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Full text of "Biographical and historical memoirs of Pulaski, Jefferson, Lonoke, Faulkner, Grant, Saline, Perry, Garland and Hot Spring counties, Arkansas, comprising a condensed history of the state... biographies of distinguished citizens...[etc.]"

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ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 

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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

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Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 



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jglaski, J efferson, L onoke, F aalkner, Grant, Saline, Perry, 
Garland and^ Hot Spring C ounties, Arkansas, 



COMPRISINO 



A Condensed History of the State, a Number of Biographies of Distinguished Citizens of 

the san]e, a Brief Descriptive History of eachi of the Counties above named, and 

numerous Biograpl^ical Sketches of their Promineqt Citizens. 

ChICBGO. NflSHyiLLE HND St. LoUIS: 

THE GOODSPEED PUBLISHING CO. 



i ^ 





1217074 



'his beautiful volume has been prepared in response to the popular demand 
for the preservation of local history and biographj'. The method of prep- 
aration followed is tlie most successful and the most satisfactory yet devised 
— tlie most successful in tlje enormous number of volumes circulated, and 
the most satisfactory in the <;;eneral preservation of pei'sunal biography 
and family record, conjointly with local history. The number of volumes 
)w being distributed seems fabulous. Careful estimates place the number 
fculated in Ohio at 50,000 volumes; Pennsylvania, 60,000; New York, 75,000; 
idiaua, 40,000; Illinois, 40,000; Iowa, 30,000; Missouri, 25,000; Kansas, 
),000; Tennessee, 20,000; Kentucky, 2p,000; Georgia, 20,000; Alabama, 20,000, 
id all the other States at the same proportionate rate. The entire State of 
rkansas has as yet scarcely been touched by the historian, but is now being 
[)idiy written. 
The design of the present extensive biographical and historical research is to 
gather and preserve in attractive form, while fresh with the evidence of truth, the enormous fund 
of [jerishing occurrence. In gathering the matter iov the historical .sketclies of the counties, it 
was thought wisest, owing to the limited space, to collate and condense only the most valuable 
items, by reason of which such sketches are a credit to the book, and of permanent worth. 

In the preparation of this volume the Publishers have met with nothing but courtesy and 
assistance from the public. Nothing promised is omitted, and much not promised is given. 
About fifty pages of State history were guaranteed; over twice that number are given. Special 
care was employed and great expense incurred to render the volume accurate. In' all cases the 
personal sketches were submitted by mail, and in most instances were corrected and returned 
l)y the subjects themselves. Coming as they do from the most illustrious families of the State 
— all worthy citizens from the upper, middle and lower classes — they form in themselves the 
most complete account of the Northeast Counties ever written, and their great value to future 
generations will be warmly acknowledged by all thoughtful {)eople. With many thanks to their 
friends for the success of such a difficult enterprise, the Publishers respectfully tender this fine 

volume to their patrons. 

THE PUBLISHERS. 



December, 1889. 



--i — -!i,n 




CHAPTER I. 

(luoloK'y — Importance of (ieolostic Study — Area ami Cli- 
mate — Boundaries — Priueipal Streams of tlie State — 
The Mountain Systems — Tlie Great Springs — Diversity 
of Soils — Caves — Tbe Mines, Their Wonderful Deposits 
and Formations 9-18 

CHAPTER II. 

Archaeology — Renuiins of Flint Arrow and Spear Heads, 
and Stone and Other Ornaments — Evidences of Prehis- 
toric People along the Mississippi — Mounds, etc., in 
Other Portions of the State — Local Arclijcologists and 
Their Work — The Indians — Tribal and Race Character- 
isties — The Arkansas Tribes — The Cession Treaties — 
The Removal of the Cherokees, Creeks and Choctaws — 
An Indian Alarm — Assassination of the Leaders, etc., 
etc li»-33 

CHAPTER III. 

Discovery and Settlement — De Soto in Arkansas — Mar- 
quette and Joliet — La Salle, Hennepin and Tonti — 
Frencli and English Schemes of Conquest and Dreams 
of Power — Louisiana — The "Bubble" of John Law — 
The Early Viceroys and Governors — Proprietary Change 
of Louisiana — French and Spanish Settlers in Arkan- 
sas — English Settlers — A Few First Settlers in the 
Counties — Tln^ New Madrid Earthquake — Other Items 
of Interest 24r-m 

CHAPTER IV. 

Organization — The Viceroys ;md (ioveniors — The Attitude 
of the Royal Owners of Louisiana — The District Divided 
— The Territory of Arkansas Formed from the Territory 
of Missouri — The Territorial Government — The First 
Legislature — The Seat of Government^Other Legisla- 
tive Bodies — The Duello — Arkansas Admitted to State- 
hood — The Constitutioual Conventions — The Memor- 
able Reconstruction Period — Legislative Attitude on 
the Question of Secession — The War of the Governors, 
etc., etc 'MrAi 

CHAPTER V. 

Advancement of tlie State — Misconceptions Removed — 
Effects of Slavery upon Agriculture — Extraordinary 
Improvements Since the War — Important Suggestions 



— Comparative Estimate of Products — (irowtli of the 
Manufacturing Interests — Wonderful Showing of Ar- 
kansa.s— Its Desirability as a Place of Residence— State 
Elevations i'V 

CHAPTER VI. 

Politics— Importance of tlie Subject— The Two Old Schools 
of Politicians— Triumph of the Jacksonians — Early 
Prominent State Politicians — The Great Question of 
Secession — The State Votes to Join tlie Confederacy — 
Horror of tlie War Period — The Reconstruction Distress 
—The Baxter-Brooks Embroiflio .52 



CHAPTER VII. 

Societies, State Institutions, etc. — The Kii Klux Khm— 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows — Ani'icut, Free and 
Accepted Masons — Grand Army of the Keiiulilic — Bu- 
reau of Mines — Arkansas Agricultural Associations — 
State Horticultural Society— The Wheel— The State 
Capital — The Capitol Building — State Lilirarie-s — State 
Medical Society — State Board of Health — Deaf Mute 
Institute — School for tlie Blind — Arkansas Lunatic 
Asylum — Arkansas Industrial University — The State 
Debt SIMU 

CHAPTER VIII. 

The Beneli and Bar — An Analytic View of the Profession 
of Law — Spanish and French Laws — English Common 
Law — The Legal Circuit Riders — Territorial Law and 
Lawyers— The Court Circuits — Early Court Officers — 
The Supreme Court — Prominent Members of the State 
Bench and Bar — The Standard of the Execution of Law 
in the State 8.5-7.3 

CHAPTER IX. 

The Late Civil War— Analytical View of the Troublous 
Times — Passage of the Ordinance of Secession' — The 
Call to Arms— The First Troops to take the Field— In- 
vasion of the State by the Federal Army— Sketch of the 
Regiments— Names of Ofticers— Outline of Field Oper- 
ations — Cleburne and Yell — Extracts from Private 
Memoranda— Evacuation of tlie State — Re-occupation 
—The War of 1813— The Mexican War— Standard of 
American Generalship 73-81 



CHAPTER X. 

Public Enterprises — Tlie Real Estate Bank of Arkansas — 
State Roads and other Highways — The Military Roads 
— Navigation within the State from the Earliest Times 
to the Present — Decadence of State Navigation — Steam- 
boat Racing — Accidents to Boats — The Rise and Growth 
of the Railroad Systems — A Sketch of the Difierent 
Lines — Other Important Considerations 83-87 

CHAPTER XI. 

The Counties of the State— Their Formation and Changes 
of Boundary Lines, etc. — Their County Seats and Other 
Items of Interest Concerning them — Defunct Counties 
— New Counties — Population of all the Counties of the 
State at every General Census 87-93 

CHAPTER XII. 

Education — The Mental Tj-jje Considered — Territorial 
Schools, Laws and Funds — Constitutional Provisions 
for Education — Legislative Provisions — Progress since 
the War — The State Superintendents — Statistics — 
Arkansas Literature — The Arkansaw Traveler 93-97 

CHAPTER XIII. 

The Churches of Arkansas — Appearance of the Mission- 
aries — Church Missions Established in the Wilderness — 
The Leading Pi'otestant Denominations — Ecclesiasti- 
cal Statistics — General Outlook from a Religious 
Standpoint 98-101 

CHAPTER XIV. 

Names Illustrious in Arkansas History — Prominent Men- 
tion of Noted Individuals — Ambrose H. Sevier — Will- 
iam E. Woodruff — John Wilson — John Hemphill — 
Jacob Barkman — Dr. Bowie — Sandy Faulkner — Samuel 
H. Hempstead — Trent, Williams, Shinn Families, and 
Others — The Conways — Robert Crittenden — Arcliibald 
Yell— Judge David Walker— Gen. G. D. Royston— 
Judge James W. Bates 103-113 

CHAPTER XV. 

Legal Aifairs of the Second Judicial District — The Pioneer 
Bar — Early Inconveniences and Experiences — Lawyers ■ 
of Fifty Years Ago — Original Territory of the Second 
District — Litigation — Hon. Samuel C. Roane — Otliei 
Prominent Practitioners — John Selden Roane — .Tames 
Yell — Martin W. Dorris — Judge Euclid Johnson — 
Judge Isaac W. Baker — Hon. William H. Sutton — 
Hon. Chester Ashley — Frederick W. Trapnell — Robert 
W. Johnson— Gen. Albert Pike— Retrospective 113-134 

CHAPTER XVI. 

Jefferson County — Pre-Historic Inhabitants — Removal of 
the Indians — Sarrasin — First White Settlement — Land 
Entries — County Formation — Seat of Justice — Change 
of Boundaries — Physical Descriijtion — Drainage — Vari- 
ety of Soil — Forests — Desirability as a Place of Resi- 
dence — Statistical Estimates — Public Buildings and 
Seat of .lustice — Transportation — County Societies — 
Po]iulation and Finances — Political Outlook — Judicial 
Affairs — Cities, Towns, Etc. — War Experiences — Scho- 
lastic and Church Matters — OUicial Directory — Selected 
Family Sketches 134^3.30 



CHAPTER XVII. 

Saline County — Original Boundary — County Seat — Public 
Buildings — Judiciarj- — EarlyCourt Transactions -Crim- 
inal Calendar — Beginning of Settlement — Pioneer Rem- 
iniscences — Early Comers — Local Colonies — List of 
Offlcers — The County in the Civil War — Commercial 
Centers— Journalistic Enterprises — Secret Social Or- 
ganizations — Moral and Spiritual Affairs — Financial 
Representation — Location — Descriptive Analysis — Nat- 
ure of Soil, Surface, Products, etc. — Resources — Ad- 
vantages Offered — Biographical 331-318 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

Hot Spring County — Location and Boundary — Area — 
Division into Townships — Natural Drainage — Streams 
and Water Power — Diversity of Soil — Adaptability to 
Cultivation — Timber — Productions — Fruit Growing 
Properties — Crops — Lumber — Stock Interests — Cliuuite 
— First Occupancy — Early Permanent Settlers— Pioneer 
Life — Title to Lands — Act of Organization — County 
Seat — Directory of Officials — Advance in Population — 
Courts of the County — Political Prospects — Civil War 
History — Free School System — Spiritual Welfare — 
Municipalities — County Buildings — General Resources 
—Local Personal Memoirs 319-300 

CHAPTER XIX. 

History of Pulaski County — Location, Topography and 
Geology — Soil Deposits — Natural Wealth — Census Re- 
turns — .\grieultural Resources and Prosperity — Fruit 
Culture — Assessment and Taxation-^Railroad Facili- 
ties — Statistics of Population — Period of Permanent 
Habitation — First Settlers Named — Land Entries — Pio- 
neer Recollections — Era of Construction — Creative Act 
— County Seat— Municipal Divisions — Public Edifices — 
List of County Dignitaries — Judicial History — Legal 
Practitioners — Matters Politic — Pulaski's Civil War 
Record — Sketch of Little Roclv — Its Varied Interests — 
United States Arsenal — Newspaper Press — The Code 
Duello — Other Business Centers — Educational Ad- 
vancement — Public and Private Schools — Religious 
Condition— Biography 361-534 

CHAPTER XX. 

Garland County — Area — Topography and Boundary — 
Springs and Streams — Physical Geograpliy — Organiza- 
tion of the County— Public Buildings — The Townships 
— Real and Personal Property — Valuation and Ta.xa- 
tion — County Officers — Population — Politics — Courts — 
The Civil War— Its Effects— The Hot Springs— The 
Reservation — The City of Hot Springs — Advice to 
Health Seekers— Educational matters— The Churches 
—Miscellaneous Statistics— Pcrscjnal Record, etc. .53.5-571 

CHAPTER XXI. 

Lonoke County — Religious and Educational Advantages — 
Organization — County Seat and Buildings — Municipal 
Townships — Real and Personal Property — Era of Settle- 
ment — Hunting Reminiscences — Officers — Population 
— Political Status — Legal Matters — Physical Features — 
Streams — Timber — Kind of Soil — Railroad — Resources 
— Agricultural Products — Stock Interests — Military 
Affairs — Municipalities — Selected Family Records ..57:Wi.5S 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

Perry County — Rosourccs — Stock Interests — County Of- 
fieiTS, with Turm of Service— Politics and Poi)ul;ition— 
LocatiiMi, Boundary, (ieolog-y, etc. — Pliysical Formula 
—Streams— Natural Products- The Era of Settlement 
— County Organization — Division — Townships — Taxa- 
tion— Stock— The War— Pulilie Schools — Clmrcli Or- 
ganizations — Courts and Practitioners — OfHeial Delib- 
erations—The Towns and Villages — Personal Mem- 
oranda fi.59-703 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

Faulkner County— Seat ot -Justice— Struclures for Pulilii- 
Use — Change in Boundary — Ministers of Public Service 
— Election Statistics — Population Returns — Real and 
Personal Property and Taxation — Location — Surface 
Formation and Area — Diversity of Strata — Natural 
Characteristics — Sources of Revenue — Products — Live 
Stock — Time of Original Occupancy— Highways — .Ju- 
dicial Affairs and Bar — During the War Period — Busi- 
ness Points and Centers — Schools and Churches — 
General Condition — Personal Memoirs 70:^-74.5 



CHAPTER XXIV, 

Grant County — Its Erection — Name — Township Formation 
— Early Coiirts and Buildings — Record of Public Serv- 
ants — Societies — Taxable Wealth — Highways — Recol- 
lections of Long Ago — Time of Settlement — First 
Things — The People in War — Bench and Bar — School 
History — Churches — Towns, Villages and Postofflces — 
Topography, Geology, etc. — Territorial Area and Pop- 
ulation — Surface Presentation — Physical Features — 
Products— Biographical 747-' 



CHAPTER XXV. 

Prominent Colored Citizens ,if Central Arkansas- I'rof. .J. 
T. Bailey— Hon. M. W. (iilibs — Ferd Havis — Frank 
Jackson — Wiley .Jones — William Laiwrtc — .\. M. Mid- 
dlebrooks— A. S. Moon— William Peters- Major P. 
Pointer— Simon R. Rawls— W. A. Rector— A. L. Rich- 
mond — Calvin Sanders — Dr. .J. H. Smith — Pleasant Tate 
—George W. Walker— Solomon Winfrey 79.5-SOS 




;,OXvMXv,^^l 



-l-J-S- 



Gov. James P. Eagle between GO- 01 

Judge Joseph W. Bocage 135-136 

Col. M. L. Bell 153-154 

Joseph Merrill 19,5-196 

Col. McH. Williams 335-336 

Jesse W. Pitts (deceased) 267-268 

S. Geisreiter 308-309 

P. D. English 363-864 

Maj. John D. Adams 413-414 



Dr. Roderick L. Dodge 441-142 

Roscoe Greene Jennings, M. D 469-470 

View of Thomas Cotton Press Works ^. . 507-508 

Hiram A. Whittington 569-.570 

J. M. W. Murphy r 65.3-654 

Thomas F. Sorrells 695-696 

W. P. Grace 7.37-738 

Wiley Jones 799-SOO 




ISTOHY ^ OF 




AS.e- 



iliif at. I. 



Geology— Importance of Geologic Study— Area and Climate— Boundaries— Principal Streams 
OF THE State— The Mountain Systems— The Great Springs— Diversity' of Soils- 
Caves— The Mines, their Wonderful Deposits and Formations. 



Such blessings Nature pours, 
O'erstocked mankind enjoys but balf her stores. — Toiing. 




HE matter of first impor- 
tance for every civilized peo- 
ple to know is the economic 
geology of the country they 
inhabit. The rocks and the 
climate are the solution in 
the end of all problems of 
life, as they are the prime sources 
from which all that human beings 
can possess comes. The measure of 
each and every civilization that has 
adorned the world is in exact de- 
gree with the people's knowledge 
-,of the natural laws and the envi- 
ronments about them. 

The foundation of civilization 
rests upon the agriculturists, and 
nothing can be of more importance to this class 
than some knowledge of what materials plants are 
composed, and the source from whence they de- 
rive existence; the food upon which plants live 
and grow; how they are nourished or destroyed; 
what plant food is appropriated by vegetation 
itself, without man's aid or intervention, through 
the natural operations in constant action. The 



schools will some day teach the childi'en these use- 
ful and fundamental lessons, and then, beyond all 
perad venture, they will answer very completely 
the lately propounded question: " Are the public 
schools a failure ? ' ' The knowledge of the ele- 
mentary principles of the geology of this cotintry 
is now the demand of the age, made upon all na- 
tions, in all climes. 

The character of vegetation, as well as the 
qualities of the waters and their action upon vege- 
table and animal life, is primarilj^ determined 
by the subjacent rocks on which the soil rests. 
Earth and air are but the combinations of the 
original gases, forming the solids, liquids and the 
atmosphere surrounding the globe. The soil is 
but the decomposed rocks — their ashes, in other 
words, and hence is seen the imperative necessity of 
the agriculturist understanding something of the 
rocks which lie beneath the land he would success- 
fitlly cultivate. He who is educated in the simple 
fundaiiiental principles of geology — a thing easier 
to learn than is the difference in the oaks and pines 
of the forest — to him there is a clear comprehension 
of the life-giving qualities stored in the surface 
rocks, as well as a knowledge of the minerals to be 



10 



HISTORY OF ARKANSA.S. 



found in their company. A youth so educated 
possesses incomparable advantages over his school 
companion in the start of life, who has concentrated 
his energies on the classics or on metaphysical 8i;b- 
jects, vphether they enter the struggle for life as 
farmers, stock raisers, miners or craftsmen. It 
is as much easier to learn to analyze a rock, min- 
eral or soil, than to learn a Greek verb, as the one 
is more valuable to kno-w than the other. All true 
knowledge is the acquirement of that which may 
aid in the race of life, an education that is so prac- 
tical that it is always helpful and useful. 

The geology of Arkansas, therefore, so far as 
given in this chapter, is in fact but the outline of 
the physical geography of one of the most interest- 
ing localities of the continent, and is written 
wholly for the lay reader, and attempted in a 
manner that will reach his understanding. 

Within the boundary lines of the State are 53,- 
045 square miles, or 33,948,800 acres. It has 
3,868,800 more acres of land than the State of 
New York, and multiplies many times the com- 
bined natural resources of all the New England 
States. It has 2,756 miles of navigable rivers. 

It had a j)opulation in 1880, as shown by the 
census, of 802, 525. Of these there were 10, 350 
foreigners and 210,666 colored. In 1820 the Ter- 
ritory had a population of 14,255; in 1830, of 30,- 
338; in 1840, of 97,554; in 1850, of 209,897; in 
1860, of 435,450; in 1870, of 481,471. (This 
was the Civil War decade.) In 1885 the popula- 
tion had advanced about 200,000 over the year 
1880, or was near 1,000,000. In 1887 it reached 
the figures of 1,260,000, or an increase of more 
than a quarter of a million in two years, and there 
is reason to believe this increased ratio will pass 
.beyond the two million mark in the next census. 
At least, an increase of one hundred per cent in 
the ten years is indicated. Keeping in mind that 
there are no great populous cities in the State, it 
will be known that this has been that healthy in- 
crease of population which gives glowing promises 
for the future of the State. Here the agricultural 
districts, and the towns and cities, have kept even 
pace, while in some of the leading States of the 
Mississippi Valley the great cities have grown 



while the rural population has markedly decreased. 
These are serious problems to reflective minds in 
those States where the cities are overgrowing and 
the country is declining. Happily, Arkansas is 
troubled with no such indications of the disturbed 
natural distribution of its people. The State, 
since it emerged from the dark and evil days of 
civil war and reconstruction, has not only not been 
advertised in regard to its natural resources, but 
has been persistently slandered. The outside world, 
more than a generation ago, were plausibly led 
to believe the energy of its citizens was justly 
typified in the old senseless ballad, "TheArkan- 
saw Traveler," and the culture and refinement of 
its best people are supposed to be told in the 
witty account of Judge Halliburton's " First Piano 
in Arkansas." The ruined hopes, the bankrupted 
fortunes and the broken hearts that are the most 
recent history of the Western deserts, form some of 
the measure the poor people are paying for the de- 
ceptions in this regard that have been practiced 
upon them. These silly but amusing things have 
had their effect, but they were pleasant and harm- 
less, compared to tln^ latest phase of pretexts for 
persistent publications of the cruelest falsehoods 
ever heaped upon the heads of innocent men. But, 
in the end, even this will do good; it is to be seen 
now among the people. It will put the people of 
the State upon their mettle, resulting, if that is 
not already the fact, in giving it the most orderly, 
law abiding, peaceful and moral people of any 
equal district of the Union. 

The State is in the central southern portion of 
the great Mississippi Valley, and in climate, soil, 
rocks, minerals and water may well be designated 
as the capital of this ' ' garden and granary of the 
world," with resources beneath the surface that 
are not, taken all together, surpassed on the globe. 
Its eastern line is the channel of the Mississippi 
River "beginning at the parallel 36° of north lati- 
tude, thence west with said parallel to the middle 
of the main channel of the St. Francois (Francis) 
River; thence up the main channel of said last men- 
tioned river to the parallel of 36° 30' of north lati- 
tude; thence west with the last mentioned parallel, 
or along the southern line of the State of Missouri, 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



11 



to the southwest corner of said State; thence to be 
bounded on the west to the north bank of Red 
River, as designated by act of Congress and treat- 
ies, existing January 1, 1837, deiining the western 
limits of the Territory of Arkansaw, and to be 
bounded west across and south of Red River by 
the boundary line of the State of Texas as far as 
the northwest corner of the State of Louisiana; 
thence easterly with the northern boundary line of 
said last named State to the middle of the main 
channel of the Mississippi River; thence up the 
middle of the main channel of said last mentioned 
river, including an island in said river known as 
Belle Point Island, and all other land as originally 
surveyed and included as a part of the Territory, or 
State of Arkansas, to the 36° of north latitude, to 
the place of beginning."* 

The State includes between its north and south 
boundary lines the country lying between parallel 
of latitude 33° north, and parallel of latitude 36° 
30 ' north, and between its east to west lines the 
country between longitude 90° and a little west of 
longitude 94° 80'. Its geographical position on 
the continent assures the best conditions of tem- 
perature, salubrity and rainfall, this being shown 
by the absence of the intense heat and the cold 
storms of the higher latitudes and the drouths of 
the west. 

From the meteorological reports it is learned 
that the average rainfall in the State during June, 
July and August is sixteen inches, except a narrow 
belt in the center of the State, where it is eighteen 

*The above descriptive boundary lines are in the au- 
thoritative language of the State Constitutional Conven- 
tion. To understand the south and west lines necessitates 
a reference to the treaties and acts of Congress. The fol- 
lowing would simplify the descriptive part of the west 
and south lines: Beginning at the southwest corner of 
Missouri, or in the center of Section 19, Township 31, 
Range 3i west of the tifth principal meridian line, thence 
in a straight line south, bearing a little east to strike the 
east line of Section 4. Township 8 north. Range 32 west; 
thence in a straight line south, bearing a little west to 
where the line strikes Red River in Section 14. Township 
13 south, Range 33 west; thence along said river to the 
southwest corner of Section 7, Township 14 south. Range 
28 west; thence south to the northwest corner of the north- 
east quarter of Section 18, Township 20 south, Range 28 
west; thence east along the 33^ of latitude to the middle 
of the channel of the Mississippi River; thence up said 
river to the place of beginning. The State lines run 
with the lines of latitude and the meridional lines, and 
not with the government surve}' lines. 



inches, and a strip on the western portion of the 
State, where it is from eight to fourteen inches. 
Accurate observations covering fifteen years give 
an average of seventy-five rainy days in the year. 

Of twenty-three States where are reported 134 
destructive tornadoes, four were in Arkansas. 

The annual mean temperature of Los Angeles, 
Gal. , is about 1° less than that of Little Rock. 

The watershed of the State runs from the 
north of west to the southeast, from the divide of 
the Ozark Mountain range, except a few streams 
on the east side of the State, which flow nearly 
parallel with the Mississippi River, which runs a 
little west of south along the line of the State. 
North of the Ozark divide the streams bear to a 
northerly direction. 

Of the navigable rivers within its borders the 
Arkansas is navigable 505 miles; Bartholomew 
Bayou, 68 miles; Black River, 147 miles; Current 
River, 63 miles; Fourche La Favre River, 73 
miles; Little Missouri River, 74 miles; Little Red 
River, 48 miles; Little River, 98 miles; Missis- 
sippi River, 424 miles; Ouachita River, 134 miles; 
Petit Jean River, 105 miles; Red River, 92 miles; 
Saline River, 125 miles; St. Francis River, 180 
miles; White River, 619 miles. 

These streams flow into the Mississippi River 
and give the State an unusual navigable river 
frontage, and they run so nearly in parallel lines 
to each other and are distributed so equally as to 
give, especially the eastern half and the southwest 
part of the State, the best and cheapest transporta- 
tion facilities of any State in the Union. These 
free rivers will in all times control the extortions of 
transportation lines that are so oppressive to the 
people of less favored localities. 

The Arkansas River passes diagonally across 
the center of the State, entering at Fort Smith, and 
emptying into the Mississippi at Napoleon. 

South of this the main stream is the Ouachita 
River and its tributaries; the Saline River, which 
divides nearl}' equally the territory between the 
Arkansas and Ouachita Rivers; and the Little Mis- 
souri on the southwest, which divides the territory 
between the Ouachita and Red Rivers. North of 
the Arkansas, and about equally dividing the ter- 



12 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



ritory between the Mississippi and the Arkansas 
Rivers, is White River, running nearly southeast. 
Its main tributary on the v^est is Little Red River, 
and on the northeast Black River, v?hich enters the 
State from Missouri, and flows southwesterly and 
empties into the White at Jacksonport, Jackson 
County. Another important tributary is Cache 
River, which flows a little west of south from Clay 
County, emptying into the White near Clarendon. 

Eel River is in the northeast corner of the 
State and partially drains Craighead County. 
Eleven Points, Currant, Spring and Strawberry 
Rivers are important tributaries of Black River. St. 
Francis River flows fi'om Missouri, and from 36° 
30' north latitude to 36° north latitude it forms 
the boundary line between Missouri and Arkansas, 
and continuing thence south empties into the Mis- 
sissippi a few miles above Helena. 

Main Fork of White River rises in Madison 
County and flows northwest in and through Wash- 
ington County into Benton County; thence north- 
east into Missouri, returning again to Arkansas iu 
Boone County. Big North Fork of White River 
rises in the south central part of Missoui'i, flows 
southward, and forms its junction in Baxter County, 
Ark. La Grue River is a short distance south of 
White River; it rises in Prairie County and joins 
the AVhite in Desha County. Middle Fork of 
Saline River rises in Garland County and flows 
southeast. Rolling Fork of Little River rises in 
Polk and passes south through Sevier County. 
Cassatot River also rises in Polk and passes south 
through Sevier County. Clear Fork of Little 
Missouri rises in Polk County and passes -south- 
east. East Fork of Poteau River rises in Scott 
County and runs nearly due west into the Indian 
Territory. L'Augnille River rises in Poinsett 
County and flows through Cross, St. Francis and 
Lee Counties, and empties into the St. Francis 
within a few miles of the mouth of the latter. Big 
Wattensaw River rises in Lonoke County and runs 
east into Prairie County, and empties into White 
River. Muddy Fork of Little Missouri River rises 
in Howard County and runs southeast. Yache 
Grass River runs north through Sebastian County 
and empties into the Arkansas River east of Fort 



Smith. Terre Noir River runs from northwest to 
the southeast in Clark County and empties into 
Ouachita River. Sulphur Fork of Red River en- 
ters the State fi'om Texas, about the center of the 
west line of Miller County, and running a little 
south of east empties into Red River. Sabine River 
flows south through the central southern portions of 
the State, and empties into the Ouachita River near 
the south line of the State. 

There are numerous creeks forming tributa- 
ries to the streams mentioned, equally distributed 
over the State, which are fully described in the re- 
spective counties. Besides these water -courses 
mention should properly be made of the nineteen 
bayous within the State's borders. 

The Ozark Mountains pass through the north- 
ern portion of Arkansas, from west to east, and 
form the great divide in the watersheds of the 
State. Rich Mountains are in the central western 
part, and run east from its west line, forming the 
dividing line between Scott and Polk Counties, 
and also between Scott and Montgomery Counties, 
and run into Yell County. 

South and east of the Rich Mountains are the 
Silver Leaf Mountains, also running east and west 
from Polk County, through Montgomery to Gar- 
land County. These are the mountain formations 
seen about Hot Springs. Sugar Loaf Mountain 
is in Cleburne County, and receives its name from 
its peculiar shape. It is in the northern central 
part of the State. Another mountain of the same 
name, containing the highest point in the State, is 
in Sebastian Coiinty, and extends into the Indian 
Territory. Boston Mountains are in the northwest- 
ern part of the State, running east and west in 
Washington, Crawford and other counties. These 
include the main mountainous formations. There 
are many points in these ranges that have local 
names. 

It would require volumes to give a complete 
account of the variety of the innumerable sowings 
which burst forth with their delicious waters — 
warm, hot and cold, salt, mineral and medicated. 
The fame of some of the medical, and the Hot 
Springs of Arkansas, are known throughout the 
civilized world, and pilgrims from all nations come 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



13 



to be washed and healed in them. They were 
known to and celebrated by the prehistoric peoples 
of America; and the migrating buffaloes, ages and 
ages ago, came annually from the land of the Da- 
kotas to the spring waters of Arkansas. The in- 
stincts of the wild beasts antedate the knowledge 
of man of the virtues and values of the delicious 
waters so bountifully given to the State. Nearly 
all over its territory is one wonder after another, 
filling every known range of springs and spring 
waters, which, both in abundance of flow and in 
medicinal properties, mock the world's previous 
comprehension of the possibilities of nature in this 
respect. 

When De Soto, in June, 1542, discovered the 
Mississippi River and crossed into (now) Arkansas, 
and had traveled north into the territory of Mis- 
souri, he heard of the "hot lakes" and turned 
about and arrived in time where is now Hot Springs. 
Even then, to the aborigines, this was the best- 
known spot on the continent, and was, and had 
been for centuries, their great sanitarium. The 
tribes of the Mississippi Valley had long been in 
the habit of sending here their invalids, and even 
long after they were in the possession of the whites 
it was a common sight to see the camp of repre- 
sentatives of many different tribes. The whites 
made no improvement in the locality until 1807. 
Now there is a flourishing city of 10,000 inhab- 
itants, and an annual arrival of visitors of many 
thousands. The waters, climate, mountain air and 
grand scenery combine to make this the great 
world's resort for health and pleasure seekers, and 
at all seasons of the year. The seasons round, with 
rarest exceptions, are the May and October months 
of the North. 

In the confined spot in the valley called Hot 
Springs there are now known seventy-one sjjrings. 
In 1860 the State geologist, D. D. Owen, only 
knew of forty. Others will no doubt be added to 
the list. These range in temperature from 93° 
to 150° Fahrenheit. They discharge over 500,000 
gallons of water daily. The waters are clear, taste- 
less and inodorous; they come from the sides of the 
ridge pure and sparkling as the pellucid Neva ; hold- 
ing in solution, as they rush up hot and bubliling 



from nature's most wonderful alembic, every valua- 
ble mineral constituent. In the cure, especially of 
nearly all manner of blood and chronic diseases, 
they are unequaled, and their wonders have be- 
come mainly known to all the world by the liv- 
ing and breathing advertisements of those who 
have proven in their own persons their wonderful 
curative powers. To reach Hot Springs and be 
healed, is the hope and aspiration of the invalid, 
when all other remedies have failed. And it is 
but just now that the pleasure seeker, the tourist, 
the scientist, and the intelligence and culture of 
the world are beginning to understand that this 
is one of the world's most inviting places to see 
and enjoy. 

But the marvels of the district are not confined 
to the immediate locality of Hot Springs. Here 
is indeed a wide district, with a quantity and variety 
of medical springs that are simply inapproachable 
on the globe. Going west from Hot Springs are sys- 
tems of springs running into Montgomery County 
a distance of forty miles. As continued discov- 
eries of other springs in Hot Springs are being 
made, and as these widely distributed outlying 
springs are comparatively of recent disclosure, it 
may be assumed that for many years to come new 
and valuable springs will become celebTated. 

In Carroll County, in the northwest part of 
the State, are Eureka Springs, only second to Hot 
Springs in the wide celebrity of fame as healing 
waters. They, too, may well be considered one of 
the world's wonders. There are forty-two of these 
springs within the corporate limits of the city that 
has grown up about them. They received no pub- 
lic notice until 1879, when with a bound they 
became advertised to the world. Their wonderful 
cures, especially in cases of rheumatism, cancer, 
dyspepsia and other, if not nearly all, chronic 
diseases, have bordered on the marvelous, if not 
the miraculous. 

In White County are the noted White Sulphur 
Springs, at Searcy, and the sulphur and chalyb 
eate springs, known as the Armstrong and the 
Grifiin Springs, and the medical springs — Blan- 
chard Springs — in Union County; the Eavenden 
Springs, in Randolph County, and the Sugar Loaf 



14 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



Springs, in Cleburne County; the very recently dis- 
covered Lithia Springs, near Hope, in Hempstead 
County, jjronounced by a leading medical journal, 
in its January issue, 1889, to be the most remark- 
able discovery of this class of medical waters of 
this century. These are some of the leading springs 
of the State which possess unusual medicinal 
properties. By a glance at the map it will be seen 
they are distributed nearly equally all over its ter- 
ritory. Simply to catalogue them and give accom- 
panying analyses of the waters would make a pon- 
derous volume of itself. In the above list have j 
been omitted mention of the fine Bethseda Springs 
in Polk County, or the fine iron and chalybeate 
springs near Magnolia; Bussey's Springs, near 
Eldorado, Union County; Butler's Saline Chalyb- 
eate Springs, in Columbia County; the double 
mineral spring of J. I. Holdernist, in Calhoun 
County; a large number of saline chalybeate 
springs in Township 10 south. Range 23 west, in 
Hempstead County, called Hubbard's Springs; or 
Crawford's Sulphur Springs; or those others in 
Section 16, Township 12 south, Range 10 west; or 
Murphy's or Leag's Mineral Springs, all in Brad- 
ley County; or Gen. Royston's noted chalybeate 
springs in Pike County, and still many others that 
are known to possess mineral qualities, though no 
complete examination of them has yet been made. 

Special mention should not be omitted of the 
Mountain Valley Springs, twelve miles northwest 
of Hot Springs. The fame of these springs has 
demanded the shipment of water, lately, to distant 
localities in vast and constantly increasing quan- 
tities. The knowledge of them is but compara- 
tively recent, and yet their wonderful healing 
qualities are already widely known. 

Innumerable, apparently, as are the health 
springs of Arkansas, they are far surpassed by 
the common springs found nearly all over the 
State. 

Mammoth Spring is in Fulton County, and is 
unrivaled in the country. The water boils up 
from an opening 120 feet in circumference, and 
flows uninterruptedly at the rate of 9,000 barrels a 
minute. From the comjjression of so large an 
amount of carbonic acid held in solution, the whole 



surface of this water basin is in a continual state of 
efPervescence. Spring River, a bold stream, is 
produced by this spring, and gives an unlimited 
amount of water power. 

The general division of the surface of the State 
is uplands and lowlands. It is a timber State, 
with a large number of small prairies. East and 
near Little Rock is Lonoke Prairie, and other 
small prairies are in the southwest part. In its 
northeast portion are some large strips of prairie, 
and there are many other small spots bare of tim- 
ber growths, but these altogether compose only a 
small portion of the State's surface. 

The variety and excellence of soils are not sur- 
passed by any State in the Union. The dark 
alluvial prevails in nearly all the lowlands, while 
on many sections of the uplands are the umber red 
soils of the noted tobacco lands of Cuba. About 
two-thirds of the State's surface shows yellow pine 
growth, the great tall trees standing side by side 
with the hardwoods, walnut, maple, grapevines, 
sumac, etc. A careful analysis of the soils and 
subsoils of every county in the State by the 
eminent geologist, Prof. D. D. Owen, shows this 
result: The best soils of Iowa, Wisconsin and 
Minnesota are inferior to the best soils of Arkan- 
sas in fertilizing properties. The following re- 
ports of State geologists tell the story: 





Ark. 


Minn. 


Iowa. 


Wis. 


Organic and Volatile Matter. . 


1 
14.150! 6.334 

8,715 5,585 
21.865 690 


6,028 

3,288 
940 


6,580 
4,610 




665 











In fertilizing qualities the only comparative 
results to the Arkansas soils are found in the blue 
limestone districts of Central Kentucky. 

Analysis of the soils shows the derivative geo- 
logical formation of soils, and their agricultural 
values; their losses by cultivation, and what soils 
lying convenient will repair the waste. Arkansas 
County, the mother of counties in the State, lying 
in the southeast, shows the tertiary formations. 
Benton County, at the opposite northwest corner, 
has the subcarboniferous. The tertiary is found 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



15 



in Newton County; Clark, Hempstead and Sevier 
show the cretaceous; Conway, Crawford, Johnson, 
Ouachita. Perry, Polk, Pope, Prairie, Pulaski, 
Scott, Van Buren, White, Garland and Montgom- 
ery, the novaculite, or whetstone grit; Greene, 
Jackson, Poinsett and Union, the quaternary. In 
addition to Benton, given above, are Independence, 
Madison, Monroe, Searcy and Washington, subcar- 
boniferous. The lower silurian is represented in 
Fulton, Izard, Lawrence, Marion and Randolph. 
These give the horizons of the rock formations of 
the State. The State has 28,000,000 acres of 
woodland — eighty-one and one-half per cent of her 
soil. Of this twenty-eight per cent is in cleared 
farms. 

If there be drawn a line on the map, beginning 
a few miles west of longitude 91°, in the direction 
of Little Rock, thence to the north boundary line 
of Clark County, just west of the Iron Mountain 
Railroad, then nearly due west to the west line of 
the State, the portion north of this line will be the 
uplands, and south the lowlands. The uplands 
correspond with the Paleozoic, and lowlands with 
the Neozoic. 

The granitic axis outbursts in Pulaski, Saline, 
Hot Springs, Montgomery, Pike and Sevier Coun- 
ties, and runs from the northeast to the southwest 
through the State. In Northern Arkansas the dis- 
turbance shows itself in small faults, gentle folds 
and slightly indurated shales; but nearer the gran- 
ite axis, greater faults, strata with high dip and 
talcose slate, intersected with quartz and calcite 
veins, become common. These disturbances are 
intimately connected with, and determine to some 
extent, the character of the mineral deposits of 
the State. The veins along the granite axis were 
filled probably with hot alkaline waters depositing 
the metalliferoiTs compounds they contained. 

Almost every variety of land known to the 
agriculturist can be found, and, for fertility, the 
soils of the State are justly celebrated. Composed 
as they are of uplands and lowlands, and a variety 
of climate, they give a wide range of products. 
In the south and central portions are produced the 
finest cotton in the markets, while the uplands 
yield fruits in abundance and variety. No place 



in the great valley excels it in variety of garden 
vegetables, small and orchard fruits, grasses, 
grains, and other field crops. Among agriculturists 
in Arkansas, truly cotton has been king. It is 
grown upon lands that would produce a hundred 
bushels of corn to the acre. All over the State a 
bale of cotton to the acre is the average — worth at 
this time S50. Per acre it is about the same labor 
to raise as corn. In the varied and deep rich 
soils of the State are produced the vegetation — 
fruits, vegetables and plants — of the semi-tropic re- 
gions, and also the whole range of the staple prod- 
ucts of the north. Cereals, fruits and cotton 
grow as well here as anywhere. In the uplands 
will some day be raised grapes and tobacco that 
will be world famous. 

That portion of the hilly lands in Clay, Greene, 
Craighead, Poinsett, St. Francis, Lee and Phillips 
Counties, known as Crowley's ridge, has a soil and 
vegetable growth distinctive from any other por- 
tion of the State. Its principal forest growth is 
yellow poplar, which is found in immense size. 
With this timber are the oak, gum, hickory, wal- 
nut, sugar and maple. The soil is generally of a 
light yellowish or gray color, often gravelly, very 
friable and easily cultivated, producing abundant 
crops of cotton, corn, oats, clover, timothy and reel 
top, and is most excellent for fruits. 

The prevailing soil is alluvial, with more or 
less diluvial soils. The alluvial soils, especially 
along the streams, are from three to thirty feet 
deep, and these rich bottoms are often miles in 
width. There are no stronger or more productive 
lands than these anywhere, and centuries of cul- 
tivation create no necessity for fertilizers. 

The swamp) lands or slashes as a general thing 
lie stretched along between the alluvial lands and 
second bottoms. They are usually covered with 
water during the winter and spring, and are too 
wet for cultivation, though dry in the summer and 
fall. They can be easily reclaimed by draining. 

The second bottoms are principally on the east- 
ern side of the State, extending from the slashes to 
the hills. The soil is mostly gray color, sometimes 
yellowish, resting upon a subsoil of yellowish or 
mulatto clay. The rich, black lands prevail largely 



16 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



in Hempstead, Little River, Sevier, Nevada, Clark, 
Searcy, Stone, Izard and Independence Counties. 

In the mountainous range of the Ozarks, in 
Independence County, are remarkable cave forma- 
tions. They are mostly nitre caves and from these 
and others in the southeast and west of Batesville, 
the Confederacy obtained much of this necessity. 
Near Cushman, Independence County, are the won- 
derful caves. The extent and marvelous beauty of 
formations are in the great arched room, the 
"King's Palace.'' This cave has been explored 
for miles under the earth, and many wonders and 
beauties are seen on every hand. On the side of 
the mouth of one of the caves in this vicinity a 
strong spring leaps from the mountain' s side and 
into the cave, and the rumbling of the rushing 
waters beneath the earth can be heard quite a dis- 
tance. The notable saltpetre eaves are in Marion, 
Newton, Carroll, Independence, Washington and 
Benton Counties. 

There are gold mines in Arkansas, yet no re- 
markable tinds that is, no marvelous wonders have 
as yet been uncovered. The universal diffusion 
of milky quartz in veins, seams and beds, as well 
as all the other geological tokens which lead on to 
fortune, are recent discoveries, and the intelligent 
gold hunters are here in abundance. Who can 
tell what the future may have in store? But 
should no rich paying gold fields ever be found, 
still in the resources of the State are ores of silver, 
antimony, zinc, iron, lead, copper, manganese, 
marble, granite, whet and honestone, rock-crystal, 
paints, nitre earths, kaolin, marls, freestone, 
limestone, buhr and grindstone and slate, which 
may well justify the bold assertion of that eminent 
geologist, Prof. D. D. Owen, in 1860, after care- 
fully looking over the State, ' ' that Arkansas is 
destined to rank as one of the richest mineral 
States in the Union." Its zinc ores compare 
favorably with those of Silesia, and its argentif- 
erous galena far exceeds in percentage of silver the 
average of such ores of other countries. Its 
novac.ulite (whetstone) rock can not be excelled in 
fineness of texture, beauty of color, and sharpness 
of grit. Its crystal mountains for extent, and 
their products for beauty, brilliancy and transpar- 



ency, have no rivals in the world. Its mineral 
waters are in variety and values equalled only by 
its mineral products. 

Anticipating the natural questions as to why 
the mines of Arkansas are not better developed, it 
will be sufficient to condense to the utmost Prof. 
Owen's words in reference to the Bellah mine in 
Sevier County : " It is the same vein that is found 
in Pulaski County, and runs northeast and south- 
west nearly through the State. Some years ago 
the Bellah mine was explored and six shafts were 
sunk. Three of the principal shafts were about 
thirty feet deep. The work was done under the 
supervision of Richard W. Bellah, afterward of 
Texas. There was a continuous vein, increasing 
in thickness as far as he went. On the line other 
shafts were sunk fi'om six to twelve feet deep, all 
showing the ore to be continuous. About five tons 
of ore were taken out. A portion of this was 
sent to Liverpool, England, to be tested, and the 
statement in return was ' seventy-three per cent 
lead, and 148 ounces of silver to the ton.' " Mr. 
Bellah wrote to Prof. Owen: "I am not willing 
to lease the mines; but I will sell for a reasonable 
price, provided my brother and sister will sell at 
the same. I have put the price upon the mines, 
and value it altogether [460 acres of land] at 
$10,000." Such was the condition of affairs at 
this mine when the war came. Substantially, this 
is the ante-bellum history of the Arkansas mining 
interests. Prof. Owen reports picking up from 
the debris of these deserted shafts ore that anal- 
yzed seventy-three per cent lead and fifty-two and 
one-half ounces of silver to the ton of lead. 

That these rich fields should lie fallow-ground 
through the generations can now be accounted for 
only from the blight of slavery upon the enter- 
prise and industry of people, the evils of a great 
civil war, and the natural adaptation of the soil and 
slavery to the raising of cotton. 

On the line of this vein, in Saline County, 
fi'om very superficial explorations, were discovered 
veins bearing argentiferous lead and copper. 

Lead is found in about every county in North- 
ern Arkansas. These are a continuation of the 
Missouri lead ores. The richest argentiferous lead 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



17 



ores reported are in Pulaski, Saline, Montgomery, 
Polk, Pike, Ashley and Sevier Counties, being 
found in the quartz and calcite gangues. It is as- 
sociated in the north of the State with zinc, cop- 
per, and with antimony in Sevier County. 

One of the latest discoveries is the value of the 
antimony mines of Polk and Sevier Counties. A 
mine is being worked successfully for antimony, 
and the increase of silver is improving as the 
shaft goes down. At any hour in the progress of 
the work, according to the ojsinions of the best 
scientific mining experts, this shaft may reach one 
of the noted silver deposits of the world. In the 
Jeff Clark antimony mine, at a distance of 100 
feet down, was found a rich pocket of silver. In 
every particular, so far, this mine is a transcript of 
that of the noted Comstock mine. The Comstock 
mine showed silver on the surface; so did the Sev- 
ier County mine; then it passed down 100 feet, 
following a vein of antimony; so has the Sevier. 
mine; then in each has silver been found. 

There is an unchanging law which governs the 
rock and mineral formations. Nature never lies, 
and there is no doubt that the Arkansas mineral 
belt, through Montgomery, Polk, Howard and Sev- 
ier Counties, will prove to be one of the richest 
mining districts of the world. 

The antimony mine has been quite successfully 
worked the j^ast two years. The Bob Wolf mine, 
Antimony Bluff mine, and Stewart Lode are being 
profitably worked. Capital and the facilities for 
reducing ores by their absence are now the only 
drawback to the mineral products of the State. 

Iron is found native in the State only in meteor- 
ites. The magnatite ore is found plentiful in Mag- 
net Cove. Lodestones from this place are shipped 
abroad, and have a high reputation. This is one 
of the best iron ores, and the scarcity of fuel and 
transportation in the vicinity are the causes of its 
not being worked. The limonite iron ore is the 
common ore of all Northern Arkansas; immense 
deposits are found in Lawrence, where several 
furnaces are operated. In the southern part of the 
State is the bog iron ore. The brown hematite is 
found in Lawrence, Randolph, Fulton and other 
counties. Workable veins of manganese are found 



in Independence County. This valuable ore is im- 
ported now from Spain; it is used in making Spie- 
gel iron. 

Bituminous and semi -anthracite coal is found 
in the true coal measures of the uplands of Ar- 
kansas. That of the northwest is free from sul- 
phur. The semi -anthracite is found in the valley 
of the Arkansas River. These coal fields cover 
10,000 acres. There are four defined coal hori- 
zons — the subconglomerate, lower, middle and up- 
per. The coal fields of this State belong to the 
lowest — the subcarboniferous — in the shale or 
millstone grit less than 100 feet above the Archi- 
medes limestone. In the Arkansas Valley these 
veins aggregate over six feet. The veins lie high 
in the Boston Mountains, dipping south into the 
Arkansas Valley. Shaft mining is done at Coal 
Hill, Spadra and many other points. It is shipped 
down the river in quantities to New Orleans. 

Aluminum, corundum, sapphire, oriental ruby, 
topaz and amethysts are found in Howard and 
Sevier Counties. Strontianite is found in Mag- 
net Cove — valuable in the purification of sugar. 
In the synclinal folds of Upper Arkansas common 
salt is easily obtained. Good salt springs are in 
Sevier County, also in Dallas and Hot Springs 
Counties. Chalcedony, of all colors, cornelian, 
agates, novaculite. honestone, buhrstone, varieties 
of granite, eight kinds of elegant marble, sand- 
stones, white, gray, red, brown and yellow, are 
common in the grit horizon; flagstones, roofing 
and pencil slates, talc, kaolin, abound in Saline, 
Washington, St. Francis and Greene Counties. The 
potter's clay of Miller, Saline and Washington is 
extensively worked. "Rock oil" has been dis- 
covered in large pockets in Northwest Arkansas. 

In the development of its mineral resources the 
State is still in its infancy, so much so, indeed, 
that what will prove yet to be the great sources of 
wealth are not even now produced as a commer- 
cial commodity. In some respects this is most re- 
markable. For instance, Arkansas might supply 
the world, if necessity required, with lime and 
cement, can produce the best of each at the least 
cost, and yet practically all these consumed are 
imported here from other States. Years ago Prof. 



18 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



D. D. Owen called attention to the valuable marls 
in the sonthwest part of the State, but the great 
beds lie untouched and cotton planters send off for 
other fertilizers. So also of the great beds of 
gypsum that lie uncovered and imtouched. The 
outside world wants iinlimited supplies of kaolin, 
fire-clays and such other clays as the State pos- 
sesses in inestimable quantities, and yet the thrifty 
people seem to be oblivious of the fact that here is 
the way to easy sources of wealth. 

People can live here too easily it seems. In 
this way only can a reason be found for not strik- 
ing boldly out in new fields of venture, with that 
vigor of desperation which comes of stern and 
hard necessity. Where nature is stubborn and un- 
yielding, man puts forth his supremest efforts. 

Magnet Cove probably furnishes more remark- 
able formations than any other district in the world. 
The "Sunk Lands" in the northeast part of the 
State, the result of the disturbance of the New 
Madrid earthquake 1811-12, present features of 
interest to both lay and scientific investigators. 
The curious spectacle of deep lakes, beneath which 
can be seen standing in their natural position the 
great forest trees, is presented ; and instead of the 
land animals roving and feeding among them are 
the inhabitants of the deep waters. 

The natural abutments of novaculite rocks at 
Rockport, on the Ouachita River, with the proper 
outlying rocks on the opposite side of the river, are 
a very interesting formation. 

Cortes Mountain, Sebastian County, as seen 
from Hodges Prairie presents a grand view. The 
bare hard rock looks as though the waves in their 
mighty swells had been congealed and fixed into 
a mountain. It is 1, 500 feet high. Standing Rock, 
Board Camp Creek, Polk County, is a conspicious 
and interesting landmark. It rises from out the 



crumbling shales, like an artificial piece of masonry, 
to the height of ninety feet. 

The Dardanello Rock as seen from the Arkan- 
sas River, opposite Morristown, is composed of fer- ' 
ruginous substance, and the great column dips at 
an angle of 40° toward the river. From one point 
on the southeast is the wonderful Dardanelle Profile. 
All the features of the face, with a deep- cut mouth 
slightly open as if in the act of listening to what 
one is going to say to it, and the outlines of the 
head, neck and shoulders, are faithfully produced. 
Its faithfulness of detail and heroic proportions 
are its strong characteristics. 

Sandstone Dam across Lee Creek, Crawford 
County, is a curious instance of nature's perfect 
engineering. The formation here possesses as 
much interest to the scientist as the noted Natural 
Bridge. 

Investigations of the Mammoth Spring lead to 
.the conclusion that it has underground connection 
with Havell's Valley, Mo; that here the waters 
from many springs, some rising to the surface and 
others not rising, are as the head of a vast funnel, 
which pour down the subterranean channel and, 
finally meeting obstructions to further progress, are 
forced up through the solid rock and form the 
Mammoth Spring, a navigable subterranean river 
in short, whose charts no bold seaman will ever 
follow. 

North of Big Rock are the traces of a burnt 
out volcano, whose fires at one time would have 
lighted up the streets of Little Rock even better 
than the electric lights now gleaming fi'om their 
high towers. 

The track of the awful cataclysm, once here 
in its grand forces, is all that is left; the energies 
of nature's greatest display of forces lost in the 
geological eons intervening. 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



19 



Ifiil'EI II. 



> > ♦ < * 



Archaeology— Remains of Flint Arrow and Spear Heads and Stone and Other Ornaments- 
Evidences OF Pre-historic People Along the Mississippi— Mounds, etc., in Other Portions 
OF The State — Local Archaeologists and their Work— The Indian.s— Tribal 
AND Race Characteristics— The Arkansas Tribes— The Cession Treaties 
— The Removal of the Cherokees, Creeks and Choctaws— An 
Indian Alarm — Assassination of the Leaders, etc., etc 




Some lazy ages, lost ia sleep and ease, 

No actions leave to busy chronicles; 

Such whose superior felicity but makes 

In story chasms, in epochas mistakes. — Dryden. 



N the long gone 
reaches of time perl 
■^ only to be measured by 
geological periods, races 
of men have been here, 
S@^' "' --K^^-H^^^^ grown, flourished, declined 
■^^sJIfeVl*' and passed away, many not 

even leaving a wrack behind; others 
transmitting fossil traces, dim and 
crumbling, and still later ones, the suc- 
cessors of the earlier ones, who had no 
traditions of their predecessors, have 
left something of the measure of their 
existence in the deftly cut flints, broken 
pottery, adobe walls, or great earth- 
works standing in the whilom silent 
wilderness as mute and enduring mon- 
uments to their existence; man, races, civilizations, 
systems of religion passing on and on to that 
eternal silence — stormfully from the inane to the 
inane, the great world's epic that is being forever 
written and that is never writ. 

Arkansas is an inviting field for the investiga- 
tion of the archaeologist, as well as the geologist. 
Races of unknown men in an unknown time have 
swarmed over the fair face of the State. Their 




restless activities drove them to nature's natural 
storehouses and the fairest climes on the continent. 
Where life is easiest maintained in its best form 
do men instinctively congregate, and thus commu- 
nities and nations are formed. The conditions of 
climate and soil, rainfall and minerals are the 
controlling factors in the busy movements of men. 
These conditions given, man follows the great 
streams, on whose bosom the rudest savages float 
their canoes and pirogues. 

Along the eastern part of the State are the most 
distinct traces of prehistoric peoples, whose hiero- 
glyphics, in the form of earthworks, are the most 
legible to the archteologist. Here, earthworks in 
greatest extent and numbers are found, indicating 
that this section once swarmed with these barbaric 
races of men. 

In Lonoke County, sixteen miles southeast of 
Little Rock, and on the Little Rock & Altheimer 
branch of the St. Louis, Arkansas & Texas Rail- 
road, is a station called Toltec. It is located on 
the farm of Mr. Gilbert Knapp, and is near 
Mounds Lake. This lake is either the line of what 
was a borse-shoe bend in Ai'kansas River long ago, 
or is the trace of a dead river. The lake is in the 
form of a horse-shoe, and covers a space of about 



20 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS 



three miles. The horse- shoe points east of north, 
and the heels to the southwest. Here is a great 
field of large and interesting mounds and earth- 
works. A little east of the north bend of the lake 
are two great mounds — one square and the other 
cone shaped. The cone shaped is the larger and 
taller, and is supposed to have been 100 feet high, 
while the other was about seventy-five feet in ele- 
vation. About them to the north and east are 
many small mounds, with no apparent fixed method 
in their location. These have all been denuded of 
their timber and are in cultivation, except the larger 
one above mentioned. Upon this is a growth of 
heavy timber, elms, hickory, and oaks with as high 
as 500 rings, and standing on an alluvial soil from 
eight to fifteen feet deep. These large mounds 
are enclosed with an earth wall starting out from 
the bank of the lake, and circling at a considerable 
distance and returning to the lake, and keeping 
nearly an equal distance from the larger mound. 
The sloping base of each mound reaches the base 
and overlaps or mingles with the base of its neigh- 
bor. Around this big wall was once an outside 
ditch. The humus on the smaller mounds shows, 
in cultivation, a stronger and deeper alluvial soil 
than the surrounding land. 

There are evidences in these mounds that while 
they were built by one nation, for objects now 
problematical, they have been used by other suc- 
ceeding peoples for other and different purposes, 
much after the manner that are now found farm- 
ers with well-kept gardens on the tops of the 
mounds, or stately residences, or on others grow- 
ing cotton and corn. In them human and ani- 
mal bones are seen, and there are indications that, 
while they were built for purposes of worship or 
war, when the builders passed away more than 
one race of their successors to the country used 
them as convenient burial grounds. They were 
skillful stone workers and potters, and their mason' s 
tools are frequently met with. Nearly every im- 
plement of the stone age is found in and about 
the mounds. 

Mt. Knapp, who has given the subject consid- 
erable intelligent study, is so convinced that these 
works were made by the Toltec race that he has 



named the new station in honor of that people. 
On the line of this earth-wall mentioned are two 
deep pools that never are known to become dry. 

East of Toltec thirty or more miles, in Lonoke 
Prairie, are mounds that apparently belong to 
the chain or system which runs parallel with the 
river, through the State. The small mounds or 
barrows, as Jefferson termed the modern Indian 
burial places, are numerous, and distributed all 
over Arkansas. 

What is pronounced a fortified town is found 
in well marked remains on St. Francis River. It 
was discovered by Mr. Savage, of Louisville. He 
reports "parts of walls, built of adobe brick and 
cemented." On these remains he detected trees 
growing numbering 300 rings. He reports the 
brick made of clay and chopped or twisted straw, 
and with regular figures. A piece of first-class 
engineering is said to be traced here in a sap- 
mine, which had passed under the walls of the 
fortification. 

The Ijones and pottery and tools and arms of 
the prehistoric peoples of Arkansas are much more 
abundant than are found in any other spot in the 
United States. 

Mi's. Hobbs, living four miles southeast of 
Little Rock, has a very complete collection of the 
antiquities of the State. It is pronounced by 
antiquarians as one of the most valuable in the 
country. The Smithsonian Institute has offered 
her every inducement to part with her collection, 
but she has refused. It is hoped the State will 
some day possess this treasure, and suitably and 
permanently provide for its preservation. 

When the white man discovered and took pos- 
session of North America, he found the red man 
and his many tribes here, and under a total mis- 
apprehension of having found a new continent, he 
named this strange people Indians. The new world 
might have been called Columbia, and the people 
Columbians. Again, instead of being sparse tribes 
of individuals fringing the shores of the Atlantic 
Ocean there were 478 tribes, occupying nearlj' the 
whole of the north half of this western hemis- 
j)here; some in powerful tribes, like the Iroquois; 
some were rude agricultural and commercial peoples, 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



21 



some living in houses of logs or stone, permanent 
residents of their localities; others warriors and 
hunters only, and still others migratory in their 
nature, pirates and parasites. One characteristic 
strongly marked them all — a love of liberty and 
absolute freedom far stronger than the instinct 
of life itself. The Indian would not be a slave. 
Proud and free, he regarded with contempt the 
refinements of civilization. He breathed the same 
free air as did the eagle of the crags, and would 
starve before he would do manual work, or, as he 
believed, degrade himself in doing aught but paint 
himself, sing his war songs and go forth to battle, 
or pursue the wild game or meet the savage wild 
beasts in their paths and slay them in regular com- 
bat. To hunt, fish and fight was the high mission 
of great and good men to his untutored mind, 
while the drudgery of life was rejegated to the 
squaws and squaw-men. His entire economic 
philosophy was simply the attainment of his de- 
sires with the least exertion. In a short time he 
will have filled his earthly mission, and passed 
from the stage of action, leaving nothing but a 
dim memory. From their many generations of 
untold numbers has come no thought, no inven- 
tion, no action that deserves to survive them a 
day or an hour. The Indians of to day, the few 
that are pure blood, are but the remnants, the use- 
less refuse of a once numerous people, who were the 
undisputed possessors of a continent, but are now 
miserable, ragged and starving beggars at the 
back doors of their despoilers, stoically awaiting 
the last final scene in the race tragedy. And, like 
the cheerful sermon on the tombstone, who shall 
say that white civilization, numbers and power, will 
not in the course of time, and that not far distant, 
be the successors of the residue of wretches now 
representing the red race ? "I was once as you 
are, you will soon be as I am." A grim philos- 
ophy truly, but it is the truth of the past, and the 
great world wheels about much now as it has for- 
ever. 

What is now Arkansas has been the possession 
of the following Indian tribes; no one tribe, it seems, 
occupied or owned the territory in its entirety, 
but their possessions extended into the lines, cov- 



ering a portion of the lands only, and then reach- 
ing many degrees, sometimes to the north, south 
and west: The Osagea, a once numerous tribe, 
were said to own the country south of the Mis- 
souri River to Red River, including a large por- 
tion of Arkansas. The Quapaws, also a powerful 
nation, were the chief possessors, and occupied 
nearly the whole of the State, "time out of mind;" 
the Cherokees were forced out of Georgia and 
South Carolina, and removed west of the Missis- 
sippi River in 1836; the Hitchittees were removed 
from the Chattahouchee River to Arkansas. They 
speak the Maskogee dialect — were 600 strong when 
removed; the Choctaws were removed to the west, 
after the Cherokee.s. In 1812 they were 15,000 
strong. 

The Quapaws, of all the tribes connected with 
Arkansas, may be regarded as the oldest settlers, 
having possessed more of its territory in well de- 
fined limits than any of the others. In the early 
part of the eighteenth century they constituted a 
powerful tribe. In the year 1720 they were deci- 
mated by smallpox; reduced by this and other 
calamities, in 1820, one hundred years after, they 
were found scattered along the south side of the 
Arkansas River, numbering only 700 souls. They 
never regained their former numerical strength or 
warlike importance, but remained but a band of 
wretched, ragged beggars, about whose hunting 
grounds the white man was ever lessening and 
tightening the lines. 

January 5, 1819, Gov. Clark and Pierre Chou- 
teau made a treaty with the tribe by which was 
ceded to the United States the most of their terri- 
tory. The descriptive part of the treaty is in the 
following words: "Beginning at the mouth of the 
Arkansas River; thence extending up the Arkansas 
to the Canadian Fork, and up the Canadian Fork 
to its source; thence south to the big Red River, 
and down the middle of that river to the Big 
Raft; thence in a direct line so as to strike the 
Mississippi River, thirty leagues in a straight 
line, below the mouth of the Arkansas, together 
with all their claims to lands east of the Mississippi 
River and north of the Arkansas River. With the 
exception and reservation following, that is to say, 



HISTOEY OF ARKANSAS. 



that tract of country bounded as follows: Begin- 
ning at a point on the Arkansas River opposite the 
present Post of Arkansas, and running thence a 
due southwest course to the ^Vashita River; thence 
up that river to the Saline Fork, to a point from 
whence a due north course would strike the Arkan- 
sas River at the Little Rock, and thence down the 
right bank of the Arkansas to the place of begin- 
ning. " In addition to this a tract was reserved 
north of the Arkansas River, which the treaty says 
is indicated by "marks on the accompanying 
map." This west line of the Quapaw reservation 
struck the river about where is now Rock Street. 

In November, 1824, Robert Crittenden, the first 
TeiTitorial secretary, effected a treaty with the 
Quapaws, at Harrington's, Ark., which ceded the 
above reservation and forever extinguished all title 
of that tribe to any portion of Arkansas. The 
tribe was then removed to what is now the Indian 
Territory. 

The other original occupants or claimants to the 
Arkansas Territory were the Osages. Of these 
there were many tribes, and in 1830 numbered 
4,000 strong, but mostly along the Osage River. 
Their claim lapped over, it seems, all that portion 
of the Quapaw lands lying north of the Arkansas 
River. 

The title of the Osages was extinguished to 
what is now Arkansas by a treaty of November 10, 
1808, made at Fort Clark, on the Missouri River. 
By this treaty they ceded all the country east of a 
line running due south from Fort Clark to the Ar- 
kansas River, and down said river to its confluence 
with the Mississippi River. These Indians occu- 
pied only the cotmtry along the Missouri and 
Osage Rivers, and if they were ever on what they 
claimed as their southern boundary, the Arkansas 
River, it was merely on expeditions. 

About 1818, Georgia and South Carolina com- 
menced agitating the subject of getting rid of the 
Indians, and removing them west. They wanted 
their lands and did not want their presence. At 
first they tised persuasion and strategy, and finally 
force. They were artful in representing to the In- 
dians the glories of the Arkansas country, both for 
game and rich lands. During the twenty years of 



agitating the subject Indians of the tribes of those 
States came singly and in small bands to Arkansas, 
and were encouraged to settle anywhere they might 
desire north of the Arkansas River, on the Osage 
ceded lands. The final act of removal of the In- 
dians was consummated in 1839, when the last of 
the Cherokees were brought west. Simultaneous 
with the arrival of this last delegation of Indians 
an alarm passed around among the settlers that the 
Indians were preparing to make a foray on the 
white settlements and murder them all. Many 
people were greatly alarmed, and in some settle- 
ments there were hasty preparations made to flee 
to places of safety. In the meantime the poor, 
distressed Cherokees and Choctaws were innocent 
of the stories in circulation about them, and were 
trying to adjust themselves to their new homes 
and to repair their ruined fortunes. The Chero- 
kees were the most highly civilized of all the tribes, 
as they were the most intelligent, and had mingled 
and intermarried with the whites until there were 
few of pure blood left among them. They had 
men of force and character, good schools and 
printing presses, and published and edited papers, 
as well as their own school books. These condi- 
tions were largely true, also, of the Chickasaws. 
The Cherokees and Chickasaws were removed west 
under President Jackson's administration. The 
Cherokees were brought by water to Little Rock, 
and a straight road was cut out from Little Rock 
to the corner of their reservation, fifteen miles 
above Batesville, in Independence County, over 
which they were taken. Their southeast boundary 
line was a straight line, at the point designated 
above Batesville, to the mouth of Point Remove 
Creek. 

The nistory of the removal of the Cherokee 
Indians (and much of the same is true of the re- 
moval of the Chickasaws and Creeks), is not a pleas- 
ant chapter in American history. The Creeks of 
Florida had waged war, and when conquered Gen. 
Scott removed them beyond the Mississippi River. 
When the final consummation of the removal of the 
Cherokees was effected, it was done by virtue of a 
treaty, said to have been the work of traitors, and 
unauthorized by the projjer Indian authorities. At 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



23 



all events the artful whites had divided the head- 
men of the tribe, and procured their signatures to 
a treaty which di'ove the last of the nation beyond 
the Mississippi. The chief men in making this 
treaty were the Ridges, Boudinot, Bell and Rogers. 
This was the treaty of 1835. In June, 1839, the 
Ridges, Boudinot and Bell were assassinated. 
About forty Indians went to Ridge's house, Inde- 
pendence County, and cruelly murdered young 
Ridge; they then pursued the elder Ridge and, over- 
taking him at the foot of Boston Mountains, as he 
was on his way to visit friends in Van Bui'en, Ark. , 
shot him to death. It seems there was an old law 
of the nation back in Georgia, by which any one 
forfeited his life who bartered any part of their 
lands. 

The Choctaw s by treaty ceded to the United 
States all their claim to lands lying within the 
limits of Ai'kansas, October 20, 1820. 

On the 6th of May, 1828, the Cherokees ceded 
all claim to their lands that lay within the Territo- 
rial limit of Arkansas. 

This was about the end of Indian occupation 
or claims within the State of Arkansas, but not 
the end of important communication, and acts of 
neighborly friendship, between the whites and the 
Cherokees especially. A considerable number of 
Indians, most of them having only a slight mix- 
ture of Indian blood, remained in the State and be- 
came useful and in some instances highly influ- 
ential citizens. Among them were prominent farm- 
ers, merchants and professional men. And very 
often now may be met some prominent citizen, 
who, after even an extended acqiiaintance, is found 
to be an Indian. Among that race of people 
they recognize as full members of the tribe all 
who have any trace of their blood in their veins, 
whether it shows or not. In this respect it seems 
that nearly all races differ from the white man. 
With the latter the least mixture of blood of any 
other color pronounces them at once to be not white. 

The Cherokee Indians, especially, have always 
held kindly intercourse with the people of Arkan- 
sas. In the late Civil War they went with the 



State in the secession movement without hesitation. 
A brigade of Cherokees was raised and Gen. Albert 
Pike was elected to the command. The eminent 
Indians in the command were Gen. Stand Waitie 
and Col. E. C. Boudinot. Until 1863 the Indians 
were unanimous in behalf of the Southern cause, 
but in that year Chief Ross went over to the Fed- 
eral side, and thus the old time divisions in the In- 
dian councils were revived. 

Col. Elias C. Boudinot was born in Georgia, in 
August, 1835, the same year of the treaty remov- 
ing the Indians from that State. Practically, 
therefore, he is an Arkansan. He shows a strong 
trace of Indian blood, though the features of the 
white race predominate. He is a man of educa- 
tion and careful culture, and when admitted to the 
bar he soon won a place in the splendid array of 
talent then so greatly distinguishing Arkansas. A 
born orator, strong enough in intellect to think 
without emotion, morally and physically a hero, he 
has spent much of his life pleading for his people 
to be made citizens — the owners of their individ- 
ual homes, as the only hope to stay that swift de- 
cay that is upon them, but the ignorance of his 
tribe and the scheming of demagogues and selfish 
' ' agents, ' ' have thwarted his efforts and practically 
exiled him fi'om his race. 

A few years ago Col. Boudinot was invited to 
address Congress and the people of Washington 
on the subject of the Indian races. The masterly 
address by this man, one of the greatest of all the 
representatives of American Indians, will be fixed 
in history as the most pathetic epilogue of the 
greatest of dramas, the curtain of which was raised 
in 1492. Who will ever read and fully understand 
his emotions when he repeated the lines: 



Their light canoes have vanished 
From off the crested waves — 
Amid the forests where they roamed 
There rings no hunter's shout. 
And all their cone-like cabins 
That clustered o'er the vale, 
Have disappeaied as withered leaves, 
Before the autumn gale. 



24 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 




Discovery and Settlement— De Soto in Arkansas— Marquette and Joliet— La Salle, Hennepin 
AND Tonti— French and English Schemes of Conquest and Dreams of Power— Louisiana 
—The " Bubble" of John Law— The Early Viceroys and Governors— Proprie- 
tary Change of Louisiana — French and Spanish Settlers in Ark- 
ansas—English Settlers— A Few First Settlers in the 
Counties— The New Madrid Earthquake- 
Other Items of Interest. 



Hail, memory, hail! In thy exhaustless mine 
From age to age unnumbered treasures shine! 
Thought and her shadowy brood thy call obey, 
And place and time are subject to thy sway. — Rogers. 




ERDINAND DE SOTO, the 

discoverer of the Missis- 

3 sippi, was the first civilized 

white man to put foot upon 

tany part of what is now the 
■^ State of Arkansas. He and 
•3Bhis band of adventurous 
followers had forged their 
way over immense obstacles, through 
the trackless wastes, and in the pleas- 
ant month of June, 1541, reached the 
S^ Mississippi River at, as is supposed, 
Chickasaw Bluffs, a short distance be- 
low Memphis. He had sailed from 
San Lucan in April, 1538, with 600 
men, twenty officers and twenty-four priests. He 
represented his king and church, and came to 
make discoveries for his master in Florida, a coun- 
try undefined in extent, and believed to be the 
richest in the world. 

His expedition was a daring and dangerous 
one, and there were but few men in the tide of 
time who could have carried it on to the extent 
that did this bold Spaniard. The worn and deci- 



mated band remained at the Chickasaw BlufPs to 
rest and recuperate until June 29, then crossing 
the river into Arkansas, and pushing on up the 
Mississippi River, through brakes and swamjjs and 
slashes, until they reached the higher prairie lands 
that lead toward New Madrid; stopping in their 
north course at an Indian village, Pacaha, whose 
location is not known. De Soto sent an expedition 
toward the Osage River, but it soon returned and 
reported the country worthless. * He then turned 
west and proceeded to the Boston Mountains, at 
the head-waters of White River; then bending 
south, and passing Hot Springs, he went into camp 
for the winter on the Ouachita River, at Autamqua 
Village, in Garland County. In the spring he 

*It is proper to here state the fact that some local in- 
vestigators, and others who have studied the history of 
De Soto's voyaging through Arkansas, do not believe that 
he reached and discovered the river as high up as Mem- 
phis. They think he approached it a short distance above 
the moutli of Red River, and from that point made his 
detour around to Red River. Others in the State, who 
have also studied the subject thoroughly, find excellent 
evidence of hispresencein Arkansas along the Mississippi, 
particularly in Mississippi County. See "History of 
Mississippi County, Ark." After examining the testi- 
mony carefully I incline to the account as given in the 
contest as being the most probable. — Ed. 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



25 



floated down the river, often lost in the bayous 
and overflows of Red River, and finally reached i 
again the Mississippi. Halting here he made dil- 
igent inquiries of the Indians as to the mouth of 
the great stream, but they could give him no infor- 
mation. In June, one year from the date of his 
discovery, after a sickness of some weeks, he died. 
As an evidence of his importance to the expedition 
his death was kept a secret, and he was buried at 
night, most appropriately, in the waves of the 
great river that gave his name immortality. But 
the secrecy of his death was of no avail, for there 
was no one who could supjily his place, and with 
his life closed the existence, for all practical pur- 
poses, of the expedition. Here the interest of the 
historian in De Soto and his companions ceases. 
He came not to possess the beautiful country, or 
plant colonies, or even extend the dominions of 
civilization, but simply to find the fabled wealth 
in minerals and precious stones, and gather them 
and carry them away. Spain already possessed 
Florida, and it was all Florida then, from the At- 
lantic to the boundless and unknown west. 

The three great nations of the old world had 
conquered and possessed — the Spaniards Florida, 
the English Virginia and New England, and the 
French the St. Lawrence. The feeblest of all 
these colonizers or conquerors were the English, 
and they retained their narrow foothold on the 
new continent with so little vigor that for more 
than a century and a half they knew nothing of 
the country west of them save the idle dreams and 
fictions of the suiTounding savages. The general 
world had learned little of De Soto' s great western 
discoveries, and when he was buried in the Missis- 
sippi all remained undisturbed from the presence 
or knowledge of civilized men for the period of 
132 years. 

Jacques Marquette, a French Jesuit priest, had 
made expeditions along the Northern lakes, pros- 
elyting among the Indian tribes. He had con- 
ceived the idea that there was a great western 
river leading to China and Japan. He was joined 
in his ambition to find this route, and the tribes 
along it, by Joliet, a man fired with the ambition 
and daring of the bold explorer. These two men. 



with five employes, started on their great adven- 
ture May 17, 1673. They found the Upper Mis- 
sissipjii River and came down that to the mouth 
of the Arkansas River, thence proceeding up some 
distance, it is supposed to near where is Arkansas 
Post. Thus the feet of the white man pressed 
once mor^ the soil of this State, but it was after 
the lapse of many years from the time of De Soto' s 
visit. Marquette carried into the newly discovered 
country the cross of Christ, while Joliet planted 
in the wilderness the tri-colors of France. France 
and Christianity stood together in the heart of the 
great Mississippi Valley; the discoverers, founders 
and possessors of the greatest spiritual and tem- 
poral empire on earth. From here the voyagers 
retraced their course to the Northern lakes and 
the St. Lawrence, and published a report of their 
discoveries. 

Nine years after Marquette and Joliet" s expe- 
dition, Chevalier de La Salle came from France, 
accompanied by Henry de Tonti, an Italian, filled 
with great schemes of empire in the new western 
world; it is charged, by some historians of that 
day, with no less ambition than securing the whole 
western portion of the continent and wresting 
Mexico from the Spaniards. When Canada was 
reached, La Salle was joined by Louis Hennepin, 
an ambitious, unscrupulous and daring Franciscan 
monk. It was evidently La Salle's idea to found 
a military government in the new world, reaching 
with a line of forts and military jjossession from 
Quebec, Canada, to at least the Gulf, if not, as 
some have supposed, extending through Mexico. 
He explored the country lying between the North- 
ern lakes and the Ohio River. He raised a force 
in Canada and sailed through Green Bay, and, 
sending back his boat laden with furs, proceeded 
with his party to the head waters of the Illinois 
River and built Fort Creve CcBur. He detached 
Hennepin with one companion and sent him to hunt 
the source of the Mississippi. He placed Tonti in 
command of Creve Cceiu', with five men, and him- 
self returned to Canada in the latter j)art of 1681, 
where he organized a new jaarty with canoes, 
and went to Chicago; crossing the long portage 
from there to the Illinois River, he floated down 



26 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



that stream to the Mississippi and on to the Gulf 
of Mexico, discovering the mouth of tlie Mississippi 
River April 5, 1682, and three days after, with 
becoming pomp and ceremony, took possession, in 
the name of France, of the territory, and named it 
Louisiana, in honor of his king, Louis XIV. The 
vast region thus acquired by France was not, as it 
could not be, well defined, but it was intended 
to embrace, in addition to much east of the 
Mississippi River, all the continent west of that 
current. 

After this expedition La Salle returned to 
France, fitted out another expedition and set sail, 
ostensibly to reach the mouth of the Mississippi 
River and pass up. that stream. He failed to find 
the river, and landed his fleet at Metagordo Bay, 
Texas, where he remained two years, when with a 
part of his force he started to reach Canada via 
Fort St. Louis, but was assassinated by one of his 
men near the Trinity River, Texas, Mai-ch 19, 
1687, and his body, together with that of his 
nephew, was left on the Texas prairie to the beasts 
and buzzards. La Salle was a born commander 
of men, a great explorer, with vast projects of 
empire far beyond the comprehension of his 
wi'etched king, or the appreciation of his country- 
men. Had he been supported by a wise and strong 
government, France would never, perhaps, have 
been dispossessed of the greatest inter- continental 
colonial empire on earth — from the Alleghanies to 
the Rocky Mountains. This was, in fact, the 
measure of the territory that La Salle' s expedition 
and military possession gave to France. The two 
great ranges of mountains, the north pole and 
South America, were really the boundary lines of 
Louisiana, of which permanent ownership belonged 
forever to France, save for the weakness and inef- 
ficiency of that bete noire of poor, beautiful, sunny 
France — Louis XIV. In the irony of fate the his- 
torian of to-day may well write down the appella- 
tion of his toadies and parasites, as the grand 
monarque. La Salle may justly be reckoned one 
of the greatest founders of empire in the world, and 
had poor France had a real king instead of this 
weak and pompous imbecile, her tricolors would 
have floated upon every breeze from the Allegha- 



nies to the Pacific Ocean, and over the islands of 
more than half of the waters of the globe. 

The immensity of the Louisiana Territory has 
been but little understood by historians. It was ■ 
the largest and richest province ever acquired, and 
the world's history since its establishment has 
been intimately connected with and shaped by its 
influence. Thus the account of the Territory of 
Louisiana is one of the most interesting chapters 
in American history. 

Thirteen years after the death of La Salle, 
1700, his trusty lieutenant, Tonti, descended the 
Mississippi River from the Illinois, with a band of 
twenty French Illinois people, and upon reaching 
Arkansas Post, established a station. This was 
but carrying out La Salle' s idea of a military pos- 
session by a line of forts from Canada to the Gulf. 
It may be called the first actual and intended per- 
manent possession of Arkansas. In the meantime, 
Natchez had become the oldest settled point in 
the Territory, south of Illinois, and the conduct of 
the commandant of the canton, Chopart, was laying 
the foundations for the ultimate bloody massacre 
of that place, in November, 1729. The Jesuit, Du 
Poisson, was the missionary among the Arkansans. 
He had made his way up) the Mississijjpi and 
passed along the Arkansas River till he reached 
the prairies of the Dakotahs. 

The Chickasaws were the dreaded enemy of 
France; it was they who hurried the Natchez to 
that awful massacre; it was they whose cedar bark 
canoes, shooting boldly into the Mississippi, inter- 
rupted the connections between Kaskaskia and 
New Orleans, and delayed successful permanent 
settlements in the Arkansas. It was they who 
weakened the French empire in Louisiana. They 
coUeagued with the English, and attempted to 
extirpate the French dominion in the valley. 

Such was Louisiana more than half a century 
after the first attempt at colonization by La Salle. 
Its population may have been 5,000 whites and 
half that number of blacks. Louis XIV had 
fostered it by giving it over to the control of Law 
and his company of the Mississippi, aided by 
boundless but transient credit. Priests and friars 
dispersed through tribes from Biloxi to the Da- 



- — ^ \^ 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



kotahs, and propitiated the favor of the savages. 
But still the valley of the Mississippi remained a 
wilderness. All its patrons — though among them 
it counted kings and high ministers of state — had 
not accomplished for it in half a century a tithe 
of that prosperity which, within the same period, 
sprung naturally from the benevolence of William 
Penn to the peaceful settlers on the Delaware. 

It required the feebleness of the grand mon- 
arque to discover John Law, the father of in- 
flated cheap money and national financial ruin. 
In September, 1717, John Law's Company of the 
West was granted the commerce and control of 
Louisiana. He arrived at New Orleans with 800 
immigrants in August of that year. Instead of 
coming up the Mississippi, they landed at Dau- 
phine Island to make their way across by land. 
The reign of John Law's company over Louisiana 
was a romance or a riot of folly and extravagance. 
He was to people and create a great empire on 
cheap money and a monopoly of the slave trade. 
For fourteen years the Company of the West con- 
trolled Louisiana. The bubble burst, the dreams 
and illusions of ease and wealth passed away, and 
but wretched remnants of colonies existed, in the 
extremes of want and suffering. But, after all, a 
permanent settlement of the great valley had been 
made. A small portion of these were located at 
Arkansas Post, up the Arkansas River and on Red 
River, and like the most of the others of Law's 
followers, they made a virtue of necessity and re- 
mained because they could not get away. 

John Law was an Englishman, a humbug, but 
a magnificent one, so marked and conspicuous in 
the world's history that his career should have 
taught the statesmen of all nations the simple 
lesson that debt is not wealth, and that every at- 
tempt to create wealth wholly by legislation is sure 
to be followed by general bankruptcy and ruin. 

The Jesuits and fur-traders were the founders 
of Illinois; Louis XIV and privileged companies 
were the patrons of Southern Louisiana, while 
the honor of beginning the work of colonizing the 
southwest of our republic belongs to the illustri- 
ous Canadian, Lemoine D' Iberville. He was a wor- 
thy successor of La Salle. H6 also sought to find 



the mouth of the Mississippi, and guided by floating 
trees and turbid waters, he reached it on March 
2, 1699. He perfected the line of communication 
between Quebec and the Gulf; extended east and 
west the already boundless possessions of France; 
erected forts and carved the lilies on the trees of 
the forests; and fixed the seat of government of 
Louisiana at Biloxi, and appointed his brother to 
command the province. Under D' Iberville, the 
French line was extended east to Pascagoula 
River; Beinville, La Sueur, and St. Denys had 
explored the west to New Mexico, and had gone 
in the northwest beyond the Wisconsin and the 
St. Croix, and reached the mouth of and followed 
this stream to the confluence of the Blue Earth. 
D' Iberville died of yellow fever at Havana, July 
9, 1706, and in his death the Louisiana colony 
lost one of its most able and daring leaders, i- But 
Louisiana, at that time, possessed less than thirty 
families of whites, and these were scattered on 
voyages of discovery, and in quest of gold and 



France perfected her civil government over 
Louisiana in 1689, and appointed Marquis de San- 
ville, royal viceroy. This viceroy's empire was as 
vast in territory as it was insignificant in popula- 
tion — less than 300 souls. * By regular appoint- 
ments of viceroys the successions were maintained 
(including the fourteen years of Law's supremacy) 
until by the treaty of Fontainbleau, November 3, 
1762, France was stripped of her American pos- 
sessions, and Canada and the Spanish Florida; 
everything east of the Mississippi except the 
island of New Orleans was given to England, 
and all Louisiana, including New Orleans west of 
the Mississippi River and south of the new southern 
boundary line of Canada, was given to Spain, in 
lieu of her Florida possessions. Hence, it was No- 
vember 3, 1762, that what is now Arkansas passed 
from the dominion of France to that of Spain. 

The signing of this treaty made that day the 
most eventful one in the busy movements of the 

*The title of France to the boundless confines of 
Louisiana were confirmed by the treaty of Utrecht. The 
contentions between England and France over the Ohio 
countrv, afterward, are a part of the aunals of the gen- 
eral history of the country. 



28 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



human race. It remapped the world, gave the 
English language to the American continent, and 
spread it more widely over the globe than any that 
had before given expression to human thought, 
the language that is the alma mater of civil liberty 
and religious independence. Had France perma- 
nently dominated America, civil liberty and repre- 
sentative government would have been yet unborn. 
The dogmatic tyranny of the middle ages, with all 
its intolerance and war, would have been the herit- 
age of North America. 

Thus re-adjusted in her domain, Louisiana re- 
mained a province of Spain until October 1, 1800, 
when the Little Corporal over-ran Spain with his 
victorious legions, and looted his Catholic majesty's 
domains. Napoleon allowed his military ambition 
to dwarf his genius, and except for this curious 
fact,j.he was the man who would have saved and 
disenthralled the French mind, and have placed 
the Gaul, with all his volcanic forces, in an even 
start in the race of civilization with the invincible 
and cruel Anglo-Saxon. He' was the only man of 
progressive genius that has ever ruled poor, un- 
fortunate France. The treaty of St. Ildefonso, 
secretly transferring Louisiana from Sf>ain again 
into the possession of France, was ratified March 24, 
1801. Its conditions provided that it was to re- 
main a secret, and the Spanish viceroy, who was 
governor of Louisiana, knew nothing of the trans- 
fer, and continued in the discharge of his duties, 
granting rights, creating privileges and deeding 
lands and other things that were inevitable in 
breeding confusions, and cloudy land titles, such as 
would busy the courts for a hundred years, inflict- 
ing injustice and heavy burdens upon many inno- 
cent people. 

In 1802 President Jefl'erson became possessed 
of the secret that France owned Louisiana. He 
at once sent James Monroe to Paris, who, with the 
resident minister, Mr. Livingston, opened negotia- 
tions with Napoleon, at first only trying to secure 
the free navigation of the Mississippi River, but to 
their great surprise the Emperor more than met 
them half way, with a proposal to sell Louisiana to 
the United States. The bargain was closed, the 
consideration being the paltry sum of $15,000,000. 



This important move on the great chess-board of 
nations occurred April 30, 1803. The perfunc- 
tory act of lowering the Spanish ensign and hoist- 
ing the flag of France; then lowering immediately 
the tricolors and unfurling the stars and stripes, 
it is hoped never to be furled, was performed at 
St. Louis March 9, 1804. Bless those dear old, 
nation-building pioneers! These were heavy drafts 
upon their patriotic allegiance, but they were equal 
to the occasion, and ate their breakfasts as Span- 
iards, their dinners as Frenchmen, and suppers as 
true Americans. 

The successful class of immigrants to the west 
of the Mississippi were the French Canadians, who 
had brought little or nothing with them save the 
clothes on their backs, and an old flintlock gun 
with which to secure game. They colonized after 
the French mode of villages and long strips of 
farms, and a public commons. They propitiated 
the best they could the neighboring Indian tribes, 
erected their altars, hunted, and frolicked, and 
were an honest, simple-minded and just people, 
but little vexed with ambitious pride or grasping 
avarice. The mouth of the Arkansas River was 
the attractive point for immigrants on their way to 
the Arkansas Territory, and they would ascend that 
stream to Arkansas Post. There were not 500 
white people in the Territory of (now) Arkansas in 
1803, when it became a part of the United States. 
In 1810 the total population was 1,062. So soon 
as Louisiana became a part of the United States, 
a small but never ceasing stream of English speak- 
ing people turned their faces to the west and 
crossed the ' ' Father of "Waters. ' ' Those for Ar- 
kansas established Montgomery Point, at the mouth 
of White River, making that the transfer place for 
all shipments inland. This remained as the main 
shipping and commercial point for many years. 
By this route were transferred the freights for 
Arkansas Post. The highway fi-om Montgomery 
Point to the Post was a slim and indistinct bridle 
path. The immigrants came down the Cumber- 
laud and Tennessee Rivers to the Ohio in keel- 
boats and canoes, and were mostly from Tennes- 
see; beckoned to this fair and rich kingdom by its 
sunny clime, its mountains and rivers, and its pro- 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



29 



ductive valleys, all enriched with a flora and fauna 
surpassing the dream of a pastoral poem. 

The French were the first permanent settlers 
of Arkansas, and descendants of these people are 
still here. Many bearing the oldest French names 
have attained to a position among the most emi- 
nent of the great men of the trans -Mississippi. 
Sometimes the names have become so corrupted as 
to be unrecognizable as belonging to the early illus- 
trious stock. The English-speaking people speak- 
ing French names phonetically would soon change 
them completely, The Bogys and Lefevres, for 
instance, are names that go back to the very first 
settlements in Arkansas. "Lefevre" on the maps 
is often spelled phonetically thus : ' ' Lafaver. ' ' 
Representatives of the Lefevre family are yet 
numerous in and about Little Rock, and in other 
portions of the State. 

Peter L. Lefevre and family were among the 
very first French settlers, locating in the fall of 
1818 on the north side of the river on Spanish 
Grant No. 497, abou-t six miles below Little Rock. 
His sons were Peter, Enos, Francis G. , Ambrose, 
Akin, Leon and John B. , his daughter being Mary 
Louise. All of these have passed away except 
the now venerable Leon Lefevre, who resides on 
the old plantation where he was born in the year 
1808. For eighty one years the panorama of the 
birth, growth and the vicissitudes of Arkansas 
have passed before his eyes. It is supposed of all 
living men he is the oldest representative surviving 
of the earliest settlers; however, a negro, still a 
resident of Little Rock, also came in 1818. 

The first English speaking settlers were Ten- 
nesseeans, Kentuckians and Alabamians. The ear- 
liest came down the Mississippi River, and then 
penetrating Arkansas at the mouths of the streams 
from the west, ascended these in the search for 
future homes. The date of the first coming of 
English speaking colonists may be given as 1807, 
those prior to that time being only trappers, 
hunters and voyagers on expeditions of discovery, 
or those whose names can not now be ascertained. 

South Carolina and Georgia also gave their 
small quotas to the first pioneers of Arkansas. 
From the States south of Tennessee the route was 



overland to the Mississippi River, or to some of its 
bayous, and then by water. A few of these from 
the Southern States brought considerable property, 
and some of them negro slaves, but not many 
were able to do this. The general rule was to 
reach the Territory alone and clear a small piece 
of ground, and as soon as possible to biiy slaves and 
set them at work in the cotton fields. 

In 1814 a colony of emigrants, consisting of 
four families, settled at Batesville, then the Lower 
Missouri Territory, now the county seat of Inde- 
pendence County. There was an addition of fif- 
teen families to this colony the next year. Of the 
first was the family of Samuel Miller, father of 
(afterward) Gov. William R. Miller; there were also 
John Moore, the Magnesses and Beans. All these 
families left names permanently connected with 
the history of Arkansas. In the colony of 1815 
(all from Kentucky) were the brothers, Richard, 
John, Thomas and James Peel, sons of Thomas 
Peel, a Virginian, and Kentucky companion of 
Daniel Boone. Thomas Curran was also one of 
the later colonists from Kentucky, a relative of the 
great Irishman, John Philpot Curran. In the 1815 
colony were also old Ben Hardin — hero of so many 
Indian wars — his brother, Joab, and William 
Griffin, Thomas Wyatt, William Martin, Samuel 
Elvin, James Akin, John Reed, James Miller and 
John B. Craig. 

Alden Trimble, who died at Peel, Ark., in 
April, 1889, aged seventy-four years, was born in 
the Gal Hogan settlement, on White River, Marion 
County, June 14, 1815. This item is gained 
fi-om the obituary notice of his death, and indicates 
some of the very first settlers in that portion of the 
State. 

Among the oldest settled points, after Arkan- 
sas Post, was what is now Arkadelphia, Clark 
County. It was first called Blakelytown, after 
Adam Blakely. He had opened a little store at 
the place^ and about this were collected the first 
settlers, among whom may now be named Zack 
Davis, Samuel Parker and Adam Highnight. The 
Blakelys and the names given above were all locat- 
ed in that settlement in the year 1810. The next 
year came John Hemphill, who was the first to dis- 



30 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



cover aod utilize the valuable waters of the salt 
springs of that place. He engaged ia the suc- 
cessful manufacture of salt, and was in time suc- 
ceeded by his son-in-law, Jonathan O. Callaway. 
Jacob Barkman settled in Arkadelphia in 1811. 
He was a man of foresight and enterjjrise, and 
soon established a trade along the river to New 
Orleans. He commenced navigating the river in 
canoes and pirogues, and finally owned and ran in 
the trade the first steamboat plying from that 
jjoint to New Orleans. He pushed trade at the 
point of settlement, at the same time advancing 
navigation, and opened a large cotton farm. 

In Arkansas County, among the early promi- 
nent men who were active in the county's affairs 
were Eli I. Lewis, Henry Scull, O. H. Thomas, 
T. Farrelly, Hewes Scull, A. B. K. Thetford and 
Lewis Bogy. The latter afterward removed to 
Missouri, and has permanently associated his name 
with the history of that vState. In a subsequent 
list of names should be mentioned those of Will- 
iam Fultony, James Maxwell and James H. Lucas, 
the latter being another of the notable citizens of 
Missouri. 

Carroll County: Judges George Camjroell and 
William King, and John Bush, T. H. Clark, Abra- 
ham Shelly, William Nooner, Judge Hiram Davis, 
W. C. Mitchell, Charles Sneed, A. M. Wilson, 
Elijah Tabor, William Beller, M. L. Hawkins, 
John McMillan, M. Ferryman, J. A. Hicks, N. 
Rudd, Thomas Callen, W. E. Armstrong. 

Chicot County: John Clark, William B. Patton, 
Richard Latting, George W. Ferribee, Francis 
Rycroft, Thomas Knox, W. B. Duncan, J. W. 
Boone, H. S. Smith, James Blaine, Abner John- 
son, William Hunt, J. W. Neal, James Murray, 
B. Magruder, W. P. Reyburn, J. T. White, John 
Fulton, Judge W. H. Sutton, J. Chapman, Hiram 
Morrell, Reuben Smith, A. W. Webb. 

In Clark County, in the earliest times, were 
W. P. L. Blair, Colbert Baker, Moses Graham, 
Mathew Logan, James Miles, Thomas Drew, 
Daniel Ringo, A. Stroud, David Fisk and Isaac 
Ward. 

Clay County: John J. Griffin, Abraham Rob- 
erts, William Davis, William H. Mack. James 



Watson, J. G. Dudley, James Campbell, Single- 
ton Copeland, C. H. Mobley. 

Conway County: Judge Saffold, David Bar- 
ber, James Kellam, Reuben Blunt, James Barber, 
James Ward, Thomas Mathers, John Houston, E. 
W. Owen, Judge B. B. Ball, J. I. Simmons, T. S. 
Haynes, B. F. Howard, William Ellis, N. H. 
Buckley, James Ward, Judge Robert McCall, W. 
H. Robertson, L. C. Griffin, Judge W. T. Gamble, 
D. D. Mason, George Fletcher and D. Harrison. 

Craighead County: Rufus Snoddy, Daniel 
O'Guinn, Yancey Broadway, Henry Powell, D. R. 
Tyler, Elias Mackey, William Q. Lane, John Ham- 
ilton, Asa Puckett, Eli Quarles, William Puryear. 

In Crawford County were Henry Bradford, 
Jack Mills, G. C. Pickett, Mark Beane, J. C. Sum- 
ner, James Billingsley. 

Crittenden County : J. Livingston, W. D. Fer- 
guson, W. Goshen, William Cherry, Judge D. H. 
Harrig, O. W. Wallace, S. A. Cherry, Judge 
Charles Blackmore, S. R. Cherry, John Tory, F. 
B. Read, Judge A. B. Hubbins, H. O. Oders, J. 
H. Wathen, H. Bacon. 

Fulton County: G. W. Archer, William Wells, 
Daniel Hubble, Moses Brannon, John Nichols, 
Moses Steward, Enos C. Hunter, Milton Yarberry, 
Dr. A. C. Cantrell. 

Greene County: Judge L. Brookfield, L. 
Thompson, James Brown, J. Sutfin, G. Hall, 
Charles Robertson, Judge W. Hane, Judge George 
Daniel, G. L. Martin, J. Stotts, James Ratchford, 
Judge L. Thompson, H. L. Holt, J. L. Atkinson, 
J. Clark, H. N. Reynolds, John Anderson, Ben- 
jamin Crowley, William Pevehouse, John Mitch- 
ell, Aaron Bagwell, A. J. Smith, Wiley Clarkson, 
William Hatch. 

In Hempstead County: J. M. Steward, A. S. 
Walker, Benjamin Clark, A. M. Oakley, Thomas 
Dooley, D. T. Witter, Edward Cross, William 
McDonald, D. Wilbui-n and James Moss. 

Hot Springs County: L. N. West, G. B. 
Hughes, Judge W. Durham, G. W. Rogers, T. W. 
Johnson, J. T. Grant, J. H. Robinson, H. A. 
Whittington, John Callaway, J. T. Grant, Judge 
G. Whittington, L. Runyan, R. Huson, J. Bank- 
son, Ira Robinson, Judge A. N. Sabin, C. A. Sa- 



bin, W. W. McDaniel, W. Dunham, A. B. MeDoa- 
ald, Joseph Lorance. 

Independence County : R. Searcy, Robert Bean, 
Charles Kelh', John Reed, T. Curran, John Bean, 
I. Curran, J. L. Daniels, J. Redmon, John Rud- 
dell. C. H. Pelham, Samuel Miller, James Micham, 
James Trimble, Henry Engles, Hartwell Boswell, 
John H. Ringgold. 

Izard County: J. P. Houston, John Adams, 
Judge Mathew Adams, H. C. Roberts, Jesse Adams, 
John Hargrove, J. Blyeth, William Clement, 
Judge J. Jeffrey, Daniel Jeffrey, A. Adams, J. A. 
Harris, W. B. Carr, Judge B. Hawkins, B. H. 
Johnson, D. K. Loyd, W. H. Carr, A. Creswell, 
H. W. Bandy, Moses Bishop, Daniel Hively, 
John Gray, William Powell Thomas Richardson, 
William Seymour. 

Jackson County: Judge Hiram Glass, J. C. 
Saylors, Isaac Gray, N. Copeland, Judge E. 
Bartley, John Robinson, A. M. Carpenter, Judge 
D. C. Waters, P. O. Flynn, Hall Roddy, Judge 
R. Ridley, G. W. Cromwell, Sam Mathews, Sam 
Allen, Martin Bridgeman, John Wideman, New- 
ton Ai'nold, Joseph Haggerton, Holloway Stokes. 

Jefferson County: Judge W. P. Hackett, J. T. 
Pullen, Judge Creed Taylor, Peter German, N. 
Holland, Judge Sam C. Roane, William Kinkead, 
Thomas O'Neal, E. H. Roane, S. Dardenne, Sam 
Taylor, Judge H. Bradford, H. Edgington, Judge 
W. H. Lindsey, J. H. Caldwell. 

Johnson County: Judge George Jameson, 
Thomas Jenette, S. F. Mason, Judge J. P. Kessie, 
A. Sinclair, William Fritz, W. J. Parks, R. S. 
McMicken, Augustus Ward, Judge J. L. Cravens, 
A. M. Ward, M. Rose, A. L. Black, W. A. Ander- 
son, Judge J. B. Brown, A. Sinclair, William 
Adams, W. M. H. Newton. 

Lafayette County : Judge Jacob Buzzard, Jesse 
Douglass, Joshua Morrison, I. W. Ward, J. T. 
Conway, W. E. Hodges, J. Morrison, George Doo- 
ley, J. M. Dorr, J. P. Jett, W. B. Conway, W. 
H. Conway, T. V. Jackson, G. H. Pickering, 
Judge E. M. Lowe, R. F. Sullivan, James Ab- 
rams. 

Lawrence County: Joseph Hardin, Robert 
Blane, H. Sandford, John Reed, R. Richardson, 



J. M. Knykendall, H. R. Hynson, James Camp- 
bell, D. W. Lowe, Thomas Black, John Rodney, 
John Spotts, William J. Hudson, William Stuart, 
Isaac Morris, William B. Marshall, John S. Fick- 
lin. 

Madison County: Judge John Bowen, H. B. 
Brown, P. M. Johnson, H. C. Daugherty, M. 
Ferryman, T. McCuiston. 

In Miller County : John Clark, J. Ewing, J. H. 
Fowler, B. English, C. Wright, G. F. Lawson. 
Thomas Polk, George Wetmore, David Clark, J. 
G. Pierson, John Morton, N. Y. Crittenden, 
Charles Burkem, George Colhim, G. C. Wetmore, 
D. C. Steele, G. F. Lawton and Judge G. M. 
Martin. 

Mississippi County: Judge Edwin Jones, J. 
W. Whitworth. E. F. Loyd, S. McLimg, G. C. 
Bartield, Judge Nathan Ross, Judge John Troy, 
J. W. Dewitt, J. C. Bowen, Judge Fred Miller, 
Uriah Russell, T. L. Daniel, J. G. Davis, Judge 
Nathan Ross, J. P. Edrington, Thomas Sears, 
A. G. Blackmore, William Kellums, Thomas J. 
Mills, James Williams, Elijah Buford, Peter G. 
Reeves. 

Monjfee County: Judge William Ingram, J. C. 
Montgomery, James Eagan, John Maddox, Lafay- 
ette Jones, Judge James Carlton, M. Mitchell, J. 
R. Dye, J. Jacobs, R. S. Bell. 

Phillips Coimty: W. B. R. Horner, Daniel 
Mooney, S. Phillips, S. M. Rutherford, George 
Seaborn, H. L. Biscoe, G. W. Fereby, J. H. 
McKenzie, Austin Hendricks, W. H. Calvert, N. 
Righton, B. Burress, F. Hanks, J. H. McKeal, 
J. K. Sandford, S. S. Smith, C'' P. Smith, J. H. 
McKenzie, S. C. Mooney, I. C. P. Tolleson, Emer 
Askew, P. Pinkstou, Charles Pearcy, J. B. Ford, 
W. Bettiss, J. Skinner, H. Turner and M. Irvin. 

Pike County: Judge W. Sorrels, D. S. Dickin- 
son, John Hughes, J. W. Dickinson, Judge W. 
Kelly, Isaac White, J. H. Kirkhan, E. K. Will- 
iams, Henry Brewer. 

Poinsett County: Judges Richard Hall and 
William Harris, Drs. Theophilus Gritfin and John 
P. Hardis, Harrison Ainsworth, Robert H. Stone, 
Benjamin Harris. 

Pope County: Judge Andrew Scott, Twitty 



32 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



Pace, H. Stinnett, W. Garrott, W. Mitchell, 
Judge S. K. Blythe, A. E. Pace, J. J. Morse, F. 
Heron, Judge Thomas Murray, Jr. , S. M. Hayes, 
S. S. Hayes, R. S. Witt, Judge Isaac Brown, R. 
T. Williamson, W. W. Rankin, Judge J. J. Morse, 
J. B. Logan, W. C. Webb. 

Pulaski County: R. C. Oden, L. R. Curran, 
Jacob Peyatte, A. H. Renick, G. Greathouse, M. 
Cunningham, Samuel Anderson, H Armstrong, T. 
W. Newton, D. E. McKinney, S. M. Rutherford, 

A. McHenry, Allen Martin, J. H. Caldwell, Judge 
S. S. Hall, J. Henderson, William Atohinson, R. 
N. Rowland, Judge David Rorer, J. K. Taylor, 
R. H. Callaway, A. L. Langham, Judge J. H. 
Cocke, W. Badgett, G. N. Peay, J. C. Anthony, 
L. R. Lincoln, A. Martin, A. S. Walker, Judge 
R. Graves, J. P. and John Fields, J. K. Taylor, 
W. C. Howell, J. Gould, Roswell Beebe, William 
Russell, John C. Peay. 

Randolph County: Judge P. R. Pittman, B. J. 
Wiley, William Black, R. Bradford, J. M. Cooper, 

B. J. Wiley, B. M. Simpson, John Janes, James 
Campbell, Samuel McElroy, Edward Mattix, 
Thomas S. Drew, R. S. Bettis, James Russell. 

St. Francis County: Andrew Roane,- William 
Strong, S. Crouch, Judge John Johnson, T. J. 
Curl, G. B. Lincecum, William Lewis, Judge 
William Strong, Isaac Mitchell, David Davis, 
Isaac Forbes, Judge William Enos, N. O. Little, 
W. G. Bozeman, H. M. Carothers, Judge R. H. 
Hargrove, H. H. Curl, Cyrus Little. 

Saline County : Judge T. S. Hutchinson, Samuel 
Caldwell, V. Brazil, C. Lindsey, A. Carrick, Judge 
H. Prudden, G. "B. Hughes, Samuel Collins, J. J. 
Joiner, J. R. Conway, R. Brazil, E. M. Owen, 
George McDaniel, C. P. Lyle. 

Scott County: Judge Elijah Baker, S. B. 
Walker, James Riley, J. R. Choate, Judge James 
Logan, G. Marshall, Charles Humphrey, W. Cau- 
thorn, G. C. Walker, T. J. Garner, Judge Gilbert 
Marshall, W. Kenner. 

Searcy CoTiuty : J udge William Wood, William 
Kavanaugh, E. M. Hale, Judge Joseph Rea, Will- 
iam Ruttes, Joe Brown, V. Robertson, T. S. Hale, 
Judge J. Campbell. 

Sevier County: Judge John Clark, R. Hart- 



field, G. Clark, J. T. Little, Judge David Forau, 
P. Little, William, White, Charles Moore, A. 
Hartfield, Judge J. F. Little, Henry Morris, 
Judge Henry Brown, George Halbrook, Judge 
R. H. Scott, S. S. Smith. 

Sharp County: John King, Robert Lott, Nich- 
olas Norris, William Morgan, William J. Gray, 
William Williford, Solomon Hudspeth, Stephen 
English, John Walker, L. D. Dale, John C. Gar- 
ner, R. P. Smithee, Josiah Richardson, Judge A. 
H. Nunn, William G. Matheny. 

Union County: John T. Cabeen, John Black, 
Jr., Judge John Black, Sr. , Benjamin Gooch, 
Alexander Beard, Thomas O'Neal, Judge G. B. 
Hughes, John Cornish, John Hogg, Judge Hiram 
Smith, J. R. Moore, John Henry, John Stokeley, 
Judge Charles H. Seay, W. L. Bradley, Judge 
Thomas Owens. 

Van Buren County: Judge J. L. Laferty, P. 
O. Powell, N. Daugherty, Philip Wail, L. Will- 
iams, Judge J. B. Craig, Judge J. M. Baird, J. 
McAllister, Judge William Dougherty, A. Mor- 
rison, George Counts, A. Caruthers, W. W. Trim- 
ble, R. Bain, J. O. Young, George Hardin, A. W. 
McRaines, Judge J. C. Ganier: 

Washington County: L. Newton, Lewis Evans, 
John Skelton, Judge Robert McAmy, B. H. 
Smithson, Judge John Wilson, James Marrs, V. 
Caru^thers, James Coulter, J. T. Edmonson, Judge 
J. M. Hoge, James Crawford, John McClellan, 
Judge W. B. Woody, W. W. Hester, Judge John 
Cureton, L. C. Pleasants, Isaac Murphy, D. Calla- 
ghan. Judge Thomas Wilson, W. L. Wallace and 
L. W. Wallace. 

White County: Judge Samuel Guthrie, P. W. 
Roberts, P. Crease, Michael Owens, M. H. Blue, 
S. Arnold, J. W. Bond, William Cook, J. Arnold, 
Milton Saunders, Jaoes Bird, Samuel Beeler, 
James Walker, Martin Jones, Philip Hilger, James 
King, L. Pate, John Akin, Reuben Stephens, Sam- 
uel Guthrie. 

Woodruff County: Rolla Gray, Durant H. 
Bell, John Dennis, Dudley Glass. Michael Hag- 
gerdon, Samuel Taylor, James Barnes, George 
Hatch, John Teague, Thomas Arnold and Thomas 
Hough. 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



33 



The above were all prominent men in their lo- 
calities during the Territorial times of Arkansas. 
Many of them have left names and memories inti- 
mately associated with the history of the State. 
They were a part of those pioneers ' ' who hewed 
the dark, old woods away, ' ' and left a rich inheri- 
tance, and a substantial civilization, having wealth, 
refinement and luxuries, that were never a part of 
their dreams. They were home makers as well as 
State and Nation builders. They cut out the roads, 
opened their farms, bridged the streams, built 
houses, made settlements, towns and cities, render- 
ing all things possible to their descendants ; a race 
of heroes and martyrs pre-eminent in all time for 
the blessings they transmitted to posterity; they 
repelled the painted savage, and exterminated the 
ferocious wild beasts; they worked, struggled and 
endured that others might enjoy the fruits of their 
heroic sacrifices. Their lives were void of evil to 
mankind; possessing little ambition, their touch 
was the bloom and never the blight. Granted, 
cynic, they builded wiser than they knew, yet they 
built, and built well, and their every success was 
the triumphant march of peace. Let the record of 
their humble but great lives be immortal! 

The New Madrid earthquake of 1811-12, com- 
mencing in the last of December, and the subterra- 
nean forces ceasing after three months' duration, 
was of itself a noted era, but to the awful display 
of nature's forces was added a far more important 
and lasting event, the result of the silent but 
mighty powers of the human mind. Simulta- 
neously with the hour of the most violent convul- 
sions of nature, the third day of the earthquake, 
there rode out at the mouth of the Ohio, into the 
lashed and foaming waters of the Mississippi, the 
first steamboat that ever ploughed the western 
waters — the steamer ' ' Orleans, ' ' Capt. Roosevelt. 
So awful was the display of nature's energies, that 
the granitic earth, with a mighty sound, heaved 
and writhed like a storm-tossed ocean. The great 
river turned back in its flow, the waves of the 
ground burst, shooting high in the air, spouting 
sand and water; great forest-covered hills disap- 
peared at the bottom of deep lakes into which 
they had sunk; and the "sunk lands" are to 



this day marked on the maps of Southeast Mis- 
souri and Northeast Arkansas. The sparse popu- 
lation along the river (New Madrid was a flourish- 
ing young town) fled the country in terror, leav- 
ing mostly their efPects and domestic animals. 

The wild riot of nature met in this wilderness 
the triumph of man's genius. Where else on the 
globe so appropriately could have been this meet- 
ing of the opposing forces as at the mouth of the 
Ohio and on the convulsed bosom of the Father of 
Waters? How feeble, apparently, in this contest, 
were the powers of man; how grand and awful the 
play of nature's forces! The mote struggling 
against the "wreck of worlds and crush of mat- 
ter. ' ' But, ' ' peace be still, ' ' was spoken to the 
vexed earth, while the invention of Fulton will go 
on forever. The revolving paddle-wheels were the 
incipient drive-wheels, on which now ride in tri- 
umph the glories of this great age. 

The movement of immigrants to Arkansas in 
the decade following the earthquake was retarded 
somewhat, whereas, barring this, it should and 
would have been stimulated into activity by the 
advent of steamboats upon the western rivers. The 
south half of the State was in the possession of 
the Quapaw Indians. The Spanish attempts at 
colonizing were practical failures. His Catholic 
majesty was moving in the old ruts of the feudal 
ages, in the deep-seated faith of the "divinity of 
kings," and the jiaternal powers and duties of 
rulers. The Bastrop settlement of "thirty fam- 
ilies," by a seigniorial grant in 1797, had brought 
years of suffering, disappointment and failure. 
This was an attempt to found a colony on the 
Ouachita River, granting an entire river and a 
strip of land on each side thereof to Bastrop, 
the government to pay the passage of the people 
across the ocean and to feed and clothe them one 
year. To care for its vassals, and to provide 
human breeding grounds ; swell the multitudes for 
the use of church and State; to "glorify God" 
by repressing the growing instincts of liberty and 
the freedom of thought, and add subjects to the 
possession and powers of these gilded toads, were 
the essence of the oriental schemes for peopling 
the new world. Happily for mankind they failed. 



34 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



and the wild beasts. returned to care for their young 
in safety and await the coming of the real pioneers, 
they who came bringing little or nothing, save 



a manly sjiirit of self-reliance and indepondence. 
These were the successful founders and builders 
of empire in the wilderness. 



;«ft»ii i¥. 



Organization. — The Viceroys and Governors — The Attitude of the Royal Owners of Louisiana- 

The District Divided — The Territory of Arkansas Formed from the Territory of Missouri 

—The Territorial Government— The First Legislature— The .Seat of Government 

—Other Legislative Bodies— The Deullo— Arkansas Admitted to Statehood 

— The Con.stitutional Conventions — The Memorable Reconstruction 

Period— Legislative Attitude on the Question of Secession 

—The War of the Governors, etc., etc. 



5ta.,*S 



n"S^'»^?ili? Hfe^:^ -^ *^® preceding chapter are 
'' >it^u ISJ.^iit'i' briefly traced the changes 
A^'A ^: t'J * ,;^ [_,> "i m the government ot the 
^i^kV" Territory of Louisiana from 



the 



its discovery to the year 
•^)^ 1803, when it became a 
^'^'^ part of the territory of 
United States. Discovered by 



the Spanish, possessed by the French, 
divided and re-divided between the 
French, Spanish and English; set- 
"^^^ tied by the Holy Mother Church, 
^T^jfe:; J' in the warp and woof of nations it 

f: was the flying shuttle-cock of the 
great weaver in its religion as well 
as allegiance for 261 years. This 
5" foundling, this waif of nations, was 

but an outcast, or a trophy chained to the 
triumphal car of the victors among the warring 
Eui-opean powers, until in the providence of God 
it reached its haven and abiding home in the 
bosom of the union of States. 

As a French province, the civil government of 
Louisiana was organized, and the Marquis de San- 
ville apjaointed viceroy or governor in 1689. 



UNDER FRENCH EDLE. 

Robert Cavelier ile La Salle (April 9, 

formal). 1683-1688 

Marquis de Sanville 1689-1700 

Bienville 1 701-1713 

Lamothe Cadillar 1713-1715 

De L'Epinay 1716-1717 

Bienville 1718-1733 

Boisbriant (ad interim) 1734 

Bienville 1783-1741 

Baron de Kelerec 1753-1763 

D'Abbadie 1763-1766* 

UNDER SPANISH RULE. 

Antonio de Ulloa 1767-1768 

Alexander O'Reilly 1768-1769 

Louis de Unzaga 1770-1776 

Bernando de Galvez ' 1777-1784 

Estevar Miro 178.5-1787 

Francisco Luis Hortu, Baron of Caron- 

delet 1789-1793 

Gayoso de Lemos 1798-1798 

Sebastian de Cosa Calvo y O'Farrell. . .1798-1799 
.Juan Manual de Salcedo 1800-1803 

From the dates already given it will be seen 
that the official acts of Salcedo during his entire 

* Louisiana west of the Mississippi, although ceded 
to Spain in 1763, remained under French jurisdiction 
until 1766. 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



1217074 



35 



term of office, iinder the secret treaty of Ildefonso, 
were tainted with irregularity. Thousands of land 
grants had been given by him after he had in fact 
ceased to be the viceroy of Spain. The contract- | 
ing powers had affixed to the treaty the usual ob- i 
ligations of the fulfillment of all undertakings, but 
the American courts and lawyers, in that ancient 
spirit of legal hypercritical technicalities, had 
given heed to the vicious doctrine that acts in good j 
faith of a de facto governor may be treated as of 
questionable validity. This was never good law, 
because it was never good sense or justice. 

The acts and official doings of these vice-royal- 
ties in the wilderness present little or nothing of 
interest to the student of history, because they 
were local and individual in their bearing. It 
was the action of the powers across the waters, in 
reference to Canada and Louisiana, that in their 
wide and sweeping effects have been nearly omnip- 
otent in shaping civilization. 

Referring to the acquisition of Canada and the 
Louisiana east of the Mississippi River, Bancroft 
says that England exulted in its conquest;* 
enjoying the glory of extended dominion in the 
confident expectation of a boundless increase of 
wealth. But its success was due to its having 
taken the lead in the good old struggle for liberty, 
and it was destined to bring fruits, not so much to 
itself as to the cause of freedom and mankind. 

France, of all the States on the continent of 
Europe the most powerful, by territorial unity, 
wealth, numbers, industry and culture, seemed 
also by its place marked out for maritime ascend- 
ency. Set between many seas it rested upon the 
Mediterranean, possessed harbors on the German 
Ocean, and embraced between its wide shores and 
jutting headlands the bays and open waters of the 
Atlantic; its people, infolding at one extreme the 
offspring of colonists from Greece, and at the 
other the hardy children of the Northmen, being 
called, as it were, to the inheritance of life upon 
the sea. The nation, too, readily conceived or ap- 
propriated great ideas and delighted in bold re- 
solves. Its travelers had penetrated farthest into 

*Bancroft, vol. iv.-4.57; Gayarre's Histoire de la 
Louisiane, vol. ii.-131. 



the fearful interior of unknown lands; its mission 
aries won most familiarly the contidence of the 
aboriginal hordes; its writers described with 
keener and wiser observation the forms of nature 
in her wildness, and the habits and languages of 
savage man ; its soldiers, and every lay Frenchman 
in America owed military service, uniting beyond 
all others celerity with courage, knew best how to 
endure the hardships of forest life and to triumph 
in forest warfare. Its ocean chivalry had given a 
name and a colony to Carolina, and its merchants 
a people to Acadia. The French discovered the 
basin of the St. Lawrence; were the first to ex- 
plore and possess the banks of the Mississippi, and 
planned an American empire that should unite the 
widest valleys and most copious inland waters in 
the world. But over all this splendid empire in 
the old and the new world was a government that 
was medieval — mured in its glittering palaces, 
taxing its subjects, it would allow nothing to come 
to the Louisiana Territory but what was old and 
worn out. French America was closed against even 
a gleam of intellectual independence; nor did all 
Louisiana contain so much as one dissenter from 
the Roman Church. 

" We have caught them at last," exultingly ex- 
claimed Choiseul, when he gave up the Canadas 
to England and the Louisiana to Spain. ' ' Eng- 
land will ere long repent of having removed the 
only check that could keep her colonies in awe. * 
* * She will call on them to support the bur- 
dens they have helped to bring on her, and they 
will answer by striking off all dependence," said 
Vergennes. 

These keen-witted Frenchmen, with a pene- 
tration far beyond the ablest statesmen of Eng- 
land, saw, as they believed, and time has con- 
firmed, that in the humiliation and dismember- 
ment of the territory of France, esjiecially the 
transfer to England of Canada, they had laid the 
mine which some day would destroy the British 
colonial system, and probably eventuate in the 
independence of the American colonies. The in 
tellect of France was keeping step with the spirit 
of the age; it had been excluded of course from 
the nation's councils, but saw what its feeble 



36 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



government neither could see nor prevent, that the 
distant wilderness possessed a far greater impor- 
tance on the world's new map than was given it 
by the gold and gems it was supposed to contain; 
and that the change of allegiance of the colonies 
was the great step in the human mind, as it was 
slowly emerging from the gloom and darkness of 
the middle ages. Thus it was that the mere Terri- 
tory of Louisiana, before it was peopled by civilized 
man, was playing its important part in the world's 
greatest of all dramas. 

The first official act of our government, after 
the purchase of Louisiana, was an act of Congress, 
March 26, 180-t, dividing Louisiana into two dis- 
tricts, and attaching the whole to Indiana Terri- 
tory, under the government of William Henry 
Harrison. The division in Louisiana was by a line 
on the thirty- third parallel; the south was named 
the District of Orleans; that north of it was named 
the District of Louisiana. This is now the south 
line of the State of Arkansas. 

In 1805 the District of Louisiana was erected in- 
to the Territory of Louisiana. It was however a terri- 
tory of the second class and remained under the gov- 
ernment and control of Indiana Territory until 1812. 

By act of June 4, 1812, the name of Louisiana 
Territory was changed and became the Missoiiri 
Territory, being made a territory of the first class, 
and given a territorial government. Capt. "William 
Clark, of the famous Lewis and Clark, explorers of 
the northwest, was appointed governor, remaining 
as such until 1819, when Arkansas Territory was 
cut ofP from Missouri. 

The act of 1812, changing the District of 
Louisiana to Missouri Territory, provided for a 
Territorial legislature consisting of nine members, 
and empowered the governor to lay off that 
part where the Indian title had been extinguished 
into thirteen counties. The county of New 
Madrid, as then formed, extended into the Arkan- 
sas territorial limits, ' ' down to the Mississippi to 
a point directly east of the mouth of Little Red 
River; thence to the mouth of Red River; thence 
up the Red River to the Osage purchase," etc. 
In other words it did not embrace the whole of 
what is now Arkansas. 



December 13, 1813, the County of Arkansas, 
Missouri Territory, was formed, and the county 
seat was fixed at Arkansas Post.* 

Besides Arkansas County, Lawrence County 
was formed January 15, 1815, and Clark, Hemp- 
stead and Pulaski Counties, December 15, 1818. 

Missouri neglected it seems to provide a judi- 
cial district for her five southern or Arkansas 
counties. Therefore Congress, in 1814, authorized 
the President to appoint an additional judge for 
Missouri Territory, ' ' who should hold office four 
years and reside in or near the village of Arkan- 
sas," — across the river from Arkansas Post. 

March 2, 1819, Congress created the Territory 
of Arkansas out of the Missouri Territory. It was 
only a territory of the second class, and the ma- 
chinery of government consisted of the governor 
and three judges, who constituted the executive, 
judicial and legislative departments, their offi- 
cial acts requiring the consent of Congress. Pres- 
ident Monroe appointed James Miller, governor; 
Robert Crittenden, secretary; Charles Jouett, 
Andrew Scott and Robert P. Letcher, judges of the 
superior court. The act designated Arkansas Post 
as the temporary seat of government. In the ab- 
sence of the Governor, Robert Crittenden, "act- 
ing governor," convened the first session of the 
provisional government on August 3, 1819. The 
act continued the new territory under the laws of 
Missouri Territory. The five coimties designated 
above as formed prior to the division of Arkansas, 
had been represented in the Missouri Territorial 
legislature. Elijah Kelly, of Clark County, was a 
representative, and he rode on horseback from his 
home to St. Louis. The session was probably not 
a week in length, and the pay and mileage little 
or nothing. 

This first Territorial legislature appointed a 
treasurer and auditor, provided a tax for general 
purposes, and divided the five counties into two 
judicial circuits: First, Arkansas and Lawrence 
Counties ; Second, Pulaski, Clark and Hempstead 
Counties. 

* During the latter part of the eighteenth century, 
something of the same municipal division was made, and 
called "Arkansas Parish," the name being derived 
from an old Indian town called Arkansea. 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



37 



AjJril 21, 1820, Congress passed aa act per- 
fecting the Territorial organization, and applying 
the same jarovisions to Arkansas that were contained 
in the act creating Missouri into a Territory of the 
tirst class. 

The first legislative body elected in Arkansas 
convened at Ai'kansas Post, February 7 to 24, 1820. 
In the council were: President, Edward McDonald; 
secretary, Richard Searcy; members, Arkansas 
County, Sylvanus Phillips; Clark County, Jacob 
Barkman; Hempstead County, David Clark; 
Lawrence County, Edward McDonald; Pulaski 
County, John. McElmiirry. In the house of rep- 
resentatives: Speaker, Joseph Hardin (William 
Stephenson was tirst elected, served one day and 
resigned, on account of indisposition); J. Cham- 
berlain, clerk; members, Arkansas County, W. B. 
R. Horner, W. O. Allen; Clark, Thomas Fish; 
Hempstead, J. English, W. Stevenson; Lawrence, 
Joseph Hardin, Joab Hardin; Pulaski, Radford 
Ellis, T. H. Tindall. This body later adjourned to 
meet October following, continuing in session until 
the 25th. 

At this adjourned session the question of the 
removal of the Territorial seat of government from 
Arkansas Post to ' ' the Little Rock, ' ' came up on 
a memorial signed by Amos Wheeler and others. 
"The Little Rock" was in contradistinction to 
"the Rocks," as were known the beautiful bluffs, 
over 200 feet high, a little above and across the 
river from ' • the Little Rock. ' ' In 1820 Gov. 
Miller visited the Little Rock — Petit Rocher — 
with a view to selecting a new seat of government. 
The point designated was the northeast corner of 
the Quapaw west line and Arkansas River. Im- 
mediately upon the formation of the Territory, 
prominent parties began to look out for a more 
central location for a capital higher up the river, 
and it was soon a general understanding that the 
seat of government and the county seat of Pulaski 
County, the then adjoining county above Arkansas 
County on the river, would be located at the same 
place. A syndicate was formed and Little Rock 
Bluff was pushed for this double honor. The 
government had not yet opened the land to pub- 
lic entry, as the title of the Quapaws had just been 



extinguished. These parties resorted to the expe- 
dient of locating upon the land ' ' New Madrid 
floats," or claims, under the act of February 17, 
1815, which authorized any one whose land had 
been " materially injured " by the earthquake of 
1811 to locate the like quantity of laud on any of 
the jjublic lands open for sale. Several hundred 
acres were entered iinder these claims as the f ut- 
iire town site. The county seat of Pulaski County 
was, contrary to the expectation of the Little Rock 
syndicate, located at Cadron, near the mouth of 
Cadron Creek, where it enters the Arkansas River. 

On the 18th day of October, 1820, the Terri- 
torial seat of government was removed from the 
Post of Arkansas to the Little Rock, the act to 
take effect June 1, 1821. The next Territorial 
legislature convened in Little Rock, October 1 to 
24, 1821. The council consisted of Sam C. Roane, 
president, and Richard Searcy, secretary. In the 
house William Trimble was speaker, and A. H. 
Sevier, clerk. 

The third legislature met October 6 to 31, 
1823. Sam C. Roane was president of the coun- 
cil, and Thomas W. Newton, secretary; while T. 
Farrelly was speaker, and D. E. McKinney, clerk 
of the house. 

The fourth legislature was held October 3 to 
November 3, 1825. Of the council, the president 
was Jacob Barkman; secretary, Thomas W. New- 
ton. Of the house, Robert Bean was speaker; 
David Barber, clerk. 

The fifth Territorial legislature was held October 
1 to 31, 1827, and a special session held October 
6 to October 28, 1828; E. T. Clark served as presi- 
dent of the council, and John Clark, secretary; 
J. Wilson was speaker of the house, and Daniel 
Ringo, clerk. 

In the sixth legislature, Charles Caldwell was 
president of the council, and John Caldwell, secre- 
tary; John Wilson was speaker of the house, and 
Daniel Ringo, clerk. 

The seventh legislature held October 3 to 
November 7, 1831, had Charles Caldwell as presi- 
dent of the council, and Absalom Fowler, secre- 
tary; William Trimble was speaker of the house, 
and G. W. Ferebee, secretary. 



38 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



In the eighth legislature, October 7 to Novem- 
ber 16, 1833, John Williamson was president of the 
council and William F. Yeomans, secretary; John 
Wilson was speaker of the house, and James B. 
Keatts, clerk. 

The ninth legislature met October 5 to Novem- 
ber 16, 1835. The president of the senate was 
Charles Caldwell; secretary, S. T. Sanders. John 
Wilson was speaker of the house and L. B. Tully, 
clerk. 

This was the last of the Territorial assemblies. 
James Miller was succeeded as governor by George 
Izard, March 4, 1825, and Izard by John Pope, 
March 9, 1829. William Fulton followed Pope 
March 9, 1835, and held the office until Arkansas 
became a State. 

Robert Crittenden was secretary of State 
(nearly all of Miller's term "acting governor"), 
appointed March 3, 1819, and was succeeded in 
office by William Fulton, April 8, 1829; Fulton 
was succeeded by Lewis Randolph, February 23, 
1835. 

George W. Scott was appointed Territorial 
auditor August 5, 1819, and was succeeded by 
Richard C. Byrd, November 20, 1829; Byrd was 
followed by Emzy Wilson, November 5, 1831; and 
the latter by William Pelham, November 12, 1833, 
his successor being Elias N. Conway, July 25, 1835. 
James Scull, appointed treasurer August 5, 
1819, was succeeded by S. M. Rutherford, Novem- 
ber 12, 1833, who continued in office until the 
State was formed. 

The counties in 1825 had been increased in num- 
ber to thirteen: Arkansas, Clark, Conway, Chicot, 
Crawford, Crittenden, Lawrence, Miller, Hemp- 
stead, Independence, Pulaski, Izard and Phillips. 
The territory was divided into four judicial cir- 
cuits, of which William Trimble, Benjamin John- 
son, Thomas P. Eskridge and James Woodson 
Bates were, in the order named, the judges. The 
delegates in Congress from Arkansas Territory were 
James W. Bates, 1820-23; Henry W. Conway, 
1823-29; Ambrose H. Sevier, 1829-36. 

The Territorial legislature, in common with all 
other legislatures of that day, passed some laws 
which would have been much better not passed, and 



others that remained a dead letter on the books. 
Among other good laws which were never enforced 
was one against duelling. In 1825 Whigs and 
Democrats allowed party feelings to run high, and 
some bloody duels grew out of the heat of cam- 
paigns. 

Robert Crittenden and Hem-y W. Conway 
fought a duel October 29, 1827. At the first fire 
Conway fell mortally wounded and died a fortnight 
thereafter. 

December 4, 1837, John Wilson, who, it will 
be noticed, figured prominently in the preceding 
record of the Territorial assemblies, was expelled 
from the house of representatives, of which body 
he was speaker, for killing J. J. Anthony. 

A constitutional convention, for the purpose of 
arranging for the Territory to become a State in the 
Union, was held in Little Rock, in January, 1836. 
Its duty was to prepare a suitable constitution and 
submit it to Congress, and, if unobjectionable, to 
have an act passed creating the State of Arkan- 
sas. John Wilson was president, and Charles P. 
Bertrand, secretary, of the convention. Thirty- 
five counties were represented by fifty-two members. 

June 15, 1836, Arkansas was made a State, 
and the preamble of the act recites that there was 
a population of 47,700. 

The first State legislature met September 12 to 
November 8, 1836, later adjourning to November 
6, 1837, and continued in session until March 5, 
1838. The president of the senate was Sam C. 
Roane; secretary, A. J. Greer; the speaker of the 
house was John Wilson (he was expelled and 
Grandison D. Royston elected) ; clerk, S. H. Hemp- 
stead. 

The second constitutional convention, held 
January 4 to January 23, 1864, had as president, 
John McCoy, and secretary, R. J. T. White. This 
convention was called by virtue of President Lin- 
coln's proclamation. The polls had been opened 
chiefly at the Federal military posts, and the major- 
ity of delegates were really refugees from many of 
the counties they represented. It simply was an 
informal meeting of the Union men in resjjonse to 
the President's wish, and they mostly made their 
own credentials. The Federal army occupied the 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



39 



Arkansas River and points north, while the south 
portion of the State was held by the Confederates. 
It is said the convention on important legal ques- 
tions was largely influenced by Hon. T. D. W. 
Yonly, of Pulaski County. The convention prac- 
tically re-enacted the constitution of 1836, abolished 
slavery, already a fact, and created the separate 
office of lieutenant-governor, instead of the former 
ex-officio president of the senate. The machinery 
of State government was thus once more in oper- 
ation. The convention wisely did its work and 
adjourned. 

The next constitutional convention was held 
January 7 to February 18, 1868. Thomas M. 
Bowen was president, and John G. Price, secretary. 
The war was over and the Confederates had re- 
turned and were disposed to favor the constitution 
which they found the Unionists had adopted in 
their absence,, and was then in full force in the 
State. Isaac Murphy (Federal) had been elected 
governor under the constitution of 1864, and all 
the State offices were under control of the Union- 
ists. Hia term as governor would expire in Julv, 
1868. 

This convention made sweeping changes in the 
fundamental laws. The most prominent were the 
disfranchisement of a large majority of the white 
voters of the State, enfranchising the negroes, and 
providing for a comjilex and plastic system of reg- 
istration. This movement, and its severe character 
throughout, were a part of the .reconstruction 
measures emanating from Congress. Arkansas 
was under military rule and the constitution of 
1864, and this condition of affairs, had been ac- 
cepted by the returned conquered Confederates. 
But the Unionists, who had fled to the Federal 
military posts for protection, were generally eager 
to visit their vanquished enemies with the severest 
penalties of the law. A large part of the intel- 
ligence and tax-payers of the State were indis- 
criminately excluded from the polls, and new vot- 
ers and new men came to the front, with grievances 
to be avenged and ambitions to be gratified. The 
unusual experiment of the reversal of the civic 
conditions of the ex-slaves with their former mas- 
ters was boldly undertaken. Impetuous men now 



prevailed in the name of patriotism, the natural 
reflex swing of the pendulum — the anti-climax was 
this convention of reconstruction to the convention 
of secession of 1861. The connection between 
these two conventions — 1861-1868 — is so blended 
that the convention of '61 is omitted in its chro- 
nological order, that the two may be set properly 
side by side. 

March 4, 1861, a State convention assembled 
in Little Rock. The election of delegates was 
on February 18, preceding. The convention met 
the day Abraham Lincoln was inducted into office 
as president of the United States. The people of 
Arkansas were deeply concerned. The conserva- 
tive minds of the State loved the Union as sin- 
cerely as they regretted the wanton assaults that 
had been made upon them by the extremists of the 
North. The members of that convention had 
been elected with a view to the consideration of 
those matters already visible in the dark war-clouds 
lowering upon the country. The test of the un- 
ion and disunion sentiment of that body was the 
election of president of the convention. Judge 
David Walker (Union) received forty votes against 
thirty-five votes for Judge B. C. Totten. Hon. 
Henry F. Thomasson introduced a series of con- 
servative resolutions, condemning disunion and 
looking to a convention of all the States to ' ' settle 
the slavery question ' ' and secure the perpetuation 
of tie Union. The resolutions were passed, and 
the convention adjourned to meet again in May fol 
lowing. This filled the wise and conservative men 
of the State with great hopes for the future. But, 
most unfortunately, when the convention again 
met war was already upon the country, and the 
ordinance of secession was passed, with but one 
negative vote. The few days between the adjourn- 
ment and re-assembling of the convention had not 
made traitors of this majority that had so recent- 
ly .condemned disunion. The swift-moving events, 
everywhere producing consternation and alarm, 
called out determined men, and excitement ruled 
the hour. 

The conventions of 1861 and 1868 — secession 
and reconstruction! When the long - gathering 
cloud-burst of civil war had passed, it left a cen- 



40 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



tury's trail of broken hearts, desolated homes, 
ruined lives, and a stream of demoralization over- 
flowing the beautiful valleys of the land to the 
mountain tops. The innocent and unfortimate ne- 
gro was the stumbling-block at all times. The con- 
vention of 1861 would have founded an empire of 
freedom, buttressed in the slavery of the black man; 
the convention of 1868 preferred to rear its great col- 
umn of liberty upon the ashes of the unfortunate 
past; in every era the wise, conservative and patriotic 
sentiment of the land was chained and bound to 
the chariot- wheels of rejoicing emotion. Prudence 
and an intelligent insight into the future alone 
could prevent men from '"losing their reason." 

The constitution of 1868, as a whole, was not 
devoid of merit. It opened the way for an age of 
internal improvements, and intended the establish- 
ment of a liberal public free school system, and at 
the same time provided safeguards to protect the 
public treasury and restrain reckless extravagance. 

Then the legislatures elected under it, the State 
ofBcers, and the representatives in the upper and 
lower Congress, were in political accord with the 
dominant party of the country. Gen. Grant was 
president; Powell Clayton, governor; Robert J. L. 
White, secretary of State; J. R. Berry, auditor, 
and Henry Page, treasurer. The first legislature 
under the constitution of 1868 passed most liberal 
laws to aid railroads and other internal improve- 
ments, and provided a system of revenue laws to 
meet the new order of affairs. During 1869 to 
1871 railroad aid and levee bonds to the amount of 
$10,419,773.74 were issued. The supreme court 
of the State in after years declared the railroad 
aid, levee and Halford bonds void, aggregating 
$8,604,773.74. Before his term of governor had 
expired, Gov. Clayton was elected United States 
senator (1871-77), and in 1873 Hon. Stephen W. 
Dorsey was elected to a like position. 

The climax and the end of reconstruction in 
Arkansas will always be an interesting paragraph 
in the State's history. Elisha Baxter and Joseph 
Brooks were the gubernatorial candidates at the 
election of 1872. Both were Republicans, and 
Brooks was considered one of the most ardent of 
that party. Baxter was the nominee of the party 



and on the same ticket with Grant, who was can- 
didate for president. Brooks was nominated on a 
mixed ticket, made up by disaffected Republicans, 
but on a more liberal platform toward the Demo- 
crats than the regular ticket. On the face of the 
first retui'ns the Greeley electors and the Brooks 
ticket were in the majority, but when the votes 
were finally canvassed, such changes were made, 
from illegal voting or bulldozing it was claimed, 
as to elect the Grant and Baxter tickets. Under 
the constitution of 1868, the legislature was de- 
clared the sole judge of the election of State officers. 
Brooks took his case before that body at its Jan- 
uary term, 1873 — at which time Baxter was in- 
augurated — but the assembly decided that Baxter 
was elected, and, whether right or wrong, every 
one supposed the question permanently settled. 

Brooks however, went before the supreme 
court (McClure being chief justice), that body 
promptly deciding that the legislature was by law 
the prof)er tribunal, and that as it had determined 
the case its action was final and binding. Bax- 
ter was inaugurated in January, 1873; had been 
declared elected by the proper authorities, and 
this had been confirmed by the legislature, the 
action of the latter being distinctly approved 
by the supreme court. The adherents of Brooks 
had supposed that they were greatly wronged, 
but like good citizens all acquiesced. Those 
who had politically despised Brooks — perhaps 
the majority of his voters — had learned to sym- 
pathize with what they believed were his and 
their mutual wrongs. Baxter had peacefully ad- 
ministered the office more than a year, when 
Brooks went before Judge John Whytock, of the 
Pulaski circuit court, and commenced quo warranto 
proceedings against Baxter. The governor's at- 
torneys filed a demuiTer, and the case stood over. 
Wednesday, April 15, 1874, Judge Whytock, in 
the absence of Baxter's attorneys, overruled the de- 
murrer, giving judgment of ouster against Baxter, 
and instantly Brooks, with an office)', hastened to 
the State house, demanded the surrender of the 
office, and arrested Baxter. Thus a stroke of the 
pen by a mere circuit court judge in banc plunged 
the State into tumult. 



HISTOEY OF ARKANSAS. 



41 



Couriers sped over the city, and the flying news 
gave the people a genuine sensation. Indeed, not 
only Baxter but the State and the nation received 
a great surprise. 

As soon as Baxter was released, though only 
under arrest a few minutes, he fled to St. John's 
College, in the city, and from this headquarters 
called for soldiers, as did Brooks from the 
State house, and alas, poor Arkansas! there were 
now again two doughty governors beating the 
long roll and swiftly forming in the ranks of war. 
Brooks converted the State house and grounds 
into a garrison, while Baxter made headquarters 
at the old Anthony Hotel, and the dead-line be- 
tween the armed foes was Main Street. Just in 
time to prevent mutual annihilation, though not 
in time to prevent bloodshed, some United States 
soldiers arrived and took up a position of armed 
neutrality between the foes. 

If there can be anything comical in a tragedy 
it is furnished just here in the fact that, in the 
twinkling of an eye, the adherents and voters of the 
two governors had changed places, and each was 
now fighting for the man whom he had opposed so 
vehemently. And in all these swift changes the 
supreme court had shown the greatest agility. 
By some remarkable legerdemain, Brooks, who was 
intrenching himself, had had his case again placed 
before the supreme court, and it promptly reversed 
itself and decided that the circuit court had juris- 
diction. The wires to Washington were kept hot 
with messages to President Grant and Congress. 
The whole State was in dire commotion with ' ' mus- 
tering squadrons and clattering cars. ' ' The fre- 
quent popping of picket guns was in the land; a 
steamboat, laden with arms for Baxter, was at- 
tacked and several killed and many wounded. 
Business was again utterly pi'ostrated and horrors 
brooded over the unfortunate State; and probably 
the most appalling feature of it all was that in the 
division in the ranks of the people the blacks, led 
by whites, were mostly on one side, while the 
whites were arrayed on the other. Congress sent 
the historical Poland Committee to investigate 
Arkansas affairs. President Grant submitted all 
legal questions to his attorney-general. 



The President, at the end of thirty days after 
the forcible possession of the office, sustained Bax- 
ter — exit Brooks. The end of the war, the cli- 
max of reconstruction in Arkansas, had come. 
Peace entered as swiftly as had war a few days be- 
fore. The sincerity and intensity of the people's 
happiness in this final ending are found in the fact 
that when law and order were restored no one was 
impeached, no one was imprisoned for treason. 

The report of the Poland Committee. 1874, 
the written opinion of Attorney-General Williams, 
the decision of the Arkansas supreme court by 
Judge Samuel W. Williams, found in Vol. XXIX of 
Arkansas Reports, page 173, and the retiring mes- 
sage of Governor Baxter, are the principal records 
of the literature and history of the reign of the 
dual governors. The students of law and history 
in coming time will turn inquiring eyes with 
curious interest upon these o'fiicial pages. The 
memory of ' ' the thirty days ' ' in Arkansas will 
live forever, propagating its lessons and bearing 
its warnings; the wise moderation and the spirit 
of forbearance of the people, in even their exult- 
ing hour of triumph, will be as beacon lights 
shining out upon the troubled waters, transmit- 
ting for all time the transcendent fact that in the 
hour of supreme trial the best intelligence of the 
people is wiser than their rulers, better law- 
givers than their statesmen, and incomparably 
superior to their courts. 

The moment that President Grant officially 
spoke, the reconstruction constitution of 1868 was 
doomed. True, the people had moved almost in 
mass and without leadership in 1873, and had 
repealed Article VIII of the constitution, disfran- 
chising a large part of the intelligent tax- payers 
of the State. 

The constitutional convention of 1874, with 
the above facts fresh before it, met and promul- 
gated the present State constitution. G. D. Roy- 
ston was president, and T. W. Nev?ton, secretary. 
The session lasted from July 14 to October 31, 
1874. From the hoiir of its adoption the clouds 
rolled away, and at once commenced the present 
unexampled prosperity of the Slate. Only here and 
there in Little Rock and other points in the State 



42 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



may one see the mute but eloquent mementos of 
the past, in the dilapidated buildings, confiscated 
during the lifetime of some former owner, may- 
hap, some once eminent citizen, now in his grave 
or self-expatriated from a State which his life 
and genius had adorned and helped make great. 
Municipalities and even small remote districts are 
paying off the last of heavy debts of the ' ' flush 
times. ' ' Long suffering and much chastened State 
and people, forgetting the past, and full of hope for 
the future, are fitly bedecking (though among the 
youngest) the queenliest in the sisterhood of States. 
In this connection it will be of much interest to 
notice the names of those individuals, who, bj' 
reason of their association with various public 
afPairs, have become well and favorably known 
throughout the State. The term of service of each 
incumbent of the respective offices has been pre- 
served and is here given. The following table 
includes the acting Territorial and State governors 
of Arkansas, with date of inauguration, party pol- 
itics, etc: 





1 




a 


■H 




1. 


Teriitory 


H 


Date of 


frH 


~a 




1 = 


and State. 


'■^ 


Inauguration. 


X 


- >. 




"y 




t. 




a 


S^S 


^^ 






>* 




H 


cq'" 


S 


H 


James Miller... 


App't'd 


March 3, 1819 










George Izard... 


App't'd 


March 4, 1825 










John Pope 


App't'd 


March 9, 1829 










Wm. Fulton.... 


App't'd 


JIarch 9, 1835 










J. S. Conway.... 


1836 


September 13, 1836 


4 yrs. 


Dem. 


1,102M 


7,716 


Archibald Tell. 


184t 


November 4, 1840 


4 yrs. 


Dem. 






Samuel Adams. 


Acting 


Apr. 29 to Nov. 9, 18+1 










T.S.Drew 


184J 


November o, 1844 


5 yrs. 


Dem. 


1,731 P 


17,387 


J. WUliamson.. 


Acting 


Apr. 9 to May 7, 1846 










E. C. Byid 


Acting 


Jan.ll to .\pr. 19,1849 










J. S.Roane 


184£ 


April 19, 1849» 




Dem. 


163 


6,809 


R. C.Byrd 


Acting 


1849 










J. R. Hampton 


Acting 


1851 










E. N. Conway.. 


1852 


November 15, IHn'Z 


4 yrs. 


Dem. 


3,027 


27,8.'i7 


E. N. Conway.. 


1854 


November 17, 1856 


4 vrs. 


Dem. 


12,363 


42,881 


H. M. Rector.... 


1S6C 


November 1.1,1860 


2 yrs. 


I. D. 


2,461 


61.198 


T. Fletcher 


Acting 


Nov. 4 to Nov. 15, 1863 




Con. 


(no re 


cord) 


H. Flannagin .. 


18W 


November 15,1862 


3 yrs. 


Con. 


10,012 


26,266 


I. Murphy 


1864 


April 18, 1864 




Fed. 


(no re 


cord) 


P. Clayton 


18G8 


July 2, 1868 


4 yrs. 


Rep. 


(no re 


cord) 


0. A.Hadley... 


Acting 


January 17, 18/1 


2 yrs. 


Rep. 


(no re 


cord) 


E. Baxter 


ISTl 


January 6, 1873 


2 yrs. 


Rep. 


2,948 


80,721 


A. H. Garland. 


1874 


November 13, 1874 


2 yrs. 


Dem. 


76,453 




W. R. Miller.... 


1876 


January 11,1877 


2 yrs. 


Dem. 


32,215 


108,633 


W.R. Miller.... 


1878 


January 17, 1879 


2 yrs. 


Dem. 


88,730 




T. J. Churchill 


1H80 


.lauuary 13,1881 


a yrs. 


Dem 


52,761 


115,619 


J. H. Berry 

B. T. Embry... 


1882 


January 1.3,1883 


2 vrs. 


Dem. 


28,481 


147,169 


Acting 


Sep, 25 to Sep. 30,1883 










S. P. Hughes... 


1884 


January 17, 1885 


2 yrs. 




45,236 


156,310 


J. W. Stayton.. 


Acting 












S. P. Hughes... 


1886 




3 yrs. 


Dem. 


17,411 


163,889 


D. E. Barker... 


Acting 












J. P. Eagle 


1888 




2 yrs. 


Dem. 


15,U06 


187,397 



' Special election. 



The secretaries of Arkansas Territory have been : 
Robert Crittenden, apjiointed March 3, 1819; 
William Fulton, appointed April 8, 1829; Lewis 
Randolph, appointed February 23, 1835. 

Secretaries of State: Robert A. Watkins, 
September 10, 1836, to November 12, 1840; D. 
B. Greer, November 12, 1840, to May 9, 1842; 
John Winfrey, acting. May 9, to August 9, 1842; 
D. B. Greer, August 19, 1840, to September 3, 
1859 (died); Alexander Boileau, Septembers, 1829, 
to January 21, 1860; S. M. Weaver, January 21, 
1860, to March 20, 1860; John I. Stirman, March 
24, 1860, to November 13, 1862; O. H. Gates, 
November 13, 1862, to April 18, 1864; Robert J. 
T. White, Provisional, from January 24, to January 
6, 1873; J. M. Johnson, January 6, 1873, to No- 
vember 12, 1874; B. B. Beavers, November 12, 
1874, to January 17, 1879; Jacob Frolich, January 
17, 1879, to January, 1885; E. B. Moore, January, 
1885, to January, 1889; B. B. Chism (present in- 
cumbent). 

Territorial auditors of Arkansas: George W. 
Scott, August 5, 1819, to November 20, 1829; 
Richard C. Byrd, November 20, 1829, to Novem- 
ber 5, 1831; Emzy Wilson, November 5, 1831, to 
November 12, 1833; William Pelham, November 
12, 1833, to July 25, 1835; Elias N. Conway, 
July 25, 1835, to October 1, 1836. 

Auditors of State: Elias N. Conway, October 

I, 1836, to May 17, 1841; A. Boileau," May 17, 
1841, to July 5, 1841 (acting); Elias N. Conway, 
July 5, 1841, to January 3, 1849; C. C. Dauley, 
January 3, 1849, to September 16, 1854 (resigned); 
W. R. Miller, September 16, 1854, to January 23, 
1855; A. S. Huey, January 23, 1855, to January 
23, 1857; W. R. Miller, January 23, 1857, to March 
5, 1860; H. C. Lowe, March 5, 1860, to January 24, 
1861 (acting); W. R. Miller, January 24, 1861, to 
April IS, 1864; J. R. Berry, April 18, 1864, to Oc- 
tober 15, 1866; StejDhen Wheeler, January 6, 1873, 
to November 12, 1874; W. R. Miller, October 15, 
1866, to July 2, 1868; John Crawford, January 

II, 1877, to January 17. 1883; A. W. Files. Jan- 
uary, 1883, to January, 1887; William B. Miller 
(died in office), January, 1887, to November, 1887; 
W. S. Dunlop, appointed November 30, 1887, to 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



43 



January, 1889; W. S. Dunlop, January, 1889 
(present incumbent). 

Territorial treasurers: James Scull, August 15, 
1819, to November 12, 1833; S. M. Rutherford, 
November 12, 1833, to October 1, 1886. 

State treasurers: W. E. Woodruff, October 1, 
1836, to November 20, 1838; John Hutt, November 
20, 1838, to February 2, 1843; John C. Martin, 
February 2, 1843, to January 4, 1845; Samuel 
Adams, January 4, 1845, to January 2, 1849; Will- 
iam Adams, January 2, 1849, to January 10, 1849; 
John H. Crease, January 10, 1 849, to January 26, 
1855; A. H. Rutherford, January 27, 1855, to Feb- 
ruary 2, 1857; J. H. Crease, February 2, 1857, to 
February 2, 1859; John Quindley, February 2, 1859, 
to December 13, 1860 (died); Jared C. Martin, 
December 13, 1860, to February 2, 1861 ; Oliver 
Basham, February 2, 1861, to April 18, 1864; E. 
D. Ayers, April 18, 1864, to October 15, 1866; L. 
B. Cimningham, October 15, 1866, to August 19, 
1867 (removed by military); Henry Page, August 
19, 1867 (military appointment), elected 1868 to 
1874 (resigned); R. C. Newton, May 23, 1874, to 
November 12, 1874; T. J. Churchill, November 
12, 1874, to January 12, 1881; W. E. Woodruff, 
Jr., January 12, 1881, to January, 1891. 

Attorneys-general: Robert W. Johnson, 1843; 
George C. Watkins, October 1, 1848; J. J. Critten- 
den, February 7, 1851; Thomas Johnson, Septem- 
ber 8, 1856; J. L. Hollowell, September 8, 1858; 
P. Jordon, September 7, 1861 ; Sam W. Williams, 
1862; C. T. Jordan, 1864; R. S. Gantt, January 
31, 1865; R. H. Deadman, October 15, 1866; J. R. 
Montgomery, July 21, 1868; T. D. W. Yonley, Jan- 
uary 8, 1873; J. L. Witherspoon, May 22, 1874; 
Simon P. Hughes, November 12, 1873, to 1876; W. 
F. Henderson, January 11, 1877, to 1881; C. B. 
Moore, January 12, 1881, to 1885; D. W. Jones, 
January, 1885, to 1889; W. E. Atkinson, January, 
1889 (present incumbent). 

Commissioners of immigration and of State 
lauds: J. M. Lewis, July 2, 1868; W. H. Grey, 
October 15, 1872; J. N. Smithee, June 5, 1874." 

These officers were succeeded by the commis- 
sioner of State lands, the first to occupy this position 
being J. N. Smithee, from November 12, 1874, to 



November 18, 1878; D. W. Lear, October 21, 1878, 
to November, 1882; W. P. Campbell, October 30, 
1882, to March, 1884; P. M. Cobbs, March 31, 
1884, to October 30, 1890. 

Superintendents of public instruction: Thomas 
Smith, 1868 to 1873; J. C. Corbin, July 6, 1873; 
G. W. Hill, December 18, 1875, to October, 1878; 
J. L. Denton, October 13, 1875, to October 11, 
1882; Dunbar H. Pope, October 11 to 30, 1882; 
W. E. Thompson. October 20, 1882, to 1890. 

Of the present State officers and members of 
boards, the executive department is first worthy of 
attention. This is as follows: 

Governor, J. P. Eagle; secretary of State, B. 
B. Chism; treasurer, William E. Woodruff, Jr.; 
attorney-general, W. E. Atkinson; commissioner 
of State lands, Paul M. Cobbs; superintendent 
public instruction, W. E. Thompson; State geolo- 
gist, John C. Brauner. 

Board of election canvassers : Gov J. P. Eagle, 
Sec. B. B. Chism. 

Board of commissioners of the common school 
fund: Gov. J. P. Eagle, Sec. B. B. Chism, Supt. 
W. E. Thompson. 

State debt board: Gov. J. P. Eagle; Aud. W. 
S. Dunlop, and Sec. B. B. Chism. 

Penitentiary board — commissioners : The Gov- 
ernor; the attorney-general, W. E. Atkinson, and 
the secretary of State. 

Lessee of penitentiary: The Arkansas Indus- 
trial Company. 

Printing board: The Governor, president; W. 
S. Dunlop, auditor, and W. E. Woodruff, Jr., 
treasurer. 

Board of railroad commissioners (to assess and 
equalize the railroad property and valuation within 
the State) : The Governor, secretary of State and 
State auditor. 

Board of Trustees of Arkansas Medical College: 
J. A. Dibrell, M. D., William Thompson, M. D., 
William Lawrence, M. D. 

The Arkansas State University, at Fayetteville, 
has as its board of trustees: W. M. Fishback, Fort 
Smith; James Mitchell, Little Rock; W. B. 
Welch, Fayetteville; C. M. Taylor, South Bend; 
B. F. Avery, Camden; J. W. Kessee, Latour; Gov. 



44 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



Eagle, ex-officio: E. H. Miirfree, president, A. I. 
U. ; J. L. Cravens, secretary. 

Of the Pine Bluff Normal, the president is J. 
Corbin, Pine Bluff; the board is the same as that 
of the State University. 

Board of dental surgery: Dr. L. Augspath, 
Dr. H. C. Howard, Dr. M. C. Marshall, Dr. L. G. 
Roberts, and Dr. N. N. Hayes. 

State board of health: Drs. A. L. Brey- 
sacher, J. A. Dibrell, P. Van Patten, Lorenzo R. 
Gibson, W. A. Cantrell, V. Brunson. 

Board of municipal corporations: Ex-offlcio — 
The Governor, secretary of State and State auditor. 

Board of education: The Governor, secretary 
of State and auditor. 

Board of review for donation contests: The 
Governor, auditor of State and attorney-general. 

Board of examiners of State script: The Gov- 
ernor, secretary of State and auditor. 

Reference to the presidential vote of Arkansas, 
fi-om the year 1836 uj) to and including the elec- 
tion of 1888, will serve to show in a general way 
the political complexion of the State during that 
period. The elections have resulted as follows:* 

1836— Van Buren (D), 2,400; Harrison (W), 
1,162; total 3,638. 

1840— Harrison (W), 5,160; Van Buren (D), 
6,049; Birney (A), 889; total 11,209. 

1844- Polk (D), 8,546; Clay (W), 5,504; 
total 15,050. 

1848— Taylor (W), 7,588; Cass (D), 9,300; 
total 16,888^ 

* Scattering votes not given. 



1852— Pierce (D), 12,170; Scott, 7,404; 
total 19,577. 

1856— Buchanan (D), 21,910; Fillmore, 10.787; 
total 32,697. 

1860— Douglas (D), 5,227; Breckenridge, 
28,532; Bell, 20,297. 

1864— No vote. 

1868— Grant (R), 22,112; Seymour, 19,078; 
total 41,190. 

1872— Grant (R), 41,377; Greeley, 37,927; 
total 79,300. 

1876— Tilden (D), 58,360; Hayes (R), 38,669; 
total 97,029. 

1880— Garfield (R), 42,435; Hancock (D), 
60,475; total, 107,290. 

1884— Cleveland (D), 72,927; Blaine, 50,895; 
total, 125,669. 

1888— Harrison (R), 58,752; Cleveland (D), 
88,962; Fisk, 593; total, 155,968. 

In accepting the vote of Arkansas, 1876, objec- 
tion was made to counting it, as follows: " First, 
because the official returns of the election in said 
State, made according to the laws of said State, 
show that the persons certified to the secretary 
of said State as elected, were not elected as 
electors for President of the United States at 
the election held November 5, 1876; and, sec- 
ond, because the returns as read by the tellers 
are not certified according to law. The objec- 
tion was sustained by the Senate but not sus- 
tained by the House of Representatives. ' ' 



^^^ 



-^1 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



45 



imifTEit 



-^?<^ 



Advancement of the State— Misconceptions Removed— Effects of Slavery upon Agriculture- 
Extraordinary IMPROVEMENT SINCE THE WAR — IMPORTANT SUGGESTIONS— COMPARATIVE 

Estimate of Products— Growth of the Manufacturing Interests- 
Wonderful Showing of Arkansas — Its Desirability as a 
Place of Residence— State Elevations. 



Look forward what's to come, and back what's past; 
Thy life will be with praise and prudence graced; 
What loss or gain may follow thou may'st guess, 
Then wilt thou be secure of the success. — DenJiam. 



£C>.a. 



^^7^^ ijw^^^VjAJP EFORE entering directly up- 
iy<«i»?^^9'lr/ on the subject of the mate- 
rial life and growth of Arkan- 
sas, it is necessary to clear 
away at the threshold some 
of the obstructions that have 
hiin in its pathway. From 
the earliest settlement slav- 
ery existed, and the nergo 
slave was brought with the 
first agricultural communities. Slave 
labor was profitable in but two things 
— cotton and sugar. Arkansas was 
north of the sugar cane belt, but was a 
splendid field for cotton growing. Slave 
labor and white labor upon the farms 
were never congenial associates. These 
things fixed rigidly the one road in the 
agricultural progress of the State. 
What was therefore the very richness 
of heaven's bounties, became an incubus upon the 
general welfare. The fertile soil returned a rich 
reward even with the slovenly applied energies of 
the slaves. A man could pay perhaps $1,000 for 
a slave, and in the cotton field, but really nowhere 
else, the investment would yield an enormous profit. 




The loss in waste, or ill directed labor, in work 
carelessly done, or the want of preparation, tools 
or machinery, or any manner of real thrift, gave 
little or no concern to the average agriculturist. 
For personal comfort and large returns upon invest- 
ments that required little or no personal attention, 
no section of the world ever surpassed the United 
States south of the 3G° of north latitude. Wealth 
of individuals was rated therefore by the number 
of slaves one possessed. Twenty hands in the cot- 
ton field, under even an indifferent overseer, with 
no watchful care of the master, none of that saving 
frugality in the farming so imperative elsewhere 
upon farms, returned every year an income which 
would enable the family to spend their lives trav- 
eling and sight- seeing over the world. The rich 
soil required no care in its tilling from the owner. 
It is the first and strongest principle in human na- 
ture to seek its desires through the least exertion. 
To raise cotton, ship to market and dispose of it, 
purchasing whatever was wanted, was the inevi- 
table result of such conditions. This was by far the 
easiest mode, and hence manufactures, diversity of 
farming or farming pursuits, were not an impera- 
tive necessity — indeed, they were not felt to be ne- 
cessities at all. The evil, the blight of slavery 



46 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



upon the whites, was well understood by the intel- 
ligence of the South, by even those who had learned 
to believe that white labor could not and never 
would be profitable in this latitude; that — most 
strange! the white man who labored at manual 
labor, must be in the severe climate and upon the 
stubborn New England soil. It was simply efPect 
following cause which made these people send off 
their childi'en to school, and to buy their every want, 
both necessaries and luxuries — importing hay, corn, 
oats, bacon, mules, horses and cattle even from 
Northern States, when every possible natural ad- 
vantage might be had in producing the same things 
at ho-ne. It was the easiest and cheapest way to do. 
In the matter of dollars and cents, the destroying 
of slavery was, to the farmers of the Upper Missis- 
sippi Valley, a permanent loss. Now the New South 
is beginning to send the products of its farms and 
gardens even to Illinois. The war, the abolition 
of slavery, the return of the Confederates to their 
desolated homes, and their invincible courage in 
rolling up their sleeves and going to work, and the 
results of their labors seen all over the South, form 
one of the grandest displays of the development of 
the latent forces of the great American people 
that can be found in history. 

There is not a thing, not even ice, but that, in 
the new social order of Arkansas, it can produce 
for its own use quite as well as the most favored 
of Northern States. The one obstruction in the 
way of the completed triumph of the State is the 
lingering idea among farmers that for the work of 
raising cotton, black labor is better than white. 
This fallacy is a companion of the old notion that 
slavery was necessary to the South. Under proper 
auspices these two articles of Arkansas — cotton 
and lumber — alone may make of it the most pros- 
perous State in the Union ; and the magician's 
wand to transform all this to gold is in securing the 
intelligent laborer of the North, far more than the 
Northern capital prayed for by so many. The North 
has its homeless millions, and the recent lessons 
in the opening of Oklahoma should be promptly 
appreciated by the people of this State. For the 
next decade to manufacture every pound of cotton 
raised in the State, as well as husbanding and man- 



ufacturing all the lumber from these grand old for- 
ests, is to solve the questions in the race of State 
prosperity and general wealth among the people. 
When free labor supplanted slave labor what a won- 
derful advance it gave the whole section; when in- 
telligent skilled labor supplants ignorance and un- 
skilled labor, what a transcendent golden epoch 
will dawn. There is plenty of capital to-day in the 
State, if it was only put in proper co-operative 
form, to promote the establishment of manu- 
factories that would liberally reward the stock- 
holders, and make them and Arkansas the richest 
people in the world. Such will attract hundreds of 
thousands of intelligent and capable wage workers 
from the North, from all over the world, as well as 
the nimble-witted farm labor in the gardens, the 
orchards, the fields and the cotton plantations. This 
will bring and add to the present profits on a bale 
of cotton, the far richer dividend on stocks in fac- 
tories, banks, railroads and all that golden stream 
which is so much of modern increase in wealth. 
The people of Arkansas may just as well have this 
incalculable abundance as to not have it, and at the 
same time j)ay enormous premiums to others to come 
and reap the golden harvests. Competent labor- 
ers — skilled wage workers, the brawn and brain 
of the land — are telling of their unrest in strikes, 
lockouts, combinations and counter combinations; 
in short, in the conflict of labor and capital, they 
are appealing strongly to be allowed to come to 
Ai'kansas — not to enter the race against ignorant, 
incapable labor, but simply to find employment and 
homes, where in comfort and plenty they can rear 
their families, and while enriching themselves to 
return profits a thousand fold. Don't fret and 
mope away your lives looking and longing for capi- 
tal to enter and develop your boundless resources. 
Capital is a royal good thing, but remember it is 
even a better thing in your own pockets than in 
some other person's. Open the way for proper, 
useful labor to come and find employment ; each 
department, no matter how small or humble the 
beginning, once started will grow rapidly, and the 
problem will have been solved. Only by the North 
taking the raw product of the South and putting it 
in the hands of skilled labor has their enormous 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



47 



capital been secured. The profits on high priced 
labor will always far excel that on ignorant or cheap 
workmen. The time is now when this kind of 
labor and the small farmers and gardeners are 
awaiting a bidding to enter Arkansas. When the 
forlorn hope returned from the late war, they met 
the Btern necessity, and demonstrated the fact that 
here, at least, the people can create their own capi- 
tal. Let them now anticipate the future by this 
heroic triumph of the past. The Gods help those 
only who help themselves. 

"The fault, dear Brulus, is not in our stars, 
but in ourselves." 

To the Northern home- seeker the thing of first 
importance is to tell of the temperate climate at all 
seasons, and its extraordinary healthfulness, cur- 
ing him of the false idea spread so wide that the 
topography of the State is seen from the decks 
of steamers, or on the lines of railroad which are 
built along the swamps and slashes, mostly on ac- 
count of the easy grades on these lines. Then show 
from the records the low rate of taxation and the 
provisions of the law by which high taxation is for- 
ever prevented. From this preliminary may be 
unfolded to him some of the wonderful natural re- 
sources which are awaiting development. Here 
both tongue and pen will fall far short of telling all 
or nearly all. In climate, health, soil, timber, 
minerals, coal, rocks, clays, marls, sand, navigable 
streams, mineral and fresh waters, Arkansas may 
challenge any similar sized spot on the globe. It 
has more miles of navigable streams than any other 
State in the Union, and these are so placed as to 
give the whole territory the advantages thereof, as 
though the engineers had located them. It has 
unequaled water power — the Mammoth Spring 
alone furnishing enough water power to propel all 
the machinery west of the Mississippi River. The 
topography of the State is one of its most inviting 
features. Its variety in this respect is only equaled 
by the diversity of its soils. The traveler who in 
approaching this section concludes that it consists 
chiefly of swamp bottoms, and water-covered 
slashes, may readily learn from the records that 
three-quarters of the State's surface is uplands, 
ranging from the gentle swells of prairie and 



woodland to the grandly beautifirl mountain scen- 
ery; and on the mountain benches, and at the base, 
are as rich and beautiful valleys as are kissed by the 
rays of the sun in his season' s round. Take the 
whole range of agricultural products of Ohio, Ind- 
iana, Illinois and Kansas, and all can be produced 
quite as well in Arkansas as in any of these States. 
In the face of this fact, for more than a genera- 
tion Arkansas raised scarcely any of the products 
of these Northern communities, but imported such 
as it had to have. It could not spare its lands from 
the cultivation of the more profitable crof)s of 
cotton. In a word, the truth is the State was bur- 
dened with natural wealth — this and slave labor 
having clogged the way and impeded its progress. 
With less labor, more cotton per acre and per hand, 
on an average, has been produced in Arkansas than 
in any other Southern State, and its quality has been 
such as to win the prize wherever it has been en- 
tered in competition. Its reputation as a fruit- 
growing State is not excelled. In the New Orleans 
Exposition, in California, Ohio and everywhere en- 
tered, it has taken the premium over all competi- 
tors. Its annual rainfall exceeds that of any South- 
ern State, and it cannot, therefore, suffer seriously 
from drouths. There is not a spot upon the globe 
which, if isolated from all outside of its limits, 
could sustain in health and all the civilized comforts 
a population as large as might Arkansas. Fifty 
thousand people annually come hither and are 
cured, and yet a general nebulous idea prevails 
among many in the North that the health and cli- 
mate of the State are not good. The statistics of 
the United States Medical Department show the 
mortality rate at Little Rock to be less than at any 
other occupied military post in the country. There 
is malaria in portions of the State, but considering 
the vast bottom stretches of timber-land, and the 
newness of the country's settlement, it is a remark- 
able fact that there is less of this disease here 
than in Pennsylvania; while all the severer diseases 
of the New England and Northern States, such as 
rheumatism, consumption, catarrh and blood poi- 
son, are always relieved and generally cured in 
Ai'kansas; malignant scarlet fever and diphtheria 
have never yet appeared. That dreadful decimator, 



48 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



yellow fever, has only visited the eastern portion of 
the State, but in every case it was brought from 
abroad, and has never prevailed in this locality as an 
epidemic. Therefore, the largest factories, schools 
and universities in the world should be here. The 
densest population, the busiest haunts of men, will 
inevitably come where their rewards will be great- 
est — the struggle for life less severe. Five hun- 
dred inhabitants to the square mile will not put to 
the full test the limitless resources of this wonder- 
ful commonwealth. Ten months of summer with- 
out one torrid day, with invariable cool and re- 
freshing nights, and two months only of winter, 
where a man can work out of doors every day in 
the year in comfort, with less cost in physician's 
bills, expense in food, clothing and housing, are 
some of the inducements the State offers to the 
poor man. There are millions of acres of fertile 
lands that are offered almost without money and 
without price; land nearly any acre of which is 
worth more intrinsically than any other similar 
sized body of land in the world. There are 
5,000,000 acres of government lands in the State, 
and 2,000,000 acres of State lands. The rainfall in 
1886 was 46. 33; average mean temperature, 58.7°; 
highest, 97.8°; lowest, above zero, 7.6°. Of the 
33,500,000 acres in the State there are soils richer 
and deeper than the Nile; others that excel the 
alluvial corn belt of the Northern States; others 
that may successfully compete with the noted Cuba 
or James River, Virginia, tobacco red soil districts, 
or the most noted vineyards of France or Italy. 
Here is the land of wine and silk, where side by side 
will grow the corn and the iig — the land overhung 
with the soft, blue skies, and decked with flowers, 
the air laden with the rich j^erfumes of the magno- 
lias, on the topmost pinnacle of whose branches the 
Southern mocking-bird by day and by night swells 
its throat with song — 

" Where all, save the spirit of man, is divine." 

The artificial and local causes which have ob- 
structed the State's prosperity are now forever 
gone. There is yet the unsolved problem of the 
political negro, but this is in Illinois, Kansas and 
Ohio, exactly as it is in Arkansas. It is only the 



common problem to the Anglo-Saxon of the United 
States, which, in the future as in the past, after 
many mistakes and even great wrongs, he will for- 
ever settle and for the best. Throw politics to the 
winds; only remember to profit by the mistakes of 
the North in inviting immigration, and thereby 
avoid the ominous presence of anarchism, socialism, 
and those conditions of social life latent in ' ' the 
conflict of labor and capital. ' ' These are some of 
the portentous problems now confronting the older 
States that are absent from Arkansas; they should 
be kept away, by the knowledge that such ugly 
conditions are the fanged whelps of the great 
brood of American demagogues — overdoses of 
politics, washed down by too much universal vot- 
ing. It is of infinitely more importance to guard 
tax-receipts than the ballot boxes. When vice and 
ignorance vote their own destruction, there need be 
no one to compassionate their miseries, but always 
where taxes run high, people's liberties run low. 
The best government governs the least — the freest 
government taxes the least. 

Offer premiums to the immigration of well- 
informed, expert labor, and small farmers, dairy- 
men, gardeners and horticulturists and small trad- 
ers. Let the 7,000,000 acres of government and 
State lands be given in forty-acre tracts to the 
heads of families, who will come and occupy them. 
Instead of millions of dollars in donations to great 
corporations and capitalists, give to that class which 
will create capital, develop the State, and enrich 
all the people. Railroads and capitalists will fol- 
low these as water runs down the hill. Arkansas 
needs railroads — ten thousand miles yet — it needs 
great factories, great cities, universities of learn- 
ing and, forsooth, millionaires. But its first and 
greatest needs are small farmers, practical toil- 
ers, skilled mechanics, and scattered all over the 
State beginnings in each of the various manufac- 
tures; the beginnings, in short, of that auspicious 
hour when it ceases to ship any of its raw mate- 
rials. It is a law of life, that, in a society where 
there are few millionaires, there are few pauj^ers. 
Where the capital of a country is gathered in vast 
aggregations in the possession of a few, there the 
children cry for bread — the poor constantly in- 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



49 



crease, wages fall, employment too often fails, and 
the hoarse mutterings of parading mobs and bread 
riots take the places of the laughter and the songs 
of the laborers to and from the shops and the 
fields. 

The following from the government official re- 
ports of the growth and value of the manufactures 
of the State is to be understood as reaching only 
to 18S0, when it had but commenced to emerge 
from the old into the new life: 





i 






m 


jj 




•1 


rs 


Year. 






■3 


fl 


13 


« 


s 


























o 




t^ 


O 






3 




M 












> 


> 




261 


S 305,045 


812 


30 




$150,876 


8 215.789 


$ 537,908 






1,316,610 
1,782,913 
2,953,130 












2,880,.'i78 
4,629,234 
6,756,159 




1,070 
1,202 


3,077 
4,307 


•17 


«•> 


673,963 




1880 


90 


160 


925,358 


4,392,080 





Ideas of values are most easily reached by com- 
parisons. The following figures, taken from offi- 
cial government reports, explain themselves : 



Nebraska.. 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Minnesota 



S 74,249,655 
105.932,541 
507,430,227 
235,178,631 
193,724,260 



Machinery Live Stock. Product 



S 4,637,49" 
7,820,915 

29,371,884 
9,734,684 

13,089,783 



S 20,472,425 
3.3,440,265 
124,715,103 
60,907,149 
31,904,821 



$43,796,261 
31,708,914 
36,103,073 
52,240,561 
49,468,967 



The products are the profits on the capital in- 
vested. Words can add nothing to these figures 
in demonstrating the superiority of Arkansas as 
an agricultural State, except the explanation that 
Southern farming is yet more or less carried on 
under the baneful influences of the days of slavery, 
unintentional indifference and the absence of 
watchful attention by the firoprietor. 

Cotton grows finely in all parts of this com- 
monwealth and heretofore in two-thirds of its terri- 
tory it has been the main crop. In the fertile 
bottoms the product per acre has reached as high 
as 2,000 pounds of seed cotton, while on the 
uplands it runs from 600 to 1,000 pounds'. The 
census of 1880 shows that Arkansas produces more 
cotton per acre, and at less expense, than any of 
the so-called cotton States. In 1880 the yield 
was 608, 256 bales, grown on 1,042,970 acres. That 



year Georgia raised 814,441 bales, on 2,617,138 
acres. The estimated cost per acre of raising cot- 
ton is $6. It will thus be seen that it cost 
$9,444,972 in Georgia to raise 256,185 more bales 
of cotton than Arkansas had grown — much more 
than double the land to produce less than one- 
fourth more cotton. Less than one-twentieth of 
the cotton land of the latter State has been brought 
under cultivation. 

The sujaeriority of cotton here is attested by 
the fact that the greatest cotton thread manufact- 
urers in the world prefer the Arkansas cotton to 
any other in the market. The product has for 
years carried off the first prizes over the world's 
competition. 

The extra census bulletin, 1880, gives the yield 
of corn, oats and wheat products in Arkansas for 
that year as follows: Corn, 24,156,517 bushels; 
oats, 2,219,824 bushels; wheat, 1,269,730 bushels. 
Remembering that this is considered almost ex- 
clusively a cotton State, these figures of the cereals 
will be a genuine surprise. More wheat is grown 
by 40, 000 bushels and nearly three times as much 
corn as were raised in all New England, according 
to the official figures for that year. 

From the United States agricultural reports are 
obtained these interesting statistics concerning the 
money value of farm crops per acre: 





Corn. 


Rye. 


Oats. 


Potatoes. 


Hay. 


Illinois 


$ 6 77 
8 86 
11 52 

6 44 

7 52 
7 91 

11 51 


$ 6 64 
7 30 
9 08 
5 98 
5 16 
7 32 
9 51 


$ 6 46 

5 92 
7 90 

6 12 
5 34 
5 78 

11 07 


130 32 
30 08 


1 7 66 
7 66 


Ohio 


34 48 


9 85 




37 40 
43 50 
28 08 
78 65 


5 89 




17 :30 




14 95 


Arkansas 


22 94 



The following is the average cash value per 
acre on all crops taken together: 





..$13 51 


New Hampshire.. 


. . 13 56 




. . 11 60 


Massachusetts — 


. . 26 71 


Rhode Island 


. . 29 33 


Connecticut 


. . 16 83 


New York 


. 14 15 


New Jersey 


. . 18 05 


Pennsylvania . . . . 


. . 17 68 


Delaware 


. . 15 80 


Maryland 


. . 17 83 


Viririnia 


. . 10 91 



North Carolina $10 

.South Carolina 10 

Georscia 10 

Florida 8 

Alaliama 1:3 

Mississippi 14 

Louisiana 22 

Arkansas 20 

Tennessee 12 

West Virginia 12 

Kentucky 13 

Ohio 15 



50 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



Micbigan $18 96 

Indiana 14 66 

Illinois 12 47 

Wisconsin 13 80 

Minnesota 10 29 

Iowa 8 88 

Missouri 10 78 



Kansas $ 9 11 

Nebraska 8 60 

California 17 18 

Oregon ; 17 11 

Nevada, Colorado and 

the Territories 16 13 

Texas 14 69 



The advance of horticulture in the past decade 
in the State has been extraordinary. Twenty years 
ago its orchard products amounted to very little. 
By the census reports of 1880, the total yield of 
fruit was $867,426. This was $100,000 more than 
the yield of Florida, with all the latter' s immense 
orange groves. As universally as has the State 
been misunderstood, it is probably in reference 
to its fruits and berries that the greatest errors 
have long existed. If one visits the apple and 
peach regions of the North, it is found to be the gen- 
eral belief that Arkansas is too far south to pro- 
duce either, whereas the truth is that, especially 
in apples, it has no equal either in the United 
States or in the world. This fact was first brought 
to piiblic attention at the World's Fair, at New 
Orleans, 1884-85, where the Arkansas exhibit was 
by far the finest ever made, and the State was 
awarded the first premium, receiving the World's 
medal and a special notice by the awarding com- 
mittee. Thus encouraged, the State was repre- 
sented at the meeting of the American Pomological 
Society, in Boston, in September, 1887. Sixty- 
eight varieties of Arkansas seedling apples were in 
the exhibit, to contend with all the champion fruit 
growers of the globe. The State won the Wilder 
medal, which is only given by reason of extraor- 
dinary merit, and in addition to this was awarded 
the first premium for the largest and best collection 
of apples, consisting of 1 '28 varieties. 

The collection which won the Boston prizes was 
then shipped to Little Rock, and after being on 
exhibition there twenty days, was re-packed and 
shipped to the National Horticiiltural meeting in 
California, which met at Riverside, February 7, 
1888. Arkansas again won the first prize, invad- 
ing the very home of Pomona, and bearing off the 
first honors as it had in eastern and northern sec- 
tions of the Union. The "Arkansas Shannon" 
is pronounced by competent judges to be the finest 
apple now grown anywhere. 



Strawberries are another late discovery of the 
resources of Arkansas. The yield and quality are 
very superior. So rapidly has the industry grown 
that, during the fruit season, the Iron Mountain 
road runs a special daily fruit train, leaving Little 
Rock late in the afternoon and reaching St. Louis 
early the next morning. This luscious product, of 
remarkable size, ripens about the first of April. 

Of all cultivated fruit the grape has held its 
place in poetry and song, in sacred and profane 
history, as the first. It finds in Arkansas the same 
conditions and climate of its native countries, 
between Persia and India. The fruit and its wine 
j)roduced here are said by native and foreign 
experts to equal, if not surpass, the most famous of 
Italy or France. The vines are always healthy 
and the fruit perfect. The wild muscadine and 
scuppernong grow vines measuring thirty- eight 
and one-half inches around, many varieties fruit- 
ing here to perfection that are not on the open air 
lists at all further north. 

The nativity of the peach is the same as that 
of the grape, and it, too, therefore, takes as kindly 
to the soil here as does the vine. Such a thing as 
biidded peach trees are of very recent date, and as 
a consequence the surprises of the orchardists in re- 
spect to this fruit are many. Some of the varieties 
ripen in May, and so far every kind of budded 
peaches brought from the North, both the tree and 
the fruit, have improved by the transplanting. 
The vigor of the trees seems to baffle the borers, 
and no curled leaves have yet been noticed. In 
quality and quantity the product is most encourag- 
ing, and the next few years will see a marked 
advance in this industry. 

For fifty years after the settlement of the State 
peach seedlings were grown, and from these, as in 
the case of the apple, new and stiperior varieties 
have been started, noted for size, flavor, abundance 
and never failing crops. 

The Chickasaw plum is so far the most suc- 
cessfully grown, and is the best. It is a perfected 
fruit easily cultivated, and is free from the curculio, 
while the trees are healthy and vigorous beyond 
other localities. 

In vegetables and fruits, except the tropical 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



plants, Arkansas is the banner State. In the fruit 
and vegetable kingdom there is found in luxuriant 
growth everything in the long list from corn to the 

The yield and quality of Arkansas tobacco is 
remarkable when it is remembered that this indus- 
try has received so little attention. Thirty years 
ago State Geologist Owen informed the people 
that he found here the same, if not better, tobacco 
soil, than the most favored districts of Cuba. The 
yield of tobacco, in 1880, was 970,230 pounds. 
Yet so little attention or experiment has been given 
the subject that an experimental knowledge of the 
State's resources in this respect cannot be claimed 
to have been gained. 

In 1880 the State produced: Barley, 1,952 
bushels; buckwheat, 548 bushels; rye, 22,387 
bushels; hay, 23,295 tons; Irish potatoes, 492,627 
bushels; sweet potatoes, 881,260 bushels. 

From the census reports of the same year are 
gleaned the following: Horses, total, 146,333; 
mules and asses, 87,082; working oxen, 25,444; 
milch cows, 249,407; other cattle, 433,392; sheep, 
246,757; swine, 1,565,098; wool, 557,368 pounds; 
milk, 316,858 gallons; butter, 7,790,013 pounds; 
cheese, 26,310 pounds. All parts of the State are 
finely adapted to stock-raising. The excellence 
and abundance of pure water, the heavy growth of 
blue grass, the cane brakes and abundant mast, 
sustain the animals during most of the winter 
in marketable condition. In respect to all domes- 
tic animals hei-e are presented the same conditions 
as in nearly every line of agriculture— cheapness 
of growth and excellence of quality. 

The improvement in cattle has been retarded 
by the now conceded fact that the "Texas fever" 
is asserted by some to be seated in the State. 
This affects Northern cattle when imported, while 
it has no effect on native animals. Except for this 
unfortunate reality there would be but little time 
lost in developing here the great dairy industry of 
the country. But good graded cattle are now 
being raised in every portion, and so rich is the 
locality in this regard that in stock, as in its fruits, 
care and attention will produce new varieties of 
unrivaled excellence. Arkansas is the natural home 



and breeding ground of animals, all growing to 
great perfection, with less care and the least cost. 

Taxes here are not high. The total taxation in 
Illinois in 1880, assessed on real and personal 
property, as per census reports, for State, county 
and all civil divisions less than counties, was 
$24,586,018; the same year in Arkansas the total 
tax was $1,839,090. Farm lands are decreasing 
in value in Illinois nearly as fast as they are in 
creasing in Arkansas. The total taxation in the 
United States in 1880 was the enormous sum of 
$312,750,721. Northern cities are growing, vyhile 
their rural population is lessening. The reverse 
of this is the best for a State. The source of ruin 
to past nations and civilizations has all arisen 
from an abuse of the taxing powers. Excessive 
taxation can only end in general ruin. This 
simple but great lesson should be instilled into the 
minds of all youths, crystallized into the briefest 
maxim, and written over every threshold in the 
land; hung in the porches of every institution of 
learning ; imprinted upon every plow handle and 
emblazoned on the trees and jutting rocks. The 
State that has taxed its people to build a $25, - 
000,000 State house, has given deep shame to the 
intelligence of this age. Taxes are the insidious 
destroyer of nations and all liberty, and it is only 
those freemen who jealously guard against this 
evil who will for any length of time maintain their 
independence, equality or manhood. 

The grade profile of the Memphis Route shows 
the elevations of the various cities and towns 
along that line to be as follows in feet, the datum 
plane being tide water of the Gulf of Mexico 
Kansas City, 765; Rosedale, 825; Merriam, 900 
Lenexa, 1,040; Olathe, 1,060; Bonita, 1,125 
Ocheltree, 1,080; Spring Hill, 1,020; Hillsdale: 
900; Paola, 860; Pendleton, 855; Fontana, 925 
La Cygne, 840; Barnard, 810; Pleasanton, 865 
Miami, 910; Prescott, 880; Fulton, 820; Ham- 
mond, 875; Fort Scott, 860; Clarksburg, 885; 
Garland, 865; all in Kansas; Arcadia, 820; 
Liberal, 875; lantha, 990; Lamar, 1,000; Keno- 
ma, 980; Golden City, 1,025; Lockwood, 1,065; 
South Greenfield, 1,040; Everton, 1,000; Ash 
Grove, 1,020; Boisd'Arc, 1,250; Campbells, 1,290; 



=1V 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



Nichols Junction, 1,280; Springfield, 1,300; Tur- 
ner, 1,210; Rogersville, 1,475; Fordland, 1,600; 
Seymour, 1,680; Cedar Gap, 1,685; Mansfield, 
1,520; Norwood, 1,510; Mountain Grove, 1,525; 
Cabool, 1,250; Sterling, 1,560; Willow Springs, 
1,400; Burnham, 1,360; Olden, 1,280; West 
Plains, 950; Brandsville, 1,000; Koshkonong, 970; 
Thayer, last point in Missouri, 575; Mammoth 



Spring, Ark., 485; Afton, 410; Hardy, 370; Willi- 
ford, 330; Ravenden, 310; Imboden, 300; Black 
Rock, 290; Portia, 285; Hoxie, 295; Sedgwick, 
270; Bonnerville, 320; Jonesboro, 275; Nettleton, 
250; Big Bay Siding, 250; Hatchie Coon, 250; 
Marked Tree, 250; Tyronza, 240; Gilmore, 225; 
Clarketon, 240; Marion, 235; West Memphis, 200; 
Memphis, 280. 



Politics— Importance of the Subject— The Two Old Schools of Politicians— Triumph of the 

■lACKSONiANS— Early Prominent State Politicians— The Great Question of Secession 

—The State Votes to Join the Confederacy- Horror of the War Period— 

The Reconstruction Distress— The Baxter-Brooks Embroglio. 




In knots tUej' stand, or in a rank they walk. 

Serious in aspect, earnest in their talk; 

Factious, and favouring this or t'other side, 

As their weak fancy or strong reason guide. — Dryden. 



N one sense there is no 
portion of the history of 
Arkansas more instructive 
than its political history, 
because in this is the key 
to the character of many 
of its institutions, as well 
as strong indications of the trend of 
the public mind, and the characteris- 
tics of those men who shaped public 
affairs and controlled very largely in 
the State councils. 

Immediately upon the formation 
of the Territorial government, the Presi- 
dent of the United States sent to Ai-- 
kansas Post Gov. James Miller, Robert 
Crittenden, secretary, and C. Jouett, 
, Letcher and Andrew Scott, judges, to 
the new Territorial government. Gov. 
seems, gave little attention to his oiBce, 



and therefore in all the early steps of formation 
Crittenden was the acting governor; and from the 
force of character he possessed, and his superior 
strength of mind, it is fair to conclude that he 
dominated almost at will the early public affairs 
of Arkansas. 

This was at the time of the beginning of the 
political rivalry between Clay and Jackson, two of 
the most remarkable types of great political lead- 
ers this country has jJi'oduced — Henry Clay, the 
superb; "Old Hickory," the man of iron; the one 
as polished a gem as ever glittered in the political 
heavens — the other the great diamond in the 
rough, who was of the people, and who drew his 
followers with bands of steel. These opposites 
were destined to clash. It is well for the country 
that they did. 

Robert Crittenden was a brother of John J. 
Crittenden, of Kentucky, and by some who knew 
him long and well he was deemed not only his 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS 



53 



brother's peer, but ia many respects his intellect- 
ual superior. It goes without the saying, he was a 
born AVhig, who, in Kentucky's super-loyal fash- 
ion, had Clay for his idol, and, to put it mildly, 
Jackson to dislike. 

President Monroe had appointed the first Terri- 
torial officers, but the fact that Crittenden was 
secretary is evidence that polities then were not 
running very high. Monroe was succeeded in 
1824 by John Quincy Adams. It would seem that 
in the early days in Arkansas, the Whigs stood 
upon the vantage grounds in many important 
respects. By the time Adams was inaugurated 
the war political to the death between Clay and 
Jackson had begun. But no man looked more care- 
fully after his own interests than Jackson. He 
had large property possessions just across the line 
in Tennessee, besides property in Arkansas. He 
induced, from his ranks in his own State, some 
young men of promise to come to Arkansas. The 
prize now was whether this should be a Whig 
or Democratic State. President Adams turned 
out Democratic officials and put in Whigs, and 
Robert Crittenden for a long time seemed to hold 
the State in his hand. Jackson's superiority as a 
leader over Clay is manifested in the struggles 
between the two in Arkansas. Clay's followers 
here were men after his fashion, as were Jackson's 
men after his mold. Taking Robert Crittenden 
as the best type, he was but little inferior to Clay 
himself in his magnetic oratory and purity of prin- 
ciples and public life; while Jackson sent here 
the Seviers, Conways and Rectors, men of the 
people, but of matchless resolution and personal 
force of character. No two great commanders 
ever had more faithful or able lieutenants than 
were the respective champions of Old Hickory 
and Harry of the West, in the formative days of 
the State of Arkansas. The results were, like 
those thoughout the Union, that Jackson triumphed 
in the hard strife, and Arkansas entered the Union, 
by virtue of a bill introduced by James Buchanan, 
as a Jackson State, and has never wavered in its 
political integrity. 

As an evidence of the similarity of the con- 
tests and respective leaders of the two parties 



here to those throughout the country, it is only 
necessary to point out that Crittenden drew to 
his following such men as Albert Pike, a genius 
of the loftiest and most versatile gifts the country 
has so far produced, while Jackson, ever supplying 
reinforcements to his captains, sent among others, 
as secretary of the Territory, Lewis Randolph, 
grandson of Thomas Jefferson, and whose wife 
was pretty Betty Martin, of the White House, a 
niece of Jackson's. Randolph settled in Hemp- 
stead County when it was an unbroken wilder- 
ness, and his remains are now resting there in an 
unknown grave. 

Clay, it seems, could dispatch but little addi- 
tional force to his followers, even when he saw they 
were the hardest pressed by the triumphant enemy. 
There was not much by which one could draw 
comparisons between Clay and Jackson — unless 
it was their radical difFerence. As a great ora- 
tor. Clay has never been excelled, and he lived in 
a day when the open sesame to the world's de- 
lights lay in the silver tongue; but Jackson was 
a hero, a great one, who inspired other born 
heroes to follow him even to the death. 

Arkansas was thus started permanently along 
the road of triumphant democracy, from which 
it never would have varied, except for the war 
times that brought to the whole country such con- 
fusion and political chaos. Being a Jackson 
State, dominated by the blood of the first governor 
of Tennessee — Gen. John Sevier, a man little in- 
ferior to Jackson himself — it was only the most 
cruel circumstance that could force the State into 
secession. When the convention met on the 4th 
of March, 1861, " on the state of the Union." its 
voice was practically unanimous for the Union, 
and that body passed a series of as loyal resolu- 
tions as were ever penned, then adjourning to 
meet again in the May following. The conven- 
tion met May 6, but the war was upon the coun- 
try, and most of the Gulf States had seceded. 
Every one knew that war was inevitable; it was 
already going on, but very few realized its immen- 
sity. The convention did not rush hastily into 
secession. An ordinance of secession was intro- 
duced, and for days, and into the nights, run- 



54 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



ning into the small hours, the matter was delib- 
erated upon — no preliminary test vote was forced 
to an issue. Delegates were present in anxious 
attendance from the Carolinas, Alabama and 
Georgia. They knew that the fate of their action 
largely depended upon the attitude of Arkansas. 
If Arkansas voted no, then the whole secession 
movement would receive a severe blow. The after- 
noon before the final vote, which was to take place 
in the evening, these commissioners from other 
States had made up their minds that Arkansas 
might possibly vote down secession. When the con- 
vention adjourned for supper, they held a hurried 
consultation, and freely expressed their anxiety 
at the outlook. It was understood that the dis- 
cussion was closed, and the night session was 
wholly for the purpose of taking a vote. All was 
uncertainty and intense excitement. Expressions 
of deepest attachment to the Union and the old 
flag were heard. The most fiery and vehement 
of the secessionists in the body were cautious and 
deliberative. There was but little even of vehe- 
ment detestation of the abolitionists — a thing as 
natural then for a Southern man to despise as 
hatred is natural to a heated brain. 

At a late hour in the evening, amid the most 
solemn silence of the crowded hall, an informal 
vote was taken. All except six members voted to 
secede. A suppressed applause followed the 
announcement of the vote. A hurried, whispered 
conference went on, and the effort was made to 
have the result unanimous. Now came the final 
vote. When the name of Isaac Murphy, afterward 
the military governor, was reached, it was passed 
and the roll call continued. It was so far unani- 
mous, with Mr. Murphy's name still to call. The 
clerk called it. Mr. Murphy arose and in an 
earnest and impressive manner in a few words ex- 
plained the dilemma he was in, but said, "I cannot 
violate my honest convictions of duty. I vote 
'No.'" 

When the day of reconstruction began, at first 
it was under the supervision of the military, and 
it is yet the greatest pity that Congress did not let 
the military alone to rehabilitate the States they had 
conquered. Isaac Murphy was made governor. 



No truer Union man lived than he. He knew the 
people, and his two years of government were 
fast curing the wounds of war. But he was 
turned out of ofiice. 

The right to vote compels, if it is to be other 
than an evil, some correct and intelligent under- 
standing of the form of government prevailing in 
the United States, and of the elementary prin- 
ciples of political economy. The ability to read 
and write, own property, go to Congress or edit a 
political paper, has nothing to do with it, no more 
than the color of the skin, eyes or hair of the voter. 
The act of voting itself is the sovereign act in the 
economic ailairs of the State; but if the govern- 
ment under its existing form is to endure, the 
average voter must understand and appreciate the 
fundamental principles which, in the providence 
of God, have made the United States the admira- 
tion of the world. 

Arkansas, the Democratic State, was in political 
disquiet from 1861 to 1874 — the beginning of the 
war and the end of reconstruction. When in the 
hands of Congress it was returned at every regular 
election as a Republican party State. The brief 
story of the political Moses who led it out of the 
wilderness is of itself a strange and interesting 
commentary on self-government. 

When the war came there lived in Batesville 
Elisha Baxter, a young lawyer who had been 
breasting only financial misfortunes all his life. 
Utterly failing as a farmer and merchant, he had 
been driven to study law and enter the practice 
to make a living. An honest, kind-hearted, good 
man, loving his neighbor as himself, but a patriot 
every inch of him, and loving the Union above all 
else, his heart was deeply grieved when he saw 
his adopted State had declared for secession. He 
could not be a disunionist, no more than he could 
turn upon his neighbors, friends and fellow-citi- 
zens of Arkansas. He determined to wash his 
hands of it all and remain quietly at home. Like 
all others he knew nothing of civil war. His 
neighbors soon drove him from his home and 
family, and, to save his life, he went to the North- 
ern army, then in Southern Missouri. He was 
welcomed and offered a commission in the Federal 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



55 



army and an opportunity to return to his State. 
He declined the offer; he could not tirrn and shed 
the blood of his old neighbors and former friends. 
In the vicissitudes of war this non-conibatant was 
captured by an Arkansas command, paroled and 
ordered to report to the military aiithorities at Lit- 
tle Rock. He made his way thither, and was 
thrown into a military prison and promptly indicted 
for high treason. Then only h^ began to under- 
stand the temper of the times, for the chances of 
his being hanged were probably as a thousand to 
one to acquittal. In this extremity he broke jail 
and fled. He again reached the Northern army 
in which he accepted a commission, and returned 
to his old home in Batesville, remaining in mili- 
tary command of the place. He was actively 
engaged in recruiting the Union men of Northern 
Arkansas and forming them into regiments. It 
goes without saying that Baxter never raised a 
hand to strike back at those who had so deeply 
wronged him, when their positions were reversed 
and he had the power in his hands. 

At the fall election, 1871, Baxter was the regu- 
lar Republican candidate for governor, and Joseph 
Brooks was the Independent Republican nom- 
inee. The Republican party was divided and each 



bid for the Democratic vote by promises to the 
ex-Confederates. Brooks may have been elected, 
but was counted out. Baxter was duly inaugu- 
rated. When he had served a year the politicians, 
it is supposed, who controlled Arkansas, finding 
the)' could not use Baxter, or in other words that 
they had counted in the wrong man, boldly pro- 
ceeded to undo their own acts, dethrone Baxter and 
put Brooks in the chair of State. An account of 
the Baxter-Brooks war is given in another chapter. 

Thus was this man the victim of political cir- 
cumstances; a patriot, loving his country and his 
neighbors, he was driven from home and State; a 
nou- combatant, he was arrested by his own friends 
as a traitor and the hangman's halter dangled in 
his face; breaking prison and stealing away like a 
skiilking convict, to return as ruler and master by 
the omnipotent power of the bayonet; a non-party 
man, compelled to be a Republican in politics, and 
finally, as a Republican, fated to lead the Demo- 
cratic pai-ty to success and power. 

The invincible Jacksonian dynasty, built up in 
Arkansas, with all else of public institutions went 
down in the sweep of civil war. It has not been 
revived as a political institution. But the Demo- 
cratic party dominates the State as of old. 




50 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



€mw 



— ♦ > * < ■> — 

Societies, State Institutions, etc.— The Ku Klux Klan— Independent Order of Odd Fellows- 
Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons— Grand Army of the Republic— Bureau of Mines- 
Arkansas Agricultural Associations— State Horticultural Society — The AVheel 
—The State Capital— The Capitol Building — State Libraries — State 
Medical Society— State Board of Health — Deaf Mute Institute 
—School for the Blind— Arkansas Lunatic Asylum— Ar- 
kansas Industrial University — The State Debt. 



Heaven forming each on other to depend, 

A master, or a servant, or a friend. 

Bids each on other for assistance call. 

Till one man's weakness grows the strength of all. — Pope. 




^ECRET societies are a form of 
■social life and exjaression which, 
in some mode of existence, 
antedate even authentic his- 
tory. Originally a manner 
of securing defense from the 
common enemies of tribes 
and peoples, they have developed 
into social and eleemosynary insti- 
tutions as advances in civilization 
have been made. At first they 
were but a severe necessity, and as 
that time slowly passed away, they 
became a luxury and a pleasure, 
having peculiar and strong attrac- 
tion to nearly all men. That part of 
one's nature which loves to lean 
upon others for aid, even in the social scale, finds 
its expression in some of the many forms of 
societies, clubs, organizations or institutions that 
now pervade nearly all the walks of life. In every 
day existence, in business, church, state, politics 
and pleasure, are societies and organizations every- 
where — for the purposes of gain, charity and 



comfort — indeed, for the sole purpose of finding 
something to do, would be the acknowledgment of 
many a society motto. The causes are as diversi- 
fied as the bodies, secret and otherwise, are 
numerous. 

The South furnishes a most remarkable instance 
of the charm there is in mystery to all men, in the 
rise and spread of the Ku Klux Klan, a few years 
ago. Three or four young men, in Columbia, 
Tenn., spending a social evening together, con- 
cluded to organize a winter's literary society. All 
had just returned from the war, in which they had 
fought for the ' ' lost cause, ' ' and found time 
hanging dull upon them. Each eagerly caught at 
the idea of a society, and soon they were in the 
intricacies of the details. Together, from their 
sparse recollections of their schoolbooks, they 
evolved the curious name for the society. The 
name suggested to them that the sport to be 
derived from it might be increased by making it a 
secret society. The thing was launched upon this 
basic idea. In everything connected with it each 
one was fertile it seems in adding mystery to mys- 
tery in their meetings and personal movements. 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



57 



The initiation of a new member was made a grand 
and rollicking affair. So complete had the mem- 
bers occasioned their little innocent society to be 
a mystery, that it became in an astonishingly brief 
time a greater enigma to themselves than even to 
outsiders. It swiftly spread from the village to the 
county, from the county to the State, and over-ran 
the Southern States like a racing prairie fire, 
changing in its aims and objects as rapidly as it 
had grown. From simply fi'ightening the poor 
night-prowling darkeys, it became a vast and 
uncontrollable semi-military organization; inflict- 
ing punishment here, and there taking life, until 
the State of Tennessee was thrown into utter con- 
fusion, and the military forces were called out; 
large rewards were offered for the arrest even of 
women found making any of the paraphernalia of 
the order. Government detectives sent to pry into 
their secrets were slain, and a general reign of 
terror ensued. No rewards could induce a mem- 
ber to betray his fellows; and the efforts of the 
organizers to control the storm they had raised, 
were as idle as the buzzing of a summer fly. 
Thousands and thousands of men belonged to 
it, who knew really little or nothing about it, and 
who to this day are oblivious of the true history 
of one of the most remarkable movements of large 
bodies of men that has ever occurred in this or 
perhaps any country. It was said by leading 
members of the order that they could, in twenty- 
four hours, put tens of thousands of men in line of 
battle, all fully armed and equipped. It was 
indeed the "Invisible Empire." By its founders 
it was as innocent and harmless in its purposes as 
a Sunday-school picnic, yet in a few weeks it spread 
and grew until it overshadowed the land — but little 
else than a bloody, headless riot. The imagina- 
tions of men on the outside conjured up the most 
blood-curdling falsehoods as to its doings; while 
those inside were, it seems, equally fertile in 
schemes and devices to further mystify people, 
alarm some and terrify others, and apparently the 
wilder the stoiy told about them, the more they 
would enjoy it. Its triie history will long give it 
rank of first importance to the philosophic and 
careful, painstaking historian. 



Among societies of the present day, that 
organization known as the Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows is recognized as a prominent one. The 
Grand Lodge of the order in Arkansas was organ- 
ized June 11, 1849. Its first past grand master 
was John J. Horner, elected in 185-1. His siicces- 
sors to date have been as follows : James A. Henry, 
1858 ; P. O. Hooper, 1859-1866 ; Richard Bragg, 
Sr., 1862; Peter Brugman, 1867, 1868, 1871; Isaac 
Eolsom, 1873; Albert Cohen, 1874; John B. Bond, 
1876; E. B. Moore, 1878; James S. Holmes, 1880; 
Adam Clark, 1881 ; W. A. Jett, 1882 ; James A. 
Gibson, 1884 ; George W. Hurley, 1885 ; H. S. 
Coleman, 1886, and A. S. Jett, 1887. The pres- 
ent able officers are R. P. Holt, grand master; 
J. P. Woolsey, deputy grand master; Louis C. 
Lincoln, grand warden ; Peter Brugman, grand 
secretary; H. Ehrenbers. grand treasurer; H. S. 
Coleman, grand representative; A. S. Jett, grand 
representative; Rev. L. B. Hawley, grand chap- 
lain; John R. Richardson, grand marshal; J. G. 
Parker, grand conductor; William Mosby, grand 
guardian ; W. J. Glenn, grand herald. In the 
State there are eighty-two lodges and a total mem- 
bership, reported by the secretary at the October 
meeting, 1888, of 2,023. The revenue from sub- 
ordinate lodges amounts to $13,832, while the 
relief granted aggregates $2,840. There were 
sixteen Rebekah lodges organized in 1887-88. 

The Masonic fraternity is no less influential 
in the affairs of every part of the country, than the 
society just mentioned. There is a tradition — too 
vague for reliance — that Masonry was introduced 
into Arkansas by the Spaniards more than 100 
years ago, and that therefore the first lodge was 
established at Arkansas Post. Relying, however, 
upon the records the earliest formation of a lodge 
of the order was in 1819, when the Grand Lodge 
of Kentucky granted a dispensation for a lodge at 
Arkansas Post. Robert Johnson was the first mas- 
ter. Judge Andrew Scott, a Federal judge in the 
Territory, was one of its members. But before 
this lodge received its charter, the seat of govern- 
ment was removed to Little Rock, and the Arkan- 
sas Post lodge became extinct. No other lodge 
was attempted to be established until 1836, when 



58 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



a dispensation was granted Washington Lodge No. 
82, at Fayetteville, October 3, 1837. Onesimus 
Evans, was master; James McKissick, senior war- 
den; Mathew Leeper, junior warden. 

In 1838 the Grand Lodge of Louisiana granted 
the second dispensation for a lodge at Arkansas 
Post — Morning Star Lodge No. 42 ; the same year 
granting a charter to Western Star Lodge No. 43, 
at Little Rock. Of this Edward Cross was master; 
Charles L. Jeffries, senior warden ; Nicholas Peay, 
junior warden. About this time the Grand Lodge 
of Alabama granted a charter to Mount Horeb 
Lodge, of Washington, Hempstead County. 

November 21, 1838, these four lodges held a 
convention at Little Rock and formed the Grand 
Lodge of Arkansas. 

The representatives at this convention were: 
From Washington Lodge No. 82, of Fayetteville, 
Onesimus Evans, past master; Washington L. Wil- 
son, Robert Bedford, Abraham Whinnery, Richard 
C. S. Brown, Samuel Adams and Williamson S. 
Oldham. 

From Western Star Lodge No. 43. of Little 
Rock, William Gilckrist, past master; Charles L. 
Jeffries, past master; Nicholas Peay, past master; 
Edward Cross, past master; Thomas Parsel, Alden 
Sprague and John Morris. 

From Morning Star Lodge No 42, of the Post 
of Arkansas, John W. Pullen. 

From Mount Horeb Lodge, of Washington, 
James H. Walker, Allen M. Oakley, Joseph W. Mc- 
Kean and James Trigg. 

Of this convention John Morris, of Western 
Star Lodge No. 43, was made secretary. Mr. 
Morris is still living (1889), a resident of Auburn, 
Sebastian County, and is now quite an old man. 
Mr. John P. Karns, of Little Rock, was in 
attendance at the convention, although not a dele- 
gate. These two are the only ones surviving who 
were present on that occasion. 

The Grand Lodge organized by the election of 
William Gilchrist, grand master; Onesimus Evans, 
deputy grand master; James H. Walker, grandsen- 
ior warden; Washington L. W^ilson, grand junior 
warden; Alden Sprague, grand treasurer, and 
George C. Watkins, grand secretary. 



The constituent lodges, their former charters be- 
ing extinct by their becoming members of a new jur- 
isdiction, took new numbers. Washington Lodge, 
at Fayetteville, became No. 1; Western Star, of 
Little Rock, became No. 2; Morning Star, of the 
Post of Arkansas, became No. 8, and Mount Horeb, 
of Washington, became No. 4. Of these Wash- 
ington No. 1, and Western Star No. 2, are in vig- 
orous life, but Morning Star No. 3, and Mount 
Horeb No. 4, have become defunct. 

From this beginning of the four lodges, with a 
membership of probably 100, the Grand Lodge 
now consists of over 400 lodges, and a member- 
ship of about 12,000. 

The following are the officers for the present 
year: R. H. Taylor, grand master. Hot Springs; 
J. W. Sorrels, deputy grand master. Farmer, 
Scott County; D. B. Warren, grand lecturer, 
Gainesville; W. A. Clement, grand orator. Rover, 
Yell County; W. K. Ramsey, grand senior ward- 
en, Camden; C. A. Bridewell, grand junior ward- 
en, Hope; George H. Meade, grand treasurer. Lit- 
tle Rock; Fay Hempstead, grand secretary. Little 
Rock; D. D. Leach, grand senior deacon, Augusta; 
Samuel Peete, grand junior deacon, Batesville; H. 
W. Brooks, grand chaplain, Hope; John B. Baxter, 
grand marshal, Briukley; C. C. Hamby, grand 
sword bearer, Prescott; S. Solmson, senior grand 
steward. Pine Bluff; A. T. Wilson, junior grand 
steward. Eureka Springs; J. C. Churchill, grand 
pursuivant, Charlotte, Independence County; Ed. 
Metcalf, gra;nd tyler. Little Rock. 

The first post of the Grand Army of the Repub- 
lic, Department of Arkansas, was organized under 
authority from the Illinois Commandery, and called 
McPherson Post No. 1, of Little Rock. The 
district then passed under command of the Depart- 
ment of Missoui'i, and by that authority was or- 
ganized Post No. 2, at Fort Smith. 

The Provisional Department of Arkansas was 
organized June 18, 1883, Stephen Wheeler being 
department commander, and C. M. Vaughan, adju- 
tant-general. A State encampment was called to 
meet at Fort Smith, July 11, 1883. Six posts were 
represented in this meeting, when the following 
State officers were elected: S. Wheeler, com- 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



59 



mander; M. Mitchell, senior vice; R. E. Jackson, 
junior vice; H. Stone, quartermaster, and the 
following council: Johu F. Owen, A. S. Fowler, 
W. ^Y. Bailey, A. Walrath, Benton Turner. 

There are now seventy-four posts, with a mem- 
bership of 2, 500, in the State. The present offi- 
cers are: Department commander, A. S. Fowler; 
senior vice commander, JohnVaughan; junior vice 
commander, E. A. Ellis; medical director, T. G. 
Miller; chaplain, T. R. Early. 

The council of administration includes A. A. 
Whissen, Thomas Boles, W. S. Bartholomew, R. 
E. Renner and I. B. Lawton. The following were 
the appointments on the staff of the department 
commander: Assistant adjutant-general, N.W. Cox; 
assistant quartermaster-general, Stephen Wheeler; 
judge advocate, S. J. Evans; chief mustering 
officer, S. K. Robinson; department inspector, 
R. S. CuiTy. Headquarters were established at 
Little Rock, Ark. 

There are other bodies in the State whose aims 
and purposes differ materially from those previously 
mentioned. Among these is the Arkansas Bureau 
of Mines, Manufactures and Agriculture, which 
was organized as a State institution at the session 
of the legislature in 1889. The governor ap- 
pointed M. F. Locke commissioner, the latter mak- 
ing M. W. Manville assistant. They at once pro- 
ceeded to organize the department and open an 
office in the State-house. The legislature appro- 
priated for the next two years for the bureau the 
sum of $18,000. 

This action of the legislature was in response 
to a demand from all parts of the State, which, 
growing in volume for some time, culminated in 
the meeting in Little Rock of numerous promi- 
nent men, and the organization of the Arkansas 
State Bureau of Immigration, January 31, ISSS. 
A demand fi'om almost every county prompted 
Gov. Senior P. Hughes to issue a call for a State 
meeting. The meeting was composed only of the 
best representative citizens. Gov. Hughes, in his 
address, stated that '"the State should have an 
agricultural, mining and manufacturing bureau, 
which should be a bureau of statistics and immi- 
gration, also. ' ' Hon. Logan H. Roots was elected 



president of the convention. He voiced the pm-- 
poses of the meeting still further when he said, 
" We want to educate others on the wealth-mak- 
ing properties of our State. ' ' A permanent State 
organization was effected, one delegate from each 
county to constitute a State Board of Immigra- 
tion, and the following permanent officers were 
chosen: Logan H. Roots, of Little Rock, presi- 
dent; Dandridge McRae, of Searcy, vice-president; 
H. L. Remmel, of Newport, secretary; George R. 
Brown, of Little Rock, treasurer; J. H. Clen- 
dening, of Fort Smith, A. M. Crow, of Arkadel- 
phia, W. P. Fletcher, of Lonoke, additional exec- 
utive committee. The executive committee issued 
a strong address and published it extensively, giv- 
ing some of the many inducements the State had 
to offer immigrants. The legislature could not 
fail to properly recognize such a movement of the 
people, and so provided for the long needed bu- 
reau. 

Arkansas Agricultural Association was organ- 
ized in 1885. It has moved slowly so far, but is 
now reaching the condition of becoming a great 
and prosperous institution. The entire State is soon 
to be made into sub-districts, with minor organ- 
izations, at least one in each Congressional district, 
with a local control in each, and all will become 
stockholders and a part of the parent concern. 
A permanent State fair and suitable grounds and 
fixtures are to be provided in the near f uttu'e, when 
Arkansas will successfully vie with any State in 
the Union in an annual display of its products. 

The officers of the Agricultural Association for 
1889, are as follows: Zeb. AVard, president, Little 
Rock; B. D. Williams, first vice-president. Little 
Rock; T. D. Culberhouse, vice-president First 
Congressional district; D. McRae, vice president 
Second Congressional district; W. L. Tate, vice- 
president Third Congressional district ; J. J. Sump- 
ter, vice-president Fourth Congressional district; J. 
H. Vanhoose, vice-president Fifth Congressional 
district; M. W. Manville, secretary; D. W. Bizzell, 
treasurer. 

Arkansas State Horticultural Society was or- 
ganized May 24, 1879, and incorporated January 
31, 1889. Under its completed organization the 



60 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



first fair was held in Little Rock, commencing 
Wednesday, May 15, 1889. President, E. F. Bab- 
cock; secretary, M. W. Manville; executive com 
mittee, S. H. Nowlin, chairman. Little Rock; 
George P. C. Rumbough, Little Rock; Rev. S. H. 
Buchanan, Little Rock; E. C. Kinney, Judsonia, 
and Fred Dengler, Hot Springs, constitute the 
official board. 

In 1881 three farmers of Prairie County met 
and talked over farm matters, and concluded to 
organize a society for the welfare of the farming 
community. The movement grew with astonish- 
ing rapidity. It was organized as a secret, non- 
political society, and in matters of trade and com- 
merce proposed to give its members the benefit 
of combination. In this respect it advocated ac- 
tion in concert with all labor unions or organiza- 
tions of laborers. A State and National organiza- 
tion was efFected, and the sub-organizations, ex- 
tending to the smallest school districts, were re- 
quired to obtain authority and report to the State 
branch and it in return to the National head. Thus 
far its originators sought what they believed to be 
the true co-operative method in their business af- 
fairs. 

The next object was to secure beneficial legis- 
lation to farmers — each one to retain his polit- 
ical party affiliations, and at the ballot-box to vote 
for either farmers or those most closely identified 
with their interests as might be found on the 
respective party tickets. 

The officers of the National society are: Isaac 
McCracken, president. Ozone, Ark., and A. E. 
Gardner, secretary and treasurer, Dresden, Tenn. 
The Arkansas State Wheel officers are: L. P. 
Featherstone, president, Forrest City; R. H. 
Morehead, secretar}^ White Chapel, and W. H. 
Quayle, treasurer, Ozan. 

The scheme was inviting to honest farmers and 
the humble beginning soon grew to be a most pros- 
perous society — not only extending over the State, 
but reaching boldly across the line into other 
States. When at the zenith of its prosperity, it 
is estimated there were 60,000 members of the 
order in Arkansas. This was too tempting a pros- 
pect for the busy political demagogues, and to the 



amazement of the better men in the society, they 
soon awoke to the fact that they were in the hands 
of the wily politicians. It is now estimated that 
the ranks in Arkansas are reduced to 20,000 or 
less — all for political causes. The movement now 
is to purge the society of politics and in the near 
futui'e to meet the Farmer's Alliance in St. Louis, 
and form a combination of the two societies. It 
is hoped by this arrangement to avoid the dema- 
gogues hereafter, and at the same time form a 
strong and permanent society, which will aaswer 
the best interests of the farming community. 

As stated elsewhere, the location of a capital 
for Arkansas early occupied the attention of its 
citizens. On November 20, 1821, William Rus- 
sell and others laid off and platted Little Rock 
as the future capital of the Territory and State. 
They made a plat and a bill of assurances thereto, 
subdividing the same into lots and blocks. They 
granted to Pulaski County Lots 3 and -i in trust 
and on the conditions following, viz. : ' ' That the 
said county of Pulaski within two years" should 
erect a common jail upon said Lots 3 and 4. Out 
of this transaction grew a great deal of litigation. 
The first jail was built of pine logs in 1823. It 
stood until 1837, when it was burned, and a brick 
building was erected in its stead. This stood for 
many years, but through the growth of the city, it in 
time became a public nuisance and was condemned, 
and the location moved to the present site of the 
stone jail. 

The Territory was organized by Congress in 
1819, and the seat of government located at the 
Post of Arkansas. In the early part of 1820 
arose the question of a new site for the seat of 
government, and all eyes turned to Pulaski County. 
A capital syndicate was formed and Little Rock 
Bluff fixed upon as the future capital. The one 
trouble was that the land at this point was not yet 
in market, and so the company secured ' ' sunk land 
scrip ' ' and located this upon the selected town 
site. The west line of the Quapaw Indian reser- 
vation struck the Arkansas River at ' ' the Little 
Rock ' ' and therefore the east line of the contem- 
plated capital had to be west of this Quapaw line. 
This town survey ' ' west of the point of rocks. 




^/ 4-z-^-^^^t^^^ 



Gqwernor df Arkansas. 



/ 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



61 



immediately south of the Arkansas River, and 
west of the Quapaw line," was surveyed and re- 
turned to the recorder at St. Louis as the new town 
site and Territorial capital — called Little Rock. 
The dedication of the streets, etc. , and the plat as 
laid off, was dated November 10, 1821. Grounds 
were given for a State house, and other public 
buildings and purposes, and for " the permanent 
seat of justice of said county (Pulaski)"' was ded- 
icated an entire half square, ' ' bounded on the north 
by Markham Street and on the west by Spring 
Street and on the south by Cherry (now Second) 
Street ' ' for court house purposes . In return the 
county was to erect a court house and jail on the 
lots specified for these purposes, ' ' within ten 
years from the date hereof. ' ' A market house was 
to be erected by the city on Lots 4 and 5, Block 99. 
The latter in time was built on these lots, the upper 
story containing a council chamber, which was in 
public use until 1864, when the present city hall 
was erected. 

By an act of the legislature, October 24, 1821, 
James Billingsly, Crawford County, Samuel C. 
Roane, Clark County, and Robert Bean, Inde- 
pendence County, were appointed commissioners, 
"to fix on a proper place for the seat of justice of 
the County of Pulaski;" the act further specify- 
ing ' ' they shall take into consideration donations 
and future divisions." The latter part of the 
sentence is made still more important by the fact 
that at that time the western boundary of Pulaski 
County was 100 miles west, at the mouth of Petit 
Jean, and the eastern boundary was a few miles 
below Pine Bluff. 

October 18,1820, the Territorial seat of govern- 
ment was removed from the Post of Arkansas to 
the Little Rock, the act to take effect June 1, 1821. 
It provided ' ' that there shall be a bond * » * 
for the faithful performance of the promise and 
good faith by which the seat of government is 
moved. " ' 

In November, 1821, about the last of the belong- 
ings of the Territorial capital at the Post were 
removed to Little Rock. It was a crossing point 
on the river of the government road leading to 
Missouri, and the place had often been designated 



as the ' ' Missouri Crossing, ' ' but the French had 
generally called it Arkapolis. 

During the short time the Territorial capital 
was at Arkansas Post, no effort was made to erect 
public buildings, as from the first it was under- 
stood this was but a temporary location. When 
the capital came to Little Rock a one-story double 
log house was built, near the spot where is now 
the Presbyterian Church, or near the corner of 
Scott and Fifth Streets. This building was in 
the old style of two rooms, with an open space 
between, but all under the same roof. In 1826 
the log building was superseded by a one-story 
frame. March 2, 1831, Congress authorized the 
Territory to select ten sections of land and appro- 
priate the same toward erecting capitol buildings; 
and in 1832 it empowered the governor to lease 
the salt springs. With these different funds was 
erected the central building of the present capitol, 
the old representative hall being where is now the 
senate chamber. In 1836, when Arkansas became 
a State, there was yet no plastering in any part of 
the brick building, and in the assembly halls were 
plain pine board tables and old fashioned split 
bottomed chairs, made in Little Rock. 

In 1886, at the remarkably small cost of S35,000, 
were added the additions and improvements and 
changes in the capitol building, completing it in 
its present form. And if the same wisdom con- 
trols the State in the future that has marked the 
past, especially in the matter of economy in its 
public buildings, there will be only a trifling 
additional expenditure on public buildings during 
the next half century. The State buildings are 
sufficient for all public needs; their plainness and 
cheapness are a pride and glory, fitting monuments 
to the past and present generation of rulers and 
law makers, testifj-ing to their intelligence and 
integrity. 

The State library was started March 3, 1838, at 
first solely as a reference and exchange medium. 
It now has an annual allowance of $100, for pur- 
chasing books and contains 25,000 volumes, really 
more than can suitably be accommodated. 

The Supreme Court library was established in 
January, 1851. It has 8,000 volumes, including 



62 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



all the reports and the leading law works. The 
fees of attorneys' license upon admission to the 
bar, of ten dollars, and a dollar docket fee in each 
case in court, constitute the fund provided for the 
library. 

The State Medical Society, as now constituted, 
was formed in May, 1875. It held its fourteenth 
annual session in 1889, at Pine Bluff. Edward 
Bentley is the acting president, and L. P. Gibson, 
secretary. Subordinate societies are formed in all 
parts of the State and are represented by regular 
delegates in the general assemblies. In addition to 
the officers for the current year above given are 
Z. Orts, assistant secretary, A. J. Vance, C. S. 
Gray, B. Hatchett and W. H. Hill, vice-presidents 
in the order named. 

The State Board of Health was established by 
act of the legislature, March 23, 1881. It is com- 
posed of six commissioners, appointed by the gov- 
ernor, ' 'a majority of whom are to be medical grad- 
uates and of seven years ' practice in the profes- 
sion. " The board is required to meet once in 
every three months. The secretary is allowed a 
salary of $1,000 per annum, but the others receive 
no compensation except traveling expenses in the 
discharge of official duties. 

The present board is composed of Dr. A. L. 
Breysacher, president; Dr. Lorenzo R. Gibson, sec- 
retary ; Doctors J. A. Dibrell, P. Van Patton, W. 
A. Cantrell and V. Brunson. 

The beginning which resulted in the present 
elegant State institution for deaf mutes was a school 
established near the close of the late war, in Little 
Rock, by Joseph Mount, an educated mute, who 
gathered a few of these unfortunate ones together 
and taught a private school. The State legislature 
incorporated the school and made a small provision 
for it, July 17, 1868, the attendance that year 
being four pupils. The buildings are on the beau- 
tiful hill just west of the Union Depot, the im- 
provement of the grounds being made in 1869. 
The attendance in 1870 was 43 pupils, which in 
the last session' s report, 1888, reached the number 
of 109; and the superintendent, anticipating an at- 
tendance for the current two years of 150, has 
solicited appropriations accordingly. 



The board of trustees of the Deaf Mute Insti- 
tute includes: Hon. George E. Dodge, president; 
Col. S. L. Griffith, vice-president; Maj. R. H. Par- 
ham, Jr., secretary; Hon. AV. E. Woodruff, treas- 
urer; Maj. George H. Meade and Col. A. R. Witt. 
The officers are: Principal, Francis D. Clarke; 
instructors: John W. Michaels, Mrs. I. H. Carroll, 
Miss Susan B. Harwood, Miss Kate P. Brown, Miss 
Emma Wells, S. C. Bright; teacher of articulation, 
Miss Lottie Kirkland. Mrs. M. M. Beattie is 
matron; Miss Lucinda Nations, assistant ; Miss 
Clara Abbott, supervises the sewing, and Mrs. 
Amanda Harley is housekeeper. The visiting phy- 
sician is J. A. Dibrell, Jr. , M. D. ; foreman of the 
printing office, T. P. Clarke; foreman of the shoe 
shop, U. G. Dunn. Of the total appropriations 
asked for the ciirrent two years, $80,970, $16,570 
is for improvements in buildings, grounds, school 
apparatus, or working departments. 

The Arkansas School for the Blind was incor- 
porated by act of the legislature, February 4, 1859, 
and opened to pupils the same year in Arkadel- 
phia. In the year of 1868 it was removed to Little 
Rock, and suitable grounds purchased at the foot 
of Center Street, on Eighteenth Street. 

This is not an asylum for the aged and infirm, 
nor a hospital for the treatment of disease, but a 
school for the young of both sexes, in which are 
taught literature, music and handcraft Pupils 
between six and twenty-six years old are received, 
and an oculist for the purpose of treating pupils 
is a part of its benefits; no charge is made for 
board or tuition, but friends are expected to fur- 
nish clothing and traveling expenses. 

It is estimated there are 300 blind of school 
age in the State. The legislature has appro- 
priated $140 a year for each pupil. On this allow- 
ance in two years the steward reported a balance 
unexpended of $1,686.84. In 1886 was appro- 
priated $6,000 to build a workshop, store-room, 
laundry and bake-oven. In 1860 the attendance 
was ten — five males and five females; in 1862, 
seven males and six females. The year 1888 
brought the attendance up to fifty males and fifty- 
two females, or a total of 102. During the last 
two years six have graduated here — three in the 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



63 



industrial department, and three in the industrial 
and literary department. Four have been dis- 
missed on account of recovered eyesight. 

The trustees of the school are: J. R. Right- 
sell, S. M. Marshall, W. C. Ratcliffe, J.W. Hoiise, 
and D. G. Fones; the superintendent being John 
H. Dye. 

Another commendable institution, carefully 
providing for the welfare of those dethroned of 
reason, is the Arkansas State Lunatic Asylum, 
which was authorized by act of the legislature of 
1873, when suitable grounds were purchased, and 
highly improved, and buildings erected. The in 
stitution is three miles west of the capitol and one- 
half mile north of the Mount Ida road. Eighty acres 
of ground were originally piirchased and enclosed 
and are now reaching a high state of improve- 
ment. The resident jjopulation of the asylum at 
present is 500 souls, and owing to the crowded 
conditions an additional eighty acres were pur- 
chased in 1887, making in all 160 acres. A care- 
ful inquiry shows there are in the State (and not in 
the asylum, for want of room) 198 insane persons, 
entitled under the law to the benefits of the insti- 
tution. Of the 411 patients in the asylum in 1888, 
only four were pay patients. 

John G. Fletcher, R. K. Walker, A. L. Brey- 
sacher, John D. Adams and ^^'illiam J. Little are 
trustees of the institution, while Dr. P. O. Hooper 
is superintendent. 

In 1885 the legislature made an appropriation 
of $92, 500 for the erection of additional buildings 
and other needed improvements. This fund was 
not all iised, but the remainder was returned into 
the State treasury. The total current expenses for 
the year 1887 aggregated 145,212.60. The current 
expenses on patients the same year were $29, 344. 80. 
The comfort of the unfortunates — the excellence of 
the service, the wholesome food given them, and at 
the same time the minimum cost to the tax payers, 
prove the highest possible commendation to those 
in charge. 

The Arkansas Industrial University is the prom- 
ise, if not the present fulfillment, of one of the 
most important of State iastitutions. It certainly 
deserves the utmost attention from the best people 



of the State, as it is destined to become in time one 
of the great universities of the world. It should 
be placed in position to be self-supporting, be- 
cause education is not a public pauper and never 
can be permanently successful on charity. Any 
education to be had must be earned. This law of 
nature can no more be set aside than can the law 
of gravitation, and the ignorance of such a simple 
fact in statesmen and educators has cost our civili- 
zation its severest pains and ^^enalties. 

The industrial department of the institution 
was organized in June, 1885. The act of incor- 
poration provided that all males should work at 
manual labor three hours each day and be paid 
therefor ten cents an hour. Seven thousand 
dollars was appropriated to equip the shops. Prac- 
tical labor was defined to be not only farm and 
shop work, but also surveying, drawing and labor- 
atory practice. Mechanical arts and engineering 
became a part of the curriculum. The large major- 
ity of any people must engage in industrial pur- 
suits, and to these industrial development and 
enlightenment and comfort go hand-in-hand. 
Hence the real people's school is one of manual 
training. Schools of philosophy and literature will 
take care of themselves; think of a school (classical) 
endeavoring to train a Shakespeare or Burns ! To 
have compelled either one of these to graduate at 
Oxford would have been like clijiping the wings 
of the eagle to aid his upward flight. In the edu- 
cation at least of children nature is omnipotent and 
pitiless, and it is the establishment of such train- 
ing schools as the Arkansas Industrial University 
that gives the cheering evidence of the world's 
progress. In its continued prosperity is hope for 
the near future; its failure through ignorance or 
bigotry in the old and worn out ideas of the dead 
past, will go far toward the confirmation of the 
cruel cynicism that the most to be pitied animal 
pell-melled into the world is the new-born babe. 

The University is situated at Fayetteville, 
Washington County. It was organized by act of 
the legislature, based on the ' ' Land Grant Act' ' 
of Congress of 1862, and supplemented by liberal 
donations from the State, the County of Wash- 
ington, and the city of Fayetteville. The school 



64 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



was opened in 1872. March 30, 1877, the legisla- 
tui'e passed the act known as the ' ' Barker Bill, ' ' 
which made nearly a complete change in the pur- 
view of the school and brought prominently for- 
ward the agricultural and mechanical departments. 
"To gratify our ambitious" [but mistaken] 
' ' youth, ' ' says the prospectus, ' ' we have, under 
Section 7 of the act, provided for instruction in the 
classics." 

Under the act of Congress known as the 
' • Hatch Bill, ' ' an Agricultural Experimental Sta- 
tion has been organized. Substantial buildings 
are now provided, and the cost of board in the in- 
stitution is reduced to $8 per month. The attend- 
ance at the present time is ninety -six students, 
and steps are being taken to form a model stock- 
farm. The trustees, in the last report, say: " We 
recommend that girls be restored to the privi- 
leges of the institution." The law only excludes 
females from being beneficiaries, and females may 
still attend as pay students. 

A part of the University is a branch Normal 
School, established at Pine Bluff, for the purpose 
of educating colored youth to be school teachers. 
These Normal Schools have for some years been 
a favorite and expensive hobby in most of the 
Northern States. There is probably no question 
that, for the promotion of the cause of education 
among the negroes, they offer unusual attractions. 

The following will give the reader a clear com- 
prehension of the school and its purposes. Its 
departments are: 

Mechanic arts and engineering, agriculture, 
experiment station, practical work, English and 
modern languages, biology and geology, military 



science and tactics, mathematics and logic, prepara- 
tory department, drawing and industrial art, and 
music. 

To all these departments is now added the med - 
ical department, located at Little Rock. This 
branch was founded in 1871, and has a suitable 
building on Second Street. The tenth annual 
course of lectures in this institution commenced 
October 3, 1888; the tenth annual commencement 
being held March 8, 1889. The institution is self- 
supporting, and already it ranks among the fore- 
most medical schools in the country. The graduat- 
ing class of 1888 numbered twenty. 

The State Board of Visitors to the medical 
school are Doctors W. W. Hipolite, W. P. Hart, 
W. B. Lawrence, J. M. Keller, I. Folsom. 

The debt of Arkansas is not as large as a cur- 
sory glance at the figures might indicate. The 
United States government recently issued a statis- 
tical abstract concerning the public debt of this 
State that is very misleading, and does it a great 
wrong. In enumerating the debts of the States it 
puts Arkansas at $12,029, 100. This error comes 
of including the bonds issued for railroad and levee 
purposes, that have been decided by the Supreme 
Court null and void, to the amount of nearly 
$10,000,000. They are therefore no part of the 
State indebtedness. 

The real debt of the State is $2,111,000, 
including principal and accumulated interest. 
There is an amount in excess of this, if there is 
included the debt due the general government, 
but for all such the State has counter claims, and 
it is not therefore estimated in giving the real 
indebtedness. 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 




The Bench and Bar— An Analytic View of the Profession of Law— Spanish and French liAws — 
English Common Law— The Legal Circuit Riders— Territorial Law and Lawyers 
—The Court Circuits— Early Court Officers— The Supreme Court— Promi- 
nent Members of the State Bench and Bar— The Standard 
' of the Execution of Law in the State. 



Laws do not put the least restraint 
Upon our freedom, but maintaiu 't; 
Or it tliey do. 'tis for our good, 
To give us freer latitude; 
For wholesome laws preserve us free 
By stinting of our liberty. — Butler. 




''HE Territory when under 
Spanish or French rule 
was governed by much the 
same laws and customs. 
The home government ap- 
pointed its viceroys, who 
were little more than nomi- 
nally under the control of the 
except in the general laws 
of the mother country. The neces- 
sary local provisions in the laws 
were not strictly required to be 
submitted for approval to the mas- 
.ter powers before being enforced 
in the colony. Both govern- 
ments were equally liberal in 
bestowing the lands upon sub- 
jects, and as a rule, without cost. But the shadow 
of feudal times still lingered over each of them, 
and they had no conception that the real people 
would want to be small landholders, supposing 
that in the new as in the old world they would 
drift into villanage, and in some sense be a part 
of the possession of the landed aristocracy. Hence, 



these governments are seen taking personal charge 
as it were of the colonies ; providing them masters 
and protectors, who, with government aid, would 
transport and in a certain sense own them and 
their labor after their arrival. The grantee of cer- 
tain royal rights and privileges in the new world 
was responsible to the viceroy for his colony, and 
the viceroy to the king. The whole was anti-dem- 
ocratic of course, and was but the continued and 
old, old idea of ' ' the divine rights of rulers. ' ' 

The commentaries of even the favorite law- 
writers to-day in this democratic country are 
blurred on nearly every page with that monstrous 
heresy, "the king can do no wrong" — the gov- 
erning power is infallible, it needs no watching, no 
jealous eye that will see its errors or its crimes ; a 
fetich to be blindly worshiped, indiscriminately, 
whether it is an angel of mercy or a monster of 
evil. When Cannibal was king he was a god, with 
no soul to dictate to him the course he jiursued. 
■ ' The curiosities of patriotism under adversity ' ' 
just here suggests itself as a natural title-page to 
one of the most remarkable books yet to be written. 

The bench and bar form a very peculiar result 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



of modern civilization — to-day fighting the most 
heroic battles for the poor and the oppressed ; to- 
morrow, perhaps, expending equal zeal and elo- 
quence in the train of the bloody usurper and ty- 
rant. As full of inconsistencies as insincerity it- 
.self, it is also as noted for as wise, conservative and 
noble efForts in behalf of our race as ever distin- 
guished patriot or sage. 

The dangers which beset the path of the law- 
yer are a blind adherence to precedent, and a love 
of the abstruse technicalities of the law practice. 
When both or either of these infirmities enter the 
soul of the otherwise young and rising practitioner, 
his usefulness to his fellow man is apt to be perma- 
nently impaired. He may be the ' ' learned judge, ' ' 
but will not be the great and good one. 

The history of the bench and bar should be 
an instructive one. The inquirer, commencing in 
the natural order of all real history, investigating 
the cause or the fountain source, and then follow- 
ing up the efPects flowing from causes, is met at 
the threshold with the question. Why ? What 
natural necessity created this vast and expensive 
supernumerary of civilization ? The institution in 
its entirety is so wide and involved, so comprehen- 
sive and expensive, with its array of court officials, 
great temples, its robes, ermine and wool-sacks; its 
halls, professors, schools and libraries, that the 
average mind is oppressed with the attempt to 
grasp its outlines. In a purely economic sense it 
produces not one blade of grass. After having 
elucidated this much of the investigation as best 
he can, he comes to a minor one, or the details 
of the subject. For illustration's sake, let it be 
assumed that he will then take up the considera- 
tion of grand juries, their origin, history and present 
necessity for existence. These are mere hints, but 
such as will arrest the attention of the student of law 
of philosophical turn of mind. They are nothing 
more than the same problems that come in every 
department of history. The school of the lawyer 
is to accept precedent, the same as it is a common 
human instinct to accept what comes to him from 
the fathers — assuming everything in its favor and 
combating everything that would dispute "the 
old order." It is the exceptional mind which 



looks ancient precedent in the face and asks ques- 
tions, Whence ? W^hy ? Whither ? These are gen- 
erally inconvenient queries to indolent content, 
but they are the drive-wheels of moving civiliza- 
tion. 

One most extraordinary fact forever remains, 
namely, that lawyers and statesmen never unfolded 
the science of political economy. This seems a 
strange contradiction, but nevertheless it is so. 
The story of human and divine laws is much alike. 
The truths have not been found, as a rule, by the 
custodians of the temples. The Rev. Jaspers are still 
proclaiming " the world do move." Great states- 
men are still seriously regulating the nation's 
' ' balance of trade, ' ' the price of interest on money, 
and through processes of taxation enriching peo- 
ples, while the dear old precedents have for 100 
years been demonstrated to be myths. They are 
theoretically dead with all intelligent men, but 
are very much alive in fact. Thus the social 
life of every people is full of most amusing curi- 
osities, many of them harmless, many that are not. 

The early bench and bar of Arkansas produced 
a strong and virile race of men. The pioneers of 
this important class of community possessed vigor- 
ous minds and bodies, with lofty ideals of personal 
honor, and an energy of integrity admirably fitted 
to the tasks set before them. 

The law of the land, the moment the Louisi- 
ana purchase was effected, was the English com- 
mon law, that vast and marvelous structure, the 
growth of hundreds of years of bloody English 
history, and so often the apparent throes of civil- 
ization. 

The circuit riders composed the first bench 
and bar here, as in all the western States. In 
this State especially the accounts of the law prac- 
tice—the long trips over the wide judicial circuits; 
the hardships endured, the dangers encountered 
from swollen streams ere safe bridges spanned 
them; the rough accommodations, indeed, some- 
times the absence of shelter from the raging ele- 
ments, and amid all this their jolly happy-go-lucky 
life, their wit and fun, their eternal electioneering, 
for every lawyer then was a politician; their quick- 
ened wits' and schemes and devices to advantage 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



67 



each other, both in and out of the courts, if all 
could be told in detail, would read like a fascinat- 
ing romance. These riders often traveled in com- 
panies of from three to fifteen, and among them 
would be found the college and law-school gradu- 
ates, and the brush graduates, associated in some 
cases and opposed in others. And here, as in all 
the walks of life, it was often found that the rough, 
self-educated men overmatched the graduates in 
their fiercest contests. While one might understand 
more of the books and of the learned technicalities 
of law, the other would know the jury best, and 
overthrow his antagonist. In the little old log 
cabin court rooms of those days, when the court 
was in session, the contest of the legal gladiators 
went on from the opening to the closing of the 
term. Generally the test was before a jury, and 
the people gathered from all the surrounding coun- 
try, deeply interested m every movement of the 
actors. This was an additional stimulus to the 
lawyer politicians, who well understood that their 
ability was gauged by the crowd, as were their suc- 
cesses before the jury. Thus was it a combination 
of the forum and "stump." Here, sometimes in 
the conduct of a noted case, a seat in Congress 
would be won or lost. A seat in Congi-ess, or on 
the "wool sack," was the ambition of nearly every 
circuit rider. Their legal encounters were fought 
out to the end. Each one was dreadfully in earn- 
est—he practiced no assumed virtues in the strug- 
gle; battling as much at least for himself as his 
client, he would yield only under compulsion, even 
in the minor jioints, and, unfortunately, sometimes 
in the heat of ardor, the contest jvould descend 
from a legal to a personal one. and then the handy 
duello code was a ready resort. It seems it was 
this unhappy mixture of law and politics that 
caused many of these bloody personal encounters. 
In the pure practice of the law, stripped of polit- 
ical bearings, there seldom, if ever, came misunder- 
standings. 

They must have been a fearless and earnest 
class of men to brave the hardships of professional 
life, as well as mastering the endless and involved 
intricacies of the legal practice of that day. The 
law then was but little less than a mass of un- 



meaning technicalities. A successful practitioner 
required to have at his fingers' ends at least Black- 
stone' s Commentaries and Chitty's Pleadings, and 
much of the wonders contained in the Rules of 
Evidence. Libraries were then scarce and their 
privations here were nearly as great as in the com- 
mon comforts for "man and beast." There have 
been vast improvements in the simplifying of the 
practice, the abolition of technical pleadings es- 
pecially, since that time, and the young attorney 
of today can hardly realize what it was the pio- 
neers of his profession had to undergo. 

A judicial circuit at that early day was an im- 
mense domain, over which the bench and bar 
regularly made semi-annual trips. Sometimes 
they would not more than get arovind to their 
starting point before it would be necessary to 
go all over the groiind again. Thus the court was 
almost literally ' ' in the saddle. ' ' The saddle-bags 
were their law offices, and some of them, upon 
reaching their respective county-seats, would sig- 
nalize their brief stays with hard work all day in 
the court-room and late roystering at the tavern 
bar at night, regardless of the demurrers, pleas, 
replications, rejoinders and surrejoinders, declara- 
tions and bills that they knew must be confronted 
on the morrow. Among these jolly sojourners, 
' ' diaring court week ' ' in the villages, dignity and 
circumspection were often given over exclusively 
to the keeping of the judge and prosecutor. Cir- 
cumstances thus made the bench and bar as social 
a set as ever came together. To see them return- 
ing after their long journeyings, sunburned and 
weatherbeaten, having had but few advantages of 
the laundry or bathtub, they might have passed for 
a returning squad of cavalry in the late war. One 
eccentric character made it a point never to start 
with any relays to his wardrobe. When he reached 
home after his long pilgrimage it would be noticed 
that his clothes had a stuffed appearance. The 
truth was that when clean linen was needed he 
bought new goods and slipped them on over the 
soiled ones. He would often tell how he dreaded 
the return to his home, as he knew that after his 
wife attended to his change of wardrobe he was 
"most sure to catch cold." 



68 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



On one occasion two members of the bar met 
at a county seat where court was in session a week. 
They had come from ojjposite directions, one of 
them riding a borrowed horse seventy miles, while 
the other on his own horse had traveled over 100 
miles. Upon starting home they unwittingly ex- 
changed horses, and neither discovered the mistake 
until informed by friends after reaching their des- 
tination. The horses could hardly have been more 
dissimilar, but the owners detected no change. It 
was nearly the value of the animals to make the 
return exchange, yet each set out, and finally re- 
turned with the proper horse. No little ingenuity 
must have been manifested in finally unraveling 
the great mystery of the affair. 

Surrounded as they were with all these ill con- 
ditions, as a body of men they were nevertheless 
learned in the law, great in the forum, able and 
upright on the bench. Comparisons are odious, 
but it is nothing in disparagement to the present 
generation of courts and la^fryers, to say that to be 
equally great and worthy with these men of the 
early bench and bar of Arkansas, is to exalt and 
ennoble the profession in the highest degree. 

Sixty years have now passed since the first 
coming of the members of this calling to the State 
of Arkansas. In 1819 President Monroe appointed 
James Miller, governor, Robert Crittenden, secre- 
tary, and Charles Jouitt, Andrew Scott and Robert 
P. Letcher, jiidges of the Superior Court, for the 
new Territory of Arkansas. All these, it seems, 
except Gov. Miller, were promptly at the post of 
duty and in the discharge of their respective offices. 
In the absence of Mr. Miller, Mr. Crittenden was 
acting governor. These men not only constituted 
the first bench and bar, but the first Territorial ofii- 
cials and the first legislature. They were all lo- 
cated in the old French town of Arkansas Post. 
The lawyers and judges were the legislative body, 
which enacted the laws to be enforced in their re- 
spective districts. At their first legislative session 
they established but five statute laws, and from 
this it might be inferred that there were few and 
simple laws in force at that time, but the reader 
will remember that from the moment of the Louis- 
iana purchase all the new territory passed under 



the regulation and control of the English common 
law — substantially the same system of laws then 
governing England. 

It is a singular comment on American juris- 
prudence that this country is still boasting the pos 
I session of the English habeas corpus act, wrung 
I by those sturdy old barons from King John, — a 
I government by the people, universal suffrage, 
I where the meanest voter is by his vote also a sov- 
! ereign, and therefore he protects himself against 
' — whom? — why, against himself by the English 
I habeas corpus act, which was but the great act of 
I a great people that first proclaimed a higher right 
than was the " divine right of kings. ' ' When these 
old Englishmen presented the alternative to King 
John, the writ or the headsman's ax, he very sensi- 
bly chose the lesser of the two great inconven- 
iences. And from that moment the vital meaning 
of the phrase "the divine right of kings" was 
dead in England. 

In America, where all vote, the writ of habeas 
corpus has been time and time again suspended, 
and there are foolish men now who would gladly 
resort to this untoward measure, for the sake of 
party success in elections. There is no language of 
tongue or pen that can carry a more biting sar- 
casm on our boasted freemen or free institutions 
than this almost unnoticed fact in our history. 

One of the acts of the first legislative session 
held in August, 1819, was to divide the Territory 
into two judicial circuits. As elsewhere stated, the 
counties of Arkansas and Lawrence constituted the 
First circuit; Pulaski, Clark and Hempstead Coun- 
ties forming the Second. 

The judges of the Superior Courts were as- 
signed to the duties of the different circuits. At 
the first real Territorial legislature, composed of 
representatives elected by the people, the Territory 
was divided into three judicial circuits. The 
courts, however, for the different circuits, were all 
held at the Territorial capital. There was no cir- 
cuit riding, therefore, at this time. 

Judicial circuits and judges residing therein 
were not a ]3art of judiciary affairs until 1823. The 
judges of the First circuit from that date, with time 
of appointment and service, were: T. P. Eskridge, 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



69 



December 10, 1823; Andrew Scott, April 11, 1827; 
Sam G. Roane, April 17, 1829-36. The list of 
prosecuting attorneys includes: W. B. R. Horner, 
November 1, 1823; Thomas Hubbard, November 
5, 1828, to February 15, 1832; G. D. Roystou, 
September 7, 1833; Shelton Watson, October 4, 
1835; A. G. Stephenson, January 23, 1836. 

Of the Second circuit the judges were: Richard 
Searcy, December 10, 1823, and J. W. Bates, 
November, 1825, to 1836; while the prosecuting 
attorneys were R. C. Oden, November 1, 1823; A. 
H. Sevier, January 19, 1824 (resigned); Sam C. 
Roane, September 26, 1826; Bennett H. Martin, 

January 30, 1831; Absalom Fowler, ; D. L. 

F. Royston, July 25, 1835; Townsend Dickin- 
son, November 1, 1823; A. F. May, March 29, 
1825 (died in office); W.' H. Parrott, April 21, 
1827; S. S. Hall, August 31, 1831; J. W. Robert- 
son, September 17, 1833; E. B. Ball, July 19, 
1836. 

Samuel S. Hall was judge of the Third circuit, 
serving from December, 1823, to 1836. As pros- 
ecuting attorneys, are found the names of T. Dick- 
inson, January 10, 1823; A. D. G. Davis, June 
21, 1829; S. G. Sneed, November 11, 1831; David 
Walker, September 13, 1833; Thomas Johnson, 
October 4, 1835; W. F. Denton, January 23, 1836. 

The appointment of Charles Caldwell as judge 
of the Fourth circuit dates from December 27. 
1828; while E. T. Clark, February 13, J 830; J. C. 
P. Tolleson, February 1. 1831; and W. K. Sebas- 
tian, from January 25, 1833, served as prosecuting 
attorneys. 

The Supreme Court of Arkansas has ever com- 
prised among its members men of dignity, wisdom 
and keen legal insight. The directory of these 
officials contains the names of many of those whose 
reputation and influence are far more than local. 
It is as follows: 

Chief justices: Daniel Ringo, 1836; Thomas 
Johnson, 1844; George C. Watkins, 1852 (re- 
signed); E. H. English, 1854 (also Confederate); 
T. D. W. Yonley. 1864 (Murphy constitution); E. 
Baxter, 1864 (under Murphy regime); David 
Walker. 1866 (ousted by military); W. W. Wil- 
shire, 1868 (removed); John McClure, 1871, (re- 



moved); E. H. English, 1874. Sterling R. Cock- 
rill is present chief justi? 

Associate justices: Thomas J. Lacey, 1836; 
Townsend Dickinson, 1836; George W. Paschal, 
1842; W. K. Sebastian, 1843; W. S. Oldham, 
1845; Edward Cross, 1845; William Conway, 1846; 
C. C. Scott, 1848; David Walker, 1847 and 1874; 
Thomas B. Hanley, 1858 (resigned); F. I. Batson, 
1858 (resigned); H. F. Fairchild, 1860 (died); 
Albert Pike, 1861 (also Confederate); J. J. Clen- 
denin, 1866 (ousted); T. M. Bowen, 1868; L. 
Gregg, 1868; J. E. Bennett, 1871; M. L. Steph- 
enson, 1872; E. J. Searle, 1872; W. M. Harrison, 
1874; J. T. Bearden, 1874 (appointed); Jesse 
Turner. 1878; J. R. Eakin^ 1878; W. W. Smith, 
1882; B. B. Battle, 1885, re-elected. By law 
three additional judges were elected April 2, 1889: 
Simon B. Hughes, W. E. Hemingway and Mont. 
H. Sandels. 

Reporters: Albert Pike, N. W. Cox, E. H. 
English, J. M. Moore, L. E. Barber, B. D. Turner 
and W. W. Manstield (present incumbent). 

Clerks: H. Haralson, L. E. Barber, N. W. Cox, 
and W. P. Campbell (in office). 

Special chief justices: William Story, F. W. 
Compton, J. L. Witherspoon, S. H. Hempstead, 

C. B. Moore, Thomas Johnson, R. A. Howard, 
George A. Gallagher, B. B. Battle, Sam W. Will- 
iams, A. B. Williams, G. N Cousin, Isaac Strain, 
N. Haggard, Edward Cross, R. C. S. Brown, L. 
A. Pindall, Sam C. Roane, George Conway, Sack- 
tield Mackliuin, John Whytock, C. C. Farrelley, 
W. W. Smith, W. I. Warwick, B. B. Morse, B. 

D. Turner, George AV. Caruth, S. H. Harring- 
ton. 

In this list are the names of nearly all early 
members of the Arkansas bar. Commencing here 
as young attorneys in their profession, many of 
them have left illustrious names — names that adorn 
the history of the State and Nation, and time 
will not dim nor change the exalted esteem now 
given them. Not one of them but that was an ex- 
ample of that wonderful versatility of American 
genius — the young lawyer becoming great in the 
practice of his jirofession in the wild wood; or cel- 
ebrated on the bench for decisions that came to the 



70 



HISTORY OF AEKANSAS. 



world like beacon lights from the unknown land; 
or as senators holding civilized jaeople spell-bound 
by their wisdom and eloquence; and all, at all times, 
listening for their country's call to play as con- 
spicuous a part in camp and field as they had in 
the walks of civil life. To undertake all these 
things is not wonderful with a people so cosmopol- 
itan as those of the west, but to be preeminent in 
each or all alike is most remarkable. 

Of this brilliant galaxy of pioneer legal lights 
— giants indeed — there now remain as a connect- 
ing link with the present generation only the ven- 
erable Gen. Albert Pike, of "Washington City, and 
Judge Jesse Turner, of Van Buren. 

Writing in a reminiscent way of the bench and 
bar, Albert Pike says: '"When I came to the bar 
there were William Cummins, Absalom Fowler, 
Daniel Ringo, Chester Ashley, and Samuel Hall, 
at Little Rock. I served on a jury in 1834 where 
Robert Crittenden was an attorney in the case ; the 
judge was Benjamin Johnson, who died in Decem- 
ber, 1834, at Vicksburg. Parrott and Oden died 
before I went to Little Rock. Judge William 
Trimble was an old member of the bar when I en- 
tered it, as was Col. Horner, of Helena. Thomas 
B. Hanley had recently come to Helena from Louis- 
iana. I think Maj. Thomas Hubbard and George 
Conway were practicing at Washington in 1835. 
Judge Andrew Scott had been Territorial judge, but 
retired and lived in Pope County. Frederick W. 
Trapnall and John W. Cocke came from Kentucky 
to Little Rock in 1836, and also William C. Scott 
and his partner, Blanchard. I think Samuel H. 
Hempstead and John J. Clendenin came in 1836. 
John B. Floyd lived and practiced law in Chicot 
County." Gen. Pike further mentions Judge David 
Walker, John Linton, Judges Hoge and Sneed, 
John M. Wilson, Alfred W. Wilson, Archibald 
Yell, Judge Fowler, Judge Richard C. S. Brown, 
Bennett H. Martin, Philander Little, Jesse Turner 
and Sam W. Williams as among the eminent law- 
yers of the early courts of Arkansas. 

The list of those who have occupied positions 
as circuit judges and prosecuting attorneys in the 
various circuits, will be found of equal interest 
with the names mentioned in connection with a 



higher tribunal. It is as below, the date affixed 
indicating the beginning of the term of service: 

Judges of the First circuit: W^. K. Sebastian, 
November 19, 1840; J. C. P. Tolleson, February 
8, 1843 ; John T. Jones, December 2, 1842 ; Mark W. 

Alexander, ; George W. Beasley, September 

6, 1855; C. W. Adams, November 2, 1852; Thomas 

B. Hanley, ; E. C. Bronough, August 25, 

1858; O. H. Gates, March 3, 1859; E. C. Bronough, 
August 23, 1860; Jesse M. Houks, September 17, 
1865; John E. Bennett, July 23, 1868; C. C. Wat- 
ers, February 23, 1871 ; M. L. Stephenson, March 
24, 1871; W. H. H. Clayton, March 10, 1873; J. 
N. Cypert, October 31, 1874; M. T. Saunders, 
October 30, 1882. Prosecuting attorneys: W'. S. 
Mosley, November 14, 1840; A. J. Greer, Novem- 
ber 9, 1841; S. S. Tucker, January 20, 1840; 
Alonzo Thomas, August 5, 1842; W. N. Stanton, 
December 2, 1842; N. M. Foster, December 4, 
1843; A. H. Ringo, March 2, 1849; H. A. Bad- 
ham, March 12, 1851; L. L. Mack, September 
6. 1855; S. W. Childress, August 30, 1856; Lin- 
coln Featherstone, August 23, 1860; Z. P. H Farr, 
December 1, 1862; B. C. Brown, January 7, 1865; 
P. O. Thweat, October 15, 1866; C. B. Fitzpatrick, 
March 16, 1871: W. H. H. Clayton, March 23, 
1871; Eugene Stephenson, April 28, 1873; C. A. 
Otey, Octobei- 31, 1874; D. D. Leach, October 13, 
1876; P. D. McCulloch (three terms); Greenfield 
Quarles, October 30, 1884; S. Brundridge, October 
30, 1886. 

Judges of the Second circuit: Isaac Baker, 
November 23, 1840; John C. Murray, August 18, 
1851; W. H. Sutton, January 11, 1845; John C. 
Murray, August 22, 1858; Josiah Gould, Febru- 
ary 26, 1849; W. M. Harrison, May 17, 1865; 
T. F. Sorrells, August 22, 1853; W. C. Hazeldine, 
April 14, 1871; J. F. Lowery, December 12, 
1863; L. L. Mack, October 31, 1874; William 
Story, July 23, 1868; W. F. Henderson, April 26, 
1874; J. G. Frierson, October 31, 1882; W. A. 
Case, vice Frierson, deceased, March 17, 1884, 
elected September 1, 1884; J. E. Riddick, Oc- 
tober 30, 1886. Prosecuting attorneys: John S. 
Roane, November 15, 1840; Samuel Wooly, Sep- 
tember 19, 1842; J. W. Bocage, November 20, 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



71 



1843; S. B. Jones, April 20, 1846; T. F. Sorrells, 
February 26, 1849; W. P. Grace, August 22, 
1853; S. F. Arnett, August 23, 1856; D. W. 
Carroll, August 30, I860: C. C. Godden, May 17, 
1865; W. F. Slemmons, October 15, 1866; D. 
D. Leach, December 16, 1868; R. H. Black, May 
6, 1873; J. E. Riddick, October 13, 1876; W. A. 
Gate, October U, 1878; E. F. Brown, May 5, 
1870; W. B. Edringtou (four terms), October 30, 
1880; J. D. Block, October, 1888. 

Judges of the Third circuit: Thomas Johnson, 
November 13, 1840; William Conway, November 
15, 1844; W. C. Scott, December 11, 1846; R. 
H. Nealy, February 28,1851; W. C. Bevins, August 
28, 1856; W. R. Cain, August 23, 1860; L. L. 
Mack, March 15, 1866; Elisha Baxter, July 23, 
1868; James W. Butler. March 10, 1873; William 
Byers, October 30, 1874; R. H. Powell (three 
terms), October 30, 1882; J. W. Butler, May, 1887. 
Prosecuting attorneys : N. Haggard, November 30, 
1840; S. S. Tucker, January 20, 1842; S. H. 
Hempstead, February, 1842; A. R. Porter, Decerc- 
ber 2, 1842; S. C.Walker, December 2, 1846; J. H. 
Byers, March 5, 1849; W. K. Patterson, August 
30, 1856; F. W. Desha, August 30, 1860; L. L. 
Mack, July 8, 1861; T. J. Ratcliff, July 9, 1865; 
M. D. Baber, October 15, 1866; W. A. Inman, 
December 8, 1868; J. L. Abernathy, October 31, 
1874; Charles Coffin, October 14, 1878; M. N. 
Dyer (two terms), October 30, 1882; W. B. Padgett, 
October 30, 1886; J. L. Abernathy, October, 1888. 

Judges of the Fourth circuit: J. M. Hoge, 
November 13, 1840; S. G. Sneed, November 18, 
1844; A. B. Greenwood, March 3, 1851; F. I. 
Batson, August 20, 1853; J. M. Wilson, Febru- 
ary 21, 1859; J. J. Green, August 23, 1860; Y. 
B. Sheppard, May 9, 1863; Thomas Boles, 
August 3, 1865; W. N. May, April 24, 1868; 
M. L. Stephenson, July 23, 1868; C. B. Fitz- 
patrick, March 23, 1871; J. Huckleberry, April 
10, 1872; J. M. Pittman, October 31, 1874; J. H. 
Berry, October 21, 1878; J. M. Pittman (three 
terms), October 31, 1882. Prosecuting attorneys: 
Alfred M. Wilson, November 13, 1840; A. B. 
Greenwood, January 4, 1845; H. F. Thomasson, 
September 6, 1853; Lafayette Gregg, August 23, 



1856; B. J. Brown, December 1, 1862; J. E. 
Cravens, January 7, 1865; Squire Boon, October 
15, 1866; Elias Harrell, August 11, 1868; S. W. 
Peel, April 26, 1873; E. I. Stirman, October 13, 
1876; H. A. Dinsmore (throe terms), October 14, 
1878; J. Frank Wilson, October 30, 1884; J. W. 
Walker, October 30, 1866; S. M. Johnson, Octo- 
ber 30, 1888. 

Judges of the Fifth circuit: J. J. Clendenin, 
December 28, 1840; W. H. Field, December 24, 
1846; J. J. Clendenin, September 6, 1854; Liberty 
Bartlett, November 12, 1854; E. D. Ham, July 23, 
1868; Benton J. Brown, September 30, 1874; W. 
W. Mansfield, October 31, 1874; Thomas W. 
Pound, September 9, 1878; W. D. Jacoway, Oc- 
tober 31, 1878; G. S. Cunningham (three terms), 
October 31, 1882. Prosecuting attorneys: R. W. 
Johnson, December 29, 1840; George C. Watkins, 
January 11, 1845; J. J. Clendenin, February 17, 
1849, to 1854; J. L. Hollowell, September 8, 1858, 
to 1860; Sam W. Williams, May 10, 1860; Pleas- 
ant Jordan, September 7, 1861; Sam W. Williams, 
July 6, 1863; John Whytock, December 19, 1865; 
R. H. Dedman, October 15, 1866; N. J. Temple, 
August 15, 1868; Arch Young, August 24, 1872; 
Thomas Barnes, April 23, 1873; J. P. Byers, Oc- 
tober 31, 1873; A. S. McKennon, October 14, 
1878; J. G. Wallace (two terms), October 31, 
1882; H. S. Carter, October 30, 1886. 

Sixth circuit — judges: William Conway, De- 
cember 19, 1840; John Field, February 3, 1843; 
George Conway, August 1, 1844; John Quillin, 
March 2, 1849; Thomas Hubbard, August 22, 
1854; A. B. Smith, February 7, 1850; Shelton Wat- 
son, September 26, 1858; Len B. Green, April 5, 
1858; A. B. Williams, January 28, 1865; J. T. 
Elliott, October 2, 1865; J. J. Clendenin, October 
31, 1874; J. W. Martin, October 31, 1878; F. T. 
Vaughan, October 31, 1882; J. W. Martin, Octo- 
ber 30, 18^6. Prosecuting attorneys: G. D. Roys- 
ton, November 11, 1840; O. F. Rainy, June 12, 
1843; Isaac T. Tupper, January 18, 1844; A. W. 
Blevins, January 11, 1847; E. A. Warner, March 
3, 1851; Orville Jennings, August 23, 1853; E. 
W. Gantt, August 22, 1854; James K. Young, 
August 30, 1860; Robert Carrigan, September 13, 



72 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



1865; J. F. Ritchie, October 15, 1866; T. B. Gib- 
son, January 11, 1868; Charles C. Reid, Jr., April 
30, 1871; F. T. Vaughan. September 18. 1876; 
T. C. Trimble, September 30, 1878; F. T. Vaughan, 
September 30, 1880; T. C. Trimble, October 31, 
1882; R. J. Lea, October 80, 1884; Gray Carroll, 
October 30, 1886; R. J. Lea, October 30, 1888. 

Seventh circuit — judges: R. C. S. Brown, 1840; 
W. W. Floyd, November 30, 1846. (December 
20, 1849, the State was re-districted into six cir- 
cuits. Hence this was abolished for the time.) 
William Byers, July 8, 1861; R. H. Powell, May 
11, 1866; John Whytock, July 23, 1868; J. J. 
Clendenin, May 29, 1874; Jabez M. Smith, Oc- 
tober 31, 1874; J. P. Henderson (three terms), Oc- 
tober 31, 1882. Prosecuting attorneys: John M. 
Wilson, November 20, 1840; J. M. Tebbetts. De- 
cember 5, 1844; Elisha Baxter, December 7, 1861; 
W. B. Padgett, August 29, 1865; W. R. Goody. 
Oqtober 15, 1866; E. W. Gantt, July 31, 1868; 
J. M. Harrell, May 5, 1873; M. J. Henderson, 
October 31, 1874; James B. Wood, October 14, 
1878; J. P. Henderson (three terms), October 31, 
1882; W. H. Martin, October 30, 1888. 

Eighth circuit — judges: C. C. Scott, December 
2, 1846; William Davis, July 3, 1848 (abolished 
December 20, 1849); James D. Walker, July 25, 
1861; Elias Harrell, May 8, 1865; William Story, 
March 27, 1867; E. J. Earle, July 23, 1868; T. G. 
T. Steele, February 23, 1873; L. J. Joyner, Octo- 
ber 31, 1874; H. B. Stuart, October 31, 1878; 
R. D. Hearn, October 30, 1886. Prosecuting attor- 
neys: Richard Lyons, February 5, 1847; N. \V. Pat- 
terson, October 25, 1865; C. G. Reagan. January 
7, 1865; J. C. Pratt, July 23, 1868; T. M. Gun- 
ter, October 15, 1866; Duane Thompson, January 
4, 1874; George A. Kingston, July 26. 1871; j' 
D. McCabe, October 31, 1874; J. H. Howard, April 
26, 1873; Rufus D. Hearn (three terms), July 6, 
1874; Lafayette Gregg, November 13, 1862; W. 
M. Green (three terms), October 30, 1884. 

Ninth circuit— judges: H. B. Stuart, Novem- 
ber 28, 1862; W. N. Hargrave, , 1865; E. J. 

Searle, February 25, 1867; G. W. McCowan, July 
23, 1868; J.T. Elliott, April 26, 1873; J. K. Young, 
October 31, 1874; C. F. Mitchell, October 31, 1882; 



L. A. Byrne, November 4, 1884; A. B. Williams, 
vice Mitchell, resigned, September 10, 1884; C. E. 
Mitchell, October 30, 1886. Prosecuting attorneys: 

A. J. Temple, July 8, 1861; A. T Craycraft, 
January 7, 1865; E. J. Searle, February 19, 1866; 
R. C. Parker, October 15, 1866; N. J. Temple, 
January 20, 1867; J. R. Page, January 9, 1869; 
J. M. Bradley, April 26, 1873; Dan W. Jones, 
October 31, 1874; B. W. Johnson, October 13, 
1876; John Cook. October 14, 1880; T. F. Web- 
ber (four terms), October 31, 1882. 

Judges of the Tenth circuit: H. P. Morse, 
July 23, 1868; D. W Carroll, October 28, 1874; 
T. F. Sorrells, October 31, 1874; J. M. Bradley, 
October 30, 1882; C. D. Wood, October 30. 1886. 
Prosecuting attorneys: J. McL. Barton, March 

29, 1869; H. King White, April 20, 1871; M. Mc- 
Gehee, April 29, 1873; J. C. Barrow, October 31, 
1874; C. D. Woods, October 30, 1882; M. L. 
Hawkins, vice Woods, October 10, 1886; R. C. 
Fuller, October 30, 1888. 

Eleventh circuit — judges: J. W. Fox, April 

30, 1873; H. N. Button, July 24, 1874; John A. 
Williams, October 31, 1874; X. J. Pindall, Octo- 
ber 31, 1878; J. A. Williams (two terms), October 
30,1882. Prosecuting attorneys- H. M. McVeigh, 
April 26, 1873; Z. L. Wise, October 31, 1874; T. 

B. Martin, October 10, 1878; J. M. Elliott (five 
terms), October 10, 1880. 

Twelfth circuit — judges: P. C. Dooley, April 
26, 1873; J. H. Rogers, April 20, 1877; R. B. 
Rutherford, October 2, 1882; John S. Little, Octo- 
ber 20, 1886. Prosecuting attorneys: D. D. Leach, 
April 26, 1873; John S. Little (three terms), April 
2, 1877; A. C. Lewers (two terms), September 20, 
1884; J. B. McDonough, October 30, 1888. 

Thirteenth circuit — judges: M. D. Kent, April 
26, 1873; B. F. Askew, October 30, 1882; C. W. 
Smith, October 30, 1886. Prosecuting attorneys: 
W. C. Langford, April 26, 1873; W. F. Wallace, 
June 5, 1883; H. P. Snead (three terms), Octo- 
ber 30, 1884. 

Fourteenth circuit — judges: George A. King- 
ston, April 26, 1873; R. H. Powell, May, 1887. 
Prosecuting attorneys: Duane Thompson, April 
26, 1873; De Ross Bailey, May, 1887. 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



73 



L. D. Belden was appointed judge of the Fif- 
teenth circuit April 26, 1873, the prosecuting at- 
torney being G. G. Lotta, elected April 23, 1873. 

Sixteenth circuit — judge: Elisha Mears, April 
26, 1878. Prosecuting attorneys: H. N. Withers, 



September 27, 1873; V. B. Shepard, April 30, 
1874. 

By an act of April 16, 1873, the State was di- 
vided into sixteen judicial circuits, but two years 
later a reduction to eleven in number was made. 



siawiK IX. 



TiiE Late Civil War— Analytical View of the Troublous Times— Passage of the Ordinance of 
.Secession — The Call to Arms- The First Troops to Take the Field— Invasion of the State 
BY the Federal Army — Sketches of the Regiments — Xames of Officers— Outline of 
Field Operations— Claibourne and Yell— Extracts from Private Memo- 
randa—Evacuation of the State— Re-Occupation — The War of 1812— 
The Mexican War— Standard of American Generalship. 




The cannon's hush'd! nor drum uor clarion sound; 
Helmet and hauberk gleam upon the ground; 
Horsemen and horse lie weltering in their gore; 
Patriots are dead, and heroes dare no more; 
While solemnly the moonlight shrouds the plain. 
And lights the lurid features of the slain. — Montgomery. 



RKANSAS was not among 
the States that may be call- 
ed leaders in inaugurating 
the late war. It only pass- 
ed a secession ordinance 
May 6, 1861, nearly a 
j"^ month after hostilities had 
commenced, and Lincoln had issued 
his call for 75,000 ninety-day troops 
' ' to put down the rebellion. ' ' The re- 
luctance with which the State finally 
joined its sister States is manifested 
by the almost unanimous refusal of 
the State convention, which met in 
March, 1861 — the day Lincoln was in- 
augurated — and nearly linanimously voted down 
secession and passed a series of conservative resolu- 
tions, looking to a national convention to settle in 



some waj' the vexed question of slavery, and then 
voting a recess of the convention. When this 
re-assembled war was upon the country, and the 
ordinance of secession was passed, only, however, 
after full discussion, pro and con. There was 
but one vote against secession finally, and that was 
given by Isaac Murphy — afterward the military 
governor of Arkansas. 

Local authorities received instructions to arm 
and equip forty regiments of State troops. The 
ruling minds of the State were averse to war, 
and resisted it until they were forced into the po- 
sition of siding with their neighbors or with the 
Union cause. In the South, as in the North, 
there were inconsiderate hot-heads, who simply 
wanted war for war's sake — full of false pretexts, 
but eager for war with or without a pretext. These 
extremists of each party were, unconsciously, per- 



74 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



haps, but in fact, the two blades of the pair of 
scissors, to cut asunder the ties of the Union of 
States. Slavery, possibly not directly the cause of 
the war, was the handiest pretext seized upon at 
the time, with such disastrous results. In the dis- 
pensations of heaven, had the fanatics of the North 
and the Hre-eaters of the South been hung across 
the clothes-line, as a boy sometimes hangs cats, 
and left in holy peace to fight it out, what a bless- 
ing for mankind it would have been! 

The history of the late war cannot yet be writ- 
ten. Its most profound effects are not yet evolved. 
The actual fighting ceased nearly a generation ago, 
and the cruel strife is spoken of as over. It is the 
effects that true history observes. The chronicler 
records the dates and statistics, and files these 
away for the future historian. It is highly prob- 
able that there is no similar period in history 
where the truth will be so distorted 'as by him 
who tells ' ' the story of the war. ' ' 

Anyone can begin to see that there are many 
things now that were unknown before the war. 
Great changes are still being worked out, and 
whether or not yet greater ones are to come, no one 
knows. The abolitionists thirty years ago hated 
the slave owners, — -the slave holders loved slavery. 
The former thought to forever end slavery on this 
continent by liberating the slaves, and now the 
once alarmed slave owner has discovered that the 
great benefits of the abolition of slavery have been 
to the whites far more than to the blacks. 

There is little idea of what the real historian 
one hundred years from now will be compelled to 
say of these ' ' blessed times. ' ' He will most prob- 
ably smile in pity upon all this self-laudation and 
wild boast. If men could have known the effects 
to follow in all the important movements of peo- 
ples, it is highly probable there would have been no 
civil war. Those who ' ' sectioiially hated ' ' may 
sleep quietly in their graves, because they died 
unconscious as to whether their supposed bloody 
revenge, driven hurtling at the enemy, was a bullet 
or a boomerang. 

The Southern individual may look with envy to 
the pension fund now being poured out in North- 
ern States, while, instead of this, he should only 



remember that the Southern soldier is making his 
way unaided in the world. It should not be for- 
gotten that the rapid development of the South is 
sadly in want of the constant labor of thousands of 
immigrants, and that the New South is just entering 
upon a period of surprising and unexampled pros- 
perity, which certainly must continue. 

In Arkansas, as in Illinois, when Fort Sumter 
was fired on, instantly there was a storm of excite- 
ment to "let slip the dogs of war." Action took 
the place of argument. The best men in the com- 
munity, those who had bo long talked and pleaded 
against war, closed their mouths, and with sore 
hearts turned their eyes away from the sad outlook. 
The young and the inconsiderate seized the power 
to rule, and (though they knew it not) to ruin. 
Bells were rung, drums were beaten, and fifes made 
strident martial music, and people rushed into the 
streets. Open air meetings for the Confederate 
cause gathered, and songs and speeches inflamed 
the wildest passions of men. Poor men ! they 
little recked the cruel fate into which they were 
plunging their country — not only themselves, but 
generations to come. A fifer and drummer march- 
ing along the streets, making harsh and discordant 
noises, were soon followed by crowds of men, 
women and children. Volunteers were called for 
by embryo captains, and from these crowds were 
soon recruited sq^^ads to be crystallized into armies 
with heavy tramp and flying banners — the noisy 
prologue to one of the bloodiest tragedies on which 
time has ever rung up the curtain. 

The first ofiicial action of the State was that 
authorizing the raising and equipping of seven 
regiments. These were soon ready to report with 
full ranks. Seven regiments ! Even after the 
war was well on foot, men were forming companies 
in hot haste, in fear that before they could reach 
the field of action the war would be over. And 
after they were mustered in and at their respective 
rendezvous, without uniforms and with sticks for 
guns, learning the rudiments of drill, they were 
restless, troubled seriously with the fear that they 
would never see or feel the glory of battle. The 
youths of the State had rushed to the recruiting sta- 
tions with the eager thoughtlessness with which 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



they would have put down their names for picnic, 
hunting or tishing expeditions, and the wild delights 
of a season of camp life. Perhaps to some came 
indistinct ideas of winning glory on the field and a 
triumj)hant return home, to be met by the happy 
smiles of a people saved — when the bells would 
ring and flowers be strewn in the highway. 

The seven regiments first authorized by the 
military board (the board consisting of the gov- 
ernor. Col. Sam W. Williams and Col. B. C. Tot- 
ten) had hardly been formed when more soldiers 
were wanted. Ten additional regiments were 
authorized, and of the ten seven were recruited 
and organized. Fourteen infantry regiments be 
sides the cavalry and artillery had been a strong 
demand on the people, but the calls for men were 
increased. By voluntary enlistments twenty-one 
infantry regiments were finally in the field. In- 
cluding cavalry and artillery, Arkansas had about 
25,000 volunteer soldiery. 

Then came the remorseless conscription. The 
glamour of soldiering was now all gone. Ragged, 
hungry, wounded and worn with hard marches, 
men had suffered the touch of the hand of the 
angel of destruction. The relentless conscripting 
went on. The ntimber of years before old age 
exempted was lengthened, and the age of youth 
exempting was shortened, until as said by Gen. 
Grant, they were ' ' robbing the cradle and the 
grave ' ' to recruit their decimated ranks in the 
army. 

There are no records now by which can be told 
the number of men Arkansas had in the Confeder- 
ate army, but it is supposed by those best informed 
to have had nearly 40,000. In addition to this the 
State furnished soldiers to the Union army. In 
the history of wars it is doubtful if there is anything 
to exceed this in the heroic sacrifices of any people. 

The original seven regiments were authorized 
as the first exuberant war expression of the State. 
They were State troops, armed and equipped by 
the State; but the fact is that the poorest men went 
into the army at their individual expense and armed 
and equipped themselves. This was the rule — not 
by men only who were fighting for their slave 
property, but largely by men who had never owned 



or expected to own a slave. When the Union army 
under Gen. Curtis was bearing down to invade Ar- 
kansas, ten more regiments were authorized and 
responded to this call, and seven additional regi- 
ments were raised and mustered into the State's 
service. 

A military board had been provided for, con- 
sisting of three men, the governor and two advis- 
ors, who had a general supervision in organizing 
and equipping the army. 

The first regiment raised in the State is known 
as the Pat Cleburne regiment. Patrick A. Cleburne, 
colonel, was soon made a general, and took his 
brigade east of the Mississippi River. The gal- 
lant and dashing leader was killed in the battle of 
Franklin, November 30, 1864. At the first call 
to arms he raised a company and named it the Yell 
Rifles, of which he was first cajatain, and on the 
formation of the first regiment he became colonel, 
rising up and up by rapid promotions to a major- 
generalship. 

The names of Yell and Pat Cleburne are en- 
twined closely in the hearts of the people of Arkan- 
sas. Yell was killed at the bloody battle of Buena 
Vista, Mexico, at the head of his charging column. 
The military lives and deaths of the two men were 
much alike. Their names and fames are secure in 
history. There is a touch of romance about Pat 
Cleburne's life in Arkansas. A Tipperary boy, of 
an excellent family, born in 1828, he had, when not 
more than sixteen years of age, joined the English 
army, where he was for more than a year before his 
whereabouts became known. His friends secured 
his release from the army, when he at once bade 
adieu to his native land and sailed for America. 
Stopping in 1849, a short time in Cincinnati, he 
was for a while a drug clerk. In 1859 he came 
to Helena, Ark. , and engaged here also as a pre- 
scription clerk, in the meantime reading law; he 
was made a licensed attorney in 1856. In the 
bloody street affray soon after, between Hindman 
and Dorsey Rice, he was dra\yn into the fi-acas and 
was shot through the body by a brother of Rice's, 
who came upon the ground during the melt5e. The 
latter noticed the encounter, and seeing that Cle- 
burne stood at one side, pistol in hand, fired. On 



76 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



turning to see who had shot him, Cleburne saw 
James Marriott, a brother-in-law of Dorsey Eice, 
with pistol in hand, and under the mistake that 
he was the assailant, shot him dead. Cleburne 
lingered a long time from his wound but finally 
recovered. 

In the yellow fever scourge in Helena, in 1855, 
he was at one time about the only well person re- 
maining to care for the sick and dying. He was a 
strict member of the church and for some years a 
vestryman in St. John's Episcopal Church, Helena. 
He was engaged to wed Miss Tarleton, of Mobile, 
when he fell upon the battle field, and the dead 
soldier lay upon the ground, with his arms folded 
over his breast, as if even in death he would pro- 
tect the sacred tokens of love that he wore next his 
heart. 

The military board elected two brigadier-gen- 
erals — James Yell and N. B. Pierce. The latter 
was sent to Northwestern Arkansas, where was 
fought the first battle on Arkansas soil — Pea Ridge, 
or as it is better known in the South, Elkhorn. 
This was a severe engagement, and a decisive one. 

There is yet some confusion in referring to the 
respective numbers of the Arkansas regiments. 
Gen. Pierce, supposing he had full power, gave 
numbers Third, Fourth and Fifth to what the 
board, the proper and only authority, designated 
as numbers Second, Third and Fourth. The fol- 
lowing shows the board's numbering and names 
of the colonels : 

First, Col. P. H. Cleburne; Second, Col. 
Gratiot; Third, Col. Dockery; Fourth, Col. Davis 
Walker; Fifth, Col. D. C. Cross; Sixth, Col. Lyon; 
Seventh, Col. Shaver; Eighth, Col. W. K. Patter- 
son; Ninth, Col. John Roane; Tenth, Col. T. D. 
Merrick; Eleventh, Col. Jabez M. Smith; Twelfth, 
Col. E. W.Gantt; Thirteenth, Col. J. C. Tappan; 
Fourteenth, Col. W. C. Mitchell, (never com- 
pleted); Fifteenth, Col. Dawson; Seventeenth, Col. 
G. W. Lamar, Lieut. -Col. Sam W. Williams. 

In the scraps of records now to be found there 
are mentioned as the different arms in the Confed- 
erate service of Arkansas men, in addition to those 
above given, the following; Light artillery. Hill's; 
batteries, Blocher's, Brown's, Etter's, Hughey's, 



Marshall's and West's; cavalry battalions, Chris- 
man's, Crawford's, Hill's, Witherspoon's; detached 
companies. Brown's, Coarser' s, Desha's, Ranger's, 
Fitzwilliam's, Miller's and Palmer's; regiments, 
Carroll's, Dobbins', Newton's; infantry, regiments 
from one to thirty-nine, inclusive. 

Four regiments of infantry of Federal recruits 
were raised in Arkansas, the First commanded by 
Col. M. La Rue Harrison; the Fourth by Elisha 
Baxter. The First Arkansas Light Artillery was 
150 strong. The Arkansas Infantry Brigade was 
under command of Col. James M. True. August 
5, 1863, Adj't-Gen. Thomas made a trip to the 
Southwest for the purpose of gathering in all the 
negroes possible by scouting bands, and to enlist 
the able bodied men. The First Arkansas Battery 
was commanded by Capt. Dent D. Stark, and the 
First Arkansas Cavalry by Maj. J. J. Johnson. 
The Second Arkansas Cavalry is mentioned. 
Lieut. -Col. E. J. Searle, authorized to raise the 
Third Arkansas Cavalry, reported 400 strong. 
The Foiu'th Arkansas Cavalry comprised nine 
companies, commanded by Capt. W. A. Martin. 

The Second and Third Arkansas colored in- 
fantry regiments are mentioned, in addition to the 
Second and Third white regiments. 

In the spring of 1S61, the Richmond govern- 
ment authorized Col. T. B. Flournoy to raise a reg- 
iment. It was collected in and about Little Rock 
and Col. Fagan was elected commander. This 
command went to Virginia. Gen. Churchill organ- 
ized the first regiment of cavalry, with rendezvous 
at Little Rock. Gen. T. C. Hindman organized 
Hindman's Legion. It consisted of infantry and 
cavalry and had fifteen companies. He took his 
command east of the river. Under the direction of 
the military board Col. Rosey Carroll's regiment 
of cavalry was raised. The Second Arkansas Reg- 
iment of Mounted Infantry was mustered at Osage 
Springs, by Col. Dandridge McRea. James Mcin- 
tosh became colonel and Capt. H. H. Brown, major. 
J. P. Eagle was first lieutenant- colonel and after- 
ward colonel. Col. Mcintosh was killed at Pea 
Ridge, but had been promoted a brigadier- general 
a few days before his death. 

The absence of war archives from the State, 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



the most of them that were preserved until after 
the war being now in Washington, and the pass- 
ing away of so many of the prominent participants, 
and a common fault of human memory, make it 
well-nigh impossible to gather for permanent form 
any satisfactory roster of the different Confederate 
commands or the order of their organization. No 
Arkansan so far, which is much to be regretted, 
has attempted to write a history of the State in 
the civil struggle. 

Gov. J. P. Eagle happened to keep dupli- 
cates of certain reports he made while in the ser- 
vice, and discovered them recently where they had 
been laid away and forgotten among old papers. 
Fortunately when he made the reports the idea 
occurred to him to keep a copy for himself, that 
some day he might look over them and be inter- 
ested. 

' ' This is a list of the killed and wounded in my 
regiment," he remarked, "the Second Arkansas, 
from May 8 to August 31, 1864, and the other is a 
report of the same from November 26, 1864, to 
March 21, 1865." 

The Second Arkansas at the beginning of the 
war was a mounted regiment, commanded by Col. 
James Mcintosh. It was dismounted early in the 
conflict. Col. Mcintosh was promoted to the rank 
of brigadier-general in the spring of 1862. He 
led his brigade bravely into the heaviest fighting 
at the battle of Elkhorn (Pea Ridge), where he 
was killed. He was succeeded by Col. Embry, 
who was soon after succeeded by Col. Flannagin, 
afterwards the "War Governor" of Arkansas. 
Flannagin was succeeded by Col. James William- 
son^ who lost a leg at the battle of Resaca, Ga. , 
May 14, 1864. Col. J. T. Smith then became 
colonel. He was killed July 28 following, in the 
tight at Lick Skillet Road, and J. P. Eagle, now 
governor of Arkansas, became colonel. Col. 
Eagle had been wounded at Moore' s Mills, and at 
the time of his promotion was not with the famous 
regiment. He remained in command until the 
regiment was consolidated with other regiments 
and the whole formed into one regiment, with Col. 
H. G. Bunn commanding. Gov. Eagle became 
lieutenant-colonel and George Wells, major. 



The battle of Elkhorn cheeked the advance of 
Curtis' army into Arkansas, and the Federals re- 
mained hovering in the southwest of Missouri and 
northwest of Arkansas for some time. Immedi- 
ately after the tight Van Dorn's forces were with- 
drawn and taken east of the Mississipjai to resist 
the Federal advance down the river to Vieksburg. 
Gen. T. C. Hindman returned and took command 
of the Confederates in Arkansas and established 
headquarters at Little Rock and slightly fortified 
the place. 

Gen. Curtis then moved with the Federal army 
down the valley of White River, acting in con- 
jimction with the river fleet, and when he reached 
Cotton Plant a flank attack was made on his army 
and the battle of Cotton Plant was fought. The 
Confederates were repulsed, and Curtis moved on 
and took possession of Helena, the Confederates 
retiring. Northern and Northeastern Arkansas 
were then ia the possession of the Union army. 
The Federals were in the possession of the Missis- 
sippi down to a point just above Vieksburg. The 
Confederates made a futile effort to re-capture 
Helena, July 4, 1863, but heavy rains, swollen 
streams and impassable roads thwarted every 
move. 

June 2, 1862, Gov. Rector issued the following: 

"It being essential that but one military organization 
shall exist within the Trans-Mississippi department, all 
Arkansas troops are hereby transferred to the Confeder- 
ate service." (Signed) H. M. Rector, 

Gov. & Prest. Mil. Board. 

The authorities at Richmond, as well as in the 
Trans- Mississippi district, were anxiously awaiting 
news of the war steamer, "Arkansas," then build- 
ing up the mouth of Red River. Jane 2, 1862> 
she steamed out of that river and passed the fleet 
girarding the river for the purpose of capturing the 
rebel steamer. The attempt and success in run- 
ning the fiery gauntlet was one of the most exciting 
scenes ever witnessed on western rivers. Proudly 
the vessel kept on her course, sending volleys into 
every vessel to the right and left, and at nearly 
every turn of her wheels encountering new enemies. 
A Federal surgeon of the Union fleet said that 
wonderful trip of the "Arkansas" reminded him 



78 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



of the Irishman's advice on going into the "free 
fight" — "wherever you see a head hit it." The 
Confederate reports say two Federal gun-boats 
were captured and others disabled. 

August 7, following, the ' 'Arkansas, ' ' when five 
miles above Baton Rouge on her way down the 
river, again encountered Federal gun-boats. Her 
machinery being disabled, after she had fought 
long and well, her crew "blew her up, and all 
escaped. ' ' 

January 3, 1863 Gen. J. M. Schofleld wrote to 
Gen. Curtis, from Fayetteville, Ark. : ' ' The oper- 
ations of the army since I left it have been a series 
of blunders, from which it narrowly escaped dis- 
aster * * At Prairie Grove (fought in Decem- 
ber, 1862) Blunt and Herron were badly beaten in 
detail and owed their escape to a false report of 
my arrival with re-enforcements." It now is 
revealed that Hindman did not know the extent 
of his victory, but supjjosed he was about to be 
overwhelmed by the enemy. Thus the two armies 
were as secretly as possible running away from 
each other. 

July 13, 1863, Gen. E. Kivby Smith wrote from 
Shreveport, headquarters of the Trans-Mississippi 
district, to Govs. Thomas C. Reynolds, F. R. Lub- 
bock, H. Flannagin and Thomas O. Moore, calling 
on these, as the heads of their respective States, to 
meet him at Marshall, Tex., August 15, following: 
"I have attempted to impartially survey the field 
of my labor. * * I found on my arrival the 
headquarters of Arkansas district at Little 
Rock. * * Vicksburg has fallen. The enemy 
possesses the key to this department. * * The 
possession of the Mississippi River by the enemy 
cuts off this department from all communication 
with Richmond, consequently we must be self- 
sustaining, and self-reliant in every respect. * * 
With God's help and yours I will cheerfully 
grapple with the difficulties that surround us."' etc. 

This was a gloomy but a correct view of the 
situation west of the Mississippi River after the 
fall of Vicksburg. 

On January 11, 1863, from Helena, Gen. Fiske 
reported to "Washington : ' ' Found Gorman actively 
organizing expedition to go up White River to 



co-operate with Gen. McClernand on Arkansas 
River. Twenty-five transports are waiting the 
signal to start. ' ' 

F?i-om ' ' Prairie Landing, twenty-five miles up 
Arkansas, January 13, 1863," Amos F. Eno, sec- 
retary pro tern of Arkansas and adjutant-general, 
telegraphed Staunton: " Left Helena on 11th, and 
took with me books and papers of office of military 
government of Arkansas. ' ' 

January 14, 1863, the Federals captured St. 
Charles, the Confederates evacuating the day before. 

January 18, Gen. W. A. Gorman occupied 
Devall's Bluff, which the Confederates had also 
evacuated. 

These captures and evacuations were the pre- 
liminary movements looking toward Little Rock, 
the Federals clearing out the small outposts, and 
the Confederates gathering in their forces. 

On August 5, 1863, Gen. Frederick Steele 
"assumed the command of the army to take the 
field from Helena, and advance upon Little Rock. ' ' 

In his order for movement mention is made of 
the following: First division — cavalry under 
command of Gen. J. W. Davidson; Second division 
—Eighteenth, Forty-third, Fifty-fourth, Sixty- 
fii'st. One Hundred and Sixth, and One Hundred 
and Twenty-sixth regiments, Illinois Infantry; 
Twelfth Michigan, Twenty-second Ohio, Twenty 
seventh Wisconsin, Third Minnesota, Fortieth 
Iowa and Forty-third Indiana Infantry regiments; 
Third division — Twenty-ninth, Thirty-third and 
Thirty- sixth Iowa, Forty-third Indiana, Twenty- 
eighth Wisconsin, and Seventy-first Ohio Infantry 
regiments; and the Fifth Kansas, First Indiana 
Cavalry, and a brigade under Col. Powell Clayton. 
Four batteries of field pieces — five wagons to each 
regiment; 160 rounds of ammunition, 40 rounds to 
each cartridge-box; 400 rounds to each piece of 
artillery, and sixty days' rations for the whole 
army, were the supplies granted these forces. 

Gen. Steele was occupied in the expedition 
from Helena to Little Rock, from August 5 to Sep- 
tember 10. The cavalry under Gen. Davidson 
had to scour the country to the right and left as 
they made their slow advance. Twelve miles east 
of Little Rock, at Bayou Meta bridge, was a heavy 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



skirmish, indeed, a regular battle, being the first 
serious effort to check the Federal advance upon 
the capital. Again there was heavy fighting six 
miles east of Little Rock, at v?hat is now the 
Brugman place. Here Confederate Col. Coffee, 
of Texas, was killed. This was the last stand 
made in defense of the city, and in a short time 
Davidson's cavalry appeared in Argenta, and 
trained their field pieces on the city, and fired a 
few shots, when the place was sui-rendered by the 
civil authorities, September 10, 1863. The Con- 
federates had evacuated but a few hours before 
the Federal cavalry were galloping through the 
streets, and pjsting sentinels here and there. 

There was no confusion, no disorder, and none 
of the usual crimes of war under similar circum- 
stances. In an hour after Gen. Steele was in 
possession of the city he had it under strict con- 
trol, and order prevailed. Gen. Reynolds was put 
in command of Little Rock.* 

The Confederates wisely retreated to Arkadel- 
phia. They were pursued by the Federals as far 
as Malvern, but no captures were made and no 
heavy skirmishing occurred. 

It is said that Price evacuated Little Rock un- 
der the impression that his force was far inferior 
to that of Gen. Steele. Those who were Confeder- 
ate officers and in Little Rock now believe that his 
force was equal at least in numbers to Steele's. 

*Abstract from consolidated tri-monthly report of the 
Army of Arkansas, Maj.-Gen. Frederick Steele command- 
ing, for September 10. 1863; beadquartevs, Little Rock: 



First Division (Davidson) 

Second Division lEngleiuannl.. 

Third Divi^ion(Rice) 

Infantry Brigade iTruet 

Cavalry Brigade (Clayton) 

Artillery (Hayden) 

Cavalry escort (McLean) 



Total.. 







^ 


g 


Present for 


£ 


"ai ■ 


duty. 


0. 






1 






2 


■ 


a> 


ff-3 


S 


a 


M 


m'* 






-5! 


< 


200 


3,328 


5,372 


7,735 


HO 


2,047 


2,990 


6,885 


123 


1,683 


2,:il6 


4,007 


89 


1,796 


2,250 


2,825 


30 


445 


736 


1,200 


15 


495 


607 


844 


4 


64 


91 


12- 


619 


9,854 


14,362 


23,620 



Gen Price had not made a mistake of the comparative 
strength of the two armies. The commissary informs 
me that on the morning of the evacuation he issued 8,000 
rations — full number. 



They think that Price had based his idea of the 
enemy's numbers by allowing the usual propor- 
tion of armies of infantry and artillery to cavalry. 
They believe also that the Confederates at Little 
Rock at the evacuation had between 1 1 , 000 and 
r2, 000 men present — not the number for duty — 
basing this upon the number of rations issued 
that day. 

After the occujjation of Little Rock the Federals 
dominated all that portion of the State north and 
east of the Arkansas River, and yet their actual 
occupied posts were the only grounds over which 
Confederate rangers were not frequently roving 
with impunity. 

The Confederates exercised ruling power all 
south and west of the Ouachita River, and for quite 
a while the territory between the Arkansas and 
Ouachita Rivers was a kind of "No Man's Land" 
so far as the armies were concerned. 

Steele early in 1864, having been re-enforced, 
began to move on Arkadelphia. Price retreated to 
Camden, where the Confederates had several fac- 
tories for the manufacture of war materials. 

Price made a stand against Steele and fought 
the battle of Prairie D'Ann, but there was noth- 
ing decisive in this engagement, although it was 
a severe one. Price withdrew and fell back on 
Rondo, in the southwest corner of the State. 

In the meantime Banks' exjiedition was as- 
cending Red River, the plan being to catch Price 
between Banks and Steele, and destroy the Con- 
federate army. Price and Gen. Dick Taylor did 
not wait for Banks, but met and overwhelmingly 
defeated him. Having defeated Banks, they turned 
and gave Steele battle at Jenkins' Ferry, and de- 
feated him. This was the great and decisive bat- 
tle of the Trans-Mississippi district. 

Steele retreated and fell back on Little Rock, 
his superior generalship being shown in extricat- 
ing his badly crippled army and saving it on the 
withdrawal. 

The Federal expeditions were well planned for 
"bagging" the whole Confederate Trans-Mississippi 
army, but the vicissitudes of war ordained other- 
wise. Banks' expedition and its overwhelming mis- 
fortunes ruined him as a military man throughout 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



the North, while the brilliant successes of Price 
raised the hopes of the Confederacy. Some, how- 
ever, still criticise. 

Price failed to follow up his advantage and 
either destroy or capture Steele's entire army. 
Had he fully known the condition of affairs at 
Richmond possibly he might have adopted that 
course. The Federals were confined within their 
fortified posts and Confederate bands were again 
scouring over the State. 

Price, losing no time, then started on his raid 
back into Missouri to carry out his long cherished 
hope of re-possessing that State. The history of 
that raid and the dissolution and ent^ of the Con- 
federacy are a familiar part of the country's 
history. 

Other wars than that mentioned have occupied 
the attention of people of this section, though 
perhaps not to such an extent as the great civil 
strife. There were not people in Arkansas to go 
to the War of 1812, and the State becomes con- 
nected with that struggle chiefly because Archibald 
Yell, the brave young hero, was at the battle of 
New Orleans, and afterward became one of the most 
prominent citizens of Arkansas. He was born in 
North Carolina, in August, 1797, and consequently 
was but fifteen years of age when the second war 
with England began. But the lad then and there 
won the inalienable friendship of Gen. Jackson. 

Arkansas acquired no little fame in the Mexican 
War, chiefly, however, through the gallantry and 
death of Gov. Yell, the leader of the Arkansas 
forces. When troops were caUed for in the year 

1846, in the war with Mexico, Yell was a member 
of Congress. A regiment of cavalry was raised 
and he was asked to take the command, and obedi- 
ent to this request he promptly resigned his seat 
to assume leadership. Albert Pike was a captain 
in the regiment. 

At the battle of Buena Vista, on February 22, 

1847, Yell led his cavalry command in one of the 
most desperate charges in the annals of war. In 
his enthusiasm he spurred on his horse far in 
advance of his men. He was charging the enemj', 
which outnumbered his force more than five to 
one. He reached the ranks of the enemy almost 



alone, and raising himself in the saddle commenced 
to slash right and left, totally unmindful that it 
was one against thousands. Just as the foremost of 
his men came up he was run through the body and 
killed. William A. L. Throckmorton, of Fayette- 
ville, it is agreed, was the first to reach the side 
and catch the falling form of his loved leader. Mr. 
Throckmorton says he saw the man who gave the 
fatal thrust and quickly kUled him, thus avenging 
so far as the wretched greaser's life could go the 
life of as gallant and noble a knight as ever re- 
sponded to bugle call. He was the dashing cava- 
lier, great in peace, superb in war. Leading his 
trusty followers in any of the walks of life, death 
alone could check him. nothing could conquer him. 

After the war was over the government brought 
his remains and delivered them to his friends in 
Fayetteville, his home, who lovingly deposited 
them beneath the cold white marble shaft which 
speaks his fame. The burial ceremony occurred 
August 3, 1847, and a vast concourse of people, 
the humblest and highest in the State, were the 
sincere and deep mourners on the occasion. 

Arkansas won everlasting laurels through its 
gallant soldiers in the Mexican War. 

Omitting all reference to the Revolutionary 
War, there are conclusions to be di-awn from the 
wars our countrymen have been engaged in since 
the days when Gen. Jackson was the national hero. 
None of these were significant enough to be used 
by the philosophic historian from which to draw 
conclusions as to the character of modern or 
contemporary Americans as warriors, or their dis- 
tinguishing characteristics as a warlike nation 
The late Civil War, however, furnishes a wide and 
ample field for such investigation. An impartial 
view of the late struggle presents first of all this 
remarkable fact. In by far the longest and great- 
est war of modern times, neither side has given 
the age a great captain, as some call greatness, 
though one furnished Grant, the other, Lee, both 
men without a superior; whilst in the ranks and 
among the sub-commands, no battles in history 
are at all comparable for excellence and superior 
soldiership to those of the great Civil War. On 
both sides there were any number of great field 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



81 



commanders, as great as ever drew a sword. But 
they received orders, did not give them, and in 
the execution of orders never were excelled. Lee, 
Grant, Jackson, Sherman, Hancock, Johnston. 
Sheridan and hundreds of others on both sides, to 
the humblest in the ranks, were immortal types of 
the soldier in the field. These men were like 
Napoleon's marshals — given a command or order 
they would risk life itself to execute it. But on 
neither side was there the least exhibition of the 
qualities of a Napoleon or Von Moltke. 

Napoleon was his own secretary of war, gov- 
ernment, cabinet, and commander in the field, and 
for this very reason, he was Von Moltke' s inferior 
as a great commander, whose genius saw the weak 
point, the point of victory on the map of the 
enemj''s country, and struck it with a quick and 
decisive blow. 

Our Civil War and the Franco- German "War 
were closely together in time. War was hardly over 
in America when it commenced in Europe. Any 
student of German history who has studied the 
German-Prussian war, can not but know that Von 
Moltke was the pre-eminent captain in all the his- 
tories of wars. Had Washington or Richmond had 
his peer at the commencement of our struggle, the 
high probabilities are that the war would have 
been over before the first twelve months had ex- 
pired. 

In- war, it is a fact, that it is the strategy be- 
fore the armies meet in battle array which decides 
• the straggle. It is only thus that one man can 



become more powerful than a million with giins in 
their hands. It is in this sense — this application 
of the science of modern warfare, that a com- 
mander wins battles and decides victories. He 
conquers enemies, not by di'awing his sword, but, 
studying his maps in his qaiet den when others 
sleep, he directs the movements of his armies and 
leaves the details of the actual fight to others. He 
is indifferent to the actual fighting part of it, be- 
cause he has settled all that long beforehand by 
his orders. 

In all actual battles, as was testified by the 
Federal commanders before Congress about the 
battle of Gettysburg, if victory is not organized 
beforehand, all is chance, uncertainty, and both 
armies are little else than headless mobs — ignorant 
of whether they are whipping or being whipped. 
The field commander may save the day and turn 
the tide and gain a victory, but what is it after all, 
— so many men killed and captured on either side, 
and then recruited up, and rested a little, only to 
repeat the bloody carnage again and again. 

Let it be assumed that the absence of great mil- 
itary genius on both sides is the highest compli- 
ment that can be paid to American civilization. War 
is barbarism. The higher civilization will eradi- 
cate all practical knowledge of the brutality of 
warfare from men's minds. Then there will be 
no wars, save that of truth upon the false — intelli- 
gence irpon ignorance How gi'andly divine will 
be, not only the great leaders in this holy struggle 
for victory, but the humblest of all privates! 




82 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 




Public Enterprises— The Real Estate Bank of Arkansas— State Roads and other Highways— 

The Military Roads- Navigation Within the State froji the Earliest Times to the 

Present— Decadence of State Navigation— Steamboat Racing— Accidents to 

Boats— The Rise and Growth of the Railroad Systems— A Sketch 

OF THE Different Lines — Other Important Considerations. 



From the blessings the}' bestow 

Our times are dated, and our eras move.- 



-Prior. 




*HE first session of the new 
State legislature, among 
other acts, incorporated the 
State Bank, and as if fur- 
ther determined to show 
that the legislature was at 
least in the front in those 
days of wild- cat bank enterprises, 
proceeded to make money cheap 
and all rich by incorporating the 
celebrated Real Estate Bank of 
Arkansas. Already John Law's 
Mississippi bubble had been for- 
gotten — the old continental money 
and the many other distressing 
instances of those cruel but fas- 
cinating fictions of attempts to 
make credits wealth. No statesman in the world' s 
history has ever yet made an approach to the 
accomplishment of such an impossibility, and still 
nearly all financial legislation is founded upon 
this basic idea. State and national banks have 
been the alluring will-o'-the-wisps in this per- 
sistent folly. All experience teaches that the 
government that becomes a money-changer soon 
becomes the powerful robber, and the places of 
just rulers are filled with tax bandits— there the 



1 lordly rulers are banditti, and the people the most 

I wretched of slaves. 

The State Bank was, as were all such institu- 

I tions of that day in any of the States, demoraliz- 
ing in the financial affairs of the people, encourag- 
ing extravagance and debt, and deceiving men with 
the appearances of wealth to their ultimate ruin. 

The Real Estate Bank, as its name indicates, 
was for the purpose of loaning money on real 
estate security. Dp to that time the American 
farmer had not learned to base his efforts upon any- 
thing except his labor. To produce something and 
sell it was the whole horizon of his financial educa- 
tion. If, while his crop was maturing, he needed 
subsistence he went to his merchant and bought 
the fewest possible necessities on credit. It was 
an evil hour when he was tempted to become a 
speculator. Yet there were some instances in 
which the loans on real estate resulted in enabling 
men to make finely improved cotton plantations. 
But the rule was to get people in debt and at the 
same time exhaust the cash in the bank. The 
bank could collect no money, and the real estate 
owner was struggling under mortgages he could 
not pay. Both lender and borrower were sufferers, 
and the double infliction was apon them of a public 
and individual indebtedness. The Real Estate 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



83 



Bank made an assignment in 1842, and for years 
was the source of much litigation. It practically 
ceased to do business j^ears before it had its doors 
closed and was wound up, and the titles to such 
lands as it had become the possessor of passed to 
the State. 

The old State Bank building, in front of the 
State house, is the only reminder of the institution 
which promised so much and did so little for the 
public. The old building is after the style of all 
such buildings — a low, two-story brick or stone, 
with huge Corinthian columns in front, having 
stone steps to ascend to the first floor. Similar 
structures can be found in Illinois. Missouri and 
all the Western and Southern States. The one in 
Little Rock is unsightly and gloomy and does little 
else but cumber the ground. It is in the way, ow- 
ing to a difficulty in the title, of such a modern 
and elegant building as would be in keeping with 
the rapidly advancing and beautiful "City of 
Roses. ' ' 

Roads and highways have always occupied pub- 
lic consideration. Being so crossed with rivers 
passing from the west toward the Mississippi 
River, the early settlers all over the confines of this 
State passed up the streams and for some time 
used these as the only needed highways. In the 
course of time they began to have bridle-paths 
crossing from settlement to settlement. 

The United States military road from Western 
Missouri passed through Arkansas and led on to 
Shreveport, La. This extended through East- 
ern Arkansas, and Arkansas Post was an import- 
ant point on the route. It was surveyed and 
partially cut out early in the nineteenth century. 
A monthly mail proceeded over the route on horse- 
back, the mail rider generally being able to carry 
the mail in his pocket. 

A ti'ail at first was the road from the mouth of 
the White River to Arkansas Post. This portage 
soon became a highway, as much of the business 
and travel for the Post was landed at the mouth of 
White River and transported across to the Red 
River. 

In 1821 Congress authorized the survey and 
opening of a public highway from Memphis, via 



Little Rock, to Fort Smith. The work was com- 
pleted in 1823. This was the first highway of 
any importance in the Territory. The other routes 
mentioned above were nothing more than trails, or 
bridle-paths. A weekly mail between Little Rock 
and Memphis was established in 1829. 

In 1832 a government road leading on a di- 
rect line fi'om Little Rock to Batesville was cut 
out, and the Indians removed from Georgia were 
brought by water to the capital and taken over 
this road. At that time it was the best public 
course as well as the longest in the State, and be- 
came in time the main traveled road from the 
northern part of the State to its center. 

Arkansas was settled sparsely along the Missis- 
sippi River some years before Fulton invented the 
steamboat. The first steamboat ever upon western 
waters passed down that river in the latter part 
of 1811 — the "Orleans," Capt. Roosevelt. 

The Indians had their light cedar bark canoes, 
and were remarkably expert in handling them. 
These were so light that the squaws could carry 
them on their backs, and in their expeditions in 
ascending the streams frequently saved much time 
by traveling across the great bends of the river 
and carrying their conveyances. Of course in going 
with the current, they kept the stream, skimming 
over the waters with great speed. At one time the 
migratory Indians at stated seasons followed the 
buffalo from the Dakotas to the Gulf, the buffalo 
rernaining near, and the Indians on the streams. 
The latter could thus out-travel the immense 
herds and at certain points make forays upon 
them and so keep an abundant supply of meat. 
The buffalo had the curious habit of indulging 
in long stops when they came to a large river in 
their course, as if dreading to take to the water 
and swim across. They would gather on the bank 
of the river at the selected crossing- place, and 
after having devoured everything near at hand 
and hunger began to pinch, would collect into a 
close circle and begin to move, circling round 
and round, the inside ones ever crowding the out- 
side ones closer and closer to the water. This 
continued until some one, crowded into the deep 
water, had to make the plunge, when all followed. 



84 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



These animals when attacked by other animals, 
or when danger threatened, formed in a compact 
circle, with the cows and calves on the inside and 
the bulls on the outer ring. In this battle array 
there was nothing in the line of beasts that dared 
molest them. 

The white man came and to the canoe he added 
the skiff, the pirogue, the raft, the keel boat and 
the flat boat. The raft never made but one trip 
and that was down stream always, and when its 
destination was reached it was sold to be converted 
into lumber. Other water crafts could be hauled 
back by long tow lines, men walking on the banks 
and pulling them up stream. There are those now 
living who can remember when this was the only 
mode of river navigation. The younger people of 
this generation can form no adequate idea of the 
severity of the toil and the suffering necessarily in- 
volved in the long trips then made by these hardy 
pioneers. If the people of today were compelled 
to procure the simple commodities of life at such 
hard sacrifices, by such endurance, they would do 
without them, and go back to fig leaves and nuts 
and roots for subsistence. 

When Fulton and Livingston had successfully 
navigated their boat from Pittsburg to New Or- 
leans, they made the claim of a sort of royal patent 
to the exclusive navigation of the Mississippi River 
and its tributaries. This claim was put forth in 
perfect good faith and it was a new question as 
well as a serious one for the courts, when these 
claimants arrested Captain Shreve upon his arrival 
in New Orleans with his boat, and carried him be- 
fore the court to answer in damages for navi- 
gating by steam the river that belonged to them 
as the first steam navigators. This curious inci- 
dent indicates how little even the inventor of the 
steamboat appreciated of what vast importance to 
civilization his noble invention really was. To 
him and his friend it was but a small personal 
right or perquisite — a licensed monopoly, out of 
which they could make a few dollars, and when 
they passed away probably the invention too would 
die and be forgotten. How infinitely greater had 
the noble, immortal originator builded than he 
knew! The revolving paddles of the steamboat 



were but the wheels now whirling so rapidly be- 
neath the flying railroad trains over the civilized 
world. From this strange, rude craft, the ' ' Or- 
leans," have evolved the great steamships, iron-clad 
war vessels, and the palatial steamboats plying the 
inland waters wherever man's wants or luxuries 
are to be supplied. The genius and glory of such 
men as Fulton belong to no age, much less to 
themselves — they and theirs are a part of the world, 
for all time. 

In 1812 Jacob Barkman opened up a river 
trade between Arkadelphia and New Orleans, car- 
rying his first freights in a pirogue. It took six 
months to make a round trijj. He conveyed to New 
Orleans bear skins and oil, pelts, and tallow se- 
cured from wild cattle, of which there were a great 
many; these animals had originally been brought 
to the country by the Spaniards and French, and 
had strayed away, and increased into great herds, 
being as wild and nearly as fleet as the deer. He 
brought back sugar, coffee, powder, lead, flints, 
copperas, camphor, cotton and wool cards, etc., 
and soon after embarking was able to own his 
negro crews. He purchased the steamboat ' ' Dime ' ' 
and became one of the most extensive and enter- 
prising men in the State. With his boat he ascended 
rivers, and purchased the cotton, owning his cargo, 
for a return trip. 

in 1819, James Miller, the first governor of the 
Territory, and a military suite of twenty persons, 
embarked at Pittsburg in the United States keel- 
boat, ' ' Arkansas, ' ' for Arkansas Post. The trip 
occupied seventy days, reaching the point of desti- 
nation January 1, 1820. It was difficult to tell 
which excited the greatest curiosity among the 
natives — the new governor or the keel -boat. 

The flood-tide of western river navigation 
reached its highest wave soon after the close of the 
late war. The Mississi^jpi River and tributaries 
were crowded with craft, and the wharves of cities 
and towns along the banks were lined with some 
of the finest boats ever built, all freighted to the 
water's edge and crowded with passengers. Build- 
ers vied with each other in turning out the most 
magnificent floaters, fitted with every elegance and 
luxury money could procure. The main point after 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



elegance, in which they rivaled most, was the speed 
of their respective craft. From the close of the 
war to 1870, steamboating was the overshadowing 
business on western waters. Of the boats of this 
era, some 'will go into history, noted for their 
fleetness, but unlike the fleet horses of history, 
they could not leave their strain in immortal de- 
scendants, rivaling their celebrated feats. Racing 
between boats that happened to come together on 
the river was common, and sometimes reckless 
and dangerous, as well as exciting. Occasionally 
a couple of "tubs," as the boys called a slow 
boat, engaged in a race and away they would go, 
running for hours side by side, the stokers all 
the time piling in the most inflammable material 
they could lay hands on, especially pine knots and 
fat bacon, until the eager flames poured out 
of the long chimney tops; and it was often told 
that the captain, rather than fall behind in the 
race, would seat a darkey on the end of the lever 
of the safety valve, and at the same time scream 
at the stokers to pile on the bacon, pine knots, oil, 
anything to make steam. Roustabouts, officers, 
crew and passengers were all as wildly excited as 
the captain, and as utterly regardless of dangers. 
From such recklessness accidents of course did hap- 
pen, but it is wonderful there were so few. 

Not infrequently commanders would regularly 
engage beforehand for a race of their boats; fixing 
the day and time and as regularly preparing then- 
vessels as a jockey trains and grooms his race-horse. 
The two most noted contests of this kind on the 
Mississippi River were, first, in the early times, 
between the ' ' Shotwell ' ' and ' ' Eclipse, ' ' from 
Louisville to New Orleans. The next and greatest 
of all was just at the time of the commencement of 
the decline in steamboating, between the steamers 
"Robert E. Lee" and "Natchez," from New Or- 
leans to St. Louis. The speed, the handling of 
these boats, the record they made, have never been 
equaled and probably never will be, unless steam- 
boating is revived by some new invention. The 
race last mentioned took place in 1868. 

Fearful steamboat calamities, from explosions 
and from flres, like the awful railroad accidents, 
have marked the era of steam navigation. 



The most disastrous in history occurred in 1865, 
in the loss of the ' ' Sultana, ' ' on the Mississippi, a 
few miles above Memphis, a part of the navigable 
waters of Arkansas. The boat was on her way up 
stream from New Orleans laden principally with 
soldiers, some of them with their families, and 
several citizens as passengers. There were 2,350 
passengers and crew on the vessel. A little after 
midnight the sudden and awful explosion of the 
boilers came, literally tearing the boat to pieces, 
after which the wreck took fire. Over 2,000 peo- 
ple perished. 

The early decline of the steamboat industry 
kept even pace with the building of railroads over 
the country. Main lines of railroads were soon 
built, the streams being used as natiu'al road beds 
through the rock hills and mountains. In passing 
over the country in trains one will now often see 
the flowing river close to the railroad track on one 
hand, when from the opposite window the high 
rock mountain wall may almost be touched. Then, 
too, the large towns were along the navigable riv- 
ers, lakes and ocean. The sage conclusion of the 
philosopher when he went out to look at the world, 
and was impressed with the curious coincidence 
that the rivers ran so close by the big towns, is a 
trite one: A great convenience to those who used 
water. 

The first railroad built in Arkansas was the 
Memphis & Little Rock Railroad. Work was com- 
menced with the intention of first constructing it 
from Little Rock to Devall's Bluff, on White 
River, whence passengers might proceed by boat 
to Memphis. It was started at both ends of the 
line and finished in 1859, the next year being 
extended to St. Francis River, and then in 1860 
completed to the river opposite Memphis. When 
the Federal army took possession of the Mississippi 
River, and their forces began to possess the north- 
eastern portion of the State, the Confederates as 
they retired toward Little Rock destroyed the road 
and burned the bridges. Indeed, when the war 
ended in 1865, Arkansas was without a mile of 
railroad. Soon after the war closed the road was 
rebuilt and put in operation, and for some time 
was the only one in the State. 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



The next was the old Cairo & Fulton Railroad, 
now the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Sotithern 
Road. It was organized in 1853, and in 185-4-55 
obtained a large Congressional laud grant in aid 
of the enterprise, and built first from Fulton to 
Beebe, in 1872; it was completed to Texarkana 
in 1873, and soon came to be the most important 
line in the State. The Camden branch, from Gur- 
don to Camden, was completed in 1882. The Mem- 
phis branch, from Bald Knob to Memphis, ninety- 
three miles, was finished and the first passenger 
train passed over the line May 10, 1888. The 
branch from Newport to Cushman, a distance of 
forty-six miles, was built in 1882. The Helena 
branch, from Noble to Helena, 140 miles, was com- 
pleted in 1882. 

The main line of the St. Louis & Iron Moun- 
tain Railroad enters the State on the north, at 
Moark (combination for Missouri and Arkansas), 
and passes out at Texarkana (combination for 
Arkansas and Texas). The distance between these 
two points is 305 miles. 

The first section of the St. Louis, Arkansas & 
Texas Railroad, from Clarendon to Jonesboro, was 
built in 1882, and the next year completed to Tex- 
arkana. It was built as a narrow gauge and made 
a standard gauge in 1886. Its northern terminus 
for some time was Cairo, where it made its St. 
Louis connection over the St. Louis & Cairo Nar- 
row Gauge Road, now a standard, and a part of the 
Mobile & Ohio system. The Magnolia branch of 
this road runs from McNeal to Magnolia, about 
twenty miles, and was built in 1885. The Althei- 
mer branch, from Altheimer to Little Rock, was 
constructed and commenced operation in 1888. 
The main line of this road enters the State from 
the north in Clay County, on the St. Francis River, 
penetrating into Texas at Texarkana. 

The Little Rock, Mississippi River & Texas 
Railroad, now in course of construction, is a much 
needed road from Little Rock to Pine Bluff, on to 
Warren and Mississippi, and will form an important 
outlet for Arkansas toward the Gulf. This was 
built from Arkansas City to Pine Bluff, and then 
completed to Little Rock in 1880. 

The Pine Bluff & Swan Lake Railroad was 



built in 1885. It is twenty-six miles long, and 
runs between the points indicated by its name. 

The Arkansas Midland Railroad, from Helena 
to Clarendon, was built as a narrow gauge and 
changed to a standard road in 1886. 

The Batesville & Brinkley Railroad is laid as 
far as Jacksonport. It was changed in 1888 to a 
standard gauge, and is now in course of construc- 
tion on to Batesville. 

The Kansas City, Fort Scott & Memphis Rail- 
road enters the State at Mammoth Spring, and 
runs to West Memphis. Its original name was 
Kansas City, Springfield & Memphis Railroad. It 
now is a main line from Kansas City to Birming- 
ham, Ala. 

Work was commenced on the Little Rock & 
Fort Smith Railroad in 1871 at Little Rock, and 
built to Ozark; later it was finished to Van Buren, 
there using a transfer, and was completed to Fort 
Smith. 

The Hot Springs Railroad, from Malvern, on the 
main line of the Iron Mountain Railroad, to Hot 
Springs, was built and is owned by ' ' Diamond 
Joe ' ' Reynolds. Operations were commenced in 
1874. 

The line of the St. Louis & San Francisco Rail- 
road passes near the west line of Arkansas adjacent 
to Fort Smith. There is a branch road of this 
line from Jensen to Mansfield, sixteen miles long. 

It looks a little as though the sponsor for the 
name of the Ultima Thule, Arkadelphia & Missis- 
sippi Railroad intended to use the name for a main 
track through the State. It was built in 1887 for 
the use of the Arkadelphia Lumber Company. 
Eureka Springs branch runs from Seligman to Eu- 
reka Springs. Another branch goes from Rogers 
to Bentonville. Still another, extending from Fay- 
etteville to St. Paul, is thirty-five miles in length. 
The branch from Fayetteville is now in course of 
building. 

The Russellville & Dardanelle Railroad is four 
miles long, extending from the south bank of the 
Arkansas River to Russellville. 

The Southwestern, Arkansas & Indian Terri- 
tory Railroad indicates that there is nothing in a 
name, as this road is but twenty-seven miles long, 



HISTORY OF AEKANSA.S. 



running from Southland to Okolona on the west, 
and also extending east fi'om the main line. 

A line is being surveyed and steps actively 
taken to build a road from Kansas City to Little 
Rock, which is to cross the Boston Mountains near 
the head waters of White River. 

Several other important lines are at this time 



making preparations to build in the near future. 
Charters for nearly 100 routes in the State have 
been secured since 1885. There is not only plenty 
of room, but a great necessity for yet hundreds of 
miles of new roads here. They will greatly facili- 
tate the development of the immense resources of 
this favored locality. 



;ifiif 11 XI. 



■ > « < * 



The Counties of the State— Their Formation and Changes of Boundary Lines, etc.— Their 

CoiTNTY Seats and other Items or Interest Concerning Theji- Defunct Counties- New 

Counties— Population of all the Counties of the State at every General Census. 




Not cbaos-like, together crush'd aud bruised; 
But as the world, harmoniouslj' confused; 
Where order in variety we see. 
And where, though all things differ, they agree.- 



-Pope. 



' ERHAPS to many, no more 
interesting subject in the 
history of the State can be 
presented than that refer- 
ring to the name, organiza- 
tion, etc., of each county 
within its limits. Careful 
research has brought forth the fol- 
lowing facts presented in a concise, 
but accurate manner: 

Arkansas County was formed 
December 13, 1813. As the first 
municipal formation within the 
boundary of the State, in Lower Mis- 
souri Territory, it was first a parish 
under Spanish rule and then under 
French. October 23, 1821, a part 
of Phillips County was added to it; the line be- 
tween Pulaski and Arkansas was changed October 
30, 1823; Quapaw Purchase divided between Ar- 



kansas and Pulaski October 13, 1827; line between 
Arkansas and Phillips defined November 21, 1829; 
boundaries defined November 7, 1836. County 
seat, De Witt; first county seat, Arkansas — oppo- 
site Arkansas Post. 

Ashley, formed November 30, 1848, named for 
Hon. Chester Ashley, who died a United States 
Senator; line between Chicot changed January 19, 
1861. County seat, Hamburg. 

Baxter, March 24, 1873; line between Izard and 
Fulton defined October 16, 1875; line between 
Marion changed March 9, 1881. County seat. 
Mountain Home. 

Benton, September 30, 1836, named in honor 
of Hon. Thomas H. Benton. County seat, Ben- 
tonville. 

Boone, April 9, 1869 ; named for Daniel 
Boone; line between Marion defined December 9, 
1875. Harrison, county seat. 

Bradley, December 18. 1840; part of Calhoun 



88 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



attached October 19, 1862; part restored to Ashley 
County January 1, 1859. Warren, county seat. 

Calhoun, December 6, 1850; named for John 
C. Calhoun; part added to Union and Bradley 
November 19, 1862. County seat, Hampton. 

Carroll, November 1, 1833; named in honor of 
the signer of the declaration; boundary defined 
December 14, 1838; line between Madison defined 
January, 11, 1843, and again January 20, 1843; 
line between Marion defined December 18, 1846; 
line between Madison defined December 29, 1854, 
and again January 16, 1857; part of Madison 
attached April 8, 1869. Berryville, county seat. 

Chicot, October 25, 1823; boundary defined 
November 2, 1835; part attached to Drew Decem- 
ber 21, 1846; line between Ashley changed 
January 19, 1861; line between Drew changed 
November 30, 1875; line changed between Desha 
February 10, 1879. Lake Village, county seat. 

Clark, December 15, 1818, while Lower Mis- 
souri Territory; named in honor of Gov. Clark, 
of Missouri; the line between Pulaski and Clark, 
changed October 30, 1823; divided November 2, 
1829; line between Hot Springs and Dallas changed 
April 3, 1868; line between Pike defined April 
22, 1873; line between Montgomery changed April 
24, 1873; line between Pike changed March 8, 
1887. Arkadelphia, county seat. 

Clay, March 24, 1873; named for Henry Clay. 
This county, formed as Clayton County, was changed 
to Clay on December 6, 1875. The act of March 
24, 1873, changed the boundaries of a large num- 
ber of counties. Boydsville and Corning, county 



Cleburne, formed February 20, 1883; named 
in honor of Gen. Patrick A. Cleburne. Heber is 
the county seat. 

Cleveland, formed in 1885; named for President 
Cleveland; was formed as Dorsey County. Toledo, 
county seat. 

Columbia, December 17, 1852; piart of Union 
County added December 21, 1858; line between 
Nevada defined April 19, 1873. Magnolia, county 
seat. 

Conway, December 7, 1825; named after the 
noted Conways; the northeast boundary defined 



October 27, 1827; line between Pulaski and Con- 
way defined October 20, 1828; part of Indian pur- 
chase added October 22, 1828; line between Con- 
way, Pulaski and Independence defined November 
5, 1831; part added to Pope January 6, 1853; 
part added to White January 11, 1853; act of 
March, 1873; line between Pope defined May 28, 
1874. County seat, Morrillton. 

Craighead, formed February 19, 1850. Jones- 
boro, county seat. 

Crawford, October 18, 1820; boundary was 
changed October 30, 1823; divided and county 
of Lovely established October 13, 1827; part of 
the Cherokee Country attached to, October 22, 
1828; boundary defined December 18, 1837; line 
between Scott defined; line between Washington 
defined November- 24, 1846; line between Frank- 
lin defined March 4, 1875; line changed between 
Washington March 9, 1881. Van Buren, county 
seat. 

Crittenden, October 22, 1825; named for Rob- 
ert Crittenden; St. Francis River declared to be 
the line between St. Francis and Crittenden Coun- 
ties November, 1831; portion attached to Missis- 
sippi County January, 1861; act, March, 1873. 
Marion, county seat. 

Cross, November 15, 1862, 1866, 1873. Witts- 
burg, the county seat. 

Dallas, January 1, 1845; line between Hot 
Springs and Clark changed April 3, 1869. Prince- 
ton the county seat. 

Desha, December 12, 1838; named for Hon. 
Ben Desha; portion attached to Drew January 21, 
1861; part of Chicot attached February 10, 1879; 
also of Lincoln, March 10, 1879. Arkansas City, 
county seat. 

Drew, November 26, 1846; part Chicot attached 
December 21, 1846; part of Desha attached Jan- 
uary 21, 1861; March, 1873; line between Chicot 
changed November 30, 1875. Monticello, county 
seat. 

Faulkner, April 12, 1873; line defined Decem- 
7, 1875. Conway, county seat. 

Franklin, December 19, 1837; line between 
Johnson defined December 14, 1833; line between 
Crawford defined March 4, 1875. Ozark, county seat. 



HISTOR'S OF ARKANSAS. 



Fulton, December 21, 1842; part attached to 
Marion County January 18, 1855; part of Law- 
rence attached January 18, 1855, March, 1873; 
line between Baxter and Izard defined February 
16, 1875. County seat, Salem. 

Garland, April 5, 1873; named after Gov. 
A. H. Garland. Hot Springs, county seat. 

Grant, February 4, 1869. Sheridan, county 
seat. 

Greene, November 5, 1833; act March, 1873. 
Paragould, county seat. 

Hempstead, December 15, 1818, when this 
was Lower Missouri Territory; Lafayette County 
carved out of this territory October 15, 1827; line 
between Pike defined December 14, 1838. Wash- 
ington, county seat. 

Hot Spring, November 2, 1829; certain lands 
attached to March 2, 1838; Montgomery taken out 
of December 9, 1842; line between Saline defined 
December 23, 1846; line between Montgomery 
changed December 27, 1848; line between Saline 
changed February 19, 1859, and changed again 
January 10, 1861; line between Clark and Dallas 
changed April 3, 1869; March, 1873. Malvern, 
county seat. 

Howard, April 17, 1873. County seat, Centre 
Point. 

Independence, October 20, 1820; part of east- 
ern boundary defined October 30, 1823; Izard 
County formed of October 27, 1825; part of Inde- 
pendence added October 22, 1828; line between 
Independence and Izard defined November 5, 1831; 
line between Independence and Conway, November 
5, 1831; between Independence and Jackson, No- 
vember 8, 1836; between Izard February 21, 1838; 
December 14, 1840; Lawrence changed December 
26, 1840; March. 1873; Sharp County defined Feb- 
ruary 11, 1875. Batesville, county seat. 

Izard, October 27, 1825; western boundary 
line extended October 13, 1827; part of the Indian 
purchase added October 22, 1828; between Inde- 
pendence and Izard defined November 5, 1831; 
between Conway and Izard, November 5, 1831; 
southern boundary established November 11, 1833; 
line between Independence defined February 21, 
1838, and December 14, 1838, and December 21, 



1840; western boundary line defined December 24, 
1840, March, 1873; between Baxter and Fulton 
defined February 16, 1875; between Sharp changed 
March 9, 1877. Melbourne, county seat. 

Jackson, November 5, 1829; line between In- 
dependence defined November 8, 1836; part of 
St. Francis attached January 10, 1851. Jackson- 
port, county seat. 

Jefferson, November 2, 1829; boundaries de- 
fined November 3, 1831, and again October 29, 
1836; line changed between Lincoln and Desha 
March 20, 1879. Pine Bluff, county seat. 

Johnson, November 16, 1833; southern line 
defined November 3, 1835; east line defined Octo- 
ber 5, 1836; line between Franklin defined Decem- 
ber 14, 1838, 1848; between Pope February 19, 
1859, again March 27, 1871; line between Pope 
re-established on March 6, 1875; between Pope 
changed March 9, 1877. Clarksville, county seat. 

Lafayette, October 15. 1827; the line between 
Union defined November 26, 1846. Lewisville, 
county seat. 

Lawrence, on January 15, 1815, while Lower 
Missoiu'i Territory; east line defined October 30, 
1823; between Independence changed December 
20, 1840; part attached to Fulton January 18, 
1855; part attached to Randolph January 18, 
1861; nearly half the comity cut off the west side 
to form Sharp County, 1868. Powhatan, county 
seat. 

Lee, April 17, 1873. Marianna, county seat. 

Lincoln, March 28, 1871; part transferred to 
Desha County, March 10, 1879. Star City, county 
seat. 

Little River, March 5, 1867. Richmond is the 
county seat. 

Logan, originally Sarber County, March 22, 
1871; amended, February 27, 1873; changed to 
Logan, December 14, 1875; line between Scott 
changed, March 21, 1881. Paris, county seat. 

Lonoke, April 16, 1873; named for the lone 
oak tree, by simply spelling phonetically — the 
suggestion of the chief engineer of the Cairo & 
Fulton Railroad. Line between Prairie defined 
November 30, 1875, and again, December 7, 1875. 
Lonoke, county seat. 



90 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



Lovely, October 13, 1827; abolished October 
17, 1828. 

Madison, September 30, 1836; west boundary 
changed on November 26, 1838; betvceen Carroll 
defined January 11, 1843, and again January 20, 
1843, 1846; between Newton, December 21, 1848; 
between Carroll, April 8, 1869. Huntsville, county 
seat. 

Marion, September 25, 1836; originally Searcy 
County; changed to Marion, September 29, 1836 
(Searcy County created out of December 13, 1838); 
west boundary defined November 18,1837; between 
Carroll defined December 18, 1846; part of Fulton 
attached January 18, 1855; between Van Buren 
and Searcy defined January 20, 1855, and March, 
1873; line between Boone defined December 9, 
1875; line between Baxter changed March 9, 1881. 
Yellville, county seat. 

Miller, April 1, 1820; the greater portions fell 
within the limits of Texas; county abolished there- 
fore, 1836; re-established, December 22, 1874, and 
eastern boundary extended. Texarkana, county seat. 

Mississippi, November 1, 1833, 1859; portion 
of Crittenden attached, January 18, 1861. Osceola, 
county seat. 

Monroe, November 2, 1829; boundaries defined 
December 25, 1840; line between Prairie changed 
December 7, 1850; line changed April 12, 1869, 
March, 1873, April, 1873, and May 27, 1874. 
Clarendon, county seat. 

Montgomery, December 9, 1842; line between 
Yell defined January 2, 1845; between Perry, 
December 23, 1846; between Perry re-established 
December 21, 1848; between Hot Spring changed 
December 27, 1848; between Polk changed Feb- 
ruary 7,1859, March, 1873; between Clark changed 
April 24, 1873; line between Pike defined Decem- 
ber 16, 1874. Mount Ida, county seat. 

Nevada, March 20, 1871 ; line between Colum- 
bia defined April 10, 1873. Prescott, county seat. 

Newton, December 14, 1842; line between 
Madison defined December 21,1848; between Pope 
January 10, 1853. Jasper, county seat. 

Ouachita, November 29, 1842; line between 
Union changed January 6, 1853. Camden, county 
seat. 



Perry, December 18, 1840; line between Pul- 
aski, Saline and Montgomery defined December 
23, 1846; old line between Montgomery re-estab- 
lished December 21,1848. Perryville, county seat. 

Phillips, May 1, 1820; part attached to Arkan- 
sas County October 23, 1881; west boundary 
defined October 30, 1 823 ; act to divide and create 
Crittenden County October 22, 1825; divided and 
St. Francis County created October 13, 1827; line 
between Arkansas County defined November 21, 
1828, 1840, March, 1873. Helena, county seat. 

Pike, November 1, 1833; line between Sevier 
defined November 15,1833; between Hempstead, 
December 14, 1838; between Clark, April 22, 
1873; between Montgomery, December 16, 1874: 
between Clark defined March 8, 1877. Murfrees- 
boro, county seat. 

Poinsett, February 28, 1838, 1859. Harris- 
burg, county seat. 

Polk, November 30, 1844; line between Mont- 
gomery changed February 7, 1859; part of Sebas- 
tian County added by ordinance of convention, 
June 1, 1861. Dallas, county seat. 

Pope, November 2, 1829; part added to Yell 
January 5, 1853; part of Conway attached Janu- 
ary 6, 1853; line between Newton, January 10, 
1853; part of Van Buren attached January 12, 
1853; between Van Buren defined February 17, 
1859; between Johnson, October 19, 1859, March, 
27, 1871; between Conway, May 28, 1874; between 
Johnson re-established March 6, 1875; between 
Johnson changed March 9, 1877. Dover, county 
seat. 

Prairie, October 25, 1846; between Pulaski 
changed December 30, 1848; between Monroe 
changed December 7, 1850; line changed April 12, 
1869; between White defined April 17, 1873; line 
changed April 26, 1873, May 27, 1874; between 
Lonoke changed November 30, 1875; separated 
into two districts, 1885. Devall's Bluff, county 
seat. 

Pulaski, December 15, 1818, while a part of 
Lower Missouri Territory ; line between Arkansas 
and Pulaski October 30, 1823; between Clark 
changed October 30, 1823; divided October 20, 
1825; Quapaw Purchase divided — Arkansas and 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



91 



Pulaski, October 13, 1827; northwest boundary 
defined October 23, 1827; between Pulaski and 
Conway, October 20, 1828; line between Saline 
defined February 25, 1838, December 14, 1838; 
between White changed February 3,1843; between 
Saline defined December 21, 1846; between Perry 
defined December 23, 1846; between Prairie 
changed December 30, 1848; between Saline de- 
fined April 12, 1873; again, December 7, 1875. 
Little Rock, county seat. 

Randolph, October 29, 1835; part of Lawrence 
attached January 18, 1864, March, 1873. Poca- 
hontas, county seat. 

Saline, November 2, 1835; boundaries defined 
November 5, 1836; between Pulaski, February 25, 
1838, December 14, 1838, December 21, 1846; be- 
tween Hot Spring, December 23, 1846, February 
19, 1859, January 19,1861; between Pulaski, April 
12, 1873, December 17, 1875. Benton, county 
seat. 

Scott, November 5, 1833; boundaries defined 
October 24, 1835; between Crawford, December 
16, 1838; part of Sebastian attached by conven- 
tion June 1, 1861 ; line between Logan changed 
March 21, 1873. Waldron, county seat. 

Searcy, November 5, 1835; boundaries defined 
September 26, 1836; name changed to Marion 
September 29, 1836; county created out of Marion 
December 13, 1838; between Van Buren defined 
October 2, 1853; between Van Buren and Marion 
defined October 20, 1855, March, 1873. Marshall, 
county seat. 

Sebastian, January 6, 1851; part attached to 
Scott and Polk by the convention June 1, 1861. 
Fort Smith and Greenwood, county seats. 

Sevier, October 17, 1828; boundaries defined 
November 8, 1833; between Pike, November 15. 
1833; southeast boundary defined October 29, 
1836. Lockesburg, county seat. 

Sharp, July 18, 1808; act March 3, 1873; be- 
tween Independence defined February 11, 1875; 



line between Izard changed March 9, 1877, 1883. 
Evening Shade, county seat. 

St. Francis, October 13, 1827; St. Francis 
River declared boundary line between Crittenden 
November 3, 1831; part attached to Jackson Jan- 
uary 1, 1851, March, 1873. Forrest City, county 
seat. 

Stone, April 21, 1873. Mountain View, county 
seat. 

Union, November 2, 1829; boundaries defined 
November 5, 1836; line between Lafayette, 
November 26, 1846; line between Ouachita changed 
January 6, 1853; part added to Columbia, Decem- 
ber 21, 1851; part of Calhoun attached October 
19, 1862. El Dorado, county seat. 

Van Buren, November 11. 1833; boundaries 
defined November 4, 1836; part attached to Pope 
January 12, 1853; between Searcy and Marion 
defined January 20, 1855; between Pope defined 
February 17, 1859. Clinton, county seat. 

Washington, October 17, 1828; certain lands 
declared to be in Washington County October 26, 
1831; line between Crawford defined November 
24, 1846; line changed between Crawford March 
8, 1883. Fayetteville. county seat. 

White, October 23, 1835; line between Pulaski 
changed February 3, 1843; part of Conway at- 
tached January 11, 1853; line between Prairie 
defined April 17, 1873. Searcy, county seat. 

Woodruff, November 26, 1862; but vote, in 
pursuance to ordinance of conventions 1861, 1866, 
1869; line changed April 26, 1873. Augusta, 
county seat. 

Yell, December 5, 1840; northern boundary, 
December 21, 1840; line between Montgomery, 
January 2, 1845; part Pope attached January 6, 
1853. Danville and Dardanelle, county seats. 

The following table will prove valuable for 
comparison in noting the growth in population 
of the counties throughout the State in the various 
decades from their organization: 



92 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



AGGEEGA.TE 


POPULATION BY 


COUNTIES 




j 


AGGREGATE POPULATION BY 


COUNTIES. 


i 




Counties in 


1880 


1870 


1860 


1850 


1840 


1830 1820 


1810 


Counties in 
the State. 


1880 


18T0 


1860 


1850 


1810 


1830 1820 
30,388 14,255 


1810 


the State. 


802,525 


484,471 


435,460 


209,897 


97,574 


30,388 


14,255 


1,062 


802,525 


484,471 


435,450 


209,897 


97,674 


1,062 




8,038 
10,166 
6,004 
20,327 
12,146 
6,285 
5,671 
13,337 
10,117 
15,771 
7,213 
14,090 
12,755 
7,037 
14,740 
9,415 
5,050 
6,505 
8,873 
8,370 
12,231 
12,786 
14,951 
6,720 
9,023 
6,185 
7,480 
19,015 
7,775 
9,917 
18,086 
10,857 
10,877 
22,386 
11,565 
6,730 
8,782 


8,238 
8,042 


8,884 
8,690 


3,246 
2,058 


1,346 


1,426 


1,260 


1,062 




13,288 
9,255 
6,405 

14,885 

12,146 

11,455 
7,907 
9,919 
7,142 
9,574 
5,789 

12,959 
6,120 

11,758 
3,872 

21,262 
6,345 
2,192 
6,857 

14,322 
8,485 

32,616 

11,724 
8.389 
8,953 
9.174 
7,278 

19,560 
0,192 
9,047 
5,089 

13,419 
9,565 

23,884 

17,794 
8.646 

13,852 






j 










Lincoln 

Little Kiver 


























3,246 
















13,831 
7,032 
8,646 
3,853 
6,780 
7,214 

11,953 


9,306 


3,710 


2,228 




























Lonoke 

Madison 














Bradley 


8,388 
4,103 
9,383 
9,234 
9,735 


3,829 










8,231 
3,979 


7,740 
6,192 


4,823 
2,308 


2,775 
1,325 
























4,617 
5,115 
4,070 


2,844 
8,806 
2,300 


















1,165 
1,369 






Mississippi 

Monroe 

Montgomery 

Nevada 


3,6.33 
8,336 
2,984 


3,895 
5,657 
3,633 


2,368 
2,049 
1,958 


1,410 
936 










i'.oio 




461 
















11,397 
8,112 
4,577 
8,957 
3,831 
3,915 
5,707 
6,125 


12,459 
6,697 
3,068 
7,850 
4,920 























3,583 


2,892 


982 






4,374 

12,975 
2,685 

16,372 
3,788 
1,720 
3,376 
8,386 
5,604 

32,066 
7,466 
6,714 
3,911 
7,483 
5613 

12,940 
4,492 
5,400 


3,393 
12,936 
2,465 
14,877 
4,026 
3,621 
4,262 
7,883 
8,864 
11,699 
6,261 
8,672 
6,540 
5,142 
5,271 


1,758 
9,591 
978 
6,935 
1,861 
2,308 
1,263 
4,710 
2,097 
6,667 
3,275 
4,467 
3,903 
3,083 
1,979 




























7,960 
2,6i8 


4,265 
1,561 


2,440 

1,272 
























3,547 

969 

1,320 


1,152 


1,197 










Pike 






8,283 
6,459 


6,877 
2,911 




















1,598 








Polk 


















2,850 


1,483 






Drew 


9,960 


9,0811 


3,276 


























Pulaski 


5,350 
2,196 
2,499 
2,061 
1,694 
936 


2,395 
i',505 


1,921 






9,627 
4,843 


7,298 
4,024 


3,972 
1,819 


2,665 


















St. Francis 




















3,948 
7,573 
13,768 
5,877 
























5,843 
13,989 
5,635 


2,593 
7,672 
3,609 


1,.586 
4,921 
1,907 
















Hempstead 

Hot Spring 

Howard 


2,512 
468 


2,246 




Sebastian 

Sevier 










10,516 


4,240 


2,810 


634 














Independence... 


14,566 
6,806 
7,268 

15,733 
9,152 
9,189 
5,981 


14,307 
7,215 
10,493 
14,971 
7,612 
8,404 
9,373 


7,767 
3,212 
3,086 
5,834 
5,227 


3,669 
2,240 
1,640 
2.566 
3,483 


2.031 

1,266 

333 

772 






Stone 


















10,571 
5,107 
17,266 
10,347 
6,981 
8,048 


12,288 
5,357 

14,673 
8,316 


10,298 
2,864 
9,970 
2,619 


2,889 

1,518 

7,148 

920 


640 


' 










Van Buren 

Washington 












5,182 
















Lafayette 


748 
2,806 




Woodruff. 

Y0II ____. 








5,592 




6,333 


3,341 
























HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



93 



Education— The Mental Type Considered— Territorial Schools, Laws and Funds— Constitutional 

Provisions for Education— Legislative Provisions— Progress since the War— The State 

Superintendents— Statistics— Arkansas Literature— The Aekansaw Traveler. 




Delightful task ! to rear the tender thought, 

To teach the young idea how to shoot; 

To pour the fresh instructions o'er the mind, 

To breathe th' enlivening spirit, and to fix 

The generous purpose in the glowing hreasl.^Thomson. 



ERE is one subject 
at least in the economic 
institutions of our country 
where men do not divide 
on political lines. To the 
historian it is a restful 
and refreshing oasis in 
the arid desert. From 
the Canadas to the Gulf commun- 
ities and States earnestly vie with 
each other in the establishment of 
the best public schools. The pres- 
ent generation has nearly supplant- 
ed the former great universities 
with the free public high schools, 
A generation ago the South sent its 
boys to the North to school; the 
North sent its boys to the old universities of Europe. 
Oxford and Heidelburg received the sons of ambi- 
tious, wealthy Americans of the North, while Yale, 
Harvard and Jefferson Colleges were each the alma 
mater of many of the youths of the South. The 
rivalry in the schools between the two sections at 
that time was not intense, but the eduea'^ed young 
men of the South met in sharpest rivalry in the 
halls of Congress the typical Northern man. As 
the highest tj'pes^of the North and the South in 



active political life may be placed Thomas Jeffer- 
son and Daniel Webster. In peace or in war the 
differences in the intellectual advancement of the 
two sections were more imaginary than real. The 
disadvantage the South met was the natural ten- 
dency to produce an aristocratic class in the com- 
munity. Cotton and the negro were impediments 
in the Southern States that clogged the way to the 
advancement of the masses. They retarded the 
building of great institutions of learning as well as 
the erection of large manufactories. This applied 
far more to collegiate education than to the com- 
mon or public school system. The Southern man 
who was able to send his children away from his 
State to school realized that he gave them two ad- 
vantages over keeping them at home; he aided 
them in avoiding negro contact and association, 
and provided the advantage of a better knowledge 
of different peoples in different sections. 

Arkansas may have lagged somewhat in the 
cause of education in the past, but to-day, though 
young as a State, it is far in advance of many older 
communities who are disposed to boast greatly of 
their achievements in this direction. 

When still a Territory the subject of education 
received wise and considerate attention. March 
2, 1827, Congress gave the State seventy-two 



94 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



sections of land for the purpose of establishing 
"a seminar J of learning." A supplemental act 
was passed by Congress, June 23, 1836, one week 
after it became a State, offering certain propo- 
sitions for acceptance or rejection: 1. The six- 
teenth section of every township for school pur- 
poses. 2. The seventy-two sections known as the 
saline lands. By article 9, section 4, State con- 
stitution of 1869, these lands were given to the free 
schools. 3. The seventy-two sections, known as 
the seminary lands, given to the Territory in 1827, 
were vested and confirmed in the State of Arkansas 
for the use of said seminary. October 18, 1836, 
the State accepted the propositions entire; and the 
legislature passed the act known as ' ' the ordinance 
of acceptance and compact." December 18, 1844, 
the general assembly asked Congress for a modi- 
fication of the seminary grant, so as to authorize 
the legislature to appropriate these seventy-two 
sections of land for common school purposes. 
Congress assented to this on July 29, 1846, and 
the lands were added to the free school fund. 
These congressional land grants formed the basis of 
the State's free school system. 

The first State constitution of 1836 recognized 
the importance of popular education, and made it 
the duty of the general assembly to provide by 
law for the improvement of such lands as are, or 
may be, granted by the United States for the use 
of schools, and to pass such laws as ' ' shall be cal- 
cftlated to encourage intellectual, scientific and 
agricultural improvement." 

The general assembly of 1842 established a sys- 
tem of common schools in the State, which was ap- 
proved and became a law February 3, 1853, pro- 
viding for the sale of the sixteenth section, and 
election of school trustees in each township, to ex- 
pend the money from the sale of land in the cause 
of education. The act required schools to be main- 
tained in each township "for at least four months 
in each year, and orthography, reading, writing, 
English grammar, arithmetic and good morals 
should be taught." The trustees were required 
to visit the schools once in each month, and the 
school age was fixed at from five to twenty-one 
years. The act also provided for the establishment 



of manual labor schools. It went to the extent of 
appropriating a sum of money for the purchase of 
text-books. This was a long step in advance of 
any other portion of the country at that time. To 
the fund arising from lands the act added ' ' all 
fines for false imprisonment, assault and battery, 
breach of the peace, etc." This act of the assem- 
bly placed the young State in the vanguard of 
States in the cause of free schools. It is an 
enduring monument to the men of that legis- 
lature. Under this law the reports of the county 
commissioners of education were ordered to be 
made to the State auditor, but if so made none can 
be found in the State archives. 

A State board of education was provided for 
by the act of 1843, and the board was required to 
make a complete report of educational matters, 
and also to recommend the passage of such laws 
as were deemed advisable for the advancement of 
the cause of education. By an act of January 11, 
1853, the secretary of State was made ex-offlcio 
State commissioner of common schools, and re- 
quired to report to the governor the true condition 
of the schools in each county; which report the 
governor presented to the general assembly at 
each regular session. The provisions of an act of 
January, 1855, relate to the sale of the sixteenth 
section, and defined the duties of the school trus- 
tees and commissioners. Article 8, in the consti- 
tution of 1867, is substantially the same as the pro- 
visions of the law of 1836. 

From 1836 to 1867, as is shown by the above, 
the provisions of the law were most excellent and 
liberal toward the public schools; legislative enact- 
ments occur at frequent intervals, indicating that 
the State was well abreast of the most liberal school 
ideas of the time, and large funds were raised 
sacred to the cause. 

Investigation shows that from the date of the 
State' s admission into the Union, until 1867, there 
were many and admirable stipulations and statutes, 
by which large revenues were collected from the 
sale of lands, but the records of the State depart- 
ment give no account of the progress of free 
schools during this period, leaving the inference 
that but little practical benefit accrued to the 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



95 



cause from these wise and liberal measures put 
forth by Congress and the State. 

By act approved May 18, 1867, the legislature 
made a marked forward movement in the cause of 
education. Considering the chaotic conditions of 
society, and the universal public and private bank- 
ruptcy, the movement is only the more surprising. 
The act stipulated that a tax of 20 cents on every 
1100 worth of taxable property should be levied 
for the purpose of establishing and maintaining 
a system of public schools. The second section 
made this fund sacred — to be used for no other 
purpose whatever. The fourth section provided 
for a superintendent of public instruction and 
defined his duties. The eighth section provided 
for a school commissioner, to be chosen by the 
electors of each county, who should examine any 
one applying for a position as school teacher; 
granting to those qualified to teach a certificate, 
without which no one could be legally em- 
ployed to teach. Prior to this a license as teacher 
was not considered essential, and there was no one 
authorized to examine applicants or grant certifi- 
cates. The Congressional township was made the 
unit of the school district, the act also setting 
forth that in the event of the trustees failing to 
have a school taught in the district at least three 
months in the year, the same thereby forfeited 
its portion of the school revenue. These wise and 
liberal arrangements were made, it must be remem- 
bered, by a people bankrupt by war and suffering 
the hard trials of reconstruction. 

No regular reports were made — at least none 
can be found — prior to 1867, the date of the ap- 
pointment of a superintendent. Though reports 
were regularly received from the year mentioned, 
the most of them were unsatisfactory and not 
reliable. 

The constitution of 1868 created some wise 
amendments to the previous laws. It caused the 
schools to become free to every child in the State; 
school revenues were increased, districts could have 
no part of the school fund unless a free school had 
been taught for at least three months. The leg- 
islature following this convention, July 23, 1868, 
amended the school laws to conform to this con- 



stitutional provision. In addition to State super- 
intendent, the office of circuit superintendent was 
created, and also the State board of education. 

The constitutional convention of 1874 made 
changes in the school law and provided for the 
school system now in force in the State. The act 
of the legislature, December 7, 1876, was passed 
in conformity with the last preceding State con- 
vention. This law with amendments is the present 
school law of Arkansas. 

Hon. Thomas Smith was the first State super- 
intendent, in office from 1868 to 1873. The 
present incumbent of that position, Hon. Wood- 
ville E. Thompson, estimates that the commence- 
ment of public free schools in Arkansas may prop- 
erly date from the time Mr. Smith took possession 
of the office — schools free to all ; every child entitled 
to the same rights and privileges, none excluded; 
separate schools provided for white and black; 
a great number of schools organized, school houses 
built, and efficient teachers secured. Previous to 
this time people looked upon free schools as largely 
pauper schools, and the wealthier classes regarded 
them unfavorably. 

Hon. J. C. Corbin, the successor of Mr. Smith, 
continued in office until December 13, 1875. 

Hon. B. W. Hill was appointed December 18, 
1875, and remained in office until 1878. It was 
during his term that there came the most marked 
change in public sentiment in favor of public 
schools. He was a zealous and able worker in the 
cause, and from his report for 1876 is learned the 
following: State apportionment, 1213,000; dis- 
trict tax, $88,000; school population, 189,000. 
Through the directors' failure to report the enroll- 
ment only shows 16,000. The total revenue of 
1877 was 1270,000; of 1878, $276,000. 

Mr. Hill was succeeded in 1878 by Hon. J. L. 
Denton, whose integrity, earnestness and great 
ability resulted in completing the valuable work so 
well commenced by his predecessor — removing the 
Southern prejudices against public schools. He 
deserves a lasting place in the history of Arkansas 
as the advocate and champion of free schools. 

The present able and efficient State superin- 
tendent of public instruction, as previously men- 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



tioned, is Hon. Woodville E. Thompson. To his 
eminent qualifications and tireless energy the 
schools of Arkansas are largely indebted for the 
rapid advance now going on, and which has 
marked his past term of office. From his bien- 
nial report are gleaned most of the facts and sta- 
tistics given below. 

The growth of the institution as a whole may 
be defined by the following statistics: In 1879 
the revenue raised by the State and county tax was 
$271,000; in 1880, 1285.000; in 1881, $710,000; 
in 1882, $722,000; in 1883, $740,000; in 1884, 
$931,000; in 1885, $1,199,000; in 1886, $1,327,- 
000. The district tax in 1884 was $346,521; in 
1885, $343,850, and in 1886, $445,563. The dis- 
trict tax is that voted by the people. 

Arkansas to-day gives the most liberal sup- 
port to her free schools, all else considered, of any 
State in the Union. It jjrovides a two mill tax, a 
poll tax, and authorizes the districts to vole a five 
mill tax. This is the rule or rate voted in nearly 
all the districts, thus making a total on all taxable 
property of seven mills, besides the poll tax. 

The persistent neglect of school officers to re- 
port accurate returns of their school attendance is 
to be regretted. The number of pupils of school 
age (six to twenty-one years) is given, but no ac- 
count of attendance or enrollment. This leaves 
counties in the unfavorable light of a large school 
population, with apparently the most meager at- 
tendance. The following summaries exhibit the 
progress of the public schools: Number of school 
children, 1869, 176,910; 1870, 180,274; 1871, 
196,237; 1872, 194,314; 1873, 148,128; 1874, 168,- 
929; 1875, 168,929; 1876, 189,130; 1877, 203,567; 
1878, 216,475: 1879, 236,600; 1880, 247,547; 1881, 
272,841; 1882, 289,617; 1883, white, 227,538; 
black, 76,429; total, 304,962; 1884. white, 247,- 
173; black, 76,770; total, 323,943; 1885, white, 
252,290; black, 86,213; total, 338,506; 1886, 
white, 266,188; black, 91,818; total, 858,006; 
1887, white, 279,224; black, 98,512; total, 377,- 
736; 1888, white, 288,381; black, 99,747; total, 
388,129. The number of pupils enrolled in 1869 
was 67,412; 1888, 202,754, divided as follows: 
White, 152,184; black, 50,570. Number of teach- 



ers employed 1869, 1,335; number employed 1888, 
males, 3,431, females, 1,233. Total number of 
school houses, 1884, 1,453; erected that year, 263. 
Total number school houses, 1888, 2,452; erected 
in that year, 269. Total value of school houses, 
1884, $384,827.73. Total value, 1888, $705,- 
276.92. Total amount of revenues received, 1868, 
$300,669.63. For the year, 1888: Amount on 
hand June 30, 1887, $370,942.25; received com- 
mon school fund, $315,403.28; district tax, $505,- 
069.92; poll tax, $146,604.22; other sources, 
$45,890.82; total, $1,683,909.32. 

While there were in early Territorial days great 
intellectual giants in Arkansas, the tendency was 
not toward the tamer and more gentle walks of lit- 
erature, but rather in the direction of the fiercer bat- 
tles of the political arena and the rostrum. Oratory 
was cultivated to the extreme, and often to the 
neglect apparently of all else of intellectual pur- 
suits. The ambitious youths had listened to the 
splendid eloquence of their elders — heard their 
praises on every lip, and were fired to struggle for 
such triumphs. W^here there are great orators one 
expects to find poets and artists. The great states- 
man is mentally cast in molds of stalwart pro- 
portions. The poet, orator, painter, and eminent 
literary character are of a finer texture, but usually 
not so virile. 

Gen. Albert Pike gave a literary immortality to 
Arkansas when it was yet a Territorial wilderness. 
The most interesting incident in the history of 
literature would be a true picture of that Nestor of 
the press. Kit North, when he opened the mail 
package from that dim and unknown savage 
world of Arkansas, and turned his eyes on the 
pages of Pike's manuscript, which had been offered 
the great editor for publication, in his poem en- 
titled "Hymn to the Gods." This great but mer- 
ciless critic had written Byron to death, and one 
can readily believe that he must have turned pale 
when his eye ran over the lines — lines from an un- 
known world of untamed aborigines, penned in the 
wilderness by this unknown boy. North read the 
products of new poets to find, not merit, but weak 
points, where he could impale on his sharp and 
pitiless pen the daring singer. What a play must 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



97 



have swept over his features as his eye followed 
line after line, eager and more eager from the first 
word to the last. To him could this be possible — 
real — and not the day dream of a disturbed im- 
agination. This historical incident in the litera- 
ture of the wild west — the pioneer boy not only on 
the outer confines of civilization, but to the aver- 
age Englishman, in the impenetrable depths of a 
dark continent, where dwelt only cannibals, select- 
ing the great and severe arbiter of English litera- 
ture to whom he would transmit direct his fate as 
a poet; the yoiith's unexpected triumph in not 
only securing a jjlace in the columns of the leading 
review of the world, but extorting in the editorial 
columns the highest meed of praise, is unparalleled 
in the feats of tyros in literature. The supremacy 
of Pike's genius was dulled in its brilliancy be- 
cause of the versatility of his mental occupations. 
A poet, master of belles lettres, a lawyer and a poli- 
tician, as well as a soldier, and eminent in all the 
varied walks he trod, yet he was never a book- 
maker — had no ambition, it seems, to be an author. 
The books that he will leave, those especially by 
which he will be remembered, will be his gathered 
and bound writings thrown off at odd intervals and 
cast aside. His literary culture could produce only 
the very highest type of effort. Hence, it is prob- 
able that Lord North was the only editor living to 
whom Pike might have submitted his ' ' Hymn to 
the Gods ' ' with other than a chance whim to de- 
cide its fate. 

There was no Boswell among the early great 
men of Arkansas, otherwise there would exist biog- 
raphies laden with instruction and full of interest. 
There were men and women whose genius com- 
pelled them to talk and write, but they wrote dis- 
connected, uncertain sketches, and doubtless often 
published them in the columns of some local news- 
paper, where they sank into oblivion. 

The erratic preacher-lawyer, A. W. Arrington, 
wrote many and widely published sketches of the 
bench and bar of Ai'kanaas, but his imagination 



so out-ran the facts that they became mere fictions 
— very interesting and entertaining, it is said, 
but entirely useless to the historian. Arrington 
was a man of superior natural genius, but was so 
near a moral wreck as to cloud his memory. 

Years ago was published Nutall's History of 
Arkansas, but the most diligent inquiry among 
the oldest inhabitants fails to find one who ever 
heard of the book, much less the author. 

Recently John Hallum published his History 
of Arkansas. The design of the author was to 
make three volumes, the first to treat of the 
bench and bar, but the work was dropped after 
this volume was published. It contains a great 
amount of valuable matter, and the author has 
done the State an important service in making his 
collections and putting them in durable form. 

A people with so many men and women com- 
petent to write, and who have written so little of 
Arkansas, its people or its great historical events, 
presents a curious phase of society. 

A wide and inviting field has been neglected 
and opportunities have been lost; facts have now 
gone out of men's memories, and important histor- 
ical incidents passed into oblivion beyond recall. 

Opie P. Read, now of Chicago, will be known 
in the future as the young and ambitious literary 
worker of Arkansas. He came to Little Rock 
from his native State, Tennessee, and engaged in 
work on the papers at that city. He soon had 
a wide local reputation and again this soon grew 
to a national one. His fugitive pieces in the news- 
papers gained extensive circulation, and in quiet 
humor and unaffected pathos were of a high order. 
He has written several works of fiction and is now 
running through his paper. The Arkansaw Traveler, 
Chicago, a novel entitled "The Kentucky Colonel," 
already pronounced by able critics one among 
the best of American works of fiction. Mr. Read 
is still a comparatively young man, and his pen 
gives most brilliant promise for the future. His 
success as an editor is well remembered. 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



III. 



The Churches of Arkansas— Appearance of the Missionaries— Church Missions Established in the 
Wilderness— The Leading Protestant Denominations— Ecclesiastical Statistics- 
General Outlook from a Keligious Standpoint. 



No silver saints by dying misers giv'n 

Here bribed the rage of ill-requited Heav'n; 

But such plain roofs as piely could raise. 

And only vocal with the Maker's praise. — Pope. 




■'^^W. 5r ^^^ -^ ^^^ histories of the early 
^'^' ' ^ fe life ^ settlers the pioneer preach- 
^^'.^^A** fX ^' M» j^^ ers and missionaries of the 
""lll^l^f ^^r* Church are of first inter- 
Ji ^"^i '^■"'tI^V ®^^" True missionaries, re- 
x.;.V,uT^^ gardlesB of all creeds, are 
•: a most interesting study, 

and, in the broad principles of Chris- 
tianity, they may well be considered 
as a class, with only incidental refer- 
. ences to their different creeds. The 

'^I'^Ar essence of their remarkable lives is 
the heroic work and suffering they so 
cheerfully undertook and carried on 
so patiently and bravely. Among the 
first of pioneers to the homes of the 
-^ red savages were these earnest church- 

men, carrying the news of Mount Calvary to the 
benighted peoples. It is difficult for us of this 
age to understand the sacrifices they made, the 
privations they endured, the moral and physical 
courage required to sustain them in their work. 
The churches, through their missionaries, carried 
the cross of Christ, extending the spiritual empire 
in advance, nearly always, of the temporal empire. 
They bravely led the way for the hardy explorers, 
and ever and anon a martyr's body was given to 



the flames, or left in the trackless forests, food for 
ravenous wild beasts. 

The first white men to make a lodgment in 
what is now Arkansas having been Marquette and 
Joliet, France and the Church thus came here 
hand in hand. The Spanish and French settlers 
at Arkansas Post were the representatives of Cath- 
olic nations, as were the French-Canadians who 
came down from the lakes and settled along the 
banks of the lower Mississippi River. 

After 1803 there was another class of pion- 
eers that came in — Protestant English by descent 
if not direct, and these soon dominated in the 
Arkansas country. The Methodists, Baptists and 
Cumberland Presbyterians, after the building of 
the latter by Rev. Finis Ewing, were the pre- 
vailing pioneer preachers. Beneath God's first 
temples these missionaries held meetings, traveled 
over the Territory, going wherever the little col- 
umn of blue smoke from the cabin directed them, 
as well as visiting the Indian tribes, proclaiming 
Christ and His cause. Disregarding the elements, 
swollen streams, the dim trails, and often no other 
guide on their dreary travels than the projecting 
ridges, hills and streams, the sun or the polar star; 
facing hunger, heat and cold, the wild beast and the 
far fiercer savage, without hope of money compen- 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



y9 



satioQ, regardless of sickness and even death, these 
men took their lives in their hands and went forth. 
Could anything be more graphic or pathetic of the 
conditions of these men than the extract from a 
letter of one of them who had thus served his God 
and fellow-man more than fifty years : "In my long 
ministry I often suffered for food and I spent 
no money for clothing. * * The large.st 
yearly salary I received was $100." Were ever 
men inspired with more zeal in the cause of their 
Master ? They had small polish and were as rugged 
as the gnarled old oaks beneath whose branches 
they so often bivouacked. They never tasted the 
refinements of polite life, no doubt despising them 
as heartily as they did sin itself. Rude of speech, 
what eloquence they possessed (and many in this 
respect were of no mean order) could only come 
of their deep sincerity. 

These Protestant missionaries trod closely upon 
the footsteps of the pure and gentle Marquette in 
the descent of the Mississippi, and the visits to 
the Indians amid the cane-brakes of the South. 
Marquette's followers had been the first to ascend 
the Arkansas River to its source in the far distant 
land of the Dakotas in the Northwest. Holding 
aloft the cross, they boldly entered the camps of the 
tribes, and patiently won upon them until they laid 
down their drawn tomahawks and brought forth 
the calumet of peace. These wild childi'en gath- 
ered around these strange beings — visitors, as they 
supposed, from another world, and wherever a 
cross was erected they regarded it with fear and 
awe, believing it had supreme power over them 
and their tribes. 

He who would detract from the deserved im- 
mortality of any of these missionaries on account of 
their respective creeds, could be little else than a 
cynic whose blood is acid. 

Marquette first explored the Mississippi River 
as the representative of the Catholic Church. 

The old church baptismal records of the mis- 
sion of Arkansas Post extend back to 1764, and the 
ministrations of Father Louis Meurin, who signed 
the record as "missionary priest." This is the 
oldest record to be found of the church's recog- 
nition of Arkansas now extant. That Marquette 



held church service and erected the cross of Christ 
nearly one hundred years anterior to the record 
date in Arkansas is given in the standard histories 
of the United States. Rev. Girard succeeded 
Meurin. It may be gleaned from these records 
that in 1788 De La Valliere was in command of 
Arkansas Post. In 1786 the attending priest was 
Rev. Louis Guigues. The record is next signed by 
Rev. Gibault in 1792, and next by Rev. Jannin in 
1796. In 1820 is found the name of Rev. Chau- 
dorat. In 1834 Rev. Dupuy, and in 1838 Father 
Donnelly was the priest in charge. These remained 
in custody of the first mission at Arkansas Post. 
The second mission established was St. Mary's, 
now Pine Bluff. The first priest at that point was 
Rev. Saulmier. Soon after, another mission, St. 
Peter's, was established in Jefferson County, and 
the third mission, also in Jefferson County, was 
nest established at Plum Bayou. In order, the 
next mission was at Little Rock, Rev. Emil Saul- 
mier in charge; then at Fort Smith; then Helena, 
and next Napoleon and New Gasconj', respectively. 

The Catholic population of the State is esti- 
mated at 10,000, with a total number of chiirches 
and missions of forty. There are twenty-two 
church schools, convents and academies, the school 
attendance being 1,600. The first bishop in the 
Arkansas diocese was Andrew Byrne, 1844. He 
died at Helena in 1862, his successor being the 
present incumbent. Bishop Edward FitzGerald, 
who came in 1867. 

From a series of articles published in the Ar- 
kansas Methodist, of the current year, by the emi- 
nent and venerable Rev. Andrew Hunter, D. D. , 
are gleaned the following important facts of this 
Church's history in Arkansas: Methodism came to 
Ai-kansas by way of Missouri about 1814, a com- 
pany of emigrants entering from Southeast Mis- 
souri overland, and who much of the way had to 
cut out a road for their wagons. They had heard 
of the rich lands in Mound Prairie, Hempstead 
County. In this company were John Henrey, a 
local preacher, Alexander and Jacob Shook, broth- 
ers, and Daniel Props. In their long slow travels 
they reached the Arkansas River at Little Rock, 
and waited on the opposite bank for the comple- 



100 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



tion of a ferry-boat then building. When these 
people reached their destination they soon set uj) 
a church, and erected the first Methodist ' ' meet- 
ing-house " in Arkansas, called Henrey's Chapel. 
"Father Henrey," as he was soon known far and 
wide, reared sons, all preachers. This little col- 
ony were all sincere Methodists, and nearly all 
their first generation of sons became preachers, 
some of them eminent. Jacob Shook and three 
of his sons entered the ministry; Gilbert Alex- 
ander, his sons and grandsons, became ministers 
of God's word, as did two of Daniel Props' sons. 
The small colony was truly the seed of the church 
in Arkansas. 

In 1838 two young ministers were sent from 
Tennessee to the Arkansas work, and came all 
the way to Mound Prairie on horseback. 

The church records of Missouri show that the 
conference of ]817 sent two preachers to Arkan- 
sas — William Stevenson and John Harris. They 
were directed to locate at Hot Springs. It is 
conceded that these two missionaries "planted 
Methodism in Arkansas." 

In 1818 the Missouri Conference sent four 
laborers to Arkansas, with William Stevenson as 
the presiding elder of the Territory. The circuits 
then had: John Shader, on Spring River; Thomas 
Tennant, Arkansas circuit; W. Orr, Hot Springs; 
William Stevenson and James Lowrey, Mound 
Prairie. What was called the Arkansas circuit in- 
cluded the Arkansas River, from Pine Bluff to the 
mouth. After years of service as presiding elder, 
Stevenson was succeeded by John Scripps; the ap- 
pointments then were: Arkansas circuit, Dennis 
Willey; Hot Springs, Isaac Brookfield; Mound 
Prairie, John Harris; Pecan Point, William Town- 
send. The Missouri Conference, 1823, again made 
William Stevenson presiding elder, with three itin- 
erants for Arkansas. In 1825 Jesse Hale became 
presiding elder. He was in charge until 1829. He 
was an original and outspoken abolitionist, and 
taught and preached his faith unreservedly; so 
much so that large numbers of the leading fam- 
ilies left the Methodist Episcopal Church and 
joined the Cumberland Presbyterians. This was 
the sudden building up of the Cumberland Pres- 



byterian Church, and nearly fatally weakened the 
Methodist Church. Some irreverent laymen desig- 
nated Elder Jesse Hale's ministrations as the 
' ' Hail storm ' ' in Arkansas. Fortunately Hale 
was succeeded by Rev. Jesse Green, and he poured 
oil on the troubled waters, and saved Methodism 
in Arkansas. " Green was our Moses. " 

The Tennessee Conference, 1831, sent eight 
preachers to Ai'kansas, namely: Andrew D. Smyth, 
John Harrell, Henry G. Joplin, William A. Boyce. 
William G. Duke, John N. Hammill, Alvin Baird 
and Allen M. Scott. 

A custom of those old time preachers now 
passed away is worth preserving. When possi- 
ble to do so they went over the circuit together, 
two and two. One might preach the regular ser- 
mon, when the other would ' ' exhort. ' ' Under these 
conditions young Rev. Smyth was accompanying 
the regular circuit rider. He was at first diffi- 
dent, and ' ' exhorted ' ' simply by giving his hearers 
" Daniel in the lion's den." As the two started 
around the circuit the second time, on reaching a 
night appointment, before entering the house, and 
as they were returning from secret prayer in the 
brush, the preacher said: "Say, Andy, I'm going 
to preach, and when I'm done you give 'em 
Daniel and the lions again. " Evidently Andy and 
his lions were a terror to the natives. But the 
young exhorter soon went up head, and became a 
noted divine. 

The Missouri Conference, 1832, made two dis- 
tricts of Arkansas. Rev. A. D. Smyth had charge 
of Little Rock district, which extended over all the 
country west, including the Cherokee and Creek 
Nations. 

The formation of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, occurred in 1844. This is a well 
known part of the history of our country. In Ar- 
kansas the church amid all its trials and vicissi- 
tudes has grown and flourished. The State now 
has fifteen districts, with 200 pastoral charges, and, 
it is estimated, nearly 1,000 congregations. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church has a com- 
fortable church in Little Rock, and several good 
sized congregations in different portions of the 
State. This church and the Methodist Episcopal 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



101 



Church, South, are separate and wholly distinct 
in their organization. 

The Baptists are naturally a pioneer and fron- 
tier church people. They are earnest and sincere 
proselyters to the faith, and reach very effectively 
people in general. The Baptist Church in Ben- 
ton celebrated, July 4, 1889, its fifty-third anni- 
versary. Originally called Spring Church, it was 
built about two miles from the town. The organi- 
zation took place under the sheltering branches of 
an old oak tree. One of the first churches of this 
order was the Mount Bethel Church, about six 
miles west of Arkadelphia, in Clark County. This 
was one of the oldest settled points by English 
speaking people in the State. The church has 
grown with the increase of population. 

Rev. James M. Moore organized in Little Rock, 
in 1828, the first Presbj^terian Church in Arkan- 
sas. He was from Pennsylvania, eminent for his 
ability, zeal and piety. For some time he was 
the representative of his church in a wide portion 
of the country south and west. He was succeeded 
by Rev. A. R. Banks, from the theological sem- 
inary of Columbia, S. C. , who settled in Hempstead 
County in 1835-36 and organized and built Spring 
Hill Church, besides another at Washington. The 
next minister in order of arrival was Rev. John 
M. Erwin. He located at Jackson, near the old 
town of Elizabeth, but his life was not spared long 
after coming. He assisted Revs Moore and Banks 
in organizing the first presbytery in Arkansas. 

In 1839 Rev. J. M. Moore, mentioned above, 
removed to what is now Lonoke County, and or- 
ganized a congregation and built Sylvania Church. 
His successor at Little Rock was Rev. Henderson, 
in 1840. The death of Rev. Henderson left no 
quorum, and the Arkansas presbytery became /«7ic- 
tus officio. 

Rev. Aaron Williams, from Bethel presbytery, 
South Carolina, came to Arkansas in 1842, and 
settled in Hempstead County, taking charge of a 
large new academy at that place, which had been 
built by the p'ealthy people of the locality. He at 
once re-organized the church at Washington, which 
had been some time vacant. Arkansas then be- 
longed to the synod of Mississippi. In 1842, in 



company with Rev. A. R. Banks, he traveled 
over the swamps and through the forests 400 miles 
to attend the Mississippi synod at Port Royal. 
Their mission was to ask the synod to allow Revs. 
Williams, Moore, Banks and Shaw to organize the 
Arkansas presbytery. They obtained the permis- 
sion, and meeting in Little Rock the first Sunday 
in January, 1843, organized the Arkansas presby- 
tery. The Rev. Balch had settled in Dardanelle, 
and he joined the new presbytery. In the next 
few years Revs. Byington and Kingsbury, Con- 
gregational ministers, who had been missionaries to 
the Indians since 1818, also joined the Arkansas 
presbytery. The synod of Memphis was subse- 
quently formed, of which Arkansas was a part. 
There were now three presbyteries west of Mem- 
phis: Arkansas, Ouachita and Indian. In 1836 
Arkansas was composed of four presbyteries — two 
Arkansas and two Ouachita. 

Rev. Aaron Williams assumed charge at Little 
Rock in 1843, where he remained until January, 
1845. There was then a vacancy for some years 
in that church, when the Rev. Joshua F. Green 
ministered to the flock. He was succeeded by 
Rev. Thomas Eraser, who continued until 1859. 
All these had been supplies, and in 1859 Little 
Rock was made a pastorate, and Rev. Thomas R. 
Welch was installed as first pastor. He filled the 
position the next twenty-five years, and in 1885 
resigned on account of ill health, and was sent 
as counsel to Canada, where he died. About the 
close of his pastorate, the Second Presbyterian 
Church of Little Rock was organized, and their 
house built, the Rev. A. R. Kennedy, pastor. He 
resigned in September, 1888, being succeeded by 
James R. Howerton. After the resignation of Dr. 
Welch of the First Church, Dr. J. C. Barrett was 
given charge. 

Rev. Aaron Williams, after leaving the synod, 
became a synodical evangelist, and traveled over 
the State, preaching wherever he found small col- 
lections of people, and organizing churches. He 
formed the church at Fort Smith and the one in 
Jackson County. 

A synodical college is at Batesville, and is 
highly prosperous. 



102 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



lit -f it Xl¥. 



Names Illustrious in Arkansas History— Prominent Mention of Noted Individuals— Ambrose 

H. Sevier— William E. Woodruff— John Wilson— John Hemphill— Jacob Barkman— Dr. 

Bowie— Sandy Faulkner— Samuel H. Hempstead— Trent, Williams, Siiinn Families, 

and Others— The Convvays— Robert Crittenden— Archibald Yell— Judge 

David Walker— Gen. G. D. Royston— Judge James W. Bates. 



The gen'ral voice 
Sounds him, for courtesy, behaviour, language 
And ev'ry fair demeanor, an example; 
Titles of honour add not to his worth, 
Who is himself an honour to his title. — Ford. 




:D 



O history of Arkansas, worthy 
of the name, could fail to 
refer to the lives of a num- 
ber of its distinguished 
citizens, whose relation to 
4^ great public events has 
made them a part of the 
true history of their State. 
The following sketches of repre- 
sentative men will be of no little 
interest to each and every reader 
of the present volume. 

Ambrose H. Sevier, was one of 
the foremost of the prominent men 
of his day, and deserves especial 
mention. The recent removal of 
the remains of Gen. John Sevier from 
Alabama to Knoxville, Tenn. (June 19, 
1889), has awakened a wide-spread inter- 
est in this historic family name. The re-interment 
of the illustriotrs ashes of the first governor, found- 
er and Congressman of Tennessee, by the State he 
had made, was but an act of long deferred justice 
to one of the most illustrious and picturesque char- 
acters in American history. He founded two States 




and was the first governor of each of them; one of 
these States, Tennessee, he had, in the spirit of dis- 
interested patriotism, erected on the romantic ruins 
of the other — the mountain State of "Franklin." 
A distinguished Revolutionary soldier, he was the 
hero of King's Mountain, where he and four broth- 
ers fought. He was first governor of the State 
of ' ' Franklin, ' ' six times governor of Tennessee, 
three times a member of Congress, and in no in- 
stance did he ever have an opponent to contest 
for an office. He was in thirty-five hard fought 
battles; had faced in bitter contest the State of 
North Carolina, which secretly arrested and ab- 
ducted him from the new State he had carved out 
of North Carolina territory; was rescued in open 
court by two friends, and on his return to his ad- 
herents as easily defeated the schemes of North 
Carolina as he had defeated, in many battles, the 
Cherokee Indians. No man ever voted against 
' ' Nolichucky Jack, " as he was familiarly called — 
no enemy ever successfully stood before him in 
battle. A great general, statesman^ and patriot, 
he was the creator and builder of commonwealths 
west of the Alleghanies, and he guided as greatly 
and wisely as did Washington and Jefferson the 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



103 



new States and Territories he formed in the paths 
of democratic freedom ; and now, after he has slept 
in an obscure grave for three quarters of a century, 
the fact is beginning to dawn upon the nation that 
Gov. John Sevier made Washington, and all that 
great name implies, a possibility. 

The name, illustrious as it is ancient, numer- 
ous and wide-spread, is from the French Pyrenees, 
Xavier, where it may be traced to remote times. 
St. Francis Xavier was of this family, and yet the 
American branch were exiles from the old world 
because of their revolt against papal tyranny. 
Sturdy and heroic as they were in the faith, their 
blood was far more virile, indeed stalwart, in de- 
fense of human rights and liberty, wherever or by 
whomsoever assailed. 

In France, England and in nearly every West- 
ern and Southern State of the Union are branches 
of the Xaviers, always prominent and often emi- 
. nent in their day and time. But it was reserved 
to the founder of the American branch of the 
Seviers to be the supreme head of the illustrious 
line. He builded two commonwealths and was im- 
pelled to this great work in defense of the people, 
and in resistance to the encroachments of the cen- 
tral powers of the paternal government. 

In Arkansas the Seviers, Conways and Rectors 
were united by ties of blood as well as by the ever 
stronger ties of the sons of liberty, independence 
and patriotism. Here were three of the most 
powerful families the State has ever had, and in 
public affairs they were as one. The political 
friend and worthy model of Gov. John Sevier was 
Thomas Jefferson. Indeed, Gen. Sevier was the 
fitting and immortal companion-piece to Jefferson 
in those days of the young and struggling repub- 
lic. The Seviers of Arkansas and Missouri were 
naturally the admirers of Andrew Jackson— cham- 
pions of the people's rights, watchdogs of liberty. 

Ambrose H. Sevier, was the son of John, who 
was the son of Valentine and Ann Conway Sevier, 
of Greene County, Tenn. Ann Conway was the 
daughter of Thomas and Ann Rector Conway. 
Thus this family furnished six of the governors of 
Arkansas. 

In 1821. soon after Mr. Sevier's coming to Ar- 



kansas, he was elected clerk of the Territorial 
house of representatives. In 1823 he was elected 
from Pulaski County to the legislature, and con- 
tinued a member and was elected speaker in 1827. 
He was elected to Congress in August, 1828, to 
succeed his uncle, Henry W. Conway, who had 
been killed in a duel with Crittenden. He was 
three times elected to Congress. When the State 
came into the Union, Sevier and William S. Fulton 
were elected tirst senators in Congress. Sevier 
resigned his seat in the Senate in 1848, to accept 
the mission of minister plenipotentiary to Mexico, 
and, in connection with Judge Clifford, negotiated 
the treaty of Guadaloupe Hidalgo. This was the 
last as well as crowning act of his life. He died 
shortly after returning from bis mission. The 
State has erected a suitable monument to his mem- 
ory in Mount Holly Cemetery, Little Rock, where 
sleeps his immortal dust. 

How curiously fitting it was that the Sevier 
of Arkansas should follow so closely in the foot- 
steps of the great governor of Tennessee, his lineal 
ancestor, and be the instrument of adding so^ im- 
mensely to the territory out of which have grown 
such vast and rich commonwealths. As builders 
of commonwealths there is no name in American 
history which approaches that of Sevier. A 
part of the neglect — the ingratitude, possibly — of 
republics, is shown in the fact that none of the 
States of which they gave the Union so many bear 
their family name. 

William E. Woodruff was in more than one 
sense a pioneer to Arkansas. He was among 
the distinguished men who first hastened here 
when the Territory was formed, and brought with 
him the pioneer newsjsaper press, and established 
the Arkansas Gazette. This is now a flourishing 
daily and weekly newspaper at the State capital, 
and one of the oldest papers in the country. Of 
himself alone there was that in the character and 
life of Mr. Woodruff which would have made him 
one of the historical pioneers to cross the Missis- 
sippi River, and cast his fortune and future in this 
new world. But he was a worthy disciple and 
follower of Ben. Franklin, who combined with the 
art preservative of arts, the genius that lays found- 



104 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



ations for empires in government, and the yet far 
greater empires in the fields of intellectual life. 

He was a native of Long Island, Suffolk Coun- 
ty, N. Y. Leaving his home in 1818, upon the 
completion of his apprenticeship as printer, with 
the sparse proceeds of his earnings as apprentice 
he turned his face westward. Reaching Wheel- 
ing, Va. , he embarked in a canoe for the falls of 
the Ohio, now Louisville, where he stopped and 
worked at his trade. Finding no sulScient open- 
ing to permanently locate in this place, he started 
on foot, by way of Russellville, to Nashville, Tenn. , 
and for a time worked at his trade in that place 
and at Franklin. Still looking for a possible 
future home further west, he heard of the Act of 
Congress creating the Territory of Arkansas, to 
take effect July 4, 1819. He at once purchased 
a small outfit for a newspajaer ofSce and started to 
the newly formed Territory, determined if possible 
to be first on the ground. He shipped by keel-boat 
down the Cumberland river, the Ohio and the 
Mississippi Rivers to Montgomery's Point, at the 
mouih of White River; thence overland to Arkansas 
Post, the first Territorial capital. Montgomery 
Point was then, and for some years after, the main 
shipping point for the interior points of the 
Arkansas Territory. From this place to the capi- 
tal, he found nothing but a bridle-path. He 
therefore secured a pirogue, and with the services 
of two boatmen, passed through the cut-off to 
Arkansas River and then up this to Arkansas Post, 
reaching his point of destination October 31, 1819. 
So insignificant was the Post that the only way he 
could get a house was to build one, which he did, 
and November 20, 1819, issued the first paper — 
the Arkansas Gazette. He was the entire force of 
the office — mechanical, clerical and editorial. To- 
day his own work is his fitting and perpetual 
monument — linking his name indissolubly with 
that of Arkansas and immortality. 

His genius was in the direct energy and the 
impelling forces which drove it with the sure cer- 
tainty of fate over every opposing obstacle. Broad, 
strong and great in all those qualities which 
characterize men pre- eminent in the varied walks 
of life; a true nation founder and builder, his 



useful life was long spared to the State, which will 
shed luster to itself and its name by honoring the 
memory of one of its first and most illustrious 
pioneers — William E. Woodruff. 

Reference having been made to John Wilson 
in a previous chapter, in connection with his un- 
fortunate encounter with J. J. Anthony, on the 
floor of the hall of the legislature, it is but an act 
of justice that the circumstances be properly ex- 
plained, together with some account of the man- 
ner of man he really was. 

John Wilson came from Kentucky to Arkansas 
in the early Territorial times, 1820. His wife was 
a Hardin, of the noted family of that State — a sis- 
ter of Joseph Hardin, of Lawrence County, Ark., 
who was speaker of the first house of representa- 
tives of the Territorial legislature. The Wilsons 
and Hardins were prominent and highly respecta- 
ble people. 

When a very young man, John Wilson was 
elected to the Territorial legislature, where he was 
made speaker and for a number of terms filled that 
office. He was a member of the first State legis- 
lature and again was elected speaker. He was the 
first president of the Real Estate Bank of Arkan- 
sas. Physically he was about an average-sized 
man, very quiet in his manner and retiring, of dark 
complexion, eyes and hair, lithe and sinewy in 
form, and in his daily walk as gentle as a woman. 
He was devoted to his friends, and except for 
politics, all who knew him loved him well. There 
was not the shadow of a shade of the bully or des- 
perado about him. He was a man of the highest 
sense of personal honor, with an iron will, and even 
when aroused or stung by injustice or an attack 
upon his integrity his whole nature inclined to 
peace and good will. He was a great admirer of 
General Jackson — there was everything in the 
natures of the two men where the "fellow feeling 
makes us wondrous kind." 

The difficulty spoken of occurred in 1836. Wil- 
son was a leader in the Jackson party. Anthony 
aspired to the lead in the Whig party. At that 
time politics among the active of each faction meant 
personality. It was but little else than oj^en war, 
and the frontier men of those days generally went 



armed, the favorite weapon being the bowie 
knife —a necessary part of a banter's equipment. 
Unfriendly feelings existed between Wilson and 
Anthony. 

Upon the morning of the homicide (in words 
the substance of the account given by the late 
Gen. G. D. Royston, who was an eye witness) 
Mr. Wilson came into the hall a little late, evi- 
dently disturbed in mind, and undoubtedly ruf- 
fled by reason of something he had been told that 
Mr. Anthony had previously said about him in dis- 
cussing a bill concerning wolf scalps. A serio- 
comic amendment had been offered to the bill to 
make scalps a legal tender, and asking the presi- 
dent of the Real Estate Bank to certify to the 
genuineness of the same. Anthony had the floor. 
W^hen Wilson took the speaker's chair he com- 
manded Anthony to take his seat. The latter 
brusquely declined to do so. Wilson left the chair 
and approached his opponent, who stood in the 
aisle. The manner of the parties indicated a per- 
sonal encounter. As Wilson walked down the aisle 
he was seen to put his hand in the bosom of his 
vest. Anthony drew his knife. Gen. Royston said 
that when he saw this, hoping to check the two 
men he raised his chair and held it between them, 
and the men fought across or over the chair. They 
struck at each other inflicting great wounds, which 
were hacking blows. Wilson's left hand was nearly 
cut off in warding a blow from Anthony's knife. 
Wilson was physically a smaller man than Anthony. 
Royston held the chair with all his strength be- 
tween the two now desperate individuals. So far 
Anthony's longer arm had enabled him to give the 
greatest wound.s, when Wilson with his shoulder 
raised the chair and plunged his knife into his 
antagonist, who sank to the floor and died immedi- 
ately. It was a duel with bowie-knives, without 
any of the preliminaries of siich encounters. 

Wilson was carried to his bed, where for along 
time he was confined. The house expelled him 
the next day. The civilized world of course was 
shocked, so bloody and ferocious had been the 
engagement. 

Wilson removed to Texas about 1842, locating 
at Cedar Grove, near Dallas, where he died soon 



after the close of the late war. Mrs. A. J. Gentry, 
his daughter, now resides in Clark County, Ark. 
The Hardins, living in Clark County, are of the 
same family as was Mrs. Wilson. 

John Hemphill, a South Carolinian, was born 
a short distance above Augusta, Ga. He immi- 
grated west and reached (now) Clark County, Ark., 
in 1811, bringing with him a large family and a 
number of slaves, proceeding overland to Bayou 
Sara, La. , and from that point by barges to near 
where is Arkadelphia, then a settlement at a place 
called Blakeleytown, which was a year old at the 
time of Mr. Hemphill's location. He found living 
there on his arrival Adam Blakeley, Zack Davis, 
Samuel Parker, Abner Highnight and a few others. 

Mr. Hemphill was attracted by the salt waters 
of the vicinity, and after giving the subject intel- 
ligent investigation, in 1814 built his salt works. 
Going to New Orleans, he procured a barge and 
purchased a lot of sugar kettles, and with these 
completed his preparations for making salt. His 
experiment was a success from the start and he 
carried on his extensive manufactory until his 
death, about 1825. The works were continued by 
his descendant^., with few intermissions, until 1851. 
Jonathan O. Callaway, his son in-law, was, until 
that year, manager and proprietor. 

There is a coincidence in the lives of the two 
men who were the founders of commerce and man- 
ufacturing in Arkansas, Hemphill and Barkman, 
in that by chance they became traveling compan- 
ions on their way to the new country. 

Two brothers, Jacob and John Barkman, came 
to Arkansas in 1811. They worked their passage 
in the barge of John Hemphill, from Bayou Sara, 
La., to Blakeleytown, near Arkadelphia. They 
were a couple of young Kentuckians, full of cour- 
age, hope, and strong sense, seeking homes in the 
wilderness. Their coming antedated that of the 
first steamboat on western waters, and the history 
of the river commerce of this State with New Or- 
leans will properly credit Jacob Barkman with 
being its founder. Considering the times and real- 
izing what such men as Jacob Barkman did, one 
is constrained to the belief that among the tirst 
settlers of Arkansas were men of enterprise, fore- 



106 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



sight and daring in commerce that have certainly 
not been surpassed by their successors. 

On a previous page the methods of this pioneer 
merchant in the conduct of his business have been 
noted. His miscellaneous cargo of bear oil, skins, 
pelts, tallow, etc., found a ready market in New 
Orleans, which place he reached by river, return- 
ing some six months later well laden with commod- 
ities best suited to the needs of the people. In- 
deed his ' ' store ' ' grew to be an important institu- 
tion. He really carried on trade from New Orleans 
to Arkadelphia. In 1820 he purchased of the gov- 
ernment about 1,200 acres of land on the Caddo, 
four miles from Ai-kadelphia, and farmed exten- 
sively and had many cattle and horses, constantly 
adding to the number of his slaves. Having 
tilled the field where he was he sought wider op- 
portunities, and in 1840, in company with J. G. 
Pratt, opened an extensive cotton commission busi- 
ness in New Orleans, building large warehouses 
and stores. Mr. Barkman next purchased the 
steamboat "Dime," a side- wheeler, finely built 
and carrying 400 bales of cotton. He ran this in 
the interest of the New Orleans commission house; 
owned his crews, and loaded the boat with cot- 
ton from his own plantation. In 1844 his boat 
proudly brought up at New Orleans, well laden with 
cotton. The owner was on board and full of hope 
and anticipated joy at his trip, and also to meet 
his newly married wife (the second), when these 
hopes were rudely dashed by the appearance of an 
officer who seized the boat, cargo and slaves, every- 
thing — and arrested Mr. Barkman and placed him 
in jail under an attachment for debts incurred by 
the commission house. His partner in his absence 
had wrecked the house. 

To so arrange matters that he might get out of 
jail and return to his old home on the Caddo, with 
little left of this world' s goods, was the best the poor 
man could do. He finally saved from the wreck- 
age his fine farm and a few negroes, and, nothing 
daunted, again went to work to rebuild his fortune. 
He erected a cotton factory on the Caddo River, 
and expended some $30,000 on the plant, having 
it about ready to commence operating when the 
water came dashing down the mountain streams in 



a sudden and unusual rise, and swept it all away. 
This brave pioneer spent no hour of his life in idle 
griefs at his extraordinary losses. Though unscru- 
pulous arts of business sharks and dire visitations 
of the elements combined to make worthless his 
superb foresight and business energy, he overcame 
all obstacles, and died about 1852. a wealthy man 
for that time. 

When Arkansas was yet a Territory, among its 
early pioneers was Dr. William Bowie, whose name 
has become familiar to the civilized world, though 
not in the way that most men are emulous of im- 
mortality. Dr. Bowie had located, or was a frequent 
visitor, in Helena, Ark. , and was a typical man of 
his times — jolly, careless and social, and very fond 
of hunting and fishing. 

Among the first settlers in Little Rock was a 
blacksmith, named Black. He possessed skill in 
working in iron and steel, and soon gained a wide 
reputation for the superior hunting knives he 
made. When nearly every man hunted more or 
less, and as a good knife was a necessity, it will 
be seen that Black was filling a general want. 
The material he worked into knives consisted of 
old files. 

One day while he was just finishing a superior 
and somewhat new style of hunting knife, Dr. 
Bowie happened to enter the shop. The moment 
he saw the article he determined to possess it 
at any price. Black had not really made it to 
sell — simply to gratify a desire to see how fine a 
blade he could make, and keep it. But a bargain 
was finally arranged, the blacksmith to complete it 
and put Bowie' s name on the handle. The inscrip- 
tion being neatly done read: "Bowie's Knife. " Its 
beauty and finish attracted wide attention, and all 
who could afford it ordered a similar one, the name 
of which was soon shortened into "Bowie Knife." 
Bowie died a patriot's death, fighting for the in- 
dependence of Texas, by the side of David Crockett. 

The one pre-eminent thing which entitles the 
Arkansas pioneer, Sandy Faulkner, to immortality 
is the fact that he is the real, original "Arkansaw 
Traveler. ' ' He was an early settler, a hunter, a wild, 
jolly, reckless spendthrift, and a splendid fiddler. 
He was of a wealthy Kentucky family, and settled 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



107 



first ill Chicot County and thea on the river only a 
few miles below Little Rock. By inheritance he 
received two or three moderate fortunes, and spent 
them royally. Of a roving nature, a witty and rol- 
licking companion, he would roam through the 
woods, hunting for days and weeks, and then en- 
liven the village resorts for a while. He was born 
to encounter just such a character as he did chance 
to find, playing on a three-stringed fiddle the first 
part of a particular tune. Now there was but cue 
thing in this world that could touch his heart with 
a desire to possess, and that was to hear the re- 
mainder of the tune, 

After meeting this rare character in the woods 
what a world of enjoyment Sandy did carry to the 
village on his next return! "With just enough 
and not too much," with fiddle in his hand, the 
villagers gathered about him while he repeated the 
comedy. His zest in the ludicrous, his keen wit 
and his inimitable acting, especially his power of 
mimicry and his mastery of the violin, enabled him 
to offer his associates an entertainment never 
surpassed, either on or off the mimic stage. 

After the war Faulkner lived in Little Rock 
until his death in 1S75, in straitened circumstan- 
ces, residing with a widowed daughter and one son. 
Another son was killed in the war; the two daugh- 
ters married and are both dead, and the son and 
only remaining child left this portion of the coun- 
try some years ago. 

When Faulkner died — over eighty years of age 
— he held a subordinate office in the legislature 
then in session, which body adjourned and respect- 
fully buried all that was mortal of the ' 'Arkansaw 
Traveler," while the little viorceau from his 
harmless and genial soul will continue to travel 
around the world and never stop, the thrice wel- 
come guest about every fireside. 

What a comment is here in this careless, aim- 
less life and that vaulting ambition that struggles, 
and wars and suffers and sows the world with 
woe that men' s names may live after death. Poor 
Sandy had no thought of distinction; his life was a 
laugh, so unmixed with care for the morrow and 
so merry that it has filled a world with its cease- 
less echoes. 



Though there may be in this country no titled 
aristocracy, there are nobles, whose remotest de- 
scendants may claim that distinction of race and 
blood which follows the memory of the great deeds 
of illustrious sires. It is the nobles whose lives 
and life' s great work were given to the cause of their 
fellowmen in that noblest of all human efforts — ■ 
liberty to mankind. There is something forever 
sacred lingering about the graves, nay, the very 
ground, where these men exposed their lives and 
struggled for each and all of us. All good men 
(and no man can really be called good who does not 
love liberty and independence above everything in 
the world) cannot but feel a profound interest in 
the lineal descendants of Revolutionary fathers. 
"My ancestor was a soldier in the war for inde- 
pendence!" is a far nobler claim to greatness than 
is that of the most royal blue blood in all heraldry. 

W. P. Huddleston, of Sharp's Cross Roads, 
Independence County, has the following family 
tree: Israel McBee was for seven years a soldier 
in a North Carolina regiment in the Revolutionary 
War. He died in Grainger County, Term., aged 
110 years. He was the father of Samuel McBee, 
who was the father of Rachel McBee, who married 
John Huddleston, the grand father of W. P. Hud- 
dleston, Jr. The McBees were originall}' from 
Scotland. 

Samuel S. Welborn, of Fort Douglas, Johnson 
County, was the youngest son of Elias. Samuel 
was born December 30, 1842. His grandfather, 
Isaac Welborn, was seven years a soldier in a 
Georgia regiment, and died at Hazel Green, Ala. , 
in 1833, aged eighty-four years. 

Samuel H. Hempstead is a name illustrious in 
Arkansas outside of the fact that it is descended 
directly from a soldier in the war for independ- 
ence. The above-named was born in New London, 
Conn., in 1814, and died in Little Rock in 1862. 
He was a son of Joseph Hempstead, born in New 
London in 1778, and died in St. Louis in 1831. 
Joseph was a son of Stephen Hempstead, born in 
New London in 1742, and died in St. Louis in 
1832. Stephen was a soldier in the American 
Revolution, serving under Col. Ledyard at the 
battle of Fort Griswold, near New London, when 



^i^ .R 



lOS 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



these towns were cajatured by the British under 
Benedict Arnold, September 6, 1781. Hempstead 
was wounded twice during the engagement — a 
severe gunshot wound in the left elbow disabling 
him in the arm for life. He wrote and published 
in the Missouri Republican in 1826, a detailed ac- 
count of the battle. 

Stephen Hempstead's father was also Stephen 
Hempstead, born in 1705 and died in 1774. The 
records of Connecticut, Vol. VII, show that he 
was made an ensign in a train band company, 
by the colonial council, in October, 1737, where he 
served with distinction through this war, known as 
King George' s War. In May, 1740, he was made 
surveyor by the council. He was the son of 
Joshua Hempstead, born in 1678, and died in 
1758. He was a representative in the Connecticut 
council in October, 1709; a member of the Royal 
council in October, 1712; ensign in train band com- 
pany in 1721; lieutenant in same company in May, 
1724; auditor of accounts in May, 1725. He was 
the son of Joshua Hempstead, Sr. , born in 1649, 
and died in 1709; Joshua Hempstead, Sr. , was a 
son of Robert Hempstead, born in 1600 and died 
in 1665. The last-named was the immigrant to 
America, one of the original nine settlers of New 
London, Conn., the founder of the town first called 
Hempstead, on Long Island. In 1646 Robert 
Hempstead built a house at New London for a res- 
idence, which is still standing, an ancient relic of 
great interest. It is occupied by descendants of 
the builder, named Caits. from the fern ale branches. 
Though much modernized the old house still shows 
the j)ort-holes used for defense against the Indians. 
A daughter of Robert Hempstead, Mary, was the 
first white child born in New London, March 26, 
1647. 

Fay and Roy Hempstead, Little Rock, are de- 
scendants of this family. Other descendants live 
in St. Louis, Mo. 

Jesse Williams, of Prince William County, Va., 
enlisted under Dinwiddle's call in the French- 
Indian War on the English settlers in 1754, 
under then Lieut. -Col. Washington, of the First 
Virginia Regiment of 150 men. The command at- 
tempted to reach where is now Pittsburg to relieve 



Trent' s command at that jalace. Two descendants 
of the Trents now live in Washington County. In 
this hard inarch to Fort Duquesne the men dragged 
their cannon, were without tents and scant of pro- 
visions, and deprived of material or means for 
bridging rivers. They fought at Fort Necessity. 
Washington cut a road twenty miles toward Du- 
quesne. On July 3 the fight took place, and July 
4 Washington capitulated on honorable terms. 

In 1755 Jesse Williams again entered the ser- 
vice under Washington and joined Braddock at 
Fort Cumberland. In 1758 he was once more with 
Washington when Forbes moved on Fort Duquesne, 
being present at the capture, and helped raise the 
flag and name the place Pittsburg. 

In the Revolutionary War he was one of the 
first to enlist from Virginia, and was commissioned 
captain, and was present in nearly all the battles 
of that long war. 

The maternal ancestor of the Williams family 
was Thomas Rowe, of Virginia, a colonel in the war 
for independence, who was at the surrender of 
Yorktown. 

David Williams, a son of Jesse, mari'ied Betsy 
Rowe. He was a soldier in the War of 1812, and 
served with distinction, and also in the Seminole 
War. He settled in ILpntucky, Franklin County. 
His children were Jacob, Urban V., Betty, Mil- 
lie, Hattie and Susan; the children t>f Urban V. 
Williams being John, Pattie and Minnie. Bettie 
married Jeptha Robinson, and had childi-en, David, 
Owen, Austin, May, Hettie, Ruth, Sue, Jacob, 
Frank and Sallie. Hettie married Dr. Andi'ew 
Neat, and had children, Thomas, Estelle (Brink- 
ley), Ella (Ford), Addis and Ben. Sue married 
George Poor, and had children, George, Lizzie, 
Sue and Minnie. Jacob Williams, the father of 
Mrs. Minnie C. Shinn (wife of Prof. J. H. Shinn, 
of Little Rock), Otis Williams and Mattie Wil- 
liams, Little Rock; Joseph Desha Williams and 
Maggie Wells, Russell ville; Lucian and Virgil, 
Memphis, are all of this family. Jacob Williams 
was a private in the Fifth Kentucky, in the late 
war, under Humphrey Marshall. 

Among the pioneers of what is now the State 
of Arkansas, there was perhaps no one family that 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



loy 



furnished so many noted characters and citizens 
as the Conway family. Their genealogy is traced 
' ' back to the reign of Edward I, of England, in the 
latter part of the thirteenth century, to the cele- 
brated Castle of Conway, on Conway River, in 
the north of Wales, where the lords of Conway, 
in feudal times presided in royal style." Thomas 
Conway came to America about the year 1740, 
and settled in the Virginia colony. Henry Conway 
was his only son. The latter was tirst a colonel 
and afterward a general in the Revolutionary War. 
His daughter, Nellie, after marriage, became the 
mother of President Madison, and his son, Mon- 
cui-e D., was brother-in-law to Gen. Washington. 

Thomas Conway, another son of Gen. Henry 
Conway, settled, during the Revolutionary period, 
near the present site of Greenville, Tenn. He 
married Ann Rector, a native of Virginia, and 
member of the celebrated Rector family. To this 
union seven sons and three daughters were born, 
and all were well reared and well educated. 

In 1818, Gen. Thomas Conway moved with 
his family from Tennessee to St. Louis, in the 
Territory of Missouri, and soon after to Boone 
County, where he remained until his death, in 
1835. Henry Wharton- Conway, the eldest son, 
was born March IS, 1793, in Greene County, 
Tenn., and served as a lieutenant in the War of 
1812-15; subsequently, in 1817, he served in the 
treasury department at Washington, immigrated 
to Missouri with his father in 1818, and early in 
1820, after being appointed receiver of public 
moneys, he immigrated in company with his next 
younger brother, James Sevier Conway, who was 
born in 1798, to the county of Arkansas, in the 
then Territory of Missouri. These two brothers 
took and executed large contracts to survey the 
public lands, and later on James S. became 
surveyor- general of the Territory. During the 
twenties Henry W. Conway served two terms as a 
delegate in Congress, and received the election 
in 1827 for the third term, but on the 29th of 
October of that year, he was mortally wounded in 
a duel with Robert Crittenden, from the effects of 
which he died on the 9th of November, following. 
[See account of the duel elsewhere in this work.] 



A marble shaft with an elaborate inscription, 
erected by his brother, James S. Conway, stands 
over his grave in the cemetery at Arkansas Post. 

James S. Conway became the first governor 
of the State of Arkansas, upon its admission into 
the Union, serving as such from 1836 to 1810, 
after which he settled on his princely possessions 
on Red River in the southern part of the State. 
He was a large slave holder and cotton planter. 
He died on the 3d of March, 1855, at Walnut 
Hill, his country seat, in Lafayette County. 

Frederick Rector Conway, the third son of 
Gen. Thomas Conway, was a noted character in 
Missoui'i and Illinois. John Rector Conway, the 
fourth son, was an eminent physician, who died in 
San Francisco in 1868. William B. Conway was 
born at the old homestead in Tennessee, about 180(5. 
He was thoroughly educated, read law under 
John J. Crittenden, of Kentucky, and commenced 
the practice at Elizabethtown in that State. He 
moved to Arkansas in 1840, and in 1844 was 
elected judge of the Third circuit. In December, 
1846, he was elected associate justice of the 
supreme court. He died December 29, 1852, and 
is buried by the side of his noble mother, in 
Mount Holly Cemetery, Little Rock. The sixth 
son, Thomas A., died in his twenty-second year in 
Missouri. 

The seventh and -youngest son. Gov. Elias N. 
Conway, was born May 17, 1812, at the old home- 
stead in Tennessee, and in November, 1833, he 
left his parents' home in Missouri, and came to 
Little Rock, and entered into a contract to survey 
large tracts of the public lands in the northwest- 
ern part of the State. Having executed this con- 
tract, he was, in 1836, appointed auditor of State, 
a position which he held for thirteen years. In 
1852 and again in 1856, he was elected on the 
Democratic ticket as governor of the . State, and 
served his full two terms, eight years, a longer 
period than any other governor has ever served. 
Much could be said, did space permit, of the emi 
nent services this man has rendered to Arkansas. 
Of the seven brothers named he is the only one 
now living. He leads a retired and secluded life 
in Little Rock, in a small cottage in which he has 



110 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



resided for over forty years. He has no family, 
having never been married. 

Robert Crittenden, youngest son of John Crit- 
tenden, a major in the Revohitiouary Wav, was born 
near Versailles, Woodford County, Ky., January 
1, 1797. He was educated by and read law with 
his brother, John J. Crittenden, in Russellville, 
that State. Being appointed first secretary of 
Arkansas Territory, he removed to Arkansas Post, 
the temporary seat of government, where on the 
3d day of March, 1819, he was inaugurated and 
assumed the duties of his office. On the same 
day James Miller was inaugurated first governor 
of the Territory. It seems, however, that Gov. 
Miller, though he held his oifice until succeeded by 
Gov. George Izard, in March, 1825, was seldom 
present and only occasionally performed official 
duties. This left Crittenden to assume charge of 
the position as governor a great portion of the 
time while Miller held the office. Crittenden con- 
tinued as secretary of the Territory until succeeded 
by William Fulton, in April, 1829, having served 
in that capacity a little over ten years. In 1827 
he fought a duel with Henry W. Conway, the ac- 
count of which is given elsewhere. According to 
Gen. Albert Pike, with whom he was intimately 
associated, ' ' he was a man of fine presence and 
handsome face, with clear bright eyes, and unmis- 
takable intellect and genius, frank, genial, one to 
attach men warmly to himself, impulsive, generous, 
warm hearted. ' ' He was the first great leader of 
the Whig party in the Territory, and continued as 
such rmtil his death, which occurred December 18, 
1834, at Vicksburg, Miss., whither he had gone 
on business. He died thus young, and before the 
Territory, which he had long and faithfully served, 
became a State. 

Archibald Yell, not unfamiliar to Arkansans, 
was born in North Carolina, in August, 1797, and 
while very young immigrated to Tennessee, and 
settled in Bedford County. He served in the Creek 
War as the boy captain of the Jackson Guards, 
under Gen. Jackson, also under the same general 
in the War of 1812-13, participating in the battle 
of New Orleans, and also in the Seminole War. 
He was a man of moderate education, and when 



the War of 1812 closed, he read law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in Tennessee. After the close of 
the Seminole War, he located at Fayetteville, Lin- 
coln County, Tenn., and there practiced law until 
1832, when President Jackson gave him the choice 
to fill one of two vacancies, governor of Florida 
or Territorial judge in the Territory of Arkansas. 
He chose the latter and in due time located at 
Fayetteville, in Washington County. He was a 
man of fine personal appearance, pleasant and 
humorous, and possessed the faculty of making 
friends wherever he went. He was elected and 
served as grand master of the Masonic fraternity 
in the jurisdiction of Arkansas; was a Democrat 
in politics, and the first member of Congress from 
the State of Arkansas; was governor of the State 
from 1840 to 1844; was elected again as a member 
of Congress in 1844, and served until 1846, when 
he resigned to accept the colonelcy of an Arkansas 
regiment of volunteers for the Mexican War. He 
was killed in the battle of Buena Vista, February 
22, 1847. 

In his race for Congress in 1844, he was op- 
posed by the Hon. David Walker, the leader of the 
Whig party, and they made a joint canvass of the 
State. Yell could adapt iiimself to circumstances 
— to the different crowds of people more freely than 
could his antagonist. In 1847 the Masonic fra-" 
ternity erected a monument to his memory in the 
cemetery at Fayetteville. Gov. Yell was a man of 
great ability, and one of the great pioneer states- 
men of Arkansas. 

The eminent jurist. Judge David Walker, de- 
scended from a line of English Quakers, of whom 
the last trans-Atlantic ancestor in the male line 
was Jacob Walker, whose son George emigrated to 
America prior to the war of the Revolution, and 
settled in Brunswick County, Va. Here he mar- 
ried a lady, native to the manor born, and be- 
came the first American ancestor of a large and 
distinguished family. One of his sons, Jacob 
Wythe Walker, born in the decade that ushered 
in the Revolution, early in life removed to and 
settled in what is now Todd County, Ky. Here, 
on the 19th day of February, 1806, was born un- 
to him and his wife, Nancy (Hawkins) Walker, 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



11] 



the subject of this sketch — David Walker. Young 
Walker's opportunities for obtaining a school edu- 
cation in that then frontier country were limited, 
but, being the son of a good lawyer, he inherited 
his father's energetic nature, became self-educated, 
read law and was admitted to the bar in Scotts- 
ville, Ky. , early in 1829, and there practiced 
until the fall of 1830, when he moved to Little 
Rock, Ark., arriving on the 10th of October. 
Soon after this he located at Fayetteville, Wash- 
ington County, and remained there, except when 
temporarily absent, until his death. From 1833 
to 1835 he was prosecuting attorney in the Third 
circuit. He was one of the many able members of 
the constitutional convention of 1836. In 1840 he 
rode " the tidal wave of whiggery " into the State 
senate, in which he served four years. In 1844 he 
led the forlorn hope of his party in the ever memor- 
able contest with Gov. Yell for Congress. In 
1848, while on a visit to Kentucky, and without 
his knowledge, a legislature, largely Democratic, 
elected him associate justice of the supreme court 
over strong Democratic opposition, embracing such 
men as Judges English and William Conway, both 
of whom afterwards succeeded to the office. 

He had always been a lover of the Union, but 
when the Civil War came on, having been born 
and reared in the South, and having become 
attached to its institutions, he finally chose rather 
to cast his fortunes with the proposed Confederacy 
than with the Federal Union. In Februar}^ 1801, 
he was elected a delegate to the State convention 
which convened on the 4th of March, and finally, 
at its adjourned session, passed the ordinance of 
secession. He and Judge B. C. Totten were can- 
didates for the chairmanship of this convention, 
the former representing the Union strength, and 
the latter the disunion element as it was then 
developed. Walker received forty out of the sev- 
enty-five votes cast, and thereupon took the chair; 
but owing to the rapid change of sentiment all of 
the majority, save one, finally voted with the 
minority, and Arkansas formally withdrew from the 
Union, with Judge Walker as a leader. In 1866 
he was elected chief justice of the State, but in 
less than two years was removed from the office by 



military power. At the close of the reconstruction 
period he was again elected to the supreme bench 
and served thereon until September, 1878, when 
he resigned at the age of seventy-two, and retired 
to private life. He died September 30, 1879. He 
was a pious and conscientious man, an able jurist, 
a pioneer of Arkansas, highly respected by its citi- 
zens. 

Gen. Grandison D. Royston, a son of Joshua 
Royston and Elizabeth S. (Watson) Royston, na- 
tives, respectively, of Maryland and Virginia, and 
both of pure English descent, was born on the 
9th of December, 1809, in Carter County, Tenn. 
His father was an agriculturist and Indian trader 
of great energy and character, and his mother 
was a daughter of that eminent Methodist divine, 
Rev. Samuel Watson, one of the pioneers of 
the Holstein conference in East Tennessee. He 
was educated in the common neighborhood schools 
and in a Presbyterian academy in Washington 
County, Tenn. In 1829 he entered the law office 
of Judge Emerson, at Jonesboro, in that State, 
and two years after was admitted to the bar. Sub- 
sequently he emigrated to Arkansas Territory, and 
in April, 1832, located in Fayetteville, Washing- 
ton County, where he remained only eight months, 
teaching school five days in the week and practic- 
ing law in justices' courts on Saturdays. He then 
moved to Washington, in Hempstead County, 
where he continued to reside until his death. In 
the performance of his professional duties he trav- 
eled the circuits of the Territory and State in that 
cavalcade of legal lights composed of such men as 
Hempstead, Fowler, Trapnall, Cummins, Pike, 
Walker, Yell, Ashley, Bates, Searcy and others. 

In 1833 he was elected prosecuting attorney 
for the Third circuit, and performed the duties of 
that office for two years. In January, 1836, he 
served as a delegate from Hempstead County in 
the convention at Little Rock, which framed the 
first constitution of the State; and in the fall of 
the same year he was elected to represent his 
county in the first legislature of the State. After 
the expulsion of John Wilson, speaker of the house, 
who killed Representative John J. Anthony, Roy- 
ston was on joint ballot elected to fill the vacant 



112 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



speakership but declined the office. In 1841 
President Tyler appointed him United States dis- 
trict attorney for the district of Arkansas, which 
office he held a short time and then resigned it. 
In 1858 he represented the counties of Hempstead, 
Pike and Lafayette in the State legislatiire, and 
became the author of the levee system of the State. 
In 1861 he was elected to the Confederate Con- 
gress, serving two years. In 1874 he was a dele- 
gate from Hempstead County to the constitutional 
convention, and was elected president of that 
body. In 1876 he represented the State at large 
in the National Democratic convention at St. Louis, 
and voted for Tilden and Hendricks. He was al- 
ways a Democrat, a man of culture, refinement and 
winning manners, and enjoyed in a large degree 
the confidence of the people. He obtained his 
title as general by serving on the staff of Gov. 
"Drew with the rank of brigadier-general. He 
died August 14, 1S89, in his eightieth year. He, 
too, was one of the last prominent pioneers of Ar- 
kansas, and it is said he was the last surviving 
member of the constitutional convention of 1836. 
Judge James Woodson Bates was born in 
Goochland County, Va.. about the year 1788. He 
was educated in the Yale and Princeton Col- 
leges, graduating from the latter about 1810. 
^Vhen quite young he attended the trial of Aaron 
Burr, for treason, at Richmond. Soon after grad- 
uating he read law. In the meantime his brother, 
Frederick Bates, was appointed first secretary of 
Missouri Territory, and was acting governor in 
the absence of Gov. Clark. About 1816 he fol- 
lowed his brother to the AVest, and settled in St. 
Louis. In 1820 he removed to the Post of Arkan- 
sas and there began the practice of his profession, 
but had scarcely opened his office when he was 
elected first delegate to Congress from Arkansas 
Territory. In 1823 he was a candidate for re- 



election, but was defeated by the celebrated Henry 
W. Conway, an able man, who commanded not 
only the influence of his own powerful family, but 
that of the Rectors, the Johnsons, Roanes and 
Ambrose H. Sevier, and all the political adherents 
of Gen. Jackson, then so popular in the South 
and West. The influence and strength of this 
combined opposition could not be overcome. 

After his short Congressional career closed, he 
moved to the newly settled town of Batesville, and 
resumed the practice of his profession. Batesville 
was named after him. In Novernber, 1825, Presi- 
dent Adams appointed him one of the Territorial 
judges, in virtue of which he was one of the 
judges of the superior or appellate court organized 
on the plan of the old English court in banc. On 
the accession of Gen. Jackson to the presidency, 
his commission expired without renewal, and he 
soon after removed to Crawford County, married 
a wealthy widow, and became stationary on a rich 
farm near Van Buren. In the fall of 1835 he 
was elected to the constitutional convention, and 
contributed his ability and learning in the forma- 
tion of our first organic law as a State Soon 
after the accession of John Tyler to the presidency, 
he appointed Judge Bates register of the land 
office at Clarksville, in recognition of an old 
friend. He discharged every public trust, and 
all the duties devolved on him as a private citizen, 
with the utmost fidelity. Strange to say, whilst 
he possessed the most fascinating conversational 
powers, he was a failure as a public speaker. He 
was also a brother to Edward Bates, the attorney- 
general in President Lincoln's cabinet. He was 
well versed in the classics, and familiar with the 
best authors of English and American literature. 
He died at his home in Crawford County in 1846, 
universally esteemed. 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



113 



•'i&J'W^^" 



Legal Affaius of the Second Judicial District— The Pioneer Bar— Early Inconveniences and 
Experiences— Lawyers of Fifty Years ago— Original Territory of the Second Dis- 
trict— Litigation— Hon. Samuel C. Roane— Other Prominent Practitioners- 
John Selden Ro.\ne— James Y''ell— Martin W. Dorris— Judge Euclid 
Johnson— Judge Isaac W. Baker— Hon. William H. Sutton— 
Hon. Chester Ashley — Frederick W. Trafnell— 
Robert W. Joiin.son— Gen. Albert Pike- 
Retrospective. 

— 'tSwo^- — 

He was not borne to sbame; 
Upon his brow shame is ashamed to sit; 
For 'tis a throne where honour may be crowned 
Sole monarch. — Skakspenre. 




MONGr the contributions 
devoted to literature in Ar- 
kansas, and the preserva- 
tion of the memory of ilhis- 
trious men, none are more 



be possessed of manly vigor, heroic endurance, 
full of public spirit; possessing as many virtttes, 
too, as is usually represented by honorable, brave, 
chivalrio manhood; and yet, with all this, do they 
represent the active, impulsive and combative side 
'~^ worthy of mention than of human nature so absolutely necessary to the 
'^ 1^ those of Judge J. W. Bo- pioneer judge or lawyer, at the same time schooled 



cage, who, in articles entitled "Old 
Memories," has resurrected incidents 
and facts connected with pioneer legal 
affairs that cannot but prove of inter- 
est. They are, therefore, accorded a 
prominent place in the present volume. 
When the history of the old time 
bench and bar of the Second judicial 
district of the State of Arkansas is written, those 
pioneers of the judicial bar are meant who broke 
the brush and laid the foundation of the work 
which is beheld to-day — which, from the liegin- 
ning, stood on as high a plane as any in all the 
land, and of which all thinking citizens are proud. 
The men of the new as well as of the old may 



to exercise a passive, reflective and quiescent 
thought and demeanor at the proper moment '' It 
is a diflieult task to pictiu'e the pioneer lawyer, 
whose requirements were necessarily a contradic- 
tion, and from whose life may be taken le.ssons of 
self-control, povter of will, bravery and generosity 
well worth the learning. 

He who supposes a lawyer's life journey, fifty 
years ago in Arkansas, was a smooth path of gen- 
tle declivity, set with roses, leading to a beautiful 
temple of justice, elaborately arranged with all the 
comforts and belongings of to-day, will read with 
surprise the great tasks necessarily performed 
semi-annually by their predecessors of 1836 and 
184'2, and will entertain a reverence and respect 



114 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



for those noble spirits wbo planted the standard of 
justice in the wilderness, and thus made lighter 
the work of the bar of the present. 

Fifty years ago steamboats plying the Arkansas 
River were few; trips were irregular, and could 
not be relied on to carry judge and lawyer with 
any degree of certainty as to departure or arrival. 
There were only four short lines of railroad in the 
United States — not one mile in Arkansas. Morse 
had not begiin to urge the importance of his tele- 
graph. There were very few wagon roads in the 
district besides those parallel with the Arkansas 
River, branching fi'om the military roads (which 
were established by the "United States government 
for military purposes). The Indian trail or neigh- 
borhood path, in which but one horse could go 
abreast, was the only line of communication from 
one settlement to another. To reach a point on a 
right line, distant only twenty miles, often required 
the travel of thirty. There were no bridges, and 
few ferries were established, often with only a 
canoe, for crossing a stream, by the side of which 
the lawyer's horse swam. If there was a flat boat 
it was usually a small affair, carrying one horse 
and rider, with his saddle-bags, which contained 
his clothing, library and papers. The territory 
comprising this district was a wilderness, showing 
to perfection nature's grand handiwork, replete 
with towering forest trees of every wood valuable 
in commerce, underbrush, tangled vines, intermin- 
able swamps and dense cane-brakes, rivaling the 
famed jungles of India, with only a bridle-path to 
mark the line of travel to some settlement hewed 
out of the wilderness. 

The meet for the trip around the circuit was 
usually at Pine Bluff, the most central point, and 
was looked forward to with much interest; for the 
ordeal through which he must pass, his jsrepara- 
tion and equipment must be of that character 
enabling him to surmount any difficulty; his horse 
must be a good swimmer as well as traveler, and 
was selected with great care; it must be strong 
and intelligent — able to swim high and be well 
gaited for the road under the saddle. At the spring 
term the waters of the Ouachita, Bartholomew, 
Saline, Moros, the Lagles and numberless creeks 



and bayous were usually very high, scarcely even 
a canoe coiild be had, and streams were crossed 
with the rider in his saddle, saddle bags across 
his shoulders, his steed his boat and propelling 
power. Traveling far into the night to get to his 
destination, he was compelled, if this was not 
reached, to select a spot as near water as possible, 
unsaddle and camp, supperless, unless some one 
more provident than the others secured a lunch at 
the last resting place. The inevitable blanket, 
the pioneer lawyer's boon companion, was spread 
for a bed, and with his saddle for a pillow and the 
song of a mosquito for a lullaby, sleep came to the 
weary traveler, and dreams of coming victory. 

That part of the Louisiana purchase, which 
subsequently became the Second judicial district, 
in 1836 was inhabited by the descendants of Span- 
ish, French and English settlers with migratory 
Indians, and an amalgamation of all, a very un- 
usual mixture of blood combining many peculiar 
traits of character. Their written language was 
pure French and English, but their spoken lan- 
guage was an almost incomprehensible idiom im- 
perfectly understood by either Spanish, French or 
English immigrants, rendering it necessary that 
the settler possess himself of the idiomatic mode 
of expression in vogue. The lawyer to fully com- 
prehend his client or the witness learned enough 
of this peculiar language to be sure of a correct 
understanding of his case. 

The territory embraced in the old-time district 
covered many square miles, including what is now 
Jefferson, Arkansas, Desha, Lincoln, Chicot, Drew, 
Bradley, Ashley, Calhoun, Cleveland, Grant, Oua- 
chita, Columbus and Union Counties, extending 
from White River to the Louisiana line north and 
south, and from Pulaski County to the Mississippi 
River east and west. Fifty years ago this entire 
territory comprised but four counties: Jefferson, 
Arkansas, Chicot and Union. Coiu-t was held 
semi-annually then, as now, at Pine Bluff, Arkan- 
sas Post, Columbia and Scarborough's Landing. 
There being no county court houses, court was 
held in log cabin store houses cleared of goods for 
the purpose. Pine Bluff, the seat of justice of 
Jefferson County, was recognized under the Terri- 



HISTOEY OF ARKANSAS. 



115 



torial government as a county seat, a mere speck 
in the wilderness, which grew in time to a village, 
happily situated on the bank of the Arkansas River, 
in the center of the county — commanding the fur 
and peltry trade of the surrounding country. In 
time its importance as a mercantile center for this 
trade became apparent. Pack-ponies from the 
mouth of the White and Arkansas Rivers, and pi- 
rogues and keel-boats pushed with poles and cor- 
dell lines from New Orleans, brought merchandise 
to be bartered for the product of trap and hunting. 
Settlements were made on the lands — fields were 
cleared and crops of cotton and corn grown. Trade 
increased and the fact clearly established that 
Pine Bluff was the center of trade and traffic for 
the entire country between Little Rock and the 
mouth of the Arkansas River. Population in- 
creased, and in 1836 it was deemed necessary to 
lay the site off into town lots, since which it has 
gradually extended its teri'itory, increasing in im- 
portance as a trade center, and now, a city of the 
first-class, it grasps the entire trade within its 
reach and sits the queen of trade and traffic for 
twenty counties, without fear of a rival. 

The consequent litigation growing out of trade 
and traffic at great trade centers necessarily pro- 
duces a bar of lawyers, whose capability is meas- 
ured by the importance of the litigation to care for. 
The demand at Pine Blutt' was for the highest 
legal talent. On his plantation near Pine Bluff 
resided the Hon. Samuel Calhoun Roane, the cor- 
ner stone of the Pine Bluff judicial bar, and the 
Nestor of the bar of the State. He was born in 
Wilson County, Tenn., in December, 1792, and 
came to the Territory of Arkansas in 1819, and set- 
tling at the Post of Arkansas, there assisted by 
Mr. William E. Woodruff, published the first 
numbers of the Gazette. He removed to the vil- 
lage of Little Rock in 1820 and began the practice 
of law, laying the foundation of that prominence 
he subsequently attained among his associates as a 
land lawyer. In 1825 he married Miss Julia Em- 
bree, of Jefferson County. Joining the occupation 
of farmer to that of lawyer, he began opening up 
his Cottonwood plantation near Pine Bluff, where 
he spent the remainder of his life. In his early 



life he was a near neighbor of Gen. Andrew Jack- 
son, of whom he was a great admirer. A warm 
personal friendship was always maintained be- 
tween them. In his twenty-first year he fought 
under Gen. Jackson in the Alabama Creek War of 
1813. • Among President Jackson's many friends 
and admirers, and during the first term of his 
Presidency, he singled out young Roane for ap- 
pointment to the United States district attorney's 
place for the Territory of Arkansas, which position 
he filled with credit — stamping him in point of 
legal ability far above mediocrity of lawyers. On 
admission of the State of Arkansas in 1836, he was 
elected a member of the State Senate, and at its 
organization was elected to preside over that body. 

By virtue of his office as president of the Sen- 
ate, in the absence of Gov. Conway from the State, 
he became acting Governor, and signed many of 
the memorable real estate bank bonds which fell into 
the hands of the Holfords, of London, England, who 
in 1850 visited Arkansas and demanded of Gov. 
Samuel C. Roane personal payment, assuming 
that his signature, although made as Governor of 
the State, made him personally responsible. Judge 
Roane amassed a large fortune, and was, at his 
death, the wealthiest man in Jefi^erson County. 
He was the oracle to his neighbers of all questions 
pertaining to lands, was just and generous, and 
many acts of charity stand to his credit. He 
was not an eloquent speaker, but his fine sense 
and superior knowledge of the law placed him in 
the front rank as a pleader, and he claimed his 
place as a member of the bar of the Second judi- 
cial district to the day of his death, which occurred 
December 10, 1852. 

John Selden Roane was born in Wilson County, 
Tenn., January 8, 1817; was educated at Princeton 
College, Kentucky, and immigrated to Arkansas in 
1838; read law in the office of his brother, Hon. 
Samuel C. Roane; was licensed to practice and 
enrolled a member of the Pine Bluff bar in 1841. 
Few young men have climbed so rapidly the pin- 
nacle of fame. Brought in contact with such legal 
talent as that of the elder Roane, Pike, Trapnell, 
Fowlei', Hempstead and others, he necessarily 
applied himself to win a high place among this 



116 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



galaxy of bright intellect. Noble, brave and 
generous to a fault, he won the esteem of his fel- 
low citizens of all parties, and although a Demo- 
crat, was selected by a Whig constituency to the 
legislature of 1842, serving his county to the sat- 
isfaction of all parties. Deeming it to his advan- 
tage to change location, he moved to Van Buren, 
Crawford County, in 1844. He again secured the 
respect and conlidence of his new constituency and 
was returned by them to the House of Representa- 
tives in 1846, being elected speaker of the house, 
and presided over that body with dignity and 
honor, giving satisfaction to all parties. His most 
intimate friend, speaking of him, states that he 
well remembers his appearance just after the final 
vote was announced for speaker, his splendid 
physique and handsome features expressing the 
sense of his exaltation; elegantly dressed, wearing 
the graceful toga cloak of that day, he strode up 
the aisle to the speaker's seat, a picture of manly 
beauty rarely ever witnessed. A bystander re- 
marked : "I can now picture the great Triumvir, 
Mark Antony, as he mounted the Rojnan rostrum." 
At the adjournment of the legislature he re- 
turned to Crawford County, resuming the practice 
of law. On the declaration of war with Mexico 
and the call for volunteers, he mustered a company 
of cavalry and with his characteristic energy, 
when fully aroused to action, he marched on an 
air line over hill and valley, across streams and 
swamps, hewing his way through the timber to 
the rendezvous at Washington, Hempstead County, 
the first company arriving on the ground. On the 
organization of the regiment he was elected lieu- 
tenant-colonel. Gov. -Col. Archibald Yell, being 
killed in the battle of Buena Vista, by virtue of 
seniority Lieut. -Col. Roane became colonel of the 
command. The war over, he returned to his old 
home at Pine BlufP and settled down as a planter, 
resuming the practice of law. In 1849 he was 
elected Governor of the State to fill the iinexpired 
term of Gov. Drew. His administration was a 
credit to the State, his messages to the General As 
sembly being well written, and showing a thorough 
knowledge" of the wants of the State and the best 
means of supplying them. In 1850 he married Miss 



Mary Kimbrough Smith, daughtei- of Gen. Nat. 
Smith, of Dallas County. On the inauguration of 
war between the States he espoused the cause of his 
section, receiving a brigadier-general's commission 
and took the field. Subsequently he came back 
home, involved in debt, and worn down with the 
struggle, to recover his lost fortune. He died at 
his home April 7, 1867. 

Gov. John S. Roane was an impressive and 
logical speaker at the bar, a good stump orator, 
the soul of honor, a brave, chivalrous gentleman, 
with a heart full of charity and a truer friend no 
one could boast. 

James Yell was one of the most remarkable 
men at the bar of the old Second district. He was 
styled the Apollo of the bar because of his com- 
manding form and handsome face. He was born 
in Bedford County, Tenn.. March 10, 1811. His 
early opportunity for school culture was not of the 
best, yet, by native pluck and industry, he acquired 
a fair education, which he imjiroved greatly after 
attaining his majority. He taught school for three 
years at Shelby ville, Tenn., and served Bedford 
County one term as sheriff; later reading law 
under Malcolm Gilchrist, one of the most promi- 
nent jurists of Tennessee. Induced by his uncle. 
Col. Archibald Yell, he moved to Arkansas in 
March, 1838, settling in Pine BlufP. where he began 
his remarkable career at the bar. He struggled 
hard to rise to the top, which he reached by dint 
of hard work. Exceedingly combative, he entered 
into his client's case as if it was his own, and 
fought it inch by inch to the end. His aggres- 
sive and unyielding spirit made him in a great 
measure the butt of his fellow practitioner. The 
gauntlet thrown to him never reached the ground. 
This condition of spirit more than all things else 
brought about his success at the bar. 

Y'ell, though not a superior pleader, was a forci- 
ble speaker, and as a jury lawyer had few equals. 
The records show that in almost every criminal case 
he had the defense, in seven out of ten of which 
he was successful. He was colonel, brigadier and 
major-general of the militia. As a militiaman he 
was on the Gen. Gideon Pillow style. With John 
S. Roane and John Martin he was placed on the 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



117 



Democratic electoral ticket in 1848 and made a 
thoroitgli canvass of the State. He served one term 
in the State Senate. 

Gen. Yell was afterward placed in many trying 
situations, always exhibiting great coolness and 
courage. He was noted for his kindness of heart 
and was too liberal for his own good; his many 
private charities, which were unknown to the world, 
stand largely to his credit. He died at his resi- 
dence in Pine Blnff of pneumonia, September T), 
1867. 

Prominent at the Pine Bluff bar stood Martin 
W. Dorris, who was styled by his associates the 
Beau Brummel of the bar. He emigrated from 
Missouri to Arkansas in 1836, and settled in Pine 
Bluft', a well read lawyer. He did not practice his 
profession at lirst, but embarked with Mr. John W. 
Moulding in mercantile pursuits, establishing quite 
an extensive trade. . 

Tiring of that l)usiness he sold oiit to his part- 
ner and opened a law office in 1837, and soon secured 
a lucrative practice. A good conversationalist, a 
forcible speaker on points of the law, he was more 
of a special ])leader than a jury lawyer, his argu- 
ments being always well prepared. 

Dorris was tall, spare built, of light complex- 
ion, light eyes and hair, with a graceful carriage, 
agreeable manners, always neatly and tastefully 
dressed, and a convivial companion. He had many 
friends throughout the district. He was non-com 
bative and maintained his high position at the bar 
and with his people by his good sense and pru- 
dence. He was twice elected to represent his 
county in the General Assembly. His life's work 
was good, and the community in which he abided 
is the better that he lived. He died of cholera at 
Little Rock in 1852. 

Arkansas Post, the county seat of Arkansas 
County, was established as a Spanish military post 
in lt>64, the year the first settlement was made at 
Philadelphia. It was situated on the very verge of 
western civilization, and looking over towards the 
setting sun into the grand wilderness, planted by 
nature with forests, treeless plains, rivers cut deep 
down into the rocky beds and mountains, which 
are now taught to l;>ow their crests to the genius of 



the white man. Could the unwritten history of 
the old post be brought to light, the historian and 
romancer might weave a tale so grand, so full of 
thrilling adventure, so storied with love and hate, 
of joy and sorrow, of hair-breadth escapes and 
heroic deeds, worthy of the days of chivalry, as 
would rival the tales of the pilgrim fathers, or the 
Huguenots and Cavaliers of the eastern shore. 

The site of the old post still exists, but the town 
is gone, swallowed up in that hail of death rained 
upon it by McLernand's grand army of 50,000 
men, nine gun boats and rams under Admiral 
Porter, carrying eight and ten heavy naval pieces 
each, and manned by a thousand men with the 
finest equipment for naval warfare that the world 
could boast. To this immense armament were op- 
posed 3,000 men, under Brig. -Gen. T. J. Church- 
hill, whose orders were from Lieut. -Gen. T. H. 
Holmes, to "hold out until help arrives, or until 
all are dead." Left without discretion, but to do 
or die, he fought the most remarkable battle of 
the Civil War. 

There were three famed hostelries on the Arkan- 
sas River in the olden time: Nick Peay's at Little 
Rock, James L. Buck's at Pine Bluff, and Mary 
John's, a slave of Col. James Scull, at the Post of 
Arkansas. These hostelries were the visiting law- 
yer's homes when on the circviit, and right royally 
were they entertained at each. The oft repeated 
pleasure is well remembered of a dismount at Mary 
John's tavern, and greeting with one's fellow at- 
torneys after a hard day's travel. Here was the 
home of James H. Lucas, afterward the St. Louis 
millionaire, who married Miss Deresseaux, a na- 
tive of French descent. Judge Lucas was an en- 
rolled member of the bar as early as 1833, and 
was judge of the probate court in 1834. His 
good fortune, no doubt, spoiled a good lawyer. 
He was well read, and possessed a superior intel- 
lect. The Hon. Terrence Farrelly, an Irish gen 
tleman, who lived on his jilantation near the old 
post, came to the bar in 1812. He was a local 
lawyer, rarely attending other courts. He died 
soon after the close of the Civil War. 

Columbia, the old county seat of Chicot County, 
was situated on the bank of the Mississippi River, 



118 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



and was one of the earliest settled towns in Arkan- 
sas, an outgrowth of the old French settlement at 
Point Chicot. Many dark deeds were perpetrated 
in this old village, and not many that the record- 
ing angel would place to the credit side of the 
page. Yet, here lived some good people, whose 
better traits of character shone brighter from prox- 
imity and contrast with the evil-doers. Here re- 
sided some of the brightest intellects of the bar of 
the old Second district: Judges Roysden, Johnson, 
Baker and Sutton. Old River Lake near it is 
noted as the rendezvous of the great land pirate, 
John A. Murrill and his clan. The sight which 
greeted the eyes of one landing at Columbia, in 
1836, was a dead man lying not far from the land- 
ing, superbly dressed, wearing fine jewelry, watch 
and chain, stabbed to death during the night. He 
was Gilliam Murrill, brother to John A. Murrill, 
murdered by Franklin Stuart, a near relative of 
Virgil Stuart, who gave the Murrill clan away. 
Years after, the same individual, then attorney for 
the State, assisted by Judge Edward A. Meany 
(who afterwards attained great celebrity at the St. 
Louis bar), prosecuted Stuart for that murder. 
Columbia seems to have atoned for her misdeeds 
by passing into oblivion, the great river having 
swallowed it from the sight of man forever. Thomas 
N. Byres, Hedgeman Triplett, Isaac N. Barnett, 
and Philander Littell (who, as State's attorney, 
wrote about fifty indictments for gaming, among 
which was one against Judge De Lafayette Roys- 
den, who quashed the indictment against himself, 
and fined the State's attorney), were members of 
the bar, and lived at Columbia. 

Judge Roysden practiced in the Red River dis- 
trict of Louisiana as early as 1845; lived in Little 
Rock a short time and was elected judge of the 
Second district, serving one term. He died many 
years ago. 

Judge Euclid Johnson was born in Kentucky; 
practiced law in Little Rock in 1836; was a brother 
of Vice-President Richard M. Johnson and Judge 
Ben Johnson, of Little Rock, He came to Arkan- 
sas in 1835, and the same year moved to Chicot 
County on his plantation near Columbia, and was 
elected circuit judge of the Second district, hold- 



ing that office two terms. He was a fine and 
accomplished gentleman, well read and a good 
judge of law, with fine, equitable judgment. 
When off the bench he was a jolly good fellow, a 
bewitchingly social spirit, who loved an anecdote 
and joke, and could relate them well. When on the 
bench he was very dignified, and his decisions gave 
general satisfaction. He was fond of his friends 
and they enjoyed his companionship. 

Judge Isaac W. Baker was a native of North 
Carolina, born in the year 1805, and was a grad- 
uate from Chappel Hill, N. C. Marrying at twen- 
ty-five, he fell under the displeasure of an ec- 
centric and very wealthy father, who withdrew 
his yearly supply of money. He at once opened a 
school in the old academy on the hill, so well 
known to all Wilmingtonians of the early day. 
Losing his young wife after the close of the second 
term, without saying a farewell .to any one, he went 
to Cincinnati and there began the study of medi- 
cine. Losing his health and believing that he 
would not live long, he went to Texas in the midst 
of her strviggle for independence, resolved to fling 
his life away against the Mexicans. Camp life 
and pure air restored his health. After the war 
was over he resolved to pursue the study of law, 
and entered a law office at New Orleans. From 
that place he moved to Columbia, Ark., where he 
practiced law until his election to the judgeship in 
1854 

Judge Baker was an eccentric character, as were 
all the other members of his father's family. He 
was morose, ill-tempered and melancholy at times, 
so much so as to be quite disagreeable when in this 
mood. In forensic debate he often permitted him- 
self to lose his temper, but when upon the bench 
he was regarded as just and equitable in his decis- 
ions, and with ■ all his peculiarities was probably 
one of the best judges of the early days. He was 
an intense student, and points of doubt he would 
study closely and analyze carefully before render- 
ing his decision. At the termination of his second 
term of office he moved to a farm near Batesville, 
Ark., and led almost a hermit's life. One day 
while sitting in his hall, his only sister, Mrs. How- 
ard, whom he believed to be in North Carolina, dis- 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



119 



mounted at his gate. He immediately went out of 
the back door, rehising to meet her, and left for 
Chicot County, where he purchased a plantation, 
upon which he killed his overseer, and died while 
in prison awaiting his trial, ending a life along the 
pathway of which were very few bright spots. 

The Hon. William H. Sutton was born in Penn- 
sylvania, read law and began to practice in that 
State. Believing a more fertile field could be found 
in the southwest, and seeing the new State of 
Arkansas taken into the sisterhood of States in 
1836, he bent his steps in that direction, landing 
in Columbia, in Chicot County, the same year. With 
pleasant emotion the writer's memory goes back 
over fifty years. When at Columbia he saw a tall, 
handsome, graceful young man, with features in- 
dicating intellect, and an impressive manly air, step 
from the deck of a Mississippi River steamer, evi- 
dently seeming to come with no longing looks back 
to the home of his youth, but with a resolve to cast 
his lot with those who had sought homes in Ark- 
ansas. 

William H. Sutton possessed in a high degree 
those qualities that make up the gentleman. Brave, 
candid, truthful, with a gentle heart, his moral, 
political and religious convictions were strong and 
decided. He was a ripe scholar, a fluent and log- 
ical speaker, and was acknowledged to be one of 
the brightest ornaments of the bar of the State. 
He was called to succeed the Hon. Isaac N. Baker 
in the judgeship of the Second judicial district, 
holding that office two terms. His useful career 
was ended at his home in Pittsburgh, Penn., in De- 
cember, 1878, regretted by all who knew him. 

Philander Littell was the first prosecuting 
attorney for the Second district after the State 
organization, and lived at Columbia, and, although 
not particularly distinguished, was considered a 
good lawyer. 

Hedgeman Triplett was a native of Virginia,' 
and moved in Territorial times to Arkansas. Set- 
tling in Columbia in 1835, he was prominent at 
the bar of the Second district. He possessed great 
force of character, and was a large, powerful man 
with strongly marked features. He had one leg 
shorter than the other, and when presenting his 



case stood back on his short leg. As he warmed 
up to his argument he would lift himself to his full 
height on his long leg, which seemed to throw his 
body toward the jury, often producing a telling 
effect. He was a brave, honorable gentleman and 
died many years ago. 

Judge Edward A. Meany was of Irish descent. 
He was well versed in all branches of jurisdiction 
and a learned lawyer. He came to the bar of the 
Second district in 1837, settling at Columbia, and 
at once occupied a prominent position. He at- 
tracted large audiences whenever he spoke in a 
criminal case. His speech delivered in prosecut- 
ing Franklin A. Stuart for the murder of Gilliam 
Murrill, years after the deed was committed, when 
the witnesses were all dead or beyond reach of a 
writ, was a masterpiece of oratory, rivalling the 
happiest efforts of John Philpot Curran. Deem- 
ing the field in Arkansas too limited for his work, 
he moved to St. Louis, there becoming one of the 
great lights of the St. Louis bar. He died shortly 
after the close of the war. 

Scarborough's Landing, now Champagnolle, is 
located on the Ouachita River, sixteen miles above 
the mouth of the Moro. Fifty years ago this 
point, a small trading settlement in the wilderness, 
with a few log cabins, was the county seat of Union 
County. In time it assumed greater prominence 
as a trading center for a large extent of territory. 
Before the advent of railroads more than 10,000 
bales of cotton found a market at New Orleans by 
water from that landing, and the returned mer- 
chandise was distributed from its warehouses over 
a large extent of territory. As the county 
seat of Union County, court was held there semi- 
annually as at three other points named herein, 
provided the judge and lawyers arrived in time to 
open the session as provided by the statute. With- 
out question, in the older time it was the most in- 
accessible point in Arkansas. He was a good 
horse and rider who could reach Scarborough's 
Landing from the settlements in one day's ride. 
There were no resident lawyers, but lawyers from 
the Arkansas and Mississippi Rivers met the law- 
yers from Camden and Washington, and here was 
a greeting that only men who met in the wilderness 



120 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



or desert could give each other. ' ' They were jolly 
companions every one," soul answered soul and 
the hearty laugh from willing throats noticeably 
increased as the jest and anecdote was sprung 
during the midnight hour. There was no accom- 
modation for all and there was little sleeping. A 
few of the most sedate retired to such accommo- 
dations as were afforded, to tight mosquitoes and 
sleep if possible. The judicial docket of the day 
being always light, it was soon disposed of, and 
each one wended his way homeward. 

Of the lawyers resident at Little Rock, attend- 
ing the courts of the Second judicial district, only 
the most prominent need be mentioned as men who 
would have been considered distinguished lawyers 
at any bar in the United States. 

The Hon. Chester Ashley was born at West- 
field, Conn., June 1, 1789. When an infant his 
parents moved to Hudson City, N. Y. He was 
graduated from Williams College, Hiadson. in 1813, 
and read law in the office of Elisha Williams, Esq. , 
a prominent lawyer of that city. His course in 
the law school at Litchfield, Conn., developed a 
mind well stored with legal learning, and ability to 
exercise successfully his acquirements. In 1818 
he moved to Illinois, moving again to Missouri in 
1819, and again in 1820 to Little Rock, Ark. In 
1821 he married Miss Mary W. W. Elliott, and, 
returning to Little Rock, settled down for life. 
Chester Ashley was an extraordinary man. His 
personal aj)pearance attracted all beholders at first 
sight, leaving an impression rarely if ever forgot- 
ten. To a dignified, commanding personage, na- 
ture added a remarkable face, every feature of 
which was perfect of itself, blended as a whole. 
Few men exhibited a face of more marked charac- 
teristics, to which was added a brain stored full of 
classic and legal study. With a rich, mellow voice 
and the highest order of intellect, he made his 
conversation fascinating. Although command- 
ingly dignified he always had a spice of humor. 
His elegant manners stamped him in every sense 
a gentleman; always cheerful, ever kind and affec- 
tionate to those who claimed his love, with full 
control of self, he could well be styled a noble 
man. In 1833 he was the leading lawyer in Little 



Rock, and practiced in all the courts of the Terri- 
tory. From 1837 to 1842 he attended the courts 
of the Second judicial circuit. In April, 1844, his 
talent was called into service to advocate the Demo- 
cratic electoral ticket of Arkansas. With activity 
rarely seen he traversed the State, iirging the peo- 
ple to espouse his political faith, which was pre- 
sented so forcibly and truly that, when Senator 
Fulton died in the month of August, the General 
Assembly convening in November almost unani- 
mously elected Chester Ashley to till the vacancy, 
and in 1846 he was re-elected to that exalted posi- 
tion. He was chosen Chairman of the Committee 
on Jitdiciary, a high tribute to his legal learning. 
On the 23d day of April he was in his place in the 
Senate chamber, and on the 29th he breathed his 
last at Washington City, lamented by all who 
knew him. 

One of Arkansas greatest favorites at the bar, 
and particularly at the bar of the Second district, 
was Frederic W. Trapnell, who was born near 
Harrodsburg, Ky. , in 1808. Mr. Trapnell read 
law after a thorough course of study at the best 
schools his State aft'orded, and practiced his pro- 
fession at Springfield, Kj'. He came to Arkansas 
in 1836, settling in Little Rock, where, by close 
attention, energy and great industry, he became 
one of the most prominent members of the bar of 
the State. In all departments of jurisprudence he 
stood at the top, and contributed fully as much by 
his learning and indefatigable effort as any other 
lawyer of 1836 and 1842. Arkansas lost one of 
its best citizens, and the bar one of its brightest 
ornaments when he crossed to the silent shore. His 
death occurred in 1856 after a three days' illness — 
a great surprise to his friends. 

The name of Samuel Hutchinson Hempstead, 
during the days of 1836 and 1842, was interwoven 
with every interest connected with the bar of Ark- 
"ansas, and stands out prominent on the records of 
the courts of the Second judicial district. Refer- 
ence is made to him in other pages of this volume. 
It is plain that Mr. Hempstead was considered no 
ordinary man. He was a ripe scholar, learned in 
his profession, an eloquent speaker, with an origin- 
ality which attracted attention, accompanying 



which he had quick porce])tiou and line judgment. 
With praiseworthy effort he succeeded in rising to 
the top with those other great legal lights, and 
when the Arkansas bar was pronounced second to 
none in the Union. After a faithful and honest 
discharge of all his duties he died at Little Rock 
on June 25, 18(52. 

The Hon. Absalom Fowler was truly a brilliant 
luminary of the State bar. Coming from Ten- 
nessee as early as 1830, he settled in Little Rock, 
having previously prepared himself to take a high 
position as a lawyer. Like a meteor he illumi- 
nated the territory with his learning and eloquence 
from Washington to Hempstead Counties, from 
Crawford to Chicot, leaving in his wake a record 
of legal learning, sound judgment and honest 
opinion, which formed a splendid heritage to those 
who followed after him. In 1833 Mr. Fowler was 
the law partner of Col. Robert Crittenden, who 
died in 1834, leaving him the inheritor of a large 
legal business, which he conducted successfully. 
His death occurred in 1860. 

Mr. Sam Cook, when advanced in years, came 
to Arkansas and settled in Saline County as early 
as 1 836. He attended all the courts of the Second 
judicial district and was highly respected by the 
bar. • He was a well read lawyer and a brilliant 
speaker. There was no more pleasant companion 
on or off the road than Mr. Cook. Nature gave 
him a quizzical face, although a pleasing one. 
Even during his gravest ujoods one was inclined 
to smile at him. He joked in the morning, at 
noon and at night. If the party bivouacked for 
the night, which was sometimes necessary, and 
the conversation lagged. Cook at once drove dull 
care away by one of his inimitable jokes. He 
was the acknowledged defender at the bar of all 
lareenj- and other minor cases. Whenever his 
cases were called the court room was at once tilled 
by willing listeners, as everyone knew that some 
thing funny would be said in behalf of his client or 
about the other man. The best lawyers rarely got 
the better of him in a hog stealing case. He had 
the ear of the jury. Mr. Cook moved to Benton 
and died at an advanced age. 

Robert Ward Johnson, than whom no man has 



contributed more to elevate the State of Arkansas 
morally, judicially and politically, was born in 
Scott County, Ky., on July 22, 1814, being the 
oldest son of Judge Benjamin Johnson, who 
received the appointment of Judge of the Ter- 
ritory of Arkansas by President Monioe, after- 
ward from John Quincy Adams, and twice from 
Andrew Jackson. 

Robert W. Johnson began life under the most 
favorable auspices. Springing from an illustrious 
family, prominent in the social circle, in the coun- 
cils of the nation and on the held of liattle, he had 
every incentive to be honorable, brave and a gen- 
tleman. From childhood to the day of his death 
he maintained a character for the highest sense of 
honor, untlinching bravery and gentlemanly bear- 
ing, rarely equaled, never surpassed. When quite 
a youth he was sent to the Indian Academy near 
Frankfort, Ky., where he jiursued his studies until 
his fifteenth year, when he entered St. Joseph's 
College, at Bardstown, Ky., from which institution 
he graduated with honor after four years' study. 
From there he went to New Haven, Conn. , where he 
attended the law school, graduating at the age of 
twenty-one and receiving the degree of bachelor of 
law. Returning to Little Rock he entered into the 
practice of law, forming a partnership with the dis- 
tinguished Samuel H. Hempstead. On March 10. 
183U, he married Miss Sarah F. Smith, of Louis 
ville, Ky. His partnership with Mr. Hem[)stead 
closed in 1 847. In December, 1840, he received from 
Gov. Archibald Yell, the appointment of State's 
attorney for the circuit embracing Little Rock, 
holding the office one term, doing his whole duty 
with a characteristic ability and zeal. During his 
legal course "he was a regular attendant at the bar 
of the Second district, sharing with his illustrious 
companions all the pleasures, trials and vicissitudes 
then encountered. Mr. Johnson began to lay the 
foundation of his political life as early as 1840. 
The 3'ear 1844 saw him a candidate in the Held to 
represent Pulaski County in the lower house. In 
1 846 he was elected to a seat in the United States 
House of Representatives for Arkansas; was re- 
elected in 1848 and again in 1850. In 1855 he 
was appointed by Gov. Conway to fill the nn 



122 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



expired term ia the United States Senate of Dr. 
Solon Borland, who resigned in 1854. He was 
returned by the legislature to the United States 
Senate for the full term of six years. Declining a 
re-election in 1860, he returned to his plantation 
crowned with well-earned laurels. Seeing through 
the dark clouds which lowered over the entire 
country, on the election of Mr. Lincoln to the 
presidency, that a desperate struggle was imminent, 
he decided at once his path of duty. While de- 
votedly attached to the Union he felt there was no 
hope; secession and its consequences were plainly 
in his view; honor and patriotism prompted his 
course. He canvassed his State advocating seces- 
sion, which ordinance was passed by the conven- 
tion with only one dissenting voice. Col. Johnson 
was elected a member of the Confederate States 
Senate, which position he held during its existence, 
working for the cause he espoused with an earnest- 
ness and honesty of purpose characteristic of the 
man. On the downfall of the Confederacy he de- 
cided to find an asylum in a foreign land. £Jn 
route for the gulf coast of Texas, he stopped two 
days near Palestine, in Anderson County, Texas, j 
Reaching Galveston, finding the noble-hearted 
Gen. Gordon Granger in command of the Federal 
troops, and remembering his kindness extended to 
Gen. Granger and many others of the United 
States Army when in the United States Senate, he 
at once met him and was not mistaken. Gen. 
Granger proved a friend. He soon went to Wash- 
ington city and had an interview with President 
Johnson, who gave him assurances of protection. 
His political disabilities were not removed until 
1877. He returned to his plantation in Arkansas 
and worked hard to renew his lost fortune. Fail- 
ing in this, he again entered into the legal arena 
at Pine Bluff. Soon seeing with the able compe- 
tition there he mxist build from the ground, he 
moved to Washington City, entering into partner- 
ship with Gen. Albert Pike, where he again served 
his State in the memorable conflict between the 
Brooks and Baxter factions. In 1878 Col. Johnson 
again located in Little Rock, opening a law oiHce. 
In 1879 he was before the legislature for the United 
States Senate. Defeated by Judge J. D. Walker, 



he resolved never to enter politics. Early in June, 
1879, he was taken with an illness which termi- 
nated the long and useful life of a man whose de- 
votion to the best interests of his State has never 
been surpassed — if ever equaled. He died on July 
26, 1879. 

Elsewhere in this volume reference is made to 
the literary genius of Gen. Albert Pike, but of all 
the array of intellect which won for the bar of 
Arkansas, from 1836 to 1842, its justly deserved 
fame, no one contributed more to its exaltation 
than did he. His was work of genuine unselfish- 
ness. He did not seek to clothe himself with the 
judicial ermine, yet no man in all the land was 
more deserving of the high trust; nor did he go 
before his fellow citizens of Arkansas asking for 
political preferment, yet no one woidd have more 
faithfully represented his constituency or worked 
harder in the councils of state for the aggrandize- 
ment of Arkansas. In this great country of 
wonderful achievements in art, science and learn- 
ing, he is a colossus who is considered the most 
learned man. Albert Pike stands in the rank of 
those who have reached that high position, if he is 
not the most learned man in the country. Nor is 
his great learning his only commendable feature; 
he is brave and chivalrous, as was Godfi-ey to 
Bouillon. True to his friend as the needle to the 
pole, no spirit of revenge has lodgment in his 
large heart. He is forgiving to all enemies. Gen. 
Pike wandered from Boston to New Mexico, thence 
he came to Arkansas, reaching Fort Smith on 
December 10, 1832, coming to Little Rock 
early in October, 1833, where he settled, be- 
ginning that remarkable career at the bar which 
stamps him one of the most profound lawyers of 
the age. When at the Pine BlufP court of the Sec- 
ond judicial district in 1838, although only twenty- 
nine years of age, he was recognized as one of 
Arkansas' leading lawyers. The old court records, 
from 1836 to 1842, and later in all parts of the 
State, are evidence of the great volume of his 
work, and of its faithful and correct execution. 
On the declaration of war with Mexico, he mus- 
tered into the volunteer service of the United 
States a company of cavalry, marched into Mexico 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



123 



and served during the war. Returning at its close 
to his old home, he resumed the practice of law. 
He was again called to the field on the inaugura- 
tion of the Civil War, accepting a brigadier-gen- 
eral's commission, and serving in the Indian 
country to the end. Gen. Pike married early in 
life Miss Mary Hamilton, of Arkansas County. At 
the close of the Civil War he moved to AVashing- 
ton, D. C, resuming there the practice of his pro- 
fession. In the second effort of Arkansas to 
secure her rights during the Brooks-Baxter em- 
broglio, Gen. Pike's great legal ability was called 
into requisition on the side of the Baxter faction, 
and mainly through his exertion Arkansas was 
again freed from tyrannical rule. Gen. Pike now 
has his home in the city of Washington, and 
is still a hard worker. He remembers his old 
Arkansas friends with tender affection, and his life 
in Arkansas with almost unalloyed pleasure. 

William Cummins was born in Jefferson County, 
Ky., in 1800, and came to Little Rock, Ark., as 
early as J 833. He began the practice of his pro- 
fession soon after. He was a member of the con- 
vention of 1836, when Arkansas was admitted into 
the Union, and was twice a representative of his 
county in the General Assembly, and at one time 
was a law partner of General Pike. He died on 
April 7, 1843. Mr. Cummins was a regular at- 
tendant at the bar of the old Second district; was a 
well read lawyer; an agreeable and forcible speaker; 
a representative gentleman, and one of the most 
agreeable of companions. Others who made occa- 
sional visits at the Pine Bluff court in 1836 to 1842, 
and who were distinguished lawyers at the bar of 
Arkansas were John W. Corke, brotherin-law of 
F. W. Trapnell, a native of Kentucky; Thomas B. 
Hanly and William K. Sebastian, of Phillips Coun- 
ty; Samuel Davis Blackburn, George C. Watkins, 
George A. Gallagher and David J. Baldwin, of 
Pulaski. 

In a short memorial of the bench and bar of the 
old Second judicial district, it cannot but be re- 
gretted that for want of accurate data it is impos- 
sible to compile all that is desired to be expressed, 
many having paid the debt of nature without leav- 
ing kith or kin behind, to tell of their ever having 



lived. Briefly has mention been made of those 
who have figured at the bar of the old Second dis- 
trict, without bitterness of party conflicts and per- 
sonal encounter, in vindication of what each in his 
lofty spirit of individual opinion of right and 
wrong may have deemed necessary to sustain his 
honor. They were a noble, proud race of men, 
each possessing strong peculiarities. In their day 
they were loved and honored ; each had his friends 
and followers ready to assume all consequences 
on their side if need be. As members of the bar 
the fraternal feeling was strong, and whatever of 
bitterness or rancor they manifested in the advo- 
cacy of their client's cause, it was lost sight of 
outside of the court room. 

Those here named were men of mark, eminent 
in civil service, distinguished in legal learning, 
cultivated gentlemen of loftiest chivalry. No mean 
act, ungenerous advantage or vulgar association 
stained their escutcheon. Their life's blood was 
always ready to be staked for their honor. None 
will say but the gentlemen who were the ancestry 
of the bar of the old Second judicial district were 
not worthy of imitation. The young men of the 
bar of the Eleventh district would rejoice, could 
they commit themselves to such a school made up 
as it was of Puritans and Cavaliers. They con- 
centrated the best elements of this proud and hon- 
orable ancestry. Their life's work was well done. 
Roll back the tide of years a half century, and 
open to view the unbroken wilderness, the distant 
courts, the sparse population, the .solitary path, 
the overflowing streams, the miasma of undrained 
swamps; with memory only for a law library, 
with intricate points of law to settle, and legal and 
equitable opinions to render; no strife, no discord, 
all harmony; the modest joke, the quick but well 
received repartee, the friendly advice, all given 
and taken by men who knew each other to be 
rivals, proud of their honor, who held death pre- 
ferable to disgrace. Go a half century back and 
turn over the musty pages of the court house re- 
cords, and see that the old work was well done by 
those who were masters. 

Their life's work is performed, and they rest 
from their labors amid the illustrious dead, save 



124 



HISTOEY OF ARKANSAS. 



two. One is Gen. Albert Pike, wlio yet lingers, 
having since reached the crest of the hill, looking 
over into the great beyond; the other is Judge 
Bocage. Some passed long ago into the dream- 
less sleejj, some laid down their burden of life 
when seemingly but half way begun. Others la- 



bored along life's highway beyond the noon, and 
then laid them down by the wayside, closing their 
eyelids forever on this world's work. A very few 
climbed the heights to the crest, and feebly looked 
upon the lonely shadow ca.st by the dawning of a 
brighter day to where life ends and eternity begins. 



JeI'Ferson County— PnE-Hi.sTOUic Inhabitants— Removal of the Indians— Sakrasin—Fihst Wiiitf 
Settlement— Land Entries— County Formation— Seat of Ju.stice— Change of Boundaries- 
Physical Description— Drainage— Variety of Soil- Forests— Desirability as a Place 
OF Residence— Statistical Estimates— Public Buildings and Seat of Jus- 
tice — Transportation — County' Societies — Population and Finances — 
Political Outlook— Judicial Affair.s— Cities, Towns, Etc.— War 
Experiences— Scii0LAi5Tic and Church Matters— Official 
Directory— Selected Family Sketches. 



When the summer harvest was gather'd in. 

And the sheaf of the gleaner grew white and thin. 

And the ploughshare was in its furrow left. 

Where the stubble land had been lately cXcU. — LiiiKjfcllon 




ENTION has already 
been made in previous 
^Qi pages of this volume of 
that pre historic race 
of people known as 
Mound Builders who 
held sway long before 
the Indians and the French ar- 
rived in the Mississippi Valley. 
There have been found remains of 
these first inhabitants in the shape 
of mounds or pottery in Jefferson 
County, but so few in number as 
to be hardly worthy of notice. 

The Indian population of the 
territory now embraced in Jeffer- 
son County varied at different 
times, but the earliest known and somewhat tixed 
occupants of these wilds were the Quapaws, who 
claimed the land from the Mississippi to the Ouach- 
ita hills. Here they were even when the French 




Government began in 1689 in the west valley, or, 
perhaps, even when Hernando De Soto's body was 
sunk into "the great waters" to the east, nearly a 
century and a half before, and still they remained 
until near the first years of this century, when the 
last of their chiefs of pure Quapaw blood was asked 
by the United States Government to remove to the 
Indian Territory and make room for the whites. 
The aged chief, Heckatoo, submitted peacefully to 
this decree, and afterward died in that territory. 
They had no villages in this county, at least at a 
later date (1825), and the most noted trails led to 
Hot Springs. It is said that these aborigines first 
learned the use of fire-arms within the limits of 
this county. Sarrasin was the half-breed suc- 
cessor of Heckatoo, and, before their removal to 
the west, he perfomed a deed of open-hearted and 
heroic daring on the river, just below the capital of 
this county, that should always keep his memory 
fresh in the hearts of its inhabitants. A wander- 
ing band of Chickasaw Indians had stolen two 










PINE BLUFF. 

Jefferson County, AnKANSAa. 



C^^^L^J^ 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



127 



white babes from a famil)' near the river. Sarra- 
sin. whose generous impulses were moved by the 
frantic grief of the mother, jiromised her that at a 
given hour he would bring them back to her or 
never return. He set out in his canoe across the 
river where he located the Chickasaw camp, and 
lightly springing in the midst of the sleeping war- 
riors, he secured the babes, and then uttered the 
Quapaw warhoop. The startled (Jhiekasaws. l)eliev 
ing the Quapaws were down upon them in a body, 
fled pell mell into the woods, while Sarrasin, alone 
and with the two babes, entered his canoe and 
made good his promises to the now overjoyed 
mother. When grown to be an old man of ninety 
years and ready to die, he came back to the capi- 
tal, and begged tiov. John Pope (182U-85) to let 
him return to his old hunting grounds to die. He 
was buried at Pine Bluff, the first interment in its 
cemetery. A few of the tribe still live in the ter- 
ritory, as peaceful and generous hearted now as 
they were in their old home in the wilds, where at 
this day blooms into activity a briglit city of " the 
New South." 

The white population, which gathered about 
Arkansas Post with the beginning of French rule 
in 1089, under Gov. Sanville, just two centuries 
ago, soon began to overflow into territory up the 
river. The soldiers of Henri De Tonti furnished 
the tirst known instance of a white man locating 
within the present boundaries of Jefferson County, 
the point here being chosen because it was the 
tirst shelf above highwater-mark. A mixture of 
real fact, and some tradition, shows that Leon Le 
Roy, one of De Tonti' s men, deserted from "the 
Post" on January 13, 1690. He was captured by 
a band of Osages, who, it is said, kept him for 
fourteen years a captive in the Ozark Mountains, 
where he was treated as a messenger (and sort of 
mascot) of the Great Spirit, who wished him ven- 
erated as their guardian, and whose wrath would 
fall upon them if he was allowed to escape. A 
close watch was kept over him, but in the s]n'ing 
of 1704 he escaped and reached the Arkansas 
River, at the mouth of Mulberry Creek. He 
had only reached the site of Little Rock, on his 
way to Natchez, Miss., when the Quajiaws cap 



tured him, and, as they treated him with consider- 
ation, he determined to make himself one of them: 
he did so, and his, it is said, was the first white 
blood to mingle with that of the Quapaw nation. 
He became very prominent among them, and in 
1 709, when the arms and ammiinition of a party 
of Spaniards, who died in the southeast part of the 
State, of an epidemic, while en route to the settle- 
ments in New Mexico, were found by the Quapaws, 
tliey were brought to Le Roy, who was encamped 
near the present site of the court house at Pine 
Bluff. Here he taught the Quapaws their first 
lessons in the tire-arms by which he was afterward 
killed. The chief took the line.st gun in the lot, 
and for 109 years it was handed down from chief 
to chief until in 1818, when, on the treaty with the 
United States, it was given to one of the commis- 
sioners as an emblem of friendship, peace and fidel- 
ity, and now lies among the relics of the Smithson- 
ian Institute. 

Under the French governors, Sanville ( 1889), 
Bienville (1701), Cadillar (1713), de L'Epinay 
(17U)), Beinville (1718), Boisbriant, Perier (1725), 
Bienville (1732), Vaudreuil (1742), Keleric (1753) 
and D'Abbadie (17(53), there seems not to have 
been so much settlement within the limits of Jef- 
ferson County, as during Spanish reign under 
Govs. Ulloa(1767), O'Reilly (1768), Unzaga (1770), 
Galvez (1777), Miro (1785), Carondelet (1789), 
Lemos (1793), O'Farrell (1798) and Salcedo (1800). 
Even after the United States secured it, and from 
1804 to 1812, when subject to the power of the gov- 
ernor of Indiana Territory, William H. Harrison, 
it is not known at what date the squatters came in, 
but they came, and during the seven years before 
1819, when the Territory of Arkansas was a part 
of Missouri Territory, some settled permanently 
on the old hunting grounds of the Quapaws, and 
in 1819 the first permanent white settler located 
on the site of Pine Bluff. This was a French 
trapper and hunter named Joseph Bonne. It was 
in 1825 that he built a wigwam on the river bank, 
between Chestnut and Walnut Streets, on ground 
now caved in the river, near where Sarrasin had 
his camp, and where a rifle, canoe and dog for a 
long time constituted all his earthly effects. It was 



128 



HISTOKY OF ARKANSAS. 



at this date that John Derresseaux, of Pine BlufF, 
the oldest resident of the county, chose himself a 
plantation near Pine BlufF. A Mr. Prewett was 
also on the site of Pine Bluff with Joseph JBonne; 
their two log houses constituted the city. Among 
those scattered along the river on the north side 
were Ambrose Bartholomew, Antoine Duchesson, 
David Musick, Euclid Johnson, the Dardennis, 
the Duchessons, the Vaugines, Israel Dodge, the 
Widow Collar, Francis Villier, Racine (an old 
man), Mitchell, Mrs. Emery and son, the Masons, 
Mrs. Hackett, Vassar, Rigne, Barraque, Palmer 
and Holland; while on the south side were Bailey, 
Morrison, Arrington, with possibly a few others, 
who were chiefly engaged in hunting and the rais- 
ing of a little cotton and corn to vary their ex- 
tended leisure, and many of whose names are per- 
petuated in streets and townships. 

That there were settlements made here previous 
to the organization of the county has been shown, 
but no regular land entries were made, or at least 
none appear on the records, before 1829, except 
numerous private surveys undated. Those made 
daring that year were by Mary DuBoyce, A. Bar- 
raque, James Scull, Joseph Prewett, Allen Miller, 
J. S. Kelton, J. Boutwell, Stephen Goose, Joseph 
Snodgrass, Susan Crump, Robert Logan, Isaac 
Snodgrass, J. Russell, Robert Crawford, Abraham 
Shelly, Solomon Prewett, Ruth Wagnon and 
George Ivy; in 1830 there were John Boyd, John 
Sherley, Robert Hammond, Charles Curtis, Abel 
Johnson, William Marrs, Mark Bean, Hiram Tit- 
well, Polly Lawrence, Chester Ashley, Willis Mc- 
Cain, C. Aldrick, Israel Embree and Peter Kuy- 
kendall; in 1831, R. W.Smith, Thomas Trammel, 
Jarred Griffin, James Duchesson; in 1832, S. H. 
Hempstead, Martin Serano, Creed Taylor, A. Har- 
rington ; in 1833, D. F. Vaugine, one Imbraugh, 
Lucy Butler, George Flinn, a raan named Wall; in 
1834, John Emberson, I. Harrel, Thomas Phillips, 
John Cureton, Thomas Warren. Sr. , Levi Cum- 
mings and S. C. Roane; in 1835, John Pope, Arch- 
ibald Yell and J. B. Thompson. These were all 
previous to the year of statehood, and some were 
not residents. The entries made in a few cases 
were by those who kept in the van of settlement. 



entering land all the way to the Indian Territory. 
Entries after 1836 were most numerous in the 
50' s, and next to that period ia the 60' s. 

There were really no towns before Pine Bluff, 
where, after some efforts to locate it near Derres- 
seaux' s, Dorris', and at another site, the county 
seat was placed. The first mill was built at New 
Gascony by * Louis Gosserreaux; Stephen Vaugine 
opened the lirst store about 1825: Creed Taylor 
and the Vaugines built the first gin, which was 
patronized over a territory that would astonish the 
gin owners of the present day; Bradford had the 
first water-mill; Mr. Barraque opened an early 
store at New Gascony, which was named in honor 
of his European birth country; the first store at 
Pine Bluff was kept by a Mr. Fugate, and another 
was controlled by a Mr. Gibson. The mail, when 
it did come, was carried on horse- back. Deer, 
bear and turkey made hard work almost unknown. 
Shooting matches for beef or money were not un- 
common. The first election was held at P. B. 
Greenfield's, when Mr. John Derresseaux was just 
under age and was not allowed to vote for his 
favorite candidate, Henry Clay, in consequence 
of which his challenger lost a vote many years later 
when Mr. Derresseaux assured him he was still 
"too young to vote " — for him. 

If it be remembered that in 1813 a county was 
first formed by the Missouri Territorial legislature 
along the Arkansas River, and so given a name; 
and that the same body erected Lawrence in 1815, 
while in 1818 it formed Clark, Hempstead and 
Pulaski, it will be seen that Jefferson County must 
have been formed after Arkansas became a Terri - 
tory, as it did in 1819. It was a decade follow- 
ing this, however, and meanwhile four counties 
(Miller, Phillips, Crawford and Independence) 
were made in 1820, one (Chicot) in 1823; three 
(Conway, Crittenden and Izard) in 1825; three 
(Lovely, St. Francis and Lafayette) in 1827, and 
two (Sevier and Washington) in 1828. During 
the month of November, 1829, there were more 
counties made than in any other years except 1873 

* French names are spelled in various ways In the 
records. The most probable spelling is made in these 
pages. 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



129 



and 1833, there being nine and seven respectively 
in the last two, and six in 1829, all but one of 
which were formed on November 2. These were 
Union, Pope, Moni-oe, Jefferson, Hot Spring and 
Jackson. This was seven years before statehood. 

The law entitled " An Act to erect and estab- 
lish the county of Jefferson," was approved on 
November 2, 1829, and its first section provides as 
follows: "That all that portion of the counties of 
Pulaski and Arkansas included in the boundaries 
as follows, to-wit: beginning on the Arkansas River 
where the line between townships three and four 
south strikes the same; thence east to the range line 
between ranges nine and ten west; thence north 
along the west side of township three to the north- 
west corner of said township; thence east to the 
range line between ranges six and seven west; 
thence south with range line between six and seven 
to the township line between townships eight and 
nine; thence west on said township line to the 
range line between ten and eleven ; thence north 
on said range line to the township line between 
three and four; thence east to the beginning; be, 
and the same is hereby erected into a separate and 
distinct county, to be called and known by the 
name of Jeilerson. " " The temporary seat of jus- 
tice, " continues the sixth section, " for the county 
of Jefferson hereby established, shall be at the 
house of Joseph Bone [Bonne] until otherwise pro- 
vided for by law ;' ' and this act bears the signatures 
of John Wilson, s})eaker of the house of represent- 
atives; Charles Caldwell, president of the legisla- 
tive council; and John Pojie, the Governor. On 
November 17, however, a special act provided 
for the county seat question by the election of 
three commissioners of location — one for Vaugine 
Township, one for Richland, and one for the county 
generally, who were to consider offers, locate, 
build temporary buildings, name the site, and pro- 
vide for the sale of lots. This was done, but as 
no records exist here previous to 1837, it must 
suffice to say that Joseph Bonne's house on the 
river bank (the site of Pine Bluff) and other houses 
were the seat of justice for Jefferson County 
always. 

Changes were made in the boundaries Novem- 



ber 3. 1831, October 29, 1836, and March 20, 
1879, until the present territory was embraced; 
and municipal townships have been erected from 
time to time until the two townships have become 
nineteen: Barraque, Bolivar, Dudley Lake, 'Rob- 
erts, -Jefferson, Pastoria, Plum Bayou, Washing- 
ton, Vaugine, Bogy, Spring, Niven, Vaugine, 
Victoria, Richland, Talledega, Whiteville and 
Milton, a fair record for a sixty -year- old county. 

Jefferson County is one of the largest and 
most regularly formed in the State, and lies divided 
by the Arkansas River, within about fifty miles of 
its mouth in a direct line. Its hapjay distance from 
the Mississippi, and its proximity to the capital, and 
surrounded as it is by Saline, Pulaski and Lonoke 
Counties on the north, with Arkansas, Lincoln, 
Cleveland and Grant on the east, south and west, 
make its situation particului'ly fortunate. Its large 
territory of twenty-nine miles square, making 841 
square miles, or 538,240 acres, located in a latitude 
of 34° north (on 15° of west longitude), similar to 
the northern parts of Mississippi, Alabama and 
Georgia, and with a climate whose annual temper- 
ature averages less than 62° Fahrenheit, all serve to 
explain its rajjid growth and many of its excellent 
characteristics; for it must be remembered that the 
total population, which at the close of the war decade 
was but 15,714, is now very fairly estimated at 
nearly 45,000, nearly trebled within twenty years. 

But in order to understand this the internal 
qualities of the county itself must be seen; and, 
as in all these western undeveloj)ed regions, its 
future history is to be greater than its past, and 
now lies in emV)ryo in its fields, forests, minerals, 
rivers and the like, it is with far greater interest 
that these will be examined. 

Two general levels compose the county, as may 
be seen by the bluff at Pine Bluff, which indicates 
the difference in height to be comparatively small, 
while the whole county is about 800 feet above 
sea- level, and with a slope toward the Mississippi 
so gentle as to be practically a level. The higher 
level runs southwest from the Pine Bluff shore of 
the river, and embraces about one-third of the 
county in the southwest, the entire remainder be- 
ins: the lower level and water siarface. This water 



130 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



surface embraces the Arkansas River, wliicli enters 
near the northwest corner, and, taking an irregular 
course, leaves near the southeast corner, almost 
dividing the county equally; Plum Bayou, Bayou 
Bartholomew, three or four permanent lakes, and 
other shallow lakes and bayous to the extent of 
about '20,723 acres, or less than one-twentieth of 
the area, very much of which can be easily drained 
and reclaimed. 

Tlie land itself almost has no geology in the popu 
lar sense of the term, for it is all a deep loam, clayey 
and sandy on the iiplands, and alluvial delta on 
the lowlands, of great and ancient depths, the 
same soil having been discovered to a depth of over 
fifty feet, where ancient shells and prehistoric 
remains were found. This, having been washed 
down from the rich mineral regions above, preg- 
nant with potash and soda, and a wealth of or 
ganic and inorganic matter, has made Jefferson 
County the equal of any agricultural region in the 
south, and, second only to Washington County, 
Miss. , as a cotton county. In some places, as in 
Bogy Township, Dr. David Dale Owen found the 
strata to be alternate layers of red sand and 
loam, and dark stiff ■•buckshot clay,'" and several 
feet of white clay to the depth of about thirty-three 
feet, where water was reached, containing salt, 
soda, potash, lime, forms of magnesia, iron and 
silica, a composition very similar to the river water 
in dry seasons. The •' buckshot clay " is so called 
from its peculiar crumbling quality. In some 
places good soft water is obtained at a depth of 
twenty-one feet, as near Redfield, where it also 
breaks out in springs. At Pine Bluff a section 
showed about a foot of line silicious loam : sixteen 
feet of ash-colored and light yellowish grey loamy 
clay, with some gravel; sixteen feet of red clay: 
twenty-six feetof orange- colored sand, a little ferru 
ginous sandstone and yellowish gray sand. A sec 
tion at White Bluft' showed "ten feetof soil, sand, 
clay and gravel; ten feet of thin-banded light gray 
clay with sand; sixty feet of green marly clay with 
fossils underlaid by light and dark-colored marls 
highly fossiliferous. ' ' The well-known red sediment 
of the river, which has so much to do with cotton 
growth, was supposed by Dr. Owen to percolate 



into the lower soils, reaching the cotton rootlets, 
for good cotton will grow on sand bars where corn 
would not thrive. 

The growth of timber on such land has always 
been great. The immense cypress growth in the 
lowest parts has hardly been touched; the fine yel- 
low pine and white oak of the uplands have great 
futures before them; oaks of all kinds, walnuts, 
pecans, hickory, sweet and black gum, sycamore, 
elm, maple and cottonwood are among other more 
prominent species that avail the freer introduction 
of mills and factories. As to the cultivated prod- 
ucts, cotton and corn lead, but the slightest at- 
tention to small fruits and vegetables, especially on 
the uplands, is attended with the most happy re- 
sults; grapes, peaches, pears, plums, cherries, 
strawberries and raspberries would rival any region 
if anything like the attention was given them that 
cotton and corn receive. 

This situation, in connection with the mild cli- 
mate, makes a held for raising horses, mules, cat- 
tle, hogs and sheep that is unsurpassed, for the 
abundant vegetation renders systematic feeding al 
mo.st unnecessary the year around, and shelter is a 
remarkably smaller item that in localities farther 
north. While the expert stock raiser might not 
use this method, the far less expenditure for feed 
and shelter would be almost a source of wealth in 
itself. 

Cheap labor and lands, too, under intelligent 
and trained direction, have already been sources of 
rapidly gained wealth by planters even of small 
capital. The rich lowlands favor the large planta- 
tions, on which maybe found as high as 125 labor- 
ing families, chiefly colored, while the stream-cut 
uplands, away from the miasma of the undrained 
lowlands, have secured a large population of the 
well-to-do white small farmers. The plans in 
vogue by the large land owners are the lease sys- 
tem, rent system and share system, along with 
which the merchant-mortgage is a marked factor. 
The cultivated land is mostly in the hands of 
white men, and the great bulk of farm labor is done 
by colored people, who are sometimes improvi- 
dent and by laboring but a few days of the week, 
fail to acquire much property. There are notable 



JEFFEESON COUNTY. 



131 



and numerous exceptions to this rule, however, in 
which colored men are wealthy and employ white 
men, the most marked instance being Mr. Wiley 
Jones, a colored citizen of Pine Bluff, who is the 
only colored owner of a street railway in the world, 
and whose aid in public enterprises makes him one 
of the leading factors of the county among both 
white and colored. The peaceable relations of the 
two races is probably more marked than in any 
other part of the South, and they are characterized 
by the feeling that mutual safety lies in the real 
and industrial education of the colored race, by 
themselves and by the co-operation of the white 
people. A marked movement in this direction will 
be noticed in the proper place. 

The mineral springs are AVhite Sulphur, Can- 
trell's, Lee's and German's. The largest lakes are 
Noble's, Dick and Horseshoe. 

The lands are: Bottom, about 363,000 acres; 
upland, 175,000 acres; cultivated, 90,000; unim- 
proved land, cultivable, 370,000 acres ; vacant 
national land, 15,000 acres; railway land, 10,000; 
acres in cotton in 1888, 67,450; number of bales 
in 1886, 55,120. Average yields per acre: Seed 
cotton on bottoms, 1,400 pounds; upland, 800 
pounds; corn on bottoms, 35 bushels; upland, 15 
bushels; wheat on bottoms, 30 bushels; upland, 
12^ bushels; oats on bottoms, 40 bushels; upland, 
20 bushels; rye on bottoms, 40 bushels; upland, 
20 bushels; field peas, 50 biishels; sorghum, 100 
gallons; millet on bottoms, 1^ tons; timothy. If 
tons; red top, 2 tons; clover, 1^ tons; Irish pota- 
toes, 50 bushels; sweet potatoes, 150 bushels; tur- 
nips, 250 bushels; while water-melons, musk-melons 
and pumpkins are of noted size. Estimated tim- 
ber distribution: Pine, 637,735,000 feet; satin 
wood, oak, cypress, cottonwood, ash and hickory, 
about 1,913,205,000 feet ; shipment annually, 
75,000,000 feet lumber and 10,000,000 shingles; 
mills, about twenty-eight, equally distributed on 
the railways in 1887. Estates, * total, exclusive of 
railway lands, 1,797; number over 2,000 acres each, 
40; number between 1,000 and 2,000 acres each, 
44; number between 500 and 1,000 acres each, 78; 
number between 300 and 500 acres each, 54; num- 

* 1887, Arkansas Gazette. 



ber less than 300 acres each, 1,582; assessed value 
per acre, alluvial lands, exclusive of improvements, 
various distances from river and rail, $15 to $25; 
wooded or wild alluvial, $1 to $5; uplands in culti- 
vation, $5 to $10 per acre: wooded or wild up- 
lands, $1 ; all of which may usually be taken as 
about half of its real value. Acres of land taxed, 
406,145; assessed value, $2,478,617; assessed 
value of city property, $1,306,760; total value of 
city reality, $3,785,377; number of horses, 2,019 
— value, $79,179; number of mules, 3,113 — value. 
$166,195; number of cattle, 8,522— value, $55,742; 
number of sheep, 1,005 — value, $1,220; number 
of hogs, 5,076 — value, $6, 362; number of wagons, 
1,327 — value, $37,001; all other personal prop- 
erty, $1,027,421; total personal property, $1,373,- 
110; total real and personal, $5,547,747; county 
tax, $40,898.60; State tax, $21,617.73; total, 
$62,516.33; number miles of railroad in the 
county, 130 — St. Louis, Arkansas & Texas, 43 
miles; Little Rock, Mississipjsi River & Texas, 47f 
miles; Pine Bluff & Swan Lake, 26 miles; the 
Altheimer branch of the St. Louis, Arkansas & 
Texas Railway, 14| miles; stations on St. Louis, 
Arkansas & Texas Railway, 10; stations of Little 
Rock, Mississippi River & Texas Railway, 17; 
stations of Pine Bluff & Swan Lake Railway, 11; 
number miles of navigable river fi'ont, 162; land- 
ings between Pine Bluff and mouth of river, 27; 
landings between Pine Bluff and Little Rock, 18. 
There has been increase in nearly all items since 
1887; but, all things considered, the greatest 
growth has been in the last decade, greater than in 
any other in the career of the county. 

The county seat has always been on the site of 
the "City of Pines," even before the commission- 
ers had chosen the site, as directed in the act of 
the General Assembly, and named it from two 
natural characteristics — Pine Bluff. The house 
of Joseph Bonne was on land between Chestnut and 
Walnut Streets, now caved into the river, and 
served as the first court house just ten years after 
he located there. After that court was held 
in various rented log houses, but particularly in 
one on Barraque Street, under an oak tree which 
1 was destroyed in the great fire of 1877, and under 



132 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



whose branches many a pioneer court sat in solemn 
dignity in the open air. In 1839 Jacob Brump 
was given the contract for the erection of a brick 
court house, to be located on the site between the 
present court house and the river. It was 40 feet 
square, two stories, with an octagon bell tower, 
and cost $5,300, and a front view sketch of it may 
still be seen in the deed records of 1839 — the early 
work of Pine Bluff's present venerable mayor. It 
was in 1856 that this was superseded by the pres- 
ent structure, a two-story painted brick, 50 feet 
by 54 feet, with two one- story wings 20 feet by 40 
feet, and of a mixed fortress and Greek style of 
architecture. Jacob Brump was commissioner 
and George G. Keeler contracted to complete it 
for $15,000. Among the changes since made may 
be mentioned the removal of the court room to the 
lower floor, the extension of the front porch and 
the vaults on the northeast corner, while still more 
extensive improvements are iinder way, to cost 
about $22,000. The jails formerly used were not 
so good as the present one — a brick structure of 
one story,, located at the rear of the court house. 

The county has no poor farm. 

Its highways all radiate from Pine Bluff and 
are in good condition. The oldest of these is the 
old military road to Little Rock and down the 
river. These are the most important county struc- 
tures. 

On January 15, 1853, several citizens of East- 
ern Arkansas, among whom was Hon. J. W. Bo- 
cage, secured the charter for the Little Rock & 
Napoleon Railroad. Work was begun about 1858 
and by the time the war opened the bed was al- 
most ready for rails. This event, of course, stopped 
everything. About 1868-69 the members of the 
State government secured and completed it from 
Pine Bluff to Chicot — the first railway in the 
country. It was finished to Little Rock about 
1881-82, and is the now well-known "Valley 
Route." After this came the " Cotton Belt, " or 
St. Louis, Arkansas & Texas, completed in a 
general northeasterly course through Pine Bluff 
about 1880. It was not far from 1882 that the 
Pine Bluff & Swan Lake Railway — a narrow-gauge 
on the bed of the ' ' Cotton Belt ' ' to Rob Roy — was 



built oft' in the direction of Corner Stone and the 
east. The Altheimer Branch of the ' ' Cotton Belt, ' ' 
taking a northwesterly direction from Altheimer, 
has been in operation for about three years, and 
two other railways are contemplated. 

An agricultiiral society existed before the war, 
and one has been in active operation for several 
years past. The county branch of the Bureau of 
Immigration for the State began when that move- 
ment started and has been of great benefit to the 
county. The Jefferson County Medical Society 
was organized November 19, 1870, and has been so 
vigorous that the State society met with it in 1889. 
It has twenty-eight members. The County Wheel 
was formed in 1889. J. Ed. Murray Camp of 
Ex- Confederate Veterans is an interesting organ- 
ization effected in 1889 and has 190 members. 
M. G. Sennett is commander. 

Railway bonds to the amount of $100,000 were 
issued April 1, 1873, and due in 1894, bearing six 
per cent interest. Some of these have been paid, 
but otherwise the county is out of debt, and a per- 
manent sinking fund provides for continuous re- 
duction of the bonds without affecting the growth 
of the county, as its continued prosperity abund- 
antly proves. 

For the successive decades beginning with 1830 
the population of Jefferson County has been 772; 
2,566; 5,834; 14,971; 15,733; 22,386; and (esti- 
mated) 45,000 in 1889. In 1860 the white and 
colored proportions were, respectively, 7,813 and 
7,158; in 1870 were 5,566 white to 10,167 colored, 
and in the year 1880, 5,331 to 17,011 colored. 
The increase of negro population over the white 
in 1889 is equally marked. In 1880 there were 
395 foreign born persons to 21,991 native. 

The proportion of negro to white population 
just indicated has given Jefferson County that 
greatest of great problems in the South — the peace- 
able adjustment of negro and white government. 
Bixt great as the problem is the county seems to 
have solved it, for themselves at least, and in the 
best manner so far known. This has been accom- 
plished by the preliminary caucus of both parties 
in joint committee session, in which a fusion ticket 
is formed, composed of men of both races, among 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



133 



wliom tbe offices are equitably distributed ou the 
principle that, as the white man have the great 
bulk of the property, they shall occupy the offices 
that have most to do in governing taxation. The 
ticket made by this committee has no rival and is 
sure of election. This applies to local affairs only, 
as in j)residential contests the county has of late 
years been as thoroughly Republican as it was Dem- 
ocratic in ante-bellum days. The general satisfac- 
tion with this method is everywhere apparent, and 
is due largely to the influence of moderate and 
sensible men of both parties and races, who are 
making honest endeavor to demonstrate a very 
knotty proposition. 

The only court of especial interest is that of 
the circuit, which was provided for in the act of 
county erection. Its first record reads as follows: 
' ' June term, 1830. At a Circuit Court commenced 
and held by the honorable Benjamin Johnson, one 
of the judges of the Superior Court of the Territory 
of Arkansas, at the house of Joseph Bone [Bonne], 
in and for the county of Jeflferson, erected out of 
certain designated portions of the counties of 
Pulaski and Arkansas by an act of the General 
Assembly of the said Territory, bearing date of the 
second day of November one thousand eight hun- 
dred and twenty-nine, the county of Jefferson 
being one of the counties composing the second 
judicial circuit of the said Territory, and assigned 
to the honorable Benjamin Johnson to hear pleas 
in on Monday, the twenty-eighth day of June, one 
thousand eight hundred and thirty." It also 
gives these grand jurors: "William Arbuckle, 
foreman; Alex. B. Jones, Louis Darden, Wesley 
Tracy, David Musick, Antoine Duchesson, Asa 
Mason, John Manuel, Antoine Kelly, Alex. Slater, 
William Bailey, Hiram Reid, H. L. Allen, Raphael 
Brumback, Jacob Callicote, John Noble, Francis 
Darden, Samuel Davis and Wigton King." 

The first action was on the jurisdiction over 
Israel Emery in a murder case. The first court 
held in the town of Pine Bluff began December 
24, 1832. 

The legal fraternity of Jefferson County or 
Pine Bluff has always been one of prominence in 
the State — men, too, who have been prominent in 



govei'nmental affairs. Among the most influential 
from the lirst have been Gov. S. C. Roane, M. W 
Dorris, Gen. James Yell, Gov. John S. Roane 
Judge J. W. Bocage, Solon B. Jones, Capt. A. T 
Stewart, Senator R. W. Johnson, Col. M. L. Bell 
Col. W. P. Grace, A. B. Grace, Judge J. C 
Murray, Judge W. M. Harrison, R. E. Waters 
John S. Anderson, Maj. Herman Carlton, Col. O 
A. Bradshaw, Judge D. W. Carroll, W. M. Gallo 
way, W. F. Owen. C. M. Tannehill, R. B, Mc 
Cracken, Judge Ira McL. Barton, Judge H. B 
Morse, Col. M. L. Jones, Judge John A. Williams 
Gen. H. King White, Col. N. T. White, Judge J 
M. Elliott, Judge W. E. Hemingway, Judge M' 
S. McCain, Judge T. F. Sorrells, John M. Taylor. 
J. G. Taylor, Sam. M. Taylor, Col. John M. Clay 
ton, Judge W. P. Stephens, Senator John W 
Crawford, N. A. Austin, J. M. Cunningham 
Thomas J. Ormsby and others of briefer residence 
S. J. Hollingsworth is the most notable among the 
colored bar. 

The work of the courts of Jeiferson County has 
been characterized more probably by land litigation 
and debt than anything else. Its criminal prac- 
tice has not been very extensive or notable. The 
first case of execution was about 1847, when Judge 
J. W. Bocage was prosecutor, and Col. W. P. 
Grace, in his maiden speech, plead for the defense 
— the only criminal case he ever lost in his remark- 
able career as a criminal lawyer. Since that time 
there have been less than a half dozen executions 
in the whole career of the courts. Colored law- 
yers were not generally in practice until during 
the 70' s. 

The circuit judges who have presided over the 
circuit containing this county have been: Judges 
Benjamin Johnson Roysden, Euclid L. Johnson, 
Isaac Baker (1840), W. H. Sutton (1845), Josiah 
Gould (1849), John C. Murray (1851), T. F. Sor- 
rells (1853), John C. Murray (1858), W. M. Harri- 
son (1865), H. P. Morse (1868), John A. Williams 
(1874), X. J. Pindall, (1878), J. A. Williams 
(1882), and John M. Elliott (1888). 

In connection with the bench and bar of the 
county may be mentioned a list of Jefferson's 
citizens who served in Congress: Senator R. W. 



134 



HISTOEY OF ARKANSAS. 



Johnson, 1855 to 1861; Representatives R. W. 
Johnson, a part of the time between 1847 and 1853; 
A. A. C. Rogers (seat contested by J. T. Elliott), 
1869 to 1871; O. P. Snyder, 1871 to 1873; same 
(contested by M. L. Bell), 1873 to 1875; C. E. 
Breckinridge, State-at-large, 1883-85, 1885-87, 
1887-89, and 1889-91. 

Post-offices are usually centers about which 
■villages spring up, and, with that basis, the fol- 
lowing list in Jefferson County seems happily pro- 
phetic: Altheimer, Bankhead, Cornerstone, Dex- 
ter, Double Wells, Fairfield, Faith. Garretson's 
Landing, Greely, Greenback, Grier, Humphrey, 
Jefferson, Kearney, Linwood, Locust Cottage, 
Macon, Madding, New Gascony, Noble's Lake, 
Niibia, Pastoria, Pine Bluff, Plum Bayou, Eain- 
ey, Red Bluff, Redfield, Rob Roy, Sleeth. Toronto, 
Wabbaseka, English, Swan Lake, and "Williamette. 
But as far as the past or even present is concerned 
Pine Bluff and the county are almost synonymous, 
for the activity and much of the population cen- 
tered there from the beginning, and what villages 
now exist outside the capital are very recent de- 
velopments of railway shipping points. It is safe 
to say that over one third of the county reside in 
Pine Bluff, and that over half of these are white. 

As to ago, St. Mary's Landing and New Gas- 
cony store are the oldest, both settled in French 
times. Eob Roy and Pine Bluff were founded 
about the same time. Garretson's Landing and 
Wabbaseka are also very old places. Others have 
grown up within a decade almost. 

As to size. Pine Bluff, Redfield, Altheimer, 
Jefferson Springs and Rob Roy are the order of 
those that can be called towns. 

Pine Bluff is so thoroughly identified with the 
county that it seems superfluous to treat it sepa- 
rately. The land was entered in 1831, by Joseph 
Bonne, although he bad settled here as early as 
1819. This comprised the "old town." He soon 
sold it to John T. Pullen, one of the first English 
settlers in this region, who not long after di.sposed 
of it to " Pinkard, Chowning, Davis & Dawson," 
a firm of non-residents. It is variously claimed 
that the first lots were laid out by Mr. Pullen, Mr. 
A. H. Davis, in 1837, and John E. Graham, still 



later, but the probability is that Mr. Pullen made 
the first and the others additions or re surveys. 
About 1843 this company sold the site to Gens. 
James and Yell, and subsequent extensions will be 
found in connection with the incorporation. 

Besides those mentioned, one of the early fam- 
ilies of the place was that of James N. Buck, of 
whose children (Irving O., John L. and Eliza E.) 
Col. John L. lived to be the oldest citizen of the 
town. Another old settler was Drew White and 
family. Joseph Bonne owned the first tavern, 
which was kept by a Spaniard named Casamus, 
and the cooking was done by old Corey Brown's 
wife, a colored woman. James Buck and Drew 
White also had taverns at "the Bluff" until the 
war. A Mr. Fugate gave his name to a street by 
keeping the first store at the north end. Among 
other early business men were Messrs. Dorris, 
Maulding, Hewes, James, Scull, Tucker, Bird, 
Greenfield and Kay. * 

From this beginning ' ' the Bluff ' ' gradually 
began to be a river trading point; manufactories 
sprung up from time to time; a wholesale and sup- 
ply trade began to spread; men of large estates 
made Pine Bluff their home; some of the ablest 
legal talent of the State located, and finally the 
war came and caused general ruin to estates, busi- 
ness, and society, although the town itself was not 
seriously destroyed by anything but general decay. 

The period of reconstruction was one of slow 
growth, and it was not until about 1870 that the new 
Piue Bluff began to make itself known by a vig- 
orous but not intermittent growth, which promises 
to make it the rival of any city in the State. 
The new surroundings and independent movements 
of both races in developing the great cotton belt of 
this State have had their effect on Pine Bluff. It 
has made large increase in local capital, and as a 
home for large planters who are also investors in 
commerce and business generally, has contributed 
to the place a solidity of growth and structure 
plainly evident to the most ordinary observer. 

The manufactures of Pine Bluff began in 1850 
with a small foundry by Henry Cloyes; he after- 

*Aekuowledgment is especially due the Press-Eagle 
for many of these facts. 



JEFFEESON COUNTY. 



135 



ward added a corn mill and planing-mill. Will- 
iam Scull had a sash, door, and planing factory 
from 1857 until the Federal army took charge of 
it. The next factory was a similar one owned by 
the largest contractors in the county — Bell & 
Bocage, who had mills in various parts of the 
county, and a steam brick factory. At the time 
their works burned (August 23, 1878) they were 
the largest south of St. Louis, and of over 100 
employees about half were skilled mechanics. 
Their loss exceeded $60,000. In 1871 E. W. Bo- 
cage built his Pine BlufP Iron and Engine Works. 
The next were the Pine Bluff Agricultural Works, 
erected by a joint stock company. This was under 
the management of AV. J. McKinney. In 1875 
the Emma Oil Company began, and in less than a 
decade they had six presses of six boxes each. In 
1877 the Pine Bluff Oil Company began their 
works, but were soon absorbed by the Emma Com- 
pany, under the presidency of G. H. Blood. The 
foundry and machine shops of J. W. Bocage & 
Co. were erected near the Valley depot in 1879, 
and soon became one of the largest works of this re- 
gion. In 1880 the Jefferson Iron Works Company 
were organized by Messrs. Franklin, Preston and 
Hardin, and began work in the old Baptist Church 
bixilding on Barraque Street. The works soon fell 
into the hands of Preston & Prigmore. The Star 
Planing and Shingle Mills were opened in January, 
1879, by Smith & Riggin, with Mr. G. Morris as 
foreman. The Bluff City Lumber Company is a 
wood- working factory, successor to the O. D. Peck 
Company. The Ice & Coal Company have a large 
ice plant, erected in 188-1. The machine works of 
Dilley & Son care for that kind of work. E. L. 
Colburn has a gin and grist mill, and the " Cotton 
Belt" Railway division shops are large works. 
Several brick kilns are in operation, while a few 
drug tirms make patent medicines. Thomas Green 
has a general cart factory, and Mr. Currie's fac- 
tory for native wines has headquarters here. 

The Merchants' & Planters' Bank was organ- 
ized December 1, 1876, with a capital of $58,000. 
The First National Bank was formed on Septem- 
ber 2, 1882, with a cash capital of 150,000. An- 
other bank is in course of formation with a capital 



of $300,000. The Citizens' Bank was formed 
February 10, 1887, with a capital of $100,000. 

The city has two excellent street railways — the 
Citizens' and Wiley Jones — each with respective 
capitals of $30,000 and $25,000. The latter, as 
stated elsewhere, is the only street railway line in 
the world owned by a colored man. 

Telephone and telegraph facilities are excel- 
lent, and the Pine Bluff Water & Light Company, 
with a capital stock of $200,000, furnishes elec- 
tric light of 1,500 incandescent and 100 arc light 
capacity, and water with a domestic pressure of 
80 pounds, and fire pressure of 200 pounds to 
the square inch, and with pipe of size sufficient 
for a city of 200.000. The pumping capacity is 
3,500,000 gallons in twenty-four hours. The sys- 
tem of sewerage is good and has thirty-inch mains. 
The police and fire departments are well organized. 

The city has an immense cotton trade and has 
two compresses. Its wholesale, jobbing and retail 
houses are numerous and extensive, and increasing 
constantly. 

One opera house and two large parks — the 
Recreation or Citizens' and Wiley Jones' — repre- 
sent the amusement side of Pine Bluff, while 
White Sulphur Springs is the nearest resort. 

The incorporation of Pine B'uff as a town oc- 
curred on December 12, 1848, when its population 
was less than 400. This was known as the "Old 
Town," and included what is bounded by Walnut, 
Sixth Avenue, and Tennessee Streets and the river. 
The first mayor was James De Bond, Jr., and his 
council was composed of W. P. Grace, lawyer; Drew 
White, landlord and mail contractor; L. L. Mandel, 
merchant; Theron Browntield, carpenter. It was 
the duty of Col. Grace, the clerk, to formulate the 
first ordinances, which he did during about two 
months, and it is related that he was allowed $25, 
provided he would have them printed. As the 
printing cost him $24.50, his public contract 
proved to be a grand exception to what such con- 
tracts are popularly supposed to be. Many of 
these ordinances are still in force. In 1860 the 
place reached a population of about 700 or 800, 
and was incorporated as a city. The town had 
begun to extend west and south. Additions were 



136 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



made: Drew White's, 11 blocks ia 1854; James', 
18 blocks in 1854; Woodi-nff's, 73 blocks in 1855; 
Finnerty's, 7 blocks in 1855; Harding's, 72 blocks 
in 1869; James & Simpson's, 18 blocks in 1871; 
Tannehills & Owen's, 9 lots in 1872; Taylor's, 9 
blocks in 1873; WoodrufF's, 11 lots in 1873; Scull's, 
8 blocks in 1873; Allis', 14 lots in 1877; Vining's, 
10 lots in 1878; Worthen's, 9 blocks in 1879; 
Harding's, 83 lots in 1879; G. Meyer's, 14 lots in 
1880; Dorris', 57 blocks in 1881; Brump's, 7 lots 
in 1881; Mills', 8 blocks in 1883; Johnson's, 2 
blocks in 1883; Morris', 12 lots in 1883; Bloom's, 
13 lots in 1883; Tridock's, 6 blocks in 1884; Ring- 
ler's, 16 blocks in 1884; Gibson's, 10 blocks in 
1884; D. C. White's, 3 blocks in 1885; Oliver's, 8 
blocks in 1885; M. J. Scnll's, 16 blocks in 1885; 
Houston & James', 10 lots in 1885; Portis Land 
Go's., 21 lots in 1885; Pine Bluff Land Go's., 
35 blocks in 1886; Hudson's, 20 lots in 1886; 
Smith & Wheatley's, 22 lots in 1888; Rogers', 
13 blocks in 1886; D. White's, 11 lots in 1886; 
Sorrells & De Woody's, 14 blocks in 1887; Geis- 
reiter's, 35 blocks in 1887; Wilkins & Hauf's, 15 
acres in 1887; W. J. Hammett's, 22 lots in 1887; 
Wiley Jones', 15 acres in 1888; Fee Webb's, 120 
acres in 1888. The city is divided into four wards. 

Secret societies, as well as social and profes- 
sional ones, are extensively represented. Among 
those of the white people which have existed and 
are still in operation, are two Masonic societies, a 
Royal Arch Ghapter, a Commandery, Odd Fellows, 
a Jewish Order. Knights of Honor, Royal Arca- 
mim, American Legion of Honor, Knights of Py- 
thias, Knights of Labor, Grand Army of the Re- 
public, etc. ; while among the colored people may 
be mentioned the Masons, Odd Fellows, Brothers 
and Sisters of Friendship, Sons and Daughters of 
Lily, Knights of Pythias, etc. 

A public library exists, and the Merrill Institute, 
now nearly completed, will be a public institution 
containing library, reading room, lecture rooms, 
gymnasium, etc. 

The newspapers of the county began with The 
Jeffersonian, issued about 1847, by W. E. Smith, 
who was succeeded by a Mr. Wyatt. It was short 
lived. In 1850 Luckie & Carter issued the Pine 



Bluff Republican, and among others afterward 
connected with the paper were Messrs. Wells, E. 
H. Vance, Bushnell, Shepherd, and Jiidge Reed 
Fletcher. The American was a contemporary 
under E. H. Vance. W. Q. Dent issued the Pine 
Bluff Democrat about 1856, and Wells & Luckie 
began the Jefferson Enterprise near the same time, 
Mr. Luckie' s death afterward causing the joui-nal 
to fall into the hands of Fletcher & Williams, 
whom Gol. W. Williams succeeded. Lee & Doug- 
lass secured it in 1858 and gave it the name. The 
Independent. During the war H. B. Worsham 
published The War Bulletin, the first daily ever 
published in the county. For some time before 
1865 there was no local paper, but at that date The 
Dispatch was begun by Morton & Bowers, and 
later on was edited by the well known deceased 
journalist, Maj. J. H. Sparks. Very soon Lee & 
Williams established The Orthopolitan, which was 
replaced by The Southern Vindicator, by Williams, 
Lee & Ryan, of whom Gol. J. G. Ryan was the 
leading editorial spirit. In 1868 J. L. Bowers be- 
gan The Jefferson Republican, with which Messrs. 
Ira McL. Barton, J. B. Dow, F. K. Lyman, Frank 
Silverman, O. P. Snyder, E. W. McGracken, and 
A. R. Graig were connected. The Pine Bluff 
Press was established in January, 1869, by W. G. 
Thomas, with whom Maj. Charles G. Newman was 
soon associated, and who assumed full control on 
the death of Gol. Thomas, in February, 1874. In 
September, 1888, Newman & Ryan changed it to a 
daily, and in January, 1879, it suspended, and in 
January, 1881, S. G. Ryan secured it and resumed 
publication from April to October 9, when it was 
burned. It resumed on the 11th as a daily, but 
on the 1st of November joined The Eagle and be- 
came The Weekly Press-Eagle. The Weekly Eagle 
had been started February 28, 1880, by W. F. 
Bell, but at his death on August following, his 
brothers. D. C. and J. G. Bell, succeeded him. In 
November Bell & Mun-ay secured it, and Ryan & 
Murray made the consolidation. These latter gen- 
tlemen had control separately at times, and now it 
is in the hands of Arthur Murray. In May, 1881, 
Maj. G. G. Newman established the Pine Bluff 
Daily Commercial, which has been the only daily 



JEFFEESON COUNTY. 



137 



since. The Graphic was started by Judge E. 
Fletcher in 1887, and is now in the hands of J. W. 
Adams. The Hornet is a colored paper which has 
been in various hands. It was started by J. C. 
Duke. Outside of Pine Bluff, the only paper has 
been the Eedfield Star, by C. T. Munroe, not now 
published. A few other efforts have been made, 
but were short lived. The journals have ably rep- 
resented the interests of the community in which 
they have been so important a factor. 

Eedlield grew out of the Little Eoek, Missis- 
sippi Eiver & Texas Eailway interests, together 
with the efforts of J. K. Broadie, by whom it 
was laid out recently, although it has been 
a business point since early iu the present decade. 
It has about 1,000 people, and, besides general 
stores, has a large wood-working mill. Messrs. 
Fairman, Daniels, Sallee Brothers and W. C. 
McKinnis are among the leading men. 

Altheimer is the junction of the Little Eock & 
Eastern Eailway with the "Cotton Belt" line, 
and has grown up to a population of about 600 in 
the last three years. The Altheimer Brothers have 
been its leading spirits. Davis & McDonald are 
merchants. There are two cotton gins here. 

Jefferson Sjjrings is a recent lumber town on 
the Little Eock, Mississippi Eiver & Texas Eail- 
way of abou^t 150 people. It has two mills. 

Eob Eoy has a store and is the seat of A. God- 
bold' s plantation. It was formerly one of the 
most prominent river shipping points of this region. 

Among other places that have stores and are 
the seats of plantations are Bankhead, Cornerstone, 
Garretson's Landing, Kearney (mill), Linwood, 
Madding, New Gascony, Noble's Lake (the seat of 
Sol. Franklin's great plantation), Pastoria, Plum 
Bayou, Eed Bluff, Wabbaseka and Swan Lake. 
Other places are post-offices merely. 

AVhether or not the old French settlers, pre- 
vious to Joseph Bonne's day in 1819, took part in 
our early British wars, is not known. It would not 
be strange, however, if a few had participated in 
the affair of 1815 at New Orleans; nor is it improb- 
able that some of Jefferson County's inhabitants 
had a share in the Creek, Seminole or Black Hawk 
wars. They, of course, took part in what little 



border Indian warfare there was, but as the 
Quapaws were friendly this article has nothing 
of that kind to record. 

After the birth of Jefferson County in 1829, 
the first war experience it had to deal with was 
that of 1816 with the Mexican neighbors. There 
was no particular excitement, and all who chose to 
go gathered about Capt. John C. Eoane, the lead- 
ing military spirit of the county, and with him 
entered the northwestern part of the State recruit- 
ing, finally serving bravely in the famous ranks of 
Gen. Yell, of Buena Vista fame. There were but 
few, however, the total population being but 5,834. 
The excitement effected the county but little, and 
quiet reigned until the close of the great campaign 
of 1860. 

The general causes which figured in the great 
campaign ably represented by Lincoln, Douglas, 
Breckenridge and Bell, are so well known as to 
not necessitate repetition in these lines; but as the 
peculiar make-up of a county almost always deter- 
mined its action in that struggle it is well to glance 
at the condition of Jefferson at that time. In 1 860 
there was in the whole county a population of but 
14,971, of whom 7,158 were colored, and the 
white population exceeded them by 655, making 
7,813 whites. This shows, according to the 
accepted proportion of about five persons to one 
voter, a vote of little more than 1,500 to the county. 
It needs only to be mentioned that the county was 
then as now a cotton and corn slave-holding com- 
munity, to make it clear that the 1,500 voters were 
supremely democratic at this particular period. 
While there were a few votes for Lincoln and 
Bell, the mass was chiefly divided between Doug- 
las and Breckenridge, and the fact that the Hon. 
W. P. Grace, of Pine Bluff', was an elector on the 
Douglas ticket shows that there was no small 
Douglas sentiment afloat. The result was a general 
support of Douglas. 

The inauguration of Lincoln and the convention 
at Little Eock occurred and began the same day, 
and Jefferson had its time in choosing delegates. 
The Pine Bluff convention chose the Hons. James 
Yell and W. P. Grace, with the understanding 
that Northern aggression should be resisted — just 



138 



HISTORY OF AEKANSAS. 



how was not generally decided upon. Two inde- 
pendent strictly Union candidates were in the field 
also — Anthony A. C. Rogers and Horace B. Allis, 
but the election fell to Grace and Yell, who entered 
the Little Rock convention of March, and Mr. 
Grace was made chairman of the ordinance com- 
mittee. After the well-known recess before May 
6, Mr. Grace and his committee drew up the 
ordinance of secession which was passed as the 
best thing that Arkansas could do under the circum- 
stances, and with the one dissenting voice of Isaac 
Murphy, as elsewhere noted. 

Meanwhile, it must be remembered, the coiinty 
had two companies of State militia, which had 
been organized before war was thought of; one 
was the Jefferson Guards, formed by Capt. Charles 
Carlton and L. Donaldson; the other, formed 
early in 1861 by Capt. J. W. Socage, was known as 
the Southern Guards. During April a war meet- 
ing was in session at the court house at Pine Bluff, 
and among the speakers for secession were Messrs. 
Roane, Bell, Sorrells, Bocage, and others, while 
Anthony Rogers was the exponent of the corporal' s 
guard of a Union following. During the meeting 
Capt. Frank McNally reported to Capt. Bocage a 
telegram from Gen. Hindman that boats loaded 
with national supplies had passed Helena, were 
bound up the Arkansas River, and should be cap- 
tured by him at Pine Bluff. Capt. Bocage called 
on the meeting asking volunteers to .stop the boat 
as she was reported in sight. The assemblage re- 
sponded with alacrity, and Gen. Roane was placed 
in command. As the boats entered in front of the 
city they were ordered to stop, and by a shot across 
the bow of the one in the lead, the ve.ssels came to 
and their stores were captured. Capt. Bocage 
telegraphed Gov. Rector of the action, to which 
the latter responded that Jefferson County had 
"taken a high-handed step and must foot the re- 
sponsibility. ' ' They decided to ' ' foot ' ' it, and 
held the goods, which were soon after ordered into 
the State service by the Governor. Supplies were 
also captured at Napoleon. 

During 1861 there obtained the constant hurry 
and bustle of recruiting and organization at Pine 
Bluff', which became the headquarters and rendez- 



vous for a large surrounding territory. From time 
to time companies of the First Arkansas Infantry 
were formed here by Col. John M. Bradley, and 
about four of these companies were composed of 
Jefferson County men, while some were scattered 
through all the rest. The county court supported 
them. A few went independently, and in various 
directions, to Little Rock, and still others into 
Mississippi, many serving gallantly in some of the 
most famous actions of the war. In the Confeder- 
ate troops they were known as the Fifteenth Ar- 
kansas. 

The year 1862 was passed in much the same 
way, so that by its close about all the fighting force 
of the county was gone. The law directing the 
raising of less cotton and more corn gave the coun- 
ty an abundant supjjly of the latter commodity, 
which fell to ten cents a bushel. This kept the 
f laves fully occupied. 

The early part of 1863 passed rather unevent- 
fidly, but early in October Gen. Powell Clayton 
came down with a small force from Little Rock 
and took peaceable possession of Pine Bluft', with- 
out any attempt at fortification, merely holding it 
as a post. He had been here but a few days when 
Gen. Marmaduke marched upon the town with a 
much larger force, and, sending in a flag, asked 
Gen. Clayton to surrender. The General, of 
course, took time to consider the matter, and also 
used that precious time in hastily fortifying the 
corirt-yard and streets leading to it with the 
numerous and almost omnipre.sent cotton bales. 
After he had ' ' considered, ' ' he sent Gen. Marma- 
duke a refusal to surrender, whereupon the latter 
made an attack on all pides against the effective 
cotton bales, and after a few hours of severe fight- 
ing and the death of fifteen Confederates and 
eleven Federals, Marmaduke withdrew. This 
occurred in the forenoon of October 25, 1863. In 
the Methodist Episcopal Church recently torn down 
were found many of the bullets of that fight. 

Gen. Clayton soon thoroughly fortified Pine 
Bluff, as it then stood, by a series of probably two 
and a half miles of intrenchmeuts, in an irregular 
figure, about the town. He held the town during 
the remainder of the war, and, excepting ocea 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



139 



sioiial raids down to the Ouachita River, there 
were no subsequent events of military note. 

Under the Isaac Murphy provisional govern- 
ment of 1864, W. Williams and Reed Fletcher 
were representatives, and M. W. Galloway was 
the senator from Jefferson County. 

Reconstruction was as painful a rehabilitation 
here as elsewhere, but the wisdom exercised in the 
mutual efforts of the white population and the 
newly enfranchised race have resulted in the best 
solution of their difficulties so far tried in the 
whole freedmen realm. 

Pioneers have seldom found time and facilities 
for more than the most meager educational advan- 
tages for their children at home, and in this Jeffer- 
son County has not proved an exception. The 
early Catholic schools, under the care of the Sis- 
ters at St. Mary's, were the first to be called real 
schools, and it is unfortunate that more is not 
known of their excellent work. 

Aside from this parochial school, it is not cer- 
tain that there were any schools of note before 
1841. The wealthy ones secured a tutor for their 
family, and then sent their sons off to the colleges 
of Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia, while their 
daughters attended the most convenient semin- 
aries. Occasionally an educated young man might 
come along and have a short session of select 
school. These, however, began at Pine Bluff. As 
early as 1841 a pioneer Methodist minister, named 
Rev. Hunt, opened a school in a log house at Pine 
Bluff, under the auspices of the church to which 
he belonged. He was assisted by his wife and 
sister-in-law, and continued for a few years. Not 
long after this school closed Prof. Henry Sharp 
had a school for boys and girls, and about two 
years later he was succeeded by Dr. Barrington. 
Prof. Brander taught afterward for a couple of 
years, and others of less prominence. 

During the 50' s Col Alexander, of Virginia, 
opened one of those academies whose purpose was 
to tit boys for college. The institution flourished 
under the management of this able gentleman, so 
that he required assistance. Mr. John J. Martin, 
the present county surveyor, was one of his teach- 
ers. The school continued up to the war. Con- 



temporary with it was a school for young ladies 
and small boys, kept by Miss Wasserman, who 
opened the institution for a time after the war. 
Aboiit the same time a school was in session for a 
few years before the war, at White Sulphur 
Springs, and was taught by a Methodist minister. 
During the decade before 1800 one was also at 
Byrd Spring, under the management of Prof. 
Newton. Mr. John J. Martin held a school at 
Richland during those days. 

Since the war the private school has largely 
given way, although some excellent ones have con- 
tinued up to the present. About 1865 a school 
was opened by Rev. Cadesman Pope, who was 
later followed by a Mr. Holloway. In 1868 was 
started a promising school in the old brick Bap- 
tist Church, by Mr. A. G. A. Coleman, and his 
assistant. Miss Mary Cooper, but a year later the 
principal died. Miss Cooper wielded a consider- 
able influence in the educational movements of the 
county. 

The most prominent private school since their 
time is Prof. J. Jordan's academy, at Pine Bluff, 
which has been in successful operation for several 
years as a preparatory school for colleges. The 
convent school, in connection with St. Joseph's 
Church (Catholic), has proved a worthy successor 
of its somewhat ancient ancestor at St. Mary's, 
near New Gascony. 

Most notable among the private enterprises for 
the education of the colored people after the war 
were the school of the American Missionary Associ- 
ation, a recent mission school of the Presbyterian 
Church, Prof. Prewett's Commercial College, Miss 
Chinn's school, and the new industrial school 
movement among prominent citizens of Pine Bluff, 
headed by Rev. J. M. Lucey, pastor of St. Joseph's 
Chnrch. The Association school was bought in 
1868 by the city, and placed in charge of a most 
earnest educated man, a Mr. Martin, whose in- 
fluence in negro education has been very consider- 
able. The latest movement, by Rev. Lucey, pro- 
mises to be one of the most advanced efforts so far 
made in the South, and may prove that industrial 
education is a greatly needed step in the colored 
problem. 



140 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



One has but to glance at these figures, giving 
the number of teachers employed in the State of 
Arkansas in successive years, to gain a fair idea of 
the growth of popular education in any part of the 
State: In 1869 there were 1,335; in 1870, 2,302; 
in 1871, 2,128; in 1872, 2,035; in 1873, 1,481; in 
1874-75, no reports; in 1876, 461; in 1877-78, no 
reports; in 1879, 1,458; in 1880, 1,872; in 1881, 
2,169; in 1882, 2,501; in 1883, 2,462; in' 1884, 
2,899; in 1885, 3,582; in 1886, 3,691; in 1887, 
4,167; in 1888, 4,664. It will readily be seen 
that the greatest care and activity have been shown 
in the years of the present decade, and the most 
firm and permanent improvement in the last few 
years. 

The old school system was not a success, for the 
common school idea did not become popular until 
within the last twenty years, and the public school 
lands were, by the state of public sentiment, al- 
lowed to amount to almost nothing in the shape of 
revenue. It was largely the wealthy who could 
educate, and they hired private tutors to fit their 
children for foreign colleges and academies; or 
an occasional professional teacher would open a 
school to prepare students for higher schools. 
Education was a luxury which poor whites could 
not have, and, as for the negro, the idea was not 
entertained. Education, too, was pui'ely literary, 
such as it was in many other parts of the country. 
The practical and industrial phases of it are just 
beginning to be fully appreciated; the realization 
gains ground that industrial and practical educa- 
tion, not the literary alone, is a key to all success- 
ful permanent progress. None in all the South 
have been quicker to adopt such progressive ideas 
and put them in practice than the leaders in the 
educational movements of JefPerson County. 

It was Pine Bluff which led in the vigorous 
organization of the public school system in 1868, 
and the county generally soon followed. A tax 
was levied in 1868, and the election of school 
directors resulted in the choice of Messrs. R. W. 
Trimble, W. P. Grace, G. Meyer, S. McAlmont, 
J. T. J. Havis, and Ira McL. Barton. They be- 
gan with a fund of about .110,000, and, although 
the decision of the Supreme Court making the levy 



payable in scrip instead of currency made a falling 
off in funds, the directors arranged to build a 
school structure that would be an honor to the city. 
By the fall of 1871 the present fine high school 
building was finished by Messrs. Bell & Socage. 
It is of brick, and three stories, 64x68 feet, with a 
tower of 88 feet. Its cost was $18,000, which was 
paid by 1 876. At the same time they bought, at a 
total cost of $3,000, the building of the American 
Missionary Association for the colored people. 
Both buildings have since been so well fitted up 
that there is now abundant room for both white 
and colored children, who have equal advantages. 
Miss Ruth McBride, who has had charge of the 
city schools for some years, has been a great factor 
in their progress, and the schools have graduated 
several classes of good grade. The high school, 
enrolling over 300, with five teachers, and Pine 
Street school, enrolling over 200, with four teachers, 
are white schools; while the Normal, enrolling over 
160, with three teachers; Merrill school, enrolling 
over 200, with four teachers; Second Avenue, en- 
rolling over 180, with three teachers; and Cockrill 
school, enrolling over eighty, with one teacher, are 
colored. Annunciation Academy, enrolling over 
170, with eight teachers; Prewett's Commercial 
College, enrolling over seventy, with three teachers ; 
Jordan's Academy, enrolling over fifty, with two 
teachers; Miss Chinn's school, enrolling over 
twenty- five, with one teacher, are private white 
schools, while the colored are Prof. Crump's 
school, enrolling over forty, with two teachers, and 
the Presbyterian Academy, enrolling over 140, with 
three teachers. 

The branch Normal school of the State Uni- 
versity was secured to Pine Bluff largely through 
the efforts of ex- Senator N. T. White. A tract of 
twenty acres in the west part of the city was 
secured, and a fine brick structure, trimmed with 
Alabama granite, was erected in 1882 at a cost of 
$10,000. It has four rooms and an assembly hall, 
and all the appurtenances of a first-class school. 
It has been from the first in charge of Prof. J. C. 
Corbin, whose thorough comprehension of the 
needs of the colored people for teachers, the object 
for which the institution was founded, has made 



JEFFEESON COUNTY. 



141 



the school one of the lirst of the kind in the South, 
and its influence has aheady been widely felt even 
during its brief existence. Its final cost was over 
$42,000. 

The schools outside of Pine BlufP are all merely 
district schools, and have increased from year to 
year since 1868. The population is so largely 
colored, that they are principally in the hands and 
are composed of colored people. The general 
ignorance of this race in 1868 has made their 
growth in school management, although rapid as 
compared with their own condition, very slow and 
wasteful as compared with white schools generally. 
The fact that many school officers can neither read 
nor write has left the reports of the county in a 
lamentable condition until very recently, when 
some improvement has been manifest. 

The total enumeration for the year ending 
June 30, 1885, was 9,154, while there were 
11,567 in 1888; the white enumeration in 1885 
was 2,127, to 7,027 colored, while in 1888 the 
white were 2,755, to 8,782 colored; the white en- 
rollment (4,346) and the colored (5,609) in 1885 
compares enviously with 1,550 white and 5,003 
colored in 1888; a total of 9,955 in 1885 to 6,553 
in 1888, which seems difficult to account for, 
except by carelessness in reporting by district 
officers; that out of thirty-eight districts in 1885 
four voted the five mill tax, and twenty-nine out 
of thirty-four voted it in 1888, shows a remarkable 
development in popular interest; in 1885 there 
were ninety-six teachers reported, of whom sixty- 
two were males and thirty-four females, while in 
1888 there were reported ninety-five teachers, of 
whom seventy-three were male and only four 
female, a remarkable change as far as the sex of 
teachers is concerned; in 1885, the monthly wages 
ranged from $35 to $60, while in 1888 none were 
above $47.50; there were thirty one school houses 
— one brick and thirty wood — in 1885, to thirty- 
four in 1888, some of logs; but two grounds were 
inclosed in 1885, to eleven in 1888; the property, 
valued in 1885 at $21,597, was increased in 1888 
to $32,220; the amount expended in 1885 was but 
$9,844.15, while out of receipts which aggregated 
$47,880.62 in 1888, $32,585.04 was spent, over 



three times as much as in the former year, and by far 
the most of it was paid to teachers ; this shows that 
the grade of teachers is rapidly improving. No 
institutes have been reported, and improvement in 
the grading of schools has not been very marked. 
A very large proportion of the teachers are col- 
ored, and the fact of the location of the State 
Colored Normal School in the county has given 
Jefferson County a prestige and opportunity held 
by no other colored county in the State. 

There are really three religious periods in the 
history of the county, corresponding to the early 
French settlements, the slave -holding period and 
the post-bellum period. The first of these was 
Catholic, and the earliest church in the county in 
the first years of this century was St. Mary's, on 
the plantation afterward owned by Judge James 
Scull. St. Mary's Convent was contemporary with 
it there, and under the conduct of the Sisters of 
Charity, became one of the most famous schools of 
the Southwest, where some ladies of the present 
leading families were educated. The church was 
removed to Pine Bluff several years before the war, 
and will be mentioned farther on. 

The ante-bellum period was characterized by 
white congregations of the Methodist, the Episco- 
pal, the Catholic, the Presbyterian (O. S.), the 
Baptist and the Jewish societies. The Catholic had 
been here first; the Methodists had itinerants here 
as early as 1819, according to best authority, but 
not very regularly until about 1830; the Episcopal 
society came in next in 1838; the Baptists came in 
probably next, and were well organized by 1854; 
the Presbyterians became a fixture in 1858, the 
same year that the Jews began to make efforts to 
get a footing, although the latter did not organize 
until 1866. 

The post-bellum period is marked by the organ- 
ization of colored churches, and their marvelous 
growth. They are confined to the Missionary 
Baptist, the African Methodist Episcopal Church 
and the Methodist Episcopal Church denomina- 
tions, which sprung up in that chronological order. 

The Catholic Church seems to have fallen into 
the background in the county by 1850, when Eev. 
Patrick A. McGowan came here, for there was no 



142 



HISTOEY OF ARKANSAS. 



church at that time in the whole county. In 1851 
Father McGowan built St Joseph's Church at Pine 
BhifF, and in the year following erected one at 
Plum Bayou. In 1S55 and 1856 he built those at 
New Gascony and Noble Lake, called respectively 
St. Peter's and St. Paul's. St. Mary's was also 
rejuvenated. St. Peter's and St. Paul's each 
numbered about 500 and 200 respectively before 
the war, but the latter has since disappeared, and 
St. Peter's has fallen off very much. St. Joseph's 
has increased greatly, though the whole number in 
the county is probably not more than at the begin- 
ning of the war. The figures above include white 
and colored. St. Joseph's old building was 
removed and in its place was erected the present 
tine church and convent in 1867. Among the 
priests who have succeeded Father McGowan are 
Fathers Behan. Donovan. Clark, Ryan, Duggin 
and others. The present pastor. Rev. J. M. 
Lucey, took charge in 1873, and his progressive 
ideas have raised the church to an advanced posi- 
tion. The new industrial school now agitating is 
due to his initiatory steps. 

The Methodist Church had itinerants here as 
early as 1819, and from the earliest membership 
this region was, down to 1854, in Arkansas Confer- 
ence, but in that year Little Rock Conference was 
organized and has since covered the white mem- 
bership south of the river. The first "circuit 
rider" began regularly in the new town of Pine 
Bluff in 1830. This was Rev. John A. Henly. 
From that time on the growth was continuous, and 
in the great separation of 1847 all in Jefferson 
County were of the Southern branch. The col- 
ored people attended the white churches, and 
sometimes had services alone, although there was 
no organization. These churches increased stead- 
ily until now there are about fifteen churches in 
the county, with a membership of not far from 765. 
These are in various circuits: Pine Bluff circuit 
has the Main Street and Lake Side churches, with 
memberships, respectively, of 300 and 50, and with 
buildings valued at $20,000 and $5,000, respect- 
ively; Toledo circuit has Concord and Double 
Wells churches, with property valued at $1,000, 
and a membership of about seventy- five; Auburn 



circuit includes Hawley's Chapel and Salem, with 
some property and a membership of about fifty; 
Pastoria circuit has Flat Bayou, Raineyville, Pas- 
toria and Jones Chapel in it, with some 150 mem- 
bers and about $5,000 in property; in Redfield 
circuit are Macon, Goodfaith, Hensley, Redfield 
and Red Bluff, with about 140 members and $2,000 
in buildings. Pine Bluff and Pastoria have par- 
sonages, the former valued at $2, 500 and the latter 
at $750. The ministers are Revs. T. H. Ware, 
Horace Jewell, W. H. Browning, C. B. Brinkley 
and Josephus Loring, at Pine Bluff; Rev. Wilson, 
at Macon; Rev. J. F. Shaw, at Grady, and Rev. 
W. I. Rogers, at Pastoria. At Pine Bluff', Rev. 
Henly was succeeded, on the circuit including 
Little Rock, Pine Bluff and Arkansas Post, by 
Revs. Mahlon Bewley, W. A. Boyce, Fountain 
Brown and James Esses. About 1837 Rev. Will- 
iam P. Ratcliffe began, and soon the first church 
was erected in Pine Bluff, and used until 1857, 
when another church was built, the one recently 
standing at the crossing of the "Valley Route" 
Railway and Main Street; this cost $4,500. Revs. 
James Custer, R. M. Cole, James Graham, Stephen 
Carlisle, David Crawford, Mason B. Lowry, 
Nathan Taylor, Gideon W. Cottingham, and Am- 
brose M. Barrington covered the time until 1848, 
when Pine Bluff' became a station. Rev. Barring- 
ton until 1851, Revs. Lewis S. Marshall (1851-52), 
William T. Anderson (1853-57), James M. Good- 
win (1858), P. C. Harris (1859), John M. Bradley 
(1860), Columbus O. Steel (1861), Cadesman Pope 
(1862-66), James M. Pirtle (1867), W^ C. Hearn 
(1868-70), Henry B. Frazee (1871), Horace Jewell 
(1872-75), Charles F. Evans (1876-78), W. H. 
Browning (1879-84), E. M. Pitkin (1885), John 
F. Carr (1886-88), and Horace Jewell have been 
the pastors since. The present beautiful brick 
church recently built is the finest in the city. This 
is the only denomination of white Methodists in 
the county. 

The Episcopal Church is confined to Pine Bluff. 
Rev. William Mitchell, M. D., located at this place 
about 1838, under the direction of the Rt. Rev. 
Dr. Oatey, but he seems to have made no organi- 
zation. During his two years' stay he solemnized 



JEFFEKSON COUNTY. 



145 



the romantic marriage of Judge J. W. Bocage and 
Miss Frances Irene Lindsay, to attend which the 
gallant judge swam the river. There seems to have 
been nothing but occasional visiting missionaries 
down to 1860, of whom were Eevs. W. C. Stout 
and Bishops Oatey, Polk and Freeman. In 1800, 
when the diocese embraced Arkansas and Indian 
Territory, the Bishop, Henry C. Clay, D. D. , se- 
cured the services of Rev. Robert W. Trimble for 
Pine Bluff, and the first services were held in the 
old brick Baptist Church — since a machine shop 
on Barraque street. Rev. Trimble organized the 
church under the name St. John's. As the war 
opened, about !?4,000 was secured for a building, 
but the rector and many members joined the First 
Arkansas Regiment, the former as chaplain. He 
soon returned and reorganized the church, how- 
ever, and at that time changed the name to Trinity 
Church. From the battle of Pine Bhiff nntil Sep- 
tember, 1865, Dr. Trimble lived in Swan Lake, 
bnt during the latter month returned and re- 
organized in a private parlor. Subscriptions were 
again renewed, both here and in the East, by Dr. 
Trimble, and soon 14,000 was raised. Although 
the corner-stone was laid in November, 1866, the 
beautiful structure was not completed until Christ- 
mas, 1870, at a total cost of $18,000. After a 
long and active work, in which he baptized over 
800 people, the venerable rector's failing health 
led to his resignation in August, 1881, and April 
17, 1882, he passed away. In 1883 he was suc- 
ceeded by the present rector. Rev. I. O. Adams. 
Since that date the membership has increased, and 
mission services have been ojjened at Altheimer 
and New Gascony. There have also been added 
about $2,000 in improvements to buildings, and a 
pipe organ purchased at a cost of $2,200. 

The Baptist Church for white people has two 
branches in the county — the Primitive and the 
Missionary. Both came in at an early date, but 
it is not known which was first, probability point- 
ing, however, to the Primitive, who have but few 
members, and but one or two congregations each 
of colored and white. Bethlehem Church is the 
only white church in the county, about twelve 
miles west of Pine Bluff. New Hope Association 



covers it, and was organized in 1855. The Regu- 
lar or Missionary Baptists are confined to Pine 
Bluff, the white branch belonging to the Friend- 
ship Association, which was organized in 1872. 
Pine Bluff Church was first organized in about 
1854 by members and friends of the society, among 
the latter of whom Col. W. P. Grace was very 
active. Their church was scarcely built when it 
was destroyed by a supposed incendiary fire. In 
1857 a brick church was erected on Barraque street, 
and afterward became a machine shop. The pres- 
ent frame structure was erected in 1876 on Sixth 
Avenue, and has recently been improved to the 
value of $1,000, while a $2,000 parsonage has been 
attached. Rev. Lee was pastor from 1854 until 
the outbreak of the war, after which date the 
church, notwithstanding repeated efforts, remained 
disorganized until 1876. Rev. L. Quinn assumed 
pastoral charge the following year, and remained 
until he was succeeded by Rev. W. W. Tinker, of 
Kentucky, who continued but a year and left in 
1881. Two years later, after supplies had served 
intermittently, Rev. A. J. Fawcett began a five- 
year pastorate, and was succeeded at the close by 
Rev. G. S. Kennard for 1888. Since that date 
Rev. W. C. Golden has been in charge, and the 
membership has risen to about 140 persons. 

The Presbyterian Church, of what is called in 
the South the Old School, began with Pine Bluff, 
and has not secured a footing in the county out 
side of that except a colored mission. This church 
gives the presbytery its name. On May 15, 1858, 
Rev. John J. Boozer, of Sorith Carolina, formed 
the society at Pine Bluff', and continued with it as 
pastor until his death in 1864. No minister was 
then secured until October, 1866, when Rev. E. 
McNair, of North Carolina, entered upon his duties. 
Dr. McNair was an able man, and at the close of his 
pastorate, January 1, 1879, Rev. William Dabney 
succeeded him, but only remained until 1881, on 
account of failing health. In April of that year 
Rev. J. A. Dickson, of Millersburg, Ky. , was 
called to this pulpit, and in September assumed 
its offices, which he has ably filled ever since. The 
church building is a large frame erected in 1859-60, 
and the congregation has increased remarkably. 



146 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



reaching above 300. Their choir is one of the best 
in the city. They have also a colored mission. 

The Hebrew Church began the congregation, 
Anshe Emeth, at Pine Blntt', with the location of 
Rabbi Aaron Reinach, the same year that the Pres- 
byterians formed (1858), but no organization was 
effected until 1866. The few Jews in the city 
succeeded in building a synagogue during the fol- 
lowing year, and with the imjarovements since 
,made, the edifice, surmounted with oriental min- 
arets, reaches a total cost of $20,500. The first 
rabbi regularly employed after the organization 
was Rev. J. Bloch, who took charge of the congre- 
gation in 1868, and four years later was succeeded 
by Rev. M. Fleugel, of Quincy, 111. Rev. M. 
Greenblatt, of Shreveport, La., followed him in 
1876, and his successors have been Dr. Ruben- 
stein, and Dr. Baker, the present rabbi. The par- 
sonage was erected in 1878, and the society, under 
the sitccessive presidencies of Messrs. D. Asch- 
afFenburg, G. Meyer, Jacob Bloom, Sr. , Joseph 
Altheimer and Charles Weil, has prospered, and 
now numbers forty-eight male members. Their 
choir is one of the best in the State. 

The colored churches have sprung up since the 
war with a rapidity almost tropical in its lux- 
uriance. The denominations represented are the 
Missionary Baptists, Primitive Baptists, African 
Methodist Episcopal Church, Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and Colored Methodist Episcopal Church in 
America. The Baptists are offshoots of the white 
churches, the African is an independently formed 
body, while the last two were divisions of the 
Northern and Southern branches of Methodists, 
respectively. The Methodist divisions were made 
more recently than the Baptists. 

The Missionary Baptist Churches (colored) of 
the county have sprung up from time to time, 
ever since the first independent organization in 
1869, and even before the war services were held 
regularly, though unorganized. What was known 
as McGuire's church, at Pine BlufF, has been in ex- 
istence since before the war. ' The churches of the 
county belong to St. Marion Baptist Association, 
which was organized in 1868, and of which Rev. 
George Robinson, of Pine BlufP, is an aged and well 



j known moderator. They have over fifteen churches 
in the county, with a membership of probably 
2,700. Tbe largest churches are St. Paul's, Tay- 
lor's Chapel, Auburn, Cherry Hill, Hurricane and 
Lake Side. Their property is estimated at $11,000. 
The first church organized was St. Paul's, at Pine 
Bluff, in 1869, now the largest in the county. 

j The African Methodist Episcopal Churches of 

I the county were first begun at the time that body 
organized, and are now a part of South Arkansas 
Conference, which was organized in 1875, and of 
Pine Bluff district, which embraces twelve circuits, 
with a membership of over 1,000, and with pro- 
perty valued at about $15,000. The largest cir- 
cuits are Swan Lake, Round Lake and Bartholo- 
mew, while Pine Bluff station is the most extensive. 
The Methodist Episcopal Churches (colored) 

j are of the Northern branch, and separated from 
the African Methodist Episcopal Church. Those 
in JefPerson County belong to Little Rock Confer 
ence, which was organized in 1879, and only in- 
cludes about a half dozen appointments in the 
county, of which Pine Bluff is the largest, with a 
membership of less than 200, and a brick church 
valued at $4,000. 

The Colored Methodist Episcopal Church in 
America is a recent separation of the colored mem- 
bers of the Southern branch of the Methodist 
Church from that body. Comparatively little has 
been done so far. 

The Young Men's Christian Association of Pine 
Bluff was organized in 1889, and now have a fine 
hall in course of erection, which will be equal to 
any in the State, and is the gift of Mr. Joseph 
Merrill. 

Other religious and moral movements have been 
much the same here as elsewhere. 

The first officers of this county serving from 
1830 to 1832 were W. P. Hackett, judge; J. T. 
Pullen, clerk; Creed Taylor, sheriff; Peter Ger- 
man, coroner; and N. Holland, surveyor. The 
following include all county officers from date of 
organization, with terms of service: 

Judges: W. P. Hackett, 1830-32; Samuel C. 
Roane, 1832-33; Creed Taylor, 1833-35; H.Brad- 
ford, 1835-36; Creed Taylor, 1836-88; W. H. 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



147 



Lindsay, 1838-40; William Phillips. 1840-46; J. 
W. Boca>?e, 1846-48; James Scull, 1848-52; M. 
C. Hudson, 1852-54; N. D. Englisb. 1854-56; A. 
J. Stepliens, 1856-58; Z. Wells, 1858-60; I. Hol- 
comb, 1860-62; Z. Wells, 1862-64; L. S. Reed. 
1864-66; D. W. Carroll. 1866-68; D. Cunning- 
ham, 1868-72, with J. M. C. Barton. judu;e of crim- 
inal court; C. H. Rice, 1874-76; Frank Silverman, 
1876-78; W. D. Johnson. 1878-84; G. W. Prig- 
more. 1884-86; J. W. Owens. 1886 to present. 

Clerks: J. T. Pullen. 1830-38; E. H. Roane, 
1838-42; R. W. Walker. 1842-44; T. S. James, 
1844-50; D. B. McLaughlin. 1850-58; John De- 
Baun, 1858-64; D. C. White. 1864-66; W. P. 
Stephens, 1866-68; D. C. White, 1868-72; R. H. 
Stanford. 1872-74; R. A. Dawson, 1874-76; Paul 
Jacko. 1876-78; A. Niven, 1878-84: N. T. Roberts. 
1884 to present. The circuit clerks have been: G. 
W. Prigmore, 1868-80; A. S. Moon, 1880-82, and 
F. Havis, 1882 to the jwesent. 

Sheriffs: Creed Taylor, 1830-32; William Kin- 
kead, 1832-35; S. Dardenne, 1835-40; J. J. Ham- 
mett. 1840-52; P. F. Morton, 1852-56; J. G. 
White. 1856-58; M. E. Hudson, 1858-60; A. F. 
Kendal], 1860-64; C. M. Bagg, 1864-68; J. F. 
Vaughan, 1868-76; J. M. Clayton, 1876-86; G. 
W. Prigmore. 1886-88; Frank Silverman, 1888, 
present incumbent. 

Treasurers— Samuel Taylor, 1836-48; William 
Wright, 1848-58; B. F. Ingram, 1858-62; P. G. 
Henry, 1862-64; J. H. Hawley, 1864-66; B. F. 
Hancock, 1866-68; H. H. Kenyon, 1868-76; A. S. 
Moon, 1876-78; H. A. McCoy, 1878-82; O. P. 
Snyder, 1882-November 29. 1882; J. B. Truelock, 
November 29, 1882, to December 23, 1882; R. G. 
Austin, 1882-84; J. C. Battles, 1884-86; T. M. 
Phillips, 1886-88; C. H. Triplett, 1888 to the 
present time. 

Coroners: Peter German, 1830-32; , 

1832-33; Thomas O'Neal, 1833-36; J. H. Cald- 
well, 1836-38; Thomas O'Neal, 1838-40; J. Lin- 
berner, 1840-42; J. Brump, 1842-44; M. C. Wood- 
worth, 1844-46; Martin Snyder, 1846-48; G. H. 
Walker, 1848-50; A. C. Randolph, 1850-54; T. 
C. Johnson, 1854-56; A. C. Randolph, 1856-58; 
Wiley Clayton, 1858-66; J. M. Mitchell, 1866-68; 



E. E. Forbish, 1868-72; Ed. Price, 1872-76; J. 
T. Murray, 1876-78; L. Shields, 1878-82; L. B. 
Boston, 1882-86; M. C. Boyd, 1886-88; L. B. 
Boston, 1888 to present. 

Surveyors: N. Holland, 1830-33; H. Edding- 
ton. 1833-36; Thomas O'Neal, 1836-38; J. B. 
Outlaw, 1838-42; R. E. C. Daugherty, 1842-46; 
J. Brump, 1846-50; T. J. Ingraham, 1850-52; P. 
Simpson, 1852-58; J. Brump. 1858-62; John J. 
Martin, 1862-64; H. Seckendoff, 1864-66: John 
J. Martin, 1866 to present. 

Assessors: A. E. Beardsley, 1868-72; F. 
Havis, 1872-74; John Ellis, 1874-76; R. Motlej', 
1876-78; D. F. Ragan, 1878-80; T. M. Phillips, 
1880-82; M. Curry, 1882-84; T. B. Blackwell, 
1884-86; B. E. Benton. 1886-88; T. B Blackwell, 
1888 to present. 

Councilmen and Senators: W. P. Hackett in 
1831; J. H. Caldwell in 1833; not known in 1835; 
S. C. Roane in 1838 (Senate); J. Smith in second 
session of same year, and also in 1840; J. Yell in 
1842-43, and 1844-45; R. C. Byrd in 1846, and 
in 1848-49; N. B. Burrow in 1851 and 1853; A. 
H. Ferguson in 1855 and 1857; Thomas Fletcher 
in 1859, the special sessions of 1860-61, and in 
1862 when he was president and acting Governor; 
I. C. Mills in lS64-()5; Thomas Fletcher in 1864 
in the Confederate legislature at Washington, Ark., 
of which he was also president; W. M. Galloway 
in 1867; S. W. Mallory and O. P. Snyder in 
1868-69, and in 1871; J. M. Clayton and R. A. 
Dawson in 1873 and in the Gov. Baxter ses- 
sion of 1874; George Haycock in 1874-75, and in 
1877; H. King White in 1879: N. T. White in 
1881 and 1883; J. M. Hudson in 1855 and 1887; 
J. W. Crawford in 1889. 

Representatives: N. Holland in 1831; I. Bogy 
in 1833; not known in 1835; W. Phillips in 1838; 
not known in 1838; M. W. Dorris in 1840; John 
S. Roane in 1842-43; M. W. Dorris in 1844-45; 
Jordan N. Embree in 1846; Ambrose Hudgens in 
1848-49; T. S. James in 1851; A. D. Horsley in 
1853; George C. Tuley in 1855; Thomas F. James 
in 1857; Jordan N. Embree in 1859; F. F. Yell 
and James A. Hudson in the sessions of 1860-61 ; 
W. Williams and N. B. English in 1862; H. B. 



148 



HISTOEY OF ARKANSAS. 



Allis (speaker) and D. C. Hardeman in 1864 and 
1865; W. Williams and W. H. Connelly in the Con- 
federate legislature: Reed Fletcher and Witt Will- 
iamson, Jr., in 1857; P. Mosely, H. St. John, J. 
M. Gray, J. J. Williams, G. W. Davis, and Will- 
iam T. Morrow, for Jefferson, and Bradley, in 1869; 
William Young, (i. W. Prigmore, J. M. Clayton, 
R. S. Parker, E. G. Hale and Carl Pope, for Jeffer- 
son, Bradley and Grant, in 1871; A. E. Beardsley, 
A. J. Wheat, W. Murphy, Ferd Havis, V. M. 
Gehee and J. M. Merrett, for JefPerson and three 
other counties, in 1873; B. McGuire, C. C. John- 
son, W. W. Hughey, and A. J. Wheat, for JefPer- 
son and three other counties, in 1874; L.B. Boston, 
L. J. Maxwell and Ned Hill in 1874-75; C. H. 
Rice, Anderson Ebberson and William Murphy in 
1877; J. A. Hudson, R. A. Dawson and W. C. 
Payne in 1879; Carl Polk, ^Y. C. Payne and A. 
Ebberson in 1881; B. Waterhouse, W. H. Young 
and R. Sherrill in 1883; W. B. Jacko, Ed. Glover 
and S. H. Scott in 1885; Ed. JefPerson, H. B. 
Burton and W. B. Jacko in 1887; S. S. Wool- 
fork, Ed. Jefferson, S. W. Dawson in 1889. 

Constitutional Delegates: Samuel C. Roane in 
1836; J. Yell and W. P. Grace in 1861; H. B. 
Allis, Peter Finnerty and Thomas W. Clegg, Jr., 
in 1864; S. W. Mallory, O. P. Snyder, James M. 
Gray and William Murphy in 1868; and J. A. 
Williams, W. Murphy and Cyrus Berry in 1874. 



Robert R. Adams has been intimately and prom- 
inently identilied with the interests of JefPer- 
son County for a period of time sufficiently long to 
have acquired extensive acquaintance. He is a 
native of Twiggs County, Ga., being a son of 
Donald Adams, who was born in South Carolina, 
November 23, 1801, but who removed to Georgia 
in 1824, where he married Miss Elizabeth Ellis. 
The latter first saw the light of day in Georgia in 
1807, and there Robert was born February 26, 
1842. Mrs. Adams died in her native State in 
1883, her husband having preceded her about 
three years. In this family were nine children, 
four of whom are now living. Young Robert 
received his education in private schools, and on 



the breaking out of the war entered the army in 
1861. under 'Col. Anderson, in Company K, 
Eleventh Georgia Regiment. He participated in 
the battles of Second Manassas, Thoroughfare 
Gap, Richmond, Y'orktown, and several others, 
being finally honorably discharged, and he has 
now in his possession his discharge and furlough 
papers and numerous others, mementoes of an 
experience severe but honorable. In 1875 he 
came to Little Rock, where he became engaged as 
a planter. His possessions have increased most 
perceptibly, until, besides owning valuable prop- 
erty in Hutchinson, Kas. , he has about 700 acres 
in JefPerson County, Ark. , in cotton and corn. He 
is a Mason in good standing, and also belongs to 
the American Legion of Honor and Royal Arcanum. 
He is a Democrat, and a man of great public 
enterprise, keeping thoroughly apace with the 
progress of the day. Since 1879 he has kept a 
diary of passing events, in which he takes great 
pride. October 8, 1863, Mr. Adams married Miss 
Rebecca Perry, of Haynesville, Houston County, 
Ga. They have two children, Virginia E. (born 
October 1. 1864) and Mattie Joe (born April 5. 
1866). 

Rev. I. O. Adams, rector of the Episcopal 
Church at Pine Bluff, and a man whose character 
and influence are above criticism, is a native of 
Alabama, having been born in Mobile in 1852. 
James I. Adams, his father, was of Richmond, 
Va. , nativity, and a merchant in Mobile, who died 
at the age of thirty-five in 1855. The latter' s 
wife was Henrietta C. Bickley, of Mobile, Ala., 
daughter of Dr. Walter O. Bickley, a man of 
some prominence in that State. Samuel J. Adams, 
grandfather of the siibject of this sketch, of Eng- 
land, married a daughter of Judge Innes. of 
Frankfort, Ky.. whose family were widely known 
and influential in Scotland; they were early settlers 
in this country, and served in the Revolutionary 
War. James I. Adams was the youngest of a 
family of seven children, and was reared in Vir- 
ginia till the age of seventeen, when he went to 
Alabama. His son, I. O., grew to manhood in 
that State, and thei'e attended school. He took a 
literary course at the University of the South, in 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



149 



Sewanee, Teun.. graduating in 1S73, after which 
be studied theology, and in 1875 was ordained, in 
1878 taking priest orders. In 1883 he came to 
Arkansas, and for throe years was rector of St. 
John's Church at Camden. He then came to Pine 
Bluff, and has since been in charge at Trinity 
Church. He has been called upon to act in vari- 
ous otlicial capacities, having served as a delegate 
to the general convention six years, trustee of the 
University of the South six years, and president of 
the standing committee of the diocese of Arkansas 
six years, which office he still holds. The first 
four years of his ministry were passed in Texas, at 
Matagorda, where May 5, 1878, he was married to 
Miss Annie Barbour, who was born in 1857, and 
the daughter of William D. and Mary E. (Williams) 
Barbour. Mr. Barbour served in the Mexican 
War, edited a paper in Kentucky for several years, 
and finally moved to Texas, where he lived till his 
death, having held the offices of assessor and col- 
lector. He was a lawyer by profession. Mrs. 
Adams" mother died when she was born. To our 
subject and wife have been born Harry Thornton, 
May Brunson, Ethel Barbour, James Innes (de- 
ceased), and Mary Evelyn (deceased). Mrs. Adams 
is an active worker in the church, and a substan- 
tial and worthy aid to her husband in his efforts. 
Mr. Adams is a member of the A. F. & A. M., 
having taken all the degrees; is a Royal Arch 
Mason, a Knight Templar, and High Priest and 
Prophet of the Mystic Shrine, a member of the 
I. O. O. F., and secretary of the Royal Arcanum, 
belonging also to the Legion of Honor and the 
Knights of Honor. He is well known, and with 
his family enjoys universal respect and esteem, 

Altheimer Bros, are members of one of the old- 
est and most influential business houses in Pine 
BlufP. The firm is composed of Joseph, born in 
1842, and Louis, born in 1847, at Eberstadt, 
near Darmstadt, South Germany, who were the 
sons of Benjamin and Mina Altheimer, natives of 
the same country. Louis left home in his boyhood 
and came to America, settling in the far West, and 
Joseph followed three years later. In 1868 they 
both left the western country, and settled in Pine 
Bluff, where they founded the mercantile house of 



Altheimer Bros., which is now the oldest firm un- 
der the name in the city. Pine Bluff, as well as 
the whole of Jefferson County, at that time was 
known only to the outside world as the backwoods, 
but the brothers being far-sighted men, and having 
the fullest confidence in its future prosperity, in- 
vested every dollar in real estate and plantation 
lands. They opened up the land out of the forests, 
cut immense ditches to drain the water off, and 
converted many swamps into productive and bloom- 
ing farms, contributing alike to their own wealth 
and to the value of the surrounding country. They 
are also the founders of the young and growing 
town of Altheimer, which the St. Louis, Arkansas 
& Texas Railroad named in their honor. This 
town is situated eleven miles northeast of Pine 
Bluff', located in the heart of the most fertile land 
in Arkansas, and whenever the country tributary 
to Altheimer becomes more open and settled, its 
future is assured, as it is on the main line of the 
Cotton Belt, and is also the terminal point of 
the Little Rock & Eastern Railroad. The build- 
ing of this branch road is due to the efforts of 
Messrs. Altheimer Bros., who not only called it 
into life, but contributed very liberally to its con- 
struction. They erected a depot and donated all 
necessary grounds for side tracks, and also re- 
served ten miles of right of way free of charge to 
the company. The first house in Altheimer was 
built in the fall of 1885. Some years after be- 
coming established in Pine Bluff, Joseph Altheimer 
returned to Germany on a visit, and while there 
was married to Miss Matilda Josaphat, by whom 
he has had two children, Benjamin J. (born in 1877), 
and a daughter named Hennie (born in 1880). 
Louis also went to Germany, and while in Frank- 
fcft't-on-the Main was married to Miss Inlia Siiss- 
holz, to which union were born Ulysses (in 1869), 
Maurice (in 1872), Fennie (in 1874), Blanche (in 
1876), Beno (in 1878), Isaac (in 1880) and Hor- 
tense in 1883. Both of the brothers are among 
the leading men in commercial circles, and held in 
high esteem by the entire community. Mr. Louis 
Altheimer was nominated by the Republican party 
in 1886 as treasurer of the State, but was defeated 
by his Democrat opj^onent, Mr. William Woodi'utt'. 



150 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



W. D. Anthony, merchant at Humphrey, Ark., 
has been long and favorably identified with the 
social and business life of JefPerson County, and 
is one of its most enterprising citizens. Aside 
from his mercantile pursuits, at which he has been 
very successful, he is the owner of about 1,000 
acres of land, with twenty acres under cultiva- 
tion. He was born in St. Charles County, Mo., 
on January 6, 1835, and is the son of P. L 
Anthony, whose birth occurred in Richmond, Va., 
in 1810. His father was educated in his native 
State, and in 1832 moved to Missouri, where he 
met and married Miss Olive Boone the same year. 
She was a Kentuckian by birth, and her marriage 
resulted in the birth of three children, two sons 
and one daughter, W. D. Anthony being the only 
one now living. The father followed farming, and 
in connection kept hotel, running the Anthony 
Hotel (from whom it took its name) at Little Rock 
for some years. He died at Lonoke, Ark., in 
1879. W. D. Anthony was educated near Browns- 
ville, Tenn., and was there wedded to Miss Eliza 
beth Crist, a native of North Carolina, and the 
daughter of Rudolph and Miranda Crist. To Mr. 
and Mrs. Anthony were born three children, one 
son and two daughters, all living; two residing in 
this county and one in Noith Carolina. The 
mother of these children died March 15, 1874, and 
Mr. Anthony took for his second wife Miss Bettie 
Montgomery, whom he wedded on May 28, 1885. 
Her death occurred on March 8, 1888, and Mr, 
Anthony then married Mrs. Maggie Graham. 
June 20, 1888. She was the daughter of David 
and Mary Wood. Mr. Anthony keeps a good 
stock of general merchandise and has a thriv- 
ing trade. He is the postmaster at Humphrey, 
having filled that position for about five years, 
and also held the position of county surveyor 
for about two years of 'Lonoke County, Ark., 
where he formerly lived. In 1861 he enlisted 
under Gen. Ben McCullough. and his first hard 
fight was at "Wilson's Creek. He was wounded in 
the right breast and was discharged at Jackson- 
port, Ark., in 1865. After returning home he 
worked on a railroad for some time, as bridge car- 
penter. Mrs. Anthony is a Methodi.st. 



D. AschafPenburg, city clerk and justice of the 
peace. Pine Bluff, Ark. This prominent and 
much respected citizen was born in Albersweiler, 
Rhine Bavaria, Germany, on September 27, 1831, 
and is one of twelve children, nine now living, 
born to the union of Henry and Nanett (Meyer) 
Aschaffenbnrg, natives of Germany. The father 
was a Jewish minister and followed his professional 
duties until his death in 1870. The mother died 
in her native country nine years later. Of their 
nine children now living, three sons and one 
daughter are in America, and two sons and three 
daughters are in Germany. D. Aschafi'enburg at- 
tained his growth and received his education in 
the land of his nativity, and when nineteen years 
of age left that country and sailed for America, 
taking passage at the city of Havre. He landed 
in New Orleans, remained there for a short time, 
and in 1852 went to Jackson, Miss., where he was 
engaged in teaching music, but soon after was 
made deputy clerk of the United States circuit 
court. In October, 1854, he came to Pine Bluff, 
Ark., remaining there until 1855, when he went 
to Cincinnati, Ohio, and there kept books for a 
wholesale liquor house until 1860. He again re- 
turned to Arkansas and stopped at Napoleon until 
'April, 1802, after which he came to Pine Blufi' 
with the post quartermaster and remained there 
as chief clerk for the quartermaster's department 
until after the close of the war. For a time after 
the cessation of hostilities he was occupied in mer- 
chandising, and this continued until November, 
1869, when he was appointed justice of the peace 
of Jefferson County, having since held the office 
with a short intermission. In 1871 he was elected 
city clerk, the duties of which position he has con- 
tinued to discharge. He is also United States 
commissioner for the district of Arkansas, and is 
one of the representative men of the county. Mr. 
Aschafi'enburg was married in 1857 to Miss Han- 
nah Sommers, by whom he has six children: 
Fannie (wife of Emit Meyer), Lena (wife of Phil 
Simmons), Theresa, Rosa, Victor and Harry. Mr. 
Aschafi'enburg is a member of the Masonic fra- 
ternity. Independent Order of B'nai Brith, and the 
Improved Order of Free Sons of Israel. 



M. A. Austin, attorney at law, and an intlnen- 
tial and esteemed resident of Pine Blutf. is a native 
of Monroe, N. C, and was born August 12, 
ISfjO. He was the son of R. G. R. and Nannie 
(Crowell) Austin, both natives of North Carolina, 
who in 1867 emigrated to Drew County, Ark., 
where they located and remained until 1873, then 
moving to Pine Bluff. The father is still a resi- 
dent of that place. He has been a farmer most of 
his life, and has been treasurer of Jefferson Coun- 
ty one term. M. A. Austin was reared in Arkan- 
sas, part of his time being spent on the farm and 
also in the city. He entered St. John's College 
at Little Rock, and in 1874, when the Brooks-Bax- 
ter war broke out he left, and entered Emery and 
Henry College, at Emery, Va. , where he grad- 
uated in 1877. He then came home and began 
the study of law, under Carlton and McCain, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1879. Entering at 
once upon a siiccessful practice, he has since lo- 
cated in Pine Bluff, becoming well and favorably 
known as a member of the bar only less than as 
a citizen. Mr. Austin's iirst partner was A. W. 
Boyd. Two years later this relation was dissolved, 
when Mr. Austin entered into partnership with W. 
E. Hemingway. They afterwards took in John M. 
Clayton, who was recently assassinated, and Mr. 
Hemingway being elected to the bench, Judge 
"Williams entered as a partner, which firm now 
continues under the name of Williams & Austin. 
Mr. Austin was city attorney for two terms. He is 
also attorney for the Merchants and Planters Bank; 
the Missouri Paeitic Railroad; Pine Bluff, Swan 
Lake & Monroe Railroad; and Pine Bluff' Build- 
ing Loan Association. He has had several oppor- 
tunities to hold oiiice, but never desired to identify 
himself politically with public position. In 1882 
he was married to Miss Mattie Keeler, at Oswego, 
Kas. , by whom he has had two children, one 
now living, named Bettie. Mrs. Austin is a mem- 
ber of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Joseph H. Baldwin is one of the most prom- 
inent figures in social and business circles in Jef- 
ferson County. He was born in what was then 
Cass County, Ga. , on May 25, 1842, and is a 
son of Joseph M. and Harriet E. (Edmondson) 



Baldwin, of Virginia and Georgia, respectively. 
The father moved from his native State to Georgia 
when a young man, and was there married, and 
resided for a number of years near Greensboro. 
He afterward moved to what is now Bartow Coun- 
ty, in the same State, and from there to Cher- 
okee County, Ala., some years later, where he died 
in 1853. The mother is yet living in Floyd Coun- 
ty, Ga. , with several of her children, at the age of 
sixty-five years. Both parents were members of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and in 
politics the father was a Democrat. He served 
through the Florida War against the Seminole In- 
dians, and during the Mexican War he volunteered 
and went as far as New Orleans for the purpose of 
fighting, but the war was over, and he was never 
mustered out. He was a general mechanic and a 
genius at wood carving, being able to take an or- 
dinary piece of wood and turn out anything from 
a chicken coop to a steamboat, in proportion to the 
size of the wood. He built several fine vessels 
during his life, and amassed a considerable for- 
tune, but unluckily he ventured into steamboating 
himself, and his wealth was swept away entirely. 
He was also interested in farming to some extent. 
His parents were English people, who settled in 
Virginia at an early period. Seven children were 
born to their marriage, of whom five are now liv- 
ing: James M. (a well-known farmer in Cherokee 
County, Ala.). Elizabeth (widow of William Miller, 
residing in Floyd County, Ga. ), Julia Ann (wife 
of Martin Ingram, of the same county), Mary 
C, and Rebecca (wife of Elijah Morris, of Floyd 
County, Ga.), and Joseph H. The latter was 
reared and educated in Cherokee County, Ala. , 
and left his home in September, 1801, to join the 
Confederate army. He enlisted in Company I, of 
the Ninteenth Alabama Infantry, and served until 
May 16, 1864, when he was captured and taken 
prisoner at Resaca, Ga. On April 14 of the 
same year, he was released after a cruel confine- 
ment, in which he was almost starved, and was 
forced to enter the Union ranks. Later on, his 
company was sent out West, where they were en- 
gaged in fighting the Indians until November, 
1866, when he was mustered out at Fort Leaven- 



152 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



worth, Kas. While in the Confederate army, he 
took part in a number of battles, the most imj)ort- 
ant being at Shiloh, Missionary Ridge, Resaca 
and Murfreesboro, being severely wounded at the 
latter place by a gun shot in the right hip. Mr. 
Baldwin served with distinction, both in the Con- 
federate and Union armies, and has the honor of 
knowing that though he was pressed into the Union 
service afterward, he never fought against his for- 
mer comrades, his duties being performed on the 
Western plains. During his term of imprisonment, 
he was held at Alton, 111., and also at Camp 
Douglas, in Chicago. 111. After the war was 
over he returned to Alabama, and remained in that 
State until the fall of 1868, when he came to Ar- 
kansas and settled in Jefferson County, which he 
has made his home ever since. In 1867 he was 
married to Miss Mary M. King, of Cherokee Coun- 
ty, Ala., who was born in 1849, and died on De- 
cember 16, 1874. Three children were born to 
this union, of whom two are still living: Charles 
W. (a farmer in Grant County, Ark.), and James 
W. (who resides at home). The one deceased is 
Cornelia H., who died in third year. On June 
17, 1875, he was married to Miss Nancy A. Eick- 
etts, a daughter of Stephen Ricketts, of Marshall 
County, Ala., where she was born in 1847. This 
wife died in Jeiferson County, Ark., in 1883, hav- 
ing given birth to five children, of whom two are 
yet living: Joseph B. and Enoch M. , both resid- 
ing at home. Those deceased are Henry, Jacob and 
Lewis. March 6, 1884, he was married to Mrs. 
Anna Russell, a daughter of Reuben Short, his 
third wife having been born in Mississij)pi in 1853. 
Mr. and Mrs. Baldwin are both members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and the for- 
mer is a trustee of Bethlehem church. He has 
been a Mason for a number of years, and is one of 
the most j)rominent politicians in that section, giv- 
ing his support to the Democratic party. 

John M. Barrett, oae of the most prominent 
merchants in Jefferson County, located at Sher- 
rill Station, was born on the farm where he is at 
present residing on the 12th of June, 1855, and is 
a son of William C. and Ara Saphronia (Harris) 
Barrett, natives of Mississippi and Arkansas, re- 



spectively. The father came from his native Slate 
to Arkansas when the country around Jefferson 
County was one irnbroken forest and its only in- 
habitants savage beasts, and for several years after 
local ing here he was able to shoot game from the 
door of his house. He was a farmer all his life, 
and a prominent Mason, and became very success- 
ful later on when the country was more thickly 
settled, owning before the war about 800 acres 
of very fertile land and thirty- five slaves. His 
possessions were almost entirely swept away dur- 
ing the war, and his family had to again commence 
the bitter struggle against misfortune. His death 
occurred in 1855, and after his decease the mother 
was married to Dr. Sherrill, a noted physician of 
Jefferson County. The elder Barrett and his wife 
were the parents of two children, John M. and 
Elizabeth, the latter dying in 1856 when quite 
young. John M. received a liberal education at 
Jackson, Tenu. , and in Jefferson County. Upon 
reaching his maturity he commenced farming for 
himself, and for three years continued in that call- 
ing without any apparent success, owing to his in- 
experience, but at the end of that time fortune 
smiled upon him in a bright manner and success 
began to attend his efforts. He now owns some 
600 acres of valuable land, and Sherrill Station is 
situated upon part of it, he donating the right of 
way. Mr. Barrett has also embarked in general 
merchandising at Sherrill Station, meeting with 
fair success in that business. On February 18, 
1881, he was married to Miss Ada E. Quattlebaum, 
of South Carolina, by whom he had three children, 
Henry R., John M. and Eugene C. Mrs. Bar- 
rett is an earnest Christian worker and a member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Mr. 
Barrett is a conservative Democrat in politics and 
a valuable ally to that party. His interest is deeply 
centered in educational matters, and it is one of his 
greatest pleasures to give his assistance to any 
enterprise for the promotion of schools. His 
efforts towards advancing the industries and agri- 
cultural interests of Jefferson County have won the 
approval and admiration of his fellow citizens, and 
he is held in high respect by the entire community. 
William J. Bayliss, one of the best known of 




'U;/U 



pine buu ff. 
Jefferson County, Abkansas. 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



155 



the pioneer citizens of Jefferson County, was 
born near his present residence January 6, 1844, 
and is a son of William J. and Annie E. (Wat- 
ers) Bayliss, of Tennessee, the father dying in 
that county in the same year of his son's birth, at 
the age of thirty-five years. The parents were 
married in Tennessee and moved to Arkansas when 
the latter State was still a Territory, and inhabited 
by the Indians and a few French settlers. The 
elder Bayliss was a farmer and cultivated the land 
until his death in 1844. His widow was afterward 
married to Mr. Robert Alcoin, a farmer, who died 
in 1861. The lady is still living, and is a devout 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 
Nine children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Bay- 
liss, of whom five are now alive: Sallie (wife of 
Capt. Sam. Lindsay, a prominent merchant of Jef- 
ferson County), Anna (widow of Moses Emery), 
Louisa (wife of Mr. Hawkins, an enterprising 
merchant at Dardanelle), James E. (a well-known 
farmer and merchant in Lonoke County), and 
William J. (the latter the youngest of the family). 
William was educated in the schools of his native 
county, and had scarcely finished his studies when 
he shouldered a gun and marched in the Con- 
federate ranks to war. He enlisted in Capt. 
Davis' company of cavalry, in Col. Monroe's 
regiment, serving until his discharge in 1863 on 
account of disability. On his return home he 
found that it would be unsafe to remain, and he 
again joined the Confederate service, becoming a 
member of Capt. Greenfield's company, and served 
with distinction until Lee's surrender. Mr. Bay- 
liss was never wounded in battle, but has had some 
narrow escapes fjom death. At one time a bullet 
passed through his canteen, and on another occasion 
his horse was shot from under him. After the 
war was over he found that he had been stripped 
of everything he possessed and was without a dol- 
lar in the world. However, he went to work with 
a vim and energy that have since been crowned with 
success, and he is now a prosperous and leading 
farmer of Jefferson County. On October 6, 1869, 
he was married to Miss Eliza A. Lindsey, a native 
of this county and a daughter of John R. Lindsey, 
but this lady died on June 22, 1875, at the age 



of twenty-five years. Four children were born to 
this union, all of whom are yet living: Emma 
(wife of Joseph Foster, a farmer of Jefferson 
County), and Willie T., Minnie L. and Lind- 
sey E. (who are at home). Mrs. Bayliss was a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and a 
devout Christian lady. A great deal of her hus- 
band's success during her life was dtie to her sound 
advice and clear-sightedness, and her death was 
sincerely regretted by all. In 1875 Mr. Bayliss was 
married to Miss Ellen S. Cooper, a daughter of L. 
C. Cooper, of North Carolina, by whom he had two 
children: Walter J. and Clyde A. Mrs. Bayliss 
was born in Mississippi on the 12th of July, 1852. 
Both husband and wife are members of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, South, and take a deep in- 
terest in the religious and educational welfare of 
their county. Mr. Bayliss is a Democrat and has 
proven to be a valuable man to that party in his 
section. 

Col. M. L. Bell, attorney. Pine Bluff, Ark. 
The profession of law is, perhaps, as momentous 
and important a calling as can be found, and he 
who takes upon himself legal practice assumes as 
weighty responsibilities as the confidence of his 
fellow men can put upon his shoulders. It is a 
branch of human endeavor which brings into play 
the most brilliant talents, the most extensive knowl- 
edge, the strongest sentiments, moral, spiritual, 
material, and its power for good or evil is vast and 
invincible. As a lawyer whose honor is above criti- 
cism, whose ability places him in the front rank, 
and whose name is known and respected through- 
out the State, that of Col. M. L. Bell shines as a 
star of the first magnitude in the firmament of Ar- 
kansas law. He was originally from Wilson Coun- 
ty, Tenn , where his birth occurred on July 27, 
1829, and is the son of Robert D. and Elizabeth 
C. (Roane) Bell, the father a native of Mecklen- 
burg Coimty, N. C. , and the mother of Wilson 
County, Tenn. The Roane family were of Irish 
origin, and early settlers of North Carolina, Rowan 
County of that State being named in their honor. 
There were two brothers, Archibald and Hugh 
Roane, who were born in Virginia. Archibald was 
the second Governor of Tennessee, and Hugh is 



156 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



the maternal grandfather of the subject of this 
sketch. He was a prominent agriculturist, and died 
in Nashville, Tenn., as did also Archibald. Robert 
D. Bell was a successful tiller of the soil, and this 
occupation he carried on all his life, having died 
when only forty-eight years of age. The mother died 
in 1846. Their family consisted of nine children, 
five of whom are now living: Marcus L., Harriet 
(wife of Dr. J. G. Bridges, of New Middleton, 
Tenn), Mrs. Sophronia Penick (resides in Ala- 
bama), Mrs. Mary B. Nelson (widow, residing in 
Pine BlufF), and John S. Bell (of Pine Bluff, Ark^ ). 
Col. M. L. Bell became familiar with the details of 
farm life in early boyhood, assisting also in culti- 
vating tobacco, and received his education in the 
Cumberland University, of Lebanon, Tenn. While 
attending school the death of his father compelled 
him to abandon his studies. In 1849 he came to 
Little Rock, Ark., entered the office of Gov. John 
S. Roane, then Governor, and an uncle of his, 
and was the Governor's private secretary for four 
years. At the same time he studied law under E. 
H. English, a distinguished lawyer, and for sev- 
eral years chief justice of the State. In 1852 he 
was licensed to practice, and in April of the follow- 
ing year he located at Pine BlufF, where he has 
been in practice ever since. He is now a member 
of the firm of Bell & Bridges. In 1862 he enlisted 
and was appointed captain in the adjutant-general's 
office, served under Gen. Hindman, and was trans- 
ferred to Texas under Maj.-Gen. Sam. B. Maxey, 
where he served as chief of staff until the close of 
the war. He was first married in 1852, to Miss 
Juliet Roane, who died in 1877, and in 1878 he 
married Mrs. Ellen Lee, by whom he has three 
children: Marcus L,, Jr., Robert D. and Charles 
N. Col. and Mrs. Bell are members of the Epis- 
copal Church, and Col. Bell has been superintend- 
ent of the Sunday-school for ten years. He is a 
member of the Masonic fraternity, belonging to the 
Commandery, and is also a member of the K. of 
P. He owns 1,500 acres of land, with 600 acres 
under cultivation, and has considerable town prop- 
erty. He was for some years engaged in milling 
under the firm title of Bell & Bocage, and also in 
the foundry business. He has been a Democrat all 



his life, was elector for the State on the Tilden 
ticket in 1876, has been a delegate to all the State 
conventions, and is one of the most prominent 
lawyers in the State. He was attorney for the 
Little Rock, Mississippi River & Texas Railroad. 
He lost very extensively during the late war, and 
since by fire, but still has a good fortune. Col. 
Bell is a self-made man, and has won a name that 
will linger in the hearts of the people for many 
years to come. 

Thomas P. Blackwell, assessor of the county, 
and one of its successful farmers and planters, is a 
native of Georgia, having been born in Elbert 
County, November 17, 1825. His father, Hon. Jo- 
seph Blackwell, was a farmer by occupation, and 
served several terms in the State legislature, both 
in the lower house and senate. He participated in 
the Indian War in 1815, as lieutenant, and died in 
1851 in his native county. His wife was Eliza- 
beth McGhee, of the same county as himself; her 
death occurred in 1868 or 1869. They were both 
members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. In 
their family were seventeen children, only six 
of whom are now living. Thomas P., the sixth 
of this number, lived at home with his parents 
till his father's death, and, in 1852, he married 
Miss Zabiah Pruitt, of Franklin, Ga. There he 
located, following his marriage, and remained 
till January 18, 1858,. when with his family he 
moved to Arkansas. Mrs. Blackwell having died 
in 1855, leaving one child, Robert, he subsequently 
married Miss Kesiah Bond, of Franklin County, 
Ga. She died in Arkansas in 1868, there hav- 
ing been by this marriage three children: Ade- 
lizza (wife of B. A. Dockery, of Dallas, Texas), 
Anna (wife of B. P. Julian, of Pine' Bluff), and 
Nicholas T. (in the newspaper business in Dallas, 
Texas). In l870 Mr. Blackwell married his pres- 
ent wife, Mrs. Ada Logan, nee Griffin, of Tennes- 
see, who has borne him three children: Mary, 
George and Lucy, all at home. On coming to 
Arkansas, Mr. Blackwell located in what is now 
Cleveland County, on a farm which was partly cul- 
tivated. After remaining till 1873 he removed to 
his present home, a place well under cultivation, 
and devoted to the raising of cattle, corn and cot- 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



157 



ton, for which it seems peculiarly adapted. In 
January. 1S6'2, he enlisted in the Confederate 
army in Company C, Ninth Arkansas Regiment, 
and served for eight months, when he was dis- 
charged, later entering the Trans-Mississippi 
army, which surrendered at Marshall, Texas. Mr. 
Blackwell's admirable fitness for the position and 
the universal favor with which he has ever been 
regarded by the people of this section, led to his 
election as county assessor in 1884, and he was made 
his own successor in 1888, also assisting Capt. Ben- 
ton when he held the office. He has been school 
director, in which position he was very active, and 
has served as justice of the peace of his township. 
He is a member of the A. F. & A. M., and the 
Cumberland Presbyterian Church, of which he is 
elder. His wife also belongs to that church. Mr. 
Blackwell is a faithful public officer, and has 
demonstrated his ability to discharge official duties 
in a manner above reproach. 

Col. Joseph W. Bocage, mayor, Pine Bluff, Ark. 
From the biography of every man there may be 
gleaned some lessons of genuine worth, for here 
are discovered the secret of his success or failure. 
In the history of Mr. Bocage, one of the pioneers 
of the city, and one of it most prominent men, is 
found much to commend. He was born on the 
Island of St. Lucia, May 8, 1819, and is the son 
of William and Marrie Ann (Lavoisier) Bocage, 
the mother a niece of the celebrated French 
chemist, Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, who was the 
originatoi' of the gasometer and discoverer of oxy- 
gen. He was born August 26, 1743, and was guil- 
lotined on May 8, 1794, by the revolutionists of 
Paris. He was condemned on account of his 
wealth, and after sentence was passed, he asked 
for three days' respite that he might comjjlete a 
fine piece of chemical analysis, but that was denied 
him. The paternal grandfather, Joseph Isadore 
Bocage, was descended from an illustrious family, 
whose estates were in the old province, the Bocage, 
now known as the La Vendee, in France. He 
came to the United States, in company with others, 
in 1795, fleeing from the French Revolution, set- 
tling in New London, Conn., where he married 
Miss Elizabeth Coit, daughter of Capt. William 



Coit, of Revolutionary fame. Some years after his 
marriage he went to the Lsle of St. Lucia, where 
he purchased a sugar and coffee estate. He also 
engaged in mercantile and shipping business, 
dealing largely in sugar and coiJee, which business 
proved lucrative, and he became very wealthy. 
Ho died in 1818. William Bocage, father of the 
subject of this sketch, was born in New London, 
where he received unusually good educational ad- 
vantages, finishing his education at an English 
college. He went to St. Lucia, married, and died 
there in his twenty- first year, leaving a young 
wife and child, the latter then only five months 
old and the subject of this sketch. William Bo- 
cage was' one of tlfree sons — Joseph, William and 
Charles. Josep)h went supercargo of one of his 
father's vessels, and died in Boston harbor. 
Charles went to France when sixteen years of age, 
attended military school, and became a French 
officer of prominence. He was killed in the Crim- 
ean War, while storming Inkerman heights. The 
act of the British Parliament, known as the Wil- 
berforce and Chaning act of emancipation, freeing 
the slaves, caused the survivors of the family to 
come to the United States. Joseph W. Bocage 
was then three years of age, and could speak only 
the French language. They made their home in 
New York City, where the mother died, and was 
buried in old Trinity church-yard. His mother, 
while on her death-bed, gave her son to a paternal 
cousin, Miss Sarah Ann Lillington, of Wilmington, 
N. C. , a daughter of Gen. John A. Lillington, of 
Revolutionary fame, with whom he remained until 
sixteen years of age, attending the best schools dur- 
ing that time. The Lillington family were wealthy, 
which fact enabled his foster-mother to give him ex- 
cellent opportunities for acquiring an education. 
Seeing he could expect nothing from his St. Lucia 
estate, and knowing he must seek his own fortune, 
he decided to venture at once, and at sixteen years 
of age he launched out upon the troubled sea of life 
— his own pilot — going first to Connecticut, thence 
to Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, thence 
down the Mississippi to Vicksburg, remaining there 
some months. In 1830, and in his eighteenth year, 
he landed in Columbia, Chicot County, Ark. , where 



]r)8 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



he remained for about a year, and where he be- 
gan the study of medicine, but gave it up. and in 
the latter part of 1837 he landed in Pine Bluff, 
Ark., when there were but eight log houses and 
one frame building, erected by one Cassanus, a 
Spaniard, and aaother imder course of erection 
for a tavern. After a few months' delay here 
Mr. Bocage entered the law office of Gen. James 
Yell, studied law, and in 1840 was admitted to the 
bar. He is now one of two survivors of the 
bar of 1840, the other one being the illustrious and 
venerable Gen. Albert Pike of Washington City. 
Mr. Bocage practiced his profession here for 
years, aud was attorney for the State for the 
Second judicial district from 1844 to 1849, being 
also judge of the county court. He was also school 
commissioner of the entire county under the old 
law, for four years, and during that time held all 
the funds for the county. He held a number of 
special commissions and now has in his possession 
eleven civil commissions. The excellent manner 
in which he discharged his official duties is too 
well known to need any additional words of com- 
pliment; suffice it to say that no man ever filled 
the office in so capable and efficient a manner. On 
the breaking out of the Civil War he, in conjunc- 
tion with Gen. Thomas Hindman. raised the Second 
Arkansas Infantry Regiment. Early in the war 
Mr. Bocage was commissioned lieutenant colonel, 
and when Col. Hindman was promoted to briga- 
dier, Lieut. -Col. Bocage was made colonel, serving 
in that capacity the tir.st year of the war. He was 
transferred to Texas to build up manufacturing 
interests for the Confederacy, and remained there 
until the close of the war. He built at Mound 
Prairie, in Anderson County, a number of manu- 
factories—cotton, wool, shoes, clothing and nearly 
all army supplies of like character. The great 
difficulty in procuring proper machinery made his 
task a trying one. He was courteous and 
kind to every one, and is well known and highly 
respected throughout Texas. He surrendered to 
Gen. Herron at Shreveport, La., in 1865. Re- 
turning to his old home at Pine Bluff, he cast 
about him to see what next, and finding that his 
town has been the scene of a battle and was greatlv 



damaged. Col. Bocage decided to go into the 
lumber and building business. He formed a part- 
nership with Col. M. L. Bell, and actively engaged 
in repairing and rebuilding the city, and in connec- 
tion with their saw mills and contracting, the firm 
erected an immense planing-mill and sash and 
door factory, which together with a large lot of 
lumber was entirely destroyed by fire on August 
23, 1873, without insurance. With wonderful 
pluck and energy the firm rebuilt and started the 
new works on the 1st of November following the 
fire. This business was carried on until 1876. 
Col. Bocage has done more to build up Pine Bluff 
than any other man. With others he engaged in 
the cotton-seed oil business, and also iu the 
foundry business, and manufactured steam engines 
and cotton presses, carrying on this industry until 
the latter part of 1887, when he sold out. He has 
been a valuable man of the city, and is respected 
and esteemed for his sterling integrity, sober, 
sound judgment, broad intelligence and liberal 
progressive ideas. In April, 1888, he was elected 
mayor of his city by a large majority over his op- 
ponent, a man who was believed to be invincible. 
On taking his seat, he found much work to be done, 
set about to do it with his characteristic energy, 
and is now clearing it up as rapidly as possible. 
Although in his seventy-first year, Col. Bocage is 
remarkably well preserved and bids fair to live 
many years. Col. Bocage was married May 2!2, 
1840, to Miss Frances S. Lindsay, a daughter of 
Mr. William H. Lindsay, of Fairfax County, Va., 
and by her he became the father of thirteen chil- 
dren, six of whom are living: Mary Etta (wife of 
John M. Smith, and a teacher in the high school 
at Pine Bluff), Edward Washington (educated at 
Washiogton and Lee University, and an accom- 
plished machinist), Frances Irene, Flora Toin- 
ette (wife of Willis R. Smith, a fine civil engi- 
neer), Charles William (city engineer), and Annie 
Reyburn. Col. Bocage is a Royal Arch Mason, one 
of the oldest members in the county. He is a 
member of the Episcopal Church, of which he is 
one of the organizers, having been a vestryman 
fi'om the first planting of the church in Pine Bluff. 
He has always been a Democrat politically. 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



159 



Thomas W. Boisclair, is a native of Rich- 
mond County, Ga. , where he was born on Sep- 
tember 26, 1829, being the sou of Peter F. Bois- 
clair, whose birth occurred in New Jersey in 1796, 
and who was educated in Augusta, Ga. The lat- 
ter, after growing up, married Miss Maria Wray, 
a native of Richmond, Va. , and the fruits of this 
union were ten children, six sons and four daugh- 
ters, of whom three are now living, two sons and 
a daughter. Peter F. Boisclair was a farmer and 
miller by occupation and was quite well off. He 
owned about 2,600 acres of pine lands near Au- 
gusta, Ga. , 800 acres of which were under cultiva- 
tion, and he was acknowledged to be an honest, 
industrious citizen. He was also very prominent 
in the political affairs of the day, having served as 
sheriff of the county for twenty years and as 
deputy United States marshal for four years. He 
was a member of the Masonic lodge and held 
some of the principal offices. During the War of 
1812 he served as a private until 1815, when he 
was discharged and returned home, there entering 
upon a clerkiship in a commission house. He 
and wife were both church members, he of the 
Catholic and she of the Baptist Chui-ch. They 
died in 1848 and 1859, respectively. Thomas W. 
Boisclair was educated in Augusta, Ga. , receiving 
his diploma in 1848, and in 1853 moved to Mis- 
sissippi, where he married Miss E. E. Murray 
on June 15, 1854. She was also a native of 
Georgia, and the daughter of Col. Thomas and 
Elizabeth Murray. To Mr. and Mrs. Boisclair 
have been born seven children, five sons and two 
daughters, but of these only five are now living: 
Thomas M., Mitchel D., Maria E., Henry S. (de- 
ceased). William W., Mary C. (who died in infancy ), 
and Pierre F. Mr. Boisclair moved from Missis- 
sippi to Arkansas in 1877, and he, like his father, 
is a successful tiller of the soil. He belongs to 
the Masonic lodge, in which he has held a mem- 
bership since October, 1854. He has discharged 
the duties connected with the office of magistrate 
and is a much respected citizen. Mrs. Boisclair is 
a member of the Baptist Church. 

A. Brewster, a prominent brick manufacturer, 
and a member of the firm of Brewster & Lefler, 



is a native of Giles County, Tenn.. where he was 
born in the year 1839. His parents were Thomas 
and Mary Brewster, natives of England, who were 
married in that country, and came to America at 
an early period, first settling in Tennessee. In 
1841 they moved to Mississippi and located in 
Tishomingo County, but in 1859 again changed 
their location to Arkansas and settled in Drew 
County, where the father embarked in mercantile 
life, and resided for the rest of his days. He was 
killed in 1867, accidentally, either by a mule or a 
negro, the true facts have never been brought to 
light, while the mother died two years previous. 
Thirteen children were born to their marriage, of 
whom six are yet living: Mrs. Taylor (residing in 
Mississippi), Albert, Robert, Alphonse and James 
G. A. Brewster, the principal in this sketch, was 
reared in Mississippi, and received a limited edu- 
cation in the schools of that State, but by self tui- 
tion he gained considerable knowledge, which, 
added to his own quick perception and natural 
shrewdness, made him fully able to cope with the 
world in after life. In 1858 he came to Drew 
County, Ark., and followed various pursuits until 
the Civil War commenced. He then enlisted in 
Company F, Ninth Arkansas Infantry, and served 
gallantly until the surrender. He received a 
wound at the battle of Shiloh, and also at Corinth, 
and on July 19, 1864, he was again wounded at 
the battle of Peach Tree Creek. The following 
day he received a rifle ball in the left thigh, but in 
spite of his battered condition kept right on in the 
front ranks. After the war was over Mr. Brew- 
ster came back to Drew County and resided there 
for a short time. He then moved to what is now 
Cleveland County, where he farmed and carried 
on a general merchandise store until the year 1880, 
when he came to Pine Bluff, his present home. 
He here established a wholesale and retail grocery 
business, in which he continued with success for 
some time, and in the spring of 1888 he opened up 
a brick yard, now one of the best paying indus- 
tries in that section. Mr. Brewster is also largely 
interested in the real estate business, and in a 
financial sense is one of the most solid men in Pine 
Bluff. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity. 



160 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS, 



belonging to the Chapter, Commandery and Noble 
Mystic Shrine. In 1865 he was married to Miss 
Alabama Harper, of Arkansas, by whom he has 
had eight children: Lulu, Edgar, Oscar F., Ophe- 
lia, Garland H. , Alphonse, Arthur and Cliiford B. 
Mr. and Mrs. Brewster are members of the Lake- 
side Methodist Episcopal Church, and are liberal 
in their aid to all worthy enterprises. 

Dr. Samuel G. Browning is one of the enter- 
l^rising and deservedly jiopular men of this 
county. He is a successful physician, is pro- 
prietor of a general store at Macon, and with his 
brother and others owns one of the largest saw mills 
in the county, turning out about thirty car loads 
of pine and hard wood per month. In 1888 the 
destruction of one of the mills and a dry house by 
fire, entailed a severe loss, the latter having cost 
over $2,000 and the mill $4,000; in addition to 
which 12,000 worth of lumber was destroyed; and 
although they have been three times visited by 
fire, indomitable energy and enterprise have more 
than overcome the effects of the destroying ele- 
ments. Samuel G. Browning was born in Miss- 
issippi ia 1850, the second in a family of eleven 
children. He received his literary education in the 
common schools of that State, and having deter- 
mined upon the medical ^Jrofession as his calling 
in life, in 1872 entered the Louisville Medical 
College, commencing the practice of medicine at 
Tillatoba, Miss., in 1876. In 1879 he came to 
Arkansas and located at Coal Hill, Johnson County, 
where he practiced for two years. He then en- 
gaged in milling near Russellville, Polk County, 
for two years, when he sold out and removed to 
Johnson County, devoting himself to milling, cot- 
ton ginning and merchandising. At the end of 
two years he resumed the same business at Jeffer- 
son Springs, whence after a stay of two years, he 
moved to his present location, where he has a large 
mill, having been very successful in his business. 
In 1888 Dr. Browning was elected justice of the 
peace, and although a Democrat in his preferences, 
he is not active in politics. He is a member of the 
Masonic fraternity. In 1877 the Doctor married 
Miss Georgie L. Simms, a native of Mississippi, 
and an estimable lady, who has borne two children: 



Maude, who died at the age of six years, and Wal- 
ter, aged eleven. Mrs. Browning is a member of 
the Presbyterian Church. Dr. Browning's father 
was Wiley J. Browning, of South Carolina, who 
married Sarah C. Selby, of the same State. He 
was a farmer by occupation and soon after his 
marriage moved to Mississippi, engaging in the 
same business in connection with stock raising. 
At the breaking out of the late war he was a mer- 
chant in Winston County, Miss., but entered the 
Confederate service as private, and also served as 
quartermaster. He was slightly wounded in the 
battle at Jackson, Miss., and died in 1877 at the 
age of fifty-six. He was a Mason and a member 
of the Presbyterian Church. Dr. Browning's in- 
fluence in this community is widely felt, and his 
progressive spirit and sincere interest in the wel- 
fare of his adopted home have had a telling efPect. 
All worthy enterprises receive his hearty support. 
Dr. Asa Brunson, formerly a practicing physi- 
cian of wide and honored acquaintance, and now 
one of the wealthy planters of this county, was 
born in Tennessee, near Clarksville, in 1822, being 
the son of Jesse A. Brunson, an extensive manufac- 
turer of pig metal. The latter' s father was Dr. 
Asa Brunson, a surgeon in the Revolutionary War, 
who just before that event came to the United 
States. When Jesse A. was about twelve years of 
age. his father moved to Tennessee, locating near 
Clarksville, where he was engaged in planting and 
stock raising. He was a man of much property, 
of superior education, and decided intellect. Of 
his four sons, all but one were physicians. The 
father of the subject of this sketch married Louisa 
Shelby, of Tennessee, now deceased, who had nine 
children: Sarah, Asa, Elizabeth, Atherton, M. D. 
(deceased), Penelope, Clark S., M. D. (deceased). 
Dr. Jesse (deceased), Thomas E. , M. D. (who was 
assassinated while quietly reading a paper, being 
shot through his window by an unknown person), 
and Dr. Randolph, of Pine BlufP. Young Asa 
Brunson attained his majority in Tennessee, sup- 
plementing his literary education with a coiirse in 
medicine, and, in the spring of 1842, graduated 
from the medical department of the University of 
New York. The same year he located near his 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



161 



present residence, practicing till the time of the 
late war. In ISo-t or 1855 he engaged in cotton 
planting, in which business he has since continued 
most successfully. He at one time owned about 
sixty slaves, and during the war was allowed to 
remain on his plantation because of his principles. 
Dr. Brunson is a Democrat, and a man of good sound 
sense, a characteristic by no means common in this 
day. He is respected for his sterling integrity, 
and enjoys the esteem and coniidence of hosts of 
friends. A large part of his land has been washed 
away by the river. In 1845 Dr. Bninson married 
Aleinda Simpson, of Virginia, who was born in 
1824; she died in Pine Bluff in 1864, leaving one 
child, Mary, now the widow of Frank Tomlinson. 
His second wife was Mrs. Louisa A. Fowler, nee 
Murdough, of Mississippi. They have three sons, 
Asa, Percy and Edgar, the two elde.st of whom are 
at school at Knoxville University. 

Dr. Randolph Brunson, of Pine Bluff, whose 
career as a medical practitioner is favorably known, 
comes from a family of physicians and surgeons. 
His paternal grandfather was a surgeon in Edin- 
burgh College, Scotland, one of the leading 
.schools of the world. He came to America when 
a young man, during the Revolutionary War, and 
served in the army as surgeon. He added to an 
extensive reputation already enjoyed by a large 
practice all through the South, and died in Ten- 
nessee, a wealthy planter and stock raiser. He 
had several sons, all medical students, one of 
whom, Jesse, was the father of the subject of this 
sketch. He (Jesse) attained his majority and was 
married in Tennessee, where Randolph was born, 
in Stewart County, in 1836. In December of the 
same year the father, an irou manufacturer by 
occupation, died, and his wife, formerly Louisa 
Shelby, took charge of the estate, which she man- 
aged for several years in a creditable manner and 
settled to the satisfaction of all. Large mining 
interests, as well a share of the estate of $200,000, 
were left by the father of Jesse. Mrs. Brunson 
was a lovely woman, well educated and possessed 
of unusually superior business abilities. She 
married the second time and lived to a good old 
age, dying in 18S0, having been a strict member 



of the Episcopal Church. In her family were six 
sons and three daughters, of whom one son and 
the daughters are living, all the sons being physi- 
cians of note, and having graduated from the lead- 
ing medical colleges of the United States. Ran- 
dolph, the subject of this sketch, received his 
diploma from the Jefferson Medical College, of 
Philadelphia, which he loft in 1858, subsequently 
settling in Arkadelphia. In August of that year 
he came to Pine Bluff, where he has since resided, 
becoming the leading physician of the place, as 
well as one of the oldest settlers. During the late 
war he served as surgeon, going to Virginia in 1861, 
whence he was transferred to the Trans-Mississippi 
Department, taking a very active part till the strife 
was ended. Then he returned home and resumed 
his practice with the attention and energy which 
have redounded to a well deserved esteem and 
honored reputation. In 1860 he married Miss 
Fannie White, of Pine Bluff, daughter of one of 
the county early settlers. Drew White. Four 
children have been given them: Randolph, John 
W., May (Mrs. Turner), and Atherton, now at 
school in Virginia. Dr. Brunson has been a dele- 
gate to conventions of his State and of the United 
States, and he and his wife are both members of 
the Episcopal Church. 

John W. Chamblee, who as a planter and dealer 
in general merchandise has attained to well de- 
served prominence, was born in Franklin County, 
N. C, but was reared in Wake County until the 
age of seventeen, when he went to Tennessee, there 
making his home with his uncles. He was the son 
of Rayford and Elizabeth (Wilder) Chamblee, who 
were natives of the Carolinas, and of Scotch-Irish 
descent, their ancestors having come to this coun- 
try long ago The father was a farmer by occupii- 
tion and was somewhat interested in i^olitics; he 
was born in 1812. When John was an infant his 
mother died, leaving one other child, a daughter, 
Eliza, who married A. J. Underbill. The father 
then married Mrs. Ray, a widow, by whom he 
had four children: Eliza W., Bertie D., Augustus 
T. (who died in the war), and Cherry L. F. 
The subject of this sketch attended school in 
Tennessee in youth, subsequently engaging in 



162 



HISTOEY OF ARKANSAS. 



farming for himself. In 1860 he came to Arkan- 
sas, but soon returned to Tennessee, and during 
the late war served two and a half years with the 
Confederacy. He was slightlj^ wounded at Mark' s 
Mill, in Arkansas, and also took part in the battle 
of Helena with Gen. Price, besides being through 
Missouri and Arkansas. When the strife ended 
he returned to Tennessee, and iu 1866 again came 
to Arkansas, locating at Garretson's Landing, where 
for a few years he followed farming, and finally 
established himself as a general merchant at Green- 
back and at Swan Lake Landing. In 1883 he 
came to his present location, and here has a fine 
stock of goods, dealing in cotton, etc. , in connec- 
tion with which he is a planter of experience and 
success. On September 6, 1876, Mr. Chamblee 
married Miss Laura C. Farley, of Fayette Coun- 
ty, Tenn. , daughter of John A. Farley and wife. 
She was born November 21, 1853, and died Au- 
gust 24, 1886; she was a lovely woman and a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Mr. 
Chamblee has been a merchant for fifteen years 
and is a stanch Democrat. In this connection it 
is eminently proj)er that an obituary notice pub- 
lished upon the death of Mrs. Chamblee by a 
local paper be inserted in this place, as indicat- 
ing to some extent the true worth of this woman 
and the happy relations she enjoyed as a wife. 
' ' Died — At her home, near Greenback, Ark. , on 
Tuesday, August 24, Mrs. Laura C. Chamblee, 
wife of Mr. John W. Chamblee, and daughter of 
Mr. and Mrs. John A. Farley, of Fayette County, 
Tenn. She was buried in Elmwood on the 26th. 
The relentless hand of death never tore from 
human hearts a more priceless treasure, or made a 
more terrible void in the vacant chair or in loving 
hearts. Young, brilliant, surpassingly beautiful, 
graceful as a fawn in every movement, yet all un- 
conscious of her charms, she seemed to live only to 
make others happy, and benignity, love and holy 
joy beamed from every lineament of her fine coun- 
tenance. With a mind as bright and as pure as a 
diamond, gentle and .sj'mpathetic through all her 
nature, full of noble and generous impulses, ten- 
der and considerate in all her intercourse, she was 
the delight of every circle, and the idol of those 



near and dear to her. A loving and dutiful daugh- 
ter, she was also a noble and devoted wife; and no 
husband ever prized more highly, or loved more 
truly, the wife of his bosom than her faithful 
spouse; and their lives flowed on like a blissful 
dream of eastern romance. But, alas! disease 
comes, and in a few short days the ' golden bowl 
is broken, the pitcher is broken at the fountain,' 
and he is left desolate! But God has taken her, 
for she was too much like the angels for the un- 
hallowed walks of earth. May God bless and com- 
fort him, and in the fullness of his own good time 
take him also where, in joy unspeakable, they may 
dwell together forever. ' ' 

W^. J. Childress, M. D. , a prominent physician 
of Pine Bluff, was born in Franklin, Williamson 
County, Tenn., December 12, 1827, being the son 
of William G. and Mary (Bradley) Childress, both 
natives of Tennessee. The paternal grandfather, 
Stephen, was of North Carolina nativity, and early 
settled at Nashville, Tenn. , where, as well as can 
be traced, he built the first house in that future 
city. He died in the western porticyi of the State. 
The father of Dr. Childress was a farmer by voca- 
tion, and lived most of his life in Williamson 
County, where he died in 1846. He was sheriff of 
that county for some time, and also represented 
his constituents in the legislature. He was also 
cashier of the Bank of Franklin. IVIi's Childress 
died in 1864, having reared eight children, five of 
whom are living : Thomas B. (a prominent lawyer 
of St. Louis), William J. (twin brother to Thomas, 
and the subject of this biography), Mrs. Sinclair 
(of Texas), Mrs. Kilpatriek, and Mrs. Cole (both 
of Memphis). Dr. Childress was brought up and 
received his education in Tennessee, commencing 
the study of medicine at an early age, and after a 
thorough preparation, in 1852, he was gradiiated 
from the Jefferson Medical College of Philadel- 
phia. He began practice in Nashville, Tenn. , and 
in the fall of 1852, came to Jefferson County, 
Ark., locating at Eichland, where he entered 
upon a jsrofessional career, and continued for many 
years. He then settled in Arkansas County, but 
in 1886 returned to Pine Bluff, where he is still 
occupied in the practice of his profession, being 




recognized as one of the most prominent physicians 
of Central Arkansas, and deservedly popular. In 
1854 he married Ellen N. Woodson, who bore three 
children, two of whom are now living: Thomas B. 
and Amanda R. Mrs. Childress died in 1883. 
The Doctor is an influential Democrat, and a mem- 
ber of the Catholic Chnrch. 

John M. Clayton, who was prominent among the 
men of Jeiferson County that have passed away, 
was born near Chester, Penn., on October 13,1840, 
and was a son of John and Ann (Glover) Clayton. 
He was reared and remained on a farm until at- 
taining his maturity, obtaining in the meantime a 
good education at the common schools and acade- 
mies of his birthplace. When the Civil War com- 
menced, although yet in his youth, he gallantly 
enlisted, and served in the Army of the Potomac, 
participating in nearly all of the important en- 
gagements. Shortly after the war was over, he re- 
moved to Jefferson County, Ark., with his young 
wife, and located on the farm of his brother. Gen. 
Powell Clayton, who had preceded him here sev- 
eral years, and who took an active part in the Ee- 
bellion. Gen. Clayton became one of the most 
prominent men of Arkansas, having been elected 
to the highest office in the State — Governor, and 
also United States Senator. John M. Clayton re- 
mained on the farm for several years, and was very 
successful as a planter. He held his first office in 
the township of Richland, being elected justice of 
the peace, and subsequently was elected to the 
State Senate, holding the speaker's chair for a short 
time p?'o tern. In 1876 he was elected sheriff of 
Jefferson County, and held that office for ten years, 
being re-elected at the expiration of each term. In 
the fall of 1888 he became a candidate for Con- 
gress, his opponent being Hon. Mr. Brecken- 
ridge. The contest was very close, with Mr. Breck- 
enridge receiving the certificate. It was, however, 
decided to contest the validity of the election, and 
while doing so, on January 19, 1889, Mr. Clayton 
was foully assassinated, being shot while sitting 
near a window. This cowardly deed aroused the 
indignation of the press and people throughout the 
country, but up to the present wi'iting his murder- 
ers have never been brought to justice. Mr. Clay- 



ton is buried at Pine Bluff, by the side of his de- 
voted wife, who died several years previous. Mr. 
Clayton was a law-abiding and upright citizen. 
He had a host of friends in Jefferson County, and 
especially in Pine Bluff, and his loss was deeply 
felt throughout the community. Politically, he 
was a Republican, and in secret societies a Mason, 
and also held the office of Deputy Grand Master of 
the Knights Templar at the time of his assassina- 
tion. He left six children to mourn him, the 
eldest being Miss Emma Clayton, the present 
postmistress at Pine Bluff', who received her ap- 
pointment in July, 1889. 

W. J. Cole, an industrious, enterprising citi- 
zen of Jefferson County, owes his nativity to Wayne 
County, Tenn., where his birth occurred January 
Ifi, 1847. His father, George B. Cole, was also 
born in Wayne County, Tenn., in the year 1820. 
The latter was reared in his native State, and after 
growing up, married Miss Bettie A. Curtis, of Ten- 
nessee origin. Their union was blessed by the birth 
of eight children, five sons and three daughters, five 
of whom are still living, and four are residents of 
this State. One is located in Missouri. George 
B. Cole was a successful agriculturist, and owned 
about 220 acres of good land in Washington and 
Izard Counties. He served in the late war, and 
was at the battle of Vicksburg, receiving his dis- 
charge in the fall of 1803, after which he returned 
home and resumed his former occupation of tilling 
the soil. He subsequently went on a visit to Ten- 
nessee, where his father was living, and was killed 
while on his return in 1864. The mother died in 
1885 in Jackson County, Ark. Both were mem- 
bers of the Methodist Church. W. J. Cole was 
educated at Fayetteville, Washington County, 
Ark., but from there went to Izard County, and 
removed from there to Jackson County in 1865. 
In 1870 he came to Jefferson County, where he 
married Miss Mary Jane King, a native of Ten- 
nessee, on February 4, 1874. and the fruits 
of this union are five children, two sons and 
three daughters — George W., Roxanna, James H. , 
Mattie C. and Mary E. Four are now living, and 
all reside at home. Mr. Cole has two orphan boys 
living with him, and they are the sons of Joseph 



164 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



aud Elizabeth King. He has been occupied all 
his life in tilling the soil, is the owner of about 
seventy acres of land, and has about sixty-five 
acres under cultivation. He is also engaged in 
running a grist mill and a cotton gin. He be- 
longs to the Masonic fraternity, and during the 
three years of his membership he has filled the 
office of tyler of the lodge. He is a member and 
has held the office of treasurer in the Agricultural 
Wheel for one term. He and wife belong to the 
Methodist Church, and both are active church 
workers. He has at this time sold out in Jeffersoh 
County, Ark., and has bought a 160-acre farm in 
Conway County, Ark., paying 11,500 cash for same, 
and has other property to the amount of $2. 5('0. 
and is entirely clear of debt. His postoffice after 
January 1, 1890, will be Springfield, Conway Coun- 
ty, Ark. 

Garrett Cooper, one of the oldest and most re- 
spected citizens of Jefferson County, was born in 
Craven County, N. C. , on April 26, 1826, and is a 
son of Robert and Isabel (Preseott) Cooper. The 
parents moved from North Carolina to Tennessee 
in 1828, and settled in Tipton County, where Gar- 
rett was reared and educated. Both parents died 
at an advanced age. In his early youth, Garrett 
displayed a fondness for mechanical pursuits that 
predicted a brilliant future, and when only eighteen 
or nineteen years of age he received a contract to 
build several bridges in the State of Tennessee. 
From that time to the year 1860 he contracted 
throughout the State for building bridges, cotton 
gins and otber structures, and his fame as such 
spread rapidly to the surrounding country. Prob- 
ably no other scientific mechanic in that part of 
the country enjoyed the reputation that young 
Cooper had made for himself. Science was a study 
to which he had applied himself all his life, it was 
natural to him, and in the construction of bridges, 
he had few superiors even among the older mechan- 
ics. In 1866 he embarked in mercantile life at 
what was known as Lower Seven Lake, and after- 
ward Cooper Landing, named in his honor when 
the postoffice was established at that point. He 
continued in business until very recently, and from 
1866 began to cultivate cotton quite extensively. 



He now owns 700 acres of very productive land, 
and at one time had control of Cooper's Island, 
having purchased it for $30,000, but a number of 
very disastrous floods destroyed it. On August 
22, 1849, he was married to Miss Ann Kent, of 
Tipton County, Tenn., a daughter of George W. 
Kent, who was very prominent in that county. 
This lady was born May 20, 1833, and died April 
13, 1872, and by her marriage with Mr. Cooper be- 
came the mother of twelve children, of whom four 
are yet living: Bob S., Frances V. (wife of a Mr. 
Neely, of Mississippi County, Ark.), Mary F. and 
Willie. In 1875 he was married to Miss Mary 
Kent, a sister of his first wife, this lady having 
been born in Virginia, on April 21, 1829, and died 
February 15, 1881. Mr. Cooper is a member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, of which 
he is trustee, and in politics he is a stanch Demo- 
crat. He is now sixty-three years of age, but to 
look at him, no one would think he was more than 
fifty. He uses no glasses, nor does he ever expect 
to, remarking that "I would trade my eyes for 
none. ' ' During the war he was neutral and con- 
sequently excused from service, but he traveled 
over the country a great deal, and was never mo- 
lested by either side. Mr. Cooper can be proud 
of one fact, and that is that diu'ing his life he was 
never arrested for any cause whatsoever. He is a 
leader in public and private enterprises, and one 
of the foremost citizens in the county. His popu- 
larity is unbounded, and few men are held in 
higher esteem. 

John D. Crockett, book-keej)er and manager of 
Col. John M. Grade's cotton plantation in Bogy 
Township, Jefferson County, was born in Arkansas 
County, near Crockett's Bluffs, on the White River, 
on August 1, 1858, and is a son of David and 
Nancy Crockett. The father was a very success- 
ful farmer during his life, but a considerable loser 
by the Civil War. At the time of his death, he 
had not succeeded in recovering much of his for- 
tune, and was in only comparatively easy circum- 
stances. He was prominent in Masonic circles 
and a noted Democratic isolitician, his favor being 
sought for by hundreds of men during his life- 
time. Two years of his life he gave to the South 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



165 



in serving through the war, and his deeds on the 
field of l)attle were brave and many. He was a 
son of William Crockett, whose father was the 
celebrated Davy Crockett, of historical fame. The 
mother of John D. was a member of the Presby- 
terian Church, and by her marriage became the 
mother of five children, of whom John is the only 
one now living. After his father's death. John D. 
went to reside with an uncle, with whom he re 
mained for two years, but at the end of that time he 
started out in the world for himself, and has acted 
as salesman in the towns of Swan Lake, Dar- 
danelle, Pendleton, Sarassa and his present loca- 
tion. He entered the employ of Col. John M. 
Graeie in 1882 as salesman and book-keeper, 
and so well has he repaid the confidence and trust 
reposed in him, that now he has charge not only 
of the Colonel's mercantile affairs, but also of his 
plantation, which consists of 2,400 acres under 
cultivation. He is an expert book-keeper, a 
shrewd business man and a competent manager, 
and bids fair to become one of the most prominent 
men in Central Arkansas in the near future. On 
February 27. 1883, he was married to Miss Mary 
D. Field, a daughter of Silas Field, of Little 
Rock, by whom he has had one child, James D. 
Mrs. Crockett is a member of the Episcopal 
Church. Mr. Crockett is one of the two Crocketts 
who went to the 103d anniversary of the birth of 
Davy Crockett, at Limestone, East Tenn., on Au- 
gust 17, 1889. The other Crockett was Robert 
H. , a prominent attorney of Stuttgart, Ark., and 
a grandson of Davy Crockett. The latter gentle- 
man was a colonel in the Confederate army during 
the Civil War, and won an illustrious name for 
courage and daring. 

George E. Crutchfielcl, who as a planter and 
merchant at English postoffice, is well and favor- 
ably known, was born in North Carolina in 1840, 
being the son of James and Sarah (Moon) Crutch- 
field, of Orange County, N. C. They first came to 
Arkansas in 1852, but the following year moved 
to Tennessee, locating in Fayette County, where 
George was reared, growing to manhood on his 
father's farm. He remained at the latter place 
till 1871, subsequently going to Hardeman Coun- 



ty, Tenn. , which was his home for foiu- years, and 
in 1876 located in St. Francis County, Ark. In 
1877 he came to his present location, and entered 
upon a career as planter, also establishing himself 
as general merchant, in both of which he has met 
with deserved success. He is truly a self-made 
man, industrious and energetic, and now enjoys a 
business of $15,000 per year. He is also post 
master at Engli.sh, the office being located in his 
store. Mr. Crutchfieid served three years in the 
Confederate army during the war, during which 
time he was taken prisoner at Decatur, Ala. , being 
paroled after three months at Nashville. Upon 
the close of the war he returned home and at- 
tended school in Payette County. Mr. Crutch- 
field's wife was formerly a Miss Dora Bagley, of 
Tennessee, who is still living. They have no chil- 
dren of their own, but are bringing up two nieces 
(children of Mrs. Crutchfieid' s sister), Neda and 
Maggie Greer, the mother having died when they 
were eight days, and fourteen months old, respect- 
ively. Their father is living, but is an invalid 
from paralysis. Mr. Crutchfieid is a Democrat in 
his political preferences and a representative citi- 
zen of the community. 

Mrs. Mary E. Curlin, widow of James V. Cur- 
lin, who was an old resident of Arkansas, was 
born in Jackson County, Ala., October 6, 1845, 
and is a daughter of C. A. and Elizabeth (Shell) 
Chadick, of Tennessee and Alabama, respective- 
ly. Charles A. Chadick was a noted Methodist 
minister, and was born May 13, 1820. In 1841 
he was married to Miss Elizabeth Shell, a daugh- 
ter of Adam Shell, of Alabama, and in 1845 re- 
moved with his wife to Arkansas. He was li- 
censed to preach in that State in 1848, and located 
in Jefferson County, where he labored in the re- 
ligious field until August 14, 1888. As a preacher 
of the gospel he was far above the average, being 
able to propound the Bible with a clearness and 
earnestness that would convince the most skepti- 
cal. The entire community in which he resided, 
as well as his congregation, loved and honored 
him as few men are regarded, and his loss was 
sincerely mourned by those who had heard his 
voice in life. Mr. Chadick was a Mason in good 



166 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



standing for a number of years, and in politics 
he was a stanch Democrat. During the war he 
entered the Confederate army, and served as lieu- 
tenant of artillery for three years, operating in 
Arkansas and Missouri, and taking part in almost 
every battle west of the JMississippi River. Pre- 
vious to serving in the artillery he was a member 
of Capt.'McGee's company, and operated in Vir- 
ginia, but was discharged on account of disability. 
Two of his sons were also in the Confederate army. 
James C. was a member of Company C, Arkansas 
Infantry, and took part in many engagements east 
of the Mississippi, while William J. belonged to 
Company D of the Ninth Arkansas Infantry, and 
fought in the same territory. The latter was twice 
wounded and once taken prisoner, but escaped by 
making a bold break for liberty. The Chadick 
family are of Scotch-Irish descent, while the Shell 
family are German. Miss Mary E. Chadick was 
reared and educated in Jefferson County. In De- 
cember, 1869, she became the wife of James V. 
Curlin, who came to Arkansas with his parents and 
located first in Dallas County, and a few years 
later moved to Jefferson County. He was born on 
October 9, IS-tS, in the State of Tennessee, and 
was a son of Jesse J. Curlin, who died in Ran 
dolph County on May 21, 1888. Mr. Curlin began 
life as a poor boy in 1867, and it was not until 
his marriage with Miss Chadick that the brightest 
part of his life was exhibited. By her sound ad- 
vice and help, added to his own good judgment 
and untiring industry, he became one of the most 
successful farmers in Central Arkansas. He was 
never interested in politics to any great extent, but 
an appeal from the distressed and needy was always 
sure to enlist his sympathies. He was a true 
friend to the church, always ready to help advance 
the cause of religion until his death, which oc- 
curred July 2, 1888. Mr. and Mrs. Curlin were 
the parents of five sons and two daughters, of 
whom six are still living: Anna E. (deceased), Ben- 
jamin M. (born December 6, 1871), Charles J. 
(born September 6, 1873), James C. (born Decem- 
ber 4, 1875), Claude M. (born October 27, 1878), 
George W. (born October 16, 1880), Mary E. (born 
September 14, 1882). Mr. and Mrs. Curlin were 



both members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, which the latter has attended since fourteen 
years of age. She is an earne.st Christian woman 
and very popular with the community. 

Malcom Currie is the well-known proprietor of 
Currie Vineyard, situated eight miles southwest of 
Pine Bluff, on the public road between White 
Sulphur Springs and Lee's Springs, being a half 
mile distant from each jjoint. This is conceded to 
be one of the finest vineyards and fruit farms in 
Central Arkansas, and is managed in a manner 
which is sure to secure profitable retui'ns. The 
orchard consists of 250 apple-bearing trees, 150 
peach trees, 1 25 wild goose plum trees, 140 dwarf 
pear trees, and 150 Le Conte pear trees. In 
the vineyard are about 5,000 bunch grape vines, 
three-fourths of which are bearing, 250 scupper- 
nong vines, on arbors from 50 to 900 square feet. 
Besides making from 2,000 to 2,500 gallons of 
wine, several thousand pounds of grapes are sold 
annually. Mr. Currie was born in North Carolina 
in 1825, and is a son of Daniel and Anna (Ray) 
Currie, natives of North Carolina, both of whom 
were born in 1801. They died within five miles 
of their birth-place, the father in 1871 and the 
mother in 1868. They were of Scotch descent, 
their ancestors having come to the United States 
some time before the Revolutionary War, with a 
large number of families who settled in the Caro- 
linas; as might be supposed, they belonged to the 
Presbyterian Church. Malcom was the oldest of 
nine children, seven of whom are yet living. He 
was reared on the farm in North Carolina, and 
having received a classical education in the best 
schools in the county, at the age of twenty years 
commenced teaching school. In October, 1857, 
he moved to Arkansas, settling on the place where 
he now lives, but boarded at White Sulphur 
Springs the first year until he could build. In 
1862 he ceased his professional duties for a time, 
and served eighteen months in the Confederate 
army on post duty. After the close of the war he 
resided near Pine Bluft' for two years, raising cot- 
ton, but returned to the place where he now re- 
sides, and planted the nucleus of his present 
extensive vineyard. While in North Carolina Mr. 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



107 



Currie was married to Miss Eliza Davis, whose 
birth occurred in that State in 1825. She died iu 
Arkansas in 1861, having borne two children, 
Charles G. and Ida (now the wife of Henry G. 
Hanna, of Kentucky). Charles died suddenly in 
1877, at the age of twenty- eight years, of heart 
disease. After his wife's death, Mr. Carrie's 
house was presided over by an older sister-in-law 
until her death in October, 1880, and since that 
time by one of his own sisters. In 1860 he was 
elected common school commissioner for Jefferson 
County, holding the office eight years. In 1882 
he was elected county assessor, serving one term, 
and he has been school director many years. He 
was principal of the High School of Pine Bluff 
for two years, closing his connection with that in- 
stitution in June, 1877, which terminated his 
career as a professional teacher. He is a member 
of the Presbyterian Church at Pine Bluff. Perhaps 
no citizen of Jefferson County occupies a warmer 
place in the affections of the people as an advocate 
and promoter of educational advancement than 
Mr. Cui'rie. His interests in this direction are by 
no means personal, and his influence in this as in 
other respects has been of decided benefit. 

Rev. Joseph A. Dickson, D. D. , pastor of the 
Presbyterian Church at Pine Bluff, is one of the 
popular and highly respected ministers of this 
county. He was born in Dickson County, Tenn. , 
September 9, 1835, his father, Joseph A. Dick- 
son, being a son of Moulton Dickson, of North 
Alabama, who first saw the light in 1807. The 
Dicksons originally came from Scotland in an early 
day, and settled in the Carolinas; some of the 
ancestors served as soldiers under Cromwell. 
Joseph A., the father, was a practicing phj'sician of 
prominence in Dickson County, Tenn., which was 
named for some member of the family. He died 
when his son was but an infant. His wife, Nancy 
Belle, of the same county as himself, was born in 
1814. After the death of her husband she re- 
mained a widow for five years, and then married 
Rev. W. A. Williams, of the Cumberland Presby- 
terian Church, who still lives in Texas, she having 
died in 1848. By her first marriage there were 
two children: Georgia Anna (who died at the age 



of two years), and Joseph A. (our subject). By the 
second marriage there were six children, all living: 
Anna E., Mary L., Sarah J., Medicus U., Martha 
E., and Nancy B. Joseph A., the youngest child 
of the first marriage, was reared in Dickson County 
until fourteen years of age, when he went to Tip- 
ton County and attended school two years: he then 
attended Erskine College, of South Carolina, from 
which he graduated in 1854 with the degree of A. 
B. Subsequently studying law at the Cumber- 
land University, Tennessee, he took one course of 
lectures, and afterward returned to Tipton County, 
where he married Miss Mary C. McCain, of Ten- 
nessee. Following this he taught school for two 
years, after which he entered the Theological De- 
{jartment of Erskine College, and in the spring of 
1857 was licensed to preach in the Associate Re- 
formed Presbyterian Church. He spent three 
years in Central Mississipjsi, and was then called 
to Monticello, Ark., where he took charge of the 
church the same day that Lincoln was elected 
president. After having served this church dur- 
ing the war, he remained until 1871, when he was 
called to Millersburg, Ky. In the fall of 1805, 
he changed his relationship from the Associ- 
ate Reformed Presbyterian Church to the First 
Presbyterian Church. September 1, 1881, Dr. 
Dickson located in Pine Bluff, assuming charge of 
the First Presbyterian Church, where he has since 
continued, obtaining a firm hold in the hearts of 
his parishioners as well as those of wider acquain- 
tance. At the time of his coming the membership 
was seventy, which has increased to about 400 at 
the present date. During 1888-89 100 members 
were added. To Dr. Dickson and wife have been 
born four children: Emmett M. (a successful 
lawyer at Paris. Ky. . who graduated from Sid- 
ney College, in Virginia), Charles B. (a student 
at the Central University, of Kentucky), and Mary 
Will (at home). Claude Ross died in 1867 at the 
age of six years. Mrs. Dickson is an ardent 
worker in the church, and one of the best of 
women. Dr. Dickson is a member of the American 
Legion of Honor. In 1885 the Central University 
of Kentucky conferred upon him the title of D. D. 
J. B. Dodds, one of the leading planters of 



J 68 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



Jefferson Couaty, and a prominent citizen of Pine 
Bluff, was born at Dayton, Montgomery County, 
Ohio, October 25, 1832, and is a son of Joseph 
and Eleanor (Ewing) Dodds, the former born near 
Philadelphia, Penn. , and the mother a native of 
Kentucky. The elder Dodds was reared on a farm 
and educated in the city of Philadelphia. After 
his marriage he removed with his wife to Ohio, in 
which State they jaassed the remainder of their 
days, the father dying in Dayton and the mother 
in Shelbyville. Seven children were born to their 
marriage, of whom three are yet living: Matthew 
M. , Joseph B. , and Jeunie (wife of Dr. John C. Slo- 
cum). J. B. Dodds, the principal in this sketch, was 
reared and educated in his native State, attending 
the public schools. He remained with his father, 
looking after the management of the farm, u.ntil the 
year 1855, when he moved to Paris, 111., and 
embarked in mercantile life with his brother and 
brother-in law, remaining in that city for seven 
years. At the close of the war he, in company 
with his brother and a Mr. Wolf, went to Memphis, 
Tenn. , and established a wholesale grocery busi- 
ness, which they carried on successfully until the 
latter part of 1867. Mr. Wolf then withdrew 
from the tirm, and the brother moved to Pine Bluff, 
where he again started in business, J. B. joining 
him later. They carried on the business until 
1877, when the latter retired from the firm and 
turned his attention to planting, which calling he 
has followed ever since. Mr. Dodds now owns 
260 acres of very fertile land, with about 150 acres 
under cultivation, and has rented for the past live 
years over 1,200 acres, which he has placed in cot- 
ton every year. Added to this, he owns a business 
block in Pine Bluff, from which the rentals form a 
considerable income alone, and, together with his 
plantation interests, make him one of the solid 
men, financially, of Jefferson County. Mr. Dodds 
was married in 1859 to Miss Fannie Molton, an 
adopted daughter of S. W. Molton, by whom he 
has had five children: Charles N., George, Gamer, 
Samuel, and Mamie. Mr. and Mrs. Dodds are 
members of the Presbyterian Church, and liberal 
in their aid to all religious and educational mat- 
ters. In secret societies Mr. Dodds has been a 



Mason for over thirty years — Royal Arch, and also 
belongs to the Knights Templar. He is one of the 
most substantial and enterprising citizens of Pine 
Bluff, and a man of great popularity and influence. 
His wealth has accumulated by his own individual 
efforts, business tact and judicious management, 
although he has several times lost a fortune in 
mercantile life. While in business at Memphis 
his shipments were among the largest coming to 
that city, one shipment alone from Cincinnati to 
Memphis amounting to $75,000. He is a promi- 
nent figure in the affairs of Jefferson County, 
especially those tending to its advancement and 
progress, but as a rule prefers the quiet of his com- 
fortable home and family to the excitement of 
social pleasures. 

H. N. Dunn. Among the representative farm- 
ers of this county, none are more worthy of men- 
tion than Mr. Diuin, who was born in Shelby 
County, Tenn., in 1850. At the age of nine 
years he came to Arkansas with his parents, W. 
D. and Anna (Henry) Dunn, settling on the place 
on which their son now lives, where the mother 
still survives, the father having been killed in 1880, 
at the age of sixty-five years, by a runaway team 
attached to a mowing machine. He served in the 
commissary department during the war. H. N. 
Dunn, the subject of this sketch, is the eldest of 
eight children, four of whom are now living, and 
three in Memphis, Tenn. He has lived the greater 
part of his life in this State, though during the 
war he was a resident of Tennessee, at the close of 
which struggle he returned to Arkansas. Mr. 
Dunn has not yet joined the ranks of the bene- 
dicts, but devotes his time to the cultivation of his 
200-acre farm, which is planted to cotton, and 
is one of the best places on the river. This is pro- 
tected by a levee erected by himself. He is a 
progressive farmer and much interested in enter- 
prises tending to the advancement of his adopted 
home. 

Frank M. Fergus (deceased) was a prominent 
planter of Jefferson County, and a man whose 
memory is cherished by the citizens of this section 
as one of its influential, respected residents. He 
was born in Cumberland County, Ky. , in the year 




1822, and remained at home with his parents till 
he became of age. His first venture on leaving 
home was to teach school, and in 1847 he came to 
this county, locating six miles below tlie present 
homestead, removing in 1859 to the place where 
his widow now resides; this was then unimproved, 
but by his good management and care, was put in 
a fine state of cultivation. At that time there were 
700 acres, a part of which has since gone into the 
river. Mr. Fergus became one of the leading 
planters of the county, quiet and unassuming in his 
manner of living, and although not a church mem- 
ber, was a believer in the Christian religion. His 
people were Methodists. He died May 23, 1884. 
Mr. Fergus' marriage was to Mrs. Mildred A. Mor- 
rell, widow of M. P. Morrell. Mr. Morrell was 
born at Natchez, Miss., in 1820, and died in 1857. 
He came to Arkansas in 1852, and located in Jef- 
ferson County, on the south side of the Arkansas 
luver, six miles below Pine Bluff, where as a planter 
he became well-to-do, leaving at the time of his 
death about 1,200 acres of land. Mrs. Fergus 
was born in Clark County, Ky. , the daughter of 
Louis and Elizabeth Boone (Brooks) Bledsoe, of 
Virginia. Her great-grandmother was a near rela- 
tive of Daniel Boone. Mrs. Fergus' parents first 
settled in Chicot County, where the father died in 
1844, and in the same year the family went to 
Pulaski, near Little Rock. The mother died in 
1874, in Kentucky. Four of this family of ten 
children are living: Calvin, Elizabeth B. Warner, 
Louisa A. Collins and Mrs. Fergus. Two children 
of Mrs. Fergus by her first marriage survive: Dr. 
M. P. Morrell, of St. Louis, and Alexander M. , 
at home. Three children l)y Ihe second mar- 
riage are living: William F., and Mildred B. (wife 
of W. J. Levy, both of this county), and Minerva 
E. (at home). Mrs. Fergus has been a member of 
the Christian Church since sixteen years of age. 
She is an estimable lady, of good business ability 
and management, and in overseeing and conduct- 
ing the farm, displays a wisdom and good judg- 
ment for which she deserves great credit. 

Capt. S. Geisreiter, planter, Pine Bluff, Ark. 
There are few men of the present day whom 
the world acknowledges as successful, more worthy 



of honorable mention, or whose history affords a 
better illustration of what may be accomplished by 
a determined will and perseverance, than Mr. 
G,eisreiter. He was born in Bavaria, Germany, 
May 30, 1840, being the son of Jacob and 
Mary E. ("Van Smuck) Geisreiter, natives of the 
same country. Cajat. Geisreiter was left mother- 
less when quite small, and his father was married 
the second time, after which, or in 1854, they emi- 
grated to America, taking passage at Bremen and 
arriving in New York after a forty days' ocean 
voyage. They remained there until 1858, and the 
father carried on his trade, that of architect, 
builder and cabinet maker, having, while in the 
old country, also conducted a large furniture man- 
ufactory. In 1858 he moved to Washington, Iowa, 
where he died one year later. Capt. S. Geisreiter 
was educated in Germany, and learned the cabinet 
maker's trade, but soon found other pursuits more 
congenial to his taste and ability. After going to 
Washington, Iowa, he entered college, attending 
two terms; but meantime the war broke out; his 
patriot brother had enlisted from Minnesota and 
was killed at the battle of Gettysburg. Capt. S. 
Geisreiter promptly took his brother's place and 
served until the close of the war. He ranked as 
first lieutenant, but by reason of the many duties 
he was called upon to perform, was given the title 
of captain. After cessation of hostilities he lo- 
cated at Pine Bluff (the army having brought him 
there on detached service), and was engaged in the 
real estate and insurance business, which he car- 
ried on for nine years. He then began planting, 
has since carried it on, and is now the owner of 
much choice land, while he also manages the plant- 
ations of his father-in-law, Mr. Joseph Merrill. 
The Captain is one of the most enterprising and 
successful men of the county, is honorable and up- 
right in all his dealings, and as a useful, influential 
citizen, holds a conspicuous position in the com- 
munity. He selected for his companion in life 
Miss Mary O. Merrill, now deceased, whom he 
married in November, 1877. After remaining a 
widower for eleven yeais he married Miss Linda 
Chinn, daughter of the late Dr. RoUa Chinn, of 
Shawhan, Bourbon County, Ky. Capt. Geisreiter 



170 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



is more than ready to do all lie can for the ad- 
vancement and permanent prosperity of his long- 
time home, the State of his selection and the coun- 
try of his adoption. He is an active member of the 
Masonic fraternity and of the order of Knights of 
Pythias. 

James F. and Emanuel L. George, are two 
brothers whose names are prominent in the enter- 
prises of Jefferson County. They were born in 
Coosa County, Ala., on April 30, 1850, and March 
15, 1852, respectively, and are the sons of Silas 
and Nancy (Ferguson) George, the father a native 
of Georgia and the mother from Alabama. The 
parents were married in the latter State and moved 
to Jefferson County when both boys were children. 
The elder George was born on Augu.st 27, 1822, 
and the mother on November 8, 1827. The latter 
died in 1864, and some time after her death the 
father married Miss Elizabeth Dugan, who has 
since died. Both Mr. and Mrs. George were earn- 
est Christian people and were members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Chu^rch, South, in which 
church he was an official. In polities he was a 
Democrat, but never mixed much in political 
affairs, although in other enterprises, both public 
and j)rivate, he was a prominent figure. Seven 
children blessed his lirst marriage, of whom Eman- 
uel was the third and James the fourth child born. 
Both sons received their education in Jefferson 
County and remained at home until their father's 
death in 1875, when they rented land and com- 
menced in life for themselves. In 1881 they bought 
1 00 acres of land on their present location, and by 
good management and strict attention to business 
have increased it to 320 acres, the land being some 
of the most productive in Central Arkansas. 
James has also engaged in saw- milling to some ex- 
tent and has made the venture quite successful. 
In 1886 he was married to Miss Dora Diamond, of 
Jefferson County, by whom he had one child, 
Edward Felix. After the death of his first wife 
he was united to Miss Omar Dalton, who became 
the mother of one child, Frances L. The other 
brother, Emanuel, was married in 1881 to Miss 
Katy Diamond, by whom he had five children, all 
of them now deceased. Both brothers and their 



I wives are members of the Catholic Church, and 

liberal contributors to religious and educational 

I matters. They rank among the leading citizens of 

the county, and are highly respected in their com- 

miuiity. 

Benjamin L. Gocio. one of the large land owners 
of this county, is a native Arkansan, having been 
born in Villemont Township in 1854. He is a son of 
Joseph and Elizabeth (Johnson) Gocio, originally 
from Arkansas and Georgia, respectively. In the 
family were nine children, three of whom are 
living: John (near Hot Springs), Lucy Humph- 
reys (in Washington County, Ark.), and the sub- 
ject of this sketch, the latter of whom has always 
resided in this township. At the age of fifteen 
years he commenced farming for himself, and in 
1876 was married to Miss Jane Mitchell, of Ar- 
kansas County, whose birth occurred at the Post. 
Her father, Frank Mitchell, of this State, died 
when his daughter was five years of age. Mr. and 
Mrs. Gocio have had six children: Anna, Ida, 
Ollie, Joseph, Lucy (deceased), and Agnes. Mr. 
Gocio has about 250 acres of land under cultiva- 
tion, and is the owner of upward of 1,800 acres. 
He is a member of the Catholic Church. His 
grandparents came to the United States from 
France in an early day, locating at New Orleans, 
and later at Arkansas Post, where Joseph was 
born, and where he lived, a farmer, until his death, 
which occurred when Benjanin L. was fourteen 
months old, in 1856. He was born in 1803. The 
mother was married (the second time) to Mr. R. S. 
Dollerhide, who died in 1876; she was born in 
1818, and is still living at Booneville, Miss. Mr. 
Gocio, by a lifetime spent in this locality, has fully 
demonstrated his worth and energy as an intelli- 
gent successful farmer. His extensive acquaint- 
ance is only equaled by the universal respect 
accorded him. 

Dr. J. L. Goree, justly considered one of 
the most eminent of the medical profession in 
Jefferson County, was born in Smith County, 
Tenn., on the 8th of October, 1853, and is a son 
of Dr. James L. and Mary E. (Dixon) Goree, of 
Marion, Ala., and Smith County, Tenn., respect- 
ively. The father was a prominent physician dur- 



'JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



171 



iag his life, and a graduate of Jefferson Medical 
College at Philadelphia. About the year 1850 he 
moved to what is now Lincoln County, Ark., and 
remained there practieinghis profession until 1860. 
During the Civil War he resided in Texas, but 
after the surrender he returned to Arkansas and re- 
sumed his practice, continuing with great success 
until his death in December, 1866. The mother is 
still living, and resides with her son, the principal 
of this sketch. Dr. J. L. Goree was principally 
reared in Arkansas, and received his education at 
St. Louis University, and King's College of Bristol, 
Tenn. At the age of twenty- two he began the 
study of medicine, and in February, 1876, gradu- 
ated from the Louisville Medical College, after- 
ward taking an ad eundem degree added by the 
Kentucky School of Medicine. He then stood a 
competitive examination against the picked men of 
foui' medical colleges for a hospital position, and 
was the successful competitor for one of the four 
positions. The Doctor remained in the hospital for 
one year, afterward coming to Lincoln County, 
Ark. , where he hoped to settle up his father' s en- 
tangled estate, but owing to the slowness of the 
courts, failed to accomplish anything. In the 
spring of 1881 he located at New Gascony, Jeffer- 
son County, Ark., where his reputation as a suc- 
cessful physician attained such proportions that 
one of the leading physicians of Pine Bluff offered 
him a partnership. This he accepted, and re- 
mained at Pine Bluff for one year, but at the re- 
peated and urgent solicitations of his old patrons, 
he was induced to return to New Gascony, and 
did so, remaining there until the spring of 1889. 
He then again came to Pine Bluff (where he has 
continued to reside), and rapidly rose to the front 
ranks of his profession in spite of the competition 
from older men in that line. The Doctor has at- 
tained a prominence among the medical fraternity 
that is well deserved, as he has made his profes- 
sion the study of his life. His services are sought 
fpr continuously, and his fine practice fully at- 
test to his skill. He is a member of the Jefferson 
Medical Society, and also of the State Medical 
Society. In 1877 he was married to Miss Victoria 
T. Evans, by whom he has had two children; Vic- 



toria and James L. In secret societies the Doctor 
is a member of the Knights of Honor. 

William P. Grace, attorney, Pine Bluff, Ark. 
Among the prominent names that go to make 
up the strength of the Arkansas bar, that of Will- 
iam P. Grace is looked upon with considerable 
pride by the people of this locality, not only for 
his brilliant efforts in his profession, but for his 
unquestioned integrity and honesty of purpose. 
His birth occurred in Caldwell County, Ky. , 
November 22, 1822, and he is the son of Preston 
and Jane (Kilgore) Grace, the former a native 
of Tennessee and the latter of Kentucky. They 
were married in Caldwell County, Ky. , and there 
passed their entire lives. The father was a brick- 
layer by trade. In their family were six children, 
only two now living: William P. and Benjamin F. 
William P. Grace attained his growth and received 
his education in his native State, having attended 
Cumberland College at Princeton, Ky. He worked 
with his father at the brick laying business until 
twenty two years of age, when he became desir- 
ous of prosecuting his studies, and after working 
for some time for the required means, attended 
school for a year at Princeton. He then began the 
study of law with Livingston Lindsey, was ad- 
mitted to the bar in the spring of 1847, and tinallj^ 
left the State of his nativity with a view of locating 
in Florida. Not being satisfied there he returned 
towards the North and settled at Pine Bluff, where 
a short time afterward he formed a co-partnership 
with Robert E. Waters. At the end of eight- 
een months Mr. Waters retired and Mr. Grace 
continued alone. In 1852 he was elected prosecut- 
ing attorney and served one term, during which 
time he formed a partnership with Judge John C. 
Murray, of the circuit court, continuing with him 
for about three years, when Mr. Murray was again 
elected judge, and he was once more left alone in 
his practice until 1860. Being a Henry Clay 
Whig, he consented to become a candidate for 
elector for the Whig party, having been elected 
to the same position in 1856. He was a Doug- 
las candidate in 1860, and stumped all south of 
the Arkansas River, delivering some of the best 
speeches of his life. He was elected by Democrats 



172 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



to the secession conveDtion, and was made cbairman 
of the committee on ordinances. He was a very 
prominent man and used his entire influence for 
his own party. In 1861 he was appointed as com 
missar^^ of the military staff of Arkansas, and was 
at the battle of Oak Hill, after which failing health 
compelled him to retire from army duties. He 
then went to Philadelphia and was under a physi- 
cian's care for seven months. Upon returning to 
Pine Bluff he i-esumed his practice and this he has 
since continued. In 1880 he was a candidate for 
the office of Governor, but was not nominated. As 
a lawyer he has few superiors and is a fluent and 
eloquent speaker. At one time he owned 15,000 
acres of land and now has in his possession about 
'2,000 acres. Mr. Grace was married first in May, 
1853, to Miss Harriet Boyd, who was drowned 
near Paducah, Ky., in December, 1863. Mr. 
Grace took for his second wife Mrs. Emily B. 
Hudson, whom he married in April, 1868, and to 
them was bora one child, now deceased. Mr. 
Grace is a Royal Arch Mason, and in 1878 he con- 
nected himself with the Temperance Alliance, 
having been president of the Arkansas Temper- 
ance Alliance several terms. He has been an 
active worker in this cause and his influence has 
been felt among the Anti-Prohibitionists. He is 
known throughout Arkansas as one of the best 
criminal lawyers that the State produces, and his 
success is almost phenomenal in this class. He has 
defended and prosecuted over fifty cases of homi- 
cides, and but one man was hung that he ever de- 
•fended. 

Uapt. Walter Greenfield was a brave soldier 
and is an honest citizen. What better eulogy 
could be passed upon a man who has earned those 
titles in military and civil life? He was born 
in Todd County, Ky., on July 4, 1833, and is a 
sou of Thomas G. and Lucy (Hannah) Greenfield, 
both natives of the same county and State, who 
moved to Pine Bluff, Ark., in 1837, which place 
they made their home for the balance of their lives, 
the father dying in 1840, when thirty six years old, 
and the mother in 1853, at the age of forty-seven 
years. The elder Greenfield was a merchant and 
one of the first men to start in business at Pine 



Bluff. Under the firm name of Greenfield & Kay 
he and his partner conducted the largest mercan- 
tile house in that section. Both parents were 
Ejiembers of the Methodist Episcopal Church. In 
politics the father was a Whig, and was also a 
Royal Arch Mason in high standing. His father 
was Thomas G. Greenfield, an old Virginian, and 
one of the heroes who fought in 1812. Thomas 
Greenfield was one of the earliest settlers of Ken- 
tucky, coming there but a short time after Daniel 
BooDe, and was an intimate associate of that noted 
pioneer. The Hannah's were also a well-known 
family of Kentucky and very prominent people in 
Christian County. The Greenfield's were of Eng- 
lish origin. To the marriage of Walter Green- 
field's parents were born five children, of whom he 
is the only one now living. He was educated in 
Pine Bluff, Ark., and later at private schools in 
Nashville, Tenn. After his school days were over 
he remained with his mother until her death and 
then turned his attention to farming. In 1858 he 
was appointed deputy sheriff of his county, and 
served creditably in that capacity until the out- 
break of the Rebellion. In the spring of 1862 he 
organized a company of cavalry, being chosen third 
lieutenant. This was Company G of the Second 
Battalion, which was afterwards reorganized with 
the First Battalion and made into one, in which 
he was promoted to first lieutenant. In October, 
1863, he was promoted to the captaincy of Com- 
pany G for brilliant action on the field, and this 
position he retained until the close of the war. 
Capt. Greenfield was detailed for scouting duty a 
considerable part of the time, and took part in a 
great many battles, operating in Northern Missis- 
sippi to a great extent. In April, 1863, he was 
sent out on recruiting duty, but at that time was 
taken sick and unable to continue with the work 
for some time. He also took part in Price's raids 
through Missouri, and was foremost in every battle 
during that occasion, and at Pilot Knob he had 
charge of the skirmishers. Capt. Greenfield was 
next at Newtonia, Kas. , and from there he went to 
Pine Blnff, Ark., where he surrendered on June 
8, 1865. He has had many thrilling escapes from 
death, and many times narrowly got through the 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



173 



clutches of the enemy, but his good fortuue at- 
tended him all through and he yet lives to tell the 
tale. In 1875-76 he was appointed collector and 
filled that office, together with the position of 
sheriff, to the satisfaction of all parties concerned. 
Farming has been his business ever since the war, 
and he now owns 700 acres of good land with the 
principal part of it under cultivation, all of which 
he has made since that event, the war having left 
him practically bankrupt. In December Capt. 
Greenfield was married to Miss Mary C. Embree, 
a daughter of Israel Embree, an old settler of 
Jefferson County. Mrs. Greenfield was born June 
29, 1844, and by her marriage became the mother 
of six children: Lucy M. , Gordon E., John T. , 
Maggie F., Mary W. and Carrie. The Captain is 
a Knight Templar and Knight of Pythias, besides 
belonging to several other fraternities. In politics 
he is a Democrat and a leader in political affairs as 
well as social and business matters. His soq Gor- 
don is also prominent in Knight of Pythias circles. 
W. B. Greenfield, farmer. Pine Bluff, Ark. 
It is doubtless owing entirely to the indus- 
trious and persevering manner with which Mr. 
Greenfield has adhered to the pursuit of agriculture 
that he has risen to such a substantial position in 
farm affairs in this county. His birth occurred 
in Jefferson County, Ark., on Feliruary 11, 1849, 
and he is the son of J. W. and Matilda (Bogy) 
Greenfield. The elder Greenfield was born in 
Tennessee, in 1821, was educated in that State, 
and then went to Kentucky, but later to Arkansas, 
where in 1845 he married Miss Bogy, the daughter 
of Mr. E. Bogy, an old French settler. To Mr. 
and Mrs. Greenfield were born eighteen children, 
six sons and twelve daughters; three sons and four 
daughters now living, two in this State and five in 
Texas. The father is still living, and in connec- 
tion with farming is also engaged in merchandising 
in Texas. He is the owner of a large tract of land 
and is quite well to-do. He was justice of the 
peace for two years, and is now notary public. 
W. B. Greenfield was educated at the Christian 
Brothers' College, at St. Louis, and after returning 
home married Miss Bettie T. Phillips, October 27, 
1886. She was born in Arkansas, and is the daugh- 



ter of John and Mary A. Taylor. To the union of 
Mr. and Mrs. Greenfield was born one child, Willie, 
who died Febriiary 14, 1887. 

" Only a little child; pause not here to weep; 
Scarcely on earth it smiled, ere it fell asleep." 

Mr. Greenfield has about 1,200_ acres of good 
land, with 375 acres under cultivation. He and 
wife are members of the Methodist Chirrch. 

William H. Hardister, who is classed among 
the well known and highly respected planters of 
this county, was born in North Carolina in 1845, 
being the son of Asbury and Cyntha Ann (Cram- 
ford) Hardister, natives of North Carolina. The 
former's ancestors were formerly from Maryland, 
and came to the Carolinas with the early settlers. 
The father was the youngest of his family, and a 
farmer by occupation, his death occurring in the 
sixty-sixth year of his age. The mother died in 
1866, at the age of fifty. To them were born 
ten children, of whom all but one lived to be grown, 
but only four now survive. William H. , the 
seventh son, was reared in North Carolina until 
the age of twenty-three, when he came to Arkan- 
sas and located at Garrison Landing, there engag- 
ing in farming. He afterward went to Mtid Lake, 
and in 1876 came to his present location, on what 
is known as Elm Grove farm, since which time he 
has put the place in a good state of cultivation, 
working 200 acres. At the beginning of the late 
war he enlisted in the Sixth North Carolina Cav- 
alry and served until the close, receiving not the 
slightest wound. In 1875 Mr. Hardister married 
Miss Nettie Cramford, a daughter of O. P. Cram- 
ford, of South Carolina, who came to Arkansas 
long before the war and settled in this county, 
Mrs. Hardister being then a child. This union 
has been blessed with two children: Cynthe A. and 
Walter M. Mr. Hardister politically is a Democrat. 
He has on his place a large cotton gin and supply 
store, and is recognized as a man who has given 
decided influence to the progress and development 
of this section. As a citizen he is held in great 
esteem. 

Col. George Haycock, capitalist, one of the 
best known men in Central Arkansas, whose genius 
of enterprise has made him one of the bulwarks of 



174 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



the tinancial world, is a native of Ciocinnati, Ohio, 
born in October, 1828, and is a son of Hamilton 
and Eunice (Bales) Haycock. The father was of 
Irish origin and the mother of American parent- 
age, they being married in New York State. From 
there they moved to Cincinnati, Ohio, at an early 
day, where the father was engaged in contracting 
along the banks of the Miama River. In 1835, 
while insj^ecting some work in the Miama Canal 
locks, he was drowned; the mother died some 
time before in Cincinnati. They had but one son, 
the principal of this sketch. He was reared in 
that city, and educated in mathematics under Dr. 
Ray, the compiler of Ray's arithmetic. After 
leaving this instructor he attended VVoodard Col- 
lege, obtaining his entire schooling from his sense 
of knowing the necessity and advantage of it, and 
not from being prompted to it, as his parents both 
died when he was little more than a child. In 
1852 he went overland to the State of California, 
the trip occui:)ying several weeks, and upon reach- 
ing there located in Iowa Hill, Placer County, 
where he commenced mining. He also operated a 
stage line in connection with the California Stage 
Company, and spent fourteen years of his life in 
that section. Leland Stanford, now United States 
Senator and about forty times a millionaire, was in 
those days an intimate friend of Col. Haycock's, 
as were also many others of the pioneers of 181:9, 
who are now the money kings of the Pacific Coast. 
Col. Haycock was a member of the convention that 
nominated Mr. A. A. Sergeant for Congress, and 
also a member of the second Republican Convention 
that nominated Hon. Leland Stanford for Governor. 
He served four years in the army during the Civil 
War, and was stationed at Los Angeles and San 
Diego, as also at La Paz, Ariz. In 1865 he 
returned to Cincinnati and became engaged in the 
brokerage business, which he carried on until 1870, 
when he came to Pine Bluff, Ark. The Colonel 
resumed his brokerage business here, and also 
became largely interested in planting. Some of 
the largest tinancial projects in the county have 
been engineered by him and brought to a success- 
ful termination. In 1874 he was elected to the 
State Senate, and in 1876 re-elected, but the fol- 



lowing year was appointed postmaster at Pine 
Bluff and resigned his seat in the Senate to accept 
the post office. He held that position for five 
years, and was also an alderman of Pine Bluff 
fourteen years ago. He is a member of the board 
of aldermen at the present time, having been 
elected by a majority of 562. Col. Haycock is a 
stanch supporter of the Republican party, and 
one of the most brilliant politicians in Jefferson 
County. He is one of the leaders of his party, 
and on his election to the State Senate was the 
only Republican at that time in the Senate. He 
has hundreds of friends on both sides, and is one 
of the most popular men in that section. The 
Colonel is very original in his ideas, and is always 
devising something new, and at present has placed 
about twenty acres of land in tobacco as an experi- 
ment, his intention being, if successful, to establish 
a tobacco manufactory. He was married in 1846 
to Miss Ann Knowlden, of Cincinnati, by whom he 
has had five children, Charles being the only one 
living. 

J. W. Heliums, a prominent farmer and mer- 
chant of JefPerson County, well known in the busi- 
ness circles of Pine BlufF, was born in Fayette 
County, Ala., in September, 1836, and is a son of 
William H. and Effie (White) Heliums, of South 
Carolina and Georgia, respectively. The parents 
were married in Alabama, and in 1844 removed to 
Tifipah Coiinty, Miss., where the father died the 
following year. After his death the mother came 
with her family to Drew County, Ark., and re- 
sided there until her death in 1867. Two sons 
and three daughters were born to the parents, of 
whom the two former are the only ones yet living 
! — James W. and Jacob P., the latter residing in 
I Star City, Ark. James W. Heliums was partly 
reared in Mississippi, where he also received his 
education, and in 1858 moved with his mother to 
Drew County, Ark. The following year he came 
to Pine Bluff and established himself in business, 
continuing with success until the Civil War com- 
menced. In 1862 he left the business in charge 
of his partner, and enlisted in D. W. Carroll's 
company — the present chancellor — and served un- 
til the surrender, holding the rank of lieutenant in 



JEPPEESON COUNTY. 



175 



that compauy, but at the disbandment of the 
troops he was captain of Company K, Logan's 
Consolidated Cavahy Regiment. Capt. Heliums 
was captured at Port Hudson on July 9, 1863, 
some time after the battle of Vicksburg. Together 
with twelve other officers he was taken on board a 
vessel lying in the Mississippi, to be transferred to 
Johnson's Island, but every one of the twelve 
jumped overboard, and all but two succeeded in 
swimming to the shore and escaped. Mr. Heliums 
was among the number who gained their liberty, 
while the other two were drowned. He previously 
took part in the battles of Corinth, Farmington 
and luka, and a number of hard skirmishes. 
When the war was over he returned to Drew 
County, and remained there a short time, but soon 
came to Pine Bluff in order to close oiit his busi- 
ness. After that was done he went back to Drew 
County, and resided there until January, 1889, 
when he once more came to Pine Bluff and built a 
fine residence, intending to make this city his 
permanent home. He owns a store at Star City 
and one at Grady, both in Lincoln County, and 
enjoys a large patronage, and in connection with 
his commercial interests, owns about 1,000 acres 
of valuable land, with a considerable amount under 
cultivation, his principal crop being cotton. Mr. 
Heliums was married in December, 1864, to Miss 
Susie Carlton, of Alabama, by whom he has had 
six children: Julius H. , Clyde E., Cora, Jennie, 
Chester and Guy. His wife is a devout Christian 
lady, and belongs to the Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church. Mr. Heliums is a prominent member of 
the Masonic fraternity, and a popular citizen of 
Pine Bluff, taking an active part in all matters 
that bear upon its progress and advancement. 

J. F. Hicks, a fixture in the affairs of Jefferson 
County, first established the Distilled Water, Ice & 
Coal Company, at Pine Bluff' in 1885. Upon start- 
ing this industry, he put in a five-ton machine, but 
the business increased so rapidly that he was soon 
forced to have a larger machine, in order to supply 
the demand, and he now owns a twenty-ton ma- 
chine in addition to the original one, manufactur- 
ing about twenty-four tons of ice per day. The 
machinery is all of the latest pattern and perfect in 



its work. About one- third of the product of this 
industry is kept for home consumption, while the 
other two-thirds is shijjped to various markets. 
Mr. Hicks is the sole proprietor of this business, 
and also owns another ice factory at Marshall, 
Texas. His birthplace was in Ballard County, 
Ky. , and when only ten years of age he went 
to Memphis, Tenn., alone, where he worked at 
different employment for some time. When still 
quite yoiing he occupied a subordinate position 
on one of the river steamboats, applying himself 
closely, until in time he was promoted to the post of 
engineer, and then captain, which position he held 
for thirty-five years, and in 1852 he built a steam- 
boat of his own called Falcon. During his life 
Mr. Hicks has built upwards of fifteen or twenty 
steamboats, owning at one time about forty, among 
them being the famous but ill-fated Mary Bell, 
which was burned to the water's edge at Vicks- 
burg, and also the steamer Frank Pargoud, which 
met with the same fate above New Orleans. The 
last named boat was the champion cotton carrier 
on the Mississippi River, having been loaded with 
the largest cargo of uncompressed cotton ever car- 
ried by any other steamboat — 9,226 bales. The 
writer happened to witness that event, and can re- 
member the day she steamed into the levee at New 
Orleans with nothing visible but the top of her 
pilot house and her smoke stacks. Every space 
was covered by cotton bales. It rose tier upon 
tier, and the cotton on the lower deck was swept 
by the river, so heavily was she loaded down. It 
was a grand and imposing sight, and was observed 
by thousands who thronged the water's edge to 
await her coming, and rent the air with such a 
rousing cheer that the sound must have been car- 
ried out past the swamps to Lake Pontchartrain. 
The Mary Bell was one of the' largest steamers on 
the Mississippi, and in fact in the United States. 
Among otlier prominent boats owned by Capt. 
Hicks were the Daniel Boone, Kate Frisby, John 
Simons, the latter being one of the largest boats 
before the war. Capt. Hicks was one of the most 
popular and experienced steamboat men that 
traveled the Mississippi during his day. Since the 
war he has owned the Vicksburg, Di Vernon, Ma- 



176 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



jetta, Belle Lee, Henry Ames, John A. Scudder, 
Carondelet, Mary Belle and Henry Frank, these 
being the principal ones,^and he virtually con- 
trolled the traffic between Memphis and New Or- 
leans. The advent of railroads ruined the river 
trade, and when fire destroyed his finest boat, the 
Captain became disheartened and determined to 
abandon steamboating forever, since which time 
he has carried on his present business. He was 
first married in 1850, to Miss Sarah Carter, by 
whom he had seven childi'en, of whom four are yet 
living: Ralph M. (at Marshall, Tex.), Jeff, Nellie, 
and Mamie. The Captain's second marriage oc- 
curred, in 1878, to Miss Anna Tally, by whom he 
had one son, Frank. During his day Capt. Hicks 
has been the largest steamboat owner in the coun- 
try. His finest boat alone cost -f 105,000, the Mary 
Bell, and only carried $50,000 insurance when she 
was burned. Among other famous vessels he 
owned was the Kate Miller, the first boat he was 
ever master of himself; the Fittsmiller, Bluff City, 
Harry Bluff, Julia, John Swazy, Martin Walt, 
Excelsior and Sam Cloon. Outside of his ice 
manufactory, which is one of the best paying in- 
dustries in JefFerson County, he handles about 200 
car loads of coal annually, and is worth consider- 
able, although he has met with many reverses. 

William I. Hilliard, contractor and builder, 
and manufacturer of brick. Pine Bluff, Ark. 
Among all classes and in every condition of life 
are those who excel in whatever they undertake, 
whether of a professional, agricultural or com- 
mercial nature, and among those who have cleverly 
demonstrated this statement is he whose name ap- 
pears above. Born in Madison Parish, Louisiana, 
in November, 1840, he is the son of J. C. Hilliard, 
a native of Virginia. The father passed his boy- 
hood days in his native State, but later went to 
Ohio, where he married Miss Abigail Yeoman, a 
native of New York. While in the Buckeye State 
Mr. Hilliard followed the brick-making trade, and 
there resided for a number of years. Later he re- 
moved to Louisiana, where he carried on his former 
occupation for some time, and in 1847 returned to 
Ohio, locating in Cincinnati, where he still con 
tinned the brick-making business. In 1854 he 



went back to Louisiana, and after a residence there 
of a number of years, made his home with his 
son, William I. Hilliard, at Little Rock, Ark., un- 
til his death, which occurred in 1884. He was a 
much respected citizen, and filled a number of 
local offices where he resided. His wife died in 
1858. William I. Hilliard received excellent ad- 
vantages for an education in the schools of Cincin- 
nati and other schools, and began assisting his 
father in the brickyard when a mere lad. This 
business he learned very thoroughly, and is now 
one of the most experienced brick- makers of Ark- 
ansas. He remained with his parents until grown, 
and commenced the brick business when about 
eighteen years of age, at Floyd, La., but this 
continued only one season, when he went to lay- 
ing brick in that State. After following this 
for about five years, or up to the breaking out of 
the late war, he went North (Indiana) and there 
remained for a short time. After that he worked 
at laying brick until 1868, when he went West 
to Springfield, Mo. , and there resumed laying 
and making brick for two and a half years. He 
moved to Little Rock, Ark., in 1872, manu- 
factured brick for two seasons, and was also 
engaged in contracting and laying brick. In Sep- 
tember, 1886, he located at Pine Bluff, commenced 
contracting and building that season, and has since 
been actively occupied in that business, as the 
many fine buildings in the city abundantly testify. 
He lays all his own brick, and, from an average of 
four kilns, manufactured about 1,200,000 this 
year. He was married in Washington County, 
Ark., on March 27, 1872, to Miss Emma English, 
a native of Pennsylvania, and the daughter of 
John and Elizabeth English. There are five chil- 
dren living of this marriage: Birdie, Elizabeth, 
Willie I., John and Abbie. Mr. Hilliard is a 
member of the Ancient Order of Odd Fellows, and 
his wife is a member of the Baptist Church. 

William C. Hilliard, an enterprising farmer 
i of Talladega Township, was born in Fairfield 
County, S. C. , being the son of A. D. and Sa- 
! villa (Woodward) Hilliard. also natives of that 
j State. The father was born in 1819, and followed 
I the general occupation of a merchant in the State 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



177 



of his birth until the late war, his occupation 
being varied until his death in 1878. He was a 
Mason, a member of the Presbyterian Church, and 
served as major in the late war. The mother died 
in Louisiana in 1867, at the age of thirty-three 
years. William C. HilHard, the subject of this 
sketch, was the sixth in a family of seven children 
born to his parents' union. In 1870 he came 
to Drew County, Ark. , where he attended school, 
and subsequently taught in adjoining counties; he 
also engaged in farming, and in 1880 came to 
Jefferson County, settling on the place where he 
now resides, and turning his attention largely to 
fruit growing, raising peaches, apples, grapes and 
tigs. He has a fine farm well under cultivation, 
and is known as one of the prominent citizens of 
this county. He is one of the young and energetic 
men in the Democratic party, and a member of the 
Methodiist Episcopal Church, South. In 1885 he 
married Miss Johnie Blackwell, a native of this 
county; and they have three children: William W., 
Walter B. and Effie. Mrs. Hilliard's father, G. L. 
Blackwell. a farmer of Jefferson County, was born 
in Elbert County, Ga. , in 1834, and came to Arkan- 
sas in 1808. He owns about 440 acres of good land, 
175 of which are under cultivation. He has been 
a Mason for thirty years, and has held the offices of 
tyler and senior warden. He has also held the 
office of justice of the peace for ten years. In 
1862 he enlisted under Col. Bradley in the Ninth 
Arkansas Regiment, but becoming ill remained in 
the hospital until his discharge in 1862, at Berns- 
ville. Miss. In July of that year he again entered 
the service under Col Darson, of the Nineteenth 
Regiment, his first hard tight being at Jenkins' 
Ferry. He was discharged in 1865 at Jackson- 
port, when he returned home and engaged in farm 
ing. Mr. Blackwell is a member of the Baptist 
Church, and is a liberal contributor to all charit- 
able enterprises. November 16, 1854, he married 
Ademia Pruett, a native of Georgia. She had one 
child, who died in infancy, and July 26, 185U, she 
departed this life. On June 28, 1860, Mr. Black- 
well married Katie Griffin, of Mississippi. To this 
vinion were born nine children, five of whom are 
still livingf. 



Capt. William K. Hocker, whose association 
with the affairs of Jefferson County has given him 
extensive acquaintance, is a successful planter re- 
siding in Dudley Lake Township. He was born 
in Richmond, Ky., on June 5, 1820, and is a son 
of Nicholas and Nancy (Ellis) Hocker, of Mary- 
land and Kentucky, respectively. The father 
was born in 1788, and the mother in 1793. 
After their marriage the parents made Madison 
Cotmty, Ky., their home until the father's death, 
at the age of seventy-three years, the mother 
dying in 1834. The father had learned the 
stone-mason's trade in his yoixth, but after the 
War of 1812, he turned his attention entirely to 
farming, in which he was very successful. He 
began life as a poor man, but could point with 
pardonable pride to the fact that by his own in- 
dividual efforts he amassed considerable wealth, 
and put himself in a position to be looked upon 
with the greatest respect by the entire community. 
He was sheriff of Madison County for one term, 
and also represented that county in the legislature 
for the same length of time. He was captain of a 
company in the War of 1812, and also fought under 
Gen. Harrison at the battle of Tippecanoe, besides 
taking part in a number of other Indian fights. 
He was a Whig in politics and in religion a Mis- 
sionary Baptist. Thirteen children were born to 
the elder Hocker and his wife, of whom four are 
now living: William K. , Martha Ann (wife of 
William Lackey, a farmer of Stanford, Ky.), Mary 
J. (wife of T. M. Miller, a banker of Stanford, 
Ky.), and Gael W'. (wife of the late Richard Gen- 
try, of Sedalia, Mo.). After the death of his first 
wife he was married to Miss Ryan, of Clark Coun- 
ty, Ky. , this lady making him a devoted wife and 
helpmate. William K. was educated at St. Mary's 
College in Marion County, Ky. AVhen sixteen 
years of age he thought it the proper thing to 
commence in life for himself and started as a stock 
dealer. Soon after he moved to Pettis County, Mo. , 
but eight years later he returned to Kentucky, 
where he remained until after the war. During 
that event he was in the commissary department 
of the Army of the Cumberland and acted as pur- 
chasing agent. After the surrender he went to 



178 



HISTOEY OF ARKANSAS. 



Lonoke Couaty, Ark., but soon after removed from 
there to Jefferson County, and immediately estab- 
lished himself in business. In 1873 he gave up 
his business and turned his attention to farm- 
ing exclusively and has met with satisfactory suc- 
cess, he and his family owning some very fine 
property. In 1842 he was married to Miss Liz- 
zie Feris, a daughter of Dr. Moses Feris, of 
Pettis County, Mo., but lost his wife several 
months after. In the year 1847 he was united 
to Miss Virginia Brown, of Albemarle County, 
Va. , this lady dying in 1883 in Jefferson County, 
Ark. This marriage has made him the father of 
seven children, of whom four are yet living: Nan- 
cy (wife of Louis Simpson, a merchant of Quanah, 
Texas), Lucy (wife of Dr. P. P. Trueheart, of 
Sterling, Kan.), Virginia (wife of Mr. Charles 
Bickett, a well-known farmer and stock dealer in 
California and Kansas), and Willie K. (who lives 
at home). Those deceased are Fannie S., Mary 
Brown, and Nicholas. In 1885 Capt. Hocker was 
married to Miss Irene Feris, of Richmond, Texas, 
who has proved to be aa excellent wife. The 
Captain is a member of the Christian Church, and 
is always ready to give his assistance to any worthy 
enterprise connected with religion or education. 
He is a Democrat in politics, and in secret societies 
is a Mason. At one time he was one of the most 
extensive stock dealers in Kentucky, and imported 
tine cattle by the hundred, but of late years he 
has not given his attention to that branch of busi- 
ness to any great extent. He has shown what can 
be accomplished by a steadfastness of purpose, an 
unceasing energy and the patience to keep steadily 
on in spite of the obstacles and embarrassments to 
be met with in life' s struggles. Vincit qui patifur. 
Robert R. Holmes, one of the most promising 
of Jefferson County's younger citizens, was born 
in De Soto County, Miss., December 13, 1859, 
and is a son of Dr. L. and Sarah (Herron) Holmes, 
of the same county and State (the latter a daugh- 
ter of Hamilton Herron, a prosperous farmer of 
Shelby Coimty, Tenn.). The parents were mar- 
ried in the State of their nativity, on December 9, 
1857, and made De Soto County their home until 
the year 1860, when they moved to Jefferson 



County, Ark. , and located on the farm upon which 
Robert now resides. The father was naturally 
born to the profession he chose in after life, as he 
always exhibited a preference for the study of med- 
icine even in his boyhood. At the proper age he 
attended lectures, having graduated in the literary 
department of the University of Mississippi (Ox- 
ford) in 1854, and subsequently in the medical de- 
partment of the University of Pennsylvania in 
1857, and after graduating he commenced to 
practice in his native State. On his arrival in 
Arkansas he entered actively into his profession, 
and attained a celebrity that extended not only 
through Arkansas but in some of the surrounding 
States. He rose to an eminence that was as envi- 
able as it was deserved, and his brilliant record in 
the medical archives of Arkansas are emulated by 
many. Dr. Holmes was also engaged in farming, 
and at the time of his death, which occurred Decem- 
ber 3, 1886, of swamp fever, he owned about 1,000 
acres of valuable land. He was a good business 
man, a favorite in society and popular with all 
classes, and on his death the county lost one of its 
most valuable citizens. He was a Mason (by which 
body he was buried in Bellwood Cemetery, Pine 
Bluff), and in politics was a Democrat. The Doctor 
and wife were members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, and both gave substantial aid to 
many worthy enterprises connected with church and 
educational affairs. They were the parents of nine 
children, of whom five are yet living: Robert R., 
Lula (who married February 20, 1884, John A. Hud- 
son, a prosperous farmer of Jefferson County), Ad- 
die. Sallie and Ida Lee. Those deceased are Mary 
and Finley (infants), and O. Renty, aged eight- 
een years, who died October 4, 1880, a promising 
son. He was truly a young man of model worth, 
temperate in all his habits, unselfish, morally in- 
clined, full of tenderest affection and a fond and 
obedient child, in short endowed with so many ex- 
cellencies of mind, manners and heart that he was 
loved and respected by all who knew him. Katie, 
nine years old, died September 22, 1887; she was 
the youngest child and the pet and joy of the 
household, death claiming her just nine months 
after her father. Robert R. received his educa- 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



179 



tion in De Soto County, Miss. , and at Pine Bluff, 
Ark., learning the higher branches at the latter 
place under Prof. Jordan. Upon reaching his 
twentieth year, the management of his father's 
plantation was entrusted to him, and since then 
he has given it his entire attention. Under his 
judicious management it has been greatly im- 
proved ; new houses erected and a cotton gin built, 
and he has displayed by more ways than one that 
he is the right man in the right place. In politics 
he is a Democrat and active in his support of that 
party. He is regarded with favor by every bus- 
iness man in the community who have recognized 
his enterprising spirit, and his popularity is as 
flattering as it is genuine. 

B. C. Hubbard, M. D. , is a citizen of whom 
Jefferson County can feel proud, and an honor to 
the medical profession. He was born in Camp- 
bellville. Green County, Ky. , and is a son of 
James M. and Sophia (Gaddie) Hubbai'd, natives 
of the same county and State. The father was 
born in 1806 and the mother in 1804, and were 
both members of the Baptist Church for a great 
many years. The elder Hubbard was a tanner by 
trade, and also engaged in farming, conducting 
both occupations with such judiciousness that he 
became very successful. In politics he was a 
Whig, and well known in political circles through- 
out his native State. He died in Campbellville in 
the year 1876, and the mother in 1856. Five chil- 
dren were born to their marriage, of whom B. C. 
Hubbard was the oldest, and with two others, are 
the only ones now living: George G. (a prominent 
physician at Munfordville, Ky.), and John P. (a 
farmer near the same town). Those deceased are 
Daniel and Margaret. B. C. Hubbard was edu- 
cated at the public and high schools of his native 
place, and on leaving school entered his father's 
establishment for the purpose of learning the tan- 
ner's trade. He followed this calling until 185^3, 
and then went to Lewis County, Mo. , locating 
near Monticello, where he remained one year. At 
the expiration of that time he returned to Camj)- 
bellville, Ky. , and entered into the tanning busi- 
ness for a short time on his own account. He 
afterward moved to Marion County, and located 



near Bradfordville, continuing in business until 
1860. In 1857 he commenced the study of medi- 
cine, and in 1859-60 attended the Medical Uni- 
versity of Kentucky at Louisville, where he gradu- 
ated in March of the latter year. Dr. Hubbard 
then located at Williamstown, Mo., for one year, 
and then moved to Canton in the same State, where 
he remained until 1866. That year he came to 
Arkansas Post, Arkansas County, Ark., and prac- 
ticed in that vicinity for two years, when he then 
moved to his present location, where he has built 
up a large practice and become one of the most 
prominent citizens in that section. When first 
starting in life, the Doctor had but very little 
worldly wealth, comparatively speaking, but his 
energy, skill and determination soon placed him on 
a plane where he could look at the world strug- 
gling beneath him. In the year 1854 he was mar 
ried in Lewis County to Miss Nancy C. Lillard, a 
daughter of James M. Lillard, prominent in busi- 
ness circles at that place. This marriage gave 
them one child: Pattie M. (wife of Judge Alfred 
Witey, of Lincoln County, Ky. ), but this daugh- 
ter died in 1884. For a short time during the 
Civil War Dr. Hubbard had charge of the Char- 
ity Post Hospital, and conducted that institu- 
tion with great credit to himself. In 1868 he was 
elected county and probate judge of Arkansas 
County, serving until 1872. In politics he is a 
stanch Republican, and a valuable man whenever 
he works for the interests of that party. Dr. 
Hubbard is a Mason of high standing, and in re- 
ligious faith belongs to the Missionary Baptist 
Church. His skill in the medical profession, his 
many per.sonal qualities, and being a thorough 
gentleman, have made him one of the most popular 
men in his county. 

John A. Hudgens, one of the best known citi- 
zens of Jefferson County, and a substantial planter, 
was born in Pine Bluff, in 1843. He is a son of 
Ambrose and Eliza (Irwin) Hudgens, of Texas and 
Tennessee, respectively. The father was born in 
Texas, in the year 1814, and moved with his 
parents to Arkansas in 1826, locating in Jefferson 
County, where he resided until 1869, when he 
moved to Lincoln County. He was a farmer and 



180 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



blacksmith, bringing both occupations up to the 
finest points of perfection. The elder Hudgens 
had a remarkable memory, and could speak 
fluently five different Indian languages. His edu- 
cation was of the best, and obtained through his own 
exertions at home. He was known far and wide as 
a hunter of great prowess, but in later years, when 
the country became more thickly populated and 
game was thinned out, the chase lost its excite- 
ment, and his trusty rifle was hung upon the 
wall for good. He was highly respected by the 
citizens of Jefferson County during his residence 
there, and was elected by them to represent the 
county for one term in the legislature. He was 
also commissioner of improvements, justice of the 
peace, and held various other public offices, with 
the dignity and wisdom that elicited the pro- 
foundest respect. As a business man he made a 
success. Although a heavy loser by the late war, 
his tact and ability placed him on an independent 
basis, he having regained as much after that event 
as he had before. Mr. Hudgens was a spiritualist, 
and in politics a Democrat. During the rebellion 
his sympathies were with the South from beginning 
to eud. The family ou both sides are of Eaglish 
descent, the mother being a daughter of Major 
David Irwin, a famous soldier in the Revolutionary 
War. After the death of his first wife the elder 
Hudgens was married to Miss Jane Derresseaux, 
of Arkansas, this lady dying in June, 1868, and 
in 1869 he was married to Mrs. (Adkins) Brewster, 
of Tennessee. Three children were born to him 
by his first marriage, of whom John A., the prin- 
cipal of this sketch, is the only one now living, the 
two deceased being Mary and David W. ; the latter 
was a lieutenant in the Confederate army, and 
lost his life at Vicksburg while gallantly defend- 
ing his battery. Mr. Hudgens had no children by 
his second marriage, but two were born to the last, 
William and Jacob. Ambrose Hudgens died June 
13, 1889, in his seventy sixth year. John A. re- 
ceived his education in his native county, and 
passed his life in a quiet, uneventful manner, until 
the year 1861, when he enlisted in the Confeder- 
ate army, becoming a member of Capt. McNally's 
company, in the Fifteenth Arkansas Infantry, and 



taking part in the battles of Shiloh and several 
others of lesser note. After two years' service he 
was transferred to the ordnance department, and 
had charge of the manufacture of ammunition at 
Arkadelphia, Ark., and Marshall, Tex., a position 
in which he distinguished himself . In May, 1865, 
he returned to Jefferson County, which place he 
has made his home ever since. After leaving the 
army he was left almost penniless, but his deter- 
mined spirit and firmness of purpose led him on 
like the hero of Excelsior, and now he can look 
proudly down from his present prosperity and feel 
satisfied in the reflection that it was his own indus- 
try, toil and perseverance that have brought him 
where he is. Mr. Hudgens owns about 600 acres 
of the best land in Central Arkansas, and has 
placed about 300 acres under cultivation. In 1882 
he commenced in business, which he actively con- 
tinued until the latter part of 1886. On Sep- 
tember 6, 1866, he was married to Miss Frankie 
Franklin, of Bradley County, Ark., by whom he 
has had six children: Luma (wife of John A. 
Pierce, a prominent farmer of this county), John 
A. (at home), Otelia (who died in her sixteenth 
year), Calla (at home), Willie, and Fannie. Mrs. 
Hudgens is a devout. Christian woman, and an in- 
defatigable worker for the church. Her husband 
is allied with the Denlocracy, and is a valuable 
man to that party in his section. He is very 
popular in both social and business circles, and is 
held in high esteem. 

Hon. James A. Hudson is one of the substan- 
tial men of this State, and one of the old settlers 
and prominent citizens of Jefferson County. He 
is a native of Georgia, having been born in Jan- 
uary, 1817, in Petersburg, and is one of three sons 
who blessed the union of Charles and Lucy (Mc- 
Gehee) Hudson, natives of Virginia. Charles Hud- 
son, a merchant, died in Alabama when our subject 
was an infant; his wife subsequently returned to 
her father's home, and there James grew to man- 
hood. In 1830, the mother with her three boys, 
James, Lawrence and Marion (now deceased), set- 
tled near Memphis, and fourteen years later moved 
to Jefferson County, Ark., where she died in 
1872, at the age of seventy-seven. Marion died in 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



181 



this county in 1862, and Lawrence in Tennessee 
about 1839. James A. Hudson, after arriving in 
Arkansas, made the first entry of land recorded in 
this part of the county, and commenced opening 
up a farm. In 1848 or 1819 he settled on the 
place which he now occupies, where he has 600 
acres under cultivation, owning upward of 8,000 
acres in Jefferson, Grant, Lincoln and Cleveland 
Counties. In 1850 he put up a gin, and in 1883 
built a new gin, saw and grist mill. He has been 
one of the most successful men of this community. 
He has also been engaged in general merchandis- 
ing, and in 1874 took $25,000 worth of shares in 
what is now the Merchant & Planters' Bank at 
Pine BlufF, but which at that time was conducted 
under the firm name of Smart, Hudson & Co. In 
1887 he sold his interest in that concern, but has 
since taken other interests to the amount of 15, 000. 
Some time before the war Mr. Hudson was com- 
missioned postmaster of Locust Cottage, which 
office he has since held, with the exception of a 
short term. In 1860 he was elected to the legis- 
lature, and re-elected in 1878, having no opposition 
and receiving every vote that was polled in the 
county, excepting twenty-nine. In 1840, while in 
Tennessee, Mr. Hudson married Nancy Gillespie, 
who died in 1867. To them were born ten chil- 
dren: Lucy J. Hunter (died in 1888), James M. 
(of Pine Bluff), Mary E. Smart (of Pine Bluff), 
Mattie V. Crawford (of the same place), Marion A., 
John A., Mrs. Isabella Hogg, and Walter C. (de- 
ceased). Walter was a graduate from a well known 
educational institution of Poughkeepsie, N. Y. , and 
died soon after returning home. Mr. Hudson's 
second marriage was to Mrs. Mary R. Ingraham, 
widow of Benjamin F. Ingraham. They have one 
son, Freddie M. , attending school at Lexington, 
Va. , whose object in life is to become a lawj'er. 
Mrs. Hudson is a member of the Alethodist Epis- 
copal Church, South, as is also her husband. He 
al.so belongs to the A. F. & A. M. , and is a con- 
servative Democrat. Mr. Hudson is a self-made 
man, and active in the interest of schools, having 
been school director for years. His entire career 
reflects credit upon himself, for in every position 
in life his actions have been above reproach. 



Dr. A. H. Ingram, retired, in former times one 
of the most skillful physicians in Jefferson County, 
was born in Mecklenburg County, N. C, on the 
13th of December, 1821, and was a son of John M. 
and Rebecca (Harris) Ingram, natives of the same 
State, of Scotch origin. The father was born 
August 21, 1794, and the mother September 16, 
1796. Both grandparents vrere soldiers in the 
Revolutionary War, in which Solomon Harris, the 
maternal grandfather, was wounded and captured 
at the battle of Cowpen but never incarcerated. 
The grandparents passed the remainder of their 
days in North Carolina, Joseph Ingram, the pater- 
nal grandfather, dying in his chair, of apoplexy, 
when in his seventy-sixth year. His wife died 
when forty-two years old. John M. Ingram was 
a farmer, which calling was followed by almost 
every one of the male members on both sides of 
the family. In 1856 he moved to Jefferson County, 
Ark., with his family and slaves, making the en- 
tire trip in wagons. On arriving he first located 
in Talladega Township, which now forms a portion 
of Cleveland County, and bought claims, upon 
which he began cultivating the land and resided 
until his death, in 1858, his wife following him 
the next year. Five sons were born to them, of 
whom Dr. A. H. Ingram is the only survivor. One 
of the sons, Benjamin F. , was killed at the battle 
of Shiloh; Joseph J. commanded a battalion dur- 
ing the Civil War, and died after that event, as did 
also John and Thomas. A. H. Ingram, the sub- 
ject of this sketch, was reared and educated in 
Mecklenburg County, N. C. , attending the David- 
son College at that place, only lacking two months 
of graduating when he was taken sick, remaining 
an invalid for two years. During his illness be read 
medicine, and in 1845 graduated from the Medical 
College of Charleston, S. C, commencing his prac- 
tice in Anson County, N. C. He remained here 
until 1857, and then moved to Jefferson County, 
Ark. , locating on the plantation adjoining that of 
his father. He resided here only a short time, 
and then moved to Sulphur Springs, where he re- 
mained until 1880, with the exception of two years 
at Pine Bluff. In 1880 be returned to the latter 
city, and has resided here ever since. For the 



182 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



past fifteen years Dr. Ingram has been practically 
retired from his profession, and turned his atten- 
tion almost entirely to farming, his agricn.ltural 
interests being quite extensive. He owns about 
4,000 acres of productive land, and has placed 
some 500 acres under cultivation, besides raising 
a quantity of fine fruit. Owning considerable real 
estate, from which the rentals form a splendid in- 
come, he is thus enabled to pass the remainder of 
his days in comfort after a busy career. Dr. In- 
gram was married in 1845 to Miss Caroline P. 
Steele, of Montgomery County, N. C. , by whom 
he has had five children, three of them yet living: 
Anna, Mattie, and J. S. He has been a member 
of the Masonic fraternity since 1854, and as a cit- 
izen is one of the most pojiular and respected men 
in the community. 

Richard B. Jackman is one of the prominent 
citizen of Jefferson County who have passed away 
within the last few years. He was born in Ken- 
tucky in 1830, and came to Arkansas with his 
parents when seven or eight years of age, locating 
at Richland, but afterward settled on the land 
where his widow now resides. In his youthful 
days young Jackman studied medicine and at- 
tended lectiires at Louisville, Ky., with the inten- 
tion of ultimately adopting that profession, but find- 
ing that his preference had undergone a change 
after completing his studies, he turned his atten- 
tion almost exclusively to farming, and only gave 
the benefit of his knowledge in medicine to a few 
of his most intimate friends when they required 
it. During the war he served in the Confederate 
Army, and held the rank of lieutenant, taking 
part in a great many important engagements and 
performing his duty with distinction. Mr. Jack- 
man was married three times, his first wife being 
Miss Sarah Moore. After her death he was mar- 
ried to Miss Lydia Lemon, whose death occurred 
some years later. His third wife was Miss Martha 
Lemon, a daughter of Robert Leinon, of Tenn- 
essee, who died in Arkansas in 1806. His wife 
was born in Fayette County, Tenn., in 1843, 
and moved with her parents to Jefferson County, 
Ark., in 1860. By the first marriage Mr. Jack- 
man became the father of ten children, four of 



whom survive: Richard, Estelle (wife of Mr. Beck- 
with, a prominent merchant of Jefferson County), 
Shelby, and Julia (wife of W. O. Coleman, a noted 
inachinist of Alabama). By his second marriage 
only one of two children born is living, Frederick E., 
who resides at home. His last marriage gave him 
Edith and Hugh, who also reside at home. Mr. 
Jackman was a prominent Mason and helped to 
organize many lodges during his busy life. In 
politics he was a Democrat, and a man upon whom 
that party placed the greatest reliance. He was a 
popular citizen and a liberal supporter of all worthy 
enterprises, and left a large circle of friends to 
mourn his death. Mrs. Jackman still resides on 
the plantation, consisting of 240 acres of valuable 
land seven miles north of Pine Bluff, and is a 
favorite with all her friends. She is a member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 

James L. Johnson, one of the oldest living 
residents of Jefferson County, was born in the 
Dominion of Canada in 1811, and is perhaps 
better versed in this county's history than any 
other citizen, having, as an early settler of Pine 
Bluff, built the first frame house in that place. 
He came to the State of Arkansas in 1835. His 
parents were Thomas and Mary (Blair) Johnson, 
natives of Long Island and Prince Edward's Is- 
land, the former of whom located in New Bruns- 
wick, and engaged in exporting timber and lum- 
ber. In his later life he was a very prominent 
man, having been appointed judge of the appel- 
late court. In this family were five sons and two 
daughters, and of these the subject of this sketch 
is now the only survivor. At the age of fourteen 
James L. was sent to Nova Scotia, where he served 
four years as apprentice learning the trade of car- 
penter and joiner, and at the age of twenty-two he 
started out for himself, landing in New York City, 
where he worked for several years. Going thence 
to New Orleans, he remained a short time, and 
later came up the river to Little Rock, finally 
reaching Pine Bluff" s present site, in 1835, where 
he commenced working at his trade. But little 
inducement was offered for him to stop here, so he 
left and went up the Ohio River to Madison, Ind., 
but after a short time again found himself in Pine 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



183 



Bluff. la October, 1839, be went to Swan Lake, 
Arkansas County, locating on a tract of land cov- 
ered with heavy timber and cane, and on the spot 
where his home now stands he killed his first deer, 
despatching also a bear near by. There were only 
two settlers near him at that time. Mr. Johnson 
has since devoted himself to clearing his land and 
working at his trade, besides putting up gins for 
miles around In 1848 he built his present resi- 
dence, and the same year married Harrisynthe 
Racine, daughter of Athonas Racine, who married 
and raised his family in Arkansas. Mrs. Johnson 
was born at the Post of Arkansas, and died in 
1885 at the age of sixty eight. They had two 
daughters: Mary (the wife of O. M. Spellman, re- 
cently appointed by President Harrison, United 
States marshal of this district), and Fannie, who is 
at home. When in New York Mr. Johnson joined 
the Odd Fellows, and was a Ma.son several years 
ago. He has taken some part in politics; was an 
old line Whig, and during the war was in sympathy 
with the Union cause. Though a sufferer from 
paralysis, he is engaged in planting and general 
merchandising, and by virtue of his long residence 
here as well as his true worth, enjoys a wide and 
favorable acquaintance. 

W. D. Johnson, ex-judge and real-estate agent, 
Pine Bluff, Ark., and a representative citizen, is a 
native of Fayette County, Ala. , where he was born 
January 12, 1828. He is a son of Col. Greef 
and Mary (Heliums) Johnson, the father a native 
of South Carolina and the mother of Tennessee. 
They were married near Knoxville, and a short 
time afterward, in 1807, crossed into Alabama, 
locating in Madison County, and being among the 
pioneers of that region. Col. Greef Johnson fol- 
lowed the occupation of a farmer in several coun- 
ties of Alabama, and in December, 1859, made his 
way to Pine Bluff', Ark., where both he and his 
wife passed their last days. He was a captain 
in the War of 1812, under Gen. Jackson, and was 
afterward colonel of the militia in Alabama. He 
was a powerfully built man and considered a very 
handsome one. He held the office of county judge 
in Mississippi, and also many other offices of pub- 
lie trust duringr his life. To his marriage were 



born twelve children— four sous and eight daugh- 
ters-only two now living: Mrs. Susan Ferguson 
(a resident of Gonzales County, Texas), and W. 

D. Johnson (of Pine Bluff). The latter was but 
five years of age when he accompanied his parents 
to Mississppi, and in that State he received the 
principal part of his education, being also early 
taught the duties on the farm. He was married in 
1847 to Miss Elizabeth Womack, in Yalobusha 
County, Miss. , and by her became the father of 
six children, four now alive: Sallie (wife of William 

E. Sallee), Dora (wife of L. T. Sallee), John N. 
and Robert L. Johnson. After marriage Mr. John- 
son was engaged in merchandising for four years, 
when he was made deputy sheriff of Yalobusha 
County, Miss. , and filled this position to the satis- 
faction of all. In 1850 he moved to Pine Bluff', 
Ark. , where he followed the livery business, and 
was also occupied in the liquor business a short 
time, after which he kept books about one year. 
He was then deputy clerk for three years, and in 
1860 was appointed notary public, the first one to 
represent the county in that capacity. The same 
year he was elected mayor of the city, but still 
held his position of de])uty clerk, and was in full 
charge of this office when the Federals took pos- 
session of the place in 1863. Judge Johnson 
studied law both before and after the war, admit- 
ted to the bar in August, 1805, and has continued 
his practice ever since, being for some time in the 
office of Gen. Yell, the noted criminal lawyer, and 
afterward a j^artner of Col. W. P. Grace for seven 
years. Aside from his law jjractice. Judge John- 
son is engaged extensively in the real estate busi- 
ness, and in 1867 and 1868 was prosecuting attor- 
ney for the city, and a part of the time for the dis- 
trict. He was disfranchised by the reconstruction 
acts of 1868, and enfranchised again in 1872 by 
special act of Congress. In 1878 he was elected 
county and probate judge, and re elected in 1880 
and 1882. At pre,sent he is handling a vast amount 
of real estate, and is doing the largest business in 
this line of any real estate firm in the city. He 
also owns considerable town property. He lost 
his wife in January, _ 1865, and was again married 
at Pine Bluff, Ark. , in November, 1865, to Miss 



184 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



Carrie O. Hairston, who lived but four months and 
sis days after her marriage. The Judge then took 
for his third wife Miss Bettie Hartin, to whom he 
was united in Yalobusha County, Miss., in Octo- 
ber, 1S66, and by this union became the father 
of two daughters: Grace (a teacher in the city 
high school), and Joe Johnson. In 1867 Judge 
Johnson was appointed assignee ia the first bank 
rupt case in Jefferson County, and was afterward 
appointed in 186 cases as assignee, settling them 
nj> to the satisfaction of all concerned and the 
court. In this particular the Judge has no supe- 
rior and can tell to-day when asked the amount of 
each piece of property sold by him and who bought 
the same, and has a record of each. He cast his 
first vote in 1851 for Jeff Davis for Governor of 
Mississippi, and has always been a Democrat in 
his political views. He is a Royal Arch Mason 
and a Knight of Honor. 

Dr. Samuel J. Jones. This is a name readily 
recognized by all, and one which stands out promi- 
nently in the annals of Jefferson County. Dr. 
Jones was born in Limestone County, Ala., De- 
cember 6, 1822, and died August 3, 1881. He 
was a son of Hardaman Jones, a merchant of 
Huntsville, Ala. , arid Jane (Jordan) Jones, of Vir- 
ginia nativity, both of whom went to Alabama when 
children, with their parents. Grandfather Jones 
lived to be very old, and died in Florida. The 
father of our subject died in middle life at Himts- 
ville, his wife having preceded him several years. 
After his parents" death, Dr. Jones was reared by 
his grandparents, Capit. Samuel Jordan and wife, 
old pioneers in Alabama. Samuel, the only son 
of wealthy parents, was kept in school in early 
life in Virginia, subsequently being sent to Yale 
College, and in 1851 graduated from the Medical 
College of Baltimore, Md. He practiced his pro- 
fession at Paint Rock, Jackson County, till 1860, 
when he removed to Arkansas, reaching Rob Roy 
steamboat landing on December 9 of that year. 
From that time until his death. Dr. Jones devoted 
himself to his family and professional duties, in 
which latter he was acknowledged to be one of the 
most prominent as he was one of the most success- 
ful in the county. He was a member of the Epis- 



copal Church. Personally of a kind and affec- 
tionate disposition, and very charitable, he was be- 
loved by a large circle of friends. He was active 
in the church and Sunday-school, and when the 
owner of 150 slaves provided them with a minister 
and gave them the privilege to attend church regu- 
larly. During the war he sympathized with the 
South, though not in favor of secession, but owing 
to ill health took no active part in that controversy. 
He was not very pronounced in politics, but was a 
member of the A. F. & A. M. December 20, 
1847, Dr. Jones married his cousin, Virginia A. 
Jones, of Quincy, Fla. , daughter of Dr. S. F. 
Jones, builder of the first house, and one of the 
first settlers in that city. Mrs. Jones' father was 
a prominent physician and much esteemed as a 
friend, knowing no difference between rich or 
Door. He was a noble-hearted man, and while not 
a church member, he believed in the Bible and in 
the Christian religion. He died at Key West, 
Fla. , November 1, 1856. To Dr. Samuel J. Jones 
and his wife were born two children : Samuel (who 
died in infancy), and Edna J. (now the wife of 
Thomas H. Collier, one of the leading planters of 
this county). Mrs. Jones still lives on the home 
place, where she superintends a farm of over 1,400 
acres, about 500 of which are under cultivation. 
She has been a member of the Episcopal Church 
since the age of fourteen years, and is a lady of 
refined and educated tastes, having attended school 
in Baltimore, Md. She was born December 20, 
1829. 

Hon. Met L. Jones, one of the leading attor- 
neys of Jefferson County, wa.s born in Hardeman 
County, Tenn. , on June 2, 1840, and is a son of 
Dr. William Jones, of Virginia, whose father, 
Leonard Jones, was also a native of the same 
State and of English descent. Dr. William Jones 
was one of the pioneers of Hardeman County and 
accumulated considerable fortune in that place. 
In 1862 he moved to Memphis and practiced his 
profession in that city until 1873, when he was 
i stricken with yellow fever and died at the age of 
fifty-five years. He was a man of gieat energy, 
and a' thorough student, being one of the most 
scholarly men of his time, and was almost entirely 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



185 



devoted to his profession. His wife, before her 
marriage, was Miss Naomi Robertson, a daughter 
of Col. Charles Robertson, of North Carolina, 
who commanded a regiment under Gen. Jackson 
at the battle of New Orleans. Met L. Jones passed 
his boyhood days on a farm and remained with his 
parents until seventeen years old. He then at- 
tended Woodland Academy, a select institution 
founded by Prof.Gwynn, and from there he went to 
Andrews College at Trenton, Tenn. , and remained 
until his nineteenth year. Upon leaving college 
he went to Savannah, Tenn., and studied law for 
two years under the supervision of Judge Elijah 
Walker and C. S. Robertson, the latter an uncle. 
He next located at Hampton, Calhoun County, 
Ark. , where he practiced his profession from May, 
1860, to May, 1861, the date of the State's seces- 
sion, and from there went to Wilcox County, 
Ala., where he remained until joining the Fourth 
Alabama Regiment, and then hurried on to the 
battle of Manassas. He continued with the army 
in Virginia until the surrender, with the excep- 
tion of four months spent in the Trans-Mis- 
sissippi department, taking part in the battles at 
Bull Run, Manassas, at the capitulation of Har 
per's Ferry, Seveu Pines, Mechaniesville, White 
Oak Swamp, Chickahominy, Malvern Hill, Sharps- 
burg and Gettysburg, and at the second battle of 
Manassas he was wounded in the head by a minie 
ball which has left a permanent indenture in the 
skull. He was again wounded at the battle of 
Malvern Hill by a bullet in the thigh which yet 
remains in his body. Mr. Jones first entered the 
army as a private, but his gallant actions in battle 
won for him the rank of first lieutenant of Com- 
pany C, Fourth Alabama Regiment, then major 
of his regiment and later on lieutenant-colonel, 
afterward being appointed to stafF duty in the 
department of Henrico, Va. While at Malvern 
Hill he commanded a squadron, and at Gettys- 
burg his service was strictly that of a soldier in 
the Army of Northern Virginia. After the war 
was over he returned to Hampton and resumed 
his practice in Calhoun and the adjoining coun- 
ties, his clientage being one of the largest in 
that section of Arkansas. He remained here until 



January, 1870, and then, in order to place better 
facilities before his children in the way of social, 
educational and religious matters, he moved to 
Pine BlufP, and in 1872 formed a partnership with 
Judge William M. Harrison. Two years later the 
latter gentleman was elected to the supreme bench, 
which necessitated a dissolution of the firm. In 
1874 he entered into jiartnership with Judge David 
W. Carroll, which continued until 1878, when the 
latter was elected to the office of state chancellor, 
since which time Mr. .Tones has practiced alone. He 
has always been in the front rank of his profession, 
and has in every instance relied upon his own 
judgment in every case he has handled, and in- 
stead of committing his clients to other lawyers, 
has followed their cases up to the Supreme bench 
in person. In all complicated matters he has 
striven to adjust differences without having re- 
course to the courts, and has settled a great many 
important cases with serious detriment to his own 
purse temporarily. He has never had an opposing 
counsel to ask his indulgence in a ease but what 
he has granted it, unless seriously conflicting with 
his client's interests. While making law his prin- 
cipal business, Mr. Jones has paid some attention 
to farming, and owns several large tracts of land, 
rendering him, financially, one of the most solid 
men of the State. In politics he is a Democrat and 
a leader among his party. He was a presidential 
elector for Seymour, and a delegate at large from 
Arkansas to the National Democratic Convention 
at St. Louis in 1876, as also at every State conven- 
tion since the war. In 1866-67 he served as a 
member of the House of Representatives, but it is 
against his nature to seek public office, being de- 
voted to his law library and the quiet of domestic 
life. Mr. Jones was married near Camden on 
August 27, 1860, to Miss Rebecca Roberts, of 
Wilcox County, Ala., a daughter of Alfred Rob- 
erts, one of the largest planters of that State. 
Mrs. Jones is a member of the Presbyterian 
Church, and an earnest, devoted Christian, while 
her husband, although not a member of any par- 
ticular church, is a believer in the Bible and its 
teachings. Four children have been born to their 
union: William, Stella, Nona and Met L., in 



186 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



■whom the parents take great pride, and are giving 
them the best education to be obtained. In secret 
societies Mr. Jones is a member of I. O. O. F., 
Knights of Honor, Knights of the Golden Rule, 
Forresters and Royal Arcanum. 

Arch Ledbetter, a successful planter and well- 
known citizen of Jefferson County, was born in 
Madison County, Ala., May 23, 1837. and is a 
son of Asa and Elizabeth (Skelton) Ledbetter, of 
Georgia. The father was born in the year 1801 
and the mother in 1790, their marriage occurring 
in their native State. Shortly after that event 
they moved to Alabama and settled in Madison 
County, but changed their location again to Mar- 
shall County, where they resided until the father's 
death in 1855 and the mother's in 1858. Both 
were members of the Methodist Church, and pious, 
Christian people. The father was a Democrat in 
politics and a prominent man in Marshall County, 
where he followed farming for an occupation. 
They were the parents of a large family of chil- 
dren, of whom Arch Ledbetter was the youngest, 
and the only one now living. After his father's 
death, which occurred when Arch was seventeen 
years old, the latter commenced farming for him- 
self on rented land. Industry was one of the vir- 
tues that had been instilled in the young man by 
his father, and his teaching bore fruit, as is wit- 
nessed by the son's after career. At the end of 
one year he was united in marriage to Mrs. Mar- 
garet I. Ricketts, of Tennessee, who became the 
mother of four children: J. B., T. L.. M. T. and 
W. D. , all residing at home. Mrs. Ledbetter was 
born in 1824, and died. in 1889 at her husband's 
home in Jefferson County, Ark. Mr. Ledbet- 
ter continued to reside in Alabama until the year 
1869, when he moved with his family to Jeffer- 
son County, Ark., and commenced farming and 
raising stock. In connection with this he now 
operates a cotton gin and grist-mill, and owns one 
of the best farms in the county. His success is 
assured, and it is certainly deserved, for his busi- 
ness ability and good management have placed 
him in an independent position from a commence- 
ment with almost nothing. In July, 1889, he 
was married to Mrs. Mollie L. Dickinson, of Dal- 



las County, Ark., a charming widow, and daugh- 
ter of James S. Gibson. This union gave them 
one child: Calista O. Mr. Ledbetter is a member 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and is 
steward of his congregation. In politics he is a 
Democrat, and has given his party considerable 
aid by using his influence in their behalf. He is 
a prominent figure in all social affairs of his com 
munity. and is much respected. 

Robert I. Lemon, one of the leading citizens 
of Jefferson County and a prominent planter, was 
born in Fayette County, Tenn., July 15, 1848, 
and is a son of Robert and Martha (Danzy) 
Lemon, of Virginia and Tennessee, respectively, 
although the mother's parents were natives of the 
former State and left it about the time of their 
daughter's birth. They resided in Fayette County, 
Tenn., where Robert Lemon met and won his 
wife, and there remained until their removal to 
Arkansas in 1860, locating in Jefferson County. 
The following year the mother died, and in 1866 
the father also passed away, both dying believers in 
the Methodist faith. The father was a successful 
farmer, and while in Tennessee held several prom 
inent public offices. He came to the State of Ark- 
ansas not with the intention of remaining, but to 
pass through and settle in Texas, but the war 
breaking out at that time prevented him going any 
further, and finding the soil and climate every 
way suitable he concluded to locate. During the 
war his sympathies were with the Union, but he 
remained neutral as far as possible. He and his 
wife were the parents of seven children, of whom 
Robert I. was the sixth; five are yet living. Rob- 
ert was educated at Pine Bluff, and after his 
father's death commenced in life for himself. He 
had learned the carpenter's trade, and went to 
Washington and Benton Counties, following that 
occupation for three years. At the end of that 
time he returned to Jefferson Couoty, which has 
since been his home. Having in the meantime 
given part of his attention to farming, in 1870 he 
found that his success would necessitate his devot- 
ing his entire time to that calling. He now owns 
800 acres of fertile land, all made by the sweat of 
his own brow and good management. On June 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



187 



3, 1877, he was married to Miss Cornelia East, a 
daughter of A. H. East, of Jefferson County, but 
was parted from his wife in 1885, who died, leav- 
ing four children: Edward H. , Charles N., Lydia 
J. and R. I. They also lost one child, who died 
in infancy. On February 10, 1887, he was mar- 
ried to Mrs. Callie V. Harrel, an amiable and 
charming widow lady, and a daughter of James 
H. Griffin, of Fayette County, Tenn. This lady's 
former husband was Mr. Jacob Harrel, a prom- 
inent citizen of Jeit'erson County. Both Mr. and 
Mrs. Lemon are members of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, South, and earnest Christian people. 
Mr. Lemon is a Mason, and in politics a Democrat. 
His popularity and prosperity could not have fallen 
on a man more worthy, and the high estimation the 
community place upon his citizenship has been 
well earned. 

Capt. Sam Lindsay is very familiar to the citi- 
zens of Jefferson County. The name rej^resents 
a plaater and merchant of Pastoria, whose enter- 
prise is almost proverbial in the surrounding coun- 
try. He was born in Pine Bluff, Ark., in 1840, 
and is a son of William H. and Catharine (Coch- 
ran) Lindsay, of Virginia and Kentucky, respect- 
ively. In his youth the father had been appren- 
ticed to a tanner, and upon leaving his native State 
in 1836, and arriving at Pine Bluff, Ark., he es- 
tablished a business of that nature. Soon after- 
ward, however, he gave it up and turned his atten- 
tion entirely to farming, and in this business be- 
came one of the most successful and substantial 
men in Pine Bluff. He lost a large part of his 
fortune by investing in slaves up to as late as 1861, 
and after the war was over his wealth had dwin- 
dled to a considerable extent. He was in sym- 
pathy with the Southern States, but never entered 
the army during the strife, although he rendered 
them valuable service on various occasions by 
scouting, in which capacity he was an adept. In 
politics Mr. Lindsay was a Democrat. He was the 
second judge Jefferson County ever had, and 
served as justice of the peace for eight years. His 
birth occurred in 1812, and he died in 1869, while 
taking a trip to Memphis, Tenn., his wife dying 
in 1852. Some years after the death of his wife, 



Mr. Lindsay was married to Miss Mahala Moore, 
of Rutherford County, Tenn., who died in Jeffer- 
son County, Ark. , in the year 1867. By his first 
marriage he became the father of si.'c children, of 
whom two are yet living: Sam and Wilbur F. 
(the latter a farmer in Arkansas County), and by 
his last marriage he had two children, of whom one 
only is living; Edward, a farmer in Jefferson Coun- 
ty. Sam Lindsay was educated in Pine Bluff and 
had hardly finished his school days when he en- 
listed in the Confederate army. He joined Com- 
pany H of the Ninth Arkansas Infantry as a pri- 
vate soldier, but shortly after his efficiency was 
recognized and he was promoted to first lieu- 
tenant. One year later he was appointed captain 
of Company F in the same regiment, and six months 
afterward was transferred and given command of 
Company K. He took part in a great many bat- 
tles, some of the most important being at Shiloh, 
Vicksburg, Baker's Creek, Port Hudson, Jackson, 
Dalton and Atlanta. At the battle of Shiloh he 
was wounded in the left leg, and during the Geor- 
gia campaign he received a minie ball in his right 
arm which caused him to lose that member. He 
was paroled at Macon, Ga., in June, 1865, and 
returned to Jefferson County, where he again com- 
menced farming. In connection with his farm 
Capt. Lindsay also embarked in mercantile life at 
Pastoria, where he has established an enviable repu- 
tation. He has been postmaster of that town for the 
past five years, and for eight years previous he 
held the office of justice of the peace for Pastoria 
Township. The Captain was married on April 16, 
1867, to Miss Sallie Bayliss, a daughter of Thomas 
and Elizabeth Bayliss, by whom he has had three 
children, Anna, Samuella and Antonette, who are 
living, and two who have died since: Florence and 
Rizzley. Capt. Lindsay and his wife are members 
of the Methodist Episcojial Church, South, in 
which the former has held several responsible po- 
sitions. He is a Democrat in politics, and as a 
citizen he is one of the most popular and enter- 
prising in the county. He is never backward in 
aiding any worthy enterprise, but in fact is always 
one of the leaders. 

N. C. Lowry, retired, Pine Bluff, Ark. Mr. 



188 



HISTOEY OF AEKANSAS. 



Lowry is a native of Tennessee, born in Henry 
County, in June, 1823, and is the son of Isaac and 
Rebecca (Crosswell) Lowry, natives of North Car- 
olina and Tennessee, respectively. The elder 'Lovpry 
left the land of his nativity when a young man, 
went to Tennessee, and after his marriage located 
in Stewart County of that State, where in connec- 
tion with farming he also followed the teacher's 
profession for some time. Later he moved to 
Memjihis, resided there about two years, and in 
1840 removed to Arkansas, locating in what is now 
Drew County, where he closed his eyes to the 
scenes of this world in the following June. He 
served in the War of 1812, participating in the 
battle of New Orleans, and was also in some of the 
old Indian wars. He served as sheriff of Henry 
County, Tenn. , for several years, and was a man 
universally respected. His wife died in July, 
1841. Their family consisted of four sons and two 
daughters, all of whom grew to maturity, and live 
became the heads of families. Three are living at 
the present time: N. C. (subject of this sketch), 
John R. {^ffho resides in Arkansas), and D. B. (who 
is a resident of Texas). N. C. Lowry came to 
Arkansas with his father in 1840 and remained 
with him until his death. He then commenced 
learning the blacksmith trade the following winter, 
and served as an apprentice for three years, after 
which, or in 1844, he erected a shop and was in 
active business for about eight years. Finally he 
sold out and entered a store, where he clerked un- 
til the breaking out of the late war, when he en- 
tered the Confederate service as a mechanic, serving 
in that capacity until the close of the war. After- 
ward he returned to his former business of clerk- 
ing, which he continued up to the winter of 1888 or 
1889. When Mr. Lowry located at Pine Bluff (in 
1844) it was then a small village, and the wood 
near was full of bear and deer. He was married 
here in 1848 to Miss Christiana Smart, a native of 
Carroll County, Tenn., but reared principally in 
Arkansas, and the daughter of Josephus Smart. 
To Mr. and Mrs. Lowry were born live sons: 
Douglas (grown and married), Archie (also mar- 
ried), Jehu (a young man), Charles (a young man), 
and Henry Neal. Mr. Lowry is a Royal Arch 



Mason, and has served in several official capacities 
in the Blue Lodge and Chapter. 

William T. Lytle, farmer, Altheimer, Ark. 
The farm which Mr. Lytle now owns and conducts 
in such an enterprising, industrious manner, em- 
braces about 380 acres of good land, with about 
200 acres under cultivation, forming one of the 
neat, comfortable homesteads of the county. The 
improvements upon it are convenient and complete, 
and such as are necessary. He is a native of 
Mississippi, and was born March 27, 1842. His 
father, Robertson Lytle, was born in the Buckeye 
State, near Dayton, in 1812, and secured a fair 
education there. He moved from his native State 
to Mississippi in 1837, was married there the same 
year to Miss Louisa Cloyes, a native of Arkansas, 
and the fruits of this union were eight children, 
four sons and four daughters, of whom three are 
still living, two residing in Arkansas and one in 
Mississippi. The father was a farmer, currier and 
shoemaker by occupation, and was an upright, 
honest citizen. He was a member of the Masonic 
Lodge, and he and wife belonged to the Methodist 
Church. William T. Lytle was favored with fair 
facilities for acquiring an education in Jefferson 
County, Ark, , and his sjsare moments were passed 
in attending to duties around the home place. 
February 8, 1865, he married Miss Nancy Mayes, 
a native of Arkansas, and a daughter of Bryant 
and Sarah Mayes. This union has resulted in the 
birth of six children, three sons and three daugh- 
ters, all living, and three residing at home, but 
the others in the neighborhood. They are named 
as follows: William F. (who married Miss Lilly 
Coen), Emma L. (the wife of P. D. Matkins), Es- 
telle (wife of John Woodall), Robert, Rosie B. and 
Bryant E. Mr. Lytle has always followed agri- 
cultural pursuits and has been quite successful in 
this respect. He is a member of the American 
Legion of Honor, having joined in 1884, has been 
a member of the Knights of Honor for four years, 
and has belonged to the Masonic fraternity for 
four months. During the late war he enlisted in 
1861, under Gen. Price, and his first hard fight 
was at Corinth, Miss., where he was slightly 
wounded. He with others was taken prisoner at 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



189 



the siege of Port Hudson, and there paroled, being 
obliged to live on mule meat two weeks. After 
being exchanged, he soldiered in Arkansas until 
the early part of 1865, when he was taken prisoner, 
and then released, engaging the same spring in 
farming, his present occupation. His wife died 
May 6, 1884, and on August 4, 1885, Mr. Lytle 
took for his second wife Mrs. Delia G. Johnson. 
He and wife are members of the Methodist Church, 
and are respected by all. 

J. W. D. McClure, dealer in pianos, organs, 
sewing machines, books and stationery, aad one of 
the leading citizens of Fine BlufF, was born in Bar- 
tow County, Ga. , on the 8th of September, 1S44, 
and is a son of John and Nancy (Beauchamp) Mc- 
Clure, both natives of the same State, of Irish and 
French origin, respectively. The father was an ex- 
pert mechanic by trade, and a well known man in 
that section of country. Both parents died in 
Georgia, leaving three children living out of six 
born to them: Amanda (wife of R. M. Hardy), 
James W. D., and Mrs. Olive Hammet. J. W. 
D. McClure, whose name heads this sketch, was 
reared and educated in his native county, attend- 
ing the public schools of that place. He was 
apprenticed at an early age at the machiaist trade, 
but did not complete his time. He then learned 
the carpenter trade, which calling he followed un- 
til leaving the State. In 1877, coming to John- 
son County, Ark. , he located at Old Hill, and en- 
tered into commercial life, there remaining for 
three years, when he was employed by H. G. Hol- 
lenburg as traveling salesman for musical instru- 
ments, and continued with this gentleman one year. 
Later, he was employed by Smith & Co. , for the 
same length of time, as traveling salesman, and 
then took charge of the branch office of this firm 
at Pine BlufP. They afterward sold out their 
business to Mr. Jesse French, with whom Mr. Mc- 
Clure remained until June, 1889, when he em- 
barked in the same business on his own account. 
He carries a full line of instruments, all of the very 
best make, and has established a very successful 
patronage. His musical house is the only one in 
Pine Bluff, and he has a monopoly of the business, 
but in spite of this advantage he keeps his prices 



within the reach of everyone. His trade has 
assumed extensive proportions, and he is one of 
the busiest men in Pine BlufF, hardly having time 
to look after his real estate interests, of which he 
owns considerable in that city. As a salesman and 
a thorough business man, Mr. McClure has at- 
tained well deserved reputation. In 1866 he was 
married to Miss Alta McDowell, of Bartow Coun- 
ty, Ga., by whom he has had five children, only 
one yet living, Lillie. Mr. and Mrs. McClure are 
both members of the Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church, and are deeply interested in all religious 
and educational matters. In secret orders he is a 
member of the Odd Fellows, Knights Templar, 
and Knights and Ladies of Honor. During the 
Civil War he enlisted in Company A, Eighth 
Georgia Battalion, and served until the surrender. 
He was appointed chief of scouts in the latter part 
of that event, but the war was over before he re- 
ceived his commission. Mr. McClure was a brave 
and gallant soldier in those trying times, and took 
part in the principal battles of Mississippi and 
Georgia, and was also in Sherman's march to the 
sea. 

R. V. McCracken, one of the leading citizens 
of Pine Bluff, now retired from active business 
life, was born in Limestone County, Ala. , on De- 
cember 5, 1830, and is a son of William and Mar- 
garet (Fox) McCracken, of South Carolina and 
Kentitcky, respectively. The father was a promi- 
nent surveyor, and one of the finest mathematicians 
in the South, and for some years Y/a^ also engaged 
in mercantile life in Alabama, in which State his 
death occurred, the mother dying at Columbus, 
Miss. The paternal grandfather, James McCrack- 
en, was a native of Scotland, who emigrated to 
America and settled in Union District, South Caro- 
lina, afterward removing to Alabama, where he 
resided until his death. R. V. McCracken was 
educated in the public schools of his native State, 
and remained in that j)lace until his eighteenth 
year, when he came to Little Rook, Ark., and en- 
tered a business house at that city. During his 
term of employment he read law, and was also in- 
structed by Elbert H. English, afterward chief 
justice, and in 1852 located in Pine Bluff. In 



190 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



1858 he was licensed to practice law in all the 
courts, and continued at his profession with suc- 
cess until the year 1874, when he abandoned the 
law and entered into the insurance brisiness. He 
has rejiresented fifteen of the best companies in 
the United States, and transacted nearly all of the 
insurance business in that section, until his failing 
health forced him to give it up. Since then he 
has lived in practical retirement and ease, hoping 
to close a somewhat stormy life with a calm and 
beautiful old age. Mr. McGracken has always 
been a liberal man in his views as well as in a 
financial sense, when it came toward advancing 
the public welfare. He served several terms as 
treasurer of the city of Pine Bluff, and gave entire 
satisfaction to the people in that capacity. In 
1856 he was married to Miss Virginia Harding, of 
Kentucky, and although he has never had any 
children of his own, he and wife have reared sev- 
eral orphan children with all the tender solicitude 
of true parents. In religious faith Mr. and Mrs. 
McCracken are members of the Episcopal Church. 
The former belongs to the Masonic fraternity, be- 
ing a Knight Templar, and associated with the 
Order of the Mystic Shrine. He takes an active 
interest in religious and educational affairs, and 
has attended three sessions of the general conven- 
tion of the Episcopal Church. When Mr. Mc- 
Cracken first came to Pine Bluff in 1852, it com- 
prised pnly about 500 inhabitants, and upon 
locating in the woods (now the heart of the city) 
people laughed at him, but the wisdom of his 
choice has beSn substantiated, and he can now ap- 
ply the old maxim that ' ' he who laughs last 
laughs best." 

Robert D. McGaughy. one of Jefferson County' s 
leading citizens and a man whose representation 
of enterprise is of the best, was born in Lawrence 
County, Ala., May 19, 1839, and is a son of Eli 
A. and Rebecca (Stewart) McGaughy, of Indiana 
and Alabama, respectively. Both j^arents were 
members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, 
and sincere, Christian people. In politics the 
father was a Democrat and wielded considerable in- 
fluence amongst the men of his party. He was a 
prosj)erous farmer during his life, and on the oc- 



casion of his death in 1869, at the age of 63 years, 
left a very good fortune. His wife died before 
him, in 1849, and he afterward married Mrs. 
Mary Russell. By his first marriage he became 
the father of a large family, of whom seven chil- 
dren lived to maturity, but two only remain at the 
present time: Robert D. and Emma, wife of Uriah 
Herron, a prominent banker of Paris, Texas. Ro- 
bert D. was educated in Alabama and remained in 
his birthplace until February, 1857, when he left 
home and came to the State of Arkansas, locating 
in Jefferson County. He immediately commenced 
farming, an occupation of which he had a practi- 
cal knowledge, and from 1874 to 1878 was en- 
gaged in commercial life at Colton Center, build- 
ing up a profitable trade during that time. He now 
owns 280 acres of very fertile land and has placed 
about 175 acres under cultivation. In May, 18,61, 
he enlisted in Company E. Sixth Arkansas Infantry, 
and served until the surrender at Greensboro, N. 
C, May 2, 1865. He took part in a great many of 
the important battles and a number of minor en- 
gagements, besides innumerable skirmishes. Prin- 
cipal among them were the battles of Shiloh, Mur- 
froesboro. Missionary Ridge, Chickamauga, thi'ough 
the Georgia campaign. New Hope Church, Kene- 
saw Mountain, Resaca, Atlanta and Jonesboro. At 
the latter place he was captured and confined for 
nineteen days before he was exchanged. He then 
fought at Franklin, Nashville and Bentonville, 
N. C, seeing some very hard service and 
performing his duties in a manner that often won 
the praise of his superior officers. After the war 
was over he went to Alabama to look after his 
father's business, but after one year's stay in that 
State he came back to Jefferson County, which he 
has made his home ever since. In 1888 he was 
elected justice of the peace of Plum Bayou Town- 
ship, an oSice that he filled with entire satisfaction 
to everyone. On October 24, 1865, he was married 
to Miss Josephine Stephenson, of Alabama, but 
lost his wife in Jefferson County, on May 15, 1875. 
She left two daughters, one of whom resides at 
home with her father. The other child, Ella, died 
in her thirteenth year. January 12, 1876, Mr. 
McGaughy was married to Miss Ida J. Cherry, 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



lUI 



of Toledo. Cleburne County, Ark., by whom be 
bad tbree cbildren; Edward D., Floy E. and 
Harry G. Tbis wife died August :U, 1885, .and 
on Majf lU, 1887, be was married to Miss Mamie 
E. Stepbeuson, a sister of bis first wife. Tbis 
marriage gave tbem one cbild, Robert Earl. Mrs. 
McClungby is a member of tbe Metbodist Episcopal 
Cburcb, and a devout Cbristian woman, earnest in 
ber endeavors to do good on every occasion. Her 
busband is a Royal Arcb Mason, and in politics a 
Democrat. 

Emmett M. McGaugby, M. D. Tbe study of 
medicine is an intricate one, and tbe man wbo at- 
tains a proficiency in tbat calling bas cause to feel 
proud — indeed bis pride is pardonable. Dr. Mc- 
Gaugby bas reacbed an eminence in bis j)rofession 
wbicb, to attempt a portrayal of bis work, is found 
to be out of tbe biograpber's reacb. However, 
tbe outlines of bis life may be passed over tbat 
some idea of bis success may be bad. He was 
born in Pine Bluff on Marcb 21, 1861, and is 
a son of Dr. J. Paul and Mary O. McGaugby, of 
Alabama and Arkansas, respectively. Tbe father 
w«,s a noted pbysician and a graduate of tbe Uni- 
versity of Louisville, Ky. He first commenced 
to practice medicine in Flat Rock before tbe war, 
and in 1871 moved to Pine Bluff, wbere be also 
embarked ia mercantile life. Later on he retired 
from business and turned bis attention exclusively 
to farming, in which calling be was extremely 
prosperous. His de;itb occurred in 1879, when 
fifty-two years of age. The mother died in 1872, 
and was comparatively a young woman at the time 
of her death. She was a member of tbe Methodist 
Episcoj^al Church, South, an earnest Christian 
woman and much admired for her charitable deeds. 
In politics the father was a Democrat. Seven 
cbildren were born to their marriage, of whom six 
are still living: Belle (wife of George Lindsay, con- 
nected with the firm of G. Meyer & Co., at Pine 
Bluff), H. C. (with tbe mercantile bouse of R. S. 
Thompson, at the same point), Ernest (in commer- 
cial life at Fort Payne, Ala.), Fannie, Marshall 
(salesman for Westbrook & Co.. at Pine Bluff). Lula 
(who died in ber fourth year), Eddy (wbo died in 
infancy), and Emmett M. The latter was educated 



in Pine Bluff, and graduated from tbe high schools 
at tbat place in 1881. In the same year he com- 
menced the study of medicine under Drs. Owen 
and Alexander, of Pine Bluff' (both now deceased), 
and after eighteen months' instruction from tbem 
be attended lectures at the University of Louisville. 
He commenced to practice bis profession at Rob 
Roy and remained there two years, afterward re- 
moving to Goldman, where be remained a short 
time, and then to Corner Stone, in which place and 
in the surrounding country, be has built up a fine 
practice. In June. 1889, be was married to Miss 
Mary Oliphant, a daughter of L. H. Olipbant, of 
Jefferson County. Mrs. McGaugby is a member 
of tbe Episcopal Church. " The Doctor is a promi- 
nent Mason, and in politics a stanch Democrat. 

Samuel M. McGebee, one of the old resident 
planters of tbis county, has seen considerable of 
pioneer life, having come to Arkansas in 1857. 
He was born in Meriwether County, Ga., Sep- 
tember 1, 1828, wbere be was reared, having few 
school advantages, and where he cast bis first 
vote. At the age of twenty one he commenced 
clerking in a general store for $8 per month and 
board, at Griffin, Ga. On tbis small sum he sup- 
ported himself for two years, later engaging ia 
farming in his native county, and four years later 
removed to Arkansas, locating in tbe vicinity of 
wbere he now resides, and becoming one of the 
leading farmers of his section. He bas upward 
of 250 acres of open land devoted to the best pur- 
poses of agricultural life. In 1861 Mr. McGebee 
enlisted in tbe Confederate army, in what was called 
the Fogin Guards, and was made first lieuten- 
ant. They went to Virginia, camping on the Po- 
tomac, wbere he remained, till his health gave out, 
when he was transferred to the Western depart- 
ment. He then helped organize tbe Trans Missis- 
sippi department, and served as (quartermaster. 
He was at Arkansas Post. January 10, 1863, but 
succeeded in making his escape, also taking part 
in a number of skirmishes during service, and at 
the battle of Williamsburg. Va. , be was shot, though 
by tbe ball bitting his watch and glancing off he 
was not injured. In 1864 he was elected to tbe State 
legislature but did not serve. In 1870 he was com- 



192 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



missioned postmaster at Double Wells (whicli is at 
his home), named from two wells on his place. 
He has since held the office, with the exception of 
one year when he resigned. He has been very 
successful, and now owns 4, 000 acres of good land. 
Mr. Mc'Gehee's first wife was Miss Mary Black- 
well (sister of Thomas P. Blackwell), who was born 
in 1829, and died in 1866, a member of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church. They had a family of six 
children, two of whom are now living: Dr. Mar- 
shall M. (living and practicing in Georgia), and 
Sarah E. (wife of A. B. Craig of this county). 
September 11, 1866, Mr. McGehee was married to 
his present wife, formerly Miss Eliza J. Griffin. 
She was born in Fayette County, Tenn., in the j'ear 
1832, and was the daughter of Lucy and Perry- 
man Griffin, of Kentucky, the former of whom 
died in 1873; the mother is still living at the age 
of eighty-eight, but for ten years has been de- 
prived of her eye- sight, the affliction resulting 
from measles. Mrs. Ferryman is one of thi'ee 
living out of a family of eight children. She has 
been a resident of this county since 1859, having 
come here with her parents. One son, Franklin 
O. , is the result of this union; he was born Decem- 
ber 2, 1868, graduated from the Central Collegi- 
ate Institute, at Altus, Ark., and is now teaching 
his fourth term of school. Mr. McGehee and his 
wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, of which he is steward, and he has 
been a lay member of every conference at Little 
Rock for the last twenty years. He is a Demo- 
crat, taking some interest in county and State 
elections, and has held the office of justice of the 
peace for some years, and it is recorded that soon 
after taking that office he married a couple on 
horseback. His father, a farmer and local Metho- 
dist minister, was a native of Georgia, and mar- 
ried Sarah Martin, of the same State. He was a 
leading worker in the church, was in one of the 
Indian wars of Alabama, and held a commission as 
major in the Georgia State militia. He was born 
in 1805, and died in 1876. His wife was born in 
1804, and died in 1868; she was an active member 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, a lovely woman, 
charitable, kind and generous to a fault. 



Marcellus C. Mcintosh, M. D., is another 
bright light in the medical profession of Arkansas, 
located at Sherrill, Jefferson County. He was 
born at Palmetto, Ga. , on November 5, 1859, and 
is a son of Marcellus E. and Barbara J. (McBride) 
Mcintosh. The father was also a physician of 
note, and a graduate of the Medical College of 
Augusta, Ga. , in 1845, and practiced his profes- 
sion in that State and Alabama. He was one of 
the most intellectual and scholarly men in his native 
State, and attained a high eminence among the 
medical fraternity. During the late war he served 
as surgeon in the Confederate army, and per- 
formed such work that had the United States such 
institutions as the Iron Cross of Europe he would 
have been entitled to the honor of being so decor- 
ated. His father was Jesse Mcintosh, of Scotland, 
who emigrated to America and settled in Morgan 
County, Ala. , where he also practiced medicine, 
and gave part of his attention to a plantation. 
This Mcintosh was one of the largest and wealth- 
iest planters in Georgia at that time, and well 
known throughout the Southern country. The 
McBride family are old and well known residents 
of Georgia, and are noted for their merchant 
princes as well as the Mcintosh family are known 
for their famous physicians and surgeons, the firm 
of McBride & Co. being one of the largest in At- 
lanta. The parents of Marcellus C. were both 
members of the Baptist Church, and took great in- 
terest in religious and educational affairs. The 
father had been a prominent Mason, and had taken 
nearly all the higher degrees, besides belonging to 
several temperance societies. In politics he was a 
Democrat and a valuable man for his party, as his 
influence in that section was considerable. Seven 
children were born to their marriage, of whom five 
grew to maturity and four are yet living: Mary 
L. (wife of John M. Adams, a prominent planter 
of Chambers County, Ala.), Dora E. (deceased, 
who was the wife of McCuin Robinson, of Lee 
County, Ala.), Marcellus (who is at present in 
San Francisco with a brother), Marcellus C. and 
William P. The latter was the third child born to 
the parents. Like his forefathers he inclioed 
toward the medical profession, and was a graduate 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



193 



of the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Bal- 
timore, the Johns Hopkins University in the same 
city, and of the male academy at West Point. He 
is now connected with the United States Marine 
Hospital service, and is stationed at San Francisco, 
Cal. Marcellus C. was educated at the home 
schools, and first commenced to study medicine 
tinder his father and elder brother. He began 
when eight years old, and continued with them 
until 1882, when he attended lectures at the Col- 
ege of Physicians and Surgeons at Baltimore. 
After graduating from that college he was a thor- 
ough physician and entered into active work at 
Palmyra, Ark., where he remained a short time, 
and then moved to Greely, near the boundary line 
of Lincoln and Jefferson Counties, practicing at 
this place until 1885. During the years 1885-86 
he attended the Memphis Hospital Medical College, 
and after graduating from that institute, moved 
to Corner Stone and again began to practice, but 
the following year he changed to his present loca- 
tion. While at Baltimore he was assistant sur- 
geon to a well known physician, and at Memphis 
was assistant at the City Hospital, but virtually 
had entire charge of the place. In February, 
1886, he entered the United States Marine Ser- 
vice and remained a short time, and upon obtain- 
ing an indefinite leave of absence he came back to 
Jefferson County, where he has resided ever since. 
In 1885 Dr. Mcintosh was married to Miss Mary 
Hudgens, a daughter of William R. Hudgens, of 
Lincoln County, but lost his wife in January, 1889. 
The Doctor is a member of the Missionary Bap- 
tist Church, and in secret societies a Royal Arch 
Mason and Odd Fellow. In politics he is a Demo- 
crat. As a physician and surgeon Dr. Mcintosh 
has few equals and no superiors in Central Ar- 
kansas, and his record among the medical frater- 
nity is such that his name will long live in the 
annals of Arkansas professional men. 

Evander N. McPhail has not attained to the 
position which he occupies as a merchant and 
property owner of wealth and influence through 
any untoward circumstances, but rather by reason 
of his energy, enterprise and acute business good 
management. He is a native of Fayette ville, N. 



C, where he was born June 17, 18-t3, being a son 
of Alex and Jean (Cami)bell) McPhail, both orig- 
inally from Jura, Scotland, who came to North 
Carolina in 1839, and to Arkansas in 1866, their 
death occurring in the latter State. Evander re- 
ceived his education at the Academy in Fayette- 
ville, N. C, and in 1861 entered the Civil War 
under Gen. D. H. Hill, as a member of the First 
North Carolina Infantry. He was transferred to 
Starr's battery in 1863, where he remained till the 
close of the war, having participated in the battles 
of Big Bethel, Bentonville, Goldsborough, Ply- 
mouth, Petersburg and Kingston. In 1866 he 
came to Arkansas with his parents, opened a stock 
of general merchandise, and is still successfully 
occupied in the business at Lin wood. He has 425 
acres of valuable land, on which he raises jirinci- 
pally cotton and corn. He is a stanch Democrat, 
and has been a Mason seventeen years, and is en- 
terprising both in public and private affairs. In 
1866 Mr. McPhail married Miss Annie Puryear, 
of Virginia. In 1881 he was again married, Miss 
Maria Jackson, of Jefferson County, Ark., becom- 
ing his wife. They have two children, Jean, aged 
two and one-half years, and Marion, aged one and 
one-half years. 

George L. Madding is a merchant and farmer 
of Madding, Jefferson County, Ark. Few names 
are better known to the business and agricultural 
world than Mr. Madding' s. He was born in Col- 
umbia, Tenn. , on February 6, 1848, and is a son 
of Raleigh and Sarah (Mayes) Madding, of Hali- 
fax County, Va. The parents were married in 
that State and moved to Tennessee at an early 
period, locating in Maury County, when the city of 
Columbia was composed of only a few houses. 
Both parents were members of the Baptist Church 
and earnest Christian people. In politics the 
father was an old line Whig, and one of the best 
known politicians in that part of Tennessee during 
his life. The elder Madding was of Irish origin, 
and came from his native country with his father 
to the United States, where they located in Vir- 
ginia. The mother was of Scotch descent. They 
were the parents of ten children, of whom George 
L. is the 'youngest, and five others yet living. The 



194 



HISTOKY OF ARKANSAS. 



father died in 1856, when seventy three years of 
age, and the mother's death occurred in her fifty- 
eighth year. The names of their children are: 
William S. (a prominent farmer in Jefferson Coun- 
ty),Me]issa (wife of Capt. W. S. Malcomb, a farmer 
and extensive stock raiser of Arkansas County), Mrs. 
W. S. Wilcox (widow of Capt. Wilcox, now resid- 
ing in Arkansas County), Emily (also in Arkansas 
County), D. F. (farming in Jefferson County), and 
George L. (the jjrincipal in this sketch). George L. 
came with his parents to Eed Fork, Ark. , and was 
there educated. He was just intending to prepare 
for a collegiate course when the war interrupted his 
plans, and he was forced to do without. Two of 
his brothers were killed while in the Confederate 
army: John at Bowling Green, Ky., and Albert 
at Oak Hill, Mo. When twenty years of age 
George commenced in life for himself. He was 
employed by others for about two years, when his 
spirit of independence began to assert itself, and 
he entered into an agreement with another party 
to farm on shares. After this venture he farmed 
on rented land up to the year 1870, when he came 
to New Gascony, Ark., and entered into commer- 
cial life with a capital of 1175. He remained at 
New Gascony until the year 1888, and was very 
successful in his various enterprises. At the pres- 
ent time he owns 2,100 acres of very fertile land 
in Jefferson County, and 1,100 acres in Arkansas 
County. Out of this he has placed 1,500 acres 
under cultivation. Besides his large farming in- 
terests Mr. Madding has established a branch store 
at Corner Stone, which has been running four 
years: one at Swan Lake, which has been estab- 
lished for two years, and one upon his farm at 
Madding, which place has been named after him 
as a mark of honor. He deals in supplies of everj' 
nature, and has established a trade amounting to 
over 160,000 annually, and his name throughout 
Jefferson County is one of the most substantial 
financially in that section. In 1875 he was mar- 
ried to Miss Atlanta Massey, a daughter of Maj. 
M. M. Massey, formerly of Humphreys County, 
Tenn., but now of Arkansas County, Ark. Five 
children were born to this union: Clara A., Fred- 
erick E., George T., John W. and Charles J., the 



first child dying in her fourth year. Mr. Mad- 
ding is a prominent member of the K. of H. and 
K. of P. In politics he is a stanch Democrat, 
and that party has a valuable ally in him, owing 
to his influence in that county, and it was through 
this fact that Madding postoffice was established 
in 1887. 

John T. Marsh, commission merchant. Pine 
Bluff, Ark. Amongst the representative classes 
that go to make up our commercial fabric, that of 
commission merchant forms an important part. In 
this line of business is found a thoroughly repre- 
sentative firm in that of Messrs. Marsh & Atkin- 
son, the well-known commission merchants. Mr. 
Marsh owes his origin to Troup County, Ga. , 
where his birth occurred on March 23, 1843, hav- 
ing been born to the union of John J. and Cath- 
erine (Goodwin) Marsh. John J. Marsh was a 
native of North Carolina, grew to manhood in that 
State and later went to Georgia, where he met and 
married Miss Goodwin, a descendant of a noted 
Georgia family. He was a farmer and followed 
this pur.suit in Georgia until 1848, when he moved 
to Louisiana, locating near Vernon, Jackson Parish. 
In 1850 he moved to Claiborne Parish, reared his 
family there and received his final summons about 
1880. He served through two of the Indian wars, 
and for his bravery and gallant conduct was pro- 
moted to the rank of major. John T. Marsh grew 
to manhood in Louisiana, and like most of the 
youths of that vicinity as he grew up he devoted 
his time and attention to farming, receiving in the 
meantime a good common school education. When 
eighteen years of age he enlisted in the Confeder- 
ate Army, Seventeenth Louisiana Infantry, as pri- 
vate (June, 1861), and served until cessation of 
hostilities, when he was paroled in June, 1865, at 
Alexandria, La. He participated in the battle of 
Shiloh-Farming, Port Gibson, where he received a 
gunshot wound in the side, but only disabled for a 
short time, when he participated in the following en- 
gagements: Black River, Choctaw Bayou, and was 
in the whole siege of Vicksburg. He was captured, 
paroled and was afterward in the engineer depart- 
ment. After the war he returned home, tilled the 
soil for a year, and in 1866 went to New Orleans, 




PINE BLUFF. 

Jefferson County, ARKftNSftS- 



where he attended school, taking a thorough com- 
mercial course. In 1S67 he came to Arkansas and 
located at Monticello, where he was married in 
October, 1868, to Miss Bettie White, a native of 
Tennessee, and the daughter of Charles C. White. 
Mr. Marsh was book-keeper at Monticello one year, 
after which he followed agricultural pursuits for 
two years, and then moved to Bakada, where be 
was engaged in merchandising, and was also inter- 
ested in the lumber business. He then resumed 
his former occupation of tilling the soil, and in 
1874 moved to Pine Bluff, where he was occupied 
as book keeper until 1877. Subsequently he was 
on the road as traveling salesman for about three 
years, and then in 1881 began the general mercan- 
tile business with limited capital. He soon worked 
up a fine trade and now has the largest commission 
house in Pine BlutT, doing an annual trade of 
about $400,000. To his marriage were born two 
interesting children: Elmo and Ada, and he and 
family are members of the Baptist Church. Mr. 
Marsh has served as alderman of his ward for two 
terms and to the satisfaction of all. He is a mem- 
ber of the Masonic Lodge, being P. M. of Pine 
Bluff Lodge No. 69; H. P. of Lafayette Royal Arch 
Chapter No. 7; E. C. of Damascus Commandery 
No. 8, K. T. ; C. R. of Sahara Temple, A. A. O. N. 
M. S. , and D. D. G. M. of the Third district. 

Joseph Merrill, capitalist, Pine Bluflf, Ark. 
No name is justly entitled to a more enviable place 
in the history of Jefferson County than the one 
that heads this sketch, for it is borne by a man 
who has been usefully and honorably identified 
with the interests of this county, and with its ad- 
vancement in every worthy particular. He was 
born in Rockingham County, N. H. , and is the 
son of William and Mary (Sweat) Merrill. There 
were three sons and one daughter in the family, 
Joseph being the youngest. He was reared in 
New England, and at the age of eleven years was 
apprenticed until twenty-one to learn the trade 
of shoemaking and tanning. At the close of his 
apprenticeship he worked at his trade for five years 
in Boston. He then went West, stopping at Sid- 
ney, Ohio, where he had a shoe-shop for nearly 
three years. The business not being remunerative, 



and his health being poor, he wended his way 
southward, and landed at Little Rock, Ark., in 
December, 1835, where he at once found friends 
and congenial employment as a clerk in a store. 
In 1847 he followed his whilom employer and 
friend to Pine Bluff, Ark. , continuing in the same 
line of business. Pine Bluff then had but three 
stores and few houses. In 1848 he opened a store 
of general merchandise, which he prosecuted suc- 
cessfully until 1860, when he sold out. He was 
postmaster also during most of this time. He, like 
many others, suffered heavily from the ravages of 
war, and also by reason of the bankruptcy of others 
thereafter. Enough of his good earnings were left 
him, however, to enable him to add to his landed 
property by the purchase, at reduced prices, of 
available lands and city lots that have since ma- 
terially enhanced in value. His planting interests 
are constantly becoming more extensive, and he 
has now fully 900 acres of good bottom land in a 
nice state of cultivation. Mr. Merrill is the 
founder of the "Merrill Institute," not yet com- 
pleted. At a cost to him of at least $20,000, and 
on a choice and valuable lot by him deeded, he has 
caused, under the auspices of a board of trustees 
previously selected by him, to be built a brick 
building, 50x114 feet, three stories in height, with 
a tower, containing a lecture hall, a library, a well 
equipjjed gymnasium, and commodious parlors, for 
the use of the young people of the city, to improve 
them physically, morally, and spiritually. "When 
completed, the building will be a credit to the 
architect, and the institution an honor to its donor. 
Mr. ]\Ierrill is near eighty years old, and remark- 
ably active. He was never quite strong, yet by 
moderate care bids fair to add many more years to 
his usefulness. 

G. Meyer, one of the leading boot and shoe 
merchants in Pine Bluff, whose business has been 
established since 1856, first in partnership with 
Marks Levy until the war, and since then alone, 
is a native of Bavaria, German}-, and was born 
on July 4, 1836. His parents were Henry and 
Marion (Came) Meyer, also natives of Germany, 
where both parents resided until their death. In 
1851 Mr. Meyer left his native country and sailed 



198 



HISTOKY OF AEKANSAS. 



from Antwerp for America, landing at New Orleans 
after a rough voyage of over seventy days. He 
then proceeded to Ouachita, La., where he re- 
mained until 1856, and then came to Pine BhifF, 
Ark. Seeing the future of this city was likely to 
be a prosperous one, he remained and established 
himself in the general merchandise business, also 
planting to a considerable extent. Mr. Meyer's 
accuracy in foretelling the future of Pine Bluff 
shows him to have been a careful observer and a 
shrewd man, and to-day he not only has one of 
the oldest established houses in that city, but owns 
several thousand acres of the most valuable land in 
Jefferson County, upon which he is principally 
raising cotton. He is a prominent figure, and an 
influential man in all affairs of the city, and has 
served several terms as alderman and school di- 
rector, having been director ever since the creation 
of the school district of Pine Bluff; as a member 
of the building committee, he bought the sites upon 
which all the school- houses are located. In secret 
societies Mr. Meyer is a member of the Masonic 
fraternity, and also of the Knights of Pythias. 
He was married in 1867 to Miss Bertha S. Rubel, 
of Mississippi, by whom he has had seven chil- 
dren: Florence lone, Ike Rubel, May B. , Corinne. 
Yoe C. , Alice S. and Percy B. Since coming to 
his adopted country Mr. Meyer has firmly em- 
bedded himself in the confidence and esteem of his 
•fellow citizens, both in a business and social way, 
his legitimate and square methods of doing busi- 
ness, and his many personal qualities, winning for 
him a host of friends. 

James "C. Mitchell, one of the leading citizens 
and a prominent planter of Jefferson County, was 
born in that county December 25, 1846, and is a 
son of John B. and Mary (Dereuisseaux) Mitchell, 
of Arkansas. The father was a successful and 
well known planter, who died on the farm where 
his son now resides, in 1847, leaving his family in 
a more than comfortable condition, as far as wealth 
was concerned. He was a Democrat in politics, 
and in religion a member of the Catholic Church. 
The Mitchell family are of French descent, and 
among the oldest settlers in the State. After the 
father's death his widow was married some years 



later to Mr. Frank D. Vallier, a native of Arkan- 
sas, whose. death occurred in 1866, when forty-five 
years of age. He was also a Catholic in religion 
and a Democrat in politics. Some of his fore- 
fathers were in the War of 1812, and also fought 
in many battles against the Indians. The mother 
was born in 1817, and has resided in Jefferson 
County since 1839, making her home with James 
C. , her son, for the past few years, and is a devout, 
Christian woman, and a member of the Catholic 
Church. Her first marriage resulted in the birth 
of six children, of whom James C. is the only one 
now living, and there were no children by her 
second marriage. James C. Mitchell was educated 
in the schools of his native place, and resided with 
his mother until the spring of 1864, when he left 
home to enlist in Capt. Frank G. Vaugine's com- 
pany of Col. Monroe's regiment. He took part 
in Price's raids, and fought in almost all of the 
battles during that memorable campaign. After 
the war was over he returned home and turned his 
attention to farming. He entered into the work 
with a will and determination to make a success 
out of it, and his efforts thus far have met with 
flattering results. He now owns about 320 acres 
of valuable land, and has placed 150 acres under 
cultivation, and raises some of the finest crops in 
his county. Mr. Mitchell has never yet met the 
lady who could win his heart, and has consequently 
remained a bachelor, but out of the many pairs of 
bright eyes that surround him, cupid may yet find 
a mark from which to send his shaft. He is a 
member of the Catholic Church, and in politics a 
Democrat. 

Charles F. Moore, one of AVilliamette's success- 
ful and promising merchants, was born near Hot 
Springs, in 1861. His grandfather was Robert I. 
Moore, a merchant of Nashville, who died at an 
advanced age. His father was James H. Moore, 
a native of Nashville, who came to Arkansas about 
1844, and settled at Arkansas Post, where he mar- 
ried in 1851, remaining until his death, at the age 
of sixty years, in 1885. He was one of the lead- 
ing men of the country, and at the time of his 
demise held an official appointment in the agricul- 
tural department. He was active in politics, a 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



199 



Mason, and a member of the Episcopal Church. 
During the war he served in the Confederate army 
as colonel, and in 1863 went to Texas in the quar- 
termaster's department, continuing in service until 
the close of the war, when he returned to his farm. 
His wife was formerly Miss Adelaide J. Farrelly, 
a native of Arkansas, and a daughter of Terrence 
Farrelly, of Ireland, originally, who came to the 
United States early in the nineteenth century. He 
was a lawyer, and l:)ecame located in the Territory 
of Louisiana, but later moved to Arkansas Post, 
where he became a prominent citizen. He was 
also a planter, and the first sheriff of Arkansas 
County, well deserving his reputation as one of 
the county's leading men. He had a family of 
si.x children, two of whom are now living: Charles 
C. and Eliza E. Longtree, of Little Rock. In 
Mr. Moore's family were seven children, four of 
whom are living: Sallie E. Austin (of Pendleton, 
Ark.), Mary M. Brooks (of Brooks, Ky.), Fannie 
G. Pendleton (of Douglas, Ark.), and Charles F. 
The mother died when Charles was a small boy. 
She was a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. The subject of this sketch was reared in 
Arkansas County, attending school at St. Mary's 
College, in Marion, Ky., and graduating in 1879 
in the scientific and commercial departments. He 
is a civil engineer by profession, and so well quali- 
fied for the position was he that he held the office 
of county surveyor of Arkansas County from 1880 
to 1886. He is now engaged in general merchan- 
dise business at Williamette, in partnership with 
L. Sullivan. He is a* member of the Catholic 
Church, and a young man of enterprise and worth. 
S. C. Motes, farmer,- Altheimer, Ark. Mr. 
Motes may be classed among the rising agricultur- 
ists of this county and township. Although still 
comparatively a young man he has had an experi- 
ence in tilling the soil which places him among the 
progressive young men of the community. He 
was born in Caldwell Parish, La., on February 14, 
1850, and is the son of Samuel P. Motes, a native 
of Westmoreland County, Penn., born May 31, 
1809. The elder Motes was fairly educated in 
his native State, and in 1830 jnoved to Louisiana, 
where he married Miss Cynthia Sutton, a native 



of that State, and the daughter of Reuben and 
Julia Sutton. The marriage of Mr. and Mrs. 
Motes resulted in the birth of twelve children, six 
sons and six daughters, of whom only four are now 
living, and all reside in Jefferson County. They 
are named as follows: Julia (wife of Maj. B. F. 
Busby), Rosie F. (wife of John Franklin), William 
P. (who married Miss Maria Tidwell), and S. C. 
The father was a prominent tiller of the soil, and 
was the owner of about 3, COO acres of land, 700 
of which are under cultivation. He was also a 
physician of established repute. He and wife were 
members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. S. 
C. Motes was reared to farm labor, and received 
his education in the schools of Memphis, Tenn. 
He has all his life followed the occupation to which 
he was brought up, and is at present the owner of 
about 450 acres of good land in Jefferson County, 
one mile from Altheimer. He belongs to the Ma- 
sonic fraternity, has held the office of tyler for 
several terms, and is the present incumbent. Al- 
though not a member of any church he contributes 
liberally to all laudable enterprises. 

William P. Motes, a prominent citizen, and one 
of the best known planters of Jefferson County, 
was born in Carroll Parish, La., July 21, 1857, 
and is a son of Samuel and Cynthia (Sutton) Motes. 
The father was a native of Tennes.see, who moved 
to Louisiana upon reaching his maturity, and there 
met his wife for the first time. After their mar- 
riage they removed to Arkansas County, Ark., 
where the father died in 1865, at the age of fifty- 
five years. The mother is still living, and resides 
with her son, at the age of seventy-three years. 
The elder Motes was a noted physician, and a man 
of sound intellect, and during his residence in 
Arkansas County was one of its leading citizens. 
He accumulated considerable wealth, both from 
his large practice and from outside interests. In 
politics he was a Democrat, and a man whose ser 
vices were valuable to that party. He and wife 
were both worthy members of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, South. His family continued to 
reside in Arkansas County until the year 1870, when 
they came to Jefferson County. There were twelve 
children born to the parents, of whom nine lived 



200 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



to maturity, and four still survive: Sam C. (a 
jjrominent farmer of this county), William P., Mrs. 
Rhoda Franklin (of Jefferson County), and Mrs. 
Julia Busby (wife of Maj. Benjamin Busby, a 
wealthy planter of the same county). William P. 
was educated in Jefferson and White Counties, hut 
at sixteen years of age, he left the school -room to 
take the agency of his brother-in-law's (B. F. 
Busby) business. He assumed these diities for 
five years, and at the end of that time, purchased 
320 acres of land, and commenced farming on his 
own account. At the present time he is the owner 
of and controls 1,000 acres of land, all of it being 
under cultivation, and is one of the most solid 
men in Jefferson County, a substantial reward to 
his energy and industry, when it is considered 
that after the war the family were left without a 
remnant of their fortune, and William was com- 
pelled to start with nothing in the world but his 
intelligent mind and enterprising spirit to aid him. 
On October 28, 1885, he was married to Mrs. 
Mariah (Beauclaire) Tidwell, a charming widow, 
and a daughter of Mr. Thomas Beauclaire. This 
lady was born in Tallahassee County, Miss., and 
by her marriage with Mr. Motes became the 
mother of two children: Walter and Benjamin. 
She also had two children by her first marriage: 
Charles and Henry, all of them living. Both 
parents are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, and in politics Mr. Motes is a 
strong Democrat. Fortune has rewarded him for 
his perseverance, and he is now one of the most 
successful planters and traders in his section, the 
business he does amounting to from i'10,000 to 
115,000 annually. He is a highly esteemed and 
popular citizen, and commands considerable in- 
fluence in business and social affairs. 

Capt. J. W. M. Murphy is well known as one 
of the leading men of his township, having 
founded the town of Macon Station, where he now 
resides. His grandfather, Edward Murphy, came 
from Ireland when a young man, and settled in 
Tennessee, dying at the age of 104. His father, 
Archibald Murp)hy, was born in 1791, in an In- 
dian fort in Sevier County, Tenn., and was the 
youngest of three brothers who served in the 



Jackson War; he died in 1851, in Hardin Coun- 
ty, Tenn. His wife (who died in the same year) 
was formerly Miss Mary Munda, of Tennessee 
birth and bringing up, born in 1800. The sub- 
ject of this sketch, the fourth in a family of eight 
children, first saw the light of day in Lawrence 
County, Tenn., in 1829. There he was reared, 
and at the age of nineteen commenced the battle 
of life for himself, following farming till 1860. 
In 1853 he went to Texas, but returning soon after 
to Pike County, Ark., he carried on a milling bus- 
iness till ISGO, when he came to Pine Bluff. At 
the beginning of the war he was captured there 
by the Confederates, and tried for treason; on 
being released by his friends he joined the Union 
army under Powell Clayton, as captain of scouts, 
having 117 men under his charge, in which capa- 
city he served till the close of the war. Mr. 
Murphy has held various offices in Pine Bluff' for 
sixteen years, serving as constable, and for seven 
years as marshal. In 1883 he removed fi-om Pine 
Bluff, and has since been occupied in running a 
saw-mill and also a general store. He also has a 
farm well under cultivation, and at present is post 
master at this place. Mr. Murphy is a member 
of Post No. 44, of the G. A. R., at Pine Bluff, 
and is a stanch Republican and very active in pol 
itics. He belongs to the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, having built a neat little church 
edifice in Macon. An extensive experience in 
travel over the Northern and Eastern States, has 
given him liberal information in regard to these 
sections. Mr. Murphy's first wife was Melinda 
Puybrn, of Hardin County, Tenn., whom he mar- 
ried in 1847. She was born in 1829, and in 1858 
died in Pike County, Ark. To this union were 
born four children: John W. (deceased), Louisa 
(deceased), Anna (wife of Lorenzo Weaver), and 
Josephine (wife of Rev. John McCoy, of this 
State). In 1862 Mr. Murphy married Miss Eliza- 
beth Roberts, of Virginia nativity, born in 1829, 
who came to Arkansas with her parents in 1849. 
To them have been born three sons: James P., 
Archie and Martin Luther, all deceased. Mrs. 
Murphy is a member of the Baptist Church. 

Arthur Murray, editor and proprietor of The 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



201 



Press Eagle, Piue Bluff, is a native of that city, 
and was born ou November 1, 1859. His parents 
removed from Virginia to Arkansas in 1852, and for 
some years prior and subsequent to the Civil War, 
the father. Judge John C. Murray, was judge of 
the Eleventh judicial circuit, and one of the lead- 
ing lawyers of the State. The eldest brother of 
Mr. Murray was a West Point cadet and Confeder- 
ate soldier, who was killed at the battle of Atlanta, 
Ga. In the closing year of the Civil War, two 
days prior to his death. Col. Edward Murray had 
received a commission as brigadier-general and was 
the youngest officer of that rank in the Confederate 
service, being only twenty-two years old when i 
killed. Judge Murray dying in 1868, his son j 
Arthur was thrown upon his own resources at a 
very early age, and was deprived of even a common 
school education. For several years he supported 
his widowed mother by peddling fruit upon the 
streets, and when twelve years old entered the old 
press office (that paper then being edited by Col. 
Wyatt Thomas) as ' ' devil ' ' or office boy. Young 
Murray mastered all departments of the printer's 
art, and within eight years fi'om the time he first 
entered the office, was a part owner and sole editor 
of the paper, which had in the meantime been con- 
nected with the Eagle. Later on he purchased his 
partner's interest, and since 1883 Mr. Murray, 
has published and edited The Press Eagle unas- 
sisted and with unusual success. His journalistic 
career has been somewhat eventful, as he is a fear- 
less writer, and has a faculty of attacking local and 
political abuses in so vigorous a manner as to make 
him many enemies among the corrupt classes. 
He has often been attacked upon the street for 
foiling the disreputable schemes of some designing 
mountebank or jiolitician, but in each encounter of 
this kind he has preserved his honor and his life, 
though he has been called upon to exchange leaden 
missiles at short range more than once. In South- 
east Arkansas it is now accepted as a fact that 
editor Murray is responsible for every expression of 
his paper, and that while doing injustice to no one, 
he cannot be swerved from his convictions of right 
and duty, or be made to withdraw from any position 
he assumes as a journalist. His paper has a large 



and ever increasing circulation, and the profits 
thereof have made him independent of his news- 
paper business. Mr. Munay, by judicious in- 
vestments in this rapidly developing city has accu- 
mulated about 135,000 worth of productive real 
estate, and is probably in better financial condition 
than any other newspaper man in the State. In per- 
sonal appearance he is above the medium height and 
well proportioned, and his countenance indicates 
the quiet determination and strength of character 
that overcame the disadvantages of poverty and 
lack of education, and made him one of the repre- 
sentative citizens of the metropolis of Southeast 
Arkansas. 

Archibald Niven, a prominent planter and ex- 
county clerk of Jefferson County, was born in Anson 
County, N. C, in December, 1829, and is a son of 
Duncan and Flora (McDougal) Niven, both natives 
of Highland Scotland, and married in that country. 
The parents left Scotland and sailed for America in 
1819. locating in Anson County, N. C. , on their arri- 
val in this country. The father commenced farm- 
ing and made this place his permanent home until 
his death in 1863. The mother died previously, in 
1856. They were the parents of seven children, 
of whom four are yet living, Archibald being the 
youngest. He was reared and instructed to the 
duties of farm life in his youth, and when looking 
out for an occupation of his own, naturally turned 
to what he was most adapted for, and has followed 
that calling with success all his life. He was 
elected to the legislature of North Carolina, and 
served two terms while residing in Anson County, 
and also held other civil offices, and for a few 
years engaged in merchandising at that place. In 
1869 he came to Arkansas and settled in Jeft'erson 
County, locating at Pine Bluff for a short period. 
He then moved to his present farm in Niven 
Township, that place being set out in 1879, and 
being named in Mr. Niven' s honor. He resided 
here for ten years and then moved to Pine Bluff, 
his present home. In 1878 Mr. Niven was elected 
county clerk, and held that office for six years, 
leaving his position to the sincerest regrets of the 
people he had served so well in that time. Mr. 
Niven has been deservedly successful in' his farm- 



202 



HISTORY OP ARKANSAS. 



ing operations, and now owns about 800 acres in 
Niven Township, with 200 acres under cultivation, 
his principal crop being cotton. He was married 
in 1852 to Miss Martha Redfern, of North Caro- 
lina, by whom he has had live children, four of 
them yet living: John W., Archibald B. , Dougal 
M. and Nora I. The one deceased was Flora. 
Mr. Niven owns a beautiful home in Pine Bluff, 
and has an interesting family to make, it one of 
the brightest in that city. He and wife are mem- 
bers of the Presbyterian Church, and are always 
active and liberal in their support of any charit- 
able enterprise. Mr. Niven is a prominent mem- 
ber of the Masonic fraternity. 

T. J. Ormsby, a well-known attorney and jus- 
tice of the peace in Jefferson County, was born in 
Petersburg, Va. , on November 2, 18-1:3, being a 
son of Joseph W. and Mary S. (Heath) Ormsby, 
the former a native of Wells River, Conn. , and the 
mother from Petersburg, Va. The Ormsbys are 
of Scotch origin, whose forefathers came over in 
the Mayflower and landed at Plymouth Rock, after- 
ward settling in Connecticut, and in later years 
spreading throughout New York, New Jersey and 
other States. The family have always been people 
of prominence, the father having been one of the 
most notable lawyers of his day, and practiced 
with such men as Douglas and Lincoln, the one a 
great statesman and the other our martyred Presi- 
dent. In 1845 Josejih W. Ormsby moved to 
Illinois and settled in Exeter, Scott County, where 
he practiced his profession, and became one of the 
best criminal lawyers in the State, representing 
his county in the legislature for several terms. 
His death occurred in Adrian, Mich. On the 
mother's side the family were of equal prominence 
in Virginia. They were the parents of only one 
child, T. J. Ormsby, who remained with his mother 
until her death at Pine Bluff. T. J. Ormsby first 
came to Arkansas in 1858 and located in Ashley 
County. In 1861, when seventeen years of age, 
he enlisted in the First Arkansas Regiment, with 
the rank of first lieutenant, and served three 
years through the war. He was wounded at Mur- 
freesboro by a rifle ball in the right hand, and 
between Ghickamauga and Atlanta received a bul- 



let in his left hand. He was captured a short 
distance below Corinth and confined, but daringly 
made his escape one night amid a shower of lead 
from his guards. He afterward took part in the 
battles of Farmersville, Chickamauga, Missionary 
Ridge, Atlanta, Ga. , Ft. Mumford and Perry- 
ville. In 1867 he came to Pine Bluff and was 
engaged by F. G. Smart as book-keeper, remain- 
ing with him for one year. He was then connected 
with various firms in the same capacity for five 
years, and for six years following embarked in 
general merchandise on his own account. During 
this time he diligently studied law, and in Novem- 
ber, 1880, was licensed to practice in the circuit 
court. In November of the following year he was 
admitted to the United States court, and in April, 
1888, to the supreme court. Mr. Ormsby has 
served as county judge on special occasions, and 
for fourteen years has held the office of justice of 
the peace, filling that position with dignity and 
wisdom. During the Brooks Baxter troubles he 
received a commission from Gov. Brooks as first 
lieutenant of State militia, and afterward was 
promoted to the rank of captain, in which capacity 
he commanded two companies. For the past five 
or six years he has made the profession of law his 
entire study, and to-day stands without a peer in 
Jefferson County. Mr. Ormsby has accumulated 
considerable real estate in Pine Bluff from which 
he derives a good income. He has never been 
married, and from all appearances is too well con- 
tented with his life of bachelor ease to part with it 
for connubial bliss. In secret societies he is a 
member of the I. O. O. F. , and has represented 
his lodge at the grand lodge, besides having passed 
all the chairs. He also belongs to the Masonic 
fraternity and takes quite a prominent jiart in the 
affairs of that order. 

Judge J. W. Owen, county and probate judge, 
Pine Bluff, Ark. Originally from Jefferson Coun- 
ty, 111., Judge Owen was born on December 29, 
1840, and is the son of Edward and Sarah (Allen) 
Owen, natives of the Old Dominion. The parents 
were married in Tennessee, and subsequently 
moved to Illinois, locating in Jefferson County. 
The father was a prominent agriculturist, and this 



JEFFEESON COUNTY. 



203 



pursuit carried on until bis death, which occurred 
in 1887, at the age of eighty-eight years. He was 
in the Black Hawk War. The mother died in 
1846. They were the parents of seven children, 
three of whom are living at the present time. By 
his second marriage the father had two children, 
one now living. Judge J. W. Owen was reared 
on his father's farm, and received a good practical 
education in the schools of Illinois. At the age of 
sixteen he left the parental roof and went overland 
with a stock train to California, where he remained 
until after the war. While in that State he en- 
gaged in mining at Virginia City, when the silver 
mines were first discovered, and this continued 
until the war broke out. He then joined the Cali- 
fornia Hundred, or Company A, Second Massa- 
chusetts Cavalry, at San Francisco, and went to 
Boston, Mass., paying, his own way. Enlisting as 
a private, he was promoted to the rank of first 
lieutenant of his company, and was also commis- 
sioned captain, but being wounded at the battle 
of Cedar Creek, Shenandoah Valley, in 1864, was 
never sworn in. He participated in the battles of 
Gettysburg, Wilderness, and was in the Army of 
the Potomac. He was twice wounded at Cedar 
Creek and once by a bayonet at Williamsburg, Va. , 
lying in the hospital for about nine months at 
different points, and when the war closed he came 
home to Illinois. Out of his company there were 
but fifteen men left alive, and but one man died 
of disease. Mr. Owen was twice captured, but 
made his escape both times before he could be 
gotten to prison. After going home he engaged 
in railroading and was a contractor on grading, 
which he continued until 1870, when he came to 
Pine Bluff. He located at Corner Stone, Jeffer- 
son County, engaged in merchandising and farm- 
ing, and this carried on until the fall of 1886, 
when he was put on the ticket for county judge, he 
not even knowing that such a thing was going to be. 
He at first refused to be nominated, but after con- 
siderable persuasion was prevailed upon to do so 
by his friends, and was elected by a handsome 
majority. Although a Republican politically, he 
has won a vast number of friends, who have stood 
by him, and at the re-election in 1888 he had no ! 



opponent. The Judge is a man whose decisions 
are not made without careful and painstaking 
study of the evidence adduced, but on the con 
trary all feel that his judgment can be relied upon. 
He is one of the most efiicient officials the county 
has ever had. When first elected to the position 
of judge the county had $46,000 script out. but 
it is now clear of debt and has over $5,000 in the 
treasury, which will be increased to $30,000 at 
the next tax paying. He has now a move on foot 
for the erection of a new court house and jail, and 
no doubt the work will soon be begun. While 
living at Corner Stone he was magistrate, and 
filled the duties incumbent upon that office ably 
and well for ten years. He was married, in 1866, 
to Miss Nannie B. Collins, a native of the Old 
Dominion. 

Melvin Parse (deceased). Among the well- 
known and highly -esteemed business men of Pine 
Bluff was Mr. Parse, who was born in Ohio in 
1838, and died in May, 1882. He left the paren- 
tal roof at the age of fifteen or sixteen years, and 
went to Cincinnati, where he learned the jeweler's 
trade, subsequently, on turning from Ohio, set- 
tling at Cairo, 111., and thence to Arkansas in 1857 
or 1858. He located at Pine Bluff, and engaged 
in the jeweler's business, carrying on a successful 
trade until his patriotic instincts led him to join 
the United States army in the late war, and be 
enlisted in 1862, serviog till the close. He re- 
turned to Pine Bluff upon the cessation of hostil- 
ities, and in 1868 was married to his second wife 
and surviving widow, Mrs. Mary (Elliott) Coustey, 
who still carries on the business left by her bus- 
liand. She is a very estimable lady, and a member 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in which she 
is active and prominent, as was Mr. Parse in his 
lifetime. The latter was much interested in po- 
litical events, though not an office holder. There 
were no children by her last marriage, but Mrs. 
Parse bad a daughter by her former husband, Mary, 
who married Harry H. Shinn, a photographer of 
Pine Bluff. She died June 1, 1889, leaving two 
children, Hallie and Mary, who are living with 
their grandmother. Mrs. Parse is a native of Vir- 
ginia. When a child, she moved to Mississippi 



204 



HISTOEY OF ARKANSAS. 



with her parents, and when grown, to Louisiana, 
in 18B6 coming to Arkansas. She was the daugh- 
ter of Simeon and Eliza Elliott, of Virginia. The 
father died in Mississippi in 1851, and the mother 
in 1860, at this place. There were five children 
in this family, only two of whom are now living, 
both of Pine Bluflf. Anna, the wife of G. W. 
Prigmore, died in 1878, leaving two children; her 
husband died in 1887. 

Henry C. Phillips, not unknown to the many 
citizens of Jefferson County, was born on January 
30, 1844, in Conway County, Ark., and is the 
son of Nelson and Minerva (Vandyke) Phillips, of 
North Carolina and Georgia, respectively, the 
former dying in Jefferson County, Ark., in 1855, 
at the age of fifty-five years, and the mother 
in 1859, when thirty seven years of age. The 
parents were married in Conway County, which 
they made their home until the year 1847, when 
they moved to Jefferson County, and located on the 
farm now occupied by Thomas H. Collier. This 
section of the country was then very thinly settled, 
and what few families did reside here were con- 
stantly terrorized by outlaws and desperadoes. It 
was from an encounter with one of these men that 
the elder Phillips received a wound from which he 
never fully recovered, and died nineteen years later. 
He opened up one of the first farms in that sec- 
tion, and also operated a gin. After his death his 
widow married a Mr. C. H. Price, and moved to 
what is now Colton Center, where she resided un- 
til her death. In politics, the father was a Whig, 
and in secret societies, a Mason of high standing. 
He was a saddler and harness-maker by trade, but 
turned his attention more to farming than anything 
else. The Vandyke family were of Dutch origin. 
Seven children were born to the elder Phillips and 
his wife, of whom four are yet living: Henry C, 
Charles E. (a banker in Hillsboro, Tex.), Thomas 
M. (a farmer in Jefferson County) and Thaddeus 
C. (a banker in the State of Texas). Those de- 
ceased are Mary A. , an infant and Nelson. Henry 
C. was educated in the schools of Jefferson County, 
and continued his studies until shortly after his 
mother's death. He then went to work for a 
neighbor, and remained with him until March, 



1861, when he joined the Confederate army, and 
enlisted in G. W. CaiToll's company of the Eight- 
eenth Arkansas Infantry, as a private soldier. He 
operated generally east of the Mississippi River 
until the surrender of Port Hudson, and then he 
was transferred to the western territory. During 
his service Mr. Phillips took part in a great many 
battles: The evacuation of Corinth, the second 
battle at that place, luka, Port Hudson, and on 
the western side of the river he was assigned to 
the quartermaster's department, taking part in a 
number of raids and minor engagements. After 
the war he turned his attention to farming, but in 
1871 entered into commercial life near Rob Roy, 
which he carried on until the year 1882, when his 
farming interests demanded his exclusive attention. 
Upon leaving the army he was practically bank- 
rupt, and the struggle against adversity up to 1871 
was a bitter one, but since that year the tide of 
fortune seems to have turned in his favor, and he 
is now in a prosperous and independent position. 
He owns about 655 acres of very fertile land, and 
has placed some 230 acres under cultivation. In 
1866 he was married to Miss Emma A. Poole, of 
Jefferson County, who died two years later, leav- 
ing two children, both deceased since. In politics, 
Mr. Phillips is and always has been a stanch Dem- 
ocrat. He was elected justice of the peace, and 
filled that ofiice for a number of years with great 
credit, winning the admiration and esteem of every 
citizen in his county. 

Albert G. Pierce, one of the most prominent of 
old settlers in Jefferson County, was born in Edge- 
field District, South Carolina, on May 17, 1824, 
and is a son of Benjamin and Rachel (Rambo) 
Pierce, of Pennsylvania and South Carolina, re- 
spectively. The father was of English descent and 
a painter by trade, and followed that calling until 
his death in Hamburg, S. C. Some time after his 
decease his widow was married to Mr. William 
Weir, who died in Jefferson County at the age of 
seventy years. Four children were born to her 
first marriage, of whom two are yet living: John 
(a prosperous farmer in Georgia) and Albert G. 
(the principal of this sketch). She became the 
mother of six children by her second marriage, of 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



205 



whom three died in infancy and three lost their 
lives while fighting under the stars and bars dur- 
ing the Rebellion. Albert G. remained with his 
mother until he had reached his twenty- fourth 
year, when he commenced in life for himself. His 
first venture was at farming, and he received $75 for 
his services the first year. He continued to work 
for others until the year 1853, when he purchased 
a piece of land with the money he had earned, and 
commenced farming on his own land. On June 
26 of the same year he was married to Miss 
Martha B. Moore, of Rutherford County, Tenn. , 
by whom he had three children, of whom two 
are yet living: John B. (who is at present man- 
aging his father's farm) and Fannie F. (wife of 
Felix Thompson). Mrs. Pierce was born August 
6, 1829, and died in Jefferson County, Ark., on 
August 19, 1872, a firm believer in the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. In 1874 he married Mrs. Mary 
(Moore) Morrow, a sister of his first wife, and 
widow of John Morrow, of Jefferson County, but 
a second time the fates decreed that Mr. Pierce 
should become a widower, and this wife died in 
1885. He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, an upright moral man, and a trus- 
tee in Bethlehem Church. During the war his 
sympathies were with the Southern States, and he 
joined the Confederate service for a brief period, 
but his natural aversion to the shedding of human 
blood, and his horror at seeing hundreds of his 
fellow-beings slaughtered around him, induced him 
to quit the ranks. Mr. Pierce is looked upon with 
the genuine respect that comes to all men of his class. 
Honesty, industry and perseverance have formed 
his motto through life, and his strict adherence to 
these principles have crowned him with success. 
John B. Pierce, who manages his father's farm, is 
conceded to be a promising young man of Jeffer- 
son County. He was married to Miss Lummie 
Hudgens, a daughter of John A. Hudgens, of 
Jefferson County, whose name is too well known 
to need any comment. Two children were born to 
Mr. John B. Pierce and wife: Ambrose Garland 
and John A. (the latter deceased). They are both 
members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, and in politics Mr. Pierce is a Democrat. 



Jesse W. Pitts (deceased), one of the leading 
men of Arkansas, and a representative farmer and 
citizen of Jefferson County, was born in Davidson 
County, Tenn., near the city of Nashville, Octo- 
ber 12, 1831, where he continued to reside until 
twenty-one years of age. His education was ac- 
quired at the schools of Nashville. His parents 
were both natives of Tennessee. His father, Jesse 
B. Pitts, was born in 1796, and died in Nashville, 
in 1868, and the mother of Mr. Pitts was Nancy 
Pitts, born in 1803, and died in Nashville in Feb- 
ruary, 1889. They were members of the Methodist 
Church, and were eminently and highly respected. 
Arriving at his majority, Jesse W. Pitts came to 
Arkansas, and engaged in planting in Jefferson 
County about five miles down the river from Pine 
Bluff, where he resided until his death, July 9, 
1884. His great success in life proved him to be 
one of the best farmers and financial managers in 
this part of the State, and at the time of his death 
he owned about 1,200 acres of land, of which 800 
acres were under cultivation. In 1868 he was 
united in marriage with Mrs. S. A. Jarvis. for- 
merly Miss Smith, daughter and youngest child of 
Anderson and Nancy (Adkins) Smith, who came to 
Arkansas in an early day and settled on a planta- 
tion near Pine Bluff. Here her mother died about 
1843, antl her father in 1873. Mrs. Pitts has three 
living children, viz. : Floyd A. and Don A. Jar- 
vis, by her first marriage, and Nettie Pitts (now 
the wife of Leo M. Andrews) by her second mar- 
riage. Mr. Pitts was a Presbyterian, a faithful 
friend and neighbor, a distinguished gentleman, 
and by his death the county lost one of its best 
citizens. 

Col. Joe C. Pleasants, the subject of this sketch, 
a native of Virginia, and the youngest of eleven 
children, was of English extraction, his ancestors 
having arrived on these shores with the "Pilgrim 
Fathers." He was born in Louisa County, Va. , 
on April 14, 1817. He had every educational 
advantage which the times afforded, and was al- 
ways an eager and appreciative student, fully 
abreast with the progress of the period, and eager 
]y looking forward to greater development. He 
possessed a fine physique, being six feet four 



206 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



inches tall, and of splendid symmetry. He was 
married March 14, 1839, to Miss Minerva Ann 
Phillips, of Caroline County, Va. In the year 1844 
he moved by private conveyance from Virginia to 
Arkansas, and settled on Crowley's Ridge, in 
Phillips County, about twelve miles from the (now) 
city of Helena. There he built a pleasant home, 
but, being possessed with a roving disposition, he 
sold out and moved again, opening and selling 
farm after farm, until in 1858 he bought of Gen. 
William Ashley, of Little Rock, the family's pres- 
ent home in Arkansas County, on Arkansas River. 
Here he opened wild land and planted a snug 
home. He also built about three miles of State 
levee, for which he received a liberal remuneration, 
and prospered without interruption until the Civil 
War broke out in 1861. Espousing the Southern 
cause from the beginning, he was aid to Gen. 
Hardee east of the Mississippi River for some 
time, but after the battle of Shiloh was transferred 
to the Trans-Mississippi department, and was col- 
onel of the First Trans-Mississippi Regiment 
(infantry); his son, Henry C. Pleasants, com- 
manded a company under him. Col. Pleasants 
was a model officer, and his men loved liim as a 
father. He was wounded while leading a heroic 
charge at the battle of Prairie Grove, Ark., and 
died from the effects of it December 30, 1862. 
By his dying request he was brought home and 
buried amid the objects he most loved in life. In 
April of the following year his third daughter, a 
lovely child of seven summers, died, and was 
buried by his side. In July following Capt. Henry 
C. Pleasants, his only living son, was wounded in 
the battle of Helena, Ark., while leading his com- 
pany in a desperate charge, and died in a hospital 
in the city of Memphis July 30, 1863, aged nine- 
teen years and six months. He was one of the 
noblest of men. His family know not where he 
sleeps, but are sure the angels of God hold the 
key to his grave. Mrs. Pleasants, a sainted wife 
and mother, died in Little Rock December 12, 
1876. The world was better because of her hav- 
ing lived in it. Only three of their seven chil- 
dren are living; Helen P. McDaniel (the oldest), 
Anna W. Jacobs (the fourth child), and Katie J. 



Pleasants (the youngest). Mrs. McDaniel and 
Miss Katie live at the old home amid familiar and 
dear associations, but Mrs. Jacobs sold her share 
to strangers, and now resides in Little River 
County, Ark., near the Texas line. Mrs. McDan- 
iel is a widow, with two children: Joseph and 
Minerva. Mrs. Jacob has five children. All of 
them bid fair to make useful members of society. 

James F. Quattlebaum, a leading planter of 
Central Arkansas, and a prominent resident of 
Jefferson County, was born in Edgefield District, 
South Carolina, on -December 14, 1854. He is a 
son of Henry M. and Louisa (Miller) Quattlebaum, 
of Edgefield and Lawrence Districts in the same 
State. The parents were there married and re- 
sided until 1861, when they moved to Arkansas 
and located in Jefferson County. The father was 
a very successful farmer during his life, and had 
the reputation of being one of the best in the 
State. In ante-bellum days he was an overseer on 
some of the largest plantations in his native State. 
His sympathies were with the Union before and 
during the struggle, and his strong denunciation 
of secession won the hatred of many Southerners, 
but his principle never changed even in the face 
of the strongest opposition, and his cause was vin- 
dicated by the total overthrow of the Confederacy. 
His death occurred in 1872 at the age of forty- 
seven years, in Jefferson County, his wife dying 
before him in January, 1869. The mother was a 
devout Christian woman and a member of the 
Baptist Church, but attended service in the Method- 
ist Church as there was none of the Baptist creed 
in her neighborhood. The father was married 
three times and was the sire of twelve children, of 
whom seven are yet living: Martha A. (wife of 
W. F. Lindsey, a promising planter of Arkansas 
County), James F., Ada E. (wife of J. M. Barrett, 
a well known farmer of Jefferson County), Lee M. 
(a merchant in Lincoln County), Jones D. (a farmer 
and salesman in Jefferson County), Lawrence M. 
(residing with father) and Henry M. (also at home 
with his father). James F. received a good public 
school education, and early in life was taught self- 
reliance and industry. After the death of his 
father, the care of the family devolved upon him 



JEFFEBSON COUNTY. 



207 



as the eldest son, and be looked out for their main- 
tenance and education in a manner that is deserv- 
ing of the greatest credit. He commenced farm- 
ing in 1874 and now owns 620 acres of land with 
120 acres under cultivation, and has been one of 
the most successful planters in his county. In 
September, 1882, he was married to Miss Sallie 
Wheat, a daughter of A. J. Wheat, of Pine BlufP. 
by whom he had four children, one living and 
three dead, the first named Frank and the latter 
Horace M. , John P. and Mary L. In politics Mr. 
Quattlebaum is a Democrat and stanch supporter 
of his party in that section. In 1879 he was elected 
constable and filled the office for almost two 
years. He was next elected justice of the peace 
and served nearly six years. Mr. Quattlebaum is 
one of the foremost citizens of Jefferson County, 
and a man much admired for his personal worth. 
He is active in all public and private enterprises 
for the good of his county, and is popular through- 
out that entire section. 

Judge Lewis S. Reed, farmer. Dexter, Ark. 
This prominent and much esteemed citizen was born 
in North Carolina, July 11, 1818, and is the son of 
Roily Reed, who is also a native of North Caro- 
lina, born in December, 1799. The father grew 
to manhood in his native State and was there mar- 
ried to Miss Charity Phillips in 1817, which union 
resulted in the birth of thirteen children, seven 
sons and six daughters. Eight of these children 
are now living, seven residing in Arkansas and 
one at Springfield, Mo. The father followed 
agricultural pursuits as a livelihood, and was the 
owner of 160 acres of good land at the time of his 
death which occurred in 1868. His wife followed 
him to the grave about two years later. Both 
were members of the Baptist Church. Judge L. 
S. Reed was educated near Lexington, Tenn. , and 
passed his boyhood days in assisting his father on 
the farm. After reaching manhood he selected 
Miss Lydia Teague as his companion in life, and 
was married to her September 24, 1840. She was 
originally from North Carolina, and the daughter 
of Isaac and Mary Teague. Judge Reed's union 
was blessed by the birth of eleven children, two 
sons and nine daughters : Mary L. , Martha C. , 



Sarah F.. Amanda C, Nancy H. , Thomas Z., 
Irvin W., Elizabeth S. and Lynnia. The others 
died in infancy. Of the ones above named only 
four are now living: Martha (wife of Jasper 
Phillips), Amanda (wife of A. S. Thayer), Nancy 
(wife of Samuel Evans), and Thomas Z. Judge 
Reed is a successful farmer by occupation, and is 
also engaged in the blacksmith trade. He owns 
about 1,000 acres of good land, with 120 acres 
under cultivation, and is also the owner of a saw- 
mill, a gin and a gristmill on his place. He has 
held the office of justice of the peace for about 
thirty years, and for two years has served in the 
capacity of county and probate judge. Both he 
and wife have held a membership in the Baptist 
Church for forty years. 

Dr. J. M, Reynolds, Redfield, Ark. In select- 
ing a calling in life Dr. Reynolds has happily 
chosen one for which he is eminently fitted and in 
which he standsprominently toward the front rank. 
Originally from the Blue Grass State, his birth 
occurred there on February 6, 1847, and he is 
the son of M. B. Reynolds, who was born in the 
same State in 1816. In 1843 the father married 
Miss Lurilda Thompson, and they became the par- 
ents of twelve children, nine sons and three daugh- 
ters, of whom but seven are now living, all resid- 
ing in Arkansas. The father was a boot and shoe- 
maker by trade, and he is still living and makes 
his home with the Doctor. His wife died in Janu- 
ary, 1875. He is active in political affairs, and is 
a strong Democrat. He is a member of the Chris- 
tian Church as was also his wife. J. M. Reynolds 
secured a good practical education in the schools 
of Harrodsburg, Ky., and subsequently attended 
medical lectures at Louisville, Ky. , where he grad- 
uated in the class of 1882. He moved to Illinois 
in 1869, and there married Miss Caroline Dickey 
March 17, 1872. She was the daughter of Rev. 
David and Nancy Dickey, who were natives of 
Georgia. To the Doctor and wife were born seven 
children, three sons and four daughters, six of 
whom are still living: Monroe B. , Mattie S., Eva 
A., Sarah J., Joseph M. and Virginia C. The 
Doctor has practiced his profession for eighteen 
years and has met with the success due his efforts. 



208 



HISTOEY OF AEKANSAS. 



He has been a member of the Masonic Lodge for 
about three years, and has held, the of&ce of justice 
of the peace and school director, the latter office 
for about six years. He entered the Union army 
under Col. Faulkner in 1862, and his first note- 
worthy engagement was at Chickamauga, where he 
was slightly wounded three times. He was dis- 
charged at Louisville, Ky. , on September 6, 1865, 
after which he returned to his home and entered 
upon the practice of his profession. He moved 
from Illinois to Arkansas in 1872, and located at 
Wrightsville, where he laid out the town by that 
name in 1873. He subsequently acted as the first 
postmaster. He moved to Redfield in 1881, and 
has resided there ever since. Mrs. Reynolds is a 
member of the Baptist Church. 

D. B. Riggin, dealer in all kinds of lumber and 
general furnishings, such as sash, doors and 
mouldings, was born near Baltimore, Md. , in 1845, 
being the son of George W. and Martha (Rounds) 
Riggin. The father, a farmer by calling, was 
born in 1808, and is still living; the mother, whose 
biith occurred in 1804, died in 1865, a member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. She had borne 
eight children, sevea of whom are now living, and 
of these our subject was next to the youngest. 
The latter was reared to farm life, and at the age 
of twenty-one commenced working at carpentering, 
serving several years for small pay till his trade 
was learned In 1871 he came to Pine Bluff and 
worked by the day at his adopted vocation until 
1877, when he engaged in saw-milling, generally, 
which business he has since followed, in connec- 
tion with contractiug and building. Mr. Riggin 
is one of the self-made, energetic men of this por- 
tion of the State, and by hard and earnest work has 
made for himself a name among other worthy in- 
dividuals. He is now the proprietor of the Star 
Planing & Shingle Mills, an establishment adding 
substantially to the material interests of Pine 
Bluff. He is a member of the I. O. O. F. and 
Knights of Honor. In 1881 Mr. Riggin married 
Miss Katie Stephens, daughter of A. J. Stephens 
(deceased). To them have been born three chil- 
dren: George A. and Katie Belle, now living, and 
John H. (deceased). 



Capt. J. F. Ritchie is a real estate dealer at 
Pine Bluff, Jefferson County, Ark. He was born 
in Dallas County, Ala. , in May, 1836. and was 
a son of John C. and Jane (Campbell) Ritchie, 
natives of South Carolina and Tennessee, respect- 
ively. The family is of Scotch descent on the 
father's side, and of Irish descent on the mother's 
side. His great-grandfather on the mother's side 
emigrated to America with two brothers, he set- 
tling in Virginia, while his brothers located in the 
North. This ancestor was in the Revolutionary 
War, and died in Virginia. The father of John 
C. Ritchie (William Ritchie) was a farmer, served 
in the War of 1812, and died in South Carolina. 
John C. Ritchie and wife were married in Ala- 
bama, emigrated to Mississippi in 1840, and in 
1856 came to Arkansas, when they located in 
Bradley County, where he opened up a store and 
also carried on a plantation. He died in Ouachita 
County, Ark., in the year 1861, being at that time 
probate judge of that county, which office he held 
for twelve or fifteen years. His wife is yet living 
and resides in Camden, Ark. There are six chil- 
dren of that family still alive: James F., George 
L., JohnC, Fannie (now Mrs. White), Mrs. W. 
K. Ramsey, and Mrs. Charles Gordon. Mr. J. 
F. Ritchie was raised in Mississippi, educated in 
the common schools of that State, and at the age 
of nineteen began the study of law, and in 1857 
was admitted to the bar of Itawamba, Miss. The 
following year he removed to Calhoun County, 
where he practiced until 1860, when he was elected 
to the office of land attorney and State collector, 
which was paying him about $20,000 per annum, he 
being only a young man of twenty four, but the war 
breaking out, he felt it his duty to enter the ser- 
vice, and the following year enlisted in the Capital 
Guards of Little Rock. In the same year he was 
elected to lieutenantcy of Deshar Battalion, and in 
1862. after the battle of Shiloh. when his company 
was consolidated with the Eighth Arkansas, he was 
made captain, which position he filled until he was 
wounded at the battle of Murfreesboro, by his right 
arm being shot entirely away, being taken off 
about half way between elbow and shoulder. He 
was left on the battlefield and was then taken pris- 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



209 



ouer, but fortunately fell into good hands where 
he was kindly treated. He was finally paroled, 
after having been in four hard fought battles. 
After his exchange, he returned home and re- 
sumed his practice. He then removed to Camden, 
Ark., and in 1866 was elected district attorney, 
which office he held until after the reconstruction 
of the district. Capt. Ritchie remained there until 
1874, when he went to Hot Springs, where he kept 
hotel for five years. In 1878 he came to Pine 
BlufP, and again engaged in the hotel business, in 
which occupation he continued until 1884. since 
which time he has been interested in the real estate 
business. He owns 1,000 acres of land, with over 
200 acres under cultivation. Capt. Ritchie has a 
very extensive real estate business, and has made 
a host of friends, being always courteous, kind 
and genial to all, and never forgets a kind 
act. He was married, in 1864, to Maria E. Pow- 
ell, a native of Alabama, and by whom he has 
three children: AV'attie, Edgar aud'Sallie. Mr. 
Ritchie and his wife are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. He is also a member of the 
Masonic lodge, and belongs to several insurance 
orders. 

N. T. Roberts, the present efficient county clerk 
of Jefferson County. Ark., was born in Greene 
County, Ala., in Ju.ne, 1836, being the son of John 
and Martha (Jones) Roberts, of North Carolina and 
Alabama, respectively. John Roberts, a native of 
Edenton, N. C, was married about 1829 in Ala- 
bama, where he lived until 1852, when he came to 
JefPerson County, Ark., with a brother-ia-law, John 
M. Jones, and purchased a tract of land where Wab- 
baseka now stands, on the Texas & St. Louis Rail- 
road. It is at this time in possession of Capt. Rob- 
erts and his brother. John C. The tract, which con- 
sists of 634 acres, was then very wild land, with but 
seventeen acres cleared, a log house being the only 
improvement. There are now 800 acres under 
cultivation. The land was first located in 1844, 
by Jordan Embree, during the great overflow of 
that year. The parents of our subject had six 
children, only two of whom are living, N. T. and 
John C. John Roberts, Sr. , was a planter, and 
followed that occupation until his death, which 



occurred at the age of seventy-four. N. T. Rob- 
erts was reared on the farm, and educated in a 
private school at Buchanan, Va. In 1860 he came 
to Pulaski County, Ark., and engaged in farm- 
ing until the war broke out, when, in 1861, he 
enlisted in Company G. , of Pulaski cavalry. At 
the organization of the First Arkansas Mounted 
Rifles he was chosen sergeant-major, and was ap- 
pointed first lieutenant and also assigned as adju- 
tant of the same. He held this appointment until 
May, 186i^, when he was appointed captain in the 
Provisional army, and was assigned to the com- 
mand of his regiment and companj% a position 
which he filled until January, 1863, when he was 
ordered to report to Gen. Smith, in the Trans- 
Mississippi department, remaining there until the 
close of the war, in the meantime having been 
ordered to raise a company of scouts inside the 
Federal lines and there to operate until further 
orders. Prior to Price's Missouri raid, being di- 
rected to report to Gen. James F. Fagan, com- 
manding the Arkansas cavalry, he was put in 
command of four companies, forming his advance 
guard, and was on this duty until the surrender. 
At the battle of Oak Hills, Capt. Roberts was 
wounded (August 10, 1861) by a gunshot through 
both shoulders, and was ott' duty six months. He 
was in a number of important battles and several 
skirmishes. From 1865 to 1884 he engaged in 
farming. He came to Jefferson County in 1868, 
and has since been a resident here. In 1884 he 
was elected to his present office, and has been twice 
elected successively since, filling the office with 
honor and credit. He was first married, in 1867 
to Miss Lucy Jones, who died in 1868. In 1880 
he took for his second wife Miss Florence White 
of Pine Bluff', by whom he has one son. King Tal 
mage. Mr. and Mrs. Roberts are members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South. He is also a 
member of the Masonic order, and has taken de- 
grees in the Mystic Shrine. He is popular and 
highly esteemed, and an important factor in the 
develof)ment of this community. 

J. C. Roberts, farmer, Wabbaseka, Ark. 
Among the many influential and substantial citi- 
zens of Jefferson County none are more prom- 



210 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



inently identified with its agricultural interests than 
Mr. Roberts. His birth occurred in Alabama, on 
June 14, 1842, and he received a good practical 
education in that State. His marriage to Miss 
Lelia B. Clement, a native of Alabama, took place 
October 6, 1871, and to this union have been born 
seven children, three sons and four daughters, six 
of whom are still living: Bettie C, Agnes, Fannie 
I., Mary E., Nathaniel T. (who died in early 
youth), John C, and Charley W. Early in life 
Mr. Roberts was initiated into the mysteries of 
farm life, and this pursuit he has since followed. 
He is the owner of 989 acres of good land, 500 
acres of which are under cultivation, all in Jeffer- 
son County. He is a member of the Episcopal 
and his wife of the Methodist Church, and both 
are liberal supporters of all worthy enterprises. 
The parents of Mr. Roberts, John and Martha 
(Jones) Roberts, were natives of Raleigh, N. C. , 
and Alabama, respectively, the father born in 1806. 
He moved from North Carolina to Alabama in 1824, 
and there married Miss Jones, who bore him sis 
children, three sons and three daughters, two of 
whom survive, and both are residents of this State. 
He was a farmer, and was the owner of about 300 
acres of good land. His wife died in 1847, and 
he in 1877. They were members of the Baptist 
Church. 

John Rowsey is a native Arkansan, and a man 
of quite extensive acquaintance hereabouts, having 
been born near his present residence in 1838. 
Anthony Rowsey, his father, of Alabama nativity, 
came to this State in 1835, locating in Old River 
Township, where he married Salina Hassington, of 
Arkansas, and where he lived the life of a farmer 
till his death in 1886, at the age of seventy years. 
He was a very quiet man, but energetic and in- 
dustrious, and devoted to his farm work, in which 
he took especial delight. The mother died in 1853 
or 1854. There were nine children born to this 
union, three of whom grew to maturity, and of 
these our subject is the only survivor. By the 
father's second marriage there was one child, Mary 
R. , now ^rs. J. V. Sink, of Illinois. His third 
marriage was to Miss Angeline A. Butler, who is 
still living in this townshi]), on a farm which she 



owns. The life of the subject of this sketch has 
been spent in this township, with the exception of 
two years in Jefferson County, and the time he 
served in the war. He was a brave soldier in the 
Confederate service for four years, participating 
in the battles of Shiloh, Murfreesboro, Atlanta, 
and numerous minor engagements. At Jonesboro, 
Ga. , he was taken prisoner, sent to Nashville, 
Tenn., and exchanged. Although struck three 
times he was not seriously wounded. After the 
war ended he came home and resumed his farm 
work, and in 1880 married Mrs. Margaret S. Mc- 
Kinzie, who was formerly Miss Nicks, born and 
reared in this township. She had then five chil- 
dren: Henry J., Bennie and Edna; Alice and 
Ruth (deceased). To Mr. and Mrs. Rowsey were 
born two children, an infant, who died, and Nancy, 
now aged five years. Mrs. Rowsey died in 1885, 
and our subject subsequently married Miss Mittie 
H. Diamond, a native of this State. They have 
one child living, John G. For eight years Mr. 
Rowsey was postmaster at Swan Lake, and has 
served as constable of his township. Politically 
he is a Democrat, and of decided worth and merit 
in the prominent interests of this locality. 

William E. Sallee, merchant. Redtield, Ark. 
Mr. Sallee, one of the substantial business men of 
Jefferson County, is a native of Campbell County, 
Ky. , and was born on August 4, 1844. His par- 
ents were Thomas and Maria A. (Lacy) Sallee. 
The father was born in Bracken County, Ky., 
in 1809, and was there married to Miss Lacy, the 
daughter of William and Maria A. Lacy, in 1838. 
The fruits of this union were eight children, three 
sons and live daughters, five of whom are still liv- 
ing, two sons and three daughters. Mr. Sallee 
followed the occupation of a farmer, and owned a 
good farm of about 900 acres with 250 acres under 
cultivation. He was a member of the Masonic 
fraternity, in which he held a membership for 
forty-six years, filling eveiy official position. He 
died on March 19, 1876, and his wife Novem- 
ber 16, 1886. Both were members of the Christ- 
ian Church. William E. Sallee was educated 
in Kentucky, near California, but in 1808 left 
his native State and moved to Arkansas, where he 



JEFFEKSON COUNTY. 



211 



married Miss Sarah M. Johnson in October, 1875. 
She is the daughter of Judge Willis and Elizabeth 
Johnson. To Mr. and Mrs. Sallee have been born 
four children, three sons and a daughter, but one 
is now deceased. They were named as follows: 
Willis T., Littleton E., Ben L. and Icy L. Mr. 
Sallee is engaged successfully in mercantile pur- 
suits at this time, the firm title being Sallee & Co. 
Their cajjital is about $8,000. He has been a i 
member of the Masonic order for twenty-four years 
and has held the olifices of junior and senior warden. 
He has been school director for six years. He is a 
member of the Christian and his wife of the Pres- 
byterian Church. 

H. W. Scull, a prominent citizen of Jefferson 
County, now practically retired from active busi- 
ness life, was born in that county on March 12, 
1834, and is a son of James and Mannette (Vau- 
gine) Scull, the former a native of England and 
the latter from Louisiana. The father came to 
America with three other brothers at an early 
period and first settled in Philadelphia. They re- 
mained in that city a short time and then sepa- 
rated, each one going in a different direction. As 
early as 1809 a record of the elder Scull is found 
in Arkansas County, where he kept a trading post 
for the Indians. He was one of the first shippers 
from that section, and found a market for his goods 
at New Orleans. His son, H. W., has in his pos- 
session his father' s old account book which he kept 
during the year 1809-10, and in which only one 
entry for medicine is found, that being for a 
bottle of paregoric. Coffee, sugar and other lux- 
uries were sold at fabulous prices in that region, 
and these articles the elder Scull shipi^ed in large 
quantities to the Osage and other tribes. After 
leaving Arkansas County he moved to Jefferson 
County, where he was also one of its earliest set- 
tlers, the country then being a vast wilderness and 
inhabited almost entirely by savages and wild 
beasts. While at Arkansas Post he was an exten- 
sive shipper of furs, but upon coming to Jefferson 
County turned his attention to farming, and fol- 
lowed that calling with great success. His death 
occurred on July 3, 1846, when sixty-four years of 
age, while the mother died on February 8, 1859, 



in her sixty-fifth year. They were the parents of 
ten children: James (deceased), Ben M. (deceased), 
William (deceased), Eliza, (deceased), Louisiana, 
P. (widow), Mary H. (deceased), Joseph B. (de- 
ceased), Anna M. (widow), Hewes B. (deceased,) 
and Henry W. (the principal of this sketch). 
Henry W. Scull was reared on his father's farm, 
and received a liberal education in the common 
schools of his native county, afterward graduating 
at Centre College, Danville, Ky. When twenty 
years of age he entered a business house at Pine 
Bluff, where he occupied a position of trust for 
several years. He afterward formed a partnership 
under the firm name of Scull, Donaldson & Co. , . 
dealers in general merchandise, but the Civil War 
commencing forced them to dissolve the firm. Mr. 
Scull then enlisted in the Jeft'erson Guards, com- 
manded by Capt. Charles Carleton, and served 
four years through the war, taking part in a num- 
ber of important battles and skirmishes, but for 
the greater part of the time was connected with the 
pay department. After the war he came to Pine 
Bluff stripped of everything, and was compelled 
to accept a subordinate position in a mercantile 
establishment at that city, where he gradually rose 
and remained for a number of years. For the 
past five or six years he has turned his attention 
entirely to real estate, in which he has been very 
successful and now owns considerable property in 
Pine Bluff' and vicinity. On May 16, 1866, he was 
married to Miss Laura J. King, of Helena, Ark., 
by whom he has two children: Millie M. (wife of 
\\'illiam I. Haizlip) and Julia. Mrs. Scull died 
in 1873, after proving herself a devoted wife and 
mother. Mr. Scull is a member of the Masonic 
fraternity. Knights of Honor, Knights of Pythias 
and Royal Arcanum. He has done much to ad- 
vance and develop the interests of his county, and 
is one of the most popular citizens in that section. 
W. J. Shelby, another progressive farmer and 
stock raiser of Jeft'erson County, Ark., is a native 
of that county, born on September 14, 1851, 
and is one of seven children, five sons and two 
daughters, born to the union of A. G. and Eliza 
(Henry) Shelby. A. G. Shelby was born in Tip- 
pah County, Miss., in the year 1823, receiving his 



212 



HISTOEY OF AEKANSAS. 



education in the same State. He moved to Ar- 
kansas in 1845, and was there married to ' Mias 
Henry in 1850. Of their family of children only 
four are now living (all in this State), whose names 
are as follows: George A., Charley B., Maud M. 
and W. J. The father was an agriculturist by 
occupation, owning about 160 acres of good land, 
and this was left in the hands of his wife at the 
time of his death, which occurred on December 
20, 1875. Mrs. Shelby is still living and resides 
with her son, W. J. Shelby. A. G. Shelby served 
in the late war, entering the ranks in 1862 under 
Gen. Hindman, and was captured at Pine Bluff in 
1864. He was paroled, returned home, and the 
same year removed to Illinois, where he remained 
until 1865, and then returned to his former place 
of residence where his death occurred. His wife 
is a member of the Methodist Church, South. 
W. J. Shelby received his education in Jefferson 
County, Ark. , and since his youthful days has fol- 
lowed the occupation of farmer, being now the 
owner of 200 acres of land, 120 acres of which are 
cultivated. He, like his father, held a member- 
ship in the Grange, and is a liberal contributor to 
all charitable and laudable enterprises. 

Albert R. Sherrill, M. D., is a physician of 
Jefferson County whose eminence has attained 
that degree in which he is almost satisfied to rest 
on his laurels, but still keeps steadily on in his 
noble profession, owing to the urgent calls made 
upon him. He was born in' Wilson County, Tenn., 
on the 26th of February, 1826, and is a son of 
Archibald and Agnes (Moss) Sherrill, natives of 
the same county and State. Both parents were 
members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. 
The father was a successful farmer, and a very 
prominent citizen of Wilson County during his life, 
and conducted some of the most important enter- 
prises that promoted the future development of 
that place. In politics he was a Whig. The 
father" s death occurred in 1852, after a life of use- 
fulness to his fellow men and honor to himself, 
his wife following him in 1866. Twelve children 
were born to their marriage, of whom six are yet 
living: J. F. (a well-known physician in Middle 
Tennessee), Newton A. (one of the largest farmers 



near Lebanon, in the same State), E. (a black- 
smith near the same town), Dr. Albert R., Martha 
Cemons(of Obion, Tenn.), and Dr Hugh (at Union 
City, West Tenn.). Albert R. received his educa- 
tion at the Cumberland University of Lebanon, 
Tenn. , and graduating from that college, he com- 
menced the study of medicine under his elder 
brother, J. F. In 1854-55 he attended lectures at 
Nashville, Tenn. , and in the latter year came to 
Arkansas and located in Pulaski County, where he 
remained for two years. He next moved to Jeffer- 
son County, where he has resided ever since, and 
built up a practice, which has been gratifying to 
his skill. The Doctor is well known for his benev- 
olence and his ready answer to the call for help, 
and hundreds of the poorer class in Jefferson 
County have cause to be thankful for his charity. 
Dr. Sherrill met with some reverses during the 
Civil War, but with wonderful pluck and energy 
he gathered up the remnants of his shattered for- 
tune after that event and again started to build up 
his losses. He now owns about 500 acres of valu- 
able land in Jefferson County, and something like 
840 acres in Lincoln County. During the Re- 
bellion he entered the Confederate army, and 
served in the capacity of surgeon a great deal, and 
when not in the ranks he devoted his time to out- 
side practice. His record in the army is one that 
will always reflect upon him with honor, for his 
bravery in more ways than one, and his skillful 
service in behalf of some poor wounded comrade, 
whose shattered limbs were bandaged by his kind- 
ly hands, will never be forgotten. In 1857 he was 
married to Mrs. Barrett, a charming widow lady, 
who died some years afterwards. In 1881 Miss 
Elizabeth Griffin became his second wife, but the 
following year she too died. In politics the Doc- 
tor is a Democrat, and a stanch supporter of that 
party. In religion he was formerly a member of 
the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, but at the 
present time does not favor any particular persua- 
sion. During the years 1872-73 he was in the drug 
business at Pine Bluff, but his growing practice 
forced him to give it up. He is one of the most 
popular men in his county with every class of so- 
ciety, and also one of its most enterprising citizens. 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



213 



Frank Silverman, sheriff and collector. Pine 
Bluff, Ark. The public services of Mr. Silverman 
since his election to his present position have been 
characterized by a notable devotion to the welfare of 
this county, and his ability and fidelity in this 
position of public trust, have made a lasting im- 
pression upon the sphere of public duty. He was 
born in Wooster, Wayne County, Ohio, January 0, 
1843, and is the son of Lyon and Mary (Troutman) 
Silverman, the father a native of Germany and 
the mother of Berks County. Penn. The mater- 
nal great grandfather. Jacob Troutman, was a Rev- 
olutionary patriot, and could not speak a word of 
English. Lyon Silverman came to America when 
thirteen years of age and stopped at Philadel- 
phia, where he became apprenticed to the mercan- , 
tile business. He subsequently went to Mansfield, 
Ohio, where he engaged very extensively in mer- 
chandising, and later moved to Wooster, where he 
was married and remained for several years. He 
is now a resident of Rockaway, N. Y. , being 
retired in his seventy- second year. The mother 
died at Little Rock, Ark., in 1885. They were 
the parents of eight children, seven now living: 
Frank Caroline (who resides in New York City), 
Emma (resides in Little Rock), Samuel (resides in 
St. Louis), Ida (resides in Portland, Ore.), Belle 
(resides at the same place), and Georgia (also 
there). Frank Silverman was reared and edu- 
cated in Wisconsin, having graduated at Racine 
(Wisconsin) College. In 1859 he started out to 
travel, visiting the principal cities of Europe, and 
was abroad about one year. In 1861 he enlisted 
in the three months' service, and at the expiration 
of that time joined the regular service, but being 
under age his father got him out much to the dis- 
gust of the young hero. In 1871 he went to St. 
Louis for a short time, and subsequently to Pine 
Bluff, Ark. , where he became editor of the Jeffer- 
son Republican, purchasing the outfit and running 
the paper for two years. He next engaged in the 
mercantile business, but was quite unfortunate in 
this venture and became entirely bankrupt. In 
1876 he was elected on the Republican ticket as 
county and probate judge, holding the position two 
years. He then became land commissioner of the 



Little Rock & Texas Road, held this position a 
short time and next became deputy sheriff', dis- 
charging the duties of this place until elected to 
his present office, in 1880, being re-elected in 1888. 
He has conducted the official affairs to the entire 
satisfaction of all, and during this time has been 
twice receiver of the Pine Bluff' & Swan Lake Rail- 
road. He was married first, in 1863, to Miss Lizzie 
Swords, by whom he had three children: Maude, 
Randall and Blanche. Mr. Silverman was mar- 
ried the second time, in 1873, to Miss Grace Haw- 
ley, by whom he has one child, Edith. He is past 
eminent commander of the Knights Templar, and 
is the grand representative of the State of New 
Hampshire in Arkansas. He is a member of the 
Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, Knights of Honor, 
Royal Arcanum and American Legion of Honor. 

Hon. Theodoric F. Sorrells was born ia Beach 
Grove, Bedford County, Tenn., August 18, 1821, 
being a son of W^ alter B. Sorrells, of North Caro 
lina. The father was a planter, and also well 
known in politics in Tennessee and Mississippi. 
He moved from his native State when very young, 
and settled in Bedford County, Tenn. , where 
he was educated, married, and resided for thirty 
years. He then moved to Fayette County, in the 
same State, but shortly afterward went to Mar- 
shall County, Miss. , where he remained for twenty 
years. In 1858 he came to Arkansas County, 
Ark., and made that his home until his death, in 
1864, at the age of seventy years. For twenty 
years he held the office of surveyor of Marshall 
County, Miss., an office that his intelligence and 
ability made it almost impossible to fill with a 
successor his equal. He was a man of moral char- 
acter and integrity, and was never known to touch 
intoxicating drinks, this perhaps accounting for 
his great success in life. Judge Sorrells' grand- 
father, David Sorrells, was also a native of North 
Carolina, and was married in that State, but after- 
ward moved to Bedford County, Tenn., where he 
resided for thirty-five years. He then located in 
Henderson County, of the same State, where his 
death occurred in 1851, at the age of eighty years. 
He took no part in the earlier wars of this country, 
but his father was a soldier in the Revolution and 



214 



HISTOEY OF ARKANSAS. 



fought at King's Mountain, and he also had a 
brother under Gen. Jackson at the battle of New 
Orleans. The Sorrellses of the United States 
are descendants of three brothers, who came from 
England at an early period and settled in North 
Carolina. All of the family in America derive 
their origin from them, and have all been chiefly 
farmers of good standing, in the middle ranks of 
society. A few have been ministers of the gospel 
and merchants, but none have ever figured prom- 
inently in public life excej)t the Judge. Judge 
Sorrells' mother was Martha Boswell, who was 
reared on the Potomac River, a short distance below 
Alexandria, Va. , and was one of the Old Domin- 
ion's fairest daughters. She died when her son 
Theodoric was only eighteen months old, after a 
life of model motherhood. Theodoric F. Sorrells 
was reared and instructed in farm life until his 
twenty-first year, when his fathef paid him a sal- 
ary, so that he might procure an education. From 
1841 to 1843 he attended school at Memphis, 
Tenn. , where he obtained a good English educa- 
tion as well as a knowledge of the higher branches 
and classics, and a course in the sciences. His 
academical career was interrupted by the war be- 
tween Texas and Mexico, and at the call of Gen. 
Sam Houston for volunteers, he left his books and 
proceeded to Texas, to take up arms in defense of 
that State. He landed at Galveston, and was mus- 
tered into service on April 7, 1842, in Kit Wil- 
liams' company, from Memphis, and remained in 
camp at Corpus Christi for three months. On 
July 7, 1 842, he took part in the battle of Lapan- 
tielan, between the Texans under Gen. James 
Davis, and the Mexicans under Gen. Canales. On 
August 23, of the same year, he was honorably 
discharged, under the signature of Col. George 
W. Hockley, Texas secretary of war, and approved 
by Sam Houston, president of the Republic. When 
ten years old he joined the Methodist Church, and 
has been a member in good standing ever since. 
He has never sowed any wild oats, consequently 
has none to reap. His habits have been uniform 
all his life. He has never played a game of cards, 
nor any other game of chance, nor has he ever 
danced a reel ; neither has he ever been drunk or 



sued for debt in his life, as he always paid every 
debt he owed. Judge Sorrells is a man of turbu- 
lent passions when aroused, but has a wonderful 
amount of self-control. Up to within ten years 
ago the tobacco habit was almost second nature to 
him, but since that time he has not touched a 
morsel of the weed, nor has he ever used profane 
language. From early childhood the desire pos- 
sessed him to be a lawyer, and after attaining man- 
hood, he diligently applied himself to that study, 
being licensed to practice on March 20, 1846, by 
Alexander M. Clayton, then supreme judge of 
Mississippi. Immediately afterward he went to 
Texas, the scene of his former exploits, and begun 
to practice his profession, and while at La Grange, 
enlisted in Col. Jack Hayes' regiment of mounted 
riflemen. He then was transferred to Mexico, and 
took part in the Mexican War until the expiration 
of his term of service, and after that event, left 
that country and returned to Marshall County, 
Miss. In the fall of 1847 he came to Arkansas 
and settled at Princeton, Dallas County, the fol- 
lowing year, where he commenced to practice his 
profession. He soon established himself in the 
confidence of his neighbors, and built up a large 
practice, and his popularity attained such a height 
that in February, 1849, he was elected prosecut- 
ing attorney, and re-elected in February, 1851. 
In August, 1854, he was elected circuit judge, and 
held that office until 1858, and in 1860 was elector 
for the State at large, on the Breckenridge and 
Lane ticket, and delegate to the Baltimore coq- 
vention in 1860. In 1888 he was delegate to the 
Deep Water Harbor convention, held at Denver, 
Col. , and is now a member of the standing Deep 
Water Harbor committee; he also was a delegate 
to the Topeka convention, in 1889, and is now 
chairman of the executive committee in Arkansas, 
and is a strong advocate of that great commercial 
movement, which has for its object the construc- 
tion of a deep water harbor on the coast of Texas, 
being heartily in favor of an appropriation by 
Congress, sufficient for that purpose. Elsewhere 
in this work, Mr. Sorrells' address in reference 
to this measure is referred to. During the Civil 
War his efPorts for the Southern cause were antir- 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



215 



ing, and although not in active battle, his money 
and prayers were always with the Confederate army. 
After the war he represented Bradley County in the 
legislature, but was disfranchised by the military 
authorities under the re-construction act, until 
1874. He was then re-eufranchised by virtue of 
the constitution of 1874. In August, 1874, he was 
elected judge of the Tenth judicial circuit, and re- 
elected in 1878, each time for four years at a salary 
of $2,500 per annum. Like his father. Judge 
Sorrells is an ardent Democrat, and in a letter from 
father to son occurs this characteristic expression: 
' ■ I pray for the success of the Democratic party 
and the Christian religion. ' ' From such teachings 
Judge Sorrells has never deviated, and in politics 
he is as unchanging as the sun. He ojiposed the 
Fishback amendment, but favors the insertion of 
the temperance reform or prohibition plank in the 
Democratic platform of the State of Arkansas. In 
regard to the payment of disputed State debts, he 
is in favor of a settlement on the basis of judicial 
decisions. During the war he was an ardent se- 
cessionist, and is now a warm friend to the foster- 
ing of Southern industries, in order to make the 
South self-sustaining. To effect this he advocates 
a board of commissioners on emigration, to be es- 
tablished at New Orleans, for the purj^ose of re- 
ceiving foreign emigrants, and taking care of them 
until they can disperse and settle throughout the 
South, so that her resources may be more fully de- 
veloped. Judge Sorrells was initiated into the Ma- 
sonic fraternity at Camden, Ark., in 1851, and 
has taken all the Council degrees and held the 
ofiSce of high priest. In 1874 he became a mem- 
ber of the Odd Fellows at Pine Bluff. He was 
married in Bradley County, Ark., on May 27, 
1851, to Miss Rebecca M. Marks, a daughter of 
John H. Marks, a member of the Arkansas legis- 
lature in 1842, and at whose place the battle of 
Marks' Mill was fought in April. 1864. Her 
mother was before her marriage Miss Maiy Bar- 
nett, of Alabama, a daughter of Nathaniel Barnett, 
one of the most prominent planters in that State 
during his life. Mrs. Sorrells is a niece of the 
late Judge Kenyon, a distinguished lawyer and 
judge of Georgia. She is a noble-hearted, whole- 



souled woman, loved by everybody, and possesses 
the domestic virtues to an extraordinary degree. 
She is a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, and her kindness and charitable 
disposition toward the needy and distressed have 
almost placed her on the pinnacle of worship. She 
has added greatly to her husband's success in life, 
and aided him in building up his fortune before 
the war. After that event, when so many Southern 
homes had been made desolate and fortunes swept 
away, she again encouraged him to put his shoul- 
der to the wheel and buoyed up his drooping spirit 
by her loving help. They have five children liv- 
ing, all of whom were born in Bradley County: 
Mary (who graduated from Hocker Female College, 
at Lexington, Ky. , in 1872 with first honors, and 
married in 1878 to William L. De Woody, a popu- 
lar druggist of Pine Bluff), Theodore (a farmer), 
William (a druggist of Hot Springs, Ark. ), Emma 
(Mrs. T. E. Gillespie), and Walter (still a boy). 
Judge Sorrells inherited no property, but made it 
all himself. At the breaking out of the war he 
was worth IIOO.OCO in lands and slaves, and at the 
close of that event had lost all but 110,000 in land. 
He is now worth upward of $50,000, which is all 
the result of his own energ}' and business tact, as 
sisted by the good advice of his wife. As an in- 
stance of his pluck he came from Memphis, on the 
deck of a steamboat, for want of monej' to pay his 
passage in the cabin, and upon reaching Gaines' 
Landing, had not a dollar in the world. From 
that point he went to Camden, Ark. , on foot, and 
at that point commenced to lay the foundation of 
his fortune. He made .120,000 by various enter- 
prises, and the balance he has accumulated from 
his practice. Judge Sorrells has the reputation of 
being one of the most energetic men in the State, 
and his success justifies that conviction. On the 
bench he has given universal satisfaction as an 
honest, upright judge. As an evidence of this, 
his majority at his last election was 4,663, in a 
total vote of 10,000. As a lawyer he has been very 
successful in criminal practice, never having a 
client hanged, and only one that was sent to the 
penitentiary. As a speaker he is valued for his 
forcible and convincing arguments, rather than for 



216 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



brilliant oratory, dealing in matters of fact, rather 
than in flowing diction and flights of fancy. Judge 
Sorrells has probably not spent more than six days 
out of thirty in the pursuit of pleasure, other than 
that to be found in the society of his family and 
intimate friends. He takes an active interest in 
all ]iublic enterprises, and is a leading spirit in 
anything that tends toward the development of his 
community. One point that should be brought 
forward is, that, while never the choice of the bar, 
he is uniformly the choice of the people, who like 
him for his nerve and discretion of purpose. It is 
such men as this who lay the foundation of great 
States, and whose names and deeds form material 
for hi.story. 

^^'. P. Stephens, attorney, Pine Bluff, Ark. 
Amongst the well-known and notable represent- 
atives of the learned profession of the law is \V. 
P. Stephens who was born in Livingston, Sumter 
County, Ala., on May 9, 1841, being one of four 
children, thi-ee now living, born to the union of J. 
J. and Priscilla C. (Whitfield) Stephens, natives of 
Mississippi and North Carolina, respectively. The 
parents were married in Alabama and emigrated to 
Arkansas in about 1845, locating in Drew County, 
where they remained until 1849, subsequently 
moving to Jefl'erson County, Ark. The father fol- 
lowed the trade of a contractor and builder, and 
erected a great many of the old landmarks now 
standing in Pine Bluff. He was mayor of the city 
for some years, and at the time of his death, which 
occurred in 1860, he was county and probate judge. 
The mother now resides at Hot Springs. The three 
children living are named as follows: M'illiam P. , 
Ruth (widow of Theodore Shupanj and Mrs. D. B. 
Riggin (of Pine Bluff). The sul>ject of this sketch 
was reared in Arkansas and educated in Pine Bluff. 
At the commencement of the war he was acting as 
assistant county clerk, but resigned his office to 
enter the army, and at the expiration of his term 
of service returned and took his old position. In 
1886 he was elected county and circuit clerk and 
recorder, discharging these official duties until the 
reconstruction. In February, 1869, he went to 
Camden, Ouachita County, Ark., and was for one 
3'ear cashier of the bank of C. E. Phillijas, after 



which he resided in Cleveland (then Dorsey) 
County, where he served one term as coiinty and 
probate Judge. He had studied law, and been ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1868 at Pine Bluff, practicing 
his profession while living in Cleveland County. 
In 1885 he came back to Pine Bluff", where he has 
since been actively engaged in his profession. He 
has been for several years attorney under the ap- 
pointment of the attorney-general of the State, 
for the collection of the school funds of Jefferson 
County. His official record is everywhere clear 
and faultless. He is a brilliant attorney and an 
unusually good business man. At present his office 
is over the Merchants' and Planters' Bank, Pine 
Bluff. His practice is principally in the judicial 
circuits presided over by Hon. J. M. Elliott and 
Hon. C. D. Wood (Tenth and Eleventh circuits). 
His briefs in the supreme court of the State, and 
his varied experience in the circuit practice, are 
guarantees of his ability; and, considering his age 
and the extent of his present practice, his future is 
bright, and a rich harvest in the field of his chosen 
profession is sure to be his. He has made real 
property law his chief study, and is working a great 
part of his time on complicated titles involving city 
and country property; and with the increase of 
population and enhanced values in his part of 
Arkansas his services will be continually needed. 
Leroy Taylor, one of the pioneer settlers of 
Jefferson Corinty. and a native of Arkansas County, 
was born April 5, 1824, and is a son of Archibald 
and Mary (Harrington) Taylor, of Indiana and 
Kentucky, respectively. The father moved to the 
latter State when he was a young man, and there 
married his wife. In 1822 they moved to Arkansas 
County, Ark., and four years later came to Jef- 
ferson County, locating in Old River, near what 
is now Rob Roy, where the father died in his 
thirtieth year. Some time after his decease the 
mother was married to Mr. O'Neill, a prominent 
merchant of the same county, who also left her a 
widow for the second time a few years after their 
marriage. The elder Taylor was a successful 
farmer, and a man who thoroughly understood his 
business. His advice was often asked by men who 
were less posted in the details of farming, and his 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



217 



assistance during life was the means of placing 
many men upon a substantial^" foundation who 
would otherwise have sunk in the slough of bank- 
ruptcy and pauperism. Three children were bora 
to the parents, one of whom has since died. Joseph 
and Leroy are yet living. The former went to 
California in 1850, and afterward changed his 
location to Washington Territory. His occupation 
at one time was piloting on steamboats, but later 
he turned his attention entirely to mining. Leroy 
was educated in the schools of JefFerson County, 
and remained with his mother until twenty-three 
years old. He then thought it was time to make 
a start in life for himself, and commenced farming 
on his own account. When twenty four years of 
age he was married to Miss Elizabeth Flynn, of 
JefPerson County, who died iive years after their 
union, leaving one son, George W., now a farmer 
in Jefferson County. In 1855 Leroy Taylor was 
married to Miss Louisa Tany, of the same county, 
who lived until 1867, and died, without having 
any children. On August 7, 1887, his third 
matrimonial venture proved to be a happy one in 
the person of Mrs. R. A. Nellums, a charming 
widow, and a daughter of John Lasley. This lady 
was born in Maury County, Tenn., on October 14, 
1827, and her former husband was Mr. William 
J. Nellums. In polities Mr. Taylor is a stanch 
Democrat, and a man whose aid is valuable to his 
party. He has won the respect of the community 
and now enjoys the fullest confidence of his fellow 
citizens. 

Dr. Arthur G. Thompson, though perhaps 
classed among the younger members of the medi- 
cal fraternity in this region, has already attained 
a position of honor and influence, and is esteemed 
an able and worthy practitioner. He was born 
in Rochester, Racine County, Wis., October 13, 
1851, his parents, Anthony and Ann (Carter) 
Thompson, being of English nativity. The father 
was born in 1809, and the mother in 1811. They 
came to America in 1844, settling in Wisconsin, 
where they both died. Dr. Thompson is a gradu- 
ate of Keokuk Medical College. At the age o^ 
thirteen he commenced business for himself, and 
when twenty- six years of age was married to Miss 



Stella E. Fuller, of Whiteside County, 111. They 
have four children: Azuba (aged twelve). Louis 
(aged nine), Inez (aged seven), and Carter (aged 
three). Dr. Thompson owns eighty acres of val- 
uable land in this county, besides property at 
White Sulphur Springs, and in addition to these 
interests he has a stock of drugs and general mer- 
chandise. His success as a merchant is a just re- 
ward of faithful application. He is a Republican 
in politics, and, besides being an accomplished 
physician and skillful surgeon, is a man of great 
public and private enterprise. 

Rev. D. L. Trimble, whose name is familiar in 
this and surroimding counties, was born in Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, in 1850. His father, a man of 
prominence and decided worth, was Robert Wil- 
son Trimble, a native of Wheeling, W. Va. , whose 
birth occurred in 1829. He (Robert W. ) received 
a good education in his native State, and after 
the age of twenty-one years commenced study- 
ing for the ministry in the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. From Virginia he went to Kentucky, 
locating first at Newport and later at Hopkinsville, 
but subsequently found himself in Louisville. 
After serving a six-months' probation in the Epis- 
copal Church he was given a license and stationed 
at Jeffersonville, Ind. , where he had charge of 
St. John's Church about two years. In March, 
1860, he arrived at Pine Bluff, Ark., as a mission- 
ary, sent by Bishop Lay, where he founded the pres- 
ent Episcopal Church with only three members. 
Upon the breaking out of the Civil War Mr. Trim- 
ble enlisted in the First Arkansas Regiment, under 
James Fagan, participating in several prominent 
engagements in Virginia, and being transferred to 
the Trans Mississippi department under Johnson. 
In September, 1863, just before the battle of Pine 
Bluff, his health failed, when he returned home 
and resumed charge of his parish. In January, 
1864, having been banished from the Federal lines, 
he went down the river, where he lived on a plan- 
tation till the close of hostilities. He was en- 
gaged for some time in the secret service under 
Gen. McGruder. In May, 1866, after having re- 
turned to Pine Bluff Mr. Trimble went East and 
raised money for the building of a church, which 



218 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



was completed in 1870, the first services beinpf held 
Christmas day. In 1871 be commenced collecting 
material for a general descriptive history of the 
State by counties, the manuscript of which is now 
owned by his son. This has been submitted to the 
State Historical Society for correction, and consti- 
tutes matter of vital importance. In 1879 the 
State University of Arkansas conferred upon him 
an honorary degree, which was well deserved and 
gracefully borne. He was the father of the public 
school system of Pine Bluff, and for twelve years 
was a member of the school board, of which he was 
secretary; educational affairs having for him im- 
portant attractions, and his career in this direction 
has left a marked influence for good. Mainly to 
his efforts are the citizens of this locality indebted 
for the attractive building of the high school which 
is now so prominent a structure. Mr. Trimble 
was a man of decided literary ability, and able 
contributions from his pen found a ready place in 
leading papers of the day. He was a good man 
in all that the term implies, a beloved and talented 
minister and a fluent speaker, and a fact worthy 
of mention is that he was the only Episcopal cler- 
gyman who stood at his post during the war. He 
also founded the Episcopal Church at Hot Springs. 
He was born February 22, 1829, and died April 
18, 1882, after a useful and well spent life. His 
wife was Almira E. Hukill, originally from Ken- 
tucky, born in 1830, aud who died March 28, 1887. 
Their two children are both living: Rev. D. L. 
and Mattie J. (the widow of Peter A. Torian), who 
lives with her brother. She has one child living, 
Allie D. At the age of fourteen years the subject 
of this sketch, who possesses in a high degree the 
many estimable traits of his esteemed father, was 
sent to Shelby College, Shelbyville, Ky. , remain- 
ing there for eighteen months, when he attended 
the University of Tennessee. After leaving he 
was a student at the Military Academy of New 
York, but owing to defective eyesight (having lost 
one eye by sulphuric acid) did not remain long, 
subsequently going to the Theological Seminary, 
at Nashotah, Wis., from which he graduated in 
1876 with the degree of B. D. In 1878 he was 
sent to Peru, Ind. , where he was rector until 1880, 



coming thence to Pine Bluff in July of that year, 
attracted largely by his extensive landed interests 
here. Since that time he has led almost a retired 
life, though he had charge of a church at Cam- 
den, and now has a small mission at Pendleton, 
which he serves once a month. October 9, 1879, 
Mr. Trimble married Maggie E. Dorris, daughter 
of one of the leading men of the South. She was 
a most estimable lady, well respected by all who 
knew her, and of rare personal attractions, but 
death claimed her October 18, 1888. She left two 
children, Robert W. and an infant. Mr. Trimble 
is a person of intellectual and noble individual 
characteristics, and during his residence here has 
won many friends. 

C. H. Triplett, coiinty treasurer of Jetferson 
County, and one of its best known citizens, was 
born in that county on the r2th of March, 1850, 
and is a son of Charles H. and Esthe (Dunlap) Trip- 
lett, of Fairfax County, Va. , and of Scotch-Irish 
origin. The paternal grandfather, John Triplett, 
was a soldier in the Revolutionary War, who 
passed the remainder of his days after that event 
in Virginia. The old homestead is still in the Trip- 
lett family, and has been for over 125 years, and 
they also possess a large estate in the neighbor- 
hood of Mount Vernon. Charles H. Triplett was 
a cabinet-maker by trade, and an expert in that 
line. When only eighteen years of age he was 
foreman over 100 men, and, young as he was, main- 
tained a strict discipline over individuals that were 
double his years. His son, the principal in this 
sketch, has some furniture in his house at the pres- 
ent time which was made by his father over fifty 
years ago, and while visiting the exposition at New 
Orleans several years ago, the father was shown 
some furniture that was made by him during the 
first years of his artisanship. He was one of the 
men who helped remove George Washington's re- 
mains to their last resting place at Mount Ver- 
non. In 1847 he emigrated to Jefferson County, 
Ark. , where he entered a large tract of land and 
farmed for a great many years, his death occur- 
ring at the home of his son, in 1887. The mother 
died in 1858. They were the parents of twelve 
children, of whom three only are living at present: 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



219 



Mrs. Sarah Buck, Mrs. M. D. Lindsay and Charles 
H. (the subject of this sketch). Mr. Triplett was 
reared on his father's farm and received a some- 
what limited education in his youth, but this, how- 
ever, was overcome in later years by a naturally 
shrewd and intellectual mind. In 1868 he moved 
to Pine Bluff with the intention of commencing in 
life on his own account, and was first engaged as 
clerk in a grocery house at that place with a salary 
of $1.50 per month. He remained with this tirm 
for two years, and then entered the employ of Mr. 
Gabe Meyers in the general merchandise business, 
remaining with him four years. His next venture 
was to form a partnership with Mr. John L. Buck 
in the grocery business, biit in 1879 the firm met 
with reverses and were forced to suspend. They 
closed out their business in an honorable manner, 
and paid all their debts, though it took almost 
every cent from Mr. Triplett to do so, and he was 
again compelled to start in life a poor man. He then 
turned his attention to farming and speculating, 
and by good management and tact has accumulaled 
considerable wealth once more, owning 4,000 
acres of very fertile land, with several hundred 
acres under cultivation, and one of the linest resi- 
dences in Pine Bluff. In politics he is an ardent 
Democrat and a leader in his party, and in 1888 
was elected by them to the office of county treas- 
urer. Besides this office he is commissioner of the 
sewer district, and secretary of the Board of 
Health. Mr. Triplett was married in 1880 to Miss 
Estelle Holland, by whom he has had three children : 
Charles H. , Jr. , Gerald and Esta. His wife is a 
kindly, Christian woman, and a member of the 
Presbyterian Church. In secret societies Mr. 
Triplett belongs to the Royal Arcanum, of which 
body he is financial secretary, also holding that 
office in the Knights of Honor. He is also a mem- 
ber and secretary of the American Legion of Honor 
and the Knights and Ladies of Honor. 

John W. Tucker, one of Arkansas' enterprising 
merchants and planters, was born in Morgan Coun- 
tj', Ala. , February 22, 1845, and is a son of Charles 
and Anna O. (Drake) Tucker, who were married 
against the wishes of Miss Drake' s parents. Soon 
after their union the parents of John W. moved to 



Alabama where they resided until the father's 
death in 1856, at the age of fifty-six years, and the 
mother in 1865, in her fifty ninth year. The elder 
Tucker was a well known farmer and school teacher 
and in politics a Whig. His family were of Scotch 
origin. Twelve children were born to their mar- 
riage, of whom six are still living. John W. , the 
next but one to the youngest, was educated in the 
schools of Northern Alabama, and had hardly fin- 
ished his studies when the war induced him to 
join the ranks of the Confederate army, becoming 
a member of Company I. Fifth Alabama Cavalry, 
commanded by Gen. Forrest. He took part in a 
number of battles, some of them being at Pulaski, 
Tenn.. Athens Ala., Sulphur Tressle, Ala., in 
which engagement he was wounded, as also at 
Selma, Ala. His record through the war is one 
that reflects the greatest credit on himself, for its 
heroic action in time of danger, and many times 
he has received the cheers of his comrades for per- 
forming some daring piece of work. After the 
war was over he removed to Arkansas and located 
in Jefferson County, where he commenced farming 
on Maj. W. H. Davis' place at Colton Center. 
Four years later he purchased 200 acres of 
land; prosperity's kindly smile beamed down 
on him, and to-day he is the owner of about 920 
acres and has placed some 500 acres under culti- 
vation. For the last six years he has been actively 
engaged in the general merchandise business, and 
since 1888 he has had a saw-mill in operation. He 
first started his cotton-gin in 1880, and it is one of 
the best in the county. September 20, 1871, he was 
married to Miss Sallie Morrow, a daughter of John 
W. Morrow, and the following year moved to his 
present location, where he has built one of the 
most commodious residences in that section. Mrs. 
Tucker was born in Rutherford County, Tenn., 
on May 11, 1853, and by her marriage became 
the mother of seven children, of whom two have 
died. Those yet living are Mary E., Charles S., 
D. Everett, Bessie and Anna W. , and the two de- 
ceased are John W. D. and Clifton W. Mr. 
Tucker served for several years as postmaster, and 
his work in this office as well as his character as a 
citizen won him such popularity that Tucker Sta- 



220 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



tion was named in his honor. He is a member of 
the Knights of Honor at Pine Bhiff. Mrs. Tucker 
belongs to the Methodist Episcopal Church. South, 
and is deeply interested in religious and educa- 
tional work. 

Philip N. Vaugine, one of the oldest and most 
prominent of Jefferson County merchants, was 
born near Pine Bluff, Ark., on February 24^, 1836, 
and is a son of Francis and Audele (Dereuisseaux) 
Vaugine. Both parents were born at Arkansas 
Post, Ark., in 1800 and 1808, respectively, and 
were married in 1826. The father was a farmer 
and trader, and in the latter capacity was noted 
for his shrewdness in making a bargain. In fact 
he was very successful in both branches, but trad- 
ing in furs, skins, etc., was his principal business, 
and his shipments to the New Orleans market were 
very large. In politics he was an old line Whig, 
but did not take any active part in politics. His 
father was a native of France, who emigrated to 
the United States and settled at New Orleans, 
afterward moving to Arkansas Post, where he re- 
mained for some time, and then came four miles 
below Pine Bluft', at which place he died in 1831, 
when sixty-three years of age. He was a farmer 
and trader, like his son after him. He served as 
major in the War of 1812, and several battles 
previous, but after the mother country had lost 
her child he determined to adopt the United States 
as his future home. The family of Vaugine is one 
of the oldest in Jefferson County, the male mem- 
bers attaining a widespread celebrity for their busi- 
ness ability and trading qualities. The family on 
the mother's side were French Canadians, whose 
forefathers settled in Arkansas prior to 1793. The 
mother herself made a trip on the first steamboat 
that ran on the Arkansas River, a side wheeler, 
the "Tom Bolin," commanded by Capt. James 
Bolin. Nine children were born to Francis 
Vaugine and his wife, of whom two only are liv- 
ing at the present time, Philip N. and Francis 
G. . the latter a prominent farmer of this county, 
who, during the war, was cajstain of Company G, 
First Arkansas Cavalry, Trans Mississippi Depart- 
ment, and was wounded and captured at Pilot 
Knob, September 27, 1864, remaining a prisoner 



of war until the close, in 1865. In the charge on 
the fort at this place he. the first and second lieuten- 
ants and twenty-two men, remained on the battle- 
field, of whom seventeen were killed outright, and 
the first lieutenant later died from wounds received. 
Philip N. received his education at the schools of 
Jefferson County, and partly in Arkansas County. 
Upon reaching his twenty-third year he determined 
to see what fortune had in store for him if he com- 
menced in life for himself. Accordingly he began 
farming, and continued in that line for two years, 
but at the end of that time gave it up to enter the 
employ of Matthew Murphy, of New Gascony, 
as salesman. In the spring of 1862 he enlisted in 
Company G, of the First Arkansas Cavalry, Trans- 
Mississippi, Confederate States Army, and con- 
tinued in service until June, 1865. He took part 
in Steele's raid, and was also oj)erating on White 
River. Afterward he was in several engagements 
around Tahlequah, I. T., and then with Price 
in his raids through Missouri. While fighting 
under Price one of his brothers, Charles, was killed 
at Pilot Knob: another brother, Matthias J., was 
captain of an independent company, and was killed 
in Jefferson County. After the war was over. 
Philip again commenced farming, and at the end 
of three years he opened up a store in Plum Bayou. 
He has been a successful man in all of his ventures, 
and at the present time owns 440 acres of land, 
with 300 acres under cultivation, his plantation 
being three miles south of Sherrill Station. He 
owns two large business houses, one on his planta- 
tion and one at Sherrill Station, on the Altheimer 
Branch, where he enjoys an extensive and lucrative 
patronage, carrying on a large trade. In 1869 he 
was married to Miss Mary E. Mitchell, of this 
county, who died in the same year. Mr. Vaugine 
felt the loss of his amiable wife deeply, and has 
remained a widower since that time. He has never 
taken an active interest in politics, but his sym- 
pathies are with the Democratic i^arty. Like the 
balance of his family he is a member of the Catho- 
lic Church. He is one of the most prosperous and 
enterprising men in the State, and his good fortune 
is the result of his own intellect and perseverance. 
Jo W. Walker, one of the leading cotton grow- 



JEFFERSON COITNTY. 



221 



ers of Jefferson County, was born on the banks 
of the Arkansas River, about six miles from Pine 
Bluff, on August 18, 1852, and is a son of Robert 
Woods and Eulalie (Taylor) Walker. The father 
was a native of Virginia, but reared near Nash- 
ville, Tenn., and moved to Arkansas in 1836. He 
was born in the year 1810. The mother was born 
in Jefferson County, Ark., on March 3, 1825, 
and has resided in Arkansas all her life. The 
father was a very prominent citizen and large 
land owner in this county, possessing about 2,000 
acres in the river bottom. He was deputy clerk 
for five years, and for an additional five years was 
clerk. He was a Mason of high standing, and had 
taken a number of the higher degrees. In politics 
he was a Democrat, and one of the leaders of that 
party in his county. When the elder Walker first 
came to Pine Bluff it was but a village. Since that 
time it has grown up into a large and prosperous 
city, owing to the efforts of enterprising citizens, 
of whom Mr. Walker was one of the foremost. 
Seven children were born to the parents, of whom 
six are yet living: Creed T. (a cashier of the Bank 
of Little Rock), Maggie (wife of Capt. B. E. Ben- 
ton, the i)opular agent of the Cotton-Seed Oil Mills 
at Little Rock), John M. (a farmer on the old 
homestead), J. W. (the principal of this sketch), 
Agnes (wife of Orlando Haliburton, a well-known 
commercial traveler for Meyer Bros., St. Louis, 
Mo.), and Robert W. (a prosperous grain and feed 
dealer at Little Rock). The one deceased is James 
N., who died in his twenty-first year. Jo W. 
Walker was educated at St. Vincent College, Cape 
Girardeau, Mo. , and upon reaching his maturity, 
left that institution to manage his mother's plan- 
tation. Since then he has given his entire atten- 
tion to planting, and has become one of the most 
successful in the county. On October 16, 1878, 
he was married to Miss Beulah Burton, a daugh- 
ter of Robert Burton, of Jefferson County. This 
marriage gave them one daughter, Mary V. Mr. 
and Mrs. Walker are both members of tlie Catholic 
Church, and the former belongs to the Catholic 
Knights of America. In politics he is a stanch 
Democrat. Mr. Walker's mother was born March 
3, 1825, and married January 27, 1842. She 



was a great-granddaughter of Don Joseph Vallier, 
who was at one time governor-general of the Ter- 
ritory of Louisiana under the Spanish Govern- 
ment. Her father. Col. Creed Taylor, was one of 
the most prominent men in public life during the 
early history of Arkansas as a Territory and State. 
He was born in Mercer County, Ky. , on Janu- 
ary 1, 1800, and moved to Arkansas in 1817, lo- 
cating at what is now Lewisburg. One year later 
he returned to Kentucky, but again moved to Ar- 
kansas and settled at Pine Bluff, and in October, 
1822, performed the feat of swimming the Arkan- 
sas River. He was sheriff' of Jefferson County at 
one time, and when the Indians were moved to the 
Indian Territory he was appointed a colonel. In 
politics he was a stanch Democrat, and in religious 
faith a Catholic. He died in Jefferson County, 
January 8. 1887. 

John A. Wallis. Among the most pleasing 
features of Jefferson County is its number of pro- 
gressive men. Mr. Wallis is one of the leading 
citizens of this section, and was born in Morgan 
County, Ala., on October 25, 1832, being a son 
of James and Ann (Crockett) Wallis, natives of 
Mecklenburg District. North Carolina, and Lan- 
caster District, South Carolina, respectively. The 
parents were married in South Carolina, and made 
that State their home for a number of years, after- 
ward residing in Mississippi and Louisiana until 
1861, when they moved to Arkansas and located in 
Chicot County, where the mother died the follow- 
ing year, at the age of seventy-two years. She 
was a member of the Presbyterian Church, and a 
daughter of Elijah Crockett, a cousin of the cele- 
brated Davy Crockett. Her union with Mr. James 
Wallis resulted in the birth of eight children, oi 
whom John A. is now the only living representa- 
tive. The elder Wallis was a very successful 
planter during his life, and before the war was a 
Whig in politics, but after that event he voted the 
Democratic ticket until his death. John A. Wallis 
was reared and educated in the States of Alabama 
and Mississippi. His inclinations seemed to follow 
commercial life more than any other occupation, 
and at the age of eighteen years he left home to 
enter business. In 1856 he came to Arkansas and 



222 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



located in Chicot County, and was engaged as 
salesman in one of the business houses at that 
point until 1858. He then returned home and 
went into the wood business at Georgetown Bend, 
which he followed with success until the war com- 
menced, and his wood was burned by the Federal 
boats. After this experience he came back to Chi- 
cot County, Ark., and began farming, continu- 
ing until after the war, when he returned to Mis- 
sissippi. In 1869 he moved to Jefferson County, 
Ark. , and has been farming ever since, with the 
exception of the years 1870 and 1871, when he 
entered into business at Pine Blutf, and again in 
1878, when he moved to his present location and 
commenced merchandising. Mr. Wallis also oper- 
ates a steam cotton-gin and grist-mill, and is the 
owner of about 650 acres of land, with some 500 
acres under cultivation. His business ability and 
bis shrewdness in financial transactions and indus- 
try have placed him on an independent basis, 
though having started from almost nothing. 

R. J. Watkins, farmer at Wabbaseka, Ark., is 
one of the representative and progressive agri- 
culturists of Jefferson County, and is also one 
of its most esteemed citizens. He was born in 
Madison County, Ala., being the son of William 
Watkins, a native of Georgia, born in 1798, who 
received his education in his native State, and sub- 
sequently moved to Alabama, where he married 
Miss Harriet Anderson, a native of Washington 
County, Md. The result of this marriage was 
the birth of seven children, two sons and five 
daughters, of whom but three are now living, one 
residing in Alabama, one in Nashville, Tenn., and 
the subject of this sketch, who has made his home 
in Arkansas for many years. William Watkins 
had always been a planter. He died in Hunts- 
ville, Ala., in 1861, and his wife in 1856; both 
were worthy members of the Methodist Church. 
R. J. Watkins received a fair education in Hunts- 
ville, Ala. , and on the 11th of October, 1866, he was 
united in marriage to Miss Martha East, a native 
of Alabama, and the daughter of Alexander and 
Martha J. East. Four children have been born 
to this union, only two now living, and both resid- 
ing: at home. Mr. Watkins has held the office of 



justice of the peace for fourteen years, and was 
a school director for a period of some ten years. 
He served in the late war, entering the army, in 
1861, under Capt. Coltart, commanding the Madi- 
son Rifles, C. S. A., and his" first hard tight was 
at Baton Rouge, La. He was discharged in May, 
1865. Perhaps on account of his early training 
on the farm, Mr. Watkins has always followed 
tilling the soil, and that he has made a success of 
this pursuit is evident when looking over his well- 
kept place. He lost his estimable wife, Septem- 
ber 15, 1877. She was a member of the Episcopal 
Church. In 1881 he married Miss Mary Patrick, 
who died in September. 1882, having a child which 
survived its mother only a few days. 

John Weedon, a leader in agricultural circles, 
and a popular citizen of Jefferson County, was 
born in Columbus, Miss., May 18, 1847, and is a 
son of John and T. C. (Henry) Weedon, of North 
Carolina and Virginia, respectively. The father 
was born in 1812, and the mother in 1816, their 
marriage occurring in Columbus, Miss., which 
place they made their home for about thirty years, 
and then moved to Selma, Ala. , where they 
resided until the father's death in 1872, while 
returning from New Orleans. The elder Weedon 
was a well-known and very wealthy iron manufact- 
urer, and at one time virtually owned the town of 
Anniston, Ala. , where his factories were located. 
He was a Democrat in politics, and a valuable man 
to that party during his life. He belonged to the 
Masons, and had taken several high degrees. 
During the war his losses footed up into many 
thousands of dollars, as he had a firm belief in 
the success of the Southern States, and had 
invested largely in Confederate bonds and securi- 
ties of a like nature that proved to be valueless 
after the Rebellion was over. The parents were 
members of the Presbyterian Church, and the 
mother, who is still living, resides in Selma, Ala. 
The Weedon family are of Scotch descent, and on 
the mother's side of Scotch-Irish, the latter being 
descended from the same family as that of Patrick 
Henry, the famous American patriot. Nine chil- 
dren were born to Mr. and Mrs. Weedon, of whom 
two are still living, John Weedon, Jr., the princi- 



JEFFEKSON COUNTY. 



223 



pal of this sketch, and Mrs. G. A. Robinson, of 
Florence, Ala. Young John was educated at 
Davidson College, in North Carolina, and was yet 
attending school in April, 1863, when his youth- 
ful ardor was fired by the tales of Southern gal- 
lantry on the battle-field, and he cast aside his 
books to shoulder a musket and keep step in the 
ranks of the Confederate army. He joined Com- 
pany H, of the Thirty first Alabama Cavalry, and 
took part in a great many engagements, never 
faltering even when near the cannon's mouth, nor 
allowing his enthusiasm for the cause ho undertook 
to be dampened by the heaviest shower of leaden 
hail. After the war he turned his attention to 
mercantile life at Selma, Ala., and continued in 
that branch until 1871, when he moved to Arkan- 
sas and located in Lonoke County, where he com- 
menced farming, and has met with the best suc- 
cess, owning about 1,100 acres of the best land to 
be found in the State. February 27, 1871, he was 
married to Miss Virginia A. Pettus, a daughter 
of John J. Pettus, ex-Governor of Mississippi, by 
whom he has had two children, John P. and Car- 
rie who are yet living, and three who have died: 
William A., Alice M. and an infant daughter. 
Mr. and Mrs. Weedon are members of the Presby- 
terian Church, and take a deep interest in religious 
and educational affairs. In politics the former is a 
Democrat. He is one of the most popular men in 
the community as well as one of the most enter- 
prising. On his arrival in Arkansas he was com- 
paratively poor, but seeing the productiveness of 
the country, and knowing what his abilities were 
capable of developing, he remained. 

Rev. Daniel Westall, grocer and dealer in hay, 
corn, oats, etc. , Pine Bluff, Ark. , is well known to 
the many readers of this volume. He owes his 
nativity to Vanderburgh County, Ind. , where his 
birth occurred December 31, 1840. His father, 
James Westall, was a native of England, who 
emigrated to America and settled in Indiana at an 
early date. He was there married to Miss Kesiah 
Barker, a native of North Carolina, and this happy 
union lasted until 1848, when Mr. Westall closed 
his eyes to the scenes of this world. His widow 
married again, and died about 1853. Rev. Daniel 



Westall remained in his native State until nine- 
teen years of age, and in 1861 enlisted as a pri- 
vate in the First Indiana Cavalry, serving for over 
three years, or until the end of his term. He was in 
a nitmber of noteworthy engagements, principally 
those of Fredericktown, Helena, Little Rock, Pine 
Bluff, and a great many skirmishes. He received 
his discharge at Indianapolis in 1864, and after- 
ward returned to his home, where he remained 
but a short time, when he removed to Illinois and 
located in Wabash County. There he followed 
farming until 1870, when in August of that year 
he moved to Arkansas, and settled at Pine Bluff, 
then a small village of aljout 300 inhabitants. 
Here he engaged in the grocery business on a small 
scale, and on the same place where his present 
large brick store building now stands. He enjoys 
a large trade, and is one of the substantial business 
men of Pine Bluff. On the property adjoining his 
store he has built a good residence, and is also the 
owner of about fifteen tenement houses, the returns 
of which form a comfortable income. Mr. Westall 
was married in Pine Blutf, Ark. in 1863, to Miss 
Mary E. Edwards, originally from Georgia. Her 
father settled in Arkansas in 1861. To Mr. and 
Mrs. Westall have been born eight children: 
Sarah, Anna (wife of Alonzo McDonald), William, 
David, Millie F. , Mary E. , Joseph and Benjamin. 
Mr. Westall has been a member of the Primitive 
Baptist Church for twenty years, in which he is 
also an elder. He was ordained a minister about 
1874 and now has charge of three churches. 

Col. McH. Williams, a prominent planter and 
! one of the men who have done much toward ad- 
vancing the interests of Jefferson County, was 
born in Nashville, Tenn., on August 28, 1831, and 
is a son of Wiloughby and Nancy D. (Nichols) 
Williams, natives of Davidson County, Tenn. In 
early days the father was a merchant, and as an 
example of the primitive state of affairs at that 
i period, he was the only business man who could 
i boast of an entire hogshead of sugar in that sec- 
tion, his trade allowing him to keep a larger stock 
than his competitors. He was noted as an influen- 
tial politician during his life, but would never 
accept any public ofiice except that of sheriff, 



224 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



which position he filled for several years. During 
the earlier years of his life he was a colonel of 
State militia, and at one time president of the 
State Bank. In 1846 he purchased large land in- 
terests in the State of Arkansas and commenced 
farming on an extensive scale, and was also a large 
slave owner before the war. On that occasion he 
removed with all his slaves to Texas, and after the 
war was over he brought them back, giving them 
the liberty of his plantation and acting in a noble 
manner. When he first started in life his financial 
condition was somewhat at a low ebb, but his won- 
derful ability and business tact placed him among 
the foremost men of the day. Before the war he 
went on the security of other people to the extent 
of $125,000, and as is usual in such cases, was 
never repaid, but in a magnanimous spirit he 
turned aside the question of their ungratefulness 
and never once protested against such contemptible 
conduct. He was a son of Wiloughby Williams, a 
native of Virginia, who was a commissioned officer 
in the American army during the Revolution. 
This famous general, Andrew Jackson, and the 
junior Wiloughby were warm personal friends and 
Jackson was his ideal of a man, and it was to him 
that Mr. Williams owed a great deal of his success. 
Col. McH. Williams' father died in 1882 at the 
age of eighty-six years, and the mother's death 
occurred July 4, 1844, at the age of thirty-six 
years. The Williams family originally came fiom 
England and settled in Virginia a number of years 
before the Revolution, while the Nichols family 
were natives of Tennessee. Capt. John Nichols, 
the father of young Williams' mother, was a gal- 
lant soldier in the War of 1812, and later in life 
a prosperous farmer in his native State and a de- 
voted member of the Presbyterian Church. Col. 
Williams' father was an aid to Gen. Dowdson 
during the Civil. War, and was with Gen. Lee at 
Cheat Mountain during the same period. After 
the war he turned over his agricultural interests 
to his son Mack, who has conducted them in an 
enterprising manner ever since. The father died 
in Louisville, Ky., and the mother in Nashville, 
Tenn. , and of eight children born to them, two 
are also dead. Those living are John H. (a farmer 



near Nashville, Tenn.), Mary J. (widow of R. C. 
McNary, who was dming his life a wealthy mer- 
chant of Nashville), Mack H. (principal in this 
sketch), Wiloughby (a prominent attorney and 
planter in JefFerson County, residing at Pine Bluff), 
Mrs. Ellen W. Lewis, (wife of Marion W. Lewis, 
a well known financier of Louisville, Ky.), Nannie 
W. (wife of Col. C. A. Nichols, of Pine Bluff). 
Those deceased are Dr. R. N. Williams (who was 
during his life an eminent physician), and Andrew 
J. (a commissioned ofiScer under Gen. Forrest, and 
killed in battle near Franklin, Tenn.) Mack H. 
Williams was educated at the University of Ten- 
nessee, and after graduating in 1847 immediately 
turned his attention to planting. Being endowed 
like his father with fine business tact, quick per- 
ception and shrewdness, he also accumulated con- 
siderable wealth, and is now one of the most pros- 
perous as well as highly respected citizens of 
Jefferson County. In June, 1850, he was married 
to Miss Jane Bogy, a daughter of Mr. Enos Bogy, 
a brilliant politician and representative of his 
county in the legislature. This lady died a year 
after her marriage, leaving one son, John B. , now 
a well known planter of Jefferson County. In 
1852 Capt. Williams was married to Miss Sarah J. 
Young, a daughter of Col. R. H. Young, of Trim- 
ble County, Ky., but this wife died in 1866, again 
leaving him a widower. Four children were born 
to the second marriage, of whom three are now liv- 
ing: Alice J. (wife of VirginiusMurdaugh, a promi- 
nent merchant of Bankhead, Ark. ), Richard Y. and 
Robert H. (both well known planters of Jefferson 
County). The one dead is Nancy M. . who was the 
wife of Lanier Tanner, residing near New Orleans, 
La. This daughter was born in 1855 and died in 
1881. In June, 1886, Capt. Williams was married 
to Mrs. Samuella K. Young, formerly of Pulaski, 
Tenn. , who has been a devoted wife. The Colonel 
is prominent in Masonic circles and a member of 
the Knights of Honor. In politics he is a Demo- 
crat, but is honest and liberal in his political views. 
Before the war he owned over 100 slaves, all of 
whom he lost after that event. The Colonel was a 
heavy loser by that struggle, but his unbounded 
energy and grit soon placed him on his former 








/l^AACt^. 



Zyzy^ 



It 



Jetfersdn County, Arkansas . 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



level, and he is to-day one of Jefferson County's 
most prosperous men as well as enjoying a flatter- 
ing popularity with its citizens. He now owns 
about 7,000 acres of fertile land and has placed 
2,400 acres under cultivation, his plantations being 
among the largest and most prodirctive in the State 
as also the most beautiful. Col. Williams has few 
equals as far as enterprise is concerned, and was 
one of the projectors of the railroad from Pine 
Bluff to Swan Lake and Bankhead. 

E. W. Williams, a bachelor of Leland, and 
one of the largest and most successful planters of 
the county, as he is one of the deservedly popular 
residents, is a native of Tennessee, having been 
born in Memphis, in 1850. His father, Gen. Jo- 
seph R. Williams, came originally from Peters- 
burg, Va. , but as a citizen of Tennessee became a 
prominent man and a lawyer of ability and influ- 
ence, his extensive wealth adding largely to a just 
reputation. He was a member of the State militia 
of Tennessee before the war, and belonged to the 
Memphis Blues, of which he was captain. He 
o\vned large interests in Memphis, to which he de- 
voted most of his time, not practicing the legal 
profession in later life. He was once a member of 
the I. O. O. F. His death occurred in 1881 at the 
age of sixty years. His wife, formerly Miss Jane 
T. Wilkins, of Kentucky nativity, is still living in 
Memphis, in fair health, at the age of sixty years. 
Mr. and Mrs. AVilliams were the parents of nine 
children, five of whom are living, and of these our 
subject was the eldest. In 1869 Mr. Williams 
came to Arkansas, locating at his present residence, 
which was then in Arkansas County. He received 
a liberal education, partly in Toronto, Canada, and 
at Washington and Lee University, Virginia, be- 
coming well informed as a student, and in after 
life a man of wide reputation through his extensive 
reading. He now has upward of 22,000 acres of 
land under his control, is proprietor of a general sup- 
ply store for the hands that work on the place, and 
has one of the largest gin houses on the river. Mr. 
Williams is a genial, whole-souled man, thoroughly 
liked by all his acquaintances. The place on which 
he lives is one of the oldest settled farms in the 
county, his father having been first married in the 



present house May 12, 1845, to Miss Elizabeth H. 
Taylor, daughter of Lewis Taylor, one of the early 
settlers of Arkansas, who came from Virginia in 
1888, and located part of this place. Elizabeth 
was born in 1826 and died in 1847; they had one 
son, now deceased. 

George S. Willis, M. D. In the galaxy of 
prominent men that honor Jefferson County with 
their citizenship, Dr. Willis stands foremost among 
the medical profession. He was born in Holly 
Springs, Miss., on April 17, 1854, and is a son of 
Dr. P. A. and Emily (Jackson) AVillis, of Charles- 
ton, S. C, and Sussex County, Va. , respectively. 
The parents were married in Virginia, and soon 
after their union moved to Holly Springs, Miss. , 
where the father practiced his profession with great 
success. He was a graduate of one of the leading 
medical institutions in Georgia, and well known in 
the South. He was a soldier in the Mexican War, 
and during the rebellion was a member of the 
famous Jeff Davis Rifles. After the latter event 
he embarked in the drug business and combined 
with it an office practice. In Masonic circles the 
elder Willis was very prominent and had taken 
some of the highest degrees in the order. In poli- 
tics he was a Democrat and an influential man in 
that party. Both parents were members of the 
Episcopal Church. The mother's death occurred 
when George was only three years old, and after 
her decease the father was again married, his sec- 
ond wife being Miss Sarah E. Rutherford. His 
death occurred in 1879, at the age of sixty-two 
years. Two children were born to his first mar- 
riage, Edwin S. and George S., the former a 
jarominent druggist at Holly Springs, Miss. , who 
died from yellow fever in the year 1878, when that 
terrible scoui'ge was raging throughout the South. 
George S. was educated in Holly Springs and at 
Oxford, Miss., and entered his father's drug estab- 
lishment after ending his school days. He there 
learned the business and studied medicine at the 
same time up to 1874, when he attended the Mis- 
souri Medical College at St. Louis, from which he 
graduated. He next entered the wholesale house 
of A. Wengler & Co., druggists in St. Louis, as 
traveling salesman, and from there went to Louis- 



228 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



ville, Ky. , where he traveled for Arthur Peter & 
Co., wholesale druggists. In 1875 he became in- 
terested in the drug business with Mr. Theodore 
Linthicum, at Helena, Ark., and afterward at 
Austin, Miss., besides locating at various other 
places. In the meantime he had diligently kep 
up his study, and at Harrisburg combined an office 
practice with his drug business. Six months later 
he located at Jonesboro and commenced a general 
practice, but in 1885 moved to Midway Station. 
The year following he came to his present place 
where he has established an extensive practice and 
become one of the leading physicians in the county. 
On December 24, 1886, the Doctor was married to 
Miss Ida Moore, of Water Valley, Miss., a daugh- 
ter of Mr. J. J. Moore, and one son has been born 
to the union, Edwin C. Dr. Willis is a member of 
the Episcopal Church, and a liberal contributor to 
religious and educational matters. He is a mem- 
ber of the Royal Arcanum, and stands well in that 
order. In politics he is a Democrat, and when 
occasion requires, his iafluence is generally enough 
to turn the tide in favor of that party in local elec- 
tions. 

James H. Winters, another leading planter 
in Jefferson County, was born in Tishomingo 
County, Miss. , December 2, 1847, and is a son of 
Moses and Caroline (Brady) Winters, the father a 
native of North Carolina, and the mother from 
Kentucky. The parents were married in Missis- 
sippi, and resided for several years in that State, 
and at an early period settled in what now forms 
a portion of Lincoln County, Ark. , where they 
resided until the father's death on December 27, 
1869. On his arrival in Arkansas, the father 
entered a large tract of land from the Government, 
and commenced clearing and improving it. The 
country was then a complete wilderness and thickly 
populated by wild animals, but in spite of the dif- 
ficulties he established his home and opened up a 
very productive farm. He served some time with 
distinction in the Civil War, and on one occasion 
was captured and confined at Pine Bluff. Nine 
children were born to the parents, of whom eight 
are yet living: James H. , Susan, Marion S. , Ten- 
nessee, Henrietta, Lou, Samuel and Fannie C. 



James H., the principal of this sketch, was very 
small when his parents brought him to Arkansas, 
and on account of the newness of the country, he 
received a limited education in his youth, the log- 
cabin school-house being the only one he could 
attend. He continued on the farm with his par- 
ents until reaching his maturity, and in the spring 
of 1864 enlisted in the Confederate service, -act- 
ing as courier until the surrender. He then re- 
turned home, remaining with his parents until 
his marriage when he sought out a home of his 
own and located four miles southwest of Pine 
Bluff. He opened up and operated a farm with 
success until the spring of 1889, and then moved 
to Pine Bluff, where he built a fine residence. 
Mr. Winters was married in 1874 to Miss Tenney 
Grifiin, by whom he has had three children: James 
S. , Marion G. and Tenney G. This wife died 
January 27, 1878, and on December 7, 1883, he 
was married to Miss Rebecca Brethwait, of Ala- 
bama, who has borne two children, Eunice and 
Richard. Mrs. Winters is a daughter of Richard 
Brethwait, a native of Ireland, one of the earliest 
settlers of Claiborne County, Ark, She is a 
devoted member of the Presbyterian Church, and 
deeply interested in all religious and charitable 
work connected with her commuaity. Mr. Winters 
has been very successful in his farming operations 
and now owns about 800 acres of productive land 
with some 300 acres under cultivation, all of which 
he has accu.mulated by energy, good management 
and enterprise. 

Hartwell T. and Joseph W. Wright are members 
of one of the substantial firms of the county, and 
men recognized as prominent planters. They are 
sons of Joseph J. Wright, who was a native of 
Alabama, and who, after marrying Elizabeth W. 
Tucker, of North Carolina, removed to Tennessee, 
where Hartwell was born, in Shelby County, Au- 
gust 20, 1835. From there they went to Missis- 
sippi, and in that locality Joseph W. first saw the 
light, December 4, 1838. In 1839 a desire to 
locate in Arkansas brought them to the place where 
the subjects of this sketch now reside, and here 
was opened up a farm of 400 acres and over. 
Joseph Wright, Sr. , was born in 1809; he was a 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



229 



representative and successful f)bysician, and after 
removing to Arkansas, opened an ofSce in Pine 
Bluff, becoming one of the leading men in his pro- 
fession in this county, and at various times hold- 
ing offices of trust. He died December 23, 185-1, 
having been a strong advocate of temjierance. His 
wife was born June 18, 1811, and died August 5, 
1865. Hartwell and Joseph are the only survivors 
of a family of eleven children. They vfere reared 
on the place where they now live, and in youth 
took great delight in hunting and fishing. Hart- 
well served a short time in the Confederate army, 
but being wounded at Point Pleasant, returned 
home. He married Miss Mary R. Toney, a native 
of Arkansas, who was born in Dallas County. She 
died May 2i, 1883, leaving a large family: John 
W. , Epps Virginia, Maggie, Lucius, Hartwell, 
Talbot. Breckenridge, and Joseph (deceased). Jo- 
seph Wright was lirst lieutenant of Company D, 
Eighteenth Arkansas Regiment, and served until 
the close of the war, taking part in the battle of 
Jenkins' Ferry, Ark. , and also at Fort Pillow, 
Tenn. Returning home he has since lived with 
his brother. He has held the office of deputy 
sheriff. These brothers are too well known to 
need any introduction to the residents of this sec- 
tion. Earnest, active and progressive in the de- 
velopment of all worthy enterprises, they have 
aided materially in advancing and furthering 
needed improvement. 

Capt. M. G. Sennett, recognized as one of the 
most extensive cotton planters in Jeffei'son County, 
was born in Kentucky, Madison County, October 
26, 1839, and is a son of Penrose and Elizabeth 
(Greenwood) Sennett, natives of France, the father 
first settling in Pennsylvania and then moving to 
Madison Countjy, Kentucky. The mother's par- 
ents located in Ohio on their arrival from France, 
and, later moved to Kentucky, where she met and 
was married to Penrose Sennett. The father was 
a noted physician during his life, and a graduate 
of Wood's Medical College at Philadelphia, Penn., 
practicing his profession up to the time of his 
death in 1861 at the age of fifty -two or fifty-three 
years. His wife died in 1864 in the State of 
Texas, and was aboiit the same age at the time of 



death as her husband. The parents were members 
of the Presbyterian Church, although the mother 
had been reared a Catholic and always adhered to 
that faith. The male members of the Sennett 
family were all soldiers of France, at one time or 
another of their lives, and Edward P., the father 
of Penrose, was a colonel in Napoleon's army and 
a resident of Lorraine Province. He was a political 
and religious refugee from his native country, who 
settled in the State of Pennsylvania. The Green- 
wood family were prominent manufacturers of 
France and also in the United States. The father 
of Mrs. Sennett died on the Scioto River in Ohio, 
where the family had settled on coming to this 
country. The elder Sennett and his wife were the 
parents of four children, of whom M. G. was the 
third and the only one now living. Those dead 
are William W. (who was a Confederate soldier, 
and killed at the battle of Elkhorn), Elizabeth 
(who was the wife of Edward C. Hawkins of Tip- 
ton County, Tennessee, and died shortly after her 
marriage), and Annie C. (who died in her twelfth 
year.) M. G. Sennett was educated in the schools 
of Lexington, Mo., and at the Batavia College, 
Batavia, Ohio. In the early part of 1861 he left 
school to enlist in the Confederate army, and be- 
came a member of Company K, Col. Staple's regi- 
ment, in which body he remained for about ten 
months, and was then transferred east of the Missis- 
sipj)i River, where he was assigned to Company B, 
Third Missouri Infantry, under Col. Cockrell. He 
first entered as a private, and remained in that 
capacity until after the battle of luka, where he 
was severely wounded, but after his recovery he 
was promoted to the rank of third lieutenant, and 
as his merits were recognized again the rank of 
captain was conferred on him. He then went to 
Missouri on recruiting service, and soon afterward 
was captain of Company I, Ninth Confederate 
Cavalry, taking part in the battles of luka, Corinth, 
Franklin Mills, Oxford, and a number of others. 
His later battles were at Grand Gulf, Bruensburg, 
Fort Gibson, Biapeer, Raymond, Jackson, Edwards 
Depot, Champion's Hill, Black River Bridge and 
Vicksburg, where he was paroled. At that time 
he was unable to secure any conveyance to return 



230 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



home and walked all the way fi'om Demopolis, Ala. , 
to Green County, Missouri. In the latter place he 
was able to procure horses and traveled through 
Pettis, Saline, Lafayette and Cooper CoTinties, 
organizing companies for the Confederate army. 
On entering the ranks again he took part in a 
number of skirmishes, and at Caney Bayou, in 
Chicot County, Arkansas, his company stormed 
and captured the stockades at the mouth of AVhite 
River. He then joined Price's raid through Mis- 
souri, and was at the battle of Pilot Knob when 
Maj. Bennett of his regiment was killed. After 
this they took the city of Sedalia, and then crossed 
the Missouri River, taking part in all the battles 
in that part of the country until the close of the 
war, when he su^rrendered at Shreveport, La. At 
the battle of Champion's Hill he was wounded, as 
also at luka, and in several other engagements 
received wounds, which sometimes aggravate him, 
even at the present time. After the war he turned 
his attention to cotton planting on the banks of the 
Mississippi, but at the end of two years he came 
to his present location. On his arrival he was 
almost penniless, the war having robbed him of 



almost everything, but he received $300 from his 
father's estate with which to commence in business. 
Misfortune still followed him. however, and the 
end of his business experience found him $600 
debt to Memphis merchants. Capt. Sennett was 
then engaged as overseer and remained in that 
capacity for four years, after which time he bought 
an interest in the place now owned by him. He 
controls 3, 100 acres in cotton and corn, and owns 
a splendid farm of 500 acres which has been 
greatly improved, and is some of the most fer- 
tile soil in Arkansas. On May 6, 1869, the Cap- 
tain was married to Miss Nannie C. Seythe, of 
Jefferson County, by whom he had eight children. 
Those living at present are: John F., Fannie 
y . , Nannie B. and William M. Those deceased 
are: Miles G., Bettie G., Susie P., Clifton B. 
Capt. Sennett is a member of the Royal Area 
num, and in politics is a stanch Democrat. He 
embarked in mercantile life for several years, and, 
though fortune has buffeted him on many occa- 
sions, no man has ever had his confidence mis- 
placed or lost a cent by the Captain's ill-luck. 




SALINE COUNTY. 



231 



Saline Cointy— Orihinal Houndahy— County Seat— Public BtiiLniNos—JuDiriAiiY— Early Court 
Transactions— Criminal Calendar— Beginning of Settlement— Pioneer Reminiscences- 
Early Comers— Local Colonies— List of Officers- The County^ in the Civil War- 
Commercial Centers— Journalistic Enterprises — Secret .Social Organiza- 
tions—Moral and Spiritual Affairs — Financial Representation- 
Location- Descriptive Analysis— Nature of Soil, Surface, 
Products, etc. — Resources — Advantages 
Offered— Biographical. 



♦^<v®- 



Can say, here nature ends. 
But mixt like th' elements 
So interweaved, so like, so 

VLINE COUNTY* was carved 
out of Pulaski County in 1835, 
and then included a large por- 
tion of vfhat is novp Grant, 
Perry and Garland Counties. 
The commissioners elected to 
select the site for the seat of 
^tice were Rezin Davis, Green B. 
ughes and David Dodd. 
B(>nton had been started about 
two years previous, and owing to 
its central location, in the most 
thickly settled portion of the county, 
was chosen as the county seat. This 
same board of commissioners re- 
tained their office (except that Abi- 
jah Davis was appointed, some time 
in 1836, to take the place of David Dodd, resigned) 
until the July term of the county court, 1839, 
when, after reporting, they resigned. This report 

*Kind acknowledgements are due Rev. Finis Leach, 
Thomas Pack. D. M. Cloud, Col. S. H. Whitthorne, Col. 
T. C. Mays and others, for valuable information contrib- 
uted in the compilation of this sketch. 




None 

and art begins, 

and born like twins, 
much the same. — Deiiham. 

shows that the receipts from the county and State 
revenue from November 2, 1835, to July, 1839, 
amounted to 16,045.37, and that the expenditures 
I for the same period aggregated $5,422.42. The 
latter included the cost of land for public build- 
ings, surveying the county and township lines, and 
the building of the court house and county jail. 

The first court house, a brick structure. 60x60 
feet in size and two stories high, was erected in 
1838, under the supervision of the board of com- 
missioners. Jacob Hoover was the contractor for 
the brick work. This building cost $3,574. Being 
poorly constructed it was condemned by the court 
in 1856, and the next year was torn down, the 
present house subsequently being erected on the 
same foundation. 

There have been three county jails built in Sa- 
line County. The first a log structure, and of great 
durability, was erected in 1838, at a cost of $975. 
It was burned, in 1859, by a rather disreputable 
character named Thornton. The second jail was 
erected the next year and was a strong log and 
brick building; like the first, it was also destroyed 



232 



HISTOKY OF AEKANSAS. 



by fire in 1S77. The incendiary was the murderer, 
Tom Staner. The present jail is a good brick 
house two stories in height, 20x60 feet in dimen- 
sions, with cells below and the jailer's residence 
above. It was built in 1879. 

The first court in the county was held at a 
school-house, about five miles west of Benton, in 
November, ISST). Very little business was tran- 
sacted other than the confirmation of officers. 
Whisky was sold on the ground, and it is said that 
the court and all of the members became so influ- 
enced by this " intruder " that the records were 
lost. 

The next court convened at the Baptist meeting 
house, near Duncan's. January 25, 1836. The 
county officers elect were soon sworn in and their 
bonds accepted by this court, after which it ad- 
journed. There was no business of importance 
before this honorable body except orders for open- 
ing roads. On April 29, 1 836, the court ordered 
that the county should be laid ofP into six muni- 
cipal townships. 

The first probate business transacted in the 
county was during this same term, letters of ad- 
ministration being granted to Rebecca Collins, on 
the estate of W. Collins (deceased). 

The first order to levy a tax was made at the 
April term in 1837. taxing one sixth of one per 
cent on property of white male citizens; and on all 
over twenty-one and under fifty years of age, a 
poll tax of tift}' cents, providing such persons had 
no taxable property. 

Notwithstanding the fact that a number of 
murders, homicides and serious crimes were com- 
mitted in the early and later times in Saline 
County, but few cases appear as matters of record. 
' The first murder trial in Saline County was 
brought here on change of venue from Pulaski 
County. This was the case of John Wilson (rep- 
resentative) for the killing of Hon. J. J. Anthony, 
in the State Capitol at Little Rock, as previously 
mentioned. Wilson was acquitted. 

The killing of George McDaniels by H. D. 
Cross, about 1840, brought about the first trial for 
murder committed in the county. Both parties 
were saloon keepers of Benton, and the crime was 



the result of heated passion growing out of too much 
whisky. Cross was convicted of manslaughter, 
fined $1,000 and sentenced to one year's imprison- 
ment, but \va8 pardoned by the Governor and 
did not serve his term. William Colvert, a sub- 
stantial citizen of Benton, was a witness for the 
State in Cross' trial. A deadly feud sprang uj) 
between them; both were popular, and their quar- 
rel, instead of remaining a personal matter, caused 
a division throughout the county. In the same 
year Colvert killed Cross, and was tried but ac- 
quitted on proof that his life had been repeatedly 
threatened by Cross. This tragedy left a feudal 
feeling for several years, but no murders resulted. 

The most shocking crime perpetrated in this 
county was the murder of Mrs. McH. Staner and 
a neighbor lady, Mrs. H. T. B. Taylor, in 1877. 
This took place in what is now JefPerson Town- 
ship, about eighteen miles northwest of Benton. 

The murderer, Tom Staner, was a nephew of 
McH. Staner, and was partly reared by the lat- 
ter. The deed was done for money. Mr. Staner 
was away from home, and young Staner thinking 
that he knew where his uncle kept his money, 
selected that time to obtain it. Going to the house 
he killed Mrs. Staner. and proceeded to rifle his 
uncle's trunk, supposed to contain the money. 
While thus engaged Mrs. Taylor came in, and 
the fiend turned upon her and caused her immedi- 
ate death. The first person to discover the crime 
was a boy about sixteen years of age, who was 
working for Mr. Staner, and had left the field at 
the dinner hour. This boy, Samuel H. Brooks, 
was a half-brother of the murderer, and was in- 
cluded in the plot of the criminal. 

Great excitement prevailed throughout the coun- 
try, and circumstances threw suspicion on Staner, 
who was arrested and incarcerated in the jail at 
Benton. While in confinement he wrote a letter 
to his brother describing some hidden money, which 
letter fell into the hands of the sheriff, and that 
officer, following the directions contained therein, 
found the money, and with it some of Mrs. Stan- 
er' s jewelry. When confronted with this revela- 
tion Staner confessed to the commission of the 
deed. 



SALINE COUNTY. 



233 



The wildest excitement prevailed, and the pris- 
oner was removed to Pulaski County jail for safe 
keeping. His trial followed shortly after. His 
confession, together with the evidence adduced, 
disclosed the most fiendish plots, and proved that 
the criminal had been thwarted in a desperate ca- 
reer of rapine and mnrder. Staner was con- 
victed and sentenced to be hnng the same year, 
and was publicly executed in the court house yard 
in Benton, in November, 1877. The murderer's 
intention had been to kill his half-brother, Samiiel 
H. Brooks, and Mrs. Staner, and secure what 
money he could there, and then to commit a num- 
ber of similar crimes, and leave the country. After 
his sentence, and while in jail awaiting execution, 
he made a desperate eilort to escape, Inirning a 
log out of the wall of the building in order to 
make an aperture, and even succeeded in getting 
on the outside, but the appearance of the jailer, 
J. F. Shoppach, at an opportune moment, and the 
firing of three effectual pistol shots, brought the 
escaping man to a halt. The jail burned, and 
the murderer was nursed and guarded in the court 
hoiise till the day of his execution, when he was 
carried to the scaffold, and hanged in the pres- 
ence of an immense concourse of people. 

The victims of this brutal affair belonged to 
highly respected families, and the crime cast a 
gloom over the entire community. The ladies 
were killed with an ordinary fire poker. 

Several instances of horse stealing have oc- 
curred from time to time, the most important of 
which is the Thornton -Garner case. The parties 
in this affair were Peter Garner, Field Garner, 
and William Thornton. The Garners were con- 
victed, and sentenced to five years' imprisonment 
each, and Thornton to a term of ten years in the 
penitentiary. Thornton burned the first jail, but 
was not tried for the offense. He died while serv- 
ing his sentence for horse stealing. 

Saloon licenses were freely granted, and in- 
temperance had full sway for a number of years, 
and it is stated that with the exception of the 
Staner murder case, and one or two others, whisky 
caused the greater amount of crimes. As early as 
1872, the temperance people began to agitate the 



liquor question, and experienced various successes 
and failures, sometimes almost successful, and at 
other times discouraged. In 1878 the county voted 
on local option; every township was carried by the 
temperance people except Saline. In 1882 the 
citizens of Benton took advantage of the three- 
mile law, and since that time there have been no 
spirituous liquors legally sold in this county. 

As in the case of other localities mentioned in 
the present volume, the territory which is now em- 
braced by Saline County was originally a part of 
Arkansas Territory, and later Pulaski County. 
Occasionally a hunting party or a solitary trapper 
passed through the dense forests of Saline River 
bottom, killing deer and other large game in cane- 
brakes, or taking fish from the limpid waters of the 
river. The natural inhabitants of the community 
remained undisturbed for many years. 

The first man (white) to break the forests of 
Saline County, and signalize advancing civiliza- 
tion, was William Lockert, who came in the spring 
of 1815, with his family, settling four miles south- 
west of Benton, at the point where the military 
road crosses the Saline. For two years these per- 
sons were the only ones here. Some time during 
the year 1817, Abner Herald and hi.s two stepsons, 
Isham and John Pelton (with their families), and 
James Buckan and family reached Mr. Lockert' s, 
and later selected locations for homes, a little farther 
up the river. Aboiit the same time, or within the 
period between 1817 and 1821, Josiah Stover lo- 
cated a few miles west of Lockerts, and James 
Prudden, four miles south; Judge William Cald- 
well, William Duncan, Joseph and Harlan Clift 
selected farms west of the Saline River. About 
1823 Ezra M. Owen and several others began a 
settlement at Collegeville. Owen planned a school, 
which he hoped to make the State University, and 
named the town or settlement Collegeville. 

As Owen's settlement was near the geograph- 
ical center of the territory he laid oft' the town, and 
endeavored to secure the capital at that point. 
Being in a good farming section, Collegeville was 
rapidly settled. Robert and Valentine Brazil, and 
Samuel Williams, came to the county about 1820, 
and opened farms near Benton. In 1S25 twelve 



234 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



families, removed to CoUegeville from Lawrence 
County, Ark. , and fi'om that place cut a road 
throncfh the woods to the Saline River where they 
made a settlement, now known as the ' ' Lindsey 
Settlement," seven miles northwest of Benton. 
Among this brave pioneer band were Caleb Lind- 
sey, Sr., John Y. Lindsey, Abijali Davis, Henry 
Louis Fletcher, George James, "William Williams 
(Blind Billy), Bnrket Lindsey, and others whose 
names are not now remembered. This was one of 
the most important beginnings in the county as 
the men comprising it were a thrifty class of indi- 
viduals who were seeking permanent homes. 
Others entered soon after. A lai'ge number of 
families from Kentucky opened farms and made 
for themselves abiding places, naturally giving to 
the locality the name Kentucky Township. Many 
of their descendants still live here, comprising 
some of Saline County's most substantial citizens. 
Prominent among those who came after 1(S30 
might be mentioned Green B. Hughes. Rev. Andrew 
Hunter, David Dodd, Rev. Samuel Henderson and 
Rev. Aaron Bolt. From 1833 to 1837, William 
Scott, Thomas Pack, William Shoppach and A. R. 
Hoekersmith settled in and around Benton, and 
during the summer of 1837 ninety families took up 
their abode in Saline Township. The leaders of 
this colony were Thomas Keese, Robert Calvert, 
Berryman McDaniel, George Cobb, John Green, 
Joab Pratt, Nathan Pumphrey and Jacob Leach. 
After this the county was settled more rapidly; 
churches and schools were formed and material 
progress and advancement were noticeable. Very 
few of the old landmarks of that day and genera- 
tion remain, a large percentage of the first settlers 
having passed to the "silent majority." Some 
have moved to other States. None of Lockerts or 
the original family of Caldwells are at present living 
in the county. Of those who came in 1817, Sibby 
(Pelton) Shoppach (consort of William Shoppach 
and the mother of the present sheriff of Saline 
County) is the only survivor. Harlan Clift and 
Mrs. Rutha A. Wills, both of whom located here 
in 1824, are still living. From 1815 to 1825 early 
customs and experiences were not very different 
from those of other sections. Settlers ground 



their corn on hand-mills, requiring the labor of 
one member of the family for about half the time; 
all articles of clothing including shoes were made 
by hand; wild game of different kinds abounded, 
hunting and fishing were the principal sports and 
pastimes, as well as the most profitable means of 
suljsistence, and the pioneer found Little Rock, 
a small trading post twenty-three miles away, the 
only place where any of the products of the farm 
or the chase could be exchanged for commodities, 
or where a ' ' turn of corn ' " might be ground. Be- 
ing determined to overcome these inconveniences 
as far as possible, Samuel Williams, in 1825, 
erected a water-mill, the first on Williams' Creek, 
about ten miles northwest of Benton, and for a 
few years enjoyed a thriving business, or until the 
entire mill was washed away by a freshet. About 
1830 Charles Caldwell built a water-mill five miles 
northwest of Benton, and in the same year Joseph 
Clift erected a horse-mill eight miles southwest of 
that town in what is now Fair Play Township; in 
1838, James Harrill and Burket Lindsey con- 
structed a water-mill on Holly Creek, four miles 
southeast of Benton, in Shaw Township. Later a 
number of grist-mills and cotton-gins were erected. 
The county enjoyed a healthy growth for an inland 
section, till 1873, when the Iron Mountain Rail- 
road was built through it, this lending material aid 
and giving an impetus which still continued, proving 
of decided benefit to further improvement and de- 
velopment, and about that time the manufacture 
of pottery was begun, which soon became the lead- 
ing manufacturing industry of the county. 

With every colony entering the wild and un- 
broken territory of Saline, there were Godly men, 
whose sole aim in life was to build up a common- 
wealth rich in religious and moral virtues, and these 
did their work well. The house of the first settler 
(William Lockert) was the place where the earliest 
preaching was heard; and there, too, are many 
groves sacred to the memory of the oldest citizens, 
who first heard in this region, from the lips of the 
pioneer preacher, the " Words of Life." Others 
there were different in thoughts and purposes, 
and whose aims seemed in decided contrast to the 
minds of the more spiritually minded; hence, like 



SALINE COUNTY. 



235 



all frontier settlements, the virtues and vices of the 
new locality flourished together. 

Religious meetings were about the only public 
gatherings of early days, and these were attended 
by every one. Some would take their guns with 
them, hiding them during services, and perhaps 
kill a deer 'or turkey on the way home. To be- 
come a skillful hand with the rifle was the highest 
ambition of the pioneer youth. ' ' Log rollings ' ' 
and ' ' corn huskings " ' were common diversions, 
and a means of mutual benefit, and the scene of 
many athletic encounters between those who 
"Ijanked" on their muscle; in those times, too, 
the "little brown jug" played its part." 

The official list of Saline County comprises the 
following named individuals, all well remembered 
and esteemed, whose terms of service are annexed: 

Judges of the county courts: T. S. Hutchin- 
son, 1835-36; H. Prudden, 1836-38; R. Brazil, 
1838-40; W. M. Scott, 1840-42; A. R. Crisp, 
1842-44; G. B. Hughes, 1844-46 ; Robert Cal- 
vert, 1846-50; W. M. Scott, 1850-52; W. E. 
Beavers, 1852-54; Joseph Scott, 1854-60; James 
T. Foe, 1860-62; W. Scott, 1862-1868; J. A. 
Medlock, 1868 to July, 1868; T. A. Morris, from 
July, 1868, to February, 1869; then J. A. Med- 
lock again, till 1874; J. W. Adams, 1874-78; 
D. J. McDonald, 1878-82; Barton Howard, 1882 
to November, 1883; then John L. Laymon, judge 
(vice B. Howard, deceased), till 1884; A. A. Craw- 
ford, 1884-90. 

Clerks of the county courts : Samuel Cald- 
well, 1835-36; G. B. .Hughes, 1836-38; S. S. 
Collins, 1838-40; G. B. Hughes. 1840-42; E. M. 
Owen, 1842-46; A. R. Hockersmith, 1846-52; 
J. W. Shoppach, 1852-62; L. Collins, 1862-64; 
A. R. Hockersmith, 1864-66; M. J. Henderson, 
1866-68; J. A. Mills, 1868-72; J. P. Henderson, 
1872-74; J. H. Shoppach, 1874-80; J. F. Shoe- 
maker, 1880-88; J. L. Parham, 1888-90. 

Sheriffs: V. Brazil, 1835-36; Samuel Collins, 
1836-38; E. M. Owen, 1838-42; G. W. Ruther- 
ford, 1842-44; Thomas Pack, 1844-48; J. M. Mills, 
1848-50; Thomas Pack, 1850-52; William Craw- 
ford, 1852-54; W. A. Crawford, 1854-58; M. S. 
Miller, 1858-62; Thomas Pack, 1862-68; W. M. 



Pack, 1868-72 (L. G. Williams was sheriff from 
July to October, 1868); W. W. Thompson, 1872- 
80; J. F. Shoppach, 1880-90. 

Treasurers: J. Y. Lindsey, 1836-40; N. Davis, 
1840-44; A. B. Bates, 1844-46; M. M. Cloud, 
1846-48; D. E. Steel, 1848-50; James Carter, 
1850-60; William T. Poe, 1860-62; J. F. White, 
1862-66; C. F. Moore, 1866-68; R. M. Thomp- 
son, 1868-72; G. W. Hunnicutt, 1872-76; M. W. 
House, 1876-78; J. Kirkpatrick. 1878-84; John 
A. Wilkerson, 1884-86; J. A. Wilkerson, 1886-90. 

Coroners: C. Lindsey, 1835-36; J. J. Joiner, 
1836-38; George McDaniel, 18.38-40; E. Hooper, 
1840-44; W. G. W. Erwin. 1844-46; J. Brooks, 
1846-48; J. B. Lane, 1848-50; W. H. Keltner, 
1850-52; J. T. Walker, 1852-54; M. R. Thomp- 
son, 1854-56; Wiley Lewis, 1856-58; E. Leech, 
1858-62; J. G. Glidewell, 1862-68; J. A. Halbert, 
1868-72; W. W. Jordan, 1872-74; W. Leech, 
1874-76; William Leech, 1876-78; William Brent, 
1878-80; T. Lewis, 1880-82; H. Holland. 1882- 
84; W. S. Winchester, 1884-88; D. F. Dobbins, 
1888-90. 

Surveyors: A. Carrick, 1835-36; J. R. Con- 
way, 1836-38; C. P. Lyle, 1838-42; F. Leech, 
1842-46; J. H. Nisewander, 1846-48; F. Leech, 
1848-52; George J. Cloud, 1852-56; J. H. Martin, 
1856-60; J. W. Smith, 1860-62; A. J. McAlister, 
1862-66; W. A. Wilson, 1866-68; W. R. Gregory, 
1868 to March, 1871 (then W. L. Lee, till 1872): 
J. W. Hammond, 1872-74; W. S. Lee, 1874-80; 
J. W. Hammond, 1880-86; J. F. Wright, 1886-90. 

Assessors: The sheriffs were ex officio assessors 
from 1835 to 1868; E. H. Vance, Jr., 1868-70; 
followed by R. Thompson, until 1872; J. Cooper, 
1872-76; J. M. Cooper, 1876-78; J. L. Crabtree, 
1878-86; D. A. Cameron, 1886-90. 

Representatives: Charles Caldwell, 1836-38; 
W. S. Lockert, 1838-40; R. Brazil and David 
Dodd, 1840-42; Robert Calvert and R. Brazil, 
1842-43; Charles Caldwell, 1844-4p; Green B. 
Hughes, 1846-47; W. M. Scott and William Hen- 
slee, 1848-49; J. M. Wills and D. Dodd, 1851- 
52; James F. Fagan, 1852-53; A. R. Hocker- 
smith, 1854-55; L. H. Bean. 1856-57; AVilliam 
A. Crawford, 1858-59: Robert Murphy, 1861-61, 



236 



HISTOEY OF ARKANSAS. 



also 1862-63. Saline County had no representa- 
tive in the Fifteenth legislature, 1864-65; B. S. 
Medlock, 1866-67. The Seventeenth legislature 
elected the members by districts, and Saline was 
represented together with Dallas and Perry by G. 
H. Kyle and J. G. Gibbon, 1868-6'.); Grant, Perry, 
Dallas and Saline represented by W. R. Harley 
and J. H. Scales, 1869-71, and by J. W. Gossett 
and W. R. Harley, 1872-73; Dallas, Perry and 
Saline represented by M. M. Diiffie and J. "W. 
Gossett at extra session. May, 1874; Alexander 
Russell, 1874-75; Isaac Harrison, 1877; same, 
1879; J. W. Adams, 1881-82; S. W. Adams, 1883- 
84; J. A. P. Bingham, 1885-86; P. M. Trammel, 
1887-88; V. D. Lafferty, 1888-90. 

On some accounts it might perhaps be well to 
overlook the part which Saline County took in the 
late internecine strife, not that it is unworthy of 
mention, but to avoid the recollection of what is 
now being rapidly forgotten. The following facts, 
however, will serve to show that as a whole loyalty 
to those interests felt to be right was maintained, 
and the county emerged from the strife satisiied 
to go forward and repair the devastation wrought 
by the ruthless hand of war. 

Saline furnished not far from 1,800 men for 
the Confederate service, about twenty per cent of 
whom returned; the remainder bravely laid down 
their lives in demand to the call made upon them. 
Heroes they were, and the memory of their de- 
votion will live on forever. The companies raised 
for the war were as follows: Company E, Capt. 
James F. Fagan (later general); First Arkansas 
Infantry, Capt. M. J. Henderson, a full company 
for the Third Arkansas Cavalry; Capt. J. W. 
Adams, a full company for the Twenty-fifth Ar- 
kansas Infantry. 

The Eleventh Arkansas had from Saline 
County full companies made up by Capts. John 
Douglas, Mooney, Vance, Smith and Waters, 
in 1861; Capts. Walter Watkins, Mark Miller 
and Capt. Brown each raised companies, which 
were transferred to the Trans Mississippi Artillery; 
Capts. Threlkill, Gregory and Brown recruited 
companies in 1862, and in the same year Capts. 
Isaac Harrison, A. A. Crawford, and A. C. Hock- 



ersmith raised recruiting companies. There were 
no battles fought within the county's limits, but 
the people suffered a full share from the hands of 
the Federal troops, as well as fi'om marauding 
parties and unprincipled men belonging to neither 
army. 

One martyr, David O. Dodd, a son of Andrew 
Dodd, a youth of eighteen, was sent by the Con- 
federate commander, as a spy, to ascertain the 
strength and position of the Union army at Little 
Rock, in December, 1864. His actions aroused 
suspicion, and led to his arrest. The papers found 
on his person showed that he had performed his 
work well. He had complete drawings of the 
Union strong-holds and weak points, and plans that 
indicated others were with him. The young man 
was tried and sentenced to be hanged as a spy. 
On account of his youth Gen. Steele, the officer 
in command, disliked to execute the sentence, and 
offered to pardon young Dodd if he would give the 
names of the others that were with him, but the 
brave boy replied that he preferred to die, rather 
than to betray his friends, and was accordingly 
hanged January 12, 1865. 

Two companies were made up for the Federal 
army in Saline County, one by Capt. Patrick 
Dodd, and another by Capt. Sol. Miller, in 1862- 
63. During the winter of 1863-64 a portion of 
Gen. Steele's army were camped at Benton. They 
built a fort on the military road in North Ben- 
ton, which is still well defined, also constructing 
an embankment across the same road, in the south 
part of the town. Neither of the fortifications, 
however, were ever used. 

It is a fact apparent to every close observer, 
that centers of commercial importance in any com- 
munity seem to indicate the real condition of the 
agricultural region surrounding them. The towns 
and villages of Saline County, while not noted as 
large cities, are especially important in their re- 
lation to the county as a whole. 

Benton was not the first town laid out in Saline 
County, but it was a place of business as early as 
1834. In that year Joshua Smith kept a store in 
his house, and as the country around began to 
settle up, others came and engaged in mercantile 



business, each for a short time. In 1S37 Joshua 
Smith and William Calvert formed a partnership 
and built a large storehouse, putting in a large 
stock of goods. Smith died just as the new firm 
was about to begin business, which was subse- 
(juently carried on by Calvert. 

About the same time A. R. Hockersmith and 
Thomas Pack each erected buildings and entered 
into merchandising, and later on James Moore and 
George A. McDonald built a hotel on the present 
site of Pack's Hotel. After this the town grew 
rapidly for several years. 

An order of incorporation was granted at the 
April term of court in 1839. Rezin Davis was 
appointed mayor, and Jacob Hoover, James Cox, 
Presley L. Smith, William Calvert and Robert 
Gregory, councilmen. Judge Halsey Prudden mak ■ 
ing the appointments. 

Originally there were but eighty acres laid otf 
for the town of Benton, and that land was deeded 
to the commissioners by Rezin Davis for a con- 
sideration of 133. Prior to the war twenty acres 
were added on the north called North Benton. In 
1853 Allen's addition of twenty acres to the south- 
ern part was made, followed in 1870 by Field's 
addition of 160 acres on the west. These addi- 
tions, together with the original eighty acres, com- 
prise the present area of Benton. It is a growing 
town, at this time numbering about 900 inhabit- 
ants, and includes among its interests the follow- 
ing three churches, Baptist, Methodist, and Presby- 
terian ; two good school buildings, in which five 
teachers are employed ; ten general stores, three drug 
stores, two groceries, a butcher, two barbers, three 
hotels and two boarding houses, one livery, four 
blacksmiths, seven resident preachers, five lawyers, 
four physicians, one saddle and harness shop and 
two shoemakers. The leading industry is the man- 
ufacture of pottery, there being seven large plants 
in and near the town. Two gin and grist-mills, 
besides a planing mill and a tannery lend additional 
strength to the business of the place. Most fortun- 
ately there are no saloons here, and, as might be 
expected, the moral atmosphere of the town is 
elevating. Being centrally located in the county, 
twenty-three miles south of Little Rock on the 



main line of the St. Louis & Iron Mountain Rail- 
road, Benton's 2:)rospects for future prosperity are 
most encouraging, and there is every reason to ex- 
pect a permanent, substantial growth, not in the 
distant future, but now. 

Traskwood, the only town in the township of 
the same name, is situated in the southern part of 
the county, on the main line of the Iron Mountain 
Railroad. It was commenced as early as 1873, 
but only existed as a flag station until 1882, at 
which time several new houses were erected, and 
the place entered upon a successful growth. It now 
comprises a railroad depot, four general stores, one 
hotel, a lumber yard and one gin and grist mill, be- 
sides sundry interests. The Traskwood public and 
private school at this point was established in 1886 
by Prof. W. P. Johnson, with the assistance of other 
leading citizens of Traskwood. It is one of the best 
institutions in the county, and an important factor 
in the development of educational affairs. 

Collegeville, the oldest town io the county, and 
on this account a place of prominence, was settled 
in 1824 by Ezra M. Owen, who laid off forty acres 
of land in town lots, and made other preparations 
for a large center. As elsewhere stated, he planned 
a school, that was intended to become the State 
College, and gave his town the name of College- 
ville. Quite a "boom" was created in this pio- 
neer village by its enterprising founder, and Col- 
legeville came very near being the capital of the 
State, in 1836, only losing that distinction by a 
few votes. While not having met the expectation 
of its originator, it is now a brisk little hamlet 
containing six families, two stores, one church and a 
good private school. 

Bryant, started in 1873, is a live little village 
on the Iron Mountain Railroad, in Bryant Town- 
ship. It is situated on the highest point between 
Little Rock and Texarkana, on that road, and has 
a railroad depot, four stores, a blacksmith shop, 
two churches and a Masonic hall. 

Woodson is a thriving town in Perkins Town- 
ship, on the Little Rock, Mississippi River & Texas 
Railroad, located in the best farming section of 
the county. Its population is forty. 

Hensley, also in Perkins Township, is a com- 



238 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



paratively new town started in 1881 by Mr. W. B. 
Hensley. Its enterprise and prominence as a place 
of local commercial importance have gathered 
within its limits about 400 peoj^le. 

Journalistic efforts have combined in all ages 
to wield immense influence in the channels to 
which their attention has been directed. The first 
paper published in Saline County was the Saline 
County Digest, founded by W. A. Webber, in 
1876. This was a seven-column folio, published 
weekly, and of Democratic tendencies politically. 
The Digest enjoyed a good patronage, and had a 
circulation of 1,000. In November, 1882, the 
paper became the proj^erty of B. B. Beavers, who 
called his publication the Saline County Review. 
It was edited and published by him till November, 
1883, when Col. S. H. Whitthorne bought Beavers' 
interest and gave to the Review the name of 
Saline Courier, increasing the size of the paper, 
and making it a nine column folio. 

The Saline Courier (same name as the above) 
was established by Col. S. H. Whitthorne, in Sep- 
tember, 1882, and was ably conducted by him, as 
its editor and proprietor, until August, 1883, when 
the office was sold to Jim Tom Story, the latter 
moving the same to Malvern. The Courier had 
been fi'om its first issue the rival of the Digest, 
notwithstanding both were Democratic in politics. 
In November, 1883, Col. S. H. Whitthorne. com- 
plying with the request of a large number of the 
citizens of Benton and Saline County to resume 
the newspaper business, purchased the Review 
outfit, and again entered upon the publication of 
the Saline Courier. The Courier office, with all 
its contents, was distroyed by fire in December, 
1883, but was replaced by an entirely new equip- 
ment, fifteen days later. This journal afterward 
changed hands a number of times, being bought 
by T. K. Whitthorne in April, 1885, who sold in 
November, 1885, to H. D. Laymond. Its founder. 
Col. S. H. Whitthorne, once more assumed control 
in August, 1886, and decidedly improved it, 
increasing its size to that of a nine-column folio, 
and greatly enlarging its circulation. In Octo- 
ber, 1887, Col. Whitthorne sold out to A. F. 
Gardner, who ran the paper without change till 



October 10, 1888, when he sold to Col. T. C. 
Mays, under whose able management it now goes 
forth weekly, as a five-column quarto, Democratic 
politically. It is doing a great service toward the 
development of the resources of Saline County. 
In changing the form of the paper, its present 
editor, also changed the name to the Benton 
Courier, under which title it enters the homes 
of many readers. 

In the matter of secret societies Saline County 
is well represented, the inducements ofPered by 
these various organizations being substantially 
appreciated by the residents of this locality. 

The first Masonic lodge in the county was Ben- 
ton Lodge No. 3-1, which was organized January 14, 
1850. under dispensation from E. H. English, G. 
W. M. of the supreme lodge. Those named in the 
dispensation as officers were C. Scott, W. M. ; 
Isaac T. Cole, S. W., and Henry T. Cole, J. W. 
Among those present were Jacob Leach, Joseph 
Dirgan, Abijah Davis and David Dodd, who joined 
in the petition to the grand lodge for organization. 
Thomas Pack and Robert Garrett were subsequent- 
ly initiated at the first meeting of the lodge. 

Other societies of this order organized later in 
the county are Ionic No. 377, of Union Township; 
Paran No. 309, of Jefferson Township; Bryant No. 
441, Bryant Township; Iron Springs No. 342, Ban- 
ner Township, and Adoniram Lodge, Hurricane 
Township, and Fair Play Lodge in Fair Play 
Township. All have good halls, and are in a flour- 
ishing condition. 

Saline Lodge No. 9, I. O. O. F., located at 
Benton, was organized September 20, 1852, Capt. 
J. A. P. Bingham, Simon Mora, A. Oswald, David 
F. Leach and C. L. Davis being among the charter 
members. This society has a pleasant lodge room 
over the First Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
includes a membership of fourteen at the present 
time. S. M. Sweeten is noble grand, and Dr. C. 
Hays, secretary. 

Corona Lodge No. 7,(Rebekah Degree), I. O. O. 
F. , was instituted October 24, 1884. Its member- 
ship numbers sixteen. Eva Torrey is noble grand. 
Dr. C. Hays also being secretary of this body. 

Benton Lodge No. 26, I. O. G. T. was organ- 



SALINE COUNTY. 



239 



ized September 22, 1875, by Col. S. H. Whit- 
thorne, G. W. L. , by whom also it was reorganized 
Nov. 12, 1880. A convenient lodge room is in 
the Odd Fellows' hall. This society has the best 
interests of the community at heart. 

Saline Lodge No. 1319, which was organized 
January 8, 1879, with twenty-seven members, has 
paid six benefits, and has a membership of lifty- 
eight at present. Their room is in the Odd Fel- 
lows' hall. 

It is very important that special attention should 
be directed to the educational development of a 
locality as indicating the true tone of its advance- 
ment and culture. As may perhaps be supposed, 
there were very few public schools in Saline before 
the war, owing to the lack of popular favor mani- 
fested toward the free school system, but good se- 
lect schools have been numerous since 1836. Prom- 
inent among the pioneer " wielders of the birch " 
hereabouts were J. L. Yaney, William Jones, Rev. 
Finis Leach, Mrs. J. C. Moore, W. S. Lee, Rich- 
ard Hammond, and a Mr. Thorington, who taught 
subscription schools, and many of the substantial 
citizens of this county were their pupils. Of the 
teachers named only one. Rev. F. Leach, is at pres- 
ent living. Public schools became more popular 
about 1872, and in that year buildings were erected 
in every township, fifteen in number. The following 
summary shows the actual condition of the schools 
in 1889: White children, 3,996; colored, G83; ag- 
gregate, 4,679; number enrolled, 4,446. Number 
of teachers, sixty-two; amount paid to teachers, 
$2,018.33; number of schools taught, fifty; num- 
ber of houses erected during the year, six. The 
receipts for the year aggregated $13,881.41, while 
the expenditures amounted to $13,032.59. Two 
institutes have been held during the year, attended 
by nearly every teacher, and proving of much good 
and encouragement in the direction of youthful in- 
struction. The school- houses are generally well 
furnished, and the schools are in a prosperous 
condition. Several good private schools are also 
maintained in the county. 

As the earliest forerunners of religious denomi- 
nations in Saline's present territory the Methodists 
deserve prominent mention, having been the first 



to establish churches,, and hold services here. 
Until 1836 Arkansas belonged to Missouri Confer- 
ence. As early as 1817 Revs. William Stevenson 
and John Harris were appointed to Hot Springs 
district, and were probably the pioneer Methodist 
ministers in this part of the State. Mr. Steven- 
son, the more distinguished of the two, was made 
presiding elder of Hot Springs district, and served 
four years in that capacity. Some time in 1817 
Rev. Stevenson held religious services at the resi- 
dence of William Lockert, probably the first in the 
county. At that time there were only six families 
in what is now called Saline County, and for several 
years after meetings were held in neighbors' houses 
and in groves. 

Benton Methodist Episcopal Church was found- 
ed about 1836, and the present building erected 
in 1853. This was the first church in Benton, and 
was built by all denominations, the Odd Fellows 
aiding by their assistance in completing the upper 
part of the house for their hall. 

Saline Church, organized perhaps as early as 
1840, is the site of Saline camp ground. It is in 
Saline Township and was founded by Rev. Patrick 
Scott. Mount Zion and New Bethel, in Saline 
Township; Pleasant Hill, in Union Township 
(founded in 1870); Wesley's Chapel (now Bryant), 
at Bryant; Oak Grove (organized in 1856); Mount 
Carmel (1889), in Saline Township; Hunter's 
Chapel (organized in 1886 and dedicated by Rev. 
E. N. Watson, P. E.); McNeleand's Chapel (1889); 
Pleasant Hill, Shaw Township (1858); Sardis, 
Hurricane Township (1858), the site of Centen- 
ary camp grounds; Saline Hill, Banner Town- 
ship (1857, originally Old Saline); Collegeville, 
Owen Township (1856); Paran, Jefferson Town- 
ship; Liberty, Liberty Township (1870); Hickory 
Grove (1859), Fair Play Township; Traskwood 
(1889), are all flourishing societies, and nearly all 
have good Sabbath-schools connected with them. 
Saline camp ground referred to above, and one of 
the most noted in the State, was started in 1867, 
under the leadership of Rev. Patrick Scott. It is 
located six miles northwest of Benton, and has, in 
addition to a commodious tabernacle over 100 
booths. Centenary camp ground was commenced 



240 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



and improved by Sardis Church. A camp ground 
in Hurricane Township, twelve miles east of Ben- 
ton, vpas laid out in 1884: by Rev. Harvey Watson, 
the leading spirit; a good tabernacle and twenty- 
four booths are here. 

The Baptists, like the Methodist brethren, be- 
gan religious work at a very early date. The first 
minister of this denomination, of whom anything 
can be learned, was Rev. Jesse Bland, who is 
mentioned as early as 1825. Later are found the 
names of Revs. Samuel Henderson, Silas Dodd, 
Aaron Bolt and Allen Samuels. 

Union Baptist Church was the first Baptist or- 
ganization in the county, having started in 1830, 
with eight members at the house of Rev. Jesse 
Bland. Services were held in groves and private 
houses until 1835, when around log church build- 
ing was erected. Jesse Bland and Silas Dodd 
were the most prominent among the original mem- 
bers. The church continued without a pastor till 
1834, when Rev. Samuel Henderson was called to 
serve them, remaining till 1840. He was followed 
by Rev. Aaron Bolt up to 1845, and since that time 
a number of others have occupied the pulpit. 
They now have a good liuilding near the site of the 
original church, and a membership of 106. Rev. 
J. T. Henderson is pastor. 

Spring Creek (Benton) Baptist Church was the 
second organized in this county, the meeting 
being held in the house of David Dodd, on the 
first Sunday in April, 1886. Rev. Samuel Hen- 
derson preached the sermon. Revs. Allen Samu- 
els, Silas Dodd and Moses Bland being instru- 
mental in the formation. The charter members 
were David Webb, Elizabeth Webb, Samuel Hen- 
derson, Aaron Bolt, David Dodd and Sarah Dodd. 
Rev. Samnel Henderson was moderator. 

Spring Creek Church continued to grow and 
prosper, and in 1878 changed the name to the 
First Bajatist Church of Benton, worshipping in 
the Union Church until 1881, when the present 
substantial edifice was erected. They now have a 
membership of 150, and a flourishing Sabbath- 
school, of which D. M. Cloud is superintendent. 
Rev. B. F. Milam is pastor of the church. 

Salem Church was organized, in 1836, by Rev. 



Allen Samuels, who was its first pastor. It is 
situated in JefPerson Township, and is now under 
the spiritiial guidance of Rev. H. A. Goodwin. 

North Fork Church was organized in Holland 
TownshijJ, in 1837, by Samuel Henderson, who 
was pastor up to 1841. 

Kentucky Charch, situated in Kentucky Town- 
ship, six miles northwest of Benton was organized 
by John Y. Lindsey, in 1837, and services were 
held in groves and private houses until 1840. A 
house was then built in the grove where the church 
was organized. Rev. Lindsey was pastor df this 
church from 1837 till his death, in 1865. Rev. F. 
Moore served iintil 1869, and Rev. J. T. Hender- 
son from 1869 to 1874. The present membership 
is 169. 

There are a number of other churches of this 
denomination in the county, twenty-two in all. 
Every township has at least one. Spring Creek 
Church was the body with which the First Baptist 
Association met that convened south of the Arkan- 
sas River in Arkansas. This was in October, 
1836, delegates being in attendance from Louisi- 
ana and Southern Arkansas, some of whom trav- 
eled over 200 miles in ox wagons. Rev. Samuel 
Henderson was moderator. 

The Presbyterians began church work in Saline 
County in 1838, and in that year founded an 
organization four miles south of Benton. Rev. 
William Harland was pastor, and Robert Calvert, 
Thomas Keesee, Jr. , and Gideon Keesee, ruling 
elders. The society was called "Saline Congre- 
gation, ' ' and for a time flourished, but finally went 
down. It was reorganized at Benton, in 1851, by 
Rev. John F. King, pastor, and F. Leach, Robert 
Calvert and John Lindsey, ruling elders. Up 
to 1884 worship was held in the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church building at Benton, but at that time 
a good frame house (the present one), in Benton, 
was constructed and utilized. The present mem- 
bership numbers eighty; Rev. J. P. Lemon is pas- 
tor. A good Sabbath-school is an encouraging 
branch of the church work. Rev. Finis Leach, 
one of the original members, and who joined at 
the first organization, still survives. 

Financial afPairs always occupy a prominent 



SALINE COUNTY. 



241 



place in the proceedings of courts, and Saline is 
no exception to the general rule. The amount of 
taxes collected for the year 1837 was |546.62i; 
1838, $1,241.01; for 1839, .|2,349.33. A gradual 
increase was siibsequently observed in the tax sys- 
tem, and the methods of collecting delinquent 
taxes were much improved. In 1882 Saline 
County's indebtedness was $24,000, and, in 1889, 
13,339.64, the indebtedness having been reduced 
to its present limit since the closing of the saloons. 
Prior to that time a decided annual increase ob- 
tained. The delinquent tax is now small, and the 
county will be entirely free from debt in two years. 
A spirit of improvement is manifested throughout 
the entire community. A $5,000 iron bridge over 
the Saliue River, on the military road, was ordered 
at the October term of court, 1889, and other im- 
provements of decided benefit are assured. The 
total rate of taxation is 15 mills, apportioned as 
follows: County, 4 mills; bridge, 1 mill; special 
school tax, 5 mills; State, 5 mills. 

Having in these pages given a sketch of the 
material affairs of Saline County, it may be of in- 
terest to note its natural advantages of production 
and growth, so abundantly supplemented by man' s 
wisdom and enterprise. The county's location is 
a most favorable one. Situated in the central part 
of the State, it is bounded north by Perry, east 
and northeast by Pulaski, south by Grant and Hot 
Spring, and west by Garland and Perry Counties, 
in a section peculiarly fertile. From its eastern 
extremity on the Arkansas River, in Township 2, 
south, to its most western point in Township 2, 
north, is fifty-four miles, and its greatest width on 
the line between Ranges 15'and 16, west, is thirty 
miles. This territory is divided into nineteen 
municipal townships, included in which are twenty 
postoffices. 

The area of the county is 690 square miles, or 
441,600 acres, of which the United States Gov- 
ernment owns 62,000 acres, subject to homestead 
entry; the State about 40,000, and the Iron 
Mountain Railroad Company 90,000 acres. Nearly 
fifteen per cent of its tillable land is in cultiva- 
tion. 

In the eastern part a generally level physical 



asfDeot is j)i'esented, heavily timbered. Soil of a 
light sandy loam predominates, except on the 
Arkansas River, where it is darker and heavier, and 
exceedingly fertile, being unexcelled in the pro- 
duction of corn and cotton. The central portion 
is more broken, the soil here being of a red sandy 
and gravelly nature, except on the bottom lands of 
the Saline River, and is admirably adapted for the 
raising of fi'uits, corn, cotton and vegetables. 
Strawberries and peaches are also produced very 
early in the season. The county's western portion 
is mountainous; here the soil is a red sand and 
gravel, and it is well watered by the tributaries of 
the Saline. 

The Saline River traverses the central portion 
of the territory, in a direction somewhat from 
northwest to southeast. Its tributaries. North 
Fork, Alum Fork, Middle Fork and South Fork, 
entering the county on the borders of the north- 
west, central, and southwestern parts, converge 
and form this river about three miles northwest of 
Benton, and that stream flows on through the 
county. 

Lands on the Saline and its tributaries are ex- 
cellent for farming purposes. The uplands are 
fairly timbered, while the valleys are in many 
places an unbroken forest, in which some of the 
finest timber in the State can be found. Oak, 
ash, hickory, walnut and yellow pine are the lead- 
ing varieties, though many other kinds, equally 
important and useful, abound. 

Almost the entire mountainous portion of the 
county is underlaid with valuable minerals, show- 
ing traces of gold, nickel, silver, cobalt, iron, 
manganese, copper, lead, zinc, sulphur, arsenic, 
antimony, graphite, steatite, granite, kaolin, pot- 
ter's clay and fire clay. 

The predominating minerals so far as devel- 
oped are nickel, sand carbonate and steotite (soap 
stone). Some efforts are being made to disclose 
these various storehouses of nature, and utilize the 
riches which are only awaiting human appropria- 
tion. 

Rabbit Foot Mine, two and one-half miles north- 
west of Benton, on Saline River, yields nickel and 
most of the other minerals found in the county, 



242 



HISTOKY OF ARKANSAS. 



but the principal ore is nickel. The future pros- 
pects of this mine are very promising. It is 
owned and operated by Col. S. H. AVhitthorne, of 
Benton, mention of whom is made in subsequent 
pages. 

The American Mine, located in the extreme 
western portion of the country, has yielded sand 
carbonate and a considerable showing of gold. 

Steatite of a superior quality is found in vari- 
ous localities. Wallis' Mine, twelve miles north 
of Benton, in Beaver Township, has been partially 
developed, and shows an exhaustless bed of the 
finest quality of steatite. Potter's clay of a good 
quality is found in the central part of the county. 
Ever since 1866 pottery has been manufactured in 
the vicinity, but the business was greatly enlarged 
in 1873, and from that period the present exten- 
sive interests properly date. There are now seven 
good factories, producing various grades of ware, 
and, as this is at present a leading manufacturing 
industry, large shipments are constantly being 
made to the outside world. 

The agricultural productions of the county for 
the year 1879, as shown by the United States Census 
Reports in 1880, were as follows: Indian corn, 
292.628 bushels; oats, 38,046 bushels; wheat, 
7,589 bushels; hay, 178 tons; Irish potatoes, 
7,682 bushels; sweet potatoes, 22,949 bushels; 
tobacco, 9,418 pounds; cotton, 5,075 bales. The 
average yield of seed cotton is 1,000 pounds per 
acre; wheat, 16 bushels; corn, 30 bushels, and 
oats, 50 bushels, while the vegetable production is 
enormous. 

What more need be said in indicating to the 
would-be immigrant Saline County's desirability as 
a place of residence? It offers a natural wealth 
hardly exceeded; its attractions rest upon favor- 
able facts impossible to dispute; society is of that 
order which surrounds moral, law-loving and law- 
abiding individuals; climatic and atmospheric con- 
ditions are all that need be asked; and here may 
the worthy, enterprising citizen, by application and 
manifested energy, obtain that just recognition 
which at all times is an incentive to honorable liv- 
ing and a benefit to any community. 



Wilburn Hensley Allen, farmer and stock raiser 
of Shaw Township, Saline County, Ark. , first saw 
the light of day on November 4, 1848, in the 
little town of Benton, Ark. His parents, William 
D., born April 14, 1811, died December 6, 1871, 
and Rhoda (Ramsey) Allen, born May 25, 1820, 
died June 3, 1880, were among the very early 
settlers of Benton, coming to that town in 1847. 
They were natives, respectively, of North Carolina 
and Georgia. William Allen moved to Georgia 
when but a young man, met the mother of our 
subject, and was married November 18, 1837. He 
also spent three months in the Florida War, taking 
part in the battle of Pea River, and being one of 
the force that removed the Indians from the terri- 
tory. After his marriage he lived in Georgia 
seven years, after which, moving to Mississippi, he 
made that State his home until 1847. Coming to 
this State at the latter date he engaged in farming. 
He purchased the place one and one-half miles 
from Benton, known now as the Allen field, and 
later moved to Benton and opened a blacksmith 
shop which he ran in connection with farming. 
He was for years a member of the Masonic lodge 
at Benton, and together with his wife was a mem- 
ber of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. 
During the war he served in the commissary 
department of the Confederate army, but saw no 
active field service. After the Federal capture of 
Little Rock he followed the army in company with 
Col. Crawford. About 1863 he moved to Oua- 
chita County for greater safety, returning to Saline 
when the war was closed. He spent the latter 
part of his life in retirement, dying from dropsy 
at the age of sixty. He was the father of ten 
children: George W. (born Sejjtember 2, 1839, 
deputy sheriff of Grant County), Cynthia (wife of 
H. S. Glenn, a merchant of Benton, born Novem- 
ber 27, 1841, died June 28, 1863), Sarah (wife of 
Dr. John W. Cole, of Shaw Township, born Jan- 
uary 15, 1844), Thomas J. (born January 17, 
1846, died May 8, 1860), W. H. (the subject of 
this sketch), John W. (born January 11, 1851, 
died September 19, 1853), Uriah E. (born Sep- 
tember 29, 1853, died August 20, 1868), Joseph 
B. (born September 25, 1856, died November 25, 



SALINE COUNTY. 



243 



1857), and Benjamin F.-(born November 3, 1858, 
farms in Shaw Township). W. H. Allen was 
reared on a farm, spending his school days in the 
common schools of Saline County. At the age of 
twenty-one he began life for himself, bat lived 
with his parents until his marriage, October 18, 
1877. His wife was formerly Miss Mickey C. 
Kinkead, daughter of Rev. James and Susana 
(Hughes) Kinkead, residents of Farmington, Mo. 
The father, a Cumberland Presbyterian minister, 
was born Jul)- 6, 1807, resided, labored and mar- 
ried in Missouri, dying near Irondale September 
27, 1864. Hi.s wife, Susana (Hughes) Kinkead, 
was born November 25, 1817, in Missouri, the 
daughter of John Hughes, a farmer and stock 
raiser, and an early settler of Southeastern Mis- 
souri. She was married the first time September 
15, 1835. She survived her husband, and some 
years after his death moved to Illinois, where she 
married Spruce Boggs. Two years later she 
again became a widow. She remained in Illinois 
until 1874, then coming to Saline County, where 
she died May 18, 1879, at the home of her son-in- 
law, Wilburn Allen, on the Tomlinson place. Mrs. 
W. H. Allen was the eighth in a family of ten 
children: Eliza J. (born August 31, 1838, wife of 
John Bean, a farmer of Irondale, Mo., died about 
1875), J. M. (born May 18. 1840, is a mechanic, 
and lives in Mississippi), Mary N. (born February 
6, 1842), James C. (born December 23, 1843, is 
deputy constable of Big Rock Township, Pulaski 
County, but lives in Benton, on the Hackersmith 
farm), Alex. E. (born July 4, 1846, is constable of 
Big Rock Township, and lives in Little Rock), 
Susan S. (born August 8, 1848, is the wife of 
Newton Maxey, a mechanic of Oak Grove, 111. ), 
Elizabeth (born October 4, 1850, is the wife of D. 
C. Hays, postmaster at Benton, Ark. ). Marthy F. 
(born June 12, 1854, is the wife of Hays Maxwell, 
a farmer and mechanic of Irondale, Mo. ), Mickey 
C. (wife of W. H. Allen, born September 8, 1850, 
and died September 30, 1889), and Eleanor (born 
November 6, 1858). Mr. Allen and wife became 
the parents of Clara Lillian (born August 16, 
1858, died October 4, 1879), Finis Ewing (born 
December 9, 1879), Fiamen W. (born October 12, 



1881, died August 6, 1882), Mickey Gertrude 
(born October 30, 1883), and George C. (born 
August 14, 1886). After his marriage Mr. Allen 
began farming on an inheritance of eighty acres 
from his father, on the Saline River, to which he 
added ten acres. In 1879 or 1880 he sold his 
farm and bought the eighty acres on which he now 
lives. He has about forty acres under cultivation, 
and has erected some excellent farm buildings. 
During the years 1887 and 1888 he was engaged as 
lumber contractor for the Brushe mill. Later he 
held an interest, and on September 9, 1889, sold 
out to his partner, S. H. Glover, and is now 
engaged as sawyer at the same mill. He is a 
member of the school board of his township, and 
votes with the Democratic party, though taking 
very little interest in politics. He is fi member of 
Benton Lodge No. 34, A. F. & A. M. , and (as did 
his wife) belongs to the Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church. Mr. Allen is classed with the most pub- 
lic-spirited men of Saline County. He is a liberal 
donator to all worthy public enterprises, and a 
zealous worker for the welfare of his adopted home. 
J. W. Ash by, prominently identified with Ben- 
ton's interests, was born in Floyd County, Ga. , 
August 17, 1842, andis the son of John and Rebecca 
(Woodruff) Ashby, natives of Virginia and North 
Carolina, respectively. John Ashby was born in 
Princess Ann County, on October 11, 1800, and 
was of the old Virginia stock. He was reared to 
the occupation of farming, which he continued all 
his life, and in the fall of 1858 emigrated to Clai- 
borne Parish, North Louisiana, where he spent the 
remainder of his days. Himself and wife were de- 
vout members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
He was called to his long home in 1804, and his 
wife (who married again) survived until 1878. J. 
W. Ashby is the eighth of a family of ten children, 
six of whom are still living: Elizabeth (wife of 
Mr. Johnson, a prosperous farmer of Texas), G. 
W. (a farmer living in Louisiana), Annette (wife 
of J. F. Hamiter, a farmer of Hempstead County, 
Ark. ), Amanda (wife of Robert Scott, a farmer, 
and one of the early settlers of Saline County, hav- 
ing lived here since 1834), Nancy (wife of George 
King, a farmer and stockman of Texas), J. M. 



244 



HISTOEY OF ARKANSAS. 



(the eldest of the brothers, a man of family, who 
died in the army at Monroe, La., in 1863), William 
(a farmer, living in Saline County, Ark.), Lucin- 
da (who married John Nelson, and died in 1872), 
William (died at the age of thirty-four, in 1867, in 
Louisiana), and Mary (died in childhood while her 
parents were living in Georgia). J. W. was edu- 
cated in the common schools of Georgia, and was 
reared to farm life, but in his early manhood 
learned the carpenter and blacksmith trade. At 
the age of twenty-two, and in the sjiring of 1862, 
he enlisted in Company G, Twelfth Louisiana 
Infantry, Col. Scott's regiment. He served three 
years and four months, participating in the engage- 
ments of Baker's Creek, Jackson, and the bombard- 
ment of Fort Hudson. He was with Hood on his 
Georgia and Tennessee campaigns, and while in 
the latter was in the battles of Franklin and Nash- 
ville, then in the encounter at Kingston and later 
on at Bentonville. He was j)aroled at Greensboro, 
N. C. , on April 26, 1865. After the close of the 
war Mr. Ashby returned to North Louisiana to 
take care of his mother and her family, and did 
not leave her until her second marriage. He then 
came to Arkansas and there won his bride, Miss 
Mary Scott, their marriage occurring in 1868. 
Eeturning with his bride to Louisiana, he remained 
there till December, 1869, when the temptation to 
get back to Arkansas became so great that he 
again located and purchased a large farm. This 
place consisted of 120 acres of new land, with lit- 
tle or no improvement, but this did not discourage 
him in the least, for he immediately set to work 
and cleared forty acres and erected good buildings 
and made so many improvements that old surround- 
ings would hardly have been recognized. For 
thirteen years Mr. Ashby remained on this farm, 
but in 1882 he moved to Benton and erected a 
home, oj^ening a store of general merchandise, and 
also engaging in the undertaker's business, which 
he has successfully conducted to the present time. 
In 1885 he sold his land, and since then has devoted 
his whole attention to the mercantile business. 
Mr. and Mrs. Ashby have tonr children: Edna 
(born March 3, 1871, at present attending boarding 
school in Kentucky), Bertie (born July 7, 1874, at- 



tending school at Benton),. Pearl (born October 13, 
1879, also at school!, and Robert (born February 
13, 1883). Mr. Ashby is a member of Benton 
Lodge No. 1319, and himself and wife are members 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church at Benton. 
He honors the Democratic party with his vote, but 
is conservative on the subject of politics. He has 
served as a member of his school board and always 
takes an active interest in any enterprise that is 
for the good of his town or county, and is a man 
that has the respect of the entire community. 

Philij) J. Bradtield. Prominent among the 
enterprising and popular men of this section is 
Philip J. Bradtield, a well known merchant and 
farmer, and the son of John H. and Sarah E. (Bur- 
nett) Bradtield. He was born in Hamilton County, 
Tenn., May 19, 1861. John H. Bradtield was also 
a native of Tennessee, his birth occurring June 16, 
1830. He was reared a farmer, and made that 
his life's work: a man of common school educa- 
tion, for years he held the position of magistrate, 
being a Democrat, politically, but not an enthusiast. 
He was married September 10, 1857, to Miss Bur- 
nett, and they were the parents of ten children, 
five of whom survive, as follows: William C. 
(a farmer of Jefferson Township), J. L. (a farmer, 
but now a student of Benton Collegiate High 
School), Louisa E. (living with her mother on the 
old homestead in this county), Leon L. (also at 
home) and Philip (the subject of this sketch). Mr. 
Bradtield, Sr. , came with his family to this State, 
by rail as far as Memphis, thence on board the 
"Thomas H. Allen," a river steamer via the Mis- 
sissippi and Arkansas Rivers, landing at Little 
Rock, February 20, 1871. From the latter place 
Shaw Township, Saline County, was easily reached, 
and after a residence there of two years they 
moved to Jefferson Township, where the father 
bought a tract of 182 acres of partly improved 
land. He added to this from time to time until 
he owned 253 acres, improving it to a great ex- 
tent, and at the time of his death, in 1881, was pre- 
paring to build a new residence. He was a mem- 
ber of the Masonic fraternity, and respected by 
all who knew him. His estimable wife still lives 
at the old homestead, and is a member of the 



SALINE COUNTY. 



245 



Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Philip J. was 
reared to farm life, and spent his younger days in 
the common schools of Saline County. When in 
his twentieth year he took the management of his 
mother's farm. On February 5, 1884, he led to 
the hymeneal altar Miss Faithie A. Koberts, 
daughter of T. J. Roberts, and a native. of Sa- 
line County. To this union two children have 
been born: Ida May (born March 6, 1885) and 
Essie Maud (born April 17, 1888). After his mar- 
riage Mr. Bradfield resumed farming and home- 
steaded 120 acres adjoining his mother's place, 
which he immediately began to improve. He also 
owns a part of the old homestead. In 1887, pur- 
chasing a dne stock of goods, he opened a store 
on his farm, and since that time has conducted his 
mercantile business with encouraging success. In 
1886 he was elected justice of the peace in his 
township, and still holds that ofiSce, to the entire 
satisfaction of those concerned. He is president 
of the school l)oard and a member of the board of 
equalization for Saline County, in session at Ben- 
ton. He is a member of Paran Lodge No. 309, 
A. F. & A. M., also of Jefferson Lodge No. 55, 
I. O. G. T. , in which latter he has held nearly 
every office. Mr. and Mrs. Bradfield are members 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Mr. 
Bradfield votes with the Democrats, and exerts 
considerable influence in the township and county 
politically. He has given not a little attention to 
journalistic work since 1881, attaining an enviable 
reputation in that line. He first began this work 
as local correspondent for the Benton Courier, and 
is still holding that position. In January, 1885, he 
wrote an article for the "Farmer and Mechanic," 
entitled "Oar Neglected Resources," which was 
published in the regular edition of that paper. 
It was re-published in the 50,000 edition of the 
paper, and the attention it received, together with 
the criticisms, which were all that one could de- 
sire, combined to show that the writer was of un- 
usual ability and an honor to the literary world. 
He was appointed April 2, 1887, as special cor- 
respondent of the Daily Arkansas Gazette, both 
by mail and wire, and was sent by that paper to 
visit Montgomery County, Ark., during the mining 



excitement there in 1887. He also prepared the 
article for the Bear City edition of the Gazette, 
and has contributed largely to other papers, the 
Benton Review, and Farm and Fireside, of Spring- 
field, Ohio. He has served as a member of the 
Democratic central committee for the last six 
years. Mr. Bradfield is one of those young men 
rapidly coming to the front, and the citizens of 
Jefferson Township have just cause to feel proud 
of such a one in their midst. He is pixblic-spirited, 
and takes an active part in, and gives his earnest 
support to all enterprises for the good of the public. 
William Brents, at one time a leading farmer 
and well known hotel keeper in Saline County, 
but at present retired, was born in what is now 
Marshall County, Tenn. , in the year 1811, and is 
a son of Thomas and Jane (McWhurter) Brents, 
natives of Kentucky, but who were very early set- 
tlers of Marshall (formerly Lincoln) County, Tenn., 
where they spent the remainder of their lives. 
The father was a successful farmer and a promi- 
nent citizen of that county, and in religious belief 
was a member of the Christian Church. He 
served with distinction in the Revolutionary War, 
and was with Gen. Jackson at the battle of New 
Orleans. His father was John Brents, one of the 
early settlers of Kentucky, where his death oc- 
curred at an advanced age. The maternal grand- 
father, James McWhurter, was of Irish origin, 
and also fought in the War of 1812. William 
Brents, the principal of this sketch, and the fourth 
of four sons and four daughters born to his par- 
ents, was reared on his father's farm. He was 
educated in the public schools of his birthplace 
and acquired a good English training, being in- 
structed in the duties of farm life by his father. 
When twenty-one years of age he was married to 
Mahala, a daughter of Robert and Lucy Ewiug, 
l)y whom he had ten children, of whom one son 
and three daughters are yet living: Harriet (widow 
of Frank Shoemaker), Malvina (wife of Thomas 
Delamer, residing in Texas), Robert E., and SifF 
(wife of Alfred Trammell, residing near Eldorado). 
Mr. Brents lost his first wife, and in January, 
1868, was married to Mrs. Xalisco Dickinson, an 
estimable widow, and daughter of Robert Strib- 



246 



HISTOEY OF ARKANSAS. 



ling. This lady was born in Georgia, but came to 
Arkansas with her parents when three years old, 
and settled in Hot Sj)ring County, where her 
father and mother both died. One child was born 
to her marriage with Mr. Brents, Lily. Mr. 
Brents was one of the first settlers of Saline Coun- 
ty, haviug come here in 1844, and he has made it 
his home ever since. The year following his ar- 
rival he purchased a farm near Benton, which he 
still owns, and has accumulated altogether about 
550 acres of fertile land, with some 200 acres un- 
der cultivation, all of it being the result of his in- 
dividual effort and good management. He is noted 
above all things for his enterprise, as is illustrated 
by the fact that on the second day of his arrival 
he opened up a hotel, which was afterward 
one of the most noted in Central Arkansas, con- 
tinuing in that business uutil the war. After that 
event he turned his attention to farming with equal 
success until his retirement from active life. His 
industry and energy have won the respect and ad- 
miration of the entire community, and he can now 
rest content with the knowledge that he has done 
his share toward the development and improve- 
ment of Saline County. In politics he is a stanch 
Democrat, having cast his lirst presidential vote 
for Jackson in 1832, and for every presidential 
candidate since that time excejit during the war. 
Before that period he followed the trade of har- 
ness and saddle -maker in connectioa with his other 
interests. 

James A. Brown, a well known, influential citi- 
zen, and one of the most prominent planters of 
Saline County, was born in Lincoln County, Tenn., 
in 1829, and is a son of John and Nancy Brown, 
born in North Carolina in 1807 and in Tennessee 
in 1825, respectively. The parents were married 
in Lincoln County, and a few years after their 
union, moved to Fayette County, West Tenn., 
where they resided until the year 1853, then 
coming to Arkansas. The father was a prosjserous 
farmer during his life and for many years a cap- 
tain of militia. His wife, a devout Christian 
woman, died in 1853, and he followed her two 
years later. He was a son of James Brown, of 
North Carolina, one of the earliest settlers of Lin- 



coln County, Tenn., who resided in that State the 
remainder of his life. The paternal grandfather, 
James Brown, came from Ireland to America in 
his boyhood and first settled in North Carolina, 
and afterward in Lincoln County, Tenn., where he 
died in 1830. Champion Blithe, the maternal 
grandfather, was a Kentuckian by birth, and in an 
early day fought the Spaniards at Santa Day. The 
remainder of his life was spent on the frontier of 
Texas fighting against savage tribes. James A., 
the second of six children born to his parents, re- 
ceived his education in the log cabin schools of his 
day. He started out in the world for himself 
when only fourteen years old, and at the age of 
eighteen was assistant overseer of a large planta- 
tion, having entire charge of over 100 slaves. In 
1851 he was married in Shelby County, Tenn., to 
Virginia, a daughter of Payton and Sarah Fletcher, 
of Kentucky, who settled in Tennessee after their 
marriage, the father becoming one of the largest 
planters in Shelby County. Mr. Fletcher was also 
a soldier in one of the Indian wars. Mr. and 
Mrs. Brown were the parents of seven children, of 
whom two only are living: William H. (born in 
1857, educated in Benton, Ark. , and Shelby County, 
Tenn., and married in 1888 to Miss Edna E. 
Hooker, of Shelby County), and Thomas Jeft'erson, 
(born in 1864, also educated in Benton, Ark. , and 
Shelby County, Tenn. , and at Little Rock ; married 
March 7, 1889, to Miss Maggie L. Wilder, of 
Georgia, who came to Benton, Ark. , with her 
parents, the latter now residing in Texas). The 
following year after his marriage, Mr. Brown came 
to Arkansas and settled in the wilds about twenty 
miles below Little Rock, which was then the nearest 
postofiSce and tiading point. Here he opened up 
a small clearing and built himself a slab cabin, 
and one of his greatest pleasures is to recall the 
many happy hours spent in that primitive habita- 
tion. The country was overrun with wild animals 
at that time and many a night he was forced to get 
out of bed and let the dogs in to keep them from 
being eaten by the wolves. During the first year 
he killed twenty- two bear besides a quantity of 
other game, and on one occasion stood in his door 
with a shot-gun and killed seven wild turkeys at 



SALINE COUNTY. 



247 



one shot. Wild deer were then more plenty than 
the domestic hog of to-day, and the delicious 
venison now sold for exorbitant prices was then a 
common fare. Mr. Brown was an ardent hunter, 
but never let his fascination for that sport interfere 
with his other duties, and the severest weather did 
not hinder him from improving his farm and build- 
ing up his place. He cultivated about 250 acres 
of line bottom land, which, on his arrival had been 
covered with a dense growth of timber, and has 
done perhaps as much hard work as any man in 
Arkansas. He now owns 3,200 acres of tine bot- 
tom land, having placed some 600 acres under 
cultivation, all accumulated by his own energy and 
judicious management; besides this he was a con- 
siderable loser by the Civil War. He now employs 
about 100 people on his place and operates his own 
gin and store. In earlier days Mr. Brown was en- 
gaged in rafting lumber down the Arkansas and 
Mississippi Rivers, and after getting through with 
his season's business made the journey back home 
on foot through the wildest and most unsettled 
portion of the country. In politics he was a Whig 
until after the war, and now votes the Democratic 
ticket. For eight years he held the oflSce of justice 
of the peace and tilled the position with great dig- 
nity and wisdom. He has been a member of Pem- 
ington Lodge No. 273, A. F. & A. M., at Hensley 
since 1865, and has been junior and senior warden, 
treasurer and junior deacon. His sons also belong 
to the same lodge. 

A. B. Burks, one of the oldest and most prosper- 
ous stock raisers and farmers in Liberty Township, 
Saline County, Ark., was born in Wayne County, 
Tenn., the son of Harrison and Sarah (Yocum) 
Burks, natives, respectively, of North Carolina and 
Kentucky. Harrison Burks came to Tennessee 
when a small boy and was educated in the country 
schools and reared on a farm. In 1854, at the age 
of fifty-five years, he came to Arkansas, buying 
eighty acres of land in this township, where he 
remained until his death ten years later. Besides 
his original purchase he entered eighty acres more, 
and dealt quite extensively in fast horses, being a 
lover of racing. He was married about 1817, and 
became the father of nine children, five of whom 



are now living: George W. (deceased, whose family 
reside in this county), A. B. (our subject), James 
(living in this county), William (in Fair Play 
Township, this county), Mary (wife of John Rus- 
sell, of Garland County, Ark.), and P. L. (of 
this township). Mrs. Burks died in 1868, having 
been a member of the Baptist Church. Mr. 
Burks took quite an active interest in politics, as a 
Democrat, though he was not an office seeker. 
At the age of eighteen, A. B. Burks commenced 
life for himself as a farmer on rented land in Ten- 
nessee, which he farmed for six years. In 1854 
he came to this State with his father, settling in 
this county and township. He rented land to put 
in his first crop, but in October of the same year 
purchased his present property consisting of eighty 
acres, with twenty acres improved. He has since 
added 120 acres, making a fine farm of 200 acres 
with 150 improved, upon which are a splendid 
frame residence, barns, outhouses, etc. He makes 
a speciality of raising stock and grain, leaving 
cotton to his neighbors. He has a large number 
of cattle and other stock. In 1861 Mr. Burks 
joined the Confederate army as a private, being 
promoted to sergeant of his company. He linked 
his fortune with Company F, Third Arkansas 
Cavalry, commanded by Col. E. Bowlin, of Little 
Rock, and during the fore part of the war was 
I stationed on the west side of the river, but in 
1862 his command crossed the river and took part 
in the battles of Chickamauga, Corinth, luka, 
1 Franklin, Knoxville, Dalton, Savannah, and a nam- 
I ber of minor engagements. He was surrendered 
! near Greenville, N. C, and paroled at Chester, 
S. 0. Starting home May 7, 1865, he arrived 
June 15, and found his family in a fair condition, 
but he, himself, was bankrupt, having nothing left 
except his place. Beginning at once to farm, he 
has kept it up to the present day. Just before re- 
turning from the war, Mr. Burks drew 95 cents in 
silver from the Confederate treasurer, which he 
still retains. He says he worked four years for 
95 cents, and he expects to keep it all his life. 
What property he now owns has been accumulated 
since the war. He was married in 1848 to Miss 
Mary A. May, daughter of John and Elizabeth 



248 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



(Polk) May, natives of Tennessee, and the parents 
of seven children (three of whom are now living): 
Henry (in McNairy County, Tenn. ), Mary A. (wife 
of A. B. Biirks), James (deceased, whose family 
resides in Izard County, Ai-k. ), Joshua (deceased), 
and Emily (wife of Wesley Hensley, in Searcy 
County, Ark. ). Mr. John May died many years 
ago, Mrs. May passing away in 1837. Mr. and 
Mrs. Burks have seven children: Louisa (wife of 
W. M. Grant), Nancy (wife of E. M. Hunnicutt). 
Sarah (wife of G. W. Grant), Tennessee (wife of 
AVilliam Howard), James, Emily and Josephine 
(deceased). Politically, Democratic, Mr. Burks is 
a member the of A. F. & A. M. , and a strong sujj- 
porter of churches, schools and benevolent and 
public enterprises, always lending a hand to any 
scheme that will upbuild his county and State. 

Frederick W. Bush, a prominent druggist and 
apothecary of Benton, was born in Cassel, in the 
State of Prussia, Germany, on January 30, 1837, 
and is the second son of a family of live children 
born to Heinrich and Marie (Shoppach) Bush. 
Heinrich Bush was a lawyer, or prosecuting attor- 
ney, and also carried on an extensive probate busi- 
ness, but owing to the rebellion in Germany, in 
1848, he came to America and joined his broth er- 
in law, John W. Shoppach, at Benton. The cli- 
mate of this country not agreeing with him, he 
expired of a congestive chill, within five miles of 
Benton, in the summer of 1849. His wife's death 
occurred in 1885. She was the sister of J. W. 
Shoppach, who for years was an officer of Saline 
County. Frederick W. spent his early days in 
Cassel, and was educated in the schools of that 
city. When fifteen years of age he was appren- 
ticed to a harness and saddle manufacturer, where 
he remained for three years. The third year he 
received wages, owing to his ability as a salesman, 
something that was not usually done. After hav- 
ing become proficient in his trade, he determined 
to engage in business for himself. Perhaps the 
correspondence with his uncle, or the love of a 
Republican government may have decided him to 
renounce his citizenship, for he took passage in a 
sailing vessel for America, and arrived here after 
a tiresome journey of eight weeks. Though the 



trip was long, and two severe storms were encoun- 
tered, his ambition was not impaired, and he arrived 
in New Orleans in December, 1855. He heralded 
his arrival in Benton on Christmas day, of 1855, 
two months after which he engaged in the harness 
and saddlery business, with fair success. His 
business increased to such an extent that he was 
obliged to secure the services of several men to 
supply the demand, but the war breaking out he 
felt it his duty to fight for his adopted countrj^ 
and so placed business affairs in the hands of his 
brother-in-law, George H. Stratman, and offered 
himself to the First Arkansas Infantry (Col. James 
Fagan; later general), in April, 1861. He par- 
ticipated in the battles of Manassas, Shiloh (where 
he was wounded by gunshot in the left arm), 
Chickamauga, and New Hope Church. At the lat- 
ter point he was again wounded, this time in the 
right shoulder. He was also in the engagements 
at Murfreesboro, Franklin, Nashville, and at Spring 
Hill. After the Nashville fight, Mr. Bush was 
not in any regular engagement. He was once 
taken prisoner, but escaped within three hours, 
and finally with his company was surrendered in 
May, 1865. After a few weeks in Georgia Mr. 
Bush returned to Benton, only to find his home 
desolated by the unpitying hand of war. Federal 
troops had appropriated his stock of goods, and 
his home had been used as headquarters for the 
quartermaster's department. This would have dis- 
couraged many, but, with renewed determination, 
he immediately opened a stock of liquors and gro- 
ceries, and continued in this branch until 1875, 
when he sold out and engaged in the drug busi- 
ness. This he has since carried on, with signal 
success. Mr. Bush's sister, Eliza, is the wife of 
George Stratman, a large shoe and boot dealer in 
Little Rock. Emily died in New Orleans, while 
on her way to this State in company with her 
brother. Charles Conrad, the youngest child, who 
came to Benton, started to California in 1858, and 
since that time has not been heard from. In 
November, 1867, Mr. Bush was married to Miss 
Margaret Angeline Lane, a daughter of James B. 
Lane, one of the pioneers of Arkansas. She was 
born in Benton, August 22, 1848. They have the 



SALINE COUNTY. 



249 



following family: Joanna E. (born September 25, 
1871), Frederick Carl (born February 22, 1877), 
Ernest James (bom December 25, 1886), Mary 
Williams (born July 2, 1869, and died September 
14, 1870), Callie O. (born May 28, 1873, and died 
October 8, 1877). In addition to his store, Mr. 
Bush has considerable land, owning 360 acres, 
with sixty under cultivation. He rents farms to 
tenants, who are evidently good ones, judging from 
the excellent condition in which the land is kept. 
He has held the office of school director for four 
years, also major for four years in Benton, and 
was alderman and treasurer for a long period. 
The latter position he is holding at the present 
time, having for six years been deputy county 
treasurer. Mr. Bush is a member of Benton 
Lodge No. 34, A. F. & A. M., also of Saline Lodge 
No. 1319, K. of H. , being treasurer of the latter. 
He and his family are members of the Cumberland 
Presbyterian Church, and he is one of the trustees. 
Baird's Institute (a flourishing private Echool in 
Benton) counts him as one of its trustees, H. T. 
Caldwell and himself having been the originators 
of this institution. Mr. Bush has always been 
a leader in enterf)rises looking to general im- 
provement, especially in the support of chiuches, 
schools, etc. 

Judge H. T. Caldwell, of the firm of H. T. 
Caldwell & Co., general merchants at Benton, 
Ark., was born in Callaway County, Mo., in 1840, 
and is a son of Maj. Robert A. and Mary R. (Hol- 
man) Caldwell, who were born in Bourbon County, 
Ky., in 1814, and Christian County, Ky., in 1820. 
respectively. The parents were married in Calla- 
way County, _Mo., in 1838, and in 1857 removed to 
Southwestern Missouri, where they resided until 
1861, then changing their location to Washington 
County, Ark. In 1869 they moved to Sebastian 
County, where the father died in 1888; the mother 
still survives. Both parents were members of the 
Presbyterian Church, in which the father had been 
an elder for many years. He was a farmer and 
very prosperous in that calling, and during the 
Blackhawk War held the rank of major. His 
father was Capt. Thomas Caldwell, of South Caro- 
lina, who moved to Kentucky when a young man. 



and in 1810 was married in that State. The lat- 
ter Caldwell was one of the earliest settlers of Calla- 
way County, Mo., having gone there in 1826, and 
there he resided until his death in 1866. He was 
an extensive farmer and manufacturer of pottery, 
and also served in the Blackhawk War with distinc- 
tion. In Masonic circles he stood high, and in re- 
ligious belief belonged to the Presbyterian Church, 
of which he was a ruling elder about forty 
years. His father, Robert Caldwell, was a native 
of Scotland, who came to America and settled in 
South Carolina before the Revolutionary War, in 
which he afterward served. He also spent the 
latter days of his life in Missouri, where he was a 
substantial and highly esteemed citizen. Thomas 
Caldwell was a cousin of John C. Calhoun's 
mother. The maternal grandfather, Henry Hol- 
man, was a native of Kentucky, who moved to 
Missouri in 1826, and died there in 1872. He was 
a farmer and wheelwright by occupation, and in 
religious faith a Baptist. He was a son of Edward 
Holman, a native of Wales, who came to the United 
States at an early period and served in the Revolu- 
tionary War. The latter resided in Kentucky for 
a number of years, but moved to Missouri in 1826, 
and lived there until the time of his decease in 
1838. Judge H. T. Caldwell, the subject of this 
sketch, was the oldest in a family of four sons and 
three daughters born to his parents, and was reared 
on his father's farm. He was educated in the pub- 
lic schools of Missouri, and received a good Eng- 
lish training, passing an uneventful life until the 
rebellion, when he joined Company A, of Gen. 
Fagan's stafF, in which he served for two years, 
and was assigned to the quartermaster's depart- 
ment. During the last year of the war he held 
the rank of major, and had charge of the State 
jjottery factory in Louisiana when Allen was Gov- 
ernor of that State. After the war he carried on 
the pottery business in Sebastian County, Ark., 
until 1870, when he moved to Benton, Saline 
County, Ark. , there continuing the same business 
until 1872 Since then he has engaged in com- 
mercial life, and is at this time one of the leading 
merchants and most popular tradesman in Saline 
County. The firm was established in 1872, and 



250 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



now carry a fine stock of goods valued at about 
$4,000, their patronage l)eing one of the largest in 
the county. Mr. Caldwell was married in 1865 to 
Miss Sallie Martin, a daughter of Seaborn J. and 
Sarah Martin, of Georgia, who moved to Columbia 
County, Ark., about the year 18-16, where the father 
died in 1882, while the mother is still living in that 
county (now Nevada County). Mr. and Mrs. Cald- 
well reside in one of the finest residences in Ben 
ton, and have an interesting family of five chil- 
dren, all of whom have been educated at the best 
schools in Arkansas. In politics Mr. Caldwell is 
a stanch Democrat. He is a member of Benton 
Lodge No. 32, A. F. & A. M. , and Saline Lodge 
No. 1319, K. of H., being dictator of the latter. 
He and wife belong to the Cumberland Presby- 
terian Church, but he formerly attended the old 
school Presbyterian and Mrs. Caldwell the Meth- 
odist Church, and both are liberal contributors to 
all religious and educational enterprises. Judge 
Caldwell has been a ruling elder in the Cumberland 
Presbyterian Church for the past twenty-five years, 
and superintendent of the most flourishing Sunday- 
school in the county for eighteen consecutive 
years. Out of this have grown two other flourish- 
ing Sunday-schools, and hundreds of children 
from the schools have gone into the different 
churches. This he deems his life work, and in 
it he loves to labor. 

Daniel A. Cameron, farmer, stock raiser and 
the assessor of Saline County, was born in Giles 
County, Tenn., August 13, 1833, and is the son of 
J. D. and Elizabeth (Hale) Cameron, natives of 
Tennessee. J. D. Cameron was born in Ruther- 
ford County, Tenn., June 2, 1808, and his wife in 
Davidson County, Tenn., October 17, 1811. They 
came to Arkansas in 1850, settling on the North 
Fork of the Saline River, where the father re- 
mained for six years, following the occupation of 
farming, being also a licensed exhorter in the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. He next moved five 
miles east, and located on a farm on Hurricane 
Creek, residing there for twenty years, after 
which he returned to his old home on North Fork, 
where he was living at the time of his death in 
1880, his wife having been called from earth in 



1862. She bore Mr. Cameron fourteen children, 
sis of whom still survive: Eliza (Cunningham), 
Martha (Ashby), J. H. (married), Amanda (Terry), 
William, and Daniel the subject of this sketch. 
Mr. Cameron's second wife was Miss Eliza Woods 
a native of Arkansas. To this union three chil- 
dren were born: Fanny (Brown), Rupert and Car- 
rol (unmarried). Daniel A. was reared on a farm 
and educated in Tennessee, improving all the ad- 
vantages for schooling to be had in those days. In 
1850 he came to Arkansas with his father, and in 
May, 1855, was married to Miss Adeline Pipkins, 
a native of Arkansas, and the daughter of Willis 
and Mary Pipkins. Eight children blessed this 
union, all of whom are living: Willis J. (born 
August 10, 1857, married January 25, 1881, to 
Mary Mercer), Mary E. (Davidson, born June 
6, 1860), Martha (widow of J. Orr, bom May 
13, 1863), Laura J. (Russell, born November 9, 
1865), Eliza C. (Watson, born October 28, 1868), 
Emma (born August 25, 1871, unmarried), John 
L. (born March 27, 1874), and Samuel B. (born 
August 12, 1877). After his marriage Mr. Cam- 
eron pursued the occupation of farming, and set- 
tled a farm of 160 acres, where he now lives, then 
a complete wilderness, but at this time well im- 
proved with nice buildings, and such conveniences 
and comforts as one might desire. Of the original 
160 acres he cleared about forty acres, adding 160 
acres adjoining, with thirty under cultivation. 
He now owns one of the tine farms of the county, 
320 acres in extent, with about ninety acres im- 
proved. During the years 1858 and 1866 he taught 
school, and demonstrated at that time his ability 
as a teacher, as well as an agriciilturist, thorough 
in every detail. April 20, 1861, Mr. Cameron en- 
listed in the First Arkansas Infantry (Col. Fagan), 
and served one year, being discharged at Corinth, 
in May, 1862. In May, 1863, he again joined the 
army in Capt. Miller's company (a part of Gen. 
Fagan' s body guard), participating in the battle of 
Helena. After the surrender at Little Rock he 
was sent home on account of ill-health, never after 
returning to the field of action. He is Democratic 
in his political views, and exerts quite an influence 
in his county, having served in county conventions 



SALINE COUNTY. 



251 



on various occasions. For twelve years he has 
served bis district as director and trustee, and 
takes a great interest in schools and churches, 
being an earnest advocate of educational advance- 
ment. Mr. Cameron was a candidate for the office 
of county assessor in 1885, but was defeated. In 
1886 he again made the race, was elected, and re- 
elected in 1888, being the present incumbent. The 
success with which he has met in the supervision 
of county affairs is highly gratifying, and proves 
him to be a man of unusual business qualifications. 
Mr. Cameron and family are members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in which 
he is trustee and steward. He is also a mem- 
ber of Benton Lodge No. 34, A. F. & A. M. , in 
which he was J. D. , and formerly a Wheeler. 
He lives near Salem camp ground, the largest in 
the State, and has been at twenty-three consecutive 
meetings at this noted point. 

J. L. Canada, farmer and stock raiser of 
Beaver Township, was born in Smith County, 
Tenn., in 1833, being the son of David and Tamer 
(Key) Canada, natives of North Carolina. The 
former moved to Tennessee, when a young man, 
and settled in Smith County, there becoming mar- 
ried in 1825. His school days were spent in North 
Carolina, where he was colonel of the State militia. 
He was a farmer by occupation, and farmed after 
his marriage in Smith County until 1845, when he 
moved to West Tennessee, settling in Obion County, 
having traded his farm in the former county for 
512 acres in Obion. The new place was all raw 
land, but here he lived until his death in 1882, 
improving his home. He was at that time, eighty- 
six years old. He had been married four times, 
the first union (in 1825) resulting in the birth of 
seven children, four of whom are living: Eliza 
(in this State), Elizabeth (wife of Mr. Colton, near 
Maytield, Ky. ), Jacob (in Tennessee) and J. L. 
(the subject of this sketch). Mrs. Canada was a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
died in 1845. Her husband was later married to 
Emeliue Hall in 1846, who bore him one child, 
Emily J., now deceased. The second Mrs. Can- 
ada was a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church, and died about 1849. Mr. Canada's third 



marriage was to Adline Shelby, in 1856. She be- 
came the mother of ten children, five now living: 
David (who resides in Colorado), Olive (wife of 
John Morrow), Nannie (wife of L. Langister), 
Henry, Benjamin and Lenora (also married). Mrs. 
Canada, who was connected with the Cumberland 
Presbyterian Church, survived until about 1868. 
The fourth wife of Mr. Canada, was Miss Smith, 
to whom he was united in 1870. One child was 
given to them, Robert. The mother is still living 
in Tennessee. Mr. Canada took quite an active 
interest in politics of his time, voting with the 
Whig party before the war, and with the Demo- 
cratic party when that conflict closed. He had also 
acquired considerable valuable property. J. L. 
worked with his father on the farm from his twenty- 
first to his twenty-fifth year, when, in 1858, he 
went to Southeastern Missouri, settling in Scott 
County. Here he remained until 1861, farming 
on rented land. He then moved to Dunklin 
County, the same State, where he remained till 
after the war, having in that struggle attached 
himself to the company of Capt. Walker, after- 
ward Col. Walker, father to James Walker, mem- 
ber of Congress from Southeastern Missouri. In 
1865, Mr. Canada moved to Cape Girardeau, Mo., 
where he clerked for some time for Albert and 
Judge Imarr. Leaving there in 1865, he came to 
Saline County, Ark. , and bought forty acres close 
to where Benton now stands; but soon selling that, 
he purchased the place on which he now lives, 
consisting of 160 acres, with thirty acres improved. 
Since, by adding eighty acres, he has acquired a 
fine place of 240 acres, with forty or fifty acres 
under cultivation. It is mostly bottom land, and 
as a farming tract is not excelled, in this .section. 
In 1867 Mr. Canada was married to Miss Mary 
Allen, who bore him seven children: Alonzo and 
W. J. (at home), Henry N. and Lillian Dale (de- 
ceased), Lenoro, W. D. and Viola M. Mr. Can- 
ada is a member of the A. F. & A. M., and with 
his wife belongs to the Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church. Mr. Canada is a Democrat politically. 
He is a party to all public improvements and a 
liberal supporter of schools. 

Joseph M. Chennault, farmer and stock raiser 



252 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



of Dyer Township, Saline County, was born in St. 
Clair County, Ala., in 1827. William, his father, 
was a native of Tennessee, and his wife of South 
Carolina. The elder Chennault moved to Ala- 
bama while still quite a boy, settling in Madison 
County, whence he moved to St. Clair County. 
He was a prominent farmer and owned a large 
number of negroes. His marriage occurred in 
1820, and fourteen children were born to him, 
eleven of whom lived until maturity, but Joseph 
M. is the only survivor. The names of this fam- 
ily were: John (deceased, whose family is in 
Texas), Mary (deceased, wife of Samuel Bazile), 
Eliza (deceased, wife of W. Hutchison), Rutha 
(deceased, wife of R. Bazile, family now in Perry 
County, this State), J. M. (our subject), Nancy A. 
(deceased wife of Mr. Dyer, family in Saline 
County), Thomas (deceased, whose family live in 
this county), Sarah A. (deceased, wife of K. 
James, family in Saline Coitnty), William J. 
(deceased, his wife residing in Perry County, Ark. ), 
Stephen M. (deceased,, family in Saline County), 
and Amos (deceased). Mr. Chennault lived until 
1865, and his wife up to 1871, both meeting their 
death in this county. He came to this State in 
1836, and settled in Saline County, where he was 
known politically, as a Union -Democrat. Himself 
and wife were members of the Missionary Baptist 
Church. When twenty years of age J. M. Chen- 
nault began existence for himself. His school 
days had been spent in the county at limited dis- 
trict schools, the education here derived being sub- 
sequently imjaroved by self- application. At the 
age of twenty years he was married to Miss Nancy 
A. James, and three children were born to them, 
two now living: William M. (who lives in Garland 
County), and John (in Saline County). Mr. Chen- 
nault was married the second time to Miss Caro- 
line Waters, who became the mother of live chil- 
dren: Mary A. (wife of John James), Eliza (wife 
of L. P. Kate), Sarah (wife of W. P. Caldwell), 
Joseph M. , Jr., and Thomas (at home.) Mrs. 
Chennault died in March, 1877, as a member of 
the Missionary Baptist Church. In 1888, Mr. 
Chennault was again married, to Miss Susan Gerin. 
He was in the Confederate armv during the war as 



a member of Capt. Adams' Company, afterward 
joining the cavalry, and served until 1865, partici- 
pating in the battle at Poison Springs and Marks' 
Mill. He was also with Gen. Price on his raid 
through Missouri in 1864-65, taking part in a 
number of skirmishes. His discharge occurred in 
Navarro County, Tex. , after which he came home 
and commenced farming to replenish his fortune 
shattered by the war. He now owns 180 acres of 
land, with sixty acres under cultivation, situated 
on the Middle Fork of Saline River, forming one of 
the best stocked farms in this section. He is a 
Democrat, and his wife is a member of the Mis- 
sionary Baptist Church. 

D. M. Cloud, attorney and counselor at law at 
Benton, and also mayor of that place, was the 
second oldest of six children born to M. M. and 
L. J.-,(Haynes) Cloud, the former of whom came to 
this State from East Tennessee (to Saline Coun- 
ty) in 1842. He walked from below the Arkansas 
Post on the Arkansas River (where a keel boat had 
grounded upon which he had taken passage at the 
mouth of the river, the price paid for passage 
being a cub bear) to the head waters of Saline now 
Garland County. There he worked on a farm for 
one year. He then went to work in a tanyard, 
continuing for two years, but in 1844 went to 
Benton and opened a tanyard, also' purchasing 
some land. He was married in 1845 to Miss L. 
J. Haynes, and made Benton his home until his 
death, which occurred in 1859. Mr. Cloud took a 
prominent part in politics, being an earnest Demo- 
crat, and was county treasurer and also common 
school commissioner. He was a member of the 
Masonic order. His excellent wife still survives 
him at Benton. D. M. Cloud was educated in the 
public schools of Benton, and during the war 
served a while in the Confederate service, begin- 
ning when he was fifteen years of age. He was 
in the battles of Poison Springs, Marks Mill, and 
many other small skirmishes, and was taken pris- 
oner by the Seventh Missouri, United States Cav- 
alry, being contined at Little Rock, Rock Island, 
111. , and New Orleans. Exchanged February 23, 
1865, at the mouth of the Red River, he returned 
to the Southern army, but did no other service of 



SALINE COUNTY. 



253 



consequence, and was paroled on June 9, 1865, 
coming thence to his desolated home at Benton. 
He attended school for a few months, afterward 
taught and read law, worked on a farm for two or 
three years, and was then employed as a clerk in 
a store at Little Rock and other places for some 
time. Becoming engaged in the grocery business 
at Mulberry, he thus continued until 1881, when 
he returned to Benton and resumed the study of 
the law, being admitted to the bar in September, 
1882. He has since practiced his profession in this 
and adjoining counties, and enjoys about the best 
and most lucrative practice of any lawyer in Saline 
County. Mr. Cloud took a very active part in the 
temperance movement in 1884, and greatly to his 
efForts are the temperance people indebted for the 
I overthrow of the liquor traffic in this county. He 
was a candidate, in 1886, for the office of prose- 
cuting attorney of the Seventh judicial circuit, but 
was defeated by an excellent gentleman, Hon. J. 
P. Henderson, who was then the incumbent. In 
1888 he again became a candidate, but owing to 
the unsettled condition of the then existing poli- 
tics withdrew from the canvass in order to take 
part in saving his party from defeat in his county 
for the Congressional and State ticket, he being 
an uncompromising Democrat. Mr. Cloud is a 
member of Benton Lodge No. 34, A. F. & A. M., 
and was worshipful master of that lodge in 1888. 
He was taked into the Masonic order in Magnolia 
Lodge No. 60, located at Little Rock, Ark., in 
February, 1872. His marriage was in 1870 to Miss 
Martha H. Chastain, who was born in Marietta, Ga. 
She was the daughter of B. L. Chastain, now resid- 
ing in Comanche County, Kas. , engaged in farm- 
ing. Mr. Cloud has a family of four children: 
Edward Leon, Charles Madison, Myrle and Ber- 
nice. Mr. and Mrs. Cloud are members of the 
Baptist Church. The former is now serving his 
town as school director, and is president of the 
school board. He says that he expects to live out 
his days in Arkansas, and most likely in Saline 
County, where he is held in high esteem. 

John L. Collat owns a large farm and is en- 
gaged in general farming and stock raising. He 
was born in the year 1838, being the oldest of 



ten children in the family of Robert K. and Eliza 
(Collins) Collat, the former of whom was a native 
of Alabama, where he was married. Afterward 
moving to Georgia he opened up a large plantation 
which he sold in 1853 and removed to Saline 
County, Ark., settling on Saline River in what is 
now Traskwood Township, and took up a claim on 
which he resided until his death in 1856. His be- 
loved wife passed from life within one week of his 
death leaving a family of ten children, one of whom 
was a babe only three days old, which was reared 
by an older sister, and one other child died during 
the same month. The family consisted of John 
L. (the subject of this sketch), William H. (who is 
married and resides in Saline Township), Taylor 
(also married and resides in Traskwood. being a 
merchant by occupation), Minerva (now Mrs. 
Fewell living near Benton), Eliza (Mrs. Tidwell, 
in Pulaski, the infant referred to) and five other 
children who are now deceased. John L. Collat 
at the time of his parents' death was only seventeen 
years old and having his brothers and sisters to 
care for, he secured homes for them and broke up 
housekeeping. He commenced farming for him- 
self at the age of twenty- three, and in 1861 was 
married to Lousia Montgomery, a daughter of 
Thomas and Mary (Clauton) Montgomery; Mrs. 
Collat was born on the farm on which they at this 
time reside. Mr. Montgomery was a native of 
Tennessee and emigrated to Arkansas in 1830, set- 
tling in what is now Saline County, and taking a 
claim on which he resided at the time of his death 
in 1856, his wife surviving him until 1885. Mr. 
Collat after his marriage located in Saline Town- 
ship, entered a tract of land of eighty acres, to 
which he afterward added another eighty, and on 
which he made his home for the next ten years. 
He enlisted in 1862, at Benton, under Capt. Adams 
in the Twenty-fifth Arkansas Infantry, for the 
period of twelve months. After the battle of 
Corinth the company reorganized when Mr. Collat 
again enlisted for three years or during the war. 
He served two years in the Trans -Mississippi Regi- 
ment (infantry) and eighteen months in the cavalry 
service, being discharged in Texas in 1865, and re- 
turning to Saline County. In 1871 he sold his 



254 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



homestead and bought a farm of 270 acres, of 
which forty were under cultivation. He has 
erected a fine frame residence and made other im- 
provements, besides clearing most of the remainder 
of his farm. He is a member of Benton Lodge 
No. 34, A. F. & A. M. , in which he has held the 
office of S. D. , and also belongs to Saline Lodge 
No. 1317, Knights of Honor. Mr. Collat and his 
wife have a family of eight children: William 
(married), Mary (now Mrs. Cote), Thomas (married), 
Sophronia, Frank. Martha, Henry and David, all 
of whom reside in Saline County. Mr. Collat is 
a man of great energy and industry, and though 
having been obliged to make bis own way in the 
world, has done so with great credit to himself. 

W. H. Collatt, a farmer, of Saline Townshiji, 
Saline County, was born in Polk County, Ga., in 
1846, being the fifth son in a family of eleven 
children born to Robert and Eliza (Collins) Col- 
latt. Robert Collatt was a native of Georgia, and 
came to Saline County, Ark., in 1855, settling on 
a farm in Shaw Township, on which he lived until 
his death in 1857. His wife only survived him two 
weeks, both dying of pneumonia. Mr. Collatt was 
a small boy at the time of his parents' death. 
After his father' s demise the estate was sold at an 
administrator" s sale, and the son then went to live 
with Mr. John Petton, where he remained for five 
years, receiving an education in the district schools. 
In 1864 he enlisted for one year in Capt. Tilford's 
Eleventh Arkansas Cavalry, and while in service 
was engaged in many skirmishes, final