
his name stood second only to that of 
Franklin. 

He was a courtly gentleman of the old 
style. He readily ingratiated himself into 
the confidence of Southern leaders. He 
wished to purchase 5,500,000 acres of land 
in the new Territory. Jefferson and his ad- 
ministration desired to make a record on the 
reduction of the public debt, and this was a 
rare opportunity. Massachusetts representa- 
tives could not vote against Cutler's scheme, 
;is many of their constituents wore interested 
in the measure; Southern members were 
already committed. Thus Cutler lield the 
key to the situation, and dictated terms, 
which were as follows: 

1. The exclusion of slavery from the 
Territorv forever. 







;[«. 



V' 



'\3' 






2. Providing oue-thirtj-sixth of all the 
land for public schools. 

3. Be it forever remembered that this 
compact declares that religion, morality and 
knowledge being necessary to good govern- 
ment and the happiness of mankind, scliools 
and the means of education shall always be 
encouraged. 

Dr. Cutler planted himself on this plat- 
form, and would not yield, stating that 
Unless they could procure the lands under 
desirable conditions and surroundings, they 
did not want it. July 13, 1787, the bill 
became a law. Thus the great States of 
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and "Wis- 
consin — a vast empire — were consecrated to 
freedom, intelligence and morality. 

October 5, 1787, Congress elected General 
Arthur St. Clair Governor of the jS'orth- 
wcstern Territory. He assumed liis official 
duties at Marietta, and at once proceeded to 
treat with the Indians, and organize a Terri- 
t(jrial government. He first organized a 
court at Marietta, consisting of three judges, 
liiinself being president of the court. 

The Governor with the judges then visited 
Kaskaskia, for the purpose of organizing civil 
government, having previously instructed Ma- 
jor Hamtramck, at Yincennes, to present the 
policy of th.e new administration to the sev- 
eral Indian tribes, and ascertain their feelings 
in regard to acquiescing in the new order of 
tilings. TI;ey received the messenger with 
('t"il indiflerence, which, when reported to the 
'iovernor, convinced him that nothing sh(.^rt 
of military force wonhl command compliance 
with the civil lav.-. He at once proceeded to 
Foi't "Washington, to consult with General 
Ilarmar as to future action. In the mean- 
time he intni?teil to the Secretary of tlie 
Tt'rritory, "Winthrop Sar^'cnt, the settlement 
of tlio disputed land claims, who fiund it an 
arduous task, and in his rc|)ort states that 



he found the records had been so falsified, 
Vouchers destroyed, and other crookedness, 
as to make it impossible to get at a just 
settlement, which proves that the abuse of 
public trust is not a very recent discovery. 

The General Court in 1790, actino- Gov- 
ernor Sargent presiding, passed stringent 
laws prohibiting the sale of intoxicating liq- 
uors to Indians, and also to so-ldiers within 
ten miles of any military post; also prohib- 
iting any games of chance within the Terri- 
tory. 

"Winthrop Sargent's administration was 
highly eulogized by the citizens. He had 
succeeded in settling the disputed land ques- 
tion satisfactory to all concerned, had estab- 
lished in good order the machinery of a free, 
wise and good government. In the same ad- 
dress Major Hamtramck also received a fair' 
share of praise for his judicious management 
of public affairs. 

The consultation of Governor St. Clair and 
General Harmar, at Port "Washington, ended 
in deciding to raise a large military force 
and thoroughly chastise the Indians about 
the head of the "Wabash. Accordinsly Vir- 
ginia and Pennsylvania were called upon for 
troops, and 1,800 men were mustered at Port 
Steuben, and, with the garrison of that fot't, 
joined the forces at Yincennes under Major 
Hamtramck, who proceeded up the "Wabash 
as far as the Yermillion River, destroyino- 
villages, but without finding an enemy to 
oppose him. 

General Harmar, with 1,-1:50 men, marched 
from Port "Washington to the ]\Iaumee, and 
began punishing the Indians, but with little 
success. The expedition marched from Port 
"Washington September 30, and returned to 
that place jS;"ovember 4-. having' l.:)it duriiu' 
the expedition 1S3 men killed and tliirtv- 
ono v.'ounded. 

General Ilarmar's defeat alarmed as well 



^ . ^^ ■^ ^ T Z. " . " .^ .« Ml «■ Ol a« ■«» -3" M -^ M"-^-J ~ tlj ■">!--::»- j 



f 



w 



'r 

( 
( 



Tw^^ars^ 



«"a-"ea° 



ror^ra^^i 



^m 






132 



in STORY OF I-XSI.LS'A. 



as aroused the citizens in the frontier counties 
of Virginia. They reasoned that the sav- 
ages' success would invite an invasion of 
frontier Virginia. 

A memorial to this effect was presented 
before the State General Assembly. This 
memorial caused the Legislature to authorize 
the Governor to use such means as he might 
deem necessary for defensive operations. 

The Governor called upon the western 
counties of Virginia for militia; at the same 
time Charles Scott was appointed Brigadier- 
General of the Kentucky militia, now pre- 
paring for defending their frontier. 

The proceedings of the Virginia Legisla- 
ture reaching Congress, that body at once 
constituted a board of war consisting of five 
men. March 9, 1791, General Knox, Secre- 
tary of War, wrote to General Scott recom- 
mending an e.xpedition against the Indians 
on the 'Wabash. 

General Scott moved into the Lidian set- 
tlements, reached the Wabash; the Indians 
principally fled before his forces. He de- 
stroyed many villages, killed thirty-two war- 
riors and took fifty-eight prisoners; the 
wretched condition of his horses prevented 
further pursuit. 

March 3, 1791, Congress invested Govern- 
or St.Clair with the command of 3,000 troops, 
and he was instructed by the Secretary of 
War to march to the Miami village and es- 
tablish a strong and permanent military post 
there. The Secretary of War gave him strict 
orders, that after establishing a permanent 
base at the Miami village, he seek the enemy 
with all his available force and make them 
feel the effects of the superiority of the whites. 

Previous to marching a strong force to the 
Miami town, Governor St. Clair, June 2o, 
1791, authorized General Wilkinson, with 
500 mounted men, to move against the In- 
dians on the Wabash. General Wilkinson 



reported the results of this expedition as fol- 
lows: " I have destroyed the chief town of 
the Ouiatenon Tiation, and have made prisoners 
of the sons and sisters of the King; I have 
burned a Kickapoo village, and cut down 
400 acres of corn in the milk." 

EXPEDITIONS OF ST. CLAIR AXD WATNE. 

The Indians had been seriously damaged 
by Harmar, Scott and Wilkinson, but were 
far from subdued. The British along the 
Canada frontier gave them much encourage- 
ment to continue the warfare. 

In September, 1791, St. Clair moved from 
Fort Washington with a force of 2,000 men 
and a number of pieces of artillery, and l\o- 
vember 3 he reached the headwaters of the 
Wabash, where Fort Recovery was afterward 
erected, and here the army camped, consist- 
ing of 1,400 effective men; on the morning 
of November 4 the army advanced and en- 
gaged the Indians 1,200 strong. 

The Americans were disastrously defeated, 
having thirty-nine officers and 539 men 
killed and missing, twenty-two officers and 
232 men wounded. Several pieces of artil- 
lery and all their provisions fell into the 
hands of the Indians; estimated loss in prop- 
erty, 832,000. 

Although no particular blame was attached 
to Governor St. Clair for the loss in his ex- 
pedition, yet he resigned the oflice of Major- 
General, and was succeeded by Anthony 
Wayne, a distinguished officer of the Revo- 
lutionary war. 

General Wayne organized his forces at 
Pittsburg, and in October, 1793, moved west- 
ward from that pijiiit at the head of an ar)ny 
of 3,000 men. 

He proposed an offensive campaign. The 
Indians, instigated by the British, insisted 
that the Ohio luver shoiiKl be the boundary 
between their lands ami the lup.ds of the 



u 



MSW5i« ^Mn«g^J. p a...»g M — »«>'»-' ''»"«■ «'n*ia.i'J'»«'pJ-°' »»'"»i-'3a°«»*-»i'°»«'»'"«i'''-" nM»ai.=.«naca..B„Maa - 



HISTORY OF IKDIAXA. 



(Jiiited States, and were sure they could 
maintain that line. 

General Scott, of Kentucky, joined General 
Wayne with 1,600 mounted men. They 
erected Port Defiance at the mouth of the 
Auglaize River. August 15 the army 
moved toward the British fort, near the 
rapids of the Maumee, where, on the morn- 
ing of August 20, they defeated 2,000 
Indians and British almost within range of 
tlie guns of the fort. About 900 American 
troops were actually engaged. The Ameri- 
cans lost thirty-three killed and 100 wound- 
c<l, the enemy's loss being more than donble. 
AVayne remained in that region for tliree 
days, destroying villages and crops, then re- 
turned to Fort Defiance, destroying every- 
thing pertaining to Indian subsistence for 
many miles on each side of his route. 

September 14, 1794, General "Wayne 
moved his army in the direction of the de- 
serted Miami villages at the confluence of 
St. Joseph's and St. ilai-y's rive-s, arriving 
October 17, and on the following day the 
site of Fort "Wayne was selected. Thefortwas 
completed jSTovemher 22, ami garrisoned Ijy 
a strong detachment of iiifa.ntry and artillery 
commanded by Colonel John F. Hamtramck, 
who gave to the new fort the name of Fort 
Wayne. General Wayne soon after con- 
cluded a treaty of peace with the Indians at 
Greenville, in 1795. 

ORG.iXIZATIOX OF lXDrA>'A TERRITORY. 

On the final success of American arms and 
diplomacy in 1796, the principal town within 
the present State of Indiana was Tincenncs, 
which comprised fifty houses, presenting a 
thrifty appearance. Besides Vincennes there 
was a small settlement near where Law- 
reiu'cburg now stands. There v>-ere several 
other small settlements and trading-posts iii 
the present limits of Imliima, and the num- 



ber of civilized inhabitants in the Territory 
was estimated at 4,875. 

Tlje Territory of Indiana was organized by 
act of Congress, May 7, ISOO, the material 
features of the ordinance of 1787 remaining 
in force, and the inhabitants were invested 
with all the rights and advantages granted 
and secured by that ordinance. 

The seat of government was fi.xed at Vin- 
cennes. May 13, ISOO, William Henry Har- 
rison, a native of Virginia, was appointed 
Governor, and John Gibson, of Pennsylvania, 
Secretary of the Territory; soon after Will- 
iam Clark, Henry Vanderburg and John 
Grifiin were appointed Territorial Judges. 

Governor Harrison arrived at Vincennes 
January 10, 1801, when he called together 
the Judges of the Territory to pass such laws 
as were deemed necessary for the new govern- 
ment. This session began March 3, 1801. 

From this time to 1810, the principal sub- 
jects which attracted the citizens of Indiana 
were land speculations, the question of Afri- 
can slavery, and the hostile views and pro- 
ceedings of the Shawnee chief, Tocumseh, 
and his brother, the Prophet. 

Up to this time the Sixth Article of the 
ordinance of 1787, prohibiting slavery, had 
been somewhat neglected, and many French 
settlers still held slaves; many slaves were 
removed to the slave-holding States. A ses- 
sion of delegates, elected by a popular vote, 
petitioned Congress to revoke the Si.xth Ar- 
ticle of the ordinance of 1787. Congress 
failed to grant this, as well as many other 
similar petitions. "When it appeared from the 
resultof a popular vote in the Tei-i-itory.that a 
majority of 138 were in favor of organizing a 
General Assembly, Governor Harrison, Sep- 
tember 11, 1804, issued a proclamation, and 
called for an election to be held in the se\'era! 
counties of the Territiiry, January 3, 1805, 
to ehofi^e meinhr-:-^ of a ITonse of Pepresent- 



11 



i^ 



.a — w^sj. 



'■«">i*w"BJa"^ 



a.,«i,.Jiq, «».na„M„.»a~C1i 



lirsToRy OP INDIANA. 



ativos, who shoukl meet at Vincennes Feb- 
ruary 1. The delegates were elected, and 
assembled at the place and date named, and 
perfected plans for Temtorial organization, 
and selected five men who shoukl constitute 
the Legislative Council of the Territory. 

The first General Assembly, or Legisla- 
ture, met at Vincennes Jnly 29, 1805. The 
members constituting this body were Jesse 
B. Thomas, of Dearborn County; Davis 
Floyd, of Clark County; Benjamin Park 
and John Johnson, of Knox County; Shad- 
rach Bond and William Biggs, of St. Clair 
County, and George Jlsher, of Kamlolph 
County. 

July 30 the Governor delivered his first 
message to the Council and House of Repre- 
sentatives. Benjamin Park, who came from 
New Jersey to Indiana in 1801, was the first 
delegate elected to Congress. 

The Western Sun was the first newspaper 
published in Indiana, first issued at Vin- 
cennes in 1803, by Elihu Stout, of Kentucky, 
and first called the Indiana Gazette, and 
changed to the Sun July 4, 1804. 

The total population of Indiana in 1810 
was 24,.520. There were 33 grist-mills, 14 
saw-mills, 3 horse-mills, 18 tanneries, 28 
distilleries, 3 pov>-der-mills, 1,256 looms, 
1,350 spinning v.dieels. Value of woolen, 
cotton, hemp and flaxen cloths, §159,052; of 
cotton and woolen spun in mills, 8150,000; 
of nails, 30,000 pound.s, $4,000; of leather, 
tanned, $9,300; of distillery products, 35,950 
gallons, $16,230; of gunpowder, 3,600 pounds, 
$1,800; of wine from grapes, 96 barrels, 
$6,000, and 50,000 pounds of maple sugar. 

During the year ISIO, a commission was 
encr^igcd straightening out the confused con- 
dition of land titles. In making their report 
tlicy, as dill tlic previuus commissioners, 
made complaints of frauds and abuses by 
officials connected with the land department. 



The Territory of Indiana was divided in 
1809, when the Territory of Illinois was 
erected, to comprise all that part of Indiana 
Territory west of the Wabash Eiver, and a 
direct line drawn from that river and Vin- 
cennes due north to the territorial line be- 
tween the United States and Canada. For 
the first half century from the settlement of 
Vincennes the place grew slowly. 

The commandants and priests governed 
with almost absolute power; the whites lived 
in peace with the Indiana. 

The necessaries of life were easily pro- 
cured; there was nothing to stimulate energy 
or progress. In such a state of society there 
was no demand for learning and science; few 
could read, and still fewer could write; they 
were void of public spirit, enterprise or 
ingenuity. 

GOVEENOK HARRISON AND THE INDIANS. 

Immediately after the organization of In- 
diana Territory, Governor Harrison directed 
his attention to settling the land claims of 
Indians. He entered into several treaties 
with the Indians, whereby, at the close of 
1805, the United States had obtained 46,000 
square miles of territory. 

In 1807 the Territorial statutes were re- 
vised. Under the new code, the crimes of 
treason, murder, arson and horse-stealing 
were made punishable by death; burglary, 
robbery, hog-stealing and bigamy were punish- 
able by whip])ing, fine and imprisonment. 

The Governor, in his message to the Lec;- 
islature in 1806, expressed himself as believ- 
ing the peace then existing between the 
whites and the Indians was permanent. At 
the same time he alluded to the probability 
of a disturbance in consequence of enforce- 
ment of law as fipplying to the Indians. 

Although treaties with the Indians defined 
boundary lines, the whites did not strictly 






!i 



m 



i[«? 






f 






if 



m 



if|Lk, 



■'-n'^-Q^'sj- 



i 



M 



«''»"»*'«■' 



,.«-u-,u_a-i3. 



.;a— aiB*H*'n*s.'B3 



HISTORY OF IXDIAyA. 






I 

■Si 

'Li! 
'ffl! 



k 

/B1; 






ii 



observe them. They trespassed on the In- 
dian's reserved rights, and thus gave him just 
grounds for his continuous complaints from 
1805 to ISIO. This agitated feeling of the 
Indians was utilized by Law-Ie-\vas-i-kaw, a 
brother of Tecumseh, of the Shawnee tribe. 

lie was a warrior of great renown, as well 
as an orator, and had an unlimited influence 
among the several Indian tribes. 

He used all means to concentrate the com- 
bined Indian strength to annihilate the 
whites. Governor Harrison, realizing the 
progress this Prophet was making toward 
opening hostilities, and hoping by timely 
action to check the movement, he, early in 
1S08, sent a speech to the Shawnees in 
which he advised the people against being 
led into danger and destruction by the 
Prophet, and informed them that warlike 
demonstrations must be stopped. 

Governor Harrison, Tecumseh and the 
Prophet held several meetings, the Governor 
charging them as beino- friends of the British, 
they denying the charge and protesting 
against the further appropriation of their 
lands. 

Governor Harrison, in direct opposition to 
their protest, continued to extinguish Indian 
titles to lands. 

"While the Indians were combining to pre- 
vent any further transfer of lands to the 
whites, the British were actively preparing 
to use them in a war against the Americans. 

(iovernor Harrison, anticipating their de- 
signs, invited Tecumseh to a council, to talk 
over grievances and try to settle all dift'er- 
eiices without resort to arms. 

Accordingly, August VZ, ISIO, Tecumseh, 
Willi seventy warriors, marched to the Gov- 
ei-iior's house, where several days were spent 
without any satisfactory settlement. On the 
20th, Tecumseh delivered his celebrated 
speech, in which he gave the Governor the 



alternative of returning their lands or meet- 
ing them in battle. In his message to the 
Legislature of IS 10, the Governor reviewed 
the dangerous attitude of the Indians toward 
the whites as expressed by Tecumseh. In 
the same message he also urged the establish- 
ment of a system of education. 

In 1811 the British agent for Indian af- 
fairs adopted measures calculated to secure 
the Indians' support in a war which at this 
time seemed inevitable. 

In the meantime Governor Harrison used 
all available means to counteract the British 
influence, as well as that of Tecumseh and the 
Prophet, with the Indians, but without suc- 
cess. 

The threatening storm continued to gather, 
receiving increased force from various causes, 
until the Governor, seeing war was the last 
resort, and near at hand, ordered Colonel 
Boyd's regiment to move to Yincennes, where 
a military organization was about ready to 
take the field. 

The Governor, at the head of this expedi- 
tion, marched from Yincennes September 215, 
and encamped October 3 near where Terre 
Haute now stands. Here they completed a 
fort on the 2Sth, which was called Fort Har- 
rison. This fort was garrisoned with a small 
number of men under Lieutenant Miller. 

Governor Harrison, with the main army, 
910 men, marched to the Prophet's town on 
the 29th, where a conference was opened, and 
the Indians plead for time to treat for peace; 
the Governor gave them until the followinsr 
day, and retired a short distance, from the 
town and encamped for the nio;lit. The In- 
dians seemed only to be parlovincr in order to 
gain advantage, and on the morning of Xo- 
vember 7, at 4 o'clock, made a desperate 
charge into the camp of the Americans. For 
a few moments all seemed lost, but the troo;is 
soon realizing their desjieratc situation, fought 



% 
i 



11 

!!si{ 

m 



M 

■At) 
-.8 ' 

La; 



![*! 






?lS: 



V 



mi 






V 



■ta'Jjigip' 



■ll"BI-3ai* 



niSTORT OF ly DIANA. 



with a determination equal to savages. Tlie 
Americans soon routed their savage assail- 
ants, and thus ended the famous battle of 
Tippecanoe, victoriously to the whites and 
honorably to General Harrison. 

The Americans lost in this battle thirty- 
seven killed and twenty-five mortally wound- 
ed, and 126 wounded. The Indians left 
thirty-eiglit killed on the field, and their faith 
in the Prophet was in a measure destroyed. 
November 8 General Harrison destroyed the 
Prophet's town, and reached Vincennes on 
the ISth, where the army was disbanded. 

The battle of Tippecanoe secured peace 
but for a short time. The British continued 
their aggression until the United States de- 
clared war against them. Tecumseh had fled 
to Canada, and now, in concert with the Brit- 
ish, began inroads upon the Americans. 
Events of minor importance we pass here. 

In September, 1S12, Indians assembled in 
large numbers in the vicinity of Fort AVayne 
with the purpose of capturing the garrison. 
Chief Logan, of tlie Shawnee tribe, a friend 
to the whites, succeeded in entering the fort 
and informing the little garrison tliat General 
Harrison was coming with a force to their 
relief, which nerved them to resist the furious 
savage assaults. 

September 6, 1812, Harrison moved with 
his army to the relief of Fort Wayne. Sep- 
tember 9 Harrison, with 3,500 men, camped 
near the fort, expecting a battle the follow- 
ing day. Tlie morning of the 10th disclosed 
the fact that the enemy had learned of tlie 
strong force approaching and had disappeared 
during the previous night. 

Simultaneous with the attack on Fort 
"Wayne the Indians also besieged Fort Har- 
rison, then commanded by Zachariah Taylor, 
and succeeded in destroying considerable 
property and gutting awuy with all the stock. 
About the same time the Indians massacred 



the inhabitants at the settlement of Pidgeon 
Eoost. 

The war now being thoroughly inaugurated, 
hostilities continued throughout the ]S'orth- 
west between the Americans and the British 
and Indians combined. Engagements of 
greater or less magnitude were of almost 
daily occurrence, the victory alternating in 
the favor of one or the other party. 

The Americans, however, continued to hold 
the territory and gradually press back the 
enemy and diminish his numbers as well as 
his zeal. 

Thus the war of 1812 was waged until De- 
cember 24, 1814, when a treaty of peace was 
signed by England and the United States at 
Ghent, which terminated hostile operations 
in America and restored to the Indiana set- 
tlers peace and quiet, and opened the gates 
for immigration to the great and growing 
State of Indiana as well as tlie entire Xorth- 
west. 

CIVIL MATTERS. 

The Legislature, in session at Vincennes 
February, 1813, changed the seat of govern- 
ment from Vincennes to Corydon. The same 
year Thomas Posey, who was at the time 
Senator in Congress, was appointed Governor 
of Indiana to succeed Governor Harrison, 
who was then commanding tlie army in the 
field. The Legislature passed several laws 
necessary for the welfare of the settlement, 
and General Harrison being generally suc- 
cessful in forcing the Indians back from the 
settlements, hope revived, and the tide of im- 
migration began again to flow. The total 
white population in Indiana in 1815 was es- 
timated at 63,897. 

GENEKAL REVIEW. 

iS'otwithstanding the many rights and 
privileges bestowed upon the people; of the 
Northwestern Territory by the ordinance of 



pi; 

mi 

1 

V 



I 



i 

i 

m 



mt 



ii\ 






"•a^'Wiw^'p^ 



iiUaSls,Ji_^- 






lIIilDHy OF ISDIAXA- 



137 



iai 



i 



Hi* 



I 

s 

i 



17ST, they were far from enjoying a full 
form of republican government. A freehold 
estate of 500 acres of land was a necessary 
ciuulification o become a member of the 
Legislative Council. Each member of the 
House of liepresentatives was required to 
possess 200 acres of land; no man could cast 
a vote for a Representative but such as owned 
iifty acres of land. The Governor was in- 
vested with the power of appointing all civil 
and militia officers, judges, clerks, county 
treasurers, county surveyors, justices, etc. 
He had the power to apportion the Eepre- 
sentatives in the several counties, and to 
convene and adjourn the Legislature at his 
pleasure, and prevent the passage of any 
Territorial law. 

In 1809 Congress passed an act empow- 
ering the people of Indiana to elect their 
Legislative Council by a popular vote; and 
in 1811 Congress abolished property qualifi- 
cation of voters, and declared that every free 
white male person who had attained to the 
age of twenty-one years, and paid a tax, 
should exercise the right of franchise. 

The Legislature of 1814 divided the Terri- 
tory into three judicial circuits. The Gov- 
ernor was empowered to appoint judges for 
the same, whose compensation should be 
§700 per annum. 

The same year charters were granted to 
two banking institutions, the Farmers' and 
Mechanics' Bank of Madison, authorized cap- 
ital §750,000, and the Bank of Vincennes, 
8500,000. 

OP.GAXIZATIiiX OF THE STATE. 

The last Territorial Legislature convened 
at Corydon, in December, 1815, and on the 
l-itii adopted a memorial to Congress, pray- 
ing for authority to adopt a Constitution 
and State Government. Mr. Jennings, their 
delegate in Congress, iaid the matter before 



that body on the 28th; and April 19, 1S16, 
the President approved the bill creatino- the 
State of Indiana. The following Mav an 
election was held fur a Constitutional Con- 
vention, which met at Corydon June 15 to 
29, John Jennings presiding, and William 
Hendricks acting as secretary. 

The people's representatives in this As- 
sembly were an able body of men, and the 
Constitution which they formed for Indiana 
in 1816 was not inferior to any of the State 
constitutions which were existing at that 
time. 

The first State election was held the first 
Monday of August, 1816, and Jonathan Jen- 
nings was elected Governor, Christopher 
Harrison, Lieutenant-Governor, and AVilliam 
Hendricks was elected Representative to 
Congress. 

The first State General Assembly began 
its session at Corydon November -4, 1816, 
John Paul, Chairman of the Senate, and Isaac 
Blackford, Speaker of the House of Repre- 
sentatives. 

This session of the Legislature elected 
James Noble and Waller Taylor to the Sen- 
ate of the United States; Robert A. jS'ew, 
Secretary of State; W. II. Lilley, Auditor of 
State, and Daniel C. Lane, State Treasurer. 

The close of the war, 1814, was followed 
by a rush of immigrants to the new State, 
and in 1820 the State had more than doubled 
her population, having at this time 147,178. 
Tlie period of 1825-"30 was a prosperous 
time for the young State. Immigration con- 
tinued rapid, the crops were generally good, 
and the hopes of the people raised higher 
than ever before. 

In 1830 there still remained two tribes of 
Indians in the State of Indiana, the Miamis 
and Pottawatomies, who were much opposed 
to being removed to new territ.iry. Thi^ 
state of discontent was used by the eelebratpd 



m 



*M 



ij 



m 

(•.a'l 



Vfi' 




i[ii 



■,a-a-si 



°*»""^«'^ 



•„a^m„^„m 



108 



BISTORT OF I y DIANA. 



i, 

ml 

ii 
it 



;L3; 



warrior, Black Hawk, who, hoping to receive 
aid from the discontented tribes, invaded 
the frontier and slanghtered main' citizens. 
Others fled from their Iiomes, and a vast 
amount of property was destroyed. This 
was in 1832, and known as the Bhick llawk 
war. 

The invaders were driven away with severe 
punishment, and when those who had aban- 
doned tlieir homes were assured that the 
Miamis and Pottawatomies did not contem- 
plate joining the invaders, they returned and 
again resumed their peaceful avocations. 

In 1837-'38 all the Indians were removed 
from Indiana west of the ilississippi, and 
very soon land speculations assumed large 
proportions in the new State, and many ruses 
were resorted to to bull and bear the mai-ket. 
Among other means taken to keep out specu- 
lators was a regular Indian scare in 1827. 

In 1814 a society of Germans, under Fred- 
erick liappe, founded a settlement on the 
Wabash, tifty miles above its mouth, and 
gave to the place the name of Harmony. In 
1825 the town and a large quantity of land 
adjoining was purchased by Robert Owen, 
father of David Dale Owen, State Geologist, 
and of Robert Dale Owen, of later notoriety. 
Robert Owen was a radical philosopher, from 
Scotland. 

IXDIAN.V IX THE MliXIC.VX WAR. 

During the administration of Governor 
Whitcomb, tlie United States became iu- 
Vdlved in the war with Mexico, and Indiana 
was prompt in furnishing her quota of vol- 
unteers. 

The soldiers of Indiana who served in this 
war were live regiments. First, Second, 
Third, Fourth and Fifth. Companies of the 
the three tirst-nanied regiments served at 
times with IlliiKiis, New York and Sonth 
Carolina troops, under General Shields. The 



other regiments, under Colonels Gorman and 
Lane, were under other commanders. 

The Fourth Regiment comprised ten com- 
panies; was organized at Jetfersonville, by 
Captain K. C. Gatlin, June 5, 1847, and 
elected Major Willis A. Gorman, of the 
Third Regiment, Colonel; Ebenezer Du 
mont, Lieutenant-Colonel, and "W. McCoy, 
Major. They were assigned to General Lane"s 
command, and the Indiana volunteers made 
themselves a bright record in all the engage- 
ments of the Mexican war. 

INDIANA IN THE WAK FOR THE UNION. 

The fall of Fort Sumter was a signal for an 
uprising of the people, and the State of In- 
diana was among the first to respond to the 
summons of patriotism, and register itself on 
the national roll of honor. Fortunately for the 
State, she had a Governor at the time whose 
patriotism has seldom been equaled and 
never excelled. Governor Oliver P. Morton, 
immediately upon receiving the news of the 
fall of Sumter, telegraphed President Lin- 
coln, tendering 10,000 troops in the name ot 
Indiana for the defense of the Union. 

The President had called upon the several 
States for 75,000 men; Indiana's quota was 
4,6S3. Governor Morton called for six regi- 
ments April 16, 18U1. 

Hon. Lewis Wallace, of Mexican war fame, 
was appointed Adjutant-General; Colonel 
Thomas Morris, Quartermaster-General, and 
Isaiah Mansur, of Indianapolis, Commissary- 
General. Governor Jlorton was also busy ar- 
ranging the finances of the State, so as to 
su]iport the militaiy necos.sities, and to his 
ajipeals to jjnblic patriotism lie receivetl 
prompt and lil)i/ral tinaiKual aid from public- 
spirited citizens tliroughout the State. On 
the 20th of April ]\[ajor T. J. Wood arrived 
from Washington, to receive the troops then 
organized, and Governor Morton telegraphed 



i 



ii 
^i 

m 



ill! 



.ai^'ai — >9- 



. !•_«_<■- B_B. 



-H— U— ■■ 



uisTuur uF lyui-LXj. 






m 



m 






the President that he could place six regi- 
ments of infantry at the disposal of the Gov- 
ernment; failing to receive a reply, the 
Legislature, then in extra session, April 27, 
organized six new regiments for three 
months service, and notwithstanding the 
fact that the first six regiments were already 
mustered into the general service, were 
known as " The First Brigade Indiana Vol- 
unteers," and were numbered respectively: 
Sixth Regiment, Colonel T. T. Crittenden; 
Seventh Eegiraent, Colonel Ebenezer Du- 
mont; Eighth Eeginient, Colonel "W. P. Ben- 
ton; Ninth Eegiment, Colonel R. H. ililroy; 
Tenth Eegiment, Colonel T. T. Eeynolds; 
Eleventh Eegiment, Colonel Lewis Wallace. 
The idea of these numbers was suggested 
from the fact that Indiana was represented 
in the Mexican war by one brigade of five 
regiments, and to observe consecutiveness 
the regiments comprised in the first division 
of volunteers were thus numbered, and the 
entire force placed under the command of 
Brigadier-General T. A. Morris, with the 
following EtatF: John Love, Major; Cyrus 
C. Ilines, Aid-de-camp, and J. A. Stein, 
Assistant Adjutant-General. They rendered 
valuable service in the field, returned to In- 
diana])olis July 29, and the six regiments, 
with the surplus volunteers, now formed a 
division of seven regiments. All organized 
for three years, between the 20tli of August 
and 20tli of September, with the exception 
of tlic Twelfth, which was accepted for one 
year, under the command of Colonel John M. 
Wallace, and reorganized jMay, 1862, for 
three years, under Colonel W. II. Link. The 
Thirteenth Eegiment, Colonel Jeremiah Sul- 
livan, was mustered into service in ISfil, 
and a.-^.-igned to General ^IcClellan's com- ! 
mand. I 

The Fourteenth Eegiment organizcil in \ 
18G1, tor one rear, and reorsfanized soon , 



thereafter for three years, comraandeil bv 
Colonel Kimball. 

The Fifteenth Eegiment organized June 
14, 1S61, at LaFayette, under Colonel G. D. 
Wagner. On the promotion of Colonel 
Wagner, Lieutenant-Colonel G. A. Wood be- 
came Colonel of the regiment in November, 
1862. 

The Sixteenth Regiment organized, under 
P. A. Ilackleman, of Eichmond, for one 
year. Colonel Hackleman was killed at the 
battle of luka. Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas 
J. Lucas succeeded to the command. The 
regiment was discharged in Washington, D. 
C, in May, 1862; reorganized at Indianapo- 
lis May 27, 1862, for three years, and par- 
ticipated in the active military operations 
until the close of the war. 

The Seventeenth Eegiment was organized 
at Indianapolis June 12, 1861, under Colonel 
Ilascall, who was promoted to Brigadier- 
General in March, 1862, when the command 
devolved on Lieutenant-Colonel John T. 
Wilder. 

The Eighteenth Eegiment was organized 
at Indianapolis, under Colonel Thomas Pat- 
terson, August 16, 1861, and served under 
General Pope. 

The Nineteenth Eegiraent organized at 
Indianapolis July 29, 1S61, and was assigned 
to the Army of the Potomac, under Colonel 
Solomon Meridith. It was consolidated with 
the Twentieth Eegiment October, 186-1, under 
Colonel William Orr, formerly its Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel. 

The Twentieth Regiment organ i.-^ed at La 
Fayette, for three years service, in July, 1861, 
and was principally engaged along the coast. 

The Twcnty-fii-st Regiment w.as oriranized, 
imder Colonel I. W. JIcMillan, July 24, 1861. 
This was the fir.^t regiment to enter New (Or- 
leans, and made itself a lasting name by it= 
various valuable services. 






(^t 



IS I 



M 



■'\- i Jw J-Jig'tj^ji- 



■a'g-^Tt' 



■^"a-g" 



.■jMjUija i j ii j 



.»-■-*■ I. »'~°-"«i*i 



ursTour of ixviaxa. 



.■"-"'^JI-.Tg 



*amJlMi«I 



S555iroj 



The Twenty-second Eegiraent,. under Col- 
onel Jefl'. C. Davis, joined General Fremont's 
Corps, at St. Louis, on the 17th of August, 
1861, and performed gallant deeds under Gen- 
eral Sherman in the South. 

The Twentj-third Battalion was organized, 
under Colonel W. L. Sanderson, at New Al- 
bany, July 29, 1861. From its unfortunate 
marine experiences before Fort Henry to 
Bentonville it won unusual honors. 

The Twenty-fourth Battalion was organ- 
ized, under Colonel Alvin P. Hovey, at Vin- 
cennes, July 31, 1861, and assigned to 
Fremont's command. 

The Twenty-fifth Eegiment was organized 
at Evansville, for three years, under Colonel 
J. C. Veach, August 26, 1861, and was en- 
gaged in eighteen battles during its term. 

The Twenty-sixth Battalion was organized 
at Indianapolis, under W. M. "Wheatley, Sep- 
tember 7, 1861, and served under Fremont, 
Grant, Heron and Smith. 

The Twenty-seventh Eegiment, under Col- 
onel Silas Colgrove, joined General Banks 
September 15, 1861, and was with General 
Sherman on the flimous march to the sea. 

The Twenty-eighth Eegiment, or First 
Cavalry, was organized at Evansville August 
20, 1861, under Colonel Conrad Baker, and 
performed good service in the Virginias. 

The Twenty-ninth Battalion, of La Porte, 
under Colonel J. F. Miller, was organized in 
October, 1861, and was under Eousseau, 
McCook, Eosecrans and others. Colonel 
Miller was promoted to the rank of Brig- 
adier-General, and Lieutenant-Colonel D. M. 
Dunn succeeded to the command of the 
regiment. 

The Thirtieth Eegiment, of Fort "Wayne, 
under Colonel Silas S. Bass, joined General 
Eousseau October 9, 1861. The Colonel re- 
ceived a mortal wound at Shiloli, and died 
a few days after. Lieutenant-Colonel J. B. 



Dodge succeeded to the command of the 
regiment. 

The Thirty-first Eegiment organized at 
Terre Haute, under Colonel Charles Cruft, in 
September, 1861, and served in Kentucky 
and the South. 

The Thirty-second Eegin:ent of German 
Infantry, under Colonel August "Willich, or- 
ganized at Indianapolis August 24, 1861, and 
served with distinction. Colonel Willich was 
promoted to Brigadier-General, and Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Henry Yon Trebra succeeded to 
the command of the regiment. 

The Thirty-third Eegiment, of Indianapo- 
lis,was organized, under Colonel John Coburn, 
September 16, 1861, and won a series of dis- 
tinctions throughout the war. 

The Thirty-fourth Battalion organized at 
Anderson, under Colonel Ashbury Steele, 
September 16, 1861, and gained a lasting rep- 
utation for gallantry during the war. 

The Thirty-fifth, or First Irish Eegiment, 
organized at Indianapolis, under Colonel John 
C. Walker, December 11, 1861. On the 22d 
of May, 1862, it was joined by the Sixty- 
first, or Second Irish Eegiment, when Colonel 
Mullen became Lieutenant-Colonel of the 
Thirty-fifth, and soon after its Colonel. 

The Thirty-sixth Eegiment was organized, 
under Colonel William Grose, at Eichmond, 
September 16, 1861, and assigned to the army 
of the Ohio. 

TheThirty-seventh Battalion was organized 
at Lawrenceburg, September 18, 1861, Col- 
onel George W. Ilazzard commanding, and 
was with General Sherman to the sea. 

The Thirty -eighth Eegiment was organized 
at New Albany, under Colonel Benjamin F. 
Scribner, September 18, 1861. 

The Thirty-ninth Eegiment, or Eighth 
Cavalry, was organized as an infantry 
regiment, under Colonel T. J. Harrison, 
at Indianapolis, August 28, 1861. In 



m 






■^—j—p" 



HISTORY OF IX BIAS A. 



jii; 



'JJ 



m 



(pi; 



Pi 

III 



1863 it was reorganized as a cavalry reg- 
iment. 

The Fortieth Regiment was organized at 
La Favette, under Colonel W. C. Wilson, 
December 30, 1S61, and subsequently com- 
manded by Colonel J. "W. Blake, and again 
by Colonel Henry Learning, and saw service 
with Buell's army. 

The Forty-first Regiment, or Second Cav- 
alry, the first complete regiment of horse 
raised in the State, was organized at Indian- 
apolis, under Colonel John A. Bridgland, 
September 8, 1S61; was with General Sher- 
man through Georgia, and with General 
Wilson in Alabama. 

The Forty-second Regiment was organized 
at Evansville, under Colonel J. G. Jones, 
October 9, 1861, and participated in the 
Slierman campaign. 

The Forty-third Battalion was organized at 
Terre Haute, under Colonel George K. Steele, 
September 27, 1S61, and assigned to Pope's 
army; was the first regiment to enter Mem- 
phis, and was with Commodore Foote at the 
reduction of Fort Pillow. 

The Forty-fourth Regiment was organized 
at Fort Wayne, under Colonel Hugh B. 
Reed, October 21, 1861, and attached to 
General Cruft's Brigade. 

The Forty-fifth, or Third Cavalry, was at 
diftcrent periods, lS61-'62, under Colonel 
Scott Carter and George H. Chapman. 

The Forty-sixth Regiment organized at 
Logansport, under Colonel Graham ]N'. Fitch. 
in February, 1862, and was assigned to Gen- 
eral Pope's army, and served under Generals 
Sherman, Grant and others. 

The Forty-seventh Regiment was organized 
at Anderson, under Colonel I. R. Slack, early 
in October, 1862, and was assigned to Gen- 
eral Buell's army, thence to General Pope's. 
In L')ecember, 1864, Colonel Slack was 
promoted to Brigadier-General, and Colonel 



J. A. McLaughton succeeded to the command 
of the regiment. 

The Forty-eighth Regiment was oro-anized 
at Goshen, under Colonel ]N'orman Eddv, 
December, 6 1861, and made itself a bright 
name at the battle of Corinth. 

The Forty-ninth Regiment oro-anized at 
Jefiersonville, under Colonel J. W. Ray, 
jNTovember 21, 1861, and first saw active ser- 
vice in Kentucky. 

The Fiftieth Regiment, under Colonel 
Cyrus L. Dunham, was organized at Sey- 
mour in September, 1861, and entered the 
service in Kentucky. 

The Fifty-first Regiment, under Colonel 
Abel D. Streight, was organized at Indian- 
apolis December 14, 1861, and immediately 
began service with General Buell. 

The Fifty-second Regiment was partially 
raised at Rushville, and compileted at Indian- 
apolis by consolidating with the Railway 
Brigade, or Fifty-si.xth Regiment, February 
2, 1S62, and served in the several campaigns 
in the South. 

The Fifty-third Battalion was raised at 
iSiew Albany, with the addition of recruits 
from Rockport, and made itself an endurable 
name under Colonel W. Q. Gresham. 

The Fifty-fourth Regiment organized at 
Indianapolis, under Colonel D. J. Rose, for 
three months, June 10, 1862, and was assigned 
to General Kirby Smith's command. 

The Fifty-fifth Regiment organized for 
three months, under Colonel J. R. Mahon, 
June 16, 1862. 

The Fifty-sixth Regiment, referred to in 
the sketch of the Fifty-second, was designed 
to be composed of railroad men, under Col- 
onel J. M. Smith, but owing to many railroad 
men having joined other commands, Colonel 
Smith's volunteers were incorporated with 
the Fifty-second, and this number left blank 
in the arinv list. 



'J' 

1 



([■ 



"it 



Hit 

i 






ill 






^m„a^x„m^^^^ 



iHsrour OF lyniAXA. 






"-■"g-'a" -!, 



m 






w. 



The Fifty-seventh Battalion was organized 
by two ministers of the gospel, the Eev. I. "W. 
T. MeMullen and Eev. F. A. Hardin, of 
Piichmond, Indiana, November 18, 1801, 
Colonel Slcllullen commanding. The regi- 
ment was severally commanded by Colonels 
Cyrus C. Ilaynes, G. W. Leonard, Willis 
Blanch and John S. McGrath. 

The Fifty-eighth Kegiment was organized 
at Princeton, under Colonel Henry II. Carr, 
in October, 1861, and assigned to General 
Buell's command. 

The Fifty-ninth Battalion was organized 
under Colonel Jesse I. Alexander, in Feb- 
ruary, 1862, and assigned to General Pope's 
command. 

The Sixtieth Kegiment was partially or- 
ganized at Evansville, under Lieutenant- 
Colonel Kichard Owen, in November, 18G1, 
and perfected its organization at Camp ilor- 
toti in llarch, 1S62, and immediately entered 
the service in Kentucky. 

The Sixty-first Eegiment was partially 
organized in December, 1861, under Colonel 
V,. Y. ilullen. In May, 1862, it was incor- 
porated with the Thirty-lifth Eegiment. 

The Sixty-second Eegiment, raised under 
Colonel "William Jones, of Eockport, was 
consolidated with the Fifty -third Eegi- 
ment. 

The Sixty-third Eegiment, of Covington, 
iinder Colonel James McManomy, was par- 
tially raised in December, 1861, and im- 
mediately entered upon active dnty. Its 
organization was completed at Indianapolis, 
February, 1862, by six new companies. 

The Sixty-fourtli Eegiment was organized 
as an artillery corps. The "War Department 
ju-oliibiting consolidating batteries, put a stop 
to the movement. SnbsoiUK'ntl}' an infantry 
recriment bearing the same number was 
raised. 

Th.e Sixtv-liftli Ee-imcnt. under Colonel 



J. "W. Foster, completed its organization at 
Evansville, August, 1862. 

The Sixty-sixth Eegiment organized at 
New Alban}', under Colonel Eoger Alartin, 
August 19, 1862, and entered the service 
immediately in Kentucky. 

The Sixty-seventh Eegiment was organ- 
ized in the Third Congressional District, 
under Colonel Frank Emerson, and reported 
for service at Louisville, Kentucky, in Au- 
gust, 1862. 

The Sixty-eighth Eegiment organized at 
Greenburg, under Major Benjamin C. Shaw, 
and entered the service August 19, 1862, 
under Colonel Edward A. King, with Major 
Shaw as Lieutenant-Colonel. 

The Sixty-ninth Eegiment was organized 
at Eichmond, under Colonel A. Bickle; were 
taken prisoners at Eichmond, Kentuck}'; 
when exchanged they reorganized in 1862, 
Colonel T. "W. Bennett commanding. 

The Seventieth Eegiment was organized 
at Indianapolis, August 12, 1862, under 
Colonel B. Harrison, and at once marched to 
the front in Kentucky. 

The Seventy-first, or Sixth Cavalry, was 
an unfortunate regiment, organized at Terre 
Haute, under Lieutenant-Colonel Melville D. 
Topping, August 18, 1862. At the battle 
near Eichmond, Kentucky, Colonel Topping 
and Major Conklin, together with 213 men, 
were killed; 317 taken prisoners; only 225 
escaped. The regiment was reorganized un- 
der Colonel I. Bittle, and was captured by 
the Confederate General Morgan on the 28tli 
of December, same year. 

The Seventy-second Eegiment organized 
at La Fayette, under Colonel Miller, August 
17, 1S62, and entered the service in Kentucky. 

The Seventy-third Eegiment, under Colo- 
nel Gilbert Hathaway, was organized at 
South Bend, August 16, 1S()2. and saw ser- 
\-i(:e under Generals Eosecrans and Granger, 



'\V. 



.a — IS — B, 



I 

I 



^i;.,jM-a^rMr.««i.a^ «S»?i-ai53»i!.TiJ»-..w».q-.anJ»^iJ«.»ag»-« . ajanJina»Jia«i»aH.« 



HISTORY OF INDIANA. 



.jjj..<.^j„j.a. 



ii 



Tlio Seventy-fourth Kegiment was par- 
tially organized at Fort "Wayne, and oom- 
jileted at Indianapolis, Angust 22, 1862, and 
repaired to Kentucky, under command of 
Colonel Charles W. Chapman. 

The Seventy-fifth Eegiraent was organized 
within the Eleventh Congressional District, 
and marched to the front, under Colonel I. 
W. Petit, Angust 21, 1862. 

The Seventy-sixth Battalion was organized 
for thirty days' service in July, 1862, under 
Colonel James Gavin, of Newburg. 

The Seventy-seventh, or Fourth Cavalry, 
was organized at Indianapolis, August, 1862, 
under Colonel Isaac P. Gray, and carved its 
way to fiime in over twenty battle-fields. 

The Seventy-ninth Regiment organized at 
Indiatiapolis, under Colonel Fred. Ivnefler, 
September 2, 1862, and performed gallant 
service until the close of the war. 

Tho Eightieth Regiment was organized 
within the First Congressional District, un- 
der Colonel C. Denby, August 8, 1862, and 
left Indianapolis immediately for the front. 

Tho Eighty-first Regiment, under Colonel 
"W. "W. Caldwell, organized at jS'ew Albany, 
August 29, 1862, and was assigned to Gen- 
eral Ijuell's command. 

The Eighty-second Regiment, under Colo- 
nel Morton C. Hunter, organized at Madison, 
August 30, 1862, and immediately moved to 
the front. 

Tho Eighty-third Regiment, under Colo- 
nel Pon. J. Spooner, organized at Lawrence- 
burg, September, 1862, and began duty on 
the i[ississippi. 

The Eighty-fourth Regiment organized at 
Richmond, Indiana, September 8, 1862, Colo- 
nel Kelson Trusler commanding, and entered 
the field in Kentucky. 

The Eighty-fifth Regiment oiganized under 
Colonol Jolin P. Payard, ut Terrc Haute, 
SeptiMiilier 2. 1S62, an.l with ( 'obnrn's Bri- 



gade surrendered to the rebel General For- 
rest in March, 1863. 

The Eighty-sixth Regiment left La Fayette 
for Kentucky under Colonel Orville S. Ham- 
ilton August 26, 1862. 

The Eighty-seventh Regiment organized 
at South Bend, under Colonels Kline G. 
Sherlock and N. Gleason, and left Indianap- 
oplis for the front August 31, 1862, and was 
with General Sherman through Georgia. 

The Eighty-eighth Regiment organized 
within the Fourth Congressional District, 
under Colonel George Humphrey, and moved 
to the front August 29, 1862, and was pres^ 
ent with General Sherman at the surrender 
of General Johnston's army. 

The Eighty-ninth Regiment organized 
within the Eleventh Congressional District, 
under Charles D. Murray, August 28, 1862. 

The Ninetieth Regiment, or Fifth Cavalry, 
organized at Indianapolis, under Colonel 
Felix TV. Graham, August to November, 
1S62, assembled at Louisville in March, 1863, 
and participated in twenty-two engagements 
during its term of service. 

The Kinety-first Battalion, under Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel John Mehringer, organized in 
October, 1862, at Evansville, ami proceeded 
at once to the front. 

The Kinety-second Regiment failed to or- 
ganize. 

The Ninety-third Regiment, under Col- 
onel De "Witt C. Tliomas, organized at Mad- 
ison October 20, 1862, and joined General 
Sherman's command. 

The Ninety-fourth and Ninety-fifth Rei,'i- 
ments wei-e only pai-tially raised, and the 
companies were incorporated with other reo-i- 
ments. 

The Ninety-sixth Regiment could bring 
together but three companies, whicli were in- 
corporateil with tlie Ninety-ninth at South 
Pend, anil the number let't blank. 



I 



\i\ 
h 






% 

'M 



ft J,j;M jf3,jJ-j.3.aJ,jJq|J^^ 






'-"fi 



The Ninety-seventli Keginient organ izeil 
at Ter-ra Haute, under Colonel Robert F. Cat- 
tcrson, September 20, 1861, and took position 
at the front near Memphis. 

The Ninety-eighth Eegiment failed to or- 
ganize, and the two companies raised were 
consolidated with the One Hundredth Regi- 
ment at Fort Wayne. 

The Ninety-ninth Battalion organized in 
the Ninth Congressional District, nnder Col- 
onel Alex. Fawler, October 21, 1862, and 
ojjcrated with the Sixteenth Army Corps. 

The One Hundredth Regiment organized 
at Fort Wayne, under Colonel Sanford J. 
Stougliton, and joined the army of the Ten- 
nessee November 26, 1862. 

The One Hundred and First Regiment 
was organized at Wabash, under Colonel 
William Garver, September 7, 1862, and im- 
mediately began active duty in Kentucky. 

The One Hundred and Second Regiment 
organized, under Colonel Benjamin F. Gregry, 
at Indianapolis, early in July, 1864. 

The One Hundred and Third Regiment 
comprised seven companies from the counties 
of Hendricks, Marion and Wayne, under Col- 
onel Lawrence S. Shuler. 

The One Hundred and Fourth Regiment 
was recruited froni members of the Legion 
of Decatur, La Fayette, Madison, Marion and 
Rush counties, under Colonel James Gavin. 

The One Hundred and Fifth Regiment was 
formed from tlie Legion and Minute Men, 
furnished by Hancock, Union, Randolph, 
Futnain, Wayne, Clinton and Madison coun- 
tless, under Colonel Sherlock. 

The One Hundred and Sixth Regiment, 
under Colonel L-^aac P. Gray, 
from tlie countii;s of Waynr, I 
cock, Howard and Clarion. 

The One Hundred and Si'venth Regiment 
was organizeil in Indianapolis, umlcr Colonel 
Do wFtt C. Rnoos. 



organized 
Ilan- 



lolp 



The One Iluiidred and Eighth Regiment, 
under Colonel W. C. Wilson, was formed from 
the counties of Tippecanoe, Hancock, Car- 
roll, Montgomery and Wayne. 

Tlie One Hundred and Ninth Regiment, 
under Colonel J. R. Mahon, was composed of 
companies from La Porte Hamilton, Miami 
and Randolph counties, Indiana, and from 
Coles County, Illinois. 

The One Hundred and Tenth Regiment 
■was composed of companies from the counties 
of Henry, Madison, Delaware, Cass and Mon- 
roe; tliis regiment was not called into the field. 

The One Hundred and Eleventh Reo-imeut, 
from Montgomery, La Fayette, Rush, Miami, 
Monroe, Delaware and Hamilton counties, 
under Colonel Robert Canover, was not called 
out. 

The One Hundred and Twelfth Eegiment, 
under Colonel Hiram F. Brax, was formed 
from the counties of Lawrence, Washincrton, 
Monroe and Orange. 

The One Hundred and Thirteenth Regi- 
ment, from the counties of Daviess, Martin, 
Washington and Monroe, was commanded by 
Colonel George W. Burge. 

The One Hundred and Fourteenth Reo-i- 
ment, under Colonel Lambertson, was wholly 
organized in Johnson County. 

These twelve last-named regiments were 
organized to meet an emergency, caused bv 
the invasion of Indi.ana by the rebel General 
John Morgan, and disbanded when he was 
captured. 

The One Hundred and Fifteenth Regim.ent, 
under Colonel J. R. Mahon, was organized at 
Indianapolis August 17, 1863. 

The One Hundred and Sixteenth Regiment, 
unilcr Colonel Cliarles Wi?e, organized Au- 
gn>t, 1SG3, aiii.l ser\'ed in Kentucky. 

The One Hundred and Se\-enteenth Regi- 
ment, under Colonel Thomas J. Brady, or- 
ganized at Indianapolis September 17. 1863, 



(is! 









HISTORY OF IXDIAXA. 



145 



II 



i 

i 

i 

i3l( 



Tho One Uundrud and Eighteenth Eegi- 
ment, under Colonel George "\y. Jackson, 
organized September 3, 1863. 

The One Hundred and Nineteenth Kegi- 
ment, or Seventh Cavalry, was organized, 
under Colonel John P. C. Shanks, in October, 
1863; made an endurable name on many 
tields of battle. Many of this regiment lost 
their lives on the ill-fated steamer Sultana. 

The One Hundred and Twentieth Kegi- 
ment was oro-anized in April, 1864, and 
formed a portion of Brigadier-General Ho- 
vey's command. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-first Regi- 
ment, or Ninth Cavalry, was organized at 
Indianapolis, under Colonel George W.Jack- 
son; this regiment also lost a number of men 
on tho steamer Sultana. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-second 
Regiment failing to organize, this number 
became blank. 

Tho One Hundred and Twenty-third Regi- 
ment, under Colonel John C. McQuiston, 
perfected an organization in March, 1S6A, 
and did good service. 

Tho One Hundred and Twenty-fourth 
Regiment, under Colonel James Burgess, 
organized at Richmond March 10, 1864, and 
served ^mder General Sherman. 

Tho One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Regi- 
ment, or Tenth Cavalry, under Colonel T. M. 
Pace, completed its organization at Columbus, 
May, 1863, and immediately moved to the 
front. This regiment lost a number of men 
on the steamer Sultana. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-sixth Regi- 
ment, or Eleventh Cavalry, organized at 
Indianapolis, under Colonel Robert R. Stew- 
art, ill Jlarcli, 1864, and entered the field in 
Tennessee. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-Seventh 
Regiment, or Twelfth (uvalrv. nmler Colonel 
Edward Anderson, organized al", Rcnd.allville 



in April, 1864, and served in Georgia and 
Alabama. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-eighth 
Regiment organized at Michigan City, under 
Colonel R. P. De Hart, March 18, 1864, and 
served under General Sherman in his famous 
campaign. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-ninth Regi- 
ment organized at Michigan City, under Col- 
onel Charles Case, in April, 1864, and shared 
in the fortunes of the One Hundred and 
Twenty-eighth. 

The One Hundred and Thirtieth Regiment 
organized at Kokomo, under Colonel C. S. 
Parish, March 12, 1864, and served with the 
Twenty-third Army Corps. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-first Regi- 
ment, or Thirteenth Cavalry, moved from 
Indianapolis to the front, under Colonel G. 
M. L. Johnson, April 30, 1864. 

April, 1864, Governor Morton called for 
volunteers to serve one hundred days. In 
response to this call: 

Tlie One Hundred and Thirty-second Regi- 
ment, under Colonel S. C. Vance, moved 
from Indianapolis to the front May 18, 1864. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-third Regi- 
ment moved from Richmond to the front 
May 17, 1864, under Colonel R. N. Hudson. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-fourth Regi- 
ment, under Colonel James Gavin, moved 
from Indianapolis to the front May 25, 1864. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-fifth Regi- 
ment, composed of companies from Bedford, 
XoVilcsville and Goshen, and seven companies 
from the First Congressional District, entered 
the field, under Colonel "W. C. 'Wilson, May 
25, 1864. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-sixth Regi- 
ment, from the First Congressional District, 
moved to the front, uii'ler Colonel J. W. 



Foster, May 
The On'e 



24, 1S64. 
Ilundi-e. 



•s 



91> 






^1 



Thirtv-sei'enth 



\ 

\ 

1 


1 

% 


1 

I 

1 


1 


\ 


a» 




tU 


) 


S^' 


„.-J 


a; 
'A 



Eegiment, under Colonel E. J. Robinson, 
moved to the front May 28, ISG-i. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-eighth Regi- 
ment perfected its organization at Indian- 
apolis, under Colonel J. 11. Shannon, May 
27, 1864, and marched immediately to the 
front. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-nintli Regi- 
ment was composed of companies from various 
counties, and entered the field, under Colonel 
(leorge Humphrey, in June, 186-i. 

All these regiments gained distinction on 
many fields of battle. 

Under the President's call of 1864: 

The One Hundred and Fortieth Regiment, 
under Colonel Thomas J. Brady, proceeded 
to the South November 16, 1S64. 

The One Hundred and Forty-first Regi- 
ment failing to organize, its few companies 
were incorporated in Colonel Brady's com- 
mand. 

The One Hundred and Forty-second Regi- 
ment moved to the front from Fort "Wayne 
under Colonel I. M. Comparet, in jSTovember, 
1864. 

The One Hundred and Forty-third Rcgi 
ment reported at Nashville, under Colonel J 
T. Grill, February 21, 1865. 

The One Hundred and Forty-fourth Keg 
ment, under Colonel G. W. Riddle, reported 
at Harper's Ferry in March, 1865. 

The One Hundred and Forty-fifth Regi- 
ment, from Indianapolis, under Colonel "W. 
A. Adams, joined General Steadman at Chat- 
tanooga, February 23, 1865. 

The One Hundred and Forty-si.xth Regi- 
ment, under Colonel 'SI. C. Welch, left In- 
dianapolis Marcli 11, 1SI]5, for the Shenan- 
doah Yalley. 

The One Hundred and Forty-seventh Reg- 
nient, under Colonel Milton Peden, moved 
from Indianapolis to the front March 13, 
18()5. 



The One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regi- 
ment, under Colonel N. R. Ruckle, left the 
State Capital for Nashville February 28, 1865. 

The One Hundred and Forty-ninth Regi- 
ment left Indianapolis for Tennessee, under 
Colonel "W. H. Fairbanks, March 3, 1865. 

The One Hundred and Fiftieth Regiment, 
under Colonel M. B. Taylor, reported for 
duty in tlie Shenandoah Valley March 17, 
1865. 

The One Hundred and Fifty-first Regi- 
ment arrived at Nashville, under Colonel J. 
Ilealy, March 9, 1865. 

The One Hundred and Fifty-second Regi- 
ment organized at Indianapolis, under Col- 
onel "W, W Griswold, and left for Harper's 
Ferry March 18, 1865. 

The One Hundred and Fifty-third Regi- 
ment organized at Indianapolis, under Col- 
onel O. II. P. Carey, and reported immedi- 
ately at Louisville for duty. 

The One Hundred and Fifty-fourth Regi- 
ment left Indianapolis for "West Virginia, 
under Major Simpson, April 28, 1865. 

The One Hundred and Fifty-fifth Regi-. 
ment, recruited throughout the State, were 
r.ssicrned to the Ninth Army Corps in April, 
1S65. 

The One Hundred and Fifty-sixth Bat- 
talion, under Lieutenant-Colonel Charles M. 
Smith, moved for the Shenandoah Valley 
April 27, 1865. 

All these regiments made a fine record in 
tlie field. 

The Twenty-eighth Regiment of Colored 
Troops was recruited throughout the State of 
Indiana, and t)laced under command of Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Charles S. Russell, wlio was 
subsequently Col mi el of the regiment. The 
regiment lost heavily at the "Crater," Peters- 
buro-, but was recruiteil, and continued to do 
good service. 

The First Batterv was orejanized at Evans- 



m 



mi 
m 



'i^l 



m 



■a-J'»cJraJri,JinJ.«»J-«-i.r« J^TS 



'8^ 






'.la- 
ta ! 

I 

ifi' 



i„a^iaq» i „j,n.MjHajjijJ o.j^a i ., jr; 



IIISTOIIY l>F IXDIANA. 



■ "gJ^ia-.-n-sar 



»jaig-«'«i U!a-Ba» 






ville, under Captain Martin Klauss, August 
16, 1801, and immediately joined General 
Fremont's army; in 1864 Lawrence Jacoby 
was promoted to the captaincy of the battery. 
The Second Battery, under Captain D. G. 
Rabb, was organized at Indianapolis August 
9, 1S61. This battery saw service in the West. 

Tlie Third Battery, under Captain W. W. 
Fryberger, organized at Connersville August 
24, 1861, and immediately joined Fremont's 
cominand. 

The Fourth Battery recruited in La Porte, 
Porter and Lake counties, and reported to 
General Buell early in 1861. It was first 
commanded by Captain A. K. Bush, and re- 
organized in October, 1864, under Captain 
B. F. Johnson. 

The Fifth Battery was furnished by La 
Porte, Allen, "Whitley and jS'oble counties, 
cominanded by Captain Peter Simonson, re- 
ported at Louisville November 29, 1861; 
during its term it participated in twenty bat- 
tles. 

The Sixth Battery, under Captain Fred- 
erick Behr, left Evansville for the front Octo- 
ber 2, 1861. 

Tlio Seventh Battery was organized from 
various towns: fii-st under Captain Samuel J. I 
Harris; succeeded bv Cr. B. Shallow and O. 
II. Jlorgan. 

The Eighth Batteiy, under Captain G. T. 
Cochi'an, arrived at the front Februai-y 26, 
1862, and entered upon its real duties at 
Corinth. 

The Kinth Battery, under Captain X. S. 
Thompson, organised at Indianapolis in Jan- 
uary, 1S02, and began active duty at Sliiloh 
in .January, ISTio; it lost fifty-eight men by 
the explosion ot a stcaumr abo\-c Paducah. 

The Tenth Battery, luiiler Captain Jerome 
B. Cox, left Lafayette, for duty in Kentucky, 
in January, 1S61. 

The Elcventli Battery .>rg:iiu/.ed at La Fay- 



ette, and left Indiaiuipolis for the I'ront, under 
Captain Arnold Suterraeister, December 17, 
1861; opened fire at Shilch. 

The Twelfth Battery, from JefTersonville, 
perfected organization at Indianapolis, under 
Captain G. W. Sterling; reached Nashville 
in March, 1862. Captain Sterling resigned 
in April, and was succeeded by Captain James 
E. White, and he by James A. Dunwoody. 

The Thirteenth Battery, under Captain 
Sewell Coulson, organized at Indianapolis 
during the winter of 1861, and proceeded to 
the front in February, 1862. 

The Fourteenth Battery, under Captain M. 
H. Kidd, left Indianapolis April 11, 1862. 
entering the field in Kentucky'. 

The Fifteenth Battery, under Captain I. 
C. 11. Ton Schlin, left Indianapolis for the 
front in July, 1862. The same year it was 
surrendered with the garrison at Harper's 
Ferry, reorganized at Indianapolis, and again 
appeared in tlie field in March, 1862. 

The Sixteenth Battery under Captain 
Charles A. Xaylor, left La Fayette for the 
front in June, 1862, and joined Pope's com- 
mand. 

The Seventeenth Battery organized at In- 
dianapolis, under Captain Milton L. Miner, 
May 20, 1862; participated in the Gettysburg 
battle, and later in all the engagements in 
the Shenandoah Talley. 

The Eighteenth Battery, umler Captain 
Eli Lilly, moved to the front in August, 
1802, and joined General Iloseci'a'.is' army. 

The Kineteenth Battery, under Captain S. 
J. Harris, left Indianapolis fi>r Iventucky in 
August, 1862, and performed active service 
until the close of the war. 

The Twentieth Battery, under Captain 
Frank A. Piose, left the Stuto capital f.r 
the front in December. 1S62. Captain Pnso 

resigned, an'S vr.x:-, .-iic Jed by Captain 

Osburn. 



Is! 



^•a'-'-a^^ *- 



<^'-. 



m 

i a! 

M 



iH5E»S5i5£3C 



■ •>1ll"'9''iia'»> 



HISTORT OF INDIANA. 



Ti 



I 



J 
J 



1 






Tbe Twenty-first Battery, under Captain 
"W. W. Andrew, left the State capital for 
Cov-ington, Kentucky, in September, 1862. 

Tbe Twenty-second Battery moved from 
Indianapolis to the front, under Captain B. 
F. Denning, December 15, 1862, and threw 
its first shot into Atlanta, where Captain 
Denning was killed. 

The Twenty-third Battery, under Captain 
I. H. ilyers, took a position at the front in 
1862. 

Tbe Twenty-fourth Battery, under Captain 
J. A. Simras, moved from Indianapolis to the 
front in March, 1863, and joined tlie Army 
of the Tennessee. 

The Twenty-fifth Battery, under Captain 
Frederick C. Sturm, reported at jN'asbville in 
December, 186-1. 

The Twenty-sixth, or " Wilder's Battery," 
was recrui'"ed at Greensburg in ilay, 1861, 
and became Company " A " of the Seven- 
teenth Infantry, with Captain Wilder as Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel. Subsen[uentlyit was converted 
into the " First Indejiendent Battery," and 
became known as " Eigby's Battery." 

The total number of battles in which the 
Bokliers of Indiana were engaged for the 
Iniiintenanee of the Union was 308. 

The part which Indiana performed in the 
War to maintain the union of the States is 
one of which the citizens of the State may 
Avell be pi-oud. In the number of troops 
furnished, and in the amount of contrilui- 
tions rendered, Indiana, in proportion to 
wealth and population, stands equal to any 
of her sister States. 

The State records show that 200,000 men 
enlored the army; 50,000 wore organized to 
defend the State at home; that the numlier 
of military commissions issued to Indiana 
soldiers was 17,114, making a total of 207,- 
11 t men engaged in military aflairs during 
the war for the Union. 



FIXANCLAL. 

In November, 1821, Governor Jennings 
convened the Legislature in extra session, to 
provide for the payment of interest and a 
part of the principal of the public debt, 
amounting to §20,000. The state of the 
public debt was indeed embarrassing, as the 
bonds executed in its behalf had been as- 
signed. 

This state of affairs had been brought 
about in part by mismanagement of the 
State bank, and by speculators. From 1816 
to 1821 the people liad largely engaged 
in fictitious speculations. Numerous banks, 
with fictitious capital, were established; im- 
mense issues of paper were made, and the 
circulating medium of the country was 
increased four-fold in the course of three 
years. 

This inflation produced the consequences 
which always follow such a scheme. Conse- 
quently the year 1821 was one of great 
financial panic. 

In 1822 tiie new Governor, "William Hen- 
dricks, took a hopeful view of the situation. 
In consequence of good crops and the grow- 
ing immigration, everything seemed more 
2)romising. 

In lS22-'23 the surplus money was prin- 
cipally invested in home manufactures, ■which 
gave new impetus to the new State. Noah 
Noble was Governor of the State from 1881 
to 1837, commencing his duties amid peculiar 
embarrassments. The crops of 1832 were 
short. Asiatic cholera came sweeping along 
the Ohio and into the interior of the State, and 
the Black Hawk war raged in the Northwest, 
All these at once, and yet the work of 
internal imjirovements was actually begun. 

The State bank of Indiana was established 
January 28, 1831. The act of the Legisla- 
ture, by its own terms, ceased to be a law 
January 1, 1857. At the time of organization 






M 









J^H-MiJ^ns 



„a»3^ia»ja„a»aaiTi„jaga„a^a ^j„M,u„«„a. 



HISTORY or lyniAXA. 



■•HaWBiSr 



t'lD 



^jl 
?P^ 



■li 



9|) 






the outstanding circulation was $4:,208,725, 
with a debt, due principally from citizens of 
the State, of 86,005,368. 

The State's interest in the bank was pro- 
cured by issue of State bonds, the last of 
which was parable in 1866, the State thus 
placing as capital in the bank §1,390,000. 

The nonninal profits of the bank were 
82,780,604. This constituted a sinking fund 
for the payment of the public debt, the ex- 
penses of the Commissioners, and for the 
cause of common schools. 

In 1836 the State bank was doing good 
service; agricultural products were abundant, 
and markets were good. 

In 1843 the State was suffering from over 
banking, inflation of the currency and decep- 
tive speculation. 

Governor Whitcomb, 184:.3-'49, succeeded 
well in maintaining the credit of the State 
and effecting a compromise with its creditors, 
by which the State public works passed from 
the hands of the State to the creditors. 

In 1851 a general banking law was adopted, 
whicli again revived speculation and inflation, 
which culminated in much damage. In 1857 
the charter of the State bank expired, and 
the large gains of tlie State in that institu- 
tion wore directed to the promotion of com- 
mon school education. 

October 31, 1870, found the State in a 
very prosperous condition; there was a sur- 
plus in the treasury of 8373,249. The re- 
ceipts of the year amounted to 83,605,639, 
and the disbursements to 82,943,600, leaving 
a bahince of 81.035,258. The total debt o^f 
the State in Xovember, 1871, was 83,937,821. 

Indiana is making rapid progress in the 
various manufacturing industries. She has 
one of the largest wagon and carriage manu- 
factories in the world, and nearly her entire 
wheat product is manufactured h^U^ flour 
within the ."^tate. Tn ]SSO the population 



was 1.978.301, and tlie true valuation of 
l^roperty in the State for 1880 was 81)584,- 
756,802. 

IXTERXAL IMPKOVEIIENTS. 

This subject began to be agitated as early 
as 1818, and continued to increase in favor 
until 1830, wlien the people became much 
excited over the question of railroads. 

In 1S32 the work of internal improvements 
fairly commenced. Public roads and canals 
were begun during this year, the Wabash and 
Erie Canal being the largest undertaking. 

During the year 1835 public improvements 
were puslied vigorously. Thirty-two miles 
of the "Wabash and Erie Canal were completed 
this year. 

During 1836 many other projected works 
were started, and in 1837, when Governor 
"Wallace took the executive chair, he found a 
reaction among the people in retrard to the 
gigantic plans for public improvements. The 
people feared a State debt was being incurred 
from which they could never be extricated. 

The State had borrowed 83,827,000 for 
internal improvements, of which 81-327,000 
was for the "Wabash and Erie Canal, the re- 
mainder for other works. 

The State had annually to p.iy 8200,000 
interest on the public debt, and the revenue 
derived which could be thus applied amounted 
to only 845,000 in 1838. 

In 1839 all work ceased on these improve- 
ments, with one or two exceptions, and the 
contracts were surrendered to the State, in 
consequence of an act of the Legislature pro- 
viding for the compensation of contractors 
by the issue of treasury notes. 

In 1840 tlie system of improvements em- 
braced ten different works, the most impor- 
tant of which was the "Wabash and Erie 
Canal. Tlio .'iggi'egate lengtli of tlie lines 
einln-afpi] in this svstem was 1.2S9 miles. 



w 






"-q*J-3l-*-B<^ 












.a^a~,m- 



,iii-ig_3_,;i-u- 



.^„ J — ja«j£iM-^«-^'s^'^^ 



UTSTORY OF' INDIANA. 



anil of this only 140 miles liad been com- 
pleted. 

In ISiO the State debt amounteil to $18,- 
469,146; lier resources for payment wei-e 
8uch as to place her in an unfavorable liglit 
before the world, but be it recorded to her 
credit, she did not repudiate, as some other 
States of the Union have done. In 1850, the 
State having abandoned public improve- 
ments, private capital and enterprise pushed 
forward public work, and although the canal 
has served its day and age, and served it well, 
yet Indiana has one of the finest systems of 
v,-ater-ways of any State in the Union, and 
her railroad facilities compare favorably with 
the majority of States, and far in advance of 
many of her elder sisters in the family of 
States. In 1884 there were 5,521 miles of 
railroad in operation in the State, and new 
roads being built and projected where the 
demand justified. 



In 1869 the development of mineral re- 
sources in the State attracted considerable 
attention. Near Brooklyn, twenty miles from 
Indianapolis, is a tine sandstone formation, 
yielding an unlimited quantity of the best 
building material. The limestone formation 
at and surrounding Gosport is of great va- 
riety, including some of the best building 
stone in the world. 

lien of enterprise worked hard and long 
to induce the State to have a survey made to 
determine the quality and extent of the min- 
eral resources of the State. 

In 1809 Professor Edward T. Cox was ap- 
pointed State Geologist, to whom the eiti;;ens 
of Indiana are indebted for the exhaustive 
report on minerals, and the agricultural as 
well as nianufactaring resources of the State. 

The coal measures, says Professor Cox, 
cover an areo, of 6,500 scjuare miles, in the 



southwestern part of the State, and extend 
from Warren County on the north to the 
Ohio Eiver on the south, a distance of 150 
miles, comprising the counties of "Warren, 
Fountain, Parke, Yermillion, Yigo, Clay, 
Sullivan, Greene, Knox, Daviess, i[artin, 
Gibson, Pike, Dubois, Yanderburg, "War- 
wick, Spencer, Perry and a portion of Craw- 
ford, Monroe, Putnam and Montgomery. 

This coal is all bituminous, but is divis- 
able into three well-marked varieties; cak- 
ing coal, non -caking coal, or block coal, and 
cannel coal. The total deptli of the seams 
or measures is from 600 to 800 feet. The 
caking coal is in the western portion of the 
area described, ranging from three to eleven 
feet in thickness. The block coal prevails in 
the eastern part of the field, and has an area 
of 450 square miles; this coal is excellent in 
its raw state for making pig-iron. 

The great Indiana coal field is within 150 
miles of Chicago or Michigan City by rail- 
road, from which ports the valuable Superior 
iron ores are loaded from vessels that run 
direct from the ore banks. 

Of the caimel coal, one of the finest seams 
to be found in the country is in Daviess 
County, tliis State. Here it is three and a 
half feet thick, underlaid by one and a half 
feet of block caking coal. Cannel coal is also 
found in great abundance in Perry, Greene, 
Parke and Fountain counties. 

Kumerous deposits of bog-iron ore are 
found in the northern part of the State, and 
clay iron-stones and impure carbonates are 
found scattered in tlie vicinity of the coal 
field. In some places the deposits are of 
considerable' commercial value. An abund- 
ance of excellent lime is also found in Indi- 
ana, especially in Huntington County, where 
it is manufactured extensively. 

In 1SS4 the number of bushels of lime 
burned in the State were 1,2-14.508; lime^ 



—'sur-Ti'^^a.' 



^3-^^'*Tf 



« l: J^j^M^a„a r^ 



,iJ,.a_<3.«^^„j_.?^ 



aH5i^^5^?*^Hj 



^_<i~». 



'^'; 



BISTORT OF IMJ/AXA. 












ii 

H 
i 

ill 



;I9; 



stone quarried for building purposes, 6,012,- 
110 cubic feet; cement made, 362,014 
busliels; sandstone quarried, 768,376 cubic 
feet; gravel sold, 502,115 tons; coal mined, 
1,722,089 tons; value of mineral products in 
the State for tlie year ISS-t, 82,500,000; 
value of manufactured products same year, 
8163,851.872; of agricultural products, 
8155,085,663. Total value of products in 
tlie State for the year 1884, 8321,437,535. 

AGEICrLTURAL. 

In 1852 the Legislature authorized the 
organization of county and district agricult- 
ural societies, and also established a State 
Board of Agriculture, and made suitable pro- 
visions for maintaining the same, the hold- 
ing of State fairs, etc. 

In 1873 suitable buildings were erected at 
Indianapolis, for a State exposition, which 
was formally opened September 10, of that 
year. The exhibits there displayed showed 
that Indiana was not behind her sister States 
in agriculture as well as in many other in- 
dustrial branches. 

As stated elsewhere in this work, the value 
of agricultural products in the State for the 
year 1S84 amounted to 8155,085,663. 

In 1842 Henry "Ward Beecher resided in 
Iiulianapoiis, and exercised a power for good 
aside from his ministerial work. He edited 
the Indiana I^anner and Gardener, and 
tlinmgb that medium wielded an influence 
toward organizing a society, which was ac- 
complished that year. Among Eev. Beecli- 
er'.s co-laborers were Judge Coburn, Aaron 
AMridge, James Sigarson, D. Y. Culley, 
rieulien Eagan, Steplien Hampton, Cornelius 
Katlirt', Joshua Lindley, Abner Pope and 
many others. Tlie societv gave great en- 
couragement to the introduction of new va- 
rieties of fruit, but the sudden appearance of 
noxious insects, and the want of shipping 



facilities, seriously held in check the advance 
of horticulture in accordance witli the desires 
of its leaders. 

In 1860 there was organized at Indianap 
olis the Indiana Pomological Society, with 
Reuben Kagan as President, and William H. 
Loomis as Secretary. 

From tliis date interest began to expand, 
but, owing to the war, but little was done, 
and in January, 1864, the title of the society 
was changed to that of the Indiana Horticult- 
ural Society. 

The report of the society for 1868 shows 
for the first time a balance in the treasury of 
861.55. 

The society has had a steady growth, and 
produced grand results throughout the State, 
the product of apples alone in the State for 
the year 1884 being 4,181,147 bushels. 

EDUCATIOX. 

The subject of education is the all-impor- 
tant subject to any and all communities, 
and the early settlers of Indiana builded 
greater than they then knew, when they laid 
the foundation for future growth of the edu- 
cational facilities in the State. 

To detail the educational resources, its ac- 
complishments from its incijiiency to the 
present date, would require a number of 
large volumes; but as space in this work will 
not permit, and as the people have access to 
annual State reports of the school system in 
detail, we will here give only the leading 
features and enormous growth, as well as 
flourishing condition of Indiana's school svj- 
tem to the present time. 

The free-school system was fully established 
in 1853, which has resulted in placing Indi- 
ana in the lead of this great nation in ed- 
ucational progress. In 1854 the available 
common school fund consisted of the concrres- 
sional township fund, the surplus revenue 



i 



m 









1 ™5M-^«'^««R 



«'^'*'W*«' 



w^mi^m^M^^^ 



a^m3*m^fMO^!J.~>3egmSSf.mri,a. 



nisTonr of lyDiAJTA. 






<L«; 



J[« 






I" 5 

ill 
i 

1 3] I 



('ai 



I'lind, the saline fund, the bank tax fund and 
miscellaneous fund, amounting in all to 
82,460,600. 

This amount was increased from various 
sources, and entrusted to the care of the sev- 
eral counties of the State, and bj them loaned 
to citizens of the county in sums not exceed- 
ing §300, secured by real estate. 

In 1880 the available school fund derived 
from all sources amounted to S8,97i,4:o3.55. 

In 1884: there were in the State children 
of school age, 722,846. Number of white 
children in attendance at school during the 
year, 461,831; number of colored children in 
school during the year, 7,285; total attend- 
ance, 469,116; number of teachers employed, 
13,615, of whom 145 were colored. 

And lastly we are pleased to say that In- 
diana has a larger school fund than any other 
State in the Union. The citizens may well 
be proud of their system of schools, as well as 
the judicious management of its funds, which 
have been steadily increased, notwithstand- 
ing the rapid increase of population, which 
has demanded an increased expenditure in 
various ways, which have all been promptly 
met, and the educational facilities steadily 
enlarged where any advancement could be 
made. 

In 1802 Congress granted lands and a 
charter to the people residing at Vinceimes, 
for the erection and maintenance of a serai- 
nary of learning; and five years thereafter an 
act incorporating the Vincennes University 
asked the Legislature to appoint a Board of 
Trustees and empower them to sell a town- 
ship of land in Gibson County, granted by 
Congress for the benefit of the university. 
The sale of the land was slow and the pro- 
ceeds small; the members of the board were 
apathetic, and failing to meet, the institution 
fell out of existence and out of memory. 

In 1820 the State Legislature passed an 



act for a State University. Bloom ington 
was selected as the site for locatino- the insti- 
tution. The buildings were completed and 
the institution formally opened in 1825. 
The name was changed to that of the " In- 
diana Academy," and subsequently, in 1828, 
to the " Indiana College." The institution 
prospered until 1854, when it was destroyed 
by fire, and 9,000 volumes, with all the 
apparatus, were consumed. The new col- 
lege, with its additions, was completed in 
1873, and the routine of studies continued. 

The university may now be considered 
on a fixed basis, carrying out the intention 
of the president, who aimed at scholarship 
rather than numbers. The university re- 
ceives from the State annually $15,000, and 
promises, with the aid of other public grants 
and private donations, to vie with any other 
State university within the republic. 

In 1862 Congress passed an act granting 
to each State for college purposes public 
lands to the amount of 30,000 acres for each 
Senator and Representative in Congress. In- 
diana having in Congress at that time thir- 
teen members, became entitled to 390,000 
acres; but as there was no Congress land in 
the State at that time, scrip was instituted, 
under the conditions that the sum of the 
proceeds of the lands should be invested iu 
Government stocks, or other equally safe 
investment, drawing not less than five per 
centum on the par value of said stock, 
the principal to stand undiminished. Tlie 
institution to be thus founded was to teach 
agricultural and the mechanical arts as its 
leading features. It was further provided 
by Congress that should the principal of the 
fund be diminished in any way, it should be 
replaced by the State to which it belongs, 
so that the capital of the fund shall remain 
forever undiminished; and further, that in 
order to avail themselves of the lienctits of 



m'- 



m 



i 



m 



Si 



m 



i 



i31' 



r'i'-rsl^r^ 



ih^ — 

i 






(Si 



ii 









i9i 



:&' 



"■a'^^^Ts-^ 



E?S¥S5j53SH5 



l-"»l''aB_-»_!«"S 



■ ■a-aU-ai, 



HISTORY OF IN BIAS A. 






this act, States must comply with the pro- 
visos of the act within five years after it 
liecame a law, viz., to erect suitable buildings 
for such school. 

March, 1865, the Legislature accepted of 
the national gift, and appointed a board 
uf trustees to sell the land. The amount 
realized from land sales was $212,238.50, 
which sum was increased to 8400,000. 

May, 1869, John Purdue, of La Fayette, 
offered $150,000, and Tippecanoe County 
!?o0,000 more, and tlie title of the institu- 
tion was established — "Purdue University." 

Donations were also made by the Battle 
Ground Institute, and the Institute of the 
Methodist Episcopal church. 

The building was located on a 100-acre 
tract, near Chauncey, which Purdue gave in 
addition to his magnificent donation, and to 
which eighty-six and one half acres more 
have since been added. The university was 
formally opened March, 1874, and has made 
rapid advances to the present time. 

The Indiana State Xormal School was 
founded at Terre Haute in 1870, in accord- 
ance with the act of the Legislature of that 
year. 

The principal design of this institution was 
to prepare thorough and competent teachers 
f )r teaching the schools of the State, and the 
anticipations of its founders have been fully 
realized, as proven by the able corps of 
teacliers annually graduating from the insti- 
tution, and entering upon their resp()nsible 
niissions in Indiana, as well as other States 
of the Union. 

The iSTorthern Indiana Xormal School and 
business Institute, at Valparaiso, was orgaii- 
i/.od in September, 1873. The school occu- 
])ied the building known as the Valparaiso 
^[;de and Female College building. This 
institution has had a wonderful growth; the 
first year's attendance was tliirty-five. At 



this time every State in the Union is repre- 
sented, the number enrolled being over 3,000. 
All branches nocessaiy to qualify students for 
teaching, or engaging in any line of busi- 
ness, are taught. The Commercial College 
connected with the school is of itself a great 
institution. 

In addition to the public schools and State 
institutions there are a number of denomi- 
national and private schools, some of which 
have a national as well as a local reputa- 
tion. 

Notre Dame University, near South Bend, 
is the most noted Catholic institution in the 
United States. It was founded by Father 
Sorin, in 1842. It has a bell weighing 
13,000 pounds, the largest in the United 
States, and one of the finest in the world. 

The Indiana Asbury University, at Green- 
castle, Methodist, was founded in 1835. 

Howard College, not denominational, is 
located at Kokomo; founded in 18C9. 

Union Christian College, Christian, at 
Merom, was organized in 1S58. 

Moore's Hill College, Methodist, at Moore's 
Hill, was founded in 1854. 

Earlham College, at Ilichmond, under 
the management of the Orthodox Friends, 
was founded in 1859. 

"Wabash College, at Crawfordsville, under 
Presbyterian management, was founded in 
1834. 

Concordia College, Lutheraii, at Fort 
Wayne, was founded in 1850. 

Hanover College, Presbyterian, was found- 
ed at Hanover in 1833. 

Ilartsville University, L'nited Brethren, 
was fnunded at Ilartsville in 1854. 

A'orthwestern Christian University, Dis- 
ciples, is located at Irvinton; organized in 
1854. 

All these institutions are in a flourishing 
condition. 






^ 



.»Ii»a = !< 



i^55]S!!!555»5HiS53533 



«™«»^^^^"« 



's»ii-ao,«_ffl. 



= ■» j'^'jj 



S^Sqgi 



lir^TORV OF INDIANA. 



m 



m 



\m 



I 






BEXEVOLE>'T AND I'EXAL I>'STITUTIOXS. 

By the year 1830 the influx of paupers 
and invalid persons was so great as to demand 
legislation tending to make provisions for 
the care of siicli persons. The Legislature 
was at first slow to act on the matter. At 
the present time, however, there is no State 
in the Union which can boast a better s^-stein 
of benevolent institutions. 

In behalf of the blind, the first effort was 
made by James M. Eay in 18-46. Through 
his efforts "William H. Chnrchman came 
from Kentucky with blind pupils, and gave 
exhibitions in Mr. Beecher's church in Indi- 
anapolis. These entertainments were attended 
by members of the Legislature, and had the 
desired effect. That body passed an act for 
founding an institution for the blind in 184:7. 
The buildings occupy a space of eight acres 
at the State capital, and is now in a flourish- 
ing condition. 

The first to awaken an interest in the State 
for the deaf and dumb was William Willard, 
himself a mute, who visited Indianapolis in 
1843. He opened a school for mutes on his 
own account with sixteen pupils. The next 
year the Legislature adopted this school as a 
a State institution, and appointed a board of 
trustees for its management. The present 
buildings were completed in 1850, situated 
east of the city of Indianapolis. The grounds 
comprise 105 acres, devoted to " pleasui-e 
grounds, agriculture, fruits, vegetables, flowers 
and pasture. 

The question in regard to taking action in 
the matter of providing for the care of the 
insane, began to be agitated in lS32-'33. JS'o 
definite action was taken, however, until IS 14, 
when a tax was levied, and in 1S43 a com- 
mission was appointed to obtain a site for a 
buildino-. Said conimissiou selected ^Mount 
Jackson, near the Sliitc oapitnl. 

The Leiri--^lature of l^Hi in-^triicii'il thr 



commission to proceed to construct a suitable 
building. Accordingly, in 1847, the central 
building was completed at a cost of $73,000. 

Other Ijuildings have been erected from 
time to time, as needed to accommodate the 
increased demand, and at the present time 
Indiana has an institution for the insane 
equal to any in the West. 

The State hospital not affording sufficient 
accommodations for her insane, March 7, 
1883, an act providing for the location and 
erection of " Additional Hospitals for the 
Insane " was passed by the Legislature, and 
March 21 commissioners were appointed. 
After careful consideration three sites were 
located, one at Evansville, one at Logansport 
and one at Richmond, called respectively the 
Southern, Northern and Eastern hospitals. 
The Southern Indiana Hospital for Insane is 
located four miles east of Evansville, and is 
built on the corridor plan. The buildings 
are situated near the center of the hospital 
domain, which consists of 160 acres of highly 
improved land. The structure proper con- 
sists of a central oblong block, which is prac- 
tically the vestibule of the entire hospital. 
From the first floor and the two galleries 
above, entrance is had into tlie four lateral 
wings. The total capacity is 162 patients. 
This building has been erected at a cost of 
8391,887.49. 

The Northern Indiana Hospital for tlie 
Insane is located a mile and a half west of 
Logansport, on a tract of land including 281 
acres, lying on th.e south bank of the Wabash 
IJiver, and is built on the pavilion plan. At 
the center of the ridge, in the maple grove, is 
situated the administration house. This is 
flanked on each side by fire pavilions, ar- 
ranged in a straight line, which are intended 
and designed for the accommodatioTi of the 
sick and infirm. On either siile of the above 
naniei] group, 203 fuet ili-tant, are located 



Ik 

n 

1 



i 

p 

m 



331' 







niSTORY UF INDIAN A. 



M 






m 

(Pa) 



iii 



E 



two pavilions, alike in every particulai-, in- 
tc'iiiled for quiet patients. This hospital luis 
a capacity for 313 patieats, and was erected 
at a cost of §117,992.98. 

The Eastern Indiana Hospital for the In- 
sane is located on a tract of 306 acres, two 
miles west of Richmond, and is constructed 
on the cottage plan. The buildings, seven- 
teen in number, are arranged in and around 
three sides of a quadrangle, 1,000 feet long, 
by 700 feet broad, near the center of the 
farm, the tliird, or northern side, being closed 
in by a grove. The southern front contains 
the administration house; the eastern front, 
live houses for female patients, and the west- 
ern front, similar houses for male patients. 
This hospital has a capacity of 113 patients, 
and was erected at a cost of $109,867.88. 

The first penal institution established in 
the State, known as the State Prison South, 
is located at Jelfersonville. It was estab- 
lished in 1821, and was the only prison un- 
til 1859. Before this prison was established, 
it was customary to resort to the old-time 
punishment of the whipping-post. For a 
time the prisoners were hired to contractors; 
later, they were employed constructing new 
prison buildings, which stand on sixteen 
acres of ground. From 1857 to 1871, they 
were employed manufacturing wagons and 
farm implements. In 1871 the Southwestern 
Car Company leased of the State all convicts 
capable of performing labor pertaining to the 
manufacture of cars. This business ceased to 
be profitable to the company in 1873, and in 
1876 all the convicts were again idle. 

In 1859 the Legislature passed an act 
authorizing the construction of a State 
prison in the north part of the State, and ap- 
propriated §50,000 fur that purpose: Michi- 
gan City, on Lake Michigan, was the site 
selected, and a large number of convicts from 
the prison South, were moved to that point 

J3 



and began the work which has produced one 
of the best prisons in the country. It differs 
widely from the Southern, in so mucli as its 
sanitary condition has been above the average 
of similar institutions. 

The prison reform agitation, which in this 
State attained telling proportions in 1869, 
caused a legislative measure to be brought 
forward which would have a tendency to 
ameliorate the condition of female convicts. 
The Legislature of 1873 voted $50,000 
for the erection of suitable buildings, which 
was carried into effect, and the building de- 
clared ready in September, 1873, located at 
the State capital, and known as the Indiana 
Eeformatory Institution for Women and 
Girls. To this institution all female con- 
victs in other prisons in the State were im- 
mediately removed, and the institution is 
one of the most commendable for good re- 
sults to be found in any State. 

In 1867 the Legislature appropriated §50,- 
000, for the purpose of founding an institu- 
tion for the correction and reformation of 
juvenile offenders. A Board of Control was 
appointed by the Governor, who assembled 
in Indianapolis, April 8, 1807, and elected 
Charles F. Coffin as President. Governor 
Baker selected the site, fourteen miles from 
Indianapolis, near Plainfield, where a fertile 
farm of 225 acres was purchased. 

January 1, 1868, a few buildings were 
ready to receive occupants; the main build- 
ing was completed in 1869. Everythino- is 
constructed upon modern principles, and 
with a view to health and comfort. The in- 
stitution is in a prosperous condition, and 
the good effects of the training received there 
by the young well repays the ta.x-payers, in 
the way of improving society and elevating 
the minds of these who would otherwise be 
wrecked on life's stream before attaining to 
years of maturity. 



m 



mi 



i 



§ 

if 
$ 

k 

I 

i 




• ■•9^9^na-i 



■ ^ji.jaa«a-ji3a,JM„ig»,iBaJi., 



iHHHS^HHHHSS 



a-=vi-^ 



-di„,a_s:; 







- 



ag^n-^w-.g 



g|=«*«*««ii^rii 



»«"«-» * 



r^fj^Mja^n^iB^ ■^'^3 



— -"■—^-■^■^» ^"^ *''■'* gf 



I 










Prominent Men of Indiana. 










11 



M 



f\9i 



m 



*'t--^-- g'TJ^-l'' 



"a^a^air 




aU-iU,.M„a~!»~iJr^KZ 



pDHsrs-wi 




I 
i 

'Si 

ip 

il 

k 



a" J 





' ^-^tYc^f^^^^^^-^ 



7s»^g^«aCT;^3■s^^^ l«ltIla^B■.^a.^a ^u!■^a^ ^^n: t t.J^^J5^■^J^aa■.aag3-t^3^^a^JMJ„»^J■aJ„a ^»H■.J„a^e^^.a^JCTa ^ ^ 






OLIVER PERRT MORTON. 



m 






l ^^tfgjt^tahtsbtgi^sti'ggi^gM!^ 



ggg^^^tfg^^^^ggj 




1^ " 'i'????- " 






^'^ 



1"^ 
ra 



11 



m 



i3\i 






i 
mmk 

ir 




^;^S^|# I^I^'EE PEERY IIOK- 
TOy, the War Governor 
of Indiana, and one of 
the most eminent United 
States Senators, was born 
in Salisbury, Wayne 
County, this State, August 4, 
^iJ^jf) 1823. The name, wliich is of 
*Mii^ English origin, was originally 
Throckmorton. When young Oli- 
ver became a lad he attended the 
academy of Professor Iloshour at 
Centreville, in his native county, 
but could not continue long there, 
as the family was too poor to defray his 
expenses. At the age of fifteen, therefore, 
ho was placed with an older brother to learn 
the hatter's trade, at which he worked four 
years. Determining then to enter the pro- 
fession of law, he began to qualify himself by 
attending the Miami University, in lS-i3, 
M'here he remained two years. Eeturning to 
Centreville, he entered the study of law 
with the late Judge Newman. Succeeding 
M'oU, he soon secured for himself an inde- 
jiendent practice, a good clientage, and rapidly 
rose to prominence. In 1S52 he was elected 
circuit judge; but at the end of a year ho 
resigned, preferring to practice as an advocate. 
Up to 1854: Mr. Morton was a Democrat 
in his party preferences; but the repeal of 
the Missouri Compromise caused him ro 



secede, and join the incoming Republican 
party, in which he became a leader from its 
beginning. He was a delegate to the Pitts- 
burg Convention in 1856, where he so ex- 
hibited his abilities that at the next Repub- 
lican State Convention he was nominated for 
Governor against Ashbel P. Willard, the 
Democratic nominee. His party being still 
young and in the minority, was defeated; 
but Mr. Morton came out of the contest with 
greatly increased notoriety and popularity. 

In 1S60 Judge Morton received the nomi- 
nation for Lieutenant-Governor of Indiana, 
on the ticket with Henry S. Lane, and they 
were elected; but only tM-o days after their 
inauguration Governor Lane was elected to 
the L^nited States Senate, and Mr. Morton 
became Governor. It was while filling this 
position that he did his best public work, 
and created for himself a fame as lasting as 
the State itself. lie opposed all compromise 
with the Rebellion, and when the Legislature 
passed a joint resolution providing for the 
appointment of peace commissioners, he 
selected men who were publicly known to 
be opposed to any compromise. 

During the dark and tedious days of the 
war, in ISC-t, Governor Morton defeated Jo- 
seph E. McDonald, in the race for Governor, 
by a majority of 20,883 votes. The next 
summer he had a stroke of partial paralysis, 
from which he never fullv recovered. The 



si! 



'2' 










^JS5S53?5«? 



aM^1m*aS*m 



» «■■»«, j„a^j<„«„a«a.aaia r 



PROMINENT ME:^ of INDIANA. 



m 



ill 






disease so affected the lower part of his body 
and his limbs, that lie was never afterward 
able to walk without the assistance of canes; 
but otherwise he enjoyed a high degree of 
physical and mental vigor. In December 
following he made a voyage to Europe, where 
lie consulted eminent physicians and received 
medical treatment, but only partially recov- 
ered. In March, 1866, he returned to the 
executive chair to resume his official duties. 

In January, 1867, Governor Morton .was 
elected to the United States Senate, being 
succeeded in his State duties by Lieutenant- 
Governor Baker. In 1873 Senator Morton 
was re-elected, and he continued a member 
of that body while he lived. In that position 
j\[r. Morton ranked among the ablest states- 
men, was one of the four or five chiefs of his 
party, and, being Chairman of the Committee 
on Privileges and Elections, he did more in 
determining the policy of the Senate and of 
the Eepublican party than any other member 
of the Senate. It was during this period that 
the many vexed questions of the reconstruc- 
tion period came up, and with reference to all 
of them he favored radical and repressive 
measures in dealing with the rebellious States. 

In the spring of 1877 Senator Morton 
went to Oregon as Chairman of a Senate 
Committee to investigate the election of Sen- 
ator Grover, of that State, and while there he 
delivered, at Salem, the last political speech 
of his life. During his return, by way of 
San Francisco, he suffered another paralytic 
stroke, and he was brought East on a special 
car, taken to the residence of his mother-in- 
law, Mrs. Burbanks, at Richmond, this State, 
and passed the remainder of his days there, 
dying November 1, 1877. The death of no 
man, with the exception of that uf President 
Lincoln, ever created so uiuch grief in Indi- 
ana as did that of Senator ]\[ortoii. The 
lamentation, indeeil,was national. The Presi- 



dent of the United States directed the flags 
on public buildings to be placed at half-mast, 
and also that the Government departments 
be closed on the day of the funeral. The re- 
mains of the great statesman were interred 
at the spot in Crown Hill Cemetery where 
he stood on Soldiers' Decoration Day, in 
May, 1876, when he delivered a great speech 
to a large assemblage. jSTever before did so 
many distinguislied men attend the funeral 
of a citizen of Indiana. 

Personally, Senator Morton was character- 
ized by great tenacity of purpose and shrewd 
foresight. Taking his aim, he ceased not 
until he attained it, without compromise and 
without conciliation, if not by the means first 
adopted, then by another. As Governor of 
Indiana he exhibited wonderful energy, tact 
and forethought. He distanced all other 
Governors in putting troops in the field, and 
he also excelled them all in providing for tlieir 
wants while there. His State pride was in- 
tense, and in respect to the general character 
of the people of his State he brought Indiana 
"out of the wilderness" to the front, since 
which time the Hoosier State has been more 
favorably known. In the great civil war 
which tried the mettle and patriotism of the 
people, Indiana came to the front under his 
guidance, yea, to the forefront of the line. 
As a legislator, he originated and accom- 
plished much, being naturally, as well as by 
self-discipline, the most aggressive, bold and 
clear-headed Eepublican politician of his 
time. He was also well versed in the sciences, 
especially geology; and even in theology he 
knew more than many w-hose province it is 
to teach it, although he was not a member of 
any church. 

A statue of Senator ]\[orton is placed in 
one of the public parks at Indianapolis by 
the contributions of a grateful common- 
wealth. 



;9i 

il 

i 

m 




•<^- <^ H<^'^-■^~M/V^^-^ 












,ati<lTr.T -i^T»T?Sl- ^Jj;rf»,.l.^Hmo^-:3JI».liilma*r«J'»i-»»a'»*t»"»"-ng'a»'''-«J»«»M'«i*im»qa-jHra-«;: 



TIWMAS A. HEXDIUCKS. 






,**1*(2 






-#aili THOMAS A. HENDRICKS. Ilft^- 







Jll) 



(a 



da' 

i 






m 




'HOMAS ANDREWS 
HEXDPJCKS, elected 
Vice-President of the 
UDited States in 188J:, 
was born in ilusking- 
iirn County, Ohio, near 
the city of Zanesville, Septem- 
ber 7, 1S19. The following 
spring the family moved to 
]^adison, this State, and in 
1S22 to Shelbv County, M-here 
they opened up a farm in a 
sparsely settled region near the 
center of the county. It was 
here that Thomas grew to man- 
hood. After the completion of 
his education at Hanover College he studied 
law ill the office of his uncle, Jndge Thomson, 
at Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, and in due 
time was admitted to tlie bar. 

In 1S4S he was elected tu the Legislature; 
in 1S50, to the convention vrliich framed tlie 
present Constitution of tlie State, being an 
active participant in the deliberations of that 
body; in 1831 and 1852, to Congress; in 
1855, was appointed Commissioner of tlie 






General Land Office, which he resigned in 
1859; 1863-69, United States Senator; 1872- 
'77, Governor of Indiana; and finally, July 12, 
18Si, he was nominated by the Democratic 
Xational Convention at Chicago as second on 
the ticket with Grover Cleveland, which was 
successful in the ensuing campaign; but a 
few days before he should begin to serve as 
Speaker of the Senate, Xovember, 1885, he 
suddenly died at his home in Indianapolis. 

Going back for particulars, we should state 
that in 1860 he was candidate for Governor 
of Indiana against Henry S. Lane, and was 
defeated by 9,757 votes, while the Repub- 
lican majority of the State on the national 
ticket was 23,52-4, showing his immense 
popularity. Again, in 1868, Conrad Baker 
defeated him by 1,161 votes, when Grant's 
majority over Seymour in the State was 
9,579, and this, too, after he had so bitterly 
opposed the policy of Lincoln's administration, 
and thereby lost from liis constituency many 
LTnion sympathizers. And finally, in 1872, 
his majority for Governor over General 
Thomas M. Brown was 1,148; the same year 
Grant's majority in the State over Greeley 






i^-i 



Sifi 









=ji^fj;-_« -Etirj.? 



was 22,924. Governor Hendricks was the 
only man elected on his ticket that year, 
excepting Professor Hopkins, who was chosen 
to a non-political office. 

In 1S76 Governor Hendricks was a con- 
spicious candidate for the Presidency, being 
the favorite of the "Western Democracy; bnt 
the East proved too powerful, and nominated 
Tilden, giving Hendricks thesecond place on 
the national ticket, thereby strengthening it 
greatly in the AVest. 

Dnring the intervals of official life, Mr. 
Hendricks practiced law with eminent suc- 
cess, being e(|ually at hume before court or 
jury, and not easily disturbed by unforeseen 
turns in a case. He had no specialty as an 
advocate, being alike efficient in the civil and 
criminal court, and in all kinds and forms of 
actions. "When out of office his voice was 
frequently heard on the political questions of 
the day. Indiana regarded him with pride, 
and among a large class he was looked upon 
as tl'.e leader of 'the Democracy of the West. 
His adherents rallied around him in ISSO, 
and liis name was again prominent for the 
Presidential nomination, and might have 
been carried were it not for the opposition of 
tlie friends of Mr. McDonald. 

As his views on governmental affairs were 
critical, definite and positive, he had many 
political eneinies, but none of them haveever 
charged him v;ith malfeasance in office, or 
incompetency in any of his puVjlic positions. 
He was a man of convictions, conservative, 
eloquent in pul>lic address, careful of his 
utterances, and excecdinirly earnest. 



Mr. Plendricks belonged to a family noted 
in the history of Indiana. His uncle, "Will- 
iam Hendricks, was secretary of the conven- 
tion that formed the Urst Constitution of tlie 
State; was Indiana's first Representative in 
Congress, her second Governor, and for two 
full terms represented it in the Senate of the 
United States. A cousin, John ^Vbram Hen- 
dricks, fell at the battle of Pea Ridge while 
leading his regiment against the enemy; and 
another cousin, Thomas Hendricks, was 
killed in the Techc country while serving in 
the Union army. Mr. Hendricks' father was 
an elder in the Presbyterian church, and he 
himself was baptized and brought up ui:der 
the auspices of that denomination. He never 
joined any church until 1867, when he 
became a member of the Protestant Epis- 
copal church, retaining his Calvinistic views. 
In person Mr. Hendricks was five feet nine 
inches high, weighed about ISo pounds: his 
eyes gray, hair of a sandy hue, nose large 
and prominent, complexion fair and inclined 
to freckle, and liis mouth and chin were 
expressive of determination and tenacity. 
He wore no beard except a little near the ear. 
He was a man of good habits, health good, 
step firm and promjit, and voice resonant and 
steady. 

After liis nomination for the A'ice-Presi- 
dency he took an active part in the campaign, 
delivering a number of powerful addresses, 
and while waiting for his term of official 
service to begin, death ended his days and 
cast an indescribable shade of gloom over his 
familv. State and nation. 



mt 

m 



m 



1 

I 
I 



mt 

I 



i 



I 







?^ 



*'^' SCHUYLER COLFAX/"" 




iBi 



i 




'^^•■^vJ^i'jV^^^niS eminent statesman 

was born in New York 

City, March 23, 1823, 

the only son of his 

widowed mother; was 

taught in the common 

schools of the city, finished his 

education at a high-school on 

Crosby street, and at ten years 

of age he had received all the 

school training he ever had. 

oj Q^ \o After clerking in a store for 

-^'g^ili^ lU three years, he removed to In- 

^i^^-<Kir diana with his mother and 

<i:jy^-^ stepfather, Mr. Mathews, set- 

tliug in St. Joseph County. 

Here, in the village of IS'ew Carlisle, the 

jouth served four years more as clerk in 

ii store; then, at the age of seventeen years, 

ho was appointed deputy county auditor, 

and to fiiliill Ills duties he moved to the 

county seat, South Bend, where he remained 

a resident until his death. 

Like almost every Western citizen of 
any mental activity, ynung Colfa.x took 
a practical hold of political matters about 
as soon as he could vote. He talked and 
thought, and began to publish his views, 
from time to time, in the local newspaper of 
the place. His peculiar faculty of dealing 



fairly, and at the same time pleasantly, with 
men of all sorts, his natural sobriety and 
common sense, and his power of stating 
things plainly and correctly, made him a 
natural newspaper man. He was employed 
during several sessions of the Legislature, to 
report the proceedings of the Senate for the 
Lidianapolis Journal, and in this position 
made many friends. In 184o he became 
proprietor and editor of the St. Josej>/i Val- 
leij Bcgister, the Sonth Bend newspaper, 
which then had but 250 subscribers; but 
the youthful editor had hope and energy, and 
after struggling through many disappoint- 
ments, including the loss of his office by fire, 
he succeeded in making a comfortable livinn- 
out of the enterprise. 

Mr- Colfax was a Whig so long as that 
party existed. In 1848 he was a delegate to 
the convention which nominated General 
Taylor for President, and was one of the sec- 
retaries of that body. The next year he was 
a member of the State Constitutional Con- 
vention, being elected thereto from a Demo- 
cratic district. Soon afterward he was 
nominated for the State Senate, but declined 
because he could not be spared from his busi- 
ness. His first nomination for Cono-ress was 
in IS.ol, but was \:r?dcn by 200 votes, which 
was less than the real Democratic majority 






ill 



-T"7i •^-^-'■a'. 









'jj 



<L= 



in bis district. Ilis successful competitor 
was Dr. Graham N. Fitch, who, along wi*-h 
Mr. Bright, became so conspicuous in the 
support of Buchanan. In 1852 he was a 
delegate to the "\Yliig National Convention 
that nominated General Scott, and was again 
secretary. 

Franklin Pierce, the Democratic Borainee, 
was elected President, and during bis term 
tlie Whig party was dissolved upon the issue 
of slavery, and, naturally enough, Mr. Colfax 
drifted in with the party of freedom. So did 
the people of his Congressional district; for, 
after having given their Democratic repre- 
sentative 1,000 majority two years before, 
they now nominated and elected Mr. Colfax 
to succeed him by about 2,000 majority. 

The Congress to whicli he was thus elected 
is noted for the tedious struggle in tlie elec- 
tiun of a Speaker of the House, resulting, 
February 2, 1856, in the choice of jST. P. 
Banks. Mr. Colfax, who was second in the 
race for the Speakership, exhibited wonderful 
jjarliamentary tact in staving off the South- 
erners, who at times seemed on the point ot 
success. As to parties at this time, they 
were considerably broken np, comprising 
" Anti-Nebraska" (Hepublican), Democrats, 
Knnw-Nothings and nondescripts. During 
this and the succeeding Congress, to which 
Ml-. Colfax was elected, he delivered several 
telling speeclies, some of which were printed 



almost by the million and distributed to 
the voters throughout the North. These 
speeches were full of solid facts and figures 
with reference to the Pro-Slavery party, 
especially in Kansas, so that, by a sort of 
play upon his name, the people often re- 
ferred to him as " Cold-facts." 

In 1860 Mr. Colfax was elected to Con- 
gress the third time, and in 1862 the fourth 
time. In December, 1863, he was chosen 
Speaker of the House, which position he re- 
tained to the end of the term for which 
Lincoln and Johnson were elected, exhib- 
iting pre-eminent parliamentary skill and 
an obliging disposition. Equally polite to 
all, he was ever a gentleman worthy of the 
highest honor. 

The favorable notoriety' gained by his 
" cold facts " against slavery, parliamentary 
sJbility, his power of debate, and his suavity 
of manner, led the Republican party in 1S68 
to place him on the national ticket, second 
only to the leading soldier of the Union, 
U. S. Grant. Being elected, he served as 
President of the Senate with characteristic 
ability throughout his term. Then, retiring 
from political life, he devoted the remaining 
years of his life to lectures npon miscella- 
neous topics; and it was during a lecturing 
tour in Minnesota that he was stricken down 
witli his final illness. He died at Mankato, 
that State, January 13, 1885. 






il 

n 



il 



ii 









■3:'".^-^ nT-°?3" 





'^t-T^-CjO^ i^V-^ . 



) i:>dc^zc^. 






m 



'U 



I ^JAMES D. WILLIAMS.^>- |S||* 

1?^ 



gE^jy.-b.iL-!P\>TV\\jli^ES: 



5;ESES?.vv-v.v.v?t=.v.\\.y 



T ^^>^^^^^tU'^v'V^^'^^^^',V^tv^'£>^g^^^^i£^^^ 



l^i^gfS^'^'^''"'''^'''^^'''-'''^'^'^'''"^''^^^^^ 



ii 



III 



iS 



!fflJ 



'[3i 



EEE we have present- 
ed a practical illustra- 
tion of the type of man 
produced by a young 
and vigorous republic, 
•which had, but a few- 
years preceding his 
birth, asserted, witli justice, and 
5Ks>Jif successfully maintained, her claim 
^'yh0 '■° assume her rightful position as 
one of the nations of the earth. 
James D. "Williams ■was born in 
Pickaway County, Ohio, January 
S, 1R08, soon after that State had 
assumed her place among that 
galaxy of stars destined to become the great- 
est nation in the world. 

In childhood he removed with his parents 
to Knox County, Indiana, where he received 
a common-school education, and grew to 
manhood a tiller of the soil. 

He entered the theater of life at a time 
when the stage scenery was of the most 
gigantic grandeur ever beheld by the eye of 
man. jN'ature in her stupendous splendor 
M'as around and about the young actor, and 
he readily imbibed the spirit of his sur- 
roundings, and was filled with enthusiastic 
hope for the future greatness of the vast and 
beautiful country, which but awaited the call 
of the husbandman to answer in bountiful 




harvests to his many demands. "With younc- 
"Williams the grandeur of the scene filled his 
soul with a hopeful determination to act 
well his part in the great drama before him, 
as the reader will find while following him 
down life's pathway. 

"When he attained to manhood he encraged 
in agricultural pursuits and stock-raising, and 
became widely known as a practical and suc- 
cessful Indiana farmer. 

He had closely observed the passino- events 
in tlie clash and conflict of political parties, 
and his fellow citizens saw in him the qual- 
ified elements of a representative man, and 
he was frequently elected as a Democrat to 
represent his county in the Lower House of 
the Legislature, where he discharged the 
duties devolving upon him with mai-ked 
ability and even beyond the expectations of 
his constituents. The sagacity and ability 
with which he dealt with public measures 
in the Lower House opened the avenue to 
higher honors and more wcic-htv responsi- 
bilities. 

In 1859 he was elected to the State Senate, 
where he continuously served his constitu- 
ency nntil 1867, maintaining the reputation 
he had gained in the Lower House for ability 
and the faithful performance of duty, and 
still developing a capacity for a wider field 
of operations. 



m 



n 
I 




He was not permitted to long live in the 
home life which he so much enjoyed. The 
able and faithful manner in which he had 
discharged his duties as a public servant, his 
common sense and social manner, made him 
friends even among his political opponents. 
He bore honors conferred upon him nobly 
but meekly, never ceasing to gratefully re- 
member those to whom gratitude was due for 
the positions of honor and trust to which 
they had called him. 

He was destined to spend his life as a 
public servant. His fellow citizens again 
elected him to the State Senate in 1871, and 
in ISTJ: he was again crowned with higher 
honors, and v.-as elected to represent his dis- 
trict in the Congress of the United States, 
wliere he displayed the same ability in deal- 
ing with public questions that he had in the 
legislative body of his State. During his 
tiM-in in Congress he served in the impor- 
tant position of chairman of the Committee 
on Public Accounts. 

He v.-as a prominent and leading member 
of the Indiana State Board of Agriculture for 
seventeen years, and served as its president 
for three years. Ko one citizen of Indiana 
Was more deeply interested and active in de- 
veloping and promoting the agricultural and 
other industrial resources of his State than 
ho. One leading feature of his ambition was 
to be in the front rank of progress, and to 
place his State on a plane with the sister 
States of tlie prosperous Union. He was 
Cipially active in the educational interest of his 
fellow citi,:ens, and advocated facilities for 
dill'nsing knowledge among the masses, plac- 
ing an education within the reach of children 
of the most humble citizen. 

He gathered h.appiness while promoting 
the welfare -of others, and step by step, year 
by year, his friends increased in numbers 
and warmed in devotion to their trusted, 



faithful and grateful servant. He was rapid- 
ly growing in State popularity, as he had 
long enjoyed the confidence of his own county 
and district, and in his quiet, unassuming 
way was building larger than he knew. His 
plain manner of dress, commonly " blue 
jeans," caused him to become widely knovrn 
by the sobriquet of " Blue Jeans," of which 
his admirers were as proud as were those of 
" Old Hickory " as applied to Andrew Jack- 
son, or " Rough and Ready " as applied to 
General Zachariah Taylor. 

The civil war had made fearful inroads in 
party lines; the public questions to be set- 
tled immediately following the close of the 
war involved problems which many leading 
men, who had previously acted with the 
Democratic party, could not solve satisfacto- 
rily to themselves from a Democratic stand- 
point; hence they cast their fortunes with 
the popular party, the Republican. 

The Democratic party had been impatient, 
ly but energetically seeking State supremacy. 
James D. "Williams, so far as tried, had led 
the column to success, why not make him 
their Moses to lead them to possess the 
promised land. State Supremacy? 

The centennial anniversary of American 
independence, 1876, seemed to them the auspi- 
cious period to marshal their forces under an 
indomitable leader and go forth to conquer. 

They accordingly in that year nominated 
the Hon. James D. Williams for Governor, 
and the Republicans nominated General Ben- 
jam^in Harrison, a military hero and a lineal 
descendant of General "W. H. Harrison. The 
contest will stand m history as the most ex- 
citing campaign m the political history of 
the United States, and resulted in the elec- 
tion of the Democratic leader. His services 
as Governor of the State were cliaracteristic 
of his past public life. He died, full of hon- 
ors, on 2vovember "20, 1S30. 



!^l 



y^»r- 




Tr-^f-^ / Sir-^^^-f. (0)-c-^ 



■j„ a,.a^^,g^j^M-,M^3i^; 



-a,,v~Lir, 



r-i-i=.3i_a-, 



H'J™**'?a'««i*» 



,a ^«. ^, 






!@ 



ROBERT DALE OWEy 







La:j^,Ha,^>-p j'-r- -j _, ^ ^^^^^,^^,^^^-5-^^ jr^js- 



^ROBERT DALE OWEN. K' 




?^: 






>JJ 



ii 



Ir; 
i 



IP 



il 




OOKIXG outside of the 

realm of statesmen, 'vre 

tind that the most emi- 

_ -i neiit citizen of Indi- 

' ^- ' ^'"^ was tlie learned 
W^^^ Scoteliinan named at the head of 
Xj'^f^ this sketch. Robert Owcti, his 
father, ■was a great theorist in 
1^^, ~ social and religious reforms. He 
was born in Kewtov.'n, Montgom- 
.^^ ervshire, North Wales, March 14, 
^ 1771, where he died JSTovember 

19, 1858. 

He (the father) entered upon a 
commercial life at an early age, and subse- 
(jnently engaged in the cotton manufacture 
at Xew Lanark, Scotland, where he introduced 
important reforms, having for their object 
tlie improvement of the condition of the 
laborers in his employ; afterward he directed 
his attention to social questions on a broader 
.=cale, publishing in 1812 '' New Views of 
Society, or Essays upon the Formation of the 
Human Character," and subse(juently the 
" Book of the New iloral "World,'' in which 
he advocated doctrines of human equality 



and the abolition of class distinctions. Hav- 
ing won a large fortune in his business, he 
was able to give his views a wide circulation, 
and his followers became numerous; but, 
being outspoken against many of the gen- 
erally received theological dogmas of the 
time, a zealous opposition was also aroused 
against him. After the death of his patron, 
the Duke of Kent, he emigrated to this 
country, in 1S23, and at his own expense 
founded the celebrated communistic society 
at New Harmony, this State. The scheme 
proving a failure he returned to England, 
where he tried several similar experiments 
with the same result; but in spite of all his 
failures he was universally esteemed for his 
integrity and benevolence. His later years 
were spent in efforts to promote a religion of 
reason, and to improve the condition of the 
working classes. 

His eldest son, the subject of this biographi- 
cal sketch, was born in Glasgow, Scotland, 
November 7, ISOl; was educated at Fellens- 
berg's College, near Berne, Switzerland; came 
with his father to the United States in 1823, 
and assisted him in his ellorts to found the 
colony of New Hurmony. On the failure of 



hi 



1% 



i 

I 
i 
I 

u 



^IS 



)3) 



^iMr-B—M^^ 



a^x^mi 



a ^i B ,^iaB,a,M«M r^r^ 



• an«a»„jl„d. 



i»i»5»S^^rari 



■ J'.!."«l'°M* 



. J' 



( 
( 

I 
I 

ijii! 
SI? 



PROMINENT MEN OF INDIANA. 



that experiment lie visited France and Eng- 
land, but returned to this country in 1827 
and became a citizen. In 1828, in partner- 
sliip with Miss Frances Wright, he founded 
" The Free Enquirer," a weekly journal de- 
voted to socialistic ideas, and to opposition to 
the supernatural origin and claims of Chris- 
tianity. The paper was discontinued after 
an existence of three years. In 1832 he 
married Mary Jane Kobiiison, of Xew York, 
who died in 1871. After marriage he settled 
again in New Harmony, where for three suc- 
cessive years (1835-'38) he was elected a mem- 
ber of the Legislature. It was through his 
influence that one-half of the surplus revenue 
of the United States appropriated to the 
State of Indiana was devoted to the support 
of public schools. From 1843 to 1847 he 
represented the First District of Indiana in 
Congress, acting with the Democratic party; 
took an active paat in the settlement of the 
northwestern boundary question, serving as 
a member of the committee of conference on 
that subject, and introduced the bill organ- 
izing the Smithsonian Institute, and served 
for a time as one of the regents. In 1850 he 
was a member of the Indiana Constitutional 
Convention, in which he took a prominent 
part. It was through his efforts that Indiana 
conferred independent property rights npon 
women. In 1853 he went to Naples, Italy, 
as United States Charge iV Affaires, and from 
1S55 to 1858 he held the position of Min- 
ister. 

In 1860, in the New York Tribune, he 
discussed the subject of divorce with Horace 
tireelcy, and a pamphlet edition of the con- 
troversy afterward obtained a wide cirouh\- 
tion. 

After the breaking out of the Kebelliou, 
Mr. Owen was a warm champion of the 
])olicy of emancipation, and the letters which 
addressed to members of the cabinet and 




the President on that subject were widely 
disseminated. AVhen the proposition was 
made by certain influential politicians to 
reconstruct the Union with New Eno-land 
" left out in the cold," Mr. Owen addressed 
a letter to the people of Indiana exposing 
the dangerous character of the scheme, 
which the Union Leagues of New York 
and Philadelphia published and circulated 
extensively. In 1862 he served as a mem- 
ber of the Commisson on Ordnance Stores, 
and in 1863 was Chairman of the American 
Freedmen's Commission, which rendered val- 
uable service to the country. 

Mr. Owen was a prominent Spiritualist in 
his philosophical views, and published sev- 
eral remarkable works inculcating tlieni. 
Ills mind, in his later years, beginning to 
totter, he was often too credulous. He also 
published many other works, mostly of a 
political nature. To enumerate: he pub- 
lished at Glasgow, in 1824, " Outlines of 
System of Education at New Lanark;" at New 
York, in 1831, "Moral Physiology;" the 
next year, "Discussion with Origen Bachelor 
on the Personality of God and the Authentici- 
ty of the Bible;" and subsequentlj', "Pocahon- 
tas," an historical drama; " Hints on Public 
Architecture," illustrated; "Footfalls on the 
Boundary of Another "World," probably his 
most wonderful work; "The \Yrong of Slav- 
er}', and the Eight of Freedom;" "Beyond 
the Breakers," a novel; "The Debatable 
Land between this World and the Next," 
and "Threading My Way," an autobiography. 

The giant intellect of Mr. Owen being 
linked to a largo and tender heart, his sym- 
pathies were constantly rasped by witnessing 
the boundless but apparently needless amount 
of suffering in the world, and chafed by 
the opposition of conservatism to all efforts 
at alleviation, so that in old age he was liter- 
ally worn out. He died at an advanced age. 



IP 

m 






Hi 



g -^i ■** tn ■" ■»! "^ 






.»i„B.,ap^j»»5pgi 



m 



,ji_ii-,i3..H„o„a_a-M 



■^»^«* 



;ia-,v— s_«_ti.. 






<['i 



([>) 



tie) 

i 



tali 



I 




■--•■"'■»«■■■» 



a.jag.ga'^Pg 



1 



I 

&) 









9 

'Si 






,.i.g,ji^fei.^a.„j.T,a-,»^j^M^ 



r:j,»2:7wg.:fiKi^-*,H.| 



"lii 




si 
'i 

i 

m 

'Is-' 

w 
i 



f 

Pi 



■■■n-J" 






,m — u—m-.an. 



J* 






m> 



i 



I 



'.i?-, 

;i'^i 
ili 











m 



-^W'S^W^^"^^"" 



,,a"„yi^3l- 



■gi«n-"m;-«-»^ 



If 



HI 







m 



I' 






k 




■k 






i 



AND BLACKFORD 

i/.'i^^^f^^^ ■v^ Cdiiiitii's lie forty-one de- 
'S :^/|yfen'3^ grecs iiortli of tlie equator 
"' j;;^^' j||^< ■■.4v. of the eartli, and therefore 
■'^"■"'^^r-'S^' ^'^ t'l^ observer here the 
Siilkt-vi". north star appears forty-one 
degrees above the liorizon. 
Tliese counties alsolie eight\-- 
tive dei^rees west longitude 
from Oreenwicli (London, 
England), and eight degrees 
west of Washington, D. C. 
^ The five' degrees difference 
between this and the nine- 
tii'th meridian makes just twenty minutes 
dilFi'rencc between "standard'' and local 
time, the latter beinu^ the faster. Railroads, 
being contnilled by standnrd, or ninetieth 
mci-idian time, have theii- time here t\vent\- 
minute.- sh.wer than the l^irnl nr .-iin time. 

d.-iy Cuiinty is bonndr.l en the north by 
the counties ...f AVells imd Adams, on tlic 
east by .Mercer .and I )ark.' , •.unities, Ohio. ..n 
the s.intli by j;:induli.h CiUnty. and on the 
wr-l Ijy I)claw:>re and I ;l,l.•l^lonl counties, 
i'.laekford County is boundrd on tli.' mu'th 
Wells, vu the east b\ .b-,v, on tlio .-outli 




by Delaware and on the west by Grant 
County. 

The county of Jay has twelve townships, 
most of them fractional, as follows: Penn, 30 
square miles; Jackson, 36; Bear Creek, 3-±; 
Wabash, 23; Knox, 24; Greene, 35; Wayne, 
37; Xoble, 31; Richland, 27; Jefferson, 36; 
Pike, 35, and Madison, 23; total, 377 square 
miles. 

The county is eighteen miles lono-, north 
and south, twenty-one miles wide across the 
north end, and twenty-t\vo across the south 
end, 

Toroi:i;.\Piiv .vxn n.vtli;.\i, history. 

The snrfice of the laml is generally level 
and undulating, being a little more broken 
along the water conr.~es. The surface soil is 
usually a dark loam, with :i subsoil of clav 
intermixed \vitli linii?>tone ur:ivfl. In the 
eastern part of Tuun Towiishi|i and \vestei-n 
jiart of .lar].;-on. in the noi-tloAcstt-rn ptirt of 
the county, the soil is ti s.andy lotim lying 
upon a L;'i-;i\elly subsoil ; tmd there are orav. 
elly knobs and hills on this section, the chief 
of whieh tuv railed (Turdner's Hills. This 
p.. lint litis :i go.ilogie.al signitictmce. and is 



J 



§ 



lit'! 






.«„«™j. 



''M'" n"^ ^ T i'Ja='-i 



Ti 



IIISTO/cr UF JAY COUNTY. 



n 

m 
% 



therefore again referred to a little further on. 
The ••Loblolly"' is a belt ex tending across 
the northern part of Jackson Township, con- 
sisting of brushy ponds, wet prairies and 
small lakes, wliich arc diminishing with the 
increase of artificial drainage. 

The principal stream in Jay County is the 
AVabash River, which merely touches the 
northeast corner. The next is the Salamo- 
nia (sometimes spelled Salamonie), which 
runs westwardly and northwestwardly 
through the middle of the county. Bear 
Creek drains the middle portion of the county 
between these two rivers, comprising Noble, 
]!ear Creek and Jackson townships. Bear 
Creek drains the southwestern p(;rtion of 
the County, comprising portions of Jefi'er- 
son, IJichland, Knox and Greene townships. 

Although there is but little fall in the 
current of these streams, affording scarcely 
any water power, all the land can be drained 
and made tillable. The farm improvements 
are summarized on a subsequent page, under 
the head of Census. 

The forests comprise white, bur and black 
(or red) oak, beech, white ash (sometimes 
called gray or blue), swamp ash, buckeye, 
scale-bark hickory, white and red ebn, sugar 
maple, lin or liasswood, sycamore, and for- 
merly some black walnut, but tliis being the 
most valuable of all the woods, has been 
about all cut out. •■ro])lar,'' white-wood, or 
tulip-tree, a valuable wood, is becoming 
scarce. Very few sweet-gum trees have ever 
been noticed in this county. The general 
appjearance of the forest is characteristic of 
Northern Indiana, and differs from that of 
the Ohio and Mississippi liiver forests in 
having the trees closer together and there- 
fore straighter, smaller, and nnjre uniform in 
height and size. Originally there was scarcely 
any '• ur.derbrush," but as the settlers eat 
cut the tall tr..>es and let the sunli"ht d.iwn 



' upon the ground in places, undergrowth has 
been encouraged. 

Such being the native condition of the 
forest, the indigenous herbaceous plants were 
not so numerous or interesting as in some 
parts of the country; but west-bound civiliza- 
tion has brought along with it the nsual 
grasses and weeds, two or three of which are 
of far greater utility to man than all the 
native herbs together; we refer to blue-grass 
and wliite clover. But most of the intro- 
duced weeds are pests, as smart-weed, jimson- 
weed, dog-fennel (or may-weed), cockle-bur, 
rag-weed, horse-weed, wild teasel, etc. Sweet 
clover will probably reach here some day, 
from the north, and will be a welcome occu- 
pant of the roadsides and fence corners, as it 
is not a persistent nuisance and yields con- 
siderable honey. "White-weed, or ox-ej'e 
daisy, will work its way in slowly from the 
east, al(jng the railroads and wherever it can 
find a gravelly soil, but it can never become 
a pest. The dandelion is, of course, univer- 
sal, mixed with the blue-grass and white 
clover, but is not a pest. The most noted 
wild herb of pioneer times was ginseng, 
which was dug and sold in the market every 
year until it was utterly eradicated. 

Tliis part of the StJate of Indiana abounded 
in wild fruits, as plums, grapes, pawpaws, 
blackberries and gooseberries, but the en- 
croachments of the clearings have limited 
their area, and live-stock i-unning at large 
have stunted their growth. Curculio takes the 
plum. .Vlong the Loblolly, huckleberries 
and cranberries used to thrive. 

Z>")iiLoGV. 

Although no large body of water exists 
within or near the bonlers of Jay and Black- 
ford counties it formerly luid a respectable 
number of both species and individuals of the 
animal kingih.ni. It afforded the Indian 



i 






lg aS«?P^5r<l'nac.»3oJia»S135;5.TS-l^^iJe»^g..W5rS?;^i 



^t«C3.^«w»ji 



mpnAQ^t^rxM^-a^^i:. 



3ia ^u;^ii„j„ai„j«^an,«„a-.g, ^ 



INTWlDUCTDUT. 






aiiil the pioneer an ahnndance of wholesome 
wiM meats, and in great variety, as well as a 
plentiful supply of useless or iniscbievous 
animals. According to the rule the world 
over, the larger, animals disappeared first 
befiM-e the advancing tread of human occupa- 
tion, and then the next in size, and so on, 
down to the raccoon, opossum, etc., which 
still exist, though in diminishing numbers. 
Tilt; buft'alo and elk were the largest, and 
they disappeared on the very first approach 
of tlie white man, with his deadly rifle and 
indefatigable hound. 

Tlie common deer, which was abundant in 
pioneer times, is now very scarce in Indiana, 
being occasionally seen in some of the wildest 
portions of the State. The last one known 
to be in Jay County was killed in 1860. 

The panther and two species of wild cat 
used to infest the woods, and render travel- 
ing somewhat dangerous to the early settler, 
but tlie last seen in the county were about a 
third of a century ago. 

The black bear, porcupine and beaver have 
not been seen here since lS4:0-'43. 

-Miidcs, weasels and skunks, once common, 
are iliminishing. Twenty to thirty years 
ago there was a brisk trade here in their furs 
and (jther peltry which perceptibly thinned 
out the fur-bearing animals. 

FdX and gray squirrels keep up their pro- 
portion with the diminishing forest. The 
gray sjiecies is the most numerous, among 
which a black specimen is occasionally met 
with. In 1835 a grand srpiirrel raid, east- 
ward bound, was made through this region, 
destroying all the corn. They were so crowded 
in places that one could kill numbers of 
them with a club. Flying squirrels are still 
here, but as they are entirely noetui'iial in 
their habits they are seldom seen. There 
.•ire also ground squirrels in abumlance. 



Moles, rabbits and bats are of course still 
common. 

jNo otters have been seen f_ir many years, 
though they were frequent in early days. 
There are still a good many muskrats. 

Occasionally there is a gray fox met with, 
but few red foxes have been seen for a long 
time. 

Wolves, of the large gray •• timber " 
species, were plentiful in early times, and 
more annoying and mischievous than all 
other animals put together; but they are now, 
of course, extinct. 

Ground hogs, or " woodchucks," were 
never plentiful, and are so S(Mrce now that 
seldom can one be found. 

'' "Wild hogs."' or domestic hogs escaped 
and running wild, were abundant in pioneer 
times. In a few generations these animals 
became as furious and dangerous as wolves. 



"Within the space allowed us in this work 
it is impossible to give a complete analysis 
of the climate of this locality, and the various 
causes which modify it from year to year. 
In this region we are free alike from the Arc- 
tic blasts of a Xew England winter and the 
enervating heat of the Gulf States; but as 
often as once in eight or ten years we are 
visited by a Polar wave, winch continues for 
a greater or less length of time, sometimes 
giving us for several weeks a fair exhibition 
of a Labrador winter, and about as often the 
current sets in the other direction, and we 
have for a season the isothermal of the tropics 
transferred to this region. 

This oscillation of temperature in difi'erent 
seasons and in the same season is owing to 
the v;ist extent of a comparatively level land, 
unnbitructed by muuntain or lai-ge body of 
water, fr.nn Hudson's Bay to the Gidf of 



mi 






^ "!■" If t^^«"l-J ■»■".«'' 



J.»'°^J'.J|"='TI° 



'•■^^^■^■^'r.^-m'r^^^a 



m 



HISTORY OF J AT COUNTY. 






ilexioo. The average temperature for tweiity- 
iivc years past, during the winter months, at 
Indianapolis was 35° Fahrenheit, or tliree 
degrees above freezing point. In this part 
(if Indiana, owing to its greater elevation, the 
a\erage must be somewhat less, about 32°. 
The mean annual temperature at Indianapolis, 
as obtained from fifteen years' observation, is 
55°. 

The average number of days in the year in 
which it rains or snows in Indianapolis is 
12s. The average depth of annual rain-fall 
niay be set at from forty-three to forty-live 
inches. The greatest number of rainy days 
occur in the mouth of March. The great 
rainfall of the year is closely contested by 
ilarcii and June. 

The prevailing winds of this region are 
from southwest to northwest; the coldest are 
from a point between west and northwest, 
and the warmest from a little west to south- 
west. 

This is very nearly a climate of latitude; 
its elevation of 1,000 feet makes it a little 
colder, and there is a greater rainfall and 
more fre(|ueiit atmospheric changes than gen- 
erally occur in this latitude in places so far 
from the sea. This is caused by tlic position 
of the county, on the line of interchange of 
winds between the gulf and the great lakes. 
Till' water of the great lakes maintains in 
siiuuner time a much lower degree of tem- 
pierature than the land, and the v.-inds from the 
Gulf of ile.xico, freighted with moisture and 
unobstructed by mountain ranges, meet with 
no cooling surface to condense their vapors, 
until they come in contact with the cool at- 
mosphere in the lake region, when condens:i- 
tion begins, and soon a storm is the result, 
which backs southward until this region is 
fivored with a thunder .^-toi-iii from the 
ri'irthwer-t. For this reason lung continued 
droughts rarely occur in this region, and 



when they do occur they are generally ended 
by a storm from the northwest, produced by 
the above causes. 

Thus it is seen that the position of East- 
ern Indiana is a fortunate one. 

Such are the results of these fortuitous cli- 
matic conditions. "When droughts occur, it is 
when the wind comes from a point a little 
north of southwest and has been deprived 
of its moisture in its passage over the 
mountains of Arizona and New Mexico. The 
steady and long-continued rains in this region 
are from the east and southeast. 

Since the early settlement of the conntry 
changes have been taking place which have, 
to a considerable e.xtent, modified tiie cli- 
mate, and these changes will continue until a 
further modification takes place. 

Now the forests have disapjieared to make 
room for cultivated fields and the earth re- 
ceives the direct rays of the sun, and the air 
circulates freely, obstructions have been re- 
moved from the streams, and artificial drain- 
age has in many places been added. The 
cultivated lands in many districts have been 
underdrained with tile, so that the melting 
snows and spring floods are carried away di- 
rectly', and but little moisture remains to 
temper the summer heat by evaporation. 

The earth, 7'elieved by drainage of its re- 
dundant moisture, and stripjied of its pro- 
tecting forests, is exposed to the direct rays 
of the summer sun. Before the fall months 
come it is heated to a great depth, and this 
heat, given oft' to the air, carries the summer 
temperature far into autumn ami postpones 
the advent of winter several weeks. Jjut when 
the store of summer heat is exhausted and 
winter comes, the winds from the plains of 
the "West comes unnbstructcd, and the earth, 
luiw de[irived of its former pi'otection. freezes 
to a great depth. 

These conditions oiierate to render the 



m 



m 



i 



«9 



m 



'M 



I 

31 






^rL'±.»ii3i^ 






^rJV-i^.;:-; 



$ 



iL"5 



INTllOUUVTORY. 



i 



springs later, the summer warmer, the an- 
tunins later and the winters more severe. 

On the 12th of iS'ovember, 18-J:2, the ground 
was covered by a fall of snow, which did not 
entirely leave until the following April. 
After the 8th of January the whole country 
was one vast field of ice, caused by the freez- 
ing of a lieavy rain. On this a snow nearly 
a foot deep fell, on this a rain, and then 
freezing and snow again. This impenetrable 
covering of the earth prevented the hogs 
from obtaining roots and nuts, and the wild 
turkeys from getting their accustomed food 
under the leaves; and long before spring the 
scanty provision made by the settlers for 
horses and cattle was gone, and great num- 
bers of cattle perished. Some fanners were 
able to keep most of their stock by cutting 
down elm, lin and other soft wood trees, to 
provide buds and twigs for them as food. 
Even salt fat pork was occasionally fed to 
cows. A few farmers saved some of their 
hogs by killing the weaker ones and feeding 
them to the stronger! ("Survival of the 
strongest.") Wild hogs generally died. Deer 
liecamc so poor they were easily taken, and 
men and wolves slew them in great numbers. 

Another remarkable season was the very 
next summer, when there was so much rain 
full that no crops could be raised. Large 
numbers of families left their cabins ami 
clearinirs and moved liack io the older set- 



tlements, most of whom never returned; and 
the rest would have gone also could they have 
sold their property for anything at all. 

In Februai-y, 1883, there was a great flood 
in this region. 

May 21, 1884, snow fell, melting mostly 
as it struck the ground or soon after, in a 
quantity equal to about one foot of nnmelted 
snow. 

May 14, 1886, one of the greatest cyclones 
that ever visited the United States struck 
the ground between one and two miles north- 
east of Portland, and stuck to the ground, 
without rising entirely above it, all the way 
to Lake Erie. Its path varied from one- 
fourth to three-fourths of a mile in width. 
The damage done was of course immense, 
but many remarkable stories are related con- 
cerning its singular freaks that are hard to 
believe. For e.\ample, it is said to have car- 
ried a wagon-bed to a point several miles 
from its track: to honeycomb the bark of a 
tree by pelting wheat straw upon it; to strip 
all the feathers of}" of many chickens without 
lacerating the flesh; to break off an oak tree 
three feet in diameter eighteen feet above 
ground and set it down again perpendicularly 
eicrht feet in the ground a quarter of a mile 
distant, etc., etc. In Ohio it killed more 
than twenty people, but only one was killed 
in Jay County, iwmely, Susan Epley, of 
Ni.iljle Township. 






!.1) 



^ 

m 










ml 






HISTORY OF JAY COUNTY. 



oHinUaiaa 



-II settlemen 



.'^i 




iX the 15tli day of Febru- 
ary. 1821, Peter Studa- 
baker and Mary Simison 
were married at Fort Ee- 
covery, gathered their 
^^ household goods and with 
several friends entered the wilds 
a few miles further west, soon 
striking the " Quaker Trace " 
leading from Kichmond to Fort 
"Wayne, which they followed until 
they reached the Wabash River. 
Here, upon a low bank near the 
water's edge, they camped. Cut- 
ting four forked poles, they drove one end of 
each into the ground, laid poles and brush 
across the top, and their camp was completed. 
A "fii'e was kindled at one end, by which the 
young wife cooked supper for the company, 
her first experience in •' housekeeping " by 
herself. 

" ISIeep had scarcely calmerl the wearied 
company that night when they were aroused 
by the yells of an approaching gang of wolves. 
From another point came an answering howl, 
then another and anotlier, till the forests 
rang with the crashing echoes. The dog 
sprang out from the camp and threatened to 



give battle, but soon came bounding back, 
panic-stricken, and jumped upon the bed. 
As the parties lay there, so near the bank, 
they could see about a dozen wolves at the 
water's' edge on the opposite shore. Soon 
they heard the sharp, savage snap of wolf- 
teeth near their bed, and glarino- ej-es shone 
in the darkness within two yards of the 
camp. The men sprang from their ground 
bed in alarm, seized their rifles and Hred 
them in the direction of the hideous beasts. 
The howling pack fled in haste, and did not 
return. The occupants of the camp slept 
soundly the rest of the night. 

"Thus camped and slept the tirst white 
family that ever trod the wilderness which 
fifteen years afterward became the county of 
Jay." — ILontgomery. 

Mr. Studabaker erected a log cabin on the 
south l)ank of the Wabash, and lived therein 
about two years. This was the first white 
man's house ever erected within tlie ]. resent 
limits of Jay County. There was no other 
house within fifteen miles, and no mill or 
store within thirty-flve miles. This puint on 
the W'abash is now called New Corvdon. 

During Mr. Studabaker's sojourn there, 
the wolves were sometimes unusuallv bold. 
One time, in broad daylight, a wolf came up 



(la! 






? ji,-~ 



.M„a„»j a: 5'g^ra'^ *i.»..« »«'fja'i.'''«i"ai»M«ia»gaM"-..'aw*nU «iM„«„M,j^ii„n^anianiM ; 



SETTLEMENT. 









to the house to attack a calf, when Mrs. 
Studabaker appeai-cil and it ran away. One 
night a pack attacked the hogs. Mr. Studa- 
baker went out with his gnn, while his wife 
carried a torch, and he shot at them five 
times; but they came still nearer, snapping 
their teeth almost within reach. As they 
seemed determined to attack in the face of 
the gun, Mrs. Studabaker prevailed on her 
husband to run with her back to the house. 
The '' Quaker Trace," referred to above, 
was the route traveled by the Quakers of 
Wayne County to Fort TVayne to market. 

From Mr. Montgomery's little history, 
which we have just quoted, we must relate 
an instance illustrating the loneliness and 
privation often e.xperienced by the frontier 
settler. 

"Late in the autumn of 1822, the Indians 
stole a colt from Mr. Studabaker, and also 
one from his brother-in-law, John Simison. 
Some time afterward these two men set out 
for Wapakoneta, Ohio, in search of the colts 
among the Indians there. Before leaving, 
Mr. Studabaker hired a boy from the settle- 
ment to stay with his wife, cut the wood and 
build the fires for her. She then had a babe 
only three months old. The men had been 
gone scarcely an hour when this boy proved 
treacherous, and left the woman and lier 
babe entirely alone. Tliis placed her in an 
ahinniiig situation, as it was fifteen miles to 
tin.' nearest neighbor and her husljund ex- 
jioctcd to be gone a week. The weather was 
cold, and she had no wood and b\it little 
strength. Indians and wolves were her only i 
near neighbors. She resolved to do her best 
at cutting wood and keeping up the fire her- 
self. Quite naturally she sought the kinds 
of wood that wouhl chop the easiest, and 
sometimes cut green bnclceye, the poorest of 
all wood. This made it dithcnlt to keep [ 
gond fires; but she nianagi'd to get along 



without suffering much, except from loneli- 
ness, until the fifth day, when the weather 
turned extremely cold. All this time had 
passed and she had not seen a human being. 
Even the sight of an Indian would have 
cheered her up. This day she built a fire, 
but it would not burn. She chopped more 
wood and piled the great fire-place full; but 
all in vain. To use her own words, ' It 
seemed to be, as it is said to be in Greenland 
sometimes, too cold to burn.' Disheartened 
and despairing, as her last hope, she took her 
babe and went to bed. Here they must lie 
until assistance came or freeze to death! But 
in about two hours in came her husband, 
who immediately built a hot fire. The joy 
of both was inexpressible. He also had 
brought the stolen colt home with him." 

In the winter of lS21-'22 James Worth- 
ington, of Columbus, Ohio, son of Governor 
Worthington, accompanied by nine assistants, 
came to Mr. Studabaker's and made their 
home with him during the three months they 
occupied in surveying out the counties of 
Jay, Adams and "Wells. They gave Mr. 
Studabaker a plat of their survey, which was 
useful to the settlers for many years. 

In this family, September 29, 1S22, was 
born Abram Studabaker, the first white person 
born in .Jay Count}-. 

Mr. Studabaker remained here l)ut two or 
three years, moving down the Wabash into 
what is now Adams County, where he died 
in 18-iO. 

Hut the first permanent white settler was 
John Brooks, who, with his wife Mary and 
infant daughter Nancy, came from Ridge- 
ville, Randolph County, and camped near the 
close of November, 1S23, upon the banks of 
the creek which has since borne his name. 
The ne.xt morning they moved on, by the 
Godfrey trace, till they reached the banks of 
the Salamonia, opposite the Indian village 



it 



*'«*-'"'" ""j""* 



r 



r'B'S-Bsi^fa 



agjg^j^jj^jaya^^ 



,:M-,ul-,a,. 



jJ-ljH-B„Jlna-.Mg 



■!»«'""■««'» 



rg;r.«i.A'-»^j? 



HISTOlir OP J AT COUNTY. 



m 



-Ml 



where Godfrey was cliiet', in Penn Township. 
Ilei-e they settled. Jolin Gain, an Indian 
trader, came with him, but the next year 
moved on to Fort Wayne. 

Mr. Brooks was born near Phihidelphia, 
Pennsylvania, and his wife in Bourbon Coun- 
ty, Kentucky. They were married in Ohio 
in 1816. On settling in this county they 
were twenty-fonr miles from the nearest 
white neighbor, and the virtual exile was a 
bitter one for poor Mary, but Mr. Brooks 
loved the chase and the wilds so dearly that 
he did not suffer much from loneliness. He 
was a favorite with the Indians, who taiiglit 
him the arts of trapping. He sold the furs 
in Fort Wayne at high prices. Francois 
Godfrey, the Indian chief, was an especial 
friend, and lie forbade the redskins, under 
penalty of death, from molesting Mrs. Brooks 
during her husband's absence. The chief's 
mother was company for her, until one day 
slie drank too much whisky, wliich resulted 
in her death the following night. 

A HOEKIRLE EXPERIKXCK. 

The following heart-remling account is 
from M. "W. Montgomery's History: 

In June, 1S24, Mr. Brooks started to Still- 
water, Ohio, for provisions, expecting to be 
gone several days. His wife and child were 
to lie left alone, as was nsual in such cases. 
She saw 710 one for several days except a 
traveler on his way to Fort Wayne, who 
called for a meal. A heavy rain caused an 
unprecedented rise in the streams, rendering 
it impossible for Mr. Brooks to reacli his 
family, or get nearer to them than Ridgeville. 
]\Irs. Brooks now began to fear for her hus- 
band. She knew that he would make cvoit 
ell'ort in his power to reach honie. and greatly 
feared that be would risk too much, and get 
drowned. 



But apprehensions for her own safety soon 
added to her perplexities. Her provisions 
were nearly gone, and the Salamonia remained 
so high that she could not cross to the Indian 
village to get relief. Her anxieties and fore- 
bodings increased till, on the thirteentli day 
of her husband's absence, she gave the last 
mouthful of food about the house to her 
child. She then had nothing left but a little 
sugar and some milk. Still the Salamonia 
overflowed its banks, and relief came not. 
Her child cried almost continually, while her 
own sadness and hunger were overwhelming. 
The belief that Mr. Brooks was drowned, 
added to her own hunger, made her desperate. 

In this suffering and despairing condition 
did the poor woman and her child live for 
three days. By this time she gave up all 
hope of ever seeing her husband again, and 
cojicluded she must starve to death with her 
babe! but preferring a watery grave to the 
slow torments of starvation, she resolved to 
go to the Salamonia and drown herself and 
little one! Taking the child, she went to the 
river, but her weakness compelled her to rest 
several times on the way. Probably the 
sight of the swollen, angry current startled 
her, for she sat down on a log when she 
reached the water's edge. To use her own 
language, "It was the thought that my hus- 
band was dead that so discouraged me, and I 
concluded to go half way across the foot log 
and throw myself into the stream." 

Wliile there weeping she saw a person 
coming toward her on the o])positc side of 
the river. Seeing that he had a hat on, she 
knew it was a white man. .Vfter waiJing a 
long distance, he reached the foot log and 
came across to her. She was so weak that her 
joy quite overcame her, and lor a time she 
could not answer his (piesticjii, '■ What is the 
matter?"' At length she replied. -'I am 
atarvins."' 



!& 



(18 



Jfe 



(La 



! = 






■■ J»„dJ^^ 



^ 



m 



r 



,»»«:. Mj;j:aMn»nLJ^HaiM«.j?,a,iu„j„M«i»„M ^a :„ti.„»;5J^^r^s?;;3„a,ia^.«^g 



SETTLEMENT. 



'li\l 






m 



m 






I 






111 

ii 

'^^ 



It was her old friend, John Gain, return- 
ing for some things he Jiad left there. On 
leui-ning her condition he went with her, and 
carried the child back to the cabin, and then 
wont over to the Indian village for food. He 
obtained eighteen pounds of flour and six of 
bacon, and started back; but by the timo- he 
reached the river it was night. AVading to 
the foot log, he found the water had risen 
duiinghis absence until the sweeping current 
WHS above it. To attempt crossing would be 
certain death, and those whom he was trying 
to succor would also be lost. He stood pon- 
dering wliat to do until the increasing dark- 
ness placed him in a new danger. There were 
many deep holes along the bottoms; and, 
kniiwing that the darkness would prevent 
him from avoiding tliem, he dared not re- 
turn. Standing in three feet of water with 
that burden in his arms, not daring to move, 
while a woman and child near by were starv- 
ing for the want of that food, he was in a sad 
dilemma. So there he stood, sides deep in 
wafer, holding that precious flour and bacon 
all the night long! Never was the gray 
dawn of morning welcomed more gladly. 

lie then made his way back to the town 
and inquired for a canoe, but there was none 
nearer than three miles up the stream. He 
gave a young Indian a dollar to bring it 
down, and charged him tn make all possible 
h.-isto. Hut the Indian of course took his 
characteristic leisure, and it was noon before 
he returned, and 1 o'clock when John Gain 
rca('hed the cabin with the long needed re- 
fresliments. He remained and saw the fam- 
ished ones eat the first meal for nearly four 
days. Their gratification and thankfulness, 
not t(] say anything of the pleasure he must 
have experienced in saving life, amply com- 
pensuted him for his tcilicus ctl'orts to relieve 
them. Then he went his way, and ilary 
llrooks was a^'ain alone. 



It had now been'seventeen days since her 
husband's departure, and during that time 
the only human being she had seen was the 
traveler before mentioned and John Gain. 
On the nineteenth day she was greatly re- 
joiced at the sight of her husband. He had 
left his oxen at the Indian town, and crossed 
the Salamonia by falling trees and wadinir. 
They then set about making a " piro"-ue " 
(dug-out canoe), which they had to roll three- 
quarters of a mile in order to get it into the 
river; and by means of this boat they brought 
over their provisions. The Salamonia con- 
tinued so high that it was three days before 
the team could be brought home. Thus 
ended one of the severest trials early settlers 
were ever compelled to endure. 

OTHER EVENTS. 

Once, when one of the children was very 
sick, Mr. Brooks walked all the way to Fort 
"Wayne and hack to procure medicine. All the 
women whom Mrs. Brooks saw while livin'>- 
on their first homestead, two years and a half, 
were those who had walked twenty-four miles 
to see her. Her husband was absent most 
of the time, hunting or teaming. Altoi^ether 
seven years did Mrs. Brooks live casred up in 
the wilderness without seeiuLj any other 
house than her own cabin. 

By her jirovidential care the first orchard 
in Jay County was started. The seeds of 
seven fine apples which her husband brou"-ht 
home she planted, and she took care of the 
young trees, superintended their transplant- 
ing when they moved to Cherry Grove, and 
they grew up to be fine, productive trees, 
often bearing good crops when other orchards 
faile.l. 

About the year ls33 "William Van Sickle, 
with his family, on his way fmm Muncie to 
Fort Wayne, found himself out of money and 
stopped in this cdunty about three years, a 



'ii; 



M j^„ J j*. 



-^■^~-i ^i*ms,*a«^\ 



i»ai"»"a'*iir»i 



a««»"»«*"«*»m'*!l 



.a,a„a,Bii^ 



lMBaiiSna«^a'Us 






'Bj 



8lJ 



^3' 



J^^ 



3|! 



HIHT'JRY OF JAY COUNTY. 



near neighbor to Mr. Brooks. Tin's was the 
only family near enoiig-h fur Mrs. I3rool<s to 
visit during the tirst ten years of her resi- 
dence in the wilderness. Sliortly afterward 
Adam Zeigler settled within a mile and a 
half, which was, as Mrs. Brooks e.xpressed it, 
"only a few steps away;" and this was a 
source of great joy to her. 

Her hnsband died February 4, 1844. Eev. 
George C. Whitman preached the funeral 
sermon, and Timothy Stratton was admin- 
istrator of the estate. Thus departed the 
tirst man who became a permanent resident 
of Jay County.- His widow died some years 
ago. She became the mother of eleven chil- 
dren. Three of the sons were born March 4, 
viz., 1824, 1827, 1831. Allen, the eldest, 
died in 1874, in this county. 

The third family of settlers in Jay County 
was that of Orman Perring, who came to the 
point which had been occupied by Peter 
iStudabaker. This was probably about the 
year 1820. In 1837 he moved down to a 
])lace about four or five miles north of 
j'lufl'ton. 

In October, 1830, Hamilton Gibson, a boy 
fifteen years old and small for his age, started 
from his father's house in Ohio on horseback 
to select a piece of land for their future home. 
Entering the dark wilderness of the Limber- 
lost, he built a half-face camp, in wliich he 
lived for two weeks. "Wolves came howling 
around every night. Sometimes he would 
get up and stir the lire in order to sec them, 
but could not. 

Thomas J. Shaylor, first in Penn Township 
and then in Pike or Wayne, on the Little 
Salamoiiia, was probably the next permanent 
s(.'ttler. He was a blacksmith by occupation, 
but was a noted Indian fighter. In later 
years he went West, and was with Fremont 
and Kit Cai'iun among the moinitiiiiis and on 
the plains, but finally retui'ne<l t.. this county 



and died near Camden, where he is buried. 

Elias and George Porter caine in the fall 
of 1830; but some say they did not arrive 
until 1834. It is impossible for the historian 
to be certain about some of the dates at this 
period, as the testimony is very conflicting. 

John J. Hawkins and George Tucker set- 
tled on a beautiful bank at the forks of the 
Little Salamonia, March 8, 1829, first occu- 
pying a "half-face camp." This was a tem- 
porary structure, with the higher side all 
open, occupied until a house could be erected. 
It was commou among the pioneers. The 
open side served as door, window and fire- 
place, and was very convenient and comfort- 
able. Mrs. Tucker became dissatisfied and 
prevailed upon her husband to return to their 
old home in Preble County, Ohio, thus leav- 
ing the Hawkins family without near neigh- 
bors. Mr. Hawkins was a descendant of Sir 
John Hawkins, the first Englishman who 
brought slaves from Africa to America, in 
1562. On settling in this county Mr. Haw- 
kins had si.x children — Samuel, then aged 
eighteen, Nathan B., Benjamin W., Avaline, 
who married James Simmons, of Randolph 
County, Joseph C. and Caroline, who after- 
ward became the wife of B. W. Clark. Mr. 
Hawkins died March 15, 1832, as the result 
of an injury from the carcass of a deer fall- 
ing upon his breast. His death was the first 
ill Jay County, and he was buried near the 
bank, not far from the cabin, where other 
members of the family have since been 
buried. Mrs. Hawkins survived until 1868. 
(See life of B. AV. Hawkins, in this work.) 

Mr. Montgomery, in his histoi-y, relates 
two or three interesting incidents in the life 
of the above family, connected with what was 
afterward known as the " Underground Rail- 
road."' While they were neither station 
ao-cnt.-5 nor conductors on that road, they 
never derailed a train. When they saw ne- 



I 

if- 

V3\ 






t 



>y> 



4 

i 



'•^"a^^.-'-.J 



1 

19' 



ill! 



i 



" tTi>; '7'^;: 






H^MmMmMm" 



SKTTLEMENT. 






s 



grots flying for tlieir freedom, tliey never 
betr.-iyeil tliein to their pursuers, even though 
a thiiiisand dollars was once offered them for 
the purpose; and a thousand dollars then 
(1S33) was equal to several thousand dollars 
now in its purchasing power and the advant- 
age it won Id give over one's neiglil.iors. 

lie also relates a terrible experience of 
William Simmons, from Henry County, this 
State, who in January, 1832, came to this 
county on a hunting expedition, got lost, and 
was frozen nearly to death when found on the 
knoll since occupied by Liber College. One 
. leg, und the toes and heel of the other foot, 
had to be amputated! He was found by B. 
W. Hawkins and Edward Simmons, who had 
been encouraged to go out on the search by 
John J. Hawkins, the father of the former, 
John J. being then an invalid. The poor 
man, about sundown, started to go up the 
Little Salamonia to Thomas J. Shaylor's, his 
brother-in-law, three miles above Portland- 
Coming to the month of the creek, he found 
it so small that he concluded that it could not 
be the Little Salamonia, and he passed on up 
the main stream. He traveled until he was 
exhausted, and then tried to strike a fire from 
liis tlint, but failed. He kept moving about 
all nii;-ht, exhausted as he was, to keep from 
freezing. Early the next morning he again 
tried his flint, and the first stroke made lire. 
In thawing his shoes he burned his frozen 
feet t<>rribly, and could not again put his 
shoes (in. lie then m.ade a pair of moccasins 
from the skin of a wolf he had killed the day 
before. He left his gun, and, with the help 
of a staff, dragged himself along, and was 
gciing up the Little Salamonia when found. 

(-)b,'idiah "Winters, who settled in "Wayne 
Town.-^hip October 3, 1S33, hud a son named 
John. "When the latter was about Iwo and a 
half years old. he Mas one day at his grand- 
tatlii'i-'s, Philip EusmiugiM'. In the morning 



the old man went hunting, and without his 
knowledge the little fellow followed and got 
lost. The waters were already very hio-h, 
and it rained hard during that night. Great 
excitement prevailed throughout the com- 
miiuity, and a large number of persons went 
to hunt him, which they did the whole night, 
in vain. A cat which was wont to play with 
the child followed them, and repeatedly dur- 
ing the night came to iliem, mewed, and then 
went away again. They paid no attention to 
this until morning, when J. C. Hawkins and 
Thomas Mays followed tlie cat, and he led 
them directly to the lost boy! He was in- 
sensible, very cold and nearly dead. "When 
he revived so as to be able to talk, he saw 
the cat, and remarked, "-Tom, vou and me 
has been lost." He also said that the cat 
came to him several times through the night, 
and that he saw a big dog, — wdiich is thought 
to have been a wolf 

Mr. "Winters was a prominent man of Jav 
County, residing where he first settled until 
his death, which took place May 12, 1877, at 
the age of seventy-four years. His wife had 
died in 18G2. 

One of the pioneers of Wabash Township 
was John Chapman, an oddity known as 
"Johnny Appleseed," from the circum- 
stance that he brought with him from Cen- 
tral Ohio, on the back of an ox, two bushels 
of apple seeds, which he planted at various 
places, among tliem a clearing one mile east 
of Kew Corydon. In the early settlement 
of the county he was in the habit of wander- 
ing about from one nursery to another selling 
trees, and camping out wherever nicrht over- 
took him. He never carried a gun or wore 
a sound article of clothing, though he pos- 
sesscil considerable property; never slept in 
a bed, (jr ate at a table; had no place he 
called home; was a zealous S\vedenlHjr:;'ian 
in his religion, and died near Fort Wavne in 



%, 






fa; 



in 

k 

|il 

531; 

^ 



m 



im 



Ojj^fi^-Jj^X 



* ^**-a«g« 



.a.H-li- 



■ b3aQiCi.]a;^HdBn>W>a<ai 



iiisTDiiY OF JAY couyrv. 



1845. He had once been a fine business 
man, but an accident liad caused a partial 
derangement of liis mind. 

Two miles below Portland is a place the 
hunters used to call tlie ■' big eddy," in the 
Salainonia. It is a kind of pond, a mile 
long, and is therefore a good place for '• tire- 
liunting," which is a process formerly much 
in vogue, of charming deer on the banks by 
carrying a brilliant light on the bow of the 
canoe while the hunter sat concealed by a 
board raised in front of him. For the reason 
that this pond was a good place for that 
species of gaming, the Indians had a " two- 
mile reservation " made for them, which em- 
braced this place. The year 1833 witnessed 
tlie last visit of the Indians to this ground to 
enjoy their favorite hunt. 

One time, while the Indians were passing 
tlirough the county by way of the Hawkins 
settlement, a redskin youtli stole an ax. 
About three months afterward they returned, 
when the boy's lather brought the ax back, 
saying, "My boy stole him; no good boy." 

At another time an Indian called on I'eter 
Studabaker, at Fort Recovery, and told him 
tliat a " very rich man " had moved into the 
county, meaning John J. Hawkins. Studa- 
baker inquired whether lie had many horses 
and cattle. '• No," said the Indian, '• he got 
heap of children and thirteen dog !" 

On still another occasion Dr. Duck, an In- 
dian physician, who was very pious, attended 
religious services near Deertield, after which 
there was a church trial of an ofiending 
member. The old Indian listened attentively 
until there was some conflicting testimony, 
when he went to the door, turned round and 
said to the meeting, ■• i\Ie gi>. ]S'o much 
good here; too much lie." 

Philip ]]rown, wlm built the first house in 
M'ayne Township in 1832, adjoining on the 
north bide of the site of Lil.ier, did not enter 



the land he occupied until he had some 
trouble with a land shark named Wier. As 
the latter was passing through tlie countv 
looking for land, he took it into his head to 
oust Brown and get possession of the land, 
improvements and all, for nothing, telling 
him that he (Wier) had already entered the 
land. This so enraged Brown that he made 
some threats, and Wier then went into Ran- 
dolph County and "swore out his life 
against " Brown. A constable named Rob- 
ert Parsons, in obeying the orders from court 
came into the settlement and summoned B. 
W. Hawkins and Joseph Williamson to as- 
sist him in the arrest of Brown, who, mean- 
time, had started to Fort Recovery. The 
settlers in the neighborhood sympathized 
with Brown. The constable, with tlie above 
posse (?), started for Fort Recovery. Tiie 
latter took care that their progress should be 
very slow. They found John R. Mays and 
his boys grubbing near their house. Haw- 
kins, one of the deputies, asked some rather 
indirect question about Brown, at the same 
time giving Hays the wink, who, knowing 
the circumstances, gave the constable the 
impression that if Brown was not already in 
Ohio he soon would be. The same moment 
he whispered to Hawkins that Brown was at 
that very moment in his (Mays") house eat- 
inc dinnerl Hawkins then put in a plea 
that, it being Saturday afternoon, they might 
not catch Brown before the Sabb:i.th. The 
constable replied that it was '-State's busi- 
ness " and he should pay no attention to the 
Sabbath. After other arguments, which did 
not eliaiige the jmrpose of the constable, 
the deputies declared they would go no fur- 
ther unless their expenses were borr.e. This 
led the constable to abandon the chase and 
return home, while the deputies. Hawkins 
and Willianison, went to the house to oon- 
iri-atulate llrown. 



S^iJ 






i 



m 
m 

li 



I 



ija; 






?^' 









[;j J 



SETTI,EMKN'I\ 



J^ 
iW 



tT' 



Tliis was tlie first attempt ever made in 
Jay County to enforce the law. Soon after 
tliis AVier compromised by agreeing to pay 
Brown for the improvements he had made. 
Wier then proceeded to build a cabin on the 
place, being the northeast portion of what 
as since been known as College Corner. 11. 
W. Hawkins was carrying the mail between 
Eichtnond and Fort Wayne, and on the very 
ne.\t trip he examined the records and found 
that Wier's story was false; he had not en- 
tered the land. Mr. Hawkins informed 
Brown of this, but the hitter did not have 
money enough to enter it (^50). His neigh- 
bors helped him, and he lost no time in 
making Fort Wayne and entering the land. 
Returning, he ordered Wier off the premises, 
whicli order Wier had to obey in disgrace. 

Many have been the attempts by "land 
sharks" to oust settlers and squatters through- 
out the West and swallow up all their im- 
provements, and some of these have lieen 
successful, even after the occupant had been 
on the premises twenty years or more and 
had line, large orchards and e.xtensive, well 
cultivated fields. Unfeeling men took ad- 
vantage of a weakness in the law. 

It is an old saying that ■' a home is a 
home, even if there is but one acre of it", 
and at this point the living pioneers love to 
linger in their memories around the many 
pleasures of early cabin life. Concerning the 
the great fire-place, Mrs. Stowe once said: 
" Best of all, there was in our dwelling that 
house altar, the blazing wood fire, whose 
wholesome, hearty crackle is the truest house- 
hold inspiration. An open fire-])laee is an 
altar of patriotism, the charm of sweet home. 
Would our Revolutionary fathers liave gone 
bare-footed and bleedin>f over snows to defend 
air-tight stoves and cookino; ranges? I trow 
not. It was the memory uf the great open 
kitchen fire, with its back-lon' and fore-sticks, 



its roaring, hilarious voice of invitation, its 
dancing tongue of flame, that called to them 
through the snows of that dreadful winter to 
keep up tlieir courage, and that warmed their 
hearts with a thousand reflected memories." 

EARLY METHODISM. 

As to early Methodism in this county, we 
are indebted to the kindness of Augustus 
Bosworth, of Liber, for the following inter- 
esting items. 

The first camp-meeting in this region of 
country was held September 7, 1839, at Rev. 
George C. AVhiteman's in Greene Township, 
and on the same occasion was held the fourth 
quarterly conference of Rev. George W. 
Bowers' Missionary year. Ministers present 
— Rev. George W. Bowers, Thomas Wheat, 
James ilarquis, Benjamin P. Wheat and 
George S. Whiteman; exhorters — John Con- 
ner, William Vail, Poindexter Manor and 
Isaiah Sutton; stewards — .lohn Kidder and 
George Howscr. 

The second camp-meeting was held on the 
same ground, August 5, 18-40, when Robert 
Bums, presiding elder, B. H. Bradbury, 
preacherin charge, ElishaE. Barrett,GeorgeC. 
Whiteman, Isaiah Sutton, Ephraim Collins, 
Leonard Clouse and Bennett King were 
the ministers present. 

David Baldwin, a resident near West Lib- 
erty, this county, was a local preacher, a 
farmer, a hunter, a gunsmith and a black- 
smith. He died in the spring of 1S87, in 
Kansas, at the advanced age of ninetv-five 
years. For a time he lived in Portland, run- 
ning a blacksmith shop, where Alexander 
AVhitc, afterward county treasurer, became 
convej-tcd, under the prayers of j\Ir. Baldwin. 
Zilr. AVhite once nwned the farm on Butternut 
Creek that is n(.iw ciwiied l.iy .Judge J. M. 
Haynes, where was hrld tlie last camp- 
meeting ever conducted in this section of the 
country. 



tiS- 






i^ik^ 



([■It 






i'i' 



'm 



i 



Jiev. Bowers above referred to in 1839 
traveled on horseback 5,000 miles and tilled 
every appointment, preaching on an average 
two sermons a day. For his tirst years' work, 
1838, he received but $88.08. lie was a man 
of liberal education and great bodily power. 

Kev. Martin H. Bradbury was the ne.\t 
missionary, in 1840, receiving §192.71^. 
Joseph Ockerman, the next year, received 
§121.811 John "VY. Bradshaw, 1848, was 
the fourth preacher in charge. 

FiKST eve:nts. 

First temporary settler, Peter Studabaker, 
on the Wabash, 1821. 

First permanent settler, John Brooks, on 
Brooks Creek, 1823. 

First birth, Abram Studabaker, son of 
Peter, September 29, 1822. 

First marriage, Joseph Williamson and 
Mary Ellen Hartup, May 21, 1834, at Henry 
n. Cuppy's, in Wayne Township. 

First marriage license issued was for the 
marriage of Casper Geyer and Rachel Clark, 
dated April 11, 1837, and tlie parties were 
married just one week afterward by AVade 
I'osey. 

First death, John J. Hawkins, March 15, 
1832. 

First land entry, James Stone, November 
9, 1832, in Noble Township. Thomas Scott 
entered a tract the very next day. 

First road surveyed, the liichmond iV Fort 
Wayne, running through Portland. It was 
laid out by order of John James, one of the 
commissioners of Randolph County, and sur- 
veyed by Jeremiah Smith, in 1832. 

First mail route through the county, 1S29 
on which Ellis Kizcr was the tirst mail car- 
rier, by way of the (iodfrey Trace; and the 
lirst ]jostoffice was Salamonia, established 
•lune 11, 1835, one and a half miles south of 



i 

il 

i\si 



Portland, Daniel Farber being the first post- 
master. 

First mill was constructed of a couple of 
" gray-heads " by Peter Studabaker in 1822. 
Instead of cogs a tug was used, which was 
generally too short or too long, according to 
the weather. Afterward John McCoy, in 
Wayne Township, erected a horse-mill, but 
the very first grist ruined it. 

Fii'st blacksmith and gunshop, opened by 
David Baldwin, in Jackson Township, in 
1835. 

First schools, one taught by Miss Sarah 
Tharp (afterward the wife of Thomas Ward, 
of Winchester), in a cabin built by Mr. 
Ringer on the site of the subsequent Siber 
College, and the other by Edward B. Wotten, 
in a cabin in Madison Township, on the farm 
that was afterward occupied by James Rhine. 

First high school. Liber College, opened 
by Rev. I. N. Taylor, in 1853. 

First Sunday-school, by Abraham Lotz, in 
his own house in Aladison Township, in 
1833. 

First church, Methodist, organized in 1836, 
at the residence of James Marquis, in Bear 
Creek Township. 

First Presbyterian church, by Rev. I. N. 
Taylor, at Ira Towle's, in Wabash Township, 
in 1840. 

First church building, on Mr. Towle's 
land, a log structure, erected in 1841. 

First temperance meeting in the county at 
the residence of James Marquis, in Bear 
Creek Township, in 1837. Here, also, was 
the tirst temperance society organized, in 
1839. 

First county election was in August, 183C, 
when commissioners, associate judges, clerk 
and sheriff were elected. jSfames given 
toward the conclusion of the next chapter. 

First township election, last Saturday in 



m 

k 



I 
I 



ii 



SBTTLEJIEXT. 



January, 1835, when Henry II. Ciippy was 
elected justice; particulars elsewhere. 

The first courts were also held at the resi- 
dence of Mr. Cuppy. 

First lawsuit, in 1S35, before Esquire 
Cuppy. "William Bunch complained before 
liim that Philip Brown, a neighbor, kept a 
cross dog, and desired him "bound over to 
keep the peace." Cuppy docketed the case 



as "John Doe versus Richard Boe,'' etc., 
bound Brown over, and instructed the sure- 
ties to " attend the ne.xt term of court in 
"Winchester and deliver Brown up in open 
court to stand his trial for vagrancy/" 

First newspaper, the Portland Journal, in 
1852, by James M. Bromagem, who at that 
time brought the first printing press into the 
county for the purpose. 



m 



m 



I 



m 



ifSi 







?t3 









'^■-^•i-imat 



aa-a^x. 



— ]ii 



niSTriRY OF JAY COUNTY. 



^^ 






LiA-JSr^-J^ ^^ ^^ -^H -i'^ r^r^,-' H,^ 



COUNTY GOVERNMENT, 





II 

I 




Y the treaty of Greenville, 
Ohio, made with the In- 
dians xVugust 3, 1795, a 
hoiindarj line was de- 
scribed as running tVoni 
I'ort Recovery southwest- 
erly in a direct line to the 
mouth of the Kentucky 
River. The land south 
of this line was ceded to 
the United States at the 
above date. About forty 
square miles, in the form 
of a ti'iangle, was south 
of this line in ^vliat is 
now Jay County. This 
treaty was signed, on the 
part of the United States, by Major General 
iVnthony "Wayne, and on the part of the In- 
dians by the chiefs of the "Wyandots, Shaw- 
nces, Ottawas, Chippewas, Pottawatoniies, 
iliamies. Eel Rivers, ^Veas, Kickapoos, Ri- 
ankeshaws and Kaskaskias. The land north 
of this line was ceded to the United States by 
the Indians in a treaty made at St. Mary's, 
Oliiw. October 0. ISIS. This was between 






Jonathan Jennings, Lewis Cass and Benjamin 
Parke, Commissioners of the United States, 
and the chiefs of the Miami nation of In- 
dians, namely, Peshawa, or Richardville. 
Ketauga, or Charley, Osas and others. In 
this treaty many reservations were made by 
the Indians, two of which were in Jay, as 
follows: " One reservation of two miles 
square on the Salamonia River, at the month 
of Atchepongquaw-we Creek," — now called 
Butternut Creek. The other provision re- 
serves " to Francois Godfrey si.x sections of 
land on the Salamonia River, at a place 
called LaPetite Prairie." The two mile 
reservation on Butternut Creek, embracing 
the " big eddy " before referred to, was ceded 
to the United States by the Miami tril)e of 
Indians in a treaty made October 23. 1834, 
at the forks of the "Wabash, below Hunting- 
ton. 

During the following winter, Salamonia 
Township, embracing all of Jay and Black- 
ford counties and a part of Adams (the south- 
ern tier of townships), was organized as a part 
of Randolph County. The board of commis- 
sioners of Randolph County, January 5, 
lS3o. ordered the township set oft', appoint- 






W 




i 






iiij^ tliu tirst election at Daniel Farber's, on 
the la.st Satui-day in January, with Obadiah 
Winters as inspector. The officer to be 
elected was a justice. The candidates were 
II. II. Cuppy and Benjamin Goldsniith. A 
barrel of free whisky was obtained for the 
occasion, and the contest grew exciting. The 
only political question involved was tlie loca- 
tion of the candidates, and Cuppy triumphed. 
But the very first lawsuit coming up before 
Esquire Cuppy proved him unfit for the 
office and he was induced to resign. The 
case was '• John Doe v. Richard lioe," re- 
ferred to on a preceding page. 

UniJer the provisions of an act of the Leg- 
islaturt! approved February 7, 1S35, tlie 
county of Jay and thirteen other counties to 
the nortl) of it were all laid out from the 
territory to which the Indian title had been 
extinguished. Jay County, which then in- 
cluded Blackford, was thus described by the 
third section of theaot: '-That all the terri- 
tory included within the following boundary 
lines shall constitute and form a county to 
be known by the name of Jay: Beginning 
at the southeast corner of Adams County, 
thence west to the eastern boundary of Grant 
County, thence south to the northern bound- 
ary of Delaware, thence east with the north- 
ern boundary of said connt^' to the northeast 
C'lrucr of the same, thence south to the 
iKjrtliwi'st corner of Ramlolph Count}', thence 
east with the northern bounilarv of said 
county to the State line, thence north to the 
place of beginning." 

Some member of the above Legislature, it 
is not known who, in an amendment to the 
bill, gave the name of Jay to tliis county, in 
hon.jr of John Jay, the first chief justice of 
the I'liited States Supi'emo Court, a minister 
to England in ll'JA, and aftiM-ward Governor 
of ^'ew York. 

January 31 >, l'>36, an act was ap])roved 



organizing the county. Section 1 declared 
the territory described as an independent 
County, enjoying, from and after the first day 
of Alarch following, all the rights that other 
counties enjoy. Section 2 appointed Judges 
Jeremiah Smith and Zachariah Bucket, of 
Randolph County, Jacob Thornburg, of 
Henry County, Kathan Coleman, of Madison 
County, and Philip Moore, of Delaware 
County, commissioners to locate the county 
seat. Section 3 made it the duty of the 
sheriff of Randolph County to notify them, 
and provided that they should be paid from 
the treasury of Jay County. Section i 
m-dered that the first circuit and other courts 
be held at the house of Henry II. Cuppy. 
Section 5 made it the duty of the county 
agent to reserve ten per cent, of the money 
received from the sale of donated lots for the 
use of the county library. Section 6 set forth 
the duties of the commissioners, and number 
8 placed the county in the Eighth Judical 
Circuit and Fifth Congressional District. 

With the exception of Moore, the above 
named gentlemen met at Mr. Cuppy's the 
first Monday in June, 1830, as required by 
the law, and after consultation they said that 
Camden, though a pretty site, was too far 
from tlic center, for they then anticipated 
that Blackford would be set otl', which was 
actually done the next winter. The c-eo- 
graphical center of the enmity, one and a 
qiuvrter mile^^ iioi-thwest of Bi)r(land, was 
too low. Then they viewed the '■ Sugar-tree" 
grove. al)oiit (jue and a half miles southwest 
of Portland, and decided that that was the 
most appropriate spot. But they were falsely 
told, by a man who desii-ed to enter that land 
himself, that the ownei' of it lived in Union 
County, Indiana, iind wouM not sell the land 
on any terms. They then tool; eii^htv acres 
on the north side of the Salamoiiia, otlereil 
l)y Daniel IJeid, of Iliehmond, through the 



IM 



M 












$ 



^ is 



j/f.^yjny of jay couNrr. 



\l 1 



I 






atroncy of ilr. Cuppy, and ten aores adjuin- 
in;^', ofl'ered by James Hathaway. Reid 
I'L'sci-ved half the lots around the conrt-house 
square, and onc-tliii-d of all the others. The 
re(:(jrds show that the title to the above lands 
changed proprietorship about this time. 

Governor Noble appointed Christopher 
IJanna, sheriff, to notify the people that there 
would be an election on a certain day in Au- 
gust, 1836, for the purpose of choosing coun- 
ty officers. There -were three polling places 
— at Benjamin Goldsmith's, Daniel Fari)cr's 
anil in Licking, or Lick Creek, Township, 
now Blackford County. The following per- 
sons were elected : Commissioners — John 
Pingry, Abraham Lotz and Benjamin Gold- 
smith; associate judges — James Graves and 
Knoch Bowden; clerk, Christopher Hanna; 
sheriff, Henderson Graves. B. W. Hawkins 
was a candidate for clerk against LLmna, and 
the vote of Lick Creek Township been 
returned, would have been elected. Graves 
did not accept the office of judge, and Oba- 
<liah Winters was subsequently chosen. 

Although the first several acts of the 
ciiuntv commissioners seemed, at the time 
thi^y were decided upon, to be rather small 
items for history, yet distance of time has 
k'ut so great enchantment to the view that a 
recital of them will be interesting. We copy 
hiu-e all those that would be of public inter- 
est for the first several years of the county's 
existence, from the records in the ar.Jitor's 
oltice, which, by the way, are kept in a very 
cai-eful and convenient maniiei'. Indeed, the 
i-cM'unls in all the othces of the Jay County 
ciiurt-house are in much better shape than 
the averafi-e. 



i;akly wokk 



lUNTV i.K(;isr.ATUi:i:. 



.\t a i'eo;uhu' tonii of the coinmissioners of 
• lay County, begun and held at the Ikjusc of 
lii'iiry H. ( 'uppy, in said county, on Monday, 



the 8th day of Xovember, 1S36, present, 
Benjamin Goldsmith, Abraham Lotz and 
John Pingry, commissioners of Jay County, 
Indiana, and Christopher Hanna, clerk of the 
county. 

Ordered, That Henry H. Cuppy be ap- 
pointed treasurer of the county of Jay, and 
that he be notified to qualify himself accord- 

i"g'y- 

Ordered, That Lewis S. Farber be appoint- 
ed assessor of the county of Jay for the 
present year, and that he be notified to qual- 
ify himself accordingh'. 

'^ Ordered, That Henry H. Cuppy & Co. 
pav ten dollars for a license to retail mer- 
chandise in the county for a term of one 
year. 

Ordered, That Jacob Bosworth be aji- 
pointed agent to superintend the survey, sale 
and conveyance of tlie lots in the seat of jus- 
tice in Jay County, and that he be notified 
to qualify accordingly. 

And the board adjourned to 8 o'clock 
to-morrow morning. 

Tuesday, November 9, 1836, the board 
met pursuant to adjournment, and the same 
officers were present as on yesterday. 

It is ordered. That David Baldwin be 
appointed commissioner to superintend the 
appropriation oftlie three jjcr cent, fund ap- 
propriated to the u.=e of !~itate roads and 
bridges in Jay County. 

Ordered, That Xo. 2-1 north, of range 12 
east, in Jay County, be organized as a sepa- 
rate and iiiiJependeut township by the name 
of Penn, and that it be entitled to two jus- 
tices of tlie pieace, to be elected on the second 
Saturday in December next, and tluit Samuel 
Grisell be appointed inspector until he is 
legally succeeded, and that the election be 
held at New Lisbon. 

OrdcrLd. That Township .No. 24:. in range 
14, l>e oi'gani/.ed as a sejiarate and independent 



■m 



m 



\m9 



m 



' i.:i3PjfLa^-:i 



i 



■si: 



^ 



'\9> 









M 
ra 



W 



township, to be known l:y the name of Bear 
Creek Township; and tliat township 2-1. in 
range 13, be attached tliereto, and tliat they 
be entitled to two justices of the peace, who 
shall he elected on the second Satnrdav in 
December next, at tlie liouse of Jolm Pingry, 
and that IJiram A. Pearson be appointed 
inspector until he is legally succeeded. 
, Ordi'.red. That Salanionia Township have 
one additional justice of the peace, to be 
elected on the second S.-iturday in December 
next at the house of Henry H. Cuppy. 

The board adjourned to 8 o'clock to-morrow 
n)orning. 

The next day the board audited a few- 
small bills, appointed three men to view a 
certain road, ordered an election of a justice 
of tlie peace in Harrison Township, and 
adjourned without day. 

December 5, 1836, the board held a special 
session, ordering that the county seat "be 
designated and known by the name of Port- 
land;" that Benjamin W. Hawkins be ap- 
pointed agent of the county in tlie room of 
Jacob Bosworth, wdio was not eligible, and 
that he be notified of his appointment; and 
that Daniel "W. McNeal be appointed s\irvey- 
or of the county of Jay. 

Many persons desired that the county town 
should be named Eeidville, in honor of 
Daniel Reid, who donated the site. 

Jo.shua Pennock, John E. "Ware, T. N. 
Jones, AVilliam Highlander, John ^lartin 
and others were jiaid for laying out and 
clearing the town site. ^Ir. "Ware paid his 
board at Cujipy's by grating corn in the 
evening for meal. 

In January, 1S37, 1). W. McXeal was 
ap])ointed trustee of the seminary fund. 

^lay 3, following, the board -ordered that 
there be a house erected on some suitable lot 



in the town of Portland, for the use 
connfv; and that Christoiilier Ilanna 



d' the 
ii.per- 



intend the letting of the same on the 13th 
day of June next; the terms and description 
to be made known on the day of sale," — 
which terms and description are nota niatterot 
record. The court-house was built withina few 
weeks after it was ordered, of logs, by Robert 
Huey, who was allowed .Sl23.'25 for building 
it. 

L. S. Farber was allowed §23.27 for assess- 
ing the county. James Marquis was appointed 
collector of taxes for the county. The first 
tax assessed was at this term, being SI. 25 on 
every §100 valuation of property for county 
purposes, one cent on every SlOO forroad 
purposes, and 75 cents on every poll. 

^Xathan Coleman was " allowed §21 for 
locating the county seat of Jay County," and 
subsequently other parties were paid for 
similar service. 

September i, 1837, the board adjourned 
from the house of Mr. Cuppy to the new 
log court-house. D. W. McNeal was al- 
lowed §7.75 for surveying and platting the 
town of Portland. J. B. Gillespie was 
granted a license to keep a ferry where the 
Quaker Trace crossed the Wabash. Mr. 
Cuppy resigned the office of treasurer, and 
Hawkins C. Fonts was appointed in his place. 
Christopher Hanna was appointed to snper- 
inteiul the building of a county jail. 

At the iS'ovember term, this year, Thomas 
"Wheat was appointed school commissioner. 

At the :March (1838) term, John Pingry 
was ap]iointed loaning agent of the surplus 
revenue fund, and William Vail collector of 
taxes for that year. 

In January, 1S3'J, the lioard contracted 
with Moses Knapp to buihl a jmblic pound, 
for ."^n.S"^. It was a post-and-rail-fence 
enclosure. Robert llney was granted a 
license to keep a gi-c^cery in Portland. This 
was the first store of the kind kept in the 
place. 



i 






it) 



i 



i 






i 






M) 



Ji.isIiiKi Pennock had Iniilt ;i juil, for which 
hi- had received §181; but, it not heiiig 
according to contract, tlie commissioners 
sued him for damages. It was a lug lionse, 
pijorly bnilt. Slierift' Hawkins, instead of 
confining a criminal in it, took him to his 
own house and had liim rock the cradle until 
his three days' time of punishment expired. 

At the :Xovember term, 1839, 11. C. 
Fonts was removed from the treasurer'soffice, 
and William T. Shull, afterward of Blackford 
County, appointed. A contract was made 
with Lewis N. Byram for erecting the walls 
and roof of a brick court-house, for §1,750, 
and he was to " warrant it to be a substantial 
buildino-for twenty years."' William Haines 
finished the house, but the wall was so poor 
that the building was abandoned in 1859, and 
in March, 1860, was sold at auction for §153. 

In January, 18-40, a contract was let to 
John Pingry for building another jail, for 
§800. That was the old log jail that was 
sold in 1862 for §32, torn down and converted 
into the wagon shop of S. H. Williams. In 
Way, 1862, W. H. & M. W. Montgomery 
obtained the contract for building the present 
jail, for §2,237, and they completed the 
biiiliiing by the following December. The 
iron cells were made and put up by Macey, 
Kankin A: Co., of Cincinnati. But the total 
cost of the jail was §f),600. 

E.IKLY COURTS. 



ended his life by suicide. At this court 
Christoplier Ilanna was clerk, Henderson 
Graves, sheriff, and Thomas Johnson, of 
Fort Wayne, prosecuting attorney. Jeremiah 
Smith, of Piandolph County, was the only 
other lawyer present. 

The grand jury, the lirst in the county, 
consisted of Henr3' H. Cupjiy, Benjamin W. 
Hawkins, Obadiah Winters, Hawkins C. 
Fonts, James Marquis, David Baldwin, John 
Pingry, Samuel G. Hanna, Conaway Stone, 
William Vail, Joseph Wilson, John S. Mays, 
Daniel W. Mclseal, William Clark, John 
Eblin and James Stone. Mr. Cuppy was 
foreman, and Anderson Ware, bailiff. This 
jury found bnt one bill of indictment, which 
was against two of its members, the foreman 
and D. W. McNeal, for an affray. Cuppy 
was tried, defended bj' Jeremiah Smith, and 
found guilty. McNeal pleaded guilty. This 
constituted almost the entire business of the 
term, which continued two days. Each was 
sentenced to pay a line of §1 and costs, and 
were delivered into the custody of the sheriff 
until fines and costs were paid. There was 
no traverse jury at this court. 

The two succeeding terms of court were 
held by the associate judges alone, without 
the aid of a president judge, prosecuting 
attorney or other lawyers. 

OFFICIAL DIRECTORY. 

ST.VTE SK.N'.VTORS. 



The first term of the Circuit Cburt, in Jay 
(!nunty, was held A].ril 17, 1837, at the | 

house of Henry 11. Cupjiy, which house stood ! John Foster, 1830; Michael Aker, 18-11 ; 
there until a few years ago, on the farm of i Isaac F. Wood, 1843; Dixon ililiigan, 1846; 
General Shanks, south of Portland. The [ Jacob Brugh. 1849: T. D. M. Longshore, 
brnch was occupied by Charles \V. Ewing, of [ 1851; Theophilus Wilson. 1S53; Daniel Hill, 
I'ort Wayne, president judge of the Sixth | 1857; David Studabaker, 1^61: George S. 
Judicial Circuit, and Emx-h Howdery, :isso- [ Brown, 1863; Roliert lluey, 1'567; Asbury 
ciato judge for Jay County. Ewing finally | Steele, 1871; Isaac Underwood. 1S75; 



k 

I 









I'i'i 



P 

i 









^1 

r 

I 



1^^ 

i? 






TJqiUjiJInaiaan^jiamM -" 



nM».Jin-Mmai„ U.a; 






^""n^ra 



J,JJ,J^.t^.a..J<I.J! r 



COUNTY (;<- 

Thomas S. Briscoe, 1879; John M. Smith, 
18S3; Silas W. Hale, 1SS7. 

STATE KEPRESEl-JTATIVKS. 

Lewis W. Piirviaiice, 1839; Morrison 
liuhjn, 1840; Kobert Tisdale, 1841; Nathan 

B. Hawkins, 1842; Sanuiel S. Mickle, ; 

Robert Huey, 1844; Samuel S. Mickle, 1845; 
William F. Jones, 1846; Morrison Rulon, 
1S47; George S. Howell, 1848; Robert 
IIuL'v, 1849; William T. Shull, 1850; 
Josejih W. Holliday, 1851; Robert Huey, 
1853; J. P. C. Shanks, 1855; Joseph J. Mc- 
Kinney, 1857; George C. Whiteman, 1859; 
Isaac Woodward, 1861; Samuel A. Shoaff, 
1803; William C. Hudson, 1S67; Samuel A. 
Shoati; 1869; William T. Shull, 1871; 
Abraham Wilson, 1873; Matthew A. Smith, 
1875; Jacob H. Koontz, 1877; S. B. H. 
Shanks, 1879; DavidV. Baker, 1881; David 
Eley, 1883; S. T. McGovney, 1885; S. S. 
Selvey, 1887. 

PROSECUTING ATTOKXEYS. 

Thomas Johnson, 1S37; Jeremiah Sinitli, 
1838; John Brownlee, 1839; Jehu T. Elliott, 
1839-'40: Jeremiah Smith, 1840-'42; John 
M. AV^illace, 1842-'44; John Davis, 1844; 

Joseph S. Buckles, IS '48; John P. C. 

Shanks, 1849-'51; David Moss, 1851-'—; 

William Garver, ; Silas Colgrove, 1853 

-"56; Thomas M. Browne, 1856-'60; J. B. 
Ja.|ua, 1860; James jM. Templer, 1862-'65; 
William S. McCoy, 1865; Daniel M. Brad- 
bury, 1860; John W. Headington. 1869-'70. 

CIRCVri' .UDOES. 

C. W. Ewing, 1S37-"3'J; David Kilgore, 
1S3'.U"46: Jeremiah Smith. 1846-'53: Jo- 
seph Anthony, 1853 "55; Jehu T. Klliott, 
1855 -'65; J. R. l!..bo, ls77-'87. 



iVER.SMEyT. 



•JO:J 



Smith, 1843-'50; Enoch Bowden, 1850-'51; 
Joiin Current, 1850-"51; Obadiah Winters, 
1837-'50. 

This ottice was aliolislied in 1851. 

PROBATE JUDGES. 

Enoch Bowden, 1838; Obadiah Winters, 
1839; George C. Whitman, 1839-52, when 
the business of the office was merged into 
the Circuit Court. 

Common pleas judges. 

Nathan B. Hawkins, 1853; James Brown, 
1854; William A. Peele, 1855-'57; Jacob 
M. Haynes, 1857-'71; John J. Cheney, 1871 
-'72. 

This otfice was created in 1850 and aljol- 
ished in 1872. 

COUNTY AUniTOKS. 

Christopher Hanna, 1837-'42; Alexander 
White, 1842-'45; Joseph Wilson, 1846-'ol; 
John Coulson, 1852-'59; William G. Sutton, 
lS60-'67; S. B. H. Shanks, 1868-'71; C. S. 
Arthur, 1872-'79; R. P. Davis, 1880-'83; 
P. J. Smith, 1884. 

The first three above mentioned were both 
clerk and auditor, under the old Constitution. 

CLERKS. 

Benjamin W. Hawkins. 1843-'50: Ira 
Denney, 1850-'59; Benjamin W. Hawkins, 
1859-'66; David C. Baker, 1867-'75; P. T. 
Hammons, 1876-'88; William S. Fleniino;, 
18S3-'87; George E. Reynolds, 1887. 

The clerk, auditor and recorder commence 
their duties November 1, about a year after 
they are elected, while the sheriff and treas- 
urer begin their terms about ten davs after 
election. 



!»j: 



I 

I 






k 

Pa) 

P, 



a 







'63; Cyrus SUinley, 1863-'72; F. M. Mc- 
Laughlin. lS71-'75; P. M. riearii, 1879-'87; 
J. L." C. McAdams, 1887. 

TREASUIiER. 

Henry H. Cuppy, Hawkins C. Fonts, 
William T. Shull, prior to 1841; Jon.as Vo- 
taw, 184:l-'53; Alex. White, 1853-'55; G. 
W. Templer, 1855-'58; Joseph P. Winters, 
1858-'62; Royal Denney, 1862-'64; Thomas 
Black, 1864; John Coulson, 1864-'66; Sam- 
uel F. Hiatt, 1866-'70; Joseph L. Banta, 
1870-'74: J. P. Nixon, 1874; Albert Gris- 
sell, 1876; John W. Mason, lS78-'82; John 
T. Ilanlin, 1882-'86; D. F. Hoover, 1886. 

SrRVEY(JRS. 

D. W. McXeal, ; Thomas Brown, 

1842; William H. Montgomery, 1845-'52; 
John C. Bailey, 1852-'54; Ximrod Head- 
ington, 1856; Thomas Brown, 18o8-'62; B. 
R. McCoy, lS62-'64; A. W. Pingry, 1865- 
'60; Horton C. Hanna, 18'70-'71; James C. 
White, 1872-'74; Orin Roll, lS74-'76; De- 
Witt C. Farquhar, 1876-'78; D. M. Bunch, 
1878-'80; C. E. Rogers, 18S0-'82; James 
R. Stewart, 1884-'86; R. P. Stewart, 1886. 



Henderson Graves, 1838-'39; B. W. Haw- 
kins, 1S39-'41; Robert Huey, 1842; Daniel 
W. McXeal, 1843; Robert Hiiey, 1844-'4o; 
Jason Whipple, 1845-'46; Hugh P. Hanna, 
184G-'50; Alex. Johnston, 1850-'54; Jacob 
E. Lotz, 1854-'56; Alex. Johnston, 1856- 
'58; Jacob E. Lotz, 1858-"i;2; Alex. Hanlin, 
lS62-'68; William Ilea.lington (deputy), 
lS()3-'64; George II. .Mi.oro, lM>5-'66; Jo- 
seph C. Hawkins, 181)6 "TO; A. 1). Hudson, 
1S71-72: J. G. Crowell. ls72--7i;; Charles 
Bood. lS76-"78; .ronus T. llartzcll, 1878- 



'82; Colby C. Wingate, lS82-'86; James H. 
Powers, 1886. 



CORONERS. 



Elijah Corle, 1854; Samuel Ball, 1858; 
Nathaniel Ross, 1859; James C. Jay, 1867; 
O. M. Hoyt, 1872-'76; Thomas B. Evilsizer, 
1878-'80; James Gillum, 1S82-84; D. S. 
Kinsey, 188 6-. 



COMMISSIONERS. 



1837. — Benjamin Goldsmith, Abraham 
Lotz, John Pingry. 

1838. — Benjamin Goldsmith. Abraham 
Lotz, Henderson Graves. 

1839.— Benjamin Goldsmith, John Pin- 
gry, Jacob Bos worth 

1840.— John Pingry, Josiah H. Topping, 
Timothy Stratton. 

1841. — Jacob Btosworth, Timothy Strat- 
ton, George White. 

1842. — George White, Ammon Cook, 
Timothy Stratton. 

1843-'44.— Amnion Cook, Tiinothy Strat- 
ton, Samuel Hall. 

1845.— Timothy Stratton, Samuel Hall, 
John Reed. 

1846. — Samuel Hall, John Reed, Joseph 
Roach. 

1847-'49. — Jacob Bosworth, William Gem- 
mil, Sumner GritHn. 

1850. — Sumner Grithn, John Goti', David 
Money. 

1850-52.— John Goti; David Money, 
[ William H. Wade. 

I 1853-'54.— William H. Wade, William 
I Gemmil, Isaac Myers. 

I 1855-'56. — William (iemmil, AVilliam H. 
' Wade, Alex. Jackson. 

1857-'58. — William Gemmil, Alex, -lack- 
' son, M. A. Smitii. 



■■-■"T-" ■»■*■"-«■"- 



w 



m 






?5gj ^a"fi"aiJ.«|i«» — j» jJi-.ainia 



5B »a«>S^gaa."»iM5 ;Mu»..» g«»M^iM iB '» »IJ^«,,^ «.,nJ„Mj 

COUNTY aoVERNMENT. 



18,j!.)-'61.— M. A. Smith, Yviiul Aniett, 


lS7.5-"7f). — Harvey Jjergmun, George K. 


Willi^im I!. Miller. 


Brown, Washini^ton T. Pettyjohn. 


1m;2.— M. A. Smith, Vyniil Arnett, Alex. 


1877.— W. T. Pettyjohn, James B. Xick- 


Jackson. 


erson, Greer E. Gemmill. 


lS(;:!-'64.— Vynul Arnett, Eli Bales, Ale.x. 


1878-'79. — James B. jS'iekerson, G. E. 


Jacks(jii. 


Gemmill, Elijah Lyons. 


1S()5. — Eli Bales, James E. Hartman, 


1880.— Elijah Lyons, G. F. Gemmill, Rob- 


Abraham B. Smith. 


ert Huey. 


lS0r,-'67.— James E. Hartman. A. B. 


1881-'S2.— G. F. Gemmill, lt,.:bert Huey, 


Smith, M. A. Smith. 


Isaac B. Lotz. 


1SGS--69._M. A. Smith, Eli Yore, James 


1883.— Isaac B. Lotz, John C. Schmuck, 


E. Hartman. 


Isaac j!n". Jordan. 


1870. — James E. Hartman, M. A. Smith, 


1884.— .J. B. Sharrett, John Schmuck, 


George Biirk. 


Isaac N. Jordan. 


1871.— AI. A. Smith, George Burk, Har- 


1885.— J. B. Sharrett, John Schmuck, L. 


vey Bergman. 


J. Craig. 


1872-'73. — George Burk, Harvey Berg- 


18St). — T. B. Sharrett, L. J. Craitr, Robert 


man. William W. Steed. 


McKinley. 


lS7t. — Harvey Bergman, "William W. 


1887.— Lewis J. Craig, Robert McKinlev, 


Steed, ('leorge E. Brown. 


Norman Lyncli. 



I 






-;^!P RO F ESS 1 QNAL-f 




THE BAR. 



I? 



[si 



m 



ifa! 



1^) 

i 

iia 

il 




■IIE iirst resident law- 
yer of Jay Connty was 
Morrison Rnlon, who 
came to Portland in 
183S. Here he mar- 
ried a daughter of 
Christopher Hanna. In 1844 
e removed, to Henry County, 
in 1846 returned to this place, 
but resided in Texas for several 
years after the Mexican war, 
^O and returned to this State, lo- 
W eating at Yorktown, Delaware 
v$^ County, where he was living 
^ aVS^ at last accounts. He did not 
practice law a great deal. T\vice 
ho was a memhcr of the Legislature, and 
once, before that, he was elected by that body 
to be the judge of this circuit; but it is said 
that that was only temporary, as it wa.-s done 
at the instance lA' ])avid Jvilyorc, who was 
desirous of the otiice himself ami, beine- a 
iiicmljer of tlie Lcijjislatnre', was on that ac- 
count inelitriblc; and lie had ilr. Ilulou ap- 
pointeil merely tu li.ild the place for iiini 



"mi 




until his connection with the Legislature 
ceased. 

Moses Jenkinson was the second attorney 
to locate at Portland, in 1840 or "41. He 
came from Alexandria, now CTeneva, where 
he had been a grocer. He finally settled in 
Fort Wayne, where he spent the remainder 
of his days. In his politics he was a Whig 
until 1842, when lie turned Democrat. 

Nathan B. Hawkins, son of John J. Hawk- 
ins, an early settler in this county, was but a 
boy wdien he was brought here; commenced 
business as a merchant in Portland in 1839, 
studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 
1841; thenext year he represented thecounties 
of Jay and Adams in the Legislature; was a 
member of the Constitutional Convention of 
1850; was elected the first common pleas 
judge in (October, 1S52, and died in ottice 
October 20, 1853, aged forty one years. He 
was an al)le business man and a successful 
lawyer. 

Hon. J. 51. llayiies came in L)ecember, 
1844, and the next was (-Jen. J. P. C. Shanks, 
both still I'esideiits o( J'ortlaml. the foi-mer, 
however, having retired from the practice of 



\V. 



ill' 



3l; 



.B-BJjL"r 



cfll»«.««,J«M „ 



anils'* •»« 



■!»■"»» — »»'°'»»'»^«l'"» 



'"n^^Uo 



,M»j if,».H»a°'«'"-»«i-3^«j T .in.»i^..JS»a;»S M^B„ ana r 



ill 



I 
I 

'la' 
m 



m 



[a 



-13 i 

k 
I 



ii 



PROFESSIONAL. 



law. Sketches of these gentlemen are given 
mure at length elsewhere. 

Tiie next -was Mr. Uofi'man, ^vho died of 
an epidemic soon after settling here. 

Then James C Jaqua and John K. Perdieu, 
resident lawyers. 

James X. Templer came to Ja\- County 
when a boy, with his father, was educated at 
Farmers' Academy and Liber College, studied 
law under the preceptorship of Jndge J. M. 
Ilaynes, was admitted to the bar in 1856, 
elected prosecuting attorney in 1861, prac- 
ticed law many years here, and is now a resi- 
dent of iluncie. 

AVilliam D. Frazee, a lawyer from ilason 
Count}-, Kentucky, was a peculiar man, and 
did not practice his profession a great deal. 
He came with his mother to Fayette County, 
this State, was a resident of Portland 1847- 
'V.), of California a few years, then of Kan- 
dolph County, Indiana, for a time, where he 
married and published a newspaper for a 
period; was in Decatur during the war, and 
at last accounts was living in California. 

Joshua Bishop came to Portland in 1868 
or '69, formed a partnership witli J. J. M. 
La Follette, and afterward with Mr. Bailey. 
Served a term as prosecuting attorney, in 
w'hich office he did well, although his knowl- 
edge of law was picked up more from obser- 
vation than from books. A copy of the 
statutes constituted his library. lie had a 
\ci-y retentive memory, and made good ii=e 
of what knowledge he had. Some peculiar 
traits marked his character. He died in 
J'ortland in 1ST7. 

W. C. Ladd came to Portland about 1881, 
since which time he has been engaged in the 
practice of law until recently. Pulmonaiy 
consuinption setting in, he went South in the 
sprini.' ot' 1887, in liupes of ameliorating his 
condition. While here he was most of the 



time in partnership with W. II. W 



Uliamson. 



rivflSENT llAR. 



The present bar of Jay County comprises: 
at Portland — lion. J. M. Ilaynes, Sumner 
W. Ilaynes, J. W. and Niinrod Ileadiugton, J. 
J. M. La Follette, J. P. C. Shanks, f. C. M. 
Shanks, J. B. Jaqua, Thomas Bosworth, "W. 
II. and M. S. Williamson, Luther I. and 
David V. Baker, John E. Perdieu, O. II. 
Adair, John M. Smith, Isaac Simmons, J. 
W. Polly, David T. Taylor, Theodore Bailey, 
Charles E. "Walters, Cornelius Corwin, C. A. 
Markland, F. H. Snyder, William E. Cox 
and W. H. Houck; at Pennville — Alfred 
Eussell, Z. B. Lea and B. F. Graves; at Dun- 
kirk — J. J. Stewart and Joseph L. Carl ; and 
at Redkey — H. Oliver, David H. Fonts and 
Thomas Dragoo. 

Of most of the above, sketches appear in 
tlie biographical department of this work. 

William II. Williamson, of the firm of 
Williamson & Walters, was born near Union 
City, Indiana, graduated in the law depart- 
ment of the Michigan State University at 
Ann Arbor, in 1879, and about 1880 located 
at Portland. 

M. S. Williauison, of the firm of Baker & 
Williamson. was born in Montgomery County, 
Ohio, in 1832, admitted to the bai- in Hamil- 
ton Count}-, that State, and came to Portland 
in May, 1885, forming his present partner- 
ship. Democrat. 

Luther I. Baker has been for one term 
mayor of Portland. 

Theodore Bailey, who was born in 1817, 
has been in Portland since 1872. He was a 
son of John C. Pailey, who settled in Bear 
Creek Township in an early day. 

William E. Cox. of the firm of Havnes & 
Cox. was born in Wayne County, this State, 
in 1856,, studied law at Cambride City, 



"^'L 
m 



m 






,a«,a_a-a-a. 



III ST' I RT OF JAY COUNTY. 



m 



•I 

si; 



Tai 



graduating at Ann Arbor, Michigan, in 1880, 
and practiced three years at Cambridge City 
before coming to Portland. 

Caleb A. Marldand, of the lirni of Bos- 
worth & Markland, was born in Decatnr 
County, Indiana, in 185i, received a superior 
education at several institutions of learning, 
was admitted to the bar March 2, 1878, at 
Greenbnrg, this State, and came to Portland 
in October, 1886. 

TWO PKUMINENT CASES. 

February 4, 1862, tlie county treasury was 
robbed of 8-4,600. The County Treasurer, 
Joseph P. Winters, Sheriff J. E. I.otz and 
Auditor "W. G. Sutton immediately set to 
work to ferret out the perpetrators. March 
6, William Brandon, who bad been a mer- 
chant at Portland, and John Barker, Samuel 
P. Johns and William Blackburn, of Day- 
ton, Ohio, were arrested and brought before 
Judge J. M. Haynes, who held them to bail 
in the sum of 822,000 each. Blackburn, who 
was taken to the jail at Winchester, broke 
out. A change of venue was taken to Mun- 
cie, where trial was opened April 30. The 
attorneys for the State were Hon. J. M. 
Haynes, J. X. Templer and J. K. Perdieu, of 
Portland, and others of other counties; the 
attorneys for the defense were lawyers from 
other counties. 

Brandon turned State's evidence and was 
released, to be a witness for the prosecution. 
The testimony proved that Johns plaimed 
the robbery. Barker and Blackburn did the 
robbing, and Brandon piloted them. They 
trot the keys to the treasurer's otiice and safe 
from Mr. Winters' house. The result of the 
trial was that Barker was sentenced to three 
years' imprisonment and .Johns to four years; 
l)ut the latter was released upon the decision 
of the Supreme (.'onrt that inasmuch as he 



was not in the State of Indiana at any time 
he could not be tried in this State. 

In May following Blackburn was again 
caught, confined in the Muncie jail, and 
again escaped. A few months afterward he 
was re-captured and placed in the new jail 
at Portland, and even from this he escaped, 
by sawing oft' the iron bars of the windows. 
Being retaken the third time, he was tried at 
Winchester, in September, 1863, and sent to 
the penitentiary for seven years. 

The county never recovered any of the lost 
money, and expended nearly §2,000 more in 
catching and prosecuting the thieves. 

Some time near the beginning of the war, 
Samuel Emery and Elias Bromagem e.^:- 
changed horses in trade. The latter, think- 
ing he was defrauded, offered to compromise 
with Emery, agreeing to be satisfied with 
the payment of 825. Emery ofiiered him 
§15, but he refused to take that. He then 
brought suit, and obtained judgment for 
817.50. Emery, not being satisfied with the 
result, appealed to tlie Circuit Court, where 
the result was that Bromagem obtained judg- 
ment for 875. An execution was issued and 
Emery instituted proceedings to have the 
execution satisfied, had it returned, and the 
question as to the satisfaction of the execu- 
tion was tried in court, when Emery swore 
that he paid the full amount of the execution, 
! but other witnesses contradicted the state- 
I ment, and the execution was re-issued. On 
I the testimony of Bromagem and some mem- 
bers of his family, Emery was indicted for 
j perjury. A change of vcime was taken to 
Eandolph County, and while the case was 
j pending, some one shot llromagein, slightly 
wounding him, the ball just grazing his 
\ shoulder. Emery was seen in the neighbor- 
hood at the time, and was strono-]y suspected 
of being the perpetrator of tlie assault. 

Bronuicrem. at that time residinu' near Ili" 



V^^Z 



E^aia^Laj; 



l^ll 



;5' 



(3! 
it- 









f 
)& 






if" 






Gruve, ()hio, had several sons in tlie array, 
Avhu soim after the above event were at home 
on furlough. This was in ^lav. 1862. Dur- 
ing this month Emery's property was offereil 
for sale to satisfy the e.xecution, and William 
J'romagem, one of the sons, got into an 
altercation with Emery concerning some 
point in the aftair, and tired three revolver 
shots at him, each taking effect. The latter 
ran tiirough Kirshbauni's store and up stairs 
in iliUer's building, and wliile endeavoring 
to shoot Bromageni from the window, fell 
and rolled down stairs into the street. He 
died two weeks afterward, .May 31, and 
Eromagem returned to the army. Before 
Emery was shot he had been convicted of 
perjury. 

On settling up the estate afterward, it was 
found to be worthless. At the beginning of 
tlie law-suits there was considerable property. 
Thus a controversy that could have been set- 
tled by an addition of §10, resulted in the 
death of a man and the ruin of his estate. 

MEDICAL. 
piivsici.ixs OF Tin: r.vsT. 

Di.xon Milligan, an Irishman, was the first 
physician to practice within the limits of 
Jay County, settling in Portland stune time 
previous to 1SJ:0. -Vfter practicing here a 
number of years he went to Fort Recovery, 
where he died. He was good ]iliysician and 
surgeon, and became somewhat wealthy. It 
is related of him that he once cured a 
woman of hysterical hypochondria l)y break- 
ing hci best dishes before her eyes. She im- 
aginccl she was a goose, guarding her eggs in 
the corner of the room. She would hiss and 
fly at the doctor, endeavoring to drive him 
away. Ascertaining privately of her hus- 
band what article about the house was dearest 
to lior, nameh', a valuable china set wliii:h 
her mother had jjiven her. tliedortiu- had them 




brought forth. He set them out in order 
upon the dining table before her, and then 
broke one of tiiem with his cane. This ex- 
cited her, and she flew out at him, from her 
corner of the room, hissing and striking with 
greatly increased energy. Then he would 
break another dish, and with increased rage 
she chased him round and rouml the table, 
as lie now and then would break another 
costly plate or vessel. Finally she suddenly 

came to herself and exclaimed, " G — d 

your old soull Them was the cujis and sas- 
sers my mother gave me." She was perma- 
nently cured; so the story goes. 

Jacob ]M. Bosworth settled in the southern 
part of Wayne Township in 1836, was a 
farmer, and afterward practiced medicine also. 
He was well known throughout the county, 
on account of his superior intelligence. It is 
said that he delivered the first temperance 
address west of the Alleghany Mountains. 
He died at College Corner, in 1866. 

Daniel AV. McXeal. also county surveyor, 
came soon afterward. He died many years 
ago, in Portland. 

B. B. Snow, who studied with Dr. Milli- 
gan, practiced here awhile and moved to 
Adams County, where he died about 1S70. 

Joseph Watson, a tine man, also studied 
medicine in the ofHce of Dr. Milligan, resided 
at College Corner foi' a time, and died in 
187i or 1875. 

Emanuel Reed, another student of Dr. 
Milligan, practiced medicine in Portland for 
a period, when death ended his career. 

T. J. La Follette studied the healing art 
under the direction of Dr. Joseph Watson, 
practiced medicine at Portland, and also for 
a time edited the D-:morri/(ir /?, rltic. He 
now resides in Whitley County, this State. 

Dr. Van Fo.-sen pi-icticed medicine here a 
short time. 

Isaa(.' 1!. Ileal, regidar. locatetl at Camden 



']> 






Is 



^ 









nfrf-w-^n^s; 



jf^gS-jgarjar^ 



HISTORT OF JAY COUNTY. 



about ISil or 1842, ami practiced tliere until 
liiH death in 1857 or '58. lie was a native 
of ilarvland, a Ilicksite Friend, and had a 
good practice. 

William Freeman, from New York, located 
at Camden in 1846, practiced many jears 
was surgeon during the war for two Indiana 
regiments suceessivel}', and died some five or 
six years ago. A son of bis, a very worthy 
man, is practicing Tiiedicine at Decatur. 

E. M. Morrison, regular, located at Cam- 
den about 1852, remaining until 1859. He 
was a native of Preble County, Ohio, a gradu- 
ate of the Ohio Medical College, and a good 
practitioner. 

Jjenjamin Hull Jones, a native of Oliio, 
became dissipated, and by accident shot away 
a large portion of his face. 

The medical profession of Portland now 
comprises Drs. D. S. Stanton, C. S. Arthur, 
T. S. Shepherd, D. S. Kinsey, H. C. Hutchens, 
C. W. Mackey, Eobert P. Davis, J. W. Hall 
and John T. Dickes, regular; I. G. Sims, eye 
and ear: James and S. A. D. Gillum, Ezra 
W. Moon, John A. Moorhous, Arthur Milli- 
gan and S. K. Poling, eclectic; and F. "W. 



Mi neks, homeopathic. Some of these, as 
Drs. Stantou, Arthur and Gillum, have been 
practicing in this county for thirty to forty 
years. Sketches of most of the above appear 
elsewhere. 

Dr. H. C. Hutchens was only six years old 
when, in 1840, his parents settled in JSToble 
Townshij). He commenced practice in 
Bellefontaine in March, 1869, and for the 
last four years has followed his profession in 
Portland. 

Dr. Arthur MiUigan was born in October, 
1859, in Bear Creek Township, his father 
being J. Wilson Milligaa. In 1880 he began 
the study of medicine in the office of Dr. 
Moorhous, and graduated in February, 1883, 
at the Physio-Medical Institute at Cincinnati, 
since which time he has practiced bis pro- 
fession at Portland. 

For the other physicians of the county, see 
the respective village histories and the index 
to the biographies. 

The regular physicians of the county have 
an active medical society, and the eclectics 
some years ago formed an oi'ganization but 
are not keeping it up. 



il 






ai; 









tu M^a^i^jjU 



• an-O-B. 



,a_a_a_Jl5-J5 






i 
II 

k 
I 






^:1^ 



^^,^^^^,^^^^^' 











HAT " tlie pen is might- 
ier than the sword " is 
a saying so trite that 
one is almost ashamed 
to quote it, yet it is 
worth urging upon tlie 
ion of unobservant peo- 
lat tlie rapid progress of 
tnitv in the nineteenth 
ry is due, more than to 
jther one agency, to im- 
facilities of travel and 
nnnication. Railroads, 
^ ,^ , ■ and newspapers have be- 

*w/V'^vS' Come necessities to mankind, 
though many are now living 
who are older than the oldest railroad, and to 
whom a daily paper once seemed a useless 
extravagance. Even now changes are made 
yearly, and improvements discovered ot such 
moment that the future value and function of 
the newspa['er cannot yet be estimated. 

Types were tirst used to reproduce only 
the Bible, and such books as were demanded 
in large numbers. Then caino the pei'iodical 
and pamphlet. The reviews and magazines 
increased in number and freijuency of jjubli- 



cation, and then the weekly newspaper was 
established, to be supplemented in time by 
the daily journals. At first only large cities 
could support papers; now it is a poor vil- 
lage that cannot have one or more, and a 
small county that has not its half dozen. One 
of the most important changes in the devel- 
opment of the country newspaper occurred 
from 1860 to 1S70. Before the former date, 
home news, locals and correspondence were 
not considered worth printing, but the read- 
ing matter was composed of rejirints from 
the great journals, news from Europe, pro- 
ceedings of Congress, and heavy editorials on 
national politics. Now these are supplied by 
the large city papers, which are brought to 
every village by those anniliilators of dis- 
tance, the railroads, and the paper is largely 
filled with hiMne news. Tiie best county 
paper now is the one which gives the most 
space to town and countv news, correspond- 
ence from every postoffice, and the proceed- 
ings of local oi'ganizations. 

In Jay County, to-day, are published live 
newspapers, while many moi-e have been 
issueil that are now defunct, by change of 
name ajid suspension. Generally jpeaking. 



!i 



m 



ii 



I 



m 




^ 



m 



M 



i 



m 



II- 
!JI' 



the editors b;ive been men of intelligence 
and enterprise, while to-day the members of 
the press are considered to be far above the 
average in ability and scholarship. 

PORTLAND COMMERCIAL. 

Let ns tirst briefly mention what may be 
considered the ancestry of this paper, namely, 
those which have, in succession, served the 
Republican element. 

The first newspaper published in Jay 
County was the Portland Journal, com- 
menced in September, 1852, by James M. 
Bromagem. The means was furnished mainly 
by General J. P. C. Shanks. In politics it 
was neutral; but in 1854, when the Douglas 
Democracy repealed the Missouri compro- 
mise and opened the gate to slavery in the Ter- 
ritories, we find the Journal in the hands of 
J. Y. Hoover and L. M. Morrison, taking the 
side of the " Anti-Nebraska " party, as the 
Eepiiblican, or anti-slavery party, was then 
called. October 21, that year, Mr. Morri- 
son's name disappeared from the head of the 
editorial column. Some time in the winter 
of lS56-'57 this pioneer periodical was dis- 
continued, its circulation at that time being 
about^SOO copies. 

In March, 1858, the Jay County Iiej)uhli- 
can was first issued by Hon. J. P. C. Shanks 
and L. M. Morrison. In a short time Mr. 
Morrison sold to ^Villiam S. Jones, and on 
the 13th of April the last number was issued. 

September 8 following, the Jay Torchlight 
was commenced by M. W. Montgomery, in 
a room of the abandoned old brick court- 
house, and afterward moved to Miller's build- 
ing. During the first year its circulation 
increased from 300 to nearlj- 600. July 18, 
ISGl, II. C. Harper became one of the pro- 
prietors, but re-sold to 3Ir. Montgomery 
April 17, 1862. In the summer of the latter 
vear L. (t. Dvnes edited a few issues. At 



the close of the third volume Mr. ^Nlontgom- 
ery sold the paper to P. S. Loofbourrow, who 
in 1865 moved the office away. 

Ne.Kt, the Jay and Adams Repullican 
appeared, owned and edited by R. C. Harper, 
who for the purpose bought the office of the 
Democratic Review. The tirst issue was 
dated August 3, 1865. In 1866 the names 
of J. P. C. Shanks and David Y. Baker in 
turn appear as editors. December 30, 1869, 
the paper was considerably enlarged. About 
this time Mr. Harper sold to Joseph E. 
Jones, who a few months afterward died of 
consumption, and his father, Joseph H. Jones, 
then took charge. During the tirst week of 
December, 1871, he sold the periodical to 
Elias J. Marsh, who changed the name to 
the Portland Commercial., issuing the tirst 
number on the 7th of that month. July 1, 
1883, he sold to J. M. Beelman, of Findlay, 
Ohio. October 9, 1884, Mr. Marsh purchased 
a half interest in the paper, and February 10, 
1887, Mr. Beelman's remaining interest also, 
and is now the sole proprietor and editor. 
March 3, 1887, is the date of the first number 
printed by steam-power furnished by natural 
gas as a fuel, the first newspaper in the 
county so printed. March 17 the enterpris- 
ing editor published an elaborate history of 
the gas enterprise at Portland in " booming " 
style. Mr. Marsh is a pushing man. During 
the agricultural fairs he issues a daily, and 
since April 2, 1887, he has been publishing 
a regular daily, giving all the news. W. F. 
"Warren, city editor. 

Elias J. Marsh, editor and proprietor of 
the Portland Commercial since 1871, was 
born November 9, 1846, in Hancock County, 
Indiana. "William Marsh, his father, was a 
farmer in limited circumstances, a faithful 
member of the Society ot Friends, and died 
October 12, 1861, aged forty-four years, eight 
months and seventeen days. Martha Ann, 



!3i; 
!L* 

m'~ 

ill! 

W' 
I'a'- 
i!>i! 



11 



II! 






mi 



;si; 

13; 

31; 

n 



Hi 

Ml 




(7 (? Qg'f^.i^^ 



■ ■'-■-"-"-"n' 



■ "Hiicia. 



mM^m^f^x^m^M^m 



^if 



rriE PRESS 






■I 

\\\ 

k 



% 









-Ml 



liis wife, was born in ^'irginia June C, 1S14, 
and died August -i, 1S7'J. They retired a 
family of six children, of whom Edith, the 
eldest, died in youth; Elias J. and Margaret 
were twins; the latter is now- the wife of 
Amos C. Beeson and resides in AVinchester, 
Indiana. Thomas L. has been engaged until 
recently in the manufacture of tiling at 
Spiceland, Henry Count}', Indiana; William 
P. is a farmer near "Winchester; Benjamin F. 
is an attorney at law at the same place. Mr. 
Marsh, the subject of this sketch, was si.xteen 
years of age when his lather died. lie then 
entered upon an apprenticeship in the print- 
ing office of the Hancock Democrat at Green- 
field, continuing there two years, and com- 
pleting his knowledge of the art at Indianap- 
olis. A portion of his wages, and apprentice 
printers' wages are proverbially small, was 
devoted to the maintenance of the family. 
In 1870 he launched forth in the newspaper 
business, buying the Winchester (Indiana) 
Journal in partnership with his brother-in- 
law, Mr. Beeson; but the following year he 
came to Portland, purchased the Jai/ and 
Adams Repullican, changed the name to 
Portland Commercial, issuing the first num- 
ber December 14, 1871, since which time he 
has conducted it as the principal paper of 
Jay County. He was married May 8, 1870, 
to iliss Anna B. Peck, of Sedgwick County, 
Kansas, the license for the marriage being 
the lirst i.^^sued in that county after its organi- 
zation. The ceremony' was performed by 
Esquire Steele, in the shade of a large elm 
tree, on the banks of the beautiful Little 
Arkansas Eiver, in the presence of a large 
circle of relatives and friends. Mrs. Marsh 
is the daughter of Edward A. and Margaret 
E. Peck, the former a native of Boston, Mas- 
sachusetts, and the latter of Kentucky. The 
children of Mr. and ^Mrs. Marsh are — William 
E.. (irorge, Bertha K., Glenn and P^arle J. 



The eldest son is already completing the 
course in the grammar grade of the public 
school, and was neither tardy nor absent 
during the last year, nor this year, up to date 
of writing. Being somewhat under the 
medium stature and weight, and of a char- 
acteristic wiry constitution and active tem- 
perament, Mr. Marsh belongs to that class of 
men who are proverbially known to do the 
largest portion of the hard work ot the world. 
Accordingly, he is a well posted Republican, 
a witty editor, a driving business man, and 
a philanthropic advocate and worker for all 
the public enterprises calculated to build up 
the moral and material interests of the com- 
munity in which he resides. Commencing 
as an apprentice printer, and devotincr a 
large portion of his meager wages to the 
support of his mother and family, he has 
nevertbeless managed to accumulate some 
property. He has dealt considerably in real 
estate in Portland, built two business blocks, 
and was president of the company who built 
the Merchants' Hotel. He is a strong tem- 
perance man, a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, and of the orders of Free- 
masonry and Knights of Pythias. 

PORTLAND SUN. 

AVe will first notice briefly those papers 
which might be logically, if not oriranically, 
considered the predecessors or ancestors of 
the Sun. 

The Jay Countij Democrat was started 
November 27, 1856, as a five-column folio, 
with W. M. McCormick as edit(.)r and pro- 
prietor. May 5, 1858, is the date of the 
first number showing that (i. II. ^NLiore was 
admitted as a partner. After running some- 
time longer, it was discontinued. 

The Democratic II. rl.ir was ushered into 
existence (October 1, lii'.o, with C. C. ;\Iorri- 
eal as editor and proprietor. It was a seven 



1^ 
§■ 

i 

W 

-M 

mi 

;^! 

IS 

!ai! 

till 

M 



.u_w,.a. 



i 



flT^iEr^ r^g^ J ^ Ji y, J t, JH.^ jgry 



IIISTOHV OF J A r COUNTY. 



i 

W 

w 



ciilinnu folio. In the tall of 1864 the heaJ- 
inij sliows that W. J. Stewart and T. J. 
La Follette were ei.l iters and proprietors. 
The paper was discontinued. 

The Live Iloosier, Democratic, was com- 
menced May 4, 1871, as a si.x-colunm folio, 
with H. F. Kingsberry as editor and pro- 
prietor, who, Angust 20 following, sold it to 
W. W. Timmonds, of Sidney, Ohio. The 
latter changed its name to Portland Demo- 
crnt, and afterward to Jay County Grnnyer, 
eight columns folio. January 16, 1879, on 
the suggestion of George M. Hoiloway, 
assistant editor, the name was changed to 
the Portland Sun. September 3, 1881. Mr. 
Timmonds sold the paper to Bayard S. Gray, 
who conducted it until December 14, 1885, 
when he sold to the Sun Publishing Com- 
pany, then comprising Hon. John M. Smith, 
George P. Hoiloway and L. J. Craig. In 
November, 1886, Mr. Craig sold his interest 
to Mr. Hoiloway, and in January, 1887, Mr. 
Smith sold his interest to George M. Hollo- 
way. The paper is now owned by the Sun 
Publishing Company, consisting of George 
P. and George M. Hoiloway, the latter being 
the manager and editor. The paper is now 
a six-column quarto, printed with large type 
on a tine, heavj' quality of white paper, and 
is edited with care and spiced with wit. 
The ofKce is on the tirst tloor, spacious, clean 
and convenient. 

Geokgk M. Holloway, manager of the Sun 
Publishing Conipan_v, and editor of the Port- 
land Sun, was Ijorn in Siielby Count\-, Ohio, 
A]M-il 3, 185S. A sketch of his parents is 
gi\on as the next topic. lie was live years 
of age when they moved to Bear Creek Town- 
sliip. this county, settling upon a farm, and 
was uliout eleven years old when they moved 
to Portland. At the age of fourteen, Mr. 
Iliilloway, tlie subject of this sketch, entered 
the printing ottice of the Portland Democrat. 



AV. AV. Timmonds, proprietor, and worked 
there uninterruptedly until ilay, 1S7S, part 
of the time as local editor, when he went to 
Manchester, Adams County, Ohio, and estab- 
lished the Manchester Herald. About ten 
months afterward he returned to Portland, 
and to the employ of Mr. Timmonds, and his 
suggestion at this time that the name of the 
paper be changed from Granger to Sun was 
adopted. In January, 1882, after his mar- 
riage, he moved to Lima, Ohio, where for four 
years he was the local editor for the Allen 
County Democrat. In December, 1885, he 
returned to Portland again, and has since 
been manager of the Sun. In January, 
1887, the present company was formed. Mr. 
Hoiloway is an active member of the Poi-t- 
land Lecture Association, and takes a lively 
interest in the public welfare generally. 
December 22, 1881, is the date of Mr. 
HoUoway's marriage to Miss Susanna Waltz, 
daughter of 'Daniel and Sarah (Dunham) 
Waltz. She was born in 1S56, in Miami 
County, Ohio. They have three children, 
namely, Leila A., born December 21, 1882; 
Ina M., January 27, 1884; and Emma G., 
April 21, 1886. 

Geokge p. Hum.oway, senior member of 
the Sun Publishing Company, Portland, was 
born in A^igo County, Indiana, in 1820, a son 
of Gooding and Alma (Palmer) Holloway. 
A brother of his paternal grandfather was in 
the American service during the Eevolution- 
arj' war, being Captain of a privateer, and 
he was successful in capturing many prizes 
from the British. When George was seven 
years of age his parents moved with their 
family to Miamisburg, Montgomery County, 
Ohio, where he remained until he was si.\- 
teeu years of age; from that time until he 
was twenty he was at S]iringboro. Warren 
County, that State, learning the saddle and 
harness maker's trade, which he followed in 






'I 



si; 



pi!35H™aaS 



I»;j:»=»5 



z>a_ll_Kr3 



'm 



THE I'JiBH,^. 



p 

ifai 

m 

f 
mi 



^ 






his iKitive c^uiintv two years, in AVarren 
• C'i)iiiUy attain tor a time, Bellbrook, Greene 
Count}', Ohio, two years, ^lianii Cotinty six- 
years, Shelby County four years, ami May 
25, 1863, he settled in Bear Creek Town- 
ship, Jay County, Indiana, on a farm. Two 
years afterward he moved to Portland, which 
he has since made his home, following his 
trade, and recently adding thereto an interest 
in the Sun office. "When he was four years 
of age his hip-joint was dislocated, and for 
the want of a physician it was not replaced, 
and to this day he has been a cripple. 
Starting out in the world thus crippled and 
with but little means, and suffering severe 
losses, once by fire when he was burned out 
at Lena, Miami County, Ohio, and once dur- 
ing the war when a large portion of his gro- 
cery capital was out on trust among the 
Soldiers and uncollectable for the time, this 
faithful citizen has struggled hard and long 
and accumulated a little property, and has 
even contributed liberally of his means for 
the -public welfare in various ways. He 
ventured some money in the first e.xperiment 
for the discovery of natural gas at Port- 
land. He served as justice of the peace 
1871-'75. In 1847 he joined the order 
of Odd Fellows, and is now the oldest 
member in Jay County; was a charter mem- 
ber of Omega Lodge, No. 281, which was 
organized by his personal effort in May, 
1SG7, and is now a member of the Grand 
Lodge of the State of Indiana, I. O. O. F. 
Mr. lloUoway was first married in 18-44 to 
Elizabeth Wheaton, who died in 1S40. In 
1848 he married Elizabeth Carmony, who 
was born in 181S. Tlie children of Mr. 
and ]\[rs. Holluway are — Amauda. who died 
at the age of eight years; Jac'ob N., burn in 
1S4'J, residing in Portland; ?*Iary Alina, who 
niaiTJed "W. P. HatriicT and i-esiilus in Pear 
Creel; Township, and (leorLre >[. 



•JAY COUNTY BAZOO. 

The first number of this paper was issued 
December 3, 1886, by Messrs. ^[ondy & 
Vaus, and was printed in the Jaqua buildino- 
on Main street until the following April, 
when it was moved to the rooms over Ev- 
man's grocery, on Meridian street. In May 
a steam press was purchased and placed in 
the office. The paper is a live-column quarto. 
Republican in politics, fresh in its editorials, 
and painstaking in giving the news. During 
the first four months of its e.xistence it 
reached a circulation of about 700 copies. 

Martin V. Moudy' was born in Williams 
County, Ohio, July 9, 1845, and was reared 
and educated there. September 10, 1861, he 
enlisted in Company E, Thirty-eighth Ohio 
Infantry Volimteers, and served three years, 
being discharged September 10, 1864, after 
which he re-enlisted in the Eigliteenth Ohio, 
serving seven months longer. He partici- 
pated iu nearly all the battles in which the 
Army of the Cumberland was engaged — his 
I'egiment being in that division — as the l.)at- 
tles of Perryville, Stone River, Chicka- 
mauga,- Missionary Ridge, campaign of 
Atlanta, and the battle of Jonesboro, Geor- 
gia, but was never wounded or sick for a 
single day, although he was at the front a 
great deal and had many nari-ow escapes. 
For some years after the war he followed 
building, taking contracts, and his health 
failing somewhat he took to journalism, ed- 
iting the Felicity (Ohio) Times nearly two 
years; then, establishing the Pidgeville (In- 
diana) Eiiterprine. he conducted it nearly 
one year. He then came to Portland, and 
has since been publishing the Jaij Cou.i'ij 
Bazoo. He was married in ISIJS, to Miss 
Carrie U'arteubee, daughter of Isaac and 
Eliza Wartenbee, and a native nt Defiance 
County, Ohio. His chilih-fn are -Wiliard, 
Edward and I'essie. 



i 



ii 









,<>_a>— a. 



.»a„ji„ .ii^ai^a 



JlISrOliY OF JAY fJOUNTT. 



m 









J. \Y. Vaus was born October 3, 18-1:7, 
iti Williams County, Ohio. His parents 
were natives of Caroline County, Maryland, 
and moved in 1810 to Pickaway County, 
Ohio, when the country there was almost an 
unbroken wilderness, and in 1836 or 1837 
to Williams County, same State. His father, 
T. W. Vaus, died in 1881, at the age of sev- 
enty-four years, and his mother, nee Elizabeth 
Towers, in 1884, aged seventy-six years. Mr. 
Yaus was brought up to agricultural pursuits. 
From 1871 to 1874 he was engaged in the 
grocery business, and for about seven years 
afterward in carpentering and building, etc. 
Since October 1, 1885, he has been in part- 
nership with Mr. Moudy. Since the age of 
fourteen years he has been a member of the 
jMethodist Episcopal church, in which society 
he has served as steward two terms. He was 
married in 1869, to Miss Catharine, daughter 
of George and Sarah Rittenonr, and a native 
Williams County, Ohio. They have one 
daughter, named May. 

REDKEY B.VNNEK. 

The Iledkey Gazette was started in June, 
1880, by F. N. Haines. This was succeeded 
in October, 1881, by the Redkey Observer, 
James U. Eoland, editor and proprietor, and 
this in 1883 by the Eedkey Weel-Jy Enter- 
2>i'he, J. W. Apple, proprietor, which also 
proved to be too weakly an enterprise to re- 
main long. Next, John I). Heath, tlie same 
year, set up the Redkey Post; it fell down, 
and in 1884 G. H. Faulkner flourished the 
liedkey Record a little while, after which the 
J'dst was set up again, and lastly the Redkey 
Jlanner has been unfurled to the breeze, 
since May, 1880, by II. Oliver— four columns 
(piarto. A job ofhce is attached. All the 
foregoing papers were neutral or inde- 
pendent in politics. 

Mr. (jliver, who is also a practicing attor- 



ney, was born in Greene County, Ohio, in 
1849. When live years of age his parents 
moved with him to Washington Township, 
Blackford County, Indiana, and fifteen years 
later to Jonesboro, Grant County. From 
1874 to 1886 Mr. Oliver was engaged in the 
practice of law, and for the last si.x years he 
lias also been employed in newspaper work. 
In 1880 he established the Jonesboro Eayle, 
and subsequently the Jonesboro Gazette, and 
in 1886 he came to Redkey, as above noted. 
In 1884-'85 he was prosecuting attorney for 
Grant County. His father, Harrison Oliver, 
died in 1880; his mother, Mrs. Lucy Oliver, 
is living. April 28, 1869, the subject of this 
sketch married Mrs. Martha Anderson, who 
lias a daughter named Laura. Mr. and Mrs. 
Oliver have had three children — Lucy, who 
is the wife of L. E. Howe; Charles, and 
Maggie, who died at the age of nine years. 

THE TBI-COCNTY PEOPLE, 

a sprightly seven-column folio newspaper, is 
a new enterprise in Pennville. The paper 
was started by James A. Russell and Edward 
L. D. Murtha, two Jay County boys who have 
spent the greater portion of their lives with- 
in its bounds, and connected with its business 
interests; and being practical printers, young, 
active and enterprising, the paper is one of 
the newsiest aiid best conducted publications 
in the county. The first number of The 
People was issued April 28, 1887, and 
though in a town where p;itronage is neces- 
sarily limited, started out with a circulation 
of 500 copies, and the subscription list has 
been constantly on the increase from the first. 
It is the determination of the publishers to 
make the paper one of the solid institutions 
of the place, and in their efibrts in this direc- 
tion they are warmly seconded by their con- 
stituency. 

The Liher Lnmp was a uicjnthly organ 
of Liber Colleo-e before the war. 



ill 

'3 



I 



'I 

ii 



i\> 







|^^lj^t;-~y;--^tT^|g-<jt;-;^t;-y^gV'5^^^ 






^(^»?B <^ 









BY PROF. ELWOOD HAYNES. 



\i 
\i 

I 

i| 

'&^ 






^|; inOR to the spring of 
"f 1SS6 the existence of 
natural gas in Indiana 
'i'}^ liad never been even 
dreamed of by either 
geologists or any other 
parties. The geologists 
said it would be a waste of time 
and money to attempt to drill 
into the Trenton rock for eitlier 
gas or oil, as it had already been 
penetrated in many places and 
neither had been found in paying 
'^^^R' quantities. But about twenty- 
five years ago a dentist in Findlay, 
Ohio, Dr. Carr, in sinking a 
coninion water well in his yai-d, fouml gas, 
and pbiced a tin tank in the well to collect it, 
and from the tank, through an imn pipe, he 
conducted the gas into his house and thence- 
forward used it for both light and fuel. He 
made every efl"ort to induce the people to 
bore tor this useful au;eut, but he was fur tluit 




reason regarded as a " crank," and finally 
grew afraid of the insane asylum. 

Finally, a man at Findlay, named Oster- 
lein, determined to make a practical test of 
the matter, and at his own e.xpense drilled a 
well, which yielded a flow of about 200,000 
cubic feet of gas per day! The result was a 
great surprise to everybody. The prodnct was 
turned into the mains, and it was soon dis- 
covered tliat they had not only tiie cheapest 
light that they had ever used, but also the 
most convenient and economical fuel. 

The above instance may be considered a 
curious exception to the general rule that 
scientific men encourage investigation to 
promote discovery, as success in this case 
was achieved by proceeding directly con- 
trary to the advice of geologists. 

FIRST MOVKMEXT IX IXIlI.\XA. 

During the month of December, 1S85 
while Messrs. Mottitt lV: Sees, at Portland, 
were chatting around their foundry stove, 



} 



mi 

m 






aTgyasTj^aj^ .a — 




a'Jiw"i«<°'cB*Jg 



,a„j«iiJ»a^j„j»ia»ajjMaia^aipajani*^ji^a^j 



.*sllM3."5.i»' 



<.) 



UltiTOIlV OF JAY COUNTY. 






discussing the gas and oil news from Ym\- 
lay and Lima, Ohio, Mr. Sees remarked 
tiiere were both gas and oil in Portland. A 
few evenings afterward, while talking over 
the current events of the day with a few 
business men who had ''dropped" into 
Messrs. Gebhart & Johnson's hardware store, 
the subject of natural gas and oil came in 
for a liberal share of the conversation. Mr. 
Sees, who was an enthusiast from the first, 
finding those present inclined to the opinion 
that both could be secured in this locality 
by drilling, commenced talking it up in a 
general way. After he had " felt the pulse" 
of quite a numberof ourcitizens and found that 
while many had very little if any confidence 
in the enterprise, they were generally will- 
ing to contribute a small amount in the ex- 
periment, he secured of Hon. John M. Smitli 
articles of association, and commenced solic- 
iting stock. This was new business for him, 
and harder than molding castings, especially 
when he received a square refusal from those 
with large property interests and who would 
be greatly benefitted by the development of 
a rich gas or oil field in this vicinity; but he 
labored on and secured quite a goodly nuni- 
bi;r of subscribers, finally, becoming dis- 
couraged, he declared he would burn the 
papers and go to work in the foundry; but 
^Ir. MofRtt urged him to '■ try it again." He 
started out, and meeting William N. Current, 
told him he was discouraged and wanted him 
to assist in soliciting stock for a gas and oil 
well. 3Ir. Current is a bricklayer, and like 
Mr. Sees, was not very busy, and consented 
to aid him as best he could. They walked 
up and down tlie streets of Portland, solic- 
ited subscriptions from business men and 
farmers, many of whom subscribed to get rid 
of them, for they ■■lumg on like leeches," 
and wouldn't take no fin- au answer. The 
two •■ made a ijood team," ami what one 



c uliin't tiiink of the other wa.s always ready 
to supply. They added a few names to their 
list every day, they kept on, they persevered, 
until they secured the required amount. 

To these two men — hard-working mechan- 
ics, with small property interests — the people 
of Portland owe a debt of gratitude for their 
energy and perseverance they can never re- 
pay; and doubtless but for their efl:'orts the 
wealth of natural gas underlying Portland 
would to-day be undeveloped, and the people 
burning coal and wood for fuel, as they are 
compelled to do in less favored places. 

Mr. Current was born in Henry County, 
this State, in 1835, taught scliool and fol- 
lowed farming in his earlier life, and served 
in the war, since which time he has gener- 
ally worked at the trade of mason. He is 
now engaged in drilling gas and oil wells. 

TUE EUREKA GAS AND OIL COMrANY THE FIRST. 

A notice was then given through the col- 
umns of the papers, that the stockholders 
would meet at the court-house on Thursday 
evening, March 24, 1886, for the purpose of 
electing a board of directors. At that meet- 
ing the following persons were elected direct- 
ors: H. W. Sees, R. B. Stevenson. W. X. 
Current, D. E. Paul and M. Gebhart. The 
directors organized by electing "W. N. Cur- 
rent president. M. Gebhart treasurer, and \\. 
B. Stevenson secretary. 

The company contracted with Baxter ik 
Porter, of Lima, Ohio, to drill a well, and 
located it in Jonas Yotaw's addition, on a 
vacant lot opposite !Motfitt i\: Sees's fonndi-y. 

Baxter & Porter shipped a drilling outfit 
from Lima, ])ut it into working condition, 
and commenced spudding un the Sth day of 
April. The formations here were entirely 
new to the drillers, anil they got the drill 
fast at a depth of about 100 feet, on the 14th. 
This caused several days' ileiav; but B. F. 



jli; 



lilt) 

i 



K3) 



I 



P!rirgS^.r<--'-'iya-f..Tta».-'?i"''^" 



NATURAl- GAS. 



(15 i 



<i?; 



Fulton, who can do anything ho ever saw 
done, and many otliers thrown in, came to 
the rescue, and with the aid of an improvised 
sand pump, pumped out the sand, loosened 
the drill and enahled the drillers to pull it 
to the surface once more, on the morning of 
the2()tli. 

On the morning ot the 2<Stli, about 6 
o'clock, at a depth of 700 feet, the drillers 
struck a vein of shale gas. This was the first 
demonstration that gas existed in Indiana. 
Tliey lit it and let it burn for two or three 
hours to gratify the curiosity of the people 
who had never seen anything of the kind, 
and then went on drilling as though nothing 
had happened. In the evening the gas was 
piped outside of the derrick and lit. 

Tlie City Band kindly furnished music, 
rendering quite a number of their best selec- 
tions, and it was estimated that between two 
and three thousand people visited the well 
during the evening, many coming several 
miles from the country to see the great 
" natural curiosity," as it was termed. 

Drilling was resumed the next morning, 
and the indications of a good gas well con- 
tinued to a depth of about 975 feet, when 
the drill entered a small vein of oil. On be- ' 
ing lighted, the gas produced a flame about j 
ten feet high. The people became excited, I 
gas and oil had been found, and everybody \ 
was on the tip-toe of expectancy. The drill- 
ers advised the blasting of the well, claiming 
they were then in Trenton rock, and that it { 
wo\ilil be no good to drill deeper. Upon this j 
question there was a division of the people, i 
as well as the dii-ectors, as tlie business 
was entirely new to all of them; but it was 
finally decided t.> resume <h-illing, and the 
drillers went to work. Aftin- drilling a sliort 
distance the shafting became uncoupled, an<l 
the drill ami fifty feet of tlie shafting were ' 
"Inst" in tlie bnttoni of the well. This, 



touether with the action of the drillers, 
caused some who were naturally buspicious 
and too busy to " look twice in the hole," to 
denounce the drillers and charge they were 
working in the interest of the Findlay and 
Lima fields, and the Standard Oil Company. 
But such was not the case, and as soon as 
they could procure " fishing tools," they 
brought the drill to the surface. Several 
gallons of oil were pumped up, a portion of 
which was refined by Professor Ilaynes, and 
found to be of an excellent quality. 

Drilling was again resumed and continued 
to a depth of nearly 1,600 feet. All were 
now satisfied to stop and let the well be 
blasted, which was done as near the oil vein 
as possible with forty quarts of nitro-glycer- 
ine, after the well was plugged below. The 
well was shot on Saturday evening. May 
29th. The blasting increased the flow of 
gas; but it was only temporary, as the drill 
had penetrated salt water, and this rising 
to within 200 feet of the surface, weakened 
the flow, so that there was not more than 
enough gas in it to light one jet. The well 
was accordingly abandoned. 

It is very evident that had the well been 
blasted at the oil vein, when the drillers 
insisted it should, it would have proved a 
good well; but as it was a test well, its depth 
has been of great value to the drillers of other 
wells, making them more cautious, and giv- 
ing tliem a correct knowledge of the forma- 
tions in this field, as Professor Haynes kept 
an accurate record and analyzed every varia- 
tion in the stone. Consequently, the people 
did not feel as though their investment was 
fruitless or that the directors should be cen- 
sured fjr any act in connection with the 
management. 

The cost of drilling the well was aliout 
§2,000. 



The above well 




through the f.dlow. 






!"J 



; ^-**3*J'w*-'^;^^T1 -Jiy i Ty -^ '^^^ ^ "^fiJ ^ 



I 



(13 






o MjaaMaiMAiMBi.^a^eJMiaM-JB'M-JJ'^Pm-^! 



.3„a,««j; 



,a^J i »j»JiJi.Ji»a»a»a^ji«,a»ai»iiiJH«j an,am" 



HISTORY OF JAY COUNTY. 



iug strata, counting downward: 1. Drift 
(clayey and gravelly material). 44 feet; 2. 
Niagara limestone, 190 feet; 3. Shale (slaty 
material), about SOO feet; 4. Trenton " rock," 
more than 500 feet. 

" SHOOTING " A -WELL. 

blasting a well is often called " shooting." 
The process consists in lowering to the bot- 
tom a quantity of nitro-glycerine and explod- 
ing it, with tlie view of disintegrating the 
rock and, by thus increasing the wall surface 
and creating crevices, correspondingly in- 
crease the flow of gas. 

The phenomena attending such an explo- 
sion vary with the depth of the well in the 
rock aod the amount of nitro-glycerine used. 
A sharp crack, like that of a pistol, is all the 
sound discernible that indicates the explosion. 
The ground nearby does not seem to tremble, 
but at a distance of several miles it sometimes 
shows faint signs of agitation. Several sec- 
onds after the report is heard, water, disin- 
tcrated rock and bits of the apparatus that 
had been let down, come gusliing up seventy- 
five to a hundred feet in the air, and continue, 
with gradually diminishing force, for several 
seconds. What the exact chemical actions 
are of this most powerfully explosive sub- 
stance under so great a pressure as must 
exist a thousand feet or more witliin solid 
rock, constitute a wonderful subject for con- 
templation and a fruitful source of theory. 

While nitro-glycerine is comparatively a 
cheap composition, the risk in handling it is 
so great that one must I'eceive a large pecuni- 
ary reward for taking the responsibility of 
brincring it to the well and lowering it. That 
which has been used at Portland was made 
near Findlay, Ohio, and brought in tin cans, 
in a carriage or buggy, as the railroads are 
not allowed to carry it. The operator pours 
the semi-tluid into long tin cans made for the 



purpose of passing down the well, which is 
but iive or six inches in diameter, and lets 
the can, or cans, thus filled, hermetically 
sealed and furnished at the upper end with a 
percussion cap, down the well with a wire 
and windlass. All this work must be care- 
fully done, as a very slight stroke against a 
hard substance might produce a premature 
explosion. All being ready, an oblong, 
pointed piece of iron, cast for the purpose 
and called the "go-devil," is dropped down, 
and the point striking the percussion cap 
causes the explosion. Often the " go-devil " 
has to pass down through several hundred 
feet of water, when it requires several seconds 
to reach the bottom. 

WELL NO. 2. 

For a short time after the abandonment of 
the first well it looked as though two more 
companies would be organized; but as the 
gas in Well jN'o. 1 seemed to be rapidly de- 
creasing, the excitement wore away. How- 
ever, II. W. Sees, S. II. Adams and Michael 
Gebhart, full of faith and confidence, appealed 
to our citizens for aid in putting down 
another well, and they again subscribed tlie 
required amount. The contract of drilling 
the well, which was a half mile northeast of 
No. 1, was given to Jack Kobinson, of Lima, 
an experienced driller. As the drill went 
down, the indications of a good well were 
demonstrated, and on Thursday evening, 
October 21, they "drilled in," that is struck 
Trenton rock. 

The strata passed through by this well are 
substantially the same as those of No. 1, 
except that the drift, or earthy material, 
above the Niagara limestone is about sixteen 
feet thicker. The drillers met with no mis- 
haps, and the well was completed in about 
seventeen days. At a depth of 500 or 600 
feet a liirht vein of shale gas was met w-ith. 






'C"! 

m 



m 





i*^t>^m„ii„t5^si„:Br,!t^m.m„ai^ 



NATURAL GAS. 



'4\ 









(J 



wliieh soon exhausted itself. Wlien the 
Treiifoii rock was reached great anxiety pre- 
vailed. Many were expecting oil, but in this 
were disappointed. On piercing that rock 
tlie How of gas rapidly increased, so greatly 
indeed that it was considered unsafe to keep 
the lights burning in the derrick. At a 
deptli of live or six feet in this stratum the 
drilling was stopped, the gas piped out from 
the derrick and lighted, and it sent up a flame 
twelve to fifteen feet higli. Those who had 
expected oil were now satisfied with the 
abundant flow of good gas instead. 

IJul a great divergence of opinion now pre- 
vailed in regard to the actual quantity of the 
gas, its efficiency as a heating and lighting 
agent, some claiming it would not come with 
pressure enough to force its way into a tank 
or gasometer, much less su])ply a pipe line ex- 
tending to the center of the city, three-fourths 
of a mile distant. 

Then it was that the services of one of Port- 
land's most thoroughly educated and brainy 
young men proved of inestimable value to 
the city. Every one could see there was a large 
flow of gas; but was it worth piping, with 
the well forty rods from the corporation, and 
how many stoves wonld it heat or jets light? 
Tlies<' were important questions, and vital to 
the success of the enterprise. Only one per- 
son ciuild give the desired information, and 
that was Professor Elwood Haynes. During 
the j,'as excitement of 1886 he visited Findlay 
an<l Lima, taking notes on the subject of gas 
and oil. IJe also analyzed the drillings from 
well Xo. 1. ill its several formations, and de- 
livrrrd a public lecture on the subject of 
iiatui-al gas and oil, which was listened to 
with marked interest by a large audience, 
many of whom had made the subject ot 
gei.logy a study, and frankly acknowledged 
the merit and many instructive and interest- 
ing; points it contained. The casinir of the 



well was capped and the pressure allowed to 
rise; and from the degree of pressure attained 
in a given time, the capacity of the well 
could be proximately estimated. Professor 
Haynes computed the pressure of well IS'o. 2, 
its capacit}' at 100,000 cubic feet per day, 
estimated the number of stoves it would 
heat, and then solicited the citizens to organ- 
ize a company to pipe the city and utilize the 
gas. The people had confidence in the cor- 
rectness of his tests and estimate.^, and a com- 
pany was soon organized. 

THE PORTLAND NATUE.i.L (iAS AND OIL 
COMfANT. 

Notwithstanding the people seemed fully 
satisfied that Portland was located in a very 
rich gas field, they were slow to assume the 
responsibility and risk of putting their money 
into an organization to more fully develop 
it, and pipe it to the city, so that it could be 
utilized. Finally, however, a number of en- 
ergetic and enterprising citizens concluded to 
risk their time and money, and give the city 
the benefit of one of nature's greatest gifts — 
natural gas. The articles of association of 
tlie Eureka Company contained no provision 
for increasing the capital stock, and as the 
whole of the capital (and a little more) was 
exhausted in drilling the well, the company 
was powerless and unable to develop the well 
for an}- practical purpose. A new company 
was therefore organized, with a cajjital stock 
of .S'20,000, for the purpose of fully developing 
the gas interests of the city, and placing it 
within the reach of all who may desire to use 
it, for heating and illuminating purposes. 

The stockholders of the new company in 
Xovember, 18S6, elected the following direc- 
tors: ^X. II. Reed, T. S. Johnson, W. M. 
Haynes, J. G. Crowell and C. C. Cartwright. 
The directors organized by electing TT. H. 
Reed, President; T. S. Johnson, Vice-Presi- 






i'Sf 







!gi 






'*T^»'*«^ 



,lu„,Js_,aiB-» 



IIISTURY OF J AT COUNTY. 



3 



m 
11 



m 

I 
PI 



dent; W. A. Moorman, Secretary; W illitun j 
North, Treasurer, and Ehvood Huynes, 
Superintendent. 

This company, after having purchased 
well Kg. 2, at §1,500, engaged Isaac Sliuler, 
of Findlay, Ohio, to drill three additional 
wells. The first of these, now known as No. 
3, is located 750 feet northeast of No. 2. 
The strata passed through in drilling this 
well are substantially the same as the other 
two wells, e.xcept that the Trenton rock was 
lint found so far below the surface, which was 
reached at a depth of 983 feet. A strong 
flow of shale gas was noticed at a depth of 
462 feet, and a still stronger flow at 662 feet; 
but the current from both these veins had 
almost entirely ceased when the Trenton 
formation was reached. Immediately after 
piercing the latter, the gas flow increased 
greatly, and it soon became evident that the 
well was superior to either of the others, as it 
was found to yield 500,000 cubic feet per 
day. After drilling about ten feet further, 
the test showed no further increase, and when 
the drill reached a depth of twelve feet in the 
fiuions rock, there was indeed a slight 
<limimitiiin in the gas flow, probably due to 
release of pressure in the vicinitj- of the well. 

Fearing salt-water might soon he reached, 
the drilling was ordered stopped. A horizon- 
tal two-inch pipe was coimected with the 
well, to conduct the gas from the derrick for 
an experiment, the subtle agent lighted, and 
up went a large flame full thirty feet high! 
The people were excited, and much was 
hastily said against the company, prejudging 
them to be monopolists and accusing them 
of exoi'bitancy even before any schedule of 
prices was suggested! 

The quantity of gas, however, was vastly 
iiverestimaled by many, who declared that 
there was m(jro than sufficient to light and 
boat the entire city and supply all the fac- 



tories and machine shops. This excitement 
naturally subsided by degrees, and the people 
began to take a more business-like view of the 
matter. 

Throughout the ensuing winter, even 
amid the coldest weather, the company 
vigorously pushed the work of laying the 
mains, on Main and Meridian streets, and by 
spring more than a hundred persons were 
using the gas. Soon additional mains were 
laid, and by the middle of April live miles of 
main pipe, three to six inches in diameter, 
had been laid. Residences and offices were 
rapidly supplied, and at the time mentioned 
more than -iOO stoves and 500 jets were sup- 
plied, besides fifty large " torches " (street 
lamps) for lighting the streets. For this 
supply, wells Nos. 2 and 3 were piped to- 
gether. 

Soon after No. 3 was finished, in February, 
1887, the same company commenced to drill 
again about a quarter of a mile further east, 
and in a short time found the Trenton rock, 
989 feet below the surface of the ground. 
Two veins of shale gas were met with, each 
at nearly the same depth as those of No. 8, 
and much stronger than in any of the other 
wells; and from this it was supposed that the 
flow of Trenton gas, when reached, would be 
correspondingly stronger; but this proved a 
mistake, as by the time the Trenton rock was 
reached the shale gas had almost entirely 
disappeared, and no perceptible increase was 
noticed even after the drill had penetrated 
the Trenton to a depth of fifty-five feet. The 
well, numbered 4, was then plugged fust 
below the limestone and abandoned as a "dry 
well," that is, as a failure. 

AVell No. 5, drilled by this company, is 
located about a quarter of a mile west of No. 
3, or near the northern extremity of Meridian 
street. The work was commenced in March, 
1SS7, and completed .\pril 11. The strata 



I 



I 












lS5535»S»H5i^ 



,jj ^ Jr^c ^K'^'jft 



.li^a-Uj^ai 



''P-^^"** "'«'"« °^*qrs 



NATURAL GAS. 






'a ■ 



iy^i 



'0' 

'is; 

ii 



met with were about the same as in the other 
wells, but not a trace of shale gas was fouml. 
A small flow of carbon, or illuminating, gas 
was noticed when the Niagara limestone was 
entered, which doubtless came from Ko. 3. 
On entering the Trenton stratnm a slight 
flow of gas came forth, though not in sufh- 
cient (juantity to justify piping it into town. 
Drilling down a hundred feet into it, the well 
was " shot " (blasted) with 100 quarts of 
nitro-glycerine, which increased the flow to 
a rate of 50,000 cubic feet per day. 

Aljout this time a curious phenomenon 
was presented in the vicinity. A few rods 
distant, gas burst through at the bottom of a 
water well with such violence as to make the 
water appear as if it were boiling. As this 
began before the shooting of No. 5, it is 
supposed that the gas did not come from that 
well at all, but from No. 3, about a third of 
a mile distant, working its way, under im- 
mense pressure, through a dry gravel or sand 
bed, or something of the kind. Subsequently 
the owner of the water well piped the gas 
into his house for heating and illumination, 
but the well, being now unfit for supplying 
water, was filled up. 

THE citizens' NATl-i:.\I. OAS AND OIL MINI.M.i 
CilMPANY 

was organized in February, 18S7. with a cap- 
ital stock of 825,000; N. B. Hawkins, Presi- 
dent; .J. A. Jaqua, Secretary; Isaac Silvernale, 
Treasurer. The stock, in §25 shares, was 
taken by Portland, Fort "Wayne and Union 
City parties. The intention of tlie company 
is to pipe the towns and furnish gas as a 
cheap source of fuel and illumination. Their 
first well was drilled in February, near the 
Grand Papids A: Indiana Pailroad track, just 
soutli of the city limits, and their second 
well, on the Denny land, a few rods west of 
the Xoriiial School, in Ai.ril. Poth of these 



were l)lasted ("shot") during the latter 
month, since which time they have proved 
to be paying wells, yielding 100,000 cubic 
feet per day. The cost of drilling and blast- 
ing was about §1,000 each. During the last 
week of April the company commenced drill- 
ing upon the Jaqua farm adjoining the south- 
eastern limits of Portland. 

This company has leased 7,000 acres of 
land lying in the best portion of the gas field 
near Fort Wayne and Richmond, with the 
intention of piping gas into those cities. 
Already (April 25) propositions have been 
made to them by larger companies for the 
purchase of their leases. 

THE MANUFACTCREKS' GAS AND OIL COMrANT 

is the third company organized at Portland, 
for the purpose of furnishing gas free to com- 
ing manufacturers. It was organized about 
the middle of April, 18S7, by the election of 
C. E. Rogers, President; S. K. Iliggins, Sec- 
retary, and Charles Walters, Treasurer; the 
other directors are N. B. Hawkins and E. J. 
Marsh. Capital stock, §3,000, all of which 
is virtually a donation, to induce manufac- 
turers to locate their works at Portland. The 
company commenced drilling about the last 
of April, on the Crowell farm south of town 
and just west of the Grand Rapids & Indi- 
ana Railroad track, and soon afterward on the 
Jacjua farm north of tlie city. 

Other gas enterprises throughout the coun- 
ty are noticed under the respective heads of 
villages and townships. 

We have thus been particular in giving 
the details of the development of the gas 
interest, and in giving honor to whom honor 
is due, because it was Portland men who first 
"talked business"' and went to work with an 
object in the whole State of Indiana, and 
even before many in (Jhio or Pennsylvania 
had entered the field as a business. r)ne 



mi 

V 

1^) 






i 



,Mj»jana^M^a„a, 



UISrORT OF J AT COUNT i'. 



frequently hears of gas being discovered in 
Indiana before it was discovered in Portland; 
but in every instance thus referred to, when 
the bottom truth is ascertained, it will be 
found that the gas was either shale gas, dis- 
covered accidentally, not used, or something 
else, still leaving to Portland the credit of 
tirst drilling purposely for gas to be utilized. 

GEOLOGY. 

The geological formation in Jay and Black- 
ford counties belongs to the Silurian age, 
which was so named from the fact that it 
was first discovered in Wales, a country an- 
ciently inhabited by a tribe known as the 
Silures. This formation is composed of sev- 
eral layers of rock; and the one first met 
with in this vicinity is known as the Niagara 
formation, so named because it is conspicu- 
ously exposed at Niagara Falls. It is a hard, 
white limestone, containing some magnesia. 
In some cases this rock is almost as white as 
marble; and the drillings have led many to 
suppose tliat a deposit of marble e.xists be- 
neath the soil of Eastern Indiana. Such, 
however, is not the case; for, while the Niag- 
ara limestone has substantially the same 
composition as marble, it lias never under- 
gone the metamorphosis which is necessary 
to convort limestone into marble. Veins of 
water are frequently met with in the forma- 
tion, and sometimes very large cavities are 
found filled with water, which in some cases 
have proven to be an ine.xhaustible supply. 

Immediately below the Niagara formation 
is a soft, gray shale, which e.xtends to a depth 
of 650 feet. It is very compact, and re- 
sembles the substance from which ordinary 
slate pencils are made, being indeed generally 
termed '• slate " by the well drillers. 

Next below this shale is a black deposit of 
similar material, containing a considera!)le 
]iortion of carbon, to which its Mackncss is 



due. The chemical composition of this shale 
is a double silicate of aluminum and iron. 

Beneath the black shale is a layer of very 
hard limestone, known as the Trenton rock, 
the chemical composition of which is sub- 
stantially the same as that of the Niagara, 
though it contains also a small amount of 
carbon. In its physical characteristics it 
differs considerably, being very much harder 
and more compact than the Niagara lime- 
stone and of a darker color. Its upper sur- 
face is peculiarly hard and dense, and the 
passage of shale into this rock is marked and 
unmistakable, while the passage from the 
Niagara formation into the shale is gradual, 
it being difficult to determine where the 
limestone ends and the shale begins. The 
latter contains more or less calcium carbonate 
(marble-like material). 

It is immediately beneath the hard cap- 
ping of this Trenton rock that gas is found; 
and if the interior of the stratum be porous 
the flow of gas is almost certain to be large. 

The Trenton group does not lie level. It 
is folded in the form of ridges, which the 
well drillers term " hog-backs." If the well 
is drilled into the crest of one of these folds, 
it is almost certain to reach gas, while in the 
depressions gas is rarely found. 

THE GAS AND ITS PROPERTIES. 

It is a difficult matter to decide upon the 
volume of gas yielded by a well, since many 
times gas is met with in the shale and con- 
tinues to flow until the Trenton is reached. 
The quantity of gas flowing from a well 
varies considerably. If the yield is 100,000 
feet or more per day the well is considered 
a success in most localities, and yields a fair 
income at !?1 per stove for each month. 

The quality also varies, and is different 
from manufactureil gas, being usually of a 
less specific irravitv and of feeliler liirhtini,^ 






in 



^ 

i 



m 



k 

'fa! 



^^! 



"«"»■-■* 



■ *'mi»i"M"qi' 






NATURAr. OAS 









m 



m) 






1 



power. It i?, liowever, superior as a heating 
agent, not only to nianut'actured gas, but 
also to most other fuel. Chemically consid- 
ered it is a hydro-carbon, that is, it is com- 
posed of the two elements carbon and 
lijdrogen combined. Carbon in its pure 
and solid state is familiar to all in the forms 
of charcoal, lampblack, etc., while hydrogen 
is an invisible gas, very light, and often 
used therefore in tilling very large balloons. 
The gas found in this locality contains also a 
small trace of sulphuretted hydrogen, which 
gives it a decided and disagreeable odor. 
This odor is a valuable property, in one sense, 
since it affords a ready means of detecting it 
when it escapes into a room. The quantity 
of sulphur, however, is so small that tlie 
minute amount of sulphur dio.xide formed 
by burning it produces no disagreeable re- 
sults. The gas found in this vicinity is ri- 
markably well adapted to both heat and 
light, the carbon and hydrogen being well 
balanced. It compares very favorably with 
artificial gas in illuminating power, a tive- 
foot jet yielding eleven-and-a-half-candle 
power. It excels, however, in heating power. 
It is utilized in supplying stoves by allow- 
ing it to pass through a small aperture into 
a largo chamber, so as to mix with air and 
become diminished in its rapidity of motion, 
and thus produce a constant flame. If the 
air and gas thus mixed are so confined as to 
produce a slow cm-rent, the carbon is thor- 
oughly consumed, and much light is emitted. 
If, on the otlier hand, a rapid current is 
permitted, the carbon is blown off before 
it IS Consumed, and much more hydrogen 
is proportionately burned, and a heat flame 
is the result— this is of a dark color. Thus, 
by an apparatus consisting of two supply 
jiipes, one of gas and one of air, and each 
furni.-lied with stop-cocks, the same burner 
can l.c made to vield either the heat flame 



or the light flame, as desired, and also in 
varying proportions and amounts. Bv a nest 
of wire-gauze sheets the gas can be so evenly 
relieved of its pressure before ignition that 
the flame, burning the carlion thoroughlv 
and evenly, becomes dazzlingly brilliant and 
perfectly steady, like an incandescent electric 
light. 

It is very important that the gas be mixed 
with air before it is burned; for if it is not 
it will smoke and deposit soot on the in- 
terior of the stove, wh.ch not only ])revents 
the heat produced from pasoing out, out is 
actual waste of fuel. The soot is unburned 
carbon. 

It is not strictly ])roper to speak of burn- 
ing atmospheric air; but by this device for 
rai.xing it with the gas the latter is more 
completely burned than any other fuel. 

The amount of gas required to supply a 
stove depends, of course, upon the amount 
of heat required. Experiment has shown 
that an ordinary mixture, with a one- 
eighth inch opening, under a pressure of one 
and a half pounds to the square inch, con- 
sumes about liO cubic feet of g-as per 
hour. It will thus be seen that a well yield- 
ing 100,000 cubic feet per day would supj>ly 
sixty or seventy stoves, each being iu use ten 
hours per day, provided all the gas could be 
utilized; but as there are no provisions 
made for storing the gas it can be utilized 
only when the stoves are in operation. 

In regard to the pressure of gas. it may 
be said that it varies somewhat in different 
localities, from 200 to -400 pounds on the 
square inch when the well is entirely shut in. 
The rock pressure at Portland is about 300 
pounds to the square inch. 

In respect to the origin of gas we can only 
theorize. Chemistry has shown that it is 
composed of carbon and hy<h-ogen, and tiiese 
elements thus mixed ai'e never met with in 




?9- 



i 












(Is; 

;5i 






a!J ^a„g^'JjM-, 



'-""■"^a- 



a533H555SH5[5i 



,ai,j„a„ji„j „u„jai;r3rsa? 



XI«d-I9-il. 



a .a J. CT ■»•»'=- » 



(fa J 
1^ 



Bi 



insronY of jay coryrY. 



inorganic nature; they either have been or 
are constituents of animal ■ or vegetable or- 
ganisms. Some have thought that, as tliegas is 
found in and about fossil rock, it came from 
the decomposition of either animal or vegeta- 
ble organisms of some past age. The re- 
mains of plant life, however, in and beneath 
the Trenton rock are very scanty, though 
there are many small shells and other marine 
fossils found, which indicate that the water 
from which the Trenton rock was deposited 
was teeming with animal life. May it not 
be that tlie gas is the result of decomposition 
of the bodies of these little animals, and has 
been prevented from escaping into the air by 
the heavy and compact layers of rock above 



it? In support of this theory it may be said 
that gas in every way similar to the natural 
gas flowing from the wells can be made by 
placing the bodies of these small animals 
in a retort and heating them slowly to 
redness. 

In regard to the lasting qualities of this 
natural gas but little can be predicted, since 
the thickness of the gas-bearing rock is some- 
what variable, and every part of the rock does 
not contain gas. It is e.\tremely difficult to 
obtain the necessary data for calculating the 
quantity of gas in any given area, even if the 
pressure be known. It is, however, highly 
probable that the gas, sooner or later, will be 
exhausted. 



m 

t 



hit 




m 






f 



iiii 



m 
m 









■ jaqj. 'l yM— BnqJ, 



,ji^«ijX,,J,iUrjgij,-iM-„.JJi 



THE CIVIL WAR. 



tlJ 



1) 



-vgg^. 



SI 
il 



! 9' 

i 



•^i THE CIVIL WAR, 




"i!£Gi>:s-''*^^^"*'' 



?S'ft*Jrl;i^ *^^S^'^ v^ 1 1 E first wave of artil- 
lery thunder from the 
tuinbliiig walls of Fort 
Sumter echoed fi-om 
the loyal banks of Jay 
County bearing upon 
its crest a number of patriots, 
the first of wlioni was 




CHARLES E. BENNETT. 



This brave young hero was 

a student at Liber College, and 

'^%^\^/.'^ as sc)on as he read the call for 

■^'-i^k^ troo])s he told President Tucker 

vt'' VvJ/ that he was going. He went to 

"Winchester to ioin acomiianv, j 

. . I 

but was rejected on account of Ids near- | 

sightedness. for which he wore glasses. He 

then went to Indianapulis, and by keeping 

his spectacles out of sight he succeeded in 

entering Company C, Eighth Indiana. lie 

served his time out and was discharged. In 

1802, when the rallying ciw was, 

-We ure coming. Fatlipr .\lir;ili;un, 
Three buQilretl tlioiisauil nior.-," 

he again enlisted, in Company F, Seventy- 



fifth Indiana Yolunteers, and this time gave 
his life for his country, dying of disease 
while the company was at Castilian Springs, 
Tennessee, about the 1st of December, 1862. 
He had been raised a Quaker, and was an 
honest, kind-hearted young man. 

TUIKTY-NINTH INF.VNTKV OR EKiHTU C.WALRY. 

"We sketch this before we do the Thirty- 
fourth because the first company from the 
county was placed therein. It was raised in 
July, 1861, principally by the etfurts of C. 
H. Clark, Nimrod Ileadington and S. L. 
Wilson. At first volunteers were s owly ob- 
tained, because it was thought out of all pro- 
portion to undertake to raise a whole 
company at that time in one county; but 
after the first thirty were obtained no more 
difficulty was experienced. Judge J. M. 
Ilayues, J. N. Templer and others addressed 
the people, and thus materially aided the 
cause. 

On the morning oi August It an anxious 
niultituik' of citizens assembled at Portland 
to liid farewell to the first company J ay County 
sent to the war for the Union. It was a trying 



i 










% 



[a 



li 



lioiii- to the relatives of the departing, who 
knew that tlie chances were against iiKjst of 
thctn ever returning alive to the scenes of that 
dear home for which they had gone out to 
lay down their lives. Early that morning 
the reveille summoned the voli.nteers to- 
gether at Camp Eoss. Then, with the in- 
tensest feeling they marched in order about 
the town, halting in front of each house 
where any of them had been living or board- 
ing, and giving hearty cheers. The village 
was soon crowded with citizens from the 
country. Fanners, more than were needed, 
gratuitously ofi'ered their services as team- 
sters to convey the volunteers to Winchester, 
where they could take the railroad for Indi- 
anapolis. Loaded into the wagins and car- 
riages, they bade their last farewell, amid 
tears and sorrow, but with an unswerving de- 
termination to go to the front in the battle- 
field. Amid loud cheers and the waving of 
liats and handkerchiefs, drowning half-sup- 
pressed sobs, the long train of wagons and 
carriages started, carrying 200 persons, over 
half of whom were a citizens' escort. 

Two days afterward, at Camp Morton, they 
were sworn into service for three years, or- 
ganized as Company C, Tliirty-ninth Indi- 
ana Yolunteer Infantry, on the 29th, and 
September 21 were ordered to Kentucky, 
marched with Buell's armj' to Nasliville, and 
engaged in the terrible battle of Shiloh, where 
the regiment lost two killed and thirty-four 
Wounded. Here the Jay County boys were 
in the thickest of the fight for two and a half 
hours, during which time the rebels com- 
monced their retreat. They were then com- 
manded by Lieutenants Justus (J. Crowell 
and Curtis 11. Clai-k. as tlieir Captain, 
Stephen L. AVilmn, was homo on recruiting 
service. Stephen J. liailey and .Lunes Q. 
Odle were mortally wcunded. While I'.ailey 
was beintr carried from the field, he said to 



Lieutenant Clark, •• Tell my mother I died 
like a man, fighting for my country." At 
that moment the cheers of our troops were 
heard, and he inquired what it meant. Upon 
being told that the rebels were running, he 
said, " Then I die in peace." He died ten 
days afterward, the first soldier from Jay 
County to yield up his life to rebel bullets. 
He was the son of Mrs. Bailey, of Camden, 
and was raised a Quaker. 

James Hathaway, another private in this 
company, deserves special mention. Being 
a musician, he was not required to enter the 
fight; but at Pittsburg Landing he laid aside 
his fife, seized tiie fii'St abandoned musket he 
could find, and fought bravely until the bat- 
tle was over. 

Marching against Corinth, the company 
participated in a severe fight at Bridge Creek, 
with no loss. Then, after marching to sev- 
eral points in Alabama, and when on their 
way to Chattanooga, they were ordered by 
General Buell to retreat; and in this they 
suffered many privations, returning across 
Tennessee and Kentucky, chased part of the 
way by Bragg. Going again to the front, 
they Euft'ered as much more. Swine . were 
driven from the wallow and the water used 
to make cofTee and quench thirst; and, on one 
occasion, the soldiers had to drink water from 
a hole in which lay dead horses, mules and 
dogs! Sometimes they were obliged to push 
back a green scum an inch thick to get water! 

At the battle of Stone River the company 
lost severely, forty of them being also taken 
prisoners, who were taken to Libby prison, 
where they s\iftered indescribable horrors. 
Cyrus Stanley was severely wounded twice, 
and six rebel surgeons abandoned his case as 
hopeless; but his quiet spirit and courageous 
determination saved him from a Southern 






m 



m 



m 
m 

k 






i 



* i' 



In October, l>tG3, tlie rei^iinent wiis mount- ^(3; 



W'~ 

i 



THE CI riL WAR. 



Ta' 

m 

ipji 
'fv 

iijii 

'4 

!^: 

i3i; 



if^i 






eil as the Eicrluli Cavalry. It foni,'lit at 
Cliif.'kamauga and other places, witli but lit- 
tle loss. The prisoners were paroleil or 
exchanged, some of whom •• li%-e(l to light 
anotlier day." The regiment went to Savan- 
nah and to North Carolina, under the com- 
mand of General Kilpatrick, and was then 
mustered out. 

Of this company, George T. Winters was 
promoted First Lieutenant and then Captain; 
Curtis H. Clark promoted First Lieutenant; 
Justus G. Cromwell promoted from First 
Lieutenant to Captain. Andrew Jackson 
and John K. Lewis were also First Lieuten- 
ants. The Colonels of the regiment were 
Thomas J. Harrison and Fielder A. Jones. 

THIKTY-FOUKTH INDIANA IXFAXTKV. 

In this regiment Jay County was repre- 
sented by Company B, recruited in August, 
1861, by James "W. Campbell and Nimrod 
Headiiigton, for three years' service. On 
organization Mr. Campbell was elected Cap- 
tain, Mr. Headington, Fii'st Lieutenant, and 
Benjamin G. Shinn Second Lieutenant. On 
the Ist of September the ladies of Portland 
gave the company a farewell supper, and the 
next morning they started for Camp Ander- 
son, Indiana, where they were designated as 
Company B, Thirty-fourth Indiana Volunteer 
Infantry. Asbnry Steele, of Marion, was 
their tirst Colonel, then Townsend Eyan, of 
Anderson ; Eobert A. Cameron, of Valparaiso; 
Eobcrt B. Jones, of Marion, and Robert G. 
Morrison, of Koanoke. During the service 
Mr. Headiiigton was promoted through the 
several ranks to Lieutenant-Colonel; Abra- 
ham M. Templer from Second Lieutenant to 
Fir.,t Lieutenant and then Captain; David 
D. 11 arter from Second to First Lieutenant, 
and Henjamin G. Shinn and Thomas Helm 
wei-c Second Lieuten.-mts. 

^LirohiniC toward the front duriiio- the 



autumn, this company lost eight members in 
one month, by pneumonia. Afterward, they 
engaged in the siege of New Madrid, Mis- 
souri, and in skirmishing around in Arkansas 
and Louisiana, and in the severest part 
of the battle at Port Gibson, capturing a 
battery and 300 prisoners. Six men in 
Company B were wonnded, one of whom, 
Bailiii' W. Stowell, died of his wounds. Our 
army next took Jackson, Mississippi, and 
marching on Vicksburg had a severe contest 
at Champion Hills, wdiere Company B lost, 
in killed and wounded, seventeen men. 

Captain Headington, two days after the 
battle, wrote: "In my company first fell 
by my side, William H. H. Bailey, mortally 
wounded, next Staley, then Chapman on my 
right fell, mortally wounded, while defending 
the colors; then, on my left, Perry was killed, 
then fell Swaney, mortally wounded, then 
Geiger, wounded in the leg, tlien Doyle, 
wounded in tlie shoulder, Airley, wounded in 
the thigh, Pugli, wounded in the back, Dan- 
iel Crisler, in the arm, George Denny, in the 
hand, William Louk, in the hand, D. Shinn, 
in the wrist, James Crisler, in the shoulder, 
Honk, in the hand, and Hammitt, in the leg 
— seventeen in all. Never did boys fight 
braver than Company B. Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel Swaim ["of Wells County] is wounded in 
the lungs, I fear mortally. [He did die from 
that wound.] Our regiment killed and cap- 
tured one entire Alabama regiment. We 
made it so hot for them that the Colonel 
rode up, threw his hat up and cried for 
mercy, saying that he surrendered his Avhole 
command." 

The company next engaged, without acci- 
dent, in the siege and occupation of Vicks- 
burg. Then, after marching and skirmishing 
around for some months, forty-four of the 
company re-enlisteil. PJnjoyin- a furloui^h 
in the spring of lMj4. they returned to 



^W. 



m 



m 



ill' 



Pi 

{■■3< 



I 



III.sroUY OF JAY COUNTY. 



I 

il 



IP- 

I 

k 






Lonisiiina, imd went to Texas, where they 
tijught the hist battle ul' the war, May 13, 
1SC5, at Palmetto Kanclie, at the mouth of 
tlie Rio Grande, near the old Ijattlefield of 
J'alo Alto. Two hundred and fifty of the 
regiment drove 500 of the enemy, mounted, 
with a battery of six field pieces, three miles 
in three hours. By this time the rebels got 
their battery in position and poured a de- 
structive tire into the ranl^s of our men. 
Our commanding officer, bearing of the snr- 
ri;nder of Kirby Smith, the last reljel to hold 
out in the older States, gave the order to 
cease tiring, with a peculiar fervency betitting 
the sense that this was the last gun of the 
great war; but the men were so hard pressed 
that for a short time they were obliged to 
tight a retreat; and tinally, just as the west- 
ern sun was sinking in a fading glamour be- 
hind the sand lulls on the farther l>ank of the 
llio Grande, and in view of hundreds of men 
perched in the rigging of men of war and 
other vessels in the river, one of our men, 
])ossibly a Jay County soldier, fired the last 
gun of the hottest and greatest war that ever 
drenched the earth in blood! 

Not until the ne.\t November, however, 
Wiis this regimejit mustered out, as it was 
kept on duty to hold the ground until the 
rebels were all disarmed and the arts of peace 
ve-established. 

TliniTV-SIXTlI IXFAXTKY. 

In this reu'iment were eleven soldiers from 
Jay County, among tliem llenjainin Shields, 
whose death, October 3, l^liil, M-as the first 
among the Jay County volunteers. "William 
Grose, of Newcastle, was the first Colonel of 
this regiment, and O. P. 11. Carey, of !Ma- 
rion, the second. It was mustered into the 
three years service at Kichmond, Septend>er 
ICi, ISfil. Its fate in the w.ar was very simi- 
l.ar to the Thii-ty-fnurtli, just describe<l. up 



to August, lS()4r, when the non-veterai;s 
came home and the few reinainin^ ones we;e 
organized into the residuary battalion of oj.e 
company. It also served in Texas until late 
in the autumn of 1SG5. 

FOKTIETII OniO IXFANTRV. 

Twenty-six of Jay County's soldiers were 
in the Fortieth Ohio, among wliom wei'e 
Captain John L. Reeves, promoted ilajor 
May 22, 1864, Sergeants Joseph II. Brews 
ter, killed by a railroad accident. June, 1862, 
John W. Mclvay, Abram J. Braise, Nelscn 
White and W. H. McLaughlin. 

MINETEEXTH I^•DIA^^V. 

This regiment also contained twenty-six 
Jay County sohliers, wlio were mustered in 
July 20, 1861, with Solomon Meriditb as 
Colonel, and were attached to the Army of 
the Potomac, in which they did some hard 
fighting, at Antietam, Gettysburg, South 
Mountain, etc. Several were wounded and 
killed in these engagements. 

THE SLXTV-NINTH IXFAXTRY 

contained twelve men from Jay County-, who 
operated mostly in the States near the Mis- 
sissippi and in Texas. The regiment left its 
dead in eleven States, participating in the 
battles of Richmond. Kentucky, Chickasaw 
Bluil's, Arkansas Post, Thompson's Hill, 
Champion Hills, Black River Bridcre, the 
sieges of Vickslnirg and Jackson, and the 
capture of Blakely. Alabama, which caused 
the sui'render of ilobile. 

SEVKXTY-EIKTII IXDIAXA IXFAXTRY. 

Company F, of this regiment, was from 
Jay County. Colonels — John U. Pettit. 
^[ilton S. Robinson and William (J'Brien, 
Captains — Christopher S. Arthur, promoted 
surgeon, John S. Stanton and .Joseph Lewis. 



.\V. 



^1* 



m 



I 

I 
■pi 

i 






'^•r, 



;i.^; 



M 



m 



First Lieutenants — Abraliam C. Rush, G. 
W. ilcGrift" and Charles 'n'. Robbins. Second 
Lieutenants — Jesse T. Underwood, Joseph 
Lewis and Charles Lewis. 

This company was recruited in July, 18G2, 
by A. (;. Rush, mustered into the tliree years 
service August 20, and in two days were at 
Louisville. After visiting several points in 
Kentucky in search of Morgan, they were 
ordered to other points in Tennessee, where 
thej lost several by sickness. I^ot until over 
.■I year after they were mustered in did they 
engage in a general battle, and that was at 
Chickaniauga, September 19, 1863, when the 
regiment lost nearly a third of its members, 
and the company tliree killed and seven 
wounded. Retiring to Chattanooga, they 
were hemmed in by rebels for about three 
months, and were consequently short of 
rations. Three of Company F died by dis- 
ease. Then they participated in the fierce 
contest at Mission Ridge, and in the engage- 
ments generally that accompanied Sherman's 
raid to the sea and through the Carolinas to 
"Washington, in the great triumph and grand 
review, when they were mustered out. 

EIGHTY-FOURTII INF.iNTEY. 

In tliis regiment were eleven men from 
Jay County, in several companies, who were 
mustered into service September 3, 1862, 
witli Nelson Trusler as Colonel. The regi- 
ment spent most of its time in Tennessee anc 
vicinity, chasing. Hood, Bragg, etc. 

EIGIITV-XIXTU INFANTRY. 

Company E, of this regiment, was recruited 



; Aaron Wright from second to first lieutenant. 
Levi James was Second Lieutenant. Within 
twenty days this company was raised, 
equipped and transported t<i Dixie. Yery 
soon, in an engagement at Munfordsville, it 
lost one man, Jonathan Cloud, seriously 
wounded, but the federal force there, nuna- 
bering only 2,500, succeeded in repelling 
about 8,000 of the enemy. Directly, however, 
General Bragg came with his whole army 
and took the Union men prisoners; but they 
were immediately paroled. Two months 
afterward they were e.xchanged, and they 
were sent to Memphis and various other 
points on and near the Mississippi, doing 
guard and picket duty, and engaging in the 
Sherman raid through Mississippi, capture of 
Fort De Russey, capture of 300 rebels at 
Pine Hill, Louisiana, etc. They iiad some 
pleasant times, but during most of their 
service they were suffering some hardship or 
other. They were under General Banks at 
Pleasant Hill, where they fought bravely, 
but were ordered back by some mysterious 
movement of General Banks, even after Gen- 
eral A. J. Smith had succeeded in repelling 
the enemy. A battle-field covered with dead 
and dying rebels, small arms and artillery, 
was abandoned without e.xplanation. 

The regiment was mustered out September 
10, 1855, after having marched 2,363 miles 
on foot, traveled by rail and steamer over 
8,000 miles, and lost 31 killed and 167 
wounded. 

ONE HCNDKEDTU INF.VNTUV. 

Company II, of this regiment, was from 



m 



trom .lay County in August, 1862. Joseph , Jay County, being recruited in August, 1802. 

P. Winterswus unanimously elected Captain, I Left Portland SepteniI.er 0, reitirtim^ at 

and November 8, 1^01, he was promoted i ^Vabasli, where it orgauize.l by electin- John 

:\[aj..r. Royal Denney was elected First | ^Y_ Headingtou Captain, Gideon Ratlibun 

Lifutciuint; Frederick W. White was ]iro- | Fir.-t Lieutenant, and Stejilien B. 11. Shanks 

moteil from First Lieutenant to Cai-tain, and , Second Lii u teiiant,('ol.nifl.S;iutnrd .1. St(..n-h, 









m 






m 







tun until January 4, 1864, then Albert Heath 
until 2\ray 10, 1865, and linally Reud M. 
Johnson. Captain Ileadington was promoted 
Major June 1, 18G4, and finally Lieutenant 
Colonel Isaac N. Frazer was made Captain of 
the company, and Eli Vore, from this county, 
was advanced from Second to First Lieuten- 
ant May 1, 1865. 

The company joined Grant's army at JVIem- 
])his in October, 1862; wintered at Grand 
Junction; did guard duty and scouting until 
June 5; engaged in the siege of Vicksbui-g; 
lielped to drive Johnston from Jackson, 
Mississippi; spent nearly three months in 
camp; made a long and tedious march to 
(Jhattanooga, Tennessee, engaged in the fierce 
contest there, and lost two killed and seven 
wounded, most of them severely, including 
both Lieutenants. The standard-bearer was 
shot down. Corporal Joseph C. Hawkins 
seized the falling banner, waved it defiantly 
to the foe, rallied the wavering columns and 
bore it triumphantly to the end of the fight. 
As he picked up the colors he promised 
Almighty God that if he spared his life 
through this engagement he would never 
shave again, and, being a devout Presbyterian, 
lie kept his pledge. He died in 1886, at 
Portland. 

After chasing Hood for a time, and engag- 
ing in a number of skirmishes, the regiment 
went with Sherman's army to the relief of 
r.urnside at Knoxville, after which it returned 
to Bellefonte, Alabama, and spent the winter 
guarding the Memphis & Charleston Kail- 
road. In the spring and summer of 1864 it 
was with Sherman during the Atlanta 
campaign, wliieli lasteil four months and 
resulted in the fall of Atlanta. On this 
campaign the company fought in the battles 
Walton, Snake Creek (rap. Resaca, New 
Hope Church, I'.ig Shoales, Kenesaw Moun- 
tain, Nickajack Creek, Chattahoochie liiver, 



Decatur, Atlanta. Cedar Blufi's, Jonesboro, 
and Lovejoy's Station. After resting a few 
weeks and driving Hood, who had passed to 
our rear, some distance north, the regiment 
went with Sherman's army to the sea, and, 
returning through the Carolinas, engaged in 
a hard tight at Bentonville. Reaching "Wash- 
ington, D. C, May 20, it remained in camp 
there until June 9, when it was mustered 
out. 

This regiment, during its service, marched 
over 4,000 miles, fought thirty-five battles, 
and was engaged in skirmishes with the 
enemy fully one-half of its term of service. 
It suffered a great deal, yet the members en- 
dured their hardships bravely and were 
faithful to their duty. Their sufferings were 
of all kinds except that of conscience. In 
respect to rations, they often had to go alto- 
gether without for days together. One lad, 
sixteen years old, wrote home: "Many mur- 
mur and say they have got to starve. For my 
part I find it easy enough to get along, if one 
only takes a little care. I had an ear of 
corn for my breakfast, and put another ear 
in my pocket for my supperl" 

ONE nC>;DKED AND TnlRTlIOTH IXFAXTRV. 

Company I of this regiment contained 
fourteen of Jay County's sons. Charles S. 
Parish, of "Wabash, was the Colonel ; Captains, 
Josiah Barnes and Henry J. Main, of Indian- 
apolis, and "William L. Hitter, of Hartford 
Citv. The regiment was recruited mainly 
from the old Eleventh Congressional District, 
during the winter of 1863-'64, rendezvoused 
at Kokomo, and was mustered into service 
March 12. It fought sevend hard battles, as 
Resaca and isashville, and was almost con- 
stantly engageil in skirmi.iliing, in the inter- 
ior of the Coiifederaey. AVas mustered out 
December 2, 18()5. 






h 



ifa? 

i 



I; 



iflt 

m 








:-lgfa^TlS 



M-a-^aigjAJrjatf^ 



^XMwj^nni^la-^ s»Ka«ii«ta^*gw 



i,3.jj„j^.j jtj ^^»rs<»»iaai-J«aL r 



77M' f/r/A ll'.lfl. 






i 

■Li 

)3\) 

I 

^31 



5P 



i 

131 



I 



NE JIUMDRED AND THIKTY-NIXTII INFANTRY. 

Company I was almost wholly from Jay 
County. Captain, Abraham C. Rush; First 
Lieutenant, Finly E. Stratton; Second Lieu- 
tenant, George W. Loofbonrrow, all of Port- 
land. Colonel, George Humphrey, of Fort 
Wayne. These men volunteered for 100 
days. They organized June 8, 1864, and 
spent their time in the field guarding the 
railroads in the interior of the Confed- 
eracy which supplied Sherman during his ad- 
vance on Atlanta. Serving beyond their 
period of enlistment, they were honorably 
discharged. 

ONE HUNDRED AND NINETEENTH INFANTRY OK 
SEVENTH CAVALRY. 

During the month of June, 1863, .lohn P. 
C. Shanks, of Portland, recrnited and or- 
gani;ceil, amid great difficulties, the One 
Hun<lred and Nineteenth Regiment of volun- 
teers from this State as the Seventh Cavalry. 
The place of rendezvous was at Indianapolis, 
and recruiting progressed briskly dnring the 
months of July and August, companies be- 
ing mustered in as fast as their organizations 
were completed; and on the first of October 
the organization of twelve companies was 
perfected. Mr. Shanks was Colonel and 
Thomas M. Browne, Lieutenant-Colonel. The 
War Department permitted a number of six- 
montiis soldiePs to join the regiment in 
order to make its complement, making it a 
three-years cavalry regiment. At first it 
numbered 1.213 men, and for two months 
were stationed at Camp Shanks, Indianapolis, 
drilling-. 

On the first of Decemlier they left Indian- 
apolis and went by way of Louisville, Cairo 
and ('(ilumbns, Kentucky, to Union City, 
Tenncs.-ee. where they formeil a camp. On 
the 1 itli a detachment under < 'liristian Beck, 
of ( 'onnersville, moved towai'd Paris, Ten- 



nessee, but finding a large force of rebel 
cavalry there, they retreated, and were not 
permitted to join a reinforcement for an at- 
tack. In the latter part of the month the 
regiment moved with a force, under command 
of General A. J. Smith, into Northern Mis- 
sissippi, for the purpose of cutting off 
the retreat of the rebel General Forrest 
from Jackson, Tennessee. During that 
long and dreadful march the thermometer 
was much of the time below zero; but the 
soldierly bearing and the conduct of the 
officers and men elicited the praise of the com- 
manding general. 

The regiment took a position in front, 
flank or rear, as danger threatened, was the 
first in a fight and the last to remain as a 
cover to a retreat. A brisk skirmish ensued 
near Paris, when the rebels fell back. At 
Egypt Station, Mississippi, the rebel rear 
guard was overtaken and a sharp fight took 
place. Near Okalona, Mississippi, February 
22, 1864, the enemy was encountered in 
force. A severe battle ensued, lasting all day. 
Our force were compelled to retreat, but 
when the rest of the division had fled, the 
Seventh Cavalry met and held in check the 
pursuing and e.\ultant rebels. Late in the 
evening it recovered a battery. GJenerals 
Smith and Grierson complimented the regi- 
ment for its efficiency and valor. 

At Guntown a disastrous engagement 
took place on the 10th of June, 1864, but 
this regiment exhibited marked daring and 
skill. 

In November they left Tennessee and 
went over into Arkansas, where they 
pursued General Price, then invading !Mis- 
souri. The pursuit was continued through 
Southeast Missouri as far as Cape Girardeau. 
Thence the regiment went by steamer bv wav 
of St. Louis and the ^lissouri liiver into the 
interior of the State, and soon to its western 



m 

ft) 

t\ei 

I 









v4 



I 



I 

mi 



m 



S=S5SH5S'':i?S?¥S55f?S55^5? 



■■ *c.aj,Jc,;ja.a^J 5«««^«'JjJ'gJ';:;g^ 



■ -a^CT^^^-JCT-^ 






I 

i 



bis 



I 

i 



; 3; 



IILSTOar OF JAY COUNTY. 



border. ZS'ext they rotuDied to Memphis. 
l)<^eember 21, ISti-i. they went uii mi expe- 
dition commaiuled by Geiierul Grierson, 
captured one of Forrest's camps at Vernon, 
Mississippi, with a barge quanity of stores, 
etc. 

After this the regiment did guard and 
provost duty, from tlieir camp near Mem- 
phis, until tlie war was over. After that 
tliey went to Texas; but General Shanks, on 
account of disability, was mustered out Oc- 
tober 10, 1S65, and was succeeded by Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Brown. 

In the above regiment a large portion of 
(Company E was from Jay County. David 
T. Skinner was Captain, followed by James 
E. Sloan, of ^'ew Corydon. Barton B. Jen- 
kins, of Camden, was Second Lieutenant. 
Company .B was mainly from Kandolph 
County. James G. Jay, of Briant, was as- 
sistant surgeon for the regiment. 

ELEVENTH CAVALRY. 

Of this regiment Company B was from 
tlic faithful county of Jay. Elias Shewalter 
was the first Captain, and December 19, 1864, 
h(- was promoted Major. At the same date 
John F. Bowden was appointed Captain, and 
Ralph C. Harper was promoted from Second 
to First Lieutenant. Of the regiment Rob- 
ert R. Stewart, of Teri-e Haute, was Colonel 
until March 9, 18(15, and jSlay 10 following 
Abram Sharra. of Kvansville, was commis- 
sioned to succeed him. 

The Eleventh w-as rerruitcd umler the call 
of Septenil>er 14, 1803, during the ensuing 
winter, and :\[ay, isOl, was spent in drilling 
near ^.'ashville. though but few of them were 
Then, until the 10th of October, 



it guarded the Memphis & Charleston Rail- 
road. JXext it aided in the defeat of Hood, 
and pursued him as far as Gravelly Springs, 
Alabama; remained there from January 7 
until February 7, 1865, and then at Eastport 
until May 12; then through Missouri to Fort 
Riley, Kansas, and other points along the 
Santa Fe route across the plains; and finally, 
September 19, 1865, at Leavenworth, Kansas, 
it was mustered out. On the 28th, at In- 
dianapolis, the men were paid and discharged. 



There were two drafts of soldiers made in 
Jay County during the war — one October 6, 
1862, when, under the supervision of James 
B. Jaqua, Draft Commissioner, eighty-seven 
men were conscripted, and tiie other in 
June, 186-1, when a fewer number were 
drawn. There was no open resistance to 
either of these drafts. In March, 1865, 
when drafts were made in some parts of the 
country, none were made in Jay County. 

CONCLUSION. 

In all, there were at least 1,500 volunteers 
from Jay County during the war, some of 
whose names do not appear on the roster as 
credited to this county, for they went to other 
counties in this State and in Ohio, where 
large bounties were oftered for them, either 
to till a quota or as substitute's. 

Jay County soldiers had as good grit as 
any others in the army. They suffered as 
much, endured as much, fought as hard and 
managed as shrewdly as any to win the cause 
of tjie Union, and were as highly compli- 
mented as any for their gallantry and brav- 
ery. May tlicy be honoi-ed forever I 



it 



9! 



m 

I 
i 

Of 



0( 







i 

i 



'a' 

(f\) 
;[a3 

i 



m 






g; 



'15' 






MISCELLANEOUS 








AGRICULTURAL. 



\ \ Comity is one of the 
■^ij^ best developed agricultural 
counties in the State, and 
tlie methods and habits of 
the farmers are continually 
improving, under the influence 
of the agricultural societies 
and agricultural literature. 
Wheat, t;orn and live-stock 
are the great specialties. 
"Wheat has readied as high as 
^■ty bushels to the acre, 
and averages lifteen, which 
is comparatively high. In 
respect to this crop, the spring of 1SS7 
presented a worse prospect than had been 
witnessed before for twenty-iive years. Corn 
averages forty to forty-live bushels to the 
acre. Imleed. everything in the line of the 
grass and clo\er families succeed well. The 
winter and S].iring of lS>i7, howevei', was 
peeuliariy sevei-c upon the clovers, as dry, 
free.-.ing weather heaved tliem a great deal 
and exp^'sed the roots. Flax, hemji, hops 
and such other limited specialties do not oc- 



-vi-.';--"aj_-a-J _-. ; 



cn]iy the attention of the people here, as 
the lines of commerce in tliose things are 
not established in this direction. Apples, 
cherries, grapes and the smaller fruits do 
well. About eighteen years ago, however, 
the yonng apple orchards were badly killed. 
Bee and honey-raising are followed to some 
extent. 

Tile drainage is increasing rapidly every 
yeai-, thus setting the farmers forward at a 
greater rate than ever before, and it is abso- 
lutely certain that this improvement v.-ill go 
on for many years to come. There are sev- 
eral tile factories in every townshipi. 

Plank roads in early day were never ex- 
tensively built. Prior to 1S50 one was built 
from Camden to Fort Wayne, and kept up, 
in sections, until the railroads were built. A 
toll-gate was kept at Peill'town, Wells 
County. A jjlank I'oad was ]iri_iiiosed from 
Huntington, through Polingtown and J'ort- 
land, to Greenville, Ohio, and another from 
Fort Wayne to Portland, but were never 
built. 

In Jay County there' are now about 165 



i 



i 



m 

(ii 
>s t 

ill 

$ 
\$ 



ler- 




■ Mr.g«i*«.|tJ^'«— J- """'™*'"'^'"^!''*-''''-""''''^'" "'-'"'''"^^ '-— ^•■"■"'■"'"'■^'■^ 



HISTORY OF JAY COUNTY. 






p 
% 

n 



miles of gravel road, only two lines of 
which are now burdened with toll-gates, 
namely, that which leads south from Meri- 
dian street, Portland, and the one that leads 
southwest from this place. These " pikes " 
will probably soon be made free. They 
were commenced to be made in the fall of 
1875, and Jonas Yotaw was president of the 
first company, building the road sontlifrom 
Portland four miles, and one mile east, for 
Liber College. 

There are three agricultural societies in 
this county. Those at Dunkirk and Redkey 
will be noticed in the sketches of those 
places. 

TIIIO AGEICULTUR.VL, UORTICULTCRAL AND IN'- 

DL'STRIAL JOINT STOCK COilPAKY OF 

JAY COUNTY 

was organized December 21, 1871, with C. 
II. Clark, president; E. Henry, vice-presi- 
dent; J. ^V. Headington and Dr. J. E. INIor- 
rical, secretaries. The board of directors 
consisted of Samuel J. Current, Jacob Gaunt, 
Isaac Underwood, Joseph Ni.xon, John 
Sclimuck, James E. Gemmell, Elijah Lyons, 
Samuel Hanlin, A. G. Lewis, T. Brann, A. 
Pergman, P. Henry, C. H. Clark, P. T. 
llammons and J. W. Headington. 

The board was directed to meet at the 
court-honse January 11, 1872, and complete 
tlio organization, when Isaac Underwood was 
elected president; C. H. Clark, vice-presi- 
dent; Elijah Lyons, assistant vice-president; 
Ira Denney, secretary; James P. Reid, cor- 
ri'sponding secretary; and Joseph L. Panta, 
treasurer. 

John AV. Headington, John Sclimuck and 
C. H. Clark were appointed a committee to 
draft resolutions and jjlans for the society. 
.l:inuary '23 following, at an adjourned meet- 
ing, a constitution and In'-laws were reported 



and adopted, and the president announced 
the standing committees. 

The presidents of the comjiany have been, 
in succession, C. H. Clark, 1871; Isaac Un- 
derwood, 1872-'73; Jonas Votaw, 1874:-'75; 
Elijah Lyons, 1876-'78; Daniel Sherword, 
1879; Jacob Gaunt, 1880-'81; Jonas Votaw, 
1882-'85; and Elijah Lyons, 1886-'87. The 
present officers are — Elijah Lyons, president; 
Jonas Votaw, first vice-president; Joseph 
Kixon, second vice-president; Levi L. Gil- 
pin, secretary; J. G. Crowell, secretary; 
John Schinuck, superintendent. The board 
of directors consists of fifteen members — 
one from each township and three at large. 
The three at large are residents near the cen- 
tral part of the county, convenient for the 
transaction of business. 

The fair ground is pleasantly located in 
the northeast part of Portland, on East Vo- 
taw street, and is well occupied witli stalls, 
buildings, driving track, etc. The fairs have 
generally been successful, all the premiums 
being fully paid " except one season, when 
eighty per cent, was paid. There is now (April, 
1887) about $1,800 cash in the treasury. 
The company does not strike dividends, but 
devote all surplus funds to improvements and 
increased premiums. Comi)etition has been 
kept open to the world. In 1881: they began 
to exclude gambling and games of chance 
from the fairs, since which time a State law 
has been passed excluding them. 

CENsrs. 

The following figures are from the Federal 
census of 1880, giving further particulars of 
aii:ricultural interests, along with the increase 
of population. The agricultural jiroducts 
mentioned are for the amounts raised during 
the preceding year, 1879. 

Corn, 1,068,523 bushels; wheat, 418,671 
bushels ; oats, 279,741: bushels ; Irish potatoes, 



i 



^fi 



i 



«iisiitt±£3t; 



K„Ji-^-^~,^^I>-m-^-a^ 



ittt 









;aCT»n^ i» "-»»^o|gei'g.."»g'.«aS^wl!«.ai-«MnJigJ'^^ 



MISVEIJ.ANEUUS. 



i 






(L* 



43,71-j liushels; sweet potatoes, 885 bushels; 
hay, lo,S27 tons; tobacco, 2,110 pouiuls. 
Horses, 7,027; mules and asses. 209; working 
oxen, S ; milch cows, 5,311 ; other cattle, 9,i51 ; 
sheep, 17,812; hogs, 36,489; wool, 98,692 
poiimls; butter, 470,433 pounds; cheese, 390 
pounds. 

The number of hogs and sheep is far above 
the average of the counties of Indiana. 

Value of real estate, §4,827,099; personal 
property, 81.361,436; number of farms, 
2,357; acres of improv'cd land, 131,242; 
valued at 86,196,172; fiirming implements 
and machinery, 8233,780; value of live stock, 
8764,926; number of manufacturing estab- 
lishments, 88, with a capital of 8164,920; 
number of liands employed, 210; value of 
products, $374,695. 

POPULATION. 

The population of Jav County in 1S40 
was 3,863; 1850, 7,047; 1860, 11.339; 1S70, 
15,000; 1880, 19,281. 

The population by townships in 1880 was: 
Bear Creek, 1.637; Greene, 1,444; Jackson, 
1,299; Jefferson, 1.757; Knox, 840; Madison, 
1,371; Xoble. 1,320; Penn, 1,710; Pike, 
1,750; Richland, 2,036; ^Vabash, 1,024; 
"Wayne, including Portland, 3,094; Portland, 
1,694; Salamoi.Ia Village, 133; Dunkirk 
Village. 662. 

In 1880 there were 155 colored people; 
tlie-e were but twenty-one in both 1S60 and 
1870. At present there are no Indians or 
Chinese. Of the total population, 18,724 
were native American.-, and only 558 for- 
eigners, the latter figure being scarcely 
greater than in 1S70, and not much greater 
than in I860. Tlie number of children from 
five to seventeen years old inclusive was 
3.278 male and 3,085 female. Of men eight- 
een to forty-four years ot' a:,'e inclusive then' 
were .■!,900, and id' men tweiity-oiu; 
4.664. 



RAILROADS. 

Grand liapiils <!• Indiana. — The first 
line of railroad proposed through Jay County 
was a north and south line, in 1851, and 
called the Cincinnati, Union & Fort Wayne 
Railroad, of which Judge Jeremiah Smith, 
of Winchester, was president, P. D. Debolt, 
secretary, and Jonas Votaw, treasurer. The 
road was to connect at Union City with the 
Dayton & Union Railroad, crossing the 
Indianapolis & Bellefontaine (Ohio) line. In 
the fall and winter of 1851-'52 the route was 
surveyed. In .Jay County the most active 
men in the interest of this line were Jonas 
Votaw, J. P. C. Shanks. J. M. Haynes, 
Robert Huey, William Brandon. William 
Vail and Benjamin W. Hawkins. 3Ir. 
Haynes was a director and also legal counsel. 

Subscriptions to the stock of the company 
were made both in money and in land, un- 
conditional, but redeemable within four 
years. The total amount subscribed by citi- 
zens in this county was 8150,000, a third of 
which was in cash. Consider what a tremen- 
dous tax this was, at a time when the votincr 
population of the county did not exceed 
1,000. and money was proportionally much 
scarcer than now, and land not wi^rtli cme- 
fourth as much I For this stock Tiotes were 
given, payable in installments in six. twelve, 
eisjhteen and twentv4'onr months. The 
value of the lands subscribed was fixed by a 
committee of three appraisers. Bonds were 
given for the land, which was sold at twenty 
per cent, discount, and were receivalde upon 
their face for redemption. L'llomedieu was 
the receiver of these bonds. 

The first section was graded, namely, that 
between Union City and Portland, and the 
way was grubbed out to a point four or five 






P 



?j; 



i 





, gpa :g^fj^fcj ,g ■gS'^rj 



HISTORY OF JAY COUNTY. 



m 



m 



)\B{ 






II 



ii 



;3j; 



Could not raise means sufficient to complete 
the road and put on the required rolling- 
stock, failed to proceed further with the con- 
struction, and the people lost most of their 
contributions; in Jay County these amounted 
to about 8100,000, counted in cash. This 
county was tiie heaviest loser of all on the 
route. Some of the lands conveyed were not 
redeemed, and were finally sold by the com- 
jian}' at public auction. 

About the same time a line was projected 
north and south through the western side 
of the county, namel}', by way of New Mount 
Pleasant and Camden, with similar results. 
Subscriptions were absorbed, with but little 
grading done. Many citizens lost all they 
had. This route, coming next under the 
name of the Cincinnati, Kichmond & Fort 
Wayne line, was taken up by Peter P.Bailey, 
its president, and the subscriptions to it were 
conditional, and never paid, as the company 
failed before constructing the road. The 
route was surveyed in 1853 by way of Bluff- 
ton, Camden, etc., south to Richmond, there 
to connect with a road running to Cincinnati. 

Then Mr. "Worthington became interested 
in the Fort Wayne, Cincinnati & Louisville 
rtvad, briefly known as the " Muncie route," 
wliich p;ifsed through Bluft'ton, Montpclier 
and Hartford C'ity to JIuncie, leaving Jay 
Ciiuntv entirely to the east. In the mean- 
time a new company, the Kichmond & Fort 
A\'ayne, of which "William Parry, of Kich- 
mond, was president, began operations for a 
line tln'oujli the center of the cotiuty, via 
Portland, and, by the help of Decatur throw- 
ing in s.30.000, succeeded in estaldishing its 
line. Thus Camden was left out in the cold 
by both companies, and justly feels sore over 
her disappointment to this day. Isaac Un- 
doi-wood wa.- a director in the Bailey road, 
and labored as5iduiiii.--ly fur its lucatiun 
tliroui;h Camden. One hundred and til'ty 




thousand dollars were subscribed between 
Fort Wayne and Eidgeville. 

Although considerably embarrassed at the 
time, Jay County contributed for the Parry 
road, now the Grand Rapids & Indiana, §50,- 
000 in cash, the right of way and depot 
grounds. One serious embarrassment was 
the interest which the people of the east side 
of the county took in the Miami Canal and 
in -a railroad running from Cincinnati north- 
ward near them, along the State line in Ohio, 
to the strait of Mackinaw; and the citizens 
of the west side of the county had been 
already sorely disappointed in their favorite 
line, so that the burden of pushing a road 
through Portland fell naturally upon the 
central part of the county. 

The Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad 
Company, previously organized, was made 
rich with land grants in Michigan from the 
general Government, and was able to com- 
plete the track, put on the r(_)lling stock and 
begin operating. This it did; and it was 
also leased to the Pennsylvania Central Rail- 
road Company for ninety-nine years, which 
relation is of course e.xtant. Although this 
line is generally called the " Grand Rapids 
& Indiana Railroad," in law it is known only 
as the ■' Cincinnati, Richmond & Fort Wayne 
Pailroad." William Parry is still president. 

As an amusing instance of argument by 
charm instead of solid business, it may be 
proper to call to mind in this connection how 
some of the advocates of building the 
above road endeavored to pei-suade the 
peoj>le to contribute for its construction. 
While on account of the great east 
and west trunk lines runnina; either north 
or south of Jay County, it was impos- 
sible to organize Kastern capital for a third 
similar line tlirouL;'li the conntv, compara- 
tively so near the others, the projectors of 
the north and soutli road exercised theii' wits 



i 
ill 

ii 

mi 

m 



i\ 

i 
si 



'4J 

'ill 






^pii 



i 

(Li; 

i 



for iirguments; and one was, that by the pro- 
posecJ road, connecting the extreme iiorth 
with the extreme south, the products of the 
respective climes wouhi be brouglit to our 
very doors — copper and iron and pine from 
Micliiijan, and tropical fruits from Florida! 
Tlio last rail on the link between Rich- 
mond and Fort "Wayne — a distance of ninety 
miles — was laid December 8, 1871. 

Payments of subscriptions to this road 
were to be made only after the curs were 
running;, the people having learned a lesson 
from bitter experience with former compa- 
nies. Of the amount subscribed, 831,000 
was raised by a tax upon the three townships 
— Pike, "Wayne and Bear Creek. It was a 
two per cent, tax upon the valuation of the 
property. 

J^'dv Erie d- Western. — The enterprises 
precedingor cuhninating- in the establishment 
of this road have not so long a history as the 
foreyoing. 

The first east and west line proposed 
through Jay County was called the Cleveland 
it St. Louis Air-Line road, and its route lay 
through New Corydon, "West Liberty and 
(-'amden. It was familiarly known as tlie 
" Hopkins road." The company was organ- 
ized about 1853 or '51:, some stock was taken 
in land snbscriptions, but was never paid, as 



company was short-lived. In this 



the 

county they graded a short section Ijetween 
Bryant and "West Liberty. A lull of a long 
period then intervened, as another company 
— the Toledo & Indianapolis — proposed to 
linild a i-oail tlirough Randolph County, con- 
necting atMuncie with the ^Nluncieik Jiloom- 
ingfcin road. I!ut tliis was finally merged 
into the Lake Erie & Western in 18~0-'71. 
Tlir noted period of stringency set in during 
187;i, putting a stop to all railroad building 
tlin.ughout the Unitc<! States fur about six 
years. Tlien. in the spring of 1879, 833.000 



spirited citizens, who petitioned the conntv 
commissioners to levy a two per cent, tax 
upon "Wayne Township, which was done, and 
the road was completed the ensuing fall. 

An injunction, however, was served upon 
the county against the collection of this tax, 
but was finally dissolved, the Supreme Court 
holding that complaint should have been 
made before the board of commissioners at 
the time they made their levy. This money, 
also, was payable only after the trains were 
running. 

Chicago, St. Louis <& Pittsljurtj. ('• Pan 
Handle.") — The earliest efl:'orts to build a 
railroad through this section, as usual, failed. 
A route was surveyed for a road running 
from Toledo, Ohio, to Cairo, Illinois, and the 
enterprise was then dropped. Subsequently, 
a considerable amount of subscription was 
raised for another company to build a road 
extending from Toledo to Indianapolis; but 
that company failed also. iS"ext, the Marion 
& Mississinewa Valley Railroad Company 
proposed to build a '• link " from Marion to 
Union City. This company was reorganized 
as the Union & Marion, and then as tlie 
Union & Logansport Railroad Company, 
under which name the road M-as completed, 
in April, 1867. At Anoka Junction, four 
miles this side of Logansport, it couTiected 
with the Chicago & Great Eastern, and at 
Union City with the Indianapolis & Belle- 
fontaine (Ohio) Railroad. 

Afterward, the Columbus & Indiai;a Cen- 
tral Company, having a jioint in Miami 
County, Ohio, called Bradford Junction, 
made a connection with this link and 
obtained control of it. Then the Chicago, 
Columbus it Indiana Central obtained con- 
trol, forming a through line from Chicago to 
Columbus, with branches from Anoka Junc- 
tion to Richmond, from Indianapolis to 









lis'. 



.i 



m 



im 



§ 



Columbus and from Logansport west to the 
Illinois State line. Next, it was leased to 
the Pittsburg & St. Louis, and then in April, 
188J:, sold under mortgage to W. L. Scott 
and others, and called the Chicago, St. Louis 
& Pittsburg, and finally re-leascd to the 
I'ittsburg, Chicago & St. Louis Eailroad 
('ompany. It is now one of the " Pan Han- 
dle " lines, all of which, with the Grand 
Kapids & Indiana Railroad and the Fort 
Wayne, Cincinnati & Louisville road, belong 
to the great '•Pennsylvania (central) System." 

The name '• Pan Handle " is derived from 
the narrow projection from "West Virginia 
extending northward, somewhat in the form 
of a pan-handle, between Ohio and Pennsyl- 
vania, across which ran the original trunk 
line. 

In this county, Isaiah Lutton and his son, 
William G.. were the principal men to aid 
this line. They contributed liberally of their 
moans and time, and solicited subscriptions 
from Richland and adjoining townships. 

I'UBLIC BUILDINGS. 

The present court-house, a fine buihiing, 
was erected in 1868, at a cost of about 
$-1:7,000. George Beale was superintendent 
of the construction, under the supervision of 
the county commissioners. 

The present jail and sheritTs residence, 
cost altogether about 8(3,000. The jail 
]>ri>per, two stories high and four cells in 
each story, was built in 18(32, the contract 
price for which was §2,237. 

The earlier court-houses and jails are 
noticed in a previous chapter. 

The iotirmary is located a few miles north- 
east of Portland. For this institution 160 
acres of land were pui'cha.sed February 1(), 
1S()4, at a cost of 8-4,000; and May 10, 1865, 
1(')0 acres more were bought, at 82,400. 
Since then 81.200 have been e.\peniled for 



additions. In 1885 a dwelling-liouse was 
built, costing §3,458 and a little over; barn, 
built in 1886, at a cost of 82,622. The old 
building is a large frame, two stories high. 
The superintendents have been Samuel 
Huey, Christian Haviland, Samuel Howard, 
Oliver B. Brown, and W. II. Harkins, who 
was superintendent of this institution from 
1881 to the spring of 1887, since which time 
Charles Marquedt has been superintendent. 
Salary, S800 a year. Average number of 
inmates, about thirtj^-three. 

.JAY COUNTY TEACJIERS' ASSOCIATION. 

This association, organized in the fall of 
1885, meets twice a year, and thus far has 
had five profitable sessions. The times of 
meeting are during the Christmas vacation 
and the month of June. Average attendance, 
about twenty-five. 

Other educational interests are noticed in 
the sketches of the respective towns. 

,TAY COUNTY SUNDAY-SCHOOL ASSOCIATION. 

This has been running, with great vitality, 
since about 1874, with a president and a 
vice president in every township, whose duty 
it is to make annual reports to the secretary. 
The first president was John A. Henning, 
and since the reorganization in 1883 E. C. 
Thornton has been tiie president. !Mrs. M. 
J. Weber is the secretary. The mission of 
this society is to establish Sunday-schools 
throughout the county, and revive languish- 
ing ones. In some townships are au.xiliary 
organizations. All Sunday-school workers 
are considered members. The association 
meets semi-annually. 

ARCILEuL'ii.Y. K\f. 

Dr. C. S. Arthur, of Portland, has a mag- 
nificent collection of Indian relics and other 
curiosities, besides having lost a numl^ier of 
his choice spei'imens by the hands of thieves. 






Wi 



th 



a« 



I 



k 



555il£-il-fSi?S^5 



^,,^ r ^^^j° ' ^ ^ U* 



ML<CBLLANEOU! 



ifci 

i 
p. 



i 






W' 



c.a; 



Of arrow points he has a great number, of 
many varieties, from a lialf inch to several 
inchrs in length. They are matle of flint. 

< 'f a.xes, or '■ peelers,"' there are in this 
collection as many as tifty, mostly found in 
this county. In weight they vary from two 
ounces to about ten pounds. They are made 
of different species of granite. The larger 
ones are supposed to have been used for cut- 
ting wood, and the smaller ones for battle- 
axes. One ax is made of native copper, 
teni])ered. The particles of silver in it show 
it to have been from the Lake Superior re- 
gion. The mass has never been melted, but 
simjjly hammered into its present shape. One 
ax is curved, like a carpenter's gouge, as if 
for chopping out the bottom of a dug-out 
eanue. Others have curved bevels. 

In this museum are also a lot of pestles 
and moi'tars. some of them very fine and 
elaborately finished. They were probably 
used for pulverizing grain, acorns, etc. The 
mortars vary in size from the capacity of half 
a pint to two galloTis. They are made from 
granite or limestone, by simj^ly taking a mass 
and digging out a portinn. and polishing it 
inside and out. 

There are a few specimens of stone " roll- 
ing-))ins," one of M'hich is not limestone, is 
black, and excellent for whetting knives. It 
can al,-:o be used as a touchstone, in connection 
with acids. These pins were proljably used 
tor grinding. They vary in length from 
twehi' to seventeen and a half inches. 

The doctor has also a variety of stone 
hammers, some of which seem to have been 
made from worn-out axes. 

There is also an interesting variety of 
pipes for smoking, some of tliem compound, 
and some are made from ^Minnesota pipe- 
stciiii'. but tViund in this ])art of Indiana. 
Al>ci. balls for iling^. and ball.i and innumer- 
able other curious and indescribable sj)eci- 



mens, made probaldy for either play or for 
ornament. Most of these have holes drilled 
into or through them. Many unfinished 
specimens, as well as of worn-out implements, 
characterize the collection. One ai-ticle shows 
how the mechanic undertook to drill a 
straight hole through a block of hard stone 
by boring first a distance from one end and 
then from the other, but missini; his way. 
Some polished pieces have been bored near 
one edge, meeting at an angle, with the de- 
sign evidently of passing a thong through it, 
for the suspension or fastening to another ar- 
ticle. Many of the. ornamental pieces are 
made from soft, striped stone, and are indeed 
beautiful. Some are in imitation of the 
forms of birds, frogs or otlier animals, gen- 
erally very crude, but some elaborate, al- 
though not well proportioned. Some of the 
small balls seem designed for sinkers to nets 
in fishing, or for entangling the legs of ani- 
mals in lasso practice. A few flint balls are 
here, which were probably used in dressing 
stone in the manufacture of implements and 
other articles; at least they can be nsed 
for such jiurposes with a considerable deo-ree 
of efficiency, and no other articles have been 
found which seem to ansuer the purpose as 
well. It is a self-sharpener, by cliippino- off. 

Two pieces are in the form of spools, one 
of which has a ilaltese cross figured upon 
one end. These were found in -Mien Countv, 
Ohio. 

A half pint buwl of serjientine rock is an 
attractive article. 

All the above articles are made of stone, 
and most of them were picked up in Jay and 
adjoining counties. Besides tliese, Dr. Ar- 
tliur has an interesting collectinn of shell or- 
naments, of Indian nianufactui-e, and ali(> a 
variety of anatomical specimen^. One shell, 
from AVells County, is in the ('urin of an in- 
sole. He has a shoulder-blade and two ribs 









k 






f 

ra:. 



CIS' 



%'. 






im 



«-.a.»^^ 



f 



(W^ 



mi 



niSTORT OF JAY COUNTY. 




friim a inainmoth, much of whose skeleton 
still remains in a niiuldy bank of the Sala- 
monia below Camden, in this county. Also, 
two Indian bones which evidently exhibit a 
poor job of surgery. 

And here is Kit Carson's hunting-knife, 
broken in a fight with a grizzly bear; also 
a case-knife; and here is an oblong square 
])iece of gypsum-like material, 2x3 inches, 
with a quarter-inch hole in the center, found 
in this county, but evidently from the Wy- 
andotte Cave. 

Fossils, even trilobites, from the drift for- 
mation, are found in this collection. 



Altogether, Dr. Arthur has a collection of 
curiosities that constitute a considerable mu- 
seum, entertaining the curious and puzzling 
the scientist. 

HISTORY, ATLAS AND MAP. 

In 1864 M. W. Montgomery published a 
small but interesting history of Jay County, 
which was sold extensively. 

In 1881 a county atlas was published, 
which also had an extensive sale. It, too, 
contains a brief history of the county. 

A tine wall map of Jay County was also 
supplied the people a few years ago. 






I 
I 

I 



m 



% 



V 




4 



P 

i 

'1*' 

,21; 

ij 



. — :m4; 



pffvzj:^"rr; 







Ml 



I 



! a; 

«Sl; 



iiii 





^PORTLAND.- 







(Ti-and li.ipiJi it Iiidiuiia 
W^^^ii and Lake Erie it Western 



^-f^ Kailroads, about 120 
'"' miles nortli of Cincin- 



nati, loi'tv-eiglit miles north of 
liichmond, and tbrty-six miles 
south of Fort Wayne, and is the 
only city of commercial impor- 
tance between tlie two latterpoints. 
Besides these railroad facilities, a 
line has been surveyed between 
Portland and "Wabash, thence to 
' Chicago, and its building is about 
as good as assured, thus giving us three rail- 
roads, a terminus and an important freight 
division in the near future. The present 
population is estimated at about 2,500. 

The original j.lat of the town of Portland 
was surveyed by J). W. :\lc,\'eal, June 5, 
18:]7, on lands d..natL'd by Obadiali AVinters, 
Penjamin W. Hawkins and 11. II. Ciipjiv. 
who purchased the i:i-ound of L»aniel Keid. 



Some thought the place slionld have been 
named Reidville. Since then a number of 
additions to the plat have been made. 

Mr. Cuppy also built the tirst liouse in 
Portland in 1S3T, a log structure, and moved 
his store into it. The next building on the 
plat was the court-house, erected by Pobei t 
Iluey. The next year, Lewis S. Farber 
built a house. The first regular tavern was 
kept by William Haines who built " Hickory 
Hall " for the purpose. In 1S.39 Nathan 
B. Hawkins and William T. Sluill opened 
the second store in the place. 

P'rom these simple beij;inninc;s Portland 
has gi'own to be a " city," the more impor- 
tant features of which it is the jiurpose of 
this chapter to describe. 

It was incorporated as a tnwn June 20, 
ISGG. Since 1S72 the following liave servetl 
as presidents and clerks of the boanJ ot 
couucilmen: Presidents, P. P. I'.radlev, 1S72 
-73; M. C. Culver, lb73-"7t; John Hays, 
1^74-'75; A. Fyinan. 1S7.5-"7'J: ('.jw^-ill 
Wil.-oii, lS7i3-'77: William llradingtoii, 1S77 
-■7->; John Tojiping, Is7s-'7'J; J. M. Alex- 









: a? 










a^IaSS^ttl^:^ 



■ ^Jt^U^M .J 



HISTORY OF JAY COUNTY. 



ander, 18T9-'S0; Cornelius Corwln, 1880- 
'81; Henry Nicholas, 1881-'82;. John English, 
1882-'S3. Clerks, B. F. Fulton, 1872-'73; 
II. Denney, 1873-75; J. J. M. La Follette, 
1875- 76;" David V. Baker, 1876-'77; J. A. 
Collins, 1877-'78; J. R. Osborn, 1878-'79; 
A. J. Holmes and George W. Miller, 1879- 
'80; L. G. Holmes, 1880-'83. 

In the spring of 1888 a city charter was 
granted, and the first election thereunder 
was held in June following. Since then the 
following have served as mayors and clerks: 
:Mayors, Luther I. Baker, 1883-'85; J. J. M. 
La Follette, 1885-'87; Theodore Bailey, 1887. 
Clerks. John A. Jordan, 1883-'85; J. L. C. 
ilcAdanis, 1885-'87; John M. Beelman, 
1887. 

At the election May 3. 1887, the following 
were elected city officers: Theodore Bailey, 
^layor; John M. Beelman, Clerk; Elezar M. 
Crowell, Treasurer; Hugh A. Stephens, 
!^Llrshal; Councilnien — Henry C. Bates, East 
"Ward; John T. Hanlin, South Ward; and 
David Littell, West Ward. Also one coun- 
cilman from each ward holds ovei-. In this 
election there was no exciting issue before 
the people, and the two tickets were simply 
the Republician and the Democratic, the for- 
mer electing all their candidates e.xcept the 
one for alderman from the South Ward. 

The Salamoiiie River constitutes the south 
boundary line of tlie city, the village south 
of the river being known as South Portland. 

The fire department comprises a steam 
lire engine, recently jnircliased of the Alirons 
]\[annfacturiiig Company for $3,200, a hose 
company, and a hook and lailder company. 
Jolin Cantield is the preSL'iit chief. 



lU'SI.M'.SS. 



The People".-; liaiik was instituted in 
]\i:u-eli. l^To. cuiniiiriicing Imi-Iiioss in Kiken- 
dalTs building, and moving to tlie present 




place, in 1875. Tliere are twenty stock- 
holders, personally liable, representing over 
§2,000,000 actual value. The present direc- 
tors are, T. F. Moorman, cashier of the 
Merchants' Bank, Winchester, Indiana; Hon. 
N. Cadwallader, president of the Citizens' 
Bank, at Union City, Indiana; Adelina 
Lupton, Pennville; .William Newton, J. G. 
Crowell, J. M. Haynes and Joseph Kidder, 
all of Portland, The officers are. J. M. 
Haynes, President; William Newton, Vice 
President; W. M. Haynes, Cashier; and W. 

A. Moorman, Assistant Cashier. Capital, 
850,000; surplus fund, §18,000. 

The Citizens Bank, opposite Hawkins 
House, was established in 1875, with a 
capital of 830,000, doubled in May, 1884. 
The incorporators were J. B. Jaqua, Nathan 

B. Hawkins, Samuel Kahu, W. H. Reed, C. 
A. Miickenbach, Edward G. Vaughn, An- 
drew Vaughn, Milo Grisell and Joseph P. 
Nixon. The present stockholders are J. W. 
Headington, C. A. Mackenbach, Samuel 
Kahn, J. J. M. La Follette, Elijah Lyons, 
Elias Bost, E. S. Jaqua, David Kahn, C. S. 
Arthur, J. B. Jaqua, S. P. Morrow, N. B. 
Hawkins, J. A Jaqua, Hiram Grisell, W. H. 
Reed, R. Kirshbanm and E. G. Vaughn. 
The officers, C. S. Arthur, President; W. H. 
Reed, Vice President; J. B. Jaqua, Cashier, 
and N. B. Hawkins, Assistant Cashier. 

The Merchants' Hotel, southwest corner 
of Meridian and Arch streets, was completed 
in March, 1883, at a cost of 822,000, by a 
company consisting of about forty citizens, 
most of whom were merchants of the! place. 
E. J. ]Marsh was president, and afterward W. S. 
Fleming. This company sold the building to 
other parties, and they to William Newton, 
a fanner near Portland, wlin now owns it. 
As a hotel it was (ipened in April. 1883, by 
E. C. Ross, will) conducted it until the 
following; <^ctol)er; then Charles Headington, 



k 






'a^g^g" 



■a^n^n" 



j « i^a„. » „ji^ i iij V i^»ijai„MjiB, 



PORTLAND. 



ai? 



;.i; 






m 



4 



Si 

;b1! 
« a< 



u 






one; of the stockholdei-s, miiiKiged it till Jan- 
uary 1(3, 1S8J:, since wliicli time it has been 
in the hands of Mi-. II. O. Weldon, the 
present genial and acconiinodating landlord. 
The building is finished in modern style, with 
aliont fifty rooms for guests. It has no 
drinking bar. A pleasant feature is a fire- 
place furnished with clay imitations of sticks 
of fire wood, througli perforations in which 
natural gas is beautifully burned. 

The Hawkins House was also built in 1883, 
by J. B. Jaqua and Kathan B. Hawkins, at a 
cost of about .$14:,000. The hitter named was 
landlord until December 20, 1886, since 
which time it has been conducted by Lee 
Colleen, directly from Muncie, but formerly of 
a suburb of Cincinnati. 

The Centennial Flouring Mill was built, 
as its name denotes, during the centennial 
year, 1876, by Ludlow & McGill, who ran it 
about a year; then Benedict & Ludlow, a year; 
then Benedict & Faul, and since 1879 Faul 
& liuchholz have been the proprietors. It 
was erected as a new-process mill, and was 
thought to be a first-class institution from 
the start, but the present owners have never- 
theless improved it in many respects. In 
18S5 they substituted rollers. Internally it 
is one of the neatest mills in existence. 
Capacity, 100 barrels of flour a day ^of twenty- 
four hours. 

This firm have also the management of 
the grain elevator near the crossing of the 
railroads, which was built by Higby & Co.- 
of l''remont, Ohio, and thev deal in grain and 
seeds. 

I'"ri'deriek liuchholz, a native of (Tcrniany, 
moved from Ohio to I'ortland in the summer 
of INSO, and in lss2 yni up a s.5,000 resi- 
<I''U >n East :\Iain street, which In; now 

Or.MlpieS. 

Tin- Portland Milling Conipauy, of whom 
J'llm T. ITanlin is president and J. R. .Jones, 



secretary, treasui-er and superintendent, have 
a fine brick fiouring mill near the Grand 
Rapids & Indiana depot, which was built in 
the fall of 1885, by a stock company at a cost 
of about §28,000. Capacity, 100 barrels per 
twenty-four hours. C. C. Corwin was a 
stockholder and superintendent until Febru- 
ary, 1886, when he sold to ]Mr. .lones. 

S. II. Adams, manufacturer of oil asid 
spirit barrel staves and heading, in the 
northern part of the city, has extensive 
works at that place, besides similar factories 
at other points. Commenced here in 1877, 
purchasing of Hays Bros. 

Shewalter & Adams, (Elias Shewalter and 
S. H. Adams), at the same jjlace, are in 
partnership in the manufacture of slack-barrel 
staves and heading. They formed their part- 
nership February ll, 1887, and put in new 
machinery. Engine, 150 horse power. 

At the same place, C. A. Mason runs an 
" e.Kcelsior " factory, from the same engine, 
commencing in the spring of 1887. - " E.k- 
celsior " is bass-wood ripped into fine shreds, 
to be used in packing and upholstery. 

D. R. Roberts purchased his saw-mill, on 
Water street, near Wayne street, of John S. 
Wilt in January, 1884, and now employs four 
to six hands. The mill was erected by Jesse 
Teegarden, probably about 1876; he sold to 
Rants it English, and they to Mr. Wilt. 

Crossing over to South Portland, we first 
come to John Ebort's lumber yard, which he 
has had since the spring of 1884:. 

Next, L. Bimel & Son's handle and spoke 
factory, built by them in ISSO. Thev have 
a 100 h(jrse-power engim^ einplov (TiMierally 
about thirty hands and are doing a thriving 
business. Last year they shipped 2U0 car- 
loads of handles ;inil spokes. 

Wilt &: Spade's door, sash and blind factory 
and ]iine-lunil)t'r yard are situated at the 
■crossing of railroails. They also manufacture 



M 

hi, 



"Pl^g'^-M-" 



'■m — -*^'n''-m- 



iJi — ji— a>. 



<S 



„a,ai,a„ffl^ai„a. 



JU^TOUY OF JAY COUNTY. 



luolditigs, brackets, etc., employing about 
t\v(;iity-five hands, and averaging about §J:0,- 
000 cash sales jieryear for the last two years, 
which is lower than they have averaged. The 
works were built about 1879 by A. L. .Jacjna, 
wiio in January, 1885, sold to the present 
Urni. 

Jaqua & Co. (A. L. and J. A. Jaqua), have 
a slack-barrel stave and heading factory, 
erected by Rants & English about 1881, who 
sold in 1883 to James A. Shewalter and John 
T. Ilanlin, who in turn sold to the present 
owners in February, 1887. They employ 
al)ont tiiirty hands when running a full force. 

Hook Bros. Manufacturing Company have 
a hirge institution in the southwestern part of 
the city, devoted to the manufacture of butter 
tubs and pails. The works were erected in 
the spring of 188-1, by Hook Bros. & Iliggs; 
in the fall of that year they consolidated with 
the Hook Bros. Company of Union City, and 
were incorporated imder their present title. 
In the spring of 1885 they established a 
similar factory at Des Moines, Iowa. Here 
at Portland they generally employ about 
forty hands, turning out about 500 butter 
tubs a day. 

Xorth & Co's saw-mill is situated near 
the crossing of the railroads. A year before 
tlie Lake Erie & Western Railroad was 
built, Mr. William North erected a saw- 
mill in the country near Portland, and during 
the following year he moved it to the present 
location, where he has side-tracks, on two 
sides of the mill, connecting with both 
railroads. He employs four to six hands. 

Samuel H. Eichelberger erected his plan- 
ing-mill at the crossing of Meridian and 
Yotaw Streets in 1873, commencing business 
here in partnership with Jacob Young, which 
partnership, however, terminated within six 
niimtlis. For the first several years he also 
manutactured staves and heading a[ul spokes. 



working day and night. He has planing and 
molding machines, besides other apparatus, 
and manufactures and deals inboth hard-wood 
and soft-wood dressed lumber. 

Creager & Son (Lewis and Lewis Henry) in 
tlie northwestern part of the city, on West Yo- 
taw street, manufacture buggy shafts and fel- 
loe strips. The senior Creager bought the saw- 
mill in the fall of 1872, of Lewis Elliot, and 
for a time was a manufacturer of hard-wood 
lumber. Since then he has been twice burned 
out, but he still survives vigorously, employ- 
ing sometimes as many as twenty men. In 
the fall and winter of 1886-'S7, the firm 
turned out 600,000 feet of hickory. 

Moffit & Sees, since 1880, liave been 
running the Portland Foundry and Machine 
Shops, on East North street, near Meridian. 
Castings of all kinds, box stoves, plows, ven- 
tilators, farm bells, gas-pipe, brass-fittings 
inspirators, etc., constitute their line of 
work. 

Ira Butcher, in the western part of the city, 
has a splendid tile factory, which he began 
in the fall of 1884, in parnership with John 
Detaniore, on three acres of fine land, which 
he purchased of Ira Denney. He manufact- 
ures all sizes of tile, from two to twelve-inch. 
During the last year he made about §4,000 
worth, and this year be will probably reach 
§5,000. A good gas-well adjoins the premises, 
which he will either utilize or sink another 
on his own ground. The partnership above 
referred to terminated at the end of a year. 

D. Tipton & Sons have an increasing traile 
in wagons, carriages, buggies, etc., at the 
southwest corner of Commerce ami Walnut 
streets. Their shops are tlie largest in the 
county. 

Wes Greenwalt has a good carriage estab- 
lishment on the east side of Meridian street, 
opposite the great oak tree. 

L. L. Holmes iV- Sons' marble works are 



^1 






r.! 



i 




•»ra jQ^g^iig^a * 



°H^«IW»tBJ 



aiwit»flMMa«B«f ^^« Ji^a^ififa 



PORT LAX ]). 



JJaya -M-iJ i , 






j 

Is 



opposite the Merchants' Hotel, on Meridian 
street. All varieties of cemetery monuments 
and appurtenances are in their line. 

Peter Ivelley, dealer in grain and hay, has 
the most extensive warehouses in the place, 
on the Grand Eapids ife Indiana Railroad, 
near the old depot. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

The most prominent educational institution 
of Portland is the Eastern Indiana Normal 
School and Commercial College. 

In the early part of 1882, there came into 
our midst a youncr man, who had spent sev- 
eral years in tlie best Normal Schools of the 
\Vest and was fitted to take charge of an insti- 
tution of like character. He said to the people 
of Portland and of Jay County: "With your 
assistance we will found a school in Portland 
which one day you will feel a pride to own." 
A\'ith their characteristic generosity, the 
]ii'ople responded and The Eastern Indi- 
ana Normal School and Business College was 
founded, with Professor George Suman as its 
jtrcsident. It is located in the northwestern 
]>(n-tion of the city, at the corner of Arcli and 
.Middle Streets, and consists of a large college 
liuilding, containing a chapel hall, laboratory, 
(.•i>nimercial rooms, recitation rooms, etc., 
jileasantly and beautifully situated among 
tli(.' sliade-trees. Just west of the college 
building is located the dormitory and dining 
hall. This building contains a large dining 
hall and about forty rooms, ple.asantly fur- 
nished for students. There is a matron always 
in charge, whose duty it is to see that order 
is obserred and students protected in their 
studies. Besides this, many private residences 
ha\c been built near the college with rooms 
fitted especially for students, thus securing 
them homes in these families at very mudo- 
rale ratus. About $15,000 have thus been 



e.xpended in fitting up these Ijuildings for the 
entertainment of students. 

In June, 1SS3, this institution opened, since 
which time it has been steadily advancing. 
The first year of its history saw an attendance 
of about 275, and during the first four years 
it outran all other normals in the State. It 
is now self-supporting. The enrollment is 
about 600 per year. 

Professor Suman, the founder, deserves 
especial credit for energy and keen foresight. 
He assumed, upon his own responsibility, the 
burden of raising §10,000 at the start, and 
the citizens have helped to some extent. His 
principal coadjutors have been: Judge J. iM. 
Ilaynes, Isaac Simmons, C. C. Cartwright, 
"W. II. Williamson, Jonas Votaw, John 
Crane, J!. F. Fulton and William North. 

The present board of trustees consists of 
Hon. J. M. Haynes, President; William S. 
Fleming, Secretary, C. C. Cartwright, Treas- 
urer; Jonas Votaw and William North. 
Faculty: George Suman, principal and teacher 
of the classical languages; L. C. Chamberlain, 
science; J. E. Bishop, pedagoo-y; L. H. Allen, 
elocution; ElmaSpohn, music; L. M. Holmes, 
commercial department; Locker, Ger- 
man ; besides teachers and assistants in the fine 
arts, etc. 

PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

The Union School building, in the north- 
eastern portion of the city, at the corner of 
Arch street and Garfield avenue, was erected 
in 1876, and is a fine brick structure, 62 x 8-1 
feet on the ground, with stone basement, 
two stories high, of an imposing style of 
ai-chitecture, and contains ten rooms besides 
the superintemlent's office. The buildino- 
can accommodate 400 pupils. The cost of 
the building and furniture was §20,000, the 
house being erected under the supervision 
of J. 1!. Jaqua, E. M. Crowell and AVilliam 



■M 



ir.\ 



m 



■■'"'«"«■ 



a_,£i-»„dd„n_?j. 



.a„JnJii.Jj«J..IB^'«l«i'M|i.;a_ainJiBH ii»«i„aia J»g«io»^M,M..a.,»oa.,auJM « 



IIISTORT OB- JAT COUNTY. 



C'lftfin, the school board at the time. 

•f. W. Thornbiirg was the iirst supei'iiitciKl- 
eiit, with three teachers and 167 p\ipils. 
Ho was succeeded by S. K. Bell April 12, 
1S77, and by W. C. Hastings, who had 
charge for two years; then E. J. McAlpin, 
and for the last three years W. W. Wirt has 
been the superintendent. 

The course of study is legally recognized 
as sufficiently preparatory for the collegiate 
course at the State University. The pupil 
graduating here at the head of the class ob- 
tains tuition free at the University. School 
is kept up nine months in the year. The 
enrollment last winter was 700, and the 
average attendance about 600. 

The "West Ward school building is a frame 
of two rooms, accommodating four grades, 
and was built in 1883. 

In South Portland, iu a temporary frame 
building, a hundred or more pupils are 
taught at present by one teacher. 

OTHER EDUCATIONAL ITEMS. 

The Chautauqua Literary and Scientitic 
Circle was organized about three years ago, 
and has had as high as twenty members; at 
present there are thirteen. Eev. E. L. 
Seiuans has been president during the entire 
time; C. W. Mackey is the vice president; 
]\lrs. J. M. ]]eelman is the present secretary, 
and Mrs. W. M. Haynes, trea.surer. 

Tlie Portland Lecture Association was or- 
ganized in the autumn of 1886, with five 
members. President, W. W. AVirt; Recording 
Secretary, George JI. Holloway; Corre- 
spiinding Secretary, ('. W. ^lackey; Treasurer, 
S. T. McGovney; Chairman of the executive 
Committee, John V. La Kollette. During 
the past season tliey had four lectures and 
two concerts, witli a small amount of net 
Jiroceedson hand. These, from year to year, 
are to be devoted to the public school library. 



The Jay County Seminary was started in 



Portland in 18-i7-'4:S, under tli 



supe 



of the county commissioners; but after two 
or three years it was discontinued, and the 
building devoted to other purposes. 

SECRET ORDERS. 

Jay Lodije, No. S7, F. cfc. ,-1. J/., was 
instituted May 29, 1850, with the following 
charter members: J. P. C. Shanks, IN'athan 
B. Hawkins, Di.xon Milligan, Jonas Votaw, 
Harvey M. Brown, Elijah Carley, Jacob 
Koontz, Michael Shanks, Lukens Griffith, 
Enoch M. Johnston and Abrain B. Beard. 
The officers elected were: Dixon Milligan, 
Worshipful Master; J. P. C. Shanks, Senior 
Warden; and Abrani B. Baird, Junior 
Warden. 

The " lodge has withstood the fanatical 
tirades of oppression that have been brought 
to bear against the order by those who were 
ignorant of its principles and precepts." 
The present membership is fifty-five, and 
is growing. Present officers: William North, 
Worshipful Master; Ilez. Denney, Senior 
Deacon; C. H. Croninger, Junior Deacon ; 
E. B. Kikendall, Treasurer; D. S. Wake- 
night, Secretary. The lodge meets at their 
hall on Meridian Street, each alternate 
Friday evening on or before the full moon. 

Omega Lodge, No. 2S1, I. 0. 0. F., was 
instituted June 29, 1867, by D. D. G. :\L 
Peter S. Meredith, under a charter granted 
May 22, 1807, with G. P. Holloway, James 
K. Templer, William C. Black, Charles 
Hughes, John N. Wall and Frederick Doll- 
man, as charter members. This lodge has 
continued to grow until now it numbers 150 
working members, and is the strongest secret 
order iu the county. It owns a beautiful 
lot on Meridian Street, on which a fine brick 
building will be erected this year. The 
present officers are: J. (). Liiikhoun, N. G. ; 



'M 



$ 
m 



m 



;,- »M«TiM'.«»a.a.n*iga»«..»n 



.j^i».»„. » »j.J,J i,a.JJ..« og,J,M^i« i ,a, 



m 



PORTLAND. 



>i\'-. 



p. 
'81: 



i 



I; 



Juliii Canfield. V. G.; J. Stewart, Sec. ; O. II- 
Aduir, Rep. to G. L.; Trustees— J. J. M. La 
Fullette, T. S. Jobiison and J. M. Smith. 
r>r. R. P. Davis is the D. D. G. M. for this 
district. The meetings are lield every Tues- 
day evening. 

Portland Encampment, 2io. 161^,1 0.0. 
F. ,uas instituted March 18, 1886, under di.s- 
pensation, with twenty-live members, by 
District Deputy Grand Patriarch, A. E. 
Thomas, of White River Encampment, Win- 
cliestcr. The following officers were elec- 
ted: Dr. R. P. Davis, Chief Priest; Dr. 
John \\. Hall, High Priest; Thomas S. 
Johnson, Senior Warden; Dr. James Gillum, 
Junior Warden; A. Eyman, Treasurer, and 
J. M. Smith, Scribe. The charter was 
granted in ilay, 1886, and the election in June 
following resulted as follows : J. W. Hall, Chief 
Priest; T. S. Johnson, High Priest; James 
Gilliun, Senior Warden; J. M. Smith, Junior 
Warden; A. Eyman, Treasurer; S. K. Poling, 
Scribe. In January, 1887, the following were 
elected: T. S. Johnson, Chief Priest; James 
Gilhun, High Priest; J. M. Smith, Senior 
Warilen ; S. K. Poling, Junior Warden ; W. A. 
Humphries. Treasurer; and J. F. La Follette, 
Scribe. There are now forty-five members, and 
the lodge is financially prosperous. 

Red Cross Lodge, No. SS, K. of I'., was j 
instituted February 19, 1880, with so few | 
mend)ers that it, in the course of time, died, 
surrendering its charter in October, 1883; but j 
ifay 20, 1885, maiidy through the energetic j 
cttbrts of B. S. Gray, Past Commander, it j 
was riMnstituted, with thirty-one members, j 
who afterward elected the following officers: 
S. II. Adams, Past Commander; B. S. Gray, ' 
Chancellor Commander; R. P. Davis, Vice 
Cliancellor; J. :\I. Smith. Prelate; AV. P. 
Joiii's, Keeper of Records and Seals: C. II. 
Iliggs, Master of Finance; ('. E. Rogers, 
.Master of E.xcheijuer; J. II. Long, Master at 



Arms; J. A. Jordan, Inner Guard; D. S. 
Wakenight, Outer Guard. 

Since that time the presiding officers have 
been B. S. Gray, R. P. Davis, C. H. Higgs, 
John Ebert and C. E. Rogers. There are 
now si.xty-five members. Present officers: 
John Ebert, Past Commander; C. E. Rogers, 
Chancellor Commander; R. H. Denney, Vice 
Chancellor ; J. G. Clapp, Keeper of Records and 
Seals; Julius Straus, Master of Finance; J. 
A. M. Adair, Master of E.xchequer. Lodge 
meets in a cosily furnished room in Sil- 
vernal's Block every Wednesday evening. It 
is a growing society, and does its work, in 
superb style. February 19, 1SS7, the ladies 
of Portland presented it an elegant silk 
banner at an excellent supper served by them 
at the Merchants' Hotel. 

Stejjhen J. Bailey Post, G. A. R., JSTo. 
151^, was organized in February, 1883, by 
Mustering Officer Joseph P. Ilitf, of Rich- 
mond, Indiana. The Post Commanders since 
then have been: J. P. C. Shank.s, L. L. Gil- 
pin, Isaac Simmons, J. J. M. La Follette and 
William McLaughlin, the present. Tliere 
are now about forty members, M-ith the fol- 
lowing officers: William McLaughlin, Conj- 
mander; L. J. Bruner, Senior Yice Com- 
mander; Wm. H. II. Ambrosber, Junior Yice 
Commander; Ximrod Headington, Chaplain; 
X. A. Meeker, Adjutant; Isaac Simmons, 
Quartermaster. 

The Knights of Lahor secured a charter 
during the month of April, 1887, for a lodo-e 
in Portland, and repi.irt 175 members, rapidly 
increasing. On account of the nature of the 
order, it is ditHcnlt to obtain names, or many 
other p)articulars. 



Mdhodist /:j>;sroj)„l.^l[cv. ]•;. Lank was 
sent into this country in lSo7, to hunt 
up the scattered members of the Methodist 



IS) 

I 



?& 



i 






(fa; 
■A' 



■ ■?!■■■ »-*-«*5«=" a 



a^i-gga-i* j*^ *-!! 



i 



ni STORY OB' J AT COUNTY. 



E[)iscopal church. Xot much is known of 
his labors. Init he must have met witli con- 
siderable success, as in the next year a large 
district of country was formed into a mission 
and recognized by the Indiana Conference. 
Of this mission, the first preacher in charge 
was George W. Bowers, with Ilev. James 
Havens presiding elder. The first class 
formed was in Pike Township, and was com- 
posed of four members. The first quarterly 
meeting for Portland Mission, which was 
composed of ten persons, was held near Bear 
Creek, at the house of James Marquis, Janu- 
ary 5, 1839. (See conclusion of chapter on 
early settlement.) 

At the annual conference, held in the fall 
of 1S39, Portland mission was change<I to 
Portland circuit, with Rev. Bradbury as 
preacher in charge. The estimating com- 
mittee allowed him 850, that year, for table 
expenses, iiev. Bradbury was returned the 
ne,\t year, and the first quarterly meeting 
held in Portland, was on February 6, 18-il. 
At this time the circuit embraced twenty-two 
appointments. In 1845 Portland circuit was 
changed back to Portland mission, which 
was changed back again to Portland circuit 
ill 18^7. In 1849 Portland circuit again 
became Portland mission, which in 1850 was 
changed to Portland circuit again. In 1853 
\l D. Spelman was appointed preacher in 
charge. In 1856 conference changed its time 
of meeting from fall to spring. In 1874 Port- 
land was made a station with forty-nine mem- 
bers. In this year the present brick church, 
4() by 70 feet, was built and dedicated August 
9. It is located near the northeast corner of 
^Vrch and Harrison streets. The year closed 
with 100 members. In 1878 the membershi]i 
numbered 185, and has continued to increase 
till now it numbers 335. In 1880a substantial, 
l>arsonage was built on the hjt adjoining the 
church. Rev. E. L. Seiuans, the present pastor, 



is serving his fourth year, with undiminished 
popularity. His ministry has been success- 
ful, and the church is frequently crowded to 
its utmost capacity. He receives a salary of 
§1,050. There are four classes and general 
prayer-meeting, every week. The Sunday- 
school numbers o\-er 200. W. T. Fulton, 
Superintendent. 

African Methodist Episcopal Church. — 
This church was organized by Rev. John 
Myers, October, 1879, with eleven members. 
A neat frame church about 40 x 50 feet, was 
built in 1881, at a cost of §600 or 6800. It 
is located on "Water street east of Meridian. 
The present pastor, Rev. James A. Davis, 
was educated in the public schools in Frank- 
lin, Indiana, and during the year he was 
stationed at Bloomington, this State, he 
availed himself of the advantages of the Uni- 
versity. This is his second year in Portland, 
and sixth year in the ministry. As a preacher, 
he is popular, and a strong rival for the top 
round of the ladder. The present membership 
numbers twenty-five. The >Sunday-school was 
organized in 1882, and has an average attend- 
ance of twenty-five. Superintendent, Miss 
Mattie Benson. In the pastoral relation Rev. 
Myers was succeeded by Revs. Harper, Coates, 
Townscnd, Tootle and Davis, the present 
minister, who is a member of the Indiana 
Conference, and was born in Kentucky in 
1862. 

The Preshjtcrian Church of Portland, was 
organized in 1873. In 1876 the present 
church building — aneatand substantial frame, 
85x60 — was erected at the corner of Arch 
and Ship streets. The inside walls are 
painted in oil, showing the finest decorations 
of the kind in the State. There is an active 
memliership of about seventy-five. The av- 
erage attendance at Sabbath-school is alxjut 
100. Superintendent, Sumner W. Ilaynes. 
At present, the church is without a [lastor, 



'k 



)['< 






([a! 









"p a'^g'^-ai^ 



^ J ^M ^ y^j P ^^g ]^^ 



([ii 



I 






'I 

' ! 

'Li' 

I 

i 



si; 

I 

;Sai; 

ii 
i! 

;ii< 



Rev. Chiirles T. White, D. D., tlie p;ititur fur 
the past tive years, having resigned the lirst 
of :\[arcli. 1SS7, Present elders— M. C. 
Culvc-r, AV. W. Wirt, X. II. Gable; deacons— 
G. W. Cunningham, Elias Creager, Sumner 
W. Ilaynes. 

The first organization of the Presbyterian 
church of Portland occurred November 29, 
1845, under the ministry of Rev. Joseph IT. 
Eabcock, Avith the follo^vi^g members: J. II. 
Babcock, Eliza Babc-ock, Jacob Bosworth, 
Nancy Bosworth, Josiah H. Topping, Hector 
Topping, Amaretta Topping, Joseph C. Haw- 
kins and Amanda Frazee. The meeting was 
held in the court-house. In 18-1:7 Mr. 
Babcuck moved to New Corydon, where he 
died, March 15, lSi8. In 1854 the church 
was divided, a portion going to Liber and 
organizing a Congregational church. 

T/ie Churchofthe Evangelical Association 
was organized June 1, 1885, with a member- 
sliip of four. The society now numbers fifty- 
live. The Sabbath-school was organized July 
12, 1^85. and now has an average attendance of 
about 100. Superintendent, Samuel E. Wiest. 
When Rev. L. S. Fisher, the pastor, came here, 
in 1885, there were three organizations (all in 
the country,) witli a membership of about 
eighty. Now, there are five missions, with a 
membershipof 251. Mr. Fisher was anearnest 
worker, and very successful. They worship 
in a neat little hall fitted up expressly for 
them. The present pastor is Rev. I. B. 
Fisher; class leader, John Ree.-;; steward, Eli 
Long. 

T/i, Christian L'huvcli was first organized 
very many years ago, ami has since been twice 
re-ori;anized, the last time in 1SS4, with 
eight members.' under the ministry of Or. T. 
S. Shoiihard, the main pillar of tills cliureli, 
and still the pastor. Elder \'.\w-, W. i'olly, 
of Camden, preaches uiicc a month. Service.^ 
in :\Iiller"s Hall. Present elder.-; -Dr. T. S. 



Shephard, John Long, Amos Berry and David 
Ilarker; de.acons — William Van Tilburgh, A. 
C. Taught and C. A. :^[arkland. Present 
membership, ninety; average attendance at 
Sunday-school, eighty-four, superintended by 
Albert M. Taught. 

Friends' Church. — Mr. and Mrs. E. C. 
Thornton came to Portland in the interest of 
the Friends' church, in January, 1880. In 

1882, the church was organized with a mem- 
bership of between thirty-five and fortv. A 
series of meetings were held at that time, and 
the membership increased to about eighty. 
Arrangements were then made to build a 
meeting-house. A lot was secured at an e.\- 
pense of $500, upon wlii'ih, in the spring of 

1883, a neat and substantial brick, 36 .\ 56, 
was erected, at a cost of about §2,500. The 
lot, building and furnisliiug, makes a total 
cost of about -$3,500. It is located on the 
north side of East Main street, between 
Harrison and Wayne. The membership now 
numbers about 250; and the average attend- 
ance at the Sabbath-school is about 120. 
Gertrude Fulton is superintendent. Miss 
Celia Smith, of Ohio, is the present minister. 

The Catholic Church was established in 
1875, with six families, and the same year a 
neat frame house of worship was ei'ected, on 
Walnut street, between Munson Avenue and 
Hays street. About twenty families now 
belong to the congregation, which is self- 
sustaining. The church also owns a parson- 
age lot, and expects to build soon, when they 
will have a regular pastor and services every 
Sunday. The priests have been, Revs. Flash, 
of liimmelgarten, Ohio; Alois Malin, of the 
same place; Otto Missler, of Fort Recovery; 

Siefert, a professor at Carthagena 

(Ohio) College; Joseph Heitz, of Fort Recov- 
ery, now in New-ark; and since the spring of 
1880, M. D. Dettinger, also of Fort Recovery. 
This order of ]>riests is controlled bv a " su- 



m 



I 



m 



m 



& 

a; 
< 

ii 
S 



i-a^pJi^eaaa^M-gm^-g" 



,J^«l.,l»^lg 



g'^g^TI' 



t^J^WTjBsjJjM^g .l 



HISTORY OF JAY COUNTY. 



i'P. 



perior," to whom is delegated autliority by 
the propel- bishop. 

WAYNE TOWNSHIP- 

This township, including Portland, coin- 
prises thirty-six sections of land. It was 
originally known as Salamonia Township, 
Randolph County, when it embraced the en- 
tire counties of Jay and Blackford and the 
southern tier of townships of Adams County. 
It was thus organized in tlie winter of 1834- 
'35. The principal streams are the Salamonia 
and its tributaries. 

Among the first settlers were, Philip 
I'rowu in 1831, who moved to Randolph Coun- 
ty a number of years ago and died there; in 
1832, Hawkins C. Pouts, who sold out here 
during the gold excitement in California, 
started for that place, and died on the route, 
at Xew Orleans; his wife died in this o mn- 
ty; William Brockus; and James Morrison, 
who had the farm afterward occupied by 
Obadiah Winters, and died about seven or 
eight years ago; in 1833, Henry H. Cuppy, 
who finally removed to Union County, Indi- 
ana ; Obadiah Winters, one of the first associate 
judges; Daniel Parber, who settled at what is 
now College Corner, was the first postmaster 
in the county, and died many years ago; 
Sandy, William and James Higlilander; in 
1836, Joseph Staley, who finally died at 
J.iber; Thomas N. Jones, who died seven or 
eight years ago; Joshua Pennock, who moved 
West and died; Daniel W. McNeal, a promi- 
nent citizen of the count}', who died at Port- 
l.'uid; Robert Huey, still living a mile north 
of Portland (see full .■sketch elsewhere); 
Thomas Wheat, who died in Marion, Grant 
County, Indiana; and Peter Coons, who died 
in Illinois; George Bickel, wlio died here; and 
Anderson 2s ear. 

Philii) Brown arrived March 8, 1S32, and 
built the first caliiii in the township. On 



a previous page a case is related of James 
Wier endeavoring to get his land away from 
him. Cuppy built in 1833, what was known 
for many years as the ■• Conner House, " 
which is not now standing. This was the 
first house in which the commissioners and 
first courts met. In 1836 Cuppy opened the 
first store in Porland, with goods brought 
from Richmond. 

Jacob Bosworth, who settled in Wayne 
Township previous to 1810, was the first 
physician in the county. He died at College 
Corner, in 1866. His son. Dr. J. M. Bos- 
worth, is now a practicing physician in Cam- 
den. Dr. Jacob Bosworth made the first 
coffin in the county, taking his wagon-box 
to pieces for the purpose. 

One of the first schools in the county was 
taught by Miss Sarali Tharp, afterward Mrs. 
Thomas Ward, of Winchester, at Liber, in 
1835. 

Wayne Township, as at present constituted, 
was organized by an election held at the 
court-house on the third Saturday of Septem- 
ber, 1837, with Daniel Farber as inspector. 

College Corner, two miles south of Port- 
land, was laid out by Dr. Watson in 1S50. 
At this place the Farmers' Academy was 
subsequently established, in opposition to 
that at Libir, with the express understanding 
that no negroes should ever be educated there. 
JacobBosworth was the leading spirit. James 
Templer donated the site, and a frame 25 x 56 
feet in size, and two stories high, was 
built at a cost of .S'JOO. In 1S5S it was sold 
to the Xorthern Indiana Conference of the 
Methodist Episcopal church, who permitted 
it finally' to run duwii some time al'ter the 
war. A postofilce was established here May 
30, 1862. and Jonas Votaw was appointed 
postmaster. Jacob Bosworth sueceded him. 
The office has long since been discontinued. 

Liber was a villarre. about three iniies south 



k 



m 



m 






;^f 






;&; 



UM-N-H. 









»a<m»tn'^mi^'n 



■ ■.-.J— a- 



PORTLAND. 









iia> 



si; 

'Mi 






of the eastern part of Forthuid, laid out April 
30, 1S33, by Jonathan Lowe, I. N. Taylor and 
George "W. Templer. A college was the same 
year founded here, under a State enactment, 
by Rev. I. N. Taylor, a zealous Presbyterian 
missionary. His coadjutors were Jacob 
Bosworth, Jonathan Lowe, J. H. Topping, 
Obadiah Winters, "Wilson Milligan, George 
W. Templer, Joseph C. Hawkins, John G. 
Spade and others, who organized themselves 
as a joint stock company, and let a contract, 
for §1,200, for the erection of the college 
building, on a six-acre lot donated by Rev. 
Taylor and Jonathan Lowe. School was 
opened ISTovember o, 1853, with Rev. Mr, 
Taylor as principal, but during the very first 
term a colored student was admitted, which 
displeased some of the stockholders, who 
started in opposition the Farmers' Academy 
at College Corner, as above mentioned. In 
1859 Mr. Taylor withdrew from the institution, 
and Rev. Ebenezer Tucker was chosen presi- 
dent. The school flourished two or three 
years longer, and then began to dwindle down, 
being entirely discontinued in 1878. The 
building is still standing, occupied by 
the public school. Many prominent men 
and accomplished ladies in this part of Indiana 
were educated at Liber. A college monthly 
called the Liber Lamp was published for a 
time. 

Tlic Conijreijatiorud Church of Liber was 
built in 1856, on a lot donated by Jonathan 
Lowe. It is a frame building, 26 x 50 feet in 



dimensions. The society was organized in 
185-t, partly by divisions from the Porthmd 
Presbyterian church, with twenty-five mem- 
bers; but the congregation has pretty well 
dwindled away. 

Salamonia Christian Church on section 
34: is a frame, 36 x 46 feet, erected in 1876, at 
a cost of §1,000. It succeeds an older frame 
building which had been used since 1850. 
The society was organized in 1841, by Elder 
Batteral. The present membership is about 
fifty, which is not so great as formerly. 
Minister, Samuel Stone, of Greene Township. 
Deacons — D. M. Miller and E. Allen. Sun- 
day-school is maintained all the year, with 
about fifty pupils, and Jesse Smitii superin- 
tendent. 

Fairi'iew United Brethren Church, was 
dedicated in 1875, by R. J. Weaver, D. D. 
The society was organized with thirty mem- 
bers. 

Providence Chapel, Onited Brethren 
Church, on section 14, was built on a lot 
donated by John Artman, and dedicated 
April 28, 1886, by Rev. Elias Counseller. 
It was a frame building 30 x 38 feet. It was 
burned down April 18, 1887, when measures 
were at once taken to rebuild. The society 
was organized about 1875, with a member- 
ship of fifteen. The present membership is 
seventy-three. Class-leader, Jacob Foltz. 
Sunday-school all the year, with an average 
attendance of about sixty. Jonas Ilartzell, 
superintendent. 






% 

mi 



m 






LI 
Ml 

m 

mi 




mU^»is.m^a 



n^M-ra^ 



IF JAV CUUNTY. 



m 




^^'g^trit;^';riO>f.:hfg^^Q'«^'^^^^-^gf5 




WB'<^^SS»«5'>ti'^S^l?S'^^iSS*^^^^^<&'S3J>sa<^«^a<^'^«!S*'s^l 



i 



I 




yftUGUST 27, 1836, this 
village, now comprising 
660 inhabitants, was laid 
'^ out by Samnel Grisell, 
who changed the name 
^,,,j^ from New Lisbon to 
'v^P*" Camden, in Angtist, 
Subsequently it was as- 
certained that there was a post- 
office named Camden in Carroll 
County, this State, and the post- 
otliee here was named Penn; but 
as this, in ordinary writing, was 
often taken for Peru, the depart- 
nuMit was persuaded to change the name again, 
this time and finally, to Pennville. The 
viUao-e is still generally known by the name 
of Cauulen, but it is desirable that it sliould 
liave the same name as the postoffice. It is lo- 
cated on the Salamonie, on the northeast quar- 
ter of section 34, Penn Township, the north- 
westernmost township in the county. 

The first house in the village was coin- 
nu'ueed by William Samufls, but Joliu D. 
.I.Mu's. cciiij.leteil his first, in 1"^36; and in 



1837 Henry Z. Jenkins opened the tii-st store, 
where his wife, Abigail B., was the polite 
and efficient clerk. Subsequently a man 
named Mullen was a pioneer store-keeper 
here. Mr. Jones, January 19, 1839, was 
appointed the first postmaster, and, after he 
had enjoyed the honor only six days his 
house was burned down. In that time he 
had tlie privilege of opening the mail but 
once, finding but one letter for Camden. 

The addition made to the town plat by 
Joseph Wilson in November, 1837, comprises 
all that portion lying east of Union street, 
the present main thoroughfare. I'tu-merly 
Meridian street, next west, was the main 
business street. 

Seth Armitage, still a resident in the 
vicinity, made the first wagon at Camden, 
probably the first made in the county. 

INCOKPORATION. 

Camden was first incorporated as a town in 
1S34, when tlie first board of trustees elected 
were I'avid Jlowinan, AVilliani (t. Hopkins 
and John !'. ]\[.iore, and the clerk. Ilezekiah 



m 



■a~-«-'ai' 



PEXNVILLE. 



; 1' 

'4 



<».^^ 



'.i\t 









Hopkins; but the small amount of business re- 
(juired permitted entire neglect in the course of 
a few years, and the corporate capacity of the 
town was thus siiflered to cease altogether. 
The various acts of the trustees •' holding 
over ■' their office infonually from year to 
year, were legalized by a special act of the Leg- 
islature of 1867-68; and in 1870 the town 
was re-incorporated, when Samuel A. Shoaff 
was elected president of the board of trustees, 
and iJr. J. M. Bosworth, clerk. 

In 1S72 the trustees ordered the erection 
of a school-house, at a cost of about §7,000, 
which was ultimately completed the next 
year, at a total cost of $8,100. It is a tine 
two story brick structure. The school here 
is graded, having four teachers, in as many 
rooms. Professor L. C. Chamberlain was 
princijial during the past year, and is now 
professor of natural science in the Eastern 
Indiana Normal School at Portland. 

The corporate capacity of the town of 
Camden was suffered again to collapse in 
1878, the trustees, Dr. Samuel Mason and J. 
D. Smith, being held by the Supreme Court 
to act as such until the debt for the school 
building is paid. The third trustee has just 
moved away. The board levies a tax annually 
to the extent of tlie law, but this being in- 
sufficient, it is hoped that a " boom " will 
soon cume to the place, so that permission 
from the Legislature will be sought to levy a 
sufficient tax to redeem the outstanding bonds, 
and thereby the credit of the mnnicipality. 
The school since 1878, has been in the charge 
of the township trustees. 

liC-^INKSS. 

Ije.-^ides the usual stores and sho])o for a 
place of it.-) size, Camden has the fullow- 
ing lui.siness establishments and professional 



• icmmiirs Pennville Fluurinu; Mill.- 



j with two run of burrs for wheat and one fjr 
corn, stoam power, is busy nearly every day 
in the year with a capacity of fifty barrels of 
flour per twentj'-four hours. Dcjes both 
custom and merchant work. The first crrist- 
laill in Camden was run by water-power, 
and was built by Samuel Grisell, in IS-il, 
who had previously erected the first saw-mill, 
also water-power. The tirst steam grist and 
saw-mills was erected by Grisell and Lukins 
Griffith, in 1850. Subsequent proprietors 

have been Samuel A. Shoaff and Griffith, 

who built a large addition, and P. B. Barnes, 
who ran it about four years, and under mort- 
gage, in March, 1S87, sold it to the present 
proprietor. 

I. N. Ault, south of town, owns both a 
saw-mill and tile factory, — the former built in 
1S6S, by John Moore, and the latter in 1885. 
Mr. Ault purchased the mill of Mr. Woods, 
in the winter of 1884. 

Johnson & Place have been running their 
saw-mill in the northeast part of Camden 
since 1881. It was built by Lewis Bros. 

J. W. Thomas, since 1882, has owned and 
run the saw-mill he bought of Samuel A. 
Shoaff, who built it several years previously. 
Employs much of the time as many as nine 
hands, numufacturing both hard and soft 
wood lumber, both for the local trade and the 
general market. 

Williams & Wilson, on East Bridge Street, 
built in the fall of 1SS5 the handle factory 
which they have since run. They are working 
steadih', employing five or si.x hands. 

Briggs & Meiidenhall own and run the 
woolen factory, where they mannfaeture 
yarns, jeans, lianncls, blankets, etc., mostly 
for the Indianapolis, Dayton and other mar- 
kets. Tliey have one set of cards, four looms 
and 240 spindles. The factoiy was built in 
1M35 or -'(](> by John Iliatt, who afterward 
admitted Mr. Thurston a.s a jiartner; then 






m 






> .. 



fJiTM .:««-. ia„M. 



'««»*< •c^ar,^r»%TgiJ» 



■ jajmn»i„j!.^= 



.ai»Ji„a,m»a„j«a,j..ji»j„*j,j„n„j„.»,a„iaoJ 



HISTORY OF JAY COUNTY. 



m 



Sharpe & Cook were the proprietors, and 
since 1881 the present linn. 

In Marcli, 18S7, Eiidolph Snyder sncceeded 
liis deceased father, F. X. Snyder, in the 
tannery. 

Samuel Coover, since 1880, has set the 
hest table at the Riverside House that can 
he found anywhere, city or country. At 
present this is the only hotel in Camden. 
The Union House and the Indiana House, 
and others, are institutions of the past. 

The physicians of Camden at present are 
Samuel Mason, J. M. Bosworth, and R. R. 
Sherwood, regular; and L. jST. Blackledge, 
Mrs. Amanda Blackledge, C. B. Saunders and 
W. C. Horn, eclectic, or independent. Dr. 
S. A. Thomas, a prominent physician hero for 
a period, moved to Kosciusko County about 
two years ago. Dr. C. S. Arthur, for many 
years past a resident of Portland, and the 
most prominent physician in the county, 
practiced medicine at Camden for a number 
of years. ]\rrs. Emma B. Lewis, formerly a 
pliysician of this place, was at Dayton, Ohio, 
at last accounts. 

The attorneys at Camden are Alfred Rus- 
sell, Z. B. Lea and B. F. Graves. 

The Tri-Countij iVo/i^t', a sprightly seven- 
culumn folio newspaper, was started during 
the last week of April, 1887, by jMiirtha & 
Russell. 



Fennville Lodge, No. 21-2, F. cb A. M., 
was chartered May 27, 1857, with Heston 
Pa.xton as worshipful master. Those suc- 
ceeding him in that office liave been C. A. 
Horn, C. S. Arthur, J. Decatur Barr, Sam- 
uel I. Gray, and John S. Emmons, the present 
incumbent. The other present officers are, 
John S. Emmons, "Worshipful ^Master; Heston 
Paxton. Senior "Warden; "William Allen, Jun- 
for Warden; Isaac Underwood, Secretary: 



John Branstetter, Treasurer; Melvin Near, 
Senior Deacon; "William Engle, Junior Dea- 
con ; Charles Schrader, Tyler. The total num- 
ber initiations since organization have been 
eighty. Regular meeting of the lodge 
monthly. 

Relief Lodije, No. 11^5, 1. 0. O. F., was or- 
ganized in July, 1854, with about ten mem- 
bers. Charles Hughes, the first noble grand, is 
the only charter member now living in this 
vicinity. Henry Z. Jenkins was the- first 
to introduce Odd Fellowship at Pennville, as 
well as at Cincinnati, the first west of the Alle- 
ghanies. He died at Pennville, December 
9, 1881, at the age of eighty-six years, a ven- 
erable and useful citizen. The lodge at 
Pennville has initiated, since organization, 
141; the present membership is about thirty- 
five, and the society is in a sound financial 
condition. The present officers are, Samuel 
Ivirkwood, Noble Grand; John S. Emmons, 
Vice-Grand; James A. Russell, Secretary; 
Fred Bollmann, Treasurer; Davis Riley, 
"Warden; Albert Rnssell, Conductor; A. P. 
Hughes, Past Grand ; Josiaii "\\''ard. Guardian. 

James B. Cartwrujht Post, No. 358, was 
instituted June 14, 1884, by Deputy L. L. 
Gilpin, with the following officers: T. J. 
Cartwright, Commander; Z. B. Lea, Senior 
Vice-Commander; C. B. Saunders, Junior 
Vice-Comnuinder; John J. Branstetter, 
Chaplain; J. M. Bosworth, Surgeon; Charles 
Hughes, Quartermaster; James Starbuek, 
Officer of the Day. Present officers: J. M. 
Bosworth, Commander; Simon P. Morrow, 
Senior Vice-Commander; Charles Free, Jun- 
ior Vice-Commander; Z. B. Lea, Surgeon; 
Aaron Allman, Chaplain: "William Stone- 
burner, Officer of the Day; Lewis Addington. 
Outer Guard; L. J. Giblle, Adjutant. The 
membership has increased from thij-tv-three 
to fifty, in good standing. Altogether, about 
eighty names have been enrolled. 



I 



^.! 






.jg-f^p -jiM^j^a^a 



iiag,Ja."-i-«'«ia-»"— «p-'«i"-j'°ia»« 






aM.l .a^Mga.Jag ,- 



PBNNVILLE. 



iaj! 



^^I•. Cartwn'glit, the patriot in honor of 
whiiin the post is named, was a volunteer 
from Camden, in Company H, One-Hundredtii 
Indiana Infantry, and died at Memphis, 
Tennessee, iN'ovember 19, 1862, from the 
effects of eating a poisoned pie. Others were 
seriously affected by eating from the same lot. 
His death was the second among the soldiers 
from Jay County. 

The Good Templiirs have maintained an 
organization here since 1855. Isaac Under- 
wood is the present chief. 



Mrthodist Episcopal. — The first Method- 
ist meeting held at Camden was at the 
house of James Coulson, in 1838 or '39, when 
Henry Z. Jenkins joined the church. The 
lirst members were, beside Mr. Jenkins, 
James Coulson and wife Eliza, Mary Delong 
and Sarah Gove. Their first house of worship 
was a log building, in the southeast part of 
town. This point, in the ecclesiastical polity 
of the Methodist church, has been at times 
a mission and at times self-supporting, and 
has also been attached to various circuits. 
Among the early preachers were. Rev. Lank, 
who organized the first class; George W. 
Bowers, who is still living in this part of 
Indiana; Barden Bradbury, etc. The present 
house of worship is a frame 32 x 50 feet, 
dedicated February 23, 1858, by Rev. C. W. 
Miller, when the society numbered nearly 200, 
eighty joining at that time, and enjoyed its 
higliest tide of prosperity. At present this 
society, with a membership of about 150, 
assisted by the Oak Grove class, five miles 
south, support a pastor. These two " appoint- 
ments " constituted what is called a " circuit." 
They also have a good parsonage at Camden. 
The class-leaders liere are A. T. Place and 
George Haines; l.ji'ul preacher, Mr. Wright; 
Suuday-schooi, with an average of about 150, 



is superintended by Mr. Place, and is kept 
up the year round. 

Friends, or Quakers. — The Hicksite (Uni- 
tarian or Universalist) branch of tliis church 
held their first meetings here in a log school- 
house on the site of the present cemetery 
east of town. Their present meeting-house, 
about 20 X 40 feet in dimensions, was built in 
186-1:, in the place of an older frame building, 
in the eastern part of the village. The 
present membership, of about 120, is min- 
istered to by Friend Joel Birdsall, living three 
miles north of Balbec. They meet every 
Sunday and Thursd.ay. Present elders — 
James Meredith, Albert and Rachel xV. Gri- 
sell and Mary A. Underwood. 

The " orthodox," or older branch, organized 
in 1882, and have now about seventy names 
on their book as members, who meet eveiy 
First-Day (Sunday) when they have a place 
to meet. They have generally been supplied 
by non-resident ministers. Present overseers 
— Maria G. Meredith, Sarah Jenkins, Will- 
iam Roberts and Joseph Paxson. The 
society owns a lot, and will e[ideavor to 
build a house of worship this year. 

Christian Church. — The " New Lights " 
held their very first meetings in very early 
day, in a log house erected by William Sam- 
uels, one of their prominent ministers beimj 
Rev. Beal Babb. The present member- 
ship (March, 1887) is about seventy-tive, but 
a great revival is in progress, under tlie 
preaching of Rev. .7. H. O. Smith, of Indian- 
apolis, State Evangelist, which is rapidly in- 
creasing the membership. Rev. Enos Polly, 
of Union City, was the minister in 1S78-'S0, 
when the society numbered eighty or over, 
and was enjoying its greatest period of pros- 
]ierity. There is no stated pastor at present. 
Tlie church edifice is a neat frame liuilding, 
02x43 feet in size, dedicated about 1873, by 
Elder Smith, of lluntinirton. The societv 



>L=! 



m 



."siM^a^ 



.,-,;^.^,^---^,l i! 



HISTORY OF J AT COUNTY. 









was oi-gaiiized February 28, 18G9, l)y Rev. 
Henry James, with a meinberslup of thirty- 
two. Present local elder, David Polly; dea- 
con, John S. Emmons. A Sunday-school is 
maintained during the summer. 

TKMPEKANCE. 

The first barrel of whisky in Camden, to 
be retailed, was brought by a man who was 
systematically "boycotted" out; and long 
before the crusade of 1874, namely, in 1S55, 
the women of the place turned out and de- 
molislied one drinking place. There is no 
licensed retail liquor dealer now in Camden. 

As early as 18-i8 the Sons of Temperance 
organized a society in Camden, and flourished 
greatly, for a time, but in 1867 they sur- 
rendered their charter. The Good Templars 
have kept up their organization since 1855. 
The crusade of 1874 did not strike Camden. 

PENN TOWNSHIP. 

Samuel Grisell named this township in 
honor of the noted founder of Peunsylvania, 
and also in allusion to the large Quaker ele- 
ment among the settlers. 

John Gain, referred to on preceding pages, 
linilt in 1823 the tirst cabin in this township, 
but occupied it only a short time. John 
Jirooks, of whom much is said elsewhere, 
came next, the same year, and remained 
longer; but Moses Hamilton, the third im- 
migrant, in 1831, has the distinction of be- 
ing the first permanent settler. He, however, 
did not remain here .all his life. Then fol- 
lowed, the same year, Samuel Grisell, the 
f.iundcr of Camden, and John ]\[cCoy; who, 
after many years moved to Missouri, where 
he was living ut last accounts, entirely blind; 
then within a few months, came Klias Porter, 
the father uf jMrs. Nancy Cartwright, now of 
Camden; he died here; als(,i, Jnnathan C. 
lliatt, nicknamed -Dick," to distinguish 



him from Jonathan Hiatt, a younger au'l 
smaller man, dnbbeil "Simon; " also Job Carr, 
an enterprising dry-goods merchant here for 
many years, whose son Vincent built the first 
steam saw-miil in this part of the country; 
Elihu Hamilton, who finally died in Nebraska; 
Joseph Wilson, locating ne.xt to Samuel 
Grisell, adjoining Camden on the east, made 
the addition to the village just referred to, 
and finally died in Kansas; William Samuels, 
the first to begin a cabin in Camden, but the 
second to complete it, who died on his farm 
east of town; William Swallow, who remained 
here the rest of his life; and Joshua Bond. 

Mr. Bond was a Quaker from North Caro- 
lina who had the foresight to bring with him 
a pair of millstones, which he made into a 
hand grist-mill, in the spring of 1836, the 
first grist-mill in Jay County that did much 
substantial work. It was constantly thronged, 
each man grinding his own grist, no toll 
being charged; but as it was soon found 
insufficient to supply the demand, Mr. Bond 
added horse power, and even then it failed to 
keep up. Therefore, in 1887, he built a good 
mill, which was run by four to eight horses. 
This was in the basement of a log barn a mile 
and a half east and a little north of Camden. 
He subsequently attached to it the first thresh- 
ing machine (" chaft'-piler ") ever brought into 
the county, so that customers would bring 
their grain to the mill in sheaves and take it 
away in flour, — which cannot be said of any 
modern mill. Mr. Bond was an exemplary 
man, and died many years ago. 

Isaac Underwood, a resident of Camden 
and one of the best historians of Jay County, 
from whom we gathered so many particulars 
in this chapter, brought the first improved 
thresher and separator into this part of the 
State. He has in his possession the manuscript 
(if an historical adilress, C(ineei-ning i'enn 
'J'owiiship. (,';iuiden and .lav Ci.iunty, which he 






-,\3'< 



,»a-»s"j^g5g 



55i55Ma5S5fl 



rxSniasaKaBIn 



/'iWiV yiLLE. 



(!], 



ill? 



deliv<;red some years ago at an olil settlors' 
meeting in a grove near town. 

C!i;irles Simmons located in Ponn Town- 
ship ]irior to 1835, and after a nuinl)er of 
years removed "West. Ellis Davis, who 
settleil in this township in liS35, remained a 
resident liere nntil his death, which took place 
many ^-ears ago. David V. Canada came 
into this neighborhood about the same time, 
and finally moved to Three Kivers, Michigan, 
where he was living when last heard from. 
Eliza Diigdalo, at the age of twenty-live, 
came here in 1836. Henry Z. Jenkins, one 
of the earliest settlers of Camden, and post- 
master here for seventeen years, resided here 
until his death. Thomas Shaylor was also 
one of the early settlers. Mrs. Xancy Cart- 
w-right, of Camden, his niece, spent a portion 
of her girlhood at his house southeast 
of Portland, when the howling wilderness 
was in its primitive condition. George Por- 
ter, one of the pioneers of Jay County, was 
her brother. Goldsmith Chandler, who came 
in 1838 or '39, was an enterprising man of 
considerable means, built several houses, and 
erected the first tannery, where the present 
woolen factory now stands. It was suffered 
to go down between 18-i5 and 18-18. Mr. 
Chandler died here, and his son John estab- 
lished the present tannery, conducted by 
Rudolph Snyder. Enos Lewis, now aged 
eighty-seven years, settled where he now 
resides, east of IJalbec, prior to ISIO. 

Penn Townsliip was the first organized in 
the county, by order of the commissioners at 
the lirst session, November S, 1836. The 
election was held the next month, at the 
house of Jonathan Hiatt, when Ellis Davis 
was elected the first justice of the peace, and 
David V". Canada, cunstalile. 

The first school in the tnwnsliip was 
taught in 1S37 or ';ls, in the Icghonse where 
the p'riends held their nieetin''s, on the site 



of the present cemetery east of town, by Levi 
Johnson, who was justice of the peace for 
twelve years in Jackson Township. 

The first religious meetings and churches 
are mentioned on a preceding page;. 

Balbec (by error for Baalbec) is a hamlet 
near the center of the township, three miles 
north of Camden. It has a fine dry-goods 
store, kept by Benjamin L. Dewees, and a 
smaller one, by the Eberly Bros., and a shop 
or two and a postoffiee. 

Winona is a similar hamlet a mile or two 
farther north, where the name of the post- 
office is Fiat. 

The LTnited Brethren have a neat little 
churcli building about a half mile east of 
Balbec, built in 186-1. 

The Spiritualists, for a rarity, in 1871, 
erected a meeting-house, or '• hall, "' 32 x 10 
feet, about a mile and a half east of Balbec, 
where they have met for circles, seances, lect- 
ures, socials, etc., having a flourishing organ- 
ization. At one time it is said they had as 
many as 150 resident believers. 

Penn Township contains more good land, 
and is better improved, than any other in the 
county. The principal stream is the Sala- 
monie, in the southwestern part. The south- 
ern portion is gravelly and rollinrj, while 
the northern portion contains some of the 
finest and richest prairie lands in the 
State. 

A great geological curiosity exists two to 
three miles northeast of Camden. It is a 
range of gravel hills, the two highest beintr 
probably a hundred feet above the general 
level of the country. They are known 
among the residents as "Ganlnor's Hills," 
but geologists regard them ur. •• terminal 
moraines." It is very nearly the water-shed 
between the Erie basin and the t )hio River 
Valley; possibly in some geological ao-e it 
was precisely the water-shed. This singular 



Ji 



m 



W; 
U 






p 



deposit of gravel is accounted for by the 
liypotliesis that floating masses of ice, con- 
taining gravel and earth from their primitive 
moorings, and driven upon the water-shed 
by northwestern winds, lodged here, melted 



and dropped their earthly freight in a heap. 
This, continued for ages, would make a hill 
as large as we find these. 

Springs of water, with traces of iron ore, 
occur about Gardner's Hills. 









'm*^^' 










':s\i 









'■lit 









'i\a', 
''r> 






•^Al^ 










'Ib: 






i 



•Mt 




'inS village, which was 
at lirst known as Quin- 
cy, is located ou section 
S, in the northwest- 
ern corner of liichland 
T(.iwnship (t'ractional), 
K^JJ^B- on the Pittsburg, Cincinnati 
■^ '^ & St Louis Eailroad, on a 
beautiful elevation, and has 
a population of a little over 
800. It was laid out Decem- 
''■iO ber 10, iyo3, by Isaiah Sutton. 
"\V. G. Sutton, his son, platted 
.^•;X-^;ii the A'orth Addition July 12, 
K^^-^S 1S67. and July 6, 1868, and 
^ W. (t. Sutton's Addition Feb- 

ruary ."), 1S7G. — acting first as cmnuiis- 
sioniM' appointeil by tiio Court of Common 
Pleas and afterward as proprietor. It is 
the uidy village on the railroad whose streets 
are jiarallel or at right angles with the 
road, lieing twenty-seven and a half or twenty- 
eiglit degrees north of east. Of the original j 
phit. Mr. Isaiah Sutton donated two acres ' 
tn the railroad. j 



Dunkirk was incorporated in June. 1869. 
The commissioners appointed as the first 
trustees, Samuel Thomas, William Manning 
and Daniel Williams. The last named re- 
signing, William W.Goodrich was appointed 
in his place. May 2, 1870, William Milli- 
gan, Daniel Williams and John W. JS'ixon 
were elected the first trustees. The first 
named was elected president, Israel Allman, 
clerk; Samuel Thomas, treasurer; and James 
A. Keesure, marshal. The first ordinance 
was dated September 30, that year. Elections 
of officers are held annually, the citizens all 
voting at one place, although the town has 
three wards. L'nder the administration ot 
the trustees, the streets have been thoroiicrhly 
graveled and sidewalks made. The present 
board comprises William ^lilligan, President; 
J. J. Steward and John B. ^Mendenhall. 

The public school building at Dunkirk is 
a fine two-story brick structure situated in 
the southwestern portion of tlii' viilaire. It 
has four rooms. Three teachers are eiiinlnved, 
the school is graded, and kept seven m>>:iths 
in tlie vear. The school-house was built in 



4'- 



I 

I 

.iS/ 



;SJ; 



=u-u_a^ 





r"' 


ts 


i 




< 
« 


rd 


) 


11 


{ 


^ ! 


i 


j S 


] 


(\ 


J 








I 


(\ 


5 




^ 


} ^ 


? 




1 


k1 
ilG 

3 


t 


^fe 


3 


JrE 


i 




I 


jfE 


) 




1 


<[e 




m 


^ 


\i 


i 






'i 




JIG 




1 




s= 





Hisronv HI'' -I AY UDrxTY. 



i 



1874, at a cost of about §7.000. including in- 
terest on bonds. The proceeds of tlie sale of 
the old school building were devoted to the 
erection of the new buildiuir. 

CUrKCHKS. 

Tin; jrethodkt Episcopal Chuirh has a 
inenil)ership of 230, including probationers, 
about tiftj of whom were received during the 
revival in the winter of 1886-'87, under the 
ministration of Eev. A. J. Llewellyn, who has 
been pastor since April, 1886. The present 
class-leaders are L. M. Robinson, J. M. Bowen, 
P. AV. Bishop and Silas Place, besides Mrs. 
J. M. Bowen who is the leader of the •■ chil- 
dren's class," organized during the revival of 
last winter. Stewards — AY. W. Payton, L. 
M. Fudge, J. B. Mendenhall, Racer Bittles 
and Frank Littler. Sunday-school is kept 
up the year round, with an average attendance 
of about 150, and "W. W. Payton superintend- 
ent. The church building is a frame, -10.\50 
feet, dedicated in 1871, by Rev. E. F. Hasty; 
but the needs of the society have outgrown 
the capacity of the building, as well as of the 
parsonage, which they have had for a number 
of years. The Methodist society at Dunkirk 
has varied much in its periods of prosperity 
and decline: the present is a period of pros- 
perity. 

Mr. Llewellyn has also the care of two 
other classes, one at Kingsley's, an account 
of wliich will appear in the history of Black- 
ford County, towanl tlie conclusion of this 
volume, and the other is the one at Sugar 
(irove, in this township. In tlje latter the mem- 
bership is about forty, besides pi-obationers. 
(^lass-leader, Joseph Hickman. Stewards 
— Joseph Hicknumand John Bell. Sunday- 
school during the summer; _Mi'. Hickman, 
•Miperintendent. The liiiuje of Morship is a 
well tini.-hed building, erected tw.j ur three 
yeais ago, at a C(jst ot Sl,:iOU, ami located 
aljout two miles southeast of L)\iukirk. 



The Methodists were organized in this 
vicinity, of course, in a very early day: and 
in 1809, on the completion of the railroad 
and the rising of Dunkirk as a town, the 
society, which had mainly centered around 
Kingsley's, divided, a large portion forming 
the nucleus of the Dunkirk church. There 
is also a Woman's Missionary Society at Dun- 
kirk, au.xiliary to the Methodist Episcopal 
church. 

■ The Methodist Protestant Churc/i.— The 
first services of this denomination were 
held in the Baptist church building in ^fay, 

1885, when Rev. Joseph Langley, of Mun- 
cie, preached, and from tiiat time on dur- 
ing the summer, he preached occasionally 
on week-day nights, at the Baptist church. 
In August, 1885, a meeting was held in the 
Baptist church, and the Dunkirk Methodist 
Protestant church was organized with seven 
members; as follows: J. J. Stewart, Rachel A. 
Stewart, his wife, and daughter Sadie Stewart; 
A. C. Holly, his wife Anuuida, and his mother, 
Sophronia Holly; and Ruth ilcKinney. 
The officers elected -were; A. C. Holly, class- 
leader; •!. J. Stewart, class-steward. Services 
were held in the Baptist church until April, 

1886, when they removed to a hall, by the 
railroad, where a protracted meeting was held 
by Rev. Josepli Langley, and Rev. William 
H. Green, and the membership was increased 
to twenty-four. Then proceeded to elect trus- 
tees, as follows: J. C. Wickersham, X. G. 
Weaver, J. W. Racer, J. A. Sullivan and 
Richard Webster, who formed a Ijiiilding 
committee. Subscriptions were taken up for 
a church building, and work on the building 
commenced in August, 1S8G, by L. C. Shaw, 
conti-actoi-, and it was dedicated January 2, 
1SS7, by Rev. Stevens, of -Adrian, ^lichigan. 
College. The cost uf the building was 
nearly s2.i)00, and the building is ."0x32 
t'eet in ground area, with a vestibule 9 .x 9 



m 






I 

k 
ii 

tVai 







r"5i'»«"!««i 









ta\t 









iii front. The seating capacity is over 300. 
Rov. S. S. Stanton has filled the pulpit since 
September, 1886. He is secretary of the 
annual conference. The officers are the same 
as those mentioned. A Sabbath-school was 
ora;ain'zed in March, 1887, which now has a 
nieinliershi]> of some 175 enrolled. The 
officers are: George K. "Weaver, superintend- 
ent; Mrs. O. N. Cook, secretary; J 0. AVick- 
ershatn, treasurer; L. C. Shaw, librarian; Miss 
Blanclie Sharrett, organist; Miss Blanche 
Shaw, chorister; Moderators — A. C. Holly 
and A[iss Sadie Stewart. There are nine 
teachers in the school. 

7/ii' _Baj>tist Churcli at Dunkirk was or- 
ganized with about thirteen members, by Rev. 
A. Pavey, a resident. Joseph Parker and 
E. Huffman were the first deacons. Min- 
isters serving since have been Revs. Kendall, 
JohiiKon, Roliinsim, Bicknell, Rupe, Fritts 
and ]!. R. Ward, the present pastor who 
resides at ^liami, Indiana. The present 
niember.ship is about 100. Deacons — Joseph 
Parker, W. B. "Wilson and R. J. Sutton. 
Sunday-school is maintained all the year, 
with average attendance of about a hundred: 
W. B. Wilson, superintendent. Their church 
is the first story, 45 x 60 feet, of a building 
whose second stoi'y is occupied as lodge 
rooms, referred to more at length in a 
subscijuent paragi-aph. It was dedicated by 
Rev. Joseph Brown, of Indianapolis, in No- 
vember, 1871. 

soriETip:s. 

Dinih-irJ,' La,h;ie, Xo. 37-5, F. A- A. J/., 
was organized May 29, 1861, with the fol- 
lowing officers: Isaiah Sutton, "Worshipful 
Master; Joseph J. McKinney, Senior W^arden : 
George "W. Current, Junior "Warden. The 
books show a total meniber.-liip from the fir-t 
t.. d.ito (April, 1887) of 155. The j. resent 
nieinliership is iiftv-three, and the officers: 



Peter W. Bishop, "Worshipful Alaster; C. P. 
Cole, Senior "Warden; Racer Bittles, Junior 
Warden; W. G. Sutton, Treasurer; M. D. 
Wood, Secretary: D. S. Wilson, Senior 
Deacon; J. A. Wilson, Junior Deacon; and 
Beale Baiiifold, Tyler. 

Dunkirl: Chapter, No. JfS, li. A. J/., was 
organized October 20, 1870, with the fol- 
lowing officers: George H. Moore, High 
Priest; Joseph J. McKinney, King; John A. 
Henning, Scribe. In January, 1886, the 
membership was thirty. Present officers: 
David S. Wilson, High Priest; William D. 
Garr, King; W\ G. Sutton, Scribe; P. W. 
Bishop, C. H. ; I. W. Wingate, Permanent 
Secretary; C. P. Cole, G. A. C; James B. Mc- 
Connell, G. M. 3d V.; W. H. Rush, G. M. 2d 
v.; Jehu M. Bowen, G. M. 1st V.; B. Mani- 
fold, Treasurer; William A. Whetsell, Secre- 
tary; and J. A. Wilson, Guard. 

Dunkirk Council, li. d- .S"". J/"., JS'o. Jf2, 
was organized October 21, 1874, with James 

A. Keesure, T. I. M.; William Garland, D. 
I. M.; and W^illiam N. Current, P. D. ofW.; 
Preseut membership of the Council, nineteen. 
Officers: C. P. Cole, T. I. M.; W\ D. Garr, D. 
I. M.; Peter W. Bishop. P. D. of AT.; James 

B. McConnell, C. of G.; W. G. Sutton. Treas- 
urer; and Beale Manifold, Rec. 

Dunlirk Lodge, Xo. 306, 1. 0. 0. F., 
was instituted _March 5, 1868, by following 
grand officers: E. H. Barry, (ri-and Master; 
Phillip Barger, Deputy Grand Master; AVill- 
iam Burrows, Grand Warden; C. A. Read, 
Grand Secretary; J. J. R. Jones, Grand 
Treasurer; J. T. Brotherton, Grand (niardian. 
The first otfieers were: W. W. G-jodricli, 
Noble Grand; Daniel AVilliams, Vice Grand; 
N. W, ('rouch. Recording Se<'i-otarv; Ilar- 
man Connaday. Treasnrei-; .T. A. Snlllivan, 
Secretary. Appointed: P.. AfaiiifoM. Warden; 
J.J. Stewart. Conductor: II. ('. n,itu.-, Inner 
Guard; I). P. Todd, (Jnter Gnani; Thomas 



mi 
r 



*Ci: 






m 



ii 

IB 

(id; 



.'ij 



if"< 



^rj^UJiai 




McKee, Eight Supporter to Noble (irand; S. 
A. Kyle, Lett Supporter to Isoble Grand; H. 
H. Hannah. R. S S.; Jacob Troop, L. S. S.; 
J. G. Ridge, Eight Supporter to Vice Grand; 
G. H. Parker, Left Supporter to Vice Grand. 

Pi'i'-ienf Olficei-a: Theodore Bishop, Noble 
Gi'and; A.. I. Llewellyn, Vice Grand ; Richard 
Allen, Recording Secretary; B. Manifold, 
Corresponding Secretary; M. S. Cunningham, 
Treasurer; John Eees, Sitting Past Grand; 
J. J. Stewart, Chaplain. The present mem- 
bership is forty-two. Lodge in prosper- 
ous condition, and on April 26. 1S87, the 
lodge purchased ground for a cemeteiy in the 
northwest corner of "William G. Snttoi.'s 
farm in Blackford County, about tliirty rods 
north of old cemetery. Contains ten acres of 
ground. 

The Odd Fellows' Hall over the Baptist 



chnr 



20.\60 feet, and the Masonic Hal 



along side, is 22 x 60 feet in area. The entire 
expense of the building was about s3,000, 
and the greater part of the expense of the 
building was defrayed by the two lodges. 

The Odd Fellows Lodge has very handsome 
new regalia, costing SlTo. 

Many years ago the Good Templars had a 
society at IJunkirk, which went down in 
1875. A strong temperance sentiment, how- 
ever, still prevails here, checking the en- 
croachments of the saloon. Two or three 
saloonists had to abandon their business here 
on account of a special temperance movement. 

Benjamin Shields Post, G. A. R.. No. 280. 
was organized February 7, 1884, with twenty- 
five members, and J. "W. Eacer, Commander; 
J. A. Sullivan, Senior Vice Commander; J. 
B. Mendenhall, Senior Vice Commander; 
James Hubbard, Adjutant; J!. F. Simmons, 
Officer of the r)ay; Joseph Xunn, ()uter 
Guard: AV. W. Payton. Quartermaster; Will- 
iam Frank. Chaplain. The Post leased a 
rooui over Keague A: CarFs blacksmith shop. 



j and held meetings there for about two and a 
I half years, at which time they had thirty- 
three members. Benjamin Shields was the 
j first vohmteer from Eichland Township who 
was killed during the last war. 

BfSINK.sS. 

The ])-Handle "Works, for the manufoc- 
ture of D-liandles for sj;ades, shovels and 
scoops, was originated by O. D. Gray, in tlie 
year 1880, and operated by him until 1882, 
when he failed in business. In that vear 
-Mr. C. P. Cole bought the works, and at once 
went to work and put up new buildings, with a 
ground area of 50 x 80 feet for the factory, and 
two store rooms, 16 x 2-1 feet, and 18 x 80, 
respectively, and an office in the front part 
(;f the last mentioned store-room. He also put 
in new machinery throughout. The works ai'e 
operated by an engine of fifty-horse power. 
The factory employs an average of twenty men. 
He has a branch establishment at Camden 
which gets out timber in the rough, employing 
five to six men, and one at Fairview of the same 
nature, and employing about the same numijer 
of men. The products of tliis factory find a 
market principally at Philadelphia and Pitts- 
burg, though they ship to all parts of the world, 
Birmingham, England, and several points in 
Canada being among their purchasers. They 
manufacture about one tenth of the D-handles 
that are made in the United States and Can- 
ada. The business is exclusively wholesale. 
Mr. Cole has built the business up entirely 
himself since coming to Dunkirk. 

The Dunkirk Elevator and Exchange was 
commenced by the present proprietors, Eeese 
& Starbuck, October 25. ISSG. The business 
is principally in grain. Their building is 
■40\60 feet in grounil area, and three stories 
in height. Uesidcs the ordinary elevator 
fixtures, they have two liun-s for the manu- 
facture of shorts and meal. Their business is 



!l]; 



3 

k 



k 

'31* 



if 

% 

'S '. 

,\v 

;ii' 



i^va-.n^T-"..-' 






""■"■a * *£*■* 711 -J^g^^ -tf fa «*-aM. nan Jaai^ari^X»Ma »i ay; ara»r.j.*^Tg:i 



B-Scia, 



•mi 

I 

i 



I 

Si 






9i; 









at thu rate ot" about 100 car loads of grain in 
a year. Tiie sheller ami cleaner have a capacity 
of 500 bushels an honr. Klevator has a 
capacity of SOO bushels an hour. They have 
a loading cajjacity of about 600 bushels per 
hour, and aim to elevate, shell, clean and car 
650 i^nshels an hour. The machinery i.s 
operated by an engine of twenty-four horse- 
power. They ship to Baltimore, Pliiladelphia, 
New York and Boston, but principally to 
Pittsburg. 

Bisliop Bros, and P. TL Albright, built a 
saw-mill at Dunkirk in the fall of 1868, which 
has been running ever since, but now by 
Bishop Bros. only. In 1870 a grist-mill was 
erected l,y Bishop, Beatty & Co. (P. H. 
Albright); in 1874 this partnership was dis- 
solved, since which time Bishop Bros, have 
managed the saw-mill, while the old grist- 
mill, in the fall of 1886, was tnrned into a 
grain elevator. It had two run of burrs, for 
wheat, and toward the last a run for corn. 
The saw-mill has a capacity of about 5,000 
feet ])er day, generally giving employment 
to five hands. 

There are also a planing-niill and hay-press 
at Dunkirk. 

The Milligan House is kept by William 
Milligan, the oldest hotel-keeper in Jay 
county. In 1855-67 he was the proprietor 
of the Pitman House at Camden. He built 
his present hotel in 1867, and it has a capacity 
for about thirty guests. 

Ellis Ullom has kept the UUom House 
(formerly the Holly) since April, 1885, at 
which time he came from Greenville, Ohio, 
and purchased of Ilial J. Evans. The hotel 
has sixteen furnished rooms. 

In March, 1S87. the Dunkirk Gas and Oil 



Company 'ivas formed, consisting of ( '. P. ("ole, 
president, Walker Monroe, secretary, Edward 
Hoover, Joseph Zehner, William F(.)orman, 
H. J". Evans, A. L. Gerton, William Manning, 
Kennedy & Macy, and Weaver & Son. The 
company commenced drilling about the 20th 
of April. 

Tlie Dunkirk Banner is discontinued. 

The physicians of the place are Drs. G. W, 
Fertich, S. S. Selvey and .lohn W. France, all 
regular, and James M. Anderson and Na- 
thaniel Crouch, independent. 

Among the physicians of the past have 
been, John M. Crogan, regular, who practiced 
hereabout eighteen years, dying in the spring 
of 1887: was also an efficient Sumlay-school 
worker, and a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal church. Charles Sherwood, eclec- 
tic, after practicing here a number of years, 
died in the spring of 1886. 

Those practicing law at presentin Dunkirk, 
are, J. J. Stewart and Joseph L. Carl, though 
the latter, on account of declining health, 
does but little in this line. He is a native of 
New Jersey, coming to Jay County in 1861, 
to Dunkirk in the fall of 1869, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1871. Has held sev- 
eral offices. A sketch of Mr. Stewart is given 
in the biographical department of this work. 

John M. Smith, now at Portland, and 
David II. Fonts, now at Redkey, once prac- 
ticed law at Dunkirk. 

James S. AVilson was the first postmaster 
at Dunkirk, tlie office being established 
February 2s, 1856. 

We are under special obligations to Messrs. 
W. G. Sutton, J. J. Stewart and W. W. Pay- 
ton for many of the foregoin;;- itemsof history. 



M> 



i 

I 
I' 



I 






206 ■ Hisroitr OF JAY COUNTY. 



^IM^gl*'*!^^™'^*^ 



■m«!M*EI 









SS 



(fl I -^iSMALLER TOWNSj*- , ^^, 






^.«> 




EDKEY, with a population 

of over SOO, is an enter- 

/«y prising village located 

l|'?'^ mainly on the northeast 

corner of section 23, 

^K^^v, Richland Township, 

-^"'*!3S^ und on the Pittsburcr, 



Cincinnati it St. Louis and the 
Lake Erie ifc AVestern railroads. 
The succession of names for tin's 
point is about as follows: Half- 
way Creek was so named from 
being " half way" between Port- 

3" )] land and Jfuncic, and from this the 

C first postotllce in this community, 

at the present Redkey, was named 
It was established September 19, 
1853, when Samuel J. Current was appointed 
postmaster. The original town plat of the 
present Redkey was laid out by W. IL Wade, 
surveyed by John C. iluiley, and named iEount 
Vernon. On the approach of the Pan Handle 
railroad, ]S'ovember 13, 1M)7, James Redkey 
laid out a m\ich lartror plat, on the east and 
north sides, and the place was nameil after 




hiin. Andrews" Addition was laid out Sep- 
tember 26, 1872; Ev.ans' Addition April 4, 
1875; and Redkey's Second Addition Januarv 
1, 1877. 

The village was incorporated in September, 
1883, and the first board of trustees com- 
prised S. A. D. "Whipple, P. I. Pa.\son, James 
Lyon, Jacob Crowell and Joseph Crisler. On 
the 29th of that month the board elected ]\[r. 
AVhi])ple, president, L. H. Zeigler, clerk, D. 
S. Hopkins, treasurer, and A. C. Horner, mar- 
shal. James Lyon was appointed president 
in 1885, and J. O. Pierce in 1886, who is at 
present serving in that capacity. Since 1885, 
Thomas P)ader has been clerk. The present 
trustees are, J. O. Pierce, ]iresident, John W. 
Redkey. C. W. Watson. John ^l. Buck and 
P. L Paxson. Aaron Fonts is the marshal, 
and Anthony W. McKinney the treasurer. 

The town, since the incorporation, lias been 
greatly improved, especially in respect to the 
streets and sidewalks. Hard, tlat stcjue from 
near I'luft'ton, Ohio, is used e.\tensi\ely for 
side-walks, and in this regard the village ot 
Redkey e.xcels all othei-s in the county. A 












M 



ta.M^g„.j^Tr 



^ »n-^»«JuJJ-^rg|M n 



Taa.aM.Bniiiiia<.arjaa.aaia.»aca-«' 



uiO.»J>ca^«.J 



.j..ja„j„af^ 



/ds'aT3'»D'3 



j^jijiar. 



SMALLER TO]yy.- 



ii 






I 






m 



IS* 



I 



M 
iff 

k 
1^1 



)§, 



tin' company has been organized, of which 
Isaac Gue is captain, and J. A. Horn and 
•lames Lyon liold other official relations. They 
have a good hand engine and hose cart. 

The principal tires in Redkey liave been 
that which destroyed Jay Bros." elevator in 
the spring of 1SS6, when about 850,000 
Worth of property was destroyed, and that 
which consumed Hart & Brown's handle 
warehouse in (October, the same year, when 
the loss was about 82,000. Both lires were 
accidental. .Jay Bros, immediately rebuilt. 

The school board consists of William I. 
Kei-n. president; Arminus Davis, treasurer; 
and J. S. McKeimett, secretary. Of the 
present school-houses one is a two-story 
brick, built in 1S77, at a cost of $1,800; one 
I'ooin to each story. The other is a frame 
building, erected in 1884, on the same lot. 
J. O. Pierce has been principal for the past 
eight years. With two assistants, they take 
care of about three hundred pupils. Theschool 
yeai- is seven months in e.'ctent, but it is only 
during the winter months that school is also 
kept in the frame building. The long period 
during which ^Ir. Pierce has maintained his 
position here, and his present popularity, 
speak more for him than could anything else. 

The Redkey Agricultural, Horticultural 
and Stock Fair Association was organized in 
1SS2, with A. "W. McKinney, president, and 
Joseph Crisler, treasurer. The association 
is a stock company. They leased a tract of 
ground of Mr. Evans, southwest of the vil- 
lage, whereon they have ever since held 
successful annual fair.-, the scope being the 
same as that of county agricultural societies 
generally, and open to the world. Besides 
the usual sheds and stalls, and a race track, 
tiu're are upon the grounds a floral hall and 
a hall for agricultural and horticultural e.\- 
hibits. The present officers are, John A. 
sident; A. W. McKinney, vice 



president; H. A. .Vndrew, secretary; .Tosepli 
Crisler, treasurer; ami .1. W. Hoppes, general 
superintendent. 

The Redkey Fla.x Mill was c.-tablished Ijy 
James S. McKennett, the present proprietor, 
in the spring of 1881, when he erected a 
building 46x60 feet in ground area. The 
works now consists of a full equipment of flax 
machinery, operated by an entrine of thirty- 
horse power. The proprietor ships flax, flax- 
tow and moss. He tinds a market for the 
bagging-tow in St. Louis, and for the moss 
in the Eastern cities. 

The Redkey Handle Works was established 
in July, 1883, by the present proprietor, M. 
A. Brown. Until August, 1887, C. B. Hart 
was associated with him. The main building 
is 30 .\ 72 feet. The shed on the east side is 
1-1 X 60 feet, and that on the west side 18 x 50 
feet. The warehouse, erected in the spring 
of 1886, is 18 X 60 feet in floor area. Mr. 
Brown manufactures round handles for forks, 
shovels, hoes, rakes and brooms, his market 
being in the eastern cities. An average of 
twelve men are employed, who turn ont more 
than a million handles in the year. Tlie 
timber used is white ash, except for broom- 
jiandles, for which bass-wood is used. The 
handles are sawed out directly from the logs 
in the rough. Engine, sixty-horse-power. 
Before coming to Redkey, 'Mr. Brown was a 
spoke and handle manufacturer at Upper 
Sandusky, Ohio. 

Besides the above mentioned, there are also 
a saw-mill and an elevator at Redkey. 

The Redkey Gas and Oil ]\[ining Associa- 
tion was organized in I)ecember, 1886, as a 
stock company, with So, 000 capital. A. W. 
McKinney, president; George Edger. secre- 
tary; and M. A. Brown, treasurer. They 
commenced drilling about the flrst of May, 
1SS7. 



I TaSSQfs^^i 



j?ii_,ia~aj_Ji 



,M^«„JBM-.«p.«mJ,M,B, ji„.3,ai„» „j ,u„c„a„a^«i,;a T 



JIISTOBY OF JAY COUNTY. 



y^ 



The Kedkey Banner is published liy H. 
Oliver. See chapter on the Press. 

Messrs. Oliver and David H. Fonts are 
practicing attorneys at Redkey; the former 
has been here tor one year, and the latter two 
or three years. 

Thomas Dragoo has been admitted to the 
bar, bnt does not practice. 

The present physicians are, Drs. G. W. 
Slieplierd, regular, whose sketch in full 
appears on another page; M. F. Conner, 
regular; B. J. Clevenger, regular; I. T. Sage 
and F. R. Stiers, eclectic. Dr. Conner came 
here about 1879 or 1880; Sage, in 1881; 
Clevenger, 1880 or 1881; Siers, in 1885. 

Among the physicians of the pa?t have been 
Drs. John A. Henning, eclectic, who was a 
successful practitioner here for about fifteen 
years; also followed milling and farming, etc., 
and in 1881 or 1882, went to Garnett, Kansas; 
R. P. Davis, regular, 1869 to 1879, now in 
Portland; Williams, regular, who prac- 
ticed here three or four years and died in the 
ann_y; D. C. llariison, a good surgeon, from 
Ohio, who was a drinking man and finally 
committed suicide by taking chloral hydrate. 

The High-Street Hotel is neatly kept by 
Joseph Burgess, who has been in the hotel 
business for twenty-one years. Coming here 
in December, 1883, he found this house badly 
run down in its reputation, but he soon made 
it first-class. His sense of order, neatness, 
and promptness is very high. One rare 
(jualitv he has. mimely, in cold weather he 
keeps a hot fire with ])lenty of ventilation. 
Also, his distinct utterance evinces him to be 
a man of determination and higli moral cul- 
ture. 

The (\>ntral Hotel has had sevei'al names 
and as many ])roprietors during its existence. 
Since March 15, 1887, Albert Cloi-e has had 
the management of the Central. 

The Bank of Redkev was established Ancr- 



ust 16. 1886, by Nathan Cadwallader, of 
Union City, Indfana, and George N. Edger, 
in a tine two-story brick building which they 
erected on the southwest corner of Main and 
High streets, at a cost of about 85,000, in- 
cluding lot, safe and fi.xtures. The ofiiee is 
unusually neat and beautifnl. The individual 
responsibility of the bankers is 8100,000, and 
they do a general banking and exchange 
business. 



Half-way Lodtje F. cfc ^-1. J/., No. 29S, 
began under dispensation granted by Grand 
Master John B. Fravel May 26, 1863. J une 
17 following, at the convocation. Gen. J. P. 
C. Shanks was the Special Deputy Grand 
Master for the work of initiation. The officers 
under the dispensation were William Is'. Cur- 
rent, Worshipful Master ; Henry A. Coons, 
Senior Warden ; George W. Current, Junior 
Warden; David M. IS'orris, Treasurer; Thomas 
J. Dragoo, Secretary ; William P. Current, 
Senior Deacon ; Jolm C. Xorris, Junior 
Deacon ; George E. Coons, Tyler. The other 
members were Elijah E. Harber and John and 
Peter Current. May 25, 1864, a charter was 
granted, and on tlie 18th of the following 
month the following officers were installed at 
Farmland: G. W. Current, Worsliipful !Mas- 
ter ; Henry A. Coons, Senior Warden ; Henry 
O. Current, Junior Warden; J. W. Current, 
Treasurer; Jolin Current, Secretary; G. E. 
Coons, Senior Deacon ; J. C. ^.'or^is, Junior 
r)eacon ; W. P. Current, Tyler. 

The worshipful masters from the first have 
been William X. Current, G. ^V. Current, 
Thomas J. Dragoo, Janus .McKinty, John A. 
Henning, James K. P. Current, and for a 
number of years ]iast, G. "\\'. Sheplierd. 

The present menibershi]) is thirty-eight, 
and the officers are : (t. W. Shepherd, Wor- 
shiiiful Master: 15. .1. Clevonirer. Senior 



i?r> 



m 










i 



al; 



i.i: 



;l; 



^\;lrllen; J. G. Andrew, .Junior Wardtn : 
LlinfT DeArman. Treasurer ; M. JjaJer, Sec- 
ret.-irj ; George Ertle, Senior Deacon ; John 
A. r'ariler. Junior Deacon ; and William H. 
Eii-liardson, Tyler. 

>-rrant Lodge jVo. JJ5, I. (>. 0. I''., was or 
gauized Sej>teinber2, 1869, with thirteen mem- 
bers, and the following officers: E. P. Davis, 
Kohle Grand ; J. A. Henning, Vice Grand ; 
W. C. Pyle, Eecording Secretary ; J. II. 
Denton. Permanent Secretary ; E. A.Andrew, 
Treasurer. The present membership is twenty- 
eight, and the officers : J. T. Eees, Noble 
Grand ; E. King, Vice Grand ; A. Mahan, 
Eecording Secretary ; W. C. Pyle, Permanent 
Secretary; Isaac Keesure, Treasurer. Trustees 
— il. A.Brown, J. M. Crisler, and I. T. Sage. 
Value of lodge property, §1,000. 

Ali'xanih'v Trirnhle Post, G. A. /'., No. 
2LJ, was organized in 1SS3, by Mustering 
(->fficer J. P. C. Shanks, with eighteen mem- 
bers. The tirst officers were A. J. AVilliamson, 
Commander; AV. H. Eichardson, Senior Vice 
Commander; .Joseph Blackburn, Junior Vice 
Commander ; J. A. Coons, Chaplain ; Isaac Goe, 
Officer of the Day; B. F.Pa.xson, Officer of the 
Guard; D. C. Harrison, Adjutant; G. W. 
Shepherd, Surgeon ; il. V. Coons, Quarter- 
nia.--ter. The present membership is thirty- 
six, and the officers : George W. Sliei)lierd, 
Commander; Wilson White, Senioi- Vice 
Commander ; .John Barnell, .Junior Vice 
Commander ; A. W. Eoberts, Chaplain ; Mat- 
thew Atkinson, Adjutant ; Isaac Goe, Officer 
of the Day ; Ner Gaunt, Officerof theGuard ; 
•J. W. Evans, Surgeon; M. V. (,'oons, Quarter- 
muster; and W. 11. Ilichardson, Assistant 
Inspector. The I'ost meets in the town hall. 
By con,~iderable eti'ort. especially upon the 
part of Mr. James Ecdkey. the village has 
been kept as a tenipiM-ance place. First the 
Good Templars hail an or;_Miiization here, in 
wliieli William 1. Kern, K.^bert .\udrew. 



Thomas Dragoo, S. J. Current, G. 11. Faulk- 
ner and others were leading spirits, and more 
recently there are the Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union and the Youncr Ladies' 
Christian Temperance Union, both of which 
meet weekly, and keep up a lively interest. 
The official members of these are Mesdames 
Mollie and Ella Fiers, May McKennett, Mrs. 
.John Evans, and others. 

CnURCHKS. 

Jlethodtst Episcopal Church. — When Mr. 
Evan Evans settled here in 18-43, he found a 
class of eight members meeting at James 
E wing's, the class-leader. He is not certain 
just liow long previously the class was organ- 
ized. Among the first preachers were Eevs. 
George W. Bowers, who is still living in this 
part of Indiana, Sales, Campbell and Black. 
The preaching was at Ewing's residence, and 
afterward also at the residence of Mr. Evans. 
The latter soon built a heweil-log school- 
house, which was also used for religious meet- 
ings. The next was a frame school-house, 
now used for thePanHandledepot, and liually 
the present tine brick church, 38 x 52 feet in 
dimensions, dedicated in 1867, by Eev. N'.H. 
Phillips. Its cost was ."JSjSOO. "Father" 
Asa F. Phillips, who has l.ieen class-leader for 
fifty years of his life, and for the last thirty- 
five years uninterruptedly, being now eighty- 
three years of age, is leader of class jS'o. 1 ; 
Asbury Eoberts, of No. 2; and Samuel Manor, 
of jS'o. 3. The stewards are John W. Redkey, 
< )icar Current, George H. Faulkner, David 
Boots anil Samuel Manor. James Eedkey, 
Daniel li. Suttmi. Thomas Eoberts and James 
Daugherty are local ])reachers. Sunday-school 
all the year, with about 175 in attendance, and 
.John ^I. Lake suiierintendeut. In connection 
with this church there was also organized, 
about twelve years ago. a Wonum's Foreign 
:\[issi..narv Sm-ietv. of which Mrs. ^{. E. 






ii 



I 



(Si; 



'Si) 




ir"" 






HISTORY OF JAY COUNTY. 



V. 



'L'f 



ii 









Eedkey is president. Tliere are at present 
t'wenty-fi ve members, wlio are actively engaged. 
The Chn-itian Church at Redkey was or- 
ganized Jnne 14, 1871, with fourteen members, 
at the residence of W. C. Pyle, who was also 
one of the first elders, the others being John 
E. ircGriff and James Hinker. The first 
deacons selected were James Anderson, Will- 
iam Morrical and George Coons. The first 
ministers were Eevs. Andrew J. Younce and 
Jacob Binson. Yonnce preached two or three 
years, and then Binson, Alexander Harrison, 
Abraham Glentzer, William D. Stone, Mat- 
thew Glentzer, and Benjamin F. Aspy, of 
Geneva, Indiana, is the present pastor. Present 
membership, 140. Elders — W. C. Pyle, John 
W. Ball and Levi E. James. Deacons — John 
Paxson and Joseph Whetsel. Sunday-school 
all the year, with an average attendance of 
105, and John B. Paxson superintendent. 
The honse of worship is a frame 31.x 48 feet, 
built in 1876. 

RICHLAND TOWNSHIP. 
The pioneers of this part of the county 
W('i-e, in 1835, Lorenzo Dow Hellard, who 
.'^fttled about a mile south of Redkey, was a 
a great hunter, and linaliy went to California; 
Jcii'l Wilson, who remained here until his 
death a few years ago; in 1836, J. J.McKin- 
ney, who is still living at Redkey; Jjenjamin 
and Caleli Manor, both deceased; David 
ilanor, still living; Isaiah Sutton, in the 
vicinity of Dunkirk, who died in October, 
1865; William Shrack, his brother-in-law, 
wlio died some years later, in this township; 
William Richardson, who moved to Iowa in 
1855, and died tliere; AVillianj MciSell^- and 
John Booth, also deceased; James Green had 
built a cabin in wliat he supposed was Del- 
aware County, but afterward proved to be in 
Jay County, before Joel Wilson, the actual 
tirsi settler, arrived. 



Joseph Roach settled in Richland Town- 
ship in 1837, and died in Missionri, in 1866. 

Esquire McKinney, the only one living, was 
justice of the peace from 1840 to 1852; Mr. 
C-oons, the father of William R. Coons, of 
Redkey, settled on section 35, was a great 
hunter, killing over 300 deer, besides several 
bears, and brought up twelve children. He 
died December 4, 1865, aged about si.xty- 
eight years; but his life companion still sur- 
vives, at the age of eighty-eight years, living 
with her son in Randolph County. 

Other early settlers were James Ewing, 
whose house was the earliest lieadquarters of 
Methodism; John Current, long since de- 
ceased: John Hoppes, who is still living, east 
of Redkey; Robert Andrew, deceased, whose 
wife is now the wife of Mr. Sparr; E. M. 
Cromley, Ira Sutton and Alfred Guttridge. 
Evan Evans, who came in 1843, is still a 
hardworking fartner near Redkey, aged over 
seventy years. 

M. V. Coons, now in the hardware business 
at Redkey, was the first white male child born 
in Richland Township. 

The first school in the townslup was taught 
by James Ewing, in a log cabin in the south- 
western part. 

Mr. William G. Sutton, from whom we 
have obtained much of the history of Rich- 
land Township, and especially of Dunkirk, 
remembers that when a boy he saw two white 
women approaching his father's residence one 
day, whom he at first thought were Indian 
squaws, as he had scarcely ever before seen 
white women! They were the wives of Ira 
Sutton and Alfred Guttridge, coming t(j 
visit his parents. They used a compass to 
find their way, and a tomahawk to blaze the 
trees so they could retrace the way home. 
William's father, Isaiah, for the first several 
years had to go three or tour miles south, 
making his i-oad a< lie went alon", in nrder 



ii,'! 



M 



ill 

n 



Si 



ii 



;3i) 

% 

i|i 

'Is! 



Ji -OT J3 ^'S^ ■*; p .- B gj^ .J ^ TJ ^ -ri '■J -J i=* a ^ J3.- 






Ma»naMa-oU,j» a"' 



g«a^J«!g!«» g'< 



^SfALLER TOWXS. 



m 



'[ai 



to get ■' out ot' trr^-wlilerness " far enough to 
find A road wherecjn to work out his road tax! 

One day, wliile tlie men were absent, Mrs. 
Sutton saw a deer, and, tliough she had never 
tired a gun, she took careful aim and shot, 
killing the animal. 

<Jf later years, botli Mr. Isaiah Sutton and 
his son William G., have done their duty in 
" working out " their railroad tax, as they seem 
to have always been foremost in getting a rail- 
road through this part of the county. See 
" Railroads" in miscellaneous chapter. 

Samuel Rook, whose widow still resides in 
Dunkirk, was an early settler in this township, 
and a kind of doctor and surgeon iti some 
cases of emergency, bleeding, setting broken 
limbs, etc. 

Richland Township, named by Benjamin 
JIancjr, was the la>t one organized in the 
county, the first election being held at the 
house of William Richardson, in June, 1838, 
with John Booth as inspector. James Ewing 
was elected the first justice of the peace. 
The first road opened led frotn Fort ^Vayne 
to Cambridge City. 

Dougherty & Daniel's Tile Works were 
started in 1882, by Current Bros., who sold 
to the present firm July 22, 18SG. In ground 
area the buildings are 20x225 feet. The 
company turn out an average of 12,000 rods 
of tile per year, which finds a market in the 
vicinity. 

JEFFERSON TOWNSHIP. 

The first settlers in this township came in 
183-1:, namely, Aaron Dillie, and Ad;un and 
Joseph Flesher. 'lln- last nanuMl died just 
before the war. In the autumn of 1^34 Joshua 
Hudson settled on laml afterward known as 
liaker Johnson's farm, and died in 1837. 
•loliu West, and Daniel Harford came about 
thi- ^aine time. In X(>vPinb,>r, 1S36. Peter 



Dailey and William Caqienter settled near 
Joshua Hudson. 

Dailey made consideralde monev in skins 
and furs. For one otter skin he ijot §8.50; 
and raccoon skins were worth §1 a piece. 
He and Alexander Stein went hunting one 
day, shot but six times and killed seven deer. 
He hunted so much with a certain favorite 
horse that, though turned loose, it would 
stay near his camp until he was ready to go 
home. One time he went home without 
taking the horse, and on going back six weeks 

j afterward he found the faithful animal still 
making the camp his headquarters. 

' During the year 1836 there also settled in 
Jefferson Township, John Steed, William and 
John Nixon, Jacob H. Sanders, William Hite, 
Peter Lane and Jonathan Van Schack; in 
1837, William Finch, John Bell, Anson Conl- 
son and John Rhodes; and in 1838, Timothy 
Strattou and Jacob Kerns. Coulson is still, 
living in the township. Nixon, Winters and 
Dailey remained in this township until their 
death. 

The township was organized in 1838, and 
Jacob Sanders was the first justice of the 
peace, and John Nixon the first constable. 
The first election for a full board of officers 
was held Apiil 1, ISS'J, at the house of Jacob 
Sanders, with Peter Daily as inspector; John 
Steed and Jacob Sanders, jtidges, and Peter 
Daily, clerk. The whole number of per- 
sons present w-as fifteen, only nine of whom 
were voters. A dispute arose as to the 
proper heading of the poll-book, and the 
election was postponed for two weeks. In the 
interim Peter Dailey went to Samuel Ruth. 
Esq., in Green Townshiji, who prepared the 
poll-book in a projior manner. An election 
was subsequently held, but the names of the 
officers elected cannot be obtained. 

The first school was tauy-ht liy Thomas 



I 



SB? 



i 
1 






■A' 






niSTURV OF JAY COUNTT. 



Jfs 



ii5 
ifii 



m 



W> 




Athy, an Irishman, in 183S-'39. in a cabin 
kiKjwii as Fincli's Scliool-lidiise. 

Tim township contains tliirty-six sections 
of land, and is drained pi-incipally by Brook's 
Creuk. The soil is excellent and will improve 
without any waste land. 

IS'ew Mount Pleasant was laid out by J. 11. 
Sanders, March 2, 1838, and Sander's Addi- 
tion January 1-t, 1840. lie named the place 
in honor of a Quaker meeting-house of that 
name in Ohio. William Hite, the first 
settler in the village, kept the first tavern. 
Being convicted, ou one occasion, of selling 
liquor contrary to law, he reformed. John 
Bell built the second house in the village and 
kept the first store. 

The Methodist Episcopal church at this 
place is a frame 32 x 40 feet, dedicated in 
1850, by Kev. C. W. Miller. At the time of 
organization the class numbered fifty-five. 

The Christian church is also a frame, 
28 X 36, built in 1855. The congregation has 
been in existence here since about 1840, most 
of the time rather limited in membership; but 
it now counts up over a hundred. Dr. T. S. 
Shepherd has been pastor here. 

Powers is a village on the Pittsburg, Cin- 
cinnati ct St. Louis Railroad, laid out in 
18()7, after the trains commenced running. 
There are a few stores and shops liere, a post- 
ollice, physician, etc. The Christian church 
at this place, a neat frame, 28 x 40, was dedi- 
cated June 6, 1880, by Kev. Isaac Jacobs. 

V.\m Grove church, on section 1, was built 
in 1873, on a lot donated by Ehvood Iliatt, 
and is used jointly by the German Baptists 
and United iSrethren. It is a hewed-log 
structure, 24 x 28 feet. There are now thirty- 
thri'c niemliers, with J)avid Ilarter, Class- 
len.ler. Rev. P. C. IVvlul,,!!. J'a.-tor. 

BEAR CREEK TOWNSHIP. 
In lS3(i-"3S tin- w.-i- (iiir with -lacksoii 



Township, and the first settlers of the latter 
are sometimes referred to, therefore, as tlie 
pioneers of Bear Creek Township. We will 
endeavor here to keep up a distinction. 

Uriah Chapman, and his brother William, 
settled near the middle of Bear Creek Tow^l- 
ship in 1835, and resided there the re- 
mainder of their days. Uriah's residence was 
on the place now occupied by Rev. James 
Scott, and William's adjoined on the west. 
Biram A. Pearson, who located in tliis town- 
ship the same year, moved to Missouri about 
1860, were he recently died. William Vail, 
who also came in 1835, moved to Texas in 
1883, where he was living at last accounts. 

Jacob Kliuger is said to be the oldest living 
pioneer of Bear Creek Township, and the 
next, Jacob Fifer. Mr. Klinger once paid a 
gold dollar for a bushel of corn, took it to 
Marquis' Mill at West Liberty, where it was 
ground and toll taken. 

Enoch Bowden, one of the first settlers in 
this township, was one of the associate judges, 
and died in 1886, in this township. The first 
Methodist class in Jay County was formed at 
his house. 

The firet store in this township was kept 
by Lewis N. Byram, at Bloomfield, near the 
south line, on the present Portland and Briant 
road. The first postoffice, called Bear Creek, 
was also at this point, established February 
7, 1840, with Mr. BjTam as postmaster. 
July 14, 1851, the oftice was moved to West 
Liberty, where AV. R. Coldren was appointed 
postmaster. The next year, however, it was 
returned to Bloomfield, but it has since been 
discontinued tliei-e, as the postoffiees at Briant 
and Portland are made to supersede the ne- 
cessity of it. 

The first settler on the Liuil>fi-lost. between 
William (Jibson and ^\"illianl Chapman, was 
Ira Towle, wlm cimir in the spring of 1^37. 
Three wriA'- aftrrw.-inl Samuel Tnwle s-'ttlrd 



j'a; 



I 

I 

i 
















'L'< 



P 






Hi 



i 



beside him, and witliiii the next year or two 
a large number of immigrants located in tlie 
vicinity, as John C. Montgomery, Harry 
Reed, George Axe, M. P. Montgomery, ami 
Aaron and Thomas Brown. At the same time 
Reuben Montgomery and David Antles settled 
near them in "Wabash Township. None of 
these are now living, most of them dying 
many years ago. 

IJear Creek Township, including tlie present 
territory of Jackson Township, was organized 
in December, 1S36, at the house of John 
Pingrv, when a board of officers was elected. 

77(<? Mtthodist Protestant Church at Mack- 
lin's was organized probably about thirty 
years ago, and worshi| ed in a log church here | 
until about ISSO, when they erected a ne.at J 
frame, 35x40 feet. The membership is now 
about sixty. Class-leaders, B. B. Boehm and 
William Smith ; local preacher, Frederick 
Ilirt'. Sunday-school of forty pupils all the \ 
year. A small parsonage exists here. Con- \ 
ference sits in August. Among the former 
pastors have been Revs. James Harrison, E. 
CodU an<l S. Stanton. Rev. B. F. Sturgis is 
W)W serving his second year as pastor. i 

1'lie Christian Oral Church, at Bear Creek i 
Centre, was organized about 1840, with about ; 
twenty members, by Rev. James Scott, still a 
residi'nt at the place. He was a preacher here 
for fifteen years afterward, and for the last 
eight j-ears. The first elders were Christopher 
Schuiuckand Thomas Ilift' ; deacons, William 
Chapman and James Wheeler. Present mem- 
bership, about thirty. Elder, liev. James 
Sciitt ; deacons, Monroe A. Glentzer and Jacnb 
Filer. Sunday-schiMil during the summer, 
with an average attendance of about twenty. 
]\Ieelings were lield in .-chocjl-houses until 
about 1S72 or '73, when a beautiful I'rame 
chuirh, about 311x40 f.rt in siz.'. was frecteil, 
at a coft of s7U0. 

Th.- United Brethren Church at Ko-'ers" 



school-house, on section 3, comprises about 
thirty members. Class-leader, Lewis Houser. 
Sunday-school during the summer, superin- 
tended by W. H. Whiteman. The society 
here organized many years ago, worshiped in 
a heweddog building, declined in numbers and 
disbanded, and in 1881 reorganized. They 
intend building a church this year. 

The Emanuel (Hanlin) Ei-nnij.'lical Lu- 
theran Church, on the south line of the 
township, is built on a lot donated by Henry 
Artmau, and was dedicated August, 1878, by 
Rev. A. J. Douglass. It will seat about 200. 
It is occupied jointly by the Lutherans and 
Free Baptists. The latter organized their 
congregation here between twenty-five and 
thirty years ago, and have had as many as 
eighty members ; there are now only twenty- 
three or thereabout. The Sund.ay-school, the 
two churches holding it in unison, averages 
over a hundred in attendance, and is superinr 
tended at present by Lewis Metzler. He and 
David Antles are the deacons. 

Union Chapel, Albright, at " Saints' Rest," 
in the eastern part of the township, was a neat 
frame, capable of seating 200, dei.licated in 
1880, and burned down in 1884. 

Westchester is a hamlet of aliout liftv in- 
habitants, situated on a high point of land in 
the southeastern corner of the township. The 
principal institution in the place is Griffith & 
Montgomery's store, where Isaac A. Griffith, 
of the firm, is postmaster. Houston & 
McDonald are the blacksmitlis ; the school- 
house is a frame, built about 1S6S, where 
thirty-tive to forty children are schooled nine 
months in the year. 

The Congreyational Church of Westchester 
is the immediate successor of the ■• First 
Presbyterian Church of Jay County," orcran- 
izeil by that zralijus missioiiai-v. Rev. I. X. 
Taylor', July 12. 1^41, at the ho'u>e of M. P. 
Montgomery, with ten members. It was 



J3» 

IS: 

r, 



i 



m 



(L*? 



i 



it'i 






known geographically as the " Liniherlost 
(,'hijrcli," being situated near a creek of that 
name. The tirst elders were Jacob Bosworth, 
]\[atthew P. Montgomery' and Harry Reed. 
The church was changed to Congregational in 
1854, at which time there were nine members. 
The present membership is thirty-five. Ehlers, 
Adonijah Hassan and Philip Stolz ; scribe, 
Sunuiel Gierhardt, who has the custody of the 
original record of the Limberlost Church. 
Sunday-school is maintained most of the year, 
with an average attendance of about sixty, and 
"William Logan is superintendent. Since Rev. 
Taylor's time the pastors have been Revs. 
Luce, Boggs, Joseph H. Jones twenty to 
twenty-five years, Marshall W. Diggs about 
four years, and Rev. Fred Stovenour since 
1882." 

Tlie original church building, poetically 
described and pictorially illustrated in Mont- 
gomery's History of Jay Connty, was erected 
in 1841, the first church in the county. It 
was burned down in 1862 or '63, bnt a neat 
little cemetery still marks the site! The present 
ciiurch building is a mile west, at Westchester, 
is a frame, erected in 1862, and will seat 200 
per.sdus. 

Rev. Isaac X. Taylor, the founder of the 
abo\-e church, as well as of Liber College, 
referred to elsewhere, afterward, in 185'J or 
'60, moved to southwestern Illinois, obtained 
a divorce fi-om his wife, moved to Nebraska, 
married again, and was living in that State 
when last heard from. His first wife resides 
in I'ort "Wayne, as does also his son, R. S., 
who is a prominent lawyer of that place. 

'J'/ie Westcfiester Preparfttive Meeting of 
Fr'hiuls was organized September 10, 1S74. 
Present membership, eighty-four, including 
the children; minister, J. G. Ross, who joined 
the sdciety in 1876. From the date of or- 
ganization to February, 18S7, Cyrus Stanley 
was the minister, at the last date he moved 



"W^est. The society belongs to the Portland 
Monthly. Sunday-school, with an averao-e at- 
tendance the year round, is superintemled by 
"William R. Ilatther. The nieeting-honse, sit- 
uated a mile west and a mile north of "\'Vest- 
chester. is a frame, 28 x 38 feet, built in 1875. 

Antiville is the name of a point two and a 
miles south of Briant and four and a half 
miles north of Portland. 

The Burr Oak Evaityelical Association 
have a fi-ame church on the road between 
Bloomfield and Briant, erected in 1876, on alot 
donated by Levi Sager. The congregation is 
in a flourishing condition, having religious 
services every two weeks, an<l a Sunday-school 
every Sabbath. 

BRIANT. 

Even this village must have a postoflice of 
a different name, varying, however, in but one 
letter, the postoffiee being Bi-yant. The 
village is a creature of the Grand Rapids & 
Indiana Railroad, on which it is situated, and 
was laid out December 8, 1871, by William 
MeClellen, William R. Gillum, W. K. San- 
ders and William Carson. North Briant was 
laid out October 6, 1873, by Ezekiel Rowdett. 
The two plats constitute one village, the pop- 
ulation of which is estimated at about 300. 

The business of Briant is carried on by the 
following gentlemen: A. T. Lynch. S. Dixon, 
and Cart Wright & Headington (branch of 
Portland store), general stores; G. S. Lewis, 
J. S. Jliles and J. S. Robinson, grocers : J. T. 
Miles and Olney Whipple (the latter the post- 
master), drugs and notions; Oliver Karns, 
shoe shop; Kendricks i Williams, blacksmiths 
and wagon makers: J. T. Hanlin, Briant 
House; William J. To\vnsend. warehouse: 
Drs. M. A. Glenfzer, J. T. Milrs, O. S. Abel 
and James G. AVicks,— all rt-giilar except Dr. 
(ilentzer. who is eclecti<'; and the manufac- 
turers mentioned presently. 



J Si 



I 

.[a 



I 



m 

i 



; J) 

4' 



Cn»..,a;,.^.j^.^»,r=r: 



i^i 



s^j— ,t^3>::v«a«2r7 



p fc^-a <rJi'*a"-«»n^aB^«"'q *^i"a 



iMAI.LtJH rOWN^^ 



^m^ia^id^M^^s z\- 



I 



11 






i 



Jl 



<a) 



iii 



i!a' 



In the past. Dr. James C. Jay was a promi- 
nent physician here from IS-i-lto April 9, 1881, 
when he died from disease contracted in the 
army, leaving a wife and four children. He 
was assistant surgeon of the One Hundredth 

Indiana Infantry. T. G. McDonald, 

Poling, and Joseph Adams, all eclectic, have 
also practiced here, as well as J. L. Munsell, 
regular, some three or four years. 

ilfinhart & Sons are running a large saw- 
mill in the northern part of town, which they 
bought on coming here in the fall of 1873, of 
ilr. Rowlett, who had erected it a short time 
previously. The main building is 20x80, 
and the engine thirty-five horse- power. They 
employ live men, and manufacture lumber 
and shingles. 

Winch ifc Sons, of F(irt Wayne, built at 
Briunt, in ISSO, and still run, a good hub 
and spoke factory, where they employ ten to 
tweiity-tive hands, eight months a year, with 
a thirty-five-horse power engine, and turn ont 
about S.50,000 wortli of their products per 
annum. 

Henry Iluckeriede is the proprietor of the 
brick and tile factory, which he built in 1882, 
and where he employs three hands besides 
himself, manufacturing about 9,000 rods of 
tile per year. 

The public school-house is a large, two- 
story brick structure, in the western part of 
town, erected in 1883-'84:, at a cost of about 
$2,000. Each story is a single room. Two 
teachers are employed. Enrollment sixty- 
eiglit; average attendance, forty-five. 

■Lniies C. Jiiij J'osf, yo. 4SS, G. A. IL, 
was mustered February 26, 18s7. by .Mus- 
tering Officer, J. J. M. La Follette, of Fort- 
land, with sixteen members. J. T. !MiIes, Post 
Commander; Benjanjiii Fifer, Senior Vice 
Commander; Jo.-eph Fiiiiu'v, Junior Vice 
Commander; Oliver Kani>, OtHcerof the r)ay; 
J . M. Lonir, Otiieei- of the Guard : W. II. Pingry. 



Adjutant; A. B. Woodward, Quartermaster; 
Ale.\. iMiles. Chaplain. 

77ie Jl'runijrlicdl Latltenai Church at 
Briant was organized al)out 1874, with four- 
teen members, under the ministration of Rev. 
John W.Miller, of Buena Vista, Indiana, who 
moved here the same year. He was siu'ceeded 

by C. S. Finley, Nathaniel Frasier and 

Herrakl. They have no pasti>r at present. 
The membership comprises only ten or twelve 
voting members. Elders, S. P. and Michael 
Meinhart; deacons, W. L. Wiekizer and Will- 
iam Houser. The Sunday-school, superin- 
tended by S. P. Meinhart, avei-ages about 
forty-five in attendance. The church buildino-, 
31 X 60 feet, frame, was erected in 1876, at a 
cost of about $2,000, and was dedicated May 
12, 1878, by Rev. J. B. Helwigg, D. D., and 
Mr. Delow, both of Springfield, Ohio. 

The Wcslegaii Methodist t'/^M?YA at Briant 
was organized in 1885, under the ministrations 
of Rev. Aaron Worth, Presiding Elder, and 
Rev. R. M. S. Hutehins, pastor, a resident of 
Briant at the time. The present pastor is 
Mr. Barnum, of Indianapolis, who preaches 
here twice a month. Class-leader, Esther 
Callahan. Sunday-school all the year, with 
an average attendance of about forty, superin- 
tended by John Hart. The house of worship 
was originally built as a school-house, in the 
vicinity, at a cost of S600, and was purchased 
of the district by the ^lethodists, and moved 
ujion its present lot at the west end of town. 

PIKE TOWNSHIP. 
In the fall of 1829, John J. Hawkins ],uilt 
a small camp or caltin. on the northeast quar- 
ter of section 11, and on the 8th of March, 
1830, he moved into it witli his family, con- 
sisting of his wife Nancy and six children 

four buys and two girls. J[i-. llawkin- was 
follow.'d by Thomas J. Shaylor in ls.3(), and 
Mr,-. Sarah Ridlev, in 1S31. She had been 



^1 

ml 



!]i 



lai 



5^; 



'r--j--n J:i^gi»- J-iZ'-»a-c- 




irt 



(^i 












I 

I 

''.'at 

m 



tbo wife of six Imshamls, and after a time 
married the seventh liiishand and settled in 
Randolpli County. John S. irays, George 
Bickel and Henry AVelsh came in 1833; 
George Hardy, Wni. Bunch and Eli Long- 
necker in 1834, and William Clark in 1835. 
J. A. Ware, Jolm Kidder, and George and 
Heni-y Harford in 1837. iMr. Hawkins died 
March 15, 1832. 

Mays lived in this township until his death, 
about 1879. Longnecker also passed the 
remainder of his life here, as also Clark and 
Ware, — the latter about twenty years ago, 
[lerhaps. 

Jacob Sutton, an early settler who died here 
in 1886, used to relate that one night soon 
after he came here his dog became alarmed, 
lie saw in front of the house some aTiimal, 
and shot it while in the hou.se. It proved to 
be a wolf, and the shot had broken its back. 
The e.xcited dog caught it and would not let 
go nntil he dragged it into the house, where 
it was killed. 

Mr. Sutton's father, Samuel Sutton, is still 
living in this township, nearly ninety years 
of age, making his home among his children. 
Aln-aham C. is a brother of the latter. 

Pike Township was named and organized 
in 1837, and the next year the trustees were 
J ohn S. Mays, John "West and Whipple Cook. 
Henry Welsh was the first justice of the peace. 
1'lie first school-house wa.s built on John 
Kidder's farm, and Miss Lucetta Kidder 
(afterward Mrs. Waldo) taught the first school, 
commencing July 1, 1840. The first tavern 
was kept by Alu-aham C. Sutton, on his farm 
near lilufl' Point. The fir.^t sermon ever 
jircached in Jay County was<lelivered by Kcv. 
IJoliert Burns, a Methodist, ;it the Hawkins 
cabin, in the fiill of 1S3"2. 

-Vntioch, on tin' wr.-t sidr (if sectiiins 11 
an<l 14, was sm-veyed fnr a vilhure by Amos 
Hall, David Frazee and ( '. H.Clark. .Mr. 



C^lark named it after Antioch College, in Ohio. 
Peter Coldren kept the first store. There are 
now in the place Harkins ik, Ashley's saw- 
mill, Nathaniel Skinner's grocery, and eleven 
residences. Near by, on section 15, is a 
Methodist Episcopal church building, erected 
in 1884, 30 x 42 feet in dimensions, and dedi- 
cated by Presiding Elder Birch. Tlie society 
was organized in 1883, with only six members, 
which have since been increased to twenty- 
two, in full connection. Class-leader, Lyman 
Beebe ; stewards, Lyman Beebe, F. M. Bickel 
and Ulysses Hall. Sunday-school is kept up 
all 'the year, with Mr. Beebeas superintendent. 
Present pastor. Rev. S. J. Mellinger, who 
resides in Portland. 

Formerly there was a postuffice at Antioch, 
named Hawkins. 

Boundary City, near the center of the 
township, was laid out January 4, 1854, by 
Daniel Hiester and Joiin Langel. The post- 
oflice had been established there May 11, 1852, 
with Daniel Hiester as postmaster, which 
office he still holds. He is still also the 
principal business man of the place. The 
great two-story brick store and warehouse is 
kept by D. Hiester & Son; formerly, Daniel 
G. was the "son," and since 1883 Henry has 
been the partner. The senior Hiester also 
owns the Boundary City Flouring Mills, 
which was built in 1878, and commenced 
rnnning the following spring. Its cost was 
about S9,000. There are two run of burrs 
for wheat, one for middlings and one for corn, 
besides a set of rollers, which were put in 
during the year 1886. The capacity of the 
mills is about forty barrels of fiour per day. 

AV. H. Whipple owns the saw-mill, which 
was built in 1S79, by H. Losch. James Bird 
owns the tile factory. Dr. Pliiiip Dicks is 
the physician. \'ynul .Vriu'tt, who moved 
here from Jay City last sprinir. keeps an 
hostelry. 



;sj' 









'31' 



' ?'' > 



il3' 
■ ^1/ 

'J' 



'-1 --f 
?■'■■■'•• 






!.UAfJ.Kli TO]VN.S. 



i}r, 



Bi- 



ts ; 

m 



il 



i^i 



y/tc Refovined Church of Boundary City 
w:is organized at the residence of Daniel 
Hiester May 10, 18J:6, by Eev. Reuben Good, 
a missionary from Tiffin, Ohio, with about 
eighteen members; and the name was " tjt. 
Paul's German Reformed Chnrch." The iirst 
elders were Daniel Hiester and Coonrod 
Frickel, and the deacons, Isaac Decker and 
John Langel. For the first two years they 
met in private houses, and then erected a log 
church, which is still used; it is now covered 
with siding, making it appear like a frame 
structure. The present membership numbers 
fifty-six. Present elders, Daniel Hiester and 
David K. Knoll; deacons, Henry Hiester and 
Archibald McFarland; Rev. L. B. Clayton, of 
Salarnonia, pastor. Sunday-school is sustained 
throughout the year, with an attendance of 
fifty in the winter and more in the summer: 
Henry Hiester, superintendent. The pastors 
of the past have been Revs. Thomas Winters, 
Jacob Weaver, J. C. Colliflower, D. R. Taylor 
and J. Stuck. 

BInfi' Point, on sections 20 and 21, was laid 
out in 185-1, by L. J. Bell, I. N. Taylor and 
W. H. Montgomery. It was at first called 
luwa. December 17, 18-10, a postofKce was 
established here, named Yau, and David Gar- 
ringer was the first postmaster. In 1853 the 
name of the office was changed to Bluff Point. 
The present postmaster is A. F. Clapp, who 
also keeps a general store; has had the office 
since the spring of 18S6. C. A. Bochoven 
also keeps a general store. Dr. I. N. Rarick, 
who formerly practiced his profession about 
two miles south of this place, has for the past 
eight years been a resident here, practicing 
medicine. 

There is a new brick scliool-huuse at Bluff 
Point, erected in the fall of 188C, at a cost of i 
something over a thousand dollars. About 
seventy-five ])npils attend school there. 

CoUett is a small railroad villatre laid out 



on section 7, Felu-uary 1.3, 187' 



John 



CoUett, now deceased. Thomas J. Finch has 
been the postmaster since 1885. A. H. Finch 
keeps a general store, erecting, during the 
spring of 1887, the largest building in the 
place for his business; it is a frame, 22 .\ 80 
feet in dimensions. S. T. Michael is the 
grocer. Isaac P. Finch, since 1S83, has been 
the proprietor of the saw-mill, employing 
three hands most of the time. John Bech- 
dolt, since 1884, has run the tile factory by 
steam power. There are about fifteen resi- 
dences in Collett at present. 

Zion Chapel, of the United Brethren church 
(at first called Pleasant Hill Church), at Col- 
lett, was organized possibly as early as 1850. 
At present there are alxjut 126 members. 
Class-leader, A. J. Ashley. Sunday-school 
all the year, with about seventy-five attend- 
ants, and Marion Jack, superintendent. 
Pastor, P. C. Bechdolt. Their house of wor- 
ship is a frame, 32 x 40 feet, costing §1,000, 
and dedicated March 24, 1878, by Bishop 
Di.xon. 

Zoar Methodist Episcopal Church, on sec- 
tion 18, is a frame structure, 32x40 feet, 
erected in 18(38, at a cost of Si, 600. It suc- 
ceeds a log church, which was built in 1852, 
and in 1868 moved upon Mr. Bickel's place 
for a cooper shop, where it still stands. At 
one period the congregation worshiping at 
this place was the most flourishing Methodist 
society in the county, and the Sunday-school 
the largest. The present membership is forty- 
two, in full connection. Class-leader, Svl- 
vester Ross. Stewards, Thomas Hudson 
and Parley Glenn. Pastor, Rev. Forkner, of 
Eedkey. Sunday-school half the year, with 
an attendance of about sixtv, superintemled 
by Orange Pierce. 

The Fru'iulr Church, near iriuff Point, 
was organized in 1876. with about tliirt\- 
converts: ther(.' are now sixty. 0\'erseers, 






% 

I 

(is; 
Pi 

i 

i 



i) 



m 



lit 









S^a-aj^sr 



).:0 



IIIHTORY (IF ./.ir COUNTY. 



'Is 



I 



;i 






t^}.< 






Ji'lin CoUius, Surah Collins and Zeno C. 
Tliai-pe. Sunday-school about live inonths 
in the year, with thirty-five to forty pupils. 
They meet in a log house called "The Cabin," 
originally a dwelling-house, a half mile south 
and three-fourths of a mile west of Bluff 
Point. 

Otterheiii United Brethren Church, on 
section 28, is built on a lot donated by Aaron 
Bisell, and was dedicated in 1873. It is a 
frame, and will seat 250. There are now 
about forty members. Class-leader, William 
Wliitenack, who is also superintendent of the 
Sunday-school, which averages about forty in 
attendance, during the summer. Pastor, Pev. 
George H. Bonnell, of Collett. 

Mr. Bonnell has resided in this township 
ever since he was a few inonths old. His 
father, Williana Bonnell, immigrated to Pike 
Township in the fall of 1838, settling upon a 
farm southeast of Collett, and dying in 
August, 1879. 

Day's Creek Free-Will Baptist church in 
the southern part of Pike Township, was or- 
ganized April 17, 1873, by Eev. Asa Pierce, 
with a membership of about twelve. The 
present pastor is Rev. O. E. Dickinson, Pres- 
ident of Ridgeville College. Elihu Hodge 
is the class-leader. The congregation has a 
very fine brick church, 82 x 14 feet in size, 
on the southwest corner of section 29, on land 
donated by ]S'orman Lynch. The cost was 
§1,400, besides much labor not charged for. 
It is one of the best furnished church edifices 
in the county. 

New Pittsburgh is an old point at the 
southwestern corner of Pike township. 

SALAMONIA. 

This neat, enterprising little village of 
ISO in habitantsis situated neat the midillc 
northern portion of Madison Township, in the 
southeastern part of the c(_>unty. It was laid 



:iT„-: r^3Ji. 5 ?J\Ji-i^..AiZ 



out January 6, 1839, as Lancaster, by Henry 
Abel and Benjamin Goldsmith, and surveyed 
by Daniel W. McNeal; but October 6, 1S76, 
when the citizens voted in favor of incorpora- 
tion, the name was changed to Salamonia, to 
conform to the name of the postotfice. James 
White and George Stamps laid out the East 
Addition August 30, 1854. 

The first board of trustees were John B. 
A. Kants, president; Benjamin F. Harterand 
Christian Messner; clerk, G. W. Brake; 
treasurer, Lewis Beard. The present trustees 
are: D. T. Skinner, president; Samuel Benn 
and A. C. Warnock; clerk, W. P. Beard; 
treasurer, Frederick Messner; marshal, J. T. 
Ehrhart. They have a very nice town hall 
seated for 300 people. 

Salamonia postoffice was established in 
1852, and G. W. Abel was the postmaster for 
many years. 

Business Jfeii. — Brake & Beard, general 
store, which is indeed a magnificent one; Dr. 
David T. Skinner, drugs, groceries, and 
notions; G. F. Messner, shoe store and shop; 
W. J. Kraner, harness; Wehrly & Ehrhart, 
undertakers; William Gimbel and Matthias 
Bishop, blacksmiths; George A. Kraner, 
tanner, bought his tannery eighteen years ago 
of Matthew Atkinson, who now lives in Red- 
key; W. P. Wehrly, saw-mill; George Theu- 
rer, the obliging postmaster; Drs. D. T. 
Skinner, eclectic, and James A. Hutchison, 
regular, physicians; Elihu Richards, Kational 
Hotel; no saloon. 

The School-house was built in 1S77, frame, 
24 .\ 36 feet, two stories high, at a cost of 
81,000, where the average attendance last 
year was nearly fifty, enrollment, sixty. The 
first school board of trustees was appointed 
June 1, 1877, and organized three days 
afterward by alloting a three-year term to W. 
P. Beard, two years to George A. Kraner and 
one vear to John G. Mver.s, and electing 



-Ji^LrZ^HX-Jt^ 



!.a; 



■ i-li 

u 

m 
M 



!; 

iil 

iii 







i 






M 

'•ii'f 

m 






;[J) 



'.;v'. 



tliem president, treasui-eraiid scei'etury in the ) 
Di'iler named. Tlie present board comprises 
A. J. Brake, president; B. ¥. Harter, secre- 
tary; and Eliiiu Ricliard, treasurer. 

The Seformed Church at Salamonia was 
organized in 1883, with about twenty-si.\ mem- 
bers, which have been increased to ninety-five. 
Tlie elders at the time of organization were 
Christopher Shawver and Josiah Corle; dea- 
ons, Jacob Shawver and John S. Long. 
J'resent elders, "William Fickle and "William 
Stone; deacons, Xoali Bibler and Simon 
Kains. Sunday-school is maintained during 
the summer, with an average attendance of 
about eighty-five, of whom the present super- i 
intendent is "William Fickle. The church i 
building was erected in 1886, frame, 34x60, 
at a cost of §1,600, in the northeastern part 
of town. The Reformed church was first 
introduced into Jay County in 1S44, at 
which the church at Boundary — see Pike 
Township — was organized. 

Bev. L. B. Clayton, who organized the 
church at Salamonia and has ever since been 
its faithful pastor, was born in Slielby Coun- 
ty, Ohio, in 1830, where he grew np to man- 
Imoil. At the ageof twenty-five years he went 
t(i ]\Iiami County, and subsequently to otlier 
jilaces, in that State, and then to Farmland 
and Union City, Randolph County, Indiana, 
and since the spring of 1886 he has been a 
resident of Salamonia. He is also pastor of 
till' Reformed ehurcli at Boundary. 

Tl>e Evancjelical Lutheran Church was 
organized in 1858 or '59, witli about fifteen 
or sixteen members, under the ministry of 
Iu'\-. Philip Lockel. JNlinisters servingsince ! 
th.it time ha\e lieen Revs. Kreider, Beuzen, 
I''. ^\'. Frauke, Feger, and Joseph Wolf, tiie | 
])rosent pastor, who has just changed his resi- j 
drii.'c fr.im Stone Rido-e to Fort Recoveiy. 
'Miio. Revs. Fockel, Kreiiler, Benzen and 
Fnuike i-esided at Salamonia. Tlie present i 



membership of the clinrch is over 200. 
Elders — Jacob Kull and Andrew Dietz; 
trustees — Philip Leonhart, Asa Kantner and 
Henry Yager. Sunday-school of about forty 
pupils is maintained during the summer, 
with Frederick Wagner as superintendent 
most of the time. Secretary of the church, 
"William Heuss. The house of worship, 
26x 40 feet, frame, was built in 1868, but was 
not completed for several years. Meetings 
were held in it for nearly two years before it 
was plastered, and nearly four years before it 
was seated. It is just south of the village. 
They have a nice parsonage in Salamonia. 

The Methoilist Ephcojml Church was 
organized many years ago, built "Wesley 
Chapel, a frame 35x40 feet, a mile east of 
town, about 1865, and their present church, 
a beautiful frame structure in the southern 
])art of Salamonia, in 1878, at a cost of §2,200. 
Across the road east of it is a beautiful ceme- 
tery of about an acre and a half, nearly cover- 
ed with graceful tombstones. The present 
church membership is fifty-two, with L. "W. 
Lemasters, Jr., class-leader; stewards, Daniel 
Helms, C. Cope and HarrofF. Sunday- 
school with an average attendance of seventy 
or more, is superintended by L. "W". Lemasters, 
Jr. Local preachers, L. "W. Lemasters, Sr. 
and Isaac N. Castle. "Wesley Chapel was 
built on a lot donated by Isaac Rants, and 
shortly after the new church was built it, the 
cha|)el, was sold and removed. 

The Church o/" (.?A/v'.s< was organized about 
1851, by Rev. Thomas "Wiley; and ministers 
serving since bis d.iy have chiefly been — 
Elders' Joshua D. Wright, T. M. Beruan, 
Barnhill Polly. Aanm Adams, Dr. Richard 
Harter, "William Smith and Joseph G. Harter. 
The last named lias preached for the church 
here at times along f^r the last sixteen years. 
Messrs. Smith ami Harter are residents. 
Dr. Richard Harter, father (if Joseph G., 



;|s 


\ 


% 




ii ' 


I* - 


1 . 


a 


'3J ■ ■ 


ilill 


m ■ -- - 


!?! '■:■ 


11 


1 :--'^' 



i 









mi 




11 

E. 



i 
i 

1"' 

^1 



I 



I 



m 



m 
$ 



i-esided on the old homestead two miles 
northeast of Salaraonia until liis death in 
1873. The present membership is abont 
seventy-Hve. Local elders — Joseph G. Harter 
and Jiidsou Bailey; deacons — B. F. Harter, 
Amos llitchell and Jacob Bibler, Sr. Snnday- 
school is sustained dnring the summer, with 
an attendance of about a hundred. II. PI. 
Atkinson is superintendent. Revs. J. G. 
Harter and William Smith devote each every 
fourth Sunday to this congregation. Their 
house of worship, frame, 30 .x 40 feet, was 
built in 1861, at a cost of about s800. Pre- 
vious to that date they held their meetings 
in school-houses. 

TUE TOWNSHIP. 

The township in which Salamonia is situ- 
ated is called iladison. The first settlers 
were William F. Denney and John Eblin, in 
November, 1831. The former lived upon the 
land he entered for a quarter of a century or 
more, when he died, having done liis part 
toward the development of the county bj- 
opening a large farm. Eblin also cleared 
a tine farm, then moved into the Osage 
country, in Missouri, where he lost his pro- 
perty on account of being a Union man. He 
lied to Iowa, where he died in 1863. 

In 1832 came William Isenhart, who three 
or four years ago moved to Union City, In- 
diana, and Abraham Lotz, who became a 
prominent citizen of the county; but during 
the war he sold out and moved to Fort lie- 
cover}', where he remained until his death. 
His son, Jacob E., is the oldest resident of 
Jay County now living in Wayne Township. 
In 1833 John Fox, John Haynes, Henry 
Crowell and Edward Bell Wotten settled in 
this township. The year 1834 added William 
iloney and Benjamin Goldsmith to the set- 
tlement. About a year ago Money moved 
to Kansas, but he still owns his farm here. 
Goldsmith moved away many years a:j:o. 



Conaway Stone settled here for a short time, 
about 1832 perhaps, but soon moved across 
into Noble Township. During the year 1835 
there came Jonathan Huo-h, who still lives 
here, John Wotten, who soon moved into 
Noble Township and tinally to Iowa, and 
Thomas White, who remained here until his 
death in 1855. 

Later settlers were, John McLaughlin, who 
died in Salamonia in 18G0, at the age of 
sixty years; William McLaughlin and Henry 
Glassford, who moved into Noble Township, 
where they died; Hugh MoLaugldin, who 
died in 1885; Thomas Atkinson, who died in 
October, 1885, over ninety years of age; Paul 
Beard, who died in Greenville, Ohio, over 
ninety-three years of age; and Henry Abel, 
who arrived September 20, 1838, and died 
here in September, 1858. He entered the 
land where Salamonia now stands. 

Ed. Bell Wotten, mentioned above, taught 
in 1835, in his own house in this town- 
ship, on the farm of James Rines, a subscrip- 
tion school, the Urst in the county; and 
Abraham Lotz established the first Sunday- 
school in the county, in this township. He 
■was also the first justice of the peace. John 
Fox was the first constable. The first election 
in the township after its permanent organi- 
zation, was held at tlie house of Benjamin 
Goldsmith, in 1888. William Mai-tin opened 
a store in 1835-'36, and Abraham Lotz built 
a grist-mill in 1837, both near the site of the 
present Salamonia. 

The first road opened in tlie to\vn.ship led 
from Mr. Lotz's to Fort Recovery. 

Salem (Jordan P. 0.,) on the south line of 
the township, where sections 33 and S-t join, 
was laid out June 4, 1837, by E. G. and J. 
G. Campbell. A store, a .-^liop or two and a 
church are all there are in the yilace now. 

The church is Free-\Vill jlaptist, a frame, 
built in IS.^O, that will seat about 500, and 



hi 









n 



m 







'I; 

'■3>. 



is) 

(S'l 

VI t 






cost in tlie neighborhood of §2,200. It 
siipersides an older frame structure, probably 
tiie first frame church in the county; it is 
now used for a barn. The present edifice is 
38 .X 50 feet, finished in modern style, and 
was dedicated in March, 1881. The congre- 
gation has been in existence ever since 
February 27, 1836. At present it comprises 
about fifty substantial members. Ezekiel 
Clou'rli, Richard Matchett and Caleb Collett 
are licentiate ministers. Sunday-school all 
the year, with an attendance of 75 to 150, 
according to the season. James Matchett, 
superintendent. 

Poplar Grove Christian Church is not 
flourishing as formerly. It was organized 
May 19, 1867, by Elder William Money. 
The house of worship, a frame 36.\40 feet, 
was built in 1870, on a lot donated by him. 

Prospect Chapel, United Brethren, east of 
Pittsburg, is a fraine church. The present 
membership of the society is forty in number. 
Class-leader, Harrison Roe. Sunday-school 
most of the year; superintendent, C. L. Cul- 
bertson. Pastor, Rev. George H. Bonnell, of 
Collett. 

NOBLE TOWNSHIP. 
James Stone was the first permanent settler 
of Noble Township, arriving with his wife 
and eleven children September 10, 1830. He 
bongiit out "William B. Lipps, who seems to 
have been a squatter, and who tlien removed 
to (ireenvilje, Ohio. The next year Stone 
sowed one and a half bushels of wheat on one 
and a half acres of ground, and although 
blackbirds came by thousands during the 
season and destroyed much of the crop, he 
reaped and threshed thirtv-seven and a half 
bushels from that ground I lie entered the 
first piece of land ever entfcved in Jay County, 
November 0, 1832; but the very next day 
Thoniiis Scott entered forty acres, in the same 
townsliip. Stone remained a resident here 



n the vicinity until his death, which took 
place in the spring of 181:8, near the State 
line. Scott came in 1832, and died a few 
years afterward, on his way to Texas. 

Henderson Graves came to the county at 
this early period, — it is not certain what year. 
He and Conaway Stone some time subse- 
quently cut a bee tree in which were two 
colonies of bees, and from it they obtained 
ten gallons of strained honey. At another 
time they were out hunting, and when some 
distance apart shot at the same deer at the 
same instant, neither hearing the report of 
the other's rifle, and each fatally wounding 
the animal. Graves moved to some point 
west of this, in Indiana, as also his brothers 
"William and James, who came about 1831. 

Colonel Christopher Hanna, with a large 
fajnily — of whom H. P. Hanna was the eldest 
— settled in Noble Township in 1835, and 
afterward was a prominent citizen of the 
county, being the first sheriff", and circuit 
clerk 1837-'4:3, etc. He left for the west in 
1850, and finally died in Tama County, Iowa, 
March 23, 1859. 

xVlexander Money became a citizen here in 
1835, but finally died in Kansas, several years 
ago. Thomas Walling, who came the same 
year, did not remain long. In 1836 came 
Martin Ryan, who moved to Missouri at an 
early day, and Joseph Nevins. In 1837 
AYilliam Scott, who died in Iowa aliout 1878. 
The next year, Samuel Pi'emer. who was tlie 
second clerk of the township, remained a 
resident here until his death; William Har- 
vey; John Oakley, who went west long ago; 
and William Thompson, who died in Belle- 
fVmtainc a numlier of years ago. George and 



^y< 



whr 



Ni 



Town- 



shi]j in 1830, ai-e botli living, tlii< former in 
this township, and the latter in the vicinity. 
Ranscjni Denney, who caiue the same 3'ear, is 
now living in Mei'cer County, ( )|iio. Jonas 



M 



k 
m 



1^1 
ill 

ill 
i| 



Bj) 



a.) 



3! 



'.':i'- 



■ t'. 









L~JJi2;TL?ji;i»_'.;^-='_-.Ltrx.'i 



~La„aj«:as 






"7:i-*Jra-*« 



[ J w3^;aJg..,J,K»3a.^1.j-ac 



a-<J^-a'g':aiw»^ia*^'a-^'^^»Ti^>a^ •si'J^^PJ" m -fj^J^j^'-i -^^^ - 



in STORY OK JAY COUNTY. 



Jg'i 



'1-3: 



Ilurtzell, who also settled here in 1839, was 
a eitizen of Noble Township the remainder 
of his days, but died in Ohio in 1881, But 
th(; greatest character who came that j'ear 
is JJavid Money, who is still living in this 
township, and still indulges occasionally in 
his old pastime, the chase. lie has been 
pt^rhaps the greatest hunter in this part of 
the State. The lirst winter after settling here 
he hunted steadily for three weeks, killing 
from three to nine deer each day, except two 
days, on each of which he killed two. During 
that fall and winter he killed 120 deer. The 
next winter he killed sixty-seven within three 
weeks. During his life he has slain eighteen 
deer at nine shots! One season he tired his 
rirte thirty-two times in succession without 
mi.-^sincr, killing deer, foxes, pheasants and 
other game! 

In 1840 there settled in Noble Township 
A. Y. Waldron, who afterward became a 
prominent citizen and is still living in the 
eastern part of the township; and J. "VV. Miller. 

Thomas T. Wheat, a very early settler, died 
in Grant County, Indiana, between twenty 
and thirty years ago, and Isaac Hearn, another 
pioneer, resided here until his death, between 
1855 and 1860. Conaway Stone moved "West 
sometime in tlie '50s. David Teeters died 
in (Jhio, and Abraham Ousenbangh in this 
township. I5enjamin Cunningham came 
" when the Indians were numerous," and 
remained a resident until his death, in 1882. 
Elijah Cunningham, of Bellefontaine, first 
visited the township in 18-H, and located 
hrrc in 1852. Isaac Tullis, who settled in 
this townsliip about 1840, built in the western 
part one of the most magnificent dwellings 
in the county for that early day. It is still 
standing, but unoccupied. lie <lied in the 
neighborhood of 1870. 

.lohn S. ^McLautrhlin, born November 28, 



1833, in Noble Township, is the oldest native 
resident of the county. 

Noble Township was organized in Septem- 
ber, 1837, the first election being held at the 
house of Ja[nes Graves, who was elected the 
first justice of the peace. 

The first school-house was built in 1839, 
and the first school taught in it, during the 
succeeding winter. 

The first road opened was the Winchester 
and Huntington road. 

Bellefontaine, the only village, has a popu- 
lation of about sixty. The name of the post- 
ottice there is Hector, which, however, was 
first established three-fourths of a mile west 
and a half mile sonth of Bellefontaine, May 
28, 1851, when J. C. Brewington was ap- 
pointed postmaster. It was moved to Belle- 
fontaine in 1866 or '67. Present postmaster, 
F. B. Jellison, who also keeps a general store; 
Ashcraft & Jellison and Jack Docherty are 
grocers; Smith Stone, blacksmith; G. W. 
Beck, proprietor of saw-mill, which be built 
there in 1881; Charles Joseph erected a 
pottery in 1880, and has since been running 
it; Y. B, Jellison has also been running a tile 
factory there since the spring of 1884, when 
he built it; employs five hands, manufacturing 
§1.200 to §1,500 per year. 

Dr. Penike, regular, a young physician, 
was once a practitioner in Bellefontaine. He 
returned to the East in 1879. 

Brice is a fiag station on the Lake Erie A; 
AVestern Railroad. 

Daniel Forner established a pottery in the 
northern part of this townshi]) in 1861: it is 
still running. 

The Christian Union Church at Belleibn- 
taine was organized in 18(il or "62, and their 
house of worship, a small frame, erected the 
next year, at a cost of something o\er -§600. 
The books show a membership at present of 
about a hundreil or a little over. Elders — 



'A 

m 

k 



M 



^ 
% 



^ 
■k 



m 

'PJ; 




mi 

M 



m 

j1!J 







:<T,.Mn«B^« .iJ^j;p,i6„ j,nBrxi.-i; 



V^Mn a» JlntgS^^a^ 



Ensg^ c„a, 



,a^a»a,5rMg,«ie.0J r 



SMALLER TO]yNS. 






i^5 



(a' 



.J ) 

il 

i 

:^? 

'il-' 



F. n. Jellison. G. W. Kilo and Alfred 
Busiic)iig; and Smith Stone is deacon. Kev. 
Henry Gudgeon, of iliddleton, Ohio, is the 
pastor, who has served in that relation, with 
interruptions, for a number of years. Other 
ministers of the past have been Marion Mor- 
ris, "Woodford, Bikeman, Comeen, etc. 

The United Brethren Church at Bellefon- 
taino, is a frame, 32 x 46 feet, was built about 
1872, at a cost of about $1,250. Membership, 
eighty; James Longwith, class-leader; N. G. 
Mark, loc:d preacher and superintendent of 
the Sunday-school, which averages about 
fifty, and is kept up all the year. 

Mount Zion Church of the Evangelical 
Association has a membership of eighty-eight. 
Class-leaders, George W. Haley and A. 
Gegonheimer; exhorters, William Hale}' and 
Albert Graves. Present pastor. Rev. H. E. 
Meyers, of Fort Recovery. Preceding him 
in the pastoral relation have been, L. S. 
Fisher, G. W. Holderraan, B. F. Dill, J. D. 
Pontius, etc. The greatest revival was during 
Rev. Fisher's time. The Sunday-school, 
averaging sixty in attendance, is superin- 
tended by Adam Metzner. Their lirst church 
edifice was a log building, erected on a lot 
donated by C. Young, and would seat about 
100. In 1S81 this building was superseded 
by a magnificent frame structure, 30x50 
feet, at a cost of §2,000. A beautiful ceme- 
tery adjoins. It is in the northern ])art of 
Noble Township. 

Bethlehem Church, Evangelical Lutheran, 
near the last mentioned in the northern part 
of Noble Township, was built in 1856 on a lot 
donated for church and cemetery purposes 
by Nicholas Stolz. It is a frame, 26x36 
feet in size, and was built by Nicholas, and 
Frederick Stolz. Solomon Martin and Chris- 
tian ^ oung. It has now been long neglected. 
The membership is now aliout twenty, which 
is coM.siderablv weaker than it has licen in 



former yeai-s. There is no Sunday-school. 
Rev. Philip, of Madison Township, this 
county, was pastor here about twenty-three 
years, when, in 1881, he died. 

Noble Christian Church is on section 11, 
on a lot donated by William Kimball, and 
dedicated March 27, 1879, by Elder John 
Barkett. It is a frame, 30 x 36 feet. A large 
membership worship at this place. 

WABASH TOWNSHIP. 

This is the northeast corner township of 
Jay County, and comprises only twenty-four 
sectons, six north and south by four east and 
west. The Wabash River passes through its 
northern portion. 

The earliest settler was Peter Studabaker, 
in 1821, who settled on the south bank of the 
river, on the land now owned In* William 
Burke. As he was the first settler in the 
the county, much more is said aljout him in 
a former chapter. The well which he dug 
and walled was used until recently. 

Ortnan Perriug, who came in 1826, was a 
more permanent settler. See chapter entitled 
•' Settlement. '" The third settler here was 
William Gibson, in 1S34, who finally died in 
Noble Township. Hamilton Gibson came 
in 1836, died on the Limberlost, in Wabash 
Township, in the same vicinity, in 1879 or '80. 
His brother John is living on section 31. 

Peter Montgomery and J. 1!. (iillespie 
located here in 1837: the latter died many 
years ago. at Mollica. (Dhio. Also Reuben 
Montgomery and David An ties, in thes<uith- 
western part of the township, and have long 
since deceased. Later came Samuel Hall, 
who die.l a few years ago; Tlienphilns Wil- 
son, wlio now lives at Cincinnati; Gerir"'e 
Stults, who came in IS-l-t, and is still li\in^- 
here: and desse Siivdei', wlm settled here 
about 184o. and is still a resident of New 
Corydiui, a viLT'irnus ojil man. 






f 

(RJ; 



m 



4) 

II 

ill! 










'm 



^ 'ra Of-,^9r" 



•CT^~jr^u-y g! ^a?T.^3y^.Tr^r«^ 



[■S^Bi'-~S^c^Jai^a^^- 



'^ tt'^rt'Slt^ '^a J,!-^, 



HISTORY OF JAY COUNTY. 






I?) 

{^\ 

III 

'■M 

ti' 
'I- 






li'l'l 









The townsliip was organizeJ and the tirst 
election held at the house ofWilliain Gilison, 
September 23, 1838. He was elected the 
Urst justice of the peace, only ten to twelve 
votes being cast. 

The tirst grist-mill was bnilt in 1839 by 
J. 1>. Gillespie. The next year lie laid out a 
few lots where New Corydon is now located, 
but none were sold. Samuel Hall bnilt the 
first saw-mill in 1840, on the south side of 
the river. James B. Gillespie erected a saw- 
mill adjoining the grist-mill in 1842. 

The first school in the township was 
taught by Miss Elizabeth Montgomery (after- 
ward j\[rs. Thomas Towle) in 1844. The first 
school-house was bnilt of hewed logs in 1843, 
on section 5. 

NEW CORYDON. 

The village of jS'ew Corydon, which now 
contains a population of about 225, was laid 
out March 15, 1844, by Theophilus AVilson. 
The first hewed-log house in the place was 
biiilt by Jesse Snyder in 1844, and he still 
occupies it. 

The businees of the place is now represented 
by George Martin ifc Son and J. M. Minch, 
general stores; Amos Honser, drugs, and pro- 
prietor of "Wabash House; Houser & Saxman, 
drugs and groceries; Joseph Fravel (estate), 
groceries; Hezekiah Reed, caljinet-maker and 
undertake]-; D. P. Locker, harness; Adolph 
Muter, boijts and shoes; J. H. Ramsey, black- 
smith; Urs. William Brayton and Augustus 
Ralston, pjhysicians; J. W. Foltz. postmaster; 
and the following two mills: 

Welsh L<c Huart's gi-ist-miils. Aliont I'SS" 
Mr. McMackin built the mill, tirst to run 
only by water power. Steam power was 
afterward added by August Mackbouch and 
Mr. AVashwalter. Mr. Mackbouch sold to Mr. 
Remarklns, who subsequently admitted Philip 
Welsch as a partner, and February 5, 1887, 



he sold his interest to Nicholas V. Huart. 
Martin & Mowrey, proprietors of the saw- 
mill, manufacture bending timber and gen- 
eral hard-wood lumber. John , Carter first 
bought the mill at Salem, Ohio, and moved 
it to Camden, this county, and, after running 
it twelve or thirteen years, sold it to David 
F. Hoover and Albert Grisell, who brought it 
to New Corydon in September, 1885. In 
December, 1886, they sold to the present pro- 
prietors. 

Other business enterprises have flourished 
at New Corydon in early times. Theophilus 
Wilson, in 1845, put in operation a tannery, 
which was afterward owned by Tiniothv H. 
Parker and then by David Walter. In 1845 
also Almon Sparling started a cooper shop. 
Wilson was also the first Tuerchant, com- 
mencing in 1843, and the only one till 1847. 
The next year he sold to Sherburne A. Lewis, 
who afterward took C. J. Plumb as partner. 

Mr. Wilson, also in 1841, established the 
first Sunday-school in the place, — a union 
school. He was, too, the first postmaster. 
His successors have been C. W. Scott, George 
Stoltz, William H. Reed, Dr. Michael Stone, 
Amos Houser, Charles W. Mutli and John 
W. Foltz, the present incumbent. 

Mr. Wilson was the leading spirit in all 
religious, temperance and educational enter- 
prises while he remained. He represented 
this county and Randolph in the State Senate 
one term. In 1855 he moved to Avondale, 
near Cincinnati, where he still resides, as Mont- 
gomery said twenty-three years atro, " as 
deeply interesteil in Jay as though he were 
vet a citizen. " 

Dr. Everett Reed was a plivsieiiui here for 
many years, dying some time liet'ore the war. 
His oflice, a venerable little monument of the 
distant past, is still standing. 

Jesse Snvder put up the first blacksmith 
shop in 1844. 



m 



'I 

"A 



('3? 

'li! 



^ 



m 



ii 






'\3i 






ii 



1 1^1; 



I 



I 



I 



si; 



NMALLMR TOWNi:. 






Tlic postoffice at New Corydoii (called jVet" 
Coryilon to distinguish it from Corydon else- 
where in the State) was established in 18-14, 
when T. Wilson was appointed postmaster. 

The earliest minister in Wabash Township 
was Elder Robert Tisdale, a Baptist. In 
early times he carried a hatchet witli him, in 
the winter, with which, fastened to a pole by 
withes or lin bark, he would sit on his horse 
and out the ice before him, in crossing streams 
and low places. Sometimes he would make 
but tliree or four miles a day, camjjing out 
at nlgiit, or climbing a tree to avoid the wolves. 
He died at Montpelierin theautumnof 1856. 

The first church organized in Wabash 
Township was the Presbyterian, at New 
Corydon. Montgomery relates the following 
anectlote: In 1844 Rev. I. N. Taylor was 
stopping at Mr. Wilson's, who had just been 
repairing his log house by ceiling up the 
rafters. Mr. Taylor proposed that a Presby- 
terian church should be built there, and when 
Mr. Wilson made some objection he read to 
him these words from Hosea: "Is it time 
for yon to dwell in yonr ceiled house and this 
house lie waste? Go up to the mountains 
and bring wood and build the house, and I 
will dwell in ir, antl I will be glorified, saith 
the Liird." Mr. Wilson replied, "You have 
got tlie Bible on your side, we will build the 
house;" and immediately gave ilr. Taylor the 
ciioice of his lots, and started a subscription 
l)a]ii'i- Ijy putting his name down for i^SO. 
Tile jiaper was circulated, and persons signed 
work, lumber, grain, hauling, etc., no money 
being promised. Reuben IMontgomery took 
the subscription and he built the hduse, a 
frani,', for s250, without money. All de- 
nominations occupied the building. At the 
same time Rev. Taylor orgiiiiized tlie Presby- 
terian church, with T. Wilson luid Reuben 
Montgomery as eldej-s. There were only fmr 
or live member?. This eliurch was in the 



charge of a missionary. Afterward, the Con- 
gregationalists, having a majority, succeeded 
tiie old organization with one of their own, 
but they "went down" soon after the war. 
Among their first ministers were Revs. Bab- 
cock and Tisdale. The church building above 
referred to was near the center of tiie villa<;e, 
and was torn down about three years ago. 

The Baptists, called "regulars," " mission- 
ary" and "close-communion," organized a 
small congregation in early day, and held 
their meetings in the Methodist cliurch after 
that was built. Dwindling away, they were 
about disbanded, when the Free Baptists 
organized achurch, with about forty members, 
and met also in the Methodist house of wor- 
ship. They also " went down," abont 1869. 
Their ministers were Elders Robert Tisdale, 
John C. Skinner, Davis and F. Stovenour. 

Among the above four denominations there 
seem to have been considerable union and 
mi.xing from time to time, so that it is diffi- 
cult to compile a distinct history of each. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church at New 
Corydon was organized about 1845. the first 
pastor being Rev. John Peyton. It gradually 
increased in numerical strength for a number 
of years, and then declined a great deal. The 
past year has witnessed a greater degree of 
prosperity than has been enjoyed for thirty 
years or more. At present there is a mem- 
bersiiip of about fifty -eight; class-leader, 
Marion E. Cunningham; steward, George 
Reynolds. The Sunday-school is in union 
with that of the Lutheran church, ne.xt men- 
tioned, and is kept up the year round ; average 
attendance about seventy-five; George Stults, 
sujierintendent. The church edifice was 
erectedin 1855, a frame 3(!.\ 40 feet. William 
Burke is trustee. 

The Evangelical Lutheran Chureh of New 
Corydon was organized about l^SU, with 
twenty-one communicant?, under liev. C. L. 






il 

is: 



'ini 



;L"' 

i| 

)ia 

il 
I 

I' 



U 



;ai' 



1^ 






3] 

'J' 



m 



Whitman, who was succeeded in 1883 by 
Nathaniel Frassier, of Porthxiid, and he in 
1844 by Rev. Herrald, of Buena Vista, Indi- 
ana, one year, since which time there has 
been no pastor. The Simday-scliool is in 
union with tlie Methodists, above mentioned, 
and religious services are held in theirchurch. 
The Sunday-school was organized in 1880, by 
George Stults and D. P. Locker. Present 
number of church communicants, thirty-one; 
elders, George Martin and George Stults; 
deacons, D. P. Locker and Andrew Sunday. 
They have a parsonage at New Corydon. 

The " State Line " Church, of this denomi- 
nation, is situated in the southeastern corner 
of Wabash Township. It was erected last 
year, in the place of the one that had just 
been swept away by the terrible cyclone of 
June 3, 1886. 

New Corydon has a brick school-house at 
the western e.xtremity of the village, where 
school is taught nine months in the year, 
with an enrollment of about forty-live. 

Jay City, across the river west from New 
Corydon, was laid out June 7, 1840, by Sam- 
uel Hall and David Hite. Present population 
about fifty. William L. Adams has kept a 
general store here since 1874, e.xcept thetliree 
years it was owned by Jonas Wiest. Black- 
smith, B. B. Boehm. Wagon-maker, Martin 
Lithard. Peter Reinhard runs a brick and 
tile factory a mile south. 

In 1S5S John llall and Vynul Arnett 
built a steam saw-mill at Jay City, and in 
August, 1859, added a grist-mill. They sold 
to Darius an<l James Carr, who converted it 
into a stave and shingle mill. ilcCampbell 
& Hurgess were the next proprietors, who 
ceased to run the grist-mill. Afterward, 
iMcCarapbell ran the saw-mill alone untilabout 
five or six years ago, when it was abandoned. 

•lay City Chapel, erected I)y the l"i}itcd 
Brethren, is a frame liiiildinir, 3"2 x 4(3 feet. 



and was dedicated in February, 1872, by 
Bishop J. J. Glossbrenner. The society was 
organized in 1857, with only four members, 
by Kev. F. B. Hendricks, in a school-house 
at the cross-roads a mile south. The pastors 
who have served since are, in order. Revs. 
William Kindle, L. S. Farber, William Ivir- 
acofe, B. W. Abbott, A. Bieber, William 
Kindle again, J. H. Kiracofe, William Kindle 
a third time, L. T. Johnson, C. B. Beatty, L. 
T. Johnson the second time, Z. Parthemer, 
H. S. Thomas, and William Kiracofe the 
second time, and the present pastor. The 
principal revivals have been under the minis- 
trations of Revs. Parthemer, Johnson and 
William Kiracofe. Conference sits in August. 
Present membership of the church at Jay 
City, fifty-six; class-leader, William L. Adams; 
steward, AV. E. Burke. Sunday-school all the 
year, with an average attendance of about 
thirty, is superintended by George Burke. 

A Masonic lodge was once organized at 
Jay City, holding its meetings in the second 
story of Adams' store building; but it was 
suffered to run down about 1871. 

Fellowship Church, Christian, on section 
29, was built about 1863, and dedicated by 
Elder II. Graves, who preached here twelve 
or fourteen years. Other pastors have been, 
Elders Moses McUaniel, H. Cole, Ezra Swaim, 
etc. The present is Rev. Myers. Deacons, 
John Gibson and John Ewalt. Present mem- 
bership, about thirty-five or forty. Sunday- 
school all the year, with an average attendance 
of fifty or sixty, superintended by John 
Ewalt. The church was organized about 
1852, by Elder i\[oses McDaniel, with thirteen 
members, who held their meetings at the 
house of Samuel .Vrbaugh. 

AValniit (irovo Church, L'nited Brethren, 
on section 31, was built dnriucr tlie spring 
and summer of IssT; si/^c, 2^ x 40, frame. 
Jlemlxrship, almut twenty, w]\v have been 






m 



i 



!&5 



M 



SMALLER TOWNS. 



i 



I 



lloldi^^' their meetings in a sehool-lioiise a 
lialt'-Miile west. (")rgaiiizeil about IST'J, by 
Ilev. .Johnson. 

JACKSON TOWNSHIP. 

Jesse Gray, the noted pioneer hunter and 
Indian tighter, who settled north of the Lob- 
lolly Creek in 1830, may be considered the 
lirst to locate in Jackson Township. He 
afterward moved to Greene Township, where 
he dieil. In 183J:-'35 came the following: 
John I 'ingry, who remained on his homestead 
the rest of his days; David and William 
Baldwin, who moved west; William^Sainuels, 
who died here several years ago; he settled in 
the southwestern part of the township; John 
L. West, who died in Missouri; John Ktults, 
who is still living on the farm where lie first 
settled; Peter and Joseph Stults, who remained 
here the residue of their lives; and Enoch 
Poling, who died here last winter. 

In 1836 came Samuel Moore, who moved 
to Marshall County, Indiana, and was living 
when last heard from; John Stults, who is 
still living, on the pike leading to Camden ; 
William Chenoweth, who died here several 
years ago, John Oler, who also remained liere 
until his death; William Mathena; Adam 
Aikins, who died long ago, in this town.ship; 
and J:imes Marquis, one of the most promi- 
nent men in the township. 

Mr. Marquis, with his family, settled on 
the finri now owned by Ilev. Aaron Worth, 
April 11, 1S36. purchasing the claim of 
Micliiu'l Zimmerman, who lived in a s])lit-log 
house, to which was attached a horse stable, 
])ig-|»'n, hen-roost, etc. In ilay, 1830, a 
Met]i.Mli>t Episcopal class wa> firmed at Mr. 
Marquis" house, being the first i-eiigious or- 
ga)ii/.uli()ii in Jay County. The members 
were .lames ^lai-quis. William Vail. Jesse 
<4ray, Sr., I)avid and ^\'illiam llaldwin. and 
their wives. 



In June, 1837, ]\[r. !N[arquis commenced 
building a water grist-mill on that place, 
which was a few rods below the present iron 
bridge at West Liberty; the next year he put 
it in operation, — the second mill of the kir.d 
in the county. In March, 1839, he started a 
saw-mill, the first one in Jay County. The 
first temperance meeting ever held in the 
county was also held at Mr. Marquis' house, 
in 1837. This eminent pioneer finally removed 
to Missouri, where he passed the remainder 
of his life. 

In 1837 there located in Jackson Township, 
Silas Pingry, who is still living on the old 
farm; Edward Burford (Montgomery says he 
came in 1833), who had been a valuable scout 
in the war of 1812, and moved into Bear 
Creek Township, where he died in 184rl; he 
and his sons were celebrated trappers. George 
B. Bateham, who settled here in 1S39, went 
West. 

West Liberty is an old hamlet of about 
fourteen residences, two miles west of Briant, 
containing a store and a postoffiee, kept by 
John Williams, from whom many of the 
above items of history were obtained. The 
postoffiee is named Mills' Corners, after Isaac 
Mills, a former resident. Mr. ]\Iarquis was 
the original proprietor of the northern por- 
tion of West Libert}-, and William Bateham 
of the south side. 

The Sardinia Christian Church at West 
Liberty is a celebrated old landmark. From 
the gentlemanly Rev. W. il. Spade we ob- 
tain concerning it the following interesting 
items: The church was first organized in 
1838, by Ucv. Ilallet Barber, the zealous pio- 
neei' laliorer in the Lord's vineyard, who 
finally died at Kockford. Wells C.mnty, Indi- 
ana. The ministers serving this church since 
his day have been elders .lames Atchison, 
Emersoii liarlier, Moses McDaniel. Thomas 
Puckett. Tlioiiuis Aker. Samuel Stone. D. V. 






m 



m 









^w 



■a'-'-R*'iM 



4J-,WI»JB. 



B-II'vAtS'^W 



, a ta ■» g^ 'g. M =ffl'-^-^ 



UISTORT OF JAY COUNTY. 



ill 



Spade, Thomas Pingry, John Newhouse, D. 
F. Davenport, W. M. Spa<le and Benjamin 
Kemp, the present pastor. 

''J'he society was organized in the house of 
Jolm Pingry, and they held their meetings 
there for a number of years, and then in a 
log school-house until the first frame church 
was erected, in 1853 or '54:, 30 x 40 feet in 
dimensions, which was burned down by acci- 
dent in 1875. The next year the present 
hou.ie of worship, 33x45 feet in size, was 
built, at a cost of §1,500. Silas Pingry is 
the only surviving member of this church. 
The present membership is about 350! El- 
ders — George "\Y. Hale, Ephraim Overmeyer 
and David Chaney; deacons — Jesse Downey 
and W. B. Northern. Sunday-school of about 
eighty-four j)upils, is superintended by G. 
W. Hale. 

Union Chapel, United Brethren, near the 
middle of the southern portion of Jackson 
Township, was bnilt in 1878-'79, on a lot 
donated by Thomas Wells, and is the place of 
meeting of a prosperous church. It was 
dedicated January 25, 1880, by Rev. Elias 
Counsellor. It is a frame, 32 x 44 feet. 

Oakland Church, Methodist Episcopal, is 
near the western line of the township. 

I'olingtown is a point tiiree miles west of 
AVe.-t Liberty. 

Ivit is a pdStotiice in the soutliern part, on 
the Camden Pike. 

Crillum was formerly a postoffice a little 
east of Kit. 

Shick Church. "Wesleyan Methodist, is in 
the southern part of Jackson Township. The 
society intend building a house of worship 

Sdoil. 

The tirst marriage in .lackson Township 
Mas that of Addison D. May and Lucinda 
Pingry, XovemberO, 1834, by William Odle, 
Ks.|., of Deerfield. 

The tirst death was that of A.-iron Kigby 



in September, 1837. The coffin was made of 
puncheons, by Joshua Bond. 

Silas Pingry was a justice in this township 
for seventeen years. He married two pairs 
of twin sisters out of the same family! The 
first name of each of the husbands was John. 

In 1857-'58 Abel Lester ran a pottery in 
Jackson Township. 

Jackson Township assumed a separate or- 
ganization on the first Monday of April, 
1839, when a board of officers were elected. 

M. W. Montgomery, in his little history, 
relates the following circumstance: " During 
a thaw in the winter of 1837-'38, James 
Snow, father of Dr. B. B. Snow, then about 
sitxy years old, who lived si.x miles northwest 
of Portland, started on foot to Camden to 
procure some tobacco. He was thinly clad, 
and the weather began to turn colder, and to 
snow, which, on his return, made him quite 
wet, and also concealed the trace be was fol- 
lowing. There remained then only the blazes 
on the trees, but these were soon covered by 
the snow, and he lost the track entirely. 
Finding that he was sufl'ering from the cold 
despite all his exercise, he endeavored to re- 
trace his steps to Camden. Tiiis he found 
very tedious work, and soon impossible, on 
account of the darkness. Becoming alarmed 
for his safety, he wandered about and called 
loudly for aid, but received no answer. By 
this time he was discouraged and exhausted. 
He had waded across runs and low places 
until his lower extremities were very wet; 
his clothing was freezing upon him. and he 
had eaten nothing since early in the morning. 
He was forced to choose between an efibrt to 
save liis life by exercising all night or sub- 
mit to his fate. Being drowsy, he was 
strongly inclined to tliu latter course. Fin- 
ally he sought a clear, level place betw-een two 
large trees, and there continued walking and 
running froui one to the other until morn- 



■SJi 



;»1( 
'I' 



31) 



i 
i 



i 



■,'Mi 



i 
ii 

"J 

'I 






i 



'I 
I 



'ill 

;L5 



i 

iii 
II 



2^! 
-Si' 



.s.i/ALJj'JJi ruwys. 



ing! His family, supposing he w:is lost, pro- 
ciirij(l the assistance of some neighbors, and 
at daylight went in search of liim. About 
nine o'clock in the forenoon they found him, 
crawling on liis back track an<l badly fro;ieii. 
Pie was a long time recovering." 

GREENE TOWNSHIP. 

An e.'cpert hunter and noted pioneer, named 
Thomas J. Shaylor, was the first settler in 
this township, in 1833. xVbout the year 1835 
came "William and Greenbury CofHn, John 
Kijje and Bennett Goodson; in 1836 came 
Nathan Perry, "William Bach, Samuel Routh, 
Henry De Long, Sr., Joseph Hiatt, Elon 
Ewers and George P. Piles; in 1837, G. C. 
Whiteman; in 1838, Jacob Duggan and Jacob 
Hisor. Shaylor died near Camden. Xone 
of the above are now supposed to be living. 
Timberlake moved away. "Wliiteman was a 
Methodist minister and probate judge from 
183'J to 1852, when the office was abolished. 

This township was organized in 1838. The 
first justice of the peace in the township was 
Sanuiel Routh. He and C. I. Timberlake 
being from Greene County, Ohio, named the 
township in honor of that county. On Mon- 
day, April 1, 1839, the first election was held, 
at which a full board of officers were elected, 
at the house of Joseph De Long. At this 
election Joseph De Long, Sr., was inspector; 
J. Timberlake and Joseph Hiatt, judges; 
Henry De Long, Sr., and Henry Robinson, 
clerks. The following officers were elected: 
Trustees, Samuel Routli, Henry De Long, Sr., 
Henry Robinson; clerk and treasurer, C. L 
Timberlake; overseers of the poor, Geoi-go C. 
"Whitenian, Bennett Goodson; fence viewers, 
Sanuiel Routh, Henry Robinson; supervisor, 
Samuel Routh. T!io second jtistice of the 
peace was C. I. Tinibcrlakf, with (ieorge P. 
Piles as constaljle. 

On the 6th of April, 1S8'.), the trustees met 



and divided the township into three road 
districts. The supervisors appointed were as 
follows: Road District No. 1, Christopher I. 
Timberlake; No. 2, Samuel Rnuth; No. 3, 
William Bunch. 

The following was duly recni-ded under date 
of November 27, 1839: "xVt a meeting of 
the trustees, it was ordered that William Jones 
and Benjamin J. Gillam should open that part 
of the road running across the northeast cor- 
ner of the township, which road was not known 
to the Board at the April meeting, neither 
were the above men known to them." 

At the spring election of 18-10, there were 
twenty-si.x votes cast; at the November elec- 
tion, twenty-two votes, of which thirteen were 
for Van Buren, and nine for Harrison. 

Rev. "Wade Posey, who was then on the 
Winchester Circuit of the Methodist Episcopal 
Ch)irch, preached the first sermon in the 
township, at Rev. G. C. Whiteman's. (See 
also conclusion of chapter on "Settlement.") 

The first school in the township was taught 
in the winter of 1845-'i6, in a school-house 
near James Whaley's. 

Greene is a hamlet containing a store, post- 
office, two churches, saw-mill, etc. The post- 
oflSce was established May 22, 1862, with John 
Strieker as the postmaster. 

Blaine is a flag station on the Lake Erie & 
Western Railroad four and a half miles south- 
west of Portland, platted on ten acres of 
ground by R. T. Hammons in 1SS3. Moses 
Johnson is the merchant and deputy post- 
master of the place. A steam saw-mill is 
operated by William Primer, the proprietor. 
A handle and fork factory is operated by its 
owner, Emerson Blackmoro, who is also tlie 
postmaster. Blaine has abcmt fourteen fami- 
lies. 

Willow Cha])el. .Mctlio.list Episcopal, was 
built on a lot donated by William Campbell, 
and dedieateil Jun,' 16, 1'579, by \li-\-. E. Earns. 









ii 










5sr;;sfj,*_,jJa 



a^'a^^=''-it^'^ 



S25-f5J5525 



"-l^Tl-^Ti 



iiLSTdur OF JAY coryrr. 



m 



Ait 

'.an 



m 



"a 






i 



i 

>ni! 
$\ 

(la; 



It is a frame building, largo enough to .seat 
iiliout 250 persons. 

Union Methodist Episcopal Church is a 
frame building, 32 x 40 feet, seating 200, and 
was dedicated in the fall of 1872, by Rev. N. 
H. Phillips. 

Mount Zion Methodist Piotestant Cliurch 
is a log building, erected in 1884. There are 
twenty-eight members here, ministered to by 
llev. B. F. Sturgis. Mr. Corkwell is class- 
leader and Sunday-school superintendent. 

Christian Chapel was built on a lot donated 
by James Dugan, Sr. It is a frame building, 
30x40 feet. 

The United Brethren CInircli, on the south- 
west corner of section 29, is an old frame 
building, still occupied by the society. 

Hopewell United Brethren Church near 
Greene postotEce, was erected in 1861. 'I he 
sijciety is quite strong, numbering 104. The 
present pastor is Rev. P. C. Bechdolt; class- 
leader, George Hogeland. 

KNOX TOWNSHIP. 

The first settler in this township was John 
Brooks, in 1824. (See first chapter.) At first 
he built a small house near the present resi- 
dence of Jacob Gannt. Here, his son Allen, 
was born March 4, 1824, which was the first 
birth among the settlers in the township. In 
November, 1836, Adam Zigler cauic into the 
township as the second settler. In 1837 
came John and Joseph Gaunt, Michael Ro- 
laiul, Joshua Bowen and William White. In 
1838, came Minor Dye, William Hoskins and 
Seth Armitage; in 1839, A. 15. Beard and A. 
C. iSinith; in 1840, James Spencer; in 1841, 
John Giger, Sr., John Bergdoll, and Joseph 
Whitacre. 

Allen Brooks is deceaseil, but his widow is 
still living in this township. 



The first oreliard in the county was raised 
from seeds jtlanted l.)y ilrs. Mary Brooks. 
These seeds were from seven apples brought 
from the Great Miami, in Southern Ohio. She 
raised them on what is known as the Godfrey 
Farm, and then brought the youno- trees, 
thirty-three in number, and planted them on 
what is known as the Brooks Farm, at Cherry 
Grove, in the southeast corner of this town- 
ship. These trees are still standing as vener- 
able monuments to the brave couple who came 
here nearly three-score years ago and endured 
the hardships of pioneer life. 

There are twenty-four sections of land in 
the township. The country is generally 
rolling, and is drained by Mud Creek to the 
northeast, and by Brooks Creek in the eastern 
part. This last creek takes its name from the 
first settler of the township, and along its 
banks may be found some of the best farms 
in tlie county'. 

This was the last township organized in the 
county, and was organized on the petition of 
A. C. Smith and Joseph Gaunt, by whom it 
was named. The first election was held in 
March, 1839, at the house of Joseph Gaunt, 
at which seven votes were polled, resulting in 
the election of the following officers: Trustees, 
A. C.^Smith, Mieliael' Roland and Joseph 
Gaunt; clerk, Cornelius Smith; justice of the 
peace, Joseph Gaunt; constable, Adam Zigler. 
As the old township name of Salamonia liad 
not been given to any of the new townships, 
Jacob Bosworth, one of the commissicjners, 
insisted that at least the last township should 
have that name; but Mr. Gannt wanted it 
named after Knox County-, Ohio, and his 
request was finally granted. 

The first death in the township was that of 
Mrs. Jane Beard, wite of A. B. (Brittan) 
Beard. She di.-d in the fall of ls89, and was 
buried in the town>hip cemetery. 

The first school in the township was taught 



t|5 






ii 
I 

m 

'is 






tiki 



iMALLEIl TOWNS 



291 



in tiie winterof 1838-'39, by Cornelius Smith. 
Oak Grove Methodist Episcopal Church 
was a frame 32 x4:2 feet, built on a lot dona- 
ted by Caleb Wingate, and dedicated in 1874:, 



by Rev. A. J. Hill. In Fobruiiry, 1SS7, it 
was burned down, and inimediately the trus- 
tees let a contract for the erection of a new 
buildioir, at 8990. 






m 



IF 










'fa! 

'3;! 



^L^ 



I 

m 
m 







m 



Is 



■ »'"al«.J'' 



,M„s„a t „u^m„u,p ^^mi,,m^ia„xi,x^ ^^B ^mK,'.-'T.^?^i'^ trr^s^rtj 






■'Tl 



1 






,m 



>V .^li 








i 

1) 

I 
il 
ii 



f BIOGI^fier^KSpIi ^^ 



I SKETCHES. J 



^^W§^#r^W^-^ 




s|j 



^[«! 






m 
i 






■«^:g-g-w^Ti»-a- 



If: 

iil) 
IP 













'^^^^^^^ ^^^^^Z^^^J 



,a_i3_«HJ3Bj53WJ! 



riz=^_a^u^ 



ZTa.^lB„ll„ 



.a.,j„j„a^M. 



BIOGHAPHK.'A I. S KKrOIlKH. 



297 JrJ; 



SX'> 






>(52. 



^^ 









I BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



.^^ 



^^-^^fM*^*^ 



^^r^l^ l 



m^ 



^^ 






(B 



II 



iLai 



;^; 



f').\''AS VOTAW, one of the leading and 
inllueiitial citizens of Jay County, was 
l"irn January 1, 1813, near New Lisljon, 
Columbiana County, Ohio, being the tenth 
and yonngest child, and the only one now- 
living, of John and Rebecca (Burson) Votaw. 
His father was of French descent, his inotlier 
beiii;; of Scotch ancestr}'. They belonged to 
the Society of Friends, and were married in 
a (Quaker church, in Loudoun County, Vir- 
ginia, in accordance with the usual custom 
of tliat society, the date of their niarriai;'e 
beiii;^' J;innary 9, 1793. The father was ii 
blacksmith liy occupation, and manufactured 
all kinds of edged tools then in use, farmiui; 
utensils, etc. He made the knives, forks, 
plates, and also furniture with wliicli lie and 
his wife began housekeeping. I'.v strii;t 
ccon.Mny and close application to his traile, 
be accumuhited a little niuucy. In the fdl 
iif IT'.M'i, they left tlieir native countv, having 
two h.pi-ses on which they loaded their cloth- 



ing, placing tiieir few goods on pack saddles, 
crossing the Allegheny Mountains, and locat- 
ing in Harrison County, West Virrjinia, 
where the fatlier bonght land on which he 
made his home se\-en or eight years. He 
then sold his land and with his family, then 
consisting of wife and si.\ children, he moved 
to Columbiana County. Ohio, in the fall of 
1803, where he purchased a section of Gov- 
ernment land, five miles west of New Lisl^on. 
He sold 160 acres of this land. retainincr-lsQ 
acres which he paid f:)r Ijy workinir at his 
trade. He was a skilled and reliable work- 
nuin, and his patrons came to his shop a dis- 
tance of from ten to twenty miles in the 
early settlement of the connt|-y. His Sun 
Jonas, the subject of this sketch, had but 
limited educational ad\-antages in his youth, 
only attending the common district school 
four terms of three months each between t!ie 



ffii! 



reaching the age of twelve vear,, he had been 



VMi 

IP! 
i 

!'a! 



^^ 



,^^,,,^\ 



"-^^■a-*-g" 



5H?S™5?SSai 



,j^iM^ia^j„j 



aartSa'^7 



iri^Tunr OF J Ay vuiwrY. 



I! 



n 

i 



33] 



is 

si: 



taught at home by his parents. From six- 
teen until attaining the age of twenty-one 
years he w.is engaged in farming on his 
father's farm. For two years from the age 
of twenty-one to twenty-three years he was 
engr.ged in burning wood into charcoal, mak- 
ing 100,000 bushels of charcoal from about 2,- 
000 cords of wood, and sold the same to Hughes 
& Doyle, this firm using charcoal furnaces in 
the manufacture of iron, nails and castings. 
This work was very laborious, requiring con- 
stant attention both night and day, ilr. Yo- 
taw having three coal pits burning most of 
the time, and not sleeping more than four or 
Jive hours during the day. From this labor 
of a little over two years he realized a net 
profit of 8600. Desiring to travel an<l see 
more of the world, he made a safe deposit of 
his money, and November 1, 1835, contracted 
with Captain Alclntoch of 'Wellsville, Ohio, 
for $40 a month, and was one of four men 
to row two large flat boats, 40 x 80 feet, lashed 
together, waking a surface of 40x80 feet. 
This boat was loaded with different kinds of 
produce to supply the wants of the people on 
the Lower Mississippi, and the trip, including 
the coast trade on the lower Mississippi, em- 
braced a period of almost five months. Al- 
though attended with many exciting incidents, 
both romantic and dangerous, such as passing 
over the falls of the Oliio River at Louis- 
ville, and the eddies and whirlpools of the 
lower ]\Iississippi, the trip was much enjoyed. 
The Captain was an experienced man, this 
being his nineteenth trip, and landed them safe- 
ly at Xew Orleans February 1, 1S3G, with his 
goods mostly sold. Mr. Votaw remained at 
iS'ew Orleans ten days, viewing the city, and 
J''ebruary 10, 18.36, he embarked on a large 
slciunboat, bound for Louisville with astock of 
orano-es and lemons, which were sold in Cincin- 
nati, the profit of these nioi-e than paying 
Bteaml.ioat fare. lie proceeded to luclimond. 



Indiana, f(jr a short visit to relatives and friends, 
and was very favorably impressed w-ith the 
country. At that time there was much talk 
and excitement about the sale of cheap 
Government lands at Fort A\'aYne and Xortli- 
ern Indiana, and Mr. Votaw resolved to invest 
his small means in the purchase of lands. 
He accordingly returned to his native homo, 
collected his money, and started on foot and 
alone for Fort Wayne?, Indiana, arriving at 
his destination about the middle of May, 
1836. He was there informed tliat the re- 
ceiver's office W'as closed, and would remain 
so about two months, and this gave him a 
good opportunity to explore and prospect for 
land. He received much information and 
kind advice from Mr. Brackenridge. the 
Eegistrar of the land office. After remaining 
three days at Fort "Wayne ho started for the 
wilds of Northern Indiana, sometimes going 
from ten to twenty miles between cabins and 
settlements, passing through a part of De 
Kalb, Noble and LaGrange counties, entering 
the State of Michigan at Sturgis, going on to 
Kalamazoo, which at that time had l>ut a 
dozen small houses. Finding that the ilich- 
icran land had been taken up he returned to 
Fort AVayne, and in the meantime he had 
taken the numbers of forty-six tracts of land, 
numbering from first to forty-sixth choice. 
At this time the country was full of land 
hunters, and at the opening of the land office 
at Fort Wayne, about July 1, 1836, there were 
at least 2,000 people in the village, most of 
whom were hind buyers from New Turk, 
Pennsylvania, Indiana and Ohio, and the 
speculators and mone^' sharks touk advantage 
of the honest, unsuspecting land buyers, get- 
tinir tlie number of their lands, to come in 
Ciintliet with them. Tlien for tile sole pui'pose 
of making money they would oti'er to release 
and compromise for s50 or SlOO, called hush 
monev. ^Ir. Brackenridge, seeing- how mat- 



SI? 

I 
I 



m 



'la 

i 










!S( 






^ir^.Hma»,iJ^ae.a„J»M-»«p,J»J.aH|a ania„a« .JIgJI„.ld;.-1!<ia,^-»J».a 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETOHES. 



aBqaggi J^^^^-3r 



ters stood, gave notice to those desiring to 
enter land to prepare their numbers by section, 
towiuiliip and range by writing, and hand the 
same into his office the following morning, and 
that no other entries would be made until those 
applications were gone through with, and 
this to a great extent stopped the land sharks 
from imposing on tiie people. Mr. Votaw 
had to remain in Fort Wayne fifteen days 
before his entries could be reached, he finally 
entering tive eighty acre lots, four hundred 
acres in all, his selections being among the 
ciioiccst tracts of land, one tract being 
on tiie north branch and another on the 
south of the Elkhart River. All of said 
land he sold within three years of the date 
of entry, receiving on an average §7 per 
acre Ijefore any tax had accrued thereon. 
Government land being exempt from taxa- 
tion for five years from date of purchase. 
lie had paid for these lands §1.25 an acre. 
After closing his purchases at Fort Wayne 
Mr. Votaw, with sixteen other eastern land 
buyers, purcliased a large canoe, in which 
they floated down the 3Iaumee River to 
Toledo, then a village of not more than fif- 
teen houses, and from there proceeded to 
Cleveland by steamer, subsequently reaching 
his home in Columbiana County, Ohio, with 
but .'lixpence in his pocket. The news of 
his land purchase created no little excitement 
anii>ng his relatives and former associates, 
and in the fall of the same year his father, 
John Votaw, his brother-in-law, Preston 
Beck, and James Ferrel ofl'ered to pay Mr. 
Votaw's expenses if he would pilot them to 
Fort "Wayne, which oft'er he accepted, and all 
mounted on good horses they soon arrived at 
their destination. There learning that the 
choice land had all been S'.ld in northern In- 
diana, they went t(.i Jay County, M'here they 
found an unbroken f.iii.-t of heavy tiniljer 
land subject to entry, and here his father 



bought 400 acres, Preston Beck 240 and 
James Ferrel eighty acres located on the 
Limberlost Creek near the present site of the 
village of Westchester. These three gentle- 
men then returned to their homes, and our 
subject went to his lands in Noble County, 
where he remained over a year, making some 
improvements, and in the meantime cut and 
split 6,000 rails for other parties. He still 
kept his p'.ats in Noble, La Grange and Elk- 
hart counties marked up by sending them to 
the registrar of the land office, thus being 
able at all times to show the vacant lands to 
those wishing to purchase, which occupation 
he followed when called on. He was an ex- 
pert woodsman, often making as hicrh as §5 a 
day. In the fall of 1837 he was taken sick 
with l)ilious malarial fever, followed by an 
attack of ague, and on recovering he re- 
turned to his native home in the latter part 
of 1838. He remained with his father the 
following summer and winter, recuperating 
his health and helping on the farm. In the 
fall of 1888 his father, with his two sons, 
John, Jr., and Isaac, sold their farms, and in 
the spring of 1839 came with our subject to 
Jay County, Indiana, and settled on their 
land near Westchester. The father having 
money hired help, and in a little over one 
3'ear he had fifty acres of cleared land. In 
the fall of 1840 he was taken sick with typhus 
fever and died September 7, 1840, in his 
seventy-first year, his death being a source of 
great grief to his family. He had left a 
home, surrounded with all the necessary com- 
forts of life, and many friemls and relatives 
in Ohio, where, with such a ciui-;titution as 
his. he might have been spared for many 
years. .Jonas Votaw, having previously pur- 
chased 280 acres of land in the vicinity of 
Westchester, built a frame hon-e on his 
laml, and cleared forty acres in 184i3-"41. 
In Aufri'st, 1^41, he was elected treasurer ot 






^^iSs^HS:^S^^S^SiS[^SS^I!^Sa^stix!£i^£a^^3SB^S^S^B^B^SjaS^iBs2. 



tZi^joSLsJ^s. 



is^m^iu 



m) 






k 






i 
I 



ill 

mi 



»''«rJ».a«"*'i^» '5iig^ S^y^i^ ^'a' ' J^'<<»°' ° g^«''^^^ 



i.it 



U1»T()RT OF JAY COUNTY. 



Jav (Jounty, being iKuniiuitOLl by tiie Wliig 
party. lie was three times re-elected by the 
l)ecjj)le, and held that ottice twelve consecu- 
tive years, serving with credit to himself and 
satisfaction to his constituents. He resigned 
the office of treasurer June 10, 1853, he hav- 
ing previously been elected treasurer of the 
Cincinnati, Union & Fort Wayne Railroad, 
which he held four or tivo years. "While 
treasui-er of .lay County he acted as agent for 
niaiiv nun-resideiits in selling their lands, 
buying and selling luanj tracts of land, and 
it \vas a common saying that " Votaw never 
bought a poor piece of land, and you can bet 
the title thereto is good." He was married 
Se]itember 8, 184:2, to Ann Urown, daughter 
of Aaron and Mary Brown, and immediately 
afti.T his marriage located at Portland, and at 
oiH!e became interested in the improvement 
and development of tliat city. He has since 
lived in Portland, or the immediate vicinity, 
his present residence being about one mile 
from the business center. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Votaw were born seven children — "Wilson C, 
was born August 10,1843; August 10, 1861, 
he volunteered in Company C, Thirty-ninth 
Regiment Indiana Infantry; was a Sergeant of 
Captain George F. "Winter's Company (C), 
Eighth Regiment of Indiana Veteran Cav- 
alry Volunteers; was enrolled on the l'2th 
diiy of Feliruary. 18(U, to serve three years, 
or <luring the war; was honorably discharged 
fr(jni the service of the United States July 20, 
isi'io, at Lexington. North Carolina, by order 
of tlie Secretaryof Wai-; and was married Octo- 
ber 21, 1866, to Jane Simmons; Uuth A., 
born April IS, 1^4."), was inarrii'd in Sr])- 
tcniber, ISI'iO, to .\. .1. Callahan, ;i farmer | 
residing near Johnstown, I'.atcs County, ^lis- ■ 
scuri; Mary K., born May 7. 1S47, was j 
married September ^O, isOil, to 1). .\. Henry, | 
a farmer living near Clinton, Henry County, j 
Missouri; Sarah (4., born August 6, 1851, j 



was married September 7, 1870, to J. R. 
Coulson, a fantier residing two miles south- 
west of Portland; Howard E., l)orii Decem- 
ber 30, 1853, married Novendjer 14, 1885, 
to OUie M. Milligan, and is engaged in farm- 
ing two miles west of Portland; Homer S., 
born January 26, 1856, is a ticket and freight 
agent, and also telegraph operator for the 
Chicago & Northwestern Railway Company, 
now located at Smith's Mill, Minnesota; John 
J., born Maruh 10, 1859, died October 23, 
1859. Mrs. Votaw died March 18, 1859, 
aged thirty-three years, ten months and 
twenty-seven days. Mr. Votaw was again 
married June 17, 1861, to Lizzie K. Dresser, 
a daughter of John Dresser, who lived near 
Old Stockbridge, Berkshire County, Massa- 
chusetts. She had a liberal education and 
followed school teaching for several years. 
She was an exemplary Christian, a member 
of the Congregational church. To this mar- 
riage were born five children — James F., born 
and died June 19, 1862; Clara B., born June 
26, 1863, is now clerking for her brother. 
Homer S., in the office of the Chicago & 
Northwestern Riilroad Company at Smith's 
ilill, Minnesota; Lillian K., Ixjrn January 
22, 1S66, was married April 9, 1887, 
to John E. Bishop, a teacher in the 
Portland City Normal School; Henry J., 
born September 12, 1867, a teacher in the 
Portland Normal school; Fhnma L.. born 
June 17, 1S71. Mrs. Votaw died July 13, 
1S74, acred forty-three years, seven months 
and nineteen days, and lived and died a de- 
voted Christian. August 10, 1S75, Mj-. Vo- 
taw married at Little York, Ohio, .Mrs. N. J. 
(Perilew) ( 'ase, daughter of I'liilip and Amy 
M. Pcnlew. Jlir father was a native of 
Pennsylvania, boi'ii September 2. 1805, ami 
her mother was born near Providence. Rhode 
Island, August 2, 1^18. The latter was of 
French extraction, the third cousin of JIar- 






% 



I 



h 



aJ»Mi^B aJ^u„i i i,ji*;„ajH,j a p,a, i a,,.aaamiJaa»aaj„j^a 



u,.AiT.j„j„M„a^^;ja^ 



BWGRAPUICAL SKETCHES. 



Wi 






ifB) 

I3it 



!^; 



SI 



qiiis (le La Favette, her maiden name being 
L)es Trees, ilrs. Yotaw is a Cliristian wo- 
man, in early life joining the Methodist 
church. She was first married July 9, 1857, 
when seventeen years of age, to Augustus B. 
Case, and to them were born two children — 
Amy L., born June 18, l{j58, and died the 
day of her birth; Cecil E. A., born May 16, 
1860, was married February 19, 1881, to 
Etta JJ. White, who died September 20, 1884, 
aged twenty-one years. Both were members 
of the Christian church. Augustus B. Case 
was a soliiier in the war of tlie Rebellion, en- 
listing in 1861 in the Fifty-iifth Ohio 
Infantry. He veteranized January 22, 
1804, and was killed at the battle of Re- 
seca, Georgia, May 15, 1864, at the age of 
twenty-si.x; years. He was a brave soldier, and 
a true Christian. Cecil E. A. Case now 
lives with his parents, and is engaged 
in farming. Jonas Votaw was appointed 
and commissioned by Governor Oliver P. 
Morton director of the Northern Indiana 
State Prison to serve fur a term of two years, 
from March 11, 1861, to till the vacancy 
caused by the resignation of Colonel Milt. 
Robinson, which position he accepted and 
filled with satisfaction to the State. He was 
al.-o postmaster at College Corner, Jay Coun- 
ty, for five or six years, which position he 
resigned February 15, 1872. February 22, 
1853, the Cincinnati, Uniim <k. Furt AYayne 
Railroad Company was organized, and Jonas 
A otaw was cliosen treasurer, which position 
he tilled satisfactorily for si.x years, wlien the 
comiiaiiy faileil, and was finally dissolved in 
186:i. The citizens of Portland and Jay 
County were heavy losers by the failure of 
this enterprise, they having expended about 
8100,000 in grubbing and grading the raii- 
riiud bed from Union City to Portland, 
Indiana, a distance of tweiitv miles. This 
railroad bed still i-eniains uniroiied, but thr 



prospects are that in the near future it will 
be utilized. Mr. Votaw was appointed chair- 
man of a commission by a Congress of the 
United States, said commission being to parti- 
tion the Me-shin-go-rae-sia Reservation in 
Grant and Wabash counties, Indiana, under 
Act of Congress of June 1, 1872. In said 
reservation there were about ten sections of 
land which had never been surveyed. In 
the spring of 1873 the commission com- 
menced work and was occupied about ten 
weeks, by which time they had sectioned of 
the land, and divided it per capita amono- 
the band of Me-shin-go-me-sia, consisting of 
sixty-six Indians, making each division 
almost 100 acres. Mr. Votaw took an active 
interest in the organization of the Jay Coun- 
ty Agricultural, Horticultural and Industrial 
Joint Stock Company, which was incorporated 
December 21, 1871, with whicli he has since 
been identified either as president or director. 
The fairs have always proved a success finan- 
cially, and the growth and breeds of all kinds 
of stock have been greatly improved, and the 
general interests of the country have been 
developed by the society's progressive course. 
Mr. Votaw was chosen a delegate from the 
Eleventh Congressional District of Indiana 
to represent said district in the National 
Republican Convention that convened in 
Chicago, June 3, 1884, which resulted in the 
nomination of James G. Blaine for President, 
and John A. Logan for Vice Pi-esident. He 
took an active part to secure the nomination 
of Mr. Blaine. Mr. Votaw is a public 
spirited citizen, and has given liherallv of his 
means tn all public enterprises for the devel- 
opment of the city of Portland, and the 
countiT at large, doing all in his power to 
secure railroads to l\irtland, and i;ravel roads 
thi'oughout the county, and has aided in tlie 
support of schools and churches from the 
early settlement of the county tn the present 



i 

k 






f\* 



I 

m 

m 



i 

51! 



',i-.o.j-i,d^.«ji.««^,.j; ;^7i 



a.j«^.«.«,>i^Ji«i> 



"^■^n-'Tif' 



nj-ii^j^n^^^-m^^mm^m 



aa^ Jta ■»»«»» *i|»»»i"iii« 



aJ»a»«..J'gJ -. 



lIISrORY OF JAY COUNTY. 



time. Ill Lis religious views lie is liberal 
and progressive, not recognizing the Jewish 
ceremonies and ordinances as essential to 
salvation. 



fUDGE JACOB M. IIAYXES, one of 
Jay County's early settlers, of whom 
none is more favorably or more widely 
known, was born in Mouson, Hampden 
County, Massachusetts, April 12, 1817. His 
father, Henry Haynes, was born in the same 
town in Jnne, 17S6. The Haynes family are 
of early iS'ew England origin. Our subject 
is a descendant of Walter Haynes, who emi- 
grated from England in 1636, only si.xteen 
years after the landing of the pilgrims on 
New England's shore. David Haynes, the 
paternal grandfather of Judge Haynes, was a 
soldier in the Eevolutionary war, and his 
father during the war of 1812 was engaged 
in the manufacture of fire-arms. His mother, 
Achsali (Marchj Haynes, was born in ilill- 
bury, "Worcester County, Massachusetts, in 
October, 1792, and died in July, 1870, si.\ 
years after the deatli of her husband. She 
was a relative of Bishop Chase, an uncle of 
Chief .Justice Chase. The parents of our 
suliject reared a family of twelve children, 
four sons and eight daughters, of whom Judge 
Haynes was the second son and third child. 
His father being a mechanic, he was engaged 
in his youth for a considerable tiirie in assist- 
ing liim at his work in the shop, but for three 
years he lived ^\■itll liis uiicle i>u a farm. He 
received a goml coniiiion-schdn! education, and 
afterward took a classi(;,-d course at .Monscm 
Academy, and later pui-sucd a lit(,rary and 
sciontiric course of studv at I'hiliips' ,\cad- 
eniy at Andover, .M assachusiai>. lie licgan 
the study of law witii Hon. Linus Child at 
Southbridge, Mas>acliu>etts. In l^l:i he 



came west, and resumed the stndy of law at 
Miincie, Indiana, with Hon. Walter March, 
and in order to defray his expenses and fur- 
nish the means for completing his legal 
studies he engaged in teaching, having charge 
for a time of the Delaware County Semi- 
nary. He was admitted to the bar at Mun- 
cie, in March, ISW, and in December of the 
same year became to Portland, where he now 
resides, and in the early part of 18i5 he be- 
gan the practice of his chosen profession. He 
was married in Portland, Augnst 27, 1846, 
to Miss Hilinda S. Haines, who was born in 
Clarksville, Clinton County, Ohio, in 1828, 
and died May 11, 1885, leaving eight chil- 
dren — Josephine; Susan, wife of Charles F. 
Headington; Walter M., cashier of the Peo- 
ple's Bank, of Portland; Sumner W., an attor- 
ney of Portland; Elwood, at present manager 
of the Portland gas works; Frank, Calvin H. 
and Edward. Judge Haynes' prominence as 
a lawyer, and his long experience on the 
bench have made his name well known 
throughout the State of Indiana. He has 
held official positions since 181:6, in which 
year he was appointed school commissioner to 
fill a vacancy caused by the resignation of 
Wilson Milligan. In August of the same 
year he was elected to that otKce, and served 
two years. In 181:8 he was appointed school 
examiner, which office he filled four years. 
In 1856 he was elected judge of the Com- 
mon Pleas Court. In 1860 the district was 
enlarged so as to embrace the counties of 
I'andolph, Delaware, Jay and I'.lackford, for 
which district he was elected in that year. 
He was re-elected to this otiice in 1S6-4, and 
again in 1868, ami in 1S70 he was made 
judije of the circuit court embracing the 
counties of AVayne, liamlolpli, Jav and 
Blackford. This tei-m of otiice expired in 
1*^77, he having served on the liencli for 
twenty-one years. In l.'55t) .luilge Haynes 















i5S5S5ai^i 



"■■"■a^jMJ! 



BIOGRAPUICAL tiK ETCHES. 



'k 



I 



<&; 



I 

SI.' 



bcgaii taking an active part in politics. Dur- 
ing the war of the Rebellion he made many 
speeches in support of the administration, 
taking a radical stand in favor of the prose- 
cution of the war. In early life he was a 
Whig, casting his first presidential vote for 
General Harrison in 1840. On the organiza- 
tion of the Republican party he identified 
himself with that political body, ardently 
supporting its principles, and sharing in its 
glorious achievements. Since 1875 Judge 
IJaynes has given his attention to the banking 
business, havingbeenpresident of the People's 
ISaiik since that time. The many sterling 
ijiialities of heart and mind possessed by our 
subject, have ever won for him the confidence 
and esteem of the people. 



T^R. AUGUSTUS RALSTON, of Wa- 
"'j y bash Townsliip, came to New Corydon, 

■■K" this county, in April, 1880. He was 
born in Lawrence County, Ohio, September 
1, 18-15, where he remained until he was six- 
teen years of age. In 1861, when a mere 
boy, he enlisted in Company D, Thirty-third 
<.Miio Infantry, for three years. After serv- 
ing two years he was transferred to the nnx- 
I'iuo service, and wa.s on the B. G. Adams 
gunboat that ran up and down the Jlississippi 
Ri\('r and its tributaries. Ho was discharged 
in December, 1804, after luiving been en- 
gaged in twenty-two battles and skirmishes, 
inrliiding the siege of Vicksbnrg. He then 
commenced tlie study of medicine. He 
graduated at the l)nsiiie.-;s college at Dela- 
ware, Ohio, anil then went to CiMcinnati, 
Ohi.i. and graduated at the luedical college in 
ISM. Dr. Ralston was a .son u( James and 
]\[ary Ann ((iridili) Ralston, tin' t'ather a na- 
tive of Adania C.MHity, Ohio, ;ind died in 
Greenup County, Kentucky,' when his son 



was quite small, leaving six cliildren. The 
mother was born in Lawrence Countv. Ohio, 
and she also died young, leaving four chil- 
dren, the Doctor being the youngest of the 
lamily. He was married December 3, 1883, 
to Rosetta M. Adams, who was born in Jay 
County, March 27, 1860, and has lived in 
the county ever since. Her parents were 
David W. and Harriet (Johnson) Adams, 
the father born in Columbiana County, Ohio, 
October 28, 1837, and the mother in Mont- 
gomery County, same State, April 6, 1844; 
both are living in "Wabash Township on a 
farm. Doctor and Mrs. Ralston have two 
children — AVilliam, born August 1, 1884, and 
Augustus, born October 19, 1885. Mr. Ral- 
ston's grandfather, Robert Ralston, was of 
Scotch-Irish descent; he came to this country 
and died in Adams County, Ohio, where he 
probably settled when he first came to Ameri- 
ca. His grandmother, Isabella Ralston, also 
died in Adams Connty. The Doctor .first 
commenced his ]>ractice in Geneva, Adains 
County, remaining there one year, then re- 
moved to this county where he has a lai'"-e 
and successful practice. 



G. BARRICK, one of the active and en- 
terprising citizens of Wayne Township, 
T^^ was born in Columbiana County, Ohio, 
February 20, 1829. His f.ather, Isaac Bar- 
rick, was born in Loudoni} County, Yii-crinia, 
and was of German ancestry. He was a sol- 
dier in the war of 1S12. He married Mary 
Glass, a native of C<ilumbiana County, Ohio, 
and to them were born twelve cliildren. The 
mother of our subject is still lisinir in Rice 
County, Minnesota, aged t'iirhty yt-ai's. I. G. 
Bai-riek, the subject of this skct<'li. was reared 
to the avocation of a farnici-, ;ind received his 
eilucati(.jn in the snliscription scliocjis i,f that 



^•m'^'x^n^ 




early day. He was united in man-luge Janu- 
ary 23, 1850, to Miss Sarah Rish, who was 
horn in Columbiana County, Ohio, April 7, 
1831, a daughter of Simeon and Ann (Badger) 
Rish, her father being of German and her 
mother of Irish ancestry. They were also 
H^ the parents of twelve children. To Mr. and 
Mrs. Barrick have been born six children — 
Ann Eliza, William B., John C, Charles R.^ 
Martha Jane and George M. Mr. Barrick 
remained in his native State until 1858^ 
when he came with his family to Jay County, 
Indiana, and for a time lived on rented land. 
He subsequently bought forty acres of heavily 
timbered laud in \Yayne Township, which he 
cleared and improved. In 1878 he settled 
on his present farm, which had been improved 
before he located there. In politics Mr. 
Barrick is a Democrat. He is a wortliy 
and consistent member of the German Bap- 
tist church, in which he has served as min- 
ister in the second degree for many years, 
and has been an active worker in the cause 
of his Master. He is a man of strict integ- 
rity, honorable in all his dealings, and is 
res[iccted by all who know him. 



31 i 



¥-T#ASHI:NGT0N GRIMES, a worthy 
'iyiTvll'i I'epi'esentative of one of the old pio- 

l~.J:^l neer families of Jay County, and an 
enterprising farmer of Jackson Township, is 
a native of Frederick County, ilaryland, 
boi-n December 5, 1831, his parents, John 
and I'^lizabeth (Miller) Grimes, being natives 
of Ibe same county. They reared a family of 
I'ourchildren, named Henrietta, John II. . Mary 
Ann and Washington. In 1837 the parents 
left their native State with their family and 
settled in Preble County. (.)]iio. and in lS4:o 
came to Jay County, Indiana, wlien they lo- 
cated on tlu; fanu which i> now the home lA' 



our subject. The land at the time of the 
settlement in the townshijj was covered with 
dense timber, and their first dwelling was a 
log cabin, 18 x 20 feet, with puncheon floor, 
clapboard roof, and stick and mud chimney. 
Here the father, assisted by his sons, cleared 
and improved their land until the Grimes 
farm was considered one of the best in the 
neighborhood. Here the father lived until 
his death which occurred June 9, 1865. Mrs. 
Grimes died August 28, 1876. Washington 
Grimes grew to manhood in Jay County, 
being reared amid scenes incident to pioneer 
life. He began his education in Preble 
County, Ohio, and after coming to Jay Coun- 
ty he attended the schools of his district. 
He has always followed the avocation of a 
farmer, and the surroundings of his home- 
stead betoken the care and thrift of the 
owner. The old log cabin built in 1813 has 
disappeared, and in its place stands a tine 
two story residence, built in modern style, 
and comfortably furnished throughout, and 
the barn and out buildings are noticeably good. 
Mr. Grimes was married September IS, 1855, 
to Miss Mary Ann Priest, and to this union 
\vere born seven children of whom only four 
survive — James Newton, William H., John 
F. and George W. Two died in early child- 
hood, and a daughter, Martha A., died Jan- 
uary 27, 1SS5, aged twenty-two years. Mrs. 
Grimes died September 10, 1S76. Mr. Grimes 
was married a second time, in Jay County, 
Indiana, April 18, 1880, to Mrs. Esther 
Ann (House) Stephenson, who was born May 
27, 184:3, a .laughter of E.linond and IMagy 
(Grafton) House. JNlrs. Grimes war- tir.-t 
married in Jackson County, Ohio, to James 
Stephenson, and to them were born three chil- 
dren — lames X., Richard E. and Irena Jane. 
,Mi-. Stephenson died January 1, 1874. Po- 
litieally Mr. (Trimes at'riliates with the Pe- 
publiean iiartv. He ha^ never .-oiUTht ■_>tricial 




po^^itiou, yet at the wishes of his tVieiids, he 
acceptcil tlie iioniiuation for tlie office of 
comity commiiiionei', and was elected by a 
majority of 204 votes which shows his pop- 
idarity in the county. Financially he is 
numl)rred among the leading men of his 
township, and Lv his honorable dealings he 
has secured the confidence and respect ot the 
entire cotnmnnity. 



WTUOMAS S. BRISCOE was born in 
-;j ;): Kent County, Maryland, October 10, 
■^j 1S28, his parents being Samuel E. and 
Margaret Elizabeth (Frisby) Briscoe. Both 
his grandfathers were ministers, his paternal 
grandfather an Episcopalian, and his mother's 
father a Methodist. His father was a farmer, 
and died September 9, ISTl, at the age of 
sixty-three years, at Galena, Kent County, 
Mai-yhmd, and his mother died at Center- 
ville. Queen Anne County, Marvlaml, in 
August, 1851, at the age of about forty-five 
or f(.)rty-six years. Mr. Briscoe was brought 
up to the hard work of tlie farm; l)ut in the 
])riine of young inanhdod he betook himself 
to the' study of law, and was admitted to the 
bar \o\eniber -4, 1852, at Centerville, Mary- 
land. The next year he emigrated West, 
locating in Lyons, Clinton County, Iowa, and 
practiced law there and at Clinton for ten 
years; in 1S62 was mayor of Clinton. In 
lS(l:i li,. in(i\ed with his family to Linneus, 
Linn ('(.iinty. Missouri, and liveil there until 
Augn.~t 24, when liis wife died He next 
returned K:\>u and in 1^65-■C6 was employed 
in till' claim agency otKce nF tlie noted S. S. Cox. 
During the latter year hi' came tn Indiana 
and >ettled in Fort Wayne, when' he practiced, 
law four years. >,'ext, in tlie employ of.l. C. 
Bowser, lie laid the tie.- on the raib-oad tyu\ 
IMutltou to Ilartlbrd City, completing the job 



in September, 1870. Locating in this city, 
he practiced law until lie t(jok editorial charge 
of the Tdegvain in July, 1886. He was 
president of the board of trustees of Hart- 
ford City in 1873, and State Senator from 
1878 to 1882. Although brought up an 
Episcopalian, he is not a member of any 
church. Was made an Odd FelKjw in 185-1. 
Mr. Briscoe was first married April 14, 
1854, to Margaret Anna Maclay, of MifHin 
County, Pennsylvania, and daughter of Sam- 
uel and Elizabeth Maclay. (It is a coincidence 
woi'tli noticing that both her and her hus- 
band's parents were named respectively Sam- 
uel and Elizabeth.) Mrs. Briscoe's grand- 
father, William Maclay, was at one time a 
United States Senator. The children by ^Ir. 
Briscoe's first marriage were — E. F. J. B., 
born in 1855, and Fannie Mary, both of 
whom are teaching school at Wilmington, 
Delaware; and Samuel Maclay, at present the 
publisher of the Hartford City Telegram. 
ilrs. Briscoe died, as already mentioned, and 
August 24, 1871, Mr. Briscoe was again 
married, this time t(j Miss Ilachel A. Henley, 
of this county , and daughter of John M. Hen- 
ley, of Wheeling, Delaware Couutv, Indiana. 



^m^ B. W<K)DWArvD, .'arpeuter and con- 
)iWj tractor, of Briaut, Jay County, Indiana, 
■^ip?* was born in Licking County. Ohio, June 
10, 1833, son of Rhenny and Persis Abliott 
Woodward, who were natis'es of Vermont, 
and who were the parents of two childi-eu — A. 
15. and Orreii, When our subject wa- five 
years old he ln^t his parents by .h'atli, and lie 
was reared by his relatives and fric'iids. He 
engaLjed in cai-jienteriiig at eigliteen years of 
age, and has tnlh.wed that trade a greater 
part of his life. In lSi;2 he removed fnim 
Fairfield County, Ohio, to Jay C(.>unty. In- 



»]< 



m 

ii 

I 



I'iv- 

m 



MiiiaiarS 



•WnU^a, 






ni STORY OF JAY COUNTY. 



4 



diana, locating at ]S'ew Corydon. Two years 
latcM- he enlisted in Company E, One Hundred 
and Thirty-ninth Indiana Infantry, serv- 
ing live months. He was honorably dis- 
charcred at Louisville, Kentucky, and re- 
turned home; then resided north of Kew 
Corydon in Adams County, and afterward 
was drafted in his former place of residence in 
Jay County. He with others raised a town- 
sliip fund of §5,500, hired men to fill the 
draft. In this sum he gave §50. He was 
elec'ted justice of the peace by the Democrats, 
but was always a Kepnblican. In 1S73 he 
moved to Briant, erected the lirst school-house, 
now used for a church; he also built four school- 
houses in the township, and built the first 
business house in town for Messrs. Freeman 
& Bailey. He is an excellent workman and 
understands all the details of his trade. Dur- 
ing' the winter season he has been engaged in 
clerking in the drug store of Dr. Miles. He 
was married November 27, 1872, to Miss 
ilary E. "Wagner. Politically he has been a 
strong Kepubliean. voting for all presidents 
the party ever had; but is now a member of 
the Union Labor party. He joined or be- 
came a member of Post Xo. S3, G. A. I!., 
Geneva. Adams County, Indiana, in 1S83, 
and was transferred to Post No. 488, Briant, 
Jay County, Indiana, and is and has been 
quartermaster ever .-iince the organization. 



ylfplJIAPLES C. WATSON, of AVayne 
ivji-i Township, is one of the prominent citi- 

'^»^ zens of Jay County, with whose inter- 
ests he has been identified for many yeai-s. 
11 is father. Brooks Watson, was a native of 
the old Granite State, Imrn in the town of 
Ware, .\pril 3, 17113. lie married Abigail 
Caldwell, whi) \i"as born in Franklin County, 

\'ermoiit, .'-September 2^, 17'J^, the date a[ 



their marriage being July 8, 1817. The 
children born to them are — George B., of 
Portland, who was born in Franklin County, 
Vermont, August 80, 1818; Mrs. Abby Eep- 
logle, born in Lower Canada, November 14, 
1820, is now a widow, and resides in Port- 
land; Charles C, whose name heads this 
sketch, was born in Colchester, Vermont, 
September 24, 1822; Shuball, born in Ver- 
mont, August 15, 1825, and died before the 
family moved West; James, born in New 
York September 2, 1827, and died in Pekin, 
Tazewell County, Illinois, February 8, 1864; 
William H., born in Vermont October 14, 
1830, is now living in Kansas; Samuel L., 
horn in Vermont October 16, 1833, lives in 
Pekin, Illinois; Maiyette was born in Fair- 
fa.\ County, Vermont, March 14, 1836, and 
Ophelia was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, April 
11, 1838. In 1837 the parents removed with 
their family from Vermont to Butler Coun- 
ty, Ohio, and in 1839 settled in Cincinnati, 
Ohio. They came to Jay County, Indi- 
ana, in 1849, and settled on a farm in 
Jackson Township, which had been bought 
by their son, Charles C, the year before. 
The father died in Jackson Township in 1857, 
and the mother died February 22, 1885, in 
Wayne Township. Charles C. Watson, the 
subject of this sketch, remained with his 
parents until after they removed to Cincin- 
nati. AVlieu seventeen years old he re- 
turned to Vermont, and there served an 
apprenticeship of two years at the painters' 
trade. He then retui-ned to Cincinnati, and 
for a time worked at his trade, when he en- 
gaged in boating on the Miami, W^abash and 
Erie canals. He followed the canals about 
nine years, attaining to the position of Cap- 
tain. In 1S49 he came to Jay (^ounty. Indi- 
ana, and bought a farm in JackMin Township. 
He spent his time in lioatinir durintr the 
summer months, returning' to his farm in 



n 
i 

m 






\^. 



gS9,^m^imj^:3^a^ 



^pjl^XT^-J ^ Mm XI^PB7 



i^s^a^H??; 



^•1' 



BIOGRA rmCA l. ,S KETCHES. 












P 






'Si' 
1! 

I; 



winters for several years. lu 1S57 he inar- 
riucl 3Iiss ilary Topping, who was born Feb- 
riKiry 1-t, 1886, a (laughter of Josiah II. 
Topping, one of the old ami ln.iuored pio- 
neers of Jay County. Four children were 
born to ilr. and Mrs. "Watson, two of whom 
ai-e living — Frank V,, born (.)ctober 9, 
1857, and Fhira B., born July 9, 1860. Adah 
A. and Irvin L. died in infancy. After his 
marriage I^tr. ^^'atson settled with his wife 
on his farm and began making a home. lie 
liad already done much toward improving his 
land, and in 1855 he erected a fine residence 
at a cost of over s2,600. He purchased the 
material for the bnildinf of his residence at 
Grand Ilapids, which was shipped to Fort 
AVayne, thence by wai;on to Jay (Aninty. 
The cement used in its construction was 
bought at L(ick])ort, Xew York. The lum- 
ber was of the best fjuality, and 26,000 
bricks wei-e used to build the cellar walls and 
chimney. This was at that time considered 
one of the finest farm residences in Eastern 
Indiana. In the spring of 1858 he sold his 
farm to George W. Templar, the place be- 
ing now known as the Shafer farm. JMi'. 
Watson then settled on his present farm on 
section 4. Wayne Township, where he has 
12'J acres of well improved laml, on which 
he has 1,000 rods of tiling. His land is 
divided into convenient lots, well fenced. 
Hi^i residence which cost over s2, 000, is situ- 
ated on a beautiful elevation seventy-two feet 
abo\e the site of Portland, located on the 
State road about tw(j miles north of J'ortlanii. 
His barn and other out-buihlings compare 
favDraljly with his residence. For about five 
years Mr. A\ atson has given mucli attention 
to tlie raising of tine stix-k, and in 1^86 he 
began raising Ilolstein ami Jei'sey cattle, and 
]iow has some very fine sjieciiiiens of those 
noted breeds. The same year he purchased 
a K'cntueky blooded horse. His stock is sup- 



plied with water raised by ^^■indmill power 
from a never-failing source. Mr. Watson 
commenced life a poor boy, and his succsss 
has been attained Iiy his own unaided 
eribrts. He has always been a valuable cit- 
izen, contributing liberally of his means to 
the support of church, schools, and all pub- 
lic improvements. He is independent in 
his religious views, possessing a liberal feelino- 
toward all religious denominations. He is 
an advocate of the cause of temperance and 
is a strict temperance man. In politics he 
has always atiiliated with the Democratic 
party, casting his first vote for James K. 
Polk in 18-41. Josiah H. Topping, the 
father of Mrs. Watson, was born in Connecti- 
cut, February 10, 1797, and when a child was 
taken by his parents to Sandusky Countv, 
Ohio, where he grew to manhood. He was 
there married April 3, 1831, to Belinda l*Ic- 
Cullough, a native of Sandusky County, born 
May 10, 1812. They came with their family 
to Jay County in 1837, Mr. Topping having 
Come here prior to this time, and made his 
location. The family settled on section 4, 
Wayne Township, where he entered and im- 
proved a farm of 200 acres, on which he lived 
until his death, which occurred April 21, 
1873. His wife died four years after coming 
to Jay County, the date of her dea'-'v.l'ju'bd] 
January 25, 1841. They were the paren^o 
of four children — Leroy, born February 16 
1835, was a resident of Wayne Township 
until his death June 25, 1886; Mary, wife of 
our subject, born February 14, 1836; John, 
born ilay 26, 1837, is now living in Colorado, 
and Thomas M. C, born July 12. 1840, died 
in infancy. Josiah H. Topping was a promi- 
nent pioneer of Jay County, and was esteemed 
for his many sterling qualities, and was in 
all resjiects a worthy representative of the 
grand old pioneer element that is fist pass- 
ing away. In politics he was in early life a 






11 



>M 



mi 



'a- 



ml 



i 



era- 



5'ii' 




^w^s^pa,^ijua^^m^x^a^ 



^'m*i'r»^?t -Jy. >a ^ •» ig d« t^ rff ti j 



JflSTORV OF JAY VOUNTY. 



11 


i^^ 








^as 



i 

|i 

LI' 



. 



MM 



•fj 



Whig, later an Abolitionist, and (in the oi'- 
gaiiization of the liepnblicaii party he lie- 
eame identified with it, affiliating with that 
party until his death. In early life he be- 
came a member of the Lmited Brethren 
church, but subsequently severed liis connec- 
tion with that church and united with the 
Pi'csbyterian church, but on account of the 
views of that church, he withdrew his mem- 
bership, and join-d the Congregationalists, 
being a member of that denomination at the 
time of his death. 



f(3SEPH GAUNT, deceased, was one of 
Jay County's early pioneers, locating in 
".-c Kno.x' Township in March, 1837. lie 
was a native oi jS'ew Jersey, born August 2, 
17'J9, a son of Jacob and Hannah (Holmes) 
Gaunt, nati\es of New Jersey, and a grand- 
sou of Joseph Gaunt, wlio was a native of 
England. Dnring the war of the Kevolution, 
Jat'ob Gaunt was sent by his father with a 
message to General "Washington, and was 
captured by the enemy and beaten with a 
sword to make him divulge the secret, but as 
he persistently refused to yield to their de- 
mands he was allowed to go homo. Jacob 
Gaunt became a boat builder when he reached 
.ood. and in his early married life re- 
moved to Redstone, Pennsylvania, and from 
there in 1S05 to Columbiatui County, Ohio, 
being among the early settlers of that county. 
There Joseph Gaynt was reared, living there 
until 1830, when he moveil to Delaware 
County, Ohio, remaining there nntil Febru- 
ary, 1S37, when he st.irted for Jay County. 
He located on section 24, Knox 'J'ownship. 
entering 160 acres of land cm that section 
and 100 acres on .-ecli,,n 2(1. lie fii-st built a 
log eabin. 10 x 10 feet in dinieusions, all the 
men in his town.^hiii, three in number, turn- 



ing out to help him raise the logs. In this 
log caliin was preached the first sermon in 
Knox Township, by Elder Tisdale, a Baptist 
minister. Mr. Gaunt was married in 1819 
to Phtebe Emily Severn, who was born in 
Bordentown, New Jersey, April 15, 1803, a 
daughter of Isaiah and Alkada Sevei-n, her 
father being one of the first shoe manufac- 
turers of Salem, Ohio. To iMr. and Mrs. 
Gaunt were born four children — Redden N., 
Hannah Holmes, Jacob 'and Elizabeth Ann. 
Redden N. enlisted in the war for the Union, 
a member of Company F, One Hundred and 
Fortieth Indiana Infantry, and died at Mur- 
freesboro, Tennessee, in 1863, in the forty- 
second year of his age. Mrs. Gaunt died 
March 13, 1870, and Mr. Gaunt November 
8, 1875. He was in politics a staunch Dem- 
ocrat. He and his estimable wife were mem- 
bers of the Baptist church. 



ILLIAM M'LAUGHLIX, deceased, 
\ formerly resided on section 34, No- 
'^jSrl ble Township, where lie owned 186 
acres of land. He was born in Bath Coun- 
ty, Virginia, March 28, 1803, and when a 
young man, removed to Meigs County, Ohio, 
where he was married, September 17, 1833, 
to Miss Rebecca Gray, who was born in Gal- 
lia County, Oliio, September 24, 1803. After 
his marriage Mr. McLaughlin remained in 
Meigs County until 1839, when he came to 
this county and settled in Madison To^nshiii, 
entering eighty acres of land. He built a 
cabin and moved into it before the floor was 
laid, a chimney built or a door swung. They 
built a fire in the center of the house to cook 
their first meal. They renmved to their 
present home in 1849. where .Mr. ?^IeLaugli- 
lin built a cabin, .'uid in which he li\-eil until 
he built his jiresent house in ] S30. In the 



1 

U 

mi; 

'la- 



k 

k 

n 

'31- 






11 

'Sit 

i 



k 
1 

£1' 

I 
il 

lli 






,^««j ..»«,■=(: s* 



.<i„.x-£I', 



"»i"'«-*°'"«i'" -ljj 



lUOnUAPlIlCM. 



i'Jj 



I 
ill 

ii 



iSi 






new house botli parents piissed the reinuinder 
of their days. The father died July 3, 187'2, 
and the iiicithor March 18, 1881; both are 
burieil in Lancaster cemetery, Madison Town- 
ship. They were the parents of nine chil- 
dren — James G., born July 1-1, 1831; ilary 
A., born iS'ovember li, 1835; Leah, born 
May 28, 1837; Hiram, born May 9, 1839; 
John (;.. horn July 81, 1842; William W., 
born April 17, 1844, died June 28, 1872; 
George W., born July 9, 1846; Isaac G., 
bom July 31, 1848; Jacob B., born June 13, 
1850. All the children that are living, live 
in the vicinity of the father's farm. Mr. 
McLaughlin's parents, Hugh and Jane 
(Wiley) McLaughlin, were probably born in 
Yirginia. The father was a hunter and a 
gunsmith. Mrs. McLaughlin's parents were 
James and Hannah (Claypole) Gray. Both 
the ;\[cLaucrhlins and the Grays are of Scotch 
and Irish ancestry. 



I^IIRAM J. BRAKE, of the firm of Brake 
fSl ^ Beard, general merchants at Salamo- 
^^^ nia, was born in Miami County, Ohio, 
December 25, 1837, and September 20, 1838, 
he came to this county with his parents who 
settled on section 5, Madison Township. The 
country was new and the neighbors scarce, 
most of tliera many miles away. They endured 
all the hardships and privations of pioneer 
life. His fatlier, Thomas J. Brake, was born 
in Lewis County, Virginia, in 1800, and in 
1833 removed to Miami Couuty, Ohio, where 
he was married two years later to Emeline 
Abel. He died in Wells County, this State, 
in April, 1840. The mother was born in 
Botetourt County, Vir;,nnia, in 1817, and 
when two years old, went with her parents, 
Henry and Sarah A. Abel, to :i[iami County, 
Ohio, she being the oidy child at that time. 



Her father's family came to Jay County after 
she was married, and settled on section 8, 
iladison Township. Her father built the first 
brick house in the township, in 1840. Mr. 
Brake was reared in sight of Salamonia vil- 
lage, and believes himself to l.e the oldest 
male resident of the village, tlii' cjldest female 
resident being Melinda Jackson. He was 
reared on a farm and completed his education 
at the academy Itelow Liber. September 25, 
1861, he enlisted in Company f , Fortieth 
Ohio Infantry, for three years. Two years of 
this time he was with his regiment, and one 
year was at the brigade headquarters, beincr 
a Sergeant. At the request of General Whit- 
aker he commanded the provost guards one 
year as Duty Sergeant. At the battle of Chick- 
amauga he was wounded in the right hand by 
a minie ball, compelling him to be off dutv 
two months. He was discharged September 
26, 1S64, at Atlanta, Georgia, on account of 
expiration of time of service. He returned 
home, and October 17, of the same year, he 
engaged in the mercantile trade. He has a 
farm on sections 5 and 8, consisting of 103 
acres, well impi'oved, with ordinary buildings. 
Mr. Brake was married September 20, 1861, 
to Maria Reed, born in Snsquehanna County, 
Pennsylvania, July 27, 1837. She was reared 
in Wa3'ne County, Indiana, and died in Sala- 
monia, December 20, 1885. Her parents 
were Thomas and Elizabeth Heed. Her 
mother was born in Pennsylvania, and her 
father was of Irisli ancestry. April 13, 1887, 
Mr. Brake was married to Clara E. Scott, 
born near Kokomo, Indiana, June 27, 1854. 
She was reared in Clay County, Kansas, and 
removed to Logansport in 1870, where she 
was engaged as proprietoi' of a dresj-m.akino- 
shop, remaining there nntil her niarria"-e. 
Her mother, Sarah A. (Brown) Scutt. is now 
living at Logan5j>ort. -Mr. Drake was post- 
master from January 30, 1865, until April 



3[B! 



i 
i 



sii 



?3I! 



lai 



atS-^jImiiiil 



'q^«^-B^^-"-.j^^-^-»:"'a-^'aJ-^''J:^-i^f^^-°-a'W 



y/ 



.a,M,»„ai..M»a^ 



HISTORY OF JAY COUNTY. 



2-1:, 188(3. It was a semi-weekly postotiice 
when he lirst took tlie office, but through liis 
intiiieuce it was changed to a daily mail. His 
graniltather, Abraiii Brake, was born in Old 
Virginia, and died in West Virginia. His 
great-grandfather Brake was born in Frank- 
fort, Germany, and came to America before 
the Revolutionary war. He was a manufac- 
turer of woolen cloths, as were also liis ances- 
tors. He died in Eastern Virginia. His 
grauclmother Brake, whose maiden name was 
Jaclcson, was an aunt of Stonewall Jackson, 
the latter living with his uncle Brake several 
years; he was then taken to school by Ids 
uncle, Cummings Jackson. The Jacksons 
are of Scotch-English ancestry. The name 
Brake should have been translated to be 
spelled Broeke. The Franks, th-j grand- 
mother on the maternal side, were of French 
descent. Mr. Brake is a member of the Ma- 
soiiic fraternity, belonging to Pittsburg Lodge, 
No. 754, and is also a member of Stephen J. 
Bailey Post, G. A. R, at Portland. The store, 
of wliich Mr. Brake is part owner, was first 
established by Peter Coldren, it being the 
first store in the village. He was succeeded 
by H. and G. W. Abel, and they were suc- 
ceeded by Abel & Brake in 1865. The firm 
of Brake &, Beard has been prosperous. Tliey 
started their business witli about §1,400, and 
are now considered one of the most responsi- 
ble firms in the county. 



Jf^ASniNGTON T. PETTYJOHN, 




MiAwl "-"^^ ^^ •'^'^J' *^'''"'^fy'* leading agricul- 
i~oijpH turists, residing on section 30, Jett'cr- 
soii Township, is a native of Indiana, born in 
Push County, .Ian nary 3, 1S27, a S(jn of 
Nide and Elizabrtli (Tharp) l\'ttyj"lin, his 
falherborn in Surrey ('ountv, Xortli Carolina, 
and his mother a native nf Preble County, 



Ohio. They were married in Rush County, 
Indiana, about the year 1824, and reared a 
family of seven children to maturity — TTill- 
iam, living in Republic County, Kansas; 
Washington T., the subject of this sketch; 
Mrs. Lydia Ellen Hayes, living in California; 
Mrs. Susan Ann Bennett, of Colorado Springs, 
Colorado ; Mrs. Rebecca Jane Riggin, of 
Andrew County, Missouri; Christopher C, 
residing in Washington Territory, and Solo- 
mon who died in California, aged thirty years. 
In 1836 the parents removed with their 
family from Rush County to Shelby County, 
Intliana, and in 1840 removed to Andrew 
County, Missouri. In March, 1879, the 
parents left Andrew County with their son 
William, for Republic County, Kansas, 
where the father died Januaiy 1, 1883, aged 
about eighty-si.x years. The mother died at 
the home of her daughter, Mrs. Riggin, in 
Savannah,Andrew County, Missouri, October 
4, 1886, in her seventy-ninth year. Washing- 
ton T. Pettyjohn, whose name heads this 
sketch, reached manhood in Andrew County, 
Missouri, remaining with his parents until 
reaching his twenty-second year. He then 
spent a few years in Randolph County, Indi- 
ana, where he was married October 26, 1854, 
to Miss Eleanor Ward, a daughter of Joab 
and Amy (Graves) Ward. They have had 
born to them seven children — Mrs. Elizabeth 
Boyer of Cloud County, Kansas; Lot, now 
living with his parents, married Miss Minnie 
Henizer, who died leaving two children named 
Ora and Charles; Dan, living at Silverton, 
San Juan County, Colorado; Jay, of Cloud 
County, Kansas; Mrs. Grace Artman, of Jay 
County; Ely, of Aurora, Nebraska, and Asa, 
at home. Mr. and Mrs. Pettyjohn established 
their home in Jefferson Townsliip, iu March, 
1855, on the property they now own and oc- 
cupy, their first house being a rude log cabin. 
Mr. Pettyjohn first purchased 1"25 acres for 



i 



tSsi) 






m 



■' .^:ig"n"»°ij i« 






i 

11 



/;/"0(; It A rnrcA i. a ketches. 






i 



82,000 cash, about thirty acres of his land 
having been opened. He continued the work 
of improving his property until 1S64, when 
he rented his land for two years, and moved 
Ids family to Ridgeville and enlisted as a 
rc/cruit in Company A, Fortieth Indiana In- 
fantry in Xoveniber of the same year. Pie 
joined his regiment at Columbia, Tennessee, 
and with it participated in the battles of 
Franklin and ISTashville, and received his dis- 
charge ill June, 1S65. He returned to his 
farm two years after leaving it, and has since 
added to it until it contains 250 acres. Ids 
firm being well improved and very produc- 
tive. His residence is one of the best in 
.letferson Township, and his farm buildings 
are correspondingly good. Politically j\lr. 
I'cttyjohn is a Republican. He has served 
three vears as county commissioner, with 
credit to himself and to the satisfaction of 
liis constituents. He is a member of the 
^[asonic fraternity, belonging to IlidgeviUe 
Lo.lge, No. 116. The parents of Mrs. Petty- 
john were both natives of North Carolina, 
but were reared and married in Ohio. They 
wore among the earliest settlers of Randolph 
C(juuty, Indiana, settling in wdiat was after- 
ward Ward Township, in xVpril, 1819, where 
tlu^y imjiroved a large farm ou wdiich they 
resided until their deatli. The mother died 
A|)ril 27, 1864, aged sixty-seven years. The 
fatiier survived until November 7, 1S71, 
dying in his eighty-fourth year. Oi their 
fourteen children eight are still living — 
Thomas, of Winchester. Randolph County; 
.Mi-s. Margery McKew, of Ri.lg,.ville, Ran- 
dolph County'; Mrs. rettyjolin'; .Mr.-^. Edith 
:\loliitt, of Ilam-o.'k County, Ohio; Mrs. 
Harriet Thompson. (->f Whitley Count)-, Indi- 
ana; Joel, of IJandoIpli County. Indian.-i; 
?.Ii-s. Lydia AVay, living at Winchester. Indi- 
ana, ;ind Joab. of Kidg.-vilje. Indiana. AVil!- 
iam died in earlv manhood; Sarah died in 



childhood; Sarah died aged two years; Mrs. 
Mary Sumption died in Randolph County; 
David died in the same county, and Mrs. 
Berzilla Sumption died in Madison, Nebraska, 
the last three leaving families. 



|T5I10MAS LYONS, one of the wealthy 
j; ,'^ farmers of Pike Township, resides on 
^J section 31. He commenced life in 
Jay County with but little besides strono- 
hands and a determination that no obstacle 
could overcome, and perhaps no man in Jay 
County has accomplished more, from so 
small a beginning as he, an<l few have done 
more to develop the county from a state of 
wildness to that of civilization. Mr. Lyons 
was born in Columbiana Countv, Ohio, Feb- 
ruary 13, 1829, a son of Thomas and Eve 
(Apple) Lyons. His mother was born in 
Pennsylvaina of German descent; his father 
was of Irish descetit. They were united in 
marriage in Columbiana County, Ohio. In 
1837 they moved to Perry County, where the 
father died in 1S38. In 1850 onr subject's 
brother, Elijah Lyons, came to Jay County 
and located in Pike Township, and a little 
later Thomas followed him and boucrht eighty 
acres of heavily timbered. land ou section 26, 
of the same township. His capital at that 
time consisted of .SlSO. He erected a loo- 
cabin and commenced clearing his land. In 
1852 he leased it to his brother-in-law, Enoch 
I)rake. for a term of five years, and returned 
to Ohio. In LS55 he married AmandaTem- 
plenian. and in 1S5G they came to Jay Coimty 
and settled on the homestead on section 26, 
Pike Township. In IsOl he bought and 
moved to the homestead of his neicjhbor Ed- 
niond Rathburn. Stearlily year bv year, by 
industry and economy, he added to his pi-op- 
erty until he became a larue laud ownei-. His 









i 



m 

m 

»si> 
(Hi; 

ip 






r»~j*«.3r: 



ms'nUlY 1)1-' JAY COUXTY. 



^1 



lioinestciid contains 190 acres of finely ini- 
pi-oved land, and liis substantial brick resi- 
dence and othei- bnildings and improvements 
denote wealth and prosperity. lie lias as- 
sisted his children to get a start in life by 
giving to the different ones as seemed most 
fitting, land or money, not wishing them to 
travel the weary road from poverty over which 
he so manfully made his way. His wife, 
who shared the hardships and privations of 
pioneer life and later the comforts of a good 
home with him, died in 1S78. To them 
were born eleven children — John, now of 
Kansas; Airs. Amanda Smiley, of Randolph 
County; Thomas and Elijah, also of Kansas; 
"William, deceased; Susan; Joseph, in Kan- 
sas; Mary, Jackson, Sarah and Eve, the latter 
deceased. In 1882 Mr. Lyons married Miss 
Florence Harkins, an<l to them ha\e been 
b(ji'n four children, Init two of whom, Daniel 
and Elizabeth, are living. In politics Mr. 
Lyons is a Democrat. He enlisted during 
the war of the Rebellion and served nine 
months, a member of the Twenty-third In- 
diana Infantry. He is a member of the 
Baptist church, as was also the wife of his 
youlh. 



•:ILLIA:\r W. STEED, a prominent 
la agi'iculturist of Jefferson Township, 
[■^j^H and a representative of one of the 
pioneer families of Jay County, was born in 
Shenandoah County, Virginia, March 9, 1825, 
a Son of John and Frances (Aker) Steed, who 
wt're b(jrn and reared in the same State. In 
l'^2!) the fatiii-r immigrated to "Warren C<.)iin- 
ty, Ohio, with his ftunily and there followed 
farming until their removal to Jay Ci_iunty, 
Indiana, in ^lareli, 1^37, when the father 
selected a tract of eighty aci'es on section 13, 
Jell'crson Township, fur their futui'e home. 



[lis family consisted of his wife and four 
children — Rol)ert, Thoinas, "William "W. and 
ilatilda. He began life in the forest without 
means, but possessed of health and strength. 
By persevering industry, and strict econ- 
omy he prospered in his agricultural pur- 
suits and acquired a good home, where he 
spent liis declining years, his death taking 
place August 15, 1872. He was one of the 
patriotic soldiers of the war of 1812. Of 
his children, Matilda is now the wife of 
Cheney Pyle, one of the leading farmers of 
Jefferson Township; Thomas married and 
reared a family, and became possessed of a 
good farm property. He died in Jefferson 
Township in June, 1878. "William "W. Steed, 
whose name heads this sketch, was but twelve 
years of age when he accompanied his father's 
family to Jay County, and here he grew to 
inaTihood amid the varied scenes of pioneer 
life. His educational advantages were very 
limited, his education being gained principal- 
ly by contact with the world, his youth being 
spent in assisting his father clear and improve 
their heavily timbered farm. lie was mar- 
ried in the year ISIS to Miss Phcebe Pyle, 
who was born in Pennsylvania, May 6, 1828, 
a daughter of George P. and Anna (Smith) 
Pyle. The children born to this union are — 
John, of Jefferson Township; Calvin, de- 
ceased; Elias and Oliver H. P., also living in 
Jefferson Township. Mrs. Steed died iS'ovem- 
ber 16, 1855, and Mr. Steed was again mar- 
ried in April, 1S56, to Miss Eliza Jane 
Ileston, a native of Ohio, born Septeniber 2, 
1833. Her parents, Zebulon and Elizabeth 
(Stackhonse) Heston, who are now deceased, 
were among the ])ioneers of Jefferson Town- 
ship, settling there in 1S3S. licith died on 
their homestead established in pioneer days. 
Mr. Steed has had seven children by his sec- 
ond marriage — Lavinia G., \\it'ent' JMartin L. 
"Williams, of .letfersou Township; Homer, 



pi 



i 



!b1 

11 



!^1) 






I 




n 



7^/^^ 




ii'i 






f 

If, 

i 



jiS; 



■j'. 



i^. 
§• 



living on a part of lii.s futlier's furui; Lewis 
N., a merchant at Powers Station; Matilda 
^[.. wit'e of Elhy Hall, ot'Jetferson Township; 
AVilliam E., living in the same township; 
Chester, who died aged live years, and JVland. 
Mr. Steed couimenced married life a poor 
man upon his father's homestead, and his 
present residence, established in 1852, was 
the first he ever owned. He commenced 
here on 160 acres of land, of which about 
tirtefn acres had l)een cleared and a small log 
cabin built. By persevering energy and good 
management he has succeeded even beyond 
his most sanguine expectations, and lias added 
to his homestead until it contains 400 acres, 
almost all of which is cleared and under a 
high state of cultivation. The log cabin 
disappeared many j-ears ago, and has been 
rejilaced by a more commodious and con- 
venient residence. His farm buildings are 
among the best in the counts'. Besides his 
liomestead, which is located on section 20, 
Jetforson Township, he owns an eighty-acre 
farm located on section 27 of the same town- 
ship. For aliout twenty-tive years Mr. Steed 
was engaged in dealing in lis-e stock, shipping 
east, south and west, and by his good business 
man.-igement made this a successful eiiter- 
pi-ise, (juitting it only that he might lead a 
more cpiiet life. In politics Mr. Steed is a 
Dem.icrat, Ijeing one of the leadiui; members 
ot that party in Jay County. He has sei'ved 
as a commissioner of Jay County, holding 
that office from 1S~1 until 1^74. He is a 
member of the Masonic fraternitv. 



^OlIX Bli.VDLEV, elde.t .son of lienja- 
j' min and ^lai'y ( Ilee.l) Bradley, is a na- 
>< live of Ohio, born in Trumbull County, 
May i\. 1^4S. He ha. always lived with his 
JiaiTuts, and since hia majority has been as- 



sociated in business with his father, first in 
the harness and saddler tratle in Portland, and 
since 1876 in the ownership and manage- 
ment of their farm on section 24, Green 
Township. He served an apprenticeship at 
harness making, and followed that business 
altogether about ten years. May 13, 1870, 
ho was united in marriage to Miss Elizabeth 
A. Mason, who was born in Franklin County, 
Ohio, October 24, 1847, a daughter of Jehu 
and Maria Mason. Her parents died in Jay 
County, the mother dying at her home in 
1879, and the father dying in 1870, his death 
resulting from a limb falling from a tree 
while at work in the woods. Of the four 
children born to Mr. and Mrs. Bradley, two 
are deceased —Charles K. died aged si.xteen 
months, and Carrie F. died at the age of 
eleven years. Rufus R. and Earl E. are the 
names of the children living. Mr. Bradley 
is now serving as trustee of Greene Township, 
having been elected to that office in the 
spring of 1886. He was reared in the faith 
of tlie Christian church, his parents beino- 
members of that church. He is a member 
of the Odd Fellows order, belongiuo- to 
Omega Lodge, 2so. 281, of Portland. 



^mLBERT RUSSELL, civil engir 
:(fM> ^'"■^''-■yor, Pennvillu, is a native c 



neer and 
of Jack. 
^i?^ Son Township, Jay County, Indiana, 
born February 10, 1S40, a son of Isaac and 
Rachel (Janney) Russell. He was reai-ed 
on a frontier farm in his native township, 
receiving his early education in the district 
schools, completing hi,- studies at Lebanon, 
(Ohio) normal cdlege. While at collecre he 
studieil civil engiueei'ing, whivh he has fol- 
lowed since 1874. llf remained at home 
with his parents until attaining his ma- 
jority. October 1, 1878. he w.as united in 



m 






)iii 






m 

;aj; 



/bli 

r'3l 



<i?»S2 


':,-"a-u^!a,!s„!e„M^m^ia,< 


i„«„k.^»^M_«t„a^d„ 


=T*'n-''n»a"-'a» 


T-a.,a„.n>.gi^j"^~t'^'g„£^f^ 


t-"! 


v"™^™^;!; 




318 


iiisr(jj:y of 


JAY COVNTY 









m 



m 

"h 

t 
I 






ii 



I 

m 



marriage to Miss Ellen English, a daughter 
of Thomas and Cynthia (Boland) English, 
who came from Ross County, Ohio, where 
Mrs. Eussell was born in 1855. They are 



tli< 



pan 



cuts of one son, named AV^illiam E. 



In 1S82 Mr. Russell engaged in the drug 
business at Pennville, which he followed with 
fair success until 1887, when he disposed of 
his drug store. In 1876 he was elected to 
the office of county surveyor, serving as such 
two years. In 1884 he was elected towhship 
trustee, re-elected in 1886, and is still serving 
in that capacity with credit to himself and 
satisfaction to his constituents. He is a 
member ot the Odd Fellows order. Relief 
Lodge, Xo. 145. Politically he is a Repub- 
lican. He is a member of the Society of 
Friends. Isaac Russell, the father of our 
subject, was born in Adams County, Penn- 
sylvania, August 18, 1810, a son of Jesse 
Russell, a native of Frederick County, Mary- 
laud, aud a grandson of John Russell, who 
was born in Dublin, Ireland, in 1736. The 
latter came to America in 1750, but subse- 
quently returned to his native country, com- 
ing again to America in 1764, when he settled 
ill Maryland. He married Rebecca Fincher, 
a native of Pennsylvania, whose ancestors 
came to America with "William Penn. Jesse 
Russell married Content Garretson, a native 
of Pennsylvania. Isaac Russell was married 
in 1839 to Miss Rachel Jauney in Warren 
County, Ohio. She is a daughter of Stephen 
and Letitia (Taylor) Jauney, natives of Lou- 
doun County. Virginia, her father, a son of [ 
Joseph Jauney, a native of Baltimore, Mary- I 
lain], and a grands(jn of John Janney, a native j 
of Pennsylvania, whose father Josepli Jauney 
came from Yorkshire, England, to America 
with AVilliam Penn in 16S4, and settleil in 
I'hihul.-liihia. After their marriage ilr. iiiid 
j\lrs. Isaac Russell located in Vigo County, In- j 
diana, where the father followed carpentering, i 



He remained in Vigo County until 1845, 
wlieu he came with his familvto Jay County, 
and settled on a heavily timbered farm which 
had been previouslyeutered from the Govern- 
ment by his father-in-law. He cleared and 
improved a tract of 160 acres and followed 
farming until his death, September 7, 1881. 
He was a consistent member of the Society 
of Friends. His widow who still survives, is 
yet a member of the Society. She is now 
seveut3'-one years old and is living with her 
son, the subject of this sketch. Isaac Rus- 
sell served Jackson Township as trustee for 
three years. He and his wife had a family of 
five children, of whom four still survive — 
Francis, living in Nemaha County, Kansas, 
was a soldier in the war of the Rebellion, 
l)eing a member of Company G, One Hun- 
dred and Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantrv; 
Albert, our subject; James A., a puldisher 
living at Pennville, Indiana, and Mary L., 
wife of A. C. Norwood, of Albuequerque, 
New Me.\ico. Jesse J. was a member of 
Company F.. Seventy-fifth Indiana Infantry, 
and died in the service of his country at 
Memphis, Tennessee, in February, 1863. 



^^T W. PAYTON, merchant, Dun- 
■'iirVr'i kirk, is a native of Indiana, born, 

1^5^* in Delaware Township, Delaware 
County, September 16, 1840, a son of Rev. 
John H. and Temperance (Hragi o) Pay- 
ton. The father was born in Pourbon 
County, Kentucky, and when a lioy removed 
with his parents to AVashiugton County. (3hio, 
and from there to Fayette County, Indiaiui. 
In the early days of Delaware County he 
entered land iuLiliei-tyTiiwuship. that county, 
about half of which lie cleared from the heavy 
timber. In 1^42 he removed to Lilierty 
Township, and wliile living there was ordained 



k 

k 
m 



I 






I; 



m. 




"gl^-»3 qi.>^.r3LC>g^m ».Jfa Jr 



3S5S5S5H35b2 



rsTjaigji^jyaSar 



^sn^mB'ss-am'S 



«»»°'-~"<« 



n.a«,aia.i 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCUES. 



ii 



iaij 



I'll 



^B^ 



^5 

'Xv 






!S( 






-4' 
;|j 



a preaclier in tlie Methodist church. In 1S4:9 
he u-ent to Blnft'ton to take his first charge, 
aui] line 3'ear hiter was appointed to the cliureh 
at .Monmouth. From tliere he went to 
Auburn, Allen Circuit, thence to Leeshurg, 
■n-herc he spent two years, and subsequently 
had charge of churches at Xortli Manchester, 
Columbia City, eighteen montlis, Blufftou, 
one year, \Yinchester, one year, Albany, one 
year. From Alb.my he went to Selma, where 
he remained until 1865, after which he spent 
four years and a half in "Woodhull, Henry 
County, Illinois, going thence to Champaign 
County, where he resided until his death, 
December 14, 1883, his widow beini^ still a 
resilient of Champaign County. W. W. 
Paytun, the subject of this sketch, made his 
home with his parents, attending the schools 
of the various places where his father's pas- 
toral duties called him. He enlisted in the 
war of the Eebellion, July 2, 18G1, and was 
assigned to Company K, Nineteenth Indiana 
Infantry. He regiment rendezvoused at In- 
diaiuipolis, going thence to "Washington City, 
where it joined the Array of the Potomac, 
First Corps, General McDowell. He par- 
ticipated in the battles of Gainesville, Manas- 
ses Junction, South Mountain, Autietam,and 
Fredericksburg. His regiment wintered at 
Belle Plain. He was in the first day's fight 
at Gc-'ttj'sburg, where his corps lost its com- 
mander. General Reynolds, and whore our 
sulijert was wounded aTid taken prisoner, but 
left in hospital. On the third day of the 
batth; lie was recaptured and sent to Phila- 
delphia, where he remained in hospital three 
anil a half months. He was then transferred 
to tiie hospital at Indianapolis where he 
was furloughed, and in December, 1S63. 
rejoined his regiment near Kappahannock 
Station, Virginia, going thence to Culpeper 
Court House where he re-enlisted. He was 
yironidted Sergeant of Coinpajiy K. !Mareh 1, 



1864, and April 21 following he was made 
Commissary Sergeant of the Kineteenth In- 
diana Eegimeut. He%ventwith his regiment 
to Petersburg, where he was discharged Octo- 
ber 19, 1864, on the consoliilation of the 
Is^ineteenth, Seventh, Fourteenth and Twenti- 
eth Indiana Regiments. After his discharge 
he returned to his home, teaching school that 
winter, and the following spring he removed 
to Henry County, Illinois, wliere he was en- 
gaged in farming fotir years. He then went 
to Champaign County, Illinois, and three and 
a half years later came to Indiana, where he 
has since divided his time between farming 
and mercantile pursuits. He established his 
business at Dunkirk, December 13, 1881, and 
by his reasonable prices, and strict attention 
to the wants of his customers he has built up 
a good trade. Mr. Payton was married !N"o- 
vember 5, 1863, to Miss Adaline Bowen, a 
native of Blackford County, Indiana, and a 
daughter of ^Villiam and Rebecca Bowen. 
She died December 17, 1886. Their only 
child, Charles W., who was born July 23, 
1871, died March 2, 1872. On the 16th day of 
August, 1887, Mr. Payton was married to Miss 
Lizzie Brotherton, a native of Randolph 
County Indiana, but then a resident of Dun- 
kirk, JayCounty, Indiana, adaughterof James 
T. and Lucy A. Brotlierton. Mr. Payton is a 
charter member of Benjamin Shields Post, 
No. 289, G. A. \l.. which he has served as 
Adjutant ami Quartermaster. He is a mem- 
ber of Dunkirk Lodge, No. 275, A. F. A: A. 
M., and also belongs to Dunkirk Lodge, No. 
306, I. O. O. F. 



§1;. ROBERT P. DAVIS, of Portland, 
one of tlie leadiTig physicians of Jay 
-S? County, is a native of Lawi-cnee County, 
Ohio, the date of his bii-tli bein^- November 



m 



i 



m 
^\ 

I) 

a ) 

m 

pi 



r s! 

1 
'fa! 



,- ■ ^!^ri,■^lJ^-.J ^! ,^:lJ„M^;l ^ il1^1)■„ Ja■g i 



a„a„a,.3ina.^a»«g«o'aMa^i* ' . 



g5j,^ia„.a„a,. 



^j»„».„j 



.1" 



■20 



IIISTOEY OF JAY COUNTY. 






^1! 



I 



I 



i 



ii'ji 



12, 1836. His father, Ilngli M. Davis, was 
also a native of the Luckoye State, Lorn in 
(Treene Connty, of English descent, and wlien 
a young man settled in Lawrence Countyi 
where he married Martha Silliraan, who was 
of Irish origin. Of the ten children born to, 
them, six sons and two daughters grew to 
maturity, all of whom are yet living but two 
Sons and one daughter. Two brothei's of our 
subject are residents of Indiana, living ut 
Farmland, Kandolph County; James, a mer- 
chant, and Lewis N., a physician, who read 
medicine with our subject, and graduated at 
Cincinnati, C>hio. The father was a stone 
mason by trade, which occupation he fol- 
lowed in connection with farming through 
life. "When Eobert P. was two or three years 
ohl the family removed to Clark County, 
Ohio, and about the year 1S50 they again 
changed tlieir residence, removing to Ran- 
dolph County, Indiana, where they settled on 
a farm. In 1S57 our subject began attend- 
ing school at Liber, where he remained three 
years, occasionally teaching a term to defray 
his school expenses. While at Liber he made 
a specialty of physiology and anatomy, having 
at that time the medical profession in view, j 
Ai the expiration of his tliree years at Liber i 
he engaged in teaching school, and at the 
same time pursued his medical studies un- \ 
til the summer of 1862, wiien ho eidisted [ 
in Company A, Eighty-fourth Indiana In- j 
fiutry. Immediately after the organization 
(if the regiment it was ordered to Cincinnati. 
His knowledge of medicine procured for him 
at. once a position in tlie ri'gimental hospi- 
tal, when.' f .r thi-ee years he fiithfully per- 
formed the duties of Ins jiositiou. lie 
accompanied his regiment until the close of 
the M'ar, being present, as his duties required, 
on many a bloody battle-field, including 
Chickamauga. and those of the Atlanta cam- 
iiaiciM. and was also in (reneral Thomas' 



Nashville campaign. He was discharcred at 
Nashville in Jime, 1865. He was united in 
mari-iage March 23, 1866, to Miss Annie 
Peoples, of Randolph County. She was born 
in Tuscarawas County, Ohio, -Vpril 16,1844, 
a daughter of Jonathan and Mahala (Norris) 
Peoples, both of whom died when Mrs. Davis 
was a child. Mrs. Davis is a sister of Cap- 
tain Norris Peoples, who was killed at the 
battle of Resaca. He was Cajitain of Com- 
pany E, Twelfth Indiana Infantry. The cir- 
cumstances attending the death of this 
gallant officer were peculiarh" sad and remark- 
able. He long had a presentiment that his 
death would occur in the first battle in which 
he should participate. As he was leading his 
regiment just beforeenconntering the enemy's 
fire he said to Sergeant B. F. Pierce, '• I shall 
be killed in this battle, but I am ready." The 
line moved forward into the open field, and 
the Captain and the Sergeant lay down to- 
gether to protect themselves from the fire of 
the enemy, and while in the act of raising 
his head a ball struck him in the f irehead, 
passing entirely through his head. The Ser- 
geant with others took him from the field, 
and at the solemn hour of midnight a grave 
was made ready for him, and not unlike the 
burial of Sir John Moore, the body of the 
o-allant soldier was consigned to its narrow 
bed amid the lirol;en utterances of grief from 
his comrades, and a heartfelt prayer for the 
loving wife who iu lier far-oft' home would 
wait in vain for the coming of her loved 
one. Dr. Davis, the subji'ct of this sketch, 
has been a member nf thr medical pi-(u'es- 
siou of .lay ( 'ounty since the winter of 1S6IJ- 
'()7, at wliich time he located at Redkey, and 
began the practice of medicine. ^Vlthongh 
Dr. Davis began his professional life in 18(36 
his preparation for his life work was by no 
means completed. In l^t;'.l, after attrnding 
a course of lectures at Cincinnati he received 



li 






m 









j a,.a,,amJ!T;.'j.»^^j„jT„;j..cacJ.,..i-> a^ a:.Ta^.3^ej^aqiiaJfi.Ji-.J..3. .3j.,ja.^a„j^^,.^^^^,„)^i a „j - 



BIOORAPIUCAL SKETCHES. 






11 



I 
i 



m 






from tlie medical college the degree of M. D., 
and in 1S73 he attended another course of 
lectui-es at Cincinnati, and in ISS-i ho went 
to Kew York, wliere he took a course at the 
Post Graduate College, thus preparing him- 
self in the best schools the country aftbrds, 
for the practice of his chosen profession. Tie 
came to Portland in 1880, where he has since 
built up a large and lucrative practice, and 
gained the confidence and esteem of all who 
know him. Beginning life a poor boy he has 
by his own unaided etibrts attained a high 
rank in his profession, and has now a beau- 
tiful home, one of the finest residences in 
Portland. He has succeeded in spite of many 
obstacles, not the least of which is the result 
of a severe injury that he received from his 
horses running away, from which he has 
never recovered. Politically the doctor is a 
Republican. In 1878 he was elected by his 
party to the otKce of county auditor, which 
position he held for four years, discharging 
the duties of the office with ability and fidel- 
ity. He v.-as the only Republican electee on 
the ticket. He has been a prominent Odd 
Fellow for many years, being at present Dep- 
uty Grand Master of District Xo. 222, I. O. 
< '. F.. of Indiana, anil is also a member of 
the Knights of Pythias. 



fOHN HARDY, one uf the pri.^perous 
agriculturists of Jackson Townshij), en- 
gaged in farming and stock-i'aising, is a 
native of Jay County, Indiana, born in Pike 
Township. September 29, 18.39. His father, 
Curtis Hardy, was born in Preble Couutv, 
Ohio, a son of Rev. John Hardy, a ])roiiiiiii'nt 
pioneer minister in the New Liglit church. 
Curtis Hardy was married in his native 
county to Miss Rachel Dooly. and in I'^ST 
Clime to Jay County, Indiana, setrliiiir in the 



then woods of Pike Township where thev ex- 
perienced many of the hardships and priva- 
tions incident to pioneer life. Nine children 
were born to them of whom only three sur- 
vive — John, the subject of tli is sketch; ilar}' 
C, wife of W. F. Smith, of "VYayne Township, 
and Susan M., wife of Beimett Coyd, of Hast- 
ings, Nebraska. Those deceased are — Phebe; 
James D. was a member of the One Hun- 
dredth Indiana Infantry, Company H, and 
died in hospital at La Grange, Mississippi; 
Moses D. was a member of Company F, 
Seventy-fifth Indiana Infantry, and died at 
Nashville, Tennessee; Lorinda, wife of Eli 
Rines, died in Wayne Township; Curtis C. and 
Benjamin "W., who died at the old homestead 
in Pike Township. The father died in 1868, 
the mother dying some two years later. John 
Hardy, whose name heads this sketch, was 
reared on his father's homestead to the avoca- 
tion of a farmer, being early in life inured to 
hard work. His education was obtained in the 
common schools of hisneighborhood and atLi- 
berCoUege. He enlistedin thewarofthe Re- 
bellion, July 26, 1862, and was assigned to 
Company F, Seventy-fifth Indiana Infantry, 
and during his term of service he participated 
in fjurteen battles. He was twice wounded, 
fii-st at Chattanooga in the Iiri'ast and shoulder 
by a piece of shell, and a second time at 
Konesaw Mountain by a ininir.- ball which 
fractured his skull above the left ear. He 
received an honorable discharge June 8, 186.5, 
the war being ended. October S, 1867, he 
was united in marriage to Miss Sarah T. 
Griffin, the otdy child of Sumner and Levina 
(Cook) Griffin. Her parents came to Jay 
County in 1837. where her father died Feljru- 
ary 21, 1876. Mrs. Griffin is now making 
her home with her daughter. Mrs. Hardy. 
Mr. and Mrs. Hardy are the parents of seven 
chihlren — Cady (J^car, Bertha Rosetta. Yer- 
ona Y.. AMa Irene. Curtis Walter. Fred S., 



ilS 



r 



k 

I 
m 

B) 



% 

'ij' 



, a,a»a-3 : ,«»-a«iM S i 



E5m^S5H5S?'SMa 



.a-a._M 



1 



i; 



HISTORY OF JAY CUUNTY. 



and John W. Mr. Hardy remained in Pike 
Township until 1S78, when lie bought a part 
of his present farm in Jackson Township, 
known as the old John Pingry farm, and con- 
sidereil one of the best farms in Jay County. 
He also purchased a farm adjoining, and is 
now the owner of 551 acres of as good land 
as Jay County affords, being well improved 
and very productive. 360 acres of his land 
is in Ik-ar Creek Township, 191 acres lying 
in Jackson Township. His land is well 
adapted to stock raising, being well watered 
by Deer and Bear creeks. He is quite ex- 
tensively engaged in stock-raising and feed- 
ing, his sales last year amounting to §7,000. 
He has on his farm a very line gravel bed, 
containing from fifty to seventy-five acres of 
gravel, with an average depth of almost nine 
feet. jVIr. Hardy is the largest tax payer in 
Jackson Township, his tax on one pike alone 
amounting to $1,700. In politics he is a 
Republican, and is one of the leading men of 
his party in Jay County. Quiet, unassuming, 
industrious and strictly honorable in all his 
dealings he has gained the confidence and 
respect of the entire community. 



rfj^ 1". ABEL, physician an<l surgeon, at 
'i,n;j|, liriant, was born in Jay County^ 
•^■^ April IG, 1800, son of G. W. and 
Esther (Reed) Abel, pioneers of this county. 
The parents had six children, of whom our 
subject is the fifth. He was reared in ]\[adi- 
son and Pike townships, and completed his 
education at llidgeville College. In 1SS2 
he commencetl the study of medicine under j 
Dr. Philip Dickes, of B..uiidary. In lS.^:i 
and 18S-t he attended lectures at the :Michi- | 
gan State University at Ann Arbor, au<l in i 
18S5 at Indiana])iilis, rerei\ing his diploma 
Februarv 26, 1S85, at the Meilical Culle-e of l 



Indiana. He at once located at Briant, where 
he has built up a good practice, and it is con- 
stantly increasing. His office is situated on 
the main street of the village. He was mar- 
ried, May 14, 1885, to Miss Ada Miller, 
of this county, and daughter of Daniel Miller, 
of Portland. They have one child — Claude 
Miller. The doctor is a member of Red Cross 
Lodge, Xo. 88, K. of P., of Portland. 



j^AMUEL M. BRISCOE is the youngest 
t'®1 '^^'^''i °f Thomas S. and Margaret A. 
^^ Briscoe. He was born on the 8th day 
of April, 1863, in Scott County, Iowa. "When 
about one month old his parents removed 
to Linneus, Linn County, Missouri, where 
his mother died. He was then with the other 
children, two girls, taken to Newark, Dela- 
ware, and resided with an aunt, Mrs. Mary E. 
Griffith, until he was eight years old. In 
May, 1871, he came to Hartford City, and 
lived in the family of Robert L. Kunkle, un- 
til August of the same year when his father re- 
married and then he lived with him. His first 
schooling was in the district schools of the 
State of Delaware. After coming to Hart- 
ford Cit}' he attended the graded schools and 
graduated in the class of 1881. When but 
twelve years old he commenced to clerk in 
the grocery store of S. R. Patterson & Co. 
He clerked during the summer and attended 
school during the winter. In February, 1879, 
he went to work in the clerk's office of the 
county, and held the position of deputy- 
clerk fr(,im that time tiiitil January. 1SS3, 
except when in school. In January, 1S83, 
he went to Indianapolis and during the session 
of the Legislature was assistant journal 
clerk of the House of Representatives. On 
the first day of ^lay, he accepted the position 
of bookkeeper in the Citizens Hank, and in 



ill 






BIOGIiA PHICAL SKETCHES. 



ifsi' 



Janniirv, ISSo, was elected assistant cushiei- 
of tliat institution, which jjosition he still 
holds. The first of July, 1885, he purchased 
the Hartford City Telegram, and has pub- 
lished it since, never assuming entire editorial 
control of the paper on account of his posi- 
tion at the bank. His father does the princi- 
pal work on the paper, he (Sam) acting as 
publisher and business manager. Has traveled 
a great deal for a young man, through the 
south, east and some parts of the west. 



fOSEPII P. XIXOX is one of the lead- 
ing citizens of Jefi'erson Township and 
"f; a representative of one of its pioneer 
families. He was born in Columbiana 
County, Ohio, December 18, 1833, a son of 
John and Hannah (Pennock) Ki.xon, natives 
also of Ohio, his grandfather, William Ni.xon, 
being a pioneer of Columbiana County, com- 
ing from Londoun County, Virginia. The 
parents of our subject came to Jay County 
in ISSo, and settled on section 15, Jetl'erson 
Township, and commenced to make a home 
in the dense forest. The father still lives 
within 200 yards of the spot where his rude 
cabin was erected. Tlie mother died in ISOG, 
after living to rear her family. They hail a 
family of twelve children — foseph P.; Sarah 
Jane became the wife of T. M. C. I.utes, and 
died in 1S57; IJebeccii Ann. deceased, was 
the wife of L. :\[. Doddridge; AVilliani, of 
Jefferson Township; Ptuth, wife of L. M. 
Doddridge, of Michigan; lunanuel; Lucette, 
wife of Cyrus il. Stratton, and ilatilda, wife 
of B. F. Van Skyock, ,.f .lefferM.n Tnwn.^hip; 
Eliza, deceasLMl: Charlotte, wifi- (.f (Jeorge 
Taylor, of Mi.-hig:in; Liicinda, and John, a 
physician at l-';irniland, K.-indolph County, 
Joseph P. Xixon was in his thiril ycur whi'u 
his parents moved t<i .[av County, and with 



the exception of the year \>i~fl, spent in 
Missouri, has since lived in the county. His 
education was obtained in the old log school 
house at Mount Pleasant. He made his 
home with his father until 1861, working 
the few years preceding in diflerent neighbor- 
hoods at the carpenter's trade. He was mar- 
ried in August, 1861, to Emeliue Hite, a 
native of Jefferson Township, where lier 
parents, William and Sarah Hite, settled in 
the spring of 1835. Mr. and Mrs. ^'ixon 
commenced housekeeping on their present 
homestead, and the fine building improve- 
ments have all been erected by him. The 
homestead contains 280 acres on sections 10, 
15 and 16, about 200 acres of which are 
under cultivation. Mr. and Mrs. Xixon have 
had eight children. Their first-born, Cyrus, 
died, aged a little more than two years. Those 
living are — James G., of Como; Millard, 
Anna, Walter, Elmer, Jesse and Ida May. 
In ]iolitics Mr. iSTixon is a Democrat. In 
1S71 he was elected Treasurer of Jay County 
and served two years. He has served twelve 
years as trustee and one term as assessor of 
his township. 



fOHN S. McLaughlin, farmer, section 
30, Xoble Township, was born 2y ovem- 
^,-^i ber 28, 1833, in Sladison Township, this 
county, where lie was reared to manhood and 
educated in the pioneer subscription school. 
His father, John McLaughlin, was born in 
Path County, Virginia, February 21, 1799, 
and removeil to ]Meigs County, ()hio, where 
he was marrieil in 1823. In 1833 he came 
to this county with his wife and four chil- 
dren, locating on section 4, where the father 
entered 155 acres of land and commenced to 
maki! a home in the wilderness. He had to 
c\it a road several miles to ^rct to his new 






i 




B-J-jBt-.-J^'-J. 



JT«rs^»15W5 



r 



it^^:Hf,a^.»..a^j 



HISTORY OF JAY COUNTY. 






,9) 

w. 
ifei 



31! 

P 

I 
'k 






home. The family liveil with anotlier family 
nainnd Kline, while their ealiin was being 
built. Here they lived may years. The 
father died in Lancaster, Madison Township, 
Mardi 16, 1S60. The mother of our sub- 
ject, Barbara (Spillmau) McLanghlin, was 
born in Eundolph County, Virginia, Decem- 
ber 2, 1805, and died January 20, 1873. The 
father was a great hunter, and the first win- 
ter he was here he killed fifteen deer. John 
S. McLaughlin was married December -i, 
ISSy, to Miss Catherine Davis, who was born 
in Darke County, Ohio, June 19, 1838, and 
when two years of age, in March, 1810, came 
to this county with her parents and seven 
other children, she being the youngest. Her 
parents, James and Elizabeth (Zimmerman) 
Davis, were born in Baltimore County, Mary- 
land, the father, March 30, 1803, the mother, 
January 7, 1806. They were married in 
their native county in 1825. They were the 
parents of eleven children — Susan, John 3L, 
Eobert, jS'ancy, Catherine Elizabeth; the de- 
ceased are — Mary, James, Elijah, a twin 
brother, Benjamin and "William. The father 
died March 30, 1858, and the mother March 
2(), 1S72. Mr. McLaughlin's parents had 
eleven children — Jane, Elizabeth, who died 
in this county at the age of fifty-eight ye>'i''s; 
Hugh, AVilliam H., John S., Frank M.,"Eide- 
lia .\.. Ilebecea, Hannah, who died at the age 
of two years, Wiley, who was a soldier in 
the Eleventh Indiana Cavalry, and was killed 
at the battle of Franklin, and Henry, who 
ilied in this countv. Afr. and Mrs. ^Mc- 
Laughlin have two children — Eugene F., born 
September 24, 1860, a practicing physician at 
Fort Tlecoverj-, and Flora G., born September 
29, 1872. 3Ir. McLaughlin's grandfather, 
Hugh McLaughlin, was born in Bath County. 
Virginia; was a blacksmith by trade; served ! 
in the war of 1812, and died in Bath County. 
His i;-randmother McLaULj'lilin was the dauirli- ! 



ter of Irish parents. His maternal grand- 
parents were born in Pennsylvania, of 
German descent, and died in that State. Mrs. 
McLaughlin's grandfather Davis died at the 
age of forty-five years, in Baltimore County, 
Maryland. Her grandmother, Nancy Davis, 
also died in Baltimore County, aged ninety- 
five years. The Davises are of English an- 
cestry. Her maternal grandfather, John 
Zimmerman, died in Baltimore County, 
Maryland, his father having come from Ger- 
many and settled in that county. Her grand- 
mother, Catherine Zimmerman, died in 
Baltimore County. Mr. McLaughlin enlisted 
in Company I, One Hundred and Thirtieth 
Indiana Infantry. They camped at Kokomo 
until March, 1864, and were then assigned to 
the Twenty-third Army Corps, Second Bri- 
gade and Second Division, General Scliolield. 
He joined the corps at Chattanooga, ■was in 
all the principal battles to Atlanta, Georgia. 
He returned with his corps lo Nashville, 
thence to North Carolina. He was dis- 
charged September 20, 1865. In politics he 
is a Kepublican, casting his first presidential 
vote for John C. Fremont. His father voted 
the Democratic ticket until Van Buren's 
time, but he died a staunch Republican and 
all his sons are Republicans. 



y^EWlS BEARD, of Salamonia, was born 
'Wli '" Madison Township, this county. May 
■^s^ 27, 1840. lie was reared in his native 
county ani1 has since resided here. Septem- 
ber 25, 1861, he enlisted in Company F, 
Fortieth Ohio Infantry, and veteranized Jan- 
uary 1, 1804. 3[ay 2s, 1864, he was 
wouniled in his right fore arm at Atlanta, 
Georgia, which necessitated an amputation 
above the elbow. He was taken to the field 
hospital, where the ojieration was performed 




5[T^aa 



.ji-t^tJ.3 « ^JiJq,a*M^».'^ - *'ar^ 



i^5^^S5S5[m^a^a^5iH3^ii55H^m5?a™E 



■I <« K £3^ ^sa^ '. 



4 






BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCUES. 



li? 



tlien went to Kingston, Georgia, thence to 
Ciiatt.'iuooga, thence to jS'ashvillc, where he 
received a t'urloiigli and reported at Colum- 
bus, Ohio. He was tlien sent to Camp Den- 
nison and was there transferred to the Second 
Battalion of the Invalid Ileserve Corps. He 
was discharged .January 31, 1865, at Colum- 
bus, Ohio, and then returned home. He was 
married October 31, 1869, to Miss Elizabeth 
A. White, who was born in Noble Township, 
Jay County, February 6, 1852, and reared in 
her native county. Her parents were Thomas 
and liarbara (Hutchins) "White. Mr. Beard's 
father, George Beard, was born in Preble 
County, Ohio, in 1812, and married in Dela- 
ware County, this State, in 1836. He came 
to this county in the fall of 1S39, and re- 
moved to Richardson County, JN'ebraska, 
April 11, 1870, where he died January 25, 
1871, of heart disease. He was a blacksmith 
by trade, and owned 160 acres of land in 
Madison Township, which he sold when he 
removed to Xebraska. The mother, Eliza 
(Clouse) Beard, was also born in Preble County, 
Ohio, JS'ovember 7, 1819, and died March 5, 
1887, in Richardson County, Nebraska. 
Their children were — John C, Lewis, Lid- 
dia. Richard, who died in infancy, George 
W., Sarah E., who died at the age of two 
years, Thomas IJ., ilarv J.. Allen, Levi P. 
Mr. and Mrs. Beard have had live children — 
Charles A., liorn .lanuary 21, 1S73; Linus 
E.. Ix.rn September 9, 1878; William Gar- 
field, born September 15. 18S2. lie and 
his wife are members of tlie Cliristian church, 
ami in politics ^[v. lieard atliliatcs with the 
Republican party. 



^('LTON B1;()T11ET;S. dealers in hard- 
afs ware, stove.-;, tiiiwarr, .■hn-iciiltiii-al im- 
" plements, iiuin|i-., .•ind i^ras and steam 
fixtures, paints, nils. rfo.. I'.irtland. 'I'lii.- is 



one of the most extcnsi\-e establishments of 
its kind in Eastern Indiana, and one of the 
most complete in its great variety of stock. 
The business was established at the present 
location, west side of Meridian street, the 
substantial brick building being erected by 
the present lirm. It is two stories in height, 
the room on ground and second floors being 
22x132 feet in size, and the average amount 
of stock carried by the firm is about ?16,000. 
The members of the firm are Benjamin and 
James Fulton. The former came to Port- 
land in 1871, and for a number of years 
carried on the grocery trade. The Fulton 
brothers were born in Sidney, Ohio, and their 
father being a farmer they were reared to 
the same avocation. Their father, Isaac 
FuUon, was a pioneer of Shelby County, 
Ohio, and became one of the prominent citi- 
zens of that county. He was born in West- 
moreland County, Pennsylvania, and was of 
Scotch descent. He died in October, 1863. 
He was an Abolitionist in the days of slavery, 
and an opposer of wrong in all forms. He 
was the father of si.x children, of whom four 
survive, the three brothers already mentioned, 
and tlieir sister Annie, who is now the wife 
of Dr. Orbison, of Sidney. Benjamin Ful- 
ton, the eldest of the three brc.ithers, was 
burn in the year 1849, and when sixteen 
years old began clerking in a hardware store. 
For three years he traveled as salesman for 
a Yankee notion house, and it was while 
thus engaged that liis attention was called to 
Portland as a fa\orable business point. He 
has been prominently identifie'l with the 
business interests and jirogress of Portland 
for man}' years, and has served as citv clerk 
and in the city council. He has done much 
toward the building u]> of Portland, and dur- 
ing his residence here has erected some seven- 
teen buildings, lie was one of the first to 
express the opinion that natural o-ns could be 












n 



'■j 



Vi 
It 

I 






J) 



BlJ 



■.M»Ji^»^a^«,.J 



° ■>»-«■- ;»"»' 



■"^"'■''-° 



rB„U_H-£l- 



HltiroRY OF .TAT COUNTY. 






I 
pi 

m 

'91; 






found at Portland, and was one of the foi-e- 
niost to push the enterprise of drilling, and 
lias contributed freely of his means and 
mechanical skill to make the enterprise a 
success. He possesses great mechanical skill, 
and takes pride in doing what others fail to 
do, and his ability in that direction has been 
fully tested in the difficulties attending the 
drilling of the gas wells at Portland, where 
his skill has been in frequent demand. Ben- 
jamin Fulton was united in marriage to Miss 
(iertrude Hawkins, a daughter of the well 
known pioneer. Judge j^. B. Hawkins, and to 
this union have been born two children — 
Ethan Allen and Jennie. 



fAMES HA^S'LIN, one of the representa- 
tire citizens of Jay County, and an early 
settler of Wayne Township, where he 
resides on section 2, was born in Washington 
County, Pennsylvania, in the year 1820. He 
was reared in his native county, and when 
eighteen years of age went with his mother's 
family to Jackson County, Ohio, his father, 
James Hanlin, Sr., having died the year pre- 
vious. Our subject was married in Jackson 
County to Miss Irena Stephenson, who was 
born in that county, a daughter of James 
Stephenson. Of the five children born to 
thcni, only three are living. Their only sui-- 
viving son was born in Jackson County, Ohio, 
in 1852. and is now living on section 1, 
Wayne Township, .lay County. Their daugh- 
ters are Virginia, wife of John ('ring of 
Portland, and Adeline, wife of Alfred Antles 
of Bear Creek Township. In 185-4 Mr. Han- 
lin came with his family to Jay County when 
the country was in a wild state, and in the 
fall of the same year he settled on his present 
farm which lie jmrchased from Jonas \'otaw. 
No irajirovements had been niudeon the ]ilace 



when Mr. Hanlin settled on it, but by hard 
work and persevering energy he soon cleared 
his land and put it under improvement. His 
first purchase was 320 acres, but shortly after 
buying he sold eighty acres, and lately deeded 
eighty acres to his son John A. He still 
retains 160 acres, which is now well improved 
and under a good state of cultivation. He 
has done his share toward clearing up, and 
developing the resources of the county, and 
always takes an active interest in any enter- 
prise which has for its object the advancement 
of his township or county. In politics Mr. 
Hanlin is a Democrat, casting his first presi- 
dential vote for James K. Polk in ISii. Both 
he and his wife are members of the Free-Will 
Baptist church. 



"i^SVAN EVANS, one of the active and 
Wli p''ominent old pioneers of Jay County, 
"^jf-l was born in Highland County, Ohio, 
November 19, 1815, a son of John M. and 
Eve (Shroyer) Evans. The Evans family are 
originally of Welsh descent, and are noted 
for their longevity. The grandfather of our 
subject, wliose name was also Evan, was 
born and reared in New Jersey, leaving his 
native county for Virginia, and later removed 
to Highland County, Ohio, where he was 
among the fii'st settlers. He was of Quaker 
ancestry, and was a membei- (jf the Friends 
Society until his death. He was living in 
either New Jerse}' or Virginia during the 
war of the Revolution, but being a Quaker 
I he did not participate in that niemoraVile 
I struggle. He died in Highland County at 
the age of ninety-five years, and two of his 
[ sisters lived to attain a still greater age, one 
j dying at the agi' of ninety-eight years and 
one a^cd ninety-nine years, .lohn M. E\aTis, 
the I'athei- of our .-uhjeet, was \u^n\ in \'ir- 



^ 



;ia' 



m 



'L« 



^1 



M 



::Si 

US'. 



m 



M 






m 



% 












.U — d^JI. 



^jia^jg^vi^m^ 



monUAl'II/CA L .-i KETCHES. 



gini;i, going to Ohio «"itli liis parents, ami 
■^pi'ut tlie remainiler of his lite in Ilighhuid 
ami Faj-ette counties, lie was an indoiiiitable 
Worker, and altliougli he lived to the age of 
eighty-four years, it is a fact that his death 
resulted from overheating himself in the har- 
vest field. Although a worthy member of the 
Friends Society, he yet served his country in 
the war of 1812. Evan Evans, the subject of 
this sketcli. was thirteen years of age when 
his parents removed from Highland to Fay- 
ette County, and there the family lived many 
years, and finally returned to Highland 
County. Evan being the eldest son he was 
Larly in life inured to hard work, and during 
his youth he attended and assisted in many 
l"g rollings. He was married in I'ayette 
County, April 13, 1836, to Miss Khoda Al- 
legi-e, a native of Fayette County, and of 
Fi'i'ueh descent. Her parents subsequently 
removed to In<liana, and both died near Al- 
bany, in Delaware County, the father about 
1854, and the mother in 1872, the latter dy- 
ing at the age of eighty-four years. Of the 
seven children born to Mr. and Mrs. E\ans 
only four survive. James Wesley served 
three years in the war of the Rebelli(jn, where 
he was three times wounded, and at the bat- 
tle of Sliiloh was so severely shot that his 
lil'e was almost dispaired of; Evan Asbni-y; 
Ihnm.-i, wife of John Dunn, and John 1!. 
Lncinda Ann, their first child, died aged two 
years and three months; Calista, wife of 
^Villiam Currant, died September 7, 1882, 
and !Mary Louisa, wife of Annenis Davis, 
died June 20. 1>>S3. After his marriage ^Ir. 
Ev:ins settled on laml which had been entered 
by Lorenzo -Vllegrc. II is father gave him 
SllX). which 111' ga\'p in pai't iiavuient fur liis 
I-uid. The f.illiiwiiig year, 1839. lie came 
t" Ini.liana. and li\i;il lui rented laud near 
-Mluinv t\vn .11- Ihivc vears. iir then canic to 



Jay County, and bought forty acres of wild 
land in Kichland Township. Before settling 
here he made a small clearing and erected a 
round logeal;>in li.xlG feet in dimensions, and 
after this was completed he lirought his 
family to their pioneer home. Tlie first 
spring he planted a few apple trees in the 
woods where the brush was cut down. In 
the spring of 1SS7 he cut down one of the 
apple trees he had planted, which was over 
two feet in diameter. His land which he 
bought when first coming to the county is 
now one of the finest tracts in Jay County. 
He by subsequent purchases has added to his 
possessions until he now owns about 400 
acres of choice land, all but about sixty-five 
acres cleared of the timber, and his log cabin 
has been replaced by a beautiful residence, 
and surrounded by shade and ornamental 
trees. In politics like his father Mr. Evans 
was an old line Whig, and has been a Eepub- 
lican since the organization of that party. 
He has never sought after office although he 
has served as school trustee, and built the 
first substantial school building in Richland 
Township. He became a incmlier of the 
Methodist Episcopal church in his youth, to 
which lie has belonged over half a century^ 
and always been among the prominent and 
active men in its councils. He was one of 
the trustees who had charge of the building 
of tlie Redkey Methodist Episcopal church, 
and contributed some $34:0 more than any 
other person toward its erection. He has 
contributed toward the building of both the 
Panhandle and Lake Erie Railroads, and gives 
liberally of his im-aus toward the advancement 
of any worthy oliject. The land on which the 
fairs and exhibitiuns of the Redkey Associa- 
tion arc heM is owneil by him. ^'o man has 
taken a iicre active interest ov dune more 
towaril the ad\'am'eiiieiit of his to\vn>hip or 



k 






w 

SI' 



Pi 






1^; 







ml 
'.I 

i 

k 
I 

m 

m\ 

%\ 

ll 
i 



ill 






ii 

i 



^ 



county than tlie snlyect of this sketrli, ony of 
the most respected men of Jay County. 



^^i-^I^ILLIxlM G. SUTTON, a prominent 
T'l'/V/'i citizen of Dunkirk, and a representa- 

1*^5^1 tive of one of tlie old pioneer fami- 
lies of Indiana, was born in Greene County, 
Ohio, April 12, 1S2S, a son of Isaiah and 
Catherine (Shrack) Sutton. The father was 
also a native of Greene County, of English 
descent, his parents coming from New Jer- 
sey. He was married in Greene County to 
Miss Catherine Shrack, who was born in 
Washington County, Pennsylvania, of Dutch- 
Irish ancestry. In the spring of 1835 he 
came to Indiana, locating land in what is 
now Richland Township, Jaj' Count}', being 
obliged to walk to the land office at Fort 
"Wayne to enter it, and on arriving at Fort 
Wayne he entered 240 acres in three eighty- 
acre lots. After the division of the county, 
160 acres was located in liichland Townshij), 
the remaining eighty acres being in Jackson 
Township, Blackford County. Pie then re- 
turned to Ohio, and in September, 1836, he 
brought his family by wagon, "William Shrack 
and his family coming at the same time. 
Tliey first landed three miles south of the 
present site of Dunkirk, and there the fami- 
lies remained with friends wIkjui they had 
known in Ohin. while our subject and ilr. 
Shrack proceeded to cut a road thrungh three 
miles of dense forest, to their chosen loca- 
tion, and after completing their log caViins, 
they returned for their families. 'J'hei'e was 
neither tloor nor chimney to ^[r. Siittotrs 
small loo- cabin wlieii his family settled in it, 
but a Sjiace was left in the root' for tliesmiike 
to esr;i|.L'. The surronniliiig I'cuntry was in 
a state of natui-e. and game ot' all kinils was 
abundant, ilr. Sutton was (jnite a hunter. 



although he did not follow huntinij as alinsi- 
ness. as did some of the pioneers, preferring 
to devote his time to clearing and cultivating 
his land, and by persevering iiidnstrv he 
managed to clear more than half of his 240 
acres. Mr. Sutton was largely instrumental 
in organizing and constructing the Ma- 
rion & Mississinewa Valley Kailroad, now 
the Chicago, St. Louis efc Pittsburgh, or Pan- 
handle Kailroad, and was at one time a di- 
rector of the road. This railroad running 
through his land he laid out the pi-esent town 
of Dunkirk, which he named Quincv. so 
that he was the founder of that now thriving 
village. Politically he was earlv in life an 
old line Whig, later a Free-Soiler, and a Ee- 
publican from the organization of that party, 
lie held several township offices, and at one 
time lacked but four votes of being elected 
county commissioner. His first wife died 
about 184:3, and he was afterward married 
to Mrs. Rebecca (Stewart) Shroyer, whose pa- 
rents came from Grafton, West Virginia, to 
Blackford County, Indiana, among the early 
settlers. She was liorn, reared and married 
in Grafton, and her home was visited in 1868 
by William G. Sutton, he finding it in per- 
fect condition. Isaiah Sutton became a Free 
Mason as early as 1848, joining that frater- 
nity at Portland, and was the pioneer of Ma- 
sonarv in his community. He helped to or- 
ganize Anthony Lodge, No. 171, at Albany, 
and became its blaster, and he was also one 
of the organizers of Dunkirk Lodge. No. 
275, of which he was the first J\laster, hold- 
ino- that position several times byre-election. 
He was active in securing the erection of the 
Masonic Hall, and in his sii])port of it, and it 
remained the head(|uarters of the lodge un- 
til the jiresent hall was built, lie joined the 
Methodist Episcopal chni-i;li when fii'tecn 
years of age, and the la>t tuentv years of his 
life he was a local preacher of that denr);nina- 



Jia! 



si 

31) 

i 
I' 

I 

1 



pi 

I 



»I3 






« Jl!- 

S5!i' 



!iif 



(31; 
<ia; 

'31 



I 



i 



■k 



i 



;i3; 
(Si 
;IB' 



^3-,iI3-:,P„ag,Ei-^ 



- J-.M-,JJ--. 



i!S2S2S2SHs 



.11— a_ji., 



niUdRAl'lIU'AL 



tion. He lived the ]iriiK-iples of Iiis religion 
in his daily life, and was esteemed by all who 
knew him. He died October 22, 1SG5, was 
buried with Masoiiie honors in Blackford 
County on a part of the old homestead, when 
an oration was delivered over his remains by 
General J. P. C. Shanks. William O. Sut- 
ton, whose name heads this sketcli, was but 
eight years of age when he came with his 
parents to Jay (.'ouiity, and fur over lialf a 
century he has been a resident of the county, 
and has seen the many changes that have 
transpired, converting the wilderne.'^s into 
well cultured fields and thriving villages. He 
received his education in the common schools 
of his neighborhood, and subsequently en- 
gaged in farming and school teaching, follow- 
ing the latter vocatiim thirteen winter terms, 
lie was united in marriage September 5, 
1847, to Miss Juditli (launtt, a native of 
Warren County, Ohio, and daughter of 
Ezekiel and Mary (Thatcher) Gauntt. Her 
parents settled in Randolph County, Indi.ma, 
in 1832, the father dying there in 1S30, and 
the mother about the year IS-i-i. Of the 
nine children born to Mr. and Mrs. Sutton 
only four are living — Richard J.; John T., in 
the Pension Department at Washington, D. 
C; Rebecca C, wife of James M. Dunn, and 
Klmer E. The names of those deceased are 
—Jacob I., Eli;^a J., Daniel P., Arthur W. 
and George P. In ls59 ilr. Sutton entered 
the lists for auditor at the Republican prim- 
aries, received the nomination, conducted his 
own canvass in a plain, (purt way, and was 
<'lected to the ortiee by a majurity of sixty- 
five votes, although the county was Demo- 
ci-atic, and during the campaign he diil not 
spend a penny nn tlie clectiun. Four •\'ears 
later he was re-elected to the same oiiice, and 
defeated his 0[ipoiient by eighty-tive v.jtes. 
While holding otiice, an<l one yeai' lunger, he 
was a resident of Portland. He has alwa\'s 



been an active Republican, and has been al- 
most universally a delegate to the State and 
Congressional conventions of his party. He 
is at present treasurer of Dunkirk corpora- 
tion, which position he has tilled to the best 
interest of the village since 18(i9. He was 
formerly administrator of about all the 
estates, and was guardian of a larL'^e number 
of orjjhans. He was a charter member of 
Dunkirk Lodge, Ko. 275, .A. F. Oc A. il., to 
which he still belongs, and also a member of 
Dunkirk Chapter, ]S'o. -13, and Dunkirk 
Council, Xo. 242, and is treasurer of the 
chapter and council. He is also an Odd Fel- 
low, being a member of Dunkirk Lodge, jN'o. 
306, and was a member of the encampment 
during its existence at Dunkirk. 



HILIP DICKES, M. D., was born in 
(jQ Putfalo, iS'ew York, Jaunary 7, 1853, 
^-t the youngest of iifteen children of John 
P. and Mary M. Dickes, natives of Germany. 
His father, after making the necessary ar- 
rangements to take his family to America, 
contracted pneumonia and died on the eio-hth 
day of his illness October 2, 1852. His fami- 
ly came to this country, as requested, remained 
in Buffalo, IS'ew York, during the winter, and 
in April, 1853, migrated to Mercer County, 
Ohio, where the widow entered land on which 
she lived till called to rest August 19, 1870. 
Philip Dickes was reared in Mercer County. 
He was given good educational advantao-es, 
attending in his childhood the common schools 
and later Ridgeville College, in liandolph 
County, Indiana, and the Xormal school at 
Valparaiso. He commenced the studv of 
medicine under the preeeptorship o( Dr. 
Brewington of New (?orydon. this C'.iuntv. in 
1S73, and 1S77 and 1S7S atten.led lectures 
at the department of medicine ami suriTei-y 



ill! 



^3 ' 



',3!< 

fid! 



ii; 



"~T- 



-rt^-m"rc' 



.si-aZna 



{[ii 



niSrORT OF JAY COUNTY. 



"% 



in tlie "Michigan State University at Ann 
Arbfir. In 1S78 he located at Boundary, 
Jay (^onnty. and commenced his jjractice. 
In the winter of 1885-'86, he attended lec- 
tures at the Bellevue Hospital Medical Col- 
lege in New York City, graduating in ilarch, 
1886. He is a gentleman of fine literary 
attainments and is well road in his profession, 
to which he is devoted. He has a lucrative 
and constantly increasing practice, his success 
gaining for him the confidence of his patrons. 
He is a member of the county, district and 
State medical societies, taking an active inter- 
est in anything thatwill assist him in acquir- 
ing knowledge relating to his profession. 
Dr. Dickes was married in July, 1878, to 
iMiss Nancy Yiola Snyder, daughterof Philip 
and Abigail Snyder, of Noble Township. 
Three children grace their household — Fran- 
cis Jlillard. Myrte Maud and Ernest Clyde. 



||)«^1^ILLIAM G. JONES, merchant, Penn- 
l-it/AVB ^'ill'-'! Indiana, was born in Belmont 
l^jS^I County, Ohio, July 11, 1830, a son 
of Thomas and Sarah (Eansom) Jones. His 
father was a native of Fayette Count}-, Penn- 
s^'lvania, a son of Thomas Jones, who was 
born in Delaware, and was of Welsh descent. 
His mother was born \\\ Fayette County, 
Pennsylvania, a daughter of John and Fiances [ 
Pansom, natives of Ireland. "William G.Jones I 
lived on a farm until seventeen years of age, 
ami then having a good common school edu- 
cation he taught three ternis. afler which he 
went to A'andalia. Illinois, where he was ! 
employed as clci-]^ in a general store a year, 
and then for a year was liaggacre-nia.-.ter on 
the Illinois Central Pailroad'' \eaving ihe 
railroad he went to Michigan, and for two 
summers had char'^e of a laru-e stock farm. 



Containing 5G0 acres, .and from there went to 
Southern Illinois, where he ran a saw and 
grist-mill. From there he went to Palatine, 
Illinois, and engaged in buying and shipping 
grain, and in 1860 moved to Pennville, re- 
nuiining one summer, and then going to 
Coshocton County, Ohio, where lie attended 
school, and then went to Fort "Wayne and 
superintended the gathering of one crop of 
cranberries, and then went to Chicago, and 
from there to Effingham, Illinois, where he 
remained one winter. In 1864 he again 
came to Pennville, and for two years was in 
the drug business, when he sold out and en- 
gaged in buying and shipping stock two 
years. In 1868 he carried on the hotel at 
Pennville, and also engaged in manufacturing 
boots and shoes, and in 1869 opened a dry 
goods and grocery store in coinjianv with 
Thomas E. Bowden, of Portland. In 1870 he 
closed out this business, and with his family 
went to California, and lived in Oakland a 
year, when he returned to Pennville and 
engaged in fanning and stock dealing until 
1875. He then went again to California, 
remaining six months, when lie returned to 
Pennville and disposed of his property and 
moved to Dunkirk, and engaged in the hard- 
ware business a year, and then returned to 
Pennville and bought a farm and enuraged in 
farming until 1881, when he sold his farm 
and removed to Cherry Yale, Montgomery 
County, Kansas, and engaged in the hotel 
business a year. He then returned to Penn- 
ville, and a year later went to California and 
remained one winter, wiien he acrain came to 
Pennville and bought a farm. In connection 
with his family he has since ISSi, been en- 
gaged in the general mercantile brisiness, 
having a large and complete st.ick. Ilis farm 
contains fifty-six acres of i;vmii1 land, and in 
addition to this he o^vns a iar_;e ain(junt of 
property in the village of Pennville, his resi- 



it'' 






ill 



I 

"Ml 
it 



"F 



-.^^S^ 




1; 

ii 



> a> 



:^ 
11 

'.lit 
• 'ill 

m 

M 

'% 

i 



,5', 






ilencc being one of the l>est in the connty. 
He was married August 1, 18(55, to Rachel 
C Gi-egg, a native of Jay County, Indiana, a 
daughter of Hiram and Patience (Cadwalhi- 
der) Gregg, natives of Ohio, the former born 
in Belmont Countj^, of Irish descent, and the 
latter in AVarren County, of English parent- 
age. Mr. and Mrs. Jones have si.x children — 
Carrie B., Charles W., Hattie G., Murray A., 
Ethel W., and Lorena Dawn. Mr. Jones is 
a member of the Odd Fellows order. In 
politics he is a Republican. He and his wife 
are members of the Methodist Episco])aI 
church. 



Iff IMOTHY L. STRATTON, section li, 
^Sfte Pike Township, was born in Clarke 
^^ County, Ohio, June 14, 1838, a son of 
H. S. and Rebecca (Hedrick) Stratton. "When 
he was but si.Nteen months old his parents 
settled in the forests of Pike Township, and 
he has since lived in that neighborhood, his 
]>arents now being his nearest neighbors. 
Reared thus in a frontier liome he has lived 
to see tlie forests felled and in their places 
thriving towns and villages spring up, and 
large farms cultivated. After the breakino- 
out of the war of the Rebellion, being devot- 
edly loyal to his country lie offered his ser- 
vices in her defense and was assigned to 
Company E, Eighty-ninth Indiana Infantry. 
His baptism of fire was received at Munford- 
viile. Kentucky. He was under the gallant 
(icneral A. J. Smith in the disastrous Red 
liiver cainpuigii, and participated in the bat- 
tles at Plea.ant Hill, Yellow Bayou, and 'all 
tlu' engagements that covered the retreat of 
General Banks. Smith's corps then coming 
uoi-rh he was in the ^^lissuiiri campaign 
against (ieneral Price's arm v. Then :iu-ain in 
Tennessee he was in the heroic battle at 



Nashville in December, ISfU, which de- 
stroyed Hood's army. Thence went south, 
and was in the assault upon Fort Blakely at 
Mobile. General Smith likened the erratic 
movements of his corps to those of a comet. 
July 15, 1865, lie received his final discharge 
at Indianapolis, and returned to Pike Town- 
ship, and began the improvement of eighty 
acres of land bought during the war, to which 
he afterward added thirty-three acres. He is 
one of tlie thorough, practical fanners of 
Jay County, understanding well its needs 
and resources. His farm buildings are con- 
venient, commodious and well built. In poli- 
tics Mr. Stratton is an ardent Republican. 
In religion he is an earnest member of the 
Methodist Episcopal cliMrch. As a citizen, 
he ranks among the best, public spirited and 
enterprising. Mr. Stratton was married 
November 25, 1860, to Louisa Maloy, who 
died February 1-t, 1862, leaving no children. 
September 26, 1S67, he married Rebecca Col- 
lett, who died in July, 1S68, leaving one son 
— Charlie, who died aged three years, two 
months and one day. January 26, 1871, he 
married Mrs. Jaretta (Babb) Lewis, a daugh- 
ter of David Babb, and widow of Isaac 
Lewis, by whom she had one child — David 
AV. Lewis. ]\rr. and Mrs. Stratton have seven 
children — Henry E., Ora "W., Isaac 11., Lola 
L., Viola F., Bessie M., and Lucas H. 



T^EXJAMIX R. BRADLEY, one of the 
I^N ]>n>mincnt citizens of (ireene Township, 
.' .lay County, was l»,rn in Chester 
C<niut\, Pennsylvania, February 1-4, 1825, a 
son of John and Elizabeth (Evans) IJradley, 
who were also natives of the State of Penn- 
sylvania. His gr.-indfafhrr, Thomas I'.radley, 
was a native nf Ireland, cmnin^ tc .America 
befire the Revolutinnarv war, and .-eived 



(la' 

i 

si 



'la 

'4 

M 



m 

Hi 






i 

■■[a/ 

•31/ 




i 



IIlSriillY (IF JAY COUNTY. 



throiigli the eiitii-L' war. He died in Peiiu- 
sylviiriia. In 1S32 the pureiits of uiii- sulj- 
ject settled in Ti-umbnll County, Ohio, where 
the motlier died in 183-t. The father sur- 
vived until 1^72, dying in Moultrie County, 
Illinciis, at the age of seventy-five years. Of 
their six cdiildren Benjamin II. was the eld- 
est son and second child. One sou, John 
E., lives in Moultrie County, and a daughter, 
Mrs. Sarah Margaret Cochran, is a-tesident 
of Moultrie County, Illinois. The other 
children are deceased. Benjamin K. Brad- 
ley, the subject of this sketch, was married 
in Trnnibull County, Ohio, June 17, 1847, 
to Miss Mary Reed, a native of Pennsylvania, 
born November 5, 1827, who was brought to 
Ohio by her parents when nine years of age. 
She is a daughter of James Eeed. To Mr. 
and Mrs. Bradley were bom five children — 
John ; James R., who died January 19, 1882, 
at the home of his parents, aged thirty years, 
leaving a wife and one child ; David E., re- 
siding in (xreene Township; George II., died 
in infancy, and jS'ancy Ellen died aged five 
years. After his marriage Mr. Bradley fol- 
lowed blaeksmithing in Ohio until 1853, 
when he came to Jay County, Indiana, and 
settled on section 2-1: of Greene Township, 
May 2, of that year. Here lie purchased 
forty aeies of land on which a small log 
house hud been built, and about an acre of 
ground had been cleared, and he began clear- 
ino- his land and making a home. lie resided 
on this farm about thirteen years, to which 
he addeil by purchase thirty-six and a half 
acres, and in 1806 hu sold his land and re- 
moved to Portland and engagi.'d in the trade 
of saddle and harness making, which he fol- 
lowed nine years with fair siic('css. In 1870 
he traded his town property, consisting of his 
business house and two residences, for 131 
acres of laml on section 24, Greene Township, 
which lie now owns and occupies. One hun- 



<lrcd acres of his land is well improved and 
under fine cultivation, and his residence and 
farm buildings are noticeably good. Mr. 
Bradley in his political views is a Democrat. 
In 1856 he was elected to the office of justice 
of the peace, serving as such eight years, and 
during his residence in Portland he served 
two years as magistrate, and was elected 
assessor of Greene Township in 1880 and 
served two years. Both he and his wife are 
members of the Christian church. 



§R. M. A. GLENTZER, of Briant, is 
\ one of the leading physicians of the 
•s^ village. He has practiced his profes- 
sion in Jay County since 1861, and has been 
very successful. He was born in Miami 
County, Ohio, April 7, 1836, son of John 
and Nancy (Hott) Glentzer, natives of Penn- 
sylvania. They were the parents of fifteen 
children, the doctor being the fourteenth 
child of the family. He was six years of 
age when his parents came to this county. 
They located on section 9, Bear Creek Town- 
ship, entering laud from the Government, 
where the father lived until his decease, which 
occurred in 1879. The mother died in 1860. 
The doctor was reared a farmer, his youth 
being spent in assisting in clearing the land. 
In 1860 he commenced the study of medi- 
cine under Doctor Wilson, of Bear Creek 
Township, and later studied under Doctor 
Harter of Jay County. In 180.5 he com- 
menced practice in IJear Creek Township, 
and has been engaged in his chosen profes- 
sion since that time. ]\[anY families of the 
village feel very grateful to the doctor for 
his professional services. In l's57 he was 
married to ]\Ii^s Nancy Ann "Wheeler, of Jay 
County, and they had eiglit children — 
Zi])porali, Jaule^ Monroe. John ]*I., Nancy 






5-j5Sjt^5:? 



BIOORAPUIVAL SKETCHES. 












m 

!^1 






>.m 



Aim, Madison Aaron, Jesse T., Vernon 
Frunci's Belle ami Edwin. Mrs. Glentzerdied 
in June, 18S3, and in September of that 
year the doctor was married to Mary jS'ichols, 
of Jay County. He was ordained minister 
of the Disciple church in 1879, and is a 
zealous worker in the cause of Christianity. 
By his genial disposition and cordial manner 
he has won many friends. He is a strong 
advocate of temperance as set forth by 
Christ and the apostles in the New Testament. 



SAAC. B. LOTZ, farmer, section 11, :\radi- 
fll s(;n Township, owns 183 acres of well 
mproved land. He was born September 
3, 1829, in Meigs County, (.)liio, and in 1832 
came to Jay County with liis parents, who 
settled on the same section where Isaac now 
lives. The parents brought to this county 
the following children — Fidelia S., James G., 
who died July 5, 1862, leaving a wife and 
three children — Jeremiah C, Jacob E., Sarah 
M., Philissa A., Abraham, wlio died in infancy. 
The father, Abraham Lotz, was born in Green- 
brier County, Virginia, and died Junel9, 1876, 
aged eighty years. He was a soldier in the 
war of 1812, and received a pension which 
continued until the mother's death. The 
mollirr, Nancy ('Carpenter) Lotz, was born in 
Virginia, and died in August, 1882, aged 
eighty-three years. She was reared in Meigs 
County, Ohio. and was married in that county. 
"When the family came to this county the 
fathrr had to cut roads to find his land he had 
euterrd. He entered the Lind whrre \>:ar 
now lives, at f'inciiiuati. His family occupied 
a ncio-lilini-v ciiliiu whili' lie built one for liiui- 
self. The liousc wa. 1 S x 20 feet and one 
stoi-y in lieiglit. The family lived in this first 
shanty neai'Iy thirty yi'ar.-. and it st(-iod several 
Vi'ars after he built the liewed-lof house; the 



latter is still standing and iiccupieil by Henry 
G. Ilickerd, wliii owns the originrd farm the 
father entered. There is oidy one family liv- 
ing here now that was here when ]Mr. Lotz's 
family came — Hugh Woten's. The father was 
justice of the peace tifteeii years, and also 
served as commissioner. He sold his farm 
and purchased a residence at Fort Keeovery, 
where he and his ^vife passed the remainder 
of their days. Our subject hel])ed to Imild 
the house where he first attended school. The 
seats and writing desks were of the most 
primitive style. He was marrieii July 3, 
1856, to Miss Thurza J. McDonald, who was 
born at Fort Recovery, Ohio, June 28, 1839, 
and died June 12, 1876, leaving si.x children — 
Milton, born October 9, 1857; William L., 
born Septend)er 16, 1859: Rinaldo E., born 
June 25, 1861; Charles A., born April 9, 1863; 
Otto P., born June 7, 1866; Nora D., born 
August 9, 1873; Harry M., born March 29, 
1878 ; Thomas A., born August 17, 1879. Mr. 
Lotz was again married May 16, 1877, to Mrs. 
Amelia Marion, widow of Francis Marion, 
who was born in Ashland County, Ohio, 
August 11, 1837, and when twi; years old, 
came to Fort Recovery, Ohio, where she lived 
until she was married to Mr. Marion, Sep- 
tember 30. 1865. :\Ir. .Marion died in the 
service of his country during the late war. 
He left onechild— Maude, lj,,n, July 10, 1S66. 
Harry and Thomas are children of ilr. Lotz's 
second marriage. Mrs. Lotz is a daughter of 
Thomas and Elizabeth (Junod) Roop. The 
father was born in Snyder County, Pennsyl- 
vania. "M-.xy 30, 1807. and is livi?ig in Fort 
Recovery. He is a flioeuiaki'i' liy trade, and 
has followed it in conni'ctiijn with farminn; 
(luring the greater part of his life. The mother 
was horn in l''rance, coinine; ti> .\nierica when 
seven years olil. Hc'rtauiily weiv ihr, e months 
and eleven days in cror.-ing the ocean. They 
located in Lycoming County, IVnnsylvaiiia 



il 



I 






il 









d 



4 

''4', 

•Ql! 



Zl^>.:LJ:'j^:t:^OL^ 



yd' 



Vi 

I 
i 

'a; 



m 



fpM 



0{ 



i 

Mi 



?S355^52I!ji^^i5j 



„ij^m.-,ai 



^^■"■■'^^■^TM-^TP 



3»5^jf5r=J-.J''! 



HISTORY OF JAY COUNTY. 



ami livfd tlifi-L' until thcii- dweuse. The 
Jiiifther is four yeiii's yi_iuui;ei- tliun her lius- 
l)an.l. She is still livin,-. ir^rcli 9, 1805, 
iMr. Lotz enlisted in ('..iiipany 11, One Ilun- 
di-e<l and Forty-seventh Indiana Infantry. 
UjHjn leaehing "Wiucliester lie heard of the 
surrender of General Lee, and was discliarged 
August 5, 1865, and returned home where he 
has since lieen engaged in farming. lie is 
also engaged in stock-raising, making a 
S]")ecialty of horses. 



fOHN DETAMOllE, is one of the repre- 
sentative business men of Portland. He 
".^i deals exclusively in live stock and is 
proprietor of the meat market on the east 
side of Meridian street. He came to Port- 
land in 1SS3, and is now the principal stock 
dealer of the place. He was born in Preljle 
County, Ohio, October 24, 1843, a son of 
Joseph and Barbara (Moots) Detamoro, his 
father a native of Virginia, and his mother 
of Germany, her father, Peter Moots, coming 
to America when she was eleven years old, 
and settling in Preble County. In 1855 
Joseph Detamore moved with his family to 
Jay County, Indiana, and settled on a farm 
on section 23, Greene Township, where the 
father died in June, 1873. The mother now 
lives with her son in Portland. They had a 
family of five children, two sons and three 
daugliters. One son, Samuel, died in 1869, 
aged nineteen years. A daughter, Mary 
Ann, is also deceased. The eldest of the 
family, Mr^. Elizabeth lieyburn lives in 
j\[iami County, Indiana; and Christianna is 
tht wife of Ira l!utcher, of I'ortland. John 
is the only son li\-iiig. He was twelve years 
ol aii'e when his p.-irents moved to Jay 
t.'ounty, and was here reared, remaining at 
luune until he erdisted in the wm- of the Ue- 



bellion in the fall of 1864. He was assigned 
to Com])any F, One Hundred and Fortieth 
Indiana Infantry, and served until the close 
of the war. lie was with General Thomas 
in the Nashville campaign, and was at 
Raleigh, North Carolina, when the war closed. 
After the war he engaged in farming until 
1883, when he moved to Portland, and still 
owns a fine farm in Greene Township, which 
includes a part of his father's homestead, 
lie was married in Portland to Mary Jane 
Kinsey, a daughter of Henry Kinsey, an old 
settler of Jay County, and they have two 
sons — Charles Grant, and William Henry. 
They have lost two daughters — Flora Isabel, 
and Luella Clark. 



Jl-^ALilER J. SMITH, the present auditor 
W ■ of Jay County, is a worthy representa- 
^'c" live of one of the pioneei- fiimilies of 
Knox Township. His father, Abi-aham C. 
Smith, settled in Knox Townshi]>, Jay County, 
in 1838. He had come here in 1836 and 
entered a section of land on the northwest 
quarter of section 24, where he had erected 
a log cabin, into which his family removed 
oil coming to the county in 1838. The father 
lived on this land until his death, which oc- 
curred in November, 1863. He was a nati\e 
of Pennsylvania, where he grew to manhood, 
and married Elizabeth Dill, who was aho a 
native of the Keystone State. The town of 
Dillsliurg, in York County, Pennsylvania, 
was built on her father's farm, hence the 
name. In ^Nlay, 1834, he removed with his 
family from Pennsylvania to Clarke Comity, 
Ohio, coming to Indiana from the Luekeye 
State, and was prominently identified with 
the early hi.story of .lay County. He served 
as probate judge (jf .lay Ccjunty, for seven 



- 2| 



! 3, 
.•3i; 

31! 



"(IS! 



Ta 



'■Sr> 



P. 

m 



'Si) 

fSl} 

-at 



'it' 
Hi 

i 

n 









■a 

'.9f 



iiii. 



:-^ : l,^ -^r,^ :; :.i:^.L ' i:.l ' .l -^i^^!5:f^:^i^i^ j ~'l; j^ i3^^^;^3 S^^ 



BWOnAPHICA L SKETCHES. 



years. Judge Smith, after his election to the 
bench, took an active interest in tlie early 
political and civil history of the county. He 
was highly respected and esteemed wherever 
he was known. He and his wife were con- 
sistent and intfuential members of the Pres- 
byterian church. They were the parents of 
twelve children of whom six sons and three 
daughters grew to maturity. The following 
still survive — Thomas D., liring in liandolph 
County; Mrs. Sophia Croft, of Montgomery 
County, Ohio; David G., and Mrs. Maria E. 
Bowman, residents of Kno.K Township, Jaj 
County; Palmer J., the subject of this sketch, 
and "William G., a physician, of "Winchester, 
Randolph County. Palmer J. Smith was 
born in Clarke County, Ohio, the date of his 
birth being September 11, 1831. He was 
reared on his father's farm, receiving his 
])rimary education at the public schools, 
which was supplemented by a course of study 
at the Wittenberg College, in Clarke County, 
Ohio. At the age of eighteen years he be- 
gan teaching school, which he followed dur- 
ing the winter terms for a number of years. 
He has long been conneoted with the school 
interests of his township, and for nine years 
was school trustee. He was also assessor 
for two years in Kno.x Township. For ten 
years he was engaged in mercantile pursuits 
at Redkey. In 1862 he offered his services j 
as a volunteer in the defense of his country, 
but owing to physical disability was not ac- 
cepted, but later in the war served four 
months, mostlj' on provost duty. His wife 
was formerly Miss Jennie S. "Winters, and is 
a daughter of Erastus "Winters of Ivnox 
Township. They are the parents of three 
children — "Wilburn Lee, who is now serving j 
as deputy auditor; George H. and Hattie E. [ 
]\[r. Smith is serving his second term as j 
county auditur, liavitig been elected to that 
ullice in l>iS'2, and re-elected in No\ember, 



1880. He is a competent and popular county 
official, and is a worthy and respected citizen'. 

T_-r,TILLIAM O. AVILKIN, farmer, sec- 
Wm'll '''°" ■'■'^' ^-f'^'^'son Township, was 
t=sK^ born in Ohio, opposite "Wheeling, 
October 11, 1829, and soon after was taken 
by his parents to Licking County, where he 
lived until he was twenty-nine years of age. 
He left that county April 5, 1857, and settled 
in Van "Wert County, thence to Mercer 
County in March, 1861, thence to Shelby 
County in November, 1869, thence to Jay 
County, March 9, 1875, settling in Madison 
Township. His parents, George and Re- 
becca (Finch) "Wilkin, were born and reared 
in Hardin County, "West Yirsjinia. The 
father died in "Van Wert County in 1S63, 
aged seventy-two years, and is burieil near 
Buena "V^ista. The mother is still livino- in 
Van "Wert County, alone, on the farm where 
the father died. She was boi-n November 
15, 1806. Our subject was married Decem- 
ber 28, 1851, to Angeline Fry, born in 
Licking County, Ohio, June 24, 1830, and 
was there reared and married. Her parents, 
John and Artimicia Fry, were born in Shen- 
andoiih County, Virginia. The father died 
in Shelby County, Ohio, January 20, 1870, 
aged seventy-two years, the mother died in 
Licking County when thii'ty years of an-e 
having been born in 1812. Mi-, and Mrs. 
"Wilkin have had six children — Sylvester 
Rosella, l]mma J., Alice M., Fiowena and Ida 
V. The last two are deceased. Both himself 
and wife are member,- of the H.-iptist church, 
and Mr. "Wilkin was a minister in that 
church eighteen years. His grandfather, 
George "Wilkin, was born in Switzerland and 
died in Virginia. His grandmother, Lydia 
(Wise) "Wilkin, was pi', .liably born in West Vir- 






:a ; 

i| 
il 

i| 

■S) 

^ 

>\\ 

)3' 



ill 

■V.3 
;;■ ! 






■!i^jM,^,«^jj^j-a^E;s3!n..ii^eJi^ja„ji^ffljMg.iafaa 



M-Jrsa^ggg'ggBJTO-g^ 



i^ESaSTsr: 



'fe ^^ jc- ijjT- ji 3; ^ .:; 



HISTORY OF JAY COUNTY. 



ill 









m 



p 



(ill) 



cm 



ginia, and she died in Licliing County, Oliio. 
Ilisgi-andfatherj^inclidied before his recollec- 
tion, and liis grandmother, Sarah Finch, after- 
ward married Minor Glover. Mrs. "Wilkin's 
grandfather, Peter Fry, and her grandmother, 
Sarah (Jacobs) Fry, were born in Virginia 
and died in Licking County, Ohio. Her 
grandfather, Ainbrose Booten, was born in 
France, and her grandmother, Elizabeth 
(Grubb) Booten, was born in Virginia. Both 
died in Shenandoah County. Politically Mr. 
Wilkin is a Democrat. 



fOHN SCHMUCK, one of the leading 
men of Greene Township, was born in 
Darke County, Ohio, October -i, 1827, a 
son of Peter and Asenath (Chapman) Schmuck, 
who were natives of Xew Jersey and Penn- 
s)dvania, respectively. Tliey were married 
in the State of Pennsylvania, and immedi- 
ately after their marriage settled in Darke 
County, Ohio, where they spent the remainder 
of their lives. They were the parents of ten 
children, eight of whom reached maturity. 
John Schmuck was the sixth child in his 
father's family, and remained at home with 
his parents until sixteen years of age. He 
then went to learn the carpenter's trade, which 
he followed until he enlisted in the Mexican 
wai', ill ]\Iarcli, 1847. He served fourteen 
nioiiths as a member of Company D, Sixth 
Ohio Infantry, passing unscathed through 
niauy dangers of war, and after receiving an 
honorable discharge at Jctferson IJarracks, 
Missouri, 111' returiK/d t(j Oliio, and resumed 
work ut his traili'. llf was married August 
22, l^VJ, to .Miss Alta Keeil. who was boni 
ill Ontario County, New York, November 18, 
1^25, a daughter of Ilanw and I'jni'lie (Fv- 
arts) Pieed. They ha\e had liorn t(.i them 
the following children — Nancy, liorn Anu-iist 



10, 1850, nuirried Clinton "VVilcox, and died 
at Worthiiigton, Indiana, January 18, 1885, 
-•having three daughters — Ettie, now aged 
twelve years ; Myrtle A., aged ten ; and Grace, 
now in her eighth year; William H., resid- • 
ing in Colorado; Emily, wife of Morris 
Blazer, of Greene Township; Alice, wife of 
C. S. Spahr, of Greene Township; Bianea, 
living at home; Elmer, a student at the Nor- 
mal school at Portland; Fiery Morton, twin 
brother of Elmer, is with Henry in Colorado; 
Charles B. youngest child at home. In March, 
1851, Mr. Schmuck came with his family to 
Jay County, and settled in the village of New 
Corydon, where he worked at his trade two 
years, when he moved to Jackson Townshi]), 
where he followed his trade until he removed 
to Liber, and was there employed working on 
Liber College. In 1864 he settled on his 
present farm on section 26, Greene Township, 
which was then partially improved, twelve 
acres being cleared, and a small cabin built. 
The farm now contains 105 acres, of which 
seventy-five acres are cleared and under good 
cultivation, and his residence and farm build- 
ings are substantial and commodious. Oc- 
tober 13, 1864, Mr. Schmuck enlisted as a 
private in Company F, One Hundred and 
Fortieth Indiana Infantry, and was unani- 
mously elected Captain of the company. His 
rei;-iment was assigned to the Twenty-third 
Army Corps under General Scholield, and was 
in the battle of the Cedars, and Murfreesboro, 
Tennessee, and with the Twenty-third Corps 
joined Sherman at Goldsboro, North Carolina. 
His regiment was discharged at Greenslioro, 
North Carolina, lieing mustcn-d out in the 
summer of 1865. His father was a soldier in 
the war of 1^12. In early life our subject atHli- 
ated with the Democratic party, bnt for many 
years has been identified with the Republican 
party, and in 1870 he was el.vted on the Re- 
publican ticket land appraiser for Jay ( ijunty, 



«^ra-«:«.Jrr.*a-aa.-r^.Jgi.J^^ 



ZjL2ai=la!*iai*S« 



^ra**'ji«» j-^-c.""-g 



^ii"* m^«'-*: i«33 -J 



aU^^'siSv 















jii 

IB) 



i<l) 

i?.! 

;.?) 



BIOOBAPUICAL SKETCHES. 



which position lie tilled tivu years, lie also 
served one term as county commissioner. 
Mr. .'^elimuck, although sixty years of age, 
and having passed through two wars, and a 
life of toil, is still in the vigor of manhood, 
and bids fair to live many years to enjoy the 
fruits of a well spent life. 



j<f5^AMUEL MASOX, M. D., a physician 
A^>i^i and surareon of Pennville, is a native of 
-jji^ Indiana, born in Jackson Township, 
AVells County, February 1-4, 1845, the second 
son and fourth child of Thomas and Harriet 
(I)ixon) ilason. The father was born in Fair- 
lield County, Ohio, a son of Dorsey Mason, a 
native of Pennsylvania, and of Scotch and 
Irish ancestry. The mother was a native of 
Yorkshire, England, a daughter of Thomas 
Dixon who came to America, leaving Liver- 
pool the day his daughter was eight years old, 
settling in !New Jersey where he followed 
Weaving a few years. He then removed to 
Ohio, and settled near Newark in Licking 
County. The parents of our subject were 
married near Xewark, and in 1840 came to 
Indiana, settling in "Wells County, where the 
father entered a tract of 160 acres of Govern- 
ment land which he cleared and improved, 
living on the land until his death which oc- 
curred Ajii-il 6, 1883. His widow is still 
living, making her home in Montpelier, 
I'.lackford County. Of the thirteen ehihhvn 
burn to them all but two are deceased. Sam- 
uel Mason, whose name heads this sketch, was 
reared on his father's farm in Wells County, 
aucl . in his boyhood attended the locr cabin 
subscription schools of his neighborhood, com- 
plrting his literary education at Lilicr College 
in Jay County. During the late war he en- 
tered the service of his country at the age of 
seventeen years, enlisting August (5, 1S62. iu 



Company K, Seventy-fifth Indiana Infantry. 
He went South with his regiment and joined 
the Army of theCumberland, and after serving 
six months he was discharged on account of 
disability. He began the study of medicine 
in 1870 under the preceptorship of Dr. W. C. 
Eansom, of Jordan, with whom he remained 
a year. He took his first course of lectures 
at the Indiana Medical College in the winter 
of 1871-'72, and graduated in the spring of 
1873, and in the winter of 1879-'80 he at- 
tended the Ohio Medical College. In March, 
1873, he began the practice of medicine at 
Pennville, which he has since followed here 
with the exception of three j'ears, from 1880 
until 1883, spent in Hartford City, and during 
his residence has met with success in his cho- 
sen profession, gaining a large and lucrative 
practice. He is a member of the Indiana 
Medical Association, and also belongs to the 
Jay County Medical Association. Dr. Mason 
was married June 24, 1884, to Miss Sarah A. 
Bailey, a daughter of Abraham and Mary 
(Janney) Bailey. Mrs. Mason was born in 
Springborough, Warren County, Ohio, where 
her father died, and when a child she was 
brought by her mother to Jay County, Indi- 
ana, where she was reared. Four children 
have been born to Dr. and Mrs. Mason — John 
B., Charles E., Mary and Almeda. Politi- 
cally the doctor atfiliates with the Republican 
party. His wife is a member of the ]\Iethod- 
ist Episcopal church. 



fATTERSON M. IIEARX. one ..f the 
citizens uf .lay County, was born in 
^ Wayne T..i\vnslii|i. ,Iay County, August 
6, 1851, his father, Wiliianrilearn, being still 
a resident of Wayne To\vn.-.liip. where he 
located iu an early day. ( )ui' suliject was 
reared ou hi? fathei''.> farm, and rei/cived his 









m 



&\ 



ill 



. J! 

'i ! 







J -^J^W^ ^TP rr^yg^ jf-a :3 -j. 3J^ 



HISTORY OF JAY COUNTY. 



aJJ^jJ™ X 5, JT^rpj^ 



a^-Jg-MH.!'^ 



i 






i 

(SI; 
LI 






s 



Si 
m 



early education in the public scliools of liis 
neigliborJiood, completing his studies at 
Liber College, and subserjuontly taught 
school for ten terms in Jay Ci.iunty. In 
1878 he was electeil county recorder, suc- 
ceeding F. M. McLaughlin, and this office he 
filled efficiently for eight consecutive years 
by re-election, serving with credit to himself 
and satisfaction to his constituents. J. L. C. 
McAJams tilled the office from November 1-i, 
1878. Mr. Hearn's long experience r.s ic- 
cnrder has enabled him to become familiar 
with real estate titles, and by great labor he 
lias prepared a complete set of abstract books, 
and intends in the future to devote his atten- 
tion to the furnishing of abstract titles. He 
is also the owner of a valuable farm located 
in Greene Township. Mrs. Hearn was form- 
erly Miss Ida E. Caldwalder, a daughter of 
Isaac D. Caldwalder, and a granddaughter of 
Joshua Penoch, who settled in Jay County 
in 1835 among the early pioneers. Mr. and 
]\Irs. Hearu are the parents of three children 
— Lacy E., Omar AV. and Lanrcua J. 



tLERY WHIPPLE, druggist and post- 
master, Brian t, was born in Parnsrable, 
, ilassachusetts, July 15, 1829, son of 
Jason and Eliza (Burse) Whi|)ple. The 
family removed to Delaware County, Ohio, 
in September, 1829, and in August, 1838, 
came to this county and located in Wayne 
Township. The father entered IGO acres of 
Government lani.l, ami here our subject re- 
sided until 1848, when he removed to Kan- 
dolph Cijunty ami entrageil in milling. In 
1875 he removed to Kidgcville where he was 
engaged in milling three years, then took the 
contract for building an iron bridge at that 
place. In 1878 he engageil in the drug 
liusiness at Portland, this cnunty, wlier(.' he 



remained until November 17, 1884. In Jan- 
uary, 1887. he removed to Briant, where he 
has since been engaged in the drug business. 
January 31, 1887, he was appointed post- 
master, and fills the office creditably. The 
store is well stocked with drugs and fancy ar- 
ticles, and everything usually kept in a first 
class drug store. Mr. Whipple was married 
June 5, 1856, to Miss Sally E. Steele, of Win- 
chester, a daughter of James Steele of that 
place. Mr. and Mrs. Whipple have si.x chil- 
dren — Rose Ella, wife of I. G. Simms, of 
Portland; Cora L., Charles L., Clyde S., Pay 
C. and Elgie. Charles L. is a member of 
the firm, and a thorongh business man. 



fACOB PvUPEL, one of the leading agri- 
culturists of Jay County,engaged in farm- 
ing and stock-raising in Jackson Town- 
ship, is a native of Darke County, Ohio, born 
October 4, 1850. When he was four years 
old his father came to Jay County and settled 
in Jackson Township, and there he was reared 
amid pioneer scenes. His youth was spent 
in assisting his father on the farm, and in 
attending the common schools of his neigh- 
borhood, completing his education at Liljer 
College. He was united in marriage February 
12, 1878, to Miss Julia Ann Pichelderfer, a 
native of Indiana, born in Adams County, 
July 21, 1853, a daughter of Charles and 
Sophia Richelderfer. They ai-e the parents 
of two sons — Ezra Elmer and Charles Vernon. 
After his marriage Mr. Pupel settled on a 
farm on section 33, llartfnrd Township, 
Adams County, wlieie he roided seven years. 
In (October, 1885. hr bnniglit his family to 
the farm in .hu-kson Town.-liip, Jay County, 
where they have since madr their home, lie 
is now the owner of 1'.J2 iicri's of choice lanil 
ill one body, lit al■^e^ in .hiekson Township. 



^:^:.J:rJ^^'^ tij.^ 



*J»5s^^-3!»-««!a*:n-*5 



.■»!o.U .a!l,a„«„Ji„M,^J 



i»i»»ia j«i -»»iT ^J.»t»i 



B^ji^a^w 



j-jK-j^jan 



;i 



3' 






ID 

m 

5 31 

ill 

'31) 



'.'?i 



i 



iai 



BIOGRAPUWAL tiKETCHES. 



and seventy-eight acres adjoining in Ilartfonl 
Township. His farm is divided into different 
fiehJs for the convenience of his stock, his 
farm heing well adapted to stock-raising, to 
which enterprise he devotes considerable 
attention. His residence, a two story brick, 
is one of the linest in Jackson Township, and 
his large barn erected in 18S7, is not sur- 
passed in the county. The latter is a two 
story building, 40 x 70 feet, and is very con- 
veniently arranged for his stock and grain. 
In fact all the surroundings of the Rupel 
farm, shows the owner to be a thorough, 
practical farmer. In his political views Mr. 
Rupel atKliates with the Republican party. 



^()L!ERT HUEY, one of the early pio- 
f Ku neers of "Wayne Township, Jay County, 
"=•4.11 is a native of Montgomery County, 
Ohici, born near Dayton March 15, 1810. His 
parents, Albert R. and Margaret (Reed) Huey, 
were natives of Virginia and Pennsylvania, 
respectively. They removed to Kentucky in 
early life, and later to Montgomery County, 
Ohio, where they were married, living in that 
county until their death, tlie father dying at 
the advanced age of eighty- two years, and the 
raothrr at the age of sixty-eight years. They 
reared a family of twelve children, of whom 
six sons and two dauoliters still survive. 
Robert Hney, the subject of this sketch, was 
the eldest (■liild in his fither's family, and was 
reared to maiiliuod on his father's farm in his 
native county. Jle was married April 9, 1835, 
to ^lis^ ^[arv .Vnn Sliellabarger, and on the 
25tli of October, Isoi'., he started with his wife 
and one child in a wagiju for Jay Cijunty, 
he having s!i(jrtly before entered the northeast 
quarrel- of section 17, Wayne Township. 
Thei-e Were at that time but twelve or fourteen 
families in what is now \\'avne Township, and 



of the old pioneers who were living there at 
that early day, all are now passed away Init 
the subject of this sketch. Allien Mr. Huev 
came to enter liis land he made the trip on 
horseback, and in going from where Poi'tland 
is now situated to the land office at Fort 
Wayne he passed but one house befoi'e reach- 
ing tlie Wabash River, a distance of four- 
teen miles, the next house, known as Ball's 
Tavern, being sixteen miles farther. All the 
surrounding country was new at that time, 
and game of all kinds was aliundant. Mr. 
Huey was bereaved by the death of his wife 
about six months after settling in the county, 
her death taking place March 12, 1837. By 
his first marriage he had two children — John, 
born January 6, 1836, and Francis Marion, 
who was born March 2. 1837, and died at the 
age of ten days. Mr. Huey married a second 
time December 19, 1810, Miss Mary Ann 
Ivinnear, a native of Darke County, Ohio, 
born September 10, 1819, and to this union 
were born eight children, three of whom are 
living — James Ellet, born January 10, 1843; 
Samuel M., born July 10, 1845, and Elizabeth, 
born August 4, 1851. now the wife of Doug- 
lass Stevenson. Five, Thomas C, David G., 
Margaret Ann, Noah and Robert, died in 
childhood. Mr. Huey has been identified 
with the growth and advancement of Wayne 
Township for over fifty years, and has wit- 
nes.^ed all the changes that have taken place 
in the county, transforming it ti'om a wilder- 
ness into its present advanced state of culture 
and influeuce. He served two successive 
terms as county sheriff, being the third sheriff 
in the county, and was subsecjuently elected 
to the State Legislature fVu- three terms, and 
later served two terms in the State Senate. 
He also field the cjtfice i_>f County Commis- 
sioner for three years, and in all these oflieial 
l>ositions he served the be>t iiiten.'sts of his 
township or county. I'olitii/allv he has l)een 



m- 









I' 
III 

if.' 



I 



a.a-°;a"^.»' 



a-»TO'a-^^;»*''a»n«Ti'»T«-J«-J^r='^^'^ 



3r3-ar^--aTi 1 



s 



- JJ! 



HISTORY OF JAY COUNTY. 






I 



!?1 



![^; 



ISl 



ii 



a Hie long Democrat, casting bis first vote in 
Dayton, Ohio, in 1S32, for Andrew Jackson, 
ami in 1836 was one of three who voted for 
Van Buren in his precinct. 



oldest settlers of Jay Connty, having 
''fgii been closely connected with its history 
nearly fifty years. He was born in Bradford 
Connty, Pennsylvania, May 11, 1809, the 
sixth of ten children of Timothy and Hester 
(Horton) Stratton, his father a native of Con- 
necticut, and his mother of Delaware. Of 
this family he and a younger brother, Isaac 
II., now of Clarke County, Ohio, and a sister, 
Calista A. Budd, of Montgomery, Indiana, 
are the only ones living. In 1814 the parents 
moved from Pennsylvania to Cincinnati, 
Ohio, and six years later moved to Clarke 
County, Ohio, where they built a home and 
lived the remainder of their lives. His 
mother died in 1838, his father surviving her 
nearly twenty years. Henry S. Stratton re- 
mained at home until twenty-two years of 
age, at that time commencing life for himself. 
He was married May 8, 1836, to Ilebecca 
Hedrick, a native of Clarke County, Ohio, 
born near South Charleston, Septemher 24, 
181S. Three years after their marriage they 
moved to Jay County, reaching the home of 
Samuel W. Sutton, October 26. From there 
to his future home, one and a half miles dis- 
tant. Mr. Stratton chopped a road, and liastily 
built a log cabin. Tiiat cabin with its ad- 
ditions made at ditlerent times sheltered the 
family until 1862, when they moved into 
their present comfortable house, wliich is but 
a few rods from the old cabin. Tlie home- 
stead contains 180 aero all fenced and 120 
cultivation. !M r. a n 



health, and all the comforts that plenty of 
means can furnish are theirs. Their friends 
are legion, their long residence in the county 
giving them a wide acquaintance. They are 
members of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
and their house in the j'ioneer days was the 
home of the itinerant. May 8, 1886, they 
celebrated their golden wedding, and the day 
was gladdened by the presence of several of 
their children and a few intimate friends. 
Mr. and Mrs. Stratton have had twelve chil- 
dren—David H., Timothy L., William H., 
Euphemia M. (wife of Henry Atkinson), 
Solon C, John H., Findlay R., Laura L., 
(wife of Silas Darby), Milton L., Eebecca 
Jane (deceased, wife of James Bojd), Fiorina 
L. (died aged six years), and Emma F. (died 
aged ten months). Five of the sons were in 
the war of the Rebellion — Timothy L., Will- 
iam H., Solon C, John H. and Findlay R., 
and two gave their lives for their country. 
"William H. died at Memphis, March 1st, 
1863, and Solon C. died December 2, 1862, 
at Holly Springs, Mississippi. In early life 
Mr. Stratton was a Whig, and naturally when 
the Republican party was formed transferred 
his allegiance to its principles and was a 
strong supporter of Lincoln's administration, 
and since the war has been a firm upholder 
of liis party and its representatives. 



r^pLIAS BOST, one of the prominent and 
■\fp[ wealthy agriculturists of Jay Connty, 
"^^ was born in Columlna County, Penn- 
sylvania, May 20, 1833, a son of William and 
Eliza Bost, who were born, reared and 
married in the same State. The mother of 
our subject died wlien lie was three years old.- 
Slit' was tlie mother of ^three children — the 
eldest child man-ied Thomas McCartney and 
is now deceased: Eliar^ was the second child, 




ill! 



la) 



m 
ill' 

% 

4 

% 




"^^ecJ QjL.^I' 



r: 






M 



M 

ill 

m 

13! 

s 



ii 



mi 



Mi! 

.la; 

I 



I; 



La«Jqc«7^.^^1C'S^«*«CT J^*ara> 









■ M-iJ— a-»- 



."■nt-^-mi'mi^tia-mJ^ : 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCIIES. 



ami rhe third child died in infancy and was 
buried with his mother. The father was 
a<;ain married before leaving his home in 
Pennsylvania, taking for his second wife Miss 
Elizabeth Shugars. They left Pennsylvania 
with teams, and after a journey of several 
weeks dnration reached Jay County, Indiana, 
October 9, 1839, and within a week they 
were sheltered by a rude log cabin erected on 
laml purchased by the father on section 13, 
Jefi'erson To-miship. There the father with 
the help of his sons as they became old enough, 
toileil to make a good home, and well they suc- 
ceeded. Commencing witli a capital of not 
mori; than §1,000, and working against many 
disadvantages, nomarket for buying or selling, 
he became one of the prosperous citizens of the 
county, leaving at his death 218 acres of well 
improved land, and $35,000 in personal prop- 
erty. He died December 9, 1880, aged 
seventy-two years. His widow survived until 
Octijljer -l, 1886. She was the mother of two 
children, both of whom were born in Jay 
County — Sarah Catherine, deceased wife of 
Fernando H. Lacy, and James who died at the 
ago of four years. !Mr. Post and his wife 
were members of the Lutheran church. 
Elias I^jost, the subject of this sketch, has 
lived in Jay County since coming with his 
father in 1839, and here he was reared amid 
the Scenes incident to pioneer life. Coming 
here when the county was an almost unbroken 
wilderness, with no churclies, schools or 
niills, he has witnessed the many important 
events that have transpired, changing the 
euunly into thriving towns and well cultivated 
farms. I->w men living to-day have done 
mcii-e toward the devolopnient of Jefferson 
Township than he. lie remained with his 
father until twentv-si\ v ears of aire when he 
wa,- deeded sixty acres of land on section 13, 
Jetferson To\vnsliip. near tlie oM homestead, 
lie was united in marriage July 3, 1859, to 



Miss Hannah P. Sanders, who, was born 
near ^Jew Mount Pleasant. Her father, 
Jacob H. Sanders, a pioneer of Jefferson 
Township, having been the original proprie- 
tor of that village. Of the five children 
born to Mr. and Mrs. Post four are living 
— Louvernia J., wife of Samuel J. Pair; 
Jacob "W., Elmer E. and Joseph F., all living 
in Jay County. Jacob "\V. has been a 
cripple from the age of three years. He is a 
young man of good education, and is now 
studying law at Portland. James O., the 
third child of Mr. and Mrs. Post, died at 
the age of thirteen years and six months. 
Elias Post commenced married life in a primi- 
tive log cabin on the land given him bv his 
father, and to this land he subsequently added 
eighty acres, directly west of his homestead. 
There he erected a line residence in 187T, 
which he occupied until his removal to Port- 
land June 5, 188-1:, where he is now living a 
more retired life. He now owns 380 acres 
of choice land in one bodj-, divided into two 
farms, nearly all on section 13, Jefferson Town- 
ship all under improvement. This includes 
all of his father's homestead. Politically Mr. 
Post may be classed as an independent Demo- 
crat. He is a member of the Metiiodist 
church. 



H^ipjALIN ct SCHAVARTZ. artistic pho- 
'W' M'- tograpliers of Portland, are located in 
''^^T^ the Reed & Maekenbacli block, on 
Meridian street. The^e gentlemenstand at the 
head. Photogra[ihy. whether it is considered 
as a pursuit or an art, presents features of 
astonishing importance. It is estimated that 
not less than s50,000,000 are annually paid by 
the people of this continent for ]ihotographic 
pictures, and in addition to the numerous 
people tlni.- employed directly as artists the 



I 

m 



I 



ii 

I 



1'%; 



',\V. 




11 



8i 

I 



II 

i 

'Mi. 



m 

m 



trades that give employment to thousands. 
Among the leading photographers of North- 
ern Indiana, those who have manifested the 
most zeal and attained the most honorable 
distinction, may be mentioned Malin & 
iSchwartz. ^Ve would call the attention of 
all to their studio and work. They have all 
new stvles, and their great feature is work in 
the highest style of excellence. J. S. Malin, 
the senior member of the firm, is a native of 
Jav County, born in Pike Township, October 
IS, 1S55, a son of Eli Malin, an early settler 
of the township, "^lien he was sixteen years 
old his father moved to Portland. He at- 
tended the public schools in Ms youth and 
for a time was a clerk in his father's store' 
and from 1874: till 1878 was assistant post- 
master under his father. He was teller in 
the People's Bank, Portland, Indiana, three 
and a half years, and held the same position 
in the Citizens Bank one year and a half. 
This experience in banks afforded him a good 
C(immercial education. In 1885 he bought 
a half interest in the photograph business of 
A. E. Forry. and May 7, 1886, Mr. Schwartz 
bo\iglit ^Ir. Forry's interest. 



fS. MILES, general merchant and pro- 
prietor of the city market at Briant, 
-,^c ^' was born near Troy, Miami County, 
Ohio, ^'oveml.ler 28, 1853, a son of Wade 
]\lilei. When he was ten years old he went 
to Wavne County, where he resided until 
lS7t3. He was reared on a farm and w;is 
educated at Earlhara College, Puchinond, In- 
diana. In 1S76 he engaged in the music 
trade, which he followeil three years. lie 
was then engaged in clerking for sume time, 
and in 138-3. settled in Briant, where he was 



engaged in the grocery trade under the firm 
name of Miles & Small. In 1884 he pur- 
chased his partners interest, and since that 
time has conducted the business alone. He 
was married, February 13, 1879, to Miss 
Mattie Hubbard, of Fountain City, Indiana, 
and they have two children — Bessie E. and 
Blanche A. Mr. Miles is one of the live 
business men of Briant. In his store may 
be found a good assortment of fancy and 
staple groceries and hardware. In his market 
is kept the best of meats, both salt and fresh. 
He has a large patronage, which he richly 
deserves. 



r-ESSE W. MENDEXDALL, 



of the 



Ml active and enterprising agriculturists of 
1^ Jefferson Township, residing on section 
22, was born in Columbiana County, Ohio, 
December 27, 1833, a son of Pennell and 
Maria (IVest) Mendenhall. His parents were 
born and reared in the State of Pennsylvania, 
and shortly after their marriage settled in 
Ohio. "With their four children, Jesse then 
being a babe of three months, they left 
Columbiana County for Randolph County, 
Indiana, in June, 1839, settling in the woods 
of Franklin Township, where tliey built a 
good home, and lived many years to enjoy 
the frnits of their own industry. The father 
died Septend.ier 16, 1871, aged sixty years, 
his widow surviving until October 11. 1880, 
dyini: at the age of sixty-nine years. Of 
eleven children born to them ten grew to 
maturity — Jesse "W., the subject of this 
sketch; Mrs. Sarah Campbell of AVayne 
Township; Joseph, was a member of the 
Fiftv-sixtli Indiana Infantry, and died during 
the sieo-e of "\'ick>burg: .Janie? resides in 
Jetferson Township: Mrs. Lydia Mills! living 



I 



i'V 

;Sl( 

:8) 
!ji 

ill 

i<S< 

ill) 

1 

i 

ifi' 

ii\ 



m 
m 



i-E) 



;5' 



il 

I 
I 

$ 
m 



f 

([3; 

'I 

i 



'la* 

ii 






1 



a ..«„», ajg^ 



»5£5!H55Hii5i 



fi/0'/ ItM'lIIVA L .s KETCHES. 



in Suunders ('oiiiity, X(.'l)r;iskii; Mrs. Sus:iu 
JjL'tts, of liandiilph County, Imliiina; Diuiiel, 
of {.'u.ss County, Nebi-uska; Mrs, Margaret 
AValtz,aIso living in Cass (,'ounty; Mrs, Eliza 
Bftt.-i, living in Eandolpli County; and Will- 
iam, of Saunders County, Nebraska. One 
cliiM, Elizabeth, died in infancy. James, the 
thiril son, .served three years in the war of the 
Rebellion, enlisting September 28, 1861, in 
Couijiau}' F, Fortieth (Jhio Infantry, and 
was in the campaign against rebel General 
Humphrey under the h\te President Garfield. 
Willie home on a furlough he was married. 
May 19, 1861, to Miss Delilah Odie, Jesse 
W. AEendenhall, whose name heads this sketch, 
remained with his parents until his marriage, 
November 6, 1856, to Miss Phcebe Badgley, 
She was born in Darke County, Ohio, Decem- 
ber 12, 1S39, and when she was five years of 
age her parents, William and Elizabeth 
(Wilson) Badgley, settled in Randolph Coun- 
ty, they being among the early settlers of 
that county. Mr. and Mrs. Mendenhall are 
the parents of twelve children — Mrs. ilaria 
E. Morical, of Jay County; William P., of 
Olmstead County, Minnesota; Thomas B., at 
home; James E., of Jay County: John A., of 
Olmstead County, Minnesota; Mrs, Sarah E. 
Philips, of Jay County; Mary J,, Rosetta L, 
Jesse F,, Nellie J., Anna L. and Melissa A., 
the last si.\ living at home with their parents. 
Mr. and Mrs. Mendenhall commenced married 
life on their farm in Franklin Township, 
Raihlolph County, but In lSr,.l Mr. Menden- 
hall Sold that property (eighty acres), and in 
September of that year b(jiight the homestead 
in Jefferson Township, which he and his 
family have seen occupied. The home farm 
contains seventy- three acres of well improved 
land, having 54."5 rod,- of tile drainage. 
Be.^itle this pi-oj)ertv lie own.-, a tine farm of 
1"-1(> acres on ^ection '!'.'> of the :-:ime tnwn.-Iiip, 
one mile east of his re.-^iileiii'e, which he 



bought in 1876, The farm buildings on that 
property are at present rented out to a tenant. 
Both Mr. and Mrs. ilendenlial! are members 
of tl>e Methodist Episcojjul clmrch at New- 
Mount Pleasant. Politically he affiliates 
with the Repulilican party. 



fOHN A. METZXER, farmer, residing 
on section 1, Wayne Township, is a na- 
tive of Ohio, born in Licking County, 
in ISrtO, and is of German descent, his father 
being born in Germany, and his mother a 
native of France. His father, John Metziier, 
came with his family to Jay County, Indiana, 
in 1850, and settled in Noble Township, 
where lie still lives, and where our subject 
grew to manhood. He was a gallant soldier 
during the war of the Rebellion, enlistino- in 
August, 1861, in Company G, Fortieth Ohio 
Infantry, and serving until the close of the 
war. He veteranized in 1863, at which time 
his regiment became consolidated with the 
Fifty-first Ohio, his command beincr attached 
to the Army of the Cuiuberland, and Mr. 
Metzner fought with his regiment in that 
gallant army on many a bloody battle field, 
including Stone River, Chickamauga, and the 
battles of the Atlanta campaign. He was 
severely w-ounded in the right arm at Burnt 
Hickory, just before the close of the Atlanta 
cani])aign. He rejoined his regiment at 
Nashville, Tennessee, under Thomas, from 
there went to Texas, being mustered out at 
Victoria, Te.xas, in November, 1S(]5. For 
his wile, ,Mr. ^Metzner married Miss Clara 
Moulton, a daughter of Charles Monlton, 
who went from his home in Licking County, 
Ohio, to Calif >riiia, during tiie gold e.\cite- 
meiit, and died in that ."^tate. :Mr. and ilrs. 
.Met/cner have two children -('(.ira B. and 
Weslev F. :\Ir. iletziier has resided on his 



'4 






(p. 



i 
il 



i i 



i 



present farm since returning; tVom tlie war, 
having bought the land in 18G5 from George 
Uergman. The hxnd at that time was cntirelj' 
unimproved, bnt under the care of Mr. 
Metzner has been developed into a well im- 
proved and very productive farm. His farm 
consists of eighty acres. He is classed among 
tlie esteemed citizens of Jay County, and his 
record both as a soldier and a citizen is an 
honorable one. Politically he is a Republi- 
can, and is a strong adherent of the princi- 
ples of that party. Both he and his wife are 
members of the Evangelical Association. 



rr^ETER S. MEREDITH, deceased, was a 
■ij|SS native of Pennsylvania, born in Mont- 
*"■! gomery County, November 5, 180S, 
a son of David and Rachel (Shoemaker) 
Jloredith. His father was also a native of 
Pennsylvania, a son of Moses Meredith who 
came from Wales to America with two bro- 
thers, one of whom settled in North Carolina, 
and the other in New York, and the grand- 
father of our subject in Pennsylvania. Ra- 
chel Slioemaker, the mother of our subject, 
was a daughter of Peter and Hannah Shoe- 
maker, Our subject was reared on the home 
farm until sixteen years of age when he went 
to learn the miller's trade, and after serving 
his apprenticeship he worked as a journeyman 
miller until 1835, when lie came to Riclimond, 
Indiana, with his father's family. Ili.< father 
purchased land three miles south uf Center- 
ville, where they resided several years, wlien 
he sold out and settled in Richmond, where 
the parents remained the rest of their days. 
Our subject came to Jay County in an early 
day, and visited in tlic family of Samuel 
(jriswell, where ho fni'uird tlie ac(|naintance 
of Maria (iriswell to wlioni he was married 
S.'pteml.ier", lS-i3. She wa.'^ li.>rii in Columbi- 




ana County, Ohio, Octol:)er IX, 1821, coming 
to Jay County with her parents when thirteen 
years old. Mr. and ]\Irs. Meredith had born 
to them four children — Esther M., born March 
26, 1840, married Andrew K. Knuckols, and 
died November 9, 1865; Hiram G., born at 
Richmond October 30, 1847, and died April 
23, 1848; Samuel G., born in Penn Township, 
May 29, 1849, married Carrie Smith, and 
died January 11, 1873, leaving one son, "Wil- 
ber T. Meredith, and Eva Jane, born August 
13, 1863, and died June 13, 1864. Peter S. 
Meredith continued following the miller's 
trade at Richmond after his marriage until 
the fall of 1848, when he removed to Jay 
County, and settled in Penn Township on a 
farm which had been entered from the Gov- 
ernment by his father-in-law, where he 
engaged in agricultural pursuits. He snbse- 
q^uently removed to Penn villa where he resided 
until his death, which occurred October 4, 
1876. He was reared a Eriend, and died in 
the faith of that society. In politics he affili- 
ated with the Republican party. He was a 
member of the Odd Fellows order. He 
joined the lodge at Richmond, but changed 
his membership to Pennville. His son, 
Samuel G., was also a member of the Odd 
Fellows order; his widow is married and lives 
in West Liberty, Iowa; she is a member of 
the Methodist Episcopal church. 



fllOMAS S. SHEPHERD, M. D., one 
of the oldest naembers of the medical 
^■J fraternity in Jay County, is a native of 
England, born in the city of Selby, Yorkshire, 
in 1815. When in his seventh vear he was 
brought by his father to America, the family 
settling in Wheeling. Virginia, ami here our 
subject was reared, remaininir there until 
after his marriage. He was married April 6, 





m 



m 






'I 



4 

:^ 

.3!' 



m 

i 



pi 






BIOGRAl'IIKJAL .SKETCHES. 






1837, to Miss Abigail Watson, a native of 
Ohio, who died in Decemlier, 1SS3, leaving 
live children — George W.. a practicing phy- 
hicioa of Redkev. Jay County; William, also 
a physician, practicing at New Carlisle, Ohio; 
Mrs. Anna L. Gregg, of Kansas; Mary E. 
Shepherd and Mrs. Etta Elliott, of Portland. 
Soon after his marriage our subject came with 
his wife to Portland, Indiana, and studied 
medicine with Doctor Milligan, the tirst phy- 
sician of Jay County, completing his medical 
studies with Dr. Latham, and engaged in 
practice in the county a period of forty 
years. Between the interval of study of medi- 
cine with Doctor Milligan and Doctor Latham 
he studied law at Marion, Grant County, with 
Colonel Asbury Steele, and thinking that lie 
would prefer the profession of law to that of 
medicine, he engaged in the former purstiit 
which he followed at Kokomo for several 
years. Finding that the practice of law did 
not suit his tastes he resumed his medical 
studies as before mentioned with Doctor 
Latham, and subsequently engaged in the 
practice of medicine in Jay County, and has 
since followed his medical practice in Jay 
County, with the exception of five years spent 
at BIntfton, Wells County. Many years ago 
the doc tor became con nee ted with the Christian 
church, and later engaged in the ministry, 
thus it will be seen that he has followed the 
professions of law, medicine and theology. 
He is yet engaged in the practice of medicine, 
and when occasion requires he still speaks in 
the cause of his Master. During the fifty 
years of his residence in Jay, Howard and 
Wells counties, he has witnessed the many 
wonderful changes that have taken place, 
changing the country fmin its wild, unculti- 
vated state int.i well cultivated fields, anil 
prosperous towns and villages. In his piiliti- 
cal \ lews the dnctor was a I)einoci'at until 
the brcakinir out of the war. since which time 



he has affiliated with the Republican party. 
He has taken an active interest iu the political 
affairs of his county, speaking effectively 
during presidential camjiaigns nt the ])ast. 
lie is an olil and lionnrcd jjioucci-ot' the county, 
and is held in high esteem by all who know 
him. 



fOHX P. HEARN, deceased, was b.)rn 
in Campbell County, Kentucky, April 
10, 1830, and died in Koble Township, 
Jay County, Indiana, February 22, 1879. He 
lived on section 29, Noble Township, where 
he owned 201 acres of land. He came to 
this County in the spring of 1839, with his 
parents. Isaac and Nancy A. (Mason) Hearn, 
who located in Noble To\TOship. The father 
was biirn in Maryland, and died April 18, 
1861, aged fifty-four years. The mother was 
born in Northumherland County, Virginia, 
April 11, 1808, and is still living on the 
farm where she and her husband first settled. 
John P. Ilearn was married July i, 1859. to 
Miss 'Mavy T. Morehous. who was born in 
Tompkins, now Schuyler County, New York, 
I''ebruar3' 3, 1831, and came to this county 
with her parents in 1S3S, the family locating 
on the farm now owned by Silas A. More- 
hous. Her parents, Wilbur and Susan A. 
(Patterson) Morehous, wei'c lu^tives of 
Tompkins County. New Y(;rk, the father 
born October 9, l>il)l3, and the uiuther, De- 
ceudjer C, 1809. The father died July 8, 
1871, and the mother, February 24, 1870. 
I'otli were buried on their farm in this county. 
Ml-, and Mrs. Hearn had five children — Har- 
riet A., born January 8, 1802, wilV of Samuel 
Brinkerhoof; Charles A. A., b,,ru ( )ctober 19, 
1SG5; ]\[arictta L.. born February 10. ISiw; 
Isaac W., born April 22, 1^72: Perry W. 



T., b- 



2-1, 1^77. Mr. Ilearn was 



'I 






m^ 



k 
tfi'. 



mt 

'.[s> 

'A 

m 




i 

mi 

5i|) 



i 



a Republican in politics, ami a member uf 
the L'liiteJ Brethren clinrcli, as is also his 
wife. Mr. Hearn received an excellent edu- 
cation for his day, having attended school at 
Portland, and also attended the Farmer's 
Academy, near Liber. Mrs. Ilearn's grand- 
pareiits, Silas and Eunice ]\[orehous, were 
probably born in Vermont, and both died in 
Tompkins Cmmty, New York. Her great- 
grandparents came from Scotland. 



flOSSE J. M. LA FOLLETTE, mayor of 
Portland, and member of the firm of 
Ileadington & La Follette, attorneys at 
law, is a native of Jay County. A sketch of his 
parents appears elsewhere in this work. He 
was born in Pike Township, in September, 
18-10, and reared on the farm. At the age of 
seventeen years he began attending Liber Col- 
lege during the spring and fall terms, and 
tea<'hing school during the winter, which he 
continued, with some interruptions, until the 
spring of 1871. He taught school in Ward 
Township, Randolph County, Niles Town- 
ship, Delaware County, and in different town- 
shi])s in this county, a number of terms. 
During the summer of 1S64 he was in the 
army, doing guard duty along the lines ot 
raili-oad that supplied the army under Gen- 
eral Sherman. In the spring of 1870 lie tried 
his hand at selling fruit trees in southwestern 
Missouri. In the fall of 1871. Mr. La Fol- 
lette began the study of law in the otlice of 
AValson tt Monks, at Winchester, and, being 
apt for Ills studies and assiduous in his habits, 
he i-omjileted his course in about a year, and 
was admitted to the bar, in that county. The 
en,-uing winters, lS72-'73, he again taught 
school. ])uring all these years he jiartici- 
pati'd in teacher.^" institutes and other educa- 
tional meetings, Ijccoming indeed a pi'ominent 



COUNTT. 

leader in the pedagogical profession in this 
and adjoining counties. In the spring of 
1873, he came to Portland to commence the 
practice of law, in partnership with Joshua 
Bishop, a shrewd attorney. During his iirst 
year in Portland he was appointed deputy 
prosecuting attorney by Hon. Joseph S. 
Dailey, of Blufi'ton, and resigned the otKce in 
1875. In November, 1874, his partnership 
with Mr. Bishop had ceased, and he had 
formed the professional relation with J. W. 
Ileadington, whicli has continued to the pres- 
ent. In the spring of 1875 he was elected 
town clerk, and served one term, and since 
the incorporation of Portland as a city, he 
has been councilman one ternj, and mayor 
one term, 1885-'87. He has always taken an 
active interest in the welfare of the com- 
mnnity, commercially, politically, morally 
and socially. It is very seldom, indeed, that 
one can do that for any length of time and 
retain so great popularity as Mr. La Follette 
enjoys. He has ever been a zealous and able 
advocate of the principles of the Republican 
party, being often a delegate to nominating 
conventions, city, county, district and State. 
His political speeches are so dispassionate 
and carefully worded as to elicit the praise of 
all parties. He is well known as a campaign 
worker in all this portion of Indiana, and in 
a considerable portion of Ohio adjoining. 
Was chairman of the Jay County Central 
Committee for the campaign of 1876. Is a 
niend)er of Stephen J. Bailey Post, G. A. R., 
No. 154. at Portland, in which he has served 
as Commander an<l in other otlicial relations. 
He has '-passed all the chairs" in the order 
of Odd Fellows, becoming a member of the 
Graiiil Lodge of the State in 1875. He has 
been a meudier of the Methodist Episcopal 
chnicli sinre January, 1S>7. Soj^tember 18, 
l>7o, ilr. I.a Follette was married to .Miss 
Annie Wells, daui^liter of Jonathan 11. and 






i 












In, 



'I'/ 





rri) 



I 



m 
¥ 

<ra«. 

m 

(31! 

(3J 






ii; 



Sarah (Mendenliall) "Wells, and a native of 
■fert'erson Township, this couiitv. In Febru- 
ary, 1864, she came with her parents to Liber, 
where she obtained an excellent education. 
Slie also attended the State JN'onnal school at 
Terre Haute. Her mental discipline, based 
upon native capacity, is superior, and she has 
accordingly excelled as a teacher for a num- 
lier of years at "Winchester and in this 
county; has taught in Portland since mar- 
riage. Her parents died at Liber, her fatlier 
in Marcli, 1880, aged seventy-live years, and 
her mother in the spring of 1874:, at the age 
of si.xty-si.x years. More recently slie has 
been an active member of the Chautauij^ua 
Literary and Scientific Circle since its organi- 
zation at Portland, and of the Methodist 
Kpi.~copal church since January, 1887. The 
children of Mr. and Mrs. La Follette are — 
.Nfellie Estelline, burn July 8, 1878, and I!y- 
nm Evarts, born June 28, 1884. A model 
family. 



^'S'^DAM BUEIi, farmer, resides uii section 
sffiV'5 23, Madison Township, where he owns 
■3j|s5^ si.xty-live acres of good land. He came 
t<) this county December 6, 1853, locating on 
his present farm which he purchased of his 
father wlio had preceded him to the county a 
few months. The father purchased the farm 
of Jason Ilumiston. Here our subject com- 
menced life in the woods. He built a rnuiRl- 
log cabin, 18.x20 feet, with a mud-aiid-stick 
chimney, clapboard vmA' and two windows, 
lie lived in tins cabin nineteen years, tlien 
built his hewed-log house with tVanie kitchen. 
His farm is cleared iind well fenced. His 
father, John H. Burr, was born in L)auphin 
('(.lunty, Pennsylvania, Hecembfr oO, 1700. 
Ldsing his parents at an eai'ly age be was 
bound out, but being Ijadly treated he ran 



! away and enlisted in the w:ir uf 1812, 
iiig in the Virginia militia, unrler Captain 
Hoskins. He drew a land warrant of 100 
acres, but died Septenibei- l-"5, 1860, before 
the law was passed giving ])eusion> tn the 
survivors of that war. He was nuirried in 
Preble County, Ohio, in 1830, then went 
immediately back to Montgomery County, 
where he had previously located. He worked 
at farming during the summer, and at shoe- 
making during the winter. The mother, Su- 
sanna (Stover) Burr, was born in York County, 
Pennsylvania, August 28, 1808, and removed 
to Montgomery County, Ohio, with herparents 
when two years of age, whei'e she was reared 
and married. She died December 25, 1884, 
and both are buried in Pleasant Hill ceme- 
tery, near Salem, Indiana. The father was a 
Presbyterian, and the mother, in later life, 
united with the Christian church, although 
she was formerly a member of the Presbyte- 
rian church. ^Ir. Burr was married 2\ovem- 
ber 9, 1857, to Sarah E. Moore, who was born 
in Muskingum County, (_)hio. August 23, 
1839, and when two years old, came to this 
county with her parents, who settled in Madi- 
son Township, on section 20, where they 
lived several years. Her father was born in 
Ireland in 1809, and came to America with 
his parents when a boy, the family settling 
in Muskingum County, Ohio, and coming to 
tills county in 1853. He died in Pandolph 
County, this State, in January. 1S73. The 
mother was also born in Ireland, in 1812, and 
is living with her eldest son, David, in Fort 
Recovery, Mr, and Mrs. Burr have had nine 
children — Benjamin F., liorn January 'J. 1S59; 
Melinda F., born Feljruary 27, 1S60: Susanna, 
born July 20, 1861: Pebecca J., born April 
20, 1864; "William 11., born .November 24, 
1866; Sarah E., born April 3, 1>70: Ida C. 
born May 25, 1^72; Elnoi'a K.. born March 
19. 1877: Charles, born October 22. l>j^2. 






m 



OSi: 



(rd 



1^! 



'jl! 



IS 



a5S^a5S5a535H? 






IIInrnltY OF JAY COi'NTV. 






i± 



m 

k 



died ill tivc days. Mr. Burr enlisted March 
2.3. 1S65, ill Company E, Fifty-tliirJ Indiana 
InfanliT, and was discliarged Angust3,1865. 
lie joined liis regiment at Ale.xandria while 
Sherman's army was marching to Washington 
after the surrender of Johnston, and partici- 
pated in the grand review. His regiment 
was sent to Louisville to be nuistered out) 
receiving their discharge at Indianapolis. Mr. 
Burr then returned home and has since been 
engaged in farming. His grandfather Burr 
died before liis son John (the father of Adam) 
was born, and his grandmother died befoi-e 
the father was two weeks old. His maternal 
grandparents, Adam and Barbara (Berk- 
heimer) Stover, were born in Germany, and 
died in German Township, Montgomery Coun- 
ty, Ohio; neither could speak a word of 
English. Mrs. Burr's grandparents, James 
and Sarah (Thompson) Moore, were born in 
Ireland, and both died in Eastern Ohio. Her 
maternal grandparents were also born in Ire- 
land, and died in Eastern Ohio. They are 
buried in Muskingum County, as are also 
Mr. Burr's parents. Mr. Burr served as town- 
ship trustee two terms, and as assessor one 
term. 



fOlIX BELL, one of the pioneers of Jay 
County, who is now deceased, was born 
<z in Harrison County, Vii'ginia, Septem- 
ber B, 1S16, a son of Simeon and Mary 
( We>t) Bell. When sixteen years old he 
ai-compaiiied his father to Warren County. 
(Uiio. his mother having died the yeui- jire- 
\iou.- in Virginia. John Bell I'einuined in 
A\'ai'ren County unfil twenfy-one years of age. 
when hit adventuMnis >pii-it led him to Jay 
County, and that year. 1^37. he entered 160 
acres of Government lan<l in I'ik'e Township. 
He sold tlii> land earlv in thr yeur 1^:J'.t, and 



soon after opened a general stock of goods at 
ilouiit Pleasant, he being the pioneer mer- 
chant of that village. December 1, 1839, he 
was united in marriage to Miss Louvinia 
Kidder, who was born in Warren County, 
Ohio, April 10, 1821, a daughter of John 
and Sarali (Buras) Kidder. Her parents 
were among the early pioneers of Jay Coun- 
ty, settling in Pike Township in 1837, where 
they spent the remainder of their days. Ten 
cliildren were born to ^Ir. and Mrs. Bell — 
Louvinia. wife of Dr. G. W. Shepherd, of 
Redkey; Simeon K., residing on section 10, 
Jeft'erson Township; William P., Sarah, 
Bosanna, Alva and Mary died of Scarlet 
fever in the year 1854; Emeline, wife of 
William Current; John, living on section 16, 
Jefferson Township, and Florence, living with 
her motlier. Mr. Bell continued in business 
at Mount Pleasant until 1855, when he sold 
his stock to his brother Lewis. In 1860 he 
settled on his tine farm a mile southeast of 
the village, located on section 22, Jefferson 
Township, where he lived in the enjoyment 
of a good home about twenty years, his death 
occurring January 21, 1880. He was a con- 
sistent member of the Methodist Episcopal 
church, and an honored and respected citizen 
of Jay County, tlis life was one of unceas- 
ing activity, and in all that makes the puVjlic 
s])irited man he was in nothing lacking. In 
his political views he was a Kepubliean. His 
father, Simeon Bell, was a physician, and 
while ministering to patients stricken with 
cholera in Cincinnati, in 1832, he fell a 
victim to the epidemic himself. Simeon K. 
iJell, the eldest son of our subject, was boi'u 
January 9, 184-3, in Ja\- County, Indiana, 
and is now one oF the prominent men of 
.Jetfei-sou Township. His homestead cmi- 
taiiis 2nO acres of valuaMc land, nearly all 
iindi'i' ini]iro\'rnient, making one of the hc^t 
larm pi-opci-ries in the township. In l^ll 



h 

I 

f II' 
I 




w 

II- 

isi; 

¥ 

'i\Bi 

t> 
I 

ii 

I 

!bii 



i 
I 

id 

n 

m 
$ 



iaSaLSjiaUri 



'^"W^-M^WI-^M 



3r-ll-^_«; 



.^.a^B. 



BlUGHAFUIVAL .S K ETC HE.'-. 



!3i: 



m. 



he wits elected county cxiuniiier, and after the 
change in school supervision he was elected 
county superintendent, serving ten years to 
the satisfaction ol his constituents. He was 
married January 25, 1870, to Miss Sophia 
Williamson, a daughter of Hugh and ilary 
AVilliamson. They are the parents of three 
children — D. Ward, John and Bertlia. John 
Bell, Jr., the youngest son of our subject, is 
also a native of Jay County, Indiana, the date 
of his l>irth being September 25, 1858. He 
owns a good farm property consisting of 120 
acres on section 16, Jeft'erson Township, where 
he makes his home. He was united in mar- 
i-iage September 28, 1879, to Miss Sarah, 
daughter of Thomas and Hettie (Bost) 
McCirtney, and to tliis union have been born 
two children — Gracie and Basil. John Bell, 
the suljject of this sketcli, came to Jay Coun- 
ty in limited circumstances, but by his per- 
severing industry and good management he 
succeeded well in life, having sutiicient to 
start liis children in life, and to leave his 
widow a good home and a competence. 



J^^.VMUEL BLAZER, one of the old and 
f®) honored pioneers of Greene Township, 
^y' has ijeen identified with the interests of 
Jay (.'ounty since 1838. He was born in Gal- 
lia County, Ohio, August 2, 1813, a son of 
J'liilip and Elizabeth Blazer, who were natives 
of rennsylvania, and of Dutch descent. They 
were married in their native State, and of the 
nine children born tothemonly two are living 
— Samuel 1!., who was the fourth son and sixth 
child, and Henry, who lives on the old home- 
stead of his parents. Of the remaining chil- 
dren, George came to Jay County a year or 
so before our subject, and settled in I'ike 
Township, wliere he lived iinfii his death, 
which occurred the first year of the late war; 



John, another son, settled in Madison County, 
Indiana, and died a few years since; one 
daughter, Mrs. Elizabeth Giliiiore, died a few 
years ago in Madison County, Indiana; Jacob, 
Adam, Philip and JIargaret are the names of 
the other children who are deceased. Jacob, 
the eldest child, was never married, and died 
at the age of seventy-five years. The other 
children were married and liail families. The 
parents after their marriage settled on wild 
land in Ohio, where they made a home, and 
lived in that State until their death. Samuel 
Blazer, the subject of this sketch, grew to 
manhood on the home farm in Ohio, remainini,'- 
with his parents until attaining the age of 
twenty-one years. On coming to Jay County 
in the fall of 1838 he commenced choppini; 
and clearing his land, a tract of 160 acres 
that he had entered from the (.Tovernment 
prior to his coming, and by persevering in- 
dustry he soon had enough cleared to make a 
home. He was married April 9, 1840, to 
Miss Prudence Collins, who was born in "War- 
ren Connty, Ohio, August 4, 1820, where she 
lived until coming to Jay County, Indiana, 
with her parents, John and Elizabeth Collins, 
about the year 1836. Both of her parents 
died of fever soon after coming to the county. 
Mr. and Mrs. Blazer have had born to them 
t^yelve children — Elizabeth, widow of John 
Kerns, is living in Jetierson Township; Mary 
died aged five years; Henry died aged three 
years; the ne.xt two children died in infancy; 
Xancy married John Spahr, of Greene Town- 
ship; Morris lives in Greene Townshij); Mrs. 
Catharine AYeston livesin .Jefferson Township; 
Elvira and Elviiui (twins), the former nuirried 
James McFadden and is now deceased, and 
the latter is living with lier parents; Jacob 
resides in Greene Township, and Kmnia is the 
wife of Ozro Sanders, of Jetferscm Tov.n>!iip. 
ilr. lihizer has lived on his farm on section 
36, Greene Tnwnslilp. >iuce his maniao-e, his 






;^; 



-^r 



^^^r^^K^n.^a^^^i 



UISTURY OF JAY COUNTY. 



'F 
i%'. 



first residence being a small cabin, located 
neai- the site of his present more commodious 
residence. He has a good home property of 
ei'ditv-three acres, he having given the rest 
of his land to his children. He has been 
prosperous in his farming pursuits, and has 
owned and improved much over 300 acres of 
land, and by his honorable and upright deal- 
ings he has won the confidence and esteem of 
all who know him. In politics he was for- 
miM-ly a "Whig, but has voted the Republican 
ticket since the organization of that party. 



ftJHX S. EMMONS, of the firm of Em- 
mons & Saunders, druggists, Pennville, 
-;\;. is a native of Indiana, born in Delaware 
County, October 17, 1847, a son of Eli and 
Eliza J. (Clevinger) Emmons, who came from 
Ohio to Indiana in an early day- The father 
was born in Virginia, of Scotch descent, a 
sou of Ephraim Emmons, whose father served 
as a soldier in the Revolutionary war for seven 
years. Eli Emmons was a farmer by occu- 
pation, in connection with which he followed 
the cooper's trade until 1857, when he re- 
moved to Wells County, Indiana, and pur- 
chased a farm of 160 acres of unimproved land, 
where he followed forming in connection with 
his trade. He served as inagit^trate for eight 
years. The mother of our subject was a 
(buighter of John Clevinger who came from 
Ohiii. and was of Englisli descent. Of the 
cli'veu cliildreuborn to Eli and ElizaEmmons 
ten grew to maturity, and seven are still liv- 
iiicT. The father died at his home in jS'otting- 
hani Township, "Wells County, June 11, 1872, 
aged fifty-three years. In his political views 
he was an iincuniprdinising Democi-at. lie 
was a member of the New Liglit clinreh. 
Mrs. Eli Emmons was al;o a meinlier of the 
>.ur,e church. After tlifik-ith of Mr. Knimun^ 



she married Aaron Ball, and died in the year 
1886. John S. Emmons, the subject of this 
sketch, was reared on the farm until seventeen 
years of age when he started out in life for 
himself, going to Randolph Countv, where 
he remained three years. In October, 1868, 
he went to Guthrie County, Iowa, where he 
worked at the carpenter's trade for one year. 
In 1870 he began teaching school, which he 
followed until 1872, when on account of his 
father's illness he returned to his home in 
Wells County, Indiana. For nine years he 
followed forming during the summer months 
in Wells County, and in the winter taught 
school. He was married January 18, 1873, 
to Miss Lucy J. McDaniel, a native of Wells 
County, Indiana, and a daughter of Alexander 
and Frances (Dawley) McDaniel, her father 
coming from Pennsylvania, and her mother 
from Ohio. They are the parents of three 
children — Edward Elbert, born in 1874; Os- 
car Orlander, born in 1876, and Fanny Pearl, 
born in 1878. In 1880 Mr. Emmons came 
to Pennville, Jay County, and engaged in the 
drug business, which he has since followed 
with success. Politically' he afliliates with 
the Republican party. He is a member of 
Relief Lodge, No. 145, I. O. O. F., and also 
belongs to Pennville Lodge, No. 212, A. F. & 
A. M. Both he and his wife are members of 
the Christian or Disciple church, and among 
the respected residents of Penn Township. 



§AVIU VAN CLEVE JiAKER is one 
of the representative citizens of Jay 
%i; County, and a prominent attorney of 
Portland. He is a native of the Buckeye 
State, having lieen burn on a farm near Day- 
ton, May 30. is:!'.l. tlic youngest child of 
Diivid C. and Sal-all Soplu:, ^Van Cleve) 
W-Avr. Hi- mothrr died O.-tober lb. 1839. 






SLBJ 



m 






ll 



I 



■la; 

1%'t 
111? 

% 



a9i*^-x^r i'** ^:\^3x^^S^M^Ki-ai^i^'sa'*^^'^t^^9i^m^^JiVa^T^''^ra^^^^^sa'-'^'a*^'m-^ 



*ta>JT3'a^^ 



i 



I 



i 



<PJ 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 












sin,' u-;i.< a woman of rare intellect; possessed 
the Christian virtues in an eminent degree, 
and combined comeliness of person with ex- 
cellent qualities of mind and heart. David 
V. liegan attending school when a mere child. 
His tather was a Whig and the political 
principles of that party were early impressed 
on the mind of the son, and in IS-i-i, though 
but five years of age he was a boy admirer 
of Heni-y Clay, and advocated in his boy- 
hood waj- the election of the great commoner. 
In 1854, when the extension of human slav- 
ery was the great moral and political question 
of tlie day, he was a student at Liber College. 
Here in political discussions among the 
students he took an active and prominent 
part, and so ably defended the cause of the 
non-extension of slavery that he received the 
apjilause and congratulations of liis school- 
mates. At the close of his last term at Liber 
lie was selected to deliver the farewell address. 
Three sessions at Liber College completed 
his school days, his father having met with 
financial reverses he was obliged to leave 
>i-]iool and go to work. Li 1853 his father 
moved to Indiana and located at Portland, 
wliei'e for four years he kept the principal 
hotel of the place. David was his chore boy 
and principal help, most of the hard work 
about the hotel and stable falling on him. In 
till- spring of 1858 he began the study of law 
ill the office of Hon. J. P. C. Shanks. Soon 
after he wrote his first newspaper article, and 
it was tlie tirst e\'er printed that named Gen- 
eral Shanks for Congress. A consultation 
was held in the ottire to ascertain v;ho had 
written the article. At this meeting young 
jlaker was present, but was intently poring 
uxor the Jinges of lllaek>tone. when he was 
astounded to hear .Mr. Shanks tell his friends 
that " Dr. I!, jl. Snow wrote that article." 
I'r. Snow was a man of mature years and the 
h-aclerol' thf Driiiocratic )iarty in. I ay County, 




and the student was therefore greatly sur- 
prised to hear his preceptor ascribe to the 
brain of Dr. Snow an essay which he himself 
had written. Mr. Shanks had taken up his 
pen to answer the article when the lad 
thought it was best to explain. Mr. Shanks 
was not only astonished but highly amused. 
He had met Dr. Snow many times, publicly, 
in debate, and now he had committed the 
error of ascribing to him an article written 
in his own office and on his own table by his 
young student. The lawyer did just what he 
was advised to do in the newspaper article 
and was elected to Congress in 1860, the 
successor of John ^[. Pettit. In 1862 he 
was defeated and the subject of this sketch 
then helped to defeat him. In 1SG6 Mr. 
Baker again came to the assistance of Gen- 
eral Shanks and again he was elected. In 
January, 1860, though not yet twenty-one 
years old, young Baker was selected by the 
Eepublicans of Jay County as a deleo-ate to 
the State convention soon to meet in Indian- 
apolis. He took an active part in that eon- 
test warmly advocating the nomination of 
Colonel Henry S. Lane for Governor over 
Oliver P. Morton. Lane was nominated bj- 
acclamation, and in the Bates House in Indi- 
anapolis on the night of his nomination was 
surrounded by his friends, jV[r. Baker con- 
gratulated the successful candidate who re- 
marked to him, " Young man, when I am 
elected Governor of Indiana mv first com- 
mission shall be to you; you shall go on mv 
staff as Colonel." The Legislature soon after 
elected Lane to the United States Senate but 
he fulfilled his promise, sending the com- 
mission to Mr. Baker, who however, had too 
much pride to present it t.i (idvenior Morton 
whom he had oi)poseil. Baker wrote and 
spoke in the interests of the liepuldican 
candidate for President in ISfjl) and cast his 
first vote at that cli'rtioii. I'Vcin tliat time 



li 






ml 






itJijiiirt *ai: 



iii2iiii£Lii 



' *^^-'i =■ 



^a ^fia^x^^^^^-^a i^ ^„ii-pia„an 3 i „U 't:^am Ji„ ^^u^i>M '*a' '-m''a''t^''a'^^i>',Jtam„tj^s„a ^,^-Ki.t^iB^Xi 



HISTORY OF JAY COUNTY. 



if 



until 1876 he did not miss being present at 
all Kepublican State conventions and in 1876 
assisted in nominating the Republican ticket. 
He has ever been a warm admirer of James 
(}. Blaine and was disappointed at his failure 
to get the nomination in 1876. In tha sum- 
mer of 187G Mr. Baker was nominated by 
the Kepublicans for circuit prosecutor in the 
district composed of Jay, Adams and Wells 
(■(junties. The district being overwlielmingly 
Democratic there was no possible chance of 
his election and he was ranch incensed toward 
the party that nominated liim, regarding it 
as an insult, and as he had become dissatisfied 
with the leaders of the party he now took 
occasion to write a letter for publication in 
which he declined the nomination and de- 
clared that the Republican party needed re- 
buke at the liands of the people, and from 
that time on he would vote with the Demo- 
ciMtic party. He wrote and spoke in the 
(■ampaign of 1876 for the success of tiie 
Democratic candidates. In 1878 he was a 
delegate to the convention at Fort AVayne 
that nominated Walpole G. Golerick for Con- 
grt'ss. The convention was an e.xciting one 
and to Mr. Baker more than any one else 
was due the nomination of Mr. Golerick. 
Air. McDonald, of Whitley Gounty, had been 
Jfr. Baker's first choice, and he had supported 
him for 100 consecutive ballots, and there 
was a complete deadlock. He saw no chance 
and after the 100th ballot gave his vote to 
Golerick, which broke the dead-lock, and on 
the 140th ballot thereafter Golerick was norai- 
nalc'd. :\rr. ^McDonald, after Mr. Baker led 
the way, came to the support of Golerick with 
the solid vote of Whitley Gounty, and the 
n(.imination was settled. In the convention 
of LS7S, of which Thomas A. Hendricks was 
the honored president, Mr. I'.aker was one of 
the vice-presidents, lie has hail iiiucli politi- 
cal e.\'perieuce Imt has seldom sought favi.r 



for himself In 1862 he was candidate for 
common pleas attorney, and Jay County gave 
500 majority, every township in the county, 
save one, voting for him. In 1872 the Re- 
publicans of Grant, Jay and Blackford coun- 
ties in district convention came within one 
vote of nominating him for the State Senate, 
and at that time a nomination meant an elec- 
tion. In 1878 the Democrats of Jay Gounty 
in convention gave him next to the highest 
vote for clerk of the courts, and his friends 
named him for Gongress. During President 
Lincoln's administration lie was for two years 
postmaster at Portland. He lias served suc- 
cessively as town attornej', councilman and 
clerk. For four years he served as mail con- 
tractor on all the routes, e.xcept one, entering 
Portland, and for five years had charge of the 
county clerk's office. At the Democratic con- 
vention held at Decatur June 18, 1880, he 
was nominated to represent the counties of 
Jay and Adams in the State Legislature, and 
was elected, serving with much credit. As a 
citizen j\[r. Baker has performed a good part, 
and has done much toward building up the 
citj' of Portland. Early in his married life, 
being rather profuse in the spending of 
money and having considerable sickness in 
his family, he was reduced to straightened 
circumstances, but by good management in 
later years, lie has acquired a comfortable 
property. He has aided to the extent of his 
ability all the enterprises of public benefit 
aliout Piirtland. He is a ja-ominent Odd 
Fellow and Mason. He was married July 
17, 1S59, to Jane G. Hawkins the eldest 
daughter of Jmlge Hawkins. They have 
had eight chililren. six of wlioni are living — 
Ida Henrietta, liorn August .S, 1^60; Flora 
y. (;., born April 5, ISIJ-f; David G., born 
JauiKiry 3, 1^07; Xathan Hawkins, born 
September 18. IStjS: Sarah S. Y. G., born 
Julv 80. 1^71. and Julm \'an Cleve. born 



IJ 



II 






'M 



-A) 



i 

M 



^ 

'.^( 



ga'J»jasMii^.«r.^»i5Mfr^»^JTia.gi^'aJava^aj,M.ja^am'ai»".»^'»i-J 'n"' TiUjriJnW^tJT,j!^a„«r 



^.gylJl^^^l^t; 



i~-a_^rfir«j7 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 






\4\ 






i 
ill 

!3ii 

m 
i 



February 7, 1S75. Franklin A., born August 
:5L 1862, died ilay 18, 1863, and Helen 
Hawkins, liorn December 13, 1865, died 
^[arcli 30, 18r)(3. ;j[r. Baker is descended 
from historic ancestry. His maternal grand- 
father, Benjamini Van Cleve, entered the Gov- 
ernment service at the age of sixteen years, 
and served under St. Clair at Fort Eecovery, 
being a survivor of that terrible massacre of 
November 4, 1791. His paternal grandtatlier, 
Aaron Baker, erected the first brick house in 
Dayton, Ohio. His father, David C. Baker, 
.^ierved as auditor, justice of the peace, deputy 
county clerk and clerk of Jay County. Mr. 
liaker is of pioneer stock, connected to the 
Hooner, Benliams and Van Cleves, who lirst 
settled in Kentuckv. John Yan Cleve, his 
great-grandfather, a Rcvolntionary soldier, 
was killed by Indians at Cincinnati, Ohio, on 
tlie 1st of June, 1791, and Benjamin Tan 
Cleve, his grandfather, fought as a soldier 
under Generals St. Clair, Wayne and Har- 
rison. 



f A:\rES CASTER, one of the old and hon- 
ored pioneers of Jay County, with whose 
interests he haslieen identified since 18-41, 
is a native of Pennsylvania, born in Allegheny 
County, June 29, 1809, a son of Gabriel and 
I 'atherine (Hoft'man) Caster. Our subject was 
reared on a farm in his native State, and in 
his yonth received such education as the 
schools of that early day att'orded. "When 
twenty-seven years of age lie went to Preble 
County, Ohio, where he was married February 
S. 1837, to Rebecca "Wilkinson, a daughter of 
Charles and Elizabeth (Evans) AVilkinson. 
'I'liey have four children living — "William, 
Elizabeth Stuart, Henry and James 11. Their 
sou, Charles "W., was a member of the One 
lluiidredtli Indiana Tiifantry. and died in the 



service of his country at Bellefonte Station, 
Alabama, at the age of twenty years, ilr. 
Caster remained in Preble County until IS-tl, 
when he came with his familv, then consist- 
ing of wife and two children, to Indiana, 
making the journey by team. During his 
residence in the county he has resideil on the 
same farm on section 26, "H'ayne Township, 
a period of forty-si.\ years, which is well 
improved and under good cultivation. He 
has been a consistent member of the United 
Brethren church for thirty years. In politics 
he is a strong adherent of the principles of 
the Republican party. He has always been 
a public spirited and enterprising man, and 
has been active in advancing the interests of 
his township or county, where he is classed 
among the most respected citizens. 



fRA^'CIS MARION McLAUGHLIX, 
a representative of one of the pioneer 
families of Jay County, was born in 
Kosciusko County, Indiana, April 9, 1837, a 
son of John McLaughlin, who settled in 
Madison Township, Jay County, with his 
family, October 9, 1837. Our subject was 
but an infant when brotiglit to Jay County, 
and here he was reared on a farm, being 
early inured to hard work. His educational 
advantages were limited to nine months 
attendance at a subscription school. He 
enlisted in the late war in (October, 1S61, in 
Company F, Fortieth Ohio Infantry, but was 
rejected on account of the loss of his right 
eye, which occurred by an accident when he 
was nine years of age. He however was 
accepted as a teamster, but being desirous ot 
serving in the ranks he managed to carry a 
musket most of tlie time, and pierformed 
faithfully any duty he was called on to do. 
He left tlie service in 18ti;j. "Wjiiie in the 



1^ 

\p 
ill 



i 

I?; 



aJi.a-"»"T.-E„.^ 



a^j^ri*Mgg«i>^J ^H^Je 



„j.,j^^^ T j,a ^j i „ji„j^j..« „*i..JJna:.-u..jp3« n ^^i»^ji n "-J..Kc,.»...a,a - 






f 



II I STORY OF JAY COUNTY. 






army he C()nti-acted rlieiunatisin from wliicli 
he has iie\er recovered. After tlie war he 
engaged in farming, which he followed until 
1870, when ho was elected recorder of Jay 
County, a position ho lilled faithfully for 
eiglit years, and since the expiration of his 
official term he has been engaged in dealing 
in real estate at Portland. He has succeeded 
well in his various business enterprises, and 
is now the owner of 500 acres of land located 
in Wayne and Greene townships. He has a 
beautiful home in Portland, where he is 
highly esteemed by all who know him. Mrs. 
McLauglilin was formerly Miss Susan Keck, 
a daughter of George W. Iveck, who went 
from Ohio to California in 1849, remaining 
there until his death, which occurred several 
years later. Mrs. Keck came to Jay County, 
Indiana, with her family, where several meni- 
biM-s still reside. Six children have been 
born to ]Mr. and Mrs. JIcLaughlin — Charles 
W., George E., Jessie M., Orval C, Lulu G. 
and Edith K. Politically Mr. McLaughlin 
is a Republican, casting his first vote for 
Abraham Lincoln, in 1S(;0. Like his father 
he is independent in his religious views, 
believing that all sho\ild worship God accord- 
ing to the dictates of their own conscience, 
lie is a strong advocate of the cause of tem- 
perance, and a supporter of those principles 
which teml to elevate his fellowmen. 



[EORGE K. KEXDRTCK, junior mem- 
ilUsiy ber of the linn of Williams ifc Kendrick. 
W'- was born in Licking ( 'ounty, Ohio, 
July 22, 1S52. a son of Tlionias and' .Mary E. 
(IJiM'd) Kendriclc, wlio were tlio parents of 
ein-ht children, (George being the third child. 
"When he was a babe his parents removed to 
(.'ass County, Imliana, wlie]-t> he i-eslded until 



1874. He early learned the wagon-maker's 
trade, and that has l)een his occupation since 
he was nineteen years old. Li 1874 he 
removed to Jay County, locating at Briant. 
where he worked at his trade in a small way 
for three years. He then removed to West- 
cliester and worked until 1883, then returned 
to Briant and formed a partnership with Mr. 
"Williams, and established the Briant Wagon 
Works. 



fAMES. H. \)E TRAY, aresident of Liber, 
Jay County, Indiana, is a direct descend- 
ant of one of the noble families of Erance, 
being the fourth in direct line of descent from 
Count Antoine Des Trees, an attache of the 
court of King Louis XVI, who introduced to 
that monarch Benjamin Franklin and his fel- 
low commissioners who concluded the treaty 
of alliance between France and the American 
colonies. Tlie count's wife, and the mother 
of .Marquis de La Fayette, and of Count Ro- 
chanibeau, were sisters. Antoine Perrin Des 
Trees, the count's son, who was also a count 
of France and nephew of King Louis XVI, 
accompanied the French e.xpedition to America 
in aid of the struggling colonies as commissary 
general on the staft' of General LaFayette's 
first expedition, and served gallantly through- 
out the struggle for independence. He was 
wounded in the grand assault on the works of 
Cornwallis at Yorktown, which resulted in 
the surrender of the British commander and 
the close of the war. He remaine(l in this 
country after the war, the E]-eueh revolution 
having overturiu'il society in his nati\e land, 
and his father with many others of the nobility 
hail fallen a victim to the mob and guillo- 
tined :\Iarch IG, 17U4. He settled at Provi- 
dence, Rhode Island, where he established 
himself as a silk mei-chant, chnncrinehis name 



m 









n 
% 




fi'%. 




'C^-^L^^-r^c- 







I 

ii 

I: 
k 



sufficiently to conform to the liinguage of Ins 
adoptnl country, being tlienceforth known as 
Antlioiiy Pen-in De Tray. 'W'lien La Fayette 
made liis memorable visit to the United States 
in 1S24:, Anthony DeTray was among those 
who went to "Woodstock, Connecticut, to re- 
ceive and do him honor, but he never returned 
from that visit, dying after a brief illness, 
lie had a son, Anthony, who in 1820 removed 
to Crawford County, Ohio, where he followed 
agricultural pursuits. He died about 1847, 
aged liftv-seven years. His son, Jackson B., 
was the father of James H. De Tray, the sub- 
ject iif this sketch. Jackson 15. DeTray was 
liorii at Providence, Rhode IsLand, in 1816, 
some four years before his parents removed 
to Ohio, and in the latter State he grew to 
manhood, and was there married to Charlotte 
Wickham, a native of Tompkins County, New 
York, born in 1826, a daughter of David and 
Louisa "Wickham, her father being a grand 
nephew of ^lartha Washington, and thus re- 
lated til the celebrated Lee family of Virginia. 
The f;ither of onr subject removed with his 
family to ^Michigan in 1853, and engaged in 
the 111 lot and shoe trade at Grand liapids. 
Later in life he gave up mercantile pursuits 
and retired to a tarm in Kent County some 
miles from Grand Kapids, where lie died in 
1S73, aged lifty-seven years. James K. De 
Tray, whose name heads this sketch, was born 
in Crawford County, Ohio, April 1, 1848, 
and w as Imt two years of age when his parents 
reninM'il to (ii-and liapids, Michigan, and in 
that city he received good advantages both in 
the lili-rary and commercial branches of edu- 
catinn. From 1874 to 1876 iiu-lnsive lie was 
deputy sheriti'nf Kent Cimntv. Li 1883 he 
hee;niie a resident of Jay County, liis mother 
CI. mill;;' licre iri the fall of Issil, uiid lias since 
ki'pt liouse for him in Lilur village. Li Oc- 
tiiliei-, I-5SI, while the prepai-atinns wire guing 
'-■n at ^ urktuwn in 1 inen'oratiim of the sur- 



render of Lord Cornwallis, Mi'. De Trav was 
favored with an invitation from James G. 
Elaine, then Secretaryof State, as the American 
representative of the family of La Fayette, to 
attend the celebration. While at Yorktown 
he was the recipient of the highest favors; 
was an honored guest at the banquets given 
by Hancock and by the French admiral. To 
these exercises France sent five representa- 
tives, while Mr. De Tray was the only one 
from the United States. During 1883 and 
1884 Mr. De Tray lived in the vicinity of 
Blunt, Dakota, where he still owns property. 
He has in liis possession some highly prized 
family heirlooms; a memorandum and a ila- 
sonic ritual printed in French in 1743, both 
formerly owned by his great-grandfatlier, 
Count Antoine Des Trees, would be hio-hly 
prized in more than one national collection 
of vahiable mementos. Mr. De Tray is a 
member of the 'Masonic fraternity, belono-inij 
to Portland Lodge, jS'o. 87, A. F. eV: A. M, and 
is also a member of Lodge No. G2, L O. O. F., 
at Illunt, Dakota. JVJitically he is a Demo- 
crat. 



EORGE PARSONS, farmer, sections 
jr- 21, and 22, Noble Township, came to Jay 
W- County with wife and two children 
March 27. 1855, settling on the farm where 
he now resides. He bought laml of Samuel 
Noney, and forty aci'cs of Jerry Wallino-. 
There was an old log cabin on the iJace, and 
forty acres had been jilowed. lie lived in 
that cabin two years, then built a small frame 
house in which he lived until ho built his 
present hue brick Imuse in l>i72. at a cost nf 
s2.00t), besides his own labor, lie built his 
barn in 1862. At une time he had one of 
the largest and liest orchards in the town- 
shi|.; but the cold winter of 1882 injured his 



mi 

i 



?L« 






ml 



■Ta-»-a°*-B-Jni'* 



r»a'J««a„ 



,gj„aj^j.i,ji„.ig«ia.iJ!^ 



111 



!» 



ii 



111 

'I' 



:«2 



IlisrORY OF .TAT COUNTY. 



trees very materially. He now has 140 acres 
of improved land. Mr. Parsons was born in 
Perry County, Ohio, December 25, 1820, 
and when fourteen years of age went to Mor- 
row County, sairie State, where he lived ten 
years. He then went to Marion County, 
wliei'e he was married, and soon afterward 
went hack to Perry Connty and worked on a 
small farm left by his father. He lived there 
nine years, then sold ont and came to NoLle 
Township, settling upon his present farm. 
r)nrincr the late war he was drafted twice. 
The tirst time he procured a substitute and 
the second time he was e.Kempt. He was 
married January 1, 18i5, to Miss Sarah 
llolinan, who was born in Perry County, 
Pennsylvania, August 2f3, 1823, and when 
twelve years of age was brought to Wayne 
County by Christian Franks, where she was 
])artly reared. She was a daughter of Daniel 
Holman and Kose (Johnson), who were born 
in Perry County, Pennsylvania. Her father 
died of cholera when she was quite small 
and was buried on an island in Lake Erie. 
The mother married, and died in Perry 
Cijunty in 1837. Mr. Parsons' parents were 
Joseph and jSTancy (Fluckey) Parsons. The 
father was born in Highland County, Ohio, 
September 27, 1797. His mother died and 
his father again married, and he was bound 
out, and when old enough to learn a trade he 
was apprenticed to a blacksmith. He was a 
soldier in the war of 1812. He died in 
1S23 in Perry CiMinty, Ohio, leaving a wife 
and two children — George and Joshua; the 
lattei- died in Grant Connty, Indiana, in 
1"^^J9. at the age of forty-siK years, leaving a 
wife and eiglit children. I'lie imitlier was 
liorn in Huntington (_'..iunlv, Pennsylvania, in 
.\ugu-t. 1797, and wIumi twelve years of age 
reini.ivod to Perry ( 'uuntw ( )hio, where she 
was tirst married. Hei- ^ie^•olld husliand was 
.l.dm S. Nixon, an.l tlu'V h.id five rhiMren — 



Margaret, Catherine, Joseph, Sarah and Levi. 
Joseph and Sarah are deceased. Mr. and 
Mrs. Parsons have had eight children, only 
two of whom are living — Elnorah J., born 
jS'ovember 28, 1845, died N'ovember 8, 1840; 
Julia A., born February 25, 1847, married 
Nicholas Money; ISancy E., born March 5, 
1849, married Harvey Drake; Charles E., 
born July 25, 1851, died August 17, 1853; 
an infant, unnamed, died January 18, 1855; 
Sarah E., born October 7, 1856, died Septem- 
ber 18, 1860; Margaret J., born February 10, 
1859, died September 10, 1860; Lola M., 
horn July 20, 1861, died August 21, 1878. 
Mr. Parsons was elected township trustee 
two terms and served as township clerk six 
years under the old law. His grandfather, 
Joshua Parsons, died at ]\Lirion, Grant Coun- 
ty, Indiana, and his grandmother Parsons 
died in Highland County, Ohio. His grand- 
father Fluckey was born in Hesse, Germany, 
and came to America as a British soldier in 
the Revoluntary war, and deserted to the 
American army. He was married in Phila- 
delphia to Miss Margaret Stotz, who was 
born in Germany; both died in Morrow 
County, Ohio. He was ninety-six years old 
at his death and his wife was ninety-three. 
Mrs. Parsons" grandparents, William and 
Catherine Johnson, died in Perry County, 
Pennsylvania. The Johnsons were of Eng- 
lish ancestry. 



' ?T-f-;|HLLVMS 6c KEN DRICK, propric- 
flWP tors of the Priant Wagon Works, 
It=^^ established this t'ntorprise in 1883. 
They manufacture about 100 wagons jicr 

I year, and emjiloy five men. The wood 

i department is uniler the supervision of ^Ir. 

! Kcndrick, who thorouijhly understands all 
the details nf tlmt department. The irnn 



'A, 

m 



m 



(LM 



!L' 






'^^\ 



)\i\ 
% 



'M 



i3; 

■At 



Ift 



<mai„a^ia^x:„3 



■ '»n^«i'*-w*°q-*"m-" 



:»..«» „ w,.ra„a«n, an , ii„i»«iu.jJ5 



i=S«£»S5i 



BS~J<ia'>'. 






^S^ 



'fa; 



Bl'OGJiAPIITCAL SKUTCHES. 



depiirtment is managed by Mr. "Williams, who 
io an expert workman. This firm also lias a 
lar^re horse-shoeing trade. The ware-room 
is a two-story building, 22 x 50 feet, the first 
Hour being used for finished work and the 
iip])er room for lumber. The work shop is 
2-1- X 6-4 feet, and is divided into different 
apartments. Three forges are in the black- 
smith department. They use none l.iut the 
bc^st material and all their wagons are war- 
ranted, being second to none in the State for 
hard service. 



fW- WILLIAMS, proprietor of Walnut 
Grove stock-form, is one of the leading 
-.^'^ breeders and shippers of Poland China 
hogs in the State of Indiana, and since 1868 
he has devoted his attention to this business. 
Llis stock is pure breed, and all recorded in 
the Ohio and Central Poland China Records. 
His orders to all points are promptly filled, 
and always give satisfaction. He has sold 
and shipped hogs in every State in the Union 
and to Eurojie, and thronghont the Union, 
wlii'rcver he has exhibited his stock he has 
can-ied off the leading prizes, until the name 
of ,1. W. AVilliams has become familiar in 
coniii'ction with fine swine and is a guarantee 
of pure stock. Mr. ^\^illiam3 is the pioneer 
in his Ijusiness in Xortlicrn Indiana, and Ins 
success in life is due to his own persevering 
energy and good business management. He 
has resided on the same farm in .Jackson 
Township since 1808, where he has 800 acres 
of valuable land, his land being well improved 
and highly cultivated. He has a lai-ge barn 
-ty X (i-t feet, a large building for his hog?, 
and a comfortable residence. I^verything 
aliiMir the place betokens care and thrift, and 
tlie I'arm is considered one of the liest in .lav 
Coiiiitv. .Mr, Williams i>; a native of .la\ 



County, Indiana, born in Wayne Township, 
November 10, 181:5, a S(in of Samuel K. 
Williams, a ju'ominent citizen of Jackson 
Township. His early life was passed on his 
father's farm, and his education was received 
in the common schools of the county. He 
was united in marriage August 25, 1867, to 
Miss Rhoda A. Gardiner, of Jay County, she 
being a daughter of William and Mahala 
Gardiner. Of the nine children born to this 
union six are living — AVorthy C, Emily J., 
AVilliani, Rhoda, Lola and James Harrison. 
Samuel M., Wealthy E. and Nellie are de- 
ceased. Mrs. Williams died January 21, 
1879, and September 2, 1879, ]\[r. Williams 
married Maggie Hoffman a daughter of John 
and Mary IIofFinan. Genial in manner, a 
man of strict integrity, and honorable in all 
his dealings, Mr. ^ Williams has gained the 
confidence of all with whom he has business 
or social intercourse. 



|mLFRED ALEXANDER, one of the 
|M^ early settlers of Wayne Township, 
"^^ where he still resides on section 5, was 
born in Kanawlia County, Virginia, in 182-1, 
a son of Thomas Alexander. The father was 
born in Bedford County, Virginia, where he 
was reared and married to Miss Sallie Ilud- 
dleston, who was also from lledfoi-d County. 
Virginia. In 1820 they removed iVom Kan- 
awha County, where they had lived for a time, 
to Jackson County, Ohio, where they lived 
until their death, the father dyinrr in \\'\> 
seventy-second year, and the niothej- in her 
sixty-eighth year. Nine children were born 
to them, eight an'i\ingat maturitv. l-'ourof 
the family are yet living^Caleb. a resident 
of Jackson County, Ohio; Otey, in Greenup 
Cdunty. Kentu(dcy; Andrew ('., of Rates 
Comity. ,Mi"onri. and Alfred. v,li, , \v:i- the 



t 






i 
I 

(La; 

'I 



°g"m-°ri' 



°CT J»'>'!«"'5i' 



a.aja^^q^ 



lIISrORT OF JAY OOUyfY. 



m 



youngest child. Alfred Alexander was but 
two years old when taken by his parents to 
Jackson County, and there he grew to man- 
hood. He started in life a poor boy, but by 
hard work and strict economy he accumulated 
the sum of §350, which he brought with him 
to Jay County, Indiana, in February, 1849, 
and the same year he purchased a quarter 
section in Wayne Township, paying for the 
same 8425. The two years following ho 
divided his time between Jay County and 
Jackson County, Ohio. In October, 1853, 
he was married to Miss Lavina Golden, who 
came to Jay County from Jackson County, 
Ohio, in September, 1849. She was born in 
Fayette County, Pennsylvania, February 7, 
1832, her parents, James and Annie Golden, 
being natives of the same State. Her mother 
died when she was a child, and she was reared 
in the familv of her maternal grandfather, 
James Adair, with whom she came to Jack- 
son County when seventeen years old. She 
came to Jay County with lier sister, Mrs. 
jS'ancy J. Wilmore, who is now living at 
Warren, Huntington County, Indiana. Soon 
after their marriage ilr. and Mrs. Alexander 
settled on their farm in Wayne Township, 
where they have lived for thirty-five years, 
and here their seven children were born, of 
whom only four are now living — Jennie, born 
Fcbrnai-y 9, 1859, wife of John Chritman, of 
Hear Creek Township; Andrew Calvin, born 
June 17, 1S62, married jN'ina Florence Milli- 
gan, a daughter of Samuel II. Milligan, and 
a granddaughter of Wilson ililligan, of liear 
Crook Town-liip; Alvin A., born Xovember 
9, 1864, and Thoma.-; IL, boi-n A^igust 10, 
\^i'~i. Sarah -Ann died ao-ed si.\ veai's; .James 
1'.. died at till' ago of t\vo voai's, and ^Vmerica 
Adella. who wa~ the yjungost child, died in 
ISTo. aged throe vi'ar.-. When ]\li'. Alexan- 
der sottleil on his farm it was in a state of 
nature, but by iiulubtry and good manage- 



ment on the part of himself and wife, they 
have acquired a pleasant home, and gained a 
competence for their declining years. Their 
farm contains 229 acres of Jay County's best 
and, and everytliing about the place betokens 
the thrift and industry of the proprietor. In 
politics Mr. Alexander is a Democrat, casting 
his first presidential vote for General Cass in 
1848, and. has voted for every Democratic 
candidate since that date. Mrs. Alexander is 
a member of the Methodist Episcopal church. 
Although a member of no church Mr. Alex- 
ander holds in respect all religious opinions, 
and is highly esteemed throughout the com- 
munity where he has made his home for so 
many years. 



J^PLWOOD M. II I ATT, one of Jeff-erson 
¥^|. Township's enterprising citizens, resid- 
"cf^i ing on section 1, is a native of Indiana, 
born near Linnville, in Randolph County, 
May 22, 1841. That same year his parents, 
William and Martha (Jackson) Hiatt, made 
their home in Greene Township, .Jay County, 
where they now live, and besides our subject, 
they have three sons and two daughters, resi- 
dents of Jay County — Jasper N., of Penn 
Township; Jahue E., William P. and Mrs. 
Mary A. Kinley, of Greene Township, and 
Mrs. i\Iartha E. Strohl, of Knox Township. 
Ehvood M. Hiatt has lived in Jay County 
since early childhood, with the exception of 
the time spent in the service of his country, 
and until his enlistment lived at the home of 
his parents. In 1S64 he became a member 
Company F, One Hundred and Fortieth In- 
diana Infantry. He was in the second en- 
gagement at ^lurfroesboro, Tennessee, and 
while in the Twcuty-third corps under Gen- 
eral Schofield, he joined Sherman's army at 
(roldsboro, Xortli Carolina, and was present 



-iJ-.Ja.^.j 



SHi53H5Hi 



ixni-x^iai""- 



nJoJl^,M„».. 



BIOOR.WUIGAL .•^KETCHES. 



at the surrender of General Johnston and his 
rubul army. After receiving an honorable 
discharge he returned to his old home in Jay 
County. In the year 1865 he was married 
to Miss ]\Iary C. Lacy, and to this union was 
born one son, "William L., who died at the 
age of three years. Mrs. Hiatt died about 
four years after lier marriage. She was an 
estimable woman, a devout Christian, being a 
consistent member of the Methodist cluirch. 
Mr. lliatt was again married in 1875 to Mrs_ 
Khoda Taylor, a native of Randolph County^ 
Indiana, and a daugliter of John and Pho?be 
Taylor, now of Eedkey, they being pioneers 
of Randolph County. By her first marriage 
with Ralph Wilson Mrs. Iliatt has one son, 
Elmer, who is now living in Illinois. Of 
the si.\ children born to Mr. and Mrs. Iliatt. 
five are living — John F., George M., William 
P., Anna May and Martha E. Their second 
child, Charles, died in his second year. Mr. 
Iliatt has resided on his present homestead 
in Jefferson Township since his marriage, 
commencing on a tract of eighty acres of 
which but a few acres had been cleared. Ilis 
farm now consists of 130 acres under good 
improvement and drainage, a fine residence 
erected in 1886, and good farm buildings, the 
entire surroundings showing care and thrift. 
Politically Mr. Iliatt is identified with the 
Ropulilican party. 



fAMES HAINES, one of the leading 
agriculturists of Pike Township, where 
,^ lie resides on section 3, was born in Clin- 
ton County, Oliio, December 21, 1833, a son 
of (irauville and Rhoda Haines, who were 
natives of IS'ew Jersey ami West Vii-ginia, 
resjiectively. The father died several years 
agi>, and the mother is .-.till living on the old 
homestead in Westboro. Ohio. ' »f their ten 



children only five arc now living — James, who 
was the third child; Mordecai, living in Clin- 
ton County, Ohio; Mrs. Mattie Towl, now 
living with her mother Mrs. Kancy J. Page, 
living inDes Moines, Iowa; and Mrs. Louisa 
Starr, livingin Wayne Township, Jay County. 
Mr. Haines was reared to manhood in his 
native county, remaining under the home 
roof until twenty-one years of age. lie then 
worked for others in Ohio, Illinois and Indi- 
ana for a few years. December 23, 1858, lie 
was married to Miss Sarah R. Brown, a nati\-e 
of Clinton County, Ohio, born April 18, 
1836, a daughter of James and Mary Brown. 
Her parents were married in Kentucky, and 
in 1818 settled in Ohio, where they com- 
menced life in a small log-house. Their 
second residence was a hewed log-house, 
which in time was replaced by a fine brick 
residence. They reared a ftimily of twelve 
children, Mrs. Haines being the youngest of 
the twelve children, of which only five are 
now living. The death of the father occur- 
ring in the year 1863, was the first death at 
the family homestead, occupied then fifty-one 
years. ]\Ir. and Mrs. Haines are the parents 
of seven children, all but the eldest living at 
liorae. The names of the children are as 
follows — Fernandas F., married Dona Silvey, 
daughter of James Silvey, and lives on and 
farms 160 acres of his father's homestead; 
Flora M., Amy E., George C, Rhoda L., Ivie 
E. and Bertha B. Mr. Haines soM his farm 
in Clinton County, Ohio, in 1805, coming 
with his family to Jay County, Indian:!, in 
February (if that year, when he bought 120 
acres, a part (.if the fine farm of 320 acres now 
owned by him. His farm is now one of the 
best in Jay County, and his fine sulistantial 
brick residence, Iniilt in lbS4, is auK.mo- the 
largest and best constructed farni-liou.--es in 
this jiart <(f the State. The 7.".,000 brick 
used in the construction of the house were 



rJ 



1 









V 

V 

V 

I 
h 



i 



iHS3iM5HH3 



■t^ajM^jJiTi 



^^^^•"a 



J/JSTORV UF JAY cue NT y. 



mi 



m 



ni;i(le by Mr. Plaines, and tlie front walls of 
tin; building are made of white stone and sand 
from the Gulf of Mexico. Part of the tinish- 
iny material for the inside work was brought 
from JN'ew York City and Chicago. There 
are in this residence thirty-seven windows 
ami twenty-four doors. This iine property 
has i)een acquired by the combined industry 
ami prudent management of Mr. and Mrs. 
Haines, and they are now enjoying the fruits 
of their work. Their home is pleasantly 
situated, and beautified with the taste and 
care for flowers of Mrs. Haines and her 
daughters, and few finer'or more rare collections 
of [ilants — among which are twenty-two dift'er 
eiit varieties of Cactus — are foundin any farm- 
house than are to l>e seen at their beautiful 
home. Mrs. Haines is a member of the 
Christian or Disciple church. In politics Mr. 
Haines has always cast his sullrage with the 
Kepublican party. 



fj. STEWART, attorney, and one of the 
leading citizens of Dunkirk, was born 
--^i '^ in Fayette County, Ohio, December 14, 
1S32, a son of James and Sophia (Chew), 
Stewart, both natives of Berkeley County, 
West Virginia, the father born near Mar- 
tiiisburg, of Irish parentage, and the mother 
born near Girardstown. They were married 
in their native county, and in 1814 went to 
Fayette County, Ohio. They madetheirhome 
in "Fayette County until the fall of 1556, 
coming thence to Delaware County. Both 
])areuts died in Delaware County, the father 
ill 1874 in his eighty-sixth year, and the 
miifher in ISSrt, in her eighty-eighth year. 
J. •!. Stewart, the subject of this sketch, was 
rrared to manhood in Fayette County, and in 
his youth received Ijut limited educational 
advantages, never attending school more than 



six weeks in a year, but by reading and pri- 
vate study he acquired by his own eflbrts a 
fair education. In 1852 he came on a visit 
to friends in Jay County, and while here 
made arrangements to teach school in Rich- 
land Township, when he returned to Ohio, 
and after settling up his affairs, he again 
came to Indiana on horseback, and a conple 
of days after his arrival he started earh' in 
the morning on horseback for Portland, ar- 
riving at his destination late in the evening; 
was examined by Judge Haynes the follow- 
ing day, and after receiving his certificate he 
returned to Richland Township, where he 
taught his first school in a rude log cabin 
with greased paper windows. Eight of the 
boys who attended his school that winter 
have since engaged in teaching school, and 
one of them is now principal of the schools in 
a leading Kansas town. Mr. Stewart was 
married May 26, 1854, to Miss Rachel A. 
"Wilson, a native of Richland Township, Jay 
County, and a daughter of Joel and Sarah 
(Bromagen) Wilson. Pier parents came from 
Greene County, Ohio, to Indiana, about 1829, 
and her father built the second log cabin in 
Ricldand Township. Although game of all 
kinds was in abundance Mr. Wilson was no 
hunter, but was a hard worker, and from the 
wilderness he made a good home for his fam- 
ily. He died April 1, 1873, but the mother 
of Mrs. Stewart still survives, living at Dun- 
kirk at the age of eightj'-two years. Of the 
five children born to ^Ir. an<l Mrs. Stewart 
only thi'ee are living — Alonzo C., marshal of 
Dunkirl;; Minerva J. and Sarlie S. Sadie 
has been engaged in teaching school in Dun- 
kirk for the last five years. (Jliver V. and 
Earply Farle are deceased. .Vt the age of 
twenty-three years ^Ir. Stewart was elected 

1 juttice of the peace, serving as such one term. 

j anil during tliis time he decided to stiidv tlie 
legal profession, ami for sijiae time he fol- 






565 



m 



si 



I 






.Xn J,. J1„H.,JJm.I I»"-. ■"■»'» in"l-«»^^y'..-'rt.°i"1i 



DIOGRAI'UICAL SKETfUES. 



3''«"ii'°a»jB»-Ji 



m 



lowed farinintj and scliool teaching, beside at- 
tending to his othcial dnties as justice, and 
studying law. He t'ollowed the teacher's 
profession until 1ST6, since which time lie 
has devoted his attention to the practice of 
law. In the tall of 1876 he located at Dun- 
kirk, where he has siuce liad a law office and 
has built up a good practice. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar of Jay County before Judge 
Bobo in 1878, and is now a member of tlie 
Jay (bounty Bar Association. Mr. Stewart 
became a member of the Odd Fellows order 
at Fairview, Indiana, at the age of twenty- 
one, and was a charter member of Dunkirk 
Lodge, Xo. 306, in wliieli he has passed all 
the chairs, and is also a member of the En- 
campment at Dunkirk. He has twice been a 
representative to the Grand Lodge of the 
State. He is a member of the Methodist 
Protestant church, in which he is a local 
preacher, and is at present steward of tlie 
class of Dunkirk consrewation. 



fATHAjS' McCOY, an enterprising and 
progressive citizen of Penn Township, 
was born in Fayette County, Ohio, Au- 
gust 23, 1810, the eldest son of Patterson and 
Elizabeth (Bryant) McCoy, who were also 
natives of Ohio, the father of Scotch and 
Irish and the motlier of English ancestry. 
(Jur subjt?ct was reai'fd on his father's farm, 
where he remained until he enlisted in the 
late w.u-, August 21, I'^GS. He was assigned 
to Company A. Second (_)hio Heavy Artillery, 
and served in the Army of the Cumberland 
in Kentucky and Tennessee until the close of 
the \\:\v. He received an honorable discharge 
September io. 1"^65. when he returned to his 
iiati\r county, reniainini; on the home farm 
until March 5. 1S73, when lie wu.- married to 
^liss I'llla J. Lupton. a daughter of Adelma 



and Eliza Lupton, of Jay County, Indiana. 
After his marriage he came to Jay County 
and purchased a farm in Penn Township, and 
tliere engaged in farming and dealing exten- 
sively in live stock. After coming to the 
county he contractetl for the building of 
turnpikes, which he still follows to some ex- 
tent, and during this time has built forty- 
three miles in Jay County, besides many 
miles in Adams County, and in Ohio. In 
1882 he conceived the idea that a summer re- 
sort in the Allegheny Mountains in Tennes- 
see would be profitable, and the same vear he 
erected a fine hotel at a cost of §40.000, 
which now is unexcelled in the South, and 
compares favorably with any in the East. To 
Mr. and Mrs. McCoy have been born three 
children, two still living named Eifie Maud 
and Delia May. Their second child, an in- 
fant son, died unnamed. Mr. ^IcCoy is a 
member of the Odd Fellows order, belong- 
ing to Relief Lodge, jS'o. 1-15. of Pennville. 
He is also a comrade of James Cart\vright 
Post, No. 358, G. A. P. 



^OHX Mclaughlin, one of the re- 

■^H spected pioneers of Jay County, was born 
^^ in Bath County. A'irginia, February 21, 
179'J, where he lived until reachino- the age 
of twenty-two years. Although a native of 
a slave State he iinbibeil a hatred of slavery, 
and the cause of his leaving Virginia was the 
danger he had incurred for chastising a slave 
driver for illtreating a slave. After leavino- 
Virginia he located at Meigs County, Ohio, 
where he was married to Barl-ara Spillman, a 
native of Kandolph County. Virginia, and tu 
thir union eleven children were liorn, all but 
two who died iiit'anev. reacliiiii;- maturity, 
four I. f tlie ~ons served in the war of Kebell- 
ion. I'he oldest, Jane, niarrircl .[i.^nas liar- 



ill 



Si 



I 



mi 



'It 



\^ 



i^ffl^fflZ!Ja5[jS 



EH5S?f55H5S3Gt^^5^£i- 



e«-^'yi^"i-*'t 



JIItiTOHr OF JAY CUL'NTT. 



mi 



im 



i 



I 






ter, is living in Valley County, iS'ebniska, 
buing a widow; Elizabeth married Nathan 
Woden, and died in 1853; Hugh is a resident 
of Wayne Township; William 11. , of Greene 
Tijwnship, was a member of Company F, 
Fortieth Ohio Infantry; Francis M., a resi- 
dent of Portland; John S. served in Company 
I, One Hundred and Thirtieth Indiana; Phi- 
del ia married Joseph Wallace, who was a mem- 
lj(jr of the Thirty-first Ohio Infantry, and died 
in the army. Sheafterward married Alexander 
llutchins, who was severely wounded while 
in the service of his country in the war of 
the Kebellion, and died in 1885; Rebecca 
married William Stretchberry, of Weston, 
Wood County, Ohio; Wiley S. was a mem- 
ber of Company B, Eleventh Indiana Cav- 
alry, and was killed at the battle of Franklin, 
Tennessee. Hannah and Henry are deceased, 
the former dying at the age of three years, 
and the latter aged two years. Mr. Mc- 
J^aughlin continued to reside in 3Ieigs 
County until 1833, when he came to Jay^ 
County, Indiana, and settled in Madison 
Township, his family then consisting of his 
wife, two sons and two daughters. On his 
arrival in the county Mr. McLaughlin found 
that lie had insufKcieut money to pay the 
entry fee on his land, and was consequently 
obliged to relinquish for the time the hope of 
securing land of his own. He therefore went 
to Kosciusko County, where he rented a farm 
on which he lived till October, 1837, when 
he returned to Jay County, and entered 160 
acres of land on section 4, of Madison Town- 
ship, lie improved his land making a good 
home for his family, and here he lived until 
his death, March 16, 1860. Mr. McLaughlin 
was of Scotch descent, and possessed many oi 
the honest, sturdy traits of character peculiar 
to that nationality. He was ever a friend to the 
needy and oppressed, and assi^ted many a 
ueii-ro slave to reach the laml of freedom. 



In politics he was formerly a Democrat, but 
on the organization of the Eepubliean party 
identified himself with that party, although 
he did not live to witness the full fruition of 
the hopes of his party, or rejoice in its grand 
achievements. He was a staunch temperance 
advocate, and never used liquor in any form. 
and it is said of him that he never uttered a 
protane word in liis life. Mrs. McLaughlin 
is also deceased, her death taking place in the 
year 1871. 

. .re ■■ .. '?'. . 



fOHN ROUSH, farmer, resides on section 
26, Madison Township, where he owns 
110 acres of good land. He came to 
this county with his wife December 13, 1851, 
locating on section 10, Madison Township, 
where he purchased forty acres of land, which 
had three acres of clearing, and a small log 
cabin. He lived there two years, then sold 
and bought eighty acres where he now lives. 
He was born in Gallia County, Ohio, May 6, 
1824, and grew to manhood in his native 
county. He was married November 17, 1850, 
to Sarah Darst, and about a year later re- 
moved to this county. He lived on his pres- 
ent farm one winter before buildi)ig his cabin, 
occupying a log school-house situated oppo- 
site his present residence. In the winter of 
1855 he built the usual cabin with niud-and- 
stick chimney, and the following spring 
added a frame kitchen. He lived in this 
house until ISGO, when he built his present 
home. He now has a good hou.-e and frame 
barn. His father, Paul lumsh, was born in 
Shenandoah County, Virginia, May 12, 1700. 
When (juite young he moved to Gallia 
Countv. Ohio, where lie ^vas reared and 
where he was married. lie died in that 
county in l'~'7L The iiiotlier, Mary ( Hi-rry) 



'IS; 



.a; 
'■■X'> 






!aij 

P 

j[e. 



;3ii 






•11- 



BlUCRAl'UIVAL .■iKKTVUSi 



Ruusli, was also boni in Slieiiaudoah County, 
March ;J1. 1702, ami removed to G.'illia 
County when ijuite young, and died in that 
county, Jamiary 15, 1S45. The Koushes 
and iJarsts came to this county together. 
Mrs. lioush was born in Gallia County 
August 17, 1S29, where she was reared and 
married. Her parents, Joseph and Eleanor 
(Slater) Darst, were born in Shenandoah 
County, the father, October 15, 1792, and 
the mother, May 25. 1793. The latter died 
July 19, 18S2, in Gallia County. They were 
the parents of ten children — Abraham, "Will- 
iam, Mary, James, Charles, Sarah, Catherine 
and Ilebecca, twins, Andrew J. aiu.l John. 
Catherine died at the age of one year. In 
the family of Mr. Eonsh's parents were ten 
children — George, Moses, Elisha, Elizabeth, 
Paul, Alary, Barbara M., Gideon, Jolin and 
Lvdia. The following are the children of 
Mr. aiul Mrs. Roush — Joseph "W., born Oc- 
tober 30, 1852, married Jane E. Simmons; 
Haskell E., born September 18, 1854, mar- 
ried Louisa Getinger; ilary E., born January 
20, 1857, married Simon Vinnys; Drusilla 
D., born July 16, 1S59, married Joseph Mark; 
William A., born June 5, 1861; Delia L., 
born May 4, 1863; Lydia E., born January 
3, 1867, married Bryant A. Shreeve; Sarah 
A., liorn December 25, 1868; John A., born 
January 3, 1871, died August 5, 1878; James 
A., born December 20, 1873; Samuel D., 
born Augtist 23, 1876. Mr. Eoush has lieen 
a life-long Democrat, and himself and wife 
are nu'inbors of the Disciple church. !Mr. 
EouslTs parents were formerly Lutherans, 
but in later life joined the Disciple church. 
Mr.>. lloush's parents were members of the 
Free-AVill Baptist church. Mr. Eonsh has 
served as assessor four years and as justice of 
the peace sixteen years. His grandparents. 
Jaciili and Barbara (Fox) Tujnsh, were born 
in Pennsylvania and died in Gallia County, 



Ohio. His maternal ij;ran<lfatlier, Malachi 
Berry, was born in Greenbrier Countv, Vir- 
ginia, and is supposed to have been killed 
by a bear, as his clothes and handkerchief 
were found in a piece of woods. His graml- 
in<,ther, Barliara (Loudenback) Berry, died in 
Champaign County, Ohio. ilrs. Eonsh's 
grandparents, Abraham and JLiry (McCarthy) 
Darst, were born in Virginia, tlie former 
April 1, 1773, and the latter tlie same date; 
both died in Gallia County, Ohio, Her ma- 
ternal grandfather, John Slater, was born in 
Pennsylvania, and died in that State. Her 
maternal grandmother, Susannah (Hook) 
Slater, w-as born in Pennsylvania and died in 
Tennessee. The Eouslies and Darsts are of 
German ancestry; the Slaters and Berrys are 
of Ena-lish-Irish descent. 



fE. HA^i'LlX, proprietor of the Briant 
House, Briant, was born in Jackson 
® County, Ohio, October 80, 1853, son of 
Samuel and Eveline (Stevenson) Hanlin, 
who were the parents of seven children, our 
subject being the youngest child. The family 
came to this county in 1854, locating on 
section 12, "Wayne Township, where the 
father still resides. Mr. Hanlin passed his 
early life on a farm, and was educated in the 
common schools of Jay County, and at 
Ridgeville College and A'alparaiso Business 
College, receiving a diploma from the latter 
school. He has taught school about ten 
years, then engaged in the music trade until 
1884, at whicli time he settled in I'.riant. 
He was married August 17, 1S^2, to IMiss 
Ida L. Hull, of this county, and daughter of 
.lohn Hull, deceased, formerly of Perry 
County, Ohio. Mr. ami I^.lrs. Hanlin have 
two children — Inez F. and (i lad vs. Mr. 
Hanlin is a Democrat in polities. He is a 



5 






JlHi 



j«-,a_sj_iU5 






.*'^^*«i-« .na»a-oa„g.i 



m.^TDlli' OF JAY COl'Nl'Y. 



m 



lUL'iiibui- of the Kuiglits of Pytliiiis fraternity, 
Ke.l Cross Lodge, No. 88, at Portland. The 
Briant House is the only hotel in Briant. It. 
is a lirst class house in every respect. The 
host is genial and pleasant, and the traveler 
will always lind good food and rest. There 
i.s also a first class livery barn in connection 
with the hotel. 



fEREMIAII AVEAVER, who now lives 
on section 1, Wayne Township, is one of 
-a:, the pioneers of Jay (,^ounty, settling here 
in February, 1839. He was born in Scliuyl- 
kill County, Fenn.sylvania, in 1814:, his father, 
Geoi-ge Weaver, having been born in the same 
county. When he was a year old he was taken 
by his parents to Montgomery County, Ohio, 
where he was reared, and where his parents 
lived until their death. They liad a family 
of eight sons and four daughters, all of whom 
reached maturity with the exception of one 
sou, David, wlio was drowned at the age of 
seven years. liiglit of the family are still 
living. Jeremiah, our subject, was reared on 
a frontier farm in Ohio, and was early in life 
inured to hard work, and the lessons of per- 
se\cring industry learned in his ^-outh have 
been of lasting benefit to him. He was niar- 
ri.'d in 1836 to Miss Martha Miller, a daugh- 
ter of Isaac Miller. Of the nine children born 
to this union si.x are living — William, who is 
now living in Pennsylvania; Isaac, a resident 
of Westchester, Jay County; Lucy Ann. wife 
of Thoma- Hoch, of Bear Creek Township; 
Martha, wit'e of Josiah lienner, of Bear Cl'eek 
Township; Harriet, wife of Lewis !N'. Metz- 
iicr, also living in I'ear Creek Township, 
and John, the youiii^urt i\ii'viving inenibei- of 
the family, livin-- at the ln-uie^tead. Martin, 
Crorge and Sarah .\nn aiT tlie name- i>f the 
ehil.lren who are derea.-e'l. In iNoS Mr. 



Weaver started West with his family, then 
consisting of his wife and their son William, 
who was then less than a year old, and was 
also accompanied by his father-in-law, Isaac 
Miller, who brought with him his wagon and 
team. The latter however did not settle in 
Jay County, returning soon after to his home 
in the East. At that time the conntry was 
very sparsely settled, and was nothing but a 
wilderness. Deer and other wild game was 
very abundant. Mr. Weaver on first coming 
to the county settled on section 7, Xoble 
Township, on a tract of 120 acres which had 
been entered byliis father-in-law, and seventy 
acres of this land he cleared of heavy timber 
and put under improvement. He resided on 
this farm until the fall of 1860, intending to 
remove to Missouri, but the breaking out of 
the war of the Rebellio]! prevented him from 
doing so. He then purchased the farm where 
he has since resided, which was also heavily 
covered with timber. He has always been a 
hard working, industrious man, and since 
coming to the county has cleared about 200 
acres from the heavy timber. He has his 
farm now well improved, and good residence 
and farm buildings, the entire surroundings 
showing the care and thrift of the owner. 
Mr. Weaver was bereaved in the autumn of 
1880 by the death of his wife, who had shared 
with him all the trials and vicissitudes of 
pioneer life, as well as their pleasant homeof 
later years. 



-|f1HARLES A. MOBEHOUSE, farmer, 
Vfe section 20, Noble Township, owns 
'iSi eighty acres of land (in section 20, and 
ninety-five acres on teetiun 1!J. lie was 
liorn on the old homestead in Noble Town- 
ship, .\ngu-t 3, 1S3',I. lie was reared un his 
father'^ farn!. and .\u<iu>t !>, 1^62, he enli.-leil 









iiai 



PJ) 



j[3) 






(CM 



'fa' 



IK 



I 

;|; 
•■a 



;?/ UGliAPUWAL SKE'rCHE.^. 






in Company E, Eighty-ninth Indiana Infantry, 
nnder Captain Joseph "Winters and Colonel 
Charles D. Murrey. Ilis regiment was 
assigned to the Sixteenth Army Corps, First 
Brigade, second division, and his first battle 
was at Muntbrdville, Kentucky. His regi- 
ment was at Memphis, Tennessee, during the 
Vicksburg campaign, being on detached 
service, and was with General Banks in his 
Ret! River e.xpedition, under A. J. Smith. 
His regiment participated in the battle of 
Nashville, then went to Mobile to assist in 
the capture of that city, thence to Montgom- 
ery, but before reaching that place they 
learned of the surrender of Generals Lee and 
Johnston. They were discharged July 19, 
1805, at Mobile, Alabama. lie was engaged 
in the battle of Munfordville, Fort De Rus- 
sey, Pleasant Hill Bayou, Louisiana; Yellow 
Bayou, Louisiana; Tupelo, Nashville, Fort 
Blakeley. He reached home August 9, 1865, 
and April 9, 1868, he was married to Miss 
Susannah B. Rarick, born in Darke County, 
Ohio, June 30, 1818. When three years 
of age she came to Pike Township, this 
county, with her family. Her father, Philip 
Rarick, was born in Montgomery County, 
Ohio, September 16, 1808, and in 1817 his 
parents settled in Darke County, Ohio. The 
family came to this county in 1851, where 
the father died September 27, 1886, at the 
house of Mrs. Morehouse. He was married 
June 7, 1832, and by his first marriage had 
ten children, and by his third marriage, five 
children. The mother of Mrs. Morehouse 
was born October 2, 1811, in Darke County, i 
Ohio, and died March 7, 1863, in this county. 
Both parents are buriedin Deertield Cemeterv, i 
Raiulolph County, Indiana. .Mi-, and ?i[rs. 
Morehouse have had ten children — one son, 
born February 26, 1869, died in early infancy; 
Sar.di S., born Ai)ril 12, 1871: :\lary L. C, 
l,)orn October 29, 1-^72; Thir.sev T., born 



August 31, 1874, died Decemljer 8, 1876; 
Harriet E., born August 25, 1876; Ella E., 
born July 17, 1879; Rebecca J., born Sep- 
tember 25, 1881, died August 21, 1882; 
Wilbur P., born June U, 1883, died June 
17, 1883; Viola T., born July 7, 1884; and 
Chas. W. N., born April 16, 1887. Mrs. 
Morehouse's grandfather, Philip Rarick, was 
born in Germany, June 30, 1775, and died 
in Darke County, Ohio, Octolier 19, 1834. 
Her grandmother, Susannah Rarick, was 
born in Germany, June 8, 1783, and died 
June 19, 1853, in Randolph County, Indiana. 
Her maternal grandfather, John Chenoweth, 
was of English descent, and died near La 
Fayette, Indiana. Her grandmother, Betsey 
(Foster) Chenoweth, died in Greenville, Ohio, 
and was of English ancestry. 



■i^l LI. ADAIR, a prominent and influeu- 
Jw« tial citizen of Portland, has been a 
•%v"** member of the bar of Jay County 
since April, 1880, at which time he Itosan his 
professional career. He is at present prose- 
cuting attorney of this district, having been 
appointed to his present position by the Gov- 
ernor of the State March 9, 1885, and elected 
to the office in the fall of 1886. Previous to 
his appointment he had served as deputy 
prosecuting attorney for four years under 
John T. France, of Decatur. .Mr. Adair has 
passed the whole of his life in Jay County 
having been born in Bear Creek Township. 
in December, 1852. His father, James G. 
Adair, was a native of Pennsylvania, and 
subsequently settled in Ohio. He came from 
Ohio to Jay County several years before the 
birth of our subject, living here till his death 
in November, 1S73. O. JI. Adair, the sub- 
ject of this sketch, received guud educational 
advantages, and was for some time a student 



' 



ii 



i 

m 
m 






Ii 



mi 



J I; 



?4! 



!;?? 



mr 



^ Jy^^lMnaa^JJ^ 



ILISroUY IJF JAY COUNTY. 



)? > 



t) 



w> 



■At Liber College, and in July, 1876, he gradu- 
afed from the Eastern Indiana Normal school. 
He tbllowed the avocation of a teacher for a 
nuinher of years, beginning at the age of 
seventeen years, teaching in all about five 
years in Jay County. In the fall of 1877 he 
began reading law in the office of Ileadington 
ct La Follctt, of Portland, and in April, 1880, 
he was admitted to the bar, when he began 
hi.s law practice, forming a partnership with 
Thomas Bosworth. He was associated with 
Mr. Bosworth until December, 18S6, when 
tin; duties of Iiis position as prosecuting at- 
tui'iicy re(juired the dissolntiou of this part- 
nerohip. In his political views Mr. Adair 
alliliates with the Democratic party. 



|l|iSAIIEL CHA^vDLER was born in War- 
1^ ren County, Ohio, September 26, 1820, 
^,;>^ the third son of Aaron and Hannah 
(^V'ard) Chandler. His fatlier M'as born in 
Delaware, a son of David and Martha 
(Pierce) Chandler, and the mother of our 
subject was a native of New Jersey, of Eng- 
lish ancestry, and a daughter of Isaac "Ward, 
who settled in Warren County, Ohio, in 181-1. 
David Chandler was a native of the State of 
Delaware, whose ancestors came from "Wilt- 
shire, England, in 1687; he settled in lied 
Stnrie, "Washington County, Pennsylvania, 
and when the father of our subject was about 
lift ecu years of age he moved with his family 
to Warren County, Ohio, where Aai-on grew 
to manhood, and married Hannah "\\''ard, by 
whom he had twelve children, of whom nine 
reached maturity. His wife died in 1S38, 
aged forty-two years, and he subsequently > 
married ^laria AVard. a -isterof his tirst wife, j 
and to them were bcji-n fijur children. Mr. 1 
Chandler died in lS75 at the advanceil ar^e 
ol' eiiihty-op.e vears. He was an active and 



consistent member of the Society of Friends, 
as were also his wives. In politics he was 
formerly a Whig, but later in life affiliated 
with the Republican party. Asahel Chand- 
ler, the suljject of this sketch, grew to man- 
hood on the home farm, where he was reared 
to agricultural pursuits. His educational ad- 
vantages were limited to the primitive log- 
cabin subscription schools of that early day, 
but by close application to his studies, during 
his leisure hours, he obtained a good, practical 
education, and at the age of twenty years he 
began teaching school in his native county. 
He followed school teaching for five terms, 
when he engaged in coopering, working at 
that trade for eighteen months. He then 
began working at the saddle and harness 
maker's trade, which he followed successfully 
for a period of twenty years. During this 
time he also dealt in real estate to some ex- 
tent. In 1863 he began clerking in a dry 
goods store at Waynesville, being thus en- 
gacred five years, when he engaged in the 
same business on his own account, which he 
followed until 1873. In the spring of 1874 
he came with his family to Jay County, In- 
diana, locating one mile north of Pennville 
on the Jonathan Iliatt farm, residing there 
five years. He then came to Pennville, 
where he has since lived retired from active 
business life, enjoying the fruits of his years 
of toil. Ml-. Chandler was married October 
31, 1866, to Miss Calista Iliatt, who was 
born in Penn Township, Jay County, Feb- 
ruary 24:, 1837, a daughter of Jonathan and 
Ruth Iliatt, who were natives of North Caro- 
lina, and among the pioneers of Jay Count\-. 
Two children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Chandler — Wilber Iliatt, born August 9. 
1867, and Edgar A., born September 12, 1869,' 
and died August 16. 1870. Mr. Chandler 
has held many offices of trust and respon- 
sibilitv in his native county. He is a tell'- 






f 

i 






m 



»^ta„ii^w..jji»ar„a„.ii^.j„iai^.3^ u 



UIOGRAPIIICAL tiKETCHES. 



Wi 



I 

i 

ip 

laii 
ill! 

Is' 



IE 






ilS; 



made mkui, liaving by his own industry and 
persevering energy acquired a large property, 
which lie is using in surrounding himselfand 
family with all the necessary comforts of 
life, and every worthy enterprise which he 
deems of puldic lienetit has his encourage- 
ment and support. In liis political views he 
is a Republican. He is a member of the 
Society of Friends. Mrs. Chandler and her 
son are members of the ilethodist Episcopal 
church. 



^^LIJAII LYOXS, a prosperous agvicul- 
\r|j., turist of Pike Township, and an enter- 
•-^•' pri.-^ing and public spirited citizen, i.s a 
nati\c of Ohio, l.iorn in Columbiana County, 
Septcmlier 24. 1824. a son of Thomas and 
E\e (Apple) Lyons. Ills father was born in 
Ohio, April 9. 1707, of Irish descent, and 
hi- iridther was of German parents, born 
January 11, 1797. In the year 1837 they 
reuup\ed from Columbiana County to Perry 
Cnnnty, Ohio, where the father died August 
13, 1838. The mother survived until Sep- 
tember 25, 1879, dying in Jay County. Two 
of their sons. Thomas and Samuel, wei-e 
Soldiers in the war for the Cnion, the latter 
lioliling the rank of Captain. Elijah Lyons, 
tlie >ubject of this sketch, was reared on a 
farm, being early in life inured to hard work. 
At the age of fourteen years he was left 
fVitlirrle--^. He remained at tlie homestead 
witli lii- mijther until lii< marriage, Januai'v 
8, l^ft'., ti> .Miss Mary Pailey, a n.ative ..f 
Fullcn ('(.uuty, Peuu>ylvania, Imu-u January 
12, 1S20, a danghtL'r of Peter and Margaret 
((-'line) Bailey. Eight cliildreu were burn to 
this union — Th(ima>, "William (deceased), 
Ji'hn IJ., Sarah A., Stephen S.. Ilubecca Jane, 
^lary L. and SuMiimah, the last live being 
nalivr^ „f JavCouiifv. Th.,mas and .b.hn 1!. 



are prosperous and respecte<l citizens of Pike 
Township, each owning a fine farm, with 
large and substantial residences, near the pa- 
rental home. The former married Adeline 
Friekel, and thev have fiur children — Jesse, 
Pearl, Homer and Gay. John married Miss 
Rosa Snyder,an<l they also have four children 
— Cora, A lonzo. Bertha and Desty. Sarah A. 
Lyons married Clarence Jellison, an active 
business man of "Wabasha, Minnesota, and 
they are the parents of five children — ]Min- 
nie, May, Jessie, Maud and Hazel. Stephen 
S. received a liberal education at Ridgeville 
College, and Purdue L^niversity, La Fayette, 
graduating from the latter in 1882. lie has 
resided at "\Yabasha, Minnesota, since June, 
1884:, and was there married May 26, 1886, 
to -Miss Hattie E. Wilco.x. He is associated 
with his brother-in-law, Mr. Jellison, in the 
lumber and insurance business at that place. 
Rebecca Jane is the wife of Enoch Ware, a 
representative of one of the pioneer families 
of Pike Township, where he still resides. 
Tliey have four children — Blanclie, Grace, 
and two sons yet unnamed. Susannah is the 
wife of John T. Dickes, of Portland. Mary 
L. is at home with her father. Mr. Lyons 
came with his wife and two eldest childreji to 
Jay County in September, 1850, when he 
settled on section 26, Pike Township, and 
commenced clearing away the forest and im- 
proving the fine property he yet owns. His 
first land purchase in the county was a tract 
of 164 acres, selected during a former visit 
to the co\inty. He was then possessed of but 
small means, but had enoiigb to pay the cash 
for his land, and pro\iile fur liis familv dur- 
ing the coming winter. Possessed of a goi.id 
team and liouselmld goods he escaned, to 
great extent, the privations and hardships uf 
many of Jay County's earlv settlers. II is 
first home was a ruile log cabin, which was 
occupied by lii> familv until tlieii' present 



1 

ii 









ij 



3'J 

m 
III 

ill 



.^^^a.,^^^ 



J^J-JJ^tn J'TJ.-J T-.>JgiJ-^TJ ^^^J^^ 



^■pkT ^&:7^M=r^An ^i»*^^^ma-^ 



ii^j«,a,a^aB*ia,j.a,.a»,»fs'Bg,j«gBj,a.jtJ<.-j r(; 



HISTORY OF JAY COUNTY 






I 

li 

m 
k 

■31! 

-L?! 
'3li 



fine, ('oiinnoilious brick residence was bnilt in 
1867. By Lard work and good maniigeinent 
Mr. Lyons has well earned his fine property, 
and is now enjoying the fruits of a well-spent 
life. After assisting his two oldest sons to 
start in life, he still lias a competence for his 
declining years, au'l has in his farm 170 acres 
of choice land. ^Ir. Lyons was bereaved 
by the death of his wife ,wlio passed 
peacefully away October 4, 1885. In politics 
Mr. Lyons has always voted the Democratic 
ticket. He is a member of Pittsburgh Lodge, 
iS'o. .387, F. & A. :\L He has served his 
township as trustee and his county as com- 
missioner, and in these positions, as well as 
in minor trusts, he has always maintained his 
standing as an honorable, upright man, and 
has become widely known tliroughout Jay 
County, and universally respected. 



fACOB H. SANDEKS, one of the old and 
honored pioneers of Jefferson Township, 
now deceased, was born in the State of 
Pennsylvania in 1809. His father, "William 
Sanders, was one of the heroes of the war of the 
Revolution, serving in that memorable strug- 
gle for independence directly under General 
Washington. Our subject was reared near 
Philadelphia, and after reaching manhood he 
immigrated to Oolunibiana County, Ohio, 
where he was married to Miss Ruth Pennock. 
The following children born to this union are 
still living — Mrs. Hannah Bost, of Portland: 
John ^X., of Jefferson Township; Caleb, liv- 
ing in Texa-;; ifrs. Sai-ah Ann McFarland, 
of luind(Jpli ( 'i.iunty, Indiana, and "William 
of Pike Township. Mr. Sanders came to 
.Jay County and settled near the jiresent site 
of the village of New Jlount Pleasant about 
lS;!t). and Ijecame one of the acti\'e men of 
tlie conntv. He was the orii;iiiLd ownerof 



the village of Xew Mount Pleasant, giving 
the ground for the old hotel building, which 
is yet standing, and which was erected by 
William Ilite, who occupied it for several 
years. On coming to the county Mr. San- 
ders bought 240 acres of land, and soon after 
he erected on section 15, Jefferson Township, 
the largest log liouse ever built in the coun- 
ty. About 181:2 ilr. Sanders bought the 
liotel froni Mr. Hite, rao\ing to the site of 
ifouht Pleasant, and soon .afterward laid out 
the village plat, and gave its present name. 
His wife died at their home in Mijunt Pleas- 
ant in 1851. About 1858 he removed to 
Ridgeville, Randolph County, and engaged 
in the mercantile business, which he fol- 
lowed until within a few months of his 
death, which occurred August 10, 1S63. 
Politically he affiliated with the Democratic 
party. He was a prominent man of Jefferson 
Township, which he served as trustee and 
magistrate, and for twenty-five years he held 
the position of postmaster. 



f OH X M.SMITH, a member of the lawfirm 
of Corwin ifc Smith, is one of the self- 
"i^ made men of Jay County, having by his 
own efforts successfully contended with op- 
posing forces in early life, and attained to 
prominence in his profession. Mr. Smith is 
a native of Jay County, born in Richland 
Township, Se]>teinber 29, 1853, a son of 
James A. Smith, of Xno.x Tcjwnship, and a 
crrandson of (ieorge ^I. Smith, \\\io settled in 
Jay County as early as 1830. When our 
subject was thirteen years old his mother 
died, lea\ing liini at an age when a in(.>tber's 
love and care are m>.ist needed. Afti.-i- his 
mother's death he went to live at the home of 
his lEiaternal grandfather. Ivirlv in life re- 
alizing the value of .'in ediii-atii.n he deter- 



♦FJf 
Ml 



M 






'SJ! 



(^h£S 



aJj.MTig?rj..,J».aJa.J„a „J^JI^a„aing„jj,cjj.o.Sa„JmlM»M»J-.a 



•n-f'Kf-x,'! 



I 



BIOGRAPIIICAL SKETCHES. 






■ } I 



mined to put t'oi-tli all his etibrts to attain that 
object, and improved his very limited oppor- 
tunities. He worked bv the month to secure 
means to pay his waj- to Liber College, -where 
he was a student for some time, and when he 
had qnalitied himself to do so he engaged in 
teaching school, lie began reading law in 
1S7-1: at Hartford City, with Jacob "Wells, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1875. He 
began his law practice at Portland in 1S80, 
a member of the firm of Taylor & Smith, 
the firm name being afterward changed 
to Taylor, Smith & Bailey, and in 1885 
the present firm of Corwin A: Smith was 
firmed. The success to which ]\Ir. Smith has 
attained in his profession and the confidence 
in his ability that is entertained by his 
fellow citizens is indicated by the fact that 
in 1882, when but twenty-nine years of age, and 
having an e.xperienee of but two years as a 
lawyer, he was nominated by the Democratic 
party, with which he affiliates, for State Senator, 
and was elected, serving as State Senator 
iluring the sessions of 1883 and 1885, he 
being the youngest member of the Senate. 
lie now holds tlie office of city solicitor, and 
attorney for the board of county commis- 
sioners. For his wife Mr. Smith married 
^[iss Ettie Leonard, a native of Wayne Town- 
ship, Jay County, Indiana. They are the 
parents of two children, whose names are 
(ilenna and Eufus Choate. 



O K. WILLLV-AIS, uno of tlie old and 
pected pioneers of Jay County, 






was born in >rianii County, Ohio,! 
.\ugust 18, lS-:0, a .son nf John and Eliza- j 
ivtli (Tawney) Williams, In ls3'.) he imnii- 
grated to Jay County, with wIkiso interests !