(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
See other formats

Full text of "Biographical and historical record of Ringgold and Union counties, Iowa"







3 1833 01085 5622 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 




: ■ l 

Clevel.' ■ ] lce ; A Condensed J - 

State of Iowa ; Portraits and B] 

TORY AND S . I'..' . .' - [ 

i and Union < I --' 

MANY C: THE L> . . ' '" - I3E 




r , C> r : t 

4 '/ ' * 








*r-?'" ' -•- > 



■ ■ 



coy 1 1 '■ • 


'^-Vi- :/- "•• >i-'^^fM 




George Washington 

John Adams . . 

j . ia= Jefferson 

lames Madison 


'; Quincv Adams 

.'• i drew Jackson 

in \ anBuren 

William Henry Harrison.... 

John Tvler.... 

|.->mes K. Polk 

Zacharv Taylor 

Mil! ird Fillmore 

Franklin Pierce 

James Buchanan 

"Abraham Lincoln 

Andrew Johnson 

Ulvsses S. Grant 

Rutherford B. Haves. 

James A. Garfield 

Chester A. Arthur. . . 
Grover Cleveland.... 

102 Census of Iowa 

109 i Territorial Officers. 




Pione ■ .' Life. 

Louisiana Territory. 

Iowa Territory 

State Organization : 
quent History.. . . 


Iowa Since the War. 

State Institutions 



Physical Features. . . 




Robert Lucas 17' 

John Chambers 173 

James Clarke '75 

A nsel Briggs 'J' 1 

Sti phen Hemi I l £3 

James W. Grimes iS? 

Ralph P. Lowe >9' 

Samuel J. Kirk wood '95 

• Stone '99 

Samuel Merrill 20 3 

Cyrus C. Carpentei i ; >7 

Joshua G. Kewbold. -' '■ 

John II. Gear ">5 

Buren R. Sherman 219 

William Larrabee 223 

3S*»-^ts>Si ' ~ : "~ ■**£*^- 


Abarr, I"). C 

34 3 

Ah; 1, 1. W 

Allvn.G. S 



AU'vn, I. 11 


An'di 1 an, A. T 


n ■.<:. R 


m. J. C 


'. . 1 on, W. S 




,\ ■ ; | J j | | \ 


Arnett^W. L'... ........ 


R. F 


. R.-v. E. E .... 

■ ■ : ".;. s 

.... ■ : 




\ s 


m u el 


. .• • , w . ! : 


Barrett, J. T 

Baston, Jowett 

Baumann, 11. M. . . - 

Beall, A. G 

Beall, I. S 

1 inn r,2 i. 

Bear, Solomon 

B ard, ram 

. I lin 

Beeson, J. 1! 

I Melville.. 

Benson. M. P 

Berna d.J.T .. .. 

I hn 


i, L. L 

, C. C. . . . 

. w. 11 

. kelt.J. W 






.2 : 


Brown G. M... 


Brown, Rev. Wi 
Bullard, J. C. .. 

C 11 W. A..., 



■ ■ 


Cole, W B 

. I W 


. ■ 

. t ■ Yl'KA'TS 

iv ian" C. K. . 
Davis, M. V... 

Day. B. F 

Dei at, C. K. 
Dewitt.E. N.. 
Dickson, G< or£ 
Dicks >n, John. 
Dille, C. F.... 
Duke?, John.. , 
Dunning, D.sv 
Dunsmoor, A. 


i O. C 

/; Law) 
, J. \V 

> ■ 

.2 2 




Edwards, J. B 

Elliott, Rev. S. A. 

Ellis, Francis 

England, Samuel . 
Estel, G. R 

Fife, Robert 

Fittro, S. W.... 

Fisher, J. B 

Folts, John.. .. 

Foster, A 

Fost« r, L 

Fouser, J. C. . . . 
Fouser, W. D. . 
Franc, Jacob.. . . 
Fuller,'!. W\... 
Fullerton.G. D. 
Fullerton. Oscar 

Gander, J. H 

Gartin, G. W 

Gibboney, F. E. . . . 

Gillett.A. ] 

Glaze, S. W 

Gleason Peter 

Gle, m, W. I 

( ling, LS. . 

Gl • ': . J. W. 
Goodei!, Abner. . . . 

Gorsu , J. M 

. i. G 

Green, Miles 

Grimes C. K 

Gri 1 • , P.J 

Gustin, A. M 

Gustin, r. C 


Hall, R. T . 

Hall, T. M 

Harvey, W. A.... 
H?th<awav F 

Havilan I.YV.H.... 

Heaton, E.J 

■■ , i. U . . . 

R. C 

, T. C... 
He»s, A: i 

P. F 

-. W. It... 
Hort n, M. P.... 


l . , A. 1.... 

Imus.L. O... 

, Andn 

[ngri m, A. O. 


51 ' 



.: :S; 


.. .. 




1 G. W 

i, J. W... . 
Johnstoi , . 

Johnston, 1. E 

Judy, Robert 


Keller, Be 

1 W 

Kelly, Wiiiiair... .. 

Kins' 11, D. C 

Kinsi 11, ]. W 

Kinsell, Z. T 



: .' • '• ... 

Lay! ... W. H 

Lee, ].. T 

J. nt, Arc 

Lesan, G. U" 

Loan. T. A 

Ligoc t,Th 

Liies, George 

l : :; : ,,r. r; 

Long; ere, E. 11.... 

Lorimor, A- '...... 

Loutzenhiser Bros. 
Lucas, Wiiliam.... 



' :-■-.... 

M. C 

. . 

: :.J. C 

M, . 

. ! II..:.. 
• ■ - 

n, I. L.. . 




■ ; •'. n 

M . w. i 

. SI 

: : 

.. . ■ 

, 1 
e. G S 

, G. W . . . 

" •' Mi 


Nel , f. H. 
STeviil, B 
Newion, f. i 



, I . 

v ' 


Patte: ,on, }. I 

Payne, A. C 

!> ckham, W. R 

2S1 ' Pe: iok, W. I 

273 i Perkins, I. L 

I Pi isrree.F. E 

; P. r,J M 

, ' Po re, D. \V 

Pratt, E. ! 

toi D id 

Price, J. P 

Price, Thorn .... 

■ ■379 


u. ■,.-, c. v; .... 
: r 

d, R 

1, i. K. 

•, L. D. 

. R. H 


1, f. s. . 

. . . . 

■ ■ ■ ■ 


I, 1 D. 

• ■ 

• 2-4' 

•3 s ' 

Sheriil, Tl 

... C. II... 
Show-alter, J j ... 

. J. M. . . . 
Sin-.o, J. C. 
Smith, Rev. S . 

Smith, W. T 

- . i : 

Siahl, Solomon. . . 

. Thomas. 
Stfi son, T. M. 

, G. R... 
Stevenso , | 
Stevenson, A n ire\ 

n, T. A . . 
Stuck, Ed I.... 
Stuck, J : than. . . 

Talbot, A. F. 
T: Ibet, B. \V 
Ta'.lev, B. F. 
Teale', A. H. 


CON . 

■ •339 

• -39-J 

1 H. . . 


■ • "7 

. ». W'.... 

. :->. 

'I'.- :;-. \v. d 


• -393 


!. T.. .. 


■v, J. W 

. [. S 




• 33 ' 


r, A. F 




"•■ i.Rol en 

W aiTgh, ! . .: . ev 

- ■ : 

r, P. A 


\ . !o-tp!i 


Wiley, A. S 


5,G. W 



-. R. B 


! Wood, D. C 



I ihn ;i^ 



. Rev. W. II 2 ;; 

1 y\ n.Mrs. W. H 237 

. II. T 

Mi : -. Mr; H. T 291 

is,G. ;: 



Early History • ; 

' irv 41; 

The Civil War.' 42s 

The Press 437 

J Miscellaneous 442 

I Ayr 

1 Villages.. 455 



S&CQBS 03 \ffiI0S CQ\ l 



Black, I. S 


. n . 


B! ' "W. (. 


Crai •;. W, F 

Aldrich, E. A 501 

v.I. II 



Al'ison, Arthur 

-: n 

:.!, Mark 


Cr« .:, ;. f 

Allen, F 


Blosser, L. D 

. .' 



Alifn, S.R 




' mil :. C 


■ '. u 

1 m?. ..... . 


; , Franklin 

...... - Q o 

'< • ton 



Ai mslrong, J m .- . . 


.".. S. K 


Deaver, I . T 


1 (i- ; ii . . 




I . E 


K C 

:. T i 

. A . B 

Devol, W. Ii. II 



Arnold, David 

':- S. A 


Auracher, G. W 

man, F. V,\... 
, D. H 





Ji 1 r. . . . 

Derr. Edward 


Bali, W. K ^ 

Brown, J. •!..' 

Bally, Tacob 


:. F. H 


1 . :i 


. W. 


Ed - ■ II 

.-■ "34 

' :• 

Barr, \. M 






Barr, J. \ T 

\ H. K 

' - 

, : 

v .• . 

E. 1 

. - 

J. 11 

■ ■ & Br 



G. P 





B . ,1 '.. 



... . 6 ; -: 

B ' -,' i 

■ • ■ 

C '■.'.. r - . . 





( rr v , I . N 

. . . 


. :.; 

• ■ 

■ '. 



' ' ; 

. G. W 

. . - • ! 

Bei .!,.]. 


. W. H 


■ ' 






.... • 

:. S 


: ■• 

; ;'', 


: ',- 



. J 


Cooler, C. R 


1! .. . 


■ ■ - . 



Ferman, 1 
Flohra, \V 

I \V . . . . 


F. rb -, Burr . . . 

. W. 11. 

Franci , A. C .. 

French, O. E... 

. |oseph.. 


r, C. H 


Gadd J. N 

Galbi eaih, L. G.. . 

Geier, J.icob 

I ri 1 i i. John 

0. B 

I , T. \V 

Gran . '■■■ n, 'J 

D. D... 

. fred 

GriniK-'.l, C. H. .. 
Groe k,D. V.. 
Gi • .. G. L.. 


Grove , L S 

c, )). J... 

H?.ger, A. C 

H tm 

Hal ; in 

, H. P.... 
H ■ i,W. H... 

: i r. h 

:• : . 

H •'•;:. 

Harsh, l. • 

Harsh, P. L 

Hart, G. W 


I '. , Jo < ph. 

; 1. 1 

Havne.- M. F 

Ha'vs, I M 

: ;■' . . 
. ' ' .-■ 



1" D. :■ .. . 





! . . 


H S 

H , I. F 

;. o.. 

i .... 

■ K 






R S.... 
\V. N . 

■ . w. n 

. T. \V . 



! i. . 


. 6 '; I 


.6 •-• 

.' . 

■ 5 ■ 7 

.- - 
.- - 

T afan* 1. s 

■ , C. D 

?, II. B... 

Leak, S. G 


. H 

Leech, W M.. .. 
LeensJ. A ..... 

Lemon, J. H 

Lewis, H. \'." 

i. !! 


:. G. H., 
. C 

I : w 

Lv. ns, Rev. S.. . 
. S 

Mai p., 1 aac 

Martens M 

. . 

Maxwell. T I- 

C. \" 

.\ Willi; 
. .. I. F... 

[,. D. .. . 

McG *. G. W.... 


A.. . 

■ .. .. 


■ " 
• 549 

■ 573 


\Y. \V. 


M. .A.J.... 

Neis, H. C .. 

Nix. H. T 

Norton, H. M 


Olinser, Sqt 
O'Keeffe, Joh 
Our,, J. H.. 

" 5 

r \v a 


Palt, W. F 

; . L. S..., 

] '■ . Cari. . . . 


IV- rV, 1). S 

Pc rs,, C. M ... 




Porter. D ' . . . . 

. . . 







■ I ' ' . .. 

Reii F. M 


1 ... ' ' • 

6-5 1 







Ri~':. arc!*, I 




. . 



1 . G 

. .. 


. •;. \v.... 

. P 



. . . 








'. w 

. ' ... 

./ . . .. 










Spencc r, D. J 

: •■ II 


Stalker, I .vard.... 


■■ . . '.. 
\ : Id, C. A. . 

. \V. I 

Sullivan, '.. F 

Svaine, Truman. . . 

Swan, S. D 

Sw< :.'-.■ er... 



Syp, \V. K 

Thompsc n, J. J . . . 

• , I. M. . 

. I. . 

1 . T- :••!. . 

Torrey, B. N 

Turner, T. D ... 

Van Doren, ]. S. . 

Van] n, I.. 

Vtn Pat! -;:, F. S. 
Vincent ie ry... 










5- / 





49 2 






















S ; - 




; 2o 





»* yto.., 1-- . vj 


. H 


B . F 

■ ! 

V, r, Joseph 


n, Sr. . . 


1 '., Jr. . . 






r. R S 



....6 45 



i ;lei T . H 

• 523 

■ ■ 
. . <;22 

r, A. R 


hite, A. C. 

Granlhi m, Thomas 


hile, i. K 

.. D. \V 


id,, Henry 



E a S\ w -, A 


l, W.M 

Patt, |. H 




'..'. H 


Torrey. B. N 

. .."' 

,Rev. W. C 

n, L. J 


. HIST01 




;. p 

.. ■ " 

Early . . ' ■■ ry. . . 

. L 

• ' • 

Political and Official.. .' 

'. M 

. .477 

C: 1 >hi , : ■.'■; ;• Rebellion.. . . 




1 R 


: ional 


"ooley, D.-.vid 


■ : in 



. . . . 7 : • 

'ray, ] . B 

. .631 

. ! 

right, E. P 


■ ••; •' 

- .: 


• : 

• ••: 

■ ; 

'■ -' 
w. y. 

■ • 




_ ?-A r^/s-, kV "" •■'',, ^,-, v . ( 


( : ) 


: ' 



■ ■ 

W ! I 

i ; . 

S^ Wii',v-.- 

■V" --. -- 1r 


> , y : . 




- • 

• : 



: • ■ 


.v ■: 

■ ■ 




: : :% £-M(ggM 




rr-- : i 


■ f 





-<^^^^e/-^ x 



... • - 

&£&^ ^~:&: '.-"'-• : •' • -?-ii?^'-:'j d d:'-A^ •-:^:.|;';./ : :".^„^^x!^ T |P f 


>..••> - . '» ■ - ' . i. 




<*, ■ • TON, the "Father of 

his Country" and its 
first President, 1789- 
.. ■ . .•' " '97, was born Febru- 

ary 22, 1732, in Wash- 
\-'"'" ington Parish, West- 
moreland Con nty, Virginia. 
His father, Augustine Wash- 
ington, first married Jane But- 
ler, who bore him four chil- 
dren, and March 6, 1730, he 
married Mary Ball. Of six 
children by his second mar- 
riage, George was the eldest, 
the others being Betty, Samuel, John, Au- 
gustine, Charles and Mildred, of whom the 
y . . - died in infancy. Little is known 
of the early years of Washington, beyond 
the fact that the house in which 
born was burned during his early child- 
hood, and that his ■'■ moved 
I mi ' : 
ancesb itual \ • ' - : 
thenoi ' b: ikofl R 
hi ai I ■ nt of the 1 
\ . 1 I ! 
then i 

oped a i :ch . I ! 

constitul 1 

■ . . 

fective, being c< mfined to the elementary 
branches taught him by his mother and at 
a neighboring school. He developed, how- 
ever, a fondness for mathematics, and en- 
joyed in that branch the instructions of a 
private teacher. On leaving school he re- 
sided for some time at Mount Vernon with 
his half brother, Lawrence, who acted as 
his guardian, and who ha ! m rri d a daugh- 
ter of his n< ighb >r ai Belvoir on the Poto- 

j mac, the weall n Fai 

: time president of the executive council of 
the colony. Both Fairfax ai th 
Lawrence Wi , had serve:! 

J tinction in 1740 as officers of an Ai 

j battalion at the -lege of Cart! 
were friends ' Admiral 

m, for wl th I idence on 

d. George's 

mi ' ' 's warrant v.v 

! him, pr 


1. The 
: with the F 


on a vi it at 1 
I ward estab! 


o n i n o u 

hie! ' very < ■■- 

ii i. 
In 1751, when 1 
put under tr lining \. \\h a vi 
;ervi 1 1 

on!) - nil teen ye:u 


■< ' . I 

tei lat year the 1 

^; : La wren • W . rendered i 

im to ■ 

Georg-i accompanied him in a \<> . 

Barbadi T! 

and Lawrenc I ■ . ; ■ 

i i nf an t daughter. 

In liis will George was nanr '' • 

( xecutors and a: tua! 

'• Vei 1101 : 

soon succeed* to t! I 

On the arrival of Robert Dinwiddic as 

Lieutenant-Governor o! Virginia 
'; •' the milil ia wa 

ince di\ ided inl 1 li: tricts. W 


tant-< Northern 

"' ■ : 175; a n d i n No a 

I '; im ] 

%% assigned him. This was to j r 
££< Canadian post 1 

F : ! 

:. /■ in the name of th : 

: . \vi French 


I clincd by 1 



in the 

1 ': 


■ • Fi 





c laimcd. As \\ 

given to 
nd M 
t, was 
. Lieutenant-Colonel. On t! toOhio, 

! news was received that a part}- previously 
I ;■ foil at the 1 tnfluem 
1 . with the ad been 

; driven back bv a c Frenchforce, 

: which had con eted the work tl 
t Duq 
- : ' I is 1 

of Can ida. This was the be gini : 

1 Indian war,'' which con- 
j tinned seven 
Fry, Washington succ 
mand of tl t, and 

fulfil! ! ' the 

of all the forces raised in the 

A cessation 1 
frontier having followi 
t h e 1 i : 

Washington was accon 

his commission as C 
■ if the Virgii 
led to Willia 




self-government, which, after ten 
minatcd by ac! of Par] of the port ol 

Boston. U was at the instance of V 
that a congress of all thecol >nieswa: 
to meet af Philadelphia Septembei 5, 1774, 
to secure their common liberties — ifp 
by peaceful menus. To this C 
Colonel Washington was sent as a dele- 
gate. On dissolving in October, it recom- 
mended the colonics to send deputies to 
another Congress the following spring. In 
the meantime several of the colonies felt 
impelled to raise local forces to n 
suits and aggressions on the part of British 
troops, so that on the assembling of the next 
Congrcs , May 10, 1775, the war prepara- 
tions of the mother country were unmis- 
takable. The battles of Concord and Lex- 
i. had been fought. Among t! .earliest 

acts, therefore, of the Congress was the 
selection .of a commander-in-chief of the 
colonial forces. This office was unani- 
mously conferred upon Washington, still a 
member of the Congress. He accepted it 
on June 19, but on thee: pr< lition he 

should receive no salary. 

He immediately repaired to the vicinity 
of Boston, against which point the British 
ministry had concentrated their forces. As 
earl)- as April General Gage had 3.000 
t] in and around this proscribed city. 

During the fall and wink r th< I 
clearly indicated a pur] 
lie sent;: sent and to 

i : ■■•.'.' ' 
. . . . , the patri 

as •■ Tori 
selves the name of " Wl 

■^' ' 

h pt in sepai 

dence. In Ma)- 1 

army i 

. . . . '. 

- nee ; but 1 am now fully satis- 

It is i lids sketch to trace 

tary acts of tl . hero, to 

; fJnil States wi 
j seven years' bloody struggle thai 
; until tin treaty 1 r; 5, in which I 

! 11 ■' . !ged I i of each of 

the thirteen States, and negotiated with 
them, jointly, as separate sovereignties. The 
merits of Washington as a military chief- 
tain havi I 1 a nsiderably discus' 
cially by writers in 1 coi y. Dur- 

! ing the war he was most bitterly 
for incoi ipetei ■ I Is were 

made to displace him ; but he never for a 
j moment lost the 1 e of either the 

Congo . December 4, 1783, 

the great command* r took !ca\ : of hi off!- 
I cers in most affectionate and pal ioticl 

and went to Annapolis, Maryland 
[ the Congress of the States was : : 
: nd to that body, when peace ai 
prevailed every v ' wed his com- 

: mission and retired to Mount Ver 
II was in 178S that W; 
to the chief n r of th n; tion. He 

received e very ele< 
colleges of the St; I 
of President. Th 


bul several w 



P/tES/DEXTi OF VHl U \ [1 i D S'3 TES. 

he was hailed with those public m; ni ■ is 

tions of joy, regard and love whicl 

spontaneously from the hearts ol an affco : inference and implication. "Hamilton and 

tionate and grateful people. ' 

in New York was marked b; nrded as the chief leaders, respect 

and nn enthusiasm never before witnessed ively, of these 

in that metropolis. The inauguration took | whicl 

within its specific and limited sphei e, while 
: '-: j I he others wc re for enlarging it-, p iwci s by 
>n. Hamilton and 
Hisrcc ption |. . n, both m< mbers of the first c; 

place April 30, in the presence of an 11 imen e 
multitude which had assembled to witness 
the new and imposing ceremony. The oath 
of office was administered by Roberl R. 
Livingston, Chancellor of t he .State. When 

sing antagi tn parties, 

ive existed, under different names, 
from thai day to this. Washington 
gardedas holdinga neutral position between 
(hem, though, by mature deliberation, he 
vetoed the first apportionment bill, in 170.;. 
passed by the party headed by Hamilton' 

this sacred pledge was given, he retired , which was based upon a principle construct 

with the other officials into the Senate 
chamber, where he delivered his inaugural 
address to both houses of the newly con- 
stituted Congress in join! assembly. 

In the manifold details of his civil ad- 
ministration, Washington proved himself 
equal to the requirements of his position. 
The greater portion- of the first session of 
the first Congress was occupied in passing 
the necessary statutes for putting the new 
organization into complete operation. In 
the discussions brought up in the course of 

ively leading to centralization or consoli- 
dation. This was the first exercise of the 
veto power under the present Constitution. 
It created considerable excitement at the 
time. Another bill was soon passed in pur- 
suance of Mr. Jefferson's views, which has 
been adhered to in principle in every ap- 
portionment act passed since. 

At the second session of the new Con- 
gress, Washington announced the gratify- 
ing fact of "the accession of North Caro- 
ina" to the Constitution of 1 . ■';, and June 

this legislation the nature and character of j , of the same year he announced by s 

the new system came under general review. | message the like " accession of the < 

On no one of them did any decided antago- i Rhode Island," with Ins congratulal 

nism of opinion arise. All held it to be a ; the happy event which "unit 

limited government, clothed only with spe- j general Government " all the States which 

cific powers conferred by delegation from \ were originally confederated. 

In 1792, at the sea n 1 Presidential elec- 
tion, Ws hington u to i 
but he yielded to the g 
age j country, and was again chosen President 

b} the unani . of every el 

fl ■ ' - . v : 1 ■ ■ 

agai ted to co 

remain in the - chair. 1 

positivi ' 


li in lan- 

■ ' 
Mount \ j 

the Stales. There was no change in the 
name of the legislative department; it still 
remained "the Congress of the United 
Stab 1 '' Ami 1 ." 1 b \ 1 .-. as no change 
in the ori of the country, and none 

in the : ;al, wl ich si ill remain 
Grecian escutcheon borne by th 
with other eml le 1 eal and 

expn - ive moti 1 ' /• /: . /'. U> 

The firs) divisi in of pari upon 

the mannci of constru ■ , - del< 

gated, and they v, re 1 
constructionisl " and " I 

rui ■ ; The former \. . 

fining th mof the < 

CEOKCE If. I. V ///AY! . ' >A 

His administration for the two tei 
been successful beyond the expectati 
hopes of even the most sanguine of his 
friends. The finances of the country were 
no longer in an embarrassed condition, the J 
public credit was fully restored, life was 
given to every department ot industry , the 
workings o( the new system in all wing 

Congress to raise revenue from duties on 
imports proved to be no! only harmonious \ 
in its federal action, but astonishing in its 
results upon the commerce and trad' of all 
the States. The exports from the Union : 
increased from $19,000,000 to over $56,000,- j 
coo per annum, while the imports increased j 
in about the same proportion. Three new- 
members had been added to the Union. The 1 
progress of the States in their new career j 
under their new organization thus far was : 
exceedingly encouraging, not only to the 
friends of liberty within their own limits, 
but to their sympathizing allies in all climes 
and countries. 

01 the call again made on this illustrious 

cl ■ repi ise at >b imit Vernon 

and I ke command o! all the Unit* 
forces, with the rank of Lieutenant-! i 
when war was threatened with France in 

I h be stated, 1 
note the fact as an unmistakable testimo- 
nial of the high regard in which he v 
held by his countrymen, of all shades of po- 
litical opinion. He patriotically accepted 
this trust, but a treaty of peace put a stop 
to all action under it. He again retired to 
.Mount Vernon, where, after a short and 
severe illness, he died December 14, 1799, 
in the sixty-eighth year of his age. The 
whole country was filled with gloom by tins 
sad intelligence. Men of all parties in i 1 r .- 
iics and creeds in religion, in every State 
in the Union, united with Congress in " pay- 
ing honor to the man, first in war, first in 
peace, and first in the hearts of his country- 

His remains were deposited in a 
vault on the banks of the Potomac at Mount 
Vernon, where they still lie ent »n 




1 " ! . 

: £)0 . :. , ■:■ r_ : , ^ c 

' -.■... - . . , . , ' ' , . ' , i ■ ■ i . :V ■ • <V'_ \ 

'•V' .'V 

y ■' 




f> OHN ADAMS, the - second i seized young Adams, and for a time he 

% , '. - ; f ; ; President of the United < studied over the question whether he 

'.,' ,': -i" ; / ::> States, 1797 to iSoi, was should lake to the law, to politics or the 

• , J born in the present town array. He wrote a remarkable letter to a 

of Quincy, then a portion friend, making prophecies concerning the 

•; '■';-■ '•'<?:' '•'■■'. ■-':'■ •■-:•' oi Braintree, Massachu- I future greatness of this country which have 

; ,.-. ;•- setts, October 30, 1735. His since been more than fulfilled. For two 

['.'. :' > fat her was a farmer of mod- years he taught school and studied law, 

crate means, a worthy and wasting no odd moments, and at the early 

industrious man. He was age of twenty-two years he opened a law 

5- vv ; ".;! a deacon in the church, and .office in his native town. His inherited 

• ''' was very desirous of giving powers of mind and untiring devotion to 

•' . ; 1 his son a collegiate educa- his profession caused him to rise ra 

X:':-//:^ tion, hoping that he would ; in public esteem. 

'.; ; : become a minister of the In October, 1764, Mr. Adams married 

V ' gospel. But, as up to this Miss Abigail Smith, daughter of a clergy- 

:- >: time, the age of fourteen, he had. been only man at Weymouth and a lady of ra 

a play-boy in the fields and forests, Ik h i sonal and intellectual endowments, who 

:■- .;; no taste for book-, he those far;::!!)-. On afterward conti much to 1 

being set to work, however, by his father band's celebrity. 

out iii the field, the ven '' ' : con- Soon the oppression of 1 

verted the boy into a lover ol ; • :• \meri lied its climax. The B 

Ai 1 dinghy at the age of si 11 1 merchanl an 
cntere ' 1 [ai vai ' • 

I % 1755, at the age ol f.y, high! I ' oppressive 1 

for integrity, 1 ;. ; . ' ' mis heard the at nent, id 

having no i apit; 11 lis ed , 1 rward w: ing I he 

s: . . ■ : ; i j ' >"s: "Otis was a 

• . : of great polit Franc* I : 11 imc of fin . With . ; : ;;ide of 

En " h, 

. ■ • \ e 1 ■ o ver [ 1 ; 
the N T e\ ' W' irld. Tl 





prophetic glance into futurity, he hurried 
away all before him. American 
was then and there born. E\ 

immensely crowded audi 

me to go away, as 1 did, ready to take up 


Soon Mr. Adams wrote an essay to be 
read before the literary club of his town, 
upon the state of affairs, which was so able 
as to attract public attention. It was pub- 
lished in American journals, republished 
in England, and was pronounced by the 
friends of the colonists there as " one of the 
ver_ybest productions ever seen from North 

The memorable Stamp Act was now 
issued, and Adams entered with all the 
ardor of his soul into political life in order 
to resist it. lie drew up a series of reso- 
lutions remonstrating against the act, which 
were adopted at a public meeting of the 
citizens of Braintree, and which were sub- 
sequently adopted, word for word, by more 
than forty towns in the State. Populai 
commotion prevented the landing of the 
Stamp Act papers, and the English author- 
ities then closed the courts. The town of 
Boston therefore appointed Jeremy Grid- 
ley, James Otis and John Adams to argue a 
petition before the Governor and council 
for the re-opening of the courts; and while 
the two first. mentioned attorneys based 
their argument upon . 

the | ■ iple by the measui c, Adam 
claimed that the Stamp Act \v 
both of the English Constitution ;u 1 the 
chartt r ol the Pi i ivinces. ft is said tl 

; the first dii 1 the un- 

limil .1 rig lit ' ; I '. I < the col 

nies. Si >on aft 

Dire< tly M r. Ad ims v as i 
defend Ansell Nickerson, who 1] d 

: O I i I : : ' 
itO 1 

client was court 1 

It • : infamous 

igative of impressment could 
have no existence in the colonial code. 
Bu1 in 1770 Messrs. Adams and Josiah 
rty of British soldiers 
! who had be en a ■ er when 

th< y had been only obeying Governmental 
orders; and when reproached for thu 
parentl) ! ;erting the cause of 
liberty, Mr. Adams replied that he would a 
idfold 1 ; : r live under the domina- 
tion of the worst of England's kings than 
, under that of a lawless mob. Ni 

. ng a term as a member of the Colonial 
Legislature from Boston, Mr. Adams, find- 
1 ing his health affected by too great labor, 
retired to his native home at Brai I 

The year 177.5. soon arrived, with its fa- 
mous Boston " Tea Party," the fir; 
act of rebellion. Adams was sent to the 
ress at Philadelphia; and when the 
Attorney-General announced that Great 
Britain had "determined on 1 iv sysl :m, 
and that her power to execute it was irre- 
'' sistible," Adams replied : " I know that 
Great Britain has determined on her sys- 
■ tern, and that very del : deter- 

me on mil Y kn w that I have 

b 1, constant in my opposition to her 
ires. The die is now cast. I have 
passed the Rubicon. Sink or swim, live or 
iVtth my country, : ; 1 
1 ination." '1 
at 1 

, Ad 

1 vised 

it . 

he was advised to 1 

■ 1 ' . 

i in her \ or Hill 

PR UD fj 

came on. Congress had to do something 
immediately. The first thii s 
choose a commander-in-chief for the— we 
can't say "army "—the lighting men of the 
colonics. The New England delegation 
was almost unanimous in favor of apj 
ing General Ward, then at the head of the 
Mas ;achusetts forces, but Mr. Adams uroed 
the appointment of George Washington, 
then almost unknown outside of his own 
State. Me was appointed without oppo- 
sition. Mr. Adams offered the resolution, 
which was adopted, annulling all the royal 
authority in the colonies. Having thus 
prepared the way, a few weeks later, viz., 
June;, I7;6, Richard Henry Lee, of Vir- 
ginia, who a few months before had declared 
that the British Government would aban- 
don its oppressive measures, now offered 
the memorable resolution, seconded by 
Adams, '-that these United States are, and 
of right ought to be, free and independent." 
Jefferson, Adams, Franklin, Sherman and 
Livingston were then appointed a commit- 
tee to draught a declaration of independ- 
ence. Mr. Jefferson desired Mr. Adams 
to draw up the bold document, but the 
latter persuaded Mr. Jefferson to perform 
that responsible task. The Declaration 
drawn up, Mr. Adams became its foremost 
defender on the floor of Congress. It was 
signed by all the fifty-five members present, 
and the next day Mr. Adams wrote to his 
wife how great a deed was done, and how 
proud hi wasof it. Mr. Adams continued 
to be the leading man of Congress, an I 
the 1 ading advocate of American i 
P« nch i . . Above all otl i Ami i ' 
he wa considered by c\ :ry 01 th 
cipal shining mark for British veng 
Thus ( ircum Lanc< d, he was ap 
the most dangerous task oi i 
oc< : n in winter, expo . ; i o < < 
British, who knew of hi . which ' 
was to visil Paris and sol 
tion '■ t ! "' L> i h. Besidi 


self away from the country of which he 
prominent defender, at that 
: ' tl time, ivas an act of the; i 
! sacrifice. Sure enough, while crossing the 
s< a. he had two very narrow escapes from 
capture ; and the transit was others i ■■ a 
! stormy and eventful one. During the 
j summer of 1779 he returned home. | 
J immediately dispatched back to France, to 
j be in readiness there to negotiate : 
j peace and commerce with Great Britain as 
; soon as the latter power was ready for such 
business. But as Dr. Franklin was more 
j popular than heat the court of France, Mr. 
I Adams repaired to Holland, where he was 
j far more successful as a di; ; 

The treaty of peace between the United 
j States and England was finally signed at 
Paris, January 21, 17S3; and the re-action 
from so great excitement as Mr. Ada 1 
so long been experiencing threw him into 
a dangerous fever. Before he fully re- 
covered he was in London, whence he was 
dispatched, again to Amsterdam to negoti- 
ate another loan. Compliance with this 
order undermined his physical constitution 
for life. 

In 17S5 Mr. .Adams was appointed envoy 
to the court of St. James, to meet 
face the very king who had regard, 
as an arch traitor! Accordingly he re- 
paired thither, where he did actually meet 
and converse with George III.! A 
1 dence there for al I 

obtained permission to ret 
While in London he wrote . 1 
an abl ■ v ork, in thr 
•• A J > ; 

["he J of C 

C01 stituiii 1 1 

and A 


•j : f/A ■ : 

uildings should be erected at the new 
apital in the District of Columbia. Mr. 
kdams then moved his family to Phila- 

lphia. Toward the close of his term of 

lice the French Revolution culminated, 
■hen Adams and Washing-ton rather 
empathized with England, and Jefferson 
•ith France. The Presidential election oi 
;o6 resulted in giving Mr. Adams the first 

ace by a small majority, and Mr. Jeffer- 

>n the second place. 

Mr. Adams's administration was consci- 
ntious, patriotic and able. The period 
•as a turbulent one, and even an archangel 
ould not have reconciled the hostile par- 
es. Partisanism with reference to Eng- 
ind and France was bitter, and for four 
ears Mr. Adams struggled through almost 

constant tempest of assaults. In fact, he 
*as not truly a popular man, and his cha- 
rin at not receiving a re-election was so 
reat that he did not even remain at Phila- 

ilphia to witness the inauguration of Mr. 
efferson, his successor. The friendly 
itimacy between these two men was 
iterrupted for about thirteen years of their 
fe. Adams finally made the first advances 
sward a restoration of their mutual friend- 
hip, which were gratefully accepted by 

Mr. Adams was glad of his opportunity 
) retire to private life, where he could rest 
is mind and enjoy the comforts of home. 
>y a thousand bitter experiences he found 
te path of public duty a thorny one. For 
iventy-six years his service of the public 
-as as arduous, self-sacrificing and devoted 
s ever fell to the lot of man. In one im- 
portant sense he was as muc h the " Father 
f his Country'' as was Washington in 
nother sense. During these long yi 
nxiety and toil, in which he was laying. 
road and dee;.', the foundations of the 

greatest nation the sun ever shone upon, he 
, received from his impoverished country a 
, meager support. The only privilege lie 
j carried with him into his retirement was 
| that of franking hi? letters. 

Although taking no active part in public 
j affairs, both himself and his son, John 
; Ouincy, nobly supported the policy of Mr. 
; Jefferson in resisting the encroachments of 
England, who persisted in searching 
American ships on the high seas and 
dragging from them any sailors that might 
be designated by any pert lieutenant as 
British subjects. Even for this noble sup- 
port Mr. Adams was maligned by thou- 
| sands of bitter enemies ! On this occasion, 
for the first time since his retirement, he 
; broke silence and drew up a very able 
j paper, exposing the atrocity of the British 
j pretensions. 

Mr. Adams outlived nearly all his family. 
! Though his physical frame began to give 
| way many years before his death, his mental 
i powers retained their strength and vigor to 
j the last. In his ninetieth year he was 
j gladdened by the popular elevation of his 
| son to the Presidential office, the liio-hest in 
j the gilt of the people. A few months more 
j passed away and the 4th of July, 1826, 
! arrived. The people, unaware of the near 
; approach of the end of two great lives — 
I that of Adams and Jefferson — were making 
: unusual preparations for a national holiday. 
: Mr. Adams lay upon his conch, lis; 1 

the ringing of bells, the waftures of martial 
; music and the roar of cannon, with 
emotion. (Jul)- four d; I e, he Lad 

given for a public toast, " Indepi I 
forever." About two (/clock in the after- 
n< " m he said, "And J e m still survive: ." 

But he was mistaken by an hour or so; 
i and in a few minutes he had breathed his 
i last. 


buildings should be erected al the new j 
capital in the District of < ira ia. Mr. j 
Adams then moved his. family to 
delphia. Toward the close of his b 
office the French Revolution culmin; 
when Adams and Washington r; 
sympathized with England, and Jel 
with France. The Presidential election oi 
1796 resulted in giving Mr. Adams the first I 
place by a small majority, and Mr. Jeffer- 
son the second place. 

Mr. Adams's administration was < 
entious, patriotic and able. The p< 
was a turbulent one, and even an archai 
could not have reconciled the hostile par- 
ties. Partisanism with reference to Eng- j 
land and France was bitter, and for four . 
years Mr. Adams struggled through almost '. 
a constant tempest of assaults. In fact, he 
was not truly a popular man, and his cha- J 
grin at not receiving a re-election was so 
great that he did not even remain at Phila- 
delphia to witness the inauguration of Mr. 
Jefferson, his successor. The friendly 
intimacy between these two men was , 
inu 1 1 upted for about thirteen years of their 
life. Adams finally made the first advances | 
toward a restoration of their mutual friend- i 
ship, which were gratefully accepted by 
J< ffe rson. 

Mr. Adams was glad of his opportunity 
to retire to private life, where he could rest 
his mind ai d ei ; »y the co orts of home. 
By a thousand bitter experiences he 
the path of public duly a thorny one. Foi 
twenty-six vears his service of the 
v as ; arduous, sel ai 
as ever fell to the lot of man. In 1 
portant ■ ■ \ > much the "] 1.1 

of his Country" as was Washii 

se I ; ■ • 

anxiety and toil, in which 1 : ' ■• 

broad and deep, tl foun of the 

greatesl nation the sun c vc r shi 

lied country a 
■1. The only privilege he 
with him into his retiremenl 
that of franl t< rs. 

Although 1 . live part in public 

affairs, both himself and his son. John 
Quincy, n il h 5upj irted tl \ -hoy of Mr. 
Jefferson in : encroachments of 

England, who persisted in se.,. 
American ships on the high seas and 
dragging from them any sailo 
be designated by any pert lieutenant as 
British subjects. Even for this noble sup- 
port Mr. Adams was maligned by thou- 
sands of bitter enemies ! On this o< 
for the first time since his retirement, he 
broke silence and drew up a vo 
paper, exposing the atrocity of the British 

Mr. Adams outlived nearly all his family, 
rhough his physical frame began to give 
way many years before his death, his mental 
powers retained their strength and vigor to 
the last. In Ids ninetieth year S. 
gladdened by the popular elevation of his 
son to the Presidential office, the hi 
the gift of the peoj le. AI 
passed away and the 4th of July, 1826, 
\ arrived. The people, unaware of the near 
approach of the end of two great lives— 
I that of Adams and J were making 

I pre] ati Dns for a national I 
Mr. Adams lay upo h 
the ringii 
music and the 
emotion. (.July four 
coven . toast, " Independ 


ill urvives." 
But he was 1 
and in a 

exts of the ux/ted status. 


mm ■ 





■ '.; : I O M A S J E F F E R- 
■ 'l son, the third Presi- 
dent of the United 
"J State?, 1S01-9, was 
'■J born April 2, 1743, 
;";' the eldest child of 
his parents, Peter 
and Jane (Randolph) Jef- 
ferson, near Charlottes- 
ville, Albemarle County, 
Virginia, upon the slopes 
of the Blue Ridge. When 
he -was fourteen years of 
age, his father died, leav- 
ing a widow and eight 
children. She was a beau- 
tiful and accomplished 
lady, a good letter-writer, with a fund of 
humor, and an admirable housekeeper. His 
part nts : ■ :h >ng< I to the Church of I 1 
and are said to be of Welch origin. But 
little is known of them, however. 

Thomas was natu his turn 

of 1 I, apt to 1 1, ; I a I 
school, his choice studies being mal 
ics and the classic s. Al ol seven- 

teen he entered Willi 
in ;:;. ad\ cl and i 

tyle, co , bei 

n of his stamina o 

But during in : set id ye; 

society, his horses and even his favorite 
violin, and devoti I thenceforward fifteen 
hours a day to hard stud}-, becoming ex- 
traordinarily proficient in Latin and Greek 

On leaving college, before he was twenty- 
one, he commenced the stud}- of law, and 
pursued it diligently until he was well 
qualified for practice, upon which he 
entered in 1767. By this time he was also 
versed in French, Spanish, Italian and An- 
glo-Saxon, and in the criticism of the fine 
arts. Being very polite and polished in his 
= rs, he won the friendship of all 

:. Though able with his pen, he was 
not fluent in public speech. 

In 176 he hosen a member of the 

in Legislature, and wa- the 
slave-h 1 iber of that bod v. lie 

tl ii !a\ ;, but il rejected 

In i;- with a great 

? at SI burned, 

. 1 

• repl it,; 


■ ■ 

hy and ; 




young widow, who owned 40, 
land and 130 slaves; yet h ■ ' assidu- 

ously for the abolition of slavery. Foi 1 is 
new home he selected a majestic rise of 
land upon his large c: tate at Shadu 11, 
called Monticello, whereon he erected a 
mansion of modest yctelegant architecture. 
Here he lived in luxury, indulgii ; hi l 
in magnificent, high-blooded hot 

At this period the British Government 
gradually became more insolent and op- 
pressive toward the American colonies, 
and Mr. Jefferson was ever one of the most 
foremost to resist its encroachments. From 
time to time he drew up resolutions of re- 
monstrance, which were finally a 
thus proving his ability as a statesman and 
as a leader. By the year 1774 he became 
quite busy, both with voice and pen, in de- 
fending the right of the colonies to defend 
themselves. His pamphlet entitled: "A 
Summary View of the Rights of British 
America," attracted much attention in Eng- 
land. The following year he, in company 
with George Washington, served as an ex- 
ecutive committee in measures to defend 
by arms the State of Virginia. As a Mem- 
ber of the Congress, he was not a speech- 
maker, yet in conversation and upon 
committees he was so frank and decisive 
that he always made a favorable impression. 
But as late as the autumn of 1775 he re- 
maim d in hopes of reconciliation with the 
parent country. 

At length, howe\ er, the hour ai . d 
draughting the " Declaration of li 
dence," and this responsible task was de- 
volved upi m Jeffc rson. Fi klin, 
Adams su; . tei a fi verbal o ctioi 
I submitted to < on tcss, which 

■ as Ju . '. 1; ■ ■ ■ : '. : d I it 

was adopted. Di he tin 

the fiery ordeal of critici: I h 
it 1 d in Con Sir. J 

: lips. John 

e cb 

i I Congress. The signing of this d 

mn and m >mentous 

i< 'iis ever ai; . man. Prayer 

and silcn 1 ! throughoul the hall, 

tch signer realized that if American 
not finally sustained by 
a: ms he was do 1 d •.■ 1 the Ti Id. 

After the colonies became independent 
States, Jefferson resigned for a time ! 
in Congress in order to aid in organizing 

1 eminent of Virginia, of which State 
he was chosen Governor in 1779, when he 
was thirty-six years of age. At this time 
the British had possession of G »n 
were invading Strath Carolina, and at one 
time a British officer, Tarlcton, sent a 
secret expedition to Monticello to capture 
the Governor. Five minutes after Mr. 
Jefferson escaped with his family, his man- 
sion was in possession of the enemy ! The 
British troops also destroyed his valuable 
plantation on the James River. " Had they 
carried off the slaves," said Jefferso 

; eristic magnanimil y, " to gi\ 
freedom, they would have done right." 

The year 1781 was a glo 1 for the 

Virginia Governor. Wh -d to his 

secluded home in th I y a sick and 

dying wife, a party arose again 
tin oughoul the State, ly criticising 

it se as Governor. B< '■ 
tive to re] I niched him to the 

quick, and 1 
rounding \ 

lived, in despaii , t< 1 , 

for the rest of his days. For w< i 


. during 
sent to 

to duty. 


nintry ! .Alter her 

ible 1 
he nevi 


•(■cover ! 

I a I before he could I 
equilibrium. He was n 
second time. 

In the spring of 1782 the people of Eng- 
land compelled their kin:;- to make to the 
Americans overtures of peace, and in No- 
vember following, Mr. Jefferson was reap- 
pointed by Congress, unanimously and 
without a single adverse remark, minister 
plenipotentiary to negotiate a treaty. 

In March, 1784, Mr. Jefferson was ap- 
pointed on a committee to draughl a plan 
for the government of the Northwestern 
Territon*. llis slavery-prohibition clause 
in that plan was stricken out by the pro- 
slavery majority of the committee; but amid 
all the controversies and wrangles of poli- 
ticians, he made it a rule never to contra- 
dict anybody or engage in any discussion 
as a debater. 

In company with Mr. Adams and Dr. 
Franklin, Mi'. Jefferson was appointed in 
May, 1784, to act as minister plenipotentiary 
in the negotiation of treaties ol coi micro 
with foreign nations. Ace ordingly, he went 
to Paris and satisfactorih accomplished Ins 
mission. The suavity and high bearing of 

in France. G 


his manner in 

and even Mi 

to her siste 

of the earth, 

he received, both ; 

secmei 1 to make no c 



rench his friends; 

one time wrote 

he wa.s " the chosen 

all the honors that 

t home . I 


of his republii an ta ,tes. ( )n his rctui n to 

1 Lwo pari 

I ' , Mr..- 1 

sy i that i i vur of En 

and him elf lavoi 

On the iuauij it; ait* >'.\ ui < 
ington as P 

I ■■ 
State. At tl 
French Rcvolu I 

Washi I it 

i i ■ . . • 

Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury, wa.s 
th( leader of the so-called Federal party, 
while Mr. Jefferson was the leader of the 
Republican party. At the same tim 
wa.s a strong monarchical party in this 
country, with, which Mr. Adams sympa- 
thized. Some important financial measures, 
which were proposed by Hamilton and 
finally adopted by the cabinet and approved 
by Washington, were opposed by Mr. 
Jefferson; and his enemies then began to 
! reproach him with holding office under an 
I administration whose views he opposed. 
i The President poured oil on the 1 
! waters. On his re-election to the Presi- 
' dency lie desired Mr. Jefferson to remain 
! in the cabinet, but the latter sent in his 

■ resignation at two different limes, probably 
i because he was dissatisfied with some of 
i the measures of the Government. His 
I final one was not received until January 1, 
1 1794, when General Washington parted 

■ from him with great regret. 

Jefferson then retired to Ids quit 
i at Monticello, to enjov a good rest, not even 
I reading the newspapers lest the po 
1 gossip should disquiet him. On the Presi- 
, dent's again callin r " him back to th 
1 of Secretary of State, he replied tl 
: circumstances would ever again ten 

age in anything public! Put, while 
all Europe was ablaze with war, and France 
in the throes of a bl od> re v li 
principal theater of th confli t, a new 
1 election in this c 
I on. John Adams was the 1 

; the ] 

can en ididate. 'J 

. f 1 
the 1 
President. In this 1 

lly 1 ; ; • ■ 1 il 

rty strife. He 

constitul • I ns re- ' a 

, . ,:- : , U r long years his Vic 
dency | ™*Y> wh 

partisan strife between 1 
publican was ever gr v 
former party split 
fourth general election was the- 
Mr. Jefferson to the Presidency! with 
Aaron Burr as Vice-President. i 
being at the head of a growing party, 
election was hailed ever. 
On the other hand., many of the Fed 
turned pale, as they believed what; 
of the pulpit and the press had been pr 
ins:— that Jefferson was a ' 
a "Jacobin," the "incarnation of all evil, 
'•breathing threatening and slaughter'. ' 

Mr. Jefferson's inaugural address con- 
tained nothing but the noblesl • 
expressed in fine language, and his pei 
behavior afterward exhibited the c-> 
i of American, democratic • ty. His 

: disgust of European court etiquette 
I upon him with age. He believed 
: General Washington was somewhat dis- 
1 trustful of the ultimate success i 

■ Government, and that, imbued with; 
*. admiration of the forms of a monarchical 

• Government, he had instituted lev, es, 
>: days, pompous meetings with Co-. 

etc. Jefferson was always .even to 

• slaves every w here he met them, and c 
- in his countenance the indications of an ac- 

'.i commodating di 

; i The po 

« an party now swepl tin 

Jefferson himself swayed an infh 

■ ws 
Un • :i : tration.in iS , 

' isianapui was i 

the "Louisiana Tern 

■ uuul west oi the Miss 
v to the 1 >ccan. 

The year iS 
loss in hi family. Hi 

and died, causii 

im to 

y , with George Clinton as Vice- 


became m 
. iSo;, near 


ten wounded. F< P ara " 

lent. II 
lent that war was determined upon by 

cans . 

ghseas. Befoi 

, was reached, Mr. 


ire of his family 
for the time when 

in. There.. Monticel 
.cement hie v; similar to th I 

at Mt. Vernon. His hospi- 
tality toward I ,ndn1 ' 

tv, etc., finall 

■ summer, 

r, Mrs. 




■ - . 



— - - -^ -., 

• • 


,. 'AMES MADISON, the 
V ':•; fourth President of the 

Ac United States, iSc^-'i/, 
; : a- was born at Port Con- 

way, Prince George 
'■7 ._ • .. ../;■' County, Virginia, March 

1 6, 1 75 1. His f: 
■ Colonel Jam A A on, was 

£% a wealthy plantei , r< si 

upon a very fine estate 
called •• Montpelier," only 
/ twenty-five miles from the 
home of Thomas J 
; •' ; at M' mticello. The 
... A pers onal and 
^ tachment existed b 
■;is men from t A- : - 
' :ath. 

. ■ 

of ' 


lie mad 





acter of the utmost purity, and a mind 
disciplined and stored with all the 
learning which embellisl gave effi- 

ciency to his subsequent career. After 
graduating he pursued a course of reading 
for several months, under the guidance of 
President Weatherspoon, and in 1772 re- 
turned to Virginia, where he . 

nt study for two years, n . 
directed to the law, but really including 
extended researches in th , ] hiloso- 

phy and general literature. 

The Church of England, was the estab- 
lished church in Virginia, invested with all 
the pre; and immunities which it 

1 A I and 1 ther de- 

or wrongly ch 1 







// ,, ,/, , ,r^ 


! ' 


In 1776 he was 
Virginia Co n . . 

tion of the State. Like Jefferson, 1 
but Utile part in the public debat Hi 
main stn I ' in his con\ 1 
fluence and in his pen. In November, 1777, 
he was chosen a me he Co 

State, and in March, 17S0, took his 
the Continental Congress, where he first 
gained prominence through his energetic 
opposition to the issue of paper m 
the States. He continued in Congress three 
years, one of its most active and influential 

In i;-S; Mr. Madison was elected a mem- 
ber of the Virginia Legislature. lie ren- 
dered important service by promoting and 
participating in thai revision of the itatut 
which effectually abolished the rem:; 
the feudal system subsistent up to that 
time in the form of entails, primogeniture, 
and Stale support given the Ai 
Church; and his " Memorial and Remon- 
strance" against a general assessment for 
the support of religion is one of the al h 5t 
papers which emanated from his pen. It 
settled the question of the entire separati >n 
of church and State in Virginia. 

Mr. Jefferson says of him, in allusi in to 
the study and experience through which he 
had already passed : 

'• Trained in these successive scho 
acquired a habit oi If 
placi 1 at] I)- co 
of h is lu m 
of his c ' iation, and rend I 

.'■ ■ 
le r i ng f r < 

tion, it 1 


ties and 

Nat i on 


' new Constil 1 1 1 

die palm against the logic of G 

oi Patrick 
Henry. With th 

were united a pure and spotless virtue 

which no calumny has ever attei i] . , , 

' sully. Of the pow r and ] 1 of his pen, 

and of the wisdom of his adn 

tl high t ofl f th rial >n, I y 

1 nothing. They have spoken, and will for- 

I ever speak, for themselves." 

In January, 17S6, Mr. Madison I 
: initiative in pi'O] 
I Commissioners to devise measures for more 

ry commercial relations I 
I the States. A meeting was held at An- 
flis to discuss this subject, and but five 
,v ere rep resented. The convention 
issued 11, drawn up by Mr. Madi- 

son, urging al heir delc- 

! gates to Philadelphia, in May, 17S7, to 
lit a Constitution for the United 
States. The delegates met at the time ap- 
; pointed, every State except R.h ide Island 
being i pi m 1. George 
was chosen president of the con . 
and the present Consi United 

J States was then and thei 
was no mind and no pen . in 

mind and 1. He was, 

, its te ii 

Mr. Madison wa 

y. . 





. ! : 


fres/dexts of run ux/ted sta'j v 

jf . 

Lhe fortune of our political bark." 
Bu1 Mr: Madison declined to be a candi- 
date. His term in Congress had expired, 
and he returned from New York to his 
beautiful retreat at Montpelier. 

In 1794 Mr. Madison married a young 
widow of remarkable powers of fascination 
— Mrs. Todd. Her maiden name was Doro- 
thy Paine. She was born in 1767, in Vir- 
ginia., of Quaker parents, and had been 
clue red in the strictest rules of that sect. 
When but eighteen years of age she married 
a young lawyer and moved to Philadelphia, 
where she was introduced to brilliant scenes 
of fashionable life. She speedily laid aside 
the dress and address of the Quakeress, and 
became one of the most fascinating ladies 
of the republican court. In New York, 
I he death of her husband, she was the 
belle of the season and was surrounded with 
admirers. Mr. Madison won the prize. 
She proved an invaluable helpmate. In 
Washington she was the life of society. 
If there was any diffident, timid young 
girl just making her appearance, she 
found in Mrs. Madison an encouraging 

During the stormy administration of John 
Adams Madison remained in private life, 
but was the author of the celebrated " Reso- 
lutions of 179S," adopted by the Virginia 
Legislature, in condemnation of the Alien 
and Sedition laws, as well as of the " report" 
in which he defended those resolutions, 
which is, by many, considered his ablest 
State paper. 

The storm passed away; the Alien and 
S diti 1 laws were repealed. John Adams 

office during the eight years of Mr. Jefler- 

As Mr. Jefferson was a widower, and 
neither of his daughters could be often with 
him. Mrs. Madison usually presided over 
the festivities of the White House; and as 
her husband succeeded Mr. Jefferson, hold- 
ing his office for two terms, this remarkable 
woman was the mistress of the presidential 
mansion for sixteen years. 

Mr. Madison being entirely engrossed by 
the cares of his office, all the duties of so- 
cial life devolved upon his accomplished 
wife. Never were such responsibilities 
more ably discharged. The most bitter 
foes of her husband and of the administra- 
tion were received with the frankly prof- 
fered hand and the cordial smile of wel- 
come; and the influence of this gentle 
woman in allaying the bitterness of party 
rancor became a great and salutary power 
in the nation. 

As the term of Mr. Jefferson's Presidency 
drew near its close, part}' strife was roused 
to the utmost to elect his successor. It was 
a death-grapple between the two great 
parties, the Federal and Republican. Mr. 
Madison was chosen President by an elec- 
toral vote of 122 to 53, and was inaugurated 
March 4, 1S09, at a critical period, when 
the relations of the United States with Great 
Britain were becoming embittered, and his 
first term was passed in diplomatic quarrels, 
aggravated by the act of non-intercourse of 
May, 1810, and finally resulting in a decla- 
ration of war. 

On the iSth of June, 1812, Presidenl 
.Madison gave his approval to an act 

lost his re-election, and in 1S01 Thomas Jef- j Co i§ n ; declaring war against Great Brit- 

ferson was chosen President. 
action in public sentiment 


reat re- 

il 1 

Jefte 1 m in the presidential chair \va: 

ly owing; to the writings of Madison, who 

ain. Notwitl the latter hostility 

of the Federal party to the war, the 
in general ap !; and in the autumn 

• as re-elected to the Presi I 1 ■ 

was consequently well entitled to the post ; by ■ '•■ toral voles to 89 in favoi oi 

of S . of Stale. With G 1 Clinton. 

he 1 duties of this responsible j March 4, 18 17, Madison yielded the Presi- 


. the fortune of our political bark." 
But Mr.- Madison declined to be a candi- 
date. His term in Congress bad expired, 
and he returned fn m Mew York to bis 
beautiful retreat al Montpelicr, 

In 1794 Mr. Madison married a young 
widow of remarkable powers of fascination 
— Mrs. Todd. H^v maiden name was Doro- 
thy Paine. She was born in 1767, in Vir- 
ginia., of Quaker parents, and had been 
educated in the strictesl rules of that sect. 
When but eighteen years of age she married 
a young lawyer and moved to Philadelphia, 
where she was introduced to brilliant scenes 
of fa mionable life. She speedily laid ; : le 
the dress and address of the Quakeress, and 
became one of the most fascinating ladies 
of the republican court. In New York, 
after the death of her husband, she was the 
belle of the season and was surrounded with 
admirers. Mr. Madison won the prize. 
.She proved an invaluable helpmate. In 
Washington she was the life of society. 
If there was any diffident, timid young 
girl just making her appearance, she 
found in Mrs. Madison an encouraging 

During the stormy administration of John 
Adams Madison remained in private life, 
but was the author of the celebrated " Reso- 
lutions of 179S," adopted by the Virginia 
Legislature, in condemnation of the Alien 
and Sedition laws, as well as of the " rep >rt" 
in which he defended those resol 
which is, by many, considered hi: 
State paper. 

The storm passed away ; the VI 
Sedition laws were repealed, J hn 
lost his re-election, and in 1S01 Thorn | 
ferson was chosen President. '1 
a. lion in public sentiment whir!; eal I 
fei on in the pi r \ 

ly owing to the ,vi itin ■ ' I 
was con quently well ei I p 

of S< en tary of Stal :. With 
he 1 ies of this res] 

the eight years of Mr. Jeffer- 
son's administration. 

As Mr. Jefferson was a widower, and 
diters could be often with 
him, Mrs. Madison usually presided over 
;' tivities of the White House; and as 

her husband succeeded Mr. Jefferson, hold- 
ing 1 • ■ foi two terms, this remarkable 
woman was the mistress of the presidential 
mansion for sixteen years. 

Mr. Madison being entirely engrossed by 
the cares of his office, al! the duties of so- 
cial life devolved upon his accomplished 
wife. Never were such responsibilities 
more ably discharged. The most bitter 
foes of her husband and of the administra- 
tion were received with the frankly prof- 
fered hand and the cordial smile of wel- 
come; and the influence of this gentle 
woman in allaying the bitterness of party 
rancor became a great and salutary power 
in the nation. 

As the term of Mr. Jefferson's Presidency 
drew near its close, party strife was roused 
to the utmost to elect his successor. It was 
a death-grapple between the two great 
parties, the Federal and Republican. Mr. 
Madison was chosen President by an elec- 
toral vote of 122 to 53, and was inaugurated 
March 4, 1S09, at a critical period, when 
the relations of the United States with Great 
Britain were becoming embittered, and his 
first I i diplo natic quarrels, 

aggravated by the act of non-intercourse of 
May, 1810, and finally re 
):•.' !■ »n of war. 

On the iSth of June, 1812, P.- 
M; : m gave 1 . >roval to an 

aim Ni twi hostility 

the war, th< 
icral ; - and in the 

ti was rc-t 

1 in favor of 

dcncy to Iks Secretary of Suae and iati- his eye fell i I iper. Comii 

mate friend, James Monri h, Mr. Madison 

csl ral cstat< at - 
1 as; sd the ev< nin: ; of his 
by attached friends and eujo\ 
merited respect of Lhe ion. He 

to • ": I asure in promoting agriculture, as 
presi ii of the county society ai d in 
watching the devel rpmen! of the Uni 
of Virginia, of which he was long rector and 
visitor. In extreme old age he sat in 1829 
as a member of the convention called to re- 
form the Virginia Constitution, where his 
appearance was hailed with the mo 
uine interest and satisfaction, though he 
was too infirm to participate in the active l 
work of revision. Small in stature, slender j 
and delicate in form, with a counl 
full of intelligence, and expressive alike of 
mildness and dignity, he attracted the ai I 
tion of all who attended the convention, j 
and was treated with the utmost deference. 

. r ; but 

hesitated, and not feel ified with the 

second word, 

at of the world. 

ilecism of which he 

abo guil y, when, in all si 

itv, he suggested a word. Probably no 

: would have taken 

■■ ■■ h ; liberty. But the sage, 

ig such an intrusion with a frown, 
raised his eyes to the boy's face with a 
p] , pri I said, ' Thank you. sir ; 

it is the very word,' and immediately in- 
serted it. I saw him the next day, and he 
mentioned the circumstance, with a compli- 
ment on the young critic." 

Mr. Madison died at Montpelier, June 28, 
1S3 , a1 the i lvanced age of eighty-five. 
While not possessing the highest order of 
talent, and deficienl in oratorical powers, 

'■ Daused to listen. His voice wa 

feeble though his enunciation u 

di - 

He seldom addres It! | he was pre-eminently a statesman, of a well- 

he always appeared self-] 1 I balanced mil 1. His attainments ^ 

watched with unflagging interest the prog- \ his knowledge copious, his j ' ?ener- 

ressof every measure. Though the con- ally sound, his powers of anal) 
vention sat sixteen weeks, he spoke only cal a1 ly 

twice; but when he did speak, lhe whole [ and literary style correct an I 

i ,-ersation witty, his temperamei 
guine and trustful, his integrity unques- 
tion ; his man rs simple, c< 

g. By these rare qualities he con- 
ted tl 

• J] 
ican state ;man in the • 
t ■. >.'■ ■:■:■/. 

. in the 


tinct. One of the reporters, Mr. Stansbury, 
relates the folio win • of Mr. Madi- 

it speech: 
" The next day. as thei 'as a 
for it, and tl 
for p . I i 

i ■ . : ' • ' '■ 
l lad ixteen, \ 

taken i '■ 

. ■■ 

Mr. M 





■ .■■ • 


. - 


:. • ■ • '■ '• • • • 

I - 


\ ':; President of the United 

[' Suites, i8l/-'25, \v; 

■ ' - in Westm Ireland Con 
. \ j% Virginia, April 2S, 1758, 

._.-,• He was a son of :■ 
?£■> Monroe, and a desi 

of a Scottish cavalier fam- 
ily. Like all lis 
sors thus far in the Presi- 
denl ial chair, he en} 
tli : ad . ; <\ educa- 

tion which the country 
could then afford. He was 
nt to a fine classical 

10I, and a tl \ of Six- 


en entered William and Mary Co 
In 1776, when he had been in colle, 
;«•>! two )-ears, the Declaration of L 

:< ■■;. \ . ; 

s, amunition orclothi 

Jai 1 t ( haste ; 1 

Genera] Wasi ':■■'' 

;t ill the 


At Trent'; 


■ : . ■': lie 




he stood by the side of Lafayette when the 
French Marquis r c •. I. ( 

eral Washington, who had formed a high 
idea of young Mom ' ity, sent him to 

Virginia to raise a new regiment, of which 
but so exhaust 

unsuccessful. He, however, received his 

Finding no opportunity to enter th 

\ he returned to his 
. of studying law, and entered 
the office of feffers >n, who was 

then Govern 

a very noble character, frank, manly and 
sincere. Mr. Jefferson > .' 1 ol him: 

ies Monroe is 
that if hi 

ind a spot on it." 
In 17S2 he was elected to the Ass 
her of the ] r . 



he fell 





& — />-?~^^ 

/ A?T^ ■' - v & 





thai ( shoul 

I cr cent. Tl 
red to n cc mmittee of which 1 
man. The report and 

:' led to the - ion of five 

States at Ann ipolis. and tli 

ution at PI 
in 17S7, drafted th Consl of the 

Unil 1 Stal 

At this time there was a controve ; 
: ■ 

reference to their boundaries. The high 
esteem in which C 
is i ' '..y the fact that he \\ 

I ' one of the judges to decide the 

controversy. While in New York . 
' married Miss Kortri 

;•; lady disl ' for her 

beauty andaccomj For 1 

fifty years this 3 

bn k 1. In London and in Paris, as in her 
.ntry, Mrs. Monr 
^tion by the love] 
son. brilliancy of her intellect, and the 

iiity of her character. 

ring to \~ : >nel Moiiroe 

commenced the practice of law at Freder- 

y soon eleel ' I 
scat in the State Legislature, ; 
year he was chose 1 
gin!:, c 
the Constituti 

to 1 I States. 

• ' 

he Consl 

thinking, \vi 


to the i 
In j 7S9 

as not 

I ticn \vi 


hich ruled the land. 

■ .en President. 
land had espoused the cause of the 
of the 
h Revoluti 

i )n of neutr 

tween these covr . • France 

Iped us in • le for our lib- 

; erties. All the despotisms of Europe were 

i now combined to prevent 

from escaping from ivranuv a thousandfold 

I M01 : magnanim . 

I hat we should help 
; our old allies in their extremity. He vio- 

as ungrateful and 


M on ] 

■ ' ■ he Minis- 








twccn the two nations. T\ e fln 

' ■ ■ publics wci c intei twined ■'.'■ 

■ •::'• a invention. Mr. Monn 

: ri( li colors, and receivei 
France in return. The course \vl 
pursued in 1 'aris w as si i amii >)'ing 
land and to the friends of Engl; 
this country that, near the clo I 

ington's administration, Mr. Monn 

Alter his return Colonel Monn 
book of 400 pages, entitled " A Vie 
Conduct of the Executive in Fori 
fairs." In this work he very abl}' advo- 
cated his side of the question; but, with 
the magnanimity of the man, he r< < 
warm tribute to the patriotism, ability and 
spotless integrity of John Jay, b 
whom and hii . was intense ; 

onism ; and in subsequent years he ex- 
pressed in warmest terms his p 
veneration for the character of G >rg( 

Shortly after his return to this country 
Colonel Monroe was elected Governor of 
Virginia, and held thai office for three 
years, the period limited by the Con itu 
lion. In 180.? he was an EnvO} r toFr; a 
and to Spain in 1805. and was Mini to 

England in 1803. In 1806 he retui 
his quiet home in Virginia, and with 
■., ih ; nd children and an ample 1 
from h : 

! n ' 1 Mi I 
office exp . iy of the R 

■ 1 -. . 

as his sin jority 

vor of Mr. I'm 

is soon afi 
1 a seco 
; ■ 



■ S T. t TES. 

[ any ] ul adjust- 

1 mcnt ivith the cal 

War was consequently d 

in June, iSi2. Immediately after the sack 

•■ of Washington lb S' tary of War re- 

1 signed, and Mr. Monroe, at the earnest 

t of Mr. M umed the ad- 

! duties of the War Department, 

ml resigning! ■ . as Secretary 

of State. It has been confidenth 

! that, had Mr. Mom .i.sbeenin the 

' War Departme earlier, the 

ter at Washin; i ild not hav< 

i & 


The duties now devolvingupon Mr. Mon- 
roe were extremely arduous. Ten thou- 
sand men, picked from the veteran 
of England, were senl with a powerful fleet 
to New Liirt ; iossession of 

ces were in the mo I 

The treasury was exhausted and our credit 
gone. And )et it was necessary to make. 
the [.rations to meet the 

foe. In this crisis James Monroe, the Sec- 
retary of War, with virtue unsurpassed in 
Gt k or Roman story, stepped forward 
and pledged his own individual cr 
subsidiary to that of the nation, and thus 
ing the city of New Or- 
leans in such a ; ■ istui e 1 if del 

Mr. truly I 




The happy result ol the > < 
Ghent in securing peace rendered the in- 
crease of the ai my u 

too much to say that James Monroi pla< ed 
in the hands of Andrew Jackson the 
weapon with which to beat oil the foe at 
New Orleans. Upon the return of peace 
Mr. Monroe resigned the department of 
war, devoting himself entirely to the duties 
of Secretary of State. These he continued 
to discharge until the close of President 
Madison's administration, with zeal which 
was never abated, and with an ardor of 
self-devotion which made him almosl for- 
getful of the claims of fortune, health or 

Mr. Madison's second term expired in 
March, 1817, and Mr. Monroe succeeded 
to the Presidency. Me was a candidate of 
the Republican party, now taking the name 
of the Democratic Republican. In 1S21 he 
was re-elected, with scarcely any oppi 
Out of 232 electoral votes, hereceh ' 131. 
The slavery question, which subsequent!) 7 
assumed such formidable dimensions, now 
began to make its appearance. The State 
of Missouri, which had been carved out of 
that immense territory which we had pur- 
chased of Prance, applied for admission to 
the Union, with a slavery Constitution. 
There were not a few who foresaw the 
evils impending. After the debate of a 
week it was decided thai Missouri could 
not be admitted into the Ui ; : . 1 
cry. '1 hisimp ■ < stion wasal length 

i ( ttled by a compromise propo? I I 
Henry ■ 

The is "Monroe Doctrin 

so mucl ' ; 1 1 I, o ted in this 

way: In rS 23 it was rum • ■ . ' th 

1 loly Alliance ^ about i 

: I lie 1 bl it 1 1 aibli 

lib : Euro] 1 colonies < ■: 

A. m rica. Pn : it Mi mroe wi 
old fii' 
■ ' 

■ ' a- 24, Mr. }■ iTerson writes upon the 

that « attempt to resist this 

might lead to war: 

" Its object is 1 itrodi ■ ■ ' tablisl 

; the Ami , ' . - it of our 

land ill foreign pi >\vers; of never permitting 

thi ise ol Eui inten with the 

ol our nat ion. It is to mainl; i 
own principle, not to depart fi 1 il ' 

mber 2, 1823, President Monroe 
1 sent a mi ring it to 

I be the policy of this Government not to 
entangle ourselves with the broils of Eu- 
rope, and not to allow ' interfere 
. with the affair.- of nations on the American 
J continent; and the doctrine was announced, 
thai any attempt on the part of the Euro- 
| pean powers "to extend their system to 
1 any portion of this hemisphere \ 
J regarded by the United States as danger- 
j ous to our peace and safe; v." 

March 4, 1825, Mr. Monroe surrendered 
the presidential chair to his Secretary of 
: State, John Quincy Adams, and retired, 
wiih the universal respect of the n; 
to his private residence ar Oal: Hill, Lou- 
doun County, Virginia. His time had been 
so entirely ci in 1 d to hi - intry, that 
he had neglected his pecuniary ii 
1 and was deeply involved in debt. The 
e of his c ■ . ; 

permost in his m 
For manv) . Monr 

hea tared in 

[11 1830 tool u^ his 

residen , : 

whei • Jul)-, 

i tizens \ r cw Y 

its more in 
■ . ; ■ 
Our c 
or)- with pri 

■ I 





. >m . - • ■ - 



V. . - '.: the sixth President of the 

""- United States, 1S25-9, 

was born in the rural 

home of his honon i 

'..,.• .'. , .:■ father, John Adams, in 

■ Q u i n c y , Massachu etts, 

July 1 1, 1767. Mis mother, 

■. j a woman of exalted worth, 

watched over Ids childhood j 

'■:■' ', during the almost constant I 

• . " J absence of his father. ! [1 

commenced his education ' 
i . \ ':'■. at the village school, gi\ ing 
at an early period indica- 
tions of superior mental en- ' 

When eleven years of age he saili d v. itli 
his fatherfor Europe, when th I tter was 
: ociated with Franklin and L< . Jin 
Plenipotentiary. Th 
Ouincy attracted the all 1 of 

■ ved fi 1 >m them flat! 
t ten . M r . A I 

to thi i iu nlr v in 1 ; ; ; 1 c I 
it ab fohn Q 

Out 1 lie con 

n diary. ■ 

! 1. I Ic 

1 Paris. ! ; 

' ; I ' 

his father to Holland, where he entered, 
first a school in Amsterdam, and then the 
University of Lcyden. In 17S1, when only 
fourteen years of age, he was selected by 
Mr. Dana, our Minister to the Russian 
court, as his private secretary. In this 
school of incessant labor he spent fourteen 
months, and then returned alone to ] I td 

through Sweden, Denmark, Hambu 
Bremen. Again he resumed his studies 
under a private tutor., at The Hague. 

In the spring of 1782 lie accompanied his 
father to Paris, forming acquaintance with 
the most distinguished men on the Conti- 
nent. After ashort visit to England 
turned to Paris and st : ! May, 

17S5, when he returned to America 
ing his father an emb ' at th 
ol Si James. In 1786 he entered the jun- 
ior class in I larva and 
i tli the second 1 I 
oration 1 lelivet 
the " Imp< 1 P 
f a Com 
I— an • in I 

lie studied 

lus 1 »rt. In 

1700 1 







J, 2. JLU 

• vj 

- . 

*>L'JXC)' . 

no clients, but not a i ' was lost, 

n d 

for support. Anxiously he awail 
third }-ear. I ■ .Cli- 

ents began to enter his office, - 
the end of the year he was so crowded 
with business that all solicitude respecting 
a • >rt was at an en I. 

When Great Britain commenced war 
against France, in 1793. Mr. Adams wrote 
some article-, urging entire neutrality on 
the part of the United St ■ ;. 1 he view 
was not a popular one. Many felt I 
France had helped us, we were bound to 
help France. But President W 
coincided with Mr. Adams, and issued 
proclamation of neutrality. His v. 
at this time in th( B jou 

him so high a reputation, that in June, 
1794. he was apj inted by Washin 
resident Minister at the Netherlands. In 
July, 1797, he left The Hague to go I 
ugal as Minister Plenipotentiary. Wash- 
ington at this time wrote t .1, John 

"Without intending to compliment the 
father or the mother, or to censure any 
others, I give it as my 
that Mr. Adams is the most valuable char- 
acter we have abroad; and there r 
no doubt in my mind that he wii 
ablest f ' di] 

On his way to Portugal uj n his arrival 
m, he met wil 
him to tl toil 




Mr. J ' 

in L 

it) . 1 1 

her to move in 1 

In July, 179 '"■'-' P ur ~ 

- he was chosen to the Sei 
Mass husetl and then was 

hiked State 
I I 

placed him 

liately among the most prominent 

and influential members of that body. He 

to the encroachments of Eng- 
land, destroying our commerce and i 
ing our flag. There was no man in America 
more familiar with the arrogance 
British court upon tl ; ' . and no 

one more resolved to pr 
ance. This course, so truly p: 
which scarcely a voice will now be found 
to condemn, alienated him from the Fed- 
eral party d , and sub- 
jected him to censure. 

In 1S05 Mr. A i: ms .. \ h 

■ ric in Harvard College. 1 ' 
ures at this place were fly pub- 

In 1S09 he 
Russia. He was one of 

that ::• -~ e w * tn 

: Great Brit:.' 

f St. J - in 1S15. In 1817 he 

Secret::- f State in Mr. Monroe's 

in which position h ight years. 

Few will now contradict the asserti 
the duties of I 




■ - 



ADAMS. 41 

and still he 

was depen 

dent up 1 

lis parents 

for sup 




■ hi 


third ye 


The rew; 



1 . 

me. Ch- 

ents beg 

an ' 

Lo enter 1 


6fli( e 

, a 

id 1 fore 

the end 

of • 

ihc year 





with bu 


ss that all 



le r 


no clients, but not a moment was lost. The In July, 1799, having fulfilled all the pur- ■ 

second year passed away, '. : n, Mr. Adams returned. 

In 1S02 he was chosen to the Senate of ; 
Mass ti hus> tl fn un B Ion, and then w; 

tor ol the United Slates foi si ; 
years from March 4, 1804. Hi reputatio 
his ability and his experience, placed him :♦:;♦; 
immediately among the most prominent ;♦;;♦; 
a support was at an end. and influential in I th t bod)', He : 

When Great Britain commenced war ' sustained the Government in its measures >♦>: 
against France, in 1793, Mr. Adams wrote of resistance to the encroachments of En 
sonic articles, urging entire neutrality on land, destroying 1 lerce and insult- 

the part of -the United States. The view ing our flag. There was no man in America : ;;.;;' 
was not a popular one. Many felt that as more familiar with the arrogance of tin 
France had helped us, we were bound to British court upon these points, and no s£*i 
help France. But President Washington one more resolved to present a fii 
coincided with Mr. Adams, and issued his ancc. This course, so truly patri 
proclamation of neutrality. His writings which scarcely a voice will now be found 
at this time in the Boston journals gave to condemn, alienated him from the Fed- 
him so high a reputation, that in June, eral party dominant in Boston, and sub- 
1794, he was appointed by Washington jected him to censure. 

resident Minister at the Netherlands. In , In 1805 Mr. Adams was chosen professor 
July, 1797, he left The Hague to go to Port- of rhetoric in Harvard C His lect- 

ugal as Minister Plenipotentiary. Wash- ! u res at this place were subsequently _ 
ingtonat this time wrote to his father, John ' lished. In 1S09 he was sent as Minister to 
Adams: Russia. He was one of the commissioners ;«;;*; 

"Without intending to compliment the tl liatcd the ti 

father or the mother, or to censure any ' Great Britain, signed December 24, 1 5 
others, I give it as my decided opinion, and he was appointed Minister to th< 
that Mr. Adams is the most valuable char- of Si. James in 1S15. In 1817 In I 
acter we have abroad; and there remains Secretary State in Mr. Mo 
no doubt in my mind that he will prove the in which position he r< eight; 

ablestofoun ic corps." Few will now contradict tin 

On his way to Portugal, upon his arrival the duties e were never n 

in London, he met with dispa direct bly d 

ing him to the court of Berlin, but request- portant measun 
ing him 1 L> melon until he should , ducted was the | 

receive tnsi V>. I e he Sj in 1 

was man i d to Miss Loui .a Cat 
son, to w In >m h : had been previously 1 

diss J 11 I iter 1 ■ 

Mr. [oshu; ! > • ■■>. '• ' 

and was a 1 1 '■ 

nit . and those 
whii : to move in tl ' ' 




Mr. Chn gave the ! 
Mi". Adams, a,,.! ',,■ : 

of Representatives 
vote of Kentucky 

was elected. 

The friends of all disappointed candidates 
now combined in a venomous assault upon 
Mr. Adams. There is nothing more dis- 
graceful in the past history of our country 
than the abuse which was poured in one i 
uninterrupted stream upon this hio-h- 
minded, upright, patriotic man. There was 
never an administration more pure in prin- 
ciples, more conscientiously devoted to the 
best interests of the country, than tint of 
John Ouincy Adams; and never, perhaps, 
was there an administration more unscru- 
pulously assailed. Mr. Adams took his seat | 
in the presidential chair resolved not to 
know any partisanship, but only to con- j 
suit for the interests of the whole Republic ' 
He refused to dismiss any man from of! ! 
fice for his political views. If he was a faith- ! 
ful officer that was enough. Bitter must 
have been his disappointment to find thai the 
Nation could not appreciate such conduct. | 
Mr. Adams, in his public manners was ' 
cold and repulsive; though with his per- ! 
sonal friends he was at times very genial. 
This chilling address very seriously 
tracted from his popularity. No one. can | 
read an impartial record of his administra- 
tion without admitting that a more noble j 
example of uncompromising dignity can I 
scarcely be found, ft. was stated pu 
that Mr. Adams' administration vva to 
P"t clown, "though it be as pun as the ; n 
•- 1 ' whi. h Hand n\ the right ! and ,| tl 

{,:) l ' f C >^-" Many of th< 

ticipant: i . tl , 5l lived to 

c°ui e thc 3 p ul .... 1. Som ■ ■ 
Warren R. Davis, of South Carolina, turn- 
'"S ! " Mr. Adams, then a member of the 
' lot e oi Represent itives, said: 

"^ d! '-' I rememb< r the cnthu 
Zeal wlLh vvhich "'« i n i. h I l c admin- : 
istration of that j 
and vehci 

• . 

■ : - another. For the share I had in 
these tran , and it wa; n >i 

0ne ' U">pe God will forgive me, for I shall 


March 4, iS: , Mr. Adams retired from 
thc Presidency and was succeeded bv An- 
drew Jackson, the latter receiving i6S out 
of 2u! electoral votes. John C. C 
was elected Vice-President. The slavery 
'i' ,; tion now began to assume pre- ti 
magnitude. Mr. Adams returned to 
Qumcy, and pursued his studies with una- 
bated zeal. But he was not long permitted 
to remain in retirement. In November 
r8 30, he was elected to Congress, in this 
he recognized the principle that it is honor- 
able for the Genera! of yesterday to act as 
Corporal to-day. if by so doing he can ren- 
der service to his country. Deep 
our obligations to John Quince Adams for 
his services as embassador, as" Secretary o[ 
State and as President; in his capa 
legislator in thc House of Representa- 
tives, he conferred benefits upon cur land 
t which eclipsed all the rest, and which can 
I never be over-estimated. 

For seventeen years, until his death, he 
"-' ll P ied lh c post of Representative, tow- 
: cring above all his pe ers, ever reach to do 
brave battle for freedom, am! winning the 
title of "the old man eloquent." U 
taking his scat in the Pious,, he announced 
thi I he ;ho ild I ' ' und to no 1 

party. He was usually tl i ;t " , his 

his seat in the evening. >.,.- . . urc 

is scrutiny. T 

1 ■ t, was 

For persisti 

• ■ . 



' ■- 

■('// X . '.Yd 

On one occasion .Mr. Adams 
petition, signed by several wo 
the annexation of Texas for the ; 

il up into -lave States. Mr. How- 
ard, of Man-land, said that tl 
discredited not only themselves, but their 
section of the country, by turning from 
their domestic duties to the conflicts of po- 
litical life. 

"Are women," exclaimed Mr. Adams, 
" to have no opinions or actions on subjects 
relating- to the general welfare? Where 
did the gentleman get his principle ? Did 
he find it in sacred history, — in the language 
of Miriam, the prophetess, in one of the 
noblest and sublime songs of triumph that 
ever met the human eye or ear? Did the 
gentleman never hear of Deborah, to whom 
the children of Israel came up fo 
ment ? Has he forgotten the deed of Jael, 
who slew the dreaded enemy of her coun- 
try ? Has he forgotten Esther, who, by her 
petition saved her people and her coun- 

" To go from sacred history to profane, 
does the gentleman there find it 'discredita- 
ble ' for women to take an interest in politi- 
cal affairs? Has he forgotten the Spartan 
mother, who said to her son when g ling 
out to battle, ' My son. come back to me 
with thy shield, or upon thy shield?' Does 
lie remember Cloelia and her hundred com- 
panions, who swam across the river under 
a shower of c 1 

Prussia, and of Isabella of Castile, the pa- 
he bring ' dis- 
i ■ ■ 1 fiei sex by r~ _ ; g ,-i p ih v- 

In this glowing strain Mr. Adams si- 
lenced and ovi d his antagonists. 

In January, 1842, Mr. Adams presented 
a petition from forty-five citizens of Haver- 
hill, Massachusetts, prayingfor a peaceable 
itioa of the Union. The pro-slavery 
party in Congress, who were then plotting 
th( destructi >n of the Government, were 
aroused to a pretense of 1 such as 

even our stormy hall of legislation has 
rarely witnessed. The)- met in caucus, and, 
that they probably would not be 
able to expel Mr. Adams from the House 
drew up a series of resolutions, which., if 
adopted, would inflict upon him disgrace, 
equivalent to expulsion. Mr. Adams had 
presented the petition, which was most re- 
spectfully worded, and had moved that it be 
referred to a committee instructed to re- 
port an answer, showing the reason why 
the prayer ought not to be granted. 

It was the 25th of January. The whole 
bod}- of the pro-slaver)- party came crowd- 
ing together in the House, prepared to 
crush Mr. Ad, n forever. One of the num- 
ber, Thomas F. Marshall, of Kentucky, was 
appointed to read the r< which 

accused Mr. Adams of high treason, of 
having insulted the Government, and of 
meriting expulsion; but for which deserved 
punishm I mercy, 


he forgotten Cornelia, th« -: : f would substitute its ire. With 

theGracchi? Does he not] m mbei Por- 
tia, the wife of Brutus and the daug 
Ca •"• 

to 1 p iods, what S3 

history oi our 

• nothing of Boa li 

ie of the ( 

I han that o ' 
beth ? nil go to tl 

of Hungary, of the two ( 

m of a \ cry solemn a 
isterial air, tl ilence in 

the au lieno . led 1 


ery pari . him. 

\ e being : • 



in a i r, shrill ti me, trcmul* 
•tion, said: 
•' In reply to this audacious . trocioi 

char:;- of high treason, 1 call ■■ 
ing of the first par; ; i 

1 ' :pendence. Read it ! Read it ! and 

see what that says of the righl 

to reform, to change, and o di Ive their 


The attitude, the manner, the tone, the 
words; the venerable old man, wit! 
ing eye and flushed cheek, and whose very 
form seemed to expand under the inspiration 
of the occasion— all presented a sc( i 
flowing in its sublimity. There was breath 
less silence as that paragraph was read, in 
defense of whose principles our fathers had 
pledged their lives, their fortunes and their 
sacred honor. It was a proud hour to Mr. 
Adams as they were all compelled to listen 
to the words: 

" That, to secure these rights, govern- 
ments are instituted among men, deriving 
their just powers from the consent of the 
governed; and that whenever any form of 
government becomes destructive of those 
ends it is the right of the people to alter 01 

foe. The heroic old man looked around 
upon the audience, and thundered out, 
" Read that again ! " It was again read. 
Then in a few fiery, logical words he stated 
in • rms which even prejudiced 
minds could riot resist. His discomfited 
assailants made several attempts to rally. 
After a conflict of eleven days they gave 
up vanquished and their resolution was ig- 
nominious!}- laid upon the table. 

In January, 1S46, when seventy-eight 
years of age, he took part in the great de- 
bate on the Oregon question, displaying 
intellectual vigor, and an extent and accu- 
racy of acquaintance with the subject that 
excited great admiration. 

On the 21st of February, 1848, he rose on 
the floor of Congress with a paper in his 
hand to address the Speaker. Suddenly 
he fell, stricken by paralysis, and was 
in the arms of those around him. Fi r a 
time he was senseless and was conveyed 
to a sofa in the rotunda. With reviving 
consciousness lie opened his eyes, locked 
calmly around and said, " This is th 
earth." Then after a moment's pause, he 
added, " / am content." These were his last 

abolish it, and to institute new government, words, and he soon breathed hi 
laying .is foundations on such principles apartment beneath the dome ■ . I 

and organizing its powers in such form 
as shall seem must likely to effect their 
safety and happiness." 

That one sentence routed and baffled the 

■—the theater of his labors and his triumphs. 
In the language of hymnology, he ,: died at 

at once to w< 





J / ssr/ts, , *^*<*£±Z4 



- ,\b*. 


,"'-•' .■■-,-. the seventh President 

■';--.; of the United States, 

: " 1829 -'37, was born at 

"1 _ the Waxhaw Settle. 

J - V%- ''^ ncnt, Union Coun- 

j ■ ; .-'■" J\v ty, North Carolina, 

March 16, 1767. His parents 

~ . - were Scotch-Irish, natives of 

J : ■ • ; Carrickfergus, who came to 

America in 1765, and s 
;., ' on Twelve-Mile Creek, a trib- 

J ; : X utary of the Catawba. His 
;".■ 3 father, who was a poor farm 
' -' " laborer, died shortly before An- 
drew's birth, when his mother removed to 
Waxhaw, where some relatives re- 
Few particulars of the childhood of Jack- 
son have been pn rved. His education 
w a of th n ost limi ! kind ; 1 I 
no fondness for books. He grew up 1 'be a 
tall, lank boy, with com el 
U d cheeks, with bai e feel dangling : 
: too shi »rf for him, vej : ath 

letic sports, running, b ing and \ ; tlinj 
1 le was genero to tl and 

weaker boys, but 

: rii ith his equal H 

was profane -a \ ice in v. hich ; 
men. The char 

j he revered; and it was not until after her 
j death that his predominant vices gained 
full strength. 

In 17S0, at the age of thirteen, Andrew, 
! or Andy, as he was called, with his brother 
j Robert, volunteered to serve in the Revo- 
lutionary forces under General Sumter, and 
I was a witness of the latter's defeat at Hang- 
ing Rock. In the following year the 
is were made prisoners, and confined 
. in Camden, experiencing brutal treatment 
from their captors, and being spectators of 
| General Green's defeat at Hobkirk Hill. 
Through their mother's exertions the boys 
! were exchanged while suffering from small- 
pox. In two days Robert was dead, and 
Andy apparently dying. The strength of 

As he was getting I mother 

[ heard the cry of : 
j ers wh im the 

i She hastened to th 
by fe\ 

mid md. Thus Andrew 

in 1 • Id, without 

i ait one 
wn. He 



r six i : . . [onesboi ough, a dista i 

as health returned, he became n and ' mil . I Hostile In- 

:: wild, reckless, lawless boy. Hi dian - watch, and a 

gambled, drank and w; i m; t ; ny moment 1 

the worst character thai - I. down in hi; own Held. Andrew J 

[master. Hi for this ses vice- . 

rh backwoodsman. Daily he 
; as he was a \ i ry bo ; es. He see: 

it is possi . I - ired to bear a cl life. Bo alone or with 

l little writing. But hi i few c lie traversed the forests, 

of a professi ■ "_. encountering all perils and triun 

law. With a very slender over all. 

; ck of a very fine horse, he sel o ; In 1790 Tennessee became ; ' : 

Sali bury, North Carolina, where h linted, by Pn 

entered the law office of Mr. McCav. . Washington, United States Attorney for 
Here he remained two years,] trict. In 1791 he married Mrs. 

studying law. He is still remembered in Ra Colonel John 

1 1 • I r, which sa}-: ' Donelson), w h >m h . 

"Andrew Jackson was the most roaring, divorced in that year by an act of the Leg- 
rollicking, horse-racing, card-playing, mis- islature of Virginia. Two years after this 

'! voui fellow tl nd Mrs Jackson learned, to 

He did not trouble tl : 1 w-bi Dks mm h." ..real surprise, that Mr. Robards h; 

Andre i a divorce in one of the coi 

j-oung man, being over six feet in tventuck}*, ai 1 tl t the act of the . 
height. He , ly grace- Legislature was not final, bi 

fid and d n his manners, an exqui To remedy 1 

ite horseman, and developed, amidst his sible, a new license was obtained and I 
loathesoi pi it)' and multiform vices, a marriage ceremony was 

vein of rare magnanimity. Hi temper was It proved to be a marriage of rar 

fiery in the extreme; but it was said Proba ere never 

that no man kn . mate union. How 1 ugh Mr. 

gry and when not. Jackson migl 
In 1786 hi ted to 1 . le; and 

two years 1 

I was then the w< 
North Carolin 

ator. It wa - Under 1 

fice of li t tie h onor, small natural 1 

I it. 

[acksoi or a 1 

1 1 .. 
portant part of his 1 

■ ' During seven ' 


. u ;■ 


United States Attorney, \v'hi< ' 
frequent journeys through the , ' . , , 
and exposed him to Indian hostilities. lie 
acquired considerable property in land, and 
obtained such influence as to b 
a member of the convention which framed 
the Constitution for the new State of Ten- 
nessee, in 1796, and in that yea: was el ct< d 
its first Representative in Congress. Albert 
Gallatin thus describes the first appearance 
of the Hon. Andrew Jackson in the House: 

"A tall, lank, uncouth-looking pi r 
with locks of hair hanging over his fa an : 
a cue down his back, tied with an eel skin; 
his dress singular, his manners and deport- 
menl those of a rough backwoodsman." 

J; ks m was an earnest advocate of the 
Democratic party. Jefferson was his idol. 
He admired Bonaparte, loved France and 
hated England. As Mr. Jackson took his 
seat, General Washington, whose second 
term of office was just expiring, delivered 
his last speech to Congress. A committee 
drew up a complimentary address in replv. 
Andrew Jackson did not approve the ad- 
dress and was one of twelve who voted 
against it. 

Tennessee had fitted out an expedition 
against the Indians, contrary to the policy 
of the Government. A resolution was intro- 
duced that the National Government 
should pay the expenses. Jackson advo- 
cated i1 n .. carried. 1 his rend 
him vei-3 popular in Tennessee. A va- 
chan d aft er to occur in the 
and Liidrew fack n . - 

a t o r by t h ' 

f o h n A d 


In 179S Mr. J 
see, an I 1 : 

1 J 


It is 


■ ■ . I '' C 

hi : at upon the bench, and 

tgnity in 1S04. About 

this time he was chosen Major-General of 

. a I ! t the title ('(judge in that of 


' . he retired from the Senate Cham- 
ber, he decided to try his fortune through 
trade, lie purchased a stock of gi 
I I :lphia and < :n1 th< m to Nashville, 

where he opened a store. He lived about 
thirteen miles from Nashville, on a tract of 
land of several thousand acres ; mostly un- 
cultivated, lie used, a small block-house 
for a store, from a narrow window of 
which he sold goods to the Indians. As he 
had an assistant his office as judge did not 
materially interfere with his business. 

As to slaver)', born in the midst of it, the 
idea never seemed to enter his mind that it 
could be wrong. He eventually became 
an extensive slave owner, but he was one of 
the most humane and gentle of masters. 

!n 1804 Mr. Jackson withdrew from pol- 
itics and settled on a plantation which he 
called the Hermitage, near Nashville. He 
set up a cotton-gin. formed a partn 
and traded in New Ork . maki 

on flatboai : hot tern 

per he became involved in several q 
and "affaii . : nor," during this period, 
; n - ■ of which he was severely wounded, 
but had the misfortune to kill hist pponent, 
Charles Dicki For a ti hi 

greatly i iju I G • ' 

ity. Th verdict I conti 

to be, that G ral J outra- 

> r r h ad 
n.d 1 
i he con 


OF T1H- UX1TED Sj . 

combinations which led to hist,: 
son - He was warmly received by [a< 
at whose instance a public ball was Mven 
in his honor at Nashville, and mn', 
with the latter for boats and provi i i 
Early in 1S07, when Burr had been pro- ! 
claimed a traitor by President feffer^on ; 
volunteer forces for the Federal service 
were organized at Nashville under Jack- I 
son's command; but his energy and activ- ! 
ity d.d not shield him from suspicions of j 
connivance in the supposed treason. Me ! 
was summoned to Richmond as a witness 
in Burr's trial, but was not called io the ' 
stand, probably because he was out-spoken 
in his partisanship. 

On the outbreak of the war with Great 
Britain in 1812, Jackson tendered his serv- 
ices, and in January, 1813, embarked for 
New Orleans at the head of the Tennessee 
contingent. In March he received an or- 
der to disband his forces; but in Septem- 
ber he again took the field, in the Creek 
war, and in conjunction with his former 
partner, Colonel C.y.icv, iiTicwd „;,,;, { }, c 
Indians the memorable defeat at Tal 
Emuckfaw and Tallapoosa. 

In May, 1814, Jackson, who had now ac- 
quired a national reputation, was appointed 
a Major-Generalof the United States army, 
and commenced a campaign a; inst the 
British in Florida. JJc conducted the de- 
fense at Mobile, Septemb i 5 ,sei I u 
Pensacola, November 6, and ii 

i-tcd the bulk of hi ti 
; '' then threatened U ; 

naval force. Martial law was - 1 cl 
1 '. the Siafe mill . . 
agements \ th I i i h were 

'" : ' : : l: 'bcr 23 and2S and aft , 

1 hadb en received on 

1 ' ' ' ■' '■ victory of J anu i 
; Ja< I son' fai ie as ; ■ 
ma. c 1 im the typical Ai 


the Seminoles of Florida, dm inc. 
which he seized up m Pens icola and < xe- 
cnted by courtmartial two British subjects, 

Arbuthnot and Ambrister acts 

might easily have involved the I 
States in war both with Spain and Great 
Britain. Fortunately the peril was avt rt< d 
b J tne cession of Florida to the United 
States; and Jackson, who had escaped a 
trial for the irregularity of his conduct 
only through a division of opinion in Mon- 
roe's cabinet, was appointed in 1821 Gov- 
ernor of the new Territory. Soon after he 
declined the appointment of minister to 

^ In 1 823 Jackson was elected to the United 
States Senate, and nominated by the Ten- 
nessee Legislature for the Presidency. This 
candidacy, though a matter of surprise, and 
even merryment, speedily became poj ular, 
and in 1824, when the stormj- electoral can- 
vas resulted in the choice of John Quincy 
Adams by the House of Representatives, 
( ; ] ■ ] J a cl : ^:ccWvd the largest popu- 
1 lar vote among the four candidates. 
j In 1828 Jackson was triumphantly elected 
[ President over Adams after a campaign of" 
unparalleled bitterness. He was inaugu- 
rated March 4, 1829, and at once removed 
from office all the incumbents beloi 
the opposite party— a pr »c« dure 
American politics, but wide:, uatur; 
came a] ■ ' 

His first term was characterized bv 
it, Call 
. . . B 
tended by a . 
scandals con ! with the name of Mrs. 

■ 1 1 by his v ' 

■ ! to 



Jackson received 219 out of 28S el 
votes, his competitor being Mr. Clav, while 
Mr. Wirt, on an Anti-Masonic pi tfo tn, 
received the vote of Vermonl alone, [n 
1S33 President Jackson removed the Gov- 
ernment deposits from the United States 
bank, thereby incurring a vote of censure 
from the Senate, which was. however, ex- 
punged four years later. During this second 
term of office, the Cherokees, Choctaws and 
Creeks were removed, not without diffi- 
culty, from Georgia, Alabama and Missis- 
sippi, to the Indian Territory; the National 
debt was extinguished; Arkansas and 
Michigan were admitted as States to the 
Union; the Seminole war was renewed; the 
anti-slavery agitation first acquired impor- 
tance; the Mormon delusion, which had 
organized in 1829, attained considerable 
proportions in Ohio and Missouri, and the 
country experienced its greatest pecuniary 

Railroads with locomotive propulsion 
were introduced into America during Jack- 
son's first term, and had become an impor- 
tant clement of national life before the 
close of his second term. For many rea- 
sons, therefore, the administration of Presi- 
dent Jackson formed an era in American 
history, political, social and industrial. 
He succeeded in effecting: the election of 

: I \ an Bun 1 as hi su ccess< u*, re- 
tired from the Presidencv March 4, 1837, 

1 a tranquil life at the lie 
until his death, which occurred June 8, 
I lS 45- 

During his closing years he was a pro- 
1 fessed Christian and a member ol the Pres- 
• bytcrian church. No American of this 
! century has been the subject of such oppo- 
j site judgments. lie was loved and hated 
! with equal vehemence during his life, but 
! at the present distance of time from his 
career, while opinions still van- as to f he 
; merits of his public acts, few of his country- 
men will question that he was a warm- 
hearted, brave, patriotic, honest and sincere 
man. If his distinguishing qualities were 
not such as constitute statesmanship, in the 
highest sense, he at least never pretended 
to other merits than such as were written 
to his credit on the page of American his- 
torv — not attempting to disguise the de- 
merits which were equally legible. The 
majority of his countrymen accej 
honored him, in spite of all that calumny 
as well as truth could allege against him. 
His faults may therefore be truly < 
have been those of his time; his magnifi- 
cent virtues may also, with the same jus- 
tice, be considered as typical of a state of 
society which has nearly passed away. 




' ■ • i, ■'-'•: 

^•^G}.: \mm . Bui^en, 



v -. i 

\ . ■- 

■ i 






:-. v 






• 1 


.-" 1 


REN, the eighth 
President of the 
United States, 1S37- 
'41, was born al Kin- 
.' derhi >ok,Ne ,v '.'■ > k, 
December 5, 1782. 
His ancestors were of Dutch 
origin, and were among the 
earliesl emigrants from Hol- 
land to the banks of the 
Hudson. His father was a 
tavern-keeper, as well as a 
farmer, and a very decided 
\ . Democrat. 

Martin commenced the study 
of law at the age of fourteen, and to >k a 
active part in politics before he bad readied 
the age of twenty. In 1S03 he 1 
th p ictice of law in his native 
I -i 1 5 he r< : 1 1 ,-1 ; I • 
town of his county, where he s] i1 
ngth . i 

f t h e a bl es 1 
have ' of 1 

■ ' 

. • ; . '. . '. : ; in ffi 1 eve 1 I 
to his poli 
11 I y repudiated 

was ni , 
■■' tor bcli 

1 :nce, was not devoid of inconveniences. 
When, subsequently, he attained power 
which placed vast patronage in hi: 

he was heard to say : "1 prefer an office 
that has no patronage. When I giv 
an office I offend his disappointed a 
tors and their friends. Nor am I certain of 
gai ing a friend in the man I appoi; 
in all probability, he expected so- 

In 1812 Mr. Van Buren was eleci 
the State Senate. In 1S15 he wa 
Attorney-General, and in 1S16 10 th< 
a second time. In 1818 there was 
split in the Democrati pai t}- in New York, 
! and Mr. Van Buren took the lead in or- 
; ganizing that portion of the part) 
- ' ■ 
1 if the Stat 

ivcnti ' 



I ^ 


9 7 7^- r ^ 

£-7^/ ^ 6-cc^z. 



State by President Jackson, but resigned 
in April, 1S31, and during the reces: 

Congress was appointed minister to Eng- | 
land? whither he proceeded in Sep1 
but the Senate, when convened in Decem- 
ber refused to ratify the appointment. 

In May, 1832, Mr. Van Buren was nomi- 
nated as the Democratic candidate for Vice- 
President, and elected in the following 
November. May 26. 1836, he received the 
nomination to succeed General Jackson as 
President, and received 170 electoral votes, 

out of 2S3. . 

Scarcely had he taken his seat m the 
Presidential chair when a financial panic 
swept over the land. Many attributed 
this to the war which General Jackson had 
waged on the banks, and to his endeavor to 
secure an almost exclusive specie currency. 
Nearly every bank in the country was com- j 
pelled to suspend specie payment, and rum j 
pervaded all our great cities. Not less than 
254 houses failed in New York in one week. 
All public works were brought to a stand, 
and there was a general state of dismay. 
President Van Buren urged the adoption ot 
the independent treasury system, which 
was twice passed in the Senate and defeated 
in the House, but finally became a law near 
the close of his. administration. 

Another important measure was the pass- 
age of a pre-emption law, giving actual set- 
tlers the preference in the purch; 
public lands. The question of slavery, also, 
now began to assume great prominence in 
national politics, and alter an elaborate 
I anti-slavery speech by Mr. Shade, of \ er- 

mont.in the House of Repi 
i Southern tneml rs witl In 
: consultation, at winch Mr. Rhett, of South 
:■ Carolina, proposed to declare it ex] 

that th( U 1 should I 
i the matter was tided over by the p 
■ of a resolution that no petitions 01 | 

i. latin ■ I in any wa) 

considered 1 : I ]-> u - 

In the Presidential election of 1840 Mr. 
Van Buren was nominated, without opposi- 

as the Demo idate, William , 

H Harrison being the candidate ol the 
Whio- party. The Democrats carried only J 
seven States, and out of 204 electoral votes ;« 
only sixty were for Mr.Van Buren, the re. ;< 

maining 234 being for his opponent. The ;< 
Whio- popular majority, however, was not j 
large; the elections in many of the States 
being very close. , I 

March '4 1841, Mr. Van Buren retired 
from the Presidency. From his fine estate 
at Lindenwald he still exerted a powerful 
influence upon the politics of the country. 
' In 1844 he was again proposed as the 
I Democratic candidate for the Presidency, 
! and a majority of the delegates of the 
\ nominating convention were in Ins favor ; 
! but owing to his opposition to the pro- 
\ posed annexation of Texas, he could not 
secure the requisite two-thirds vote. His 
I name was at length withdrawn by Ins 
I friends, and Mr. Polk received the nomina- 
1 tion, and was elected. 

In 1848 Mr. Cass was the regular Demo- 
I cratic candidate. A schism, however, 
sprang up in the party, upon the question 
of the permission of slavery in the newly- 
acquired territory, and a portion o the 
party, taking the name of " Free-boilers, 
nominated Mr. Van Buren. They drew 
away sufficient votes to secure the election 
of General Taylor, the Whig candidate. 
After this Mr. Van Buren retire J to his es- 
tate at Kinderhook, where the remainder 
of his life was passed, with the exception of 
B , . . tour in iS53- Hc 
Jul) 24, > - - ' 

Martin Van Buren was 

[10 have 

.11 in the 

inC y of the Presidential 

' chair. 






3V>»71 5: . ,.'r.v- 

/ oomniaitTrriiin.wiMi 



'■"ha />--;-"- 


\S^ HARRISON, the 
!..., ninth President of 
' •/'■' the United States, 
^/J I 84 1, was born 

■■>: -'-'\ February o, 1773, 

5 in Charles County, 

Virginia, at Berkeley, the resi- 
dence of. his father, Governor 
Benjamin Harrison. He studied 
at Hampden, Sidney College, 
with a view of entering the med- 
ical profession. After graduation 
he went to Philadelphia to Study 
(..}'' medicine under the instruction of 

Dr. Rush. 
George Washington was then Pre idenl 
of the United States. The Indian were 
committing fearful ravages on our North- 
rn frontier. Voun ; [•] ' either 

lured by the love 1 if ad\ entun o 
by the sufferings of families c\'] 
most hoi rible out] ag ... ado 
ical studies and entered the arm\ 
obtained a comi i : ol ■.■ 
ident Wa lunffton. Tb H 1 ch t- 1 1. d 

i im 


train of pacl 

lo 1 

b nine] to Fori riam Iton, lie 

!' :cr, ;■' mi forty ' 

in, ;■ m. J [< was soon proi I to the 

rank of Lieutenant, and joined the 
which Washington had placed under the 
command of Genera! Wayne to prosecute 
more vigorously the war with the In- 
dians. Lieutenant Harrison received great 
commendation from his commandi ig offi- 
cer, and was promoted to the rank of 
Captain, and placed in command at Fort 
Washington, now Cincinnati, Ohio. 

About this time lie married a dai 
of John Cleves Symmes, one of the fron- 
tiersmen who had established a thriving 
settlement on the bank of the Maumee. 

In 1707 Captain Harrison resigned his 
commi sion in the army and wasappointed 
Secretary of the Northwest Territory, and 
cx-ofj Lieuti -.\ Governor, Gen 
Clair being then Governor of the Tei 
At that time 

; te public lands was such that 

> less than 

4,000 acres. Captain 1 larrison, in the 
face of viol I ion, succe< 

. . 
this unjust la' 

. The 
North v. est rerritoi ) \\ as then 

that < 
ficc. In 1 800 he 

/^ /V /7C< ;:.:/::. 




;, and so well did he 

of Indiana Territory and s< 
Uppc] Louisiana. He \\ as n 

tendent of Indian Aff 
fulfill these duties that he was four times 
appointed to this office. During his admin- 
istration he effected thirteen treaties with 
the Indians, by which the United Stales 
acquired 60,000,000 acres of land. In 1804 
he obtained a cession from the Indians of 
all the land between the Illinois River and 
the Mississippi. 

In 1812 he was made Major-General of 
Kentucky militia and Brigadier-General 
in the armv, with the command of the 
Northwest frontier. In 18 1 3 he was made 
Major-General, and as such won much re- 
nown by the defense of Fort Meigs, and the 
battle of the Thames, Octobers, 1813. In 
1814 he left the army and was employed in 
Indian affairs by the Government. 

In 18 1 6 General Harrison was cho 
m . of the National House of Repre- 

sentatives to represent the district of 01 >. 
In the contest which preceded hi 
he was accused of corruption in respect to 
the commissariat of the army. Immedi- 
king his seat, he called for an 

investigation of the charge. A committee 
. .... 

1 his vindication was 

triumphant. A high compliment was paid 

to his patriotism, disi 

1 to the public service. Fc 

services a g I I to him 



( ■ , : 

to He 

In ] 




North Bend, Hamilton County, Ohio, six. 
teen miles below Cincinnati, where foi 
tweh c \ on s he w as clei 1< of the ( )ounty 
Court. ' He once owned a di Lillery, but 
perceiving the sad effects of whisky upon 
the surrounding population, he promptly 
abandoned his business at great pecuniary 
sa< rifice. 

In 1836 General I fat 1 ison was I ighl 

forward as a candidate for the Presidency. 
Van Burcn was the admini: tration ■ nidi 
dale; the opposite parly could not unite, 
and lour candidates were broughl forward. 
Genei a! 1 larrison recch ed si vent) thi cc 
electoral votes without any general concert 
among Ids friem Is. The Demo ratii part y 
triumphed and Mr. \';m Burcn was chosen 
Pre ident. I n 1 839 ( J-enei al I Fan ison was 
again nominated for the Presidency by the 
Whigs, at Harrisburg, Penn ylvania, Mr. 
Van Bui en being the i > mi icrati< < andi 
d ite. General Harri 1 cd elei 

toral votes againsl : i ■. foi hi op] 
'I hi ' lection 1 m< mot abh chi< (1 . foi 1 he 
■ m traordina 1 < d during 

the can for popul u vote • M a meet 

an d 

' log cal 



was in accord 



WILLIAM If EX ft r /I.lftftfSON. 

of Indiana Territory and soon a 
Upper Louisiana. He was also Superin- 
tendent of Indian Affairs, and so well did he 
fulfill these duties that he was four times 
appointed to this office. During his admin- 
istration he effected thirteen treaties with 
the Indians, by which the United States 
acquired 60,000, oco acres of land. In 1S04 
he obtained a cession from the Indians of 
all the land between the Illinois River and 
the Mississippi. 

In 1S12 he was made Major-General of 
Kentucky militia and Brigadier-General 
in the army, with the command of the 
Northwest frontier. In 1813 he was made 
Major-General, and as such won much re- 
nown by the defense of Fort Meigs, and the 
bottle of the Thames, October 5, 1813. In 
1814 he left the army and was employed in 
Indian affairs by the Government. 

In 1816 General Harrison was chosen a 
member of the National House of Repre- 
sentatives to represent the district of Ohio. 
In the contest which preceded his election 
he was accused of corruption in respect to 
the commissariat of the army. Immedi- 
atelv upon taking his seat, lie called for an 
investigation of the charge. A committee 
was appointed, and his vindication was 
triumphant. A high compliment was paid 
to his patriotism, disinterestedness and 
devotion to the public service. For these 
services a gold medal was presented to him 
with the thanks of Gongress. 

1- [819 1 . .•:.- I cted to the Sen 
Ohio, and in 1824, as one of the Presid :n- 
tial elect if tha St te, he gav I 
to Henry Gav. In the : , I"' was 

elected fc S of tl United 

In 1 ' :S he was a; -pointed by Pr< 
Adams minister ph I y to Colo 

bia, bul was ■ ■ 1 I Jn 

immediately after the inauguration ol the 
latti 1 . 

Upon hi return to the Unit 
1 . i : I ; ison retired to his farm at 

North Bend, Hamilton County, Ohio, six- 
teen miles below Cin< innati, where for 
twelve years he was clerk of the County 

Court, lie once- owned a distillery, but 

: perceiving the sad effects of whisky upon 

the surrounding population, he promptly 

J abandoned his business at great pecuniary 


In 1S36 General Harrison was brought 
j forward as a candidate for the Presidency. 
1 Van Buren was the administration candi- 
I date; the opposite party could not unite, 
j and four candidates were brought forward. 
j General Harrison received seventy-three 
' electoral votes without anv general concert 
among his friends. The Democratic parly 
triumphed and Mr. Van Buren was chosen 
; President. In 1839 General Harrison was 
' again nominated for the Presidi ncy by the 
j Whigs, at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Mr. 
; Van Buren being the Democratic candi- 
I date. General Harrison received 234 elec- 
toral votes against sixty for It's opponent. 
This election is memorable chiefly for the 
then extraordinary means employed during 
the canvass for popular votes. M: 
i ings and processions were introduced, and 
the watchwords -'log cabin" and ''hard 
cider" were effectually used by the Whigs, 
; and aroused a popular enthusiasm. 

A vast cono ieople attended his 

: inauguration. Hi- ad 
was in a< . with 1 

ga\ egn 'i time after he 

k 1 . : ■ v. is 

fever, and after a few days ot viol 
ncss, died April 4. just' 
; one 1 
ties. New. . death of 

d \\\ Not 



of William I lenrv 1 lai 








OHN TYLER, the tenth 

V; r ; President of the United 

£\ / '. I ' ;: ' States, was born in 

, Charles Cit)' County, 

; . : V. # Virginia, March 29, 1790. 

'•'...• '-. .. / .; ; His father, Judge John 

Tyler, possessed large 

landed estates in Virginia, 

and was one of the most 

distinguished men of his 

day, filling the offices of 

Speaker of the House of 

Delegates, Judge of the Su- 

l preme Court and Governor 

'--!; ■:/ of the State. 

At the early age of twelve 
3'oung John entered William and Mary ! 
College, and graduated with honor when j 
but seventeen years old. He then closel) 
applied himself to the study of law, and at 
nineteen years of age coram need the prac- 
tice of his profession. When only twenty- : 
one he was elected to a scat in the Stak 
1 ■ ■ Lai ure. He acted with the 
cratic party and ad\ 1 seated the m< a 
Jefferson and Madison. 1 '< ir five 3 • 
was elected to the Legislature, rec< 
tie 11 i; the unan 1 ius vote of his c 

When but twenty- 
elected ; 

member of Congress. 1 I ■ . 
cati d a si ricl con >l rue::, m of tl 
tion and tl 1 fi e over ; 

State rights. He was soon compelled to 
resign his seat in Congress, owing to ill 
health, but afterward took his seat in the 
State Legislature, where he exerted a 
powerful influence in promoting public 
works of great utility. 

In 1S25 Mr. Tyler was chosen Governor 
of his State — a high honor, for Virginia 
had many able men as competitors for 
the prize. His administration was signally 
a successful one. He urged forward inter- 
nal improvements and strove to remove 
sectional jealousies. His popularit v secured 
his re-election. In 1827 he was elected 
United -States Senator, and upon taking his 
scat joined the ranks of the opposition. I le 
opposed the tariff, voted against the bank 
as unconstitutional, opposed all resti 
u] ■' slavery, resisted al ; 
nal improvements by the General Govern- 
ment, avowed his sympathy with Mr. Cal- 
houn's views of m i, and 

al Jacl on, b} his o 
the nullifiers, had abandoned the principles 
I Such was Mr. 

Tyler's i( cord in ( 

This . ed Mr. 

Tyler's re tire m< nl fro-m the > 
li i term. He >on 

after 1 ■ ' ' . for the 

his s. at in tin Lcgisl iture. 







'VO//.V /r/.A/V. 

In 1839 he was sent to the National Con- 
vention al Harrisburg to nominate n Presi- 
dent. Genera] 1 larrison received a majority 
of votes, much to the disappointment of the 

South, who had wished for Henrv Clay. 
In order to conciliate the Southern Whigs, 
John Tyler was nominated for Vice-Presi- 
dent. Harrison and Tyler were inaugu- 
rated March 4. 1 84 1. In one short month 
from that time President Harrison died, 
and Mr. Tyler, to Ids own surprise as well 
as that of the nation, found himself an 
occupant of the Presidential chair. His 
position was an exceedingly difficult one, 
as he was opposed to the main principles of 
the party which had brought him into 
power. General Harrison had selected a 
Whig cabinet. Should he retain them, and 
thus surround himself with councilors 
whose views were antagonistic to his own? 
or should he turn against the party that 
had elected him, and select a cabinet in 
harmony with himself? This was his fear- 
ful dilemma. 

President Tyler deserves more charity 
than he has received. He issued an address 
to the people, which gave general satisfac- 
tion. He retained the cabinet General 
Harrison had selected. His veto of a bill 
chartering a new national bank led to an 
open quarrel with the party which elected 
him, and to a resignation of the entire 
cabinet, except Daniel Webster, Sccretary 
of State. 

President Tyler attempted to conciliate. 
He appointed a new cabinet, leaving out all 
strong party men, but tin- Whig 1, 
of Cong • 3 \v< re m il 
published a manij 

ing otl ail political relations. The Demo- 
crats had a majority in the House; the 
Whigs in the S< n it< . Mr. Webst 
found it necessary to resign, 1 
out by the pn sure ol his W I . 

April 1 ',:-:;.: '.. id( tit T\ Icn 
through Mr. 1 a 1 rcat y foi 

nexation of Texas, which was rejected by 
the Senate; but he effected Ids objed in the 
closing davs of his adi m by the 

passagi 1 int resolution of March 1 


He was nominated forthe Presidency by 
an informal Democratic Convention, held 

, at Baltimore in May, 1844, hut soon with- 
drew from the canvass, perceiving that he 
had m >t gained the confidence of the Demo- 
crats at large. 

Mr. Tvlcr's administration was particu- 

1 larly unfortunate. Xo one was satisfied. 

; Whigs and Democrats alike assailed him. 
Situated as he was, it is more than can 
be expected of human nature that he 

' should, in all cases, have acted in the wisest 

! manner ; but it will probably be the verdict 
of all candid men, in a careful review of his 
career, that John Tyler was placed in a 

; position of such difficulty that he could not 

I pursue an)* course which would not expose 
him to severe censure and denunciation. 
In 1S13 Mr. Tyler married Letitia Chris- 

j tian, who bore him three sons and three 

i daughters, and died in Washington in 1842. 

fc> > => t 

! June 26, 1S44, he contracted a second mar- 
; riage with Miss Julia Gardner, of New 
York. He lived in almost complete retire- 
ment from politic? until February, 1861, 
when he was a member of the 
"peace convention," held at Washington, 
and was chosen its President. Soon after 
he i enounced his all to the Unit I 

States and was el ! ' 

Congn • -. He dii I at Ri 
17, ii 2, after a ! 

of John T) ler must I » eve . 
with all the it ten idle Re- 

ith som >w that histon 
a Presid I ll d ed while 

defend ich was 




■■ . • .. ■ ..-■■ - 



A M ES KXO.X POLK, legal studies and been admitted to the bar, 

the eleventh President oi he returned to Columbia, the shire town of 

the United States 1845 ■ Maury County, and opened an office. 

'49, was born in Meek- James K. Polk ever adhered to tl 

;:: \, lenburg County, North ical faith of his father, which was I 

"'•...'■ .?• Carolina, Xovember 2, a Jeffersonian Republican. In 1825 he was 

: . 1795. lie was the eldest elected to the Legislature of Tennessee. As 

'-■- _ ■■.■■•, , son of a family of six sons a " strict constructionist," he did not think 

: ^ and four daughters, and was j that the Constitution empowered the Gen- 

- a grand-nephew of Colonel eral Government to carry 0:1 a sysl 

; - Thomas Polk, celebrated in internal improvements : s, hut 

connection with the Meek- deemed it important that it should have 

lenburg Declaration of In- thai power, and wished the G 

';' dependence. amended that it might be conferred. 

In 1S06 his father, Samuel sequcntly, however, 

Polk, emigrated with his fam- the General Governmenl 

ihy two or three hundred miles west to the as 10 undertake to interfere with - 

valley of the Duck Rive;. "He was a sur- lb.- thei ore ga' to 

veyor : ■■ . : ' as fanner, and gradually in- ; si te ts, and 

in wealth until hi I t an e o the grov 

the li 1 In Jamiarj , 1S24, Mi ; ■! Miss 

I" th comi 10 >ol fan Mary Ch ( xmnty, Ten- 

cann .rofici til : .; all ihccommon bi H; I 
of a 1 1 igl [ n ] 8 1 3 hi 

senl lo M ro Ai I iy, and in tin the U 
1 1 

rsity oi N 
,1 I i II. gradu ting .A 

liort mh 

vill ; . , In 1825 M 







: m 


•~ "' 

. : 


ously re-elected until 1S39. He then with- 
drew, only that he might accepl the 
gubernatorial chair of his native State. 
He was a warm friend of General Jai 

who had been defeated in the electoral 
contest by John Quincy Adams. This 
latter gentleman had just taken his seat in 
the Presidential chair when Mr. Polk took 
his seat in the House of Representatives. 
He immediately united himself with the 
opponents of Mr. Adams, and was soon 
regarded as the leader of the Jackson party 
in the House. 

The four years of Mr. Adams' adminis- 
tration passed away, and General Jackson 
took trie Presidential chair. Mr. Polk had 
now become a man of great influence in 
Congress, and was chairman of its most 
important committee — that of Ways and 
Means. Eloquently lie sustained General 
Jackson in all his measures — in his hostility 
to internal improvements, to the banks, and 
to the tariff. Eight years of General Jack- 
son's administration passed away, and the 
powers lie had wielded passed into the 
hands of Martin Van Buren ; and still Mr. 
Polk remained in the House, the advocate 
of that type of Democracy which those 
distinguished men upheld. 

During five sessions of Congre.-s Mr. 
Polk was speaker of the House. He per- 
formed his arduous duties to general satis- 
faction, and a unanimous vote of thanks to 
him was passed by the House as lie with- 
drew, March 4, 1839. He was elected 
Governor by a large majority, and took 
the oath if office at. Nashville, Octi 
1S39. I I : was a candidate for r< - 
in 1S41, but was defeated. In th< mean 
time a wonderful revolut 11 ! I swept 
over the country. W. ) I. I Ian ' 
candidal . h; 1 b en called to the 1 ' 
tial chair, and in 'I tl W liigl 

had been can ied by over I2,< 00 1 
Under t ',< : ci uio M r. Polk's suc- 

cess was hopel Still 1 

Stale with his Whig competitor, Mr. Junes, 
traveling in the most friendly manner to- 
gether, often in the same carriage, and at 
one time sleeping in the same bed. Mr. 
Jones was elected by 3,000 majority. 

And now the question of the annexation 
of Texas to our country agitated the whole 
land. When this question became national 
Mr. Polk, as the avowed champion of an- 
nexation, became the Presidential candidate 
of the pro-slavery wing of the Dei 
party, and George M. Dallas their candi- 
date for the Vice-Presidency. They were 
elected bv a large majority, and were in- 
augurated March 4, 1845. 

President Polk formed an able cabinet, 
consisting of James Buchanan, Robert J. 
Walker, William L. Marcy, George Ban- 
croft, Cave Johnson and John V. Mason. 
The Oregon boundarv question was settled, 
the Department of the Interior was created, 
the low tariff of 1846 was carried, the 
financial svstcm of the Government was 
reorganized, the Mexican war was con- 
ducted, which resulted in the acquisition of 
California and New Mexico, and had far- 
reaching consequences upon the later fort- 
unes of the republic. Peace was made. 
We had wresieel from Mexico territory 
equal to four times the empire of Prance, 
and five times that of Spain. In the prose- 
cution of this war we expi 
lives and more than $100,000,000. Of this 
money $15,000,0 1 were paid 

Dei 1 I 1, Mr. 

Polk retired from the Presidency March.;, 


.. :iry Taylor. He retired to Nashville, 
I there June 1 

. 1 : I was at- 

N 1c, with 

every d 
no child 




- ■■ . 






1 '— : ___:.:-' "''^'s^ir"' 

- ■ ; o 

• ^t 

y" -■;■>.'; *t-'£ 

r ■ ; n ■ ■ .-■ 

LOR, the twelfth 
President of the 


ber 24, 

nel of a 

■ United Stales, 

. ■ ' 1,-.' . '50, was born 
1 in Orange County, 
Virginia, Septem- 
17S ;. His father, 
Tavlor, was G do- 
Virginia regiment 
in the Revolutionai y -.. ir, 
and removed to Kentucky 
in 17S5 ; purchased a large 
plantation near Louisville 
and became an influential cit- 
izen : was a member of the co:v\ ent 
frai 1 1 the Constitution of Kentucky; served 
in both br m h< ■ of the I gislal ire; was 
Coll 1 tor of the porl ol 1 ■ iis\ illc under 
: • nt Washingl »n ; as :■. Pr< sid 

elector, ■. ■ for Jeff 11. Mon- 

n >c and < !la ,-; died Jam 19.1 v :> 

mained on 1 
lion until ] i /hii 

Fi Lieu t< i ;i t ! 1 e 


en' 1 iiii by tl icr, 

[] ioint he h 

was attacked with yellow fever, with nearly 
fatal termination. In November, 1810, he 
was promoted to Captain, and in the sum- 
mer of 1812 he was in command of Fort 
Harrison, on the left bank of the Wabash 
River, near the present site of Terre Haute, 
his successful defense of winch with but a 
handful of men against a large force of 
Indians which had attacked him was one of 
the first marked military achievements of 
the war. He was then brevetted Major, 
and in 1814 promoted to the full rani . 

During the remainder of the war Tavlor 
was actively employed on the V. 
frontier. In the peace organization * 
he was retained as Captain, but soon after 
resigned and settled near Louisville. In 
Ma)-, 18 16, however, In ! itered the army 
as Major of the Third : 

Li eu 


e in the 
; m Bureau, 



I . t 


/cccC > ry/j&cy y - ; 


country. He scrvi-J through the Black 
Hawk war in 1832,0110! in [837 was ordered 
to take command in Florida, then the scene 

of war with the Indians. 

In 1846 lie was transferred to the com- 
mand of the Army of the Southwest, from 
which he was relieved the same vear at his 
own request. Subsequently he was sta- 
tioned on the Arkansas frontier at Forts 
Gibbon, Smith and Jesup, which latter work 
had been built under his direction in 1S22. 

May 28, 1SI-5, he received a dispatch from 
the Secretary of War informing: him of the 
receipt of information by the President 
"that Texas would shortly accede to the 
terms of annexation," in which event he 
was instructed to defend and protect her 
from "foreign invasion and Indian incur- 
sions." He proceeded, upon the annexation 
of Texas, with about 1,500 men to Corpus 
Chnsti, where his force was increased to 

Taylor was brevettcd Major-General May 
2S, and a month later, June 29, 1S46, his full 
commission to that grade was issued. After 
needed rest and reinforcement, he advanced 
in September on Monterey, which city ca- 
pitulated after three-days stubborn resist- 
ance. Here he took up his winter quarters. 
The plan for the invasion of Mexico, by j 
way of Vera Cruz, with General Scott in 
command, was now detet mined upon by j 
the Govenrment, and at the moment Taylor 
was about to resume active operations, he ' 
received orders to send the larger part of 
his force to reinforce the arm) of G 1 1 
Scott at Vera C ruz. Thoi quently | 

reinforced by raw recruits, yet ai 
viding a garrison Monterey and Saltillo 
he had but 

which bat 50 1 or- 600 v,\ : i i egulars. In 
this weakened eon lit ever, lie was 

destii I to 1 . hi greatest \ ictorv. 
Confident:* 1 1 1) in up in ll 
Vera Cruz to n t the 1 a 1 

time, Santa Ann 1 directed 

against Taylor to overwhelm him, and then 
to return to oppose the advance of Scott's 
more formidable invasion. The battle o! 
Buena Vista was iought February 22 and 
23, 1S47. Taylor received the thanks of 
Congress and a gold medal, and " Old 
Rough and Ready," the sobriquet given 
him in the army, became a household word. 
He remained in quiet possession of the 
Rio Grande Valley until November, when 
he returned to the United Stati 

In the Whig convention which met at 
Philadelphia,] une 7. 184.S, Taylor was nomi- 
nated on the fourth ballot as candidate of 
the Whig party for President, over Henry 
Clay, General Scott and I )aniel Webster. 
In November Taylor received a majority 
of electoral votes, and a popular vote of 
1,360.752, against 1,219,962 for Cass and 
Butler, and 291,342 for Van Buren and 
Adams. General Taylor was inaugurated 
March 4. 1849. 

The free and slave Sta.tes being th< 1 ual 
in number, the struggle for supremacy on 
the part of the- leaders in C 
violent and bitter. In the summer oi [849 
California adopted in convention a Consti- 
tution prohibiting slavery within its b 
Taylor advocated the immedi ite admission 
of California with her Constitution, and the 
postponement of the question as to the other 
Territories until they could hold .. 
tions and decide I 

. should exist within their 1 
This policy ultimately | 
the celebrate I " Com] ires" . A 

Henry Clay ; bat no 

5 he ivas taken sud ,.ith a bilious 

fever, \vl 
1 ing )a\ : •.. :. ; p. One of his d 

I ' I mel W. W. S. B - . 
tant-Gencral and CI 

his Presid ncy. An ith r 6 hi 

I >:i Davis. 





.:'"•:/ ', . .-V'. v.- .■.:.-. ■ ■ - - 



■:U: : -. - • ' Aft? i^S -. , 

,- <ivV 

v - 


-, : 
- ! 


MORE, the thir- 
H& teenth President 
of the Unite d 
States, i850-'3, was 
born in Summer 
Hill, Cayuga 
New York, Janu- 
ary 7, 1800. lie was of 
New England ancestry, and 
his educational advantages 
were limited. lie early 
learned the clothiers' trade, 
j; , (\. bul spent all his leisure time 

• I in study. At nineteen years 

of age he was induced by 
Judge Walter Wood to abandon his trade 
and commence the study of law. Upon 
learning that the young man was entirely 
destitute o r means, he took him into his 
own office and loaned him such nn 
he needed. That he might not be heavily 
burdened with debt, young ; ; laughl 

school during the winter months, and in 
variou 1 ither way; helped hii I : 
At the age 1 if 1 •.•. enl v-t hre< I 1 " w; 
mitted li 1 I lie G an I of Comn m I 
I : 

m the ' 

in the 

eastern bank of the Cayuga Lake. In 1825 
he married Miss Abigail Powers, daughter 
of Rev. Lemuel Powers, a lady of great 
moral worth. In 1825 he took his seat in 
the House of Assembly of his native State, 
as Representative from Eric Count)-, 
whither he had recently moved. 

Though he had never taken a very 
active part in politics lus vote and his sym- 
pathies were with the Whig part) 7 . The 
State was then Democratic, but his cour- 
tesy, ability and integrity won the respect 
of his associates. In 1S32 he was elected 
to a seat in the United States Congress. 
At the close of his term he returned to his 
law practice, and in two years more he was 
again elected to Congress. 

1 le n< >\v begai t 1 have a natii 
tion. His labors were very arduous. To 
; resoh 

and then to defend ' 

skillful opponcn 1 louse 

requin - 

: il in debate Mich as few ; 

' '• 
P rl by the ckiii 
Mr. Fillmore wroi letter 1 

and for re- 


• ■ 

;. • 
:• -• 




fc.'fr,., .(- ftBu, D 


cation his friends met in convention and 
renominated him by acclamation. Hi n h 
gratified by this proof of their appreciation 
of his labors he adhered to his resolve and 
returned to his home. 

In 1S47 ^' r - Fillmore was elected, to the 
important office of comptroller of the State. 
In entering upon the verv responsible duties 
which this situation demanded, it was nec- 
essary for him to abandon his profession, 
and he removed to the city of Albany. In 
this year, also, the Whigs were looking 
around to find suitable candidates for the 
President and Vice-President at the ap- 
proaching election, and the names of Zach- 
ary Taylor and Millard Fillmore became 
the rallying cry of the Whigs. On the 4th 
of March, 1849, General Taylor was inaug- 
urated President and Millard Fillmore 
Vice-President of the United .States. 

The great question of slavery had as- 
sumed enormous proportions, and perme- 
ated every subject that was brought before 
Congress. It was evident that the strength 
of our institutions was to be severely tried. 
July 9, 1S50, President Taylor died, and, by 
the Constitution, Vice-President Fillmore 
became President of the United States. 
The agitated condition of the country 
brought questions of great delicacy before 
him. lie was bound by Ins oath of office 
to execute the laws of the United States. 
One of these laws was understood to be, 
that if a slave, escaping from bondage, 
should reach a free Stale, the United Stat< 3 
was bound to do its utm Lure him 

and return him to his master. M >st Chris- 
tian men loathed this law. Pr< ' Fill- 

1 f< It bound by his oath rigidly to see 

it enforo '.. ! 

to invade Cuba . ■ t had invaded Texas, 
an-1 annex it to tin United S Pi esi- 

denl Filhm > of hi 

exalted station al - enter- 


Mr. Fil [ties to 

itend with, since the opposition had a 
•rity in 1 louses. He did every- 

; thing in his power to conciliate the South, 
bat the pro-slavery party in that section 
j felt the inadequency of all measures of tran- 
sient conciliation. The population of the 
free States was so rapidly increasing over 
that of the slave States, that it was inevita- 
ble that the power of the Government 
i should soon jn-N into the hands of the free 
j Status. The famous compromise measures 
were adopted under Mr. Fillmore's admin- 
j istration, and the Japan expedition was 
sent out. 

March 4, 1853, having served one term, 
j President Fillmore retired from office. He 
: then took a long tour through the South, 
1 where he met with quite an enthusiastic 
: reception. In a speech at Vicksburg, al- 
• hiding to the rapid growth of the country, 
he said: 

" Canada is knocking for admission, and 
Mexico would be glad to come in, and 
without saying whether it would be right 
or wrong, we stand with open arms to re- 
ceive them; for it is the manifest destiny of 
I this Government to embrace the whole 
j North American Continent." 

In 1855 Mr. Fillmore went to Europe 
I where he was received with those marked 
! attentions which his position and character 
! merited. Returning to this country in 
1S56 he was nominated for the Pre 
by the "Know-Nothing" party. Mr. Bu- 
: chanan, the D :mocratic candidate was 


ever afterward lived in retirement. Dur- 

civil war he was mostly 

silent. It v. : . how- 

ever, that his sympathy was u . 

Confed He from the 

conflict without any wo d 1 er to the 
one party or the other. For this reason 
he was forgotten by both, lie died of 
paralysis, in ] lew V( rk, March S, 


;•- - : 


- I . 




\ v ~ . 


r -J 


t'»; : 

0: •' ; ' the fourteenth Presi- 

'" . . ' jv-~ dent of the United 

•> ; i;- N . States, was born in 

Hillsborough, New 
<_''' Hampshire, Novem- 

; "^ ^ ber 23, 1804. Mis 
a £ father, Governor 

! Benjamin Pierce, was a Rev- 
'-' : , \ olutionary soldier, a man of 
;' >''' a rigid integrity ; was for sev- 
eral years in the State Legis- 
i . ■ ' - i lature, a member of the Gov- 
s? ernor's council and a General 
of the militia. 
Franklin was the sixth of eight children. 
As a boy he listened eagerly to the argu- 
ments of his father, enforced by strong and 
ready utterance and earnest gesture. It 
was in the days of inten e political excite- 
ment, when, all over the New En I 
Stal Federalists and Democrats v 
rayed so fiercely again I each other. 

In 1X20 he entered Bowdoin Coll 1 I 

Brunswick, Maine, and graduated in 1S24, 
and commenced the stu '. ol law in the 
office of Judge Woodbury, a very disl 
guished lawyer, and in 1S27 was ; 
to the bar. U 
in Hillsborough and Concord, ll. 

in the State Legislature four years, the last 
two of which he was chosen Speaker of the 
House by a very large vote. 

In 1833 he was elected a member of Con- 
gress. In 1837 he was elected to the United 
States Senate, just as Mr. Van. Buren com- 
menced his administration. 

In 1S34 he married Miss Jane Means 
Appleton, a lady admirably fitted to adorn 
every station with which her husband was 
honored. Three sons born to them all 
found an early grave. 

Upon his accession to office, President 
Polk appointed Mr. Pierce Attorney-Gen- 
eral of the United States, but the offer was 
declined in consequence of numero 
fessional engagements at home and the 
precarious state of Mrs. Pierce's health. 
About the same time he also declined the 
nomination foi Gove nor by the Demo- 
cratic party. 

The war with Mexico called Mr. Pierce 
into the army. Receivin 
of Brig; aked with a 

portii hi of hi: ' ; ' 

Island, May I le served 

bra\ cry, skill and 

■ hed his home in hi - 


. • 


£///U / yj//l £tJ 


the advocates of the war, and coldly by its 
opponents. He resumed the practice ol his 

profession, frequently taking an active part ', 



d t 
win a 

e Dem< 

in pol 
port to 
cratic party. 

June 12, 1852, the Democratic convention 
met in Baltimore to nominate a candidate 
for the Presidency. For four days they 
continued in session, and in thirty-live bal- ( 
lotings no one had received the requisite ; 
two-thirds vote. Not a vole had been j 
thrown thus far for General Pierce. Then j 
the Virginia delegation brought forward 
his name. There were fourteen more bal- 
lotings, during which General Pierce 
gained strength, until, at the forty-ninth 
ballot, he received 282 votes, and all other 
candidates eleven. General Winfield Scott 
was the Whig candidate. General Pierce 
was elected with great unanimity. Only 
four States— Vermont, Massachusetts, Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee — cast their electoral 
votes against him. March 4. 1853, he was 
inaugurated President of the United States, 
and William R. King, Vice-President. 

President. Pierce's cabinet consisted of 
William S. Marcy, James Guthrie, Jefferson 
Davis, James C. Dobbin, Robert McClel- 
land, James Campbell and Caleb Cushing. 
At the demand of slavery the Missouri 
Compromise was repealed, and all the Ter- 
ritories of the Union were thrown open to 
slave! v. The Territory of Kansas, w< a of 
Missouri, was settled by emigrants mainly 
from the North. According to law, they 
were about to meet and decide whether 
slaver} or freedom should be the law of 
that n l! n. Slai r) in Mis ouri and 
other Southern States rallied her aimed 
[1 rioi . m in hi d tin m into Kansa 
j on tli poll drove away the 

citizens, deposited I own t 

h ndful , •.. ' tl 

ing them, and th 11 declared 
maj irity, slavi 1 - 

lished in Kansas. These facts nobody 
and yet President Pierce's adminis- 
tration felt bound to respect the decision 
1 by such voir.. The citizens of 
Kansas, the majority of whom were free- 
State men, met in convention and adopted 
the following resolve: 

''Resolved, That the body of men who, 

for trie past two months, have been pa sing 

laws for the people of our Territory, 

moved, counseled and dictated to by the 

demagogues of other States, arc to us a 

foreign body, representing only the lawless 

invaders who elected them, and not the 

people of this Territory; that we repudiate 

their action as the monstrous consummation 

of an act of violence, usurpation and fraud 

unparalleled in the history of the Union." 

The free-State people of Kansas also sent 

! a petition to the General Government, im- 

\ ploring its protection. In reply the Presi- 

' dent issued a proclamation, declaring that 

\ Legislature thus created must be recog- 

: 1 as the legitimate Legislature of Kan- 

j sas, and that its laws were binding upon 

' the people, and that, if necessary, the whole 

I force of the Governmental arm would be 

! put forth to inforce those laws. 

James Buchanan succeeded him in the 
Presidency, and, March 4, 1S57. President 
Pierce retired to bis home in C cord, 
New Hampshire. When the Rel 
burst forth Mr. Pierce remained st 
to the principles he had always cherished, 
arid ave his sym] o-slavery 

party, with which he had ever been allied. 
] [1 \ 1 clined to ■ a n thing, eil 
s ,;, • or pen, to 1 : igthcn the 1 
the National Gov< 1 nm< nt. 1 I 

>rd until his death, which occurred in 
October, ' 


a fault, ai : 

■ . iation of sui 


com ' . 







il 25. 171 

,1. The 


where hi 


c a 


stood w; 

:ts called 


Batter, an 

d it was 



1 in a wild. 

r >mantic 

spot, in 

a gorge 


: :. 

IS, v. 

7. ering sum- 

AMES BUCHANAN, the I graceful and in vigorous health, fond of 
fifteentl Pi iident of the ; athletic sports, an unerring shot and en- 
United States. 1857-61, livened with an exuberant flow of animal 
was born in 1 , spirits, lie immediately commenced the 

Count}, Pennsylvania, study of law in the city of Lancaster, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1S12. He rose 
very rapidly in his and at once 

took undisputed stand with the ablest law- 
yers of the State. When but tw 
years of age, unaided bv counsel, he suc- 
) defended befor >t Senate 

one of the Judges of the State, w; 
1. He 1 tried u] 
.: i was of Irish ancestry, his • the age of thirty it was generally : 
\. •' father having 1 I 1 at the head of the 1 

1783, with very : rop- ; there was no lawyer in the State who had 

city, save his own strong arn . a more extensi 

I remained in his seel In 1812, j Mr. Bi nan had 

eight years enjoyii g v< n tice of the 1; 

intellectual I lis parenl With 

I all his po 1 - ' ' 

gent. In 1799 his fat! 
j. where J 

• :cd 

• ' l I lei 11 g ! 1 

in the 


t2s7/lf^S (2/^'/s O SS-& /Z-Sy yy^/T 

' • 








/ V 







tion laws of John Adams, brought the party 
into dispute, and the name of Federalist 
became a reproach. Mr. Buchanan almost 
immediately upon entering Congress beo-an 

to incline more and more to the Repub- 
licans. In the stormy Presidential election 
of 1824, in which Jackson, Clay, Crawford 
and John Quincy Adams were candidate:;, 
Mr. Buchanan espoused the cause of Gen- 
eral Jackson and unrelentingly opposed the 
administration of Mr. Adams. 

Upon his elevation to the Presidency, 
General Jackson appointed Mi". Buchanan, 
minister to Russia. Upon his return in 1S33 
he was elected to a seat in the United States 
Senate. Me there met as his associates, 
Webster, Clay, Wright and Calhoun. He 
advocated the measures proposed by Presi- 
dent Jackson of making reprisals against 
France, and defended the course of the Pres- 
ident in his unprecedented and wholesale 
removals from office of those who were not 
the supporters of his administration. Upon 
this question lie was brought into direct col- 
lision with Henry Clay. ,In the discussion 
of the question respecting the admission of 
Michigan and Arkansas into the Union, Mr. 
Buchanan defined his position by saying: 

"The older I grow, the more I am in- 
clined to be what is called a State-rights 

M. de Tocqueville, in his renowned work j 
upon "Democracy in America." I 
the trouble which was inevitable from the 
doctrine of State sovereignty as I 
Calhoun and Buchanan. He wa: con- 
vinced thai the National Gove 
losing th; I strength v. inch was es 
to its own existence, and that the States 
were assui ting powers which thre; 
the p. i ; LheUi i I 

receiver the book in the Sei c ; 
clared the I :ars ol D< Tocquevilh to be 

id vet he lived l< 
Presidential < I 

1 his own vi< 

' rights, breaking from the Union, thus 
crumbling our Republic into ruins; while 
I the unhappy old man folded his amis in 
■, declaring that the National Consti- 
tution invested him with no power to arrest 
the destruction. 

Upon Mr. Polk's accession to the Presi- 
dency, Mr. Buchanan became Secretarv of 
State, and as such took his share of the 
responsibility in the conduct of the Mexi- 
can war. At the close of Mr. Polk's ad- 
ministration, Mr. Buchanan retired to pri- 
vate life; but his intelligence, and his great 
ability as a statesman, enabled him to exert 
a powerful influence in National affairs. 

Mr. Pierce, upon his election to the 
Presidency, honored Mr. Buchanan with 
the mission to England. In the year 1S56 
the National Democratic convention nomi- 
nated Mr. Buchanan for the Presidency. 
The political conflict was one of the most 
severe in which, our country has ever en- 
gaged. On the 4th of March, 185;', Mr. 
Buchanan was inaugurated President. His 
cabinet were Lewis Cass, Howell Cobb, 
J. B. Floyd, Isaac Toucey, Jacob Thomp- 
son, A. V. Brown and J. S. Black. 

The disruption of the Democratic party, 
in consequence of the manner in which the 
issue of the nationality of slavery was 
pressed by the Southern wing, occurred at 
the National convention, held atCha 
in April, 1S60, for the nomination of Mi-. 
Buchanan's successor, when the majority 
of S01 iern deli .vitl 

iring that the 
utional status of slaw . 

residen ' 

' Ir. Buchanan rci ' \ 





. ' .■ ( 



■<■ I ' : 

■..•-■•.-.•:■ . ■ . 

-.A"- O. 

'" /"'..^^ 


COLN, the sixteenth 
P res i d e n 1 o f the 
United States, i86i-'5, 
was born February 

' : , 12. i Son. in Larue 

*■** (then Hardin) County, 
Kentucky, in a cabin on Nolan 
Creek, three miles west of 
Hudgcnsville. His parents 
w e i e Thomas a n d Nancy 
(Hanks) Lincoln. Of his an- 
cestry and early years the little 
that is known ma}' best be 
given in his own language : " My 
parents were both born in Virginia, of un- 
distinguished families — secoi*d families, per- 
haps I should say. My mother, v, I 
in my tenth year, was of a family oi tin 
name of Hanks, some of whom now i 
in A dams, and others in Mli : 

Illinois. My pa tenia' grandfathi i . 
ham Lincoln, emigrated from I 
Count}-, Virginia, to Kentucky in i;.'i ot 
17S2, where, a year or two later* he was 
killed by Indians — not in battle, but by 
j teall h, v. hen he was hi I 
] ;: m in I \v fori : . His an ho w< . c 

Quakers, went to Virginia fro 1 Berks 
County, Pennsylvania. An effort to 

tify them with the New England family of 
the same name ended in nothing more defi- 
nite than a similarity of Christian names in 
both families, such as Enoch, Levi, Mor- 
decai, Solomon, Abraham and the like. 
J My father, at the death of his father, was 
but six years of age, and he grew up, liter- 
j ally, without education. He removed from 
[ Kentucky to what is now Spencer County, 
! Indiana, in my eighth year. We reached 
our new home about the time the .State came 
into the Union. It was a wild region, with 
bears and other wild animals still in the 
woods. There I grew to man 

" There were some schools, so called, but 
no qualification was ever required of a 
teacher be\ ond ' readin', writin', and 
in' to t lie rule of three.' If a stra jgler, sup- 
l to 1 md Latin, happi ned to 

sojourn in tL 

nothing to excite ambiti ' .cation. 

, • I •! I 

much. Still, . ! c mid read, 

. . . . ' I 

that was all. 1 i 
. rhe 1 

. : ■ 
■ . ; 







I continued till 1 was twenty-two. At 
twenty-one I came to Illinois and passed 
the first year in Macon County. Then ! g> A 
to New Salem, at that time in Sangamon, 
now in Menard County, where I remained 
a year as a sort of clerk in a store. 

"Then came the Black Hawk war, and 1 
was elected a Captain of volunteers— a suc- 
cess which gave me more pleasure than any 
I have had since. I went the campaign, 
was elated ; ran for the Legislature the 
same year (1832) and was beaten, the only 
time I have ever been beaten by the people. 
The next and three succeeding biennial 
elections I was elected to the Legislature, 
and was never a candidate afterward. 

" During this legislative period I had 
studied law, and removed to Springfield to 
practice it. In 1846 I was elected to the 
Lower House of Congress ; was not a can- 
didate for re-election. From 1840 to 1854, 
inclusive, I practiced the law more assid- 
uously than ever before. Always a Whig 
in politics, and generally on the Whig elec- 
toral tickets, making active canvasses, I was 
losing interest in politics, when the repeal 
of the Missouri Compromise roused me 
again. What 1 have done since is pretty 
well known." 

The early residence of Lincoln in Indi- 
ana was sixteen miles north of the Ohio 
River, on Little Pigeon Creek, one and a 
half miles east of Gentryville, within the 
present township of Carter. Here his 
mother died October 5, 1818, and the next 
year his father married Mrs. Sally (Bush) 
J. hn b m, of El iethto n I ' ky. Sin 

affeel ionate t, to 

.". u mi was indi 

agement to study. He became an eager 
reader, and the few books owned, in the 
vicinity were many times perused. He 
worked fn ju< ntly for tie. ni 
farm laborer; was for sot clerk in a 

store at G-cntryvilli ; at 
thr< lout '■'■■■' region for his i 

powers, his fondness for argument, his in- 

iblc fund of numerous anecd 
well as for mock oratory and the composi- 
tion of rude satirical verses. In 1S2S he 
made a I .age to Xew Orleans as 

'•'now-hand" on a flatboat ; removed to 
Illinois in 1S3O; helped hi'' father build a 
log house and clear a farm on the north 
fork of Sangamon River, ten miles west of 
Decatur, and was for some time employed 
in splitting rails for the fences — a fact which 
was prominently brought forward for a. 
political purpose thirty years later. 

In the spring of 1851 he, with two of his 
relatives, was hired to build a flatboat on 
the Sangamon River and navigate it to 
New Orleans. The boat "stuck" on a 
mill-darn, and was got off with great labor 
through an ingenious mechanical device 
which some years later led to Lincoln's 
taking out a patent for "an improved 
method for lifting vessels over shoals." 
This voyage, was memorable for another 
reason — the sight of slaves chained, mal- 
treated and flogged at New Orle; 
the origin of his deep convictions upon the 
slavery question. 

Returning from this voyage ; 
resident for several years at New Salem, a 
recently settled village on the Sangamon, 
where he was successively a clerk, grocer, 
surveyor and post) I , and 
to the first steamboat that ascended the 
Sangamon. Here he studied law, 
esled himself in local politics a" 
return from the Black Hawk war. and 
c known as an effective " 

of the S 

which he aim 

dat Ivocacy 

e-i am 

'< I 


rs of -tin: try /ted 


"Henry Clay Whig," he rapidly acquired 

that command of language :., 

hut forcible rhetoric which, added to his 

intimate knowledge of the people from 

which lie sprang, made him mure than a 

match in debate for his few well-educated 


Admitted to the bar in 1837 he soon 
established himself at Springfield, when 
the State capital was located in 1839, 
largely through his influence; be. 
successful pleader in the State, Circuit and 
District Courts ; married in 1S42 a lady be- 
longing to a prominent family in Lexington, 
Kentucky; took an active pari in the Pres- 
idential campaigns of 1840 and 1844 as 
candidate for elector on the Harrison and 
Clay tickets, and in 1S.16 was elected to the ' 
United States House of Representatives ; 
over the celebrated Peter Tartu- right, j 
During his single term in Congress he did ' 
not attain any prominence. 

He voted for the reception of anti-slavery 
petitions for the abolition of the slave trade 
in the District of Columbia and for the 
Wilmot proviso; but was chiefly remem- 
bered for the stand he took against the 
Mexican war. For several years there- 
aftei lie took comparatively little interest 
in politics, bat gained a leading position at 
the Springfield bar. Two or three non- 
political lectures and an eulogy on 
Clay (1852) added nothing to his reputation. 

In 1854 the repeal of t ; 
romise by the Kan as-Ncb 
■ d Lincoln from his indil 

"- ■ th 1 1 ■ 
■ " tagi 1 nowi ily w< 11 

; 'tives and th< reco I .1 . 

n A. Douglo , of l : ' : hen popu 

lat 1 sfnatcd as the " Lit 
latter came to S] 

■ ■ " Anti 
N <-' bi . ' \\ 
coin h;i . • 

: Douglas in the Illinois L ture and bc- 

fore the Springfield Courts, engaged him 
to im prOA 1 p , h, in the 

, opinion of those who heard it, was 1 

> the greatest efforts of Lincoln's life; cer- 
; tainly the most effective in his whole 
It took the audience by storm, and from 
tha< moment it was felt that Douglas had 
met his match. Lincoln was accordingly 
' I as the Anti-Nebraska candidatefor 
the United Slates Senate in place of General 
Shields, whose term expired March 4, 1855, 
and led to several ballots; but Trumbull 
was ultimately chosen. 

The second conflict on the soil of Kan- 
sas, which Lincoln had predicted, soon be- 
gan. The result was the disruption of the 
Whig and the formation of Hie Republican 
party. At the Bloomington State Conven- 
tion in 1S56, where the new party firs!. 
assumed form in Illinois, Lincoln : 
impressive address, in which for the first 
time he took distinctive ground 
slavery in itself. 

At the National Republican Cor:, 
at Philadelphia, June 17, after th 
nation of Fremont, Lincoln was j 
ward by the Illinois delegation for the 
Vice-Presidency, and received on the firs- 
ballot no votes against 259 for Wil 
Dayton. He tool.: a promincnl pari in the 

In 1S58 Lincoln was unanin 
■ ■ ted bj the Ri pul State C 

1 place 
accept a 

of a •■ hoi;s C dividi 

slavei-3 < perhaps, the 

cause 1 ■ 

the princip I 

; 1 



former, as the clearest ; m» ; m t co 
ing ( xponent of Republican d 

Early in 1S59 he began to be na 
Illinois as a suitable Republican en 
for the Presidential campaign of tin 
ing year, and a political addn 
at the Coo] 1 titute, New York, Febru- 
ary 27, i860, followed by similar sp 
at New Haven, Hartford ; 
New England, first made him knou n to the 
Eastern State.-, in the light by which he had 
long been regarded at home. By the Re- 
publican State Convention, which met at 
Decatur, Illinois, May 9 and 10, Lincoln 
was unanimously endorsed for the Presi- 
dency. It was on this occasion thai two 
rails, said to have been split by his hands 
thirtv years before, were brought ii 
convention, and the incident con; 
much to his popularity. The National 
Republican Convention at Chicago, after 
spirited efforts made in favor of Seward, 
Chase and Bates, nominated Lincoln for 
the Presidency, with Hannibal Hamlin 
for Vice-President, at the same time adopt- 
ing a vigorous anti-slavery platform. 

The Democratic party having been dis- 
organized and presenting two 
Douglas and Breckenridge, and the 
nant of the "American" party havii 
forward John Bell, of 1 the Re- 

publican victory was an 1 Lincoln 

being < 'cried Nov 

rality, comprehending nearly all the North- 
ern St; ii -. bul none of tl hem. The 
seo m of South C 
States . 
a few 

• ' ; of the great 

civil war. 

The life of J 
tl h I in 1 

co 1 
coin's life can lien be gi\ 

; B;i!li- 

I was inaugu- 
4, 1S61. 

inaugural address he s: 
that in contemplation of universal !. 
ic Uni 

[if not e "■- 
I in the fund ii all na- 

tional governments. It is safe to assert 
ver had a pro- 
vision i ic law for it-- own termi- 
nation. I therefore consider that in view 
of the Constitution and the la\ 

I shall take rare, as the Constitution en- 
joins upon me, 1 i if the United 
tended all the States. In 
this there need be nob! lorvio- 
lence, and there shall be none unless it be 
forced upon the nation,.! autl 
power confi will be used to hold, 
occupy and possess the p. 

ing to the Government, arid 
lect the duties and imports, but I 
what may be 1 for these ol 

there will be 

. 1 11 ing the pei »ple anywl 

men, is the momentous issue of civil war. 
Hie < ill .You 

can have no conflict wil 
selves the aggrcs 1 

: G 

I ■ ■ 

rivals 1 

cured tl 





'■ : ' 

session of Congress for July 4, from which 
he asked and obtained 400, men an ! 
;: ! . 0,000 for the war; placed McC 
at the he, id oi the Federal army on General 
Scott's resignation, October 31; appointed 
Edwin M. Stanton Secretary of VY;n. Jan- 


4, 1862, and Septc 

_t 22, 1S62, 
issued a proclamation declaring the free- 
dom of all slaves in the Slates and parts of J 
States then in rebellion from and after 
January 1, 1863. This was the crowning j 
act of Lincoln's career — the act by which 
he will be chiefly known through all future j 
time. — and it decided the war. 

October 16, 1 S6-;, President Lincoln called i 
for 300,000 volunteers to replace those j 
whose term of enlistment had expired ; ! 
made a celebrated and touching, though 
brief, address at the dedication of the ! 
Gettysburg military cemetery, November 
19, 1863; commissioned Ulysses S. Grant 1 
Lieutenant-General and Commander-in- 1 
Chief of the armies of the United States, 1 
March 9, 1864; was re-elected President in 
November of the same year, by a large 
majority over General McClellan, with 
Andrew Johnson, of Tennessee, as Vice- 
President; delivered a very remarkable ad- 
dress at his second inauguration, March 4, 
1S65; visited the army before Richmond the 
same month; entered the capital of the Con- 
federacy the day after its fid!, and upon tit 
surrender of Gencr il Robei t E. Lee's army, 
April 9, was actively engaged in d 
generous plans for the reconstnu 
Union, when, on the evening of Go 
day, April 14. he v. as shot in his b >.\ al 
Ford': Vh In ,VY hi ■...;. A J, . nWilkes 
Booth, a fanatical tor, am I c , 1 
on the fo n ling, April 1 5. Al- 

mo it simultaneous] a murd 
was made upo \ il in II. S I, Sccre- 

tary of State. 

At ni ion on lh< 15th ol April 

the Presidency, and active 

.• n which, resulted in the 
death of Booth and the execution of his 
principal accomplices. 

The funeral of President Lincoln was 
conducted with unexampled solemnity and 
magnificence. Impressive services were 
held in Washington, after which the sad 
procession proceeded over the same route 
he had traveled four years before, from 
Springfield to Washington. In Philadel- 
phia his body lay in state in independence 
Hall, in which he had declared before his 
first inauguration "that I would sooner be 
uited than to give up the principles 
oi the Declaration of Independence." He 
was buried at Oak Ridge Cemetery, near 
Springfield, Illinois, on May 4, where a 
monument emblematic of the emancipation 
of the slaves and the restoration of the 
Union mark his resting place. 

The leaders and citizens of the expiring 
Confederacy expressed genuine indignation 
at the murder of a generous political adver- 
sary. Foreign nations took part in mourn- 
ing the death of a statesman who had proved 
himself a true representative of American 
nationality. The freedmen of the South 
I the memory of their de- 
li\ ' ; and the general sentiment of the 
great Nation 1 had J ved awarded him a 
pi . e in its affections, second only to that 
In Id by Washi ■-on. 

The ( : ■' of Abraham Lincoln 

1 . vn through • ;' 

■I world. His tall, 
I ■ I • :, i < hrewd 

celel rat( 1 c on- 
OVi ■ :s and 

rate, inl iiti\ if the 

time, are recognized as formi 
best type ol 1 history 










/ - ; : / 

^ V/.//^.,- 






.'...•-^■..v- -° 


' u 



all his 

man ta 


'..: . the seventeenth Presi- 
i dent of the United 
: ;■ :- :: Slates, 1865-9, was 
.- bo rii at R a 1 e i g h . 

< J ,.l North Carolina, De- 
c c m b e r 29, 1808. 
1-1 is father died when 
he was four years old, and in 
his eleventh year he was ap- 
prenticed to a tailor. Me nev- 
er attended school, and did 
not learn to read until late in 
his apprenticeship, when he 
suddenly acquired a passion for 
obtaining knowledge, and devoted 
•are time to reading, 
working two years as a journey - 
Drat Lauren's Court-House, South 
, he removed, in 1S26, to Green- 

ville, Tennc :e, •.. here he worked at his 
trade and married. Under his wife's in- 
struction i he madi ra] id progress in his 
educatii m, and mifcsi 
gent interesl in I politi to be 

eh ctcd as " worki 

c3 ) man, ,n i$.->-5 

1 1 n d i d t ( 

>. I. 

mayor n 

twice re-clecl< I to 1 

During this period he cultivate d hi I . 
< nts as a public spe: ] er by taking | l in 

; debating society, consisting largely of stu- 
. dents of Greenville College. In 1835, and 
j again in 1S39, nc was chosen to the lower 
J house of the Legislature, as a Democrat. 
; In 1841 he was elected State Senator, and 
[ in 1843, Representative in Congress, being- 
re-elected four successive periods, until 
' 1853, when he was chosen Governor of 
j Tennessee. In Congress he supported the 
1 administrations of Tyler and Polk in their 
chief measures, especially the annexation 
j of Texas, the adjustment of the Oregon 
boundary, the Mexican war, and the tariff 
of 1846. ' 

In 1855 ^ r - Johnson wasre-i 
ernor, and in 1S5; entered the United 
I States Senate, where he was ( 
as an advocate of retrenchment and oJ 1 
Homestead bill, an i as an opp :nt of tl 
Pacific Railroad. Hew. d by the 

Tennesse( delegati m to tin 
1 on\ cnti 1 in 1 1 for t In 
■ < lation, and lent hi I 1 I 

' >re< kenri partv. 

When the election ol Li 

lit about 
! took in 

Senate a firm attil 


1 -'-, 

n returning t 
he was in imminent ril 


'■;:■ ;i/jext 


popular violence for his I03 altv to the " old 
flag." He was the leader of the I. i 
convention of East Tennessee, and during 
• the following winter was very active in or- 
ganizing relief for the destitute loyal refu- 
gees from that region, his own family being 
among those compelled to leave. 

By his course in this crisis Johnson came 
prominently before the Northern public, 
and when in March, 1862, he was appointed 
by President Lincoln military Governor of 
Tennessee, with the rank of Brigadier-Gen- 
eral, he increased in popularity by the vig- 
orous and successful manner in which he 
labored to restore order, protect Union 
men and punish marauders. On the ap- 
proach of the Presidential campaign of 1S64, 
the termination of the war being plainly 
foreseen, and several Southern States being 
partially reconstructed, it was felt that the 
Vice-Presidency should be given to a South- 
ern man of conspicuous loyalty, and Gov- 
ernor Johnson was elected on the same 
platform and ticket, as President Lincoln; 
and on the assassination of the latter suc- 
ceeded to the Presidency, April 15, 1865. 
In a public speech two days later he said: 
"The American people must be taught, if 
they do not already feel, that treason is a 
crime and must be punished; that the Gov- 
ernment will not always bear with its ene- 
mies; that it is strong, not only to prot t, 
but to punish. In our peaceful history 
treason has been almost unknown. The 
] • ople must understand that it is the bla< 1 - 
est ol crimes, and will be punished." lie 
then added the ominous - cnfen< e: "I n re- 
gard to my future coin se, I make no j nn 
ises, no pledges." Presidenl John 
tained the cabinet of Lincoln, and « , 
ity toward traitoi ■ 
' ' li< i' act; and speei h< , bu he soon inaug- 
1 ' la policy of reconstruction, j <■ 
: ig a ■ n- ■ l1 aim 1 -p.. to tin I t- 1 

■'■:■' ■ ' p ro \ 

ional Government . i . i : S iuthe 

'' ! ' ' States accordingly claimed represen- 
tation in Congress in the following Decem- 
ber, and the momentous question of what 
should be the policy of the victorious Union 
toward its late armed opponents was forced 
upon that body. 

Two considerations impelled the Repub- 
lican majority to reject the policy of Presi. 
dent Johnson: First, an apprehension that 
the chief magistrate intended to undo the re- 
sults of the war in regard to slavery; and, sec- 
ond, the sullen attitude of the South, which 
seemed to be plotting to regain the policy 
which arms had lost. The credentials of the 
Southern members elect were laid on the 
table, a civil right.- bill and a bill extending 
the sphere of the Freedmen's Bureau were 
passed over the executive veto, and the two 
highest branches of the Government were 
soon in open antagonism. The action of 
Congress was characterized by the Presi- 
dent as a " new rebellion." In July the 
cabinet was reconstructed, Messrs. Randall, 
Si anbury and Browning taking the [daces 
of Messrs. Denison, Speed and Harlan, and 
an unsuccessful attempt was made by 
means of a general convention in Philadel- 
phia to form a new party on the basis of the 
administration policy. 

In an excursion to Chicago for the pur- 
pose of laying a corner-stone ol the monu- 
ment to Stephen A. Douglas, President 
Johnson, accompanied by s< \-eral members 
of th ; cabin* 1. pa ■ I th 1 ugli Phil 
New York and Alb .. icli of which 

cities, ai . the route, 

i . 

bis own policy, and viol tl , noui 

! ' : ' . 1 1 f G 

Augusl . », j 6; . Presi nl ; ; .■ >, 
t; rj ol \V; 
him b) ( reneral Grant. Secretary : 


: n 
sued a pi I; ition d 


tion at an end, nnd that " peace, order, Iran 
quility and civil authority existed in and 
throughout the United States." An ither 
proclamation enjoined obedience to the 
Constitution and the laws, and an amnesty 
was published September 7, relieving 1 I . 
all the participants in the late Rebellion 
from the disabilities thereby incurred, on 
condition of talcing the oath to support the 
Constitution and the laws. 

In December Congress refused to confirm 
the removal of Secretary Stanton, who 
thereupon resumed the exercise of his of- 
fice; but February 21, 1868, President 
Johnson again attempted to remove him, 
appointing General Lorenzo Thomas in his 
place. Stanton refused to vacate his post, 
and was sustained by the Senate. 

February 24 the blouse of Representa- 
tives voted to impeach the President for 
" high crime and misdemeanors," and March 
5 presented eleven articles of impeachment 
on the ground of his resistance to the exe- 
cution of the acts of Congress, alleging, in 
addition to the offense lately committed, 
his public expressions of contempt for Con- 
gress, in "certain intemperate, inflamma- 
tory and scandalous harangues" pronounced 
in August and September, i860, and there- 
after declaring that; the Thirty-ninth Con- 
gress of the United States" was not a 
competent legislative body, and denying 
its power to pn ip ■ e Constitutional : 
merits. March 23 the impeachment trial 
began, the Preside nt ap] by « 

and resulted in acquittal, the vote lacking 

' Lwo-t irds vote required for 

The remainder of President Johnson's 
term of offic< was passed without any such 
conflicts as might have been anticipated. 
He failed to obtain a nomination for re- 
election by the D< mocratic part}-, though 
receiving sixty-five votes on the first ballot. 
July 4 and December 25 new proclamations 
of pardon to the participants in the late 
j Rebellion were issued, but were of little 
effei :. On the accession of General Grant 
J to the Presidency, Marc.h 4, 1869, Johnson 
returned to Greenville, Tennessee. Unsuc- 
: cessful in 1870 and 1872 as a candidate re- 
! spectively for United Stales Senator and 
I Representative, he was finally e lected to the 
j Senate in 1875, and took his seat in the extra 
j session of March, in which his speeches 
were- comparatively temperate. He died 
July 31, 1875, an d was buried at Green- 
; villc. 

President Johnson's administration was a 
; peculiarly unfortunate one. That he sh' 
so soon become involved in bitter feud 
I the Republican majority in Congress was 
i certainly a surprising and deplorable inci- 
! dent; yet, in reviewing the circum 
j altera lapse of so many years, it is easy to 
find ample room for a charital 
of both the parties in the heated 
vers}', since it cannot be doubted that any 
President, even Lincoln himself, had he 
I lived, must have sacrifice 1 a large portion 
I of his i in carrying out ; 






ii - ■ ii ..... u-"n:^.[f 

sin* ^ v p~, 




[> GRANT, the eight- 
eenth President of Pic 
United States, 1S69-'//', 
J 1 was bom April 27, 1S22, 
at Point Pleasant, 
'-■". : fi Clermont County, 
Ohio. His father was of Scotch 
descent, and a dealer in leather. 
At the age of seventeen he en- 
tered tire Military Academy at 
West Point, and four years later 
graduated twenty-first in a class 
of thirty-nine, receiving the 
commission of Brevet Second 
Lieutenant, lie was assigned 
to the Fourth Infantry and re- 
mained in the army eleven years. He was 
engaged in ever} 7 battle of the Mexican war 
except that of Buena Vista, and received 
two brevets for gallantry. 

In 1848 Mr. Grant man ie ! J ul 
:i i( k Dent, a prominent 1 
St. Louis, and in 1854, 1 hed tin 

grade ol ( )aptain, he resigned his • 
sion in the army. For sevei ■'' . 
P.v, ed farming near St. Loui . 
cessfully ; and in 1S60 he entci 
trade v tl his fathci a! Galena, 1 

When the civil war broke out in 
( ■ . as thirty-nine y< 

tirely unkn< 

J any personal acquaintance with great affairs. 
'. President Lincoln's first call for troops was 
made on the 15th of April, and on the 19th 
! Grant was drilling a company of volunteers 
at Galena. He also offered his services to 
J the Adjutant-Genera! of the army, but re- 
ceived no reply. The Governor of Illinois, 
I however, employed him in the organization 
j of volunteer troops, and at the end of five 
; weeks he was appointed Colonel of the 
j Twenty-first Infantry. I le took command 
of his regiment in June, and reported first 
i to General Pope in Missouri. His superior 
knowledge of military life rather s;. 
his superior officers, who had never before 
even heard of him, and they were thus led 
to place him on the road to rapid advance- 
ment. August 7 h( w; c >mmi - 
Brigadier-General of \ . the ap- 

pointment having been made without his 
knowledge. He 

recomm ided b\ the C rres smen fi 1 an 
Illinois, iv it one 1 had been Ids 

persona] . a i 

he was occupie ' in watching tin 
ments of partisan forces in M 

k ■■; it ber i he was placed in c 
of the D ict of Sou v ■ iiri, with 

headq\ arl the >th, with- 

out orders, 1 at tl 

I River, and 

' : of thai 




^/r/^y, <,~^~ 




■ ■ 

y' ; 

... : 

■• : ,-: 

the Ohio. This stroke secured Kentu 
to the Union; for the State Legislature, 
which had until then affected to be neutral, 
at once declared in favor of the Govern- 
ment. In November following, according 
to orders, he made a demonstration about 
eighteen miles below Cairo, preventing the 
crossing of hostile troops into Missouri; 
but in order to accomplish this purpose he 
had to do some fighting, and that, too, with 
only 3.000 raw recruits, against 7,000 Con- 
federates. Grant carried off two pieces of 
artillery and 200 prisoners. 

After repeated applications to General 
Halleck, his immediate superior, he was 
allowed, in February, 1S62, to move up the 
Tennessee River against Fort Henry, in 
conjunction with a naval force. The gun- 
boats silenced the fort, and Grant immedi- 
ately made preparations to attack Fort 
Donelson, about twelve miles distant, on 
the Cumberland River. Without waiting 
for orders he moved his troops there, and 
with 15,000 men began the siege. The 
fort, garrisoned with 21, coo men, was a 
strong one, but after hard fighting on three 
successive days Grant forced an " Uncon- 
ditional Surrender" (an alliteration upon 
the initials of his name). The prize he capt- 
ured consisted of sixty-five cannon, 17,600 
small arms and 14,623 soldiers. About 4,- 
000 of the garrison had escaped in the night, 
and 2,500 were killed or wounded. Grant's 
entire loss was less than 2,000. This was the 
first important success won by the n; 
troops dining the war, and its strau 
suits weie marked, as the entire Si I 
Kentucl y-andTenni ee at once fell into the 
v itio ! hands. Our hero was 1 1 
Major-General of Volunteei and pi 
command of the District of West Ten- 

In March, 1862, he was ordered to move 
up the Tennessee River tow 
• > hei e the C I ■ ■ entrat- 

ing a large arm) but h ' 

to attack. I lis forces, now numbering 38,- 

000, were accordingly encamped near Shi- 

loh, or Pittsburg Landing, to await the 

' arrival of General Buell with 40,0.0 more; 

: but April 6 the Confederates came out from 

I Corinth 50,0 1 trong and attacked Grant 

violently, hoping to overwhelm him before 

J Buell could arrive ; 5,000 of his troops were 

i beyond supporting distance, so that he was 

I largely outnumbered and forced back to the 

river, where, however, he held out until 

j dark, when the head of Buell's column 

came upon the field. The next day the 

I Confederates were driven back to Corinth, 

i nineteen miles. The loss was heavy on 

: both sides; Grant, being senior in rank to 

! Buell, commanded on both days. Two 

days afterward Halleck arrived at the front 

and assumed command of the army, Grant 

remaining at the head of the right wing and 

the reserve. On May 30 Corinth was 

i evacuated by the Confederates. In July 

Halleck was made General-in-Chief, and 
j Grant succeeded him in command of the 
Department of the Tenn< ssee. S iptember 
! 10 the battle of Iuka was fought, where, 
j owing to Rosecrans's fault, only an incom- 
! plete victory was obtained. 

Next, Grant, with 30,000 men, moved 

1 down into Mississippi and threatened Vic ks- 

burg, while Sherman, with 40,000 men, was 

: sent by way of the river toattack that place 

in front : but, owin : 1 - Co >n< I M 
' surrendering Holly Springs to the Coll- 
ates, Grant was so weakened that he 
had to I then Sherman 

failed to su: tain his in ick. 

In January, 1S63, G tl Gra 

■ 3 in the 
ippi A 

to compel the • u 
' or evacuation of Vide- >urg; bu! July 4, 
red, with 5 I,- 
I 1 men 

Government. Grant was 



Major-General in the regular arm) 
October f< blowing he was p!a< ed 
mand of the Division of the Mi 
The same month he went to Chan 
and saved the Army of the Cun 
from starvation, and drove Bragg from that 
pari of the country. Tin's victory over- 
threw the last important hostile force west 
of the Alleghanies and opened the way for 
the National armies into Georgia and Sher- 
man's march to the sen. 

The. remarkable scries of successes which 
Grant had now achieved pointed him out 
as the appropriate leader of the National 
armies, and accordingly, in Februat 
the rank of Lieutenant-General was created 
for him by Congress, and on March i; he 
assumed command of the armies of the 
United States. Planning the grand final 
campaign, lie sent Sherman into Georgia, 
Sigcl into the valley of Virginia, and Butler 
to capture Richmond, while he foughl his 
own way from the Rapidan to the James. 
The costly but victorious battles of the 
Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna and 
Cold Harbor were fought, more for the 
purpose of annihilating Lee than to capture 
any particular point. In June, 1S64 tin 
siege of Richmond was begun. SI 
meanwhile, was marching and fighting daih 
in Georgia and steadily advancing toward 
Atlanta; but Sigel had been defeated in the 
valley of Virginia, and was supers ; ' 
Hunter. Lee sent Early to threaten tl N - 
tional caj ' ; \\ : n n Gi il 

up a fore, which he ] ler S idan 

and th; L 1 pidly 

. 11 ■ 
of Virginia and desl 1 hi 

went i and Gr; 

people the 

even tl Govern advised 

crush ;'. G mfi derac_\ n that w; , 

never wavered. He resolved to '• fight it 
; out on that line, if it took all summer." 
By September Sherman had made his 
way to Atlanta, and Grant then sent him 
on hi famous "march to the sea,"' a route 
which the chief had designed six months 
Pie made Sherman's success possi- 
ble, 11 )1 only by holding Lee in front of 
' Richmond, but also by sending: ! 

to Thomas, who then drew off and 
! defeated the only army which could have 
i confronted Sherman. Thus the latter was 
; left unopposed, and. with Thomas and Sheri- 

■ dan, was used in the furtherance of Grant's 
I plans. Each executed his part m the great 

■ design and contributed his share to the re- 
; suit at which Grant was aiming. Sherman 

finally reached Savannah, Schofield beat 
' the enemy at Franklin, Thomas at Nash- 
; ville, and Sheridan wherever he met him ; 
J and all this while General Grant was hold- 
i ing Lee, with the principal Conf 
[ army, near Richmond, as it were chained 
1] less. Then Schofield was brought 
from the West, and Fort Fisher and Wil- 
mington were captured on the sea-coast, so 
as to afford him a . from here he 

was sent into the interior of North Caro- 
lina, and Sherman was ordered I 1 
northward to join him. When all this was 

to tight in the SI;- '''alley, Grant 

- the cavalry leader to the front of 

Richmond, and, making a last effort, drove 

enti nents and 1 . 

At the beg::; ti 

men in 

to 5 ,ooo m ore. 1 


1 . : . Pe t 



energy, only stopping" to strike fresh blo\> ; . 
and Lee at last found himself not only out- 
fought but also out-marched and out-! 
eraled. Being completely surrounded, he 
surrendered on the 9th of April, 1865, at 
Appomattox Court-House, in the open field, 
with 27,000 men, all that remained of his 
army. This act virtually ended the war. 
Thus, in ten days Grant had captured 
Petersburg and Richmond, (ought, by his 
subordinates, the battles of Five Forks and 


•s Ci 


inmerous sma 

ones, captured 20,000 men in actual battle, 
and received the surrender of 27,000 more 
at Appomattox, absolutely annihilating an 
army of 70,000 soldiers. 

General Grant returned at once to Wash- 
ington to superintend the disbandment of 
the armies, but this pleasurable work was 
scarcely begun when President Lincoln was 
assassinated. It had doubtless been in- 
tended to inflict the same fate upon Grant; 
but he, fortunately, on account of leaving 
Washington early in the evening, declined 
an invitation to accompany the President 
to the theater where the murder was com- 
mitted. This event made Andrew Johnson 
President, but left Grant by far the most 
conspicuous figure in the public life oi the 
country. He became the object of an en- 
thusiasm greater than had ever been known 
in America. Every possible honor was 
heaped upon him ; the grade of General 
was created for him by Congress; houses 
were presented to him by citizens; towns 
were illuminated on his entrance into them ; 
and, to cap the climax, when he mad< his 
tour around the world, "all nations did him 
honor" as they had never before h 
a foreigner. 

The General, as Commander-ii 
v. as placed in an embarra >sing pi isitii m by 
I tion of Presid< nt John n to 1 he 

measui 1 of Congn ; bi hed ctly man- 
ifi Led his < haracteri: tic !■ ■ ■-. alt v by 1 ibeying 
'■ ess rather thn it d 1 'resi- 

dent, although for a short time he had 
served in his cabinet as Secretary of War. 

( >i course, e\ c rybody thought of General 
Grant as the next President of the Uniti d 
States, and he was accordingly elected as 
such in 186S "by a large majority," and 
four years later re-elected by a much larger 
majority — the most overwhelming ever 
given by the people of this country. 1 lis first 
administration was distinguished by a ces- 
sation of the strifes which sprang from the 
war, by a large reduction of the National 
debt, and by a settlement of the difficulties 
with England which had grown out of the 
depredations committed by privateers fit- 
ted out in England during the war. This 
last settlement was made by the famous 
" Geneva arbitration," which saved to this 
Government $15,000,000, but, more than all, 
prevented a war with England. "Let us 
have peace," was Grant's motto. And this 
is the most appropriate place to remark 
that above all Presidents whom this Gov- 
ernment has ever had, General Grant was 
the most non-partisan. He regarded the 
Executive office as purely and exclusively 
executive of the laws of Congress, irrespect- 
ive of "politics." But every great roan 
has jealous, bitter enemies, a fact Grant 
was well aware of. 

After the close of his Presidency, our 
General made his famous tour aro 
world, already referred to. and soon after- 
ward, in company with Ferdinand Ward, 
of New York City, lie engaged in i 
and stock brokeraj . 1 :ss was 

ma le disast rous to Grant . as v. 
self, by his ra ;< alii y. By thi 
curable cancer of tl reloped 

itself in the person of the afflict* ; 1 - 
1 ;, which ei n |uitcd life 

July 25. 18S5. Thus passed awn 

I ' ': 1 r I tl 

ivas as truly 1 : 

country" as was Washinj ton th 
the infant nal i< -a. 



: Rutherford BIRCH- 

'S ARD HAYES, the nine- 

i , ''-,' teenth President: of 

" : the United States, 
1877-81, was horn in 
■ ■". ' : " ,\ Delaware, Ohio, Oc- 

' ' - i' tnhc- 4 , lS 22. His 

r S 

i -■ 

ancestry can he traced as far 
back as 12S0, when Haves and 
Rutherford were two Scottish 
chieftains fighting side by side 
with Baliol, William Wallace 
and Robert Bruce. Both fami- 
lies belonged to the nobility, 
owned extensive estates and had 
a large following. The I laves 
family had, for a coatof-arms, a 
shield, barred and surmounted by a flying 
eagle. There was a circle of stars about 
the eagle and above the shield, while on a 
scroll undcrneat h the shield \va j in ;ci ibed 
I ] ." Misfortun 

tl : ily, G e Ha res left Scot 

1680, and settled in Windsor, Connci 
He was an industrious worker in wood and 
iron, h o. in ; a [ md a cul- 

li voted mind. I i is son Geoi 
in Windsi »r and 1 en i< 1 I 


Daniel ) la\ es, son 



md lived 



necticut. Ezekiel, son of Daniel, was born 
in 1724. and was a manufacturer of scythes 
at Bradford, Connecticut. Rutherford 
Hayes, son of Ezekiel and grandfathi r of 
' President 1 laves, was born in Xew Haven, 
1 iii August, 1756. He was a famous black- 
1 smith and tavern-keeper. He immigrated to 
Vermont at an unknown date, settling in 
j Brattleboro where he established a hotel. 
Here his son Rutherford, father of Presi- 
dent Hayes, was born. In Septi mbi r, 1S13, 
he married .Sophia Birchard, of Wilming- 
ton, Vermont, whose ancestry on the male 
side is traced back to 1635, to John Birch- 
ard, one of the principal founders of X >r- 
! wich. Both of her grandfathers were 
soldiers in the Revolutionary war. 

The fatl -idem Hayes was of a 

mechanical turn, and could mend a plow, 
knil a stocking, or do all > ; 

ke. He v ; 
in business, a member of the chui 
active in all the bei ol 1 it en 
town. J 

Ohio. ; 
t to of Di 
ted 1 wife and 

two childi 

had • pt< 

f a m i I a r 1 
Delawai [nst 


. V • 


; . 





'. ". D B. HAYES. 

farm, Mr. Hayes conclud tcr into 

business in the village. He purchased ; n 
interest in a distiller} . a bu ;incssthen as re- 
spectable as it was profitable. His 
and recognized ability assured hitn the 
highest social position in the community. 
He died July 22, 1822, less than three 
months before the- birth of the son that was 
destined to fill the office of President of the 
United States. 

Mrs. Hayes at this period was very weak, 
and the subject of this sketch was so feeble 
at birth that he was not expected to live 
beyond a month or two at most. As the 
months went by he grew weakerand weak< r 
so that the neighbors were in the habit of 
inquiring from time to time "if Mrs. 
Hayes's baby died last night." On one oc- 
casion a neighbor, who was on friendly 
terms with the family, after alluding to the 
boy's big head and the mother's assiduous 
care of him, said to her, in a bantering way, 
"That's right! Stick to him. You have 
got him along so far, and f shouldn't won- 
der if he would reallv come to something 
yet." •' You need not laugh," said Mrs. 
Hayes, "you wait and see. You can't tell 
but I shall make hum President of the 
United States yet." 

The boy lived, in spite of the universal 
predictions of his speedy death; and when, 
in 1S25, his elder brother was drown 
: ie, if possible, still dearer to his mother. 

H r as seven years old 1 he was 

placed in school. His educati* n, ho 

wholly 5, his ] 

his sister These circum- 


lor the *' 
which are marked traits of hi-- chai 
lient to the ' ... 


. ; the school-house door 

when it opened in the 1 and never 

: recess. I lis 

j sister Fannie was his c ■ npanion, 

! and their affection for each other excited 
the a A their friends. 

In 1838 young Hayes entered Kenyon 

: ■ and graduated in 1842. He then 

i began the study of law in the office of 

Thomas Sparrow at Columbus. Hishealth 

was now well established, his figure n 

his mind vigorous and alert. In a short 

I time he determined to enter the law school 

j at Cambridge, Massachusetts, where for 

: two years he pursued his studies with great 

: diligence. 

In 1845 ne was admitted to the bar at 
.. Ohio, and shortly afterward went 
' into practice as an attorney-at-law with 
j Ralph P. Buckland, of Fremont, lb re he 
j remained three years, acquiring but limited 
I practice, and apparently unambitious of 
i distinction in his profession. His bachelor 
! uncle, Sardis Birchard, who had always 
I manifested great interest in his nephew and 
\ rendered him assistance in boyhood, was 
now a wealthy banker, and it was under- 
stood that the young man would be his 
heir. It is possible that this expectation 
ma}- have made Mr. Hayes more indi 
to the attainment of wealth than hi 
' otherwise have been, but he was led into no 
'< extravagance or vices on th 

In 1 S49 he re mi >\ C innati where 

; his ambition foui stimulus. Two 


• erful influence up tent life. 

1 ; th to Miss 

Lucy Ware \\ ebb, dai . James 


: .lion to th ( ' : :.. innati I 

I ' rd F. No\ ; .-. 

1 ■ 


' ' » O! THE UX.'TED S7 IT£S 

our Presidents was m< n 

mired, reverenced and belo\ n is Mrs. 

Mayes, and no one has do 

to reflect honor upon American w< 

hi U )i i. 

In 1S56 Mr. Hayes was nominated to the 
office of Judge o f the Court of Co 
Pleas, but declined to accept the nomina- 
tion- Two years later he was chosen to the 
office of City Solicitor. 

in 1SG1, when the Rebellion brola 


he was eager to take up ai ms in the defense ! wi 
of his country. Mis military life was 
bright and illustrious. June 7, rS6i, he 
was appointed Major of the Twenty-third 
Ohio Infantry. In July the regiment was 
sent to Virginia. October 15, 1 861, he was 
made Lieutenant-Colonel of his regiment, 
and in August, 1862, was promoted Colonel 
of the Seventy-ninth Ohio Regiment, but 
refused to leave his old comrades. He was 
wounded at the battle of South Mountain, 
and suffered severely, being unable to enter 
upon active duty for several weeks. No- 
vember 30. 1862, he rejoined his regiment as 
its Colonel, having been promoted Octo- 
ber 15. 

December 25, 1862, he was placed in con 

in 1 64. He was wound 
times, and five horses were shot from 
under him. 

Mr. Hayes was first a Whig in politics, 
and was , m th< first to unite with the 
Fre< -Soil ties. In 1S04 

he was elected to Congress from t 
ond Ohio Dis ' .. ys been 

! ' a maji rity 1 ■ 

In iS66hewas renominated tor Congress 
and was a second time elected. In 

led Governor over Allen G. Thur- 
man, the Democratic candidate, and re- 
elected in 1869. In iV: Sardis Birchard 
died, leaving his large estate to G 

In 1S76 he was nominated for the Pn - : - 
dency. His letter of acceptance excited 
th admiration of the whole country. He 
resigned the office of Governor and retired 
to his home in Fremont to await 
of the canvass. After a hard, long . 
he was inaugurated March 5. 1S77. His 
Presidency was characterized by < 
misi s with all parties, in order to pi 
many as po iible. The clo < f his Presi- 
dential term in rSSi was the close 
public life, and since then he has rei 

mand of the Kanawha division, and for ! at his home in Fremont, Ohio, in | 
meritorious service in several battles was nian retirement from pi I 
promoted Brigadier-General. He \va also . ing , in tr: -I with most others of the . 
bn vetted Major-General for distinguished j notables. 

\ ■>,/«, V: 

ZAj/fis^U 6 





: - ; ; •#* AMES A. GARFIELD, 
3- twentieth President of 
| • '"; ?$» the United States, 1SS1, 
f was born November 19, 

1 S 3 1 , in the wild woods 
"•;._,, •• . . y of Cuyahoga Count)-, 

■ Ohio. His parents were 

' Abram and Eliza (Ballou) 
Garfield, who were of New 
England ancestry. T h c 
senior Garfield was an in- 
dustrious farmer, as the 
rapid improvements which 
appeared on his place at- 
tested. The residence was 
the familiar pioneer log cabin, 
and the household comprised the parents 
and their children— Mehetable, Tho 
Mary and James A. In May, 1833, the 
father died, and the care of the house- 
hold consequently devolved upon young 
Thomas, to w In >m [am . 1 al ly in- 

debted for th cd ati ; 
vantage I H lives in 

1 Solon, 
Ohio, n 

As Ih ijcct of « mr sk< tch • up, he, 

too, > ' rious, b ' ii tal and 

I ked upon 1 

or at carpcnl or cho] 

an) otln rodd 
of 1 ■ i ily, and in the mean! 

most of his books. Ever afterward he was 
never ashamed of Ins humble origin, nor for- 
got the friends of his youth. The poorest 
laborer was sure of his sympathy, and lie 
always exhibited the character of a modest 

Until he was about sixteen years of age, 
James's highest ambition was to be a lake 
captain. To this his mother was strongly 
opposed, but she finally consented to his 
going to Cleveland to carry out his long- 
cherished design, with the understanding, 
however, that he should try to obtain some 
other kind of employment. He walked all 
the way to Cleveland, and this was his first 
the city. After making many ap- 
plications for work, including labor on 
board a lake vessel, but all in vain, he 
finally 1 i .vr for his 1 

\ ::.s J -, on the Ohio & 1' 

vani 1 Can d. In a si .. 3ver, he 

quit thi I 

am In- 
st itute, a si 1 'by the 
Discipl : 

way he 
I at 1 
taught • 

' . ■ ' 

: I 


' I ■ STATES. 

Afterward he returned to Hiram is Pr i - 

dent. In Ins youthful and th re or ?L o s" ! TohT? *°\ ^ "^ "' Gencra ] Fitz " 

piety, he exercised his talen oc, H J oh - Porter, a.xl tl d to report to 
as a preacher of the Gos, I . ' ?™ h ^°. SCCra " 

man of strong moral and rd Hon eonvic L i P ° ^^ ^ ' ° f Staff " His ^ 

ward proved a won y c, sortT nl, t ' •",' " -h— ,ud for sixty years 

stages of her husbands' ear er The : ES R '^ ""f )™***y»* 

seven children, five of whom are still liv Z, : G.dd.ngs. Again, he was the 

It -as in ,8 59 ,ha Garfie d "ide hfs ' ff "'T^ "' thal bod >'- a " d on- 
first political speeches, in hL"^ ^1^.^ "^™ —-.as 

jiiM pumicai speeches, in H iram -mrl tl-,,-. I n • '^' tl - u 

neighboring villages, and th =e , .ear la IXTp ^ °'' Se " at ° r ' U ' Uil ' 

he began I TspealTat eonntv mass meeth, s ! r "*', ' '" ' SSa D " ri "S his life 

being°rec=ived everywhere with 000^ L B T ^ ^^''^ a " d P uWished b >' 

'-"or. llcvaseiee, d,o 1„ siu's ! 1,1^' 'JT- "^ etewhere - "^ 

II this year, taking his SC a. in Jannan T fc ^ *" °'- '' C J" 1 '" of lhe *'•■ 

IS On the breaking out o.' the „,',,,' ' 3 S ' de ' ""'"' a "- v other ' 

I Rebellion in ,86, , M G a fi Id , ,1 ! r JU " C * ' S ?°' *' ""= Xi " i ™' ! 

83 %ht as he find talked, and aceordt v he ' P^ntKm M ™ C '" C - n - General G ^ 

II enlisted to defend th old flT« f > i r ™ "° n " M,d f °'' ,he Presid < 

Ms commission as LientenantSSionelo! ., 'g^. 'ana Inf T^ ft* 

Forty-second Regiment of the Ohio Vol,,,, i , , ' f lth ongn many of the Re 

tee, Infa,,,,,-, Aogust ,4, that Sei '"soS " ' "" °T ^ Mure °' 

S Marshall, from 1 , nn.iv, S, K !n . 

This I I: was -,,,:-■ 

tho, ' , ,. ■ 

hi,,, curred which so nearh 


the 01 Senate two vea, 


and it, ,-cl 


■ ■ •.- 


• . : \ ■■ '■■" " ■■—"'-"---""- ' - . — -..-■ 

,- a i v.. . ... .. 


. I 

/'*'•;"''-•. i . . ■■ 


i - ; 


ARTHUR, the twen- 

a ty- first Chief Execu- 

l live of this growing 
a re public, i88i-'5, was 

iv^ . i bom in F r a nkl i n 
County, Vermont, 
October 5. 1830, the eldest of a 
family of two sons and five 
daughters. His father, Rev. 
Dr. William Arthur, a Baptist 
clergyman, immigrated to this 
country from County Antrim, 
Ireland, in his eighteenth year, 
and died in 1S75, in Newton- 



New York, 

after serving many years as a successful 
minister. Chester A. was educated at that 
old, consen ative ii til ution, Uni »n G il 
lege, at Schenectady, New York, win re he 
excell :d in all his stu lies. He graduated 
there, with it mor, and then struck out in 
life fi ir hims< 11 by teaching sch< >ol for aboul 
1 wo years in his nal n c State. 

At the expiration of thai time young 
Arthur, with .-\y o in his purse, .v< n 
city of New Y01 k and : ie 1 

of ex-Judge E. 1 ). Cul rcr as a stu ! 

dm time he v he bar, when 

he formed a pari m intimai 

friend and old room-mate, Henry D. Gar- 
diner, with the intention of practicing law 
at some point in the West; but after spend- 
ing about three months in the Western 
States, in search of an eligible place, they 
returned to New York City, leased a room, 
exhibited a sign of their business and al- 
most immediately enjoyed a paying patron- 

At this stage of his career Mr. Arthur's 
business prospects were so encouraging 
that lie concluded to take a wife, and ac- 
cordingly he married the daughter 
tenant Herndon. of the United States Navy, 
who had been lost at sea. To the widow 
of the latter Congress voted a gold, medal, 
in recognition of the Lieutenant's I 
dun;.:; the occasion in which he lost his 
Life . Mrs. Arthur di< d slv irtly b< : 

band's nominatii m to he Vice-Presi- 
dent) . leaving tw > ■ 

Mr. Arthui ■ ; > Icral 

ritv as . in the fam 

suit, which v 

."■■'■: il \\ ho had be 

■ ■ . 

Cil y. Tl ir, who 

the lit 1 )erno- 



■TS OZ< 

'<■ •' 

■ ' ■•• oJ Virginia, to recover the negroes 
1'iit he lost the suit, hi this 
Mr. Arthur was a i ; 

Evarts, now United Stab ; Scnati 

in 1S56, a re : 
"'Oman was circled from a street car in 
New York City. Mr. Arthui sued the car 
company in her behalf and recover 
d 1 1 ges. Immediately afterward all the 
car companies in the city issue I orders to 
their employes to admit colored persons 
upon their cars. 

Mr. Arthur's political doctrines, 
as his practice as a lawyer, raised him to 
prominence in the party of freedom; and 
accordingly he was sent as a del 
the first National Republican Convention. 
Soon afterward he was appointed Judge 
Advocate for the Second Brigade of the 
State of Xew York, and then Engineer-in- 
Chief on Governor Morgan's staff. In 1S61, 
the first year of the war, he was made In- 
spector-General, and next, Quartermaster- 
General, in both which offices he 1 
great service to the Government. After 
the close of Governor Morgan's term he 
resumed the practice of law, forming 
partnership with Mr. Ransom, and subse- 
quently adding Mr. Phelps to the firm. 
Each of these gentlemen were able lav \ rs. 
November 21, 1S72, General Arthur was 
appoint I Collei Lor of the Port of New 
York by President Grant, and hi h< Id the 
offici until ful) 1 [87S. 

n ■ 111 Kt 1 . 
'■ : ,; ' '' caree] ■■.. . hi no . ' , on to tl 
\ i P cy of the United Si 

'■ ■ 
National R< pu ■ 1 n , 

( !. ■ , I 1 1 

Both th( com 

, a 'I I 

f] nds oJ ( • . 1 , n . , 


r.xrj : ,< s: 

n, were exceedingly persi'st- 
' lj d ippointed over 
■' '1 defeat. At the head of the Demo- 
ticket was ;. laced a very strong and 
PopuTai Garfield and Arthur were 

1 elected by 
popular vote. The 4th of Mai-ch following, 
these gentlemen were ao Singly inaugu- 
i but within fourm assassin's 

bull. : n . 1 ' the pei 

■ General Garfield, whose life tei 
■ I »ber . , 1 Si, when General Arthur, 
ex officio, was obliged to tak. the chief 
reins of government. Some misgivings 
were entertained by many in this event, as 
| Mr. Arthur was thought to represent espe 
cially the Granl and Conkling wing of the 
dean party; bill ' Arthur 

had both the ability and the g ,d 
allay all fears, and he gave th< r 
critical American people as good an ad- 
ministration as they had ever been blessed 
with. Neither selfishness nor lov 
sanism ever characterized any feature of 
his public service. He ev< r raaint; 
high sc:^c of every individual right 
as of the Nat ion's honor. 1 ndeed, he stood 
so high that his successor, President Cleve- 
land, though of op] osi 
a wish in his inaugural ad Iress tl I 
could only satisfy the people with a 
an administration. 

But the day < . : . " ■ 
come in so far, 

service, that . 

dent. Onl is 1 1 


■ •'- 
; h, 1 

n at New ^ 








j ■ 



LW,- c 




. ; A LAND, the twenty- 

■ '•'. ;■,_ second President of the 

"• ; - if United States, 1885—, 

was born in Caldwell, 

Essex Count}-, New 

V "^ Jersey, March 18, 

1837. The house in which he 
was born, a small two-story 
wooden building, is still stand- 
ing. It was the parsonage of 
the Presbyterian church, of 
which his lather, Richard 
Cleveland, at the time was 
pastor. The family is of New 
England origin, and for two centuries has 
contributed to the professions and to busi- 
ness, men who have reflected honor on the 
name. Aaron Cleveland, Grovcr Cleve- 
land's great-great-grandf; ther, was born in 
Massachusetts, bur subsequently moved to 
Philadelphia, where he bei ame an intimate 
friend of Benjamin Franklin, at whose 
house he died. He lei a large family of 
child;-'. 11, wh< ■ in time mai 1 ied and 
in difl r ■) t parts ol New England. A 
grand tl A 1 

force th i • 

Hill. 1 le served ,vitl alb 
out the Ri oluti and \. . 
discharged at its c >s> ; a L 

the C< mti ;< ntal a- rny. Alii tther 

' ' ' 1 of aseco 

Cleveland, who was distinguished as a 
writer and member of the Connecticut 
Legislature) was Grover Cleveland's grand- 
father. William Cleveland became a silver- 
smith in Norwich, Connecticut, lb ac- 
quired by industry some property and scut 
his son, Richard Cleveland, the father vi 
Grover Cleveland, to Yale College, where 
he graduated in 1824. During a year spent 
in teaching at Baltimore, Maryland, after 
graduation, he met and fell in love with a 
Miss Annie Neale, daughter of a wealthy- 
Baltimore book publisher, of Irish birth. 
He was earning his own way in the world 
at the time and was unable to marry; 'out 
in three years lie completed a ci > 
preparation for the ministry, secured a 
church in Windham, Connecticut, and 
married Annie Neale. Subsequently he 
moved to Portsmouth, Virginia, \vh 
pieachcd for nearly two years, when he 
was summoned to ( Iw 11, v . J 
where was born Grovi r Cievel 1. 

Yy hen a s 1 

moved to Fay 

New York. H < ■ - 
until he was fourti 
healthful life of a country boy. Hi 
jcneroi le him a I 

among Iris co 

was wo 1 y tin go 1 qi ilitii in tl 
which his manhood developed. He at- 
t school of 1 





be taught to lal 

; pleted 

ai the : . . 


. ; ' 


family' ha ' 

the Presbytej i] ' H 

: - ■ . . - the a 

Hither ( 

shortly after the 
year at the Fa 

. i - 


mrch of Ho] 

suddenly si 

:. 1 
>• in s1 
- :: 1 Clevel 

yl s: 



t on Col ! ege, 

■ - the first yea 53-j 





: dc-a of 

i's Amer- 
ican Herd B 1 | 


y i the 

• ith 

■ -■-'.. I : w rid. 1 . I .- 

G radualh 

and y for 

'].- . 1 . . . ■ 


three year- 

I 1 §) 
y the 






party Grover Cleveland to be 

the Democratic candidate for 
and came within thirti en voti - ol : 
tion. The three years spent in the district 
attorney's office were devoted I 
labor and the extension of his ; 
attainments. Me then formed a law part-! 
nership with the late Isaac V. Vand ' ; • :1, 
ex-State Treasurer, under the firm name ; 
of Vanderpoel ec Cleveland. Here th< bulk 
of the work devolved on Cleveland's shoul- 
ders, and he soon won a good standing at 
the bar of Erie County. in 1S69 Mr. 
Cleveland formed a partnership with ex- 
Senator A. P. Laning and ex-A: 
United States District Attorney Oscar Fol- 
som, under the firm name of Laning, Cleve- 
land <k Folsom. During these years he 
began to earn a moderate professional in- 
come; but the larger portion of it was sent 
to his mother and sisters at Holland Patent 
to whose support he had contributed ever 
since 1S60. lie served as sheriff of Erie 
County, 1870-4, and then resumed the 
practice of law, associating himself with the 
Hon. Lyman K. Bass and Wilson S. Bissell. 

Th fit m was stn •: md soon 

and lucrative practice. 
rement of Mr. Pa- 
in 1S79, and tl became I 

In 18S1 Mr. Georj ■ J ■ ard was 
added to the firm. 

In the autumn election of iSS] he was 

: mayor of Buffalo by a majority of 

over 5.500 — the largest majority ever given 

late for mayor — and the Democratic 

city ticket was successful, although the 

Republicans carried Buffalo by over 1,000 

ity for their State ticket. Grover 

Cleveland's administration as mayor fully 

justified the confidence reposed in him by 

the people of Buffalo, eviden 

great vote he received. 

The Demi-.' iti Sta1 Co tion met 

at Syracuse, Sepl 22,] ndnomi. 

nated Grover Cleveland for Governor 
on the third ballot and Cleveland was 
elected by 192,000 majoritv. In the fall of 
1 884 he was elected President of the Ik itc : 
States by about t.coo popul; : ity, 

in Xew York State, and lie was 

h of March following. 

V-'-l"- "' 









':■' » 






:« -- 

. :*■;♦: 





■ - • - . Yx J J. /•<*. 





me: ■■ 

"'*€, , ■ 







msToitr '-■. 


; ! i ' i i . i) > • ■. 

ory of [ou/a.Jf? 


oIIE race or races v.ii 

( , 

occupied thi; I 
tiful prairie country 
before the ach 
the whites froi i 
rope had no litera- 
ture, and thei 
have left us no history of 
themselves. Not even tra- 
ditions, to any extent, have 
been handed down 
Hence, about all \v< know 
of the Indians, previous to 
explorations by the whites, 
is derived from n 
and a few simpli 
The mound: wereci 
tple generally denomi .; Lei I ."■ i i 
Builders, but whethc r the > wei e a : 
rate from the Indians is an unsettled qucs- 
I . Winchell.of the Michi 

Stat< Univei ity, as w ell as a number of 
, is of the opinion that 
those who built nil 
in m. mad 

and domestic economy, and 
buill h< as.-- s and su 

no other than tl of the 




the arts of life than their successors during 
the middle ag< . Most p iple have their 
periods of decline, as well as ; : 
ress. The Persians, Hindoos and Chinese, 
in existence as distinct 
natii ns, have been forages in a state of de- 
cay. Spain and ltal\ i improve, 
virile Germany, Ru - ia . 1 Lhf 
Stairs have now their turn in eni 

been on the decline in the 
life. Even since the re 
more Cooper, (he " en have 

I into savages, despi 
t of the highest order of civilization. 
Nearly all modern authorities unite in 
the opinion that the American conl 
was first peopled from Eastei . either 

schatkan and Ja] I I 

now submei 


and cil ics of M I the W 




what can be learned from their buried 
stru< turcs. The few ins< riptions tl 
found seem if be meanin ; 

Indiaii mounds arc found throughout 
the United States east ol the Rocky 
Mountain?, but arc far more abundant in 
sonic places than others. In thi: 
they abound near the principal rivi rs. 
They vary in .size from a few to hm 
of feet in diameter, and from three to fifteen 
or more feet in height. They are gen 
round, or nearly so, but in a few notable 
exceptions they bear a rude res< nblan : in 
their outline to the figure of some animal. 
Their contents are limited, both in quantity 
and variety, and consist mainbj of human 
bones, stone implements tobacco pipes, 

td . tc. - The stone implcm ntsareaxes, 
skinning knive , and mortars, arrow 

points, etc. The human bones are 
found in a mass as if a number of corj 
been buried together, and indicate 1 hat their 
possessors were interred in a sitting posture . 
| . >a nut 1 I i nrd >ck, of Elkader, this 

Si tt( , who has made this subji :1 ; 
stud}' for many years, is of the opinion thai 
these remains arc not of subjects who were 
inhumed as corpses, but of \->cr<on< who, 
under the influence of a savage religion, 
voluntarily sacrificed themselves by under- 
going a burial when alive. 


The hrst member of this race to discover 
I ipi Ri ver w: 

Soto, a. . 

of the L nvi r ; i 

no fai Ll north than the 35th par; 
He founded no sei ici 
follow his com to make 

t her title 

d i sco ve ry 1 
Al a subseq 

no! it 
i n 1 1 1 e 1 

countrymen iwed and 1 I 

actual settlements. Accordingly, in l6S2, 
i 1 he country, and, accord- 

ing to the usage of European n 
earned a proper titl cue. The re- 

sult \va those t v. 1 na- 

I ;uccess finally crowning thee oi 

Fi am e. 

In a grand council of Indians, 
shore of Lake Superior, they I 

' ' rather 

oi Waters" an 

and in 1669 Jacques Marquette, a zealous 
and shrewd Jesuit missi snary, became in- 
spire 1 with the Lil 1 of \ isiting I : 
gion, in the interests of civili n. After 

studying the Ian; 1a is of 

: . [ndi 1 mtil '' 1c pr< p- 

;. ir tli i 'urm 5 . in which 1 : v. as 
to 1 ' 1 pa ied by Louis Joliet, an agent 
of the French Government. The It li is, 
i n lar 
■ ; ' ! rture, end voi 1 to d 
hi . 1 

of tl : i • . 

cruel and bloodthirsty. The grea 
itself, the)-- said, was the ab ' 

s w hi c h co u 1 
and all. But the shrewd 1 

1 if Indian e xtravagance in d 
tion, set out upon the c 
ney May 13. With 1 II wo Miami 

gui ' ■ he pi led to tl W 

: ' 


|une, ti 
on the ■ 

of the Des M ! 

;■ a short ti 

to Lhe 


01 IOWA. 

Nine years later, in 16S2, Rem Robert >! warrior: was estimal •' :■: only 1,050 
Cavelier La Salie I th< ' \ i Of 1 t ?.\ e Twightwces, 
sippi to the Gulf of Mexico, and in the name or Miami prop Wea . u Ouiate- 
of the King of France took formal posse; n as; 300 Piankeshaws and 200 Shockeys; 
sion of all the Mississippi Valley, naming it but thcii headquarters were alo 
Louisiana, in honor of his king, Louis XIV. Maumee Ri\ , ; n Ii ' : id Ohio. 
The river itself he named Colbert, in honor Fi'om i6SS to [69; the wars in which 
of the French minister. Soon afterward France and England were engaged re- 
the Government of France began to en- tarded tl th tl ' ri an ( do- 
courage the establishment of a line of trad- | nics. The efforts made by France to 
ing posts and missionary stations through- connect Canada and Gulf 1 
out the West from Canada to Louisiana, a chain of trading posts and ol ii 
and this policy was maintained with par- j uralh, excited the 
tial success for about seventy-five years, gradually laid the found 
Christian zeal animated both France and at anus. The crisis came and the 

id in missionaiw enterprise, the obtained tl 

former in the interests of Catholicism and war. the French and hidiai 

1 : ;r in favor of Protestantism. Hence ' against he ' ' h. :. war as lermi- 

their haste to pre-occup) the land and prose- natcd in [763 by a treat} at Pari , bv which 

lyte the aborigines; but this ugl}- rivahw. dis- Fram d to Great B 

gus I the Indians and they rei I to be America east of the Mississippi 

converted l either branch of Christianity, island on which New Orlean : - 1 I .. 

The traders also persisted in imp rting The preceding autumn Franc 

whisky, whicl cane led nearly ever \ civ Spain all the count) .-. that riv r. 

ilizing inn le; tha • ould be brought to ; In 1765 the total number of ] rei 

bearupc /ages. Another character- j lies within th limit of th< North \ 

istic of I: lian nature was to listen atten ritorydidi 

lively to all that the missionary said, pre- were in sett! n! it ] 

tending to believe all he preached, and then the river Wabash and the i \ 

offer in turn his theory of the world, of re- Fort Chartres on the Mississippi. The 

ligion, etc.; and, not beii , . . itl lonial poli y of t! : B: ' G 

' . ime degree of attention ant! prei n oppo ed any m< uri which migl 

of belief, would depart from the whit strengthen settlements in the : ' I 

man': pr< :nc< in dii List. Thi vas h - mlr\\ lest thev si 

idea ol the g ; ' ' .a rule. sup] irting and 

Coin' larativelv few ] in . I ' . lotl [-] 

neatly located within tl pi I ' J 1 

of the State of h >\\ a. Favorite hi retarded. That si 

grounds wi resorted to by 1 band in I 
for a tim 1 by 

to the v; v. ars. i 

The trib s were p I those who would 
lowas, Dakol 

finally the S id . dee- . 

I ' tion of : 

posed of fo , whose 1 11 


' ' i ' lures] 

' rs rapidly peopled th : ti. ^ th u hi b , 

of the Union, so that the Nortl t Terri- the line. In I th reforc, the Govern. 

tol T wa formed an su (divided into ment created 

Territories and State: )Vcd fQ 

■ N ; ' ,u [82 °" be more si in the im< i e i 

tor more than too years after Marquette ; Soon after the acquisition ol 

and Johet trod the virgin soil of [own and our Govi rnment, the latt< I meas- 

admired its fertile plains, not a single settle- u res for the i , | vv terri- 

mc.it was made or attempted; not even a tory, having in vie^ tl m of the 

trading-post was established. During thi tous tribes of Indian b 

tune the Illinois Indians, once a powerful possessed, and als . the ■ proper 

tribe, gave up the entire possession of this sites for militarv posts and tra 

" Beautiful Land," as Iowa was then called, The Army of the West, General Wilkin, 

to the Sacs and Foxes. In 1S03, when son con j .iters at 

Louisiana was purchased by the United St. Louis. From this post C 

Si^cs, the Sacs, Foxes and Iowas pos- and Clarke, in 1S05. were detailed with a 

sessed tins entire State, and the two for- sufficient force t , explore the M 

mer tribes occupied al most of the Stale River to its source, and Li Zebulon 

Of Illinois. ] he four most important towns M. Pike to ascend to the head of the Missis- 

of the Sacs were along the Missi: sippi, two sippi. Angus) 20 the latter arrived within 

° n thc eas1 side, one near the mouth of the the present limits of Iowa, at I 

Upper Iowa and one at the head of the Des Moines Rapids, where he : 1 : William 

Des Moines Rapids, near the present site ^ Ewing, who had just been app 

of Montrose. 1 hose of the Foxes were- Agent at th Frencl 

one on the west side of the Mississippi just four chiefs and fifteen Sac and F 

above Davenport, one aboul 1 ,elve miles riors. At the head of th. 1 

from the river back of the Dubuque lead Mont Pi] ;j xvith 

mines and one on Turkey River. The th. 

principal village of the Iowas , vn < on tl them 1 l P lent l 

Dcs Moin ' s River, m Van Buren County, St; I -.. i I to inquire ii I , 

whcrc Iowav i;1 - Herell the red man, with a view ... 
grcal battle betw E 1 i 

; ' ', ; ' B 1. On the 23d he reached wha ii 
: ia young man, coi 

post; but tl 

• \l\ ■ They mi 

at one 

Governmei United . 1 



Julien Dubuque, a Frenchman who held a 
mining claim underagrant from Sp; in, il 
was not disposed to publish the weal 
his possessions. Having an old field-] 
with him, however, he fired alute in 

honor of the first visit of an agent from the 
United States to that part, of the country, 
and Pike pursued his way up the river. 

At what was afterward Fori Snelling, 
Minnesota. Lieutenant. Pike held a council 
with the Sioux September 23, and obtained 
from them a grant of 100,000 acres of land. 
Januarys following (1806) he arrivi 
trading post on Lake De Sable, belonging 
to the Northwestern Fur Company, whose 
field of operations at that time included this 
State. Pike returned to St. Louis the fol- 
lowing spring, after making a successful 
ex; 'edition. 

Before this country could be opened for 
settl ment by the whites, it was necessary 
that Indian title should be extinguished and 
the aboriginal owners removed. When the 
Government assumed control of the ( 
by virtue of the Louisiana purchase, n 
the whole State was in possession of the 
Sacs and Foxes, at whose head stood the 
rising Black Hawk. November 5. ::' ■. a 
treaty was concluded with these tril 
which they ceded to the United States the 
Illinois side of the great river, in consider- 
ation of $2,234 worth of goods then de- 
livered, and an annuity of Si, 000 to be paid 
in goods at cost ; but Black Hawk 
maintained that the chiefs who entei 1 
' : I 1 ■ .1 1 1 ■ i v\ il I rity, and 

1 1 . ire a ty \ no 
• I irt erected 1 n 

F< >rt Madison. A previously ; 

military post w; •, hat is now 


Phcse enterprises 
the In': 1 . I, 1 ' h 

I ii . 


thev were do- 

ing, an . ; < 

those structures were 
merely isls, thev were incredu- 

l more sus] 
Bl ' Hawk tl I In party to the 

vicinity of Fort Madison arc! attcm] 
destruction, but a premature attaek by him 
caused his failure. 

In 1S12, when war was declared between 
thiscoun Britain, Black Hawk 

and his band allied themselves to the British, 
parti}- because they were dazzled by their 
lis promises, but mostly, perhaps, be- 
they had been deceived by the Amer- 
icans. Black Hawk pi 
latter fact was the cause. A portion of the 
Sacs and Foxes, however, headed by Keo- 
kuk ("watchful fox'"), could not 
I suaded into hostilities against the United 
! Stales, being disposed to abide by the 
| treaty of 1804. The Indians were there- 
; fore divided into the '-war" and the 
: "peace" parties. Black Hawk says he 
was informed, after he had gone to the war, 
' that his people, left on the west s^ : 
river, would be defenseless again 

rces in case they 

. ' 1 ; and, havii tl Id m :n, the 

n and the children on their hands to 

provide for, a council was held, and it was 

1 determined to have the latter go to St. 

Louis and place themselves un I 
' ".American" chief stationed ther 
, cordingly thev went d >wn, and .\ 

I as 1 Sacs and 

1 for and si nt up 

the M ver. 

urn from the British 
j army, I 



; o 


?r OF IOWA. 

. I" person Keokuk was l ;! 
: bearing-, and in speech he • , 
J He did nol masli r the English I • 
' however, and his interpreter: , 
able to do him justice. He was a fri, 
our Government, and always endca\ i 
to persuade the Indians that it vv; 
to attack a nation so powerful . thai o 
the United States. 

The treaty of 1S04 was renewed in 1816 
which Black Hawk himself signed ; but he 

afle-ruard he' i ik: ;„■ ,. ,] , . ; 

that that treaty was not even yet bind 
But there was no farther seri 
with the Indians until the noted " 1 
Hawk war" of 1832.. all of which took place 
m Illinois and Wisconsin, with the exp 
result— the defeat and capture of the great ' 
chief, and the final, effectual and permanent 
repulsion of all hostile Indian, to the west I 
of the great Mississippi. Black Hawk d I 
Octobers. 1S38, at Ins home in this St 
and was buried there ; but his remains were \ 
afterward placed in the museum of the His I 
torical Society, where they were acci lent 
ally destroyed by fire. 

More or less affecting the territory now 
included within the State of Iowa, fifteer 
treaties with the Indians have been made, 
an outline of which is here given. [, 
when the whites agreed not to scttl w< si 
of the Mi is ipj i ;, , | !: , ,,._ 

with the Sioux, rati h Great 

Britain and the I ited States; ith the 
Sacs, a tn at; , 
ratifyin r that o r! th I 

; I aided 

dians : to deliy, 

lowas.a 1 

ivithll - 


tll; ' I 

; act "was 

: breeds. In 1S25, placin- 
1 larylincl I , • nth, - 

th and the Sioux on th 
; : at line was • , 

• ! < ■} miles. Alsi . in the sam« v< 

tri! , who ded ' 
: 1 thewesi 

"g^nds witl th m , . I providing a 
school, farm, etc.. for tl 
i same Tear, the -Black Hawk pu . 

• " about 6,000,000 acres, along 
the west side of the \] 

n hue of the State to the mouth of 
th I ..a River. In 1836, with the S 

ce ^ing Keokuk's r. :erve to the 
Umted States. In .837, with the same, 
when another slice of ten 
1,250000 acres, joining west o'f th. I 
mg tract, was obtained. Also, in th 
y ear ' ' vhcn U 'e , s gave up ail their 

hinds all iwed tin m under fon 

"y- in 1842, when they relinquished 
their title to all their lands west of the 
-■ ' sipj ii. 
Before the whole of Iowa fell into tl e 
" f the United Slate- 1 

I " : ; ' ■ ■ :i:; ' ' '■ ' 

and French Gove:- | anc ] oc 

which it maj 

. j f in n ■ 


those 1 he after' 

many years, 


niSTom- o> 

feme Court ol the Unil to fo h her in- 

I ■ ■ si legal tit! : held by . i . it, man . • . ! ild, this intrepid 
in the State of Iowa. A tract of 5,S6oacn e in her cam ter many 

in Clayton County was granted by the days of weai ' urncy of 

Lieutenant-Governor ol Upper Louisiana 9 ., miles, she al . Shi 

to Basil Girard, whose title was afterward n r of this 

made valid some time after the preceding toilsome journey down the river in search 
settled. f hcr husband, "When I 

Otner early settlers were: Mr. Johnson, ' all perished away- so ti ! 

ent of the' American Fur Company, touched by such unexampled 
* no had a trading-post below Burlington, j took her to his heart, and ever after until 
Le Mohere, a French trader, had, in 1S20, j his death treated her with marked respect. 
a station at what is now Sandusky, in I ,ee I She always presided at his tal 

ty, six miles above Keokuk. During ' and dignity, but never abandoned 
t e same year Dr. Samuel C. Muir, a sur- tivc style of dress. In 1819 '20 he was 
geon of the United Slates army, built a stati ied at Fort Edward, now Warsaw, 
c^Din where the city of Keokuk now stands, but the senseless ridicule ol his 

rriage and subsequent life were so brother offio - 1 a, count of hi 
romantic that we give the following brief j wife induced him to resign his c , .mission. 
bK £l ch . : j He then built a cabin as above stated, 

\\ hile stationed at a military post on the | where Keokuk is now situated, and made 
I pper Mississippi, the post was visited by . a claim to some land. This claim I 
a oeautiful Indian maiden— whose native ' to Otis Reynolds and John Culver, of St. 

unfortunately has not been preserved Louis, and went to La Pointe (a 
— who, in her dreams, had seen a white Galena), where he pra ! '' 

brave unmoor his canoe, paddle it across for ten years, when he re d 

:e river and come directly to her lodge. | His Indian wife bore to hin 
S felt assured, according to the super- j Louise, James, Mary and Sophia. Dr. 
•belief of her race, that in her dreams j Muir died suddenly of ch (832, but 

d seen her future husband, and had left his p o] rt) In sue! 
to the fort to find him. Meeting Dr. j was soon wasted in vex:: i 
- le instantly recognized him as the his brave and faithful . 
hei dream, which, with childlike ai ' iless, 1 

e and simplicity, she related to with her two disap- 

■ dream was, indeed, pro] heti. . j j '. [t : id si 

'- mi d with Sophia's beauty, inn ■ : .- | ,■ rj p] 

" ' in ' !: " ; '' ' ' ' ' ■ ' ;;: "- ' ed Dr. 

r, but after a while ti n d Muir'j < 

hisbn officei I 

i hap mad. hin eel d : arrived 

1 : : 1 ... • ' ' 

1 S riv. r to Bell ourt Van ,' 

lie it is said that h ' . Stillwcll' 

. ity to rid hin ; 

1 h. r.gain.and 
: wi uld 1 !. ' I 

jWjMhcfi re t white American child born i'n again ruthl «| y i„, ,,, ^ 

[n' l8 , onr i ■ .-,. rv. , ■ , Government, on the ground that the treaty 

N ! l T^ PS 'i ,a c l, T SnOW U ! hey had with- 

wothv tl J,C ?T C -' ' S - Lang " ''' ,J "cinity of the "settlement. 

;■',•' h:id ^n engaged in lead Co s again ordered by the 

adlnl^n l" S1I1Ce , l82 ^ C ? mnienCed W ^ ' ' ^e mine,, 

.;" , ^ 7" J(,! r bUqUe - A ttnd " ! ' l8 33. troops were again 

1^^?^ h8tP ' - ;f "- l -' : «uCh . D buquefor 

ho da council and adopt some regulations j haps unneces 

m tti'CoTTrf a ; d rr ection - They : themiuers - T -y 

met in 1030 on the bank of the nver, by the ; don their cabins and homes in mid-winter 

isno« ZliT°r?l ldrlh - ,0 S aMV,iat ThiS ' to °'- ■ :ctforfo^ S ; 

,0 the Jones Street Levee m Dubuque, , for the purchase had been made, and the 

^atto hv a T J F T' C 7 S,S T ing:0f J ' L - ' IndianS had mired - Aftei " the Ve of 
f r l 0t c 7, H ; C F - , Land T' JameS ^- fifty years, no very ti 


>, n . !f r n ?' WhlCh U " Cre b6given - But the orders had been given, 
adopted by this the first "Legislature" of , and there v. raative bu} to & ob 

Iowa Ihey elected Dr. Jarote as (heir ; Many of the sealers re-crossed the river, 

0lllCXl ° C i OOSe ar bitrators for the settle- , and did not return: a feu-, ho™ ■- r+ 

u not return; a few, however re- 
rnent of difficulties that might arise. These ; moved to an island near the , 
set ers however were mtruders upon In- the river, built rude cabin o 
^n territory, and were driven off in 1832 which to store their lead , 
b our Government, Colonel Zachary Tav- they could float the fruits of th 
o commanding the troops. The Indians | St. Louis for sale, and where they c 
•turned and were encouraged to operate main until the treaty went into force. 
the rid, mines opened by the late white ^ they could return. Among these * 
Rl £. T " , , Langworthy brothers, who had on 

lint in June of the same year the troops ; about 300,000 
^reordered to the east side of the Missis- X, ,ner had 
s, PPi to assist in 'he annihilation of the tenant Covin: m 
^ery Indians who e rights they had been co • 

pro mg on the west si ! , - ^ 

liately after the close oj the I nd other prop- 

' ' -^arandtheii , 

" '. " ^ by which tl Sa ■ 
^cso.1-,1;, tract known a I ■ B lC k nate, clotl 

• ■: tei 1 ' ; 

' ' ' ' ' . : -' ' 


ips were v, ithdi awn, 
ivi thv brothci and a fc i 

. I and resumed pi oi 

■ .. ! From tl 

first pen I 

. ■ : Iowa. John P. Sin I ... was 
i : ■ . .:: .-■■ inti n l< at of the m 
.. :nt, and a system of ; 
ii crs and licenses to smelters was 
nilar to that which had been 
iperati m at Galena since 1825, under 
: Mai tin Th imas and Capl . : 1 
: . C. L ate. Substantially the primi- 
tive lav.- . . ; d by the mine. 

that old cottonwood drift 

1830, wa adopted and enforced by the 

United States Government, except that 

lired to sell their n in< ral 

t ; licensed smelters, and the smelter was 

■ ■ -I to give bonds lor the payment of- 

pei cent, of all lead manufactured to the 

About 500 people arrived in the mining 
d rict i :" : j3. after the Indian title was 
fully extinguished, oi v,'!...:n 150 wei 

l. In the same year Mr. Langworthy 

lilding the first >ch iol- house ; 1 

Iowa, and thus was formed the nucL .1 - 1 

•' p ipulous and thriving city of Dubuque. 

Mr. Langworthy lived to see the naked 

lirie on which he first settled beco 1 
site 1 if a city of 15,0 1 ih; itants, all 

bich 1 led 

ing rephu e I by 1 !.. ibstantial < 

in 2,000 child I, 

ted in c\ . . • il I 
I rai conn 

'orld. 11 I ' 

an I the 1 , 1 
f the old 

lo : 1 ii ted by many 


1 ' : : 

ill : 

Soon: of the Black Hawk 

\a ar in ] cl I fawkins, 13« 

Jem Varon '' it Ai 

> '• • 1 id Peter 

Willi: m 3 made clai .In 

1833 G< I HI. Knap] 

lianiel Knapp purcl 
md ii 1 . 

town of "Fort Madison." 1. 
posed for sale early in 1 S36. The ti 

•nth- re-surveyed and 
the United States Government. Th 

n : : aiiy ck ■ ease , and ■• e:-s Lbs : 
two ye; as cov- 

ered 1 ; a flourishing 1. containing 

nearly 600 inhabitants, with a large pro- 
iterprising merchant--, in 
1 manufacturers. 
In the fall of 1S32 Simpson S. 
erected a cabin on the site of Bui 

■1 ine mill - 1 -low Rock . . 
During the war parth s had 

Flint Hills" from 
of the i v . 

others. David T 
m ide a claim on th : prairie about three 
k from 1 :e since 

m. The 
verc driven 

I by the 
He J 

summer, : 

1 8 o n 


f >ri k d b) the si:; rounding hili 
were crowned with luxuriant forests and 
presented the most picturesque scenery. 
The same autumn witnessed tin o] rung of 
the first dry-goods stor. sbj Dr. \V. R. R 
and Major Jeremiah Smith, each well sup- 
plied with Western merchandise. Such 
was the beginning of Burlington, which in 
less than four years became the seal of 
government for the Ten itory of Wisconsin, 
and in three years more contained a popu- 
lation of 1,400 persons. 

Immediately after the treaty with the 
Sacs and Foxes, in Septembe] , 1832, G ilonel 
George Davenport made the first claim on 
the site of the present thriving city of 
Davenport. As early as 1827,' Colon i 
Davenport had established a flat-boat ferry, 
which ran between the island and the main 
shore of Iowa, by which he carried em a 
trade with the Indians west of the Missis- 
sippi. In 1833 Captain Benjamin W. Clark 
moved from Illinois, and laid the founda- 
tion of the town of Buffalo, in Scott County, 
which was the first actual settlem. nt within 
the limits of that county. 

The first settlers of Davenport were An- 
toine Le Claire, Colonel George Day 1 
Major Thomas Smith, Major William Gor- 
don, Philip Hambough. Alexander W. Mc- 
Greg 1 »i . Levi S. Colton, Captain James May 
and others. 

A settlement was made in Clayton County 
'• ; pring of 1832, on Turkcj Ri\ ei bj 
Robert Hatfield and William W. W; 
No further settlement wa made in tl 
State until 1S36. 
"' h lii t settli i-i ol Mu catin I 
"-'•-■■ '" ij imin Nye, John \ an it< 1 and G. 
'■'■"■ : y, all of whom c ime in 18 •. E. 
E. Fay, Willi ... ;,. ] , . ' ton> 

1 1. Rei cc, Ji ; Pcttibone, R. 1 

■ iah Whitney, |. h. 
Fletcher, W. 1). Abernethy and 


I in< - 

As early as 1824 a French trader named 
1 1 ml had established a trading-p 1 
buill a cabin on the bluffs above the I 11 - 
now known as " Mynster Spring/' 
the limits of the present city of 
Council Bluffs, and had pro , been there 
soi ie time, as the p >st was known to the 
employes of the American Far Co 
as "La Cute de Hart," or " Hart's Bluff." 
In 182; an agent of the American Fur 
Company, 1 ;. < uittar, with others, 

J encamped in the timber at the foot of the 
j bluffs, about on the present location of 
! Broadway, and afterward settled there. In 
: 1839 a block house was built on the bluff in 
the east part of the city. The Potto wat- 
j omie Indians occupied this part of the 
, State until 1S46 ';, when they relinquished 
j the territory and removed to Kansas. Billy 
j Caldwell was then principal chief. There 
I were no white settlers in that part of the 
I State except Indian traders, until the arri- 
| val of the Mormons under the lead of Bi ::•;- 
ham Young. These people on their way 
westward halted for the winter of 1 
on the west bank of the Missouri River, 
about five miles above Omaha, at a place 
now called Florence. Some of them 1 had 
reached the eastern bank of the river the 
spring before in season to plant a crop. In 
the spring of 1S47 Brigham Young and a 
portion of the 1 

to Salt Lake, but a large porti 1 
• ' ■ ' tied mainly 

tin its of ! 

strange 1 

called " on Indi 

I I 

m soon 
the com 




r «f /oir.-i. 

of the Qn ru l oi Twelve, and all t] 
of the State remained under Monn 

trol for sevc 
a battalion 
Mexican w; 
paper i il 

?47 the 

years, m 104/ uiej raisec 
imbering 500 men fi 
In 1S4S Hyde si . 
the Frontier Guardian, a{ 
n 1S49, after many of the 
nithful had left to join Brig-ham Young al 
Salt Lake, the Mormons in this section of 
Iowa numbered 6,552. and in 1850,7,828; 
but they were not all within the limits o!" 
Pottawatomie County. This county was 
organized in 1848, all the first officials be 
ing Mormons. In 1852 the order was pro- 
mulgated that all the true believers should 
gather together at Silt Lake. Gentiles 
flocked in, and in a few years nearly all 
the first settlers were gone. 

May 9, 1843, Captain James Alien, with 
a small detachment of troops on board the 
steamer lone, arrived at the site of the 
present capital of the State, Des Moines. 
This was the first steamer to ascend the Des 
Moines River to this point. The troops 
and stores were landed at what is now the 
foot of Court avenue, and the Captain re- 
turned in the steamer to Fort Sanford to 
arrange for bringing up more soldiers and 
supplies. In due time they too arrived, 
and a fort was built near the mouth ofRac- 
o ion Fork, at its confluence with tl 
Moines, and named "Fort Des Moi 
Soon after the arrival of the tn 

■ . I ' ■ tabli ' ■ : on tin e; I side of 
the river ' two ] d In 
named Ev , froi Ohio. 

Iowa wet 
jamin Bryant, J. J;. £ ,tl | 
unsmil Jti 

• -. \lexandej Tin 
■ I hers. 

Mosl of tl - carl} 
from older Si 
York and 1 their'] 

1 I tency were very poor. Thev 

found t! 1 I— to« migrate from. 

L neir entire stock of furniture, implement - 
imily necessities were easily 

wagon, and sometimes a cart was 
1 mly vehicle. 
After arriving and si lectin , 
locati m, tin t tl to d vva I 

a log cabin, a description of which may be 
interesting to many of our younger 2-1 
a • in i om : sections the : old-1 
' ures are no more to be seen. Tr< 
: uniform size were chosen and cut 

of the desired length, generally twelve to 
J fifteen feet, and hauled to the 
I for the future dwelling. On an a;.; 
j day the few neighbors who were a, 
J would assemble and have a " house- r; 
j Each end of every log was saddled and 
notched so that they would lie as clo 
as possible; the next day ' ! ; p ] rietor, 
would proceed to "chink" and "dai 
the cabin, to keep out the rain, wind and 
cold. The house had to be re-daul 
ery fall, as the rains of the itit . , 
wotdd wash out a great part of the ; 
I : : Lial height of the I 
eight feet. The ga 
shortening the logs : 
of the building near the t »:>. ! ' 

shi ngl i ng, gei 


joints ju 

:■ " or " ' 
which \ 

r the 



its bandies. This was driven im 

bli I « ood l'v a mallet. As ! 

x . wrenched down through the wood, 

the latter was turn* 

side to side, one end being; held by a i 

picc( of timber. 

The chimnej to the V. estern pii 
cabin was made by leaving in the i 
building a large open place in one wall, or 
by cutting one after th< structure \ . . 
and b\ ! uilding on the outside, fr 
ground up, a stone column, or a col - in of 
sticks and mud, the slicks being laid up 
cob-house fashion. The fire-place thu 
was often large enough to receive fin .. ■ I 
six to eight feet long. Sometimes this 
wood, especially the " back-log," wi I 
nearly as large as a saw-log. The more 
rapidly the pi o ee o ild burn up the 
in his vicinity the sooner he had his little 
farm cleared and ready for cultivation. 
For a window, a piece about two feel long 
was. cut out of one of the wall logs, and the 
hole closed, sometimes by glass but g< ner- 
ally with greased paper. Even greased 
hide was sometimes used. A doorway was 
cut through one of the walls if a saw was to 
be had; otherwise the door would b left 
by shortened logs in the original building. 
The door was made by pinning clapboards 
to two or three wood bars, and was hung 
upon wooden hinges. A woo n I: ti b, 
with catch, then finished the do •-. 
latch was raised by any i 
by pulling a leal her strii 
at ni lil tins latch- trin u drav n in, but 
fo frie and nei irs, an 1 even i - 

. . 

out," as a weh ome. 1 n the ii 
the fire-place would be a shell i 
i ' I," on which stood a c; in : '■ 01 

lamp, soi : cooki and 
b : f an old clock, an d o I 
: 1 1 p 1 ace w o u 1 d I 
iron, someti o . id; on it 1 
. . ■ '.<.,-: over the door, in lurked 

cleats, hung the ever-trustful rifle and pow- 
dei in on corner stood the lai ! 

I old folks," and under it the 

, for the children; in an< il ber 

stood tl old-f; ■ I ?pi inin '.-wheel, 

with a smaller one by its side; in another the 

ly table, of course, there 

was in the house; in the remaining was a 

n i 



ted ol a few cups and - 

and blu< dg I pi , standing sii 

' their edges against the back, to m 

I urniture more a 

o'is: while around the room were si 

; a few splint-bottom or Windsor chairs, and 

two or three stools. 

These simple cabins were inhabited by a 
: kind and true-hearted people. They were 
stran . s ; > mock modesty, and the traveler 
■• lodging for the night, or desirous 
; of sp tiding a few days in the community, 
j if willing to accept the rude i i ■ ■. . ■ 
alwa)-s welcome, although how thej were 
i ;ed of at night the reader raighl not 
easily imagine; for, as described, a 
roon was made to answer for kitchen, 
i dining-room, sitting-room, bed-room and 
lor, and man)- [ami I of six 

or ( ight meml 

The bed wi 3 very often made by fixing a 
in the floor ab ml si feel from one 
wi 11 and four feet from the adjoining wall, 
and fastening a stick to th ■ pi 

tli oi i ch of two 

sides, so thai th pi r end ( 

co led in the oppo- 

irds w( re laid across these, 
and l! 
Guests w >. re 
il .,■ dispi sed of themsel 

; roo i i I loft. 

: dit in the fol- 
mcr: A\ 'ue. 



upon the mid floor, and put themselves srump, in the shape of a mortar, and pi tid- 

to bed in the center; the signal was given, ing th< corn in this by a maul or beetle 

and the men came in and each husband took sus nd I b\ :• swing pole like a well- 

his place in bed next his own wife, and sweep. This and the wcllsweep consisted 

single men outside beyond them again, of a pol< twenti to thirty feet 1 
n 1 ■. were generally so crowded that tin . ig-ht fork so that ii could be ' 

had to lie "spoon" fashion, and whenevei " teeter " fashion. It wn a rapid and sim- 

anyone wished to turn over he would say pie way of drawing water. When the samp 

"sj ion," and the whole company of sleep- was sufficiently pounded it was I 

ers would turn overatonce. This was the out, the bran floated off, and tl 

only way they could all keep in bed. i grain boiled like rice. 

To witness the various processes of cook- ' The chief articles of diet in an early d; y 

ing in those days would alike surprise and ; were corn bread, hominy or samp, vi 

amuse those who have grown up since ' pork, hone)-, pumpkin ('dried pumpkin for 

cooking stoves and ranges came into use. • more than half the year), tin 

Kettles were hung over the large fire, sus- j chicken, squirrel and s 

pended with pot-hooks, iron or wooden, with a few additional v. 

on the crane, or on poles, one end of which j of the year. Wheat bread, tea, col 

would rest upon a chain. The long-hand- fruit were luxuries not to be indul 

led frying pan was used for cooking meat, except on special occasions, as wb 

It was either held over the blaze by hand i ors were present. 
or set down upon coals drawn out upon j Besides cooking in the manner de 

the hearth. This pan was also used for I the women had mairy other arduous duties 

baking pancakes, also call flapjacks, batter- to perform, one of the chief of whi 

cakes, etc. A better article lor this, how- spinning. The big wheel was used foi 

ever, was the cast-iron spider, or Dutch spinning yarn and the little wl If 

skillet. The best thing for baking bread ning flax. These stringed ins! 

in those days, and possibly even in these nished the principal music for the 

latter days, was the flat-bottomed bake and were operated by our mothers and 

kettle, of greater depth, with closely fitting grandmothers with great - 

cast-iron cover, and commonly known as the without pecuniary expense, and 

Dutch oven. With coals ovei and under it, less practice than is neci 

bread and biscuit would be and of our period 1 . ire 

nicely baked. Turkey and spai -ribs w re I their costh uments. But 

sometim ro; • • ' i e I ire, sus- | tlios' : ■ ind bl vy< 

. . a dish 1 g placed all 1 the might y fac- 

111 to catch the dripp 

Hominy and samp were ver) uch used. 

The homi . h . ■ , v : liulied I I than ncui 

e< >rn boii ; 1 > 1 1 n \ liich 1 hull 1 

bran ha< ken by hot he, 1 w 'come at 

si imetii ics called cabin. ll \\ a n 

: were 1 ; co ' 

A popul 1 ] ' 

as real meal for bread, was to cut < 
burn a large ho 1 top r at 

i/isronr of iowa. 


the stranger was in search of land, he was coming and no meat in the honse. The [.. 
doubly welcome, and his host would vol- host ceased not to chase until he found (he ;« 
unteer to show him all the "first rale claims meat, in the shape of a deer; returning h 
in this neck of the woods," going with him senl a boy ou1 after it, with directions on 
for days, showing the corners and advau- what "pint" to find it. After services, 
tagts of every " Congress tract " within a j. which had been listened to with rapt attcn- .• 
dozen miles of his own cabin. tion by all the audience, mine hosl said to j 

To his neighbors the pioneer was equally J his wife, "Old woman, 1 reckon this 'ere £j 
liberal. If a deer was killed, the choic< : preacher is pretty hungry and you must \ 
bits were sent to Ids nearest neighbor, a gh him a bite to eat." "What shall Ig 
half-dozen miles away perhaps. When a | him?" asked the wife, who had not s< 
pig was butchered, the same custom pre- the deer, " tha 's nuthen in the house I 
vailed. If a new-comer came in too late I eat." "Why, look thar," returned he, 
for " cropping," the neighbors would sup- \ " thar's adeer, and thar'splenty of corn in \ 
plv his (able with just the same luxuries the field; you git some corn and grate il 
they themselves enjoyed, and in as liberal ! while I skin the deer, and we'll have a g 
quantity, until a crop could be raised, good supper for him." It is needless to add '. 
When a new-comer had located his claim, j that venison and corn bread made a sup- % 
the neighbors for miles around would ■ per lit for any pioneer preacher, and was % 
assemble at the site of the proposed cabin . thankfully eaten. 

and aid himin " gittin " it up. One party ' Fires set out by Indians or settlers some- > 
with axes would cut down the trees and times purposely and sometimes permitted i 
hew the logs; another with teams would through carelessness, would visit the prai- :- 
haul the logs to the ground; another party rie every autumn, and sometimes the for- * 
would -'raise" the cabin; while several J csts, either in autumn or spring, and settlers » 
of the old men would rive the clap-boards | could not always succeed in defending ? 
for the roof. By night th( little forest themselves against the destroying elem 
domicile would be up and ready for a Many interesting incidents are 
"house-warming," which was the dedica- Often a fire was started to bewilder g; 
tory occupation of the house, when music or to bare a piece of ground foi the early \ 
and dancing and festivity would be enjoyed ; the ensuing spring, and it \ 

at full height. The next da\ thencw-comcr would get away under a wind and s 
v ould b< as well situated a: hi • neighbors. I ' .Violent 

An instance of primitivi hospitabl ' often i ive the flames witl 

ners wiil be in place here. A ti rapidity tl 

Methodist preacher arrived in ; i a Id scarcely escape. On the app 

i ,d to liil an . it. Tl c of a prairie fire tin fai m 'i u ould 

dicn . i i v ei ■ to I Ididnoi )• set i 

the devouri 
i< ir that. 1 loards wci c coll all Thus b; Ling re near I 

w ith \\ hi( h to make 1 ■ 

■ i ic ol tin :' : lib ir« . fin to under c mtrol n s:t his property, ; 

i lie work, while i 

i ■ 

meat, for 1 
was a " ground in '^^^- 


. /■ -;;- 


An original prairie of tall and exuberant • LOUISIANA rERRlTORV. 

re, especially at night, was am - As before mentioned, although De Soto, \ 

•' ' ■ '' cle » enjoyed only by the j a Spaniard, first took possession of the Mis- \ 

er. Here is an instance where the sissippi Valley foi his Government, Spam I 

n, proverbially deprived of the j did not establish her title to it by following I 

■ leasuresof an old community, up the proclamation with immediate settle- $ 

is priviii ge I far beyond the people of the me nts, and the country fell into the hands | 

present day in this country. One could of France, by whose agent it was named g 

scar* dy tire of beholding the scene, as its ( "Louisiana." 

awe-inspiring features seemed constantly to j By the treaty of Utrecht, France ceded c 
increase, and the whole panorama unceas- | to England her possessions in Hudson's \ 
' in Sb' changed like the dissolving views of i Bay, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, but I 
a magic lantern, or like the aurora borealis. j retained Canada and Louisiana. In 1711 \ 
Language cannot convey, words cannot j this province was placed in the hands of a \ 
express, the faintest idea of the splendor j governor-general, with headquarters at I 
and grandeur of such a conflagration at j Mobile, for the purpose of applying* new \ % 
night. It was as if the pale queen of night, | policy for the settlement and development \ 
disdaining to take her accustomed place in | of the country. The very next year ano- I 
the heavens, had dispatched myriads upon ' ther change was made, placing all this ter- I 
myriads of messengers to light their torches j ritory in the hands of Anthony Crozat, a J : 
at the altar of the setting sun until all had . wea lthy merchant of Paris, but this scheme '■< 
flashed into one long and continuous blaze. | also failed, as Spain continued to obstruct J 
One instance has been described as follows: : the efforts of any Frenchman to establish j 
'•Soon the fires began to kindle wider | trade, by closing the ports against him. In \ 
and rise higher from the long grass; the ' 1717 John Law appeared on the scene with { 
gentle breeze increased to stronger currents, his famous "Mississippi Company," as the ; 
and soon formed the small, flickering blaze Louisiana branch of the Bank of Fiance; \ 
into fierce torrent flames, which curled up and as his roseate scheme promised to do 
and leaped along in resistless splendor; and much in raising crippled France upon a \ 
like quickly raising the dark curtain from surer footing, extended powers and privi 
the luminous stage, the scenes before me j leges were granted him. He was to be j 
were suddenly changed, as if by a magi- j practically a viceroy, and the life of h 
cian's wand, into one boundless amphithea- chartei was fixed at twenty-five years. But 
ter, blazing from earth to heaven and in 1720, when the «• Mi 1 was 

■ round,— columns of at 1 I lit . : nly \ 

►rtively mounti . to the j collapsed m >untry in a 

: riiti . irk clouds of 1 , condition 11 before. 

( ; id al • • till they nearly ob Heretofore I. I 

ai m > :<.. while the rushing, ordinati depen I 
c r; .e: mds, like roarii g calara< , of tl Govern ir-G Ca 1. E 

' in 1723 tl ' was - 

d eat h , gl a r u n < to a 

! -victims; yet, notwithstand- and i into nil 

ps, on nd militan | - 

' i ■' to wi! Characleri , the 

refuge. j pie were mo Led pects of i 

of 70 jr. 

finding 1 irmo wealth rcad^ il han !, il 
they sh< inue to scour the c 1 

which they did in places as fai w< I ; 
Rocky Mountains, to the neglect oi 1 
agricultural and domestic interests. A habit 
of roaming bei ame fixed. At the same time 
(heir exposed condition was a o 
temptation to Indian rapine, and the Nat- 

chez tribe 


e a general assault 

upon the whites. At first they were re 
pulsed, but about five years afterward, 
aided by the Chickasaws and others, they 
fell upon the French village of St. Catha- 
rine and massacred the whole male popu 
lation. Two soldiers, who happened to b< 
in the woods, alone escaped to New Or- 
leans, to bear the news. The colonies on 
the Yazoo and the Washita suffered the 
same fate. Maddened by these outrages, 
the whites turned upon the Natchez and in 
ihe course of three years exterminated 
them. The}' were probabl}" the most in- 
telligent tribe of Indians north of M 

During the fifteen years from 17 17 to 
1732 the province increased in population 
from 700 to 5,000, and in prosperity to a 
wonderful degree. It remained under royal 
governors until 1764, the end of the French 
dominion. Must of this time the Indians 
were troublesome, and in 175.] began the 
long "French and Indian war" with Eng- 
land, which resulted in favoi tl 
thai Government obtaining all of New 
France, Canada, and tin ca< -n half of 
I na. This , wince 1 

I ; the sc< ne of battle, but <'■'. I 

: 1 deal from a Wo id ■■ ■' irrcd 
paper money. In tl 

or 1 . tl pro 

secretly p I to Spain ; but I 

either 1 

i [01 in tl 

sions, a new 1 

ident ] ion of all 

which il I incc. i hiring 

the sr\ Qniy i control the 

province of 1 
lion from a feu 
lourishi of 1 

St. Louis, Missouri, was started in 1764. 

Don 0'I\ IK*, th a. \ Go\ < rnor of Loui- 
siana in 1764, ruled with a despotic hand, 
\ el for I he : al ' antagc of t 

pie. His euco 1 >r, ( )< m Antonio Maria 
Bucarelly, was mild, ; id he wa su 1 
January 1, 1777, by Don Bernard d 
vez, who was the last Governor. I ! 

■■'. with American independent . i he 
British, with 140 troo] and 1,4 Indians, 
invaded Upper Louisiana fron the north 
by way of the Strail ol Mackinaw, and in- 
vested St. Louis, Missouri, in 1; 
were driven off. When the Indians saw 
that they were led to fight " Amerii 
well as Sp miai ds, they found that they had 
been deceived, and withdrew fro 
British army, and thus General Ge 
Clark, in behalf of the Arneri ans, 
defended St. Louis, and also all ; 
settlements in this western coi 

After the Revolutionary war I 
began again to pro ; er. (> /ernor Galvez, 
by a census, a 

in 17S5 a population of ab . exclu- 

sive of Indians. 

In the summer of the 1 
Estavan Mi; > became . 

■ p h 

: a vain 

attem] t 



ment 1 

them in d 


riJS'l OKI .'•:;■.!. 139 

Undo the leadership of Livingston an ' ran," and thus 

. the United St; es 1 bject to the ordinance ol 1; , ; 

after various propositions had been il and two years later it \ 

d by the respective powers, sue 

in effecting, in [8 .3, a purcha: c of the vvholi later, in ) I " T rril- . I ' 

oi Louisiana from France for $1 1,25 ,000, was foi ■' ently, with sixteen 

11 this country west of the great river countii popi 

consisted of the "Territory of Orli In 1833, al Dubuque, n po 

(now the Suae of Loui ian and the "Di tabli : : I, and i I 

tricl of Louisiana" (now the Suites of A: or 1 ..■ justices of tl 

kansas, Missouri and Iowa, and westward appointed. In 1S34 th 

indefinitely). 1"L- lattei was anno :d to the : lature of Michigan created two counties 

Territory of Indiana for one year, and in [1 and Des 

1805 it was erected into a separate Terri- Moines — separated by a line drau 

tory, of the second class, the legislative : ward from the foot of Rock Island 

power being vested in the Governor and counti partially org John 

judges. Before the close of the year it was King w; ap] ited " Chief Justice" of Du- 

made a Territory of the first class, under buque County, and Is:,. of Bur 

the name of the " Territory of Louisiana," lington, of Des Moines County. Two 

the Government being admw.istcrcd by th in each county a 

'..,,- xnorand judges' The first Governor pointed by the Governor. In October, 

was James Wilkinson, and he was succeeded j 1S35, General George \V. Jones, Du- 

near the close of 1806 by Colonel Men- ' bin ' ' 

weather Lewis, the seat of Government be- April 20, 1S36, thn 

ingal St. Louis; and during his adminis- J eral Jones, C 

tration the Territory was divided into six l the Territory of Wisco ch went 

judicial districts or large counties St. into operation July 4, th , lowaw 

Charles, St. Louis, St. Genevieve, Cape then included in that T 

Girardeau, New Madrid and Arkansas. In General Henry Dodge w; 

I S 10 the population of Louisiana Territory ernor. The census of i! • . la] 

was 21,000, five-sevenths of whom were in ' lation in low; oi 1 1,531, of which 6.257 

A] kan ;. were in D 

In 1S12 tin State ol Loui iana was ; 

l-nitted into th Union, and then il was Ths firsl I d at V 

1 , 1 . . 1 • ■ . \ - 

I i-ritorv. It was accorclingl) 
1 ■■ Mi soi ri Territory," 
retained until 1 [ the' Si 

•uri in 1821. As early • 


Although the " N 1 \\\ 1 rritory' J 

d oui \ 
the ! Ohio, 1 be 1 

lu and Wi ■ 

in ) 


. . 

• - of the first Tcrriti trial L 
to take place Septembei 10. i . 
were eh cted : 

Council. — Jesse B. Brown, J. Keith, E. 
A. M. Swazey, Arthur Ingram, Roberl 
,. George Hepner, Jesse j. Payne, 
D. B. Hughes, James M. Clark, C 
Whittlesey, Jonathan W. Parker, Warner 
Lew is, Stephen Hempstead. 

House. — Win. Patterson, Hawkins Tay- 
lor, Calvin J. Price, James Brierly, James 
Hall, Gideon S. Bailey. Samuel Parker, 
James W. Grimes, George Temple, Van B. 
Delashmutt, Thomas Blair, George li. 
Beel r, Wm. G. Coop, Wm. H. Wallace. \ 
Asbury B. Porter, John Frierson, Wm. L. 
Toole, Levi Thornton, S. C. Hastings, J 
Robert G. Roberts, Laurel Summers, 
Jabez A. Burchard, Jr., Chauncey Swan, 
Andrew Bankson, Thomas Cox and Har- 
din Nowlin. 

At the session of the above Legislature 
Wm. W. Chapman was elected delegate 
to Congress. As the latter bodv had given 
the Governor unlimited veto power, and 
as Governor Lucas was disposed to exer- 
cise it arbitrarily, the independent "Hawk- ! 
eyes " grew impatient under his administra- 
tion, and, after having a stormy session for 
a time, they had Congress to limit th 
power. Great excitement also pre 
both in the Legislature and among the 1 
people, concerning the qu ■ I 

tion of the seat of Government for the j 
State. A- the} knew nothing com 
the great future development and cxI - I 
th ■ State, they had no correi t i 
the ical centei would oi -' 

be. The Black I lawk pui 

the south 

full extent and In irizon of theii id 
new com mo I ' ■ ■ 

first onl) 

ion of the i 

Bui a few of t i ; ;_■ mon 

thai a more central h ication woul 1 

to l lie nor! . if not west, 

and a point in Johnson County was ulti- 
, | on. 

i ted by the Gov- 
ernor, selected the 

a town, sold 1 I 
proceed rect 1 public buildings. 

tpitol was commenced in 1S40 and 
Iowa City b :came thena .'■ rward the capi- 
tal of the State. The I xslative 
Assembly met at this place December 6, 
1841, but not in the new capitol bi 
as it was not yet ready. Being 
difficult to raise the necessary fund,-, the 
not completed for several 
rs. '1 : rly Territorial Legislatures 
of Iowa laid the foundation for a very just 
and liberal Government, far in advance of 
what had ever been done before 

Ab ut this time a conflict arose between 
this Territory and Missouri concerning the 
boundary line between them. There was 
a difference of a strip eight or ten miles 
wide, extending from the M pi to the 

Missoui ' hich each cl; 

souri officers, attempting to collect taxes 
within the disputed terril 

: , and 

sspective Govern I out the 


! , i i-ere act- 

to d : 



..!. lim- 
ners of 


. ' 

■ ■ OF IOWA. 

O .:::■; tin United States for the 
ment of l ; question. Thi pi 

osition v s de< . i; bul afterwat d, uj n 
petiti :: of 1 I M is: i \w\ i, C< mgi ( s 

aut i suit to settle the controversy. 

'i h< - . was duly instituted, and resulted 
in the decision that Iowa had only asserted 
'• the t: . : v." and she knew where 

the rapids of the Des Moines River were 
located. Thus end 1 the Missouri war. 
'• There was much good sense," says 1 Ion. 
C. C. Nourse. -: in the basis upon which 
peace was secured, to-wit: 'If Missourians 
did not know where the rapids of the river 
Des Moines wi re 1 . ited, that was no suffi- 
cieni reason f >rl il ing them off with powder 
and lea.!: and if we did know a little more of 
history and geography than they did we 
ought not to be sh t for our learning. We 
commend our mutual forbearance to older 
and greater people.'" Under an order 
from the Supreme Court of the United 
States commissioners surveyed and estab- 
lished th bou - ,-. The expenses of the 
war, on the p; r1 of Iowa, were never paid, 
either by the United States or the Territo- 
rial G ivernment. 

c was instructed to transact a certifu I 



The population having become, by the 
yeai 1844, sufi nent to justify the formation 
of a Stal Gov =nt, the Territorial Leg- 

islature of Iowa passed an act, approved 
F< . , submitting to the 

!'■.'■ ' ' ■ v ■ formation 1 

State C I providing 

to a com tion to b 
thai purpose. The 
p !e \ . this al their I 

< ng April, giving the 

a 1 lj irity. The < 

• 1 1 iw; 

r 1. 1-3 

1 . . I his com 

; ; '■ ( 1 to the Dcle- 

^ gate in C ugrcss, to b d I 5 him 

ly al the earl I a»!e d; y. 

Il also provided thai il shi luld be su I 
b 1 1 1 1 ; w ith an) r condil n oi 
thai might be made b\ Congress, to the 
people of the Territory, for (heir approval 
or rejection, at the town hip election in 
1 April,' 1845. 

The Constitution, as thus prepared, fixed 
the boundaries of the State very diff 
from what were finally . 1 1 up 

May .p 1846, a second convention me; at 
J Iowa City, and on the iSth of the same 
! month another Constitution, prescribing the 
boundaries as they now are, was adopted. 
1 This was accepted by the people, August 
I 3, by a vote of 9,492 to 9.036. The 
Constitution was approved by Congress, 
and Iowa was admitted as a sovereign 
Slate in the American Union, Deo 
28, 1S46. The people of the State, 
pating favorable action by C01 
an election for State officers October 26 
which resulted in Ansel Hi;.; • 
clared Governor; Elisha Cutler, J;., S 
tary of St ite; Joseph T. Tales, Au I ; 
Morgan Reno, Tn ■■ 

> it" and 1 Iou • - if Rcpn senl 
The act of Congress which admitted 
I gave her the 16th sec I i 

: hip land in 1 or 

alent, for the supporl ol , 

ins of land for the pur- 
rsity ; 
land . pi 


. also, in c o ; 1 - 

le of 
ic Stale. 

i 4 - ■ ///.s n »/?r o/? iowa. 

eping " upon her own Al th< ;ion also arose the ques- 
count. | tion of the re-location of the capital. The 
A majority of the Constitutional Com i- ivcstern boundary of the State, as now 
ti thereof the Dcm icratic party; determii towa City too far I 
and the instrument contain some ol the tin casl in boundary of the 
peculiar tenets of the part) at that day. State; this was cc I. Cong-] had 
AH banks of issue were prohibited within appropriated five land for the 
the State. The State was prohibited from erection* public buildin ivard the 
becoming a stockholder in any corporation close of th session a bill was introduced 
for pecuniary profit, and the Genera! As- ' providing for the re-location of the seat of 
sembly could only provide for private cor- Government, involving to some extent the 
porations by general statute .. The Consti- location of the State Universitv, which had 
tution also limited the State's indt I >ti dness alread)' been discussed. This hid gave rise 
to $100,000. It required the General As- j to much discussion and parliamentary ma- 
sembly to provide public sch >ols through- neuvering, almost purely sectional in i:s 
out the State for at least three months in character. It provided for the appointment 
the year. Six months' previous residence i of three commissioners, who were author- 
ed any white male citizen of the United iz< I to make a location as near the gco- 
States constituted, him an elector. graphical centered the State as a healthy 

At the time of organization as a State, and eligible site could be obtained; t 
Iowa had a population of 1 1 6,65 1, as appears the five sections of land donated by Con- 
by the census of 1847. There were twenty- gress; to survey and plat into town lots not 
seven organized counties in the State, :\\u\ exceeding one section of the Ian 
the settlements were rapidly pushing to- iected, etc. Soon after, by "An act to 
ward the Missouri River. locate and establish a State University," 
The first General Assembly was com- approved February 25, 1847, tl 

of nineteen Senators and forty Rep- public buildin ■ at ' i\va City, ti 

resentatives. It assembled at Iowa City, , with ten acres of land on which they were 

November 30,1846, about a month 1 w granted for the use of the 

the State was admitted into the Union. University, reserving their use, however. 

The most importanl busin - tran 1 \ the General A mbly and the State 

was the ; [ \ < ffi« 1 ler ons w< re made 

1 ; to by law. 

eminent and pay the ex th< Con- Win ; doners. 

reat excite- diowin: theii 1 

ment of th sion, I n ' r< senta- 

tempt to choose Un : s. tives, al 


i ) ■ the Den Lerw; 

■ sate. After I refer the 

to com majorities lect < 

it scssioi 1 lo rcpoi 

r v. ati r. a 1 

■ : 

Stale. ; 

' ! vr or row A. 

act approved January 15, 1849, tne law by 
which the location had be< 11 made 
pealed and the new town was vacated, the 
m m y paid by purchasers of lo 
funded to them. This, of cour e, retained 
the seat of Government at Iowa City, and 
precluded for the time the occupation of 
the building and grounds by tin (Jni 

After the adjournment of the first 
eral Assembly, the Governor appointed 
Joseph Williams, Chiel Justice, an I 
Green and John F. Kinney. Judges of the 
Supreme Court. They were afti 1 d 
elected by the second Genera! Assembly, 
and constituted the Supreme Court until 
1S55, with the exception that Kinney re- 
signed in January, 1854, and J. C. 1 [all, of 
Burlington, was appointed in his place. 

At this session Charles Mason, William 
G. Woodward and Stephen Hempstead 
were appointed commission :rs to prepare a 
code of laws for the State. Their work 
was finished in 1850 and was adopted by 
the General Assembly. This ''code" con- 
tained among other provisions a cod of 
civil practice, superseding the old common- 
law forms of actions and writs, and it was 
admirable for its simplicity and method. It 
remained in force until 1863, when i was 
superseded by the more complicated and 
metaphysical system of the revision of that 

The first Representatives in Co 
were S. Clinton II; stings, of Mus 
and Shepherd Leffler, of Des M 
County. 1 n< :i d G 
to the Uni 

■ I ) ■.',■'. e V 
t, aft' I 
sion, was under the c >n1 
administi ation ; till 1855. Tin > ! . 

ol the State 1st 1 C 1S48, 

and for Fran! i e in 1 ■ . . ': '.. 

lar vot< 1 ' .. ; that the Fi 

period nearly 

held the balai 

he State ele< tio 
,: eral ; y. In 1S5S 

i ■ is Ca cd ] :, og rotes, Zachary 

and Martin Van Bui 
ioil ca ncl ... i vol 

tl an a majority for Cass. In 1852 
Pierce receh ; votes, Scott 15,855, 

F Soil, 1,606. "b ing for Pierce 
[ v o t ( m o 1 t h an a i 
The qu stion of 1 icnt location 

of the : t ol government was not settled, 
and in 1851 bills were introduced for the 
il of the iital I \ :11a and to Fort 
Des Moines. The latter appeared to have 
ipportol he majority, but wa 
in the Hoi the < 

ing it to its third reading. 

■. ■ the next session, in [S53, a bill was 

iced in the Senate for the removal of 

the seat of government to Fort Des Moines, 

and 0:1 first vote was just barely d 

! At the next session, however, the effort was 

: si • ;ul, and January 15, 1855, a 

bill relocating the capital within two miles 

. tl e Raccoon Fork of the Des Moin ;, 

: and for the appointment of < 

was approved by Governor Grimes. The 
I site wa.s selected in 1S56, in accordance 
with t he pr »vi [ this act, t! 

being donated to the State by citizens and! 
ty-holders of Des Moines. An asso- 
1 ciation of citizens erected a buildi 
temporary capitol, and leased it to the State 
at a nominal rent. 
1 ii. pa ;sa 
izing the 1 

ratii tha : ■ 1 ■ 

ited id involuntai y 


■ : ■ 

• I 

ur or low 

The vear rS$6 marl [anew cj n Ihc his- 

: ! )\va. In i$5 \ the Chicagi i ' 

Island Railroad hai compli 

en ' I anl; ol the Mississippi River, < 
Davenj e In the same y< as the ■ oi ner- 
stone . :i railri i id bri lg th I v, to b the 
first to span the " Father of Waters," was 
laid with appropriate ceremonies at this 
point. St. Louis had resolved that the 
enterprise was unconstitutional, and by 
writs of injunction made an unsuccessful 
efforl to prevent its completion. Twenty 
years later in her history, St. Loins re- 
pented her folly, and made atonement for 
her sin by imitating Iowa's example. Jan- 
uary i, 1856, this railroad was completed to 
Iowa City. In the meantime, two other 
railroads had reached the east ban!; of the 
Mississippi — one opposite Burlington, and 
one opposite Dubuque — and these were be- 
ing extended into the interior of the State. 
Indeed, four other lines of railroads had 
been projected across the State from the 
Mississippi to the Missouri, having ea tern 

May 15, 1856, Congress passed an act 
granting to the State, to aid in the con- 
struction of railroads, the public land in 
alternate sections, six miles on either side 
of the proposed lines. An extra s< 
the General Assembly was called in _]\i ] .v of 
this year, thai dis] 1 of 
several < npai : rs thai pi oposed I 
plete these enterprises. The population 
Iowa was now 5 o,< 00. Publi 

lied to ti : a i.e- 

: the continent. The ] ion oi 

Iowa, in the very I 
republic, on the 1 

. n nt, began to atti 
tion. Cities and town 

and cstablishi 

irns, it would have 
Bui all were in haste to get 
1 i< h, and the p 1 uled the 

houi . 

In the meantime, ever)- effort was made 
to help th ' the rail- 

road--. Nearly every county and city on 
the Mississippi, and many in the interior, 
voted. large corporate subscriptions to the 
stock of the railroad companies, and issued 
their n( gOti b 'ads for the ; 

Thus enormous county and city debts were 
incurred, the payment of which these mu- 
nicipalities tried to avoid, upon the plea 
that the) 7 had exceeded the constitutional 
limitation of their powers. The Supreme 
Court of the United States held these bonds 
to be valid, and the courts by mandamus 
ed the city and county authorities 
to levy taxes to pay the judgments re- 
covered upon them. These debts are not 
all paid, even to this day ; but. the worst is 
over, and the incubus is in the course of 
ultimate extinction. The most valuable 
lessons are thi : d in the school of 

experience, and accordingly the 1 
tions of Jowa have ever since been noted 
- lomy. 
In 1856 the popular vote was as follows: 
' ! d 43>954; Buchanan, 36,1; 

Fillmore, 9, 1 So. This w; s than a 

-r an excite 

n a ma- 
de.- Re- 
jislature was 
I i in b 


prevalent in 1S56, wa? the ; 


. . 

Federal Governmei t in 
ands within her borders. I 

1 b\ the i 'cderal Go\ ei 
I ■< n c mipai al iv« ly ini 

1 ol this m ignificenl pul >li< do 
i the United State s v. a - u \ 
few thous h oi dollars she might exact 
from the hardv sett his, or that she might 
the speculator who ho| ed to 
.' ] ■. ; settlers' labors in improving 
. Stati en ! hould have taken 
..1 more comprehensive view of 
il economy, and a view more in har- 
i ) ■:. ith the divine econom) - thai ha ! 
prepared these vast fertile plains of the 
West for the "homes of men an J th I 

of empire." It was- here that new States 
were to be builded up. that should be the 
future strength of the nation against foreign 
invasion or home revolt. A single regi- 
ment of to ,va soldiers during the dark clays 
of the Rebellion was worth more to the 
than all the money she ever exacted 
from the toil and sweat of Iowa's early 
settlers. Could the statesmen of forty 
loked f< >rward to this da} 
when Iowa pays her $1,000,000 annually 
he treasur}' of the nation for the ex- 
tinction ol th< national debt, they would 
have realized that the founding of new 
States was a greater enterprise than the 1 e- 
\ another G 
Convent - at Iowa Cit \ . 

Co Lit ution. ( )n ■ 

■ . ■ It of this ] was to 

cat " cu 

» 1 i m i t c d t o 
of their taxa 
>f t h e S u p l"' ' 
be elect* 1 ; y the | opi '. r vote. The per- 
g ivernment was fixed at 
Des Moines, and the St 
1 I .: i 1 1 : . i qual 
electo r the 4d 

icdule provided for 
a v< it( 1 pie upon a se] 

tion to the word " white" out of the 

suffrage clause, which, had it prevailed, 

1 would have resulted in conferring th 

of suffrage without distinction of color. 

ganizati m of Iowa there 

[ had been up law pro- 

r Indian 
should be a competent witness in any suit 
; or proceeding to which a white man was a 
party. The General Assembly of i ■'■■'■>-''/ 
1 th d this law, and the new Const tion 
contained a clause forbidding such disquali- 
fication in the future, it also provided for 
the education of "all youth of the State" 
; through a system 
Constitution was adopted at the 
Octol ■ I 

1 lamation declaring the city of Des 
Mi lines t< 1 be th< capit; 1 the! 
["] /al of theat 

commenced i I 

the fall. It was an 1 1 1 

in nil ude; there 

tate the \\ . . 

. Rain, 



mem contained large sums of i ,-, . I ill-will toward 1 

: " ;V lndlv,d < however. I . ,f the Union. There wa* 

!° U " C ';> cc f ed to U ! • ' the pan of the majority, a 

State, after four rerntori i: ■ 

six State Legislatures and tl tu nati mal relations to this ii 

lional Convention had held thei . t , , b 

there. By the exchange, the old ivil war. The popular vote 

[owaCitybecametheseatofthcunive, ity, j of I. " L Stephen 

and. except (he rooms occupi, 1 by the -V Douglas, 55,011; Bre( , t.o 4 S 

lie.,. States District Court, passed under The G |y of the Stu 7 e ol 

the immediate and direct control of the Iowa, as earh joint resolu- 

of that institution. Des Moine ti 

was now the permanent seat of govern- •• bound to 1 . in 1.1 

ment, made so by the fundamental law of Stat. 3 b\ all th , ans in lor. ,wer." The 

the S^^,and January ,1, i8 5 S, the Sev- san . r the Stale furnished a block of 

enth Crcneral Assembly convened at th marl ■ entatthe 

^y rapitol. I he citizens' association, national capital, and by oi , Gen- 

wnn a built this temporary building, bor- ■ era! Assembly there w; I upon its 

rowed the money of James D.Eads, Super- enduring surface the J "Iowa- 

ident of Public Instruction [-] ctions, lik the rivers of her borders 

it to the State. In 1S64 the State . to n [Jni 1." The time 

chased the building. At the session of the was now approa hi a in h 1 I 

General Assembly in 1858, James \Y. these declarations of attacl 

Grimes was elected United Si • to the nation were to be put to a 1 
as successor to George W. Jon. -. ' text. 

During the y. ,- s [85S-60, the Sioux j The declaration of Ma. I n 's last 

fndian became troublesome in the north- annual message, th th. 

western part of the State. They ma I no co ' a sc ^j. 

quent raids for the purpose of . najority 

on several occasio! murcl w . ,1 I mi- of our citizens wi 

lies of settlers. In 1861 several tn t. Anxiously 1 tl 

of mihtia were ordered to that h • I looked to 

th< I tate, to hunt down a., I ex P 1 th tl ■ !'. ' !, „ 
thiCN . No battles w. 

as so as th, | , , . 

a, had been: i hose non-resistance invi 



a- D - 1 ' 

. ,: -" ' ' 

: lowa - The facl 


' lerstood and duly. red.l 

rpctuity ... 


'-' OF IOWA. 


the good people of Iowa were more 
than willing to respond to the call. Party 
lines gave way, and for a while, at least, 
party spirit was hushed, and the cause of 
our common country' was supreme in the 
affections of the people. Peculiarly fort- 
unate were the citizens of Iowa at this 
crisis, in having a truly representative 
man. Samuel J. Kiikwood, as executive 
of the State. 

Within thirty days after the date of the 
President's call for troops, the first Iowa 
regiment was mustered into the service of 
the United States, a second regimen! was 
in camp ready for the service, and t he- 
Genera! Assembly of the State was con- 
vened in special session, and had by joint 
resolution solemnly pledged every resource 
of men and money to the national cause. 

The Constitution of Iowa limited the 
State debt to $250,000, except debts con- 
tracted to " repel invasion, suppress insur- 
rection, or defend the State in war." The 
General Assembly authorized a loan of 
$Soo,ooo for a war and defense fund, to be 
expended in organizing, arming, equipping 
and subsisting the militia of the State to 
meet the present and future requisitions of 
the President. Those in power looked to 
the spirit rather than to the letter of the 
Constitution, and acted upon the theory 
that to preserve the nation was to pre- 
serve the State, and that to prevent in- 
vasion was the most effectual me: 
n ng it. A few, however, in both 

branches of the Genera! Vssci ibly were 
more careful of the letter < •:' the Coi til 
tion. Three votes in the J 
cnteen in the 1 i 

the loan bill. These bonds were at "j per 
cent, interest. ( )nl ■ ^' 1 » were ever 
issued, and they were purcha ed ; 
chiefly by our own citizi ns. At thi 
James W. Grim s and James Harlan w< 1 
in the United Stat ai : I 

Samuel R. Cm tisatid < 

the House of Representatives. During the 
f of the . Iowa furnish* d sixteen 
regiments of infantry, six of cavalry and 
thn batt< 1 : in all. 22,000 si 

l iwa had no refuse population to enlist as 
"food for p iwder." Her cities contained 
none of that element found about the pur- 
lieus of vice in flu great centers of p 
lation. Her contribution to the armies of 
the republic was a genuine offering of 
manhood and patriotism. From her fields, 
her workshops, her counting-houses, her 
offices, and the halls of her schools and 
colleges, she contributed the best muscle, 
sinew and brain of an industrious, enter- 
prising and educated people. The first 
regiment of Iowa soldiers fought the bat- 
tle of Wilson's Creek after their term of 
enlistment had expired, and after they were 
entitled to a discharge. They were citi- 
■ , each of whom had a personal 
intc rest in the struggle. It was to them no 

1 question of enli ent, of bounty 01 of pay. 

I When the gallant General Lyon placed 
himself at their head, and told them that 
the honor of Iowa and of the nation was in 
th i hands, he addressed men who knew 

: what the appeal meant, and to whom such 
an appeal was never made in vain. 
At the fall election of 1S61, pari 
I evived; and th contest for the control 

of the State administration was wai 

! earnest. Dissensions arose in both parties 
but the election resulted in ; 

o itcs for Kirl wo id, who . 
ed as Gov< fn ] 863 

the Republicans elected I c; ndidate 

nor, William M. J 

Meanv hile th General 

I ' ' ; '- : ■ 

. ' " 1 1 . 1 is, 1 

5: ..■ 

. ' 
! on th( 1 

• . 



i 4 S 


follows: Line;. hi, 72,12 
?o$. The soldier vote r< 

turn ol their votes to the proper civil au- 
thorities. In the Presiclcntal contest of 
1S64 the popular vote at home was as 
; McClellan, ;;. 
tin tied was: Lin- 
coln, 16,844; McClellan, 1,883. 

The Genera! Assembly did all in its 
power to encourage enlistment and to pro- 
tect the soldiers in the field and their fami- 
lies at home. Statutes were enacted sus- 
pending all suits against soldiers in the 
service, and all writs of execution or attach- 
ment against their property; and county 
boards of supervisors were authorized to 
\<j\c bounties for enlistments, and pecuni- 
ary aid to the families of those in the serv- 
ice. The spirits of our people rose and 
fell, according to the success of the Union 
armies. One day the bells rung out with 
joy for the surrender of Vicksburg, and 
again the air seemed full of heaviness be- 
cause of our defeats on the Peninsula; but 
through all these dark and trying days, the 
faith of the great majority never wavered. 

The Emancipation Proclamation of the 
President was to them an inspiration of a 
new hope. 

In the Adjutant's department at Des 
Moines are preserved the shot-riddled col- 
ors and standards of Iowa's regiments. 
Upon them, by special authority, were 
inscribed from time to time during the war 
the names of the battle-fields upon which 
these regiments gained di 
names constitute the geographical nomen- 
clature of two-thirds of th< U 
in reh ''don. Id »m the I). M >i 
to the Gulf, from the Mis issippi to d e 
Atlantic, in the M mtai 

1 in the val y of the Sh< 
Iowa soldier 1 ide hi pr< nee 1 
fc It, and 1 ilained the ho ' ■ • 

and die cause of the nali m Tl ) were 

■. it 1 ■: i ' 

. ! 1 I , 1 : in rhey fought w i 
at Pea Rid e; ,\ 

at Champion Hills; with Re id at Shiloh. 
' They were with Grant at the surrender of 
' Vicksburg. They fought above the clouds 
' with Hookei at Lookout Mountain. They 
i were with Sherman in his march to the sea, 
] and were ready for battle when Johnston 
! surrendered. They were with Sheridan in 
I the valley of the Shenandoah, and were in 
I the veteran ranks of the nation's deliverers 
' that stacked their arms in the national cap- 
' itol at the close of the war. 

The State furnished to the armies of the 
! republic, during the war, over 70,000 men, 
! and 20, coo of these perished in battle or 
i from diseases contracted in the service. 

We append here a brief notice of each 
' regiment: 

The First Regiment was organized under 
the President's first call for three-months 
volunteers, with John Francis Bates, of Du- 
buque, as Colonel. It comprised various 
! independent military companies that had 
been organized before the war, who ten- 
; dered their services even before the break- 
ing out of hostilities. They were mustered 
' in May 14, and first saw service under 
i General Lyon in Missouri. 

Second Infantry; Samuel R. Curtis, of 
Keokuk, Colonel. This was the first three- 
years regiment, and made a most distin- 
guished record throughout the South go- 
ing with Sherman to the sea, returning 
through the Carolinas, etc. Alter the 
battle at Fort Done Ison, the 
Gen< ral 1 [alleck pro 
" the bravest of the brave." 

'I hird ! 1 . 11I ; Nelson G. Williams, of 
but beforei 
their co 
out ol e> istct 

; G. M. Dod 
cil Blul 

Fifth I . I : ' 

of Keti ! 


r Or IOWA. 

an 1 were transferred to t! 

o it'n 

j j<5 • 

Sixth Infantry; John A. McDowell, of 
Keokuk, Colonel. Engaged faithfully in 
man\' of the prominent battles. 

Seventh Infantry ; J. G. Lauman, of Bur- 
Lington, Colonel. It lost 227 at the single 
battle of Belmont. 

Eighth Infantry; Frederick Steele, of the. 
regular armv, Colonel. Most of this com- 
mand suffered in rebel prisons for eight 
m mt! -". Was on duty in Alabama nearly 
a year aftc r the collapse of the Rebellion. 

Ninth Infantry; William Vandever, of 
Dubuque, Colonel. Was in almost every 
Southern State, traveling altogether 10,000 
miles; marched more than 4,000 miles! 

Tenth Infantry; Nicholas Persczel, of 
Davenport, Colonel. Fought mainly in 
Mississippi ; losing half its number at the 
battle of Champion Hills alone ! 

Eleventh Infantry; A. M. Hare, of Mus- 
catine, Colonel. Served mainly in the in- 
terior of the South, doing as valiant service 
as any other regiment. 

Twelfth Infantiy ; J. J. Wood, of Maquo- 
keta. Colonel. In rebel prisons eight 
Veteranized January 4, 1864, a 
larger proportion of the men re-enlisting 
than from any other 1 owa regiment. Served 
for several months after the close of the 

Thirteenth Infantry; M. M. Crocker, of 
Des M tin :s, Col mel. Fought in tin io 
made I he famou 1 
lerm to th 
enter Co iia, Sou 1 -here se- 

m rise. 

[nfant r) ; Willia 
A n a osa , < m I cap 1 1.1 

■, 1 . ■ 1 1 • 1 . 1 ■ . 

m< >nlhs. Eng; I in me of tl 
I '. ■ Infant] y; I lugh T. Reid 


heart e Rebel 

; John W. Rankin, 
Served in the in 



1 1 ry : Alex. Chambers, of 

gular army, Colonel. Bravely served 

< throughout the South. 

Seventeen! h Infantn 

I of Keokuk, Col mel. 

! terior of the South. 

Eighteenth Infantry 
• Chariton, Colonel. Much of its time was 
; spent in garrison duty. 

Nineteenth Infantry; Benjamin Crabb, 
I of Washington, Colonel. Served mainly in 
I Mississippi. Were prisoners of war about 
j ten months. 

Twentieth Infantry, comprising five com- 
\ panics each from Scott and Linn counties, 
; who vied with each other in patri 
\ William M. Dye, of Marion, Colonel. En- 
gaged mainly on the Gulf coast. 

Twenty-first Infantry ; ex-Governor Sam- 
uel Merrill, Colonel. Distinguished in val- 
j iant service throughout the South. See 
: Twenty-third Regiment. 

Twenty-second Infantry; William M. 
Stone, of Knoxville, since Govern 
State, was Colonel. Did excellent service, 
j all the way from Mississi] to 

Twenty -third Infantiy ; William D 
of Fremont County, Colonel. Its services 
j were mainly in Mississippi. At Bla 
bul a few minutes were required in carry- 
ing the rebel works, but those I 
were foughl with fear'" to 

The Twenty-first al I in thi 

daring assaul 

: . I ■ 

I by the h in 1, si 1 
Twcntj 1 


Eber C. Byam, L . 

inly in the Lowei 

Tw< nt mlr\ : Ge< 

. [ Mt. Pl< ■ .n, Col. . "Tot 

Twi nty -sixth Ii 



ii/STonr of i a w,\. 

Twenty-seventh Infantry; James I. Gil- 
bert, of Lansing, Colonel. On duty all the 
way from Minnesota to the Gull of Mexico. 

Twenty-eighth Infantry ; William E. 
Miller, of Iowa City, Colonel. Service, in 
the region of the Lower Mississippi. 

Twenty-ninth Infantry ; Thomas II. Ben- 
ton, Jr., 'of Council Bluffs, Colonel. Sta- 
tioned in Arkansas. 

Thirtieth Infantry; Charles B. Abbott, 
of Louisa County, Colonel. In the thickest 
of the war, coming home loaded with 

Thirty-first Infantry; William Smyth, of 
Marion, Colonel. Returned from its many 
hard-fought battles in the interior of the 
South with only 370 men out of 1,000 en- 

Thirty-second Infantry; John Scott, of 
Nevada, Colonel. Engaged in a number of 

Thirty-third Infantry; Samuel A. Rice, 
a popular politician ol Central Iowa, Colo- 
nel. Served from Arkansas to Alabama. 

Thirty-fourth Infantry; George W.Clark, 
of Indianola, Colonel. Traveled 15,000 
miles in its service ! 

Thirty-fifth Infantry; S. G. Hill, of Mus- 
catine, Colonel. Served bravely in a dozen 
bailies, and traveled 10,000 miles. 

Thirty-sixth Infantry; Charles W. Kitt- 
redge, of Ottumwa, Colonel. Suffered a 
great deal from sicki ■ ;s -small-pox, measles, 
malaria, etc. 

Thirty-seventh Infantry, the " Gray- 
Beard Regiment," being composed of men 
over forty-five years of age, and was tin 
only one of its kind in the war. Garrison 
and post <\u: v. 

Thirty-eighth Infantry; I). II. Hugh< -, 
of 1 >ccor; h, Colonel. Mosl unfo: h 
all in respect of sickness, 300 dying during 
th ' 'i wo years. 

Tlnrtj ; If. .1 B. Ci 1 

mi W intei I, < ilonel. One of the 

most di field. 

Fortieth Infantry; John A. Garrett, of 
i Newton, Colonel. 

Forty-first Infantry was not completed, 
and the three companies raised for it were 
all ached to the Seventh Cavalry. 

There were no regiments numbered 
Forty-second or Forty-third. 

Forty-fourth Infantry for 100 days; 
I Stephen H. Henderson, Colonel. Garrison 
! duty in Tennessee. 

Forty -fifth Infantry, for ioodays; A. II. 
j Bereman, of Ml. Pleasant, Colonel. Garri- 
son duty in Tennessee. 

Forty-sixth Infantry, for ioodays; D. B. 
Henderson, of Clermont, Colonel. Garri- 
son duty in Tennessee. 

Forty-seventh Infantry, for 100 days; 
James P. Sanford, of Oskaloosa, Colonel. 
Stationed at the sickly place of Helena, 

Forty-eighth Infantry (battalion;, for 100 
1 days ; O. H. P. Scott, of Farmington, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonc 1. Guarded prisoners on Rock 
'j Island. 

First Cavalry ; Fitz Henry Warren, of 
ton, Colonel. Served for three 

\ Bui 

i years, mainly along the Lower Mi: 

Second Cavalry; W. L. Elliott, a Cap- 
tain in the Third Cavalry of the regular 
army, Colonel. Fought faithfully in many 
important battles in Tennessee and Missis- 

Third Cavalry ; Cyrus Bussey, of Broom- 
! field, Colonel. Distinguished in war. 

Fourth Cavalry: A. B. Porter, of Mt. 
' Pleasant, Colonel. I itcd with zeal 

and judgment in the 1 bal 

Penn and M ippi. 

Fifth Cavalry, only in part an [ov\ ; 
men! ; William W. Lowe, of th< 1 
army, Colonel. 1 '■ 

I vicinity. 
Sixth Cavalry ; D. S. Wilson, ol Du- 
insl th< 

buque, ' 

d :' . 

Seventh I 

, . . ■ the In- 

.- ; S. W. Summe 


Ottumwa. Colonel. Served against the Gcorg< A. Stone, Datus E. Coon, George 
Indians. W. Clark, l-k-rm: ,, H. Heath, 1. M. Hed- 

Eighth Cavalry; Joseph B. Dorr, of Du- , rick and \V. W. Lowe, 
buque, Colonel. Served faithfully in guard- 
ing Sherman's communications, etc.' 1,AVA SIXCE THK WAR - 

Ninth Cavalry; M. M. Trumbull, of ' The two principal events of political in- 
Ccdar Falls, Colonel. Scouting, guard and | terest in this State since the war have been 
garrison duties in Arkansas. J the popular contests concerning woman 

Firs: Battery of Light Artillery ; C. II. ; suffrage and the liquor traffic. In the 
Fletcher, of Burlington, Captain. Served popular elections the people gave a ma- 
in Arkansas and Tennessee, j ,j-ity againsl the former measure, but in 

Second Battery; Nelson I. Spoor, of j favor of prohibiting th< ale or n 
Council Bluffs, Captain. Engaged al Farm- j ure f intoxicating liquors, 
ington. Corinth and other places A list of Stale officers to date ; ; given on 

Third Battery; M. M. Hayden, of Du- ! a subsequenl page. The la I ^ote for 
buque, Captain. Engaged at Pea Ridge, j Governor, October 9, 1883, stood as foi- 
and in ether important battles. 1 i ows: For Burcn R. Sherman, Republican, 

164,141 ; L. G. 

and Tame: 

Kinne, Democrat, 140,032, 
Weaver, National Green- 

: institu noxs. 

Fourth Battery; on duty most of t 
time in Louisiana. 

Iowa Regiment of Colored Troop, ; John ; back, 23,1 13 
G. Hudson, of Missouri, Colonel. Garrison 
duiv at Si. Louis and elsewhere. 

Northern Border Brigade; James A. ! The present capitol building is a 
Sawver, of Sioux City, Colonel. Protected , ful specimen of modern architecture. Its 
the Northwestern frontier. j dimensions are, in general, 246x364 

Southern Border Brigade ; protected the , with a dome and spire extending 11 
southern border of the State. : height of 275 feet. In 1070 the General 

The following promotions were made by Assembly made an appropriation, and pro- 
the United States Government from Iowa : vided for the appointment of aboard of com- 
regiments: To the rank of Major-General missioners to commence tl '• of build- 

— Samuel R.Curtis, Frederick Steele, Frank ing. They were duly ap] and pro- 

J. Herron and Grenvillc M. Dodge ; to that ceeded to work, laying the corner-stone with 
of Bi igadier-General —Jacob G. Lauman, appropriate ceremonies, N ivcmber 23. 1871. 
James M. Tuttle, W. L. Elliott, Fitz Henry j The structure is n-t yetcomplel 1. Wher. 
Warren, Charles L. Matthies, William \ an 
dever, M. M. Crocker, Hugh T. Redd 

William W.Belknap, John Edwards, J: me: 
A. Williamson, James I. Gilbert and 'I homas 

istieit it will have co 

rhe State University, al Iowa C ,; :v. was 
A. Rice, John M. Corse, Cyrus established there in 1S5S, i y after 

Edward Hatch, Elliott W. Rice, the removal of tin capital to Dcs Mi 

\s had all eadv been 
lie old 1 1 il liner. As earlv: 

J. McKean; Corse, Hatch, Belknap, Elliott ary, 1849, txv 

and V'andevci 

brevctted Maji >r- '■•• ' 1 1 establish I me 


Gi iei lis : brevetted 13 1 iga lier-General al Du! >u< tie. i rfield, tl ; 

William T. Clark, Edward F. Winslow, S. directors org 

G. Hill, Thomas 1 I. Benton, S. S. Glasgov , at a cost of §2, Hiis was m .. . 

M. Drake, tnryed year, 

Clark R. We 




but was rebuilt more substantially by the 
citizens of Fairfield. This branch never 
received any aid from the State, and Janu- 
ary 24, 1853, at the request of the 
the General Assembly terminated its rela- 
tion to the State. The branch at Dubuque 
had only a nominal existence 

By act of Congress, approved July 20, 
1S40, two entire townships of land were 
set apart in this Slate for the support of a 
university. The Legislature of this State 
placed the management of this institution 
in the hands of a board of fifteen trustees, 
five to be chosen (by the Legislature) every 
two 3'cars, the superintendent of public 
instruction to be president of the board. 
This board was also to .appoint seven trus- 
tees for each of the three normal schools, to 
be simultaneously established — one each 
at Andrew, Oskaloosa and Mt. Pleasant. 
One was never started at the last-named 
place, and after a feeble existence for a 
short time the other two were discontin- 
ued. The university itself was closet! dur- 
ing 1 8 59-60, for want of funds. 

The law department was established in 
June, 1S6S, and soon afterward the Iowa 
Law School at Des Moines, which had been 
in successful operation for three years, was 
transferred to Iowa City and merged in the 
department. The medical department was 
established in 1869; and in 1874 a chair of 
military instruction was added. 

Since April 11, 1870, the government of 
the university has been in the hands of a 
board of regents. The present faculty 
complies forty-two professors, and the 
attendance 560 students. 

The State Normal School is located at 
Cedar Falls, and was opened in 1876. [1 
has now a faculty of nine members, v ith an 
nee of 301 pupils. 

\ h ■ :■•' iti \gricult ural ( !ollegi is lo 
at Amc ;, in St. »ry G unit y, being 1 tal 
by the legislative act ol March 23, 1858. 
[n 1 S< >2 Congn : granti d lo \< iwa : 1 

acres of land for the endowment of schools 
of agriculture and the mechanic arts. The 
main building was completed in 186S, and 
the institution opened the following year. 
Tuition is free to pupils iVom the State 
over sixteen years of age. The college 
farm comprises 860 acres, of which a major 
portion is in cultivation. Professors, twen- 
ty-two; scholars, 319. 

The Deaf and Dumb Institute was estab- 
lished in 1855, at lo^a City, but was after- 
ward removed to Council Bluffs, to a tract 
of ninety acres of land two miles south of 
that city. In October, 1870. the main build- 
ing and one wing were completed and 
occupied. In February, 1877, nrc destroyed 
the main building and cast wing, and dur- 
ing the summer following a tornado par- 
tially demolished the west wing. Jt j s a t 
present (1SS5) manned with fifteen teachers, 
and attended by 292 pupils. 

Idie College for the Blind has been at Yin- 
ton since 1S62. Prof. Samuel Bacon, himself 
blind, a fine scholar, wdio had founded the 
Institution for the Blind, at Jacksonville, 
Illinois, commenced as early as 1852 a school 
of instruction at Keokuk. The next year 
the institution was adopted by the State 
and moved to Iowa City, with Prof. Bacon 
as principal. It was moved thence, in 1862, 
to Vinton. The building was erected and 
the college manned at vast expenditure of 
money. It is said that $282,000 were ex- 
pended upon the buil ling alone, and that it 
required an outlay of $5>coo a year lo heat 
it. while it had ace u lal ' ins for 130 in- 

mates. At present, however, tin \ 
accommodations for more pupils, with an 
ai tendance of 132. There are eleven leach- 
ci s. '1 he annual legislat 

• besides Si: ' per year U >r each 

The fij si Iowa 1 lospital for the 

I the Leg islaturc 
. 1 
Mt. Plea ant, win re th building was com- 


history of row 

pleted in 1861, at a cost of $258,555. Within following, with a few pupils; but 111 1 tli 

the first three months 100 patients were ad- attendance is 215. in the care of four teach- 

mitted, and before the close of October, crs. This asylum is managed by three trus- 

1S77, an aggregate of 3.6S4 had been ad- tci , on 1 fwhotn must be a resident of that 

mitted. In April, 1876. a portion of the countv, Mills. 

building was destroyed by fire. At this in- : The first penitentiary was established in 

stitution there arc now ninety-four superin- \ 1S41, near Fort Madison, its present loca- 

tendents and assistants, in charge of 472 ! tion. The cost of the original building was 

patients. §55-934. and its capacity was sufficient for 

Another Hospital for the Insane, at Inde- ' 138 convicts. At present there are at this 

pendence, was opened May 1, 1S73. in a ' prison 364 convicts, in charge of forty-three 

building which cost$SS,U4. The present employes. 

number of inmates is 5S0, in the care of 1 1 1 The penitentiary at Anamosn was cstab- 

superintendents and employes. ( lished in 1 872— '3. It now lias 239 convicts 

The Soldiers' Orphans' Home is located at ! and thirty-four employes. 
Davenport. It was originated by Mrs. Annie The boys' reform school was permanently 
Wiltenmeyer, during the late war, who located at Eldora, Hardin County, in 1S72. 
called a convention for the purpose at Mus- ; For the three years previous it w; 
catine, September 7, 1863, and uly 13 fob \ the building of the Iowa Manual Labor In- 
lowing the institution was opened in a brick j stitute at Salem, Henry County. Only 
building at Lawrence, Van Buren County, boys between seven and sixteen years of 
It was sustained by voluntary contributions 1 age are admitted. Credit of time for good £ 
until r865, when the State took charge of j conduct is given, so that occasionally one 
it. The Legislature provided at first for ! is discharged before he is of age. There 
three "homes." The one in Cedar Falls are now (1S85) 201 pupils here. 
was organized in 1865, an old hotel build- | The "girls' department" is at Mitchell- C 
ing being fitted up for it, and by the follow- ville, similarly managed. Inmates, eighty- 
ing January there were ninety-six inmates, three. 

In October, jS6q, the Home was removed The State Historical Societv is in part 

to a large brick building about two miles supported bv the State, the Governor ap- 

west of Cedar Falls, and was verv prosper- pointing nine of the eighteen curators, 

ous for several years ; but in 1S76 the Leg- Tibs society was provided for in connection 

islature devoted this building to the State with the University, by I risl; tivi act 1 

Normal School, and the buildings and January 28, 1S57, and it has published a 

grounds of the Soldiers' Orphans' Home series of valuabh >ns, and a la 

at Glenwood, Mills County, to an institution number of fin !. engraved portraits ol 

for the support ol feeble-min ... prominent and early settlers. 

and also provided for the removal of the The Sta Agricultural Societ)- is con- 

kliers' orphans at the Glenwood and duct 1 under the auspices of th State, ; 

Cedar Falls li tines t 1 the insti ution at j is 01 of th< 

Davenport. The latter has in ,\ in velfan of the p . tl : f 

169 orphans. organizations. It holds an annual fair at .. 

The Vsj lum foi 1 1 1 '• • ■ M ind d Children Des Mi lines, and it 

refci i ed to ab >ve, is at Glcn\ I, estab- ' published 

lished b) the L< i latin i State. 
Th< institut I r 1, The Fish-Ha suc- 



.' OF IOWA. 

cessfully carrying on it< good work since 
it? establishment in 1874, near Anamosa. 
Three fish commissioners are appointed, 
one for each of the three districts into which 
the State is for the purpose divided. 

The State Board of Health, established 
in 1 ', has an advisory supervision, and to 
a limited extent also a police supervision, 
over the health 1 >f the people, -es] 
with reference to the abatement of those 
nuisances that are most calculated to pro- 
mulgate dangerous and contagious diseases. 
Their publications, which .are made at the 
expense of the Stale, should be studied by 
every citizen 


The germ of the free public school sys- 
tem of Iowa, which now ranks second to 
none in the United States, was planted by 
the first settlers, and in no other public 
measure have the people ever since 
so deep an interest. They have e . led 
and improved their original system until 
now it is justly considered one of the most 
complete, comprehensive and liberal in the 

Nor is this to be wondered at when it is 
remembered that humble! >g sch <. ^-houses 
were built almost as soon as the log cabins 
of the earliest settlers were occupied, and 
school-teachers were among the first im- 
migrants to Iowa. Schools, therefore, the 
people have had everywhere from thestart, 
and the school-houses, in their characterand 
accommodations, have kept full}' abreast 
with the times. 

The f 
of fowa '.. .1 ! ig cabinat D 
J. L. Langworlhy and a few 01 1 miners, 
autumn of 1 833. When it w; 
( reorge Cabbage was cmpL 

' . ■ ' O : 

five pu 

V. hiiti a. i! c taught the next scho il tei m, 

twenl 1 npils in attendance. Mrs. 

■ I )c .--'.m- commenced tcacl 11 

Dubuque in March, 1S36. She was the first 
female teacher there, and probably the first 
in Iowa. In 1S39 Thomas II. Benton, Jr., 
afterward for ten years Superintendent of 
Public Instru :ti in, opened an English and 
classical school in Dubuque. The first tax 
for the supp >rl ol 5ch ils at. Dubuqu : was 
levied in 1840. 

At Burlington a coram 1 li m g school- 
house, built in 1834, was among th 

gs erected. A Mr. Johnson 
the-first school in the winter of 1834— '5. 

In .Muscatine County, the first sch- 1 
taught by George' Bumgardner, in the 
spring of 1S37. In 1839 a ' - school-house 
was erected in Muscatine, which served for 
a long time as sch >ol-hous . ch irch and 
public hall. 

The first school in Davenport was taught 
in 1S3S. In Fairfield, Miss Clarissa Sawyer, 
James F. Chambers and Mrs. Reed I ight 
sch i il in 1839. 

Ji ihnsi hi Count}' was an entii e 
when Iowa City was located as the 
of the Territory of Iowa, in May, 1S39. 
The first sale of lots took place August 18, 
1839, ano " before January I, 1840, about 
twenty families had settled I thelimits 
of the town. During the same year Jesse 
Berry opened a school in a lall 
building he had erected on what is now 
College street. 

In Monroe County, the first 
was made in 1843. D )' Mr- John R. Gray, 

>u1 1 w o m il 
Eddyville; and in th < of 1S44 a l»g 

.. , C. Renfro, J 

1 by Miss 1 

r ] ten 

Ab ml a •■ ter tl ibin was 

built at () ;kal ■ 1 a, a log sch 
built, in whicl by Sam- 

uel W. C 1 1S44. 


' At F^ri Dcs Moines, now the capital of 
the State, the first school was tan. I b) 
Lew:-; YVhitten, Clerk of the District C >urt, 
in the winter of 1S46 -'7, in one of the room 
on ■• Co in Row," built for barracks. 

The first school in Pottawattamie Count)' 
was opened by George Green, a Morm m, 
at Council Point, prior to 1S49; and until 
about 1854 ncarl)- all the teachers in that 
vicinity were Mormons. 

The first school in Decorah was taught in 
1S55, D J' Cyrus C. Carpenter, since Gov- 
ernor of the State. In Crawford County the 
first school-house was built in Mason's 
Grove, in 18.56, and Morn's McHenry first 
occupied it as teacher. 

During the first twenty years of the his- 
tory of Iowa, the log school-house pre- 
vailed, and in 1S61 there were 893 of these 
primitive structures in use for school pur- 
poses in the State. Suice that time they 
have been gradually disappearing. In 1S65 
there were 796; in 1S70, 336; and in 1875, 


Pi 1846, the year of Iowa's admission as 
a State, there were 20,000 scholars out of 
100,000 inhabitants. About 400 school dis- 
tricts had been organized. In 1830 there 
were 1,200, and in 1857 the number had in- 
creased to 3,265. 

In March, 1858, upon the recommenda- 
tion of Hon. M. L. Fisher, then Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction, the s ntl 
General Assembly enacted thafcacl 
township is deel ired a school district," and 
provided that these should be divided into 
1 . This law went into force 
March ; . - , and reduced the numbei 
school disl ricts from rtboul _,.;,< tol than 
90 ). This change of school 01 
resulted in a verj matci ial 1 edm I ion of the 
expenditm es for the comp il 1 of dis- 
trict secretaries aud trea urer: . A 
■'. a : 1 ide for several yeai , from 1 >; Lo 
1S72, to abolish tl listricl s) ;l m. 

• i ■ : • 1 tendent , reco n 



this in his 
( ri ivernor 
views in h 


; ft 

January 1 , 1872, and 

forcibly endorsed his 

ual message. But 

t yea'- provid d fo 

larion of inde;> n lent districts fi 


sub-districts of district township . 

The system of graded schools was in- 
augurated in 1S49, an d new schools, in 
which more than one teacher is employed, 
are universally graded. 

Teai hers' institute - were organize 
in the history of the Stale. The first offi- 
cial mention of them occurs in the annu ■' 
report of Hon. Thomas II. Benton, Jr., 
made December 2, 1S50, who said: "An 
institution of this character was organized 
a few years ago, composed of the teachers 
of the mineral regions of Illinois, Wi o >nsin 
and Iowa. An association of teachers has 
also been formed in the county of Henry, 
and an effort was made in October last to 
organize a regular institute in the county 
of Jones. - ' 

Xo legislation, however, was held until 
March, 1S5S, when an act was passed au- 
thorizing the holding of teachers' ins 
'.or periods not less than six worki 
whenever not less than thirt v teachers 
should desire. The sup rintei lent was 
authorized to expend not exceeding $ioo 
for an)- one institute, to be paid out by the 
county superintendent, as the institute may 
direct, for teachers and lecturers, and $1,. 

000 was appropriated to d 

of these institutes. Mr. Fish 
p : I the matte of hold ig ins! 

01 Educati th institutes had ' n ap- 

in t went y 1 111 ithin 1 he pi e- 

; months, and 11 

1 1 
I . A 1 1 1 
of Educ ition, conn ncim D 

utes. In March, j 

. ■?• OF IOWA. 

General Assembly amended the acl oi the 
board bv appropriating "a sum not ex- 
ceeding §50 annually for one such institute, 
held as provided by law in each county." 
In 1S65 the superintendent, Mr. Faville, re- 
ported thai "the provision made by the 
State for the benefit of teachers' institutes 
has never been so fully appreciate'!, both 
by the people and the teachers, as during 
the last two years." Under this law an in- 
stitute is held annually in each county, 
under the direction of lite count)" superin- 

By an act approved March jo, 1874, nor- 
mal institutes were established in each 
county, to be held annual])' by the county 
superintendent. This was regarded as a 
very decided step in advance bv Mr. Aber- 
nethy, and in 1876 the General Assembly 
established the first permanent State Nor- 
mal School at Cedar Falls, Black Hawk 
County, appropriating the building and 
property of the Soldiers' Orphans Home 
at that place for that purpose. This school 
is now "in the full tide of successful ex- 

Funds for the support of the public 
schools are derived in several ways. The 
sixteenth section of every congressional 
township was set apart by the General 
Government for school purposes, being 
one thirty-sixth part of all the lands of the 
State. The minimum price, of these lands 
was fixed at $1.25 per acre. Congress also 
made an additional donation to the 3 

■ ac res, and an appropi ial ; - >n < if 3 
pet cent, on all 1!" sale of public lai 
the si ho il [unci. The State gives to this 
fund the p iceed of the i il. 1 ; 
v. hit h esel ;at to it ; tl 
fin' 5 fi n the violation oi tin 
criminal law-. The money derived from 
th( se sou constitute: th 

: Lie, ivhich 

d i vi 1 1 '• • 1 ■ I : 

bv th 

forfeitures go to the school fund in the 
; counties where collected. The proceeds 

of the sale oi lands an 1 the 5 percent, fund 
; go into the State Treasury, and the State 
distributes these proceeds to the several 
counties according to their request. 

In 1S44 there were in the State 4.339 
school districts, containing 11,244 schools, 
and employing 21,776 teachers. The aver- 
age monthly pay of nude teachers was 
$32.50, and of female teachers $27.25. There 
were 504.730 persons of school aye, o! whom 
431.513 were enrolled in the public schools. 
The average cost of tuition for each pupil 
per month was $1.62. The expenditures 
for all school purposes was $5,129,819.49. 
The permanent school fund is now $3,547,- 
123.82, on which the income for 1SS1 was 

Besides the State University, Agricult- 
ural College and Normal School, described 
on preceding pages, ample provision for 
higher education has been made bv the 
different religious denominations, assisted 
by local and individual beneficence. There 
are, exclusive of State institutions, twenty- 
three universities and colleges, and. one- 
hundred and eleven academies and other 
private schools for the higher branches. 
All these are in active operation, and most 
of them stand high. 

Amit) College, located at. College 
Springs, Page County, has eight instructors 
and two hundred and forty-five students. 

Burlington University, eight instructors 
and foi 

Callai "i Colli ..:.: 1 )es M< lines, has 
eightci n in the faculty and >.>nc hundred 
and twenty students enn 

■ '1 University, at Pella, M 
1 '< uml y, is under the an ic< of I B 
church, and hn el in th faculty am! 

1 me him 

I 1 , a t Ced a 1 Rap 


hundred and nine! 

a. •'•: 

>:- c: 
:• <■: 
:■.- ►: 

t/jsroRi' of /on ;. 

Cornell College, Methodist Episcopal, at 
Mt. Vernon, Linn County, h; 
members of the faculty and four hundred j 
and seventy-nine scholars. Thi 


Drake University, at Des Moines, has 
thirty instructors and three hundred and 
twenty-live pupils. 

Griswold College, at Davenport, is under 
the control of the Episcopal church, and 
has seven instructors and seventy-five stu- 

Iowa College, at Grinned, is permanently 
endowed. lias fourteen instructors and 
three hundred and eighty-four students. 

Iowa Wesleyan University (Methodist 
Episcopal), at Mt. Pleasant, has six mem- 
bers of the faculty and one hundred and 
seventy-five students. 

Luther College, at Decorah, Winneshiek 
Comity, has a faculty of ten, and one hun- 
dred and sixtv-five pupils. 

Oskaloosa College has a faculty of five. 
and one hundred and thirty-five students. 

Penn College, at Oskaloosa, has a faculty 
of five members, and one hundred and forty 
pupils in attendance. 

Simpson Centenary College, at Indianola, 
Warren Count)' (Methodist Episcopal), has 
a faculty of seven and an attendance of two 

Tabor College, at Tabor, Fremont 
County, modeled after the Oberlin (Ohio) 
College, has twelve members in the faculty 
and an attendance of two hundred and ten 


University oi Des Mo ha ive i li- 

st met >. . id fifi y | 

1 1 p : Un ' Epis- 

copal i, lo< ted at 1 rette, in 
County, ha ■ • tors and three 


Wintrier College, at Sal 
County, is in; lei the auspii cs of the 
Friend flier \s and 

S!\!\- pup 


When Wisconsin Territory was organ- 
ic '1 in 1S36, (lie enure population oi that 
portion of the Territory now embraced in 
lh ■ St; - ol iowa was 10,531. The Terri- 
tory then embraced : vo counties, Dubuque 
and Des Moines, 1 ■ :■ ! by the 'J 
of Michigan in 1834. Since then the 
counties have increased to ninety-nine, ami 
the population in 1SS0 was 1,624,463. The 
following table will show the population at 
different periods since the erection of Iowa 
Territory : 


Population' Year 


;:.; c :) iS;o 



: 5 --- 56o. 

' 7- ' :.. 

I ' ] 

7vK. 1 


9/oSS;. = .... 


116,1 -: 1S1 7 


•• 15-' ■-' ' 1 

1 o^cSi^ 


lOI,' .'•■.' 1S7O 

1 . "-> 1 , 7 - 7 


- I :: ; 1 ; 

«.-'5 I .333 


230.713 1S75 



326. 0: 3 1SS0 

'.''- ■: '';, 


■'■ :> - 

The most populous county is Dubuque — 
42,997. Polk Count}- has 42,395, and 
41,270. Not only in population, but in 
everything contributing to the growth and 
greatness of a Stair, has Iowa 1 1 1 1c rapid 
ress. In a little more than I hirty-five 
years its wild but beautiful 
advanced from the h une of 1 age to a 

hi hly civili d < 

The first railron 
completed to Council Bluffs in Jai 
[871. The complel ' m of thn 

I. 1 a 1854 , mile oi 

railroad in Iowa. Y\ it 

l went \ . 5 miles \v 1 1 ' uilt and 

put in successful oj 

• of buildim 

ate instil 


- - 


' Col. 

rns'.t'.n i 




ior our 







. • 


The State lias never !evi< 
id one-half mills on l 1 
I ix, and this is al consli- 

lal limit. 
1 has no State debt. V. I 

have been incurred in I he past have 
been promptly met and fully paid. Man)' 
of the counties are in debt, but only four of 

to an amount exceeding $i 
The bonded debt of the con 
in the a: $2,592,222, aiK ] th 

in : 53,456; total, S2,74 

In tin- language of Judge C. C. Nourse, 
we feel compelled to say : " T 
mate fact that. America would dem 
is, the existence of a people capabl 
taining and preserving a superior civiliza- 

ed, sclf- 

erpetu ited. In this 

age of wonderful progress, America can 

exhibit to 1 he \v< >rl i ol mankind 

A'onderful or mure glorious titan her 

new States — young empires, b »rn of her 

own enterprise and tutored at her own 

political hearth-stone. Well may she say 

monarchies of the Old World, who 

look for evidence of her regal gi 

'Bel . these are my ; : !' 

and may she ncvei blush I ad i, ' Tl 
in the center of the diadem is 1 iwa !' " 

PHYSIC \.'. i EA rUR] S. 

low .in the hi: 

to signify " 1 

: to this mag 11 i 

the two great ri\ 
. I shape of tl I hat oi 

a recta 

b bci due east and west lines, 

.and it- 1 
tcrmiiK . 

.... . 

miles, b 

that of arc 36', or n th ee degrees; 

but this does not include the small : 
tiie sou; he t con er. The I 
State fn im east '-. miles. 

Die area is 5 5, • ; 
of which is i 

The State lies wholly within, and com- 
prises a ] ain, and there is no 
mountainous or even hilly country within 


rivers. The I t po i near Spirit 

1 i but I.2O0 fei I lowest, 

ntheast eo: ner, and is 44 \ 

: a 1 >ve the level of th ( • 

Theavi en these 

n Spirit 
I to the northeast cornet 1 

at low-water mark of the Mississippi, is five 
\ e inches. 

• . seven- 

of Iowa \. i 
;t settled here. tt 
tl I ] oint in science that I 
the Indi ountry 

divide the - a into 


liffer in th< m 

Irift, bind an I 

- - 
much larger 1 Stat 

next gn 


bul the . 

purled but a ' 

and Xorthwcs 



or iowa. 

Southern Iowa the soil is frequently stiff 
and clayey. The bluff soil is found only in 
the western part of the State, and a I 
to Missouri River. Although it contains 
less than i per cent, of clay in its com- 
position, it is in no respeel inferior to the 
best drift soil. The alluvial soil is that of 
the flood plains of the river valleys, or bot- 
tom lands. Thai which is peri 
flooded by the rivers is of little value for 
agricultural purposes; but a large part of 
it*is entirely above the reach of the highest 
flood, and is very productive. 

The stratified rocks of Iowa range from 
the Azoic to the Mesozoic, inclusive ; but 
the greater portion of the surface oi the 
State is occupied by those of the Palaeozoic 
a°e. The table below will show each of 
these formations in their order: 

:: r ±K 

'-"■ r ~ 

n - '■■ v '- . j- :- : .- :: - '.. . ► < f: t 

■■ ? • 2 • 3 s = 

The Sioux quartzite, in the azoic system, 

is found exposed in natural ledges only 

upon a f< w acres in i 1 e i xtreme n irthwesl 

coiner o( the State, upon the banks of the 

Big Sioux River, for winch reason the 

specific name of Sioux quartzite has been 

criven them. It is an intensely hard rock, 

breaks in splintery fracture, and of a color 

varying, in different localities, from a light 

to deep red. The process of mctamorphism 

has been so complete throughout the whole 

j formation that the rock is almost every- 

j where of uniform texture. The dip is four 

! or five degrees to the northward, and the 

i trend of the outcrop is eastward and west- 

| ward. 

Idie Potsdam sandston »n is ex- 

j posed only in a small portion of tl 
' eastern part of the State. It is only to be 
| seen in the bases of the bluffs and steep 
'; valley sides which border the river there. 
j It is nearly valueless for economic purposes. 
I No fossil? have been discovered in this for- 
| mation in Iowa. 

The Lower Magnesian limestone 1 
little greater geographical extent in Iowa 
than the Potsdam sandstone. It I; 
uniformity of texture and stratifical ion, ow- 
ing to which it is nol generally valuable for 
building purposes. 

The St. Peter's '. 
remarkably uniform in thick:: 
out its known . ■ 

occupies a large p the northern 

half of Allamal ty; immediately be- 

1 ; ft. 

With the excepti ; cnl m lime- 

ith Upper and 

; i are i ignesian 


nd Allamakee 
pari of Clayton. The 

are so 
even layers tl 
w indow cays an 


The Galena limestone is the upper for- j The area o c occupied by the 

mation of the Trenton Group. It is [50 Hamilton lime tone ai I shales, is as great 
miles long and seldom exceeds tweh as those by all the formations of h Upp 

in width. It exhibits its greatest develop- ' and Lower Silurian age in the State. Its 
ment in Dubuque County. It is nearly a length is nearh . 1 iles, a id \. dth from 
pure dolomite with a slight admixture of , forty to fifty. Portions of it are valuable 
silicious matter ; good blocks for dressing for economic purposes ; and, having a large 
arc sometimes found near the top of the geographical cxtenl in the- State, is a very 
bed, although it is usually unfit for such a important formation. Its value foi tl | 
purpose. This formation is the source of ■ duction of hydraulic lime has been demon- 
the lead ore of the Dubuque lead mines. ' strated at Waverly, Bremer County. The 
The lead region proper is confined to an 1 heavier and more uniform magncsian beds 
area of about fifteen miles square in the furnish material for bridge piers and other 
vicinity of Dubuque. The ore occurs in material requiring strength and durability. 
vertical fissures, which traverse the rock at j A coral occurs near Iowa City, known as 
regular intervals from east to west; some "Iowa City marble' - and " bird's-eye mar- 
is found in those which have a north and ble." 

south direction. This ore is mostly that j Of the three groups of formations that 
known as galena, or sulphuret of lead, very 1 constitute the carboniferous, viz., the sub- 
small quantities only of the carbonate being carboniferous, coal measures and Permian, 
found with it. only the first two are found in Iowa. 

The surface occupied by the Maquoketa ' The Subcarboniferous group .. ■■■ 
shales is more than 100 miles in length, but j very large area of surface. It- 
is singularly long and narrow, seldom reach- j border passes from the northeastern part ol 
ing more than a mile or two in width. The Winnebago Count) - , with consider; ' 
most northern exposure yet recognized is rectness in a southeaster!}- direction to the 
in the western part of Winneshiek County, northern part of Washington County. It 
while the most southerly is in Jackson! then makes a broad and direct bend nearly 
County, in the bluffs of the Missi: ippi. eastward, striking the Mississip] i at Mus- 
The formation is largely com] ; . .. h catii . The southern and n bound- 

arid brownish shales, sometimes slightly aries are to a consid rab 
arenaceous, sometimes calcai u . ; : 1, as that which separates it from tl 
weather into a tenacio clay upon tin • fi Id. From the southern part • 
face, and the soil derived from il is usually hontas County it ' to Fort 

id clayey. Dodge, tl City, tl 

l oc< upied 1>'." the X . lime- a point three 
■ :■ is forty and fifty mi I dora, in FJ 

uearh from 1 ' th. 1 

n tion is entii 

tone, with a considerable port 

cious matter, i ic m tern con 

chcrl or in! V large 1 . 

probably a best and t 

amount quan 1 k in 1 I ent\ \< • 

a, f. • Cln 


derhook beds is in Des Moinc G .' : - Is— crinoids — now known to be more 

near the mouth o! Skunk River. T] e mo I than 500. 

northerly now known is in the eastern pai I The Kc okuk linn ton* foi mation is to be 

of Pocahontas Count)-, more than 200 ; hi' s seen only in four counties : Lee, Van Duren, 

distant. The principal exposures of this Men 1*3 and Des Moines, [nsoirn 

formation arc along the bluffs which border the upj 1 , irtion is known as the 

the Mississippi and Skunk rivers, where Geode bed; it is not recognizable in the 

thc_v form the eastern and northern bound- northern portion of the formation, nor in 

ary of Des Moines County ; along English connection with it where it is expos* 

River, in Washington Count}-; along the about eighty miles below Keokuk. The 

Towa Rive;-, in Tama, Marshall, Hamlin geodes of the Geode bed are more or less 

and Franklin counties, and along the Ik, masses of silex, usually hollow and lined 

Moines River, in Humboldt Count)-. This | with crystals of quartz; the outer crust is 

formation lias a considerable economic ' rough and unsightly, but the crystals wdnch 

value, particularly in the northern portion ' stud the interior are often very beautiful; 

of the region it occupies. In Pocahontas | the)-, vary in size from the size of a walnut 

and Humboldt counties it is invaluable, as ! to a foot in diameter. This formation is of 

no other stone except a few boulders are ' great economic value. Large quant iocs 

found here. At Iowa Falls the lower | of its stone hav< been used in the finest 

division is very good for building purposes, j structures in the State, among which are 

In Marshall County all the limestone to be \ the postoffices at Dubuque and 1 >< - Moi i< 

obtained comes from this formation, and | The principal quarries are along the banks 

the quarries near Le Grand are very vain- [ of the Mississippi, from Keokuk to Nauvoo. 

able. At this point some of the layers are 1 The St. Louis limestone is the uppermost 

finely veined with peroxide of iron, and are of the subcarboniferous group in Iowa. It 

wrought into both useful and ornamental occupies a small superficial area, consisting 

objects. In Tama County the oolitic mem- of long, narrow strips, y< it is very 

ber is well exposed, where it is manufact- ' great. It is first seen resting on the I I 

ured into lime. Upon exposure to atmos- division of the Keokuk limestone, near Keo- 

phere and frost it crumbles to pieces; kuk; proceeding northward, it j 

consequently it is not valuable for building narrow border along ;' 

purposes. , fields in Lee, Des Moines. Henry, J 

The Burlington lime ton isi ri I down j son, Washington, Keokuk and 

by the southerly dip of the -Iowa rocks, J 1 counti . it is then lo ' until it 

that it is seen for the 1 . loot ! 

in the valley 1 1 Skunk River, n tl ■ it agai 

mdary of Des Moines County; ; o seen in the 

il has been rcc r ,nu d in the nortl . ' I 

of Washi igUm Count ' cists in I >wa, it 


it pt ba L exisl as far north as Mars! 11 us. Tl 

' mat 

by this foi klime, 
■ ion furnishes 

by the 


little value. The lower, or magnesian di- 
\ ision, furnish* - a valuable and i 
stone . exposures ol which are found on Lick 
Ch ek, in Van Buren County, and on Long 
, scv 'ii mill • w est oi 13ui lington. 

The Coal Measure group is propcrh 
di\ided into three form:') .us. viz.: The 
1 ..,,, er, Mi idle and 1 pper Coal Mi 
each having a vertical thickness of about 
200 feet. The Lower Coal Measures exist 
eastward and northward of the Des Moines 
River, and also occupy a large area west- 
ward and southward of that river, but their 
southerly dip passes them below the Middle 
Coal Measures at no great distance from 
the river. This formation possesses greater 
economic value than any other in the whole 
State. The cLay that underlii ;' lost even- 
bed of coal furnishes a large amount of ma- 
terial for potter's use. The sandstone of 
these measures is usually soft and unfit, but 
in some places, as in Red Rock in Marion 
County, blocks of large din i >:,- are ob- 
tained, which make g »od ! in '. lii ; material, 
samples of which can be seen in ih Stat' 
Arsenal, at Des Moines. 

The Upper Coal Measures occupy a 
very large ai ' en whole 

counties, in the southwestern part of lie- 
Stale. By its northern and - 
aries it adjoins the ar i oo ii] ; 1 by the 
Middle Coal Measures. 

The next strata in the • ! 
are of the Cretaceou age. Tl \ 
in the western half I do i 

a do all the othei ! 


i- v( ry '. hi. Akl nigh 1 

I re i • 

, ' I th 
■ period 

The- X; >hn b itany sandstone has the most 

easterly and southerly extent of the cre- 

of Iowa, reaching the 

astern part of Guthrie County and 

r» p M » cry County. 

To the northward, it passes beneath the 

he latter 
passing beneath the chalky beds. This 
is, ivith few exceptions, valueless 
for economic purp < : •• 

The chalky beds rest upon the Wood- 
' bur}' sandstone and I ties. They have not 
observed in Iowa except in the bluffs 
! which border the Big Sioux River in Wood- 
bury and Plymouth counties. Tl 
i ompi ' ■ alcareous ma- 

: terial, the upp< r portion of which is exten- 
sivelv used for lime-. Xo building material 
obtained from these beds, and the 
only value they possess, except lime, are 
' the marls, which at some time maybe use- 
lid on the soil of the adjacent region. 
Extensive b< ds of peat exist in Northern 
11 low a, which, it is estimated, i 
th • ( Mowing areas: Cerro Gordo County, 
1,500 acres; Worth, 2,000; Winnebago, 2,- 
00 1; 1 [,500; Wright, S o; Kos- 

suth, 700; Dickinson, So. Several other 
es contain peat beds, but the peat is 
inferior to that in the n 

• . I : I are of an a 

of four feet. [1 is ch acre 

the beds will furni 

is not ul ■ ■ ' 

Is and the 
its v. 

The only sulph il tl ilka 

may be found in : 

1 . 

inty, the 



- : 



liff and ledges, and al 
mtly in simil i , tis aloi 

sides of the \ alleys of the sma 
an I ol the numerous ra\ - com 
the river valley. Th : most no 
limit of the deposit is at a p tint near the 
mouth of Lizard Creek, a tributary of the 
Des Moines River and almost a Ij lining the 
town of Fort Dodge. The most soi 
point at which it has been exposed 1 
six miles, by way of the river, from the 
northerly point mentioned. The width of 
the area is unknown, as the g}-psum be- 
comes lost beneath the overlying drift, as 
one goes up the ravines and minor valleys. 

On either side of the creeks and ravines 
which come into the valley of the Des 
Moines River, the gypsum is seen jutting 
out from beneath the drift in the form of 
ledges and bold quarry fronts, having al- 
most the exact appearance of ordinary lime- 
stone exposures, so horizontal and regular 
its lines of stratification, and so similar in 
color is it to some varieties of thai 
The principal quarries now opened are on 
Two Mile Creek, a couple of miles below 
Fort Dodge. 

Epsomite, or native Epsom salts, having 
been discovered near Burlington, all the 
sulphates of alkaline earthsof natural origin 
have been recognized in Iowa, all except 
the sulphate of lime being in very small 

aie of lime in the vai ; 
fil i ■ ■ i, seleni . 
has also b 
: parts of 1 

the Coal M 
n •■ I I ' .vhere it 

quantities, i 
ypsi . . 

in tl 

been detected in the Coal Measures, the St. 
Louis limestone, lh< ous strata, and 

Sulph; mtia i - found at Fort 

The gr mate of 

this State is the prevalence of wind, which 
is somew ! . tl ; i Lterthan in th Stat h 

and east, but ler west. 

The air is purer than 
as indicated by the bluer sky and 
qucnt deeper green vegetation, and is 
therefore more bracing. By way of con- 
trast, Northern Ellin lis has a whil 
and a o ■ [uenl uion yellowish 
i ion. 

iling direction of the v. ' 
from the west. 

Thunder-storms arc somewhat more vio- 
lent here than east or south, but nol • 
furious as toward the Rocky Mi 
The greatest: rainfall is in tl 
part of the State, and the least in the 

western portion. 

growth is increasing the amount of i 

!uuing it nn ■■ 
out the year. As elsewhere in the N >rth- 
u States, easterly v, inds h\ in 

While tl 

in August, the m6i 

hottest, and 

i ■ 

nix- of 

■ ■ 
her. In 

■ - 




HIS J on 2' OF /OVA. 

CENSUS OF ]o\Y.\. 

(TNTI) S. 

A . : 

i 9> ' 

11, 199 


1 F53- 


1 i,iSH 



; 12,23; 

: ' ■ 7 ' 



! u,93i 

16,4 s< 


A udubon 

1 454 



J ienton 


! 8,49c 



Black Hawk 


1 S,2 4 4 

21,7' ' 










1 .l,"M 


S 1 / 

, 7,9c< 



Buena Vista 







1 17 

1,6 12 




2.45 1 







3,9-1 1 

I2 .94S 


'8 937 

Cerro Gordo 


, ; ■ 



4.35 G 








5,1 -'7 






' V>S/; 









> : 
















1 2,0 1 £ 




r 1,024 

17,4 J2 


Des Moines 

I2 )9 SS 



35 099 


1 So 


1. 901 









Fav< te 



'6,9; 1 




10, •/(,':• 

H, 6 77 










Gn ene 










/,("'• 1 


ill in 








S,4 1' , 


j', ' ■ 


1 >3 

' 8.707' 

1 §,701 1 

-'I,-;' 1 "; 


;, ; 

( ! : 

II m 1 ildt 







■ ' '. 



i - 



. ,( 




!■ rson 




1 /■-".■ ; 




..:,.; J 




3 - . 

•■; - 


.. . 

5. : ; 1 


' . 



...... 1 








I Mitchell... . 
Monona. . . . 
Monroe . . . . 
Montgomi r\ 
Muscatine . ". 


Os! 4 

Palo \--,k. . 

I Plymouth. . 

Po ihontas. 

I Polk 

! Pottawattair 
! Poweshiek.. 


I Sac 

! Scott 

! Shelby 

1 Sioux 

! Story 


I Taylor , 


Van Buren. 

Wapello.. . . , 



Wayne. . . .. 

Web ter. .. . 



Woodbury.. . 




1S70. I 








■■<• '■ 

2 9-\s 







2,01 j 
1 ■;.• ! 1 







5.9.3 1' 






3S,5' 9 1 







4, '55 
2,21 - 


3-7' 5 


1 \ 




F ' 


4-9 '7 



■! 192,214! 674,91311,191,792 1,624,463 


Governors. — Robert Lucas, 1 S38- '41; J 1 : . 1 1 
Chamber, 1S41 '45; James Clark, 1S45. 

it r.- -ffra, B. Conway, iS 3 : 
1839; James Clark, 1S39 4 ! ■ °- I: - -'• 

J. B, 

ms, 1S40-4 ; 
iam L.Gilbei 
: - 

Trcasu't Baylii ; )-'40 ; 

no 1 8 to. 
.. ' . Mas m, CI i : J 1 


1 - ■ 
■ ■' 

'41; |. \V. I' 
D. 1 




: I s 

1843-44; S. Clinton Hasting, 1845; Stephen 
Hempstead, i845-'46. 

Speakers of t/ie House.— William II. Wal- 
lace, 1 S3S— '39 ; Edward Johnson, 1 40; 
Thomas Cox, i$40-'3 I ; Warner Lewis. 
1841-42; James M. Morgan, 1842- -'.; 3; James 
P. Carleton, 1 843— '44 ; James M. Morgan, 
,1845 : George W. McLcary, 1845-46. 


Governors. — Ansel Briggs, i846-'5o; 
Stephen Hempstead, iS50-'54: James W. 
Grimes, 1S54-58; Ralph P. Lowe, 1S5S- 
'60; Samuel J. Kirkwood, 1 860-' 64 ; Will- 
iam M. Stone, iS64-'68; Samuel Morrill, 
l868-'/2; Cyrus C. Carpenter, i8/2-'76; 
Samuel J. Kirkwood, iSyo-'yy ; J. G. New- 
bold, 1877-78; John H. Gear, 1S78-82 : 
Bureu R. Sherman, i882-'86 ; William Lar- 
rabee, 1886. 

Lieutenant-Governors. — Oran Fa vi! 1 6,1858- 
'60; Nicholas J. Rusch, i86o-'62; John R. 
Needham, i862-'64; Enoch W. Eastman, 
1864-66; Benjamin F. Gue, iS66-'6S; John 
Scott, 1868-70; M. M. Walden, iS/0-'72 ; 
H. C. Bulis, i8/2-'74; Joseph Dysart, 
1874-76; Joshua G. Newbold, 1 S70 -'tx : 
Frank T. Campbell, ]S/8-'82; Orlando II. 
Manning. 1SS2-85 ; John A. T. Hull, 1886. 

This office was created by the new con- 
stitution Sept. 3, 1857. 

Secretaries 0/ State. — Elisha Cutter, Jr., 
i ; '4S; Jo; eph 1 J. Bouncy, 1S48-50; 
George W. McCleary, 1850^56: Elijah 
Sells, 1856 '63; fames Wright. 1863-6; : 
Ed. Wrij , ; Jo I I . 

1 S73— '7Q ; .! A. T. Hul . 1 ; 

D. Jackson, 1 

■ h T. Fales, 
i846-'5o : W Hi 1 • ' 

J. Stevens, 1 S54 -'55 ; John Pall :e, 1 

in \\ . Catl 
I 1 '71 ; John Russi 

Win. Y, 

ll . I ! '• 3 : J. 

V. . ( attell, acting, i.-y-'SG. 

I Treasurers of State. — Morgan Reno. 
\ 1S46- '50; Israel Kister, [S5o-'52; Martin L. 
• Morris, rS52-'5o; John W. Jones, 1 S 59~'63 ; 
! William H. Holmes, 1863-67; Samuel E. 
j Rankin, 1S67— '73 ; William Christy, 1873- 

'yj: George W. Bemis, 1S77— 'Si : Edwin 

II. Conger, i8Si-'s;; Voltaire Twombly, 
j 1SS5. 

Attorney-Generals. — David C. Cloud, 
I 1S53— '56; Samuel A. Rice, iS56-'6o; Charles 
■ C. Nourse, i860 -'64; Isaac L. Allen, 1S65- 

'66; Frederick E. Bissell, 1866- '67; Henry 
; O'Connor, i867-'72; Marcena E. Cutis, 
! 1872-76; John F. Mcjunkin, 1877-81; 
i Smith McPherson, 1881-85 ; A. J. Baker, 
1 1SS5. 

Adjutant-Genera's. — Daniel S. Lee, 1851- 

'55; George W. McCleary, 1855-57; ^ ] '~ 
[ jah Sells, 1S57; Jesse Bowen, iS57-'6i ; Na- 


Baker, i8( 

John H. Looby, ( 

iS7/-'j$; W. L, Alexander, 1S78-.V. 

\ rs of the S: rte Land-G .— Anson 
Hart, 1855-57 : Theodore S. Parvin, 1S57- 
'59; Amos B. Miller, 1859-Tjj ; Edwin 
Mitchell, 1862-63; Josiah A. Harvey, 
1S63-67; Cyrus C. Carpenter, 1S67-71 ; 
Aaron Brown, 1871-75; David Se 
1875-79; J. K. Powers, 1879 -'82. :: ' 
Superintendcnts of Public Instri 
James Harlan, 1847 '4S ; Thos. H. 
Jr., 1848-54; James D. Eads, ; 
Joseph C. Stone, 1857 ; Maturin ] 
[S57 "58; Oran F; ■•. 
lin Wells, [867 '( i ; A. S. Ki - 
Alonzo ' . r 872-76; Car! W. 

\ an Coelen, i>;' '82; John W. Akers, 
[882 'S4. 

.. as ci eated ii 
upo the secretary < ■;' th< I Educa- 

; ■ i 

Garrett D. P 
George Paul, i Wi ' . 

1 [-': ', \. Hi irnish, 1 : ; 


on I ■ 


nis A. Mahoney and Joseph B. Dorr, i 
'55: Peter Moriarty, 1S55 ';; : John tee? 
dale, 1857-61; Francis W. Palmer, 1 
'69; Frank M. Mills, iS 9 >] ; c.. W. Ed- 
wards, iS;i-'; 3 ; Rich. ]'. Clarkson, 1873 
'79; Prank M. Mills, 1879-S1 : Geo. E 
Roberts, 1SS1. 

.SV..V.- Binders.— William M. Coles, 1S55- 
'58; Frank M. Mills, ^58-67; James S. 
Carter, 186; -'71 ; J.J. Smart, 1S71-';- ; ]-j. 
A. Perkins, 1S75-79; Matt. Parrott, 1879 
'85 ; L. S. Merchant, 1SS5. 

Secretaries of Board of Education.—!:. 
H. Benton, Jr., 1859-63 ; Oran Faville, 
1 863 -'64. 

This office was abolished March 23, 1864. 
Presidents of the Senate.— Thomas Baker, 
1 : '};; Thomas Hughes, 1S47-4S; John ).' 
Selraan, i848- , 49 ; Enos Lowe, iS4 9 -'5i ■ 
Wm. E. Leffingwell, iS 5 i-'S3 J Maturn L 
Fisher, IS53--55; Wm. W. Hamilton, 1S55- 

Under the new Constitution the Lieuten- 
ant-Governor is President of the Senate. 

•V' akers of the House. -Jesse B. Brown, 
1846-48; Smiley H. Bonham, [S 

' Temple, i85o-'52; Jam :s Grant," 
1 85 ';,; ; Reuben Noble, 1854-56; Samuel 
McFarland, 1856-57; Stephen B. Sheledy, 
i: "'5; '5'.*: John Edwards, 1859 '6) \ Rush 
Clark-, 1S61-63; Jacob Butler, 1863-65; Ed. 

•• i865-"67; John Russ ] 
Aylett R. G.;; 1 ; , ' 7I; j , , 

John H. Geer, is;-;, ' 77 - Jol \ 
^ ton ■ '87; '79; Lore Alford, 188 '-Si ; G 
R - Slril > - 1 'S3; Win. P. Wo!; 

I 1 I, ; 

• ' Sn 
Mason, [S47; J '. | 

•rffc G 

: ntun Maslii 

l-'5 5 ; , 

I , 1 1 : 
! 1 F. Dillon, 1; 

■■ ■ G. Day, iS 7I ->-.- 

M. Beck, [S72 ';-; ; W. E. 1 

' : [S76; Wm. Id! 

Seevers, 1S76-77; James G. Day. 1877-7S; 
James Ii. Rothrock, 1S7S 'S3 and '84;' 
M. Beck, i879-'8o and '85 ; Austin 
Adams, iSSo-'Si and '86; Wm. H. Seevers 
1 83 2. 

Associate Justices. -Joseph Williams, held 
over from territorial government until a 
or "' a ? appointed; Thomas S Wil- 
son, 1847; John F.Kinnej 54; G 

; Greene, i:-- '55; Jonatl m C. Hall, 1854- 
, '55; William G.Woodward, 1855; Norman 
W. Isbell, 1855-56; Lacon D. Stockton, 
j i8s6-'6o; Caleb Baldwin, iS6o-'6 4 ; Ralph 
P. Lowe, 181 ; G orge G. Wrighi 
John F. Dillon, i86 4 -'7o; Chester C. Colei 
'< , -'77; Joseph M. Beck, 1S6S; W. E.' 
I Miller, 1870; James G. Day, 

United States > Augustus C. 

: Dodge, 184S-55; George W.J 
59> James Harlan, iS55-T»? ; J. . 

69; Samuel J. Kirkwood, 
[am - Harlan, [86; ;^ : fames B. 
Howell, 1S70; George G. \ 
7; : William B. Allison, 1873-79; Samuel 
-'• Ki rkwo. I, 18; Si; Wm. B. Allison. 
■;, ; James W. M« I . fames 

F. Wils »n, 18S3. 
Present St, ,).. -Governor, 

■ 1 Larrabee . S 
Frank I ). Jai ks< >n ; An Le, f. W. 

Cattell, acting; Tj 
bly; St 
John W. 

L. S. M 
. L. Alex 

S. 13. M; . 

-William 11. .- 

1 : James G. Day, 


. •' 

■ ■ 

0. ' " 





..■■■.:•-. v. .-v..*.. Jf.r .--..-? »y :..f .r- r -■ ■ '.v. .• ,•; . ,. .. , ~ , . , ... .^ * ^ V " - . '■ < • ■,-.:■ <■ . 




13 J 


: ■: ?V9 







' .. 






^^CU ''XD/L-Cc^-n^&L-j 




■ ■ 




; - -ROBERT LUCAS, the first 
Governor of Iowa Ter- 
ritory, was the fourth 
son and ninth child of 
j ;. . William and Susan. 

■ .. a nah Lucas, and was 
born April i, 17S1, 
in Jefferson Valley, 
• :r '% at Shepherdstown, Jefferson 
Count) - , Virginia, a few miles 
f^5> from Harper's Ferry, where his 
•\'^ ancestors set I led before the Rev- 
olution. 11 is father, who was 
;._\J? descended from William Perm, 
was born January iS, 1745. and 
his mother, of Scotch extrac- 
tion, was born October S, 1745. 
They were married about the 
year 1760, and reared a family of six sons 
and six daughters. His father, who had 
served as a Captain in the Continental army 
dn ; , ; the Revolutionary war, and had 
distil uished hi m If at th e battle ; " ■ »d) 
Run, emigrated with his family to Scioto 
County, Ohio, early in th( pi : century. 

At the time ol tl is removal Robert was 
a young in He had obi incd his ecluca- 

tion chieflv in Virginia, from an ol 
schoolmaster named McMullen, whot; hi 
thi il ics and surveying. 'J I 
!• I : n iterative err 

<■) ( )hio. 
J le wo 
April 3, iSjo, to El ih Brown, ' 

October iS, 1812, leaving an ii 1 : 1 1 

ter, who afterward became Mrs. Minerva 
E. B. Sumner. March 7, 1816, he formed 
a second matrimonial connection ; this time 
with Friendly A. Sumner, who bore to him 
foil i- sons and three daughters. 

The first public office held bv Robert 
Lucas was that of County Surveyor of Sci- 
oto County, the commission from Governor 
Edward Tiffin, of Ohio, appointing him sue h 
being dated December 26, 1S03. Decem- 
ber 16, 1S05, he was commissioned by 
Governor Tiffin justice of the peace for 
three years. I lis first military appoii 
was that of Lieutenant of militia, by virtue 
of which he was authorized to raise twenty 
men to assist in filling Ohio's quota of 500 
volunteers called for by the Presi* 
view of possible difficulties with the Spanish. 
He was subsequently promoted th 
all the military grades to Major Gen- 
eral of Ohio militia, which latter rank was 
conferred upon him in 1 

He was a Brigadier-General on the 
g ont of t:ie war of 1S1: 
much io do with raisi .lie was 

ted 1 Captain in the regular army, 

was already in acti vice, scouting, 

spying, carrying a musk - the 1 

! lull'; 
Ohio. I le v. ur.se of time made 

a 1 ,ieut< ■ ' 

from wl 

■■•• V\ < / JOUW. 

Ohio, and at the time of his second marriage , 
in i8i6, he was and had been for some time 
a m iber of the Ohio Legislature, s< rvii g 
i cely for nineteen years in one or the 
other branch, and in the coin, ol 
isiative career presiding over first one 
and then the other branch. In 1820 and 
again in 1S28, he was chosen one of the 
Presidential electors of Ohio. In May, 
1S32, at Baltimore, Maryland, he presided 
over the first Democratic National Con- 
vention — that which nominated Andrew 
Jack: m for his second term as President, 
and Martin Van Buren for Vice Presi- 
de::;. In 1832 he was elected Governor 
of Ohio, and re-elected in 1834. 1 le declined 
a third nomination for the same office. 

Under the act of Congress to divide tne 
Territory of Wisconsin and to establish the 
territorial government, of Iowa, approved 
June 12, 1838, the subject of this sketch was 
appointed Governor of the new Territory, 
and he immediately accepted th responsi 
bility. A journey from the interior of Ohio 
to the banks of the Upper Mississippi was 
then a matter of weeks; so that, although 
Governor Lucas set out from Ins home on 
the 25th of July, delaying on his route 
a few days at Cincinnati, to arrange for the 
selection of the books for a territorial 
library, it was not till nearly the middl of 
I that lie readied Burlington^ tl n 
the temporary seal of governi 

The first official act of Lucas as Gov- 
ernoi of Iowa was to issue a : 
■ : I I August 13, 1S38, dividing tl e T( 1 
toi '. into eight representative 1 i tricls, ap- 
ing the memb of 1 
! . : : o f Re pr 1 e n t at : ■ e a 1 
I ounties then compi in«i I e Tcrri- 

I - . .■ I : .:; lointing the sc o nd Monday 

' (iternber ensuing fo tl 

:. inbers of thi Legislative J 

a d 1 ija t c t o I I i . 

lo ti Lcgi: latun , aft< r its 1 1 

r 12, 1 

chiefly to a cod., of laws for the new com- 
alth. i ; opposed imprisonment for 
debt, favored the death penalty for murder 
(executions to be in the presence of only 
the Sheriff and a suitable number of wit- 
nesses), and strenuously urged the organi- 
zation of a liberal system of common 
schools. The organization of the militia 
was also one of his pet measures. There 
v. ; a broad difference between the views 
of a majority of this Legislative Assembly 
and the Governor, on many questions of 
public policy, as well as points of aut 
This resulted in the sending to the Presi- 
dent of a memorial, dated January 12, 1830, 
si- ned by eight of the council and seven 
of the Representatives, praying the re- 
moval of Governor Lucas. In addition to 
this, a memorial for the Governor's re- 
moval was passed by both Houses, signed 
in due form by their presiding officers, and 
transmitted to the President. The 1 
made were met by a protest sig 
eight Representatives, and as a result Gov- 
ernor Lucas was allowed to remain in office 
until the next change of administration. 

In 1S39 and '40 occurred the well-known 
boundary dispute with Missouri, which 
was finally settled in favor of Iowa, by the 
Supreme Court of the United States. No- 
vember 5. 1830, Governor Luc; = a inounced 
that the Territory had advanced 
rnent, wealth and ; ich latter 


i >n preparatory to the form 
a Stale government. Thi 
by tl peoj le, however. Ai long tl 
of Gov. 

the Le- - 
ti to a 
I' >wa City, the 1 

1 25, h 

ts. lie lived a 
near Iowa ( 
7. 1853, at tl years. 

0//.\ CVi 

r • ■ » 


t:> r-> -n -ii". •-:■!£> 

■ ■ 


"01 IN CHAMBERS was 
3- the second Governor of 

low;; Territory. lie was 
:, f born October 6, 17S0, at 

Bromley Bridge, Somer- 
set County, New Jersey. 
;./':: j His father, Rowland Cham- 
bers, was born in Pennsyl- 
vania, of Irish parentage. 
According to a tradition in 
the family, their remote 
ancestors were Scotch, and 
belonged to the clan Cam- 
era eron. Having refused to 
join in the rebellion of 1645, 
they migrated to Ireland, 
where, by an act of Parliament, on their 
own petition, they took the name of Cham- 
bers. Rowland Chambers espoused with 
m the cause of American inde- 
, and ^ 1 o unmissioned a Colonel 
of New Jersey militia. At the close of the 
war, reduci d in circumst; c< he immi- 
to Kcnl nek y and ' ■ . 

: ' .. I ol \Iason < lounl \ . 

children, was 
rteen y ears old. A 

■ ■ ' ;, ., 

ipl drj 

the '. ing was 

Seminai ton. He 

■ .■ 

j he became deputy under Francis Taylor, 
! Clerk of the District Court. His duties 
j being light, he a; | If to the study 

j of law. In the spring of 1800 he . 
! all the duties of the office in which he had 
been employed, and in November following 
■ he was licensed to practice law. 

In 1S03 ^' r - Chambers, who had now 
': entered upon a career of uninterrupted 
; mal prosperity, was married to Miss 
[ Margaret Taylor, of Hagi n, Mary- 

i land. She lived but about three years, and 
'. in 1S07 he married Miss Hannah Taylor, a 
! sister of his first wife. Not long after he 
I engaged in the manufacture of bale rope 
j and bagging for the Southern market. In 
incurred heavy h 
In the campaign of 18 12 he served as 
aii camp to < Han with the 

I rank of Major. In 1S15 Mr. ( 
sent to the Legislal ure, and in 
1 1 Co igres to in c] 1 term of 

! Ife. 1 

In 1S52 he lost his . Sh 

c u 1 ti va 

ne. The sam 

Suprci C01 





to resign, out of consideration for hi: I 
From 1835 to 1S39 he was in Co 
making for himself a high reputation. 

Between 1815 and 1S28 Mr. ( 
was, for several years, the commonwealth's 
attorney for the judicial district in which 
he lived. He was during that period at the 
zenith of his reputation as a lawyer a 
vocate. He met the giants of the Ken- 
tucky bar in important civil and criminal 
trials. His well-known high sens? of honor, 
and his contempt for professional chicanei y . 
commanded the respect of his legal com- 
peers. His appearance and manner were 
dignified, his tone calm and impressive, 
and his language singularly direct and 

He closed his congressional career in 
1839 u '' <u ' 1 tuc purpose of resuming the 
practice of law, but his old friend General 
Harrison was nominated for the Presi- 
dency and induced him to aid in the 
personal canvass General Harrison made 
through the country. He was urged by 
President Harrison to accept some office 
requiring his residence in Washington, but 
this he declined, though he afterward ac- 
cepted the appointment of Governor of 
Iowa. He entered upon the duties of this 
office May 13, 1841. His success in his 
administration of the affairs of the Territory 
was well attested by the approbation of the 
people, and by the hearty commendation 
of those in authority at Washingto 
daily for his management of Indian 
During his tei m of 1 h 

s; r) on sevci al oc< ioi to 
feu ! of the 1 1 men, which he did with 
rmi s and deci i quiet wa - 

' - rest irei 1 where wai seci I i - 
Go\ C! 

edlv called on to treat with the I 1 

for the purchase of their lands. In O r, 

\i ■ ! , hi 1 ;ii mctl jointly with 

Hon. T. II. Craw ford, Commis : >ner • I In- 
dian Affairs, I G ernor Doty, of Wis- 
consin, to hold a treat)- with the Sacs and 
1 .- , v. hii h, I twever, did not resull in a 
purchase. In September, 1S42, being ap- 
pointed sole Commissioner for the same 
purpose, lie succeeded fully in carrying out 
the wishes of the Government. In 1S43 ne 
held a treat}' with the Winnebagoes, but in 
this instance no result was reached. 

In 1844, his term of office having expired, 
he was re-appointed by President Tyler, 
but was removed in 1S45 by President 
Polk. Shortly afterward, with greatly im- 
paired health, he returned to Kentucky, 
where, with skillful medical treatment and 
entire relief from official cares, he partially 
recovered. During the few remaining 
of his life Governor Chambers's recollec- 
tions of Iowa were of the most agreeable 
character. He spoke gratefully of the re- 
ception extended to him by her people, and 
often referred with great kindness to Ins 
bors in Des Moines County. 

His infirm health fori 
any regular employment after his rel 
Kentucky, but in 1 849, at the : 
the Commissioner of Indian Affai ne- 

gotiated jointly with Governor Ran 
Minnesota, a successful treaty with the 
Sioux Indians for the purchase of lands. 
The latter years of Governor Chambers's 
e spent 1 lostl) v. ith I ' - 1 hi 

his 1 . ' hiring n visit 

to his daughter in Paris, Kentucky, he was 

ii -law, C. 
S. Brent, 

r 21, 1852, in hi 
I year. 



• LAI1KE. 



-V i 



; ... 1 JE third and last Ter- 

/ ritorial Governoi 

was James Clarke. 

! Sometime i n t h c 

autumn of the yeai 

1S37, when the trees 

weie in the " sear 

and yellow leaf," a printer 

.. ; bov of slender form and 

gentle appearance mighl 

have been seen crossing 

the laurel hills of his own 

Slate. Behind him rolled 

the waters of the "Blue j 

Juniata," on the banks of 

«* which he had spent, in 

merry glee, his youthful 

days, lie had heard and read of strange 

countries thai lav far off toward the setting 

sun, through \ hich broad rivers run, and 

spreadin \ led to human 

eyes the most rare and magnificent I mty. 

With his yi ml 

which ne , 1 :t forth into 1 

of Wisconsin si land, 

an ad vent u his 1 

in his own exei ti< >ns, with no 
recomm rid ive an 1 

■ ■• ; I dep ' 

■ I pop G-ovi ol 



zation of the Territory of Iowa, when he 
removed to Burlington, where the first 
Legislature of Iowa assembled. After the 
death of Mr. Conway he was appointed by 
President Van Buren, Secretary of the Ter- 

j ritory, which office he filled with great 
credit to himself and satisfaction to the 

; people. During the time he held thus office 
he contributed by his kind, gentle and 
amiable manner to soften the feelings of 

I hatred and distrust which at one time ex- 
isted between leading men of the Territory. 
Whoever had business at his office found 
him a kind, gentle, quiet, amiable man, al- 
ways ready and willing to do whatever was 
desired of him, regretting, at the same time, 
that he could do no more. During the 
retary he performed a vasl 
amount of labor, but notwithstanding the 
large amount of business he transacted, he 

md time to write 
contributed manj - val 1; s touch- 

ing the future greati 

After 1 dice of Sccre- 

. ' ■■ 
lington G« tie. To tin c ilumns of this 
paper he 1 

by so doing mad( it the 1 D mocralic 

r of I \ ed Mr. 

Clarke tosuc- 



••.','. • IOW f. 

th< pi i iple of his county a delegai to the 
lii : < invention \vhi< h assembh d to 
Constitution for the State of Iowa. In this 
convention he distinguished himself both 
for his talent and personal demean >r, and 
contributed to the pages of that Constitu- 
tion some of the great elementary prim iples 
which lie at the foundation of human rights. 
And although that Constitution was de- 
feated, he si ill had the satisfaction of 
their spirit and meaning transferred to 
another, and still continued as the funda- 
mental law of our State. 

The first Legislature after he received 
his appointment ass< mbled at Iowa City, 
on the first Monday of December, 1845. 
His message to the Legislature after its or- 
ganization is a model of style and clearness. 
He set forth, the importance of an early ex- 
tinguishment of the Indian title to all the 
lands within the limits of Iowa, and urged 
the Legislature to memorialize Congress to 
purchase a tract of land on the Upper Mis- 
sissippi for a future home for the Winne- 
bagoes, and thus induce them to part with 
their title to a large tract of country known 
as the " neutral ground," a recommendation 
which the General Government soon after 
acted upon and carried out. 

January 16, 1846, the Legislature passed 
once more an act for the purpose of elect- 
; ' fates frame a Constitul v m for 
the Stare of Iowa. This time the friends of 

n i\ ernim nl took it for gi 
thai ; iple of tl ! ritory v 

Co ition, the Legislatu 

th il .:' the Api i! el ction 
; ■ . ig 1 I act, tl 1 ■ 1 
ritor) ;hould el 

tion. Accordingly, at the April > 
ted, and thi 
■ le to ' , consi 


■ 1 : at low a < 
I 1 ' Mon hn of : 

1 days produced a Con- 
ituti m which wa: i - tely submitted, 

' d, and mad< mic law of the 

State of Iowa. After the result was known 
' : ' ' ■ I his proclamation for a 

genera! election to be held in November 
following, at which An I of Jack- 

son County, was elected (rove!!,' . 
This proclamation was the last public act 
. of James Clarke, for as soon as the new 
; Governor was qualified, he turned over to 
him all the archives of his office, and re- 
turned once more to the print i:. 
' Again he scattered through Iowa i 
j tiful editorials through the columns of the 
Burlington Gazette, until the name and 
fame of Iowa, became known throughout 
the length and breadth of the land. He 
appeared at the capitol at the first session 
of the State Legislature under the new Con- 
stitution, delivered to that bod)' an affecting 
: and interesting farewell address, then stood 
back quietly during the whole of the ses- 
sion, and gazed with ihdigna 
i countenance at the dreadful strife 

and bitterness which was manifested during: 
J tne entire session. 

This was the last time that Mr. Clarke 
ever appeared at the Legislature, lie died 
soon after, at Burlington, of tin. 
Thus closed the earthly career of a just and 
noble 1 , ff in the prii 

.He was 
i I to 1 sister of < 

1 • upon the 

Dodges the tit! ly." But 


. . linst his char- 


&S ■ •:, 





XSEL ;■ ' 

J ' ' '-, . . . • . 




•:v"' . . , .-. ■ - . 
■-•:•---' A '■• ■ 

HE first G 

vernor o 




Iowa under its State 
organization, w a s 
Ansel Briggs, who, 
like his two imme- 
;;" diate successors, was 
a son of that won- 
derful nursery of progress, 
New England. He was 
the son of Benjamin Ingley 
Briggs and Electa his wife, 
and was born in Vermont, 
February 3, 1S0G. His 
bovhood was spent in his 
native State, where, in the 
common schools, he re- 
ceived a fair education, 
improved by a term spent at the academy 
of Norwich. In his youth, about the ; 
1S30, with his parents, he removed to 
Cambridge, Guernsey County, Ohi 

lies, and where, a Whig, he com- 
, with John Fergu in, • Jackson 
at, for the office of count) audi- 
' and was def< ated. In hi ; t\\ ent) 
• ' nn ih year lie man i< i a wife, i 1 mi the 
13 and ycai . - 1 imsel . 
■ m bei eft. Before leavin Ohio In 
d his second wife, Nancy M., daugh- 
Major Dunlap, an officei of t'n 

In 1S36, removing from Ohio, he joined 
that hardy band, so honored here to-day, 
the pioneers of Iowa, and settled with his 
family at Andrew, in Jackson County. 
Here he resumed his former business of 
opening stage lines, sometimes driving the 
stage himself, and entering into contracts 
with the postoffice department for carrying 
the United States mails weekly between 
Dubuque and Davenport, Dubuque and 
Iowa City, and other routes. 

On coming to Iowa he affiliated with the 

Democrats, and on their ticket, in 1842, 

was elected a member of the Territorial 

House of Representatives from Jacl 

County, and subsequently sheriff of the 

same county. On the formation of the 

State government, he at once became a 

prominent candidate for Governor. His 

competitors for the D( mination 

fudge Ji Williams and William 

: 1 . others 


. . 
I .. . \ I ti be- 

the nominati 1 L,Bi iggs, 

at n banqui t, 

toast, '• No 
banks bul cartl . and tl ey w< 1 ! I 
sententi 1 . 


c;orFA\xo;;s or 

cry, and did more to secure its author the 
nomination for Governor than all else. 

The convention was held at Iowa City 
on Thursday, September 24, 1846, and as- 
sembled to nominate State officers and two 
Congressmen. It was called to order by 
F. D. Mills, of Des Moines County. Will- 
iam Thompson, of Henry County, presided, 
and J. T. Fales, of Dubuque, was Secretai \ . 
The vote for Governor in the convention 
stood: Briggs, sixty-two; Jesse Williams, 
thirty-two; and William Thompson, thirty- 
one. The two latter withdrew, and Briggs 
was then chosen by acclamation. Elisha 
Cutler, Jr., of Van Buren County, was 
nominated for Secretarv of State; Joseph 
T. Fales, of Linn, for Auditor, and Morgan 
Reno, of Johnson, for Treasurer. S. C. 
Hastings and Shepherd Leffler were nomi- 
nated for Congress. The election was held 
October 2S, 1846, the entire Democratic 
ticket being successful. Briggs received 
7,626 votes, and his competitor, Thomas 
McK night, the Whig candidate, 7,379. giv- 
ing Briggs a majority of 247. 

The administration of Governor Briggs 
was generally placid. Although avoiding 
excitement and desirous of being in har- 
moni ius accord with his party, when oc- 
casion required he exhibited an indep n ' ' 
firmness nol easily shake;]. One perplex- 
ing controversy bequeathed him by his 
predecessors was the Mi souri boundary 
question, which had prodi ced 1 nek dis- 
quiet, and even a resort to armson the part 
of both Iowa and '.■> i: s< au i. 

After (he t \\>n ati m of his four-years 
tei m, Govi >r Bi 
d 1 ... ' m County, wl : ei 
in 1 
mail c< mtracts « hen he b 

I ". •. hi 1 I 11 

children, all of win im died 
)■ ' •' Vi , |r. : 

May 15, ; . n , ■ • 

John S. rvivoi 

family, is the editor of the Idaho Herald, 
published at Blackfoot, Idaho Territory. 
Mrs. Briggs died December 50. 1847, dur- 
ing her husband's term as Governor. She 
was an ardent Christian woman, adhering 
to the Presbyterian faith, and verydi 
in her tastes. She was well educated and 
endowed by nature with such womanly 
tact and grace as to enable her to adorn the 
high estate her husband had attained. She 
dispensed (albeit in a log house, a form of 
architecture in vogue in Iowa in that da)-, 
as the mansion of the rich or the cabin of 
the poor) a bounteous hospitality to the 
stranger and a generous charity to the poor, 
in which gracious ministrations she was al- 
ways seconded by her benevolent husband. 

In 1S70 Governor Briggs removed from 
Andrew to Council Bluffs, lie had visited 
the western part of the Slate before rail- 
roads had penetrated there, and made the 
trip by carriage. On that occasion he en- 
rolled himself as one of the founders of the 
town of Florence, on the Nebraska 
the Missouri River, six miles above C 1 n- 
cil Bluffs, and which, for a time, disputed 
with Omaha the honor of being 1 1 
town of Nebraska. 

He made a trip to Colorado durii 
mining excitement in 1S60. After return- 
ing and spending some ti it 1 .me, he 
wvni to Montana in ; 

and a large party, remaining un1 I - . 
when he can 

the si 
n. H 
able t< • be oi t thi • ' his death, 

which occurred 

I ihn S. ha, May 5, i 

half] ' .'.,.. 

! • • ion 1 ncxi 


half-hoar guns to 

fui ■ ral. I 


.- •-• 

.. i 





: " 

• ; .;. ■■ .'. - .■. 

'! ■ 

. - 

,'•.'• M 'I' <•■' ■■- . ■■:.-,' -^ ■• .. ■ ■■• is ''■ -s- " ■. 


HIS gentleman, t h e 
f second Governor of 

€/ : 




the State, was born 
at. New Lo n d o n , 
Connecticut, Octo- 
ber I, 1 812, and 
, " lived in that State 

until the spring of 1828, 
when his father's family 
came West and settled on 
a farm a few miles from 
St. Louis, Missouri. Here 
he remained until 1830, 
when he entered as clerk 
in a commission house in 
Galena, Illinois, and dur- 
g the Black Hawk war he 
was an officer in an artillery company or- 
ganized for the protection of thai . 

At the clo ' he w; h 
student o the lllinoi Colle 
ville, Illinois, remaining about two yeai , 
leaving to commence the study of law 
which i: under Charles S. Hemp- 

stead, Esq., the n a proi 
Gal( na. In 1 . he v admil I 
tice hi pi 1 : 1 ; n I he In 1 

ritor) ij Wi in, then embr; i 

. ' ; t he sa m 

b ing the fi ' '■■ > 1 1 " ' ; : ' 

lace. \\ tl ■ 1 : ii • '•■ ' h 

j Territorial Legislature in 1S3S he was 
elected to represent the northern portion 
J of the Territory in the Legislative Council, 
i of which lie was chairman of the committee 
I on judiciary, one of the important com- 
| mittees of the Council. At the second 
session of that body he was elected presi- 
dent thereof, was again elected a member 
I of the Council in 1845, which was held in 
Iowa City, and was again president of the 
i same. In 1844 he was elected one of the 
j delegates to the first constitutional conven- 
\ iion of the State of Iowa, and was chair- 
, man of the committee on incorporations. 
j In 1848, in connection with Hon. Charles 
: Mason and W. G. Woodward, he was ap- 
! pointed commissioner by the Legisl 
■ revise the laws of the State of Iowa, and 
i which revision, with a few 

ip I ; the code of Iowa 
b [850 he wa h I G< 
! ite of Iowa, receivi 
against 1 1,403 for Jame s L. 1 
The vote was 1 

! to inform tl 

joi n con , in 

he might rco 


notification, Governor Hempstead, . 
panicd by Gov< i :. u Briggs, tl 
the Supreme Court and the officers oi 
State, entered the hall of the House, and 
having been duly announced, the Governor 
elect delivered his inaugural mess ig< after 
which the oath was administered bv the 
chief justice of the Supreme Court. 

This session of the Legislature passed a 
number of important acts which were 
approved by Governor Hempstead, and 
formed fifty-two new counties, most of j 
them having the same names and bound- 
aries to-day. These new counties were: 
Adair, Union, Adams, Cass, Montgomery, 
Mills, Pottawattomie, Bremer, Butler, 
Grundy, Hardin, Franklin, Wright, Risley, \ 
Yell, Greene, Guthrie, Carroll, Fox, Sac, , 
Crawford, Shelby, Harrison, Monona, Ida, 
Waukau, Humboldt, Pocahontas, Buena 
Vista, Fayctie, Cherokee, Pivmoiith, Alia- : 
makee, Chickasaw', Floyd, Cerro Gordo, ! 
Hancock, Kossuth, Palo Alto, Clay, O'- I 
Bricn, Sioux, Howard, Mitchell, Worth, | 
Winnebago, Winneshiek, Bancroft, Em- 
mett, Dickinson, Osceola and Buncombe. | 
The last-named county was so called under j 
peculiar circumstances. The Legislature 
was composed of a large majority favoi ing 
stringent corporation laws, and the liability 
of individual stockholders for corporate 
debts. This sentiment, on account of the 
agitation of railroad enterprises then begin- 
ning, 1 < v hi a large numbei ■ if promin< n1 
men to tin caj lital. To have an el I i 

: . ;lature, they on . ., ' ; " lobb 

1< islat are," h 1 |uestions u < re 

a' il y dis ■: ed. 'i hi \ < lei ted n Go\ 

pi V Antwerp, who : ' ■• ercd to 
this self-con .til uted body a 1 
sage .■ . ply critici 

m bl v . l i if the 

m ibers i Liter \vi re in 

": . ■ i : i 

tl hindrance i msii I the 

especially re fern 

ng "for buncombe," and recom- 

mei led that as their lasting memorial, a 
county should be called by that name. 
This suggestion was readily seized upon 
by the Legislature, and the count)' of " Bun- 
combe" was created with few dissenting 
voices. By act of the General Assembly 
approved September ii, 1862, the name 
was changed to "Lyon," in honoi of Gen- 
eral Nathaniel Lyon, who was killed in the 
civil war. 

Governor Hempstead's message to the 
fourth General Assembly, December. 1S52, 
staud, among other things, that the popu- 
lation of the State was by the federal cen- 
sus 19.?, 214, and that the State census 
showed an increase for one year of 37,786. 
He also stated that the resources of the 
State for the coming two years would be 
sufficient to cancel all that part of the funded 
ar\A which was payable at its option. 

By 1S54 the State had fully recovered 
from the depression produced by the bad 
season of 1851, and in iS' : ,.\ and 1855 the 
immigration from the East was unprece- 
dented. Tor miles and miles, day after day, 
the prairies of Illinois were lined with cattle 
and wagons, pushing on toward Iowa,. At 
!' 1 ia, one gentleman said that curing a 
single month 1,743 wagons passed through 
that place, all for Iowa. The Burlington 
/. ' , xph said: "Twenty th iusand immi- 
liave ] -■ cit} within 

Ll thirty d; , and the) till cross- 

i at tl 

1 i ■ tead's ten ; 

part 1 1 ' urned to 

Dubuq year he was 

co fli ition he 

j ear: . sad ' . 

ao nnt 1 1th. 1 !•• liv 

■ \ cr, ti 1 1 i . when at his 

I : il I his record 

cart h. He v 

lace in the 
1 of 1 




. . 




^_^S &/-; 1-" 


• .' 

■ ■■ 

.:.■• ■•■■■: ,, . ■ , - 

__ — 


.:'■,--■ ■' •'• ' • 


;f FH third to fill th 
fice of Gove 






^ /<• 


or of 
Iowa, and whose 
name deserves a 
f o r e m o s t r a n k 
among- t h e m e n 
whose personal his- 
tory is interwoven in separ- 
ably with that of the State, 
was James Wilson Grimes. 
He was born in the town 
of Deering, Hillsborough 
. New 1 [ampshire, 
Ocl 20, 1816. His 

parents — John Gi im< s, 
born August 11, 1772, and 

Elizabeth Wilson, b o r n 
773- were natives of tl • 

March 19 

town. Of a family of eight children 

ti 1 them. J am< s was the youngest 


early childhood he evim ed a tn I f< ■■ 

j itj ling the distri 

also ,-in Lai I ■ i 

1 : i ; . 1 \ i " e ] He 

compli 11 o ion for col 

II >ai v 
mouth 1 . 1 

i| c. Upon leaving 

college in Feb] 1 : 1 : 

reading law ,\ W; lker, 1 

his native home in 1836 for the far West, 
landing in Burlington, then a new town in 
what was known as the " Black Hawk 
Purchase." Here he opened an office and 
m 1 ;tablished a reputation as a rising 
lawyer. In April, 1837, he was appointed 

licitor ; and entering up 
of that office he assisted in drawing up the 
first police laws of that town. In 1838 he 
was app )inted justi 

law partner of William W. Chap- 
man I ': ; : 1 1 Si I • Districl v rney for 
V ;in Territory. In tl ' part of 

the year 1S41 he formed a 
Henry W. Starr, Esq., which continued 
twelve years. This firm stood at tl 
1 - I 1 1 1 ■• I a 1 ion i n Io 

was widely known . of supe- 

rior knowled< 

trutl 1 [■] 

in 1 
Territory < 
' I 

a City, Dei 
the 1 
Stal , ..' ! »\\ a Cil \ . I ' ■ • 

. of Iowa. He was 1 


' I 


He was 1a ice! at Burli ■ . ■ . X >vem 
' [S46, to Mi Elizabel 

!:i Ft bruai G 

inn ted by a a ion of tl Whig part) 

for Governor of the State. I; u 

t con eution of that part v e\ In 
i;i Iowa, and I In last. He w; clei 

I the duti ; ol the i ifficc in Dc cem- 
, i 85 ;. So >n after his ( lection it \.\ a: 
pro 1 d that In should be sc nl to the 
United State: : nate, but he made il in 
stood thai he should fill the term of office 
for which he had been chosen, and he 
served his full term to the ei 
tion and acceptance of all parties, lie was 
a faithful leader in the political regenera- 
tion of the Slate. He introduced liberal 
measures to develop the resources of 
the State, and to promote the interests 
oi all educational and humam establi i 
ments. Up to the time ol his election 
as Governor, Democracy reigned supreme 
in the Territory. The representatives in 
Congress were allies of the slave power. 
He, after being elected, gave his whole 
soul to the work, and it may truly be said 
that Governor Grimes made Iowa Repub- 
lican and allied it with the loyal States. 

January 14, 1858, he laid down his office, 
.only to be placed in another and greater 
one : for on the 25th he v. as n iminated 
by the Republican caucus for United 
St; tes Sc r.ator. He toi i. his s :a1 in the 
Si nat< Mai ch 4, 1 S59, and was pla< xl uj m 
the com mil Jam . 

[861, on which I 

torial ca 
as chan man ] in Decci 

Mr. Grimes voted for I 
road bill on June 20, 186 ■ i 

of the road from 1 
souri Kiver to the Pa< 

January 16, ] Grim 

, : United 


ix of tl :. - 

I Genera! r in • enl 

i.'S out oi 134. Hi cou icil wa 

eases of ] 

I ' 

gave, unsi licited, to the 

( ,. colli at Gi ini 1 1 

■ Grimes foundation," and 
" is to 1 o (be 1 

I nance in Iowa ( 
; four sc ! il; hips, to be awai ded b)' the 
trustees, on t ol the fac- 

I ulty, to the besl 
] ; 1 imising, in an}" d. 

[ and seek such aid; and withoul 
; :gard to the religi ms tei 
entertained by any persoi 
of said scholarships." J .- were 

imposed by Mr. Grime.-; and 

. , 1865, by the trustees, lie: 
the honi >raj y degree of LL. D. in 
from Dartmouth College, and also from 
Iowa College. He also aided in founding 
a public library in Burl 
$5,000, which wasexpendt I in I ■ | 
of costly bi > <] -. and subsequently i 1 

250 volumes in the German lan- 
guage, and also conl 
public documents. 

In January, 1 369, he n 
§5,000 to D 1 iiith C 

ictv of 
which ; 


1S71, a; 

. [n Xoven 



L h intense s 


/£_, u^^cr^JL. 


- K . 

£J_I1_U l. j; 

• -;[.'. 




| HE fourth Governor 
|¥ of the State, and 
the seventh of Iowa 
without reference to 
V the form of govern- 
ment, was Ralph P. 
Lowe. He was 1 i irn 
in Ohio in 1S0S, and lived 
just three-fourths of a cent- 
ury. He came to the 
Territory of Iowa in 1839 
or 1S40, when he was a 
little over thirty years old. 
He settled in Muscatine, 
where in a shori time he 
became prominent in local 
affairs and of recognized 
ability in questions of publh policy. While 
iding in that city, he repn - 
unty ^if Muscatine in the co 
fional c< 111 ion of 1S44 1 

rejected ( ution. 

Aftei this constituti I tion, Mr. 

I iwi ti 1 1 further pari in pu • 
li rs for ; I He 

Vj Lee G > : :::ty aboul i S ; 1 or ';, i, wh re 
I me district j 1 to 

■II. Willi nn win > . 
•us as President Gi y < 

' I ■..'■:'■ ■ : t j years, 

to 1857, beinti 
< : cett. In the i iimi r ol 

j he was nominated by the Republi 
j Governor of Iowa, with Oran Faville for 
i Lieutenant-Governor. The Democracy 
' put in the field Benjamin M. Samuels for 
Governor and George Giliaspy for Lieu- 
' tenant Governor. There was a third ticket 

in the field, supported by the Ami 
j ''Know Nothing" party, and bearing the 
• 1 >f T. F. Henry and Easton Morris. 
The election was held in October, 1 S~ : .~. and 
ga-\ e Mr. Lowe 38 

for Mr. Samuels, and j,oo6 for Mr. Henry. 
Hitherto the term of office had b 
: years, bul by an amendment .■ 
; tution this was now reduced to two. Goy- 
; ernor Lowe was inaugural! i January 14. 
1S5S, and at once sent hi 
th< Legislature. An: n tl 
pas sed by ; ! ii I .■ 
ci irporate the Sta1 Ban! 

to tin 
Dcs Moines Valley R 

c re c t i o 

No event 

bul il was 1 


: i2 

;o\'kk.xoj,-s <:>:■- jowa. 

viewing the preceding- two years: "The 
p< Hod that has elapsed since tin lasl 
biennial session has been oi e of g 
turb :., cause;, and of anxious solicitude to 
all classes of our fellow citizens. The first 
year of this period was visited with heavy 
and continuous rains, which reduced the 
measure of our held crops below one-half 
of the usual product, whilst the financial 
revulsion which commenced upon the At- 
lantic coast in the autumn of 1857 did not 
reach its climax for evil in our borders until 
the year just past." 

He referred at length to the claim of the 
State against the Federal Government, 
and said that he had appealed in vain to 
the Secretary of the Interior for the pay- 
ment of the 5 per cent, upon the military 
land warrants that the State is justly en- 
tilled, io, which then approximated to a 
million of dollars. The payment of this 
fund, he said, (i is not a mere favor which 
is asked of the General Government, but a 
subsisting right which could be enforced in 
a court of justice, was there a tribunal of 
this hind clothed with the requisite juris- 

The subject of the Des Moines River 
grant received from the Governor special 
attention, and he gave a history of the 
operations of the State authorities in ref- 
en m c I 1 obtaining the residue of the lands 
to which the State was entitled, an I 
info I ion a- to the progress of th 
1 h_- ah 1 ren keel " 1!,.,; under I : 
[i in the G I raise a o 

pany < if n 1 defi and pro- 

tection ^)\ our fronl , approve Feb 
9, 1S5S, a com] 1 . " : thirty such an 
kiv i\\ a as the ! 1 ■ ml ier G uai ds, am 
equ d requ I, wen irg " : 

mu — ; i 1 1 I ■ 1 ■ v i ce u i lei Ll - 1 - 
of Capl; in 13 y 13. Martin, o V 
City, about 1 

to two com] 
• I on the 1 

tl ther at Spirit Lake. Their pi 

gave quiet to the 

i m, and after a ser- 

four n the] r ere duly dis- 

"Late in the fall of the year, however, 
great alarm and consternation wa gain 
felt in the region of Spirit Lake and Sioux 
: . produced by the appear- 

ance of large numbers of Inane- on the 
border, whose hearing was insolent and 
menacing, and who were charged with 
clandestinely running off the stock of the 
settl rs. The most urgent appeals came 
from these settlers, invoking again the 
protection of the State. From the repre- 
sentations made of the imminence of their 
danger and the losses already sustained, 
the Governor summoned into the field once 
more the frontier guards. After a service 
of four or five months they were- again, 
discharged, and paid in the manner 
prescribed in the act under which they 
were called out." 

Governor Lowe was beaten for the 
renomination by Honorable S. .1. Kirkwood, 
who was considered much the stronger 
man. To compensate him for his defeat 
for the second term, Governor Lowe was 
appointed one of the three judges under 
the new Constitution. Hediev. the short 
term, which expired in 1S61, but was 
1 etui ned and I, all 1 • lit years. 

1 [c then ret 'ice of 

lu into a claim busi- 

■ , . on, to which city he re- 

. In that l : . 
Saturday, D ' 

, ■ ■ . Carleton, < 
..flic, r In the Th ' 

the war. 

( rovi rnor Lo > a man of 1 

accurati and us. In private and 





<2»vk^^ C?(»' 

SA M UEL y. KlttK WO OD. 


^ S ^~.*~*-*^ g&*>~- .& 


®$&Samuel 3. P(lI^WOOD.£$^ 


j\ IWIHIiit" 11 " ' f&zasxe . . , 



fifth Governor of the 
State of Iowa, was born 
December 20, 1813, in 
Harford County, Mary- 
land, on his father's 

n. His father was twice 

c .y /C^xv S-> far 

^fe&0% married, first to a lady named 
■ ^''//^> Coulson, by whom he had 
two sons, and, after her 

death, tc Mary Alexander, by 
i'- ..>j'-^ whom he had three children, 
% ''s^ all sons, the youngest of whom 

v f v :^ is the subject of these notes. The 
&> father of Governor Kirkwood was 
a native of Maryland, Ids ancestors 
having settled there previous to the Revo- 
lution ; his mother was born in Scotland, 
and both parents were strict members of 
the Presbyterian church. 

When ten years old young Kirkwood was 
sent to Washington City to attend a school 
taught by a relative named John McLeod. 
He remained at school four years, when he 
entered a drug store at Washington as 
clerk, in which occupation he continued till 
after attaining his majority, with the excep- 
tion of about eighteen months spent in 
teaching in Void: County, Pennsylvania. 
In 1S35 Samuel left Washington and set- 
tled in Richland Count)-, Ohio, where he 
assisted his father and brother (who had re- 

j moved from Maryland there) in clearing a 
farm. In 1841 he entered, as a student, the 
law office of Thomas W. Bartlev, afterward 

' Governor of Ohio, and in 1843 was admit- 
ted to the bar by the Supreme Court of 

I Ohio. He then engaged in the practice 
of law with his former preceptor, Mr. 
Bartley, forming an association which con- 
tinued for eight years. 

From 1S45 lo JS49 nc served as prose- 
cuting attorney of his county. In 1849 ^ iC 
was elected as a Democrat to represent his 
county and district in the constitutional 
convention. In 1851 Mr. Bartley, his part- 
ner, having been elected to the supreme 
judiciary of the State, Kirkwood formed a 
partnership with Barnabas Barns, with 
whom he continued to practice until the 
spring of 1855, when he removed to the 

Up to 1854 Mr. Kirkwood had acted with 
the Democratic party. But the measures 
proposed and sustained that year by the 
Democracy in Congress, concentrated in 
what was known as the Kansas-Nebraska 
act, drove him with hosts of anti-slavery 
Democrats out of the party. He was be- 
sought by the opposition in the " Richland 
district" to become their candidate for 
Congress, but declined. In 1S55 he came 
to Iowa and settled two miles northwest of 
Iowa City, entering into n . hip with 

his brother-in-law, Ezekiel Clark, in the 

.■. ?.YO/?S OF IOWA. 

ucss, and kepi alooi fro; pub- vat ■ pelled a d ination of 

: < ; lirs. He could not long- conceal his the office all 

record and abilities from his rs, In January, he w; . prominent 

,-er, and in 1S56 he was elected to'the 1 ididal re for United 

State Senate from the district coi 1 ol States Senator. Senator Harlan had re- 

thc counties of Iowa and Johnson, and si< . 

served through the last session of the \ ment to the office of Secretary of the 

Legislature held at Iowa City and the first I Interior by Presidenl Lincoln, just before 

1 ne held at Des Moines. ! his death, but had withdrawn from the 

In 1S59 Mr. Kirk wood was made the ' cabinet soon after the accession of Mr. 

standard-bearer of the Republicans of Iowa, j Johnson to the Presidency. In th 

and though he had as able and popular a it happened that the Legislature had two 

competitor as General A. C. Dodge, he was i terms of United States Senator to fill, a 

elected Governor of Iowa by a majority of short term of two years, to fill I 

over 3,000. He was inaugurate':' January : unexpired term, and a long terra of six 

11, i860. Before the expiration of his first ' years, to immediately succeed this; and 

term came the great civil war. As Gov- Harlan had now become a [or 

ernor, during the darkest daj-s of the Rebell- : his own successorship, to which Kirkwood ;♦;:♦; 

ion, he performed an exceedingly impor- j also aspired. Ultimately, Kirkwood was \'- : y. 

taut duty. He secured a prompl 1 elected for the first and Harlan for the 

by volunteers to all requisitions by the second term. During his brief senatorial KH 

federal Government on the State for troops, : service, Kirkwood did not hesitate to meas- \ ' 

so that during his Governorship no " draft" ! ure swords with Senator Sumner, who 

took place in Iowa, and no regiment, except natural egotism had begotten in him an g-S 

the first, enlisted for less than three years. ' arrogant and dictatorial manner, borne with 

At the same time he maintained the State's humbly until then by his c ' 

financial credit. The Legislature, at i:sc\- deference to his long t cj eri< nee and emi- 

tni ■ ;sion in 1 861, authorized the sale of ' nent ability, but unpalatable to an inde- 

$800,000 in bonds, to assist in arming and ; pendent Western Senator lik< Ivirl 

equippin ; troops. So frugall)- was this At the close of his se - rial term, March 

work done, that bu1 ; 1,0 ' ol th bonds 4, 1867, he resumed the practice ol law, 

were sold, and the remai not which a lew years later he re 

having been required, the bonds represent- accept the p a City 

ins this ai unit war- destroyed I Savings Bank. In 1875 I 

of the si ■ ling 1 legislature. G , and wasinau 

I n O c tobe r , 1 1 , Go ver nor ] 

vas. little^ i t i o a r 1 y i 1 S 7 7 1 : 

re-e 1 ec t e d — a n h o no r s t ; e n a o r . H 

■ ' 1 to 1 tar 

jority v. asa lS.ooo During his second in Presi • In 

term he w ice he was - 

1 1 lini tci lo Denmark ' y Henry M. 1 

d clii d to enter upon 1 ; ' G tverm n V i 

until lie I 
The position was ki n for 1 








Y^/A,c /?7CC 

:■;. s: 





- ; 




( : 


'_ ,.;HE subject of this brief 

!j ,? sketch was the ninth 

to hold the position 

'.-. I of Governor of Iowa, 

and the sixth to fill 

the office under the 

State organization. 

He held the office four 

yea: s, from 1 86 [.to 1S68. 

William Milo Stone was 
born October 14, 1827, 
a son of Truman and La- 
vina (North) Stone. His 
great-grandfather on both 
sides of the family was in 
t i ': se\ en yeai s' struggle 
for independence. His 
g] am father, Aaron Stone, was in 1 he second 
war with Englan '. Trum 1 movi 'I 

to Lewi , New York, wh 

was a y ild, and y< later to Co- 

shoi m Counl 

I many othci sc li-made 1 
M. had . vantages. 1 lc ne\ eratl ' 

a sc hool o( an) kind 1 
I . 

a tea drh ■ 1 1 1 1 1 ma 
■ I to tli c 

trade, am . 1 I Ll I 1 I 


i meantime during his spare hours, wher- 
■ ever he happened to be. He commenced 
, at Coshocton, with James Mathews, who 
, afl rward became his father-in-law; con- 
| tinned his readings with General Lucius V. 
Pic rce, of Akron, and finished with Ezra 13. 
I Taylor, of Ravenna. He was admitted to 
I the bar in August, 1851, by Peter Hitch- 
I cock and Rufus P. Ranney, supreme judges, 
, holding a term of court at Ravenna. 
Afterpracl icin hn eye ars al G 1 
j with his old preceptor, James V ithews, he, 
j in November, 1854, settled in Kn ixville, 
which has remaim ' hi e. The 

after locating here Mr. 
■ ed the Km >w ' ' ' \\-as one 

of the pi imc movers in formi the Repub- 
lican party in Io\> 1 

ich met 

ganization. 1" tl 

r on the 

In April, ] 
I : of the Elc\ Disi 

: : 
D ■ Constitui 

t lie ] 



^mc, April. iS6r, he was holding court in 

Fairfield, Jefferson County, and when the 
n< \vs came of the insult to th 
immediately adjourned cou and] pared 
for what he believed to be more im] 
duties — duties to his country. 

In May he enlisted as a private; was 
made Captain of Company B, Third'lowa 
Infantry, and was subsequently promoted 
to Major. With that regiment he was at 
the battle of Blue Mills, Missouri, in Sep- 
tember, 1S61, where he was wounded. At 
Shiloh, the following spring, he commanded 
the regiment and was taken prisoner. Bv 
order of Jefferson Davis he was paroled for 
the time of forty days, with orders to re- 
pair to Washington, and if possible secure 
mi agreement for a cartel for a general ex- 
change of prisoners, and to return as a 
pri ierif he did not succeed. Failing to 
secure that result within the period speci- 
fied he returned to Richmond and had 
his parol extended fifteen days; repairing 
again to Washington, he effected his pur- 
pose and was exchanged. 

In August, 1862, he was appointed by 
Governor Kirkwood Colonel of the Twen- 
ty-second Jowa Infantry, which rendez- 
voused and organized at Camp Pope, Iowa 
City, in August, 1862. The regiment was 
occupied for several months in guarding 
supply stores and the railroad, and escorting 
supply trains to the Army of the Southeast 
Missouri until January 27, 1863, when it re- 
ceived orders to join the army under Gen- 
eral David: in, at West Plains, Mi 
After a march of live days ii reai 
: tion, and was brigaded with the 

Twenty-first and Twenty-third Iowa 
merits Col mel Sto: : " , and w; 

ted the First Bri I . I rst Divis- 
ion. Army oi S ml n * Missouri. A pri 
found Colon ! Stone at Mil] I ' " 
Louisi ma, to assisl Grant in th 
\ ■'■ I bin -. i J- wa: n, ■ <■, in innm ial 
command ■ . , | | . 

I P art of a brigade under Colonel C. L. 
Harris, of th< Eleventh Wisconsin. In the 
i advance upon I t Gi Colonel Harris 

: was taken sick, and Colonel Stone was 
again in charge of a brigade. In tl 
of Port Gibson the Colonel and his com- 
mand distinguished themselves, and were 
successful. The brigade was in the 1 1 serve 
, at Champion Hills, and in active skirmish 
J at Black River. 

On the evening of May 21 Colonel Stone 
received General Grant's order for a gen- 
eral assault on the enemy's lines at 10 A. M. 
on the 22d. In this charge, which was 
unsuccessful, Colonel Stone was again 
wounded, receiving a gunshot in his left 
forearm. Colonel Stone commanded a 
brigade until the last of August, when, 
being ordered to the Gulf department, he 
resigned. He had become very popular 
with the people of Iowa, and they were 
determined to make him Governor.' 

He was nominated in a Republican con- 
vention held at Des Moines in June, 1863, 
and was elected by a large majority. He 
was brevetted Brigadier-Genera! in 1864, 
during his first year as Governor. He was 
inaugurated January 14, 1864, and was re- 
elected in 1865, his four years in ol 
closing January 1 6, 1868. His ma; 
1 '3 was nearly 30,000, and in \S6$ about 
16,500. His diminished vote in 1865 was 
due to the fact that he was very st 
committed in favor of negro suffrage. 
G< ivcrn r Sti me made a very enei 
and erfii i : U ti\ e Since tl c expira- 

tion ol his gubernatot i: 1 term h 

his time largely to 1 

tercsts. He is in ] tn irship with Hon. (>. 
1 ; . Ayres, 1 if l\\v • ! pracl 

He was el , 

i" 1S77. term. 

In Ma; Miss C 

■ . ' Ihii 1, then 


Colonel sam. 

: \4f UEL MERRILL, the 

seventh Governor of 

the State of Iowa, the 

P) successor of Governor 

," Stone, is among the 

men of the West who 

have been called from 

private life to places of trust on 
i- -■.. ; •» ' 

''■ account of their peculiar fitness 

Q " for office. He was born in the 

town of Turner, Oxford Count} , 

Maine, August 7, 1822. He is 

of English ancestry, being a 

descendant on his mother's side 

of Peter Hill, who came from 

the West of England and set- 

Saco, Maine .now known as Bidde- 

in 1655. From this ancestry have 

; the most of the Hills of America. 

On his father's side he is a descendant of 

\ ■ iniel Merril who, with his brother 

i ,' 1 from Salisbury, England, and 

• ■ 1 in Ncwl nirg, Massachusetts, in 1636. 

11, June 

; . in Buxton, Maine. Tin y n 

they 1 

pa iil Iren, Sami 

ject or I ; 

• : ■ in tl family, 

and in the ( 1 ation from i 


f ,rd 

Samuel was married first to Catherine 
Thorns, who died in 1.847, but fourteen 
months alter their marriage. In January, 
1851, he was again married, his second wife 
being a Miss Hill, of Buxton, Maine. To 
this union there have been born four chil- 
dren, three of whom died young, the eldest 
living to be only two and a half years old. 
At the age of sixteen he moved with Ids 
parents to Buxton, where his tim 
mostly engaged by turns in 1 ; 

in attending school until he 
i majority. Having determined to make 
teaching a profession, he set out for that 
I purpose toward the sunny South, but, as 
' he says, he was " born too far north. " for 
| his political comfort. Susj i having 

' been aroused a.s to hi: list pro- 

i divides, and finding the element 

' : t congenial, he 
j land of chivalry for tl e old Granite State, 
j where he engaged for several years in 

En 1; \ r ed to Tamwoi t 

. '.\'here he in nicr- 

business ; 
[11 this, as i 

quite - 

with tin -'■ 

New Engl 
j new and 1 


in 1S56, he turned his face toward the set- 
ting sun. lie made a final settlement, at 
McGregor, Iowa, where he established a 
branch house of the old firm. 

During all these years of business Mr. 
Merrill took an active but not a noisy part 
in politics. In 1S54 he was elected as an 
Abolitionist to the New Hampshire L< fi- 
lature, at the same time General X. B. 
Baker, ex-Adjutant General of Iowa, was 
Governor of the same State. In 1S55 he 
was returned for a second term to the Leg- 
islature. In Iowa he was equally fortunate 
in securing the good will of those who 
knew him. His neighbors and those who 
had dealings with him found a man who 
was honest in his business, fair in his deal- 
ings, social in his relations, and benevolent 
in his disposition. He took an active in- 
terest in the prosperity of the town and 
ever held an open hand to all needed chari- 
ties. These traits of character had drawn 
around him, though not realized or intended 
by himself, a host of personal admirers. 
This good will resulted in his being nomi- 
nated for a seat in the State Legislature, 
and he was the only one on his ticket that 
was elected. The Legislature met in extra 
session in 1S61 to provide for the exigencies 
of the Rebellion, and in its deliberations Mr. 
Merrill rendered effective and unselfish 

He continued in business at McGregor 
until the summer of 1862, when he was 
commissioned as Colonel of the Twenty- 
first Iowa Infantry, proceeding immediately 
to Missouri, where active service awaited 
him. Marmaduke was menacing the Union 
forces in Central Missouri, which called for 
prompt action on the part of the Union 
Generals. Colonel Merrill was placed in 
command of a detachment of the Twenty- 
first Iowa, a detachment of the Ninety-ninth 
Illinois, a portion of the Third Iowa Cavalry 
and two pieces of artillery, with 01 : to 
make a forced march to Springfield, he be- 

ing at Houston, eighty mites distant. On 
the morning of the nth of January, 1863, 
they having come across a body of rebels, 
found them advancing in heavy force. 
Colonel Merrill immediately made dis- 
position for battle, and brisk firing was 
kept up for an Injur, when the enemy fell 
back. Colonel Merrill now moved in the 
direction of Hartville, where he found the 
rebels in force under Marmaduke, and from 
six to eight thousand strong, with six pieces 
of artillery, while Colonel Merrill had but 
800 men and two pieces of artillery. 

In this engagement the rebels lost several 
officers and not less than 300 men in killed 
and wounded. The Union loss was seven 
killed and sixty-four wounded, five captured 
and two missing. The regiment performed 
severe marches and suffered much in sick- 
ness during the winter. It was assign ■ d to 
the Thirteenth Corps, General John A. Mc- 
Clernand; fought gallantly at the battle of 
Port Gibson; and while the impetuous 
charge of Black River bridge was being 
made Colonel Merrill was severely, and re- 
ported fatally, wounded. Tin t. , '■ ,:k 
River bridge, the last of the series of engage- 
ments during the campaign of Yicksburg in 
which the rebels fought without their fortifi- 
cations, was a short but bloody combat. 
While Colonel Merrill was leading- his regi- 
ment in this deadly charge he was wounded 
through the hips. This brought his mili- 
tary career to a close. Suffering from his 
wounds, he resigned his commission and re- 
turned to McGregor, but was unable to at- 
tend to his private affairs for many months. 

In 1807 he was chosen Governor to 
ceed William M. Stone. He was inaugu- 
rated January 16, 1868, and served till 
January it, 1872, being re-elected in 1S69. 
After the expiration of his term of office 
he returned to McGregor, but. as soon as 
he could adjust ins business interests he lo- 
cated in Iks Moines, where he is now 
Pn ident of the Citizens' National Ban! 



; ^^ 









as one 





< . 

\ mi 

r^RQM his numerous offi- ' taught winters and worked on a farm sum- g>; 
cial positions, and mers for three or four years, and with the 
,: V ; .' \ the ability with money thus raised paid his expenses for 

I;' which they have several months at the academy which had 

been filled, Cyrus been established in his native town. After 
C. Carpenter, the \ leaving this institution, in 1852, he started 
eighth Governor of westward; halted at Johnstown, Licking \ 
the Slate of Iowa, ; County, Ohio; taught there a year and a 
. - to be remembered \ half, and with his funds thus replenished he >>; 
: of Iowa's foremost ' came to Iowa, loitering some on the way, ;*>! 
Me i: a native of Sus- j and reaching Des Moines in June, 1S54. A gjj 
1 , County, Perm yl- few day- later he started on foot up the 
and was born Novem- Des Moines Valley, and found his way to ;*;>■ 
24, 1829. His parents Fort Dodge, eighty miles northwest of D< 
were Asahel and Amanda M. ' Moin , from which phi e the soldiers h - 
(Thayer) Carpenter, both of whom died be- I moved the previoi | ■ ; y, 

fore 1 twi Ive y< irs old. His grand- | Minnesota. 

fathei John Carpenter, was one of nine i! 1 ... had bul a single dab do ir in C 

men who, in [7S9J El Attl b iro 1 h, hi pocket, H 
pur] his strai 

. AfterN I : 

. h arrival heard a G nmenl 


md that he wa 
fai , Wilk S'oung Cai 

in \V : 


Lhen ! proi 


employment if he were found competent. 
The next morning he met the party and 
took command. When the first week's 
work was done he went to Fort Dodge to 
replenish his wardrobe. As he left, some 
of the men remarked that that was the last 
that would be seen of him. He was then 
of a slight build, jaded and torn by hard 
work, and, when he left the camp, so utterly 
tired out it is not surprising that the men 
who were inured to out-door life thought 
him completely used up. But they did not 
know their man. With the few dollars 
which he had earned, he supplied himself 
with comfortable clothing, went back to 
his work on Monday morning and con- 
tinued it till the contract was completed. 

The next winter he taught the first school 
opened in Fort Dodge, and from that date 
his general success was assured. For the 
first two years he was employed much of 
the time by persons having contracts for 
surveying Government lands. He was thus 
naturally led into the land business, and 
from the autumn of 1S55, when the Land 
Office was established at Fort Dodge, much 
of his time was devoted to surveying, select- 
ing lands for buyers, tax-paying for foreign 
owners, and in short a general land agency. 
During this period he devoted such time as 
he could spare to reading law, with the 
view of eventually entering the profession. 

Soon after the civil war commenced he 
entered the army, and before going into the 
field was commissioned as Captain in the 
staff department, and served over three 
years, attaining the rank of Lieutenant- 
Colonel and being mustered out as brevet 

lie has served his State in numerous 
civil capacities, lie was elected Surveyor 
of Webster County in the spring of 1856, 
and the next year was elected a Represen- 
tative to the General Assembly, and served 
in the first session of that body held at Des 
Moines. He was elected Register of the 

State Land Office in 1S66, re-elected in 
1S6S, and held the office four years, declin- 
ing to be a candidate for renomination. 
He was elected Governor of Iowa in 

1 87 1, and was inaugurated January 1 1, 1872. 
He was re-elected two years later, and 
served until January 13, 1874. He made 
an able and popular executive. In his first 
inaugural address, delivered January II, 

1872, he made a strong pica for the State 
University, and especially its normal de- 
partment, for the agricultural college, and 
for whatever would advance the material 
progress and prosperity of the people, urg- 
ing in particular the introduction of more 

At the expiration of his second term as 
Governor Mr. Carpenter was appointed, 
without his previous knowledge, Second 
Comptrollerof the United States Treasury, 
and resigned after holding that office about 
fifteen months. He was influenced to take 
this step at that time because another bureau 
officer was to be dismissed, as the head of 
the department held that Iowa had more 
heads of bureaus than, she was entitled to, 
and his resigning an office of a higher grade 
saved a man who deserved to remain in 
Government employ. 

He was in the forty-seventh Congress 
from 1 88 1 to 1883, and represented Web- 
ster County in the twentieth General As- 
sembly. He is now leading the life of a 
private citizen at Fort Dodge, his chief 
employment being the carrying on of a 
farm. He is not rich, which is a striking 
commentary on his long official service. 
He has led a pure and upright life. 

He has been a Republican since the or- 
ganization of that party. In religious mat- 
ters he is orthodox. 

He was married in March. 1864, to Miss 
Susan C. Burkholder, of F irt Dodge. They 
have no children, but have reared from 
childhood a niece of Mrs. Carpenter, Miss 
Fannie Burkl 




; / 


^c ^/?r 


H.",i ■ n:i.; i T --* ' : : -.lv ■._.■•• 

•-' ;'v .-..:. '. ■, v.- : , : '• ;.'. ..'.-.'^ . 



was the tenth Governor 
* of the State, and the 
thirteenth of Iowa, num- 
bering from the first 
Territorial G o v e r nor. 
He is yet living at Mount 
Pleasant. He is a native of 
Pennsylvania, and his an- 
cestors in this country were 
among the very earl)- set- 
tlers in New Jersey. They 
were Friends, and conse- 
quent! }• none of them 
figured in the struggle for 
the independence of the colo- 
Governor Newbold is the son of 
:illa and Catherine (Houseman) New- 
. He was born in Fayette County, 
isylvania, May 12, 1830, and reared as 


a farmer. When he was eight years of age 
the family moved to Westmoreland Count)-, 
san c State, where he was educated in the 
common school, and also in a select school 
O) academy, the latter taught by Dr. John 
Lewi-, since of Grinnell, Iowa. At sixteen 
he returned with the family to Fayette 
County, where he remained eighl years, 
assisting his father in running a flouring 
mill, when not teaching. Wh< 
teen he began the 1 medicine, n 

ing a year < ir nv >r< ■• 
abandoning the m • i n 

In the month of March, 1S5.1, Mr. New- 
bold removed to Iowa, locating on a farm, 
now partly in the corporation of Mount 
Pleasant, Henry County. At the end of 
one year he removed to Cedar Township, 
Van Buren County, there merchandising 
and farming till about i860, when he re- 
moved to Hillsboro, Henry County and 
pursued the same callings. 

In 1S62, when the call was made for 600,- 
000 men io finish the work of crushing the 
Rebellion, Mr. Newbold left his farm in the 
hands of his family and his store in charge 
of his partner, and went into the army as 
Captain of Company C, Twenty-fifth Regi- 
ment Iowa Infantry. He served nearly 
three years, resigning just beiore the war 
closed, on account of disability. During 
the last two or three months he served at 
the South he filled the position of J.. !ge 
Advocate, with headquarters at Woodville, 

His regiment was one of those that 

Iowa troop- fame);]-;. It arrived at Helena, 

: Arkansas, in November, 1S62, and sailed in 

I December following on the ex] 

t Vicksburg by way o: Chi 

Bayou. At the latt< r place was its first en- 

K n;. Its second, was at A 
Post, and there it everely, 1 

I in kilh ' nded nv n e than sixi\ . 

After Lookoul Mountain it joined in the 



gold, v. here it engaged Lhc ei m y 

str< mg works, November 27 I 

nine wounded. The following year it 

Sherman in his Atlanta campaiy 1, th no 

the famous march to th« : tl 

the Cai olinas. 

On returning to Iowa he contimn 
the mercantile trade at Hillsboro for tiiree 
or four years, and then sold out, giving 
thereafter his whole attention to agricult- 
ure, stock-raising and stock-dealin .. 
ing the stock department an important 
factor in his business for several years. M r. 
Xewbold was a member of the thirteenth. 
fourteenth and fifteenth General A 
blies, representing Henry County, and was 
chairman of the school committee in the 
fourteenth, and of the comrnittc 1 on ; ppro 
priations in the fifteenth Gene; al A 
In the fifteenth (187-1; he was temp 
Speaker during the deadlock in ore,., li . 
the House. In 1S75 he was elected Lieu- 
tenant Governor on the Republican ticket 
with Samuel J. Kirk wood. 

His Democratic competitor was E. B. 
Woodward, who received 93,060 vote.-,. M r. 
Newbold received 134,166, or a majority of 
31,106. Governor Kirkwood being elected 
United States Senator during that session, 
Mr. Xewbold became Governor, taking the 
chair February 1. 1S77, and vacating it for 
Governor Gear in January, 1S7S. 

Governor Newbold's m 
islature in 1S78 shows 
and a clear bi iness-like view of I 
terests of the St; . I ' 
were carefully consid 
adopted. Th • Sta1 wen I 

in a less cred 
fore or since, as there was an inci 

. n 
826.56, mi >• of lhc 

G >n: i ituti mal 

Xev, }■<.>]<] in 1 : ■ I 

w ealth ought not to ! ; an c xarnpl 

. in meeting its obligations. Of all 
f ii ed of a floating 

ter is the most ob le. The 

lintv as to its amount will inva 
enter inti 

th the State ; 'lies, ma- 

; ] ial 01 lab >r. To remove the , 

i to avert its recurrence, I 
I on as the most : it -i irk that 

wit! demand r< 1 n a1 1 ntion." 

One of the before 

statesmen is that of equal and just taxation. 
: [lowing recommendation shows that 
Governor Newbold was abreast with fore- 
inkers, for it proposes a step which 
yearly finds more favor with the people: 
••The inequalities of the personal-property 

valuations of the several com 


to my mind the pro] riety > ( so adjusting 
the State's lew as to require the counties 
to pay into the State treasury only the tax 
on realty, leaving the corresponding tax on 
personalt}' in the county treasury. This 
would rest with each county the adjust- 
■ >j its personal property valuations, 
withoul fear that they might be so high as 
I i work injustice to itself in com] 
with other counties." 

Governor Xewbold has always a . 
with the Republican party, and holds to its 
great cardinal doctrines, having once em- 
braced them, with the ity and 
honest)- that he cherishes his 1 

! : been a Christian for some- 

• hurch. 
: .'..... 

mty, 1 

. :: the 2doi Ma\ . [S50. They 
have ha t two. The 

• of the living are- -Mary Allene, 
Emma I ■ ■• C. 

Thi ( r, \ 





>J/.\ '/. 

■ .-. ~.-i .:."_• 






1 1 E eleventh to hold the 
highest official posi- 
tion in the ! I 
Iowa was John 1 1. 
Gear, of Burlington, 
lie is yet living in 
that city. He was 
in Ithaca. New York, 



l- - N 


was Re 

7, 1S25. His father 

the Protestant 
c 1: u re h , who 
was born in New London. 
I mi cticut, in 1792. 
When he was quite young 
his family removed to 
Fittsfield, Berkshire C< ointy, 
; I . ■ Inisetl 5 ; in 1816, after being or- 
daincd, he emigrated to New York and 
settied at< a Hill, nc .. u hich is iv >w 

the thriving city of Syracuse. S 
locating there he was inaj riedto Mir; la 1 

various pla< es in \V< N fork until 

1S36, when he r< m< »vi d to G: 
There he remained until 1S3S, when 
app »in d ( ha] he I 

Army at Fort Si ■ . J ! . 

died in [87. . : • 

[olm ] [. . in 1 

to resi 

his mercantile career by engaging as clerk 
with the firm of Bridgeman & Bros. After 
being with this firm for a little over a year 
he entered the employ of W. F. Coolbaugh 
(since president of the Union National 
Bank, of Chicago), who was even at that 
early date the leading merchant of Eastern 
Iowa. He was clerk for Mr. Coolbaugh 
for about five years, and was then taken 

into partnership. The firm o 

F. Cool 

baugh & Co. continued in business for 
nearly five years, when Mr. Gear suc- 
ceeded to the business bv purchn 
carried it on until he bee 11 as the 

oldest wholesale grocer in the State. He 
is now president of a Li jw rolling mill 
. al Burlingti m. 
Mr. Gear has been honored by his fellow- 
citizens with many : of trust. In 
1852 he was electe I .. : 1 i man ; in 1! 
elected mayor over A. W. Ca 

first Re] to t 

1 el : 1 on 

part v i ;sue. In 1S67 ti Bi o , G 

R I impany 

n . 
to the j . 

much for Bui lingt -n. i 
. 1 . 1 5 

crn Rai 


Goi'E/ixoits of ran- a. 

He has always acted with the Republican 
party, and in 1871 was nominated and 

elected a member of the House of Repre- 
sentatives of the Fourteenth General As- 
sembly. In 1S73 he was elected to the 
Fifteenth General Assembly. TheRepub- 
lican caucus of the House nominated him 
for Speaker by acclamation, and after a : 
contest of two weeks he was chosen over ' 
his opponent. J. W. Dixon. He filled the 
position of Speaker very acceptably, and 
at the close of the session all the members 
of the House, independent of party affili- 
ations, joined in signing their names to a 
resolution of thanks, which was engraved 
and presented to him. In 1S75 he was the 
third time nominated to the Assembly by 
the Republican party, and while his county 
gave a large Democratic vote he was again 
elected. He was also again nominated for 
Speaker, by the Republican caucus, and 
was elected by a handsome majority over 
his competitor, Hon. John Y. Stone. He 
is the only man in the State who ever had 
the honor of being chosen to this high posi- 
tion a second time. He enjoys the reputa- 
tion of being an able parliamentarian, his 
rulings never having been appealed from. 
At the close of the session he again received 
the unanimous thanks of the House for his 
courtesy and impartiality. 

In 1877 he was nominated for Governor 
by the Republican convention which met 
at Des Moines, June .?S, and at the election 
held the following October he re eived 
121,546 votes, against 79,355 for I P 

Irish, 10,639 '" r Eliasjessup, and 38,228 for 
D. P. Stubbs. His plurality over [risl 
42,193. lie was inaugurated January 17. 
i ; '. and si rved four years, being re-elected 
i 1 • by the foil -v. ing hand im 
Gear, 157,571 ; Trimble, 85,056 ; ( 
45,439; 1 hingan, 3, '5° ; Gear's 1 
over all com] .11 

inauguration was in Jam j . 1 

1 nor G '-!>.' 

him to discharge the duties of his office 
with marked ability. He found the finan- 
cial condition of the Slate in a low ebb, but 
raised Iowa's credit to that of the best of 

our States. In his last biennial message he 
was able to report: " Hie warrants out- 
standing, but not bearing- interest, Septem- 
ber 30, 1SS1, amounted to $22,093.74, and 
there are now in the treasury ample funds 
to meet the current expenses of the .State. 
The war and defense debt has been paid, 
except the warrants for §125,000 negotiated 
by the executive, auditor and treasurer, 
under the law of the Eighteenth General 
Assc mbly, and §2,500 of the original bonds 
not yet presented for payment. The only 
other debt owing by the .State amounts to 
$245,435.19, due to the permanent school 
fund, a portion of which is made irredeem- 
able by the Constitution. These facts place 
Iowa practically among the States which 
have no debt, a consideration which must 
add much to her reputation. The expenses 
of the State for the last two years are less 
than those of an}- other period since 1869, 
and this notwithstanding the fact that the 
State is to-day sustaining several institu- 
tions not then in existence ; namely, the 
hospital at Independence, the additional 
penitentiary, the normal school, and the 
asylum for the feeble-minded children, be- 
sides the girl's department of the reform, 
school. The Stati :nt, makes 

provision for fish culture, for a useful 
weather service, !' r :rvision 

by a b< »ai do! 

atioi 1 1 ction of 

coal mines by; 
for tie- 
Governor Gear is now 
year of his ag I nil > 

lti< s. He 
rried in 18; I t S. 1 

forme; ly of ' whom 

. ! Iren, two 


17. >- 


> ". 



fe"S^ , , , fry » i 4%J 

'■: - :IIE twelfth Governor 

I of the State was 
Buren R. Sherman, 
" ; 1 ■'-] who held office two 
■r^' : - -\- : -, ~ 7 ' terms, from 1SS2 to 
- : " '. il 1SS6. He was burn 

in Phelps, Ontario 
County, New York, May 
28, 1836, and is the third 
son of Phineas L. and Eve- 
line (Robinson) Sherman, 
both of whom were natives 
of the Empire State. 

The subject of this sketch 
received his early educa- 
tion in the public schools 
of his native place, and con- 
cluded his studies at Elmira. New York, 
acquiring a thorough knowledge of the 
English branches. At the close of his 
studies, acting on the advice of his father, 
who was a mechanic (an ax maker), he ap- 
prenticed himself to Mr. S. Ayrcs. of El- 
mira, to learn the watchmaker's trade. In 
1S55, with his family, he removed to lowr: 
and settled upon an unbroken prairie, in 
what is now Gencseo Township, Tama 
Count)", where his father had purchased 
lands from the Government. There 
Sherman labored on his father's fai 
ploying his leisure hours in the stud) 1 of 
law, which he had begun at Elmira. He 
also . gaged as h n >] . e] iei in a 1 hbo 


| ing town, and with his wages assisted his 
parents in improving their farm. In the 
summer of 1S59 he was admitted to the bar, 
I and the following spring removed to Yin- 
ton, and began the practice of law with 
Hon. William Smyth, formerly District 
Judge, and J. C. Traer, conducting the 
business under the firm name of Smyth, 
Traer & Sherman. 

They built up a flourishing practice and 
were prospering when, upon the opening 
of the war, in 1S61, Mr. Sherman enlisted in 
Company G, Thirteenth Iowa Volunteer 
Infantry, and immediately went to the 
( front. He entered the service as Second 
I Sergeant, and in February, 1S62, was made 
J Second Lieutenant of Company E. On the 
: 6th of April following he was very severely 
1 wounded at the battle of Pittsburg Landing, 
: and while in the hospital was promoted to 
the rank of Captain. He ret 1 
company while yet obliged to use crutches, 
; and remained on duty till the summer of 
1863, when, by reason of his wound, he was 
co n lied to resign and return home. Soon 
alter returning from the army he was 
I County J- County, 

I and re-elected without opposition i 
' ,: hisjudge- 

: office of clei 

; 2-elected 

!.;".,, resigned in ord< r to accept tl 


'.<■' '. 

of Auditor of State, to which he had been j 
elected by a majority of 28,425 over J. M. • 
King, the " anti-monopoly" candidate. In 
1876 lie was re-nominatcd and received 50,- | 
272 more vote? than W. Growneweg(Demo- \ 
crat) and Leonard Drown (Greenback) to- j 
gether. In 1S78 he was again chosen to ; 
represent the Republican party hVthat office, 
and this time received a majority of 7,164 
over the combined votes of Colonel Eiboeck 
(Democrat) and G. A'. Swearenger (Green- 
back). In the six years that he held this 
office, he was untiring in his faithful appli- 
cation to routine work and devotion to his 
especial share of the State's business. He 
retired with such an enviable record thai it. 
was with no surprise the people learned, 
June 27, 1 881, that he was the nominee of the 
Republican party for Governor 

The campaign was an exciting one. The 
General Assembly had submitted to the 
people lac prohibitory amendment to the 
Constitution. This, while not a partisan 
question, became uppermost in the mind 
of the public. Mr. Sherman received 133.- 
330 votes, against 83,244 for Kinne and 28,- 
1 12 for D. M. Clark, or a plurality of 50,086 
and a majority of 21,974. In 1883 nc Nvas 
re-nominated by the Republicans, as was L. 
G. Kinne by the Democrats. The National 
party offered J. B. Weaver. During the 
campaign these candidates held a number 
of joint discussions at different points in the 
State. At the election the vote was : Sher- 
man, 164,182; Kinne, 139,093; Weaver, 23,- 
0S9; Sherman's plurality, 25,089; majority, 
2,000. In his second inaugural Governor 
Sherman said : 

" In assuming, for the second time, the 
office of Chief Magistrate of the State, I 
fully realize my grateful obligations to the 
people of b>wa, through who 
confidence I am here. 1 am awan 
duti( s and grave respon ' this ex- 

ait'- 1 position, and as well what is 1 
ol mo therein. As in ihe nasi I have given 

my undivided time and serious atl 

to, so in the future I promise the most 
earnest devotion and untiring effort in the 
faithful performance of my official require- 
ments. 1 have seen the State grow from 
infancy to mature manhood, and each year 
one of substantial betterment of its previous 

"With more, railroads than any other 
State, save two ; with a school interest the 
grandest and strongest, which commands 
the support and confidence of all the peo- 
ple, and a population, which in its entirety 
is superior to any other in the sisterhood, 
it is not strange the pride which attaches to 
our people. When we remember that the 
results of our efforts in the direction of good 
government have been crowned with such 
magnificent success, and to-day we have a 
State in most perfect physical and financial 
condition, no wonder our hearts swell in 
honest pride as we contemplate the past 
and so confidently hope for the future. 
What we may become depends on our own 
efforts, and to that future I look with earnest 
and abiding confidence." 

Governor Sherman's term of office con- 
tinued until January 14, 1886, when he was 
succeeded by William Larrabee, and he is 
now, temporarily, perhaps, enjoying a well- 
earned rest, fie has been a Republican 
since the organization of that party, and Iris 
services as a campaign speaker ha 1 
for mai y years i I demand. As an 

officer he 1 make an c 

rei '. Himself 

ol the same char; 
mended him to the hearty approval ol the 

He ■.... d August 20, 1862, to Miss 

'■ Lena Ken tall, o V nt< n Iowa, 

ments and 5 

n happy 
; in every respect. They have two 1 
lall and ( I 



. ■ 






'•■' «, % 
rial on 

\,-s is the thirteenth 
Governor of this 
.'"" State, and the six- 
c icentn mrveinoi 

v r -r of Iowa, counting 

from the Territo- 
^anization. His ancestors 
bore the name of d'Larrabee, and 
were among- the French Hugue- 
nots who came to America early 
in the seventeenth century, set- 
tling in Connecticut. Adam 
Larrabee was born March 14, 
1787, and was one of the early 
graduates of West Point Military Academy. 
He served with distinction in the war of 
1812, having been made a Second Lieuten- 
ant March 1, [Si 1. He was promoted to be 
Captain February 1, 1S14, and was soon 
after, March 30, of the same year, severely 
wounded at the battle of Lacole Mills, dur- 
ing General Wilkinson's campaign on the 
St. Lawrence. He recovered from this 
wound, which was in the lung, and was 
afterward married to Hannah G; Hup 1 - 1 
who was born June 8, 179J , and di< d March 
15.1837. Captain Larrabee died in 1869, 
•The subject oi this sketch was born at 


'■ " - 3 

Ledyard, Connecticut, January 00, 1832, 
and was the seventh of nine children. He 
passed his early life on a rugged New Eng- 
land farm, and received only moderate 
school advantages. lie attended the dis- 
trict schools winters until nineteen years of 
age, and then taught school for two winters. 

He was now of an age when it became 
necessary to form some plans for the future. 
In this, however, he was embarrassed bv a 
misfortune which belel him at the age of 
fourteen. In being trained to the use of 
fire-arms under his father's direction, an ac 
cidental discharge resulted in the loss of 
sight in the right eye. This unfitted him 
lor many employments usually sought by 
ambitious youths. The family lived two 
miles from the sea, and in that locality it 
was the custom for at least one -on in each 
family to become a sailor. William's two 
eldest brothers chose this occupation, and 
the third remained in charge of the home 

Thus made free to choose for hi 
William decided to emigrate West. In 
ccordingly, he came to Iowa. His 
elder sister, Hannah, wife of E. H. Williams, 
was then living at Garnavillo, Clayton 
County, and there he went hist. In th I 
way he selected Northeast Iowa as Lis 







future home. After teaching one winter at 
Hardin, he was for three years employed as 
a sort, of foreman on the Grand Meadow j 
farm of his brother-in-law, Judge Williams, i 

In 1857 he bong lit a one-third interest in I 
the Clermont Mills, and located at Cler- j 
mont, Fayette County. He soon was able 
to buy the other two-thirds, and within a 
year found himself sole owner. He oper- 
ated this mill until 1S74, when he sold to S. 
M. Leach. On the breaking out of the war 
he offered to enlist, but was rejected on ac- 
count, of the loss of his right eye. Being 
informed he might possibly be admitted as 
a commissioned officer he raise:! a company 
and received a commission as First Lieu- 
tenant, but was again rejected for the same 

After selling the mill Mr. Larrabee de- 
voted himself to farming, and started a 
private b-nk at Clermont. He also, ex- 
perimentally, started a large nursery, but 
this resulted only in confirming the belief 
that Northern Iowa has too rigorous a cli- 
mate for fruit-raising. 

Mr. Larrabee did not begin his political 
career until 1S67. lie was reared as a 
Whig, and became a Republican on the or- 
ganization of that party. While interested 
in politics he generally refused local offices, 
serving only as treasurer of the School 
Board prior to 1S67. In the autumn of that 
year, on the Republican ticket, he was 
d to represent his county in tin: State 
Semite. To this high position he was re- 
el' :< ted from time to time, so thai he •■> rved 
as Senator continuously for eighteen years 
be fore being promoted to tin highest ofh< 
in the State. He was so popular al home 
th.it he was generally re-nominated by ac- 
clamation, and for some ycai s tl 
crats dul not even make nominations. 
During the who!:- eighteen years Senator 
Larrabee was a member ol the principal 
committi . tl t on Ways and Means, of 
which h • v. .. ■ ,' <<'-■ ally chaii 1 

also a member of other committees. In the 
pursuit of the duties thus devolving upon 
him he was indefatigable." h is said thai 
he never missed a committee meeting. Not 
alone in this, but in private and public 
business of all kinds his uniform habit is 
that of close application to woik. Many 
of the important measures passed by the 
Legislature owe their existence or present 
form to him. 

He was a candidate for the gubernatorial 
nomination in 1SS1, but entered the contest 
too late, as Governor Sherman's following 
had been successfully organized. In 1S85 
it was generally conceded before the meet- 
ing of the convention that he would be 
nominated, which he was, and his election 
followed as a matter of course. He was 
inaugurated January 14, 1886, and so far 
has made an excellent Governor. His 
position in regard to the liquor question, 
that on which political fortunes are made 
and lost in Iowa, is that the majority should 
rule. He was personally in favor of high 
license, but having been elected Governor, 
and sworn to uphold the Constitution, and 
execute the laws, he proposes to do so. 

A Senator who sat beside him in the 
Senate declares him to be "a man of the 
broadest comprehension and inforn 
an extraordinarily clear reasoner, fair and 
conscientious in his conclusions, and of 
Spartan firmness in his matt ed j 

and says that "he brings the prac- 

tii al : icts and philosophy of human nature, 

.in.! history of law, to aid in his 

dei i ions, and a a - v ill the earnestness 

51 »u aia! Sui m to thefunda 
p 1 pics of the pe , - :'s 1 ighl 
rncnt and law." 

( rovcrnor Lar abee was mar] 
tember 12, rSi >i, t, to Anna M. 

' ■ ( '• •"'-■ 

Appelman. Gove; no;- 1 
c hildren Charles, [ulia, Anna, 

, I 'eric and J I 


r- \ 


? ' ' .. ' * " 


>} J 

"x ;••••■ . 





■■■■ ■, 



; ' 







:< •- 









. , .-„- 


: r 

' ■ 

: , BiOGKJiPHKi'lL '; 

: v 



lirll g lfrc IQ 

E-IOMAS ROSS, one of the oldest when he closed out his stock of goods, and 
mk residents of Ml. Ayr. is a native of ! assumed th< duties of clerk , I the courts, 
'«Jb Jefferson County, Ohio, born July 4, , and cx-officio member of the Boa] 
1816, a son of Thomas and Susannah , Supervisors. He held that office until 
(Holland) Ross, his father a native of 1870, when he again embark* \ in the dry- 
Delaware, and his mother of Maryland. £°° ds business until iS;;. He has held 
Thev were rnn.rried in W'lshir^tO'i C>i>'itv ' va rious local offic •. among others being 
Pennsylvania, and subsequently moved to ' Measurer of his township, assessor and 
Ohio, and when our subject was seven vears J listi ce of the peace, holding the latter office 
old to Richland County, now Ashland, at the present time. He was married in 
Ohio, where the mother died. In 1S4S the Sangamon Count v. Illinois, in 1S39, to 
father moved to Iowa, and lived in Mahaska Martha H. McMillan, a native of Scott 
County several vears, moving thence, to ; County, Kentucky. They have had seven 
Ringgold Countv, where he died in 1S62. children, two sons and fiv< daug ters. Mr. 
Thomas Ross remained in Ashland Countv Ross ' » member of the Odd 1 
until nineteen years of age. He attended He and his wife are members of the Method- 
the district school in the. winter, working lst Episcopal church. 
on the farm in the summer, until eighteen 

years old, when he began teaching. He H >-^-^ .-. o<L~-?-<- s- 
afl rd at! n led - ho .1 al Xorwalk, 

( )hio, and th 1 < -cnl to Huron, wh :rc hi OB RUSH, < 

clc I : i.i a si »re, ;■ 1 i in 183S came W : | Ringgold Countv, ; 

as far as Jacksonville. Illinois, win e he citizen of Mt. Ayr, was born in 

was em] loyed on tl the Lvnox Counl y, Oiiio, 

followin : hen taught in Rii 

11 Couivtj and in Vugust, 1 S ; ;, fathi r a native • . and the 

came to Iowa, and lived in Mali; int.3 r of New Jersey. Thc\ 

eight years. I.i i> 5: he to llo I of Ohio v> 

Conn; y, am ', i . "; . ■. ■ I t< . R I \ 

Count) lo' ating in Mt. Ayr. He children, I 

gaged in the dn ood busiix il iS6i, of wl 01 are vcl . Th 

•■:-.' ■ ' 


at tin age ol seventy years, the mot! i f.hc offii ol u ol the peace three 

dying at the age of forty. Benjamin Rush, years, was ast term, and for many 

the great-grandfather of our subject, was yen • served as trustee and clerk of Mon 

one of the signers of the Declaration ol roc [*o\ nship. 
Indep ndi nee. Job Rush, t tie subi 'Ct of 
; this sketch, remained on the home farm <^:=i^>v--;--o^ ^-» 

unl il ; wen! y-two vears of age. and received 

i his education in the common : hool of hi OHN S. GLEXDENNING, an enter- 

ighborhood. In 1S57 ke came to Ring- V | prising farmer living on section 22, 

gold County, Iowa, and purchased eighty ■', Rice Township, was bom in Rush 

i acres of land in what is now Monroe Town- County, Indiana, April 9, [S45. His par- 

'■■ ship. He erected good buildings on his ents, James and Elizabeth Glendenning, 

land and engaged in raising hogs and were natives of Ohio and Tennessee re- 

1 . ; ;le until he removed to Ml. Ayr. lie sp ctively. They were the pan ; : - .. . 

~,\ was married in August, i860, to Miss children— Mrs. Nancy J. Garrison, died in 

i. ruisa J. McClain, a native of Coshocton 1862, taught the first school in Middle. Fork 

Count)-, Ohio, but at the time of hernial- Township; William 1 1., died in the army 

:*:;*i riage living in Ringgold County. They in 1862; Thomas Henry, living in Middle 

: -: have three daughters— Hattie A., wife of Fori: Township; Jeremiah J., die.! in the 

. WiUiarn Reasoner; Martha J., wife of army; James W., living in Middle Fork 

I Thomas Sloan, and Eunice 11., at home, i Township; Sarah Bennett, living in Caii- 

Mr. Rush was a soldier in the late war, en- 1 forma ; John S., the subject of this sketch ; 

listing in 1864, in Company G, Fourth Iowa j Richard B., died in [S62, and David A., 

Infantry, as a veteran recruit, and was im- living in Middle Fork Township. Our 

mediately sent to the front. He partici- subject was but a few weeks ok! when 

pated with his regiment in the battles of j his parents removed with their famil) to 

I :: Resaca, Dallas, Kencsaw Mountain and Calloway Countv, Missouri, and four years 

- - - 

I others, and was engaged in skirmishing in later removed to Audrain Count) 

' : and about Atlanta. He was with General same State. They subsequently 1 al 

&;$ Sherman on his march to the sea, thence to Gentry County, Missouri, and frot 

Washington City, where he witnessed the came to Ringgold County, Iowa, in 1 S59, 
(A* surrender of General Johnston's army, and , being among the first settlers of Middle 

:«;:«| took part in the grand review. He was Fork Township. The father 

\ discharged at Louisville, Kentucky, in July, the war of the Rebellion, in Company G. 

1865, 1 > •;::■■ must red out at Davenport, Fourth 1 1 [nf; the 

[< 1 ,va, w In n he return d to hi in vice of his c >untr\ 

I Monroe Township. He remo'i A wi Ins h it; years. The mother sm , 

i family to Mt. Ayj •. 18S6, and till 1 (2, dying in Midcll 

I became associated with W. II A. age ht years. J< 

' ; •■ fm nitu bu ii ess, Mr. Rog G 

carried u th t! vears lied u ith Rin; 

prcvii i.us. This fi n a general ;• . laki an activi intcre 

'{ ■■ in fin n I : 1 :wl ui . ' ? for the ad van 

j style of Rogers i\ Ru h. Mr. R 1 1 ' twice married. His 

coming to Ringgold < ity, been a first 1 

1 . mb 1 ti i 1 -.. • , Id Miss M irietta EM 



BlOG* APJI/i • CETCJ/JSS. ;:\) 

|| James A. Miller, oi Clinton Township, which is his present home. He owns 400 

jjjjjj Ringgold County. Mrs. Glendenning died j a sol good land, well :i pi d to 

October 16, 1873, aged twenty-two years, raising. I( is divided into ten fields. He 

;♦>; Her only child, James A., died soon after- usually keeps 100 head ol ttle, 150 hogs 

g* ward, aged twenty -nine days. November and several horses. He h; a good one- 

W.* 6, 1873, Mr. Glendenning married for his j and-adialf-story residence, built in the shape 

wp second wife Miss Mary C. Shaffer, daugh- of an I., and well furnished. He has an 

'0 ter of Jeremiah Shaffer, of Middle Fork orchard of 200 dec-. Mr. and Mrs. Mei 

jjjj«j Township, and to rids union have been ,-itt have one son — Ira Archibald. They 

'0 born six children— Wesley H., Marietta F., are members of the Methodist Episo . : 

»jg Martha V., Luella, Flora M. and Grace, church. He has served as township trustee 

%% Mr. Glendenning lias made farming the and member of the School Board. Though 

jgj principal vocation of Ids life, in which he but a young man he has gained a good 

pjjSj has met with success, and besides his home financial position among the leading busi- 

:♦:;♦; farm, which contains 120 acres of choice j ness men of the county. Postoffice, Keller- 

■';.;!? land, lie owns a tract of timber land in ton, Ringgold Countv, Iowa. 

:♦>< Worth County, Missouri. His farm in 

pM Rice Township was among the first im- j 

£>: proved farms in the township, and was the HfffRANCIS E. PINGREE, farmci and 

•?••■.: pioneer farm of Abraham McCully, who ; rl stock-raiser and veterinary surgeon, 

:♦>; died in the army. In politics Mr. Glen- ^3 : - residing on section J4, Jefferson Town- 

^:;-; denning easts ins sultrage with the Repub- ship, was born in Kane Count\-,IUinois,April 

;«•>: lican party. 2;, 1S50, a son of Francis Pingree, d( c< : 

and of English descent. Tin fathei wa: a 

I native of New Hampshire, and was a grad 

W^Wfi H. MERRITT, farmer, section 2S, ! nate of Kimball Union Academy, in his 

£p : M.'''\;- Athens Township, has been a resi- ' native State. Our subject's ancestry can 

j£s r^rl Q dent of Ringgold County thirty- be traced back to i640.be being a lima; 

£>! one years. He was born in Jackson County, descendant of Moses Pingre< , who came to 

§3. Ohio, July 23, 185 1, son of William J. Mer- ; America in that year. His ancestors look 

:<■>; ritt, a prominent pioneer of this county, now part in the war of the Revolution. Thefatln r 

:*;>: deceased, whose sketch appears elsewhere <>t our subject, was a whaler under Captain 

pp. in this volume. When he was about four Swain for six years, and traveled threc- 

;♦>; 3-cars of age his father came to Ul ' uarters ol the way arc 

:«>; Township and settled amid the wild scenes was the first At eri 1 citizen 1 i 

HH of pioneer life. His early life ivas passed in Sitka. II, ca rieel on the met 

:♦>! in assistin : on 1 he fai m and in obi ' ! 

*:d what education he could in the common months. In 1S52 he settled with hi 

'; •-'': schools. He was marri cl l : bruary 27, in Buch; I i 

; • [870, to Mi Eh beth D. Crouch, born in E., our « ubjec I, was reared on a farm, and 

'g* Davis County, Iowa, and da ; : tet of C. rec< ived hi: education lly in the 

j£*i N. and Minerva (Sti low a. 1 le v. a - 

■'/;] his marri; e hi n id d on th honn farm married March , 1S7.J. to Miss I 

>ti until 1875, then removed to ■ ction \6, E. Harter, a 

: ... -": upon a farm of 240 a res. In tl ■ • Buchanan Countv, Iowa. Thev are the 

[880 hi tra led 1 he farm for w ild Ian I, paj enl ; of ei I 

. . . ■ ■ ,. • 

< -^--ti" .*-;*i^- i; 0^-<r 

' . 


cis II. Jennie C., ( rcorgc R., William C, and stock-raising. In i 

Daniel li.. Albert E. and \\ alt. r B. Mr. ... I sell ft. I he kept 

Pingrec located in Buena Vista County, the Curri< !. rear. He then 

' . . . : i iS;6. ana in 1S7S came to Rim b w ; .. kn iwi ; the I 

■ 1 : ( ounl ." and settled on his farm in prop rtv, and converted it into 1 

Jeff )• n Township, where he has 1 20 acres which he carried on so rs, when 

ol fin land. Mr. Pingree is a member ol i. hi pn ■-. This 

th Odd Fell iws order. busi • lished in i3/S by W. P. 

. Wood, who was succeeded by the firm of 

-*—^==o $§g§Jos=s^—»- Crit hfield A: Shrimplin in 1SS2. [n 

I Mr. Shrimplin sold his interest to G. !'. 

/T"\ W. CRITCHFIELD, of the firm of Oliver, tl d under 

•p Critchfield <x Fry, dealers in agri- the firm nam if Critclifi Id & Oliver until 

'.'-•.^ cultural implements, wagons, bug- 1SS5, when Mr. Critchfield purchased Mr. 

gies, barb wire, etc., is a native of Ohio, Oliver's into I m ucting the business 

born on a farm near Gambicr, in Knox alone till January, 1SS6, when J. O. Fry 

County, January 5, 1S3S, a son of Nelson became associated with him, thus : 

and Nancy (Cassil) Critchfield, who were the present firm of Critchfield £ Fry. Mr. 

both born in (he year 1S16, the fath r a Critchfield served as justice of th 

native of Ohio, and the mother of Pennsyl- while living in Union Township. He has 

vania. lney were the piuciiu. of fum so.w [ a! ... beroftl 

and three daughters, our subject being the School 13 ard in the town of Mt. Ayr, 

eldest son. He passed his boyhood on the Iowa, and served as township ti I 

home farm, receiving the rudiments o! an ing these positions to the entire satisfac- 

education in the common schools, and later tion of his constituents, 
attended the Millwood Academy, where 

he prosecuted his studies for two years <^^~ Z Q^-^-. 

He then entered the office of Dr. Bourne, 

of Gambier, Ohio, where he began readim RIEND COOK, one of Rii 
medicine, lie subsequently went to the. , County's leadi 
University al Ann Arbor, Michigan, for -7 ing on section 15.] I 
the purpo e ol alt n lin 1 irs< of a nath s . . New York, 
lect u r< ; but, aft ei ' i there : 1 y 1 . 1 ■ , a 'son 
ivecks, he > I which < I , and 1 Cook. was six 
him to return home. He. however, re- 
la certificate from 1 1 er 1 ty, P 
partmeut ol Mr. Critcl in that 
as married in 1S63 to Miss Mai .1 
lin, 1 . K no.s County, Oh ; and to 1 M 

1 b o r n I o i a . H c 

two daughters. Ah • the Arm 

[ , t h e r eg i- 

•■::•-,.-. 1 ; ; ' . • 111 ; 1 

1 a in 

dicrc lie 1 .... 



:♦::*•: three men. In June, 1S65. he received an C 

1 ■ ible discharge, \. hen he rctin ■ came 1 

> >'• to his father's h ime, rei iainin<r there 1 unoi 

tin ; tilow mg spring, when h to ! : Township 

£$ Ringgold County, Iowa. In Sept< r, ; 

!♦!*; 1 S67, he returned to Pennsylvania foi hi 

I N liss Carolin H ter of , 

'£$ Josiah Homer of Mercer County. Mr. and 

'. Mrs. Cook have seven children living, all lias a good 

£.•• at home— Josiah, Burton, Edith, Friend,:! 

*£< Clarence, Peace an i Helen. Three chil- Mr. Miller i 

;*;♦: dren, named Alice, Jesse and Ciara are ing and I . 

:< deceased. On first coming to Ringgold In his 

'■' County, in 1866, Mr. Cook settled in Granl horses of X man . I . . 

Township where he improved a farm of Bays. 1 time an I 

:♦;;«•! 440 acres, which he sold in 1S75. Two . 

;♦;;♦: years later he located on his present farm com pari 

:• ■; in Rice Township which contains 500 Iowa. 

; ; acres, improved by Mr. Cook from a stal ' . ,; Yal 

j»>i of nature. His residence and farm build- Illinois, to Ard . 

g A ; iugs are among the: best in lii igiibor- h ; D., j.E., Jo 

I*;;*! hood, and have been built by him since \V.. Almira and 

'$% locating here. His farm is admirablv member of th Felloi 

jjj£i adapted to stock-raising, and h : is devi t- 

y' ing his attention to that enterprise, and has church, and i: 

■*\p at present aboui 120 head of cattl les call)- he is a Repu! ican. ! 

;*•>; oilier stock. He is an active and pro n consfi 1. 

:*>: ive citizen, and stands high in the town- _ t .i "'■""•• ■. 

ship where he makes his home. He is a * ''•■... ,..•■•■' 

wZ member of the Masonic fraternitv, belong- 

x% ingto Mt. Avr Lodge, No. i( . •' ~~ ":~r- M. MILLER, farn r, - ti« 

»>j ■ c;; 

:*;*: ■:'.- ■— v'"- : e-< ■<&> ■ •. ; x ■ Vir; 

i bruary 2. 1821, s< »n of I Ien y an '• < 
. OHNM1 LLER, farmer air.l dealei a . . 1 

; ill. in nigh-b cd i . d 2, M . 1 eceived his ■ in the c 

roe 'J n\ !-. irn in ( : iooIs of in- county. 11, 

;♦>< Armagh, Ireland, June - . 1 i. son 1 aigust 26, 

!*:*; Davici and El 1 of Roc k 

) ■ in his native cou itrv until 1 

i*"*i ycai 5 of 1 : ' f] . . i;: : ■. 1; 

first loi ated at Pitt 1 j Mr. Miller Miss M. J. 

Iiipal ■'• for a . . 

£tj three years. 13 
County, Illinois, 

t h e n ■ ' 





■ ,. when with his wife and two chil- 

tarted .. >r Ri _: jol 1 ( ' >unty, and 

arri\ ' licrc June 23. He first located on 

lion 23, southeast quarter, when 
sided until 1S64, when he settled upon his 
I t farm which was partially improved. 

The farm consists of 170 acres of 1 hoicc 
Ian I, I icated one mile south of Redding. 
lie lias a c tmfortable house, out-buildings 
for stock, orchard of 200 trees and small 
fruit, and everything about betokens the 
• . farmer. He is engaged in general 

farming and stock-raising. Mr. and Mrs. 
Miller are the parents of eight children - 
Fanny D., Elmira V., now Mrs. J. M. 
Crouch; Sophia II., Valeria, Bird H... Eliza, 
Ella and Etta. Two arc deceased— Betty 
T., the oldest, died at theageof nine years, 
and Blanche died in infancy. Mr. Miller 
has > :i ved in in »st of the t< >wn : - 

ticc if the peace. As a justice he is sec- 
ond to none in the county. He is a worthy 
and consistent member of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, and politically was for- 
merly an old-line Whig but is now a Re- 
publican. He has given lbs children 
excellent educational advantages, and three 
of his daughters are fitted for teachers. By 
his upright life and genial manners he 
has made many friends, and is considered 
Clint 1 1 ' citizens. 

Postoffi kin 

iUARL . i of the 

in 1 ■ .1 

■ ; . rrimes, 

Norili Carolina, wc r ■ reared, 

1 to Indiana 
; > t. home until man- 

1 • ' • in tl 

and in the wi 

The summer after reaching his 
majority he worki n inths, at Si 2 a 

month, and the following September was 
rrii 1 to Harriet Ballard, of Montgom- 
Coum I ma, but a native of ( )hio. 
After his marriage he lived on a farm in 
Indiana until the fall of 1855, when he 
moved to Marion County, Iowa, ai I 
to Ringgold Count)*, in May, r S5S, locating 
on the southwest corner o! si ■ Lion 7, Ting- 
ley Township. Ili^ first hous< was a little 

i frame building. 54x16 feet in size. lie 
first bought 170 acres. 160 being prairie 

, and ten acres being timber. He then en- 
tered eighty acres from the Government, 
an 1 the next winter bought anothei I 
of [57 acres, lie has improved his land, 
and now has one of the finest farms in the 
count)'. While living in his first house 

; eleven families made their heme, at differ- 
ent limes, with him until they could locate 
their land and get a house built. His house 

I was always open to the entertainment of 
strangers, and as settlers were few, Ice was 
always glad to receive those who 1 
with the intention of settling. He al had 

: frequent visits from the India:;-, being near 
their trail from the Southwest to Iowa 
City, where they made yearly 1 1 
th . money. The des] • red man 

■ ' . • found him rea ly to e ive ai 1 when 
he was a refill a from slavery ana 

aith to Can ida and ; at < »ne 

time he laid six ^ creted en I : i ay-shocks 
through the day t : li hi 

hie chan e to 
I the first \\\:,w t'> ml 

ic. but 
b . \ igilant w itc! 
He was the firs) 
his part 

tii 'a 1 v. ■ 

i ■ Ei el 

Ayr in a 


■ r. I 1 ' 


: : ■■■: 

was t.!ie founder of Eugene, laying il off 
and platting it in 1S57. He and Ed it 
Sheldon are the only ones of the first set- 
tlers now living in Tingley Township. 
When he commenced life in Indiana lie 
was a poor man. After clearing eighteen 
acres of heavily-timbered land he con- 
cluded to sell out and move to a country 
where the land was already cleared, and. 
accordingly, located in Iowa. By industry 
and energy he has acquired a good home 
for his old age, and by a life of kindly 
deeds and honorable dealing lias gained 
many friends. In politics he was fust a 
Democrat, casting his first Presidential 
vote for President Pierce, but since then 
has been a staunch supporter of the Re- 
publican party. Me is in religious faith a 
Lutheran. His family consists of nine 
children, live died in infancy and lour are 
living — Josephine, wife of James Holt; 
Ida, wife of Andrew Brown; Iola and 
Wilbur at home. 

[LLIAM J. MERRITT, deceased, 
•■' ;/' \j- kvas one of the first pioneers of 
r ' .'. Ringgold County, and the first set- 
tler in Athens Township. He was born in 
Belmonl County, Ohio, September 5. 1S03, 
son of Daniel and Nancy Merritt. He 
was mat ri 'd in ii : • nal ive 1 unity to Mari 
Si ho w I »rn in 1805. After 

the} mi : ' 
and lati r 1o Jacl Countv. fn 

Merritt, \ tl .vil n : I children, came 
by team to Iowa ; : ettled all 
Athens 1 o\\ tiship. ; I firsl bi ilt a log 
cabin on Lolt's Ct ■ ; . an I in ; 
removed to ction 17, when 
cabin \. : : h n 1 )ft. ! ! e \\ as propri 
Merritt Station— a hisi led— and 


the La: ■ I 1 It wa 1! I 

way station b , Ottui 

aska City. IPs farm contained 120 acres 

pra id forty ; ' I i 1 1 1 r. '1 he 

children were— Daniel, Peter, Nancy, A. 
J., ; lizal ,. Jane. John, Ellen, Alice and 
William 11. Jane died at the age of 
: years. Mr. Merritt died in 1879, 
and Mrs. Merritt, December 10, 1873. 

: TT 7PD BEAMER, farmer, section 6, B n- 
':■/'} ton Township, was born in Clint >n 
: r— .-'• County, Ohio, November 16, 1 140, 
ton of Phillip and Sarah (Morris) Beamer. 
lie was the fifth of a family of twelve chil- 
dren. When fifteen years of age his par- 
ents removed to Appanoose Count} 7 , Iowa, 
where they resided several years. His 
early hie was passe 1 in working on a fa a 
and in attending the public school . A1 
the breaking out of the civil war he was 
one of the first to go forth in defense o: r 
his country's Hag- July 17, iS6r, he en- 
listed in Company D. Sixth Iowa Infant- 
ry. He participated in the battles of 
Shiloh, Corinth, Jackson, Missi ^sippi, Black 
River Bridge, Mission Rid.^e, Resaca, and 
the principal engagements from < 
no iga to Atlanta. After three y< 1 
hard service he was honorably disc! 
July 17, 1864, and returned to his In 
Appan 1 >sc County. D .vinl 

house ai 
lie. The lie en 

il '■ : : .< V ' - Ci 

to di ivc age, a fol owed that i 

fri »m Mt. Ayr to 1 om the 

; Ler pla :e to Clarm la. Hi 
e\ji :t in 1 

'.■'/. . " 1 
seat. Man 

: . , 1 1 : • 

"I ■ ■ > -•■ y< I ; 

■ ■ . ■ ■■■■ ■ • 




, •■.-. i \'/xi;(.,oi ■ 

then in ils 

now contain i ■ i Imu I on tl rm. He 

one of lli ■ . fennie 

[t is one of the 1 ■ fa ii ' 

county, and '- u cll-n . • Sn d) ing 

ing. I Je ha and-a-l .vhen > a child of < rs. Hei 

e, A-cll furnisl id sun still lives at tin . • 

sha le trees, nativi ro\ i i [ Mr. and M rs. Imu hn \r> 

slock scal< s, and everything i tin mi Day, Ag 

place i n a prosperon d n and m, nil ho d 

Mrs. Beann re 1 if tin ? i i . I I 

drcn- Llva ! '• ira, Lena ' D. and J I farm 

Belle, Mr. D h; ' land, mostly men 

am i" of land. 1 1 e a 1 so h a s e i gh t v 

the Ma< 

order, L - 

■ . 

ol the same town si 

cally is a R.< public m. Posl iliio .Clear- 

field, 'I a vdoi C 'ounty. ent on hi farm, a line herd o! 

Mr. I has held the offi 

o-: '' Iwr 1 hrce i'cd 

I School Bonn 
, t... Li. pulitii h is ; 

; farn of 1 
rownship, : ' ' I Count} 

born in th State of NJ I « higan, Octol < 
i S49, the sixth in a family ol hirtcci 

atio and Mary i - Ibi n linns, 
w ho \\ 1 re both in Yorl 

The parent :tt!< I .vith thei) family in 
Stai k ( '1 mnl ,-, Illino am i in 1 ■■■ \ 
for Rin G Iowa, ai 

their way the ithei dro I in Mar- 

ion County, rh mother i ti li\ 
the ad\ I 1 ;cnl 

makji'j g 1 1 c i 1 10 n ) 1 
sub ci \ • l bo; dI 

b rough 1 ... co 11 n 1 1 1 . Lay ton , we 1 Li v 1 1 

was rean I ami edi tin trie! and Kentucky rest) clively. The) were 

1 echicatio in l he ma ii I U 1 1 

Ml. A;, r si ; ; 10I. • in 

for a t .1. her, but cliai 11 and they spent the rest o 

... rai-i rhe fai 

hogs. 1 fe formed .;•.'. ol 

W. 1).: ■ : : 11 treasurer 1 ' U Id ; 1 ... ■ '■ d in Ma; . KSS6, in hei 

County, the\ : . Theii . vere noted foi 

; . ' . 1 - 1 1 o r 1 1 ca 1 1 i e . T 1 1 ey ; 1 1 ' , | 

1 i 

\ i ile for Pi 
Both NJ 1 . and Mrs. lint 

' thodi>l Epi . ipal chu ch lie has 
; 1 ted as supcrinti ndent ol Ll 


ILLIAM II. LAYTON, a promi- 
nen t and : 

erty Towi n i :c ol 

1 . born in Tipp 

Mt. Ayr. ( )ur ru: 1 1 

:enl. His p; I 

23<i HiSTom o nixnooi.n county. 

then in its primitive condition, liis I I ' ; 

now contain and i? ■ . [imi ttl Lhc farm. He 

,,• one of the best fan I > [ennie 

£ji It is one of the best-v Mt. V) : . . ; [ohn 

£$ county, and is \\ ell-ad . ted to stock-i . • 

»;;*; ing. I Ic has a goo< ,.... ! ,\ hen . a child of eight years. Hei 

iZ dence, well furnished and sun mol 

*;'♦: shade trei i fine orchard 

'■ "i\ stock scales, and everything aboi tin i r chil [ \g- ;*>; 

. ■• place is in a prosperous c idition ■'. i md m, o I 

Mrs. Beamer arc l if thi \ftei riage Mr. Ii ell 1 on 

.':: dren— Llva 1 )< >ra, Lena ' D. and ] farm vhich < tain eighl 

Belle, Mr. Beanu r has held I he >i ice of I acres of 1 I, i 1 1 i ■- ■;■ 
•; assessor two terms. He is a mem r of land. Fie a o eighty ai n another 

*i;«2 the Masonic order, Lodge iy.. to [■] 11 ; 

cally is a Republican. Post office, Clcaj ; in blooded :-:• k, an h - at pres- 

*J : *i held, Taylor Countv. • ent on hi herd of 

Mr. Inui 

. ' - three terms, and 1 i ved 

ctary of the School Bo > n 

EONARD '.!..'. cu»-I_ sell! >i . . .. . j oliti. h ; Republican, cas'- 

K? and entcrp i i irmc r of Li! ■ ■ . i hi vote fi ir Presideni Gr; nt. 

,.'.'; ~ - t-~ Township, Rin _, ild Countv, was Both Mr. and Mrs. Imus are n 
r>] born in the State of Michigan, October 3, M thodisl Epi opal church, He has 

&>; 1 S49, the sixth in a fa iil\ hirtecn acted as superintendent of the Sunday- >>: 

2$ dren of Horatio and Mary (D Shier) 1 io< for one year. 

<>>; who were ; : .i New Vork ! 

The parent; settled with their family in J -• ^-^ i ^,^y : ^'.^':^=-.._u- 

>>; Stark County, Illinois, and in iS-.j startci 

|| for Ringgold County, Iowa, and while on ' WILLIAM 11. LAYTON, a promi- 
their way the father was drowned in Mar- : \/\j nent and suci • sful fai cr of Lib- 
*::♦; ion County. The mother is still living at - r \ crty Town hi . is a 

: 11 ad\ 1 age of - -\ enty two years, Indi t, born in T !ounl v, F< b- 

:: making her honn in Mt. Ayr. Our ruary iS, iS.- . and is < 

1 , • v . - ., b >• ol 11 h descenl 1 [is pan . !■ Mary 

** was brought to this county, and here ■ (Ru I I. ,- , ■ >v re 1 tives of Virginia 
i 1 tl : ■ irid an I K m j n 

hools, 11 liing hi cducati m in lhc married in th Si 1 ; 
:. ;j Ml. A) r ■ ; ; 10I. : red hi: II ;, ;;' :c l in i ip] ( bounty, I 

Vil f( " ■' I ! ' ;i "•• but c!ki I his min I and win re tin y spenl the rcsl of ;' 
engaged in le and Th fal cleat! 

[' h C. 1 , years, an I 

W. D 1 trcasu ul R n ! er died in Ma . :•'•'•. in her eighty. 

Count) . . the) it §1,000 on , fifth year. Their ; 

' ' 11 cattle. I'hc\ iheir 1 , ;- . : ; 

' ' Ircn, eight 'to ;*>; 




.-■■■ •;. 






maturity, .all being now dcceas :d but three. 
William H. Laylon was the fifth cl 

ler's family. He was reared to the 
avocation of a farmer, his father following' 
that pursuit, and (luring his boyhood he 
atten led the schools of his neighborhood 
at. such times as his services were not re- 
quired on the farm. He was married at 
the age of twenty-one years to Miss Eliza- 
beth Creek, of Tippecanoe Comity, Indi- 
ana, whom he had known from childhood. 
Mr. and Mrs. Lay ton have eight children 
—Abel M., Margaret E., wife" of William 
French; Mary* R., a widow ; Sarah Jane, 
wife of C. W. Schoch ; Lydia M., married 
J. Sievens; George P., William R. and 
Etta. After his marriage Mr. Lay ton 
rented a farm in his native county, where 
he lived until 1854. He then removed with 
his family to Marion County, Iowa, and 
during the same fail he came Lo Ringgold 
Count} 7 and entered eighty acres of land 
from the Government, on which lie imme- 
diately built a small log house, 16 x 16 feet, 
and commenced breaking his land, remov- 
ing his family to this farm in the spring of 
1856. Mr. Lay ton began life entirely with- 
out means, and his great success is due to 
his own efforts, aided by his estimable wife, 
he having by his persevering industry and 
good management added to his real estate 
till he owns at present nearly 1,000 acres of 
choice land, the mo l of which is under 
cultivation, and pasture land. He 
life as a gei ei al f; ; m :r, but as his 1 
im [-eased he engaged in stock-raising and 
feeding, and is iv : I an Hi 1 ■; I lorough-bn ,1 
short-hot n cattli , havh I :nt 2c 3 

head, including graded c ttle, b 
he has s< uric line spe cimens of Cai 
draught horses. Mr. Lay to 11 sen 
term., as trustee of Easl Foi ,. T 
before it was divided. He was elected 
of 3 Town- 

ship, but rcfus d tn qualil v. 1 [e an I his 
wife are m mb ol I '■ nited Bi 


church. He was for a number of years a 
the West Des Moines Confer- 
ence. Mr. Laylon isand has been for years 
Lin hibitionist, always 

voting as he talks. He has ah > been for 
years opposed to all secret societies. He 
is a mam of very strong convictions on all 
;-, and is generally well informed, 
lie is a strong, logical reasoner, and al- 
though he is decided in expressing his 
opinions, both in public and private, always 
treats his opponents with fairness and 
courtesy. As one of the representative 
men of Ringgold County, we take pleasure 
in presenting the portrait of Mr. Lay ton to 
our readers. 

;" rEORGE W. MORRISON, en d 


■lacks mithing in the vill i{ ol 

^?n Goshen, and also proprietor of the 
I Goshen House, is a native of Huntington 
I Count}*, Pennsylvania, born February iS, 
I 1845, a son of J. II. and Elizabeth Morri- 
i son, who were natives of the same State. 
'' Our subject served three years and nine 
! months in the defense of his country, en- 
\ listing September 30, 1861, in Company G, 
i Thirtieth Illinois Infantry. He partici- 
' pated in the battles of Fort Donclson, 

Champh n Hill, siege of Vicksburg, siege 
; of Atlanta, Sherman's Man to the Sea 

and through the Carolina-, and 1 ai I i« ; - 

pated in the gran 

D. C. at th ol t] wai . beside 

: - : 1 

t at L ' iicky, July 15, 

•is, Jul} ' ' ■ Mr. 

reared to . ■ 'its, but after 



■ M. Will- 
iams, \ born in Musi 

- ■ 



:. : Stephen B. and M irv J. Williams, also b ■- rS,-^. In 1S65 Mr. Watson sett! >d in Rock j 

ing natives of Ohio. To Mr. and Mrs. Island County, Illinois, where he liv I oi 

j£ : *j Morrison have been born four children, rented land until coming to Ring/ 

%% of whom three arc living— - M. J., born j County, low. 1, in 1S6S. He settled where >:;♦; 

•vt; June 25, 1S72; Ira G.. born May 9, 1S77, he now lives in March, 1S69, wherein 1 

;.- and Amy B., brm Septcmb ; 29, 1879. r 20 acres of well-improved land. This was \ 

Their eldest child died in infancy. Mr. | the pioneer home of one of Ring 

Morrison came to Ringgold County, Iowa. Count v's first settlers. a Mr. Page, who was >-H 

April 5. 1S75, and during his residence \ afterward killed in the army. The first re- ££ 

!»>; here has established a good trade, and be- ; ligious services in Ringgold County were tf. 

:■ ■ ■>: come one of the respected citizens ol he'd a: the old losr house which stood 

, v.' l '■ v 

[»::«! Goshen. He is a strong temperance ad- ; this place. The claim changed bandsman}' ££; 

• •'<•: vocate, and both he and his wife belong to ' Limes before Mr. Watson bought the land. £*; 

the Independent Order of Good Templars, which at that time was in its natural state — 

£*i In their religious faith they are Presbyte- ' covered over with brush and briar. Be- $$ 

nans. In politics Mr. Morrison is a Pro- sides his home farm Mr. Watson owns forlw 

hibitionist. He is a comrade of James | acres on section 17 of the same towi 

:'■*; Conley Post, No. 285, G. A. R., at Goshen. ! and eis-htv acres on section 13, Benton :*:!♦: 

; Township, all his lands being under rm- 

«•&:> °-<^S>-= *&> i provement. Both Mr. and Mrs. Ws 

• : I were reared in the faith of the Episi 

ROBERT WATSON, a prominenl agri- : church. They are well known and highly jjjgj 

':,; § M culturist of Rice Township, residing respected for their integrity, and many £>( 

• ■■•.. g\ on section iS, is a native of Eng- other good qualities. They have becon 

^;t{ land, born in Durham County, March 24, j prosperous citizens of the county, having ££ 

; ": 1834, a son of John and Isabella Wat- ' by their careful habits and excellent man- 

;•/>: son, the mother dying when he was two j agement gained a good and comfortab 

: ; s^ years old, and the father when he was home. In his political views Mr. Watson ££ 

eight years of age. Being left an orphan j affiliates with the Republii si party. 
HH so young he was early inured to a life ol 

•' toil, and from the age of eleven years he — ^S.-^ — "^tP" — s *~ < £3'~ a — 

has cared for himself. He found employ- 

>>| ment as a farm hand in his native country •' ' DDISON N. BOGGS n | j 

£>j till 1S58, ■ ' '■ i ■ ' ' ' ■■' ' ip, was ] 

£>! landing ai : ,\ ' 1 i .Ian h o! thai ' N ' C01 . ' Vir- jjjg 

year. 1 !■■ th n pi oc eded to Cana la a 1 ' ginia, July 6, 1 son 

I about six 5 ears lived in the province of Elliott, and EI B His rhei 

Ontario, where h ivas married to Mi-- was born in Gal • itv, Ohio, an 

'. ;j Sarah Ann Bryai , a daughtci Join nother in Grce: '■ ■ • 

Bryans. Mrs. Watson wasl mi ii They we 

Fermanagh, 1. < land in 1S41, 1 . her dren- Mrs. Lovi 

( fiildho id w; ■ 1 ired in I in 'i ■■ Mr. Fullc , livin: ii I 

-. ♦■ and M 1 s. W I 1 1 , 1 born ,-cn C 

children, of ire vet li\ ing- M rs. Will 

Maw ii I ,hn, Lavi "Oscar, Nebraska ; J 11 :s ■ 

Jam and C . Tli ixtli child d in . 


J3IOGR \PUICA ' .-... . VI S. ■:■ . 

X.. our subject, who was the fifth child, when .' •. ] igricultural :■ ■ 

Our subject lived in his native State ti lits His farm contains 160 acres of >::< 

thirteen years old. Then, at the breaking well-improved land under a high state of j»* 

out of the late war, his father, who was a cultivation, with good residence and fine 

staunch Union man. was persecuted be- farm buildings. Mr. B iggs and his wife jg 

yond endurance, and finally im . ; by an members of the Methodist Episcopal £' 

bushwhackers. After being confined al church. In politics he is identified with £> 

Staunton for two months he wa i ' - !. the Republican party. I le is a member of ^ 

but before reaching his home he was again the Masonic fraternity, belonging to Topaz '§1 

arrested, the only charge brought against Lodge, Xo. 438, at Kellerton. 

hum being that of loyaltv to the Union. £i 

After his second arrest he made his esc — Ho>- * — <^oi> — =>-*SE>-= — 

by night. A violent storm favored his C.i 

flight and saved him from a pursuit which, ^Tf'AMES A. MILLER r, section 9, 

meant death, and on reaching the Unio 1 : '• linton Township, was born in Rock- pi 

lines he received the protection of Col ' bridge Count}', Virs nia, S I mber 4 b 

now General Cook'. The spring of 1826, son of Henry and Catherine Miller. :*:j 

1862 found the family united in Gallia He was reared a farmer and received his ;>:: 

County-, Ohio, where they resided three education in the common schools of his H: 

years, removing thence to Abingd ., Knox conn v. He was married Octob< r 4, 1S49. N 

County,- Illinois. Late in the fall o! 1S75, to Miss busan E. Mackey, also of Roi j 

the parents came to Ringgold County, i bridge County, and daughter of James S. %\ 

Iowa, and made their home on section ;;, and Nancv (McMath) Mackey. September i; ' 

■ i'-' 

Union Township, where the father died in ,0. 1856, Mr. Miller, witii wife and five 2*| 

September 1S82, aged seventy-one years, children, started for Iowa, coming with gi 

The m ither now lives with her daughter, one two-horse team anda one-horse vehicle £«! 

Mrs. Sarah Fuller, in Stark Count)-, liii- with two seats. The journey lasted 111 I 

nois. Addison X. Boggs, whose name the ;tb of Xovember. They slept in £0 

heads this sketch, was united in marriage tent- during their travels. He spent t 

in Marion County, 1 iwa, in October, 1871, winter of 1856-'/ in Middle Fork Town.-! 

to Miss Mary Johnston, who was born in and; the following I 10 what :♦:;< 

Knox County, Illinois, July i, 1351, a ' is now Worth, then Gentry County, Mis- ;«•;;< 

daug f J. R. Johnston, and to this souri. Here 1 I 1 Gov- 

unii in h three children — ei mn n! Ian 1, and I r acres | 

J I and Rose C. After i idii of ti I md in Clinl 

in Knox C 1 ' " : r. His first 

Boggs, in 1 Io . first (2 x 16. In 18; 

. in Marion C ■ ' 

one yea ' , 1S74, : to Ring- [ I I 2 J 5 'f, 

gold County, where he li 

Tow nship over a 

that 1 and j 2. From tied mas 1 

there he went to Clarke County. Iowa, N T . II. DcWitt. 

living ti I • 

1875. returned to F 1 feet, I r. Weaver. 

settled on hi 1 1 , ■ hip, Mr. M ur- ; 

' . ' 


Il/STi '.". ■■' ' ' RIXG i a ! .'■' ', 

chase until he owns 582 acres, a lai 
tii m being 1 i( h bi itlorn land. He 
his present r sidence in 1874. lie is en- 
gaged i;i stock-raising and feeding— catlli , 
horses, sheep and swine. He has served as 
justice of the peace twenty years, and has 
disp n sd justice worthy oi a judge of the 
higher court. He has served as county 
supervisor two terms, took the State cen- 
sus of Clinton Township in 1S75, 
United Slates census of Middle Fork and 
Clinton Townships in [SSo. Mr. and Mrs. 
Miller are the parents of fifteen children — 
John \V., Nancy Catherine, James H., 
Horace M., Alexander T.. Sarah Jane. 
Lumina B., Charles T.. Signora A., Nathan 
R., Lena D., Hugh W.. Cora Susan and 
Angeline Mabel. Marietta E., wife oi John 
S. (xlcndenning, died at the age of twenty- 
three. Mr. Miller is a member o! the Anti- 
] lo; s. -Thh [ AsijOcialiuii. 1 le id >\ a ) s takes 
an a tive interest in educational and relig- 
ious matters, and contributes iiberaily to 
all worthy enterprises. He is one of the 
best citizens of Ringgold County. Politi- 
cally he is a Republican. Posto ice Red- 

-5 < -OtZ^ >- ^^fer-- fr- 

F-OHN STEVENSON, one o. r the old 

rs of Ringgold County, re 
^ on section 12, Jefferson Tow 
was b irn in G uerns< v Coun 
.;. 1817, a s< »n 1 >i James Ste\ 

: ! tt v Down, freland, who 
the United Stat . oui 

( hir su! ject recci lucation in the 

ption o! thai 

early day. 1] 
to .Miss Mai tret 
■ 1 w llendci 

• lb 

\ndrew I Mrs. 

I V' ' 

i April 1; . ; 

Miss Rebei 

late John Bingaman. By his last m 
Mr. Stevens* >n had twi 1 1 w ho are 

both deceased. Mr. Stevenson came to 
Ringgold County, Iowa, in k .and set- 
tled on the place where he now resides, 
which is known as the Beaver Farm, his 
h >me farm in Jefferson Township contain- 
ing 577 acr< , besid which, he owns 
eight)- acres of land located in Union 
County, Iowa. Mr. Stevenson is 
ber of the United Presbyterian church. 

i. NEW TON, farmer, secti 


j ! ton Township, was born in Warren 
..'■' County, New Jersey, July 24. 1827, 
son ~r. Isaac Newton and Susan (Black- 
well) Ne\ lso nal ives 1 il Ni w Jersey. 
The)- reared a family of nine children, of 
v-. no a our subject was the second, and the 
eldest son. His early life was spent princi- 
pally in town, his father being a mechanic, 
and his education was obtained in his na- 
: tive hamlet. When nearly grown he en- 
gaged in boating on the Morris and Lehigh 
' canal, from Jersey City to Eat m, Pennsyl- 
' vania, which occupation he followed 
, several years. He then engaged in an apple 
disti ry. lie was m; 1 age of 
twenty-six, to Miss Elizabeth G. Bat ley, a 
native of New Jersey. After his marriage 

came to 
ild Count v. . 

t farm in Bej It was 


of ten ; 
and a rude log 

• at> d a si \ and 



■. rm. He 



well-improved, and it is on : i >:' ihe best stock 
farms in Benton Township. Mc has a com- 
fortable house, out buildings for sti 
one of the best orchards in Southern Iowa, 
consisting of three acres, an 1 small 
He is engaged in general farming, stock- 
raising and feeding. Mr. and Mrs. Newton 
are the parents of eight children — George 
R., Isaac J.. James C, Monroe A., Minerva 
J., Lillie D., Fanny L. and Addie. In poli- 
tics Mr. Newton is a Republican. 1 le has 
served as justice of the peace seven years, 
township clerk two years, and assessor one 
3'ear. He is a member ofLodge No. 273, 
I. O. O. F. ; Pleasant Valley. The Newton 
family have been residents of New Jersey 
for six generations. 

?\\ ARYEY WAUGH, farmer, section 29. 

t Middle Fork Township, is one of the 
early pioneers of Ringgold County, 
having been identified with its interests for 
more than thirty-one years. He is a native 
of Sugar Creek. Montgomery County, In- 
diana, where he was born April ro, 1 S 3 4 . 
His parents were Milo and Elizabeth 
(Ki'diSI) Waugh, the former a native of Ross 
County, Ohio, and. the latter of Fayette 
Count y. same State. They reared a family 
of ten children — Martha, Joseph, Harvey, 
Milton B., Margaret, Malctious A., Mary 
Jan-, Melissa, Willi 1 d * " Harvey 

was reai ed on a fai 1 I ■ ' ! ti d his edu- 
cation in the com ' is 1 that d y. 
At the age ■ ' : ■■■■ vea he 1 
hand \vi irkii on t rai I -' •• ; ; 
1S53, he was united in man 
Na Bishop, 

Count) ,L I of John R. 

and Su • 

tives of P< nia, and mai 

They were the pan 

Elizab th, N; [o n R. < )ctober 3, 

1S3.;. Mr. \N'.i '■ hild, 

. for Iowa, leaving the family in Mc- 
ii 1, County, Illinois, for a time; he 
on horseback to find a location for the 

.and decried upon Lucas Count}-. 
I In Novem er, [S54, he entered 147 acres of 
ild C unity, purcha 
claim ol M. R. Brown, the first clerk oi the 

. . The following spring In 

with his family in his new home. There 

j was a log house on the place, 14 x 16 feet, 

i with puncheon fl > >r, clapboard ro >f, stick 

y, and four acres under cultivation. 

He remained here one year, then removed 

I one-half mile east, where he had entered 

I more land and built another log house. 

I Here he remained twelve years, and then 

removed to Iris present home. Their 

hewed-log house they first occupied still 

stands in the yard as a relic of pioneer 

days. During the first year Mr. Waugh 

to >k an active part in what was known as 

I the Indian war. In [S >i a company was 

! organized as State Home Guards, and Mr. 

; Waugh was elected First Lieutenant. He 

! held the position creditably two ye; 

j then resigned. Since 1S54 he has added to 

his farm from time to time until the Waugh 

farm contains 1,300 acres of land, in a ._ 

'■tale of cultivation and well improved. He 

j has a fine two-story residence, built in 

! modern style, and well furnished, a good 

orchard of large and small fruits, and a 

I commodious barn, 40 x 40 feet. He is en- 

: : ' 
ing. Mr. and Mrs. Waugh have seven 

5 H., 
Martha Elizabeth, Mary Susan, Charles M., 
B I. and M. Willard. Lewis 13., 
>rn in In- 
. leaving a v if< and tin • 
Minnie M., Clyde and BertM. Mr. Waugh 
I has serv I I . | 

. . 


1 ' 's to the 




Masonic order, Mount Ayr Lodge, No. 179. 
He has always taken an active int< 
any enterprise pertaining to religi >• 01 
education. In 1875 he was appointed post- 
master al Clipper. Politically he is a Re- 
publican. Postoffice, Clipper. 

:-~TlLAS TED ROW, farmer. Athens 
\^S Township, is among the oldest, and 
~r most worthy pioneers of the township. 
He was born in Somerset Count) - , Penn- 
sylvania, February 22, 1827, son of Joseph 
and Barbara (Geist) Tedrow, who were 
the parents of five children — Silas. Aaron, 
Susan, Joseph, and Freeman. His early 
life was spent in assisting on the farm and 
receiving his education from the common 
schools. When eleven years of age his 
parents removed to Athens County, Ohio. 

\,- ; :._-:., ■ of ;c riC - c (/ [ iViUiiuOod IlC was 

united in marriage, October 13. 1846, with 
Miss Hannah Brownald, born in Genesee 
County, New York, llcr parents died 
when she was quite young, and she was 
taken to Ohio, where she was reared to 
maturity. In the fall of 1854 Mr. Tedrow, 
with wife and three children, removed to 
Iowa, coming by team. They were twenty- 
seven days on the road. The first winter was 
spent in Jones County, and May 10. 1855, 
he entered 120 acres of Government land 
in Athens Township, which was the fir I 
prairie Government land entered in the 
township. His firs! hi iuse \va; a loj 
12x14. The second house was of hewed 
logs. Boards were not to be obtained in 
the county. He went eightv mil :s to mill, 
and sail .... sold ' seven ccn 
Mt. Ayr \ -a ; unknown. M r. Tedn 1 
made improvement u] >n his farm as fast 
as his m I ; pci mil until it is in its 

pre: cut condition. It conta . es ol 

■ I land as ( an bt !■ mn I in Athens 
'1 ownship. tie ha: 1 g 

story residence, with modern improve- 
l ments and well furnished; also a commo- 
barn, frame shed with shingl 
loft for hay, 12 x 1 12. He has an orchard 
1 of five acres, containing thirty-five varie- 
tiesof apples. and a native grove of maples. 
■ He is engaged in stock-raising and feeding. 
| He has a large pond stocked with fish, and 
; a hydrant for the same. He also has a 
; large amount of Osage orange and willow 
hedges. Mr. and Mis. Tedrow have seven 
children — Jane, J. W., Susan II., Lucy 
Si rena, Rose, Wilbur and Grant. Tin. de 
; ceased are Hattie, Joseph, Sarah Ann and 
1 Millard. Politically Mr. Tedrow is a Re- 
publican. He assisted in the organization 
of his township, and through his influence 
; it was called Athens. He has served as 
county supervisor, township clerk, justice 
of the peace and township trustee. lie has 
been a worthy and consistent member of 
| the Methodist Episcopal church since 1S52, 
I and has served as class-leader and steward. 
By fair and honest dealing he has won the 
' confidence and respect of all who know 
him. Postoffice, Kellerton. 

— <w 


jTSAIAH OGIER, farmer, section 9, Mon- 
j roe Township, was born in Guernsey 
%? County, Ohio, February 10, 1S33, son 
James and Mary Ogier. When he was 
nine years of age his >ved to 

Jackson County, and later to Vinton 
County, where Mr. ( >g:er passed his earl) 
life on a farm and in atti nding the subscrip- 

51 I ools, laugl 
He w; - man ied Octobei 19, 1854, to M iss 
Emcline Nixon. In 1861 he removed to 
I Count v, Iowa, where he 1 

ten yeai s; then came t 


ro< J 1 ,\-, nship. It was 
has brouirhl ii ti 





:- <-: 

His farm contains i6o aci 

1 irround 

grove, and a fine in engaged 

in farmii , raising. Mr. ,. 

lave had cighl .en liv- 

ing—James A., H. S., Elizabeth E. llam- 
? lary Woo I ruff, i - 

lied at th< 
two years and two months. Thcv have 
given their children 

vantage 5, and they fitted to take a 

tion in soci Ly. Josephine and 
- C. are teachers. Mr. Og 
served as township trustee, township trcas- 
irei >sor. He has always 

: ,. tive interest in ami 
2 to the advancement of education 
and religion. Politically lie is an inde- 
pendent Rej :ong Prohibi- 
T l . ist. He is cla ig the leading 
citizens of Ringgold Count}-. Postoffice, 

r. . i ^ 


of Washington 
'drd. Township, res n 31, lo- 

cated in Ring C nty in Maid 1 ; 

I 1 1 native of Oh .... 

of Samuel W. and Mary D. (Ban 

f Pi sy h 

Z d 

■ ■ 

Count they ] 



.. inter. wh< 
require 1 al home. Win n he was 1 

age his falhcr died, and he was 
practicall) thrown on his own res 

to work by the month for farm- 
ers, \\ 1 mtiinu d until afi 
marriage, when he settled on a rented 
farm, and sul 

on which he lived until 1876, when 
to Iowa and bought [7S acres of wild prai- 
rie laad in Ringgold County. H< 
proved this land and added to i: until he 
•■ ns 243 aci ■ . g ld< son 

eighty acres. Mr. Dille 

the best grades of stock on his fai .' 

• pirited, and is 
prominent and influent 
zens of the township. He has served fif- 
teen years as 1 

school trustee, and lout yeai 
trusti e, lidate for 

visor of Washington To ,'nship, F 
Count}'. Ife was married March 17,1858, 
to Virnella Cati: . e of Indiana. 

They have four cl ' ., Sam- 

uel Ld. Mary and John D. Mrs. Dille is a 
the 1 . ireh. 

^7'ACOB I- !•' . 

I d 




His farm contains 160 ;u i 
go I n ; I( i urround I with nal ive 

grove, and .1 fine orchard. He is enga 1 I 
in farmin ; . ■ I st I rai ins Mr. and M rs. 
Ogier have had eight children, s< ven liv- 
ing—James A., H. S., Elizabeth B. Man: 
11101 n.I. Mary Woodruff, Josi phi ne, William 
C. and Almon P. Eva died at the ag< ol 
two years and two months. They have 
given their children good educational ad- 
vantages, and they are well fitted to take a 
good position in society. Josephine and 
William C. arc teachers. Mr. Ogier has 
served as township trustee, township trcas- 
urerand township assessor. I le has always 
taken an active interest in anything per- 
taining to the advancement of education 
and religion. Politically he is an inde- 
pendent Republican and a strong Prohibi- 
tionist, lie is clashed among the leading- 
citizens ol Ringgold Count)-. Postoffice, 

fHARLES F. DILLE.one of the lead- 
ing agriculturists of Washington 
', Township, residing on section 31, lo- 
cated in Ringgold County in March, rS/6. 
lie is a native of Ohio, born in Cuyahoga 
County, near Euclid, August. 8, iS 
of Samuel W. and Mary 1). (Dan - I 
natives of Pennsyh ania, his [ 1! her 1 >; Wash- 
in m and hi n thcr of \\"< tn re! 
Count v. His gnu lfalh< r, Ph< imo Barr, 
w a^ seni by th mod the P 
church a: ■ 1 ii sionar> to the Western Re- 
serve. When he was nine years old his 

moved to \\ hai i now K 1 
County, [Illinois, * p :d the 

rest of i1k;i lives. ! lis father was . 

til A'-)d cngra\ cr, and at th( a 
cai ried on a farm, 

youth, Chai les F. \\ as often rcqui 
on the fai 11 

educated in 1 

:es \-. ei c no* 

! at home. 
years of age his falhci died, and he was 

illy thrown on his own rc- 

ivoi k by the month for farm- 
ers, whi < mtinm d until alter Ins 
marriage, when he settled on a rented 
farm, and sub: equ( ntly 1 t 280 acres, 
on which he live! until 1 8/6, when h 1 
to Iowa and bought t/8 acres of wild prai- 
rie land in Ringgold Count)-. He has im- 
proved this land and added to it until he 
now owns 243 acres, besid( • giving his son 
^ ighty ai 1 es. Mr. Dille is eng 
eral i 1 ming and stock-rai: ing, ha\ in 
the best, grades of stock- on his farm. He 
is cnlepi ising am I pub . and is 
one of the prominent and influential citi- 
zens of the township. He has served fif- 
teen years as township commi 
supervisor of highways, thirteen >a 
school trustee, and foui years as township 
trustee, and is now a candidate foi 
\ i: 11 o. Washington Township, Rii 
County. He was married -March 17,1858, 
to Virnella Cating, a native of Indiana. 
They have four children -J« ph <■ ..Sam- 
uel I'., Mary and John D. Mrs. I ii 
member of the Christian church. 

, [ACOB FRANE, al merandd 

Tin ;1< ■■■, Ti ■■'■ nshij is a nati\ e ol 
Pennsylvania, born in Lycon ing Coun- 
ty, Scplemb r 13, 184 >. Wh 
years of age, in 1 \ : 

Ogl ' oiiat y, Illinois, an 1 the re he was 
reared. In Augu 1 . 1 \ h 
the wai of the J 
1 > Comp ny K, Xin ty-scc 

land, an I 

paling in •- 
Resaca I li 

■ ■■ ■ ' 


ed n ar Rolla, the ball first hitting- his —Edward H.. Clayton and James M. Mr. 
hoi and th n hi: right leg near the knee \nderson came to Ringgold County, Iowa, 
joint, and was in the hospital at th< time in the fall of I S74, and has since been a resi- 
of his discharge, in July, 1S65. He re- dent of Jefferson Township. He has always 
turned to Ogle County, and the following j followed agricultural pursuits, and is now 
D ecmbcr was married to Anna Eyster, a devoting his attention to general farming 
native of that county. In the spring of and stock-raising. His farm contains 140 
l"" 1. Mr. Frane moved with his familv to acres of choice land under a high stale of 
R ild Count) - , Iowa, and bought the cultivation. He has held the office of con- 
farm where he now lives, containing 122 stable for four vears with credit to himself 
: section 2!. township 70, range 29. ' and to the satisfaction of his constituents. 
Sii 1 August, 'S84, he has made a special- He is a member of the United Presbyterian 
ty of the manufacture of cheese, and in church. 

the year 18S5 made 5,000 pounds. It is of -&3 >-<=[jb-:s~ ^- 

an exceptionally fine quality, and finds a 

ready market at home. * In 1S85 lie milked £TOSHUA E. JOHNSTON, deceased, 
thirteen cows and bought some milk, but ',-_, j veas born in Venango County, Penn- 
in rS86 increased the number to twenty- -''< sylvania, March 29, 182S, a son of 
four. Mr. Frane is a prominent citizen of j Anthony and Mary Johnston. Here- 
he town hip, taking an active interest in j mained on the home farm until manhood, 
all public affairs, and has served his town- j where he was reared to agricultural pur- 
ship two terms each as trustee and assessor. ! bui - Ls - Octobei 3, 1851, he was united in 
lie and his wife arc members of the marriage to Miss Jane Deets, who was a 
Christian church. They have a family of native of the same county as her husband. 
eight children— Frank, Charles, Cora, John Mr. Johnston followed farming in his na- 
E., Edgar M., Mary, Ruth and Anna ! tive county till the year 1S5S, when he 
May. j came to Iowa, and alter residing in Chick- 


j asaw Count)* for six years he came to 
Ringgold County, and settled on the farm 
I in Liberty Township, which is still occu- 
<f?AMES C.ANDERSON, one of the act- ; P ; -d by his widow and family. His first 
ive and enterprising agriculturists of purchase in this county was eighty acres 
fefferson Township," Ringgold County, nf raw prairie land, which he improved, 
residing onsectioni: mYorkCoun- and at the time of his death had 21 acres 

ty.P nnsylvania, December 2, 1S48, a son of '■ of well-cultivated heel, besides twenty 
Edward Anderson, who was a] itiv. acres of timber land. He was very suc- 

?a ie State. He left Pennsylv cessful in his agricultural pursuits, both in 

parents about the year [853, thev locating nis farming and stock-raising, h 
in Uni .n County, Ohio, and th -re our jub- ••'•''m well stocked with cattle and horses, 
jeet grew to manhood on a farm, •.:: : re- His death was the result 

Ihiseducatioi ! I ich occurred on the 24th of July, 1886. 

i! marrii 1 in Ohio, O I 1-22,1874, While driving to Tinglcy with his wife and 

two other ladies, I is hi at a 

bin lei by the way, and ran away, resulting 
ii tin fatal injun to hims If a I tin 
, irv of his wife. < >ne of I 


to Miss Mare. M irtin 

, a in 

if Jamci 

Martin oi Union Cm 

ml v, 

tiiat Stal . 1 

M and Mrs. An ie; 

son 1 

lave b 'n borr 

thi 1 hi 

■s are a- full •'. 

cd near Rolla, the ball first hitting his 
hor; ■ and then his right leg near the knee 
joint, and was in the hospital at the time 
of his discharge, in July, 1865. He re- 
turned to Ogle County, and the following 
D 1 mbcr was married to Anna E\ 
native of that county. In the spring of 
1869. Mr. Frane moved with his family to 
Ringgold County, Iowa, and bought the 
farm where he now lives, containing 122 
acres on section 21, township 70, range 29. 
Since August, 1884, he has made a special- 
ty of the manufacture of cheese, and in 
the year 18S5 made 5,000 pounds. It is of 
an exceptional!}' fine quality, and finds a 


Edward II.. Clayton and James M. Mr. 
lerson came to Riiiy ;'ol I Count y, Iowa, 
in the fall of 1S74, and has since been a resi- 
dent of Jefferson Township. 1 le has always 
followed agricultural pursuits, and is now 
devoting his attention to general farming 

\ and stock-raising. His farm contains 140 
acres of choice land under a high state ol 
cultivation. II; has held the office of con- 
stable for foui years with credit to himself 

' and to the satisfaction of his constituents. 
He is a member of the United Presbyterian 

an exceptionally fine qu... 

ne. In 1S85 he milked 
lilk, but 

read) 7 market at ho 
thirteen c 

>ws and bought s 

Jurtecn cows and bought some milk, but 
in 1S86 increased the number to twenty - 
•our. Mr. Frane is a prominent citizen of 
his township, taking an active interest in 
all public affairs, and has served his town- 
ship two terms each as trustee and assessor. 
He and his wife arc members of the 
Christian church. They have a family of 
eight children- -Frank, Charles, Cora, John 
E., Edgar M., Mary, Ruth and Anna 


.. .■•''"-.---'■:•. ., 
« ■-. ■-,.■■■ * 

/"JAMES C. ANDERSON, one of the act- 
%\ ive and enterprising agriculturists of 
^ Jefferson Township, Ringgold County, 
j e idingi m sect ioni - ,\\ as b >rn inYorl 
ty, Penns; ivania, I >< 1 ember 2, [8jS : - m 1 if 
1 Iward Andei on, who was a i ti\ 

it ite. I le left Ik nnsylvania u ith i: ; ^ 
parents about the \ car [85 5, I In >• I 
in Uni >n Count) . ( )hio, and thei 

' gi e\v to manho >d on a far u ' re- 
cei > : ' ■ I ti ■ m mo I 

! I man ii I in ( )aio, ' >cto' r 22, 1874, 

l" Miss Maria M irtin, a 1 ighti 1 I ' 
' : Lin. of 1 fnion County, tint State. 1 
M ■' I Mrs. An lei on ha\ b 
Ihn i hi th n, wh 1 nam 

'OSHUA E. JOHNSTON", deceased, 
was born in Venango County, Pcnn- 
svlvania, March 29, 182S, a son of 
Anthony and Mary Johnston. lie re- 
mained on the home farm until manhood, 
where he was reared to agricultural pur- 
1 suits. Octobei 3, 1S51, he was united in 
marriage to Miss Jane Deets, who was a 
native of the same county as her husband. 
Mr. Johnston followed farming in his na- 
tive county till the year 1858, when he 
j came to Iowa, and alter residing in Chick- 
I asaw County for six years he came to 
Ringgold County, and settled on the farm 
I in Liberty Township, which is still occu- 
J pied by his widow and family. His first 
purchase in this county was eighty acre-. 
of raw prairie laud, which he improved, 
and at the tim if 1 
of well-cultivated Ian 

1 if timber Ian . as \ ei y s>uc- 

cessful in his agi icultural pui 

ha\ ing his 
farm well stocked with I I horses. 

: death was the result > 
which occurred 0:1 the 24th • I July, rS8 . 
'• di iving to Tim I wife and 

two oth . ' ;ht at a 

..;: ; : . 

• '; fatal injun to hims If a I 1 
I 1 ne of t 


; !iy hurl; the olhcr i | [ n _ •; ; 
injm ies. i [c was tak 

■ I i 1 1 v v 

by friends, neigh . I , 

1 ! Hows, b . h h dC ■:. ii i ited the 'p% 

here he now resides, i ion t, jt;>| 

days, in >s1 of the tiin in an u i • Grant 'J »\vn hip. : ncsenl de- ££ 

dying Augu t 9. tin 1 1 stock- I*? 

rhi .v folh 1 wing his death on his acres 

cession of citizen ; < I home, . of choi d in ?5 

the funeral services being 1 1 , who was i 

R \ r . \\ illiam Brown ol the United Pn in Penn . iSm, a &$. 

byterian church, at Eugene, win ighter of 

the sermon from 1 Cor. vii:;> ; -:i. Rev. ley, 1 itive , I this union ■ \ 

Main, of Tinsrlev, followed with n .-v. an- have b< n ! two dausrh- ■■ ' 

propriate words, presenting the deceased ters are marri . 11 Grant Town- [♦>: 

as a good citizen, g : ivolent, ship; ll n arc at- £3 

after which the order of Odd Fellows 1 >ok tending col . In la, Iowa. Mr. ££ 

id h ir usual service, lie was Stahl was tl in Granl 
followed to his grave by a large concourse Township, hi e Goshen ! 
of friends, the procession consis'ingi I 1 3 ; v.. taken an %S 
Lcaiiu-, i> 3 horses, and 355 pcopL. A large act:-, c interest in tl .. X: " his townsh 
delegation of Odd Fellows came from and by his hoi strict in- j££j 
Ml. Ayr and other places. Mr. John- tcgrity has gained tl .. t and con 
ston was fifty-eight years old when he died, dence of all who know him. 
and was a man who stood high in the es- 
timation of his neighbors, and his death ^w^v- ■■;<.. ; •' . vw~ 
was a source of universal regi thn ugh- 

out the township. He lefta wife and seven ~ r "XI.LiAM ITMBY, retired farmer, g 

children, all grown, to mourn his loss; the , ,j Ml. Ayr, 

names of the childi n bein as follows— ~:r : . Engl 

Winn I'^-.^rA^ . n-i of II. Fender; son of Thon iby. His £Q 

Myron A., now livi :g in 1 )maha, Nebraska; failn r 

! ' ... , ■ !■!.. 1 [enrv X. and Mai v. ' inured to the of 1 and his > 

> Xs own ; . 

-i «-j»j> X J';^..r- s- 1 1 . 1 I 

to Miss Mary A. Poii 1 . a 

[CI [AEL STAHL, one ol the old 11 ml h left Liver] or ■ j 

and li • i ' ild • • ■ 1 a > 

• ( " mnl v, and an active and publi< ' indi t J 

I citizen of Granl Township, \va; From New 1 to St. I 

born in Ohio September 17, 1S3), his par- I 

enl . John an i Eli jabcth (Hi tahl, County, Illim ■ 

b - arly pion rs ol thai I for a til ic, \ I 

Stn : 1 in tl :v 1 •'■ ■ >. farming, fol 

Our subji ct remained in his 1 lie I 

• ■ LD COl XT2: 

Ringgold County, Iowa, ,i, c l 

,v "'---- 1 ■" ' uuni v, io\\ a. and \ r .\ ;,, i n;„. 

Hecispos^oT, . :. . ± «l-»^..«"ct « 


■f3, wh « be ,c -cdV i i;; Zi e ; 

has since resided Ids '■ „ : 

residence bein« located in tl stock - H - f ^ 

the town HelnTbeen'' . ^ v " ' ! U '° ' ' ' "' ol Reddi "S- y »' 

licspirited , :...'■ V "'" MrS - 0sl ""hnvefivechildrenl] 

"tinanyente^ise^t K 2.rce',ri 

his <°» < y.nnd since beSr it' : 

:•- ;i - resident of Mr. Vvr ha<= hml, nmA • • 

W ^ebesl c] tthenlce l' f° "' H ' 

: '; thesummerof ^sehee^d/fin^Jo mcmhc ? oi «* S - and road 

ll story brick business house on the soutt i I ! '" '"""'' 

I " si ^ of the square, besides which ne ' - * ™ m f nced ^ "^ VCr * ,ittI « 

: ^e other houses in th set He „Sh « ^ ] ' ! nd ? ood n 

1 wife are active ^b^Sl^ ^S d a hne P-P^- Postoffice, 

cluirch > and respected citizens of the « lm . "' __-•" ■ 

'J. having gained the confiden ; , e em 

1 vi V hi^?T thein - ' niS -^ T -- TSAAC MARSHALL, farmer, s i 
: ; viMted his ok! home m Eng and, after an _ l ">* Middle Fori- T 
m absence of nineteen veirs J iv ~ 

lU1 > Caib> J - Warre ■ I • r> hidi ,ia, Julj 

^ 3 _.- , His parents, Tl D. ; ' Sallv fC 

^ '"" " " + "' : Marshall, .. 

"' V OSRO'-v r • rearecl : ' Ll -'" of eigl 

George His 

f: a d atl ■ ? ' 

i . ( ' :-';:r- '—— i 

' '"' ' "^- ' : ■ I . 


dau-hte-of f- • if ! ll ' y : 

Mere^ed f lr '. 

— I, in C, - 22 i 



u.U 3 , locati. , , 



it H 

• : 

■ < ■ 


• ■■'. 

* -: 


and Shrcveport. In February, 1865, he G . nment employ in the Quarter- 
was paroled and taken to New Orleai n masi 's Deparlm nt, ai ' the following 
was not able for duty again during the war. year wo irm. In Xo- 
Hc was honorably discharged in August, vcmb . i! i. he came to Ringgold < 
1865, at Keokuk, and returned home. He I when he boughl 1 :o acres, and at once 
was married January 10, [S64, to Mis c unm need his land. He still 
Nancy Moler, of Worth County, Mi: ouri, ' owns eighty acres 1 tl I purchase. His 
daughter of Phillip Moler. In the spring o! hon \w contains 200 acre 
1866 he located on forty acres of his present '■■ land ui ei fine cultivation. Mrs. llutchi- 

ich was then in a wild state. He ! son died Januarv ( 

at tl 

has since added to his original purchase forty-five years, leaving at her death a 

until he has 240 acres in a good state of , family of eight children — Mrs. Sarah Jane 

cultivation, and well improved. He lias a ! Hall, Mrs. Faunv M. Dille, George E., Mrs. 

good residence surrounded by shade trees, ' M;u\ Fertig, Cora, William, Sus . nd 

and. a fine orchard. Mr. and Mrs. Mai ; .:i!l 1 Mai;!, all living at home but the i 

have four children — William Parks, Eunice ' daughters. Isabel, the sixth child. died at 

M., Thomas P. and Grace. Edna. Mr. Mar- : the age of two and a half years. For his 

shall is a member of the Advent Christian j second wife Mr. Hutchison married Mrs. 

church, and in politics isa Republican. He 

is one of the leading citizens of his town 
ship. Postoffice, Ingart. 

ha (B ites) Day, in Decemb 1 1 

and to this union have been born two chil- 
dren— Edith and Adam Clark. Mr. Hutchi- 
son came to America a poor boy, I 
his industry, frugality and good n 
raenf he has prospered in his agricultural 
|fOI-IN HUTCHISON, an active and ! purS uits, becoming the owner of a fine 
±1 enterprising farmer of Rice Town- 1 property, and by hi I 
>--g : ship, living on section I S, is a native of | dealings has gained the confidenc 
County Antrim, Ireland, born March ia. entire community. Mr. Hutchis 
1S36, a son of George an 1 Fanny (Luke) [ x \ s ,-, [jgjous faith a Pn si yh rian. In p li- 
Hutchison, both of whom died in Ireland, tics he affiliate . tl 1 Republi an party. 
John Hutchison lived in his native country M r . Hutchison has I Id several 
lill nineteen year:- of age, ..are !m - '!-d ,_ g ,. : e years, thrc 

from lave- po >'. England, for Ai terica, as trustee, tw ■ . c\ ' . . 1 
hauling at New York City, July 8, [S55. dired >r thii 
He spent 1 : two years his residence positio ai | ■ 

in thi mntn tin Si 1 1 of New Jo 

where was I -»— 4 ===r— «»- 

He then came to Mel I County, 1 

lois, win . I in i to Miss 

i lei n D. (': 1 l native of Steuben * ||->- 1 2, Lott's Ci rn 

ty, New Vork, an 1 a daughter of J ..''■■■' 

Cross. After hi Mul 

11 farm in 1 1 ented land, which he 1 >rown, r a 

red until -. In th thai New Y< I I 

! j G v I 1 

I . . tl first year was in tl 

s ■ • 

■' • ■ • ■ ■ . 

i • K 




■■' ' he was about five yeai 

red I Knox County, Ohio, 
as reared and c dueated. He 
learnc d the c irpenter's trade .. hi 
lowed several years. Al th 
tvvi ' thi-e- he < irnin need ; hing, and 
h is taught several years in Ohio and Iowa. 
He was married April i, 1S5S, to Miss 
N 1 1C3 Kirkpatrick, a native of Knox 
County. In October, 1862, he enli -d in 
Company I). Sixty-fifth Ohio Infantry. 
! le participated in the battle of Stone 
River where lie was wounded on the right 
leg by a minie ball which he preserves as a 
relic oi the "late unpleasantness." 1 It- 
was confined in hospital foi some time and 
was honorably discharged in August, 1S63. 
He returned to Knox County, and in 1S66 
removed to Iowa and located at Mt. Ayr. 
In the winter of l866-'7 he settled upon 
his present farm, where lie has since re- 
sided. He owns 100 acres of land in a good 
state of cultivation and well improved. 
He has a comfortable residence, an orchard 
of two acres, a large number of shade 
trees, a good barn, and everything about 
the place betokens the thrift and enterprise 
of its owner. Mr. Brown has served as 
township trustee, township clerk, and. as- 
sessor with credit to himself and to the best 
interest of the township. He is a member 
of the Masonic order, Garnet Lodge, No. 
416, Caledonia. Politicallyhe ; ; In icn. 
dent. Postoffice, C decl 

He was educated in the common schools 
: at Parsons Col- 

lege, at 1 1,1 :.;:. In i860 he came 

• parents to Ringgold Counl 
th< n lo J m Township, \\ h< re 

our subject has since made his heme. He 
: ' ■ 24. 1 S83, 

[ to Miss Ida Osmond, who was born in 
Janesville, \\ isconsin, a daughter of John 
Osmond, who is now deceased- Mr. and 

j Mrs. Heat on are the parents of 01 

': Foss, born Februar} .1 5. Mr. Heaton 
hi ' farms 200 acres of land, of which he is the 

I owner of forty acres, renting the rest. He 
is one of the active and enterprising young 

\ men of Jefferson Township, and is at pres- 
ent serving as president of the School 

I Board, and filling the cilice of township 
clerk to the entire satisfaction of his con- 

j stituents. 

SOLOMON BEAR, farmer, section 16, 
/- > isom of the old pioneers o! Monroe 
r r ■ Township, who has been idc 
with the interests of the county nearly 
thirty years. He was born in Somerset 
Count}-, Pennsylvania, near the All 
Mountains. August 16, 18;. 2. His parents. 
Lewisand Mary(Keifei 1 Bear, were natives 
of the . ty, the former of ( 1 

ancestry. Thev were the parents of 
:< mi tc ( n childn a, : 'die eld- 

< ';. 


was six 

RNEST J. HEATON, farm, r an 1 

p.i stock-raiser, livin on: tion 22, Jel 
\ ferson To hip, i of 1 

born in Ji >n County, Ai 1 

. on 1 Re\ Edward B. H m 

thi pn it Ol '.:'•:. - ; 

C aire!), of J )es M 
Ei f. was reai eel to ngi 

suits which he ! is life' 

parents 1 1 moved 1 W< 
when he 
hool onl '■ 


ids. The y< 
his pn /as then in its 

1 1 ■ 


• if well-cultivated and improved Ian 1. 
porl i: m b ;ing rich botto i I i . : . 
Lott' Creek wafers the farm and renders 
.: ill he besl stock farms in the I 

ship. 1 le has an orchard of tl 

imount of willow, osage, an 1 h mcv 
locusl hedge, one ol th : b o native proves 

n ii 


c msistmg oi six acres, 

n >sth maple, a comfortal ■: : h < . nd oul 
buildings of all kinds for b >th stock an ! 
grain. He is engaged in stock-raisin [ and 
feeding. When he first came to Ring- 
gold County, provisions vert- scarce and 
high, corn was $1.50 a bushel and flour S) 
per hundred pounds. December 5, j 
Mr. Bear was married to Miss Sarah E. 
Walker, a native of Iowa, daughter of 
Henderson Walker, an old pioneer of De- 
catur Count_y. They had one son, Win- 
field Scott, .who is fitting himself for a pro. 
fe i m. Mrs. Bear died in January, 1S71, 
and in February, tS/2, he was married to 
Amanda Elvina Dewlev, a native ol Har- 
rison County, Missouri. Thev are the par- 
ents of live children— Dolly Ann, Nellie, 
Mary, Agnes, Franklin. Mr. Bear is a 
m iber of the Odd Fellows order, Mt. 
Ayr Lodge, No. 169, and politically is a 
10 j ublican. He is one of the pione< rs of 
the old type, plain an^I outspoken, : 

and hospitable in disposition, and is one 
of th< leading men in his township where 
he has so long resided. Postol , Bl; k- 

: 1 

" L. GLEASON, ph> i< i; 1 and sur- 
,' , ■ to n , I o w a , i native 

f* of Illinois, born S 
1$: >, a 5 m of D. R. and Marg 
G 1 in, tin . ' i \ 1 ' 1 - V 

an ! the lal ter of Indiana, 1 I ■■. reared in 

: ■ : iving 

tion, an 1 at th n if twenty 
Luch ;| 

oi Dv. |. 11. White, of Mt. Ayr, 

I in the winter of 1SS2-3 he al 

; I College, at < Cincinnati, 

Ohio, and in the winter oi 

il dep tment ( Dj I7nh 

■ Di Moin . ! >wa, rom . hi hi 

J inuary 24, 1SS4, receiving his di- 
ploma Jan.- 12 of the same year. !n 

' the spring of rSS ; h to at d ; 1 K< I 
and from that time his practii 

ised, until il b cams I ucrative. 

di il • 1 he went to Chicago, Illi- 
nois, and during the winter of 1S86-7 at- 
tended lectures at the Ben 
College, lie is reo ignizi I me of the 

promising young physicians of Ring . 1 
C mnty, an 1 alrea ly h Ids a i 

1 in the estimation of his bi 1 1 practition- 

' ers. He is ambitious, and devotes his en- 
tire time to his profession, that he may k< ep 
informed on all subjects of benefit to him 
in his practice. His faithful attends 
all cases entrusted to his care, an 1 ids 
cheerful, pleasant manner in tl 1 
room make him a welcome visitor to 
all needing ins services. He is a young 

1 man of pleasing address, and hi 

j manners make him poi ular wit 
people, and their social circle is ino 
win n his duties call him elscu 

W. SELBY, and 

j-'Y residing in id ati\ 

^•e\° cousin, 1 
County, - 
X. and Mary 

; • of G 

; try. Tl eft Ohio i 

■ w he re ! mad 


Count\ ' molh 

I I 

$$' ~>l HISTORY OF /.'.'... ;OLD COUXT2: 

Market, Taylor County, Iowa, where his i,i i 5S 01 I ; 1 he removed with his family 

leath occurred in 1SS5. R. W. Selby spent to Mcrcci ity, Illinois, and in 1S64 

boyhood days in Page County, receiv- \ wcnl to Id he was eng | 

g*j ing his primary education in the district mining till 1 mily came to 

|| schools, completing it al the high school Rin 'gold Cou ity, towa. The parents are 

;♦;>; at Corning, Iowa. He then entered tin now living in Jefferson Township. They 

££ office of Dr. Paschal, of Hawleyvilie, Iowa, had a family of three children, of whom 

•: .;; where he commenced the study of medi- our subject is the only one living. Theii 

( cine. He took his first course of lectures eldest son, Thomas, died in Idaho, aged 

jSl at Keokuk Medical College, and later at- twenty-three years, and their s 11, John, 

£■£; tended Rush Medical College of Chicago, ' died at the age of four years. William B. 

p% Illinois, graduating from that institution in Cole, the subject of this sketch, spent his 

pP t 1S83. He then returned to Taylor County, youth in assisting his father on the farm, 

J Iowa, where he commenced the practice 1 and received his education in the common 

•♦■;♦; of medicine, being actively engaged there iooIs. F< si >sequentl\- read law for a 

: till June, 1884, when he came to Tingley, ; time, and was admitted to the bar in 1SS0, 

jjjjjs Ringgold County, where he has applied j and practiced his profession for a while 

j«>< himself diligently to his profession, and by ; before the Justice, Circuit and District 

his strict attention to his patients he is '' courts. He is now devoting his a 

building up a good practice, and gives j to the duties of his farm, on section 16, Jef- 

>£ promise of becoming one of the leading \ ferson Township, where he has 142 acres 

> physicians of the county. The Doctor was I of choice land, and is meeting with success 
g* married in April, 1SS6, to Miss Minnie E. : in his general farming and stock-raising, 
•oi Rayburn, of Hamilton, Illinois, at the time j Mr. Cole was united in marriage May 22, 
j&tj ol her marriage, but a native of Keo- 1S76, to Miss Viola Bonebrake, a d 

V'; kuk, Iowa. In connection with his practice ; of (he late Samuel W. ! They 

g£j the Doctor has a half interest in a drug- > are the parents of four children— Ira T., 
$% store in Tingley, being associated with C. j Samuel C, Frederick 11. an ' an in 

C. Bosworth, the style of the firm being R. 
j*>; W. Selby & Co. Dr. Selby is a member of ; 

the Odd Fellows order, belonging to a 
y' : *; lodge in Page Count} - . * . P. LILLIE, of Kel 

• \ /r V i nent pioneer of Decatur and Ring- 
— \ Q g< Fl a >untk ••. w as b< >rn in A I 
( 1 iunty, ( )hi< >, 
fT-ILLIAM B. COLE, son ol Will- Lillie, I it, who immi- 

o \j iam and Eiizal .th (Buckingham) grated to New Vork - io. His 

K;«j ~ '-:, Cole, was born in Ro I ti 1, I ... 

. is, November 12, 1855. J!: - father wa a: reared in New Vork. H ; 

I** born in Killarney, Ireland, and in 1S40 1 -ared n Joseph, 

> ■■■ c ime to the 1 Inited State Benj 1 d Nim- 

• •' 1 achu ;tts. In 1S50 he went V 1 Calif' ir- r> ■ i. Rufus 1 '. . I : . F : - 

■.;'/■ nia, where h till ] turning early life was ] 

>>i U1 f ' K '-' >' c ;) ' ' 'F chusctts. i irn 1 red h 

j ) ear the) reim ived to La Salle < , and 

and ■ • .; d at Rock Island. . • .: . id ■ , to pay for the same. By 

~w ^iCCT>^Fy;^;Ce}-eOj^^^v^ 

Hi >i 

BIO ;ha PI IIC. i L S h t / c n t:s . 


I 'A 



improving his opportunities and study- 
ing al hi Miie, he received sufficient i lu< i 
tion to enable him to teach sen. ml. Ar- 
riving at the age oi manhood, lie was 
united in. marriage with Sarah Gilpin, a 
native of Morgan County, Ohio, and 
daughter of Jonas and Nancy Gilpin. In 
1S56 Mr. Lillie, with wife and four chil- 
dren, came to Iowa by team, first locating 
in Decatur County, Eden Township, where 
he resided two years. In 1859 Mc ' removed 
to Woodland Township, and one year 
later returned to Eden Township, where 
lie resided at the breaking out of the civil 
war. He enlisted August 2, 1863, in the 
Ninth Iowa Cavalry, and was transferred 
by request to Company G, Fourth Iowa 
Cavalry. He was in the engagements at 
Tupelo, Old Town Creek, Hurricane Creek, 
Bear Creek, Independence, Missouri, Big 
Blue. Little Blue, Mine Creek and where 
General Marmaduke surrendered, near 
Fort Scott, on Wilson's raid from Selma, 
Alabama, audi Monte Valley, Ellerton, 
Plantersville, Ebenezer Church, and sev- 
eral others. He was mustered out in 
August, 1865, at Atlanta., Georgia, receiv- 
ing his final discharge at Davenport, Iowa, 
then returned to his home in Eden Town- 
ship. His wife died a few months before 
he returned from the service. She was 
the mother of six children — Charles W.. 
Lorenzo Dow, Lewis C, William J., 
G orge C. and Rufus P. From iS<: Sun- 
til 1872 Mr. Liilic was engaged in con- 
tracting and 1 inkling. He \\ as m 
second t ime, Februai v 1 5, 1S72, 1. 1 X. J. 
McDonald, a native of Perry ( 
< >hii >. The v .. iv / 1 me child- - Man M \ r- 
tle. In 1S72 Mr. Liilic located in Bloom- 
ton row hip, hen I - 1 1 i : 
1SS4, th d to K< he-: e in, wl ' 

o\\ ns a fine 1 esidence, one and a half 
sti 11 ies in hci ' finished in m< » l< rn style, 
md well fui nish< d. He o\\ ns a go 
11 Bloom " . i < iwnship an I 1 1 

property in Davis City. I Iris a member 
ll ( ; 1 rem] n'der, and is politi- 

cally a Rej ublii an. B\ lair and honorable 
he has secured the respect (-1 all 
who know him. 

ILLIAM M.WOOD, a leading farm- 
er 1 il Washingti m Tow nsl 
native of Michigan, born in Hills- 
dale ( ' sii.tv. November 24. 1837, a son of 
1 li and Abigail (Jackson) Wo id, na- 

tives of New York, where they were mar- 
ried, and in 1852 the} moved to Mi 
and made that State their home until their 
death. They were the parents of nine chil- 
dren,: ren of whom lived till mn ity, out 
subject being next to the youngest. He re- 
mained in his native county until - ;ht 
\ : : of age. Pie received a good educa- 
tion, attending the < imraon 1 . >;s, and 
later the Michigan Central College. After 
leaving school he began leaching, which he 
continued several years. Hetl 
in farming and in the mercantile 
in Warren County, Illim i , wli n '. spent 
thirti n years, and '.: nn tli re 1 oved to 
Jasper County, Iowa, and for two years 
lived on a farm near Prairie City. Selling 
his farm he moved to Montgomei y Count) . 
where he lived until 1S82. He owned a 
farm of 320 acres near Red Oak, and cn- 

rcly in i : 1 1 I 

; ig one of tl 
terpri in 1 con : 

Madison ( • »unl y, > 
vo and ; ■ - 

1 lit the farm wl 

1 i v c s , ( > n c i o n 8 I 

! 1 conl 

1 pasture and 

finest bi 

I : 1 ' 



' . 

Msrojtr <■>• ,v/.\, • ■... D COUNTr 

\ soshorl a Lime, is ranked .vitli hci n 

■ " Pros] mms citiz . . . -,: is 
: » ov - servuig as trustee of Wash 
: township: Mr. Wood was married i, 
'Anme R.Waggoner, daughter ol I 

enShermnn) U'a-o-nuer, ,| Warren 

Th < V have three children 

County, Illi tl 

: ; -AHce J., wife of Solomon Layton. Leon 

m h - ;ii, ' ! Ldn A. Mr. and Mrs. Wood an 

|| 7 mb ,^ of the Methodist Episcopal j 

£■£ church. j 

*«4 Jfc 

i ; ;: ;1 ^' rownship, was bom in Bedford 
■ - County, Pennsylvania, December i ± : 
,S -9- His parents, Benjamin and Maroa' 
rci (Kendall) Gibbonev, were also natives 
g§ of Pennsylvania, residing there until 1838, 
ivhei, tliey moved to Licking County, Ohio, 
i • , " ir ° m there i!1 May, 1846. to Louisa 
'$$ Y ouni Y> Iowa, where our subject attained 
: his majority. In 1856 he went to Kansas 
1 • a "^ I'vedin that Slate- and Missouri until 
;♦;.*: the breaking out of the war of the Rebellion ! 
£$ In J une ' lS6j . he went to Pert Leaven- : 
'$$ worth and unlisted at the first call for three j 
£$ >' cais ' volunteers, and was assigned to ' 
-0^ Company C, First Kansas Infantry. He 
.** Participated in the battleat Wilson's Creek 

>•. ' ; ''i », [a man 
" i; "' : and Sarah A. Butler' 
' I • had two children-Be. 

• "'ho died in infant v \ 
18,-4, and Sarah Marg t, 1 

Irs. Gibb mey is a mei 
" :;: '" ;: ' I P" ' 'pal church. Mr. 
Cib ney is a member of G 
X "- 4i6, F.& A. M., and Ellis C. 
P° t, G. A. R. In politics he i n Repul 
J,( ' ; "- He was one of the patriotic" Free- 
^ate" men who fought under fim L 

^ from having slavery forced* 
u Pon her by the slaveholders of the - 
and has in the past suffered much for the 
cause o{ freedom and the Union. Mr Gib 
honey's father died in Muscatine, I 
rS5o, and his mother in Sepl 
He has three sisters living-Mrs. FJ 
K Crown, of Riley Township; M 
G. Crow and Mrs Sarah M. Woodruff, of 
Lom ™ County. His only brother, fames 
B. Gibboney, was a very prominent 
1 ol Louisa County, and at the time of 
h^ death was county auditor, ap ,-ition he 
had filled ten vears. 

where the 

tnt Gen . I \ 

:< - kl!IecL Hls regiment lost heavilv, Com- 

p£ P a ."3' (: having twelve men kill'e I and 

;<:*: thlrt 3"-six wounded. Mr. Gibbonev was 

l<: shot through the right arm, and o cl 

•- as . tonCl ' . I 

• ! ce,vcs a pension of §10 a month. Aft, r his 

; - discha ■:.- returned to Loui 

j ' and w , , beat, I . , 

»>: buying his pr< :nt horn : ! ,-] 

■ ]■■■ csoj ■ ,d land, 

;;■♦; hasorougluun lercul 

! : : ' " '1 : :>' b a, eh: it. H ea 

» '- of valuable ,. , | :1 d . M] , 

b ' I 'J '■•: , , . 

Amelia A. Butler, , . 

, ,\:'.r: '^::'*':? < ~ff*« 

ffOHN DUKES, resid 
(p l ni °n Pownship, is a native ol Ei - 
"* land, born in M . 1 

1 '. '- a son f v l 1 

• He was r u d to n 

Am ti ,, and Ma } , 4 , , : . ;, 

Illinois, where he lived n\ • 



ary 13., \. 

:• 1 






' ":;:. ,d J° hn - ^nukescame He low has , ■ ■ , f , 

? okl "? r f old "; : / J - : '• : I. ' ,i„cvard 

i bought eighty aci md small frui 

farm, on which he settled in 1S7S. H ha ■ , I fan 

since aoded to his ongmal purchase till he marrh 1, Man h ,. , . to Mi - M ,rtl 1 

litival in 
and Monroe tow 

nas now 320 acres wmch h< I ts improved Miller,; daugh t of Nathan Millei 
tTO _ m the raw prairie, all being un ier good sketch appears elsewhere in 

Hisfarmisl : : Union They are the parents of 5 ix children— 
. . »P ; ; 'acres bciii: in Hugh F,. Sarah A.. Ernest, ! 

cacht iwnship. Both Mr. and Mrs.Dukes ' and Lester E. Mr. S 

abers of the Methodist Episcopal as I unship clerk, a member of tl 
c mrch. In politics he affiliates with the : Board, and is a worthy member of the VI- 
RepuMican party. By his straightforward vent Christian church, ot which he is <=ec- 
Ii tr. Dukes has, during his residence in , retary. In the general conf 
the county, won the respect and esteem of ' clerk of the church. He start d in li : 
all who know him. In 1SS0 the parents of | without mean.-, but by working out by 
Mr. Dukes came to him from England, the the month and teaching twelve or f 
m .thcr dying at his home September 25, terms, he was able to purchase his first 
1883, aged sixty-four years. In November; Ian 1. Politically he is a Democrat. I 
1SS5, the father returned t 1 England. His office, Ingart Grove, 
brother George has twice visited this coun- 

{] >- y maining some years each time. He -*Vr- -.--::.'" >.—. c^. 

returned to England in July, 1SS3. Another ! 

brother of our subject, William, died in fSAAC OLIVER, farmer, seel 
Minnesota in 18S3, and is buried in Monroe ! : j Monroe Township, is among the 
rownshio. this countv. ; - gent and enterprising 

tow ' ip. He was born in A 
County, Ohio. September 29, iSe;. His 
parents were D 

£T J. SHOWALTER, farmer, section 23, Oliver, natives of Pennsylvania. *T 
-/[ Middle Fork Township, was born in | were married in Ash' 

3 Putnam County, Indiana, January i, reared a family of eleven chil 
;" 17. son of Nimi 1 1 and Sarah (Sh im- ' whom Isa ic is tl third. [-] 

S ' owalter, natives of Virginia, spent on the farm, an 1 his 1 
He .vas the third of seven children, ai ; | 

P - : his early life in assisting on the 1 1 rri. d A] ril 4, 

• ' ' 1 obi A 1 h • ed 1 iti 1 1 in th ■ Biacl lore, ; orn in Beaver ( 

' ■ '>■ 

tae a- : of nine! , j L rs he c im ■ to Rin 
go ■ ' on ity . : e : i n Middle Fork j ] Mr. O 

townsh p. Hisfi] urcl bv rail .... R ck isl 

t'h .. 

, and sold in 1S75. He then 1 

, rhi i s 1^, 

lanothei lity since 



r//s: >y. r of /,/ vcgold couxtt. 

■■ •: 

: -: 

: : 


present farm, winch was then in a wild 
si, itc. ] le w a - the first sett! in Monroe 
Township. There were bui few voters in 
the county. Mt. Ayr had one log store 
i.} \ 14. Here Mr. Oliver passed through 
all Hie privations and hardships ol pioneer 
life. Groceries and Hour were very scarce 
tnd hi '), and he had to pay as high as 
§10 a barrel for salt. His farm contains 
160 acres of as good land as the township 
affords, under a high state of cultivation 
and well improved, lie- has a good resi- 
dence, a hue orchard of 700 tre< s, a native 
grove and out-buildings for stock. Mr. 
and Mrs. Oliver have one child — Franklin 
Perry. Mr. Oliver is a consistent member 
of the Methodist Episcopal church, and is 
serving as trustee of the same. Politi- 
cally he is a Republican and cast his first 
vote for General Scott. Postoffice, Black- 

;ORINGTON CHANCE, one of the 
successful farmers of Washington 
Township, and a representative of 
one of the oldest families of Rin 
County, was born in Richland County, 
Ohio, near Loudonville, the date (.if his 
birth being October 19, 1S35, a son of 
Joshua and Marv A. (Jump) Chance. The 
father was a native of Maryland, and an 
early settler of Ohio. He remained in 
Ri land County until the fall of 1S56, 
when he removed with his family to Ring- 
gi >ld ( '< Hint v, li icat ing 1 >n raw prairie land, 
on section 36, Washingti m "J nvi hip, 
h :re he buill . mall hewed 
[4 x 16 feet, and 1 . ■ i hi 1 id, 

on which he lived till his deal h, in 1858. 
i n moth 1 survived till 18; 1, l"l ■■■. 
\ 1 re the pai ent s of lliP 

.. ; : ol win 1111 yet survive 1 
William I !• nry, wh 1 died in ll 
1 ; count iw durii I late war. D 
\< m I'nan.v, tin 

> ' 1 • id in his native coun- 

t \\ reci i . the ( ommon 

he L iud< >nville Ai 

I 1 .. ; . He came 

to Ringgold County, Iowa, with hi< | 
in iS- illowed farming till 

! 1 • I year he crossed the plains to 
( )i 1I1 irado, rem I re two years, when 

he went to California, ■• h re he was en- 
;aged in frei itin ig in hay 1 ill 

[S66, wh 11 he re tin ned ti - Ringgold 1 1 
ty, Iowa, and soon after pun the old 

liomesl liisp ; 

in March, 1 >8, to Miss Sarah M. Lewis, a 
native of the State of New York, and a 
daughter of Nelson Lewis, of Ri 
County. They are the parents of six 
children— Myra L., Marv E.. William F., 
Oliver II.. Theressa J. and Coletta, all of 
whom have received good educational ad- 
vantages. Mr. Chance has met wit 
cess in his agri< ultural pursuits since 
making hi h >me in Ringgi 1 I < 'ounty, and 
is now the owner of a fine farm containing 
240 acres, all under fenc I ly culti- 

vated. In connection with his \ 
farming he devotes con-' 
to the raising of stock, m I pecialty 

of thorough-bred cattle. Mr. > 
never aspired »r offi 
elected and served as 1 iwnship tru 
Washingtoi I ov 1 hip for •• 

credit to him tituents, when 

he resigned, and ha : his lime 

to the duties ol his 


I J /. ■■ ' 13 live of 

- •'-'' Cass C - ' bot Oc- 

I .. (St\ les) D 
Eri County, ■ 



' • 



i b irn four sons— Walter, Fr; • , I . . . , -, ,, rycd 

■ Charles B, ol whom Charles L3. is d : so time as city councili ' is , oa I 

ccn :d. Barton B. Dunning, father of our membei of the School Board. He and 

C*; subject, passed his. youth in his native State, his wil . |"i st jjj 

where he was reared to agricultural pur- | Epis opal church, oi which he has been 

H suits, and when a young man he went with : trustee and steward fur i an) 

his parents to Michigan, where he improve I 

a large farm. He learned the cooper's 

trade, which he followed in Michigan, and 
j*| subsequently removed his business to Chi- ^ L. BOXHAM, an enterp 

- coo P ( ' ■^AA^vvueC^; J^^^vi^-vw- 


. cago, Illinois, where he engaged in the j j. Ringgold County, engn e 

nanufactu re of barrels. He was one of t^ lumber bt i Gosh is a <on 

I ic early settlers of Ringgold County. ; of S. II. and Susan Bonham, wh, 

bringing Ins family here in the spring ol natives of Ohio, but for forty-seven years 

[855, before Mt. Ayr was laid out. He I have made their home in Iowa. 1 .. I 

jm; was the first merchant in Mt. Ayr. bring- ham was born in the State ol Iowa, April 

■ mg his first goods from Keokuk, Iowa, j 29. 1842, a native of Mahaska County. He 

£>{ and in connection with his mercantile busi- | was reared on his father's farm, n 

jgjj ness he dealt in real estate and carried on '■ a common-school education in the school* 

j*3 farming and stock raising. He was one of of his n ! iod. At the age oi 

! the most active and enterprising citizens ' years he enlisted in the service of his 

of Mt. Ayr, and was one who helped to I try in Company I, Twenty-? 

. u, .ui./ui, caiu uub one wno neipea to 1 try m Uompany I, Twenty - i Iowa 

£♦; give the town an early impetus He died ; Infantry, and participated in the sie-c of 

jgj in Mt. Ayr in 1877. His widow still sur- Vicksburg. After being in the service i£< 

k!| \ 7i y es - Da 3' Dunning, whose name heads ; three years he was mustered out and re- I . 

this sketch, was quite young when he was | ceived his final discharge at Daven a, W 

brought by his parents to Mt. Ayr, and ■ Iowa, lie then return"] to his home in 

jm! diere he was reared, receiving his educa- ( Iowa, and April 26, iSi . married to 

£3 tion -in the schools of ]\It. Ayr. At the age ' Mary E. Welsh, a daughter of Henry and 

". ol eighteen he began farming and dealing Laura (Walker) Welsh, • - . 

£*; in stock under the direction of his father, of Pennsylvania. !• .Bon 

■ : i later left the farm and engaged in the of Iowa, born D 

mercantile business, in partnership with : Mr. and Mrs. Bonham I ive : n 

. Andrew Ingram, with whom he was as- nine children— Irvin W. \va 

s« ited under the firm name of Ingram <.\ ecu-;. and died April 5, ] 

Dunning for live years, when the) dis- was born D ceml I ! ... ,rn 

1 ! of their business. Mr. Dunning was Ma) 25, 1S70; 

1 :cl in 1870 to Miss Paro la Keller, a 25, 1872 ; I 

1 erof I. \V. Keller, and to this unio ; born 1 

■ been born eight children. In the fall January 21, ] , | 
1 1 . after the death of his brother, 
1 ' " B. Dun ling, who ha 

-' iheCiti is I . ; 1 farmin • • . . 

Day Dunning <■ >k 1 harg , business, follow. until 1 . IJ 

an I s • , :; ,; ,. : - b , ■ 1 ., 1 , • 

r, and has since A R 


■•■■■' ■ ' ..... 


I lis present businc .and ; on 

In his ] ' . • : . . ' ■ : . 
;♦!>: the G iback irty. He be] 
r, he ing a ■ 
bei L tgc No. 53. at Gcs! 1. 

to 1 Good Templars 
- ■■ Goshen, an 1 is a c omi a ; Con 

g| nell) Post, No. 285, G. A. R, Both Mr. 
!♦>< and Mrs. Bonham are members 0; the 
&£< Christian church. 

HOMAS M. HAL],, an old and hon- 
^^ </ i : ored pioneer oi Ringgold I 


Co 1 
a : 

nty, North 


ments of ai 

' ' 

and ■ 

r~ was burn 
Carolina, Septemb :i '. 1 ; 
and Rebecca Hall. When he was three 
year;; of age he was taken by his parents ; 
to Jackson County. Indiana, and there he 
grew to manhood. His youth was spent 
in working 0:1 the home farm, and in his 
time h ; attended the clisti ii i ; :ln 1 .! ;, 

where he receive 1 but the rue... 
education. In 1853 he was married to Man , 
Ann Guthrie, a daughter of Samuel and 
Thirza Guthrie, and to this union were j 
born five children — Mrs.Theadocia Mi rrill 
of Redding, Ringgold County; Samuel S., 
livin , in Benton Township; Thcora Ann, ! 
deceased wife of I. N. Long; Thirza Ann, 
deceased; Rebecca J., wife of Thon J 
Jon .of Benton '! • >\\ n >hip. Mrs. i Lai 
died Febi uai \ 7. 1 Mr. ]-] 

again marri ' September : ,1871, ■ Mi 

I ) E. Golliday, a native > ■: I 
XV ht n : in ...- ; taken 

■ :' ! »hn and Dicy G lay, 
• ■ ■ '■ in, 

' I ibsequcntl 


L of 1 

.•)rn ir ciiil 

May. Joh 

Bui few lain. 
: - 
Jr. Hall cam 
. on his present farm, 1 

i : November, 1; ■■. . 

ment of the 

. year with great int< 1 ! . \ 

: re vi 
. 1111 1 ire other 1 

able hoi 

in comfortable circumstances. He 

n much respected through ml the 

county, and his m 113 manly qu iti I ■ 

: nl 1 ali \vh 1 kni i\\ him. He is 

:r oi the Christian church. Mrs. 

a member of I 

pal church. 

daughter Benj id Mar- 

'■;.■;.: I '■ lall)l 

1 if Fra icis E. Gibboney, ol Rile}' Town- 
ship, was born in Bedl y, Penn- 

: 1 1, March iS, 
her parents settled in Licking County, 
Ohio. Sh : va married M 
to Nicholas T. Bi own, vho 
B > >ne C iunl v. K enl ;. y. Jauuai 
Th conn 

Co u n ty , I o w a, w 1 
of M r. Bro v 1 

I I 



. 1 




; it I ... ... 

t! ling hi nib i :rchan1 

ty. In his political vi v. ; 1 ainlia 

tii G c n ba c k pa r ty . H ' t o t h c 

Odd Fell rs or t", a cl 

be i f Lodge No. 53, at ishen 

b li m: ; to the Ctoi id T< mplars order at 

( I i, ani ) is a < omrai Ic of James C n 

Post, No. 285, C. A. R, Boll 
an I M rs. 13 >nham are ml of the 

Clu istian church. 

' HIOMAS M. HALL, an old an i hon- 
ored pioneer 0; Ringgold * 
frp. was bom in [radel Count) - , North 
Carolina, Septemb :r S, 1 i •■'. a 
and Rebecca Hall. When he was three 
5 ij age he was taken by his parents 

to J '. i< m C lunty, Indiana, and there he 
grew to manhood. His vouth was spent 
in working on the h >me farm, an I in his 
spare time h :atl :nded the disl rici hools, 
v, Iiei he received but the rudi 
i- hi ation. In 1853 he was married to Mary 
Ann Guthrie, a daughter of Samuel and 
Thirza Guthrie, and to this union were 
born five children — Mrs.Thead 
of Redding, Ringgold County; Sam 

;: Benton Township ; Thci >ra Ann, 

e of 1 ■-' I . : Thii za Ann, 

; : ! ; eb ca J., wif : of Tl J. 

Jones, ol Be 1 hip. M rs. 1 fall 

died Fcbru 7, \ , an I Mr. !: 

married, Sepl : . 

■! . ) II. Golliday, a native ol I 

,vas taken I) c r 

• . ! ihn and Dicy < 
County, ) , 

H . , 

motiiei is still a i 

an 1 Di M .. l\ and 

at th .But few fam- 

rithin the limits of Ri 
. : 1 enl farm, 
; hip, in No 55, and 

Lhe growth : 
ted I 

linly by 
able 1 

: in com fori 1 .He 

is a man much respected through 

and h 
en leai ed him to all 

a 1 mber of the Christi n church. Mrs. 
1 [all is a member of the Meth I 

pal churcl 

-~ t2* : -z*S&l ^-i"^-* - -:^-^ • - 

1 : 1 Mar- 

garet (1 
ol Fro k is E G ibo :y, of Rile) - 1 • . n- 
ship, was born in B ' .'. Penn- 

1, March 1 S, 1822. 1'-. 1 
her pai its settled i 
Ohio. She wa m . 
to Nich »las T. B wti, vho \ 

1 unity, 1 
Tli com 

o? Mr. B i\\ 

I : 



William II.. of Ruth County, Xebra identified with all that pertains to th 

j hn X., of Riley Tow uship \ / . ut of the phu 

( unity, Indiana ; G< oi g< I.., of Bi 1882 ■ ■ :,,,- of Rin 

■ . . Cal : >rni 1 ; < ) r and Josepl County, and 1 

dono County, Caii 1 nia. John X. election. He is a 1 tl 

eldest child al In mie, and afl fhi fraternil lg and 1 

:" the father he took charge of his the lodge and en :ampm :nt of the < I 

mothers property. In iS< > he came to lows order. He is ; m mb tl 

ild County and bought a hom on copal church, being confirmed b\ ; ' 

secti ■■;; 10. Riley Township, where they ! Lee, in 1 
lived together until after his marriage, 

: he made a separate home forhimsi 1 ^Xeld^-- 5 - 

Mrs. Brown's homestead contains eighty 

acres f good land, and in addition to thi • T D. CARTER, propri tor of 

she owns twenty-two acres of timber laud \ I A alley stock farm, resides on section 

John X. Brown was married April 21, 1S72, <^f a 27. Benton Township. Perhaps no 

to Mary E. Moulton, and has six children | name among the pioneers of Ringgold 

-Edgar A., Perry ()., Lenora, Ora O., | Count}- is more familiar to the early set- 

Effie Belle and Jacob. He owns a fine : tiers than is that of Mr. Carter, wl 

farm of 505 acre-, and is one of the active | been identified with its interests for m >re 

business men of the township. He is a than thirty years. He was born in Ross 

leading member of the Christian church. : County, Ohio, December 2;, 1824. His 

I lather, Thomas Carter, was a native of 

< _ c -. t ^..v^/\„r r ,. i I Loudoun County, Virginia, and his moth r, 

I Harriet (Davis) Carter, was a natr 

.^AMUEL BAILEY, M. D., located in | Ohio. They were married in Ohio, I 

\^\ Mt. Avr, Iowa, in March, 1870, and ' reared a family of eight 1 


sas built up a go-ad practice, having ' and three daughte • ■ r was the 

gaine 1 the confidence and esteem of his ; second child. When he wn 

patrons and brethren in the profession. He , his parents removed to Tippecanoe C n 

is a native of Rock Island Count}-, Illinois, j Indiana. He was reared on a farm, and 

born September 1, 1851, a son of James I educated in the common scl In 1S43 

and Anna (Biakely) Bailey, natives of Ire- the family removed to tl 

land, who came to America in th ir vouth, of Iowa, local 

a-. a were married in Rock Island. His they re ■. . id in t 

father die d w hen he wn infant three ! n 

n old, and he was rearc 1 by his land kn »wn t! ■ !• Hawk Pi 

- 1 d mi ither, and v. as gb en th In 1 ■ ' A. . ( ' 1 

fit 1 il a goo 1 edu< al ii in. He b n I ei ' r John S. 

; me licine with Dr. J. H. Scylcr, S It, 1 ! • . 

Pree npli' >n, Men tr County, lllino to bn : 1 : 1 ' 

: [ii c ntly e ntered R u d ed i cal j E D 

College, Chicago, I Hi noi rom which 1 

. ■ nary, 18; 1 1 ; i 1 he imp ] 

after Ids graduation lo 1 , 1 ith M Pris- 

Ayr. w I :, for seven years, he 1 


£j 01 io, an i lai - I - I John and S irah als > 5 mie tin ' irt horns. On 

V C nton, w ho cam : :>> Iowa i:i r';\ M;. ; : , of the best 

jtf Carter 1 d ii V. 1 lo < and at- horses and cattle in Ringgold Count}'. : 

tended I • his farm duties until the first resident 

% n :\vsof gold being 1 md in C : 1 ern le and ~s >*i 

received, when he joined the first company for '. orchard, etc. Politically Mr. \ 

that started for that golden shore, leaving ( •. -is a Republican, and has always * 

.; a wife and two children at home to await 1 l-hoi s"eversince \ 

«| his return. They started in April, [S49, 1 > to tl inty. lie served as 

i with ox teams, arriving in Sep! nb th< n of B ol Supervisors four I 

< same year. He at once engaged in mining, years, and just t or ten ££ 

J meeting with good success in gathering the years. Mr. and Mrs. Carter are the pan I 

*j golden ore, and a year later he returned to ofsixchildi n John T., Day, Harriet Ell a, 

jj his home in Fairfield. He was the first ' Mary L., Eliza and Priscilla. JaneandSarah j 

£ Cali fornian to return. In 1S55 he removed are deceased. Mrs.Cartt died ii 1 :, and I 

£ to Ringgold Count}', entering a p irti m of in January, 1883, i: '-' was married to Mrs. 

n his land in June of that same year, and set- Phebe Martin, a sister of his former wii . 

Jj tied upon it in tiie fail. His first dwelling Mr. Ca iter has won many friends, and no &<{ 

% was a log cabin, 16 x iS feet, and it consti- man in the county stands higher p 

tuted kitchen, dining room, parlor and , or socially. 

sleeping rooms. In the fall of 1859 1 '-•'" 

elected sheriff, and took the oatl ^^mV^Q^^^^o^jI^^^ 

% January 1. 1866. He served creditably for | 

'• two years. At the breaking out of the I ^fOHN DICKSON, one of the leading 

g civil war he was one to -go forth in ' '.'■ j farmers of Ring* ■ ' ; Count}', and a i 

2 defense of union and liberty. He en- • pioneer settler of Union 

« listed August 9, 1802, in Company G, where he still resides, on section 34, was ] 

\\ Twenty-ninth Iowa Infantry. He par- born in Crawford County, Ohio, Novem- 

* ticipated in the engagement at Helena, ber 10. 1827, a son of G les &£ 

Arkansas, and was with Genera! S( :c!e's Dick; >n, who ai I. Oui 

division in the Red River expedition ; wa: rm, re- 

j at the battle of Saline, where his horse was maining with his parents till 

shot from under him : w as at ti ; n of age. H 11 to ] : 

Js Mobile, Blakcley, and the Spanish Fort . ber, tS; >, and tli 1 

\- where tl regii t lost 1 . ' ; .. t1 cb i i . 

I Wli igagement of tl ' 

His regim ,;i w as in t went \ -nine hi rd- folio ,\ ; '- ; pring 1 
1 • . He was h 
t; charged Vugust, 1 

►| his 1 resume hi lu : 1 ' 1 i i feci 

'r. farm. Plat te Valley farm conl I lie I : 

acre of as rich Ian 1 as can be found in 

ci null v. Mr. (".:: ■ . ' 
i cialt )• of fine stock, in c< 

►; w i ih t h 1 o tl ■ ■ . ; : '< ' i 

len .! Norman I Indiana, born in 1S51, i 



' '. Ri hard A. Chow, an earl\ s ttler o' dealing in marble, and later d( ll in o : 
: County, Iowa, who i : ■■ orange tr ;. i - came to Iowa, and in 

. I ; U a mty, in i ■■ fo Mr. i >; settled in Malm , - w ' i i • lie 

and Mrs. Dickson have been born thre ; til] Ihe spring of 1870, since 

. 1— Jennie, Opal and George. In which he has ii nl ■ Ri 

M politics Mr. Dickson votes the Democrati I unty. Hi i I icated on secti n ; 

.- ';■ tick t. He is widely known throughout Washington Township, where he 1 
_■■', Ring-g< Id County, and ranks among its aci ■ land, all under fence and 

\ ". best agriculturists. Quiet in manner, un- well improved, Mr. Harvey having changed 
_. indu trious and strictly honor- 1 his farm from raw prairie to well-cultivated 
: his dealings, he has gained the : fields. In connection with hi 
*j confidence of all with whom he has busi- ! farmino - he devoted considerable attention 
|J$ ness or social intercourse. In 18S0 the to stock-raising, mn 

£-% father* Mr. Dickson visited him in Ring- ! in which he is m< ting with success. Mr. 
£-3 gold County, and died at the residence of ■ Harvey was married in February, 1856. to 
t$ Ids daughter, Margaret Walters, near Miss V. E. Erkenbrack, a nativi tl 
sm{ Mount Ayr, August cS of that year, in his : of New York, but at the time of her mar- 
5$ eightieth year. The mother's death oc- riage a resident of Ogle County. Illinois, 
curred some two }-ears before that of her ; To this union have been boi 1 tl 
huso: nri. dren — Frank S., living in Jasper County, 

..- .'■";.-"'■■'. c. . I Iowa; Jennie E., married Herbert W. 

*"' '•■'..-',. ■■-. .-•■ ( '' ' Marsh, who is now deceased; and Ray E., 

at home. Mr. Harvey lias he! 1 the o 
■ iLLIAM A. HARVEY was born in I of justice of the peace four years, and is 
' j \ Licking County, Ohio, near New- ' sti'd holding that office. He has been a 
- -'S aide, July 12, 1826, the third child of member of the Methodist Epi al churcl 
i*'£j James and Mary A. (Billingsley) ! lai vev, ! for forty-two years, and has been 
\ :■ the father a native of Mas-viand, and the ! of his church for many years. Mrs. Har- 
jj-iji mother of Licking County, Ohio. When vey is a member of the same 
\ *i he was two years old he was takeri by his Mr. Harvey comi tenced 
£.3 parents to Tazewell County, Illinois, and count, entirely without meai and has by 

his own efforts accumulated his present fine 

a farmer by occupation. In propi tv, 1 ;oming one 

I i ■ he alt nded the common schools j men 1 

( a mnty, and later sp< nl t wo ed citi; . In politics 1 

R ick Rivi ' h ivei sity, in Ogl an old-lii \\'\ 1 a Re- 

( . . ' noi s, ha vin pre vio to hi pub) i nee 1 1 

I ■ terms to defray his ex- ! part v, casl 

at that in Zachary Taylor. Mr. 

I n he foil , I tl ■ . - • 

I 'S pi for a liana i le wtl! tl 

I ' ' I i 1 . Co. 1 the I k Hawk 

years, ; .vhich v. ar. Th 

he I 1 in Fei iri; , Illinois, I 1 j ty, Ohio 1 ! 

iness. Later he engaged 
I . , a f te r w h i ch h c b M i 1 Ir 




s >nsnn I tcrs. I \ 

i ' I ,r\ A. Bil 
■ i . 
' '■ ' ' : 

on:l son of this union. 1 

to Ta ' , •:. 1 Hi- 

!1 ■'■-. i:: 'S, 

lii! thi : 


i i the principal 
' ~ I Rim „ ild C 'iml y, is a nath e 

. C ity, Ohio, b in I i , 

rS.29 His parents were 
' \ ix n) Ji ihn i' >.!. hi f ither : 
pensburg, Pennsylvania, and his 
near Si nl rivil :, Ohio. Th \ ! i I . 

_! their ma; riage, and 

.vhen 1 . . • ab ml ten ve i ' : 

red to Hoi County ■ 
fifteen \ ears, an 1 then \\ enl t 
County, and from thei 
County, lied, I six: \ - 

seven years. Th m i her is still living, 
i!< >\v making - 1 : ime in Rin 
dicn I ias lived since . 

f a m i ly co I 

whom are living - . Andrew being the eld- 
est. He was given . I Un ion,; 
ing som '. ■ ister A< lemv, and 
also wa ; a si udei t of Ohi \V\ ' ran Uni- 

Delau arc. 1 1 is ■ 
not in scho )1, w i 
fal , and in I 

1 1 - 
was mai i : o Ohio, J une 

10, 1S55, to 

1 n Sep : I : 

they came to lo , 


spring oi 1 

incut. 1 ! ouse 

ins, in which he 

. to one. Hi 

; 'land, doing 

!ul, and 

to his present bu . . ceding. 

For so . I . . 

1 I 
small scale. 13 

had 700 1 
on the prairie. At thai rie wolves 

no small 
difficulty in protectii rom their 

ravag< 5. After ..;;.,. 0- ; '<. 

and turn I his 1 cat- 

tle. He purchased his first sto k of cattle 

others. He now has o~\ 
bred cattle on his farm, all eligible to 

try. ; ; of Ihera ; 
lies. Ye ■ ; .'.' -y bei \ hi avi trite. He 
tnu : horses 

: ' rcl on and C draught 

1 very successful . 
gained a wide reput; tion, 

nty. In 
' K '« i'- ' : J ■'■■ to '. ' 

,' 1 i ! ' 
He wa sul 

lie ] at He! 



1 1 



A { U^ 


'•'-•' GRAI'llh AL SKETl - ,\ 

was wounded twice, bu1 noi ;everelv Mr -in ' Mr r i 

Wed.o.eave.n I r,.'s,^ 

turmng l.ora, „ l,as served his I 1 | .... ., ^ 

county and townsh.p ,„ f , , .■ followed I ;• r .. 

-:",.■' ■'■'• ! ' O ,u°„til lecametoRi^ 

.: £CZ£Z -- 

-eri^his He as a soldie, Set, 

* M ' d «'™«™«ntj ,p< c „de„t C, «*o is Ins nearest ., 

i ■ ;- *.-dt«-o.er m .,Fonneen, ,d ,: .,;, ... „ .... 

: l ..-|i"'- W;, ; , ?- ,:: "' eState ' : re with heir 

•* : : &...;. --- 

£ "^b om.are nvmg-Sophroma, Hat- County and his residence a, 
Ul " ; if€ °j-J° s ?P h Atwood, and Poe. A ings are noticeably good. He .has planted 

:; 1 ;: ^ b d e ied f ; n earlJ , cl ;: ldhood - The i a ^ — ei - w shade and £«£££ 

of m^ned ]t H ei H ne "i V ,7"°" ^ I and UlC e »tire surroundings show the care 

°! ma A nie , d llfe ' ^ s » dd enly, from paraiy- and thrift of theowner. Both Mr. and Mr, 

sis Apn 17 ,8S6; thus ending the his- ! Fouser are members of the Evangelic" 

°V lhlS Johnston family, as a united church at Wirt. In his political views Mr 

f T J rtm °" gS US : . ' he Ca P tai » ^s that Fouser affiliates with the Republican party 
whatever of popularity and character as a " ' 

soldier and citizen he may have acquired, ' -^^>-£^o^<^<?i ^~< 

he must attribute a very large portion of - j^HARLES W. RAPP a h-mer of lef 
his success to his wife, who in courage and | . [erson Township, lb, ing on section u 

; ndu fO;> as also m many of the finer quali- ! ^ was bom in Montgomer) County' 

ties, he nas always regarded as more than Pennsylvania, October 8, 1S5S His 

™ r e .? uaL " U lth .° ut her ] have no his- father, Enos Rapp, was a native of Baden, 

U "> ■ r , Germany, and came to the l" 

-^-^^^^^0=: "«*■ in 1832, settling in the Stal P, 

vania. Ik removed to Ma .. G 

ILLIAM I). FOUSER, son of J a- u b ■:■ . , 

■ < cob and irah Fouser, wa born in our subject was re; .andedu- 

■• Summit C mnti , Ohio, \pril 1 ; catcd in tl . 

,s 45- where h< spci . [ n hi R , , . .. | , , , [h ,. . 

''I'! 1 '-' 1 '' >e was taken by I to ; I] 1 he be . 

" ll! ' •■ ! : 

county 1,11 their d. ^ , ■' D. was held va ■ , 

ired to agricultural pur nits ; 

iwed that avocati m. h, ■ ■ . , >-; , .,, , 

11 \\ il ! 

tried Jun< . 

" Ic ; ! who wa ' : • ••■ »r in( . ' tt -. Infant rv 

' ' ' ' ; ' : I in a numb 







mcnts, and after serving hi-; country about 
a year he was discharged, in 1862,011 ac- 
count of disability, and now draws a pen- 
sion ol $9 a month. After his discharge Ik 
returned to Ohio, and was there married 
April 19, 1865, to Miss Man J. Robin- 
son, a daughter of the late A. P. Robin- 
son. Of the five children born to tins 
union four are living— Almeda, Edgar, 
Flora and Arthur. Mrs. Rapp died Sep- . 
tember 2, 1S80. Mr. Rapp went to Seward 
County, Nebraska, in 1 874, and in 1876 
came to Ringgold County, Iowa, when he 
settled on the farm where lie has since 
been engaged in farming and stock-raising, j 
He has met with success in his (arming ; 
pursuits, and is now the owner of a fine 
farm containing 200 acres. Me is a mem- 
ber of both the Masonic and Odd Fellows ! 
orders, having been a member of Coving- j 
ton Lodge, No. 168, A. F. ck A. M., and ; 
Piqua Lodge, No. S, f. O. O. F., both in | 

■f||EORGE H. TEALE, an enterprising | 

t farmer of Rile)' Township, Ringgold 
County, residing on section 24, was 
born in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, 
February 19, 1846. When he was an in- 
fant his parents, Frederick and Diana C. 
Teale, removed to Cuyahoga County, 
Ohio, and in 1S55 settled in Jo Daviess 
Count) - , Illinois, and there our subject 

! ih [] I an for hi 1 

self from the age of fourth •n yeai , tin 
early in life, Icarnin j les ms o idusl 
and self-reliam ■ which have been < 
fit to him in ;.:' r years An 
all <;h bul sixteen yeai s of age, M r. 
J'e ih volunl in d 

lion' hon >v. c nli ting in Comp m) Ik 
Ninety-sixth Illinois Infantry. II 
meet w a< assi^ ned to the Ann y ol tin 
( i 1 land, and th< hi st b ittl ■ in 

h p ti pa ted a i - uga when 

he was wounded in the iefl arm, thus dis- 
him from active duty for five 
months. In the campaign against Atlanta 
May 9, 1S64, Ije was wounded in the right 
legal the battle of Rocky Face Ridge, a 
severe and dangerous wound which . 
him up for one year. lie rejoined his 
regimental Nashville, ju : before ii was 
mustered out, and for his services to his 
country he now receives a pension. In 
1867 he went to Colorado, remaining there, 
with the exception of one year spent far- 
ther West, til! the fall of 1872, when he n - 
turned to Illinois, and lour months later, in 
February, 1873, he came to Decatur Coun- 
ty, where his brothers, Frederick, James, 
Thomas, Albert and Eugene were living, 
lie was married in Decatur County No- 
vember 22, 1875, to Miss Mary E. Hollen, 
who was born in Jefferson County, Iowa, 
November 22, 185G. a daughter of J. N. 
Hollen, who died in Fayette Township, 
Decatur County, in February, 1S80. Her 
mother, Mrs. Nancy A. Hollen, still re- 
sides on her homestead in that township. 
Mr. and Mrs. Teale have four children — 
Fannie A., born June 2, 1878; Maggie E., 
born November 15, 1879; George W. ; n 
September 17, 1SS1, and Albert J., born 
November 16, 1883. Mrs. Teale is a mem- 
ber of the United Brethren church. Mr. 
Teale was a member of the same church 
se\ en years, but at pr< it 
with the M < I 1 11 ch. In 

his political view- Mr. Teale is a Re] 

. 2? 

d. MERRYM \N, 
i n a r v s 11 
-'--'---> 29, Gran I Township, is a native ol 
born Ja 

id .' • M crn yman, who 

; : 
M. Merry man, on 

red to hard woii ; 



BIO I 'II S. 0,39 

work by the i on ; at the ag< ol locating- at West Point, Lcc Count)-, \ 

i vhich he com ^ed in the b 

years, after which lie was trade, till 1853. In that 

breaking prairie for seven years. Me was year the parents removed to Wa 

in marriage to Miss Caroline E. County, Iowa, where th , l 1 ike their 

West, a < oi Isaac and Mary West, home, and D member 4, iSS;, they cele- 

natives of Ohio, and to -\.'-~ union have brat golden wedding. Clio 

been born five children ' a, the el si Bosworth received hi primary cdi 

child, died aged sixteen \-ears; George A., in the d . Lee County, and 

Elnora J., Clar; B., Eln :r. Mr. Merry man later attended the academy at Denmark in 

was a soldier in the war of the Rebell- the same county. He subsequent!) 

ilisting in Company L. Eighth M the coll at where he pur 

souri Infantry. Sharp-Shooters, in which sued his studies for eighteen months, and 

he served three years, lie took part in was a member oi the freshman cla s 

the battle of Fort Doneh : Rim, At- the war of the Rebellion commenced. 1! 

lanta, Chattanooga, Knoxville, Lookout then lefl college to entci the service of his 

Mountain and several other engagements country, enlisting in Company C, Seventh 

f 1 imj irtai . and received an honor- Ohio 1: fanlry. Aft< 1 b i g in th< 

able discharge at St. Louis, Mi ouri, ; 'Out ■ months he was promoted to Reo 

March 1, 1864. He now belongs to the ular Hospital Steward in the regukn 

Grand Army of the Republic, being a army, which position he filled 

comrade of the posl at Clearfield, Iowa, ber, 1865, when lie received an hoi 

Mr. Merryman came to ] ■ a in i 170 when discharge. He then returned to 01 

he lo ated in Wayne County, remaining engaged in the mercantile business at 

there till 1877, since which he has resi led Cleveland. From Cleveland he . 

on his present farm in Grant Township. Cincinnati, Ohio, where he w; 

been prosperous in his agricultural manufacturing vinegar. In !••' he! 

pursuits, and is now the owner of }2<> in Washington Countv, Iowa, remaining 

acres of fine land. [60 acre being located there one year, and in February, : 

on section 27. and the rest on section 29, came to E M ■ 

where he resides. He is an industrious ley Township, on the norl 

and enterprising citizen, and is much re- which he -till owns. •.. 

thro iut the co mit} v. ' farmi g, am I for sever; 1 years ran 

e maki ■ ' ■ ] ■ ime. ; ured 

his was married in * 

13 . ■ 

1 L RL1 3 C. BOSW< >RTH \ 

I . in C< , Ohio, in D< cl 1 Ida C, D. Clai 

■ 1 I )ani< II-..' in Ting] 

1 . . . Lyd th, the fat] hip. Mr. B ; his farm, of 

born in Oneida Count \ ivhich he 

tnd the motl Live of < 

Of six child rei born 1 I b 1 d< ad 1 I 

living at 1 . 

spring oi il ily came to [< w\ a, owi 

///sro/cr o. 

::::>.<..(>/.'.> r . . i 

building. He h ■ 

. . I ~ ■ asm : 

sixteen y< ars. 1 le was 1' 
resented Ringgold County in the Iowa 
Stat Legisl ture in the eig] 

ions, in whii !i he proved 

; worthy of the sup pi U'l >' f 

\ V. DAVIS, farmer, section 20, 
■ , ,. Athens Township, was born in 
-r/^r-"- 7 ' Clinton County, Ohio, Jul) 19 
1835, son of John and Sarah (Scotl Davi , 
who had a family of seven child n n Jo n 
L., Vincent 1.1. , Elihu, Frederick, John, 
Nels >n, and Martin V., the subject of this 
notice. When fifteen years of age he re- 
moved to Lafayette, Indiana, where he 
r< sided until he readied maturity*. His 
youth was spent in assisting on the farm. 
and in getting his education in the com- 
mon schools. He was married December 
4, 1861, to Miss Sarah J. Armstrong, born 
in Sandusky County, Ohio. Dece 
1843, daughter of William and Leah 
(Shoopj Armstrong, natives of Pennsylva- 
nia, who had a family- of nine children- 
Mary Ann. Henry E., Elizabeth, Susan, 
William, John, Frances, Sarah J., and 
George W. During the late wai Mr. Davis 
enlisted, August 12, 1S62, in C 
Seventy-second Indiana Infantry. He was 
;•■ ; he bat tl of ( hie an I mta cam 

paign wit 1- G n \il .V ui ■ . rai 

p . I r\] , - 

at the time Jeff D 1 [■] 

. I I 
j ul) 6, 1 . . ! . 

he resided 1 ' 

Athens Township 
1 le has 


ace surroundi d 
shade and on m < rchaivl o! 

. I .: gi ove 1 if about 
two acres. Everything aboul tl 
shi i\\ s th 

ots. He is c n- 
gaged in st> ick-rais 

in stud-:. Mr. and Mrs. ive live 

1 -Orville V.. George X.. J 
I I G 1 I : 

Politically Mr. Davis is . n. 1 le 

1 : 1 lis C. Millet ■■■•.'■ , 5. 
G. A. R. Mi am) Ayr. He was ; 
boy, and consequently commenced life 
without any means except strong and 
willing hai ds. By industry, economy and 
good management he has acquired . . 

y, an< I is clas ?e I 
men of the county. Postofifice, Kellerton, 
Ringgold County, Iowa. 


\ [EV. WILLIAM BROWN, the pioneer 
1 linisl er of Eugene, Je [erson Tow n- 
ip, was born in M mm >uth, War- 
ren County, Illinois, the date of ! : 

. 1836. Hi • 
John Brown, was a native of Scotland, 

to ■ rica at l age 
years. He acquired a fine education by 
h i s o \v 1 1 

the ti 
1 ill his death. Our subj< ct was rt 
1, and 1 
• ! : 

in 1 
om the Tl 
Xenia, Ohio. lie w 

• I/-V//I '.;/ .■•/. r.j i fiEs. 

St. Louis lV < 

i . :. N 
' : Carrie. ■ prom i .■ 

C Lint\ : 1 Wi : i J. Mr. 


tne Unit ian chu at that 

p] , of \vh ' ■■ . 

at Eugene, vvhk .. rapid and in 

1S75 he \v 1 1 lie lo tak c! e ol the 
church at this place, where he has since 
m ie his 1 im . He t ikes 1 ; 
: 1 ■ ionarv work, and has 

; . - ' PI Lite Valley, nine miles west of 
Eugene, and at present has charge of the 
chun ies in Tingley Township, besides his 
church in Eugene. He is widelv known 
thi 11 ut his pan of the county, and 

few men p >ssess the confiden 
spect of tl aibl rre it( 1 t ci nl than 

he. He give- liberally ol ime and 

mean- to help the cause of his Master, and 
; ' ■ tctive in the promotion of every 
social and moral ;vi irm. 

.-. w-an t £ y ' - " ■:" J/Jrjvi/v -w~ 

the successful agriculture I 1 | 
'•"g~ son Township, living on ecti 1 ; 
terprising 1 
ity, Oh 1, n h 27, 
; I Stevenson. a i 

Guernsey County. Ohio. T 

ill ' 1 Ri unty, 

Iowa, ■- resident 1 

' ■ 

n i pur- 

1 ed 11 
as a 1 

'; ■ '•■ • 1 1 

h mty, pa; ; of which 

. th 

' ' I . I 

'■' colored man ov< r t\\ nty-onc 
age who did not know I t. 1 [e 

; •:,..: Mr. Ste- 

1 v ■ : 1 . 

being ad 
' Dunlap, of Mt. Ayr. Th 

to this union— Mar- 
garet R-, Jo 1 >. nd Osic M. Mr. 
Ste\ enson h 1 iltivated 

land where he residi - and 1 engaged in 
: niing and ; - k-raising, making a spe- 
cialt) of brei ling thorough-1 
« hite hogs. 1 [e was county suj 
for three years-- 

at the close of Ins term of office the follow- 
ing resolution was passed: 


Whereas, The term of office 1 
A.Stevenson as a member of the !'■ 
Suj rvi: ors, ol Rii gg -lie mnl . , [owa 
has expired. ■ re be il 

R s ■/,'■ d, That the count 3 li >ses the ser- 
vices of a valuable and ■ iicer of 
excellent business 
doubted intcgril y. 

On motion the resolution was 

He has been posl master at En 
years and is at pi I ce. 1 Ie 

■ . justit e of the peace for 

b e S c h 00 1 1 

: i Mr. an 

- >n are members o< 1 he Uni ed 

Vr< ■''.•■ 

!. Wl'J • \ i ON K1XSE1 

.\ , r, 

' I 



their native State when , U] ,1 

roung.and: :tt!ed atM ' fn- Du,, . ni ?S- » Ir - Kinscl! then opened a dry. 

'"""^ Ohio, where th, father fo!." a 

'"'■•-■'■ mercantile pursuits [ , , as smce carried on the 

years, removing thence to Kiion Cor! " ,clcant I l1 ' s. and by his fair 

; ; Ohio, where they made th lot attention to 

; , :••' i, *• The father died while on , ™Z H "? » la ^ 

J« son, our subject, who was then livit ' !■*? He " the owner of a good farm of 

J" ; A)-, Ringgold County, low Tl e :' , n ' ^ Ayr which is all 

mother survived her husband several veai *to • , V','--' hlS fr,rm bein 2 «'*» 

dying in Ohio. DeWitt C. Kinsell ,4s d ' , ' ^ " ^" uni ' ' ! " ™r- 

hisyouthin Richland and Kn , , , :; V ' M ah Slack, 

rec «vin ff his education pr£S "X ! onion hi . '' ° hi °' a "* ! t0 thi * 

subscription school at M Sf ' °" h ? V ? b ? e " born nine children-three 


in th 

'"™e subscripts school at Mansfield n „ ' ^<-» "orn nine children- three 

ending school for a shor. time to W h eor^ ^^ Mr " Kinse " held 
Co »nty. ^so. At the a-e of sixteen 11 r , Postmaster for five vear, dur- 

: gan learning the tinner's tiade i " f S!^ 1,TOlns f d J° h "«>n'sadmi„is t , 

1 »* the age of twenty-two years he e" or ' "^ M " U1J " ,bc, " f the Cl 
: account, in Chesterville Mormw r ' 

i ° hi " -Wch he continied^ti?^" H 3 C +~**»#**~-+ 

then removed to Marion County, Iowa lo -^ VPTMV i •• 

eating , n the village of Red Reckon the A1 ? JAMES S. WILLIAMS, 

Des Moines River, .here he ran a ad ^ t" , r enter P risi » J « ^™ers of 

ware store for several years vl-, i i. ,*'' 1,n g Ie y lownship, is a native of 

the "'"" of Galcsburg, town, , i c Z t^t ' '"" "' ' h0 ' mf " -"^ 

operated for several ,4rs, and i„ ,u h f f 'u"*, 7" °< Pennsylvania, hi, 

.S6o,ca m e,o Ri„ Kold Connty, ,o ^ ^ ^ £,* " ^ : ■ Irish 

"' Si 'rr,val in Mt. Ayr he en4.ed in the , " h,s rar T ehildhood his par. 

hardware business, this bein"°the n in <™s moved <o Ven lnlv , p ' ., 

'-«■»•,,,>,..,,. i,,„,;. .,.;:'■:■. •:.■':■■; :;;; , : a d f ";l ,ercheliv ' 

years later, iSfl 3 he lorn ed "' ' scven ,: "' 

'"thedry-g ,. b , ,. In l8 ; ; h< „,,„ 

Mr.A.Z.Hu^i, re, 

«hen A. l, ;;. . ., 

emered ,he Union 
H " ?i"s, Kinsell i- Co 

.merest and re, I f r „, ' ' ,„. ! 

; Ml - Ki " ■ , 3 ' ■ ' Iv, 


BlOG ■ : ■ ?. 

was shot in the head, receiving a scalp c: I ed on the farm nee made 

■ :. and was captured bv th< rcb lii horn lie 1 I a fine orchard 

; a week's confinement escaped filled with many varieties ol fruit trees, a 

id< his war to the Union lines. At well-cultivated farm, a i 

the charge in front of Petersburg he was ings. Mr. Canney was married April i. ; 

hrough the thigh and was in the hos- iS6o,to Mary Cabert. They have had five 

, I until his discharge, in August, i S64, children -Rose, Tansie, Daniel, Thomas j 

• 1 in th< meantime was promoted to the and William. Rose and Thomas are : 

rank of Captain. After his discharge he deceased. !n politics Mr. Canney ca I 

returned to Franklin, Pennsylvania, where his suffrage with the Democratic party. : 

lie was married the same year to Miss Mr. Canney has mot with excellent suc- 

Lurie A. Hart. In 1866 he moved to Dix- cess in his agricultural pursuits, and by 

on. Illinois, where he engaged in farming his persevering energy andgood business 

on a small scale, withhired help four years, management has accumulated a large 

In the spring of 1873 he moved to Ring- property, amounting to 750 acres, all of 

gold County, Iowa, and located on section which he has gained by fairand horn 1 

28, Tingley Township, where he now owns able dealings, and what is ofgreater vain 

eighty acres of choice land. Mr. Williams he has won the respect and confident - 

is one of the prominent citizens of the all who know him. 
township, and has served as clerk six years. 

He arid- his wife arc members of the --o--t=^<ooc>£s===s-~»»- 

Methodist Episcopal church. They have 

a family of seven children — three sons and \ • T. KINSELL, one of Mt. Ayr's sue. \ 
font daughters. j ; /,, cessful business men, and th 

' ing hardware merchant of the place, ;*>; 

-'. ■> - . . 

— oHGS^-" — ~€;Aa — ' : ^&~~ c — ! was born in August 1S50, in Monroe i 

County, Ohio. When he was ten years of j 

rr ",'IIOMAS CANNEY, one of the ! age his parents, D. C. and Sarah 

prominent and prosperous agricult- Kinsell, removed from Ohio to R 

-•' urists of Ringgold County, engaged County, where his father has sino 

in farming and stock-raising on section 33, lowed mercantile pui 

Grant Township, is a native of Ireland, merchant in Mr. Ayr. Z. T. Kinsell, 

born Novembei [6, 1S26, a son ol Mi hael subject, grew to 1 I in Mt. Ayr. 

and Man Canney, who were natives of the ceiving a good I 'led 

same country. Thomas Canne\ was reared in the schools of thai city. He I 1 

a fain,-, . in Ireland till eighteen year: of his father's stor ite y< 

hen he decided to try hi ortune in earh i 1 well vo ed in the 5 

Amei i< a Accordii gh , in April, ine 1 ; I ng 

I from Lh cr] ool, England, and 1 the ti ; ; 

at New Voil > : \ 1 1 1 si 1 il \J iv. He 

\\ enl to I '..11 dvanin he Parick & Walk. « a. .' l 

• : c su m m e r , a I ngagcci 

: : : 1 1 1 t o 1 1 i o, r e m a i hard 

I Stat mcM He tl 1 ■ in 1S; 

years in tl I; 1 1 - , x I 

> J : 11 Counl lie lo- ihii I 




in conn c I ; 

Mr. Kinsell carries on farming-, bci 
owner of a fine farm soutli of Mt. Ayr, 
where he is eng ig. 1 ! . 

w a ■ (In first to int roduce thorou 
J *rscy cattle int< > R . County, for 

which he deserves much credit. ' I 
his farm stocked with short-horn an ! ! : r- 
: le, and his J< rsey cattle 
arc registered in the National Her IB 
I lis farm contains 240 acres of choice lard, 
and possesses all the natural advantages 
of a fine grazing farm. For his wife Mr. 
Kinsell married Miss Elizabeth Wilson, 
daughter of P. W. Wilson, one oi I 
est business men of Mt. Ayr. Mr. and 
Mrs. Kinsell are the parents of two s >ns 
named Harry and Clive. 

. I >WETT BASTON, an active and en- 
. ■;'' j terprising citizen, and an early settle 
:^f of Ringgold County, is a native of 
England, born in Yorkshire, Septe 
iS3i,asonol Thomas and Mary Baston, 
both of whom died in England. Our sub- 
ject learned the trade of a cabinet-maker 
and wood turner in his youth, and fr< ! hi 
father, who was a mechanical genius, he in- 
heritc 1 much of his talent in the same di- 
rection, lie Iefl his native coun 
America in 1S54, and for a fi .. 
L -. 1 ' '<;''> trade in Can 

He was ma ri :d al Ca ! ario. in 

and ' 1 
have been bori ighl 
Adelaide, •■ • 

lowett, A I 

in Burlin M01 P 

! ■ 1 I 



* 1 ... 

■ e of furniture, making all 
'plj'ing the early s 
He csl it 

Marshalltown, where he sel up a turning 
led through the country 
u ith a wagon, disposing of hi< 
ing in exchange food or clothing as well as 
stock. In 1868 he moved, to Mt. Ayr. and 

5 extensi\ ely in th 1 
ure of furniture, an 

house and residence. He located on his 
present farm, on section 2, Rice Township, 
where he has a fine farm of 200 acres 
which hi has improved from a state ol 
nature. He has a fii e. substanl i; 
I , I the carpenter a 

work was done b\ : 1 en have 

don 1 ' toward bui p improv- 

ing Ringgold County than Mr. Baston, 
where he isclassed among the prospei us 
and respected: citizens. During hi 
dence in Ringgold County he has built ten 
houses and improved five farms. 1 
which, contai 

! ' 1 iw iip, lie still owns. 1 le al ; 
near his home farm, a tra ty acres, 

and has -rue lots in the city of Mt. Ayr. 

W. 1' ULLER, met 1 ' propri- 

etoi : Fuller"* Hall, u as 

s|' 9 Si 

i ■ J. \V. Fulie r. \VI 

I, Ohio, 
to Clari ty, 1 



In March 
year he built 1 
ton, '■? v 5 . ■ I 1 
t o b a s ' 1 


and caps, not 


Hall i- |.c x6o, wit : seal ing ca- 

of a to So >. The I lilding \\ 

I in ] ?So, P.n fin . ' used as 

room. In tSSo Mr. Fuller was mar 

i ie 1 to Jane re Iro v, ■ lau gkt< r oi ( ). 

Te Irow . o promim ui pi m< r of R 

. The y ha\ ethreei ildi en — Mary, 
Seliie and Ida. Mr. Fuller is an enter- 
; irising-. tin iro ug citizen. 

^- REYNARD, farmer, section S, Ben- 

■■ j ton Township, is a native of Jefferson 
',- County, Ohio, born April iS, 1S1S. 
His father, Marmaduke Reynard, was a 
native of England, and came to Ohio in 
1816. His mother was Mary (Shaw) Rey- 
nard, also a native of England. The)- were 
married in their native country, and brought 
six children with them to America. They 
were the parents of eleven children, seven 
sons and lour daughters — John, Mary, Will- 
iam, Marmaduke arid Jane were born in 
E nd ; Ann, Robert, Hannah, Thomas 
and Joseph were born in America. The 
oldest child, named Robert, was born in 
England, and dice! m Pennsylvania. Our 
subject passed his early life in assisting on 
l lie farm, and bis education w; ; obtain d in 
th( c mimon schools of Jefferson Count v. 
He was married March 3, 1S42, to Miss 
Jane Yail, a native of Pennsylvania, and 
daughter of Elisha and Martha (Kirke) 
V.l : '. ; ■ : I 1 hildren, 

whom arc living- - Mar 

: Jane, William h 1 . F3 

1 11 md Jan [ 

I ' , . ;. rd 

td Septemb 1 1 I 1 ■ : ■. . 

. to M rs. Pr iscil la Bai 

ughtcr of J 


|o ind 

uni m have been 1 

living -Marv, Fr< | ph S.. Frank 

R. and John* P. Mr. Reynard and family 
resi i Ohio c to 

Rin tv, and located u 

t farn in 13 to I ip. ! 1 is 

farm ci 1 - - land, in 

state of cultivation and well in 
lie has a well-furnished cottage, out-build- 
ings for ; : 1 ; mall fruits. 1 le 

, is a wortln and consistent membei 
Protestant Metho list po 

■ cally is a Republican. He has given his 

I children excellent i 
and two of them, Man and Frank, are 
fitted for teachers. Jos< hi student, 

] and will make the law hi on. Since 

' coming to this county Mr, Reynard has, bv 
I dealing, secured the confidci 

; respect of all who know him, and his worn 

! is considered as good as his bond. Post- 

: office, Maloy. 


first settlers of Ring; ;> »kl County, and 
an active and cnici p merand 

stock-raiser of Foe Township, whei 
sides, on section 23, is a native ol I 
born in tl o ar 1 829, and a son ol Nicholas 
and Barbara (Garbei - 
■ . 
March 1, 1S53, v, '' il - n tin 
their fam : i ; 
and aft r a 

York, From that city they 
Lhey wail 
>r a steamc r I 
to Sandu :.o , < mi <. I 

Jn Nov . ' tzmaiiii, 

Jr., and four of h to Ring- 

... when he ' 




t>", where the mother died Nov, ub< 
1 •■■'/• aged sixty-four years. 'J 
stM mak. \ is horn* in Rin r , 
with his children. Thc 3 were the p 
oi eight children. Nich ,Ias Sallzn 
our subject, was married in 1859, to Miss 
Anna Egley, a native of France, and to 
this union have been born seven children- 
Ellen C, wife of 11. C. Sum!,, of Poe 
lownship; Jacob, Simon, Nicholas Clara 
Margaret and Noah. After marriage Mr 
Saltzmann remained on what is known as 
the old homestead. He has been very suc- 
cessful m his agricultural pursuits, and by 
1"S industry and good management he has 
accumulated 650 acres, all of which is now 
under fine cultivation, with a good resi- 
dence and commodious barn, and out- 
buildings for the convenience of his stuck 
He is quite extensively engaged in stock- : 
raising in connection with his general ; 
farming, and is making a specialty of Nor- 
man horses and high-grade cattle, havino- 
at present ico head of cattle on his farm*! 
He is a thorough, practical farmer, and is 
cIas sed among the substantial and self- 
made men of his township, having co 
menced life entirely without capital 

place,, under k vhose skillful supervi 
perfected himsell in the art. In his -ai- 
lery in Mt. Ayr, Ringgold Counts , 
some v< v fi »e specimens, b »th in ph • :,,. 
graphs an 1 life-size crayon work, . 
the work he turns out he has made a suc- 
cess ol his business. Mr. Maxwell was 
married in March. ,877, to Miss D 
A. Evans, ol Fay lor County, Towa, a d 
terof Rev. John Evans, and to this union 
have been born three child 

C MAXWELL, the leading pho- 
tographer of Mt. Ayr, 1 
li oJ tin St; t< oi In liana, horn 
'" " ward Count; . . \ V hen 

<• but eight. , months he wa<= 
P 1 in ' ■ rayl i 
. Iowa, and, havin 


■ ti n Goi 

den. i, , 

" ' ' ' ' ' " ■ painting, and 

j^RASTUS P. REED, one of the lead- 
% '"•? farraers of Washington Town- 

y -■ ship, was born in Armstrong Countv. 

Pennsylvania Orfnhr-r -. r o- 

- a ' ^^onci 3, ibyo, a son o! 

N ilham and Amanda (Young) Reed, who 
: were also natives of the State of Pennsyl- 
vania, the mother born in Cent r Count \- 
When our subject was four year- old the'y 
removed to Adams Counts", tilin 
eighteen months later, settled in b'i lVn 
County, Illinois, where thej tiv< 
eight years. In the fall of 1! 
| to Iowa, locating in Delaware C : . 

where they remained three vears In the 
: fall of 1867 they came to Ringg :d County 
I and thc first three years 11. . 
33, of V ashington Township, when th< y 
removed to section 24 oi th same town- 
ship, the : ttl rtyri 
wl -h i- now owned bv our subj 
sides winch he owi , , 
an ;. 1 ;. rtj Townshi]), wh 
P., the 1 1 1 

Missouri; and Luc! 

; . . . term at 1 

I I . 

': '"■'■ 

'< lll.S. 

■ ■ it« till his man i 

■ H. Miller, a native ol Cl< vc- 
:ame to Iowa wli i 
rs ol \ 11 I tau 
in R County. 'i 1 1 M r, 

R ■. teen born 

A Mr. Reed ha always 

If: ling and stock-raising, and is 
n . iu the owner of 130 acres of well-im- 
land, ; six acres of timb ■■ . 1 1 
. like his father, he is a staunch 
ican. His fal her was magi rtrate 1 ii 
Township for main' years. 
is township clei k foi two terms, 
.: d .vas a mi ■ -' highl) resp ted citizen. 
Mr. and Mrs. Reed arc member* of the 
Meti • : ( hurch. His parents 

were membei I am denomination, 

to which his mother still belongs. 

MUEL BAIRD, proprietoi oi Wil- 
! ' : Fai ra, resid< s on section 

2, Clinton Township, and is oni of 
11I and v. or thy pioneersof Ring- 
unty, having been an 
over thirty-01 irs. He is the el 

six ci ildren of John and Martha (Moore) 
: ; his yo ith was spen! in a 

I • riding the com 
if that day, in log 
1 , to Miss 

. I b< 1 in Monroe C ty, 

I ol B P. n 1 i Man 

1! X01 !h ( 'a:< ilina. He 
11P ... 

lie starl d for b >\va, 
; da) 

: t located in Lucas 

: : . ; , : 


: the fall 1 


I I 
bin, 16 x 16, witii 

ir, and furniture to 

1 Ic lias improve d ins place 

from time 10 Lime, unt il it is n -■ in a mo I 


tin : , was in its 

primith ' ndurcd all 1 1 c hardships 

and trials oi I r, frequently having 

to go fifty or m and t< 1 

purcha: c gro H cabin is re- 

modern le,and .veil furnished ; the rude 
d, and in il 
a large and com barn, 

: and where the wild plum and 
lourished is now a fine orchard ol 
ill fruits. 
Mr. Baird is mal ing a speci 
hoi 11 cat fie, and in his I found 

1 a Iowa. I le iias served en 

I : i : 5. and in 

is a Republican. Mr. a: 
Baird are the parents ol ten children- 
Mar)- Jane, James Monroe, Marl 

! izabeth, Louisa Kate, Samuel P., 
Laura Belle, Nina Ma;.. \ B. and 

Willie Boss. John Wi 
child, was born January ;. 1 : 

rd has always 

religious matt 

MM MERR1TT, farmer, 

! I 7, A tie... 11 in Bel- 

of William J. Mi 


IK'C'I ' 


County. He was n rri I in Feb- 
ruary. 1 850, U 1 Miss !'. I • 

iirci oi Reuben ' v ugh. He 

came I ! >\\ a with his famil . 

in 1 7, iv he re he ■ »v< 
a< • ■ and re: i lc 1 ab >ut twclv : yen 
removed to Mills County, where lit- re- 
mained three year; . th :n 1 tin ted to Ring- 
gold County and remain* I al >n1 seven 
years, thence to the Pacific Coast, living in 
Oregon and Washing I n Ti n itorics several 
years. Mrs. Merritt died in March, 1877. 
The ir living children an Wil 1 R, and 
Finlcy Poe. Sarah E. died in 1S79, Mr. 
Merritt is one of the old pione* rs 1 ha 
as - : ;lcd in building the ro ids. bridge -. 
school-h uses and churches, and has al 
ways taken an active part in anything 
pertaining to die advancement of education 
or religion. By honesty and fair dealing 
he has secured the confidence ol all who 
know him. Kind and genial in hi: di po 
sition, he is a ti ue type of the old j 
i 'ostoffice, KellerLe.ii. 

[OMAS LIGGETT, one ol the en- 
terprising bu in ■ 1 n of Mt. Ayr, 
'; ■ where he carries on a fine grocery, is 
a native ol Ohio, b rn on a 1 1 in Union 
Count)-, Man . 1! ; 1 . . 
jam Brow Li ett, tl foi mer a native 
o and the latter o Scot! id 

1 '■..,. ■ ci 

y ca r s ol ! 

, 1 . ■ ,.. 1 ' 

sn . 

bcii ■ his 1 

icir farm I 
I red trai I land. 1 I 

to Livi Conn lllii 

w he re h 

ig there 11 . of 1 , 

he wei t to M Ih, I : Al the 

breaking out o f the 1 

I in G impany C. Thii : ) sixth 1 1 
Infantry, when Ik was sent to Mi 

in whi< h he participated 

I I n he was tran 

of the Tenm ■ ee, and .-. . 
of Corinth. In Sept 

I to the Ynny of the 

; Ll I ■ ' ' 

Pi rryville ; I n the campai 1 
River. The folio was in 

the Tullahoma campaign, then went to 
Bridgeport and through I 
earl in the battle of Chickamauga, where 
he was w< unded, being shot through the 
eek, the ball coining out at the back of 
the neck. He was then sent to the hospi- 
tal at Nashville.Tenncssee, remaining there 
till the expiration of his term ol service, 
when he was mustered out in Sept 
1864. lie then returned to Monmouth, 
Illinois, where he remained six years, dur- 
ing which time he followed the \ 
of a teacher. ! le was married in February, 
[S< ,. to Miss Catherine Arthur. a native of 
Warn n G n nt y, Illinois. Tl 
children living — two sons and two daugh- 
ters. In 1870 Mr. Liggett went to Grand 
Prairie, his father's old here he 

had died in [S62, and then 

; two years, 

th m ned to 

Warren Count r, Illinois, and 
in the han 

In s 

v ith 
Ayr, R.in I ty, Iowa, and Si 

formed ; hip with J 

■y l>a- : 

firm in th 



.. i ajoritv of seventy-eight votes, assum- out; when 

ties ol his office in January, horses were drowned. The wagon box 
iS/O; was re-elected in rSSo by a ma ,-ife and 

, : • (0 votes, and in [8S i was i el hild for a q I . 11 the} 

to the same office, holding that fficulty. The 

all, six years, after which lie embarked in mot he i and her f: • . . . ] in Washing- 

the grocery business, and by his courteous ton Township, Rh 

and affable manner, and strict attcntio I ated, tl marrying 

• mts of his many customers, he has I William Gavin, who now resides in Mt. 

built up a good trad ained mfi- Avr. 'J fai had entered 400 acres of 

dence and respect of the community. Both ; Government land in Rin nty. Of 

Mr. and Mrs. Liggett are members of the the twelve chi rn to the ] 

United Presbyterian church, ol which he is eight came to Ringgold County, seven sens 

serving as elder. and one daughter. Andrew J., the subject 

• il tlii \ ketch, receh ed I ml a I 

, — »-H3>- ra — *£l^? — =>-<3>h-«— ; cation in his youth in the di tri hoots. 

He was but thirteen years old wl 
^NDREW J. IMUS. one of the early came ti I County, and at tl 
j-rvY settlers of Ringgold County, engage d oi fifteen years he went to live wit!. I 
■A— in farming, on section 29, Liberty YY. Lesan, with whom he remained till 
Township, is a native of Ohio, born in I about twenty-one years of age, and during 
Coshocton County, October 10, 1840, a son this time he attended school for twelve 
of Horatio M. and Mary (Doibien lmus. months. On leaving Mr. I. 1 
the mother a native of Vermont. The given §125 for his, services. lie then en- 
parents came to Ohio when young and tered the array, e tlisl pa G, 
were united in marriage in that State. Twenty-ninth Iowa Infantry, and . 
They subsequently removed to Illinoi and to the Western Department in Arl 
in June, 1854, came to Ringgold Count)*, He participated in the battle at Hel . ...' 
Iowa, settling in what is now Washington ihe running fight at Spo : . being 
Township, where they probably built the sick, h< was 

first cabin in the county. It was twelve feet he was sent to Tyler, 'i placed in 

square, and built of hick iry p ; ' - '■' i : the tockade, when 

m floor. Soon; : ! ;ing without shelter a , and for 

iry settled here, peop] in con to his rati 

the o »unty to 1 >ok for Ian I, and their hous a 1 . At the end 

was a sort of stop] monll 
their humble dwelling sheltering 

over night. 1 ... J.. lie wa 

death by drowning in M \, in Eng- service at Davenport, when 

. ek, in Mai ion County, Iowa. 

: I to ci is tl crei k which wa : 

i ,i fri >m the rain < m the p] c- I . ■ 

nigh his wife and hased 

I in a twi 
as getting ir.t 

1 u p, pi 


k-cnty-ciglit votes, . >um- out against the horses when lie an I I ;■■ 
• o h fficc in January, horses were drowned. The wagon 
.vas re-elected in rSSo by a majorit) no ted down n am with Lis • 

of* • votes, and in r8S2 was ai i hild for a quarter of a mile, when they 

to the same office, holding that position, in were rescued • liflicuitv. The 

all, six years, after which he embarked in inothci . . , 1 in \Vashing- 

thi gro< ry busiu< s, and by his courteous | ton Township, Ringgold County, ; 
and affable manner, and strict attention to j stated, the mother sul q ■ 
the wants of his many customers, he has | William Cavin, who now resides in Mt 
P a good trade and gained the conn- ■ Ayr. The father had i , acres of 

dence and respect of the community. 13.;;;. Government land in Rin mty. Of 

M r - and Mrs. Liggett are members of the | the twelve children ■ , 

United Presbyterian church, of which he is c ighl came to Ring 

serving as elder. anc J one daughter. Andrew J., the subject 

R ^ ol thi A ti h, i ei eh i d but a lii il 

«-S35>-» <?g|3> ; ^-<£2-°— j cation in his youth in the district schools. 

__ He was but thirteen rears old when he 

I ! N T DREW j. IMUS, one of the early . came to Ringgold County, and at the age 
} fj&> settlers of Ringgold County, engaged of fifteen years he went to live with George 
-:-- in farming, on section 29, Liberty \Y. Lesan, with whom he remained til! 
township, is a native of Ohio, born in ' about twenty-one year; d during 

Coshocton County, October 10, 1840, a son ; this time he attended school for twelve 
of Horatio M. and Mary (Dolbier) Imus, : months. On leaving Mr. Lesan he was 
the mother a native of Vermont. The given $125 for his services. He then en- 
parents came to Ohio when young and tered the army, enlisting in Com] 
were united in marriage in that State. Twenty-ninth "iowa Infantry, and was sent 
Thej subsequently removed to Illinois, and to th IV< tern Department in A- 
in . lime, 1S54, came to Ringgold County, : He participated in the battle at H 
Iowa, sealing in what is now Washington j the running light at Spoonville, an 
Fownship, where they probably built tiie \ sick, he was captured by the enemy, when 
first cabin in the county. It was twelve feet \ he was sent to Tyler, Texas, and pi; 
square, and built of hickory poles with j the stockade, where 1 . . pttenn .1 
puncheon floor. Soon after the Imus Earn- j being without shelter all this time, and for 
•b" settled here, ] opl in con his rations receiv* 

the county {•> look for Ian I, and their housi a hall pou id of 1 . A tl 
-.. - a son of stopping plac . mo to New 

1 ' ii hu able dv elling si 1 itering ■.-. do: en ' Orleans, wh 1 he 1 
Persons ov 1 • i ;ht. I h fat! er met hi , . . ;; c was m , 

■ 1 ■ in M y, 1; , , in Eng- service : I 1 
!A, Creek, in Mario 1 ( . ty, Iowa. He ' hi 
a is Ll crei '. ivl 
m from the rain on the pre- Rj 

kvilhhim] . | . ., . . 1 

' ' l! > ' :i two ! ' ' : ■ agon, *s soon ! shares 
as getting into the stream the I 

. ■ ig" him 1 10 : 

■...-■■ ■ . 

a so 


nois, and a daughter of I. B. 1 
idcnt of Ringgold Connl v. an \ to this 
uni >n have been b >i n I n childn . 
sons and five daughters. Mr. Imus pur- 
chased his presenl farm in Liberty Town- 
ship, in 1876, where he has 160 acres of 
well-improved land, all under a high state 
of cultivation, and ha? shi( e -lev ited his at- 
tention to general farming and cattle-rais- 
ing. Mr. Imus has served his town: 
sch i ■! director, commissioner of highways 
and trustee, and h h : he office of as- 
sessor four terms, two terms in Washing- 
ton Township, and two terms in Liberty 

§"™OHN R. HENDERSON, one of the 
enterprising business men of Mt. Ayr, 
„ is a native of Ohio, born in Guen s< y 
County, February 8, 1837, a son of Ebene- 
zer and Jane (Lee) Henderson, both na- 
tiv< sof Washington Count}', Pennsylvania, 
the father born in 1810, and the mother in 
1 Si 2. They were among the early s> I 
of Ohio, and were residents of Gu 
Count)' until 1849, when they removi i to 
Adams County, Ohio. The)- subsequently 
settled in Mercer County, Illinois where 
they lived till their death. They wen 
parents of eleven childi n mi five 

sons and three daughters lived to 1 
John l\.. our 

m his father's family. I ! ■ tion 

obtainci listrii ' : 

is spare tin 
rm. He rci 
his ] 11 1 '.'. ut \ -: : rce \ c; r; - 

and was man ied Oct :r 10, i 
i h I I lie, of Hcndcrso ' 

! II 1 I the 

drcn Etta 1 I i H. Herri 

of Neb; II 1-1 

mai 1 iagi M 1 . I : led in Men 

farming. In 1862 he en ted in I 
war. in Company C, Thirty-sixth Illinois 
fnf intry, an i joined his regimen! in Ken- 
tucky. He parti ' 

Stone River, Chicl and Mission- 

ary Ridge when he was placed on de- 
tached duty. He was in the Atlanta cam- 
pa i! and in front 1 ' army. 
He then wen) to Huntsville, Al 
thence to Kn ixville, Tennessi >. \. I 
was mustered out June 17. 1S65. After 
being h.onorably dis« larg I, he returned 
to his farm in Mercer County, Illin 
in the !.:' : of i ; < moved to Mar-hail 
Count)-. Iowa, and shortly afterwa 
tied in Centre View, Johnson County. 
Missouri. In 1 S69 he removed to. Mt. 
Ayr, Ringgold County. Iowa, and in 1S74 
was elected Sheriff of Ringgold County, 
which office he resigned after filling it for 

. months, and in the following fall 
engaged in his present grocery bi 
in which lie is meeting with good si 
He is al 1 ed in dealing in stock, 

and is the owner of a fine farm of v'j 
acres, 1 

Mr. and Mrs. Hend 
the Unite I Presbyterian church. 

T. ANDERSON, farm. , seel 
Li itt's : : . nship, was 

: G ninl ■. Indiana, j 
Ann (Hi and they r< 

011 a farm within tl 

n Conni v. 1 1 < re- 
ceived tion at the 5 

i ! ■ 
to Mi - Jane E. Ma 

- In 
and Sai 



those who went forth in defense of the old County on his present farm, which conl 
flagf. March 22, 1864, he enlisted in Com- eighty acres of choice, well-improved 
piny H, Thirteenth Indiana Infantry. He land. He also owns a fine 
was in the engagements at Kingsb m, Golds- farm in J 1 on Township, which is used 
boro, Bentonville, at the surrender oi >r pasture. Mr. Kinscll devotes I 
Johnston at Raleigh, and several others, of his attention to stock 
He was honorably discharged September specialty ol cattle, havii the best 
5, 1S65, at Goldsboro, North Carolina, and grades. Jit was married in 1S7SJ 
returned to his home in Owen Count)-, to M. Pollok, also a native of Ohio 
engage in the more peaceful pursuit of ter of Alexander and Ann (Wallace) Pol 
agriculture. In the fall of 1875 he came to lok, who removed to Illinois, where 
Ringgold County, and settled upon his was educated at the Monmouth Academy, 
present farm in Lott's Creek, which was The)' have two sons -Rex E. and Day- 
then in a wild stale. He has 120 acres, mude E. In politics Mr. Kin 
consisting mostly of rich bottom land'. It with the Democratic party. 
is well watered and well adapted to stock 

barn, orchard oi seventy-five trees, and is 

engaged in general farming and stock-rais- - AMES S. AVENELL, one oi tl e mi 
ing. Mr. and Mrs. Anderson are the ', i active and enterprising farn 
parents of seven children — William 11., ^ Tingle)- Township, living on section 
Melinda Ora, Emery, Charles, Emma, 6, is a native of Illinois, born mar Mon- 
Mollie and Laura. Mr. Anderson served mouth, in Warren County, October 21. 
one term as township assessor, and at pres- 1848. His father, Thomas Avenel 
enl is a justice of the peace. He is a mem- bom in England, coming to America, when 
her of (lie Masonic order, Lodge No. 410, a young man of seventeen years. He mar- 
Caledonia; is also a member of Lodge No. ried Jane Brown, at >i Illinois. 
293, I. O. O. F., Caledonia. Politically she being a native of Virginia, ai 
he is a Republican. Mr. Anderson is well reared three children — a son and ; dan 
known as an honest, uptight and an in- ter still living in Warren County, ; 
dustrious man. Postoffice, Caledonia. and our subject. After thei 

they settled on a farm in Warren Count\ 
where the) lived many y 1 - ' 

dying on the old homestead in v 

OHN W. KINSELL, a successful farm- James S. Avei 

j er of Tingley Township, located on home farm, receiving his priman ■ 

section 6, is a native of Ohio, horn in tion in the district 
the city of Columbus, Septem . 

a son of John and S >] '■■ eni a \. (Da- nude) he took a < rcial rse. 

Kin 11, n tl ; \ Virginia, of Gen in ■ ! i to Miss ] Lebec ca J. V. 

scent. When he was four years old his rcn, a nath ol 01 1 ■ nil at the time ol 

parents moved to Bloomington, Illinois, In 1 mat vi 1 Warren '■ 

where his father died, h [852, II as Illinois. Th 1 the parents 1 

reared by his \' id >•.-, ed mother, receiving children M L. f. Lero ' 

his educal ion in tl cil schools. ' 

he came to Iowa an I loi ated in Ringgold in the fall o and > ame with hi 



I" Ringgold County, Iowa, when he «»t r i i 

"ed o» his present farm in lm , " £' d Ms " T^' "' ^ B ° th *'- 

ship, ivhcrchchas40 acr, . *", , G , ,az< ; arc act,ve ™ d ea 

"ml good cultivation M ■' , ; *»>«* ol :: ^ethodisl Episcop I 

with him a good grade of cattle fro , f ' " GIazc is °» e of th. , i v , 

nois,and is still engaged i i ■ Lincoln Town- 

^aling in fine cattle! and also d e^ con fie ! mK n"" 

le attention to raisin- fine Pcrcl " ? V m '' ; l ° o1 director 

h<^^ W hichhei, m ^ p ^fr ;: ! ;:: , ;:;;;ir:; ,h -— • '»».,.■. 

£ ess - He 1S : < member of the Tingley 

Percheron Horse Association, which was : 9Min , .- ■- , 

organized for the purpose of introducino- -^'^.,. ,. Wl/w 

these i ceI f b [ ated horses. Besides the farm ' ^ NDREW hn -, nv ,„., 
on which lu- resides, Mr Avenellowi r A1JKi - u JACKSON MERRITT. 

another farm in Tingley Township con - /M - ^™ er ' se ^ ion 1 f- Athens Townshipi 
fining 200 acres. M?. and Mrs \ vene 1~ ' ' S 0n , e of the old est pionee! living ;„ 
• are members of the United Prcbv eHa I r T^" ' K ' ia a nati ™ <; ^gan 

respected C.ens of the township. | ceased> '^^^^^^ 

^ to ,-^_^ | CO ; 1 ' 11 " He resided j » his native county 

W— r— t , fif yearg of ^ then removed ^ 

\V r;-T Ayr • . Jackson County with his family whprp h<= 

L^ateS;-? '.":-::™:.!:'i-;:-:,:s; 

»ere both born in th Sute of Indiana : " gt ° n P° U " ty ' '"" ii; ' ; '>""- f °'" 

He was reared to manhood „ Ms "'""S^o^d to Keoknk County, and in 

••"'"■'>■■< 0" attaining,, age iC: CounT ^ ° s „', » ™ *> *"« 

ly-one years he began [arming on his own I I was' ', " " 

-com,,, beginning on his father's home Sh Miss lati da"'^,' 

«ead, and afterward bought a small nie, , ' r..., „ ^ "",- ' 

"ii m 

'^«u, uiiu aiLcrwaru Dousrhl n mall 1 '■■■■■ r i r- ,,•• • ' ' H1 

' fl -d. He spent three W> h S ut d .November ■ 

' (Mi ">« he returned to, 

coming to Itinggold Co, „ l „, '■ " •'< an 

• led on hi pn , V , I .Stride. 

■hip., . ' ' 

, M'-.JJ atedon 


■vho « „ "5, T ' 

Ir. and \J Gh 

born May,, ,S; 3 : J „ ni , ,, e to seeti 

9 I : I 

■ H..I Jul ,3 



BJi ■.■■■■■; 

improved by Andy Foster, and hen . ■ >l hi rried Miss Hattie CI . 

since reside i. His farm • ontain ;:■:..,■ ;, w . .- i >rn in tnd ! 

and is in a good stale of cultivation, and 1S52, ; ... I E. Chiving! 111, 

well improved. He also own 1 being a 1 of P uia, \ 

on sec. ion 17, and sixty-two acres on sec- and the mother born in fndiana. Mr. Stall ] ( 

tion 7, twenty acres of timber land on has been a vetcrin v fori 

section 36, of Foe Township, making a years, and till pi ti . his profession in ' 

total of $22 acres. Mr. and Mrs. Merrill connection with his agricultural pursuits, y 

have three children living — Joseph F., He is a strong advocate ol the cau , of 5 

Martha Ella, and Andrew Clayton. Mary temperance, a worthy member of ( 

Alice is deceased. Mr. Merritt has always , the Melhodisl Episc pal church. In poli- y 

taken an active interest in anything that tics he votes the Republi n ticket. 
promotes the welfare of the community in 

which lie lives, and is classed among the i °-<5-«£ 'f ^s-S>-= 

1 • • r , 111 ^ 

best citizens 01 the county, where he has so 

long resided. Postoffice, Kellerton. .' \LSON \V. DUNSMOOR, deceased, a < 

; . v V- son of Ilora.ce and Jane 1 1 li 

■**£=> — °~<iT-> > ^ " c ^*" ! " rTr . _r ' DunsmO' r, wa born in W 

County, Ohio, Septen '. ; ■ , He 

C ounty, Ohio, bee. . ,■ ',1030. He \v; 

:;^:OLOMON ST.MIL, a prosperous reared a farmer in hi county, w! 

V N\ [anner and stock-raiser of Giant . he grew to manhood. He was unit < ; . 

\ ■ 1 ° .... ■* •■•■• 

•*%p Township, residing on section 14, is a marriage in 1855 to Mi ib ' B cck- I 

native of Perry County, Ohio, born March enridge, a native of Canada, and a jg*l 

25, 1829, a son of John and Elizabeth (Hufi d lighter of John and Mai Bi 

man) Stahl, natives of Pennsylvania and ridge of Washington Count)-, Ohio. After 

Virginia respectively, and among the early his marriage Mr. Dunsmoor settled on a • 

try and good management he has accunru- zens of his township, leaving at his 

lated a fine propertv, being the o.. ner of a fine fai m contain 

240 acres, on which he makes his home, and proved 1 ; nuclei good tion. He 

is classed aim mg tin ,vell-to-do fai 1 of was sick with ] 1 I 

his township. Mr. Stahl has been twice months before his death, wh 1 1 

ricd, 1 >r histirsl wi c Mi< ■ Ldiza- May r . . He left a v\ ; 

I iel h E. Guyton, wh > vv - b >rn in Perry and 1 e. o sons to mourn 1 

G ml . , e >. in 5 ' mi 1 . : . 1S36 1m. j.: J., wil 1 |ohn S. G ; John H 

children w. n born to this uni m |i >hn iug 
IF. W 

!). 1. 

M.1V ■,. 

11 v, • . born to 1 his mm m |i >hn mg r:n. 

lii.,1,1. Loretta, A. E., L. B., M. C, '1 inglex '! own 
and ( ieorge E. Mrs. Si died . h yeai 5. In 

KS74, and . . I his pol view I 



staunch Republh in, quiet, unassuming, in Ihi: tim red as deputy recorder, and 

'. ". dustrious, and strictb honorable in all his also ■ • urer and deputy clerk oi the 
dealing ,h gained the confidence oi all court. lie was married in September, 
with whom he had business or social inter- 1857, to Miss Lois Funk of Wayne County, 
course, and at his death left a host oi Ohio, a daughter of Hugh Funk who was 
':.". friends to mourn his loss. J a native of Virginia. They arc the parents 

I of two children — Cur win K. and Eunice 

H ^w^^^^feH s- I May, wife of W. B. Ingram of Mt. Ayr. In 

the'fall of 1S57 Mr. Beall was elected to 
ALBERT G BEALL, an early settler the office of county treasurer and re- 
•' ; ■ \'\. of Ringgold Count}', where he is : elected in 1S59, but resigned before the ex- 
■7.'--'-- classed among the enterprising farm- ; piration of his second term. In 1S61 he 
. ers and stock-raisers, was burn in Wayne was elected superintendent of the schools 
( - Ounty, Ohio, on a farm near Wooster, ! of Ringgold County, which position he 
April 16. 1822. His parents, Zephaniah ' filled for two years. He was then elected 
\V. and Eunice (Spink) Beall, were na- : county surveyor, holding that office from 
y;*; tives of Pennsylvania and New York ' 1863 till 1869, since which time he has de- 
State respectively, and were among the j voted his attention to farming and stock- 
iSi earl; settlers of Ohio. They removed to | raising, and buying and shippi k, 

:'•:- Ringgold County in May, 1859, "'here \ and at the present time is extensive!}' en- 
both died, the mother November 12, ! gaged in bleeding short-horn cattle and 
;t; 1S62, in her sixty-fifth year, and the father | Percheron horses. He has now some very 
March g : 1S71, in his seventy-fifth year, at ' fine thorough-bred cattle on his farm, and 

• ■ 

the home of oar subject. They were the ; some imported Percheron horses. His 

a parents of three sons and two daughters, ! farm now contains 800 acres, all fenced and 

our subject being the eldest of the family , under cultivation. In politics Mr. Beall 

1 1 1 the only one now living. Albert G. : casts his suffrage with the i. 

- remained on the home farm with lbs par- ■ parly. His family are members of the 

ents till attaining: the age of twenty-four ', Christian church, and respected members 

>-ears, and in his youth attended the dis- , of society. 

v£ trict school where he obtained a fair . -43 ^:c\jV:->— K~ 

i*-:*i education. 0:i leaving home he entered ! 
, . the store of Cyrus Spink, where he was 

employed for eighteen months, and some 

y I 14, Benton Township, was 1 >rn in 
- Gr< ene G i n1 v. Penn >vl\ ania, Mav 

;♦;;♦; six m mth ; 1 iter he went v > < )sU »rd, ■ 

where he was engaged in clerking foi 7, 1S34, the eldes 

three years, lie then went to I 1 I and Hannah (Mil 

;'..: b a land >] 1 mtain ■ in P< nnes . m I in He kvas 1 

c m] an; wi otl u | the o urn 'Is. 1 le v ■ 

cattle which th , d o ; . ; > Ohio, »w- January 14, 18b}. to Mai}- ] ) ny, ol 

thi pin mil [1 >r two \ ars. [11 I lie Grci n Count y, Dennis and 

came to Iov and aftci ! h Du 

travcli rem 1 h 1 ing in his nal ive c< ui t} until 1 ' 7, then 

i n Ri n ggo 1 d . p u rch a 1 < to R i old 

lion ?.\ of Lott'.s I ' a p. Tti 1 of his ] Bent 

sided in Mt Lv ai I I I owi ship. ! 




ac. < s of land. The impro\ 

sistcd of a log cabin, find thirtv-fivc acres, 

broken and fenced. He ha I 

to his original purchase until . 
1,150 acres of the best soil to be found in 
the count)-, and it is well cultivated and 
well improved. He is engaged in stock- 
j using and feeding, usually keepin. 
200 to 300 head ol cattle. He has a good 
residence, modern style and well furnished, 
a corn barn, out-buildings for stc> ' 
everything about the premises betokens 
the thrift and enterprise of the owner. Mr. 
and Mrs. Stephenson have two childn n— 
James Allen and Myrtle J. Mr. Stephen- 
son has served creditably in nearly all the 
township offices; is a worthy member of 
the Missionary Baptist church, and politi- 
cally is a Democrat. He has always taken 
an active interest in the advancement of 
education and religion in his community, 
and is a libera.! supporter of any worthy 
enterprise. Postoffice, D Iphos. 

,-. fit ■ , 77a :-._ z 

C. HOUSE, of the firm of House & 
•I I Carney, dealers in wagons, b 
■-.-;,•'-"' wind mills and faun machinery, 
Tingley, Iowa, is a native of New York 
State, born in Oswego County, August 20, 
[852, a son of Allen and E. C. (Ei 

I 1 <> f the Empire State, 
the latter being a dan jhter ol I >hn 

pw. When he was thrci fears of age 
his paren 1 I to Henry County, llli- 

II pis, wh re tin I er died, and the mother 
now lives in Tin dev, 1 i ova. < )ui 

cond ol fi\ ■ children, onl) I 
are li\ ing. I le recei\ • 
c it ii m in the s< In .'-Is uf I tenrv Count y, 
and when twenty years of 

■ years. 
In the spring of ] 1 to low 

lived live \ ear- on a fai m 
lev. I le then mo\ I to tl 

[in gen- 
eral mei In O 

. h ith M r. Cai ne)-, form- 
t h c 
throp Brothers who had been in 1 
about a year. The) keep a full stock of 
everything in their line and have a 
trade. In ad lition to their other busi- 
ness they represenl several of the 
substantial Eastern fire-insurance com- 
panies. Mr. House is the recordei of the 
village of Tingle)-. He is a member of 
the Knights oi Pythias. Mr. House was 
married in December, 1S85, to Miss Emma 

j Hancock, daughter of Vandemar Han- 

I cock, ol Monroe Conn', y. lo 

^LEASANT J. GRIMES, deceased, 

r. was out of the early ; iders of Ring- 

~. ;' gold County, Jeflerson Township, 

J where he became well known and much 

I respected by all who knew him. He was 

i born in Putnam Count)-, Indiana.. October 

;. 1829, v hen he grew to n 

was there married July 4, 1S50, to Mis;; 

Eleanor Ham. 0. r the fiv< 1 

to this union, all are . but the 

youngest, A. Edgar. Mr. Grimes left his 

native county with his family in iS6o, 

when he 1 am • I • ; '. I < I y, Iowa, 

in J i 

where his u ife di< I, J 
was ag 

1S65, to Miss Man M. I 
one of the early t 

■ • ■ 

Her father A. F. Talbot was 

trly si t v . By 

j his sci I Mr. 

■ hildren -— Chai ley W. an 
R., \, : 

licver, daughter ol . er. is 

alb 1 livim 

■ ■ 

. G II/STOm' OF AVA'fri cov vti: 

:■■ ■: 

both he;- parents being decea ed. Mr. a great 

Grimes settled on the farm on lion 6, premises. Mr. and Mrs. Green are the 

i [Township, in [866, which is still parents ol five > ; i Elsie, Mary F., 

iccupied b)" his widow, which ( mtai Lois, Truman, and G orgi E. M .'■ i 

] 240 acres of well cultivated land. Mr. is a member of the L O. of G. T., and pojit- 

Grimes died Ma} r 27, 1S77, his death b 1 II nth the Demi icj atic part}'. 

I source of universal regret in the town- He is classed among the solid and substan- 
ship where he had lived so many years. He tial men oi 1 1 p, and has won the 

; " '-.; was one of the best stock-raisers <<i his confidence of all who know him. Hi t- 

y '.: township, and by his energy and industr) office address is Kellerton, Rii 

b came the owner oi one ol the best farms i County, Iowa. 

. J in Tingley Township. Bi sides his home | 

; farm, he left, at his death. 120 acres in ~-j, K.v; - 

[efferson, all under fence, which is used as 

j pasture land. He died a Christian, having ,""■'•. FOSTER, merchant, Caledonia, was 

. ' been a member of the Lutheran church for ] . i,V born in Muskingum County, Ohio, 

;*>i many years. Mrs. Grimes and her chil- •'- — 2 April 21, [841, son of James and 

• dren are members of the Christian church, ' Anna (Burgess) Foster. He was the eldest 

at Tingle)-. .if six chil Ire When he was four years 

old his parents removed to Hi ilmc svill :, 

^y- — . ^s^H c£>-«* Holmes County, where he was reared and 

ed ted. He was married October 3, 

1LES GREEN, farmer, section 24, [859, to Miss Lovisa Wheaton, a native of 

f-;y7;;U Athens Township, was born in Holmes County, and daughter of David 

J ' : '~:^ Warren County, New York, March and Sarah Wheaton, who died in 1S66, 

22, 1827, son of Reuben II. and Fanny \ leaving three children—James Franklin, 

(Mead) Green. His early life was spent on j and two now deceased. October 1, 1861, 

the farm and attending the common schools j Mr. Foster enlisted in Company F, Sixty- 

;*::4 and Chester Academy. He was married fifth Ohio Infantry, and was in several of 

:- . November 30, 1853, to Miss Mary Dunn, the most noted battles ol /ar. He 

' of Wan-en County, New York, daughter was in the engagement at Shiloh, Chicka- 

of Jesse and Susan (Sherman) Dunn. In mauga, Franklin, Mission Ridge, Stone 

1854 they removed to Henry County, I Hi - River, Xashvilli Kencsaw Mountain, Big 

} nois, and in 1 S68 to Ringgold Countv, Iowa. Shautv, and Peach Tree Creek, llewas 

Mr. Gre n 1 n i\ ed upon his p ill [y disci I in Noveml 

August, 1869. He first purchased eighty He i : ' in Holmes ' unity 1 ' : ! 1S70, 

ai re: which was in ; : - k vil I ■ ' al . He 1 iw when he to R 

has 2 1 1 acre ; 1 if as I 

ship affords, under a high state of cult iva in b ck until 1872, 

' 1 ii m. I le h ts a good 1 w - - u . residem <■, and then in I 

_';. ' erected in 1880, mod - ness. Starting ii 

II i sh e d . f I e h a s a rgi • 1 6 x 40 f e e t , mil 1 y i n c 1 ' I 
for grain, hay and sto I an on rea I 

20 ' 1 .1 : lit. He i 

: : : ture.li it: pure 1 

and a cro I . 1 le has soenl Oel 1 mai tied t 



/.'. nWriilCAL SKETCHES. 

Lou ili; >ton, IL its Coun ! 
I cir childi n are Hum . ( i . , ville, 1 >y- 
ron Lindcll, Bessie Allelia. and I 
M r. F< ister is a member ol L< 
293, 1. O. (). F., an 1 is a m :mb w of the 
C isti m church. Political^" he is a Re- 

" OBERT JUDY, farmer, residing on 
- I 1 section 6, Clinton Township, has been 
'—,'; idi ntified with the interests oi Ring- 
I County for nearly thirty years. He 
was b >rn in Newtown, Lancaster County, 
Pennsylvania, January 6, 1827, son of John 
and Elizabeth (Shearer) Judy, natives of 
the sanse county. He was the eldest of 
five children. His early life was spent in 
t ic 1 ami of Marietta, and his education 
was received in the schools of his native 
village. At the age of seventeen years he 
went to work on the tow-path of the canal. 
His promotion was rapid, and at eighteen 
years of age he was captain of a heat on 
the Susquehanna Canal where he re- 
mained six years. He was married Janu- 
ary y 1851, to Miss Sarah A. Sargent, 
born in Dauphin Count}', Pennsylvania, 
and daughter of Samuel and Eliza (Mc- 
Clure) Sargent. January 9. of that same 
yea: - he removed to Marshall County, 
[Hi is, whi re; ided two yeai s, em- 

ployed as captain of a canal boat. He then 
: in a h tel t1 Lacon, san c< unity. 
It i : ' i 1 to Bureau G 

ian on the m 
' hii 1 Bi lingl n & Quincy 
1 : . d. 1 b- : to ] 

■. ,:■,,. : , ■ lime, 

t h en too 1 r bil 

; ■ 

B 1 1 i ' 11 l S ; 5 

. . ' - ' 

Lai : and ti .■ 

New Bi ton < Wayne. In 1S56 he 

removed to Hei ml • . i , locating 

at M mi I ' Ic; • ui ■■, Ik re lie n sided two 
engaged in contractingon the Chica- 
go, Burlington & Quincy, and finally, April 
9, i ; ', arrived in Ringgold Count}-, and 
up n his 1 m, which was 

then in a wild state. His first house was a 
I ig cabin tox 1 2 feet. He lias ; 
culli oil:'! his Ian ! un1 i! the J 
known as one of the best in the township. 
: I as a good, comfortable residence, well 
fui nisln 1, a good o >rn barn, a fine 1 
and eve; ything about the premises indicates 
the thrift of the owner. Mr. and Mrs. Jud} 
are the parents of five children — Lizzie 
Loutzenhiser, Emma Siemiller, Myers, 
Flori ce Skinner, and Mary L. Mr. Judy 
has served as member of the School Board, 
and under his supervision the firsl 
house was built in Clinton Township. He 

■ has served as road supervisor a greater 
length of time and built more road- than 
any other man in Ringgold County, Polit- 
ically he is a Republican. Postoffice, Mor- 

• montown. 

! . 

j? j Township, v\ asb >rn in Br< »\vn ( 

jp 3 Ohio, July 22, 1S44, his parents, David 

and M ary G rah an oi the 

: ite. 1 le w a- re; red to 1 
pation of a farmei , w hii I 
1 a v o 


- . 
ecu ve ; in Com] >any K, 

Eighl : miry, and : 

: Port D 

other ei 

at < 


united in marriage Ma) 10, i ■ •'•■ < mse of 1 I over the jj 

Miriam i) -an, a native oi tin 5tal< oi northern pari: oi tin Slate. In 1857 I 

: ' • \ n iia. T< 1 tlii ; unio to 13 1 w Iowa, where \ 

y Earl, u ho died Octobci $0, 1878, thi . . d wo\ k in the cause of £ 

of his birth being Septembci i.S 1 78. Christianity. In 1876 he cann to King- £ 

Mr. Graham takes an active into t in I Jd County, I tied in Monroe Ti 

affairs of his township, and is al presenl hip,' sided. He has £ 

££ holding the office oi as I 1 tin entire a farm of eighty acres in a good state of 

1 ti faction ol his constituents. His farm ci 1 and well comfort- 

■ ','. which contains eighty acres is under thor- tble house, an a lard 1 20 trees, native 

ough cultivation, and the surroundings of >v< ol two acres, 011 for stock, ; 

his place show the owner to. b< 1 thoi nigh, and everyth I ' 1 ooks ;< 

$>: pracl tl farmer. Mr. G raham is a meinl ■ ■ \ ton :-like. In November, 1S75, 

oi the Odd Fellows lodge at Cromwell, he was married to Mrs. Sarah Nelson, a V 

Iowa. He is also a comrade of Eda Ottier lady oi more than ordin - i ence, ; 

■. Post, No. 291 ). G. A. R., of Clearfield. \ I was a widow with five childn . 

' Charles VY\. Clara, Erne, Nettie and Katie. .'- 

: ■ . ■ : 

-wvw«/i/u£2£ , 7 / \yyyt'^'vvv^ Mr. Smith has preached the: about 

thirl y yea 1 able to do ; 

EV. S. SMITH, farmer, section 2, deal of work in his Master's cause. 11. r 
' ' Monroe Township, was born Novem- specialt) is "th truth 

—- • \ iter 10. 1816, iu County Wicklow, false 1 -." He has always taken an 

D ■. ley, Parish of Sheahana, Ireland, son a tive interest in anything perta 1 
of William and 1 lenrietta (Sargenl 1 Smith, th • 1 ause of religi »n an ! 
who were the parents of eight children, a zealous worker in tin 1 temper- 

When he was tlirei years of age his father a nee. His tl 
came to'Canada, and died two years later, j mainly on horseback. 
Mr. Smith was then taken to Franklin • ■_.--. _. 

County, New York, where his early life was ' ' 

spent at farm labor. Two years of this 

time he was in a grog shop, poisoning and m ; '"- T. SMITH, proprietor of livery, 
d .'; . oul liquor b) the glass. 1 lc ob- : 

taincd hi In ionl hard Ludy at In mie, . ! born in Jefferson ( ' 

, ; be li 111 ol tin in e, atl igusl 23, 1845, 5on of ^' i! - ' 

school only 1 in his life. He < ha : £ h. He was ;• tred on a 

ID 1 i ■. I . I 1 in the O >: it 

; . iorn in St. Lawrenct Upon arrivii ; at t 

County, New "S ■ ■ ! 1 1L mai 1 M 

united ,vith 1 I four chi'< 

td rward • I Ulie Maw Mrs. Smith 

' H I : ! I . .■ | | 

'•■ to pi . . n 1841, and in 1N44 he , marri 

renin locating 

circuit rid In 1849 he rc- 

■ 1 ' • cs of land. 1 

hi . 1 1 : 212 

BIO '.s. 

. cd land. 1 ! : ill iv eel Mr. Good . M 

t i 1 I S \v he 1 1 . . to . ■ . ' o I ma 1 

I Ie keeps good stock his camagi 

driving horse are of the best. He is . to 

ngaged in ; . i ,-ii Jrs. i pm i ; -. I 

■ of " Mrs. Smith's 
at Red his 1 

iery, such as is usu ' ; I li\ t Mt. 

first-cl i y store in 

Mr. and Mrs. Smith are enterpri i . > I in I 

tcous and a Ling, and in i of on 

n the public ] nage. Lucy, died in Ohio ] 

ern 'i a pari 

13NER GOO IE! 1. of Un ■ n Town- of I present farm. \vi i I i till 
hip, residing on section i _.. is a i ; ' 

- - - tivc of Conn< cticut, b .rn March -, a httl. ii i I i il L-nt res- 


1829. When an ii 111 h 

I ts, Jonathan and Sophia (Clai k) [ borhood. He 

[avion < ount.3 , Ohi 1 in j 

tl '. : 1 1 unl ,• h .. iredto 1 d 1 

youth being spent in ting with 1 

u ork of the f an d uring tl , ' ■'- ■' 

mo nclintl inl ' ! : ' ' : 

lie- \va tl i t chil ' I '•'•■ -i '■'• - 

children, ol , hi I the < ment of the 1 

Hi hi dii d in 1839, at the early age of ! his home 1 
tliirt} -two years. Thus earl : 

largely thrown life, and 1 

■ ol 

and children. J ' 

uar\ 3, 1S52, Mr. Goo 

: ' ■ , \ 13 - 

His I 

1 j 1 : : 

I ' village of \ 

I in 1 
fanl ; Grace, 



DO <rxn 

tin ;(s, I tl 


ty I '>■ >ard oi Sup< 

widely known through) x 

few nioiK er s I tie - ir 





. M, 






P - 

1 and ' vays in- 


He \vi 


••</ and was 

p ' ! than hc * . 1 le family residence 

n Mt. Ayr was bin n< d in 1 h 

in March, i ; imilv removed to 

th :ir I irm on s 2< th m l?. P« » Tov 
HF'TH S. BEALL, deceased, was the young- whicl mtaii of choice land. 

: son of Zephaniah \V. and Euni made I 

-. B all, and was born in ( >hi< p, th 

his birth being June 30, 182S. His earh " »■• ^= &<>|^fo =z=; - < » . 

life was passed on the home f rm in Ohio 

and in his youth he acquired a 1 t- ' -' \ T. MILLER, proprietor of tl 

edge of the comi 1 bran ; 1 ton \; Farm, Clinton 

ili' district schools. At the age of nin - T iwn hi] resid ti m 3. He 

teen years he began teaching school, a pro- x as born in Rockbridge Coun . \ 
fession he followed several years. He March < 1 . of Henry Miller, whose 

came to Mt. Ayr, Ringgold County, Iowa, sketch t] ork. He 

in the fall of [S56, and taught the first j wasth , 1 f the family,; 

v »oi a1 that place, where he ■-. i ^ed life was spent en the farm and in ; 
f' one year. He was married June 17. ing the common s is native State. 

1S58, to Charlotte W. Swan, a native of the He was mairied March 24. 1859, to Miss 
S i if Maine, the second daughter of Isaac Elizabeth Jam- Zo a native of 

and Lydia B. Swan. She c; pit. Ayr Rockbridge County, and ' Lighter of Henry 

in Jan-, 1857. wii-h her parents, h r fatb r ! and 1 Z llman. A sin 

be " uning on : of the. mi ' citi- Iter his mai riage Mr. M ted 

zens of that place. He died in Rings »ld Iowa, c in tin da team. He 

Co Iowa, in 1S68. To Mr. and Mrs. first pu I land in 

Beall were burn four childr wl 

three arc yel living- Eui ! md dph S. : ad 'I ' :;\-; ; ve aci • 

and Waller 11. Ad ugl ter, Delia, died 

of ] \. few apple ti 

M r. B eal | D ep u t v R He! 

x\ 1 position he filled for two j He ; res. It con- 


I ,. • in Ring- 


. : 1 

•...,. t u t h a t ] 

: . idencc, wi 1 

the reul-esl built in m 

a great of He : 

I I ■ 


& m 





mcnt o ei: dil feet, ft is subst ii lly built, 
..■ al I 1 1i modern con' ni 
; ig and cai ing for stock. It is ■ 
tai rang : ] barns in S< >ul h i 
Mr. Miller is extensively eng 
raising and feeding, and is making a spe- 
ci ilt) of thorough-bred ^u*v ' cattle, 

and in his herd (.if twenty five can be found 
>f the best registered stock in Ring- 
:__ i] i County. He also has a number of 
improved draught horses. Politically Mr. 
M li r is a Republican. He has 
creditably as township clerk, member of 
School Board, and in iSS va I legate to 
the State Convention. He is a member of 
the United Brethren in Christ church, and 
is rd ways interested in religious o 
tional matters. Mr. and Mrs. Miller are 
the p trents of ten children— Carrie B.. now 
Mrs. R. L. Loutzenhiser ; Elvira C, now 
Mrs. C. E. Hoover; Virginia E.. now Mrs. 
John Warden; Margaret, Jane, Henry, 
John T., Charles X.. William B and Be *~ : 
Dot-. Mr. Miller has bv honest 
won the confidence of this co mm unit)". 
Postofhce, Redding. 

— ;-H**N~— 

F.T \EIVH ,d :i ease 1, v asoneofthe 
I highb pected citizens of 
fe -- : ' j ;' C iiinty. He was : : 

tai of P ins) Ivania, i 
V irginia line, in th \ ear i 
age lie went to Mo Counl 

i. . Lawi ence, Dec ;::':: t ! 

•is, an ' 

3 cars, and in i Rii 

i, till his 

i ; . i 

his \v i f e ' . . 
year- previous. Mr. Tai 
in hi 


i took ;. 
deep into .He was 

n ver pro ninent citizi i o Ri 
; veral years was a meni- 

i ird of Supervisors. He was 
a consistent member o! th Christian 
I 1 by . is laily life, 

id quali- 
ties of head and heart p him. as 
his life and daily walk were m ire forcible 

[uen i mere empty wor 

those ivho kn u him in \ i by will 

ide. His end was p - should 

be the close of a wc I nl Heloi iked 

up m death simply as a transition from one 

: of i to another i 

^ffOEL BROWN, farmer, section 25, 

' [ Middle Fork Township, was born in 
:- y Warren County, Indiana, Decembers, 
1S30. His] u nts were Willi .. and Su- 
sannah (Waggoner) Brown, nath - 
i ' icky. They were married in Wash- 
County, Indiana, and reared a fam- 
ily of nine children, of whom j 1 '1 was the 
second. He was reared to manhood in his 
native county, passing his time in a 
on the farm and atten ' : .. immon 

. He was m . 21, 1S51, 

i M A\ lim Cox, d 'David 

and Mary Cox. In Septei . 1854 
he started for fowa with horse team and 
on tl iad '. days. 1 . 


. Town- 

the G st house 




" • : 


I in general fanning and to k-raising. appoinl , ister at Mt. A3 
Mr. incl Mrs. Brown have six children - served t\\ 1 years, during Hays' adn 
William David, Isaac R., Clarissa Jane, lion, in favor of I 
Louisa Lin Lin, 1 'hillip Jasp* i and ( 'b 1 le< Willi tms. fn June, 1SS0, he and 
Nathan. Mr. Brown has served creditably tier, C. B. Mo Ml. Ayr 
as justice of the peace, c instable and mem- Bank, where they carried m 
her of the School Board, lie belongs to ing business until May 1, li- 
the Masonic order, Lodge No. 169, Mt. Ayr, I Morris retired and was succeeded by J. 1 !. 
and is a member of the Advent Christian : Alryn; this is the le d 1 ii ' : ' 
church, of which he is deacon, Politically the kind in Mt. Ayr. Mr. Allyn h 
he is a Republican. Postoffii ::, tin position of c; : ' r in its 

tion. Mr. Allyn belongs to the lodge and 

^^^i^CG^; ,/:■'•- : y\^'ddy^ y ^- r{ ^-' > chapter of the Masonic fraternity, and is a 

member of the Mt. Ayr Lodge, X... - . 1. 

; JORGE S. ALLYN, cashier of the ' O. O. F. He is also a Good Templar, and 

1 h Mt. Ayr Bank, was born in De Witt has served as worthy chief templar 

'■-plk County. Illinois, in the town of Clin- lodge. He is a member of th 

ton, March 9. 1847. His parents, Rev. Episcopal church, of which he is s 

Henry and Emily E. (Forman) Allyn, were and trustee. 
natives of Hartford, Connecticut, and 

Kentucky respectively. They were mar- «-jw^*-^*^g*s*£^*^«f-i 

ried in Illinois and to them were born two 

sons and three daughters, George S. being " ENJAMIN YV. TALBOT, who died 

the eldest child. His father was a minister \"\ at Sedan, Chautauqua County, Kan- 

of the Methodist Episcopal church for —7 sas, December 2, 1S82, was a 

man)- years. George S. .Allyn spent his Allen F. and Lucy (Lawi Talbot, who 

boyhood days in the various places to , were among the old settlers of Rii 

which his father was called to preach, and : County. The deceased spun) mair 

in his youth obtained a fair education. He of his life in Ringgold County, and 

began teaching school at the age of eight quentry removed to Kans . el 

een years, and in the fall of 1866 came to ' his last resting-place. A( the outb 

Ringgold County, Iowa, where he follow* I the civil war he t hi 

farming during the summer months and ing as a private in C mpany G, 

taught in the winl rs un 1th i 1! 1 S72, Iowa 1 1 

when he was elect d clerk >> ; I con I try for four \ rcti I 

of Ringgi ild County, assu .Aft 

of his office January 1, I! ' of 1 

..,.!). of Ch 1 •' 

ing th ie 1 un ici h < t the 1 
B. Mori is in the real-cstat 

May 1 , 1 SS6 \\\ y Vi 
Bro 111 lie i ■ 1 ' 

ige 1S76, to M lary ; was hel . 

V. Kin: of D. C. 1 1L v as a 

flicy arc the four < I Christi I 

th e G rand .-' lie,; 



.-.■.:h T. X. King, Commander i 
■ Post, X i. 7.;, issued an orcL r, cal I 
. the post to make arrange- 

ments t 



r, and seventy-two veterans were in 
.-■•■ a sne to pav the last tribute of respeel 
to their dead comrade. They laid him to 
; - . leath the flag he honored and so gal- 
lantly d .. 


^JRANCIS ELLIS, proprietor of the El- 
lis House and livery stable in Mt. 
~- ; --- Ayr, is a native of Virginia, b irn 
March 51. 1S32, a son of Francis Ellis. His 
parents were natives of Ireland, immigrat- 
ing to America about 1S25, when the)' 
; cated in Virginia, where the father fol- 
lowed merca tile pursuits. When our sub- 
ject was two vears old his parents removed 
from Norfolk, Virginia, to Coshocton 
Countv. Ohio, where the father followed 
farming til] hi; death. The mother also 
died in that county, at the advanced aye of 
ninel v-three rears. They were the parents 
oi t< n children, of whom four are yet liv- 
ing. Francis Ellis, the subject of this 
sketch, passed his youth in Coshocton 
C ainty, receiving lbs education in :' 
trict scho >!s. At the age of nineteen years 
tt to Davis County, Iowa, with a 160 
ad warn nt his oldest brothergavc his 
■ w : . ' . city of Mexico, hi 1 , h 
\ as mar i 1 to Miss Susannah YV. ^1 

■ i . but at 1 he lt!;i of hei n 
b . ' in Da\ is ( -ount} . '' 

with h and mot her, and b in 

district sc: They have two cli 

r ■■ ■ . Mary Olh ' f W. 

\.. Roger. 1 I 

.' : C . .■ : i i\\ ': I 'il \, and is n< iw 

oi Betl iy, Mis- 
1 I 
After h 
Ellis ' a farm 11 Dcivi Countv, 

whei - li fol'a nvci II : ilil 1S59, when 

. b: , steam saw-mill, which he oper- 
ated a year. In 1 • wen! to Pike's 
! , Colorado, v el I in min- 
ing, bui did. not meet with much • 
He returned to Davis County, and from 
there went to Wayne County, Iowa, where 
he followed agricultural pursuits until 
1S65, when he came with bis family to 
Mt. Ayr, and again engaged in the hotel 
bu the Mt. Ayr 1 b mse, 
commencing on but $400 capital, and from 
this small beginning lie built up ; larg< 
busi ess, and after running the hotel for 
nine years lie retired with b. O 1. He 
then purchased 1,010 acres of land, and cn- 
1 in general farming and stock-raising, 
but instead of making money in this enter- 
prise he lost, owing to the prices of stock 
going down as well as all farm pn 
Hi 1 al 1 rid •-'. d farming and 1 
to Mt. Ayr, purchasing his present hotel, 
which is llie lea ling 1 >ur-e in til by. It 
contains forty-five rooms, which are all 
well-furnished and fitted up for tin 
fort of his patrons, all tl 
being first-class, and in connection with his 
hotel he runs a livery well supplied with 

horses and vehicl > 
and is well prepared to acc< utimi d 
traveling n . mal and ac- 

commodating mam made a suc- 

ee;.- of his hotel, an 
who know him. 

b Ti [OM v 

• , Ohio, 

an 1 Am I . 


ia, 1 ; . . . • 

1 ■", 

; '. . 

iS5'"' the famil} 
County, Iowa, loc 
tli ■ lather practi 

HISTOIir OF ' > '■ ■■ COUNT!'. 

. :.' • - 

noved to Mario I land 

j at Gospi irt, \\ Ik i fori !e urround ilh trees, 

medicine until his : •■■■ ■ >i ch i 

dei asc, in iS;i. [n tS6S )ir. Thomas of small fruits. He has in charge four 

commenced teaching, and followed thai church on i -th P 

vocation several yearn. He was married Church, two and a hall miles west of 

October 22, [S74, to Mis- Hernon Hogc- Leon; New Salem, five mile: east of 

and, daughter of Hon. James S. and Mary Davis City; Cam tin ' a half 

Ann (Woods) Hogeland, who were the miles north a t ol Westerville, and Provi- 

parents of six children — Elvira, Hernon, j dence Church, three and a half miles 

John, Peter, Laura and Mollie. In the southeast of Davis City, in New Buda 

spring of 1S78 Mi. Thomas removed to ' Township. Mr. and Mrs. Auxier have 

Nebraska, and the year following located one child — James W. Mr. Auxier is a 

in Ringgold Count} 7 , where he has since zealou and consistent worker in the cause 

resided. His farm consists of eight}- ' ol his Master, and has been able to do 

acres oi well-cultivated and well improved , much g isncl work in Rings 1 I and Deca- 

land. He has a comfortable, well-fur- ] tur counties. Postoffice, Kelierton. 

nished cottage, and all modern conven- | 

iences. Mr. and Mrs. Thomas have three 
children — Dotha Mabel, Stanley Roscoe 

and C< 

Mr. Thomas was candidate 


OI-IN MILLER, farmer, section 1 

for county auditor in 1S85, but was dc- I "1 1 Athens Town-hip, was burn in Stark 
feated. Although a young man, and a re- ( ounty, Ohio, July 5, 1838. His par- 
cent settler in the county he has gained an ents woe William and Mary (Downs) Mil- 
enviable reputation. Politically he is a ' ler, the former a native 1 Pen 
Republican. Postoffice, Ml. Ayr. and the latter of Englan I \ were 

_ . r r 1 married in Stark County, and reared a 

""*' : ==^0 > i ■ e family of three child | Lharine 

T : EV. E. E. AUXIER was bom in Ma- and William. One son was a n 

\[-< son County, Illinois, August ro 1846. o the Forty-eighth 01 ; killed 

M$ His parents were Eli V., and Marga- at Remington, Vit dnia. Wl | . ■ 

ret (Whipp) Auxier, the former a native of eight years of age 

Big Sandy, Kentucky, and the latter also to Huntingdo , In . here he 

a native oi Kentucky. They were mar- passed his youth, : 
ried in Menard Count;; , Illinois, in 1;- y 1, 

and were the pat en s o! six civil h n, t\\ lat< wat he enlisted, 

of whom are living - E. E. and Lj din A. p 

;,| , . txiei pa 1 his earl} I I , • year. I le washon- 
on the fat m, and attending the 1 

school, an 1 studying at horn At Com 

of twenty-three he married M ;s Paulina Mrs. Su 

a n f M :nard Count , . At latei i .v. to C 

the ag of twenl} i\, he unit rl ■:. i ! th< 

M : 11 u-y Baptist < hurch. In 1 

tan, to Rin .. ;ol I Com ly pu I improved 

i ' 

. . 




I lore Mr. Mil . , : \'.'. , lie < 

■ • '■ fai [to iter ol T. W. (( |uai \ i 

1 - in a 3 r o I s Late if cu 1 1 i va t ion , a Su t ion. B v t h is n 

■ ■■ • and oul i H [ i 

: i '. H also ha - nv of the b t orchards at the a; I John, 

in Ring-gold C unty. There are i,oo tree in infan y. Mrs. Hall died January i.?. 

fiftj cl ff rent varieties. Mr. Miller has i S79, an f March 21, 1SS0, Mr. If; 

spent a great deal of time and monej upon united in marriage with Mi ; 1 

his farm, and ; i shows the cnl rpri and Walk* r, daughter of Jo I C 

il its owner. He is a worth}- and Walker, ol VVayne County. By Lhi 

consistent member of the Christian church, riage are three children— Grace, 

and is classed among the best citiz ns >f Blaine ind Pearl. Mr. Mali removed to 

Athens Township. Politically he is a Re- his present fai . He has 32 

publican. Post ffice, Kcllerton 

of well-improved I; id, 1 good 
I surrounded with shad and orn 

tree-; out-bi k, and a good 

i orchard. 1 le is a mc mbi r ol Posi i, 
" , B. HALL, farmer, section 16, Athens G. A. R., at Mt. Ayr, ; n 

Tf»vn«lii 1 u-nc horn in Tnr-V«:nn Republican. He is one of the ; 

hip. Postoffti e, !u : ' 


I \\ is an enterprising farm r 
early sett! . 1 y T< iwnship, 

re moving fro ; I County, < >hio, ti 1 

sS62, he enlisted in Company F, Eighteenth Ringg' I ,1 

rowa Infantry, and participated in the bat- J! ■ it( Ion ection : . 
tie at Springfield, Missouri, in the Camden farm of eighty acres, a 

expedition, and in most of the proi nt ', ; the village of 

1 the Soul hwi t. [n an en- Tingley. He was 
ement 111 G be Eight- the townshi] 

ill I i va and a Kansas col ed nl by all w ho 

.\-( re in one of the most desp Holn Con 

record. The Eighteenth h ■ , 1 1 ' : R 

Township, was born in Jacic: 

■ County, Ohio, in 1845. His parents, of his township. Postofft.ce, Kellerton 
John and Charlotte Hall, reared a family 

^ht children— Elizabeth, Rachel, Hes- 
ter, Amos P., Asbury, R. B., Eliza and 
Harriet. R. 13. was the sixth child. In 
1S56 his parents moved to Appan iose 
County, Iowa, where he passed his early 
life in assisting in the farm work and at- 
t .1 ling the c 1 ami m schi iols. July 14, 

men, an I 

it Coo, 1 

le was 

o rebels. I I ; hi 11th losl county, and was tl I, D 

n, and the 1 1 h an 2S, 1S57, to Kate B 

d. Mr. I [all « is also at the batl Mter ; 

of Saii;; ■ I ! Ohio, 

He was 
VugiiFt 7. I. Davcnpo 

Count • 

11 - ... i! [K71, to Miss low . 




S >on after his return to Ohi , 

I in Con ' - ! In:.. 

. ! v - : :;i y-sixth ! >hi i Infai I 
■ . ■ 
1863. In [S6_] he came a :.■■ in to h iwa, a 1 I 
located on the farm, where he died 
: 4. He was a devoted member of 

the Christian church. Mrs. Peckham re- 
sides on th( ; ; im ;1 ■ . !. - no chil- 
; her own, but is raising a boy, with 
\vh >se assistance she carries on the farm. 
Her residence is a good, two-story frame 
ng, and her other farm bui 
nfortable and con She is 
a mcml er of the Christian church, and an 
esteemed citizen of the township. 


F. HETZER, farmer, section 4, Mid- 

■ k'j die Fork Township, was born in 
; o Meigs Count} - , Ohio, March 1 
His parents were Phillip and Sarah (Dern- 
berger) Hetzer, natives of Mai viand and 
Pennsylvania. They reared a fami 
eight children — -Phillip, John, G o . 
Augustus, Peter P., James YY\, Sarah and 
imbus. Mr. Hetzer resided in his na- 
tive county until twenty-seven years of age. 
He was reared a farmer, and obtained his 
education in the common schools. At the 
age of twenty -two he was em 

at on the < )hio an 1 Mi 

! years. 
ls married in 1S55 to Miss C; 
G »ert, a native of Athens County, and 

County and settled up »i 
in Mid 11 I 1 

> acres 1 
[urn tvitl 


k-raising. M r. : n 1 
M rs. 1 ' o! two chil- 

dren — Ceril la, and Keziah, who is a suc- 
cessful teacher. Mr. and Mrs. Hetzer are 
and con ;i ' of the 

. . hurch, and politi- 
cally lie is a Democrat. Postoffice, Del- 

" . T. CARTER —Among the intelligent 
'-.\ n and enterprising 1 Benton 

>V ' Township, none are more favorably 
known than the subject of this sketch, who 
occupies section 28. He is a native of Iowa, 
b I'll August 17, 1854. the son of J. D.Car- 
ter, a prominent pioneer of Ri 
Count) 7 , whose sketch can be seen on an- 
other page of this work. The latter loca- 
ted in P.nt ■ : ip when his 5 
fifteen months old. and brought him up on 
the farm, ting him at the common 
school, and at Garden Grove, Iowa. In 
1874 on: " engaged in mercantile 

- in Mormi »i 
years afterward he moved to K 
he was eng Is ime months in a mercan- 
tile house, and for a tin afl ard was 
employed at farmii . and in 

i towi 

contain'. stal 

fine as 
any in the I 


: . 

ty . 1 1 e i s a ] 



views. Mr. Carter was marri ■■: F 

. ',, to M iss Lora J. Di iwlin, I i 
tcr of David and Mattie Dowlin, of Tay- 
loi County, Iowa, and the}" are the ] 
o! two children— Cla} S. and ('. . . 
Mrs. Cailcr is a woman of intelligem e and 

.saw- ::.. ... 

' ] S. TRULLINGER, justice of the 
' v i \, \' peace and notary public, resides ! 
-'."r~- on section 8, Middle Fork Town- ' 
ship, and is one of the pioneers of Ring-- ; 
gold County. He was born in Fountain j 
Count}', Indiana, May lS, 1830, son of Ga- 
briel and Charlotte (French) Trullinger.who 
were natives of Ohio, and the parents of 
two children, a son and daughter. He j 
lived in his native county until he was < 
eight years of age, when his father moved ; 
to the Black 1 lawk purchase, the Territory 
of Iowa. Here our subject was reared j 
amid the wild surroundings of frontier life, 
more frequently meeting with the red man 
than the white man, and often associating ! 
with the young Indian?. He acquired a 
go )d, practical education by study at home t 
and attending school in the log cabins. ' 
He was married in 1850 to Margaret Can;, 
and they had five children, only two of i 
whom are living— A. C. and H. H. Mrs. 
Trullinsrer died in 1S6;. and in 1S66 Mr. 
frullingcr was united in marriage with 
Mai ia i [amp on, a relative of the 1 Ii in. 
Wade 1 lampton, of Si nth Carolina. They 
have seven children — R. \V., L. D., John 
B., Ellen, Bcatri :c, 1 rving and Ai cadia. 
: , ' . a ■ ng man oi 

. died Ma .... 

iving a wife and five children to mi iui n 

to . M r. Trullingi r is a 

I ty pc, d \ 

■ • 1 J and wai 1 anti d fast ( oloi . He 

r\ ■ ! n :arly twcnl y \ ears as justice 

; I dispen 

who ar( call: d be! r< his ourf in an im- 
partial manner, wort , of a judgi of the 
: dier court i I h 1 a 1 

t h< < ) 1 I 1 Fellow orcl ei si nc< h< was 
twenty-one \ e. Mr. Ti u 

is quite* ;ed in bee culture, 

making a specialty ol Italian 
a cross of the same. lie has a thrifty 
young orchard of 100 trees and several 
varieties of small fruits. Postoftice, 


^ENRY C. SHELDON is a native of 
.0 \ Ringgold Count}', Iowa, b >rn on the 
\ ' old hi imesti ad ol hi father, in Ting- 
ley Township, February 35, 1S60, 1! c third 
son of Edgar and Matilda Sheldon, the 
father a native of Portage County, Ohio, 
and the mother of Pennsylvania. 1 E.s father 
was a school-teacher, and followed his pro- 
fession through the Southern States a num- 
ber of years before coming West. He was 
one of the first settle!- of Tingley Town- 
ship, and is the only on the first- 
comers. The parents of our sub] ct had a 
family of eight sons, of who yet 
survive. The mot! died in 1 5. while 
on a visit to her son, X. R. Si 
Colorado. Henry C. Sheldon, th< 
of this sketch, was rear< I on the home 
farm, and educat 
of this count y and 

Afton, v. hei : m. On 

hi . in farming on 

: 1 ■ 

gaged He was 

married in h eai to Miss 

McCai tnev, ! , I< i\\ a, 

,'.M. Mc- 
Cartney. Tl 

; .; '.' , Ml 



i 1G0 ;m res of w l-impro 
un * •] .1 hi h i itc o( cultivate m, 
se\ - tl years was engage I in 
selling stock, I lai tun ; hi 
to raising cattli . and has at pn 
ber of ihorou di-brcd of a hi I . !c. 1 le 
also has an interest in a fine Percheron j 
stallion, import 1 by Dunham, of Oak 
Lawn, DuPage County, Illinois, vvhi I 
purchased in 1S85. In May, 1 1, ! 
established a cheese factory. His father 
established the fu st cheese factory in South- 
western Iowa, twenty-nine years ago. 

h O. (). F. II' isa 
: . , and consi: tcnl in ibci of the 
: »lili< s is a Repub- 
lic always takes an interest in the 
: any worth 
.!:. i is one of l!r 1< a jing citizens of Cale- 

; W. THOMPSON, M.D., Caledonia, 
was burn in Hendricks County, 

I / ; 

xrjf Indiana, May 1. 1843. His parents, 
Jesse and Jane (1 » itson) Thompson, reared 
a famil)' of eleven children, of whom the 
doctor was the sixth child. When he was 
twelve years of age his parents r< 1 
to Clinton County, Iowa, and .1 year later 
came to Ringgold Count} 7 , settling in Poc 
Township. He was reared on a farm and 
obtained his education in the con 
schools. In May, 1S64, he enlisted in 
Company E, Fortv-sixth Iowa In 
was honorably discharged, and ret. 1 I 1 

his home. While in the army lie contract- 

■ c, i he re ul; of expi isui e and 
ship, from which he has ncvci fi 
co\'i d. He commenced the si 
medi -ine in 18 ■■ >. In 1 SC S he conn 
to read unck r Dr. A. N. Si I I ! ..,.- 

gold County, and < mmeno '• I 

dii inc at Cah ' nia. in 1S70. lie has 
s ful an I luci alive ] 
He was manicd , 1S71, to 

Mi [ill. i) Ho »ver, I rin. I3 Putnai 1 
. . In lia 1 1. 'I h :\ are 1 
iil hen I) ira E.\ l\ , A., Wi 
and [lend ■: • >n. Phe lector i 

•i til ■ M : I I ., : ■■.-. Xo. 

4l6, < ' I 1 

7MIARLPS RUSSELL, one of the old- 
: settlers in Ringgold County, is 
iow living retired at Goshen, Iowa, 
his farm of eighty-seven acres on - 
i; J fers dii To« nship, being can ; I ■ 1 
bv tenants. He is a native of London, 
England, born July 16, 1S26, a s 
Thomas and Charlotte Russell. In March, 
1849, ne came to America, sailing from 
1 ' Ian : ing at New Orleans the 

following month. He proa c i< ' fi an New 
to Cine nati,Ohio, and from there 
to Miami County, where he lived about 
five years. In 1S54 he came to Iowa and 
settled on a farm in Ringgold Coun , 
lias since been identified with all the enter- 
prises of interest or benefit to the county. 
After the breaking out of the war of the 
Rebelli »n lie enlisted in defense • 

i1 d country, and was assignc I to Com- 
■ G-, Twenl y-ninth b iw;i I nfantry. 1 le 
sei \ed three . n several 

severe engagements, a m 
the battles al lol I I R 

out at Ni a ( ' 
t< ]• his reti 

its. Mr. Ru 
in Iowa, to Mary Kasl ! no, who 

1 a in Ciai ke Co 
. . 

• . To 

•'.- Marti 
a rv 11, 
and Ja .: an in- 

ary 6, i 
with hci In pol Mr. 


s -.: 

'.'■ : •■: 

■ ■ 

■. ■ 




• • 


I is a 1 )cmo< rat. He is a mei 
■ I Jamci Con] j Po t, X". 2S5, G. A. R. 
He an i his wife are members o) the Bap- 
tist church. 


EV. S. A. ELLIOTT, who makes his 
ome on section 26, Lice Township, 

is a native of Eric County, Pennsyl- 
vania, born October 21, 1836, a son of Com- 
I irl and Martha Elliott. His parents were 
natives of the State of Xew Hampshire. 
They were pos i ed of sterling character 
and worth, and wherever they resi led 
gained the respect and confidence of all 
who knew them. His grandfather, Lemuel 
Lowell, was seven years a Revolutionary 
soldier, and was wounded at Bunker Hill. 
His mother was a daughter of Chas. Car- 
roll, one of the signers of the Declaration 
of Independence. In 1842 the family left 
Pennsylvania for Trumbull County, Ohio, 
and there the father died in 1850, aged I y 
years. In 1853 the mother, with her chil- 
dren, moved to Illinois, and made her home 
in Peoria County, where our subject grew 
to manhood, [n 1854 he experienced re- 
1 . urn, umt'i •:■■ v, ;..h the Methodise I-ccco, 1 
church, entered the ministry, and in 1S58 
i 'ined the Peoria Conference. October27, 
1859, he was married to Miss Louisa M. 
Mark, and to this union have been born 
hildren, six still living— Mrs. Mattie 
A. Barnes, living in Leon, Decatur C 
Iowa: Win. C. A. W.. Lu< Ha, Edna 

. Anna L01 , . > ; i: - I 

Lillie M died a1 tl i e o fou i h ' 

! :i 1 - i . M 
1 ation, and came to I i. He w; 

litted to the Des Moines < 
and until 1875 he w; activeb 
t!ic mini 1 of on 

He is still 
I . a local ] - 1 is al- 

Iv 1 

he is called, ibl pride he 

lo >ks bai kw; •■ era quai tei of a cent 

iott in 

1 56 pun :.. ed • | i .. i s of G vernment 
land. \. : .vps and o< 

since having . ■•] now 

ha a fin pro] rtj o acre-. In poli- 

tics Mr. Elliott is a Repul Prohibi- 

tionist, and is prominent in the c om 
both interests, lie is an ac tive aiv 

iti ... ; is at pre* 1 1 sei \ ii g 
his fourth term a ti 1 

lie is a member of the Masonic fraternity. 

gf AMES 11. NELSON was born in Mon- 
i- roe Count)', Indiana, August ), 1846, 
>\^' the second son of R. K. and Mary J. 
(Glenn) Nelson. In 1S53 the family moved 
to Monroe County, Iowa, where the 
mother died the following winter. The 
father survived until November, 18; . 
ing in Warren Count)', Iowa. James H. 
was reared in Mon oe Co . 1 

the farm in the summer and attending 
school during the winter months. He re- 
mained with Ids father until February, 
1804, when he enlisted in the war of tl 
Rebellion, and was sent as a recruit to 
Company A, Thirty-sixth Iowa Infantry, 
then in Arkansas, I 
hem I hey had been capl 
o( Mark • Mills. He was th 
1 d u ty , ; 

at. Da\ .. :. In 1S73 he and Ids 

R'u C01 

April 3. iS; - : . Ik 

A. I ri 


and Will am E. 

1 west 1 Tii 


HIS TOR 1 ' c >.'• -'.'/ XGGOl.D CO I "A" 7 i 

la; id whc c he n i\v live on section 21. 
; I horn id contai eighty acre 
inc land d his (arm o ctioi 
j v .;■ ii ;-- -it lUindei li 

Mr. Xrl-M'i is one of the successful 1 ittle- 
ra f ol the 1 iw iship. Me is an lion ir- 
able bu: in 'S3 m in ml i ; highly es 
by all w ho know him. J 1 - an I his wii : 
are members of the United Presbyterian 

\ \'l \j- the old and honored pioi - 
. Riley Tow nship, where he ha - 
made his home since 1856, was born at 
Stonington. New London County, Con- 
necticut May 8, 1826, a son of Thomas 
and Mary 1 Sch< >lfiel 1) H inckley, th athei 
born December 6, 1787. on the old b irac- 
stead in Connecticut, once the home of his 
I ither,Thomas 1 linckley.Sr., and where our 
subject was born. He is a lineal d 
ant of Thomas Hinckley, who was Gov- 
ernor of the Massachusetts Colon}- during 
King Philip's war. His moth t was born 
at Saddleworth, Yorkshire, England, Feb- 
ruary 3, 1787, and is a lineal descendant of 
fohn Fox, the author of the "Hook of 
Martyrs." The parents were married De- 
cember 9, 1 8 10, and of the six chil 1 
born to them five are living — Mary, born 
Octi 'I* •■■ 9, 181 1 ; John S., born Jun : 31 >, 
1816; Charles [I., b »rn Maj .. ;. i. ; 
Phalla M.. born ; ' mbei 5, r82 1, and 
Will ' 

M iy S, 1826 \ son.Th mas, die I No 1 1- 
■1 , . 1 I forty yeai I • 

■ 1 i ] > ' ! : I . ; . . ' . : ' I ll C I" \ 

irkal I I - il 

1 )ec£ nib r 1 i, 1S76, in nil Liel 

and his 1 1 : ■ : 1 e died in her n 

/•' il-, in 1 ', bo - ml id ho 

Cut. J . 

• ' 

I : - I h ' Vrl '. 

!n ' 7 -e ' : ' id put i 

at B\ field, Massai husetts, wool-c 

lachines, n lirsl ever ereel I 

in Ann rica. Some time latei Aj thur 
1 1 in the manufac ture of 

I cloth at I 1 se Us. the 

i first cstablis il the kind in that 

Si te, and in 1809 President Madison was 
ina - ■ 1 ; In ;i full - nil of broadi I 
! ufactured in his fact' ry. The grc al 
1 father of oui John Hinckl 

I a son of Governor Thomas Hinck 

was -1 soldier in the French and India 
I A cartridge b e\ b ai ing his ini 
J dated 174S, is now a priceless relit in the 
! hands of our subject. He also has a Bible 
dated 1804, and the book of the Blue Laws 
I of Connecticut, entitled "Acts and Laws 
1 of the State 1 f Connecticut in -America,'' 
J published by Timothy Green, at New 
j London, in 17S4, and an almanac pi 
; in 1776, besides other books nearly or quite 
j as old. He also has in his poss< 
! sickle and two forks of the rude, unfinished 
style used about a century ago. William 
■ R. Hinckley was reared to agricultural 
j pursuit-'. He was man i< d Ni w 
j 1850, to Lovina Grant, a native Halifax, 
Vermont, born Fel -...• ry 15, 1 ■ .. 
ter of Joshua Grant. Mr. Hinckley came 
\ to Burlington, Iowa, in 1S47, where he 
\\ irked at the cooper's trade, r to 

field, Mas 
1 I : x chil- 

dren, ol win mi fiv( are living - ! lorace, 
Mi s. Mar} Ray, 1 I Ly L., at 

home, ;:\nl John S. al 
Connecticut. 'J 


: 1 ton,' 

1 1 . 

■ , 

: \ years, 

fi/OG : . .' I . CUES. 

ears. He i: irictly temp il in 
ha : . md has never use* lii 

o, and for thirty y : a • i. . n il used 
licine. Me is a man ol sterling 
and is much respected by all who know 
.. m. 

ILLIAM KELLY, farmer, section 
■ \i \\ 12. Mom oe Township, is a i itiv< 
'-. of Li indi mderry, Ireland, whe ■ In 
was born, August i, 1S37, son of Peter and 
Sarah Kelly. When he was ten years of 
age his parents immigrated to America. 
it locating in Xew York City, where he 
grew to manhood, and served his time as 
an apprentice in learning the track- of 
brick-layer and plasterer. In 185a he re- 
moved to Bureau Count}-, Illinois, where 
he resided about ten years, working at his 
trade, mining and farming-. In 1SS0 he 
came to Ringgold County, and settled 
upon his present farm, in Monroe Town- 
ship, which was then wild laud. He has 
eighty acres of well-cultivated land, a . 
story -and-a-hall residence, good buildings 
for stock, orchard, and native shade trees. 
lie is engaged in farming and stock-rais- 
ing. In 1870 he was married to Miss 
Susan Negley, of Bureau County, Illin as, 
and the) - have six children — John, Sarah, 
Mary, William, Martha and Charley. Mr. 
Kelly is a m< mbc r ol the Mas* »nic o ' r. 
ind politically is a Democrat. By fail and 
honest dealing he has gained the respi 
■ I confide] 1 oi all who know hii 
* one of the b f th to 1 

13 1 held. 


. H ii 

■ ' W; linyfto County, b j . I '• ■ 
1846. Hi p; -nls' were ' 

II I \ ol 

, 1 Line to I • in 

of two chil- 

fa ' and j > : 11 \Y . His earl) life 
in the work on the 
I farm, an i In u ceh v. 1 his cdui 
I ty. Febi uary 27, 1S79, 

In . married to M iss Sai ih 1 
native a ' au C f, Illi 

of Geor: Cooper. Mr. To n 

I came to this county in 1877, a 
chased 4S 1 aci es of land in Rile v 'J 
ship, which lie c< imm< nc 1 at orti 
impi ove. i le had a good :\ sid 
I orchard and field 1 »ts. In the fall of l 
1 he came to hi pre: 1 farm.i 
i of Kcllerton. His farm contain- seventy- 
six acres of well-cultivated land. He has 
^ a comfortable house, orchard, barn, t- 
1 buildings for slock, teed lots and • 
j scales. He is making a sp 1 !ty 
! and shipping stock. Mr. and Mrs. Towns- 
j ley have three children — Homer W., Jen- 
; nie and Junie, twins. Mr. Townslcy i 1 at 
of the leading men of Athens Township. 
' 1 'ostoffice, Kellerton. 

— <H3C>-<-- 


J .vf -SCAR FULLERTON, a son of }.:a: 
'■■\'j and Mary Fullerton, of Monroe 
'-:-/ County, Iowa, was born in Monn e 
County, Indiana, the date of his lark, be- 
ing July 7. 1850. When 1 
a hall '. old 1 tal his par- 

ents to Mi fin .- ! ty, 1 .. id there 


married in \ ieni a I . 

• 1 in I 
a daug now r< - 


lei ton' 

■ 1 

f . ) wa , ' . 

: 1 . : I 


and Mrs. Fullerton two arc living— M irti i Indiai a; Mariette : I Rosina, 
J., aged ten years, and Robcri E., aged th< youngest, lives in Southern Kansas, 
four years. Their onl}- dau hi r.Mar) E., \: Irew J. Gillett, the subject of this 
died at the age of three and a half yeai . Mr. sketcl cfi his native county when about 
Fullerton came to Ringgold County, Iowa, fifteen yi ars oi a« ■ , and r< \ to manhood 
in the fall of 1S74, and has resided on his in Noble County, Indiana, making that his 
p I farm since 1S75, on section 8, Ting- home till he came to Iowa. He was n i 
ley Township, where he has 240 acre oi ried in Noble County, January 29, 1853, to 
choice land, well cultivated, and a comfort- Miss Elizabeth Wright, a daughter of 
able residence and good barn and other Stanbury Wright, the pioneer settler of 
farm buildings. Besides his home farm, Tingley Township, bul now a resident of 
he owns eighty acres on section 5, of the Dcnvi r, Colo .Gill :tt was born in 
same township. Mr. Fullerton, in connec- Ohio, in [S36, but reared in Noble County, 
lion with his general farming is devoting Indiana. In the fall of 1854 Mr. and Mrs. 
considerable attention to stock-raising, I Gillett left Indiana with a view of making 
making a specialty of raising cattle and a home in the Hawkeye State, spending 
hogs. Mr. and Mrs. Fullerton are active the following winter a1 Iowa City, and 
members of the United Presbyterian there their eldest child was born. In De- 
church at Eugene, and respected citizens cember, 1854, Mr. Gillett, in company 
of Tingley Township. : with his father-in-law, Mr. Wright, and his 

brother-in-law, John Strouse, visited Ring- 

— =-K£— -- — -^M?p* — ^—CS^ — gold Counts where each, entered Govern- 

■ ment land, Mr. Gillett entering < 

J. GILLETT, of section j acres of prairie and forty acres of I 

Township, ha; been a rcsi- land in Id, ion Township, where he has 

Ringgold Countv since since made his home. To Mr. and Mrs. 

He and the old pioneer, Gillett have been born thirtei 1 children 

ives on section 3, are the : --Archibald S., of '1 ingle}- Township; Mrs. 

if Union Township, the Helen French, living in Southern Kansas; 

le his home here in the Mrs Alice Buell, living in Wirt, Rii 

same month as our subject, but a few days Count \- ; Andrew ].. Jr., livinj in I >; 

. . Mr. ( oA.ii is a native if Gei 1 Mrs. 1 liadama Rut A 

Counts-, New York, born May 5, ;' ■■■•, died, aged eleven 1 y. Traverse, 

a son of Archib ild and Mary (Sco G Ida, Chai les, Orr, May and Maud (tw 

leti, who were natives of Massachusetts the la - \ n living at 1 

and New York respectively. In 184; the parents. Mr. Gillett w; 

family left G n ouuty, for N'oble cultural irsuits, ai that his 

Countv, Indian,!. The • 1 »ved to life work. I I 

Si Jo eph County, ■ ■ met v. ill I and is ] 

they lived on a sm ill farm I rest of I ' ■' ■ ' .Co 

lives. They "• ic the parents o ven mem 

children, our sub tl onh 1 his first entry, and leav< 

and sixth ( hi! ! . Of theii laughl of a team to 1 

Nancy Ann lives at Stu ! 

Cathci ine lives in M 
'.' i ; Mel : ; 1 : ■ V i 


:, Union 

dent of 



1855. I 



>lts, whe 



> settler; 


- having m 


■ . . 

■ ■ 

imj i »vc d land as can be (< >und in 1 he 
township. The rude pioneer log 
ii: ,w given \va) to one ol l ! 
h in this part of the couni \ , . i 

barns and >u1 nil lings ai e su .... 
commodious. In his political views Mr. 
Gillett is a Republican, lie has held 
( ral official trusts in the early years of the 
township; served several years as town- 
ship clerk, and also several terms a 
ship trustee, lie is a member of fhc Odd 
Fellows order. 

" vl-XRY SIEMILLER, farmer, section 
S i~ | 6. Clinton Township, Ringgold Conn- 


ty, was bora in Lancaster County, 
Pennsylvania, February 5, 1831- 1 lis father, 
Ge >rge Siemiller, was a native of Ger- 
many, and came to America when eleven 
years of age. hie was a weaver and dyer. 
His neither, Barbara (Plasterei | Siemiller, 
was a native of Pennsylvania. Henry was 
tin >< cond of a fa mil}- of thirteen children. 
When he was six months old his parents 
removed to Franklin County, Pennsyl- 
vania. During his } r outh he worked at 
farm work in summer, and assisted in his 
father's shop during the winter. ! 1 
cation was received in the common schools 
and by stu i v ai h >me. In 184S th 
removed to Linn County. Iowa, eight 
miles soul he of Cei Rap; 
tied in a pla Big , 1 Gro\ e. 

I Icre h . 

gi lin to ! lie ; aili o; ontr; I aTi i 1 1 

I Wi 

at o mnty. He 

[iss Deborah Fal kin- 
bur g , irn in ] 

in H Count : Slate. 

! I to Wi h ' 'ounty, 

Mi u r i. II i min 

[3 , . 1 ( 

ice ..... 

1 with thai church in 

to exhort in Februar\ . 
I I '.:. and in July 

ing was liccn to preach. He 
many years i 1 Master. He 

s< i ved as pi esiding < Ider at Con 

Ringgold County, and first purcha 

oi land. He has since aided eight}* 
acres, an now lins 167 acre s, 

which is in a gi > >d state of c nil i\ atii m. Ik 
has a good story-and-a-half house, an or- 
chard of 150 trees and small fruits. Mr. 
and Mrs. Siemiller were tl 2 parei ; ol 
twelve children, ten living — Eli; 
Ellen Cooksey, Newman Isaiah, (■ " 
F., Mare Alice, John Ai 10s, Abraham Lin- 
coln, Lottie, Orange Xeal, Henry Flovd 
and Ferdinand Augustus. The two de- 
ire 1 1 J tne and Alvah. Mrs. 
Siemiller died March 1, 1875. and I 
ary 4, 1876, I s >vas married to Mis 
Pringle, born in Keokuk County, Iowa, 
ter of William and R< 
1 Pringle. To this 1 
five children — Dora May, Mi 
Amy Myrtle, Lav Emmetl an 1 an 
not named. Politically Mr. Siemiller is an 
American. At the election in 1 
' ] hard at the p >11< . I 

throng; threats 1 . . 

ii alsi » a Pro! ;ing v< »te 1 

for J. P. St. John, a 
vice in the 1 re I teni] 


O X , i ■ : ' 

: . ; I 1, w; 

? { in ( . I • . N Vorl 


Genesee 1 

1 : 


history or uxrr. 

/A hag in tl*at State until , o twentv-two vears, to ^ I i > s Rachel 

I is i Wilcox v, i n y, n old Morris, of Ohi 

started out for himself, and ivcnt I . 

££ Venango County, | 1, ( 

■ -.:''. l sho a fan:;, i Ic 1)., Cut ti I e J. and 1 

jj>j sub .' in thai State, the three you ic. Mr. 

i;- un which he lived until iS6< ' .lien he 

£>; 'rao\ J to Lee County, lllin ii , and lived camel i Rim rold County, I ■ 

on a farm near Dixon - id in \ in the north part of the county, near Eu- 

I ■ . i i . ; o ; oved to Ri . 

Count}% Iowa, and settled on section 22, lowed agt three years. 

y'; Tingley Township. At that time the la:,] He then moved to Mount Ayr, and soon 

wa< ai» uncultivated prairie i iw he after beg; read vas admitted 

has fi te buil lings, and the land all under to the bar in ] 

cultivation and well stocked with horses ol e and ion for two 

; : ; : and cattle. Mr. Wilcox has been twice years, when, in 1S62, he enlisted in Company 

: married— first in 1842, to Elizabeth Mc- G. Twent}--ninth Iowa T ; fantry, and was 

Curda, who died in Pennsylvania,! nth on the Mississippi River. He 

two children — Austin, died while in the j was commissioned First Sergeant, and in 

I service of his country during the war o!" June, 1S64, w. , m it< It Seci 

/ the Rebellion, and Hu'ldah J. is the wife of Tenant of his company, in wl 

Gilbert Lupher. In 1S46 Mr. Wile- mar- served until May, 1865, when 

j*j£j ried Mary Johnson, also a native of Penn- charged on account of ,di: 

sylvania. They have live children; four ticipated in a number of engagements, 

■'.' • are living — Willis W., Seth L., Nora T. and including the battles at Helena, Little 

;*;£? Mark 1>. Mr. and Mrs. Wilcox .are mem- Rock, Arkansas, Prairie De Ann. Jenkins' 

bers of the Methodist Episcopal church. Ferry, Arkansas, and Mobile, Alabama. 

After receiving his discharge lie ret 

=-<D-~AK:. jK-~«-- J to Mt. Ayr, and was ., [with W. 

T. L; ugl a in his law practice for th 
SAAC W. KELLER, one of the ol :■ I ive years, when tl 1 hip was dis- 
I c Ringgold Count) b . solved b) mutual con ait. lie then re- 
was born in Nobl Co t)", Ohio, l I to his farm, wl remained 
1, J son u ; Le\ i and Ll \ ears, when lie retur 
Ohio, ; 1 1 ia, th [n [SS2 he 
fat 10 . .,, tnith 
! >aren ts of 1 : 

liild m I fived a ug! . ippoint ; - 

- • ' . "■ unty, to 1 

hi 1 i was elected count 

ict schools. lie -judge, 

ren until 1 to the s 

years began fall 1 S65 he 

. I ! ■ irat . I • 

BIOCRAPh ■ I ■ .- •■ 

oi 1867 he was nominated for counn judge, trip ime in Ohio. He 
. , ' > for State Senat >r, but deciin . 1 : . then retun 1 to ! Poe Town- 
former nomination, and was elected to tin hip wh re 1 in 
Senate b\ T a handsome majority. In [1S72 general fan I in which 
he was elected a m mber of the Board ntcrpriso 1 I 
Supervisors, serving one term ol three politics Mr. Gleason alhlial th ih R 
years. In the fall of 1S79 he was again publican party. He has neve a 
elected State Senator, and after retiring official positio I 
from the Senate he resumed his law prac- to the duties oi his farm ai 
ticc. He has also filled several city offices Both Mr. ai I Mrs. Glea: n . 1 
such as city attorney and others, always members oi the Methodist E] 
serving with credit to himself and to the church. He has been quite a pioneer, 
best interest of his constituents, and by his crossing the plains and mo 
honorable dealings has gained the confi- j times to the Pacific coast; was in tl I 
dence of all who know him. country; nd on tl p laii is d 

Indian war of lS54-'5, which caused him 

— o-J33>-«> — - $%j§&- — w—SES- — ' much trouble and anxiety. He! 

lot of stock at one time by Indi; ns, 

: rER GLEASON, a practical farm- their pursuit and punishment ended in the 

j;N er and breeder of fine shorthorn Modoc war. 
< ittle, residing on section 13, Poe 

Township, is a native of New York, born ■^-^^^•■^^ 1- 

in Tioga County, in January, 1S33. His 

parents, Jesse and Didama (Ayres) Glcas- jffTOHN RYAN, farmer ; : k-raiset 

son, were also natives of the State of New ; ! section 27, Union Town hip, 

York. Doth are now deceased. Peter (' in Troy, New York, March -. 1 

Gleason was reared on the home farm in son of John and Mary (Pure R 

his native county where he received the tives of Ireland. In 1856 his parenl 

benefits of a good common-school educa- to Cleveland, Ohio, whert tl 

tion. At the age of twenty-one years he years, and from there went t 

went to Ohio, and soon married, a ladv gan, where tin d 63. When 

(Mary A. Jones) who died a yeai after hei seventeen ye: our si 

mat iage, leaving one son. From Ohio he oul on his own account, and w< I . 

moved to the Stat of Wisconsin, where gansport, [nd : ' 

he remained some tw lve years. He was poi id Ohio, a 

married in W , ■ msin to Miss Margaret while at Dayl >n, 

' I Clyi . : ' > ! ' been < >ne Hundred an 1 Twenl . h 

born six childi me son at I fantry. In 
tei s, of w horn : daughter i . In ' to tl ["went 

tl if 1868 Mr. lo Idaho manded by C 

an i ( he: m v\ lie remained abo 1c at Chick; 

tht ■ y rs, when to ferred to the 1 . 

Co t \ 1 1 ! : i . 1 I : , Cou n I in the i 

ie took a trip to Ca Ci 

lorn m\ < . ' Mill, Dandi .11 

1 1 I non! twice, 



Resaca, where he lost a middle finger. , marriage to Miss Sophia Pratt, who was 

II served a little over three years, and born in Johnson G unty, [own, June 20, 

after his discharge returm I to St. Ma y's, 1857. To this union have been born 

Ohio, where he married Miss Ellen Christy, seven children — Stella, born November iS, 

a native of Auglaize County, Ohio. He ! 1S74 ; Charlie, born January 5, 1875; Ber- 

lived at St. Mary'- until the fall of 1S75, . tha, born July 17, 1877; Luretta and Lu- 

when he moved to Ringgold County, Iowa, , zctta, twins, born November 15, 1878, the 

and settled on the line of Decatur Count)-, ' former died February 12 and the latter 

where he lived until 1/ ;, when he moved ' February 24, 1879 ; Chester, born Man ' 12I > 

to his present farm on section 27. win re he ' 1S83, died November cr, 1884, and I 1 

owns 120 acres of improved land. He has born April ", 1 '5. In his political views 

accumulated his property by thrift an ! en- | Mr. Benson is a staunch Democrat. Both 

terprise, a- when he started, in life for him- he and Ids wife are members of the Meth- 

self lie had no means and no one to assisf odist Episc »pal church, 
him, but he has prospered and now has a I 
good home, and can look back with | I 
ure over a well-spent life, and forward to 

days of peace and plenty. He has had a "" \ A. WYANT, residing on section 22, 

family of thirteen children — William T., I \> Lincoln Township, was born in Penn- 

John H., Michael C, Edward A., Rachel '--.-;-. sylvania, December 26, 1834, a son 

M., Amos W., .Mattie L., George F.. Al- j of Jacob E. and Margaret Wyant.who were 

fred L., Andrew II., Dennis Martin, died ( natives of the same State, lie was reared 

August 8, i883;Gussie hi., ana Cora C, to the avocations of farming and milling, 

died Jul\- 15, 18S6. and at the age of twenty-one years com- 
menced life on his own account, lie went 

-• "^il-v. • — s- to Kansas in 1855, remaining there but a 

! short lime, when he locate 1 in Illinois, 

P. BENSON, dealer in books and where he taught school in the winl 

; j 1 stationery and postmaster at the following pri ing. In 

'^Z r-^ Goshen, is a native of Iowa, born 1856 he returned to Kansas, where he fol- 

in Washington County, August 3. 1852, lowed farming and scl 

hi >ai its, \.. and Carolin( Benson, being the spring of 1875. He then 

n . of th Sta 1 of Ohio. Our subject gold County, low , sett on 1 

eared on th i ivhen iow 

with his • years of age, engaged in 1 

wh -a ue bi ran fai 1 ,' ig for him If. He is now 

1 on Platte River. 1 lis farm ( 
i tied on a farm on which 1 

resided ipril 1, iSSi. 

to Gosh h ' lad hi > 1 I 1 1 

: : Ity of thorough-bred ^ 

at ) his phi e in w< Poland-! Mr. \V\ 

cai penter' ieen Led in mat . May 8. i -'" 
en 1 In 1SS6 j A. Morro 

1 po >f G a. ! )eceml 1 f Jacob 

: 1 ' : [orrow. 1 


BIOGL I • .;■■'!■' HE ■-' 

born four children- Isabella, born in No- 
vember, 1S62; James, born in August, 1 7, 
and two who died ; :i infancy. Mr. Wyanl 
served in the last war, being Orderly Ser- 
geant of Company A. Twentieth Kansas 
Volunteer Infantry, and was in Price's raid 
through Missouri. Although he organized 
the Greenback party in Ringgold County, 
in his political views he is independent. 
He is a member of the Masonic fraternity. 

; ,• ers and stock-raisers. The members 
tpr- of this firm arc O. J. and R. L. Loutz- 
enhiser, twin brothers, who were born in 
Mi rcer County, Pennsylvania, July 31, 1830, 
sons of David and Eliza ('Brown') Loutzen- 
hiser. Their parents died before the boys 
were one year old. O. J. was reared a 
farmer by his maternal grandparents, who 
lived to be quite old ; his Grandfather 
Loutzenhiser lived tub. 1 eighty-seven and 
his grandmother to be eighty-three. His 
Grandfather Brown was ninety-four years 
old.and his Grandmother Brown eighty-five. 
He received his education in the common 
schools. At the age of seventeen years he 
learned the mason's trade ai I Col iwed that 
1 1 ipal on ei ;hl years. In 1 Sj' 1 he came 
to Ringgold County, and purchased an in- 
with his brother, R. L. He was 
married July 21 i, 1 t, to Miss Lizzi 

tion, who was ; essful 1 ■ ' She is 

! : : tch 

appears ■ ' Mr. and 

Mrs. (). J. 1 , .:■•/ nhif r 
-Roxie O O. R. L. 1 .outzen- 

hi s \ reai hi \ 

died. 'I ! 1 In 

to Iowa, I 1 : 
to n To w n s 1 1 i p a up , I i o n of 

their present farm, which was then in its 
primitive - I The farm now contains 

3; .1 n nt land, m ell cultivated 

and well improved. They arc extensively 
and stock-rais- 
ing. They have each a fine residence, situ- 
ated upon different parts of the farm 
out-buildings i 1 ck, etc. R.L. was mar- 
ried Jum r. to Miss Cat rie Miller, 
formerly a teacher, daughter of H. T. 
Miller, one of Ringgold County's leading 
citizens, whose sketch appears on at 
page of this volume. R. L. Loutzenhiser 
ami wife have three children — Laura L., 
L. Blanche and Mary A. Loutz nhi 
Brothers are genial in their mam. 
upright in their dealings, and no men in 
the township have more friends than the 
'• twin brothers." They closely resemble 
each other in voice, manner and dispo 
tion, as well as in personal appearance. 
Postofhce, Mormontown. 


.-""" L. PATTERSON, fai mc r, sec I 
'J- J Benton Township, was ! rn in Rich- 
>^f land Count}-, Ohio, July 20. r 
of William and Ann (Lawson) Pal 
1 le was in-' youngest of thr< c children, lie 
e ..- rc an I 1 n the f irm, and ; c irly edu- 
cation was o! 'tain I 

In ' 11. II • 

was mai rii . ... Miss Row - 

ena Huffman : ain an 1 

Marv Ann (Fen 
in Rich 

[87S he 1 
: 1 in B 

1 1 enry C. Voting. The I tins 1 7 : 

land, c .; 
1 1 Id 

■ ■ 

histor ■ . ' • •' c>r::rr. 

thing about t he pin 

■ and a hal 

I ' est oJ Delphi . I i i ■' . 
, ' tcrso vc two children -Flovd, born 
: i : ■ I Zella, born Octobci 

ia iSSi. Politically Mr. Patters* i 
R iblican. He has been a member of the 
B iard Central Committeemen for Bento 
Township four years. He takes an active 
; est in am iter] iri: e that will benefit 
tl community, and is recognized as one 
of the leading men of the county. Post- 
office, 1 )elph is. 

[OBERT 11. RILEY was one of the 
first settlers of Athens Tov\ 
^:_\ Ringgold County, locating on section 
23, in the autumn of 1S53. He laid a claim 
of 120 acres before the land had 
in the market, and afterward entered i f 
from the Government. Wh< n Athens Town- 
ship was di\ ided the southern part was 
named Riley, in hon ir ol the Riley family, 
they being early settlers. He was born in 
Marion Count v, Ohio, a son of YV Ilia 1 
and Love Riley. He was reared in his na 
tive State, and was there married, lie 
b t a famiij »f children ivith him to 

; ' ' Jd County, and made what i 1 
Ril rown hip h : s home until 
1 : ~ ?. when he moved to Decatur C 
,vhi re h si ; . lives. 

ilv of nine chi ; ' Esli S , 

D., Julia 
A., J isiah L., G 11 le M. and ( 
II. Mr. Pei kins v\ as educated at th C; 

nent men v tted. At the age of 

inn I te; 

lowed that ] ears. In 

i 56 he ] ; oved Ro [sland County 

;. The first year he was engaged 

■ hing, and th 1 in a mercan- 

• hment at Port B\ ron ■ 

two years. March 11, 

he m; 

1 PERKINS, farm 

n.Ki\l.\>, larm r, se< ti 1 

; . | 

1 . , 


\Y w V ui 

j Lucinda Williams, a of White 

Countv, Illinois. In rS6o he engaged in the 

i ness at Big J ! 
Count y, ! i' a, and in 1 ■ count of 

failing health, cau isl of the 

mill, he sold out and returned to Rock 
Island County. The latter part of the 
sari ie year he engaged in the mercantile 
business with q H. D e, at Cor- 

dova. Mr. Devore is now a prominent 
banker at Port Bj-ron, Illinois. Tl 
i finement of the store told severely on his 
: I v impaired health and cam 

again to change his business, and 
he closed out the 
I i n r a i 

It y of bridg .In 1874 

he n , - d to Molin .-. lllino 5, and cn- 

[ in the manufacturing busi 5. In 

Rock Island" 


to himself and 


of : 


and wcl ; 


ing site, and fui ni I in i 
sh< >ws the rel to '■ iil\\ He 

has a thrift^ ■ I and 

tivi sha le trees. and ut-buil : 

the Mas* n ii 
rel ; Ch; pi Everett Co una d ry. No. 

1 8, Ruck Island. Mr. and Mrs. Perkins 
are the parents of (our cl : Idi i William 
S Arthur I... Mary J), and Herbert E. 
Politically Mr. Perkins is a Republican, 
and is considered one of the strong 
his party. He is one of the leading citi- 
zens of Ringg i 1 < iiinty: Posl I i< e, Kel- 

^"\ENRY TODD, oi Mt. Ayr, was born 
,j j in Beaver County, Pennsylvania, 

pril 12, [833, a son of Alexan ; 
Sarah (Steven; I ■ 1 I : , in father a native of 
Mar I md, b< »] n ;, i 1 ; >'; . and the mother born 
in Fa)*ette County, Pennsylvania, in 1792. 
Tin tathei ras twici ■ larried, ha v'm : ' 1 
children by his first marriage. By his sec- 
ond marriage he 1 d t\\ elve child] . om 
b ing the fifteenth child. Thirteen 
of his children lived to maturity, and at his 
death, which occurred in r86o, his descend- 
ant nu nb \ . Our subj ct lived 
on the farm where he was born until his 
father's death, and there he was re; ■ ; to 

irsuits. He wa 
rS; to Mi Mary J. ] t, n; tivc ol 

B ver G am . I ' ins; Ivania, by \ 

ire yet 
iSSi, t in 1SS2 
Mr. Tod . : 

; 1 to this union 

ing in his 1 

he n [enry O lo\ 

lagi G> ii. wiic-i 
chased eigl 

lined 1 

eel treasurer 1 it R 
h ■ 
and in 187; was re-elected 
■ 1 1 ■ ■ • On retiring fn im the 

treasurer's oft id 

tte. 1 a 1; ■■; , elect* d 

secretary of R ultural 

ty, which office he has since filled with 

th ception of one year. In his political 

Mr. Todd is a Republican, lie has 

:s ' if his township with 

: I to 1 

He was justice of the 
oi Mt. Ayr for three years, and is at 
p: esent serving as treasui o! the city of 
Mt. Ayr. His wife is a member of the 
Unit d Presbyterian church, 
wife having been a member of the same 

)RGE R. ANDERSON, a success- 
riculturist of Jefferson Town 
' 7C-. ship, residing on section 11, was born 
in York County, Pennsylvania, May 20. 
1846, his parents, Edward and La rinia(Ro 
in 1) Anderson, being - s of York 

County, Penns 1 ' grandfather, 

of the 
same county. Edward Anderson is de- 
( e :d, but the motln r of 01 

Ohio. G 
of this skel 

: I was :• 
f C 

spring 1 in I 





where he has since been a. resident. He County, and settled in their new home in 

has met with success in his agricultural Liberty Township, where Mr. Lorimor 

pursuits, and is now the owner oi t.\v acres built a small log house, i6x \6 feet in size, ;i 

of choice land. He is no\*. principally en- where the famil} spent twelve yea;-. ;. 

[ in raising stock. Mr. Ander: >n was Their humbl velli g was a favorite stop- ; 

united in marriage, October 31, rS/7, to ping place for travelers, it being frequently 

Miss Adda Neidigh, a native of Davis filled to it- utmost capacity. Their only 

County, Iowa, her father, Charles Neidigh, neighbor at the time of their cumin:;' to 

having been a pioneer of that count}*. Mr. Liberty Township was Samuel Powers, wh 1 : 

Anderson has served his township accept- , lived some two miles distant. The follow- \ 

ably as assessor fur five years. He i r - a ing year, 1857, Rufus Cavitt locate 

member of the United Presbyterian church, I one and a hall miles from Mi". Lorimor's 

and a respected citizen of Jefferson Town- . home, and two years later came several 

: others who settled in Jefferson Township. 

! Mr. Lorimor lived on his farm ten years 

before his fence was joined by a neigl 
iHER LORIMOR, one of the oldest ; He followed stock-raising in con 
I'fM settlers and most respected citizens with his general farming, the surrounding 
'. ;~- of Liberty Township, is a native of prairie being used by all for grazing pur- 
Washington Count}*, Pennsylvania, born poses. Mr. Lorimor lost his wife in March, 
May 3, 1821, a son of Benjamin and ! 1878, who left at her death nine children — 
Eleanor (Sayres) Lorimor, the father born ; Jane,wife of John Richards; Benjamin; Nan- 
in Lancaster County. Pennsylvania, and cy.wife of Irvin Brent; John; Anna E., mar- 
the mother a native of New Jersey. Our ried Hampton Hargrove; Robert, Milton. 
subject was twelve years old when he ac- ■■ Maria, and Sarah, wife of Henry Wheeler. 
companied his parents to Ohio, and at the ' Mr. Lorimor's second wife died ab >u1 one 
age of sixteen years settled in Guernse} year after her marriage, and in December, 
County, where he lived with his parents 1882, fie was again married to Mi 
for nine years. The parents then removed Hamilton, a native of Pennsylvania. Mi". 
with their family to Washington County, Lorimor, by his industri< I and ex- 
Ohio, where they located on a farm. Ashcr cellent management, has prospered in his 
Lorimor was married in Washington agricultural pursuits, and a. ter having > i- 
County, Ohio, May 6, 1847, '" •' ll '' J an ' v - " 

A. Breckenridgc, and after his marriage olde- < : has 36; acres left, 

settled on a farm in Washington County, having] - rv j a com] 

Ohio, which he cleared and in roved, Liv- age. Mr. Loi 

ing there till 1S55, when he came to Iowa, tin United P rian church since 

i ' I ion oi land in Lib- I >. ) ars of a; : 1 

erty Township, Ringgold County, ha*, years has s rved \ ■ ler. He 

'■ . ti I hi family ii Madison County, low::, attends the ch 

he had rented land. Vftei ' I \ H ' Ll 

lie went to M:i ! , '. for a scl I ii r1 ; ' 

crm :. . ireal County, 1 

i of his leg in two pin . sister, Elizabeth, 

tli David Pr< slon. Mr. 

I .'ed with his family to I ' i ; 


i son 
in in 

• ! e ol justice of the peace, bui in each the farm cle by Mr. Archbald, 
case has refused to qualify. He was which, at the I , was raw- 
el cted township supervisor undci the old prairie land. here he has 
law, and was re-elected for a second term 'b 

ol one year when the law was changed. in Tingley Township, his cattle being 
Fie then served as township trustee for thorough-bred, and his h tl Poland- 
some time, and is again holding the latter China grade. He; ■ a few horses, 
office with credit to himself and his con- H< ha 'rove north of his house 
stituents. and Lam. whi : Is I 

tion for his sto< k in winter. In politics Mr. 

Archbald is a Rcpul an, castin 

pHN ARCHBALD. one of the pros vote for John C. Fremo 
J perous stock-raisers of Tingley Town- 

r'^' ship, and a practical farmer, was 1) >rn ww^itC Tj^Ta^'v^- 

in Rochester, New York, March 17, 1835, I 

of James Archbald. When he was c-.- 5. WILEY, stock-dealer and agri- 
rant he was taken by his parents to HJVj culturist, section 7, Lott's Creek 
Will County, Illinois, there he grew to i--;-^ Township, is a native of Guilford 
manhood, being reared to agricultural pur- County, North Carolina, where he was 
suits, receiving his education in the com- born January io, 1S49, son of Abner and 
mon schools of that county. On attaining Jane Wiley. When he was two years of 
his majority he commenced life on his own age his parents removed to Hendricks 
account, beginning without means, but hav- County, Indiana, where the} resided until 
ing a stent, heart and a determination to 1840, and then moved to what was then the 
succeed. He was married in i860 to Miss "Far West," beyond the Mississippi, the 
Anna Price, of Will County, Illinois, and Territory of Iowa, locating in I 
they are the parents ol ten children, five County. He was reared on a farm 
sons and five daughters— James, Lewis, ceived his education in the pionee 
George, Frank, Thomas, Maty, wife of of that day. In the spring ol 1 
William Olm; Sara;:, Nettie, Anna and came to Ringgold County, and sett! 
Ella, the four'youngest daughters living at his presenl farm, entering .; 
home. After his marriage Mr. Archbald Government land. His first dwelling was 
bought a farm, on which he lived till 1869, a log 12x14! t. I 1 hasimproved 
when he removed with his family to Kin.;- his farm a- his m 
gold County, low. 1 . fall locat- the Wilev fai 
ed on the southea item pari ctii , in 1 \w.\\ . He now 1 
Tingle} 1 iwnship, where he has since good tc ol ■ ■ cil im- 
made his home, 1 He has a 
two-stor\ (rami building. Mr. Arch] '• dence, surrounded wit . 
has by his own i id good orchard two 
ment a< quire t hi pr< ent fine property, of about ten 
which consists of 538 acres o 

< mi : m ■ I : ' the convci 
and is one of the I 
county, being 

( nan 1 River. A o\ l 


' ■■ ■ •• • . ' .' COUNTY. 

and in February, i S57, drove thei 
Council Biu 

30 - ; . p aind. He was 
April, [$5 3, to Miss Eliz; tech fan 
ai t, a mil ive ol Virginia. Th 

1 living -Oscar, Frank, A! ck, Will 
iam, Hattic an ! Jennie. Mr. Wil 
member of the Masonic fraternity, Ga n I 
Lodge, No. 416, Cai( donia. Politi- 
is a Democrat. Postoffi. e, Mt. Avr. 


- • : 

W.j AWRENCE D. RILEY, section 23, 
\ I ■? Riley Township, resides on the pioneer 
■■ ' - homestead located by his brother 
R< ibert 11. in 1S53. He has bi 
of the town hip since 1856, and there arc few 
men now living in the county who wi reh 1 
when he came. He was born in Marion 
County, Ohio, May 15. is : ;;, a son ol Will- 
iam and Hannah Rile\ - . He was reared on 
a farm, but when sixteen years of 
gan to learn the blacksmith's trade. The 
month of his majority he came to Iowa, his 
broth,':.]", Robert, and his sisters, Nancy and 
Pati '. b< ing r< sidents of Ringgi >ld 
Count)'. He bought 120 acres of land, 
which is a part of his present farm, but did 
not settle down to battle with the realities 
of life till after the war. In March, 1862, 
he went to Kansas, and enlisted in Corn- 
pan)' H, Fifth Kansas Cavalry. His ser- 
vice was all west of the M 
in .-.] - iri and ■ "1 in Jul 

v. as in the b le Helena, and in Octo 

. . • Pine 131 ' . [11 Man I 
w hile sco on tl 

Mount I taken pri 

confin I 1 n itli nd twent) 

Pyler, 1 : ' 

pe, but was ta 1 

with bloo 1 1 1 1 ■ • 1 

I ilcd, and in A] 

I I . ' 

i 1 1 V-'.,; I 1 , 

fowa, 1 ' ' Julia Ann 
lative of Mahaska O 
born July 2 ■ f George 

Sir. 1 f co 

hon 1 keej ii e ■ 1 his Ian I in R 

C'liiii: v, ha /in;/ b iughl the 1 

his brother Robert. He now owns 2 ;o 
of fine land, the most of \ 
; under cultivation, and his buildi 

1 ■ 1 ments are con rtal and o >i m 1 
' dious. Mr. Riley has been a pn 
j man in his township, and has held every 

offio in the gift of tl le except 

'. justice of the peace and constable. He is 

1 .\ for the third time, a mem 

Board of Supervisors of Ringgold County. 

In politics he affiliates with the Rep 

party. He and his wife are . 

the Methodist Episcopal church. '•. 
. have' had eight children, but six are living 

—George W., David A., Hannah ( .. [ohn 

XV., Rebecca E. and Elsie M. Twin sons,. 
J Alfred and Albert, died in inf; ncy. Mrs. 
; Riley's father was bom in Ros: < 

Ohio, January 31, 1S12, and her mothei was 
; a native of Tippecai 1 >unty, Indiana. 
1 The latter died in Wapello County, Iowa, 

<;. 1 1, a id the father now lives with Mrs. 
I Rilev. 



A. In- 

Mt. Ayr, 

icn of the place, 
1 1 

ah 1 le is 
n si m of Ai ' ; 

tensive stocl 
A. O. Ii 

: . 

,. ■ •' • lining what would D n I til 26, 

lil ol bnsine; He 1 ■ ; Wi 

itile -life as a clerk in • J< I 1 • 1 

of J. S. Kirbcy,. witl 1 | 

He Mr. E • . . 

Huggins, Perki > 1 ted on 

Co., and in 1S7; > ; a p with i i - t in L 

Dav D md embarked in busii 

i mtinu J car] le. Me 1 

when Mr. Ingram retired, but a few n il o oming 1 : 

I . bought I the ownei 

of >J D fo the pn til land as cat I in his town hip. lie 

firm of A. Ingram iS Sons. Th< ii • is now has 

the 1 ■ • trm in the coun I inleg- 

; and is well known, having a ! I rity he has gain I all who 

und co tntn . The . \< :p kno\ him. In his , he is a 

;♦; a full stocl of ev< n thing in then line, Democrat. I le i- : mei bcr oi tl 

*• aimi ig to please a large trade. 1 ' rd \o. 5, 5 5 _, 

double store is well lighted and i I pi in ol \ '. - • =burg, Pennsylvania, 
perfect order, showin: the ovci sighl a 

thorough busim ■ man. Mr. Ingra 1 - — °~K ■ — °°-<SH= — 

addition to atteni ting I 1 his mi 1 1 anl ile in- 

. terests, is largely interested in real < lal ' 0BER1 FIFE, is a natn 

and • lealing, 1 iv\ ning a goo I fai in in r'. b irn in G e, J 

Liberty Township. He was married in -- : \ a son ol ! 

to li \ >.:■ Kinsell, daughtci D. with whom Iv 

C. Kinsell, of Mi. Ayr. They have two age ol t\ He 1 .• fare- 

childn 1 1 )rr K . and Vera ! 1. M 1 . and w :11 to his nal 

■; Mrs. Ingram are active members of the sailing vessel at I after a 

;' Mcthodisi Episcopal church, an 

Good Templars ord in 1 .A week . arrival 

he h ent t< d 

ing there till 1S74. H 
iRGE R. ESTEL, a son ' I ■ 

was burn in the ) ' . 

: "•7'. dl" Pennsylvan 5 Ringgold < ] 

■ was n nr I I 

till twenty \a 
years 1 

carpenter's I N . ; 

tgc to M ■ : ' I ■ 

George Roach, a 1 

whom I 





native of Mass ichusetts, bul at the I 
her marriage living in Mercer Co ity, 
Pennsvlv mia, to which count} her p 
removed when she was a child. To Mr. 
and Mrs. Fife have been born five chi 
of whom only three are living — Agnes, 
William M. and James P. Their daughter, 
Mary J., died at the age of fourteen years, i 
Mr. Fife and his family are members of the 
United Presbyterian church, of which he ] 
has served as trustee. Mr. Fife is always 
interested in every enterprise which he 
deems of benefit to his county or town- 
ship. He is one of the active and public- 
spirited men of this community, and a 
much-respected citizen. 



I . L achman, < 'I New Bu la Tow n- 

ship, and the} have foui chil 

en< e, 1 [arvey, Katy and Estella. Mr. Teale 

is a member of Kcllerton Lodge, No. 425, 

1. O. O. F. Politically he is a Repi 

and numbered among the solid . business 

men of Keller'* >n. 

' 11. TEALE, junior partner of the , 
\,'\ firm of J. E." Teale & Brother, was j 
•fc-..s? 3 born in Ohio, January 22, 1852, son 
of Frederick Teale whose sketch appears j 
elsewhere in this volume. When he was 
two years of age his parents removed to 
Jo Daviess County, Illinois, near Warren. 
Here Mr. Teale passed his early life, as- 
sisting on the farm, and receiving his ed- i 
ucation in the common schools of that ; 
county. In 1802 the}' came to Decatur 
Count v, and engaged in farming on 
in Dec itur Township. He then removed 
to Fayette Township, where he resided two 
} ears, them e to New Bud 1 T 1 vn >hip. In 
'1X7.I Mr. Teal engaged in the 1 
bu sines s v. ith hi br r, ]. E. Teal . 1 11 
i ; I removed to [veil 1 

the town wa n ' 1 

; m [in ■ the first bu sin lion 
ed. They cany a large stock ol 
• ' ■• : 

hal tm cloth . lapl< md 

nd a full li 
■ tr ted th t In 

town, u 1 1 II ' .. i ; . '] 

H r i [ a 1 1 1 v.i r y 1 , 1 8 7 1 , I 

DREW INGR VM, one ol the lead- 
ivV> ing stock dealers of Ringgold County, 

"-■r? and one who, by his energy and per- 
severance, has contributed largely to its 
interests, came to Ringgold County from 
Monmouth, Warren County, Illinois, in 
1869. He is a native ot Scotland, b irn in 

iberde u, May 29, 1833. When he ivas 
eight years of age his parents, Geor; 
Jane (Smith) Ingram, immigrated to the 
United States, via Quebec, Canada, and 
were forty-two days in crossing the ocean 
in a sailing vessel. Landing at Quebec 
they proceeded via the lakes to Huron, 
and thence to Savannah, Ohio, when: they 
lived a number of years, and \vh 

':■■:•. j : e\\ 1 1 manhi 1 1 1 and was edi 
He remained with h ; ent; until twenty- 
one years old, when he s 
mence the 'cattle of HI If. E. ir 

several _■ : 

,. . : h I tl 

turned his attenl ioi 
.; at 1 

living in 
, Illino 
i w 1 me to Mt. Ayr, 

Iowa, . - County. 

i : i , bu ' count y wn 

Uton >t steadily at 

this business until 
I ' ii 

seven! \ ■ . 1 



y ->— --\ 

|f# -^ ^ 


/^'^./ //]-<>/< <$Za 




F. WALTER, farmer, section 
Lott's Creek Township, was borr 

high as 125. He, in addition to his stock H was tal 1 al the battle of 
business, is one of the lai : i\\ m ! - SI il< h and I . I ce days al Mem- 
ounty, owning r,ooo acres, ; . -, M bile, I : . Alabama, and Ma- 
. led and well stocked. F01 the ; a t con, Geon ia, after which he was paroled 
years he has been connect : with and nt to B iton Barr; lI . Louis 
the dry-goods trade, a member of the firm for a time; was then granted a furlough 
of A. Ingram & Sons, which is under the and cam 1 e. He was afterward ex- 
direction of his son, A. O. Ingram. Mr. ! changed and returned to the front, lie was 
Ingram is an enterprising business man, al the siege of Atlanta, Joncsborough and 
and lias contributed largely of his means Sa\ mnah, and was discharged December 
toward the development and improvement 29, 1864; then returned to his ho in 
of his adopted county. He has always Ringgold County. In 1S72 he came to his 
been a stricl temperance man, and has | present farm which was then in its primitive 
given his influence on the side of law and condition. I: is ived and in a 
order. He was married in 1854, to Miss good state of cultivation. He has a good 
Hestei A. Haddix, a native of Virginia, story-and-a-half residence, out-buildings for 
They have two sons— A. 0. and YVilber B. stock, an orchard of eighty-five tr< 

fruits, and is engaged in gi . . irming 

^^^^^^ C : C^^ 1/1/l,v ^ : '"' stock-raising. Everything about ihe 

premises betokens the thrift and enterprise 
of the owner. Mr. and Mrs. Wal 1 
the parents of ten children — Man Ann, 

< 3 Lucas County, Ohio, March 7, 1837, Vinola P., Nancy Lilly, Lama Belle, Am- 

son of Abraham and Martha Walter, of mon J., Varden, Lizzie, Martin Luther, 

Pennsylvania. He was the fourth of eleven Minerva J. and Lerov. Mr. Walter is a 

children, and was reared a farmer, lie re- ' member of Posl No. 96, G. A. R.. Mt. Ayr, 

ccived a limited education in th mon and is a worth}- and coi I mber of 

schools, but studied hard at home. In 1S55 the Methodist Episcopal church, ol which 

the Walter family started for Iowa, by [ he is trustee and on eralsup- 

1 mi, and arrived in Ringgold County Jul} ; »rl ■ •-. Politicallv he is a I 

11. The father located on section 9, Lott's Postoffice, Call do: 
Creek Township, where he still resides at 

an ad\ . n : •.. : re he has all tin -S3 ^--1 ' j ]'- • — Ef- 

forts of a g r 1 hi im '. At thai I ii 

there were bul three I imilies living in th : ' ]'. BARRETT, farmer, section ;, 

township. Game was abundant and sup- ; Middl ; rk Town hip, 

family w ith pl( nty ol mi ;it. Mr. 'Brown Count y, < 

A'all man I December 4, i Lo ' . s and M; 

S T an . Johnson, a native of Putnam (Butt) Bai an. the I rm 

( ' mm 5 , [ndi ma, and daughtt r • ■: Jem"- m 1 Couutv, ' 

and J uriah Johnson who B 1 nty. Thev were 
( 'ounts in 1856. Mr. Walter 1 ica 

I land near < ■ Gilbert L.,Wi 
'■■ •!" 1 5. i . ' I, he enlisted in I in] . ! . 
■ ' 1 M Infant 

hrce yeai - and 1 v\ 1 and a County, II 


nois, where his early life was spent on the 
farm an ; ... I d comnn m scho 

I I . fatlier died in 1S61, and in iS \ I 
f i' ; ) i cm i >vcd to Story County, Iowa 
where ]. T. resided until rSSi, when I 
settled upon his present farm, which was 
then in a wild state. He owns 120 acres, 
all in a good stale of cultivation and well 
improved, a comfortable home. out-build- 
ings for stock, and a good orchard. He 
■was married September 15, 1^7^,10 Miss 
Margaret A. Silvers, born in High Point 
Township, Decatur County, July 19, [857, 
and daughter of Jesse and Sylvia (Trullin- 
ger) Silvers, the former a native of Ken- 
tucky, and the latter of Indiana. The 
father came to Iowa in 1843, and the mother 
in 1849. They were married in Davis 
County, and reared a family of nine chil- 
dren — (.i.C., Thomas J., Nancy, Margaret, 
Adaline, Henry, Priscilla and Alda. Mr. 
and Mrs. Barrett have six children- 
William Lee, Jesse Cross, George Emmett, 
Ora Lafayette, Charles Lloyd and Floyd. 
In politics Mr. Barrett is a Republican, lie 
is a member of the Masonic and other 
societies. Postoffice, Redding - . 


' >HN H. ALLYN, of the firm of Allyn 
Broth, rs, bankers and dealers in real 
:state, is a native ol Illinois, born in De 
Witt County in the town of Clinton. Sep- 
tember ; . iS ;■). the fifth child in the mih 
ol Henry and Emih (Forman) Allyn. Mr. 
Allyn pa I hi boyhood days in his nat ive 
countv, receiving a good education in the 
e* iinmon schools. At tin of < ixt< en 

: 11 ci imp ; lie I ' , mother, a wi '■ iw, 
lo Ringgol County. Io ,va. i 1 1 wa ; reared 

nral pin lits, but on reachi 
mauh od 1 in tin rl y-goods 

; it] i ng, R i 

County, ■ ■ hii I 
H ociatcd 

with his brol I gc S. AII3 

Mt. Ayr Bai tate 1 

I Mt. Ayr. Mr. John 11. Allyn also eepre- 
several good fire-insurance compa- 
Germania, Continental, Union of 
! rnia and the G I Union. 

Mr. Mlyn was married in September, <.'- ',2, 
to Miss Josie Ferguson of Wi 
Missouri, a daughter of John M. Ferguson 
of Grant City, Missouri, where he was late 
judge of the Probate Courts. Mr. and Mrs. 
AII3-11 are the parents of one son, Elton. 
Mr. Allyn in his religious views is an Epis- 
copal Methodist. 

nfgETER MERRITT, farmer, section 21, 

\\'\ Alliens Township, lias been identi- 
H . fied with the interests of Rin: 
County for thirty years. He was b 
Belmont County, Ohio, November 4, 1S2S, 
son of William J. Merritt, whose sketch 
appears on another page of this history. 
When he was two years old his parents re- 
moved to Morgan County, Ohio, w! 
resided until nineteen years of age. His 
early life was spent at farm work. He re- 
ceived a limited education in the: subscrip- 
tion schools of the I ai '■: v iods. In 1S47 
the family removed to Jackson. February- 
23, 1S50, Mr. Merritt wa to Miss 

Minerva J. Skinner, born in Pcrr} G 
( >hio, da ighl of Charity and San uc i 
Skinner. In 1S53, ai bv wife 

and one child, lie 1 . team. 

1 [is father and a brotl 
tor came w il h them. I 
passed in Wa: I ' on. h , h c re- 

moved to Marii Co 

until the sj . when 

d i n A t hen fowi 
acres o 

fall befo \ 1.. 

I : 





I. resided until 1879. when he sold out • ' 
re-purchased the old home stea kno' 10 
Mcrritt Station, which he still own.-. The 
farm contains eighty acres, well cult 
He has a fine residence, \6 \ 24, . 
14 x i6, built in iSS >. He als 1 own-; eighty 
. icres on section 21, with good house and 
orchard, 160 acres on section 27, well im- 
proved, making in all ^j acres. Politically 
he is a Democrat. They have one daughter, 
Martha, wife of C. II. Lewis, of Alliens i 
Township. Mr. Merritt started in life 
without- nu tins, but by good management 
he has acquired a good property. He is 
classed among the leading citizensof Rii 
gold County. 

SLUICE SHAY, a prominent and suc- 
;i -.;■ cessful farmer, and one of the I 
• '-;.- stock-buyers and shippers in Ringgold 
County, is a native of Ireland, born in the 
year 1824, a son of John Shay who was a ' 
farmer in comfortable circumstances. Luke 
Shay passed his boyhood on his father's 
farm, remaining in his native county till 1 
reaching maturity, and was there married 
March 6, 1848, to' Miss Julia Whelan. Of 
the nine children horn to this union - 
are yet living— John V., born in rx;<:Jcrc- 
miah, born in 1850; Margaret L\, born No- 
vember 22, 1853, is now the wife of M. X. 
Hart; Thomas S., born December 19, 
1855; William PL, born December 19, 
1857; Luke II.. b irn Man h 14 iS< d 
ceasi ! ; Michael C, bom Februai 20,1 62; 
Mary J., boi n Januai-3 9, 
I'M ward L., l> n n Sepb mber 15, 1! 
< eased. < >ne 1 his mai riage Mr. 

Shay --ailed with hi ; : fro '■ 
I i. and thirty-twodays lal 

New York, May 10, 1S4S. In 1851 they 

Countv, lo\ ;i r] 
iflci removed to Cnion G 
i line to Rii 

tied on a farm in V [effer- 

■ 1 • I 1 v 
home for ten years. They then followed 
farming on Lhe Platte River for eighteen 
years, when they settled on ; 
farm on section 1 . of Rice Township. Mr. 
Shay ci : farming and I in 

stock in Ringgold County on asm 
Lal of $360. He a 

to his business intei an I I \ !. : perse- 

verin : s quali- 

ties he has made his pursuit a success. His 
farm how con t: ; 
vated land, and he is one of the m 
tensive e hippers in I he West, i 
of hogs and cattle am 

car-load . J' ! h me farm Mr..Shay 

has accumulated much property, having 
given to each of his children as iod farm 
of 200 acres. All of them are doii 
and are honorable and respected 1 
Mr. Shay has a g ice, 

able and convenient, where he is sur- 
rounded by all the necessary comforts of 
life. Both Mr. and Mrs. Shay are worthy 
members oi the Rom n Catholic church. 
In his political views Mr. Shay is a D 
crat and a stron irter oi Iris part} - . 

1 le is one of the active and public - 
citizens oi his ti iwnship and has 1 

to the agrii dtural intc! 
C< unity. 

f \ dealers in do ■ 

. stoves 

etc., Red- 
li , Ici ,va. This firm i f the mo 

Count y. 11 

■ 1 

' . 


<//< corxrr 

It is under the supervision and n 
ment ol the junioi partner, D. !'. I. i . ' 
M r. ] /: . i ; born in Li 

Ohio, Scptcmb :r 26, 1853. His fall , R, 
J. Lawhead, is a prominent citizen ul Id. 
gold County. Mis mother was formerly 
M. J. Elder. The family removed to War- 
ren County, Illinois, in 1854, where they 
resided until 1876. Our subject was edu- 
cated at Monmouth, Illinois. In 1873 he 
commenced teaching, and followed that oc- 
cupation until 1879, when he engaged in the 
mercantile trade at Mt. Ayr, with J. R. 
Henderson, as clerk. Two years later he 
went into business with his father, I he firm 
being Lawhead & Son. In 1882 the pres- 
ent firm was organized. Mr. Lawhead was 
married September 26, 1876, to Miss Rettie 
Wright of Monmouth, Illinois, and they 
have one child — Orr. Mr. Lawhead is a 
member of the United Presbyterian church, 
and politically is a Republican. Though 
but a young man he has gained an em iable 
reputation, socially and financially. 

h — ^-^^i^vH^^ c- 

C. HEPPERLEY, farmer and ?tock 
1 ' raiser, living on section 30, Lincoln 
1 Township, u-as born in the Stat< 
of Illinois, April 12, 1840, a son of John 
and Permclia Hepperley, who were na- 
tive- of Perm 1 \ \\ ania and Ohi 1 
iveh . Our subject was reared to I he 
oc< ■;•. ' : n oi fa er, which h 
followed tl lough lil . Al tin 1 I 

twenty -thrc : ycai I 
own aci 1 »un1 . He was u 
to Mi S lin ■ \. !■ r ol W. 

and Eliza Brown) 1 ,vho 

of Ohio. Tin ) I ■ . 
P., born Ma, ■;. I .4 ; 1 C, born J 
6, 1 ; John \\\, i • . i ' 1, iX; \ 
1 ., b n ■ just 24 I 

July -• |. 1 - : . ■•■ I ' i 1 I : 

of i but as! >rt time, 

.. ', . . 11 1. . Y: - : S] 

tin ceyi 'dale heretin ned to llli- 

: . ■ wo years, 

thence to J: ig I .va, since 

which he has lived on Ids presenl farm, 
lie is one ol the prosperous farmers 
ol Lincoln Township, where he has 200 
ol choice land all under cultivation. 
11 has a fine orchard on his land which 
con;.. ins e > appl tre< . ' sides an abun- 
dance ol other kinds of fi 11 it. 
to tl is county Mr. Hepperley has 
as load supervisor in Lincoln Township. 
lie and his family are members of the 
Methodist Episo pal church. 


. ■ ~ ~ ELVILLE BENEDICT, a prosper- 
ous and public-spirited citizen of 
•v.' -b 4 " Riley Township, residing on section 
3, was born in Fairfield Count}', Connecti- 
cut, March 20, 1853, a son of Benjamin and 
Emilv Benedict, the father born in New 
Canaan, Fairfield County, '■ 
August 23, 1824, and the 1 th a native 
of North Salem, Westchesl C ty, New 
Yo: !.. b irn Juh '. . Tl ler died 

in Connecticut, March 18, 1864, Laving 
: ' ' —Mrs. Cli 

in Conned cut ; 
ject and Van. \V \ c k, I •: 11 X -\ . 

telegr; bounty, 

a. M el ville B I 

g their 
home ; 1 : '• 

v . Our 
■ D 

' ■ '877, to M 
, ' ' ■ 

: of Daniel 1 

diu 1 

Mr. and M 


>.] u \ J., boi 11 Ma} 9, iS: n May M., i regimei 

. - May i, 1S84. Mr. Ben l I 1 

on his presi nl f; m on 1 I where they fought llieii last battle. I . 

"S, where he has 220 acn | re went to Washin 

whirl, ; i ■ own two other small tracts, grand revic\ by rail to 

twenty acres in this, Riley Township, and Louisville, Kentucky, and thence to C 

seventeen acres in Harrison County, Mis- ::" : ,01 1 lout, lie : 

souri. Politically Mr. Benedict is a Re- was wound first 

pu :an. He is a much-respected citizen he received a 

of Riley Township, and gives liberally of second time, July 22, in fr 

his means toward the advancement of any Georgia. He was taken pri< 

enterprise which he deems for th< good oi Ferry, Chatl h hi< Ri 

his neighborhood, township or county. ; made his < I same clay and joi 

his regiment. Me enlisl 

•** — = """^EH-'" ' »■—*»- I was promoted to Second Lieutenant in j*>j 

■ June, 1 'lit in the Jj 

£? H. GANDER, farmer, section 10, Mid- I fall of that same 3 unary 15, 1! 

!mJ die Fork Township, is a native of Mus- .' he received a Captain' 

>^°' kingum County, Ohio, where he was served in that - ipa it} 

born September 7, 1 S39. His father, George the war. He wa honorabl} 

G ler, wa: a native of Culpeper County, j , receivi 

Virginia, was a soldi r in the war of Columbus, Ohio. He resided in Muskin- 

1S12, and his mother, Elizabeth Groves gum County, 1 

G 1 ler, was a native of Zanesvill . Ohio, removed to Rii < H was j 

She was the second wife of Gen married August 4, 1871, to M C. [■ 

der, and was the mother oi fh 11, Arnetl daughter of M , a pio- 

J. I!, being the second child. His early neci of nar- j 

5 pa; 'd in assisting on the farm. 

lie was educated at Putnam University, when ' ' ex- 

and Zanesville, Ohio. When tl ception one yea 

broke out h • 1 ilisl I, in 1861, in Captain 1 ( His farm 

Talley's 1 1 pan} for three months, and 120 acre-, in a ion, '. 

so ved I : I : I for thro- and v\ 

1} B, Sev« a . 1 i lith ; >hiu and-a-half resid 
I .being the second name on the co 
pan\ tid as in thii tv-five di 

Their initiatorv '< of 1 

, then Shil 

( • ' cl all th 

; > ,-n the M Rivci pr'v >r to ' 


by Gei \" i L., M enry C 

: ■ • i 1 1 1 G 


1S64, Mr. < 


ir/STOJtr of in vac • • vi r. 

No. i' '■>. Mt. Aycr; is also a i he had pun ' I year before. 

i he Mi Lhodi Epi; >pal cli ch, Mr. Prii : i al the 

exhortcj and a rt cording steward ol time ol his jn irie land, 

that church, and always takes an oughl ii under thorough cultivation 

part in religious or educational maitei . farm conl » acres. In connec- 

Polilically he is a Republican. Po tofhee, ti m m h 

Ingart. in stock-ra id was ] 

— — of the : li k-raisers in 

'i ingl •■ Township. 1 le was actively en- 

; EOM \S PRICK, deceasi d, , a on ' ■ ' ' until tl i I | : vious to h 

\ J ; of the substantial citizens of Ring- when he was taken with a se i 

—■i o- ] c ] County, and at the time of his D1 '° rom which he died in February, 

death was a resident of Tingley Town- 1882. [n politics Mr. Price was a 

ship. J le was a native of Hampshire, Republican, and al the time of his death 

England, born February 2, 1843, and at was trustee of his township. IK . 

the age of five years was brought by his o! the self-made men of the county, 

parents, Thomas and Ann (Prichard) Price, ■ ing commenced here without means, but 

to America. The family settled in Will ! being po oi industrious liabi 

County, Illinois, where both parents died, persevering energy he became one of the 

Of seven children born to them Thomas prosperous citizens of his township, and 

Price, our subject, was the youngest. His | left al his death a hand ate. He 

eldest brother was killed in the late war. j was honest and upright i 

["I Price enlisted at the age of nine- and as a neighbor and citizen was held in 

teen years in the three-years' service, a j high esteem. 

member oi Company G, One Hundredth -*>~^z^~o^-~y:<>^£a~-*«*- 
Illinois Infantry, and at the expiration of 

his term of service he re-enlisted and ' JENJAMIN KELLER is • 

served till the war closed. He was mus- : : and stock-raising, 

tered out in June, 1865. In September, ■ -7.."' 14, Grant Township, where he has 

1S62, he commenced active duty as a sol- eighty acres, and on section 15 where he 

dier. He participated in the battles of has 120 acres, ma! 1 

Chickamauga, Stone River, in the Atlanta acres. Mr. Keller is a Ohio, 

campaign, and the battle at Franklin, born May 12, 1833, his parents, D 

With th exception of a few days in the a I ; - of the 

hospil h vas n .>. ab: at from his same State. He was reared to the voca- 

nt. <\iter the war he returned to 

Will ( lount) , whi i- cultural pursuits 
cultural I i w; , married m Fi 

ruary, i8; : . to Mi< Eu I 1 n Ro ,■ 1 -. ol i 

Will Co mty, a daughl I R I 1 1 filter of A. ' ■ 

gers. To th m v\ 1 e b n n three children, lev wh 

one son and two daugl , I... O in to Mr. and 

M iry E. an 1 N Hie E. Ii I r Mrs. K , tci 

n d r s. P r i c e c a m 
Iowa an 

1 1, on laud K... U 


? \riIICAL . 

i Sr i ; Sarah E., April tS, \\ ,; Eva J., with the cxc | 

, ■ '. Jes ;i I '.. Januai \ :\ , \ . ion . 

( ' i ■ •'. . Fan : ! >cn- m I 

jamiii V., born March 9, 1SS5. Their eld- His fai 

1 i 1 I : ' , C. E., \ - born v . 1 1 - - . tivati 1 h he has plante I 

i died December 4, ] 1 

c t o I 1S75. di< \ ■ ' 

iS; Mr. Kell is one of the a ivc and his home ver) re in its sui 

■ ■ 1 ens of Grant I'o nship, [n politics M r. Fou 

ng his 1 lence hei frage with the R art)-. 

f if the peace, town 

tor. H ' . as a s >'- ^/wf.'t/ ' ' 'v / >~- 

dier in the .v; r ■ I .■• Rebellion, enlisting 

in C irapany M, T iii i Iowa Cavalry. 1!.- : , ALEXANDER i;i. ' 
was mustered out at Atlanta, Georgia, and ,(v\-. er, sectio , is on 

t Dave ip >rt, lo ,va, August . . 
1S65. Mr. Keller has been identified with born in Beaver County, Pen: 
the interests of Ringgold Count} since 1855, , cember iS, iS : were. Sam- 

living wi ; hi at er until 1S60, in which ■ uel and Elizal 

year, he built; 1-log house, in which the former a nam of All C 

he lived a number of years, and which has Pennsylvania I tl ol Beaver 

now been replaced b) iii- pro,:.; more : County. Tl n— Alex- 

•dious and substantial residence. Mr. ander, Martha, fan ,E!i 1 
and Mrs. Keller with their family are mem- When Mr. Blackm re 
bers of the Met] idist I pi< copal « hurch. as the fam b 

In his political views Mr. Keller is a Re- j Ashland County, ' '■ is eariy 

1 in. I , was spenl upon a fai m 

■ ■=- _ - I the 

hous< s. [n S 

' \' c. F( )USER, one of tl: repre- ried to Miss A 

! Inion Town; hi] >. Cou it v. ( >hi ■ 

born in Sum both (Simm 1 As I : ii 

mil G 'iintv. Ohio, the d 

; i ■ - [.i, a son 1 s] ' > 

I imily remo I to Monroe Town 

. ■ 1 ; Isaac Oli ver. 

1 '. : 
1 his native c . 

, and 
1 Will County, . ■ 

: . ! Ierc I 
iirsuits. M , 
Pouter came with his family to R 
* • . 

ins vonr a. ■ ■ 

i barn, and out-buildings foi stoc , ,vhich h has bi ! fine cul- 

good orchard, and everything about the tivation. In connection with his general :*;>; 

ii i i shows the industry and thrift ol farming an I ising he run a small 

its owner. He also owns eighty acre- ol J dairy. He and hi? wife art- members of ^ 

improved land on section 16. Mr. and the Methodist Episcopal church, and be is ;•*::♦! 

Mrs. Blackmore are the parents of five an active wo kcr in the Sabbath-school. :*>: 

drcn, but two are living — John and He has been a minister of that denomina- 

Nellie. Three died in infancy. He is a | tion since 1849, and was ordained deacon in >;s 

member of the Odd Fellows order, and 1859,111 Galena, Illinois, by Bishop Ames, 

politicall) is a Republican. He started in and elder in Frecport, Illinois, in 1 Soy, by 

life without means, but by industry and Bishop Clark. He joined the Rock River g*j 

good management he has accumulated a Conference in 1857, and was appointed to '££ 

fine property. Postoflfice, Blackmore. . High Prairie, Paw Paw, and Wyanet, and 

1 tired from the active work of the minis- 
*^f^*^t^sv^s-*^s<^. , jr , - n fche fal] o{ i86a and wen) tQ ^jj nne . ;< _ 

T^EV. B.DAVID HIMEBAUGH, one '' sota, health seeking. He returned to the 
Y\ of the enterprising agriculturists of ! active work '"' the ministry ; " the fall of || 
-:\ Washington Township, residing on : 1869, served the same conference, being ap- ^ 

River Lawn Farm, was b >rn in Crawford 

ted to Shabbona Grove for one veai 

Countv, Pennsylvania, January 16, 1S24. aild Asbury for two years. In the fall of 
His parents, Jacob and Christina (Altman) ! ^71, his health failing, he retired to pn- 

1 I m :b iugh, were natives of Pennsylvania, 

vale but not inactive life. In addition to 

and were 1 married in Greensburgh, that ' his farm he owns some fine city property 

State. After their marriage they settled : i" Mendota, Illinois, which he still calls his 

in Crawford County, Pennsylvania, where , Western home. 

• . -v lived till their death. Our subjeel 

I in his native county till sixteen years >, "^ ^=z<CX>*= 

• . aije. when he went to Cleveland, Ohi , 

i id there learned the carpenter's trade, • [HO'MAS CAMPBELL, treasurer of 

which he followed four years. He was : j;> Ringgold County, and a prominent 

. n ii 1 in 1854 to Miss Ellen Cross, a na- """ and influential citizen of Mt. Ayr, is 

rive of Chautauqua Countv, New York, : a native of Florida, born in the town of 

laughter of George \V. and Mary Quincy, January 19. 1845, the sec 

Cross. Thi >' ii ive one dam htei family ol ix child) n .V 11 im and Fran- 
Alice, wife of Dr. H. J. C. R< d,oi ces (Vvilliams) Campbell, natives of Nova 
- , ,;, County, Mi mri. Then eldest Sco and Virgini and early 
iter, Ella, died in Men lota, [] in i ettlcrs of Florida I : tl 
ibei 2, [S56, Ml -i hi marriage M t the bi the 
hi di ttl d in Mendota, I S tl - •'• i,!l his famih to 1 - r, Iowa. 
. !, ■ • lived eighteen and located on ; I cd< , d 
. oj : , 1 a1 hi s trac i e mos) f ,| 1( . about ten mil< Mt. -\w. w 
[ n th( : ill is; ! : i 1 11 1 v illi his ha ' ricultimil pursuits. 
1 Rin ol ■ iounty, lo a, w\v l ' Campbell, th 
1 ! foi \ - 
,vj tii ic la id. H I ■" ' •■ '">' " f a 
1 ii iginal purch I ill he has 1 ; ■ ;'ood 1 He was 

: » 


icteen vears old when be came with 
ents to Ringgold Count) id until 
: ic i ng the age • >l twent y yi ai 
on 1 home (arm during the si i 

it hs, and in the winters taught school 
"1 He was married in 1S67 to Miss Olive 
: ' . : >n, a dan d ter of Josiah Bulling- 
to'.i o! Marion County, Iowa. After iris 
m rriage he followed farming until he re- 
:. wed to Mt. Ayr, in March, 1SS6. I le was 
ii lated for the office of county treas- 
un r on the Republican ticket in the fall of 
1SS5. and assumed the duties of that office 
j:: uai'v 1, 1886. Mr. Campbell is a mem- 
be r 1 ii the Metho list Episcopal church, and 
of ti Odd Fellows order, belonging to 
Mt. Ayr Lodge, No. 160. 

• HN MERRYMAN, a prosperous and 
; enterprising agriculturist of Grant 

;". ;--; Township, living on section 30. is a 
native of Ohio, born March 7. 1S35, his 
parents, William and Naoma (Thurman) 

** M rryman, being natives of the same State. 
II. ras reared to the avocation of a farmer, 
ivhich he has made his life work. At the 
agi if fourteen he commenced working on 
a farm ; >v the month, which he followed 
till t .venty years old, when he rented a 
1 an I began far niiig in his own ac- 

■ -. c , iu Kn »x County, 1 llinois. He was 

•;■••. married in the year 185.4, to Miss Re- 
beci tore, d filler of G 

I 1 (La) - ton) Moore, tli 
oi lad ma Mr. and Mi . Merrvman are 

: .'! : 1 

m . 1 . Eva. He liv 

C fteen y< ai s, and tl red to 

; Ri 1 ' 1 mn ty , 1 o wa, and 

. ; f: w lives. Mr. M 

as an 
1 1 ■ 

id, a i 
■ • 

I he has for fifteen years 
:i . . ed in the mamif tctui e 1 
ghum In pi ilitics he < 

.vith 1 ! I 110 ratic part) . 1 It- 
is one of th : citizens of 
Grant Township, which he has served as 
road supervisor and s I tor. 



W. GARTIN, farmer, se< 
;| f. Middl< Fork Township, was born in 
Fulton County, Indiana, January 31, 
1842. His parents were Felix and P to be 
(Moyer) Gartin, the former anative of Vir- 
ginia, and the latter of ( 'i rm ml ( 
j Ohio. They were marrie 1 in Indiana, and 
I had a family of eight children — Griffith, 
George W.. An lers >n, Ch tries and Nancy 
(twins). Allen. Mary Amanda an I Robert. 
; When our subject was thirteen years 

his parents removed to Lucas County, 
I Iowa; settled in Davis County for; 
I lime, then returned to Indiana, i 

Miami County, where they resii 
; 1858, then returned to Lucas County, set- 
tling six miles south of Chariton. He was 
reared on a fa 

in the corann ols. O 

I he enlisted in Compan) C. Thirleenl 
1 Infantry, and was in several of the 
1 battles of the war. 1 Ic was ai : 
siege of Vicksburg. Kcnesaw M 

's inarcl 
tl , then man 1 


1 in J 
Lucas ( 'omit v. 1 

ty, > 

j when 


niSTORi . ouxrr. 

I i and well ira ' : G Haven, born July S, [S76; Ellis 

; '■ 
maples, 1 . N ■' born ! ) ■> 

:k. He wis married 
iS 4, to Miss M iri I ol Lu- lii m. He and lii ; . ■ arc memb ■■ 

cas County, and they havi i\ 1 uldren— M pal church. 

R 1 1 , 1 . - ■ >h .!. I" ink- 

Lin and Eugene. The father a id: 1 play -) " 

fife and drums, an >rm one o l he 

best martial bands in Southern Iowa. Mr. j ' I >EYVITT, a member of I 

Gartin is a memb :r of the Anti-IIors< of Dewitt ] 

Thief Association and of the i 

same. Politic illy he is a Rep of 1 ' . p. This 

Postoffice, Redding. ftm . i fig fine, 

French 1 1 unningaliv- 

— «-H3>-<» — 'Eg.fJ — c> - < £>-° — r , stable ".( Tii 

with go '.I vehicles ol various kin - ; 
• F. T ALLEY, section 12, Grant To >vn- finehorses. Thisfii 

ip, was born in the State Del lows: Sultan, No. 1541, is a jet-black 

%r ware, January 25, 1S41, a son of A. Perchei I in 1S79, « - 

G nd Sarah Talley, also nati - pounds, and imported from France 

ware. In 1842 his parents moved t ■ < )hio, Virgin <S: Co., of Fairbury, Illinois, in 1 
and thence, in 1850, to Indiana, living 1 thai >u ha< ■■::> J. Story, from 

State six . I : : 156 moved to iowa, whom it was bought b) Dewitt B : - 

and located in Ringgold County, where he J iS86, for $2,500. In 

has since lived. LniS66hebegn at the P( Fair in 1S82 

school an 1 taught aim >sl c >\v. k the first premi 

1 ' il i king on th 

a little in the summer. In 188; • it P ri i 

pointed . Gi ' rved i sixty stallions, an 

efficienl ; fanuary, li '■'•. vhen, on | D - ihown at 

count of the 1 ' I tdge fair in 1883 where he t 

he was n w ' He n ■. . i\ i his at- II um in a ring of thirty over 

tention \ trm • D I ' 

of 120 acres, with a pi l : 

comfortable fail dr. Ho 

1 - ■ ! 

['o them 1 N. ] 

: Leu chi I 

: infancy, gray Xorman. weigh! 

Adam Clarl born A : . 

Day, b irn July 31, 1 

born Fcbi nary 15, i X. D 


.. . 

N. Dewitt, wl nai ids i 

a i tiv< of Illinois, born in I-] i 
iv, June ! • i - - . ! I 
tic.il fai mci , and rti an earl) 

ndlin m !:. 1 le lived in his native 

11 count}- till 1SS5, when he came to Ri 
County and 
■ 1 i , I \ . Mr. Dewil t is not 

in but is a mosl excellent )w : 
qualil ics oi a hi u se. 

/■"OllN H. RICHARDSON, jew< 
'_. J dealer in musical instruments at Mt. 
'.' Ayr, is a native of Iowa, born in Mus- 
catine County, January 15, 1854, a son of 
William and Caroline (Kcyes) Rich; 
botl natives ol the State of New York. 
William Richardso anion 

; of Ohio, from which State lie came 
to Iowa in [849, and married Carolini Reyes 
in [853. The)- settled in Ringgold Count}-, 
Lhi Stal in iSSo, where they have since 
m d their hi rnie. John II. Ri< '■ I 
■ ■ I m the home farm in Muscati 
•_■ . wh >re he att led th districi 
schools until < : fa ;e. He 

tl 1 vven1 to Michigan with his p 
v, her; he attended the high sen 
two years, and latei atl 
/erse College I r, after 

■ ned to Io 

. Ke taugl 

of the S icn 1 

al Wesl Liberty, > 




jewelry and 
silverv . . • truments, 

5, etc., and in his 1 usines; 
with success, having b} his up- 
right a 

1 >l all who kn >\v him. Mr. 
I married in 1883 to Miss 

Lulu Miller, of Ind r of the 

late Rev. J. H. Mill ....... . 

Mi >in< - ( '■ inference al tl 
of his death. Mr. and Mrs. Ricl 
: Land Edith 

E. B >th Mr. Ri .1- wife 

are 1 1 is of the Mi E 


( (BERT F.ASKREN.attorne) 

oi th nt citizens oi 

*-r__\ Mt. Ayr, i in ive of Indian . 
on a farm in Boone County, Xov< 
1840. His parents, David and Man 
Askren, were natives ol I 
the father born in . They 

ng the eai ly - 
removing from Ohio tl I State in ic-;2, 
when they settled in Boone County 
ing thence to Clinton County, ai ter I 
Tip] County. Rol t i ., 

e c t , .- to mai 

in his nati\ e St; iving his | . 

: ' 5 1 is neic 

1. In 1861 

. . . 



• >; then began reading law in the 

H. Frew, of Paxton, : I in years. Mr. Bla married in 

[:♦: mil I I I ft. A y\ Louisa County, 1 

Ringgold County, Iowa, in tl .nnawell, h 

♦•I 1870, and opened a law oificc, 1 in [Ian July 30, 1S43, 

;H ciated with his brother, J. C. Askn a. Her 

• : der the firm name of Aski - 1 thcr, John Brownnaw 

'■■ a. short time, since which 1 conducted still living in 

' "j tl 1 al me. Mr. A Icren was united Muscati Mr. run! Mrs. Blauer 

•i in marriage in 1874 to Miss Ada J. Osborn, are the five children— J. Fred- 

of Mt. A3 . this union ward, b< >i n 

.,'■ bom four children, tv I t\ February 21, 186; .. 

s. Mr. Askren ha ie E., I irn April ij, 1 871, and 

■ f; of 1 Mt. Ayr, wa com iperin- Susan - . Mr. 

■ '; tendent of schools four ! in the B in May, 

•J fall of 1S76 was elected coui which tl aw prairie. His 

-.v sen ich one term. Fur the pasl arm >ved, containi 

{>; tin has held the oi!.. of < I acres, the eastern half 

attorney. He is a memb ■ ■ 1 1 Township to stock 

Mas< I and dairy purposes, to which Mr. B 

-: bel ■:•'. - to the Grand Army 1 ' the Re- is devoting his entire attention, lie has 
public. 1 . , his (arm over I 

'^*~^^ so '^^^" ^^^ r ^ <> ' twenty horses of a high grade, an i turned 

1 ifi dm ing the season 100 1 s. [n 
OHN BLAUER, proprieti r of : ■ :lve cows, he neti 

'., ' Everg] en Dain Farm, and the lead- butter S450. His fn 
: - dairyman of Rin : at his own I 

i*; a native of Canton Berne. Switz torn j 

v Juni 1 [o. He was well educated in above all, I 

his nati\ eland for the prof . ■ . 

''; <-' in that i bes! in his t< 

. ,- capacity by the State. 1 
y to t he Uni 
':; great 1 md 1 His parents 

;?: York City in March of that year, 
•<•; directly to 1 

:••• s ' ,! 

v; ' Louisa County. 1 rank of i 

removed to Keokuk < 

< ' 

Ji to Amci 1 Louisa 

■ ■ 



\ ■ | - it he is an < 
]' ... Ihip ; oi Ml. Ayi . 

Mr. Blaucr has been active in i 
tian work since twenty-three years ol 
is at. present p it of the 

; »1, *s Chi istian Association, an 
i numbering about fifty of the 
of Rice Township and it! 
liate \ i< L) . 

T^AXIEL C. TIDRICK, an active and 
I ! enterprising farmer and raiser i 
-'- Poland-China hogs, residing in Lib- 
ert} - Township, was born in Guernsey 
County, Ohio, March 3. 1837, a son of Rob- 
ert and Mary (Karr) Tidrick, the father a 
: itive ol Guernsey County, Ohio, and the 

born in the Slate of Pennsylvania. 
They were married in Guernsey County, 
tl inothei living there till her death. The 
father is still a resident of that county. 
Danii 1 C. was reared on the home farm in 
his native county, where he attended the 
common schools, completing his education 
at the high school at Hopedale, Ohi 1. In 
August, 1S62, he enlisted in defense of the 
Union, a member of Company II, One 

d and Twenty-sixth Ohio Infantry, 
ind belo 1 to the Sixth Corps, At my of 
tin Potoi lc After taking ] »arl in era! 
skirmishes he w as pla< ed o 
duty, and after being in the service three 
years he was mustered out in j ul \ . 
at Washington, lie was present at the 

: • ' : - wli • w re 
the assa tion of P I In. On 

tv, where he rci 
He was nnr.ed in marriage in De- 
• Mi • Esther J. M ' 
it . They have six chil- 
'•• n [ivin Rol ert C, Man- K.. 

Ralph \\ . M . tl c 

In 1 . cd with 

his family V 1 Cass G ninl \ , M 

ided five years, and in the fall ol 
. , h iwa, on a 
■■ here he 
engaged in general farming. In tin 

imc to Ringgold County, set- 
tling on his present farm on si ction 5, Lib- 
i erty Tow nship, which contains :• ; 
of choice, well-improved land. He is one 
ol tl most >ros] rous sfc ick-rai 
Lib 1 ; •■- Ton nship, and i 
cialt) of Poland-Cl i h and 
as many as three pri :> s at 1 me fail i 
sow. He ha : pi nt i of kogs 

on his farm, each havin 
i ntith d to n gistr) . lb .. cattle 

and In it ses, (lie latt< . ' . 

Clydesdale. Mr. Tidrick is a men 
the American Poland-Cl ' Com- 

pany al Vinti m, Iowa. Mr. Ti Irick was 
township a •• essoi in ii '■■:> for a 
term of two years, 1 to 

office in 1884, which position he still holds. 
1 . ! his wife are both mei 
i nited ' rian church, of which he 

is a trustee. 


I p, A 

1 : ''• 

22, 1 3 1 7. his father, I ; 
! man, being f C 

1 intario Countv. 
: New Y< it k. ( >ur subject p; ; 

on the In une farm, e tied to 

cation ; I 

parents to 2 , 

He iva 




JflSTOin- OF Rl ■ • CO U NTT. 

John li., deceased; Aurelius 0., San ' : E 
Rosanna A., Char] s B. and Fi i 
Mr. I >aman came to Iowa with his 
in 1852, when he located in Mai 011O 
where he followed farming til! 1S59. ' n 
1S57 !l '' came to Ringgold ( ?ounl y, 
ter purchasing his pi e cnl farm he r I 

to his home in Marion Count)-, settling on 
his farm in Jefferson Town-hip in 1S59, 
which was then entirely unimproved. On 
first 1 >< ating in this count}' he experienced 
many of the hardships incident to a life in 
a new country. His nearest milling place 
was at Osceola, and he drove his hogs to 
market to Alton. He has met with success 
in his farming pursuits, and is now the 
owner of 215 acres of choice land, most of 
which he has rented out to tenants. Since 
becoming a resident of Jefferson Township 
Mr. Daman has held the office of township 
trustee for two years, and has been a mem- 
ber of the School Board several years. In 
his religious views he is a Disciple. 

till the fall of 1 S76. f fe was m - 

lary, 1S74, to M ■ Annetta Mit< hell, 

a daughter of John C. Mitchell, of Union 

County, Ohio, the father being a son of 

Judge M itchc 11, a ph m< 

Mr. and Mrs. Markley are the p; 

five childn n .Mary }.'. John R., Lutic M.. 
j Arthur lb and Benjamin M. Mr. Markley 

came to Ringgold Co ity, 1 w\ a, in the fall 

of-i 876, and has since resided on his present 
1 farm on section 23, J fferson Township, 
; where lie has \6g acres of well-cultivated 

land. Mr. Markley is a member of the 

Grand Army of the Republic. 



in farming and stock-raising in 
\ Jefferson Township, was born in 
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, April 15, 
1848, a son of Jacob and Mary J. (Warden) 
Markley, who were both natives of the 
State ol Pennsylvania, the father being of 
German descent, and the m ither < if I 
parentage. William M. was reared I 1 
cultural pursuits, and vccc'.\> ■ 
tion in the comm< in chools of hi 
county. During the war of the K 

ted in Company I. Fifty -thin I 
sylvania fnfantry.and served under General 
H ick. He pa I in I 

of Stony Ci cek, Ston River, Fix 
C li I • n iber of other battles and 

ski) mi he: , am i Api i! .j and 5, i . 
to capture Lee's w on train. Mr. Mark- 
ley \v< 11 Lint y, Ohio, in the 
spring of 18; 

OBERT C. HENRY, seni mei I : 
KV' of the law firm of Henry & Sp 
as born near Cadiz, in i ! 
• Count) .Ohio, 1 >e< 1 mber 14, 1841, a son of 
j Robert and Susan (Chancy; Henry, who 
were natives of Pennsylvania and Ohio re- 
spectively. They were the parents of 
thirteen children — seven son.-, and six 
daughters. Robert C. Henry wa< 
bv his parents to the Territory of Iowa in 
, 1844, the}' locating in Lee County. He 
grew to manhood on the home farm, and 
i < fix ed his education in th 
' district and Denmark Academy. He re- 
mained al h m •■ till i w .;! y-l 

whil 11 1 n he was 

1 August : 1 M 

: ■ ; I ! of Let 

G mnl v, and to them h 

•i. Mr. 1 lenry i 1 : law de- 

partment of the unive .a City, 

whei e he took a full co 
1 8G j. 1 b • 
. ; . 1, 1 where he rc- 

I till i ' 

A yr, whei 

\Y. Ball, 
whi :h In 

Mr. II 



• ial ed with W. T. Lauglilin foi : 
. .' ." \, ':■ i. he carried on tl 
inii! tli€ fall i il : S/S. I !■• \ 
. judge ( ! the Third Distri 

I he counties of Clai kc, D 
. tld, Union, Adams, Taylor, Page and 
Mo tg< nneiy,and in thai cap icity occupied 
the bench four years. He then resume 1 
the practice ol bis profession a! Mi. Ayr, 
when he formed a partnership with R. II. 
Spence, thus forming the present law firm 
ol Henry & Spence, which carries on a 
g< neral law business and practices in all the 
courts. Mr. Henry is a member of the 
Grand Arm}- of the Republic. 

i \ senior member of the firm of Will- 
iams & Tedford, editors and proprie- 
tors of The Ringgold County Republican, is a 
son of John T. and Jane (Bryarly) Will- 
iams, natives of Maryland and Pennsylva- 
nia respective!)'. They were reared and 
married in the Keystone State, where the\ 
lived until 1856. In that year they came 
to Iowa, and located in Ringgold County. 
They lived on a farm in Jefferson Town- 
ship until 1861, when the family removed 
to Mt. Ayr. John T. Williams was for 
many years one of Ringgold's most prom- 
in nt citizens. He heL I the 1 ifficc s succes- 
sively of recorder and treasurer (before 
thosi 1 iffices \\ 1 i c sepai ated 1, tre; m r, 
and county judge. In 1875 he was em- 

as manager of the grange 
- ■ start ing at Mt. .\\ r, and he w as in 

if this at ! he tune of hi: death, in 
iSSr. Mrs. Williams is yel livii 
their nil chil all in ' in and 

in :.r kii r ld ( '. unty. TI 1 nbj< 1 1 
this bii graphi al m il ice was bon : 

Beav '■ mt)', Pennsylvai 

imilv 1 unic lo 
■ .and o amty. Win 1 

age he entered ti i at Ml. 

Ayr. where he received a good English 
ttion. ( "ommi ncii « ith 1 (75, for 
ti irs he tan it ■ : in the 

1 • ami ry 1 . of Mt. Ayr. 

Then for one year he was deput\ 
ma >ter, aft* 1 « hie h hi v 
master. I le held this of] two yeai 

resigning to t ike charge of the store at hi 
father's death, lie sold out in 1S84, was 
Loyed for one year, and in 18S5 
started the Republican, in partm 1 ship with 
Frank Wisdom. The latter's interest is 
now owned by Rev. J. H. Tedford. The 
Republican has a good following in Ring- 
gold Count}-, and reflects credit upon its 
owners. Mr. Williams is personally a 
clever, popular young man. well fil 
his position. Mr. Williams wa.s married 
1 February 20, 1879, at - v ' u -^ vr - lo -^i ss 
Mary J.' Willey, daughter of' Dr. A. J. 
' Wilhy. They have a son, Harold, born 
, January 31, 1SS1. Mr. am! Mrs. Williams 
' are members of the Methodist E] 


I • Ky and successful agriculturist of Grant 
v ~;\ Township, living on ; cti n 31, where 
he is engaged in farming and stock-raising, 
is a native of Kcnti cky, born March 25, 
1839, ' James 15. and Martha 

1 Lav i Shawler, b 1 nativi f tl 
State. 1 le was reaj cd to the ' 
farmer, remaining on the home farm till 

ars. He 

1 . ■ I II 

■> bv the month until he had saved 

For hi; 
wife h : 

1 in Kcn- 


and < - 

his to/: r of nn 

ents ol i nr children — Belle, burn 
December i;. i . I : 

Viola, born Oc tober .;...- and Estella, 
I i S pi iber 13, 1S72. Mr. Shawler 
came to Iowa in October, 1S69, when he 
I >cated in Ui ion ( '■ ami v. reman 
six years, and in 1S75 came to Gram Town- 
ship, Rii ggold Ci .in' y, when he 1< • 
his present farm, and by his industry and 
good management ha-- accumulated a fine 
property, his farm containing 241 a 
well-cultivated land. Mr. Shawler in his 
re! ius faith is a Baptist. In politics he 
is an Anti-monopby Republican. He is a 
member of the Masonic fraternity, belong- 
ing to the lodge at Clearfield, lie is an 
ex-justice of the peace, having served in 
that office for eight years in the township 
in which he lives. 

o{4.d — .;■ ' ;— <;v~ 

ENJAMIN F. DAY, one of th 
settlers of Ringgold Count)", and an 
active and enterprising- farmer and 
stock-raiser of Liberty Township, is :. na- 
tive o! Ross County, Ohio, born near Chil- 
licothe, July 1. 1S31. His parents were 
both natives of the State of Virginia, the 
father, Hedgman Dav, born in Pendleton 
County, March 18, 1801. and going t Ohio 
. ami the mother born in Rocking- 
ham Count)', December 2, 1S00. Their 
wedded life was spenl in Ross ' 
Ohio, where they i d a family to 

gained the respect of tl cent 
lied in J 

maturil : living. Ben- 

jamin F. Day, the 

I n the farm ( > 

\ c irs. Hi 
as I in attend li 

■', tei terms, his 
.... work 

of the farm. In October, 1S52, he tame to 
h ova. and 1 wing worked 

I ; .1 fai m in L I Ly, and in the 

' : tO M 

ning there till the year 1855. He was 

united in mai ch 6, 1S55, to Miss 

Margaret Willi; mson, a native of Ohio, be- 

t by her parents to Cedar 

. . Iowa, in 1836. A< 1 he tinn 

, . . . ing in Muscatine. In 
the fall of 1855 Mr. Day brought his wife 
to Ringgold County, Iowa, and for two 

I fai ming on whal i 
sec tion 3. 1'^- Tow n: hip, v. ! . he paid a 
visit io his native State. Returning to 
Ringgold County, he settled 
Liberty Township, his present h< me. In 

I I 2 he enlisted in del the Union in 
Company G, Twenty-ninth Iowa Inf; I 
and took part with his regimenl in the en- 
gagements at Helena, Little Rock, Little 

■ : .- Ann, and othei s. 1 le 
was mustered oul in June, 1S65, at Little 
Ri >ck, Arkansa . afti r b< ing in the 
of his country nearly three years. H 
returned to Ids farm in Li 

ed agi icull ural ] 
until 1875, hi-- In si wif< ing on 1 
in 1 ebruary, 1870. She 

children — John II.. Martha J. and 
Margaret E. Mr. Day v 
D r 13, 70, to Mrs. Mar) A. B< ar, 

of Mt. Ayr, widow of Ad: in B 

ounded in 1 ' ar April 19. 


[unc 1 

11 y to Mt. 


ty to !i!! the 
. : ■ 1 1 

I »■ 1 . 1 v ; 5 . 1 ' 

Mr. " led all the t 


.. , 

and in all his official positions he has al- 
ways given entire satisfacl to hi 
. . s'tituents. He tal cs much into i si in ihe 
cause oi education, having ai one time 
be< n a successful u acher himself. 1 le lias 
taught in Ringgold Count} thirl v-seven 
terms, and one term in Taylor County, 
Iowa. Mr. Day is a member of Mt. Ayr 
Lodge, No. 169, A. F. & A. M.. and also 
belongs to the Odd Fellows order. 

;"7"\T ; L. ARNETT, farmer, section 10, 
d \'j \j' Middle Fork Township, was born 

: ". ~-.. '' August 17, 1835. in Des Moines 
County. Iowa, son of Henry Arnett now 
of Mt. Ayr. He was the second of a fam- 
ily of nine children. When thiee years of 
age his father removed to Calhoun County, 
Illinois, where W. L. remained until he 
was twenty years old. He was reared 
on a farm and obtained his education 
in the common schools of his day. In 
June, 1855, the Arnett family came to 
gold County and settled on section 15, 
Middk- Fork Township. Mr. Arnett re- 
sided here until April 10. 1856, when here- 
turned to Calhoun Count v. He was mar- 
ried April 12, 1837, to Miss Mary M. De 
Long, born in Jersey Count}', flli 1 
daughter of Luther B. and Mary Ann De 
Long. S< pi eml >er to, 1 S 13, he returned to 
Ringgold County. February 23, 
enlisted in Company M, Third Iowa Cav- 
alry, and was in sevei al ol l he 1 t noted 
battle ■ oi the war. He w as Ik i . ■ • 
charged August 19, 1S65, al Al 
gia, and arri\ 1 Y. ■ . 

II settled up 1 hi : n | 
1 ■' At that time it consisted of 1 

.■■. ild land. He 1 to the 

I II iginal purchase until his f; mi m 

•■.:■. ' 

rds. 1 1 is well cul ; 
p]-oved I 

1 . an orchat d ol I mr acres, native 

I 1 , . ct, and is en 

hi . ■ ■. k-i ai ii ■ 
M . md Mrs. Arnc tt have five cl 
Olive, William E, Mary Alice, Hi 
' ther, and Findlcy B. Luna died al 
of ten months. Mr. Arnetl ha 
creditably as township clerk and member 
oi 1 he Schoi .1 Bi iat d. He i .- and 

consistent member of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church, and always lakes an active 
interest in any enterprise that tends to the 
a 1\ ancemc nt of education oi 1 eligion, and 
is always a liberal contril 
worthy object. By fair and hoi 

he ha- secured the confidence of 
all who know him. In politics he is a Re- 
publican. Postoffice, Ingart. 

O LBERT F. HATHAWAY, a leading 
\ - k\ fanner of Tingley Township, is a na- 
j Y — - live of Cattaraugus County, New 
I York, born January 30, 1 S37, a son of David 
and Sarah (Hull) Hathaway, his father a 
na1 d of Massachusetl ' I 

Co cticut. His father was a farmer in 
New York State, and also n lumberman in 
| the Allegheny pin . A 

of ten children, se\ n wl om are living. 
1 11 i $4 1 the pareni . landing 

in I >ui lingti >n Jul} 1 

fai m in Henry < 

red there 
( ! Winficld, ar.d 

■• ed until : I ither, in 

May, : SSl . The 1,: ;1 : er is now li 
I, Iowa. I n . 

In June, 
• ■ 
urned tod. , . N. ». 

vember . . In 1 he spi ng ol i- S3 I 

a. i le 
u as married : t; 



Mais- E. Hester, a native of Indian 
cam< with her] « hen a little 

girl. Albert F. Hathaway and family 
moved to the southwest quarter of section 
3, 'I ingley Township, 1 Linggold ; 
and in the fall of 1870 to the place 
the)- are now living. He has been - u 
ful, and now owns 320 acres of in 
land. Mr. and Mrs. Hathaway have ten 
children — Holis B., born in 1865; Aurillia 
E., Arden E., Alb r! J.., Mary E., Sarah E., 
Wilbur R, Ida M.. Helen S. and Lj di 1. In 
politics Mr. Hathaway is a Grecnbacker, 
and was the only man in Tingley Town- 
ship that voted the Anti-monopoly ticket 
at the Peter Cooper run for President. 


f editor and proprietor of the Mt. Ayr 
, / Journal, was born in Sangamon Coun- 
ty, Illinois. December 4, 1834. Hisparents, 
I imi and Jane (Sherman) Shepherd, were 
natives of Maryland and North Carolina 
respectively. They were married in Ohio, 
however, of which State they were pi- 
Seven years after marriage, in 1827 th \ 
removed to Sangamon County, II 
which was their home for seventeen years. 
Mr. Shepherd, Sr., knew Abraham Lincoln 
well. The latter was then a young la 
well known and liked in the county seat to 
which his legal practh < ti »ok him. ' 
the family removed to the Territory oi 
Iowa, settling al K< auqua, the o t) 
seat of Van Dunn County. Here 
nexl six years M r. S ; epherd : -. 
/ zua Di m rat. 1 le alsi ' tel until 

[877. 1 I ■ died in i ISo ; his '.'. i 
him eighl y< ars. ( ):' 1 heir t weh 

■ yet living, and to 

; 1 1 h. ITe 

: ' inting 

hen only ten years old. I li 

;:t thai time, ho 

he attended school regularly until sixteen 

years old. II 1 ien erved a regidar ap- 

: lie was ap| 

' ; . ., ii tiding thai of- 

years. I:. - nd hi- fathei 

purchased the Da Moiius AVicj, at Kco- 
sauqua, and with this he wa 
until the autumn ol 1S65. For the next fif- 
teen years he was variously employ 
his trade, insurance, real-estate dealing, 
running a hotel, and for two summ 

>ne. In 1. ■ came West as far 

as Cory (.bin, Wayne County, v. 
lislied the Coryd on Democrat for two years. 
In the autumn of 1 SS3 he was elected coun- 
ty superintendent of schools, on the Fusion 
ticket. He held this office during [884 
and 1085, and in November of th 
year bought the Mt. \yr Journal, to which 
he has since devoted his time. The Jour- 
?ial is the organ of the Democrat] 
[ < back parties in Ringgold C i ty, 

these two organizations uniting against the 
Republican party in this county. The 
paper is one of standing and influence, and 
is increasing in circulation and value — a 
just tribute to the capacity of itsowner and 
editor. Mr. Shepherd was married Janu- 
ary 9, 1862, to Miss Mary Moore, of Kco- 
sauqua. Of four children, three are living 
— Minnie, Littie and George. Mr. 
herd is a Knight Templar in the .'■' 
Order, and, with 1 mber o! 

the Mi i church. 

ut for the < 
1 )uincy Railroad at Mt. Ay;. 
■ w York, ■ ■ 
Cortland County, 

. The)- w 

ing the 


sixth child. He was renin! on the home 
. inn, his father following the avocation of 
a fanner, and his education was > : 
in the district schools and at the : 
Collegiate Institute. He remained with 
his parents till reaching the ago of twenty- 
three years, when he commenced farming 
on his own account. He was married 
December 23, 1847, to Miss Rhayader- 
gowy Winslow, a native of Monroe 
County, New York, where her lather, 
Jacob Winslow, is still living. They have 
had two son.;, of whom only one is living- 
Jacob, now in Chicago, Illinois, who has 
been an engineer for eighteen years. 
Charles L. was killed in a railroad acci- 
dent near Lucas, Iowa, in November, 1S84. 
Mr. Shattuck followed fanning until r86i, 
when lie entered the employ of the New 
York Central Railroad Company as a sta- 
tion agent, remaining with that company 
until the winter of i876-'7, since which 
he has been in the employ of the Chicago, 
Burlington & Ouincy Company', and is at 
present acting as ticket and freight agent 
at Mt. A)-]-. Mr. Shattuck is a member of 
the Masonic fraternity, belonging to a 
lodge in New York State. 

I). SERGEANT, postoffice, Mt. Ayr, 
? is one of the model farmers of Grant 
.7:- Township, where he is en ;ed in 
agricultural pursuits, on section 33. His 
farm, which contains 280 acres of ' 1 
tivated land, is among tin be I in I : s town 
ship, his re ■ and farm buil ■ :. 

commodii ms and < < mveni< nt, a I : I 
surroundings ol the place sin >w th 
to be a thorough, pracl II :r. Mr. 

J rgea n t i a 1 1 1 1 : : v ol 1-J 
' )hio, born fa 
C. and E. ('. :- ei I , 
1 if Virginia . I I I . ; - 1 1 pecth ely. Our 
. ubiei t was reat in his boyl 

agric nit in a! pin suits, hi 

' -.■' his fat 1m r on the home farm. 

He came to P Id < I y, !■ iwa, in the 

1 year 1S71, since which he has lived on the 
i farm where he yel n ud during his 

nee in Grant To : n hip has 

the con . n ! »ect < 

communit} 1 by his honorable and 
I dealings. For his wife he married Man 
1 Crews, on March 20. 1S75, who was born 
: March 30. 1854, a daughter of J. M. and 
; Mary Crews, natives of North C 
i They are the parents of four children — 
' Jasper X.. born February 12, 1S76; John 
\ I), and Louis E. (twins), born April 12, 

1878, and Nellie, ' orn Octi >bet : 7, 1SS3. 
I Both Mr. and Mrs. Sen members 

I of the Methodist Episcopal church. In 
: polities he is a staunch Republican. 

/ JOHN W. HUNTER, farmer ai I 

7 j raiser, section 5, Jefferson Township, 

I was born in Adams County, Ohi 
September 20, 1844, a son ol Andrew and 
Mary A. darn Hunter, the father being 
I a native of North Carolin 1. Both 
I are deceased, the mother dying Mart!' 21 
j 1875, and the father August 10, 1SS1. They 
had a famih of eleven children, of whom 
six are still living. wh< ■ 
lows: fohn \Y., our subject; Loui; 
Susan Cargill, A. \ M. an 1 

Our s unpanied his 

parents to Mari< m County, . in the 

■ ! ■ to ] 

ty, in the fall of 1 and his 

bought a tract 

j( et, wit ; ?ter, remained 


He is 


of 1 1 

i/rsTonr or k/xghold couxti: 

making a special) y of thoi »ug bred and 
I i cattle. Mr. I I unt< ; w as 

1 iii i his county Fcbi uary 21 ■ 
t< 1 Miss Ecln C. 1 >utc hei , who i 
11 1 Charles City, Iowa, October 5, [858, 
tl uighterof Newman Dutchcr, ol Charles 
City. The)- are the parents of oik daugh- 
ter Mar) Fern, b >rn March 14, [SS5. Mr. j 
Hunter has never sought oflici; I 
devoting all his time to his farm, which < on 
tains 125 acres of choice land, besides which 
he owns an interest in the old homestead on 
section 6. He is a member of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church., and Mrs. Hunter 
belongs to the Christian denomination. 

.": A Ml: EL ENGLAND, an active farm- 
V--\ er and stock-raiser, living in Tingley 
fownship, was born in Cass County, 
Michigan, May 13. 1833, a son of Thomas ■ 
and Varlinder (Harrison) England, the 
father a native of Maryland and a farmer 
by occupation, and the mother born in j 
Clark.- County, Ohio. The parents settled ; 
in the State of Michigan in 1828, where the 
m ither died. After the death of his mother 
our subject was taken by his father to 
Louisa County, [owa, the father dying in 
thai county in 1844, leaving Samuel an or- 
phan at the age of . I te th n 
li \ ed wil h his guai dian, Judge Spri] • > 
L >uisa Court \ , till si.vl 
w h en he 1 

only capita] b 'ing a pair of v, illing hands 
and a det< rmin tion li He was 

h ing maturity. 
I le was married in 1 
to Miss Drusilla 

' - , ■ , Iowa 

drcn— Joseph, 'J . I 

M.. Emma A., ! E. Ai- 

ter his raarri:i I I ed on n 


whii : , . ' ' m a wild 

tract lo a Led farm, living on it 

till he came 1 1 Rii inty in Maw 

I] ■ •: 1 on section 29, Ting- 

ley Tow has since made his 

home, his farm containing 320 acres of 

lor:_\- acres in Washington Tow 
which has been acquired by 1 
ing industn and good management. Since 
coming to this county he has traded in real 
estate, baying and o acres 

oi land in the county. He devotes con- 
siderable attention to raising stock of a 
high grade, having on his farm at pres< nl 
140 head of cattle, pari of which are thor- 
ough-bn d, 1 : > head of Poland-China hogs, 
besides a good stock of horses. Mr. Eng- 
land in politics is a Rep and has 
taken quite an active part in the politics ol 
his county. He was elei ted a me 
the Board of County Supervisors in 1876. 
which position be filled acceptably for three 


in section 6, Benton Township, is a 
-; native of Guernsey Coun 
July co, iS-jo. son of Elijah and Selida 
m. He was reared on a farm and 
tained 1 

ing out 1 
first i" go h n th in 

'-■ • 
i ry. Me was md < 1 - 

B u 1 1 E 


pit as a. 




■ - 

; ' ; and Martha Wil , . o( 
■ ity. Mr. Jackson res ; 

: ant) unl il iS/S, when he 1 1 
I i Washingto i County and remained until 
: - - -, : then came to Ring-gold ( )ountv, and 
ated on liis present farm in Benton 
' ; »wing spring. 1 lis fai m 

contains eighty acres of as good land as 
can be found in the township. Il is well 
cultivated and well improved, lie lias a 
iod ri idence, surrounded with native 
shadi trees, out-buildings for stock, a fine 
orchard of ninety trees, and an abundance 
of small fruits. Mr. and Mrs. Jackson have 
three children — William M.. a qualified 
teacher, David Fay and Roxy Ann. Mr. 
Jackson united with the Methodist Episco- 
pal church in JS70, and was licen ed to 
preach in 1S75. He has been an active 
worker in th cause of his Master, and a 
advocate of temperance. Politic ally 
he is a Republican. Postoffice, Clearfield, 
Taylor Count v. 

<i<o :-; 

HOMAS SHERILL, section 4, Rice 
1 ownship, is one of the oldest pio- 
n ers of Ringgold Count) - , locating 
on section S of Rice Township May 31, 
1S55. At that time Indians were the prin- 
cipal inhabitants, and deer and wolves 
a r will over the prairie. Mr. 
■ of Hendricks County, 
[11 11 near Indianapolis, and 

on a farm in Putnam County, li 
1 lis pai ent 5, James and Nam y I 
•■■ ■ re nativ< I and • 

spL'i married in 1 

Botl . '. 'I hey were the 

' oui sub 

■ . : \V I ; m, 111 >\\ li\ ing 

■• •■ I ■ .. 
Mrs. Rebecca Haii I 11 ] 

. I . D 

ofi . n 1 o 1 

mai 1 icd in ! 'ut nam County, Ind 
ruary 12. 1S55, tn M>> Eliza Siple, who 
•rn in Virginia, in 1 s 5 1 , but was 
brought by her fath( 1 . Con. 
1 'utnam County, w In I 
h i I )f tin ten cl il Iren b< urn to Mr. and 
Mrs. Shenll, all but one are yet living- 
Samuel \\\, Mrs. Mary Homer, a widow; 
Mrs. Ida Homer. William, J< >si< , I , 
Emma, Lawrence, and Katie. John, their 
fourth child died at tin age 1 1 twelve 
years. Mr. Sherill had but a team and two' 
cows when he can 
few years ol his residence here In 
hard struggle to obtain the 1 ■ 
life, but by pei 

omy, combined with good bi 
agement, he soon became , 
ample means, I ecoming a wealth) 1 
He has been one of the com • ' »st ; t- 
ive citizens, and few men have had a mi re 
activ< part in its development. For many- 
years he led an active busim 
was quite extensively engage 
and shipping stock. He located on his 
present farm in li ' , 

acres, all but ten acres improved by him- 
self. In politics he was formerly a Whig, 
but is now identified with the ( ! 1 
party. Mr. and Mrs. Sherill are irn 
of the Baptist church. Mr. Sherill is a 
member of Mt. Avi Lodge, I. 0.0 F. 

/'7 O. Ml LLER. 

was irn in 

3 (' I Co ly, ; ' 

cl obcr i 
C. and Marth; 

l ' 1 . ' ■ 

I - ' 


/' OF R/XGG >;.'■ < 

to Miss Ji l H 


■-. and the}" havi lildrcn — 

William H., Martha. Mary, Eva, 

cam to Ri is e ' I Count y in tl 
1S73, and 1 icated on section g, Mi mi 1 1 : 
Township. He has 160 acres ol 
which ! i ha cultival ed and imj 

nee, barn, on ward, out- 
buildings for stock, and everything . - I 
the place shows the industry and thrift oi 
il mer. In the s] ■: ing of 18 li 
chased the store buildin; 00 and resi- 

ivhere he nov lives, of G 
Bradford. lie carries a 

aeral merchandise, and ke , 1 stock 
everything usually kept in a country store. 
He was app inl I posi taster July S, 1 
He served as township trustee five years; 
is;, member of the 1 'resbvtei ian \r> 
tion at 1 ligh Point, and politically is a Re- 
v ' a 3-0 man, he has 

and financial ; 
adinsf citizens of his township. 

,-;-;: EORGE w. JOHNSON, 

>. sto< livii 1 m 2, Jef- 

i oi In- 

diana, b 1) 11 in Madi 
1842. his i ' [1 

I ' ' • 

the eai ly setflei 
d iana. 

pa eni 17. lie was 

united ii 
Miss !. 


di . R 1 

Taylor, Texts. Minerva married Frank 
iwnship, Ri 
1 me daughter- -Minerva 
\". Mr. Jol nson was a soldier in the war 
of the Reb P an }" B. 

Fi mrth li >wa Infantry. I le sei . 
country about one year, and participated 
in the 1 ttle of G ildsboro, Columbia and 
■:' minor ini] .He I 

Ringgold County since Au- 
65. when hi n his presen< 

farm in Jefferson Township, which 

:ighty acres of \ . [. Mr. 

the Odd i 
one of the respected citizei - 
of his township. 

W. CROUCH, postmaster al Re !- 
',;' I ding, was born in To Id < 
:M' 9 Kentucky, August 23. 1S28. His 
parents were James and Rachel D. 
son") Crouch, the former a n itive of Vir- 
ginia, and 1 he lat ter of Tenni - e. i ey 
were married in K nd had a fam- 

ily of si x child 

be grown — William F., J. W. 
N. When he was 

the} nr years, ll 

I ' 

■ :",'•■ 

i 1 




rid removed to Old Red- | 
ding, whei : engaged i I h i i cantile 
busi - . . C. S. Pugsli \ . h >i fourteen 
m niths. He then sold liisinteresl and went 
rking. He was appointed postmaster I 
at Redding i;i 1S79, and re-appointed in 
18S5. He erected the first building in 
Redding. Mr.-. Crouch dii I Vpril 1, 1875. j 
leaving seven children— Mary Jane. Eliza- 
beth F., John M.. Delilah J., James W. and ' 
Laura E. March 15, 1883, Mr. Crouch 
was marric 1 I ■ Miss Martha E. Trullinger, 
Light G briel and Elizabeth (Moss) 
Trullinger. and to this union ha\ e been born 
two children — Ida Louisa and Charles. 
Claude. Politically Mr. Crouch is a Dem- 
ocrat. As a postmaster he is courteous 
and accommodating, and has made mam 

^ Towns 

> s'.dina: 

\ T W. JOHNSTON 7 , one of Union 
ip's leading agriculturist . re- 
n section 18, - ; been a resi 
' oi Ringgold Count}' since the spring 
of 1S70, living on rented land in Monroe 
Township the first two years after coming 
here. lie had: visited Rii ggol : bounty in 
the fall of 1S69, when he purchased eighty 
acres of land, a part of his present farm. 
While living in Monroe Township he also 
ived his land on section 18, Union 
Township, breaking twenty-five acres the 
fii si year, an 1 the same am Dunt the 
•■ ir. In 1S72 he renn 1 red to liis fart 
i "a'on T iwnship, and that yc 
fifty acres without any assistance. Mr. 
I nston ive ol Venango ( ' 

irn Februai") 9, 1 - ■ 
parents, \nth ny V. and L'olly (1 lerl 1) 
Ji >hnst< ■ tives ol Penn sylvania 

an I Vera on) pectiveh Both of hi? 

<; in l 5, and tin tn 
the yeai- iSS ». Mr. Jo 
in his u ■ Octol 

Miss Lo\ in 1 ).. Bcightol, who v, as born in 

Clearfielil County, Pennsylvania, July 2, 
1S5.1. In r parents, 'J is and Molly (Yar- 

■ i 1 i lei litol, having been born in tl 
Slate. Her father is still living in 
sylvania. Her mother is deceased, her 
death taking place in [S53. Mr. and Mrs. 
Johnston are the parents of nine chi 
all but the eldest daughter living at 1 . 
Their nami s, -risen in order of their birth, 
are— Mary Ella, v. i Goodell, 

living ne,.i- Mr. Johnst >n's ; Ada May, en- 
gaged in teai hing, which she h is 
seven terms, ! .1 home; Cyrus D., 

Joshua B., Ellis I., i I".. Edith C, 

W. and Seth T. The year 
ing his marriage Mr. Johnston removed to 
Mercer Count)", Illinois, and from there 
moved to Lee County, in the spring oi 
1866, where he remained till con: 1 

Id County, in 1 S70. M 1 . } 
was reared to agriculture, which I 
always followed, and owing to his industry 
and good management he has been very 
prosperous through life. He brought with 
him to Ringgold County a small 
having about §6oo left after paying I 

ei dilv acres. Hi: m now 

contains 360 acres of choice land, all 
improvement , besid lich he o 

< ighl y-acre farm in Libert) Ti >\\ nship. 
Both Mr. and Mrs. Johnst m are mei 
of the Metho pal church. Mr. 

Ji ihnston is a men 

ternity. In school matt always 

taken a - 
for the pub 

of his town-dip h 


-' E\ . I. U. rEDl < >RD of 

■ . of H. H. and Ma iret (Mc 

patin H 


MSTOh ! 

n couxrr. 

1833. Of his seven children two arc liv- 
ing-; :'i f tlics« t, tl ibjccl 
this Hi iti born in Putnam ( 
Indiai a, March 4, 1S33. At the 
c ■■ il i he entered 1 I ■••■• »ver Col 
1 [anover, Indiana, where In 
ated in i S56, with I • of Bachelo 
of \n<. Me then studied three years in 
the Unil ed 1 're skn terian I I"' A< igical Sem- 
inary at Xenia, Ohi >. lie then entered 
upon the work of the ministry, which he 
has followed ever since, coming to Iowa 
in 1879. In July, 1SS6, he became ■ 
atcd with R. lj. Williams in the ownership 
and publication of the Ringgo/d Count .'•' 
publican. He was married in June, 1 62, 
to Elizabeth Rowan. They have two 

C. ABARR, deceased, was one of the 

il • pi meers of Ringgold County, and 
-^ was born February 15, 1828, in 
White County, Illinois, son of John and 
Rhoda Abarr. He was reared a 1 
and obtained his education in the common 
schools. In 1856 his motherand one of his 
brothers removed to Whiteside County 
(his father having died in 1830), whi ; 
resided until iS — , then came to Ringgold 
Count)' and located in the eastern ; 
Clinton Township. He was married Au- 
gust 13, 1S61, to Miss Ann M. Pi .. 
daughtci ol Ah in Pi , a }>n uninenl pii 1- 
n< 1 ; ' i nly. He I 

the ho . ■ mily n< >\\ re- 

side, in l S/ I, the 
proved I lr.; 

Abarr have 1 l\ :c\ 

whom are living Co \ S . 

C urti! I . M . I I • ■ 

ter, \li c Cei ' I I 

Ralph, Gcrl da) v. ho died 

at the ; if si 

:, id 

morals, and alwavs 1 

in any cute: p pei tained to th< 

e of I con ' I '13. 

iving a wile and elevc a ■ hildren to 

11 tli ol an affecti' I 1 md 

ther. Mi Vbarr n the 

old h estead, which 

I. She has . nfort- 

use, where t he family 

all the com;, rts 1 ■ one. 

IHN COIE, a prominent farmer and 

• ick-raiser, resi ling on section 8, town- 

-;<. ^Ijip ~<.\ range . i, Tingl y Township, 
I irn in Columbiana County, Ohio, in 
September, 1837, the eldest son of Robe a; 
and Maria (Elder) Coie, Ins father a native 
of Count)' T>< iwn, Ire! I her 

of Coshocton Count)', Ohio. The father 
was born in 1797, and was quite young 
when he came to America, where he died 
in 1857. T» e mother is still living on the 
old homestead in Ohio. Of a family of 
seven children born to them five grew to 
maturil v. m! whom four sons are still livii 
< hie - ai entered tl I Jni »n arm) and was 
wounded at the battle of Knoxville, Ten- 
nessc c. He returned hohii 
from the effects of his wound. Jol 11 ( oie, 
the subject of this sketch, p 
hood days in his native county, attending 
the coram ; his 

ai Beaver Aca a my. After I 
ing school he taugl ne ;. 

r. He local ' ' Coui 

Iowa, in 1 ■ ■ '. 
for fom 

He pu 

then an unbi 1 
I ' 

Magi afclt.Con 


. •• 



/; zjl 


been born four children — Thcodosia M., Julv G, 1865, and returned to his home. In 

John S, Robert T. and Mary F. Mr. 1 I ■ 1: old County, ; 

Coic's farm, which contains 240 ai tied upon his presenl farm in M Idl 1 rk 

now under fine cultivation a id « im- Township, li was then in a wih 

proved, and in connection with his general proved state, lie now owns 440 acres of 

farming he is engaged in raisin ind land, ai litis) :d as one of 1 

hogs of a high grade. lie comm d life (arm? in the township. He has a good, 

with but small capital, and by his own well-furnished hou c, out-buildings for 

efforts has accumulated his presenl fine stock, a good orchard, and is extensively 

property, and is numbered among the self- engaged in stock-raising and feeding. He 

mad- men of Ringgold County, lie has j was married Decern be 1 19, 1 

one of the finest libraries in the county. In Elizabeth Bishop, born in Montg* 

politics-he is a staunch Republican, casting County, Indiana, and daughter oi John 

his first presidential vote for Abraham Lin- , Bishop. Mr. Hoffman is a ..< 

coin, and since coming here has taken an ber of the Meth disl Epi ;opal church, 

active part in the politics of his party. He and in politics is a Republican. 
has served as township trustee and magi 

trate- for twelve, years. In 1883 he was ; ^'tl-'i'jH^ 

elected a member of the Twentieth General , 

Assembly, and re-elected to the Twenty- / fOSEPH ROBINSON, om 

first.- General Assembly in 1S85, which posi- '. i perous farmers of Washington Town- 

tion he has since filled to the entire satis- :- ship, is a native of Ireland, born in 

faction of his constituents. Doth Mr and , County Tyrone. August \j. 1835,3 son of 

Mrs. Coie are members of the Unite 1 Robert and Jane Robinson. When 

Presbyterian church, at Eugene. \ an infant, his parents moved to America, 

I and lived in Canada two year.-, then re- 

-3 *^i?^y'r;'<=;-<-> '<- ■ turned to Ireland, where he remained six- 

' teen years. June 15, 1853, he sailed 

P. HOFFMAN resides on section \ Liverpool for America in live ship, Fidelia. 

':-]j ,\/ V. 18, and is one of the leading ag- and landed in the city of New York, a 

: ' riculturists of Middle Fork Town- , penniless boy in aland ol stra ; rs. He 

ship. He was born in Montgomery County, obtained employment in a b 

Indiana. October 15, 1841. His parents and gas-fittin 

were Absalom Hoffman, a native of < >hi >, work< 1 a year and then went to \V; 

and Nancv (Conrad) Hoffman, a native ol ton County, New York, whei 

Indiana. He was the eldest of eleven ployed on a farm nine years. He then left 

children. When he was quite young his New York and drifted to Ohi 

parents removed to Tippecanoe County, in 1S61 to V. 

Indiana, when h wa rean Ion a farm, (' unty, near Madi 

and received his education in the common win Rin< County, 

scho •! i hi i the late wai he enlist' d, [owa, and in the s] 

Augu I S, 1S62, in Company G, SevcnU the farm where 1 

second Mounted ! nfan 1 | \\ ashington i 

in the battle ol I '.' > and .ill the | eighty acres li w< re 

hi; torical . I from Chattaw m > ;a undci cull ivat bin 

to Atlanta. Hewn id been built. li his first 


purchase from time to time until he now 1S85 he retired from farm life and moved 
owns S40 acres. The most of his land is to Mt. Ayr. He has been an energetic, en- 
sccded to grass, as he makes a specialty terprising man, and is on< 
ol stock-raising, having at times large ative ciliz . oi tin county. He is a 
numbers of both cattle and hogs. Heal- member of the Mctl copalchurch, 

so has some fine horse; and colts, the mos! which he has served in differenl official 
of them being ol the Norman breed. Mr. capacities. To him and his wife have bc-cn 
Robinson has made his property by his born eleven children, sevi 1 of whom arc 
own industry and good management. He j living— William L.. Margaret M., George 
is an honorable', upright man, and in all \\\, Virginia, Emma C, Charles W. and 
his dealings with business men wins their Alice Carey. The deceased arc — Elizabeth, 
respect and confidence. He was married Sarah C., Mary Ellen and Henry Augustus, 
in 1858 to Sarah Dunlap, a native ol 

County Tyrone, Ireland, but livingin Wash- : wva^/ucjC:' . "~~)~)yi w-vws 

ington County, New York, at the lime of 

her marriage. They have six children— j .-,- ;f .BRA 1 ! AM JOHNSON, one ol the 
Hiram S., Charles H., John D., Minnie | j ( ( \, pioneers of Ringgold County, located 
.Maggie, Elizabeth and Ida. The latter j i^)? i n Roscoe Township in 1856. He was 
died aged twelve years. In politics Mr. born in Rock Castle County, Kentucky, 
Robinson is a Republican, casting his first August 2, 1818, and when he was about 
presidential vote lor 'Abraham Lincoln. 1 seven years of age his parents, Rob 

! Anna Johnson, settled in Putnam County. 

■*** 3 """"Sfji*^ -1 "&* Indiana, where he grew to manhood, and 

was there married, in 1839, '" Lucinda 

rmENRY A.RNETT, Ml. Ayr, Iowa, is a Woods, a native of Kentucky, born in 1819. 

| 'j native of Montgomery County, Vir- They lived in Putnam County ten years af- 

--- , ginia, where he lived until eighteen ter their marriage, and 1 /edtoCham- 

years of age. He was left an orphan at paign County, Illinois, where the} : . 

kfi an early age, and was reared by strangers, five years, and in 1S54 moved to Iowa, and 
■ : 1 le passed his early life on a farm, attend- j lived about eighteen months in Monroe 

'■■'. ing, when possible, the district school. In Count)', moving thence to Rii 

■;• 1828 he came West, and lived in Illinois tv. He located on the farm 1 
three years, and in the fall of 1831 went 10 lives, on section 20. Riley T 
St. Charles County, Missouri. He \ . 1 62. His homeste 
married .April 8, 1832, to Lucinda Wood, acres of choice land, and he also 
a native of St. Louis County. Missouri, thirty acres of timl 

'_:'■ In [S34 he moved to Lc< County, Iowa, near the Stale line. Mr. and Mrs. | 
where he lived a year, and then \n t to ve had a family of eighl ; 

Dcs Moines Countv, and there to whom six an li\ < ■ of Mt. Ayr; 

j£jj Louisa County, where he lived two or Mrs. Mary J ' 

. . three years. About 1S38 h returned to braska; x < 1 ■ 

1 >.■- Moinc - Count} . and itly to and Mi .Mai iC\ 1 - . \V 

Calh nin C ami , . lllinoi . ■•■ \v . ' I Mrs. Kitl 

until the 5 pi ing of 1 S55, w hi n he move 1 | aged Mr. J 

to Ringgold C< uml y, f i\\ a, and located in : familv ar< meml 

Middle Fot k Town hip. In the spi ii Kpiscopal chui In 

m. Mr.' Jo lied in 

. and in 
i sons, 
[am, to Un 

1S75. Mi 

nths old, 
was : eared by an 
S \ 1 Indiana. II 

to Louis- 
Ken • the last 
his life. 

[X M. POOR, farmer, living on 

ion 2 2, Ri _ To ,\ <~ I [p, was bi n n 

>^ in Washingi n Count y, 1 , Ai 

if \lvin and 

'.. Po -. whi 1 were ai ion j the pi< 1 

settlers of R mnty. They 

to 1 in tl rear 1S56, and 

. in Clinton Township on a farm 

; > their la t years. They 

■ of eighl child) 1 n, all of 
.vh . re yet living. Their 1 

J hi M. I ab rll 1. Alvin M.. Ann Maria, 
\V., Clinton E., S id Wes- 

1 :y A. John M. was reared in \V; 

1 coming to Rii ; 

In ; <;;. : 

I school, preparing him- 
1 ' 

liic I 

11 nt V l" 
I ( ' impany G, 1 


. i ' 

■ ■ ! . ; i • 1 . I ! 

p irt, Iowa, Aug . ;. H 

to Rin ( 

1 Miss Mary J. B 
; daughter of Sann 
scttlci 3 1 ■: Clinton Township where 
M ; ' in 

I ' 12, 18 ;o, and 

.vith her ] to ( 

5, where she has since lived. Mr. 
; and Mrs. Poor !,. 

: Eugene W.. M . Mary Emma. 

; Willie W., Elmer R. and Lura M. ' 

' their fifth child, died aged one year. Mr. 

mingin Clinton Township 

until [875, when he commenced jmprov- 

in Rice T 
having ! his 160 acres 

with- .nt any assistani e. In poli 
P001 1 tst: his s U ff r ;,ge with the Re- 
publican part)-, lie has served in several 
ifficiently an I : :ceptably, 
and is at pi 1 sent town hi r. 1 >< >\ h 

ist church. 


J AVID CARLTON, as. - ful 

- resid 121, is a native of 


I Xancy ( McAr\ . 
g a t X 


to Indiana, w 
he h.'i^ 


■ . 

nisronr of ri.\gc, . vxrr. 

he has been successful in his agi I three ycai 

pursuits, and has now a fine [arm to section 25, when lie Iiv( i until 1S77; 

in» ;< 1 a ' es of cult'n I J then s< ild and rcnio\ ed to Athen ; ■ 

: ■ and farm buildings, lie is one ship, where he purchase . 

ol the public-spirit* 1 is ol Lincoln a portion of which is now included in the 

Township, taking an active interest in all town] rton, having, in JS79, sold 

enterprises for the adva I of the eighty acres to one Perkins for town lots 

same, and during his residence here has j in the northern part of the town. His 

gained the confidence and respec! of all honn farm < . id, well 

who know him, by his honorable and up- cultivated and well improved. He has a 

right dealings. For his wife Mr. Carlton fine residence, one and a hal 

married Miss Florence Jackson, a daughter 16 x 26 feet, with L, 24x26 feet, a< 

of William and Phccbe (Myers) Jackson, dious barn 32x44 feet, and an on 

who were natives of Indiana. Mrs. Carl- trees and. small fruits. He is t I 

ton was born May 4, 1S58. Mr. an''. Mrs. in stock-raising and feeding. Mrs. Fittro 

Carlton have two children— G. A., born J died March 19. 1864, leaving one 

August 2, 1872, and J. R., born August 7. Alice, [n Ocl ber, 

1884. In politics Mr. Carlton is identified , West, of Decatur County, who d\Lc\ in a 

with the Democratic party. Mrs. Carlton few months. March 25, 1866, he w 

is a member of the Christian church, ried to Mrs. Sarah McCartney, «<yB 

Their postofiice is at Clearfield. ■ widow of J. McCartney. She 

I 'utnam G 'iiniv. Indiana. The\ 

— =-iGS>-« — -£?§3- — -^CC^ — children — Chester, Charles and 1 

Mr. Fittro's farm adjoin th ' »wn plat of 

I W. FITTRO, farmer, section 11, Kellerton, and is consider ! tl mosl 

V^\ Athens Township, was born in Lick- valuable farms in the T .. 

"^a ing County, Ohio, April 3, iSso.son cally he is a Democrat. Posi 

of Samuel and Hannah (Webb) Fittro, the ton- 
former a native of York Countv, Pennsyl- -o~-j=^o-.-^-v-. -<-==——-«». 
vania. They wen.- the parents of eight 

children — Betsey, Joseph, Mary Ann, j |fOHN T BEATY, at Goshen, 

Rebet ca, Catherine, Samuel, Rosilla an ' : R 1 Id C 

John. The family removed to Licking £f land, born May 5, i 

County about the ye; r 1822, 1 ' 1 re Sr., . 

the early settlers of t : ial y. also nal . mtry. Thty 

Mr. 1 ittro pa; ;ed his early life assisl 1 
t farm work and attci 

iption In pool in 

County, Tin y a | 

tl hei 1 ject lived until he , 011 

reached hi n joi ity. 1 I w marr'u ted I I red an i 

7. 185 5, to Miss Betsey 1 ud, Twi 

battle of Gettj 
daughb rof ' ' . ' 

In 1855 1 
ing tin 

.,-.• !/'///< A ' SA I: I < 

when he returned to hi I i i< in Ohio. 
He remained there but a 
he went to the State ol I llin •' 
was married August II, 1864, to Sarah A. 
Nelson, a native of Peim and a 

daughfc . < : Jacob and Susan X. (Rei I 
\ [son. They are the parents of five 
children— Adam N., bora June 13. 1865; 
Steven E., born Septembei 1 1, iS . : Anna 
13.. born November 2, 1870; William J., , 
born July 1;, 1876. and Clydn J., born An 
gust. 18, 1878. Since coming to Rii 
County, Iowa. Mr. Beaty has prospered in 
all his undertakings, and is now the owner 
of 480 acres of valuable land located on 
section 2j of Lincoln Township. He is 
now engaged in dealing in hue horses, two 
of his horses being imported and quite cele- 
brated. Since coming he has served as 
school director, and held the office of post- 
master. In politics he affiliates with the 
Democratic party. Both he and his wife 
are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
church, and respected members of 



BRAHAM MOSIER, farmer, section 
'. ty 12. Lott's Creek Township, is one of 
•^.i^ the enterprising and successful pio- 
neers of Ringgold County. He wn b 1 
in Holmes County, < )hio, M ty 2 
I [is parents were Christ and Ann (Wingei 
Mosier, were natives of France and reared 
a famil) ol sis < hildi en Chi i- 1 '•■ 

. a, Ann, Abi I Wh m 

he was five years of a 

: d to th Fai We t, as it wa 
then c; : I, 1 ["erril o! I •■ . 

' in Lee County, : - - 
among tin I rs of that - 

Hen I ' 

ier life, Mr. 

I Juni 1; 
■. . .. nati\ ol 

Ohio. In lie came to Rii 

settled in Riley Township on eighty 

of ' I, which he still owns. J [ c 

has since a I'lcd t< inal purchase 

until he now owns 300 acres, lie has a 

goo 1 twi »-story residem 

modern style and weli fui irehard 

consisting of three and a hall acres, and a 
large native grove ol maples. His farm is 
well watered and well a razing. 

He usually keeps about fifty head ol 

i swine. Mrs. Mosier di d 
March 1 1 ring five children 

Tilla Belle, Janey, Nellie and Lillie. Mr. 
Mosier is e msiden d on 
men of his township. 1 !■ i a men 
the United Brethern in Christ church, and 
politically is a Gr< Pos1 


f OHN II. McELROY, residing on sec- 

ftion [i, of Riley Town; hi] . Ri 
County, where he has a fine f 
260 acres, is a native of ( ' 
Ireland, born January 31, 1846. In 1851 
his parents immigrated to the United 

with their 
tied in Union County, C >hi >, 
father died a few 1 1 

: still live s in that count)- v. it I 

en, Margaret Ann and :- 
Her chi > A., Willian 

■ an I Esther Ann. are also resideni 
1 ounty. John II. M Eh-03 
his youth in Union C At the 

1 away from 
his hon , I 

try, ai | 


I ' 

' Cl 

■ ' 


He was honorably discharge : . ' . Iding with his father. He was 

North Carolina, June 28, [865, \vh n h married in 1881 to Miss Annie fo 

retui ned ti 1 his home in Lnio ity, Sauk (. '• 111 (v, V\ 1 

Ohio, remaining there till he cam( to 1 vva, M.Jom , mesand 

in 1869. After living in Rin: . i!d 1 ly Lero)-. Th< firm ol J. T. Bernard & Sen 

for three years, he settled on his present was estal in June, 1SS1, and thev 

farm in Riley Township an ■ meneed carry on an extensive business. Tl 

improving it in the fall ol i v ';j, and lias in stock a ::: 1! line ol all ' ine luni- 

converted it from the naked prairi into ber, wire and paints. The furnitui 

one of the besl farms in Rile I o\\ ., I p. is 20.K 50 feet, and th< y carry a large stock 

Mr. McElroy was married November 16, , oi furniture suitable fo I of the 

1 871, to Miss Mary E. Bonham, who was laborer or the of the rich -all ol 

born in Marion County, Ohio, January 4, which is sold al reasonable prices. Politi- 

[854, a daughter of Harvey Bonham, a cally they are Republicans and zealous 

resident of Ringgold County. Thev have ; Prohibitionists. They each have a fine 

two children living — Sanford H. and Will- residence, 
iam II. A son. Charlie Blaine, died Sep- I 
tember 16, 1880, aged two years, and a 

daughter, Ivy 1., died in infancy. Mr. and ; ^JAMES A. MILLER, fai ier, section 15, 

Mrs. McElroy were members of the j y t j Monroe Township, was 

Methodist Episcopal church. In politics , %? Count v, England, [uly 1 . : 

Mr. McElroy is an ardent Republican. fames and Catherine Miller. H 

He is a member of the Grand Army of 

in England until he reached manhood, and 

the Republic. j ; n l84 <5 crossed the waters an I 

TJJ ' Upper Canada, where h : five 

"^-'Xl^'LT^ < irs. He was married March 

M iss I lannah J. Wils< >n, b >i 11 in I 

§~ T. BERNARD, lumber-dealer and , Canada, daughter of Wv.-'. W. and Sarah 

proprietor of Redding Furniture Ann Wilson, who removed to Illinois in 

■ : ° Store, is a native of Prince Edward 1S50. Mr. Mil 1 County 

Island, where he was born February 2S, until 1857, wb 

183 :, son of Samuel ami Isabella (Ross) cated in Ad C ',' among 

Bernard, the father a native of the ttlers ty. Here he 

island, and the mo md. lit improved eighty ; 

was c(\u< ated on his native island and in I was in tl . . • 

li famil} 1 1 mo /ed to lo\ C : H 

Wisconsin. Mr. Bernard man • . ■,,] care 

D Lha A. of hoi in 1 
I >ai rough. 1 h v. as engaged in i 

I n 1 S ; 

when he 1 I nty and R I 

: :, i l'o .;-,„ j,-.. 

arc the parent ' I I 
F. Bernard, v 

with his father. II . . . 

: ; 

BIOGRAPim . r CJIES. 351 


ince g-i vi 

H also has a good barn crib, granary, abstracts an : ,vith law 

i ridings for stock, and I cd lots, practice. In I spring ol 1883 he was 

The farm is in a g I stal iltivation elected mayoi ol Mt. Ayr, and served a 

and well improvi I. l-Ie is engaged in farm- year, and in 1885 was again elected, and 

ing and stock-raising, and has some as fine re-elected in 1 >. He was married in June, 

horses as can be found in the township. .1S79, to - X| > ' 1, daugh- 

Everything about the farm shows the in- ter of C. Iv. I i 1 m, R\ 

dustry and thrift of its owner. Mr. and The)- have had three children, two sons 

Mrs. Miller are the parents of five children and one dan: 
Charles IT., Leonard J., Florem : K. Ida 

A. and Sadie A. Mr. and Mrs. Miller are -J -;-!^^^Or- 1- 

istcnt and worthy members of the 
Methodist Episcopal church. Mr. Miller ,',:')!, MAX HOLLINGSWORTH, re- 
has In fair and honest dealing won the : siding on section 28, Union Town- 
confidence of all who know him, and hi . ship, who ha: 1 a id ntified with 
word is considered as good as ins bond, the interests of Rim 

Politically he is a Republican. Postoffice, years, was born in Miami County, Ohio, 

Beaconsfield. Xovember 23, 1837, a son of Abner and 

Nancy Hollingsworth who were born, 
1 and married in the State of Perm- 
s) Ivania. The father still resides 

£|i'OHN E. SCOTT, mayor of the city of old homestead in Ohio. The mother is 

' n Mt. Ayr, is a native of Noble County, deceased. Ol their seven childn 

[ Ohio, a son of Matthew and Susannah subject was the fourth child. H 

(Archibald) Scott. In r866 his parents reared to a farm life, living in his 

moved to Guthrie County. Iowa, and sub- State till reai urity. \: tl 

sequently to Phillips County, Kansas, of twenty -one years he wen; I 1 M 

where the mother died, in 1883, and the and was a resident of Platte County, 

father still lives. John E. Scott was reared State, al the time of Lincoln's nomh 

on a farm, attending in his youth the dis- for President, in i860, returning to Ohio in 

trict schools. When nineteen years old he the fall of that year. In August, 1 

an 1 icl ng, which he continued sev- enlisted in Company C, Xin h 

ernl years, and then entered the State Uni- Infantry, and pai 

versity at Iowa City. In 1S70 he went to upon the 1 

Ril. y ( )ouni y, Kansas, and taughi SI He « as a II 

until 1S73. then wenl to Macon County, Blufl in D 

:;■ Missouri, and in the fail ul i - - 1 etui ncd taking 1 : 

to Iowa City, and entered the law 

* fr ■. I in 1S76. Inn of : I ' 

; Iter hi-- graduati m he ' J , M 
Mt. Ayi , and '< u med a parti hip with A. 
. C !e, whi< h was of short ( lie 

- :ntly was connected and 
.' ' ll< n, mil : ' 1 , '.-a In n he bo 

stract bo of I 1. and a pci 

niSTonr .. / vaaoLD coua iv. 

an ! I. F >•. i iC .] !lis 

ments during the war, th former in the si ur years. After I 
F irty-third Ohio [nfanti ,', 

of a cavalry company. His Chariton. He "was united in marriage in 

brother Hezron was not physically quali- November, iSSi, to Miss Katie Waddcll, 

fied for service, and rem.!- ... M; i City, West Virginia, and to this 

parents. After the clo ., ar Mr. union has been bo . I, a daughter, 

Hollingsworth came to Ringgold County, name ! Martha Lee. After leavin 

where he has since made his home, and is ton Mr. Peni at farm 

now the owner of a fine farm of 120 acres in Tingley Township, on section 36, where 

of choice land, where he makes his home, h - has ab ml S o acres, all under fence and 

lie was married in Ringgold County in well improved. He i nd feeds about 

February, 1867, to Miss Louisa Ri 1 iard , j 400 h .. and about the same 

a native of Crawford County, Ohio, a number of cal 5 classed among the 

daughter of James Richards. Her' uccessful in township. 

were early settlers of Ringgold County, He has a large b rn, and are both 

Iowa, coming to Union Township in 1857. con commodiou 

Her mother died in May, 1S72, and her great protection for his cattle and I 

father's death occurred January 8, 1SS6, at , time of a storm. 
the advanced age of ninety-two years. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hollingsworth are the par- - * ■ ' 3 <0O0: : " 

cats of five children all living at home 

Minnie, Manford, Guy, Bessie and Abner. gpsBRAHAM ROBERTS, one of the 

In former 3'ears Mr. Hollingsworth was ; principal agriculi I Liberty 

Democrat, and cast his vote for Stephen -.- ~- Township, residing on secti »n 1, was 

A. Douglas, but in 1872 supported Horace , born in Coshocton Con . August 

Greeley, and now affiliates with the Green- 4, 1S40, the yo 

back party He is a member of the Ma- j children. His I h imps m R 

sonic fraternity, belonging to Banner was a farmer by occupati h pursuit 

Lodge, at Wirt. he followed till his death. He died when 

11 subject was bul seven years o 

»rj»t^*^t^»S , ^<f-*^*s?-« jhe mother also died v\ subject 

was a mej ■ ■ han at 

'.' ■' 1LL1AM 13. PENICK, one of the a very early . I th of his 

leading farmers and stock-d parents 1 

and a breed 1 1 1 fi 1 ! J : .vhom he 

ing in Tingley To native of ; years, near 1 ! [n the 
[0 b >rn in Wapell > G am 

1 S5S, a son ol \V. ( '. an I M I V .. lie lived 1 

('Thompson) Ponick, 1 ) He thci 

. . ' ( '[■■'... 
Of a family o : iorn to hispai 

ents oiu ' lie re He was 

I good educat ■ 

in tl : ' ■ 
at tend in 

• . 


'] hey ar< tin ] i nts of six childn i 
sons and two daughters. Mr. ! 

; with him to thi . 

which he had . .- . I from hi < 
and this money he invested in a ;< am, 
which he subsequently traded foi 
forty acres. Mere he followed fan 
number of yea!";-, when he seeded i' 
to grass, and turned his attention to raising 

to ; . lie is making a specialty o 
grade cattle and draught horsi 
cially successful in the raising of horses. To 
his original purchase he has added from 
lime to time till his farm now contains 230 
acres of choice land. 160 acres being aero - 
the line in Monroe Township. II 
comfortable and commodious residence, a 
good frame barn and other farm buildings 
for the acco ' ion of hi st< " -.. and by 

his in lustr}' and good managi 
quired agood competency for his d 


to Miss 
Anna McNcer. I Ic buill the first I 


he lias : _m,, Todd is 

a member of l . 5 order, be- 

: 1 Ige N 1. 53, at G . I 

the 1 1 mocratic 


« ♦; £T 1. 1 UL>1>, senior mi I 

\ eral mercantile firm of J. T. 

J. Todd, of Goshen, is a native of 
Pennsylvania, bom in Beaver G 
February 26, 1845, a son ' 
Julia Ann Todd, who were ah 1 natives of 
the State of Pennsylvania. '0 
was reared to agricnl ni which 

he followe 1 until I 

; irth-place with hi parenl 
So 'it G nty, 1 re he i i 

the horn ' 

of j 

ty, winch he f 

turned to I 'enns \ i /ania, 1 

, when 1: 
I oca t ed i n 1 County, 


. 1 ! 

y. He 


[AN LONG, hving on section 
; I 

( 'ounty, < >1 

: ■ ' >, i ' I . 

ninty, Pennsylvania, an 
neer of Noble Count}-, Ohio, now d 
Our subject spent his y >utl 

father with the work on the farm, and Ids 
education v. bin sub- 

si ription ■ . <o\ oft hal early 1 
He has b en 1 vvi* e 

lace J unc 17. rSjS, with Miss 
' I larriett Rc< r Redd 

who was 01 e of the earl - 1 1 
sey County, ( >hio, and I I on three 

!, I »• ira and 
Mary. His first \\i f e died in Jui . 
' and in August, 1865, 1 
t . Rachel Baxter, a native 
County, Ohio, her fatln 1 .ter. be- 

■ in 1 same county. 

E., John ]'>.. N ' Sadie C. 

and Aliee C, all 

Guerns( y <■ ' ». M r. Loi 

with hi 

in the 

35 : 


The father of our subjc cl migrated 

I .'■-. ania lo Ohii > in ; ly du) . 

making the entire journey w ith ; 

and one child u ith one hi >r . h 

th( In ii se tin w hich his wife and c I 

The Indians were the principal inh; 

of Noble County at thai time, and there 

they experienced all the ha 

privations <n r pioneer life. At onetime the 

father paid his last money, 50 cenl 

sack of corn which he tool twent) 1 

mill to be ground, while the mother and 

her children lived on parched corn and 

deer meat. Their nearest neighbor was 

five miles distant. Both parents are now 


ffj W. ABARR, farmer, section 16, Clin- 
'T' 1 ton Township, is one of the old pio- 
%l'° neers of the count), having been 
identified with its interests for more than 
thirty years. He was born in Murray 
County, Tennessee, October 1, 1S16. His 
father, John B. Abarr, was a native of 
France, and served in the war of 18 12. 
His. mother, Rhoda (Wilson; Abarr, was a 
native of North Carolina. The) wen 
married in Murray County, and r 
family of five children, all sons — J. W., 
John B., Richard L., Bartley R. and 1). C. 
When our subject was a few w 
parents removed to Gallatin ( 1 in \ . ii I 
then Territory of [llin 
early pi« nn crs of that county. J 
mained hen foui years, a I 
to Whiti ( 

1834. Hi- early life u as spenl i 
on th • fai m and atten ul ripti' n 

,. N*ov( nl 
bed Hi, i ■■ 

ol < '.< ■ 

Idi en, 1 lo \\ 

ty , 

. ' ■ ! I , 

: ' 

it y, April 
it farm. He 
. the place I previous 

| and pu 1 he farm from one Tom 

Lovell. There were forty acres of land, 
•in had be 
1. He entered 160 acres from the 
j Govcn ection 16. He added to 

his farm from time to time, until 
time he ' He 1 

and divided among his children, ui 
farm now consists of 400 acres of well-cul- 
mproved land. He has a 
comfoi , corn barn, 40 x 42 feet, 

! sixteen-foot posts, the frame all of native 
timber. He is ext< nsivel) 1 ng 
] ii ingand feeding. Mr. and Mrs. Abarr 
are the parents of live children— John C, 
who served during the late war in the 
! Forty-third Missouri ; W. S.; Helen, now 
1 Mrs. G. W. Spence; Alice, now Mrs. J. R. 
Stevens: and Halley. love children are 
1 deceased -Huston, the fourth child, died 
at the age of tv. • >; Electa Ann, 

' died al I f three ye 

died at the age of two years, and James IT., 
I died at the age of one year. During! 
j war Mr. Abarr enlisted in Company 1, 
Fifth Missi liiri Cavalry. His t\ 
Jol 1 B. and B. R. . V, . R. 

. were in the sai '. Mrs. 

Abarr died August 31, 
Mr. Abarr is ; ' 

1 Fremont in this county 
Pos1 R ling. 

^.- 'ww~ 






> •: 
:< .■: 

educated in the common si ho >1 

tivc State. At the age ol nil ecu \ irs 

he i emoved to Is nox Counl y. Illinois 

aged hi I inning se\ en \-ears. Fr< nn 
1861 to 1S64 he resided in Clevelan 
March5,iS64,he was married to Miss Xancy 
Sendley, who was born in Buffalo, Xew 
York, daughter of Daniel and Mary (Clark) 
Sendley. Soon after marriage he returned 
to Knox Count}', and remained until 1867; 
then removed to Ringgold Count)', and 
settled on section 20, on the Slate road, 
where lie resided three years. In 1S70 he 
settled upon his present farm, which was 
then in a wild condition. He has improved 
and cultivated his land, and everything 
about the place indicates thrift and indus- 
try. He has a comfortable house, out- 
buildings for stock, and an orchard of 150 
bearing trees. Mr. and Mrs. Parkhurst are 
the parents of five children — Ettie Adella, 
Louise Rowena, Margaret Ellen, John Ed- 
win and Clara Lovina. Politically Mr. 
Parkhurst affiliates with the Republican 
party. Postoffice, Clearfield, 'Fay lor County, 

I WITT C. WOOD, a young and en- 
1 j terprising farmer of Washington 
y- Township, is a native of Warren 
Count)', Illinois, born near the village of 
Berwick, February 21, 1864, a son of Allen 
and Mary S. Wood. When he w; 
years oi ■ ■ hi: ther died, and from that 
time until sixteen \ eai s old he m 

! : ! : i ["I ■ I I* . 

! : 1 . .1 1 on a farm bul received 

ling the 
schools of his district in the winter, 
hi I ; 1 ■ ; 1 I ! . 1 

tak( can 

He • . . ful and 

; only 
nd cam* ' low; 

for a time lived in Taylor County, moving 
1] I Count) . and locared on 
: irm which he took in exchange 
in Tayh >r County. 1 le is 
in general farming and stock-raisin; , and 
one oi the ■ . ing and successful 

young men of the township, lie is un- 
: married, his mother and onh sister, Maria 
. E., making their home with him. 1 I 

is an intelligent, cultured young ladv, 
; and is one <>: the successful teachers of 
I Ringgold County. 

I ' 


j XEV1LL, engaged in farming and 
stock-raising on section 22, Lincoln 

: ^~/ a " Township, where he has eighl . 
of fine land, is a native of England, born 
December 4, 18-44, a son of John and Han- 
nah (Bond) Xevill, who were also natives 
of England. April 7, 1852, they left their 
native country with their family, and 
landed at New York the following May, 
when they proceeded to Wisconsin, 
they resided a number of years. Our sub- 
ject grew to manhoi • I on 
in Wisconsin, and has made farmii 
principal avocation of his life. He re- 
mained iii Wisconsin un hen he 
enlisted in Company F, Thirty-thi 

: 1 Infantry, ai ' 
three years. He was mustered cut at 
Yicksburg August o, 1863, receivi 

n , \Y 
he returned I 
to Iowa and began 
road, which he followi 

a farm in W; 
Counl ) . 

ir s . H e 1 

For his wife he married I 

i Mrs. Xev of 1 


iiisi'on < 

born in John u G m ti \ . Januai \ • .- . , 
Mr. and Mrs. N T < \ ill i a . 
! : ie E., Stella, John A., Mary, L 
Boyd B. Mr. Nevill, since co 
coin Township, has lill< d , he • ■ 
township cl< rk and i rustcc, and ha 
as treasurer of the Sch iol Board. 1 le is a 
member of the Melhodis! Episcopal church. 
In politics he casts his ,vith the 

Greenback party. He is a coi ! 
Edd Otti< r Post, No. 290, G. A. R., of 
Clearfield, Iowa. 

r 7"RANK McGUGIN is a native of 

■ • ' r Washington Count)-, Pennsylvania, 
'";■ ■ b »rn near Hickory, July 24, 1 S_j 5, the 
fourth in a family of six children of D 
and Elizabeth (Campbell) McGugin. In 
March, 1846, the parents settled in Knox 
County, Ohio, where thev are still living, 
on the old homestead. Frank McGugin 
passed his youth on the farm in Knox ! 
County, Ohio, receiving his education in | 
the common schools of his neighb >rl 10 : . 
At the outbreak o^ the war of the Reb 11 
ion he enlisted in Compan) A, Thi 
Ohio Infantry, and spent t lie first two 
of his term of service in Virginia. In 
1S63 he was transferred to the Army of 1 
Potomac. Ninth Army Corps, and in Oc- 
tober tl same yea ; Ih 
Missi ■ ippi, ii ' 

Di\ ision, 1- ifi 1 111 
he ser /ed till I h< cl ar. He 

rt in t wenl ■ 
eluding tin ' 

M i 
Ridge, Kci ; : 

1 • 

of Allan! l, July 22 
oned at A after ! 

crated t\\ 
tl iutl n'iso ; 


I Inion lines, takii 

his prim .. as raw potatoes, having 

11 him by an 
old colored man. 1 tl Union 

lines he was almos! n; I ed, and - 
able to stand, and he was granted a fur- 
lough of thirty days. He rejoined his 
regimen; I Savannah, Georgia, when he 
was made Firs! Lieutenant, and later pro- 
moted I • Captain of 1 comp 

m he held till musi 
4, 1S65. In then ; tun I I ! ' on Coun- 
ty, Ohio, where he was married to Miss 
Melissa Critchfield, and to them have been 
born two sens and one daughter — Daniel 
E., Clifford X. and Stella M. Afl 
marriage Mr. McGugin settled on a farm 
in Knox Count)', where, in connection with 
his farming pursuits, he carried on i 
mill for several years. Jn the fall of 1S72 
he came with his family to Rin 
ty, Iowa, and settled on his | 
on section 12, Tingley Township, - 
has since followed agricultural 
farm containing 160 acres of well-in 
and highly-cultivated land. Mr. and Mrs. 
McGugin are mi m - ol the ( ' 
church, of which he is a! I serving 

a - dc ;< - 11 and trustee. 

% I Tingley Towi 

.1 in Lancaster (. I insylva- 

nia, Jul 1 of Ilugl 

was eh 


■ ■ 


bio ;r \ruicAi >■. . -. .; 

and the following summer who was born in Gn County, North 

ipl' ycd i n farm by the m >nt! . i < [unc 15, 1853. ' Kr i 1 - 

He then engaged in farming for himself, in IJci y County, id in 

an I iow owns a fine farm of • to itui County. Iowa, 

well improved, with a good residence and where the n I d, March 10, 1-;', 

coi ortable farm buildings. Mr. McPher- aged fif: -one years. I 
son was married in the spring oi [SS2 to Mrs. Anderson, Slanlv Frazer, moved to 
Miss Ella Kirkham, of Monroe County, Van Buren Countv, Iowa, when 
Iowa. In politics he affiliates with the Re- lives. Mrs. Anderson was the eldest in a 
publican part}-. famil) of six children. Her el 

Sarah, is h 1 th - housekei 
^wMiCt':' .^to^'vu-- I M., a teacher, al lives with her father; 

James E. died in cai ly c hildhoi id : Ai 
ILLIAM S. ANDERSON, residing is the wile oi John L. Coaltranc; and Nan- 
on section 16, Rice Township, was nie - Mr. and Mrs. 1 are the par- 

born in Guilford County, North ents of two chile... Charles C, born 
Carolina, February 17, 1S49. His parents, I September 5, 1S71, and Edward I., born 
William and Sarah (Louden Anderson, October 10, 1S73. Mr. and Mrs. Anderson 
were both natives of North Carolina, where lived on a farm in Decatur County, lo a, 
they were reared and married, and there I until 1S75, when they moved to Reno 
their seven eldest children were born— ■ County, Kansas, remainii 
Mrs. Rhoda Stanford, a widow, now living ; I" the fall of 1SS0 the) return 
in Decatur County, Iowa; John Calvin | tur County, and th< foil .-came 

and Isaac B.. livino- in Henrv Countv, In- to Ringgold County, and sctl 
diana; Joe! M. and Mis. Mary A.Dunn, i present farm on section 16, Ri< 
residents of Reno County, Kansas : Solo- ; ship, which contains forty-fivi ; 
mon S. was a member of 'the Third Iowa j good land, this farm being one of the first 
Cavalry, and died during the war. aged settled in the township. B« 
nineteen years; and William S., the subject farm Mr. Anderson owns ei 
of this sketch. Their daughter, Mrs. Sarah ; valuable land, wl 

Iren Deck, was born in Decatur County, from the homestead. In politics Mr. An- 
Iowa, and is now living in Reno County, j derson casts his suffrage with tin R 
Kansas. In 185 1 the parents removed with can party. Boll 

their family from North Carolina to Henry b 1 of tin M tin t E] hurch. 

County, Indiana, where they resided till 

1S59. They then scried in Woodland, De- "^ : : -^.';:^ '***■ 

catur Countv, Iowa, and two and a ha 

years la. I 1 County, and 1 IERT CA ' 

settled on a farm in Eden 1 1 iw 1 >, when Rii 

the\ have since made then h une. Will- ' ' of 1 NJ 

iam S. ', n, our subj to June 12, 1842, 

: I I in R ountj about : 1 V-. I ; 

thirl 'ii li of Pennsyh 

his pai cuts to th 

ty, Dccembei to Miss 1 tract of 

H1STO, Ol : cou.xrr. 

Townshi] I fat! 
and tin riic\ had a 

t wel \'( child en, 1 n 

■ !i. lie 
a red a fai m< r, remaini 

tin on if the war of 

• Ri bellion, when, in Septem 

:d iu tin I i. : m army, ; ' was as- 

[ to Ci mi] '.•"•>' I , Fourth I iwa Cci \ - 

alrv, and served until August, : ' -. He 

\ . captured near Helena, Arkansas, when 

i i ling i pediti in, and was held a 

1 1 ; mci fn mi Mai :h till S pt< ml cr, when 
parol I nt to St. Li mis, and 

a month later was c changei I , 
i ;im nt at Memphis, Tennessee. AtSelma, 
Ala ' i, he i ecc iv< d a gun-sin it wound 
through the thigh, which disabl d 1 for a 
] After his discharge he re I ned to 

1 ther's farm and engaged in agricult- 

ural pursuit , and after his marriage s< t- 
tied on the farm where he now lives, which 
i i i 1 6o acres of cln >ii e Ian 1. ! le was 
man ied in i S69 to Sarah A. Mumfoi d, who 
in April, 1883, leaving one daughter— 
E -I-. lla M. !a politics Mr. Camp] 
Republk an. 

»REW SI EVENSON, section 17, 

. ; \\ Tingle} Township, is a native of 

Guern: y County, Ohio, b 1 ' )ctobcr 

: . lS_j i, a s hi of John and Mai gai et (1 len- 

> tc v enso n . 1 1 1 1 1 : - i 1 • ' 

1 1 of his country, and \\ 

111 h Ohio 
[nfantry, and •. di barged in Jun 
Hi married in April, 1864, to Mary C. 

of Li ty, Ohio. After 

urn from 

I to Ring- 

. ! ..1. and lo< 

farm, wl conl ol 

on have 

fivechildi ih, 

Sadie and Ida. Two arc ed, the 

Ella, an 1 the third, May. 

■ vterian 

church, at 1\ 


■ • tio ■ '■' I II ! 1 . hip, was 

, ] v lay 2, 

i . on of Jai and 

' ■ i Ten n( 
fifth of a family of nine children, 
he was ; age his nts re- 

in O unity, Miss »uri, where 
they remained s iveral years, then went to 
Galloway Count 5 . I Coun 

ty, locating near Lett's Grove. In \hc 
spring of 1861 they came to Ri 
County. Our subject was reared a farmer, 
tion in the 1 
I 1 ■ Limmer of 1S6] he cn- 

li =ted in Company G.Fourth 1 
and w; mi ac- 

count of 1 .: he re- 

1 in Company G, 
Cavalry , and served until t 
war. This regiment was in most 
principal engagements in Miss >uri and Ar- 
te; . lie w as honoi . 

.. ar, and ix 1 1 
He was 1 , to Miss 

l)t lilah Jai vis, fi u merly 1 il < Ihii >, d 
of Phillip and Mary Jarvis. In 1S67 he 

I in Rice To 
later pu irm, which at 

that tin 

[] toandii 

lil he now ha - .. I land as 

can be found in the 1 H 

main pa 
ship. II 


raising and feeding. Mr. and Mrs. Glen- 
,' nning : re the pare nts of six i 
William, Mary, Clara Belle, Ella, 
and Verdue. Grctta isdeceased. Mr. < rli n- 

denning is a member of theMeth i 
copal church, and pi >lil ii all) affiiliates with 
the Republican party. lie is ver) ; 
respected in the community where he- is 
known, and is one of the leading men in 
his township. Postoffice, Ingart. 

r: \ JjILLIAM CASNER, one of the 
■)\/\j' active and enterprising fanners 
'c:' —r] and stock-raisers of Jefferson 
Township, and an old pioneer of Ringgold 
Count}*, was born in Washington County, 
Pennsylvania, December 27, 1819. His 
father, John Casner, was a native of Mary- 
land. In earl}- life he followed the shoe- 
maker's trade, but his later years he spenl 
in farming. William Casner received his 
education in the log-cabin school-houses of 
his neighborhood, which lie attended 
while not helping with the work of the j 
farm. In 1828 he went with his parents ! 
to Noble (then Monroe) County, Ohio, j 
where he grew to manhood. He then be- : 
gan dealing in lumber, and was engaged 
in the lumber trade twelve or fifteen years, 
in that State. He was married \iv, 
1844, to Miss Margaret A. Keller, a daugh- 
ter of John Keller, deceased. Of 1 
children born to this union, only five sur- 
vive Mary A., Chi i: 1 iann, Jane, Susannah 
and Charles, all n ai i ied but the 
M ) . Ca iier went o\ < Hand to ( '; i 
] S52, where he mined foi two ycai s, rc- 
tu rni n g i > > Ohio in 1854. I > ' 
lS" : he came to Ringgold Conn 
and entered over 700 acn • of wild land, 
mo of which w; local 1 

! iip. 1 !•. brought his familv here 

in tli pi ■ , of [856, -.'. ! I 
tli I ■.. : . , 

, e flerson 
1 icli he has mad< all the 

n ■ 

.; Zion M 1 

tiea .... 1 

structure, ::x?S , ■ I lie first 

has >:■ ) -. 

at present devot 

r; . He 1 

justice of tl ' nd has 

served as 1 

I ti ; '" >.-]-. Mrs. C 
bcr 11!' the " ; hurch. 

Mr. Ca ner was a Idler in t 
war. lie was a meml ' any G, 

ed in the battles o 
others. He 

months, wl ■ >r disa- 

bilit ) . 1 le has never fully recover* 

1 of 1 
cb ;:w ; a 1 ension fr< mi the ( '■■ >\ . 

fTRENUS MILLS VP, farmer, 

Clinton To .vn the early 

the into 

! : b ' 

D e c e m 1 
li la ai 

child] G. \.. Kan 

■ ' 
NJ illsap 


Iowa, .. 




ried Mayci, iS6i,to MissMary C. D 
native ol New Jersey. When twelve years 
of age she came with her parents, William 
S. and Nancy (McLean) Dennis, to I a} I >r 
County, Iowa. Mr. Millsap settled upon 
his present farm in 1S75, which was then 
in a wild stall.. 1 lis farm cont: ins ninet) 
eight acres of well-cultivated and well-im- 
proved land, lie has a comfortabl house, 
out-buildings for slock, and orchard and 
small fruits. Mr. and Mrs. Millsap are the 
parents of eight children— Nancy J., Elma 
Alice. Ulysses A., Emma E., Silas W., An- 
gie May, Sidney C. and Nora Belle. Mr. 
Millsap i:- politically a Republican, lie has 
been a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
church since seven years of age. Postoffice, 

§OHN A. LESAN, an active and suc- 
cessful farmer of Liberty Township, 
1 'Mine,- on section 56, is a native of 
Maine, born near Bangor, Jul}' 10. 183.?. 
When he was seven years of age his par- 
ents, Charles 1. and Mchitable S. (Piatt) 
Lesan, removed to the city of Bangor, 
where the father followed the mercantile 
business. John A. Lesan was reared in 
Bangor, receiving his education in the 
schools of that city. He left school when 
sixteen years old, and followed the sea 
from that age till he attained the age ol 
twenty years, coasting from the Bay of 
Bangoi as far as Florida. 1 le then . 
pani< 1 his father to Stark County, I'd;; .is, 
hi ! ; : . : . ; died some years pre- 

vious, and in thai ci Hint v he .was m; 
in the year 1859, l " - X1 '^ X!l ' ' 
native of ( 'an; da. Thi \ are 1 he parents of 
two daughters 1 [attic M. and N< lli< ,; . 
Mr. Lesan left Stark Count; 1S60, when 
he came to Ringgold Couni y, Iown 
settled on his presi n1 fai purcl asing at 
eighty acres 1 rie land, 

on which he erected a small log 

i., i' ipro m 

In 1S62 he enlisted iii the defense of his 

J country, in Company G, Twcnl 
Iowa Infantry, and, was immediately 
to Missouri, thence down the Mis: ; pi 
River, lie took part in the battles of 
Helena., Little Rock, and the taking ol .Mo- 
bile. He was mustered out in Augu 

! and discharged at Davenport, Iowa, when 

; he returned to his farm in Libert \ Town 
ship, Ringgold County, where he has met 

, with excellent success in his farming and 
stock-raising. He has added to his 1 I 

, eighty acres by subsequent purch; 
his home farm contains 1S0 acres of choice 

; land, besides which he owns 100 acres of 
pasture land located in Poe Township. He 

j is still devoting his attention to si ... 

j ing, and has on Ins farm at present sixty 

• head of thorough-bred short-horn cattle, 

1 and some fine specimens of Norman horses. 

j Mr. Lesan was elected* justice of the peace 
of Liberty Township in J 862, which office 
here-signed to enlist in the defense ol his 
country. Soon after his return from the 
army he was elected trustee of Liberty 
Township, and a member of the Board of 
Supervisors under the old law, which posi- 
tion he filled until he was elected sh 
Ringgold County, in 186S assumi 
duties of that office January 1, 1869, 
serving in that capacity foi two 
He also held the office of postm tster 
at Mt. Ayr for two years, until 
In that year he returned to his 
and soon after was elected justice of 
tlu- p< in e, w hie h 1 iffice he has 
filled with credit to himself and to the 
satisfaction of his constituents, and-. 
I office he 1 . .. ■ 

has had hi I ision : . Mr. 1 esan 

is a in* 

Ri il H 

Methodist 1 r thirty- 


/>'/( - ,/.'. iPJJICAL SKE J CJ1ES. 

years, and has held many of the orTh 
his church, su< h as cla: Leader,; ; super- 
intendent of the Sabbath-school. He is one 
of the respecte n of Liberty Town- 

ship, having bv his honorable dealings 
grained the confidence of all who know him. 

' • 

--'\H.\RY II. ROSS was born in Liv- 
jjjffft ingston County, Missouri, near Chilli- 
*$l cothe, August n, 1840, the eld' 
of Thomas and Martha (McMillan) Ross, 
who are of Scotch descent, the father j 
born in Ohio and the mother in Kentucky. | 
The mother of our subject went to Illi- 
nois when seventeen years of age, where j 
she was married, and soon after went with 
her husband to Missouri where he fol- ; 
lowed the teacher's profession. In 1849 
they moved to Wapello County, Iowa, and 
the year 1S59, came i<> Ringgold County, : 
where the father followed his profession, , 
being among the hist school-teachers of • 
Mount Ayr. Me is still living in Ri I 

County. The parents of our subject had 
a family of thirteen children, ol whom onh 
five — four sons and one daughter — survive. 
Henry 11. Ross passed his youth in Wa- 
pello County, low; 1 ., where he attended the 
district schools. He came to Rinj 
Count)', Iowa, in 1859, :i: "- 1 attended school 
at Osceola till the breaking oul of tl 
of the Rebellion, when he 1 ili I in Com- 
pany M, Third Iowa Cavalry, and was in 
the Western department, lie was capt- 
ured at tl e of Pea Ridge . but was 
soon after e> i hang 1. He was 1 
out of the service in August, 1865, :.: Dav- 
enport, Iowa, aftei i hi ntn, 
faithfully for foui ; He then re- 
turn! d to Mt. A) r, when ' 
for thirt) ' it lis. in 186; 
elected county su| 

He was married in 1 6; to Mi - Mary 
D oze , d aug h t 

•ttli rs ol Rii gg They 

ha\ 2 two M innic and 

McCI >!r. i ' - was 

: e Hint \ surv< yor, an 1 sen cd as 
such four years. In 1S7 he v . elected 
to the same tl il ion the 

four years lie was 

< an tv auditor in the fall of 1SS5, which 

he still holds, to the en 
tion of his constituents. Mr. Ro i a 
member of the Grand Army of the Re- 

' ILL! AM H. HAVILAXD, a repre- 
sentative of one of tl lestfami- 
r L ,' J: . lies of Washington Township, was 
born on the old homestead in Was! 
Township, Ringgold Count)-. Iowa, July 6, 
1862. His father, William A. Haviland, 
was a native of Canada. He came to Illi- 
nois when a young man, and was married 
in that State to Mary J. Skidmore. He 
subscquentlv came to Ringgold County. 
Iowa, with his family, which then consisted 
of his wife and two child] he set- 
tle 1 on a farm which is still ' 1 upied by 
our subject. The farm then contained 160 
acres of raw prairie land, entii !y unim- 
pi oved. The father being a cai penter, im- 
it ly erected a small log house lor his 
family, and beg; 
later in life resumed working 
IL' was an industrious citizen, and u 
of the most ; 

Township, where he resided SO 
year-.. He d 

nee, of Mt. Ayr; John A., and Will- 
iam I i ., cm- subj( Tl now in 
. and is makii 

stead. The - ■ 

I i 

- . . . ■ 


HISTORY OF .■',.'. I i 0UN7 V. 

having b 

William II. ) h\\ iland was mai 
i . ; to Mi I \ 

wh > was bom in Ringgold Count)', Iowa, 
.er of Wentzal Vachack, n I 

mian by birth. They are tin 

two children— Ethel V. and Vella 1. Mr. 

] Iaviland is classed anion- 1 ; . 

stock-raisers in his neighborhood, 

principally engaged in raising cattle and 


ID PRESTON, a successful farmer j 
I i of Liberty Township, residing' 01 
— tion 30, is a native of Washi 
County, Pennsylvania, born near Monon- 
gahela City, January 3, 1S33, his parents, 
Bernard and Margaret (Williams) Preston, 
being natives of ' the same count}', the 
mother dying in Washington County in 
1S52. Of a family of ten children born to j 
them seven still survive, our subject, David 
Preston, being the fifth child. He passed his ' 
youth on the home farm, remaining in his 
native county until the spring of 1S56, 
when he came to Ringgold County. Iowa, 
and settled on sections 30 and 31, Liberty 
Township, where he began to improve the 
land which at that time was raw, unbroken 
prairie. Jib firsl house was built of logs, 
with a clapboard roof, its size being 16 x 17 
feet. Mr. Prest«>n was married in 1862 ol 
Miss Ann Eliza Loi im> :r, a nal ive oi Ohio 
but at the time of her marriage living in 
Ma 1 Ci unty, Iowa. She die' i in Au- 

' . 1 >i, leaving three children - J< 
M., wife of Brown ; 

Nellie. Mr. ! , again man ied in 

April, 1884, to Miss Anna Wirt, who was 
also a nativ of Ohio an 

of Rii I < 1 1 nty. In 

Fcbi nary. 1S59, Mr. Preston , 

1 unity to fill a va- 

in. J 

til foi me year Mr. Pi 
he v. as sue 
in mining gol I. Two • ... he re- 

[ has since 
been actively engaged in I 

irses being of 
grade. His farm is mostly seeded 
to gi ;s. 1 lis rud - 1 ig h use has given 
place to his pi t co sidencc, 

the ild 1 I roof of the i ir w 

now on the roof of his bain. Both Mr. and 
Mrs. Prestoi n bers of tl 

ist Episcopal church, and respect' 
zens of Liberty Township. Bern; rd Pres- 
ton came to Ring nit six 
months after his son, David Preston, 
here, and died in Libert)' Township in 1 - ; 7 5 . 

''; j 4, Lott's Creel Township, i ai 
>-^' the 1 jriculturists and old pio- 

neers of Ringgold County. He was born in 
Union County, Pennsylvania, July 30, 1828, 
son of Jonathan and Elizabeth Stuck. He 
was the third oi four children, and was 
reared a farmer. At the age of f 
years he learned the tailor's trade, and fol- 
lowed that occupation four years. 1 l< tl . -. 
removed to Luc; - County, Ohio, v. I 
resided three years, thence to S< 
County, Ohio. In 1S52 he wa 

lin. In 18; 
Stuck removed to i, where Mrs. 

Stuck died the same year. July 14, 1S55, 
he came to Rii gol ' 

lent at 
81.25 per a< re. Mis ■ 

log cabin, 16 \ 18 :• 
1 ; 

owns 349 aci 
be one of 
has a good, 1 





Zf/Oi • 

• ' ■ 
lock, an o i 
everything about the place 

I ihc prop\ u ti i] . In 1S57 Mr. Slu< k 
I Mi: s Mai \ I-L illisl ;r, a native of 
( County, Indiana, and the) have 

eleven children Elizal I . Jar A 11, 
John, Jacob Lincoln, James 
cinda, Pel ;. Dai i< 1. Charli< . Marl 
Joseph. Mr. Stuck came to Ringgold 
County with very litth Lit by in- 

dustr) and good management he I 
quired a lai ge propei t}\ Pi > ■ 

. CHRISTIAN WALTERS, one of the 
. pion ers of Union Township, and an 
tive and public-spirited citizen of 
:■: n old Count)-, was born in Richland 
Ci mnt 5*, ( >hio, 1 )ecember 29, 1831, the ninth 
child of Conrad and Susan (Coffman) Wal- 
ters, who were born and reared in Alle- 
gheny Count}-, Pennsylvania, and after 
their marriage settled in Ohio. After the 
mother's death the father was again mar- 
ried, and by his second wife had a family of 
eight children. Eleven children were born 
to his first wife, who was the mother of our 
subject. He passed his boyhood on the 
home farm, remaining with his < arents till 
seventeen years of age. 1 le then s< 1 ved an 
apprenticeship at the blacksmith's and car- 
's ti ade, which he f >!1< iwed h >r 
several ye;, is, being engaged in b 
for himsi pari ol tin time. In 1S57 he 
came to R Id < nty, Iowa, and 

■ ..■ . I ' 

lots local 11 : ' ' 

Townshi] and comn d improving 

pari of his land. In I of j S59 he 

. ■ ■ • .. 

1 purcl , 

acres on - cti' m 23, 1 r ni m I 

part of his j 

tlii linn .:' iul 1.5 with w\ 


' i" build a house, v. 


foui 1 

County and two in Decatur County. In 

l : 4, v , hing for a change and 11 

prise s, Mr. Waltei ' ' 

fornia as bui . and was 

1 d in contract woj k in tl 

two years, returni 

by the Isthmus of P; ; and New Vork 

City. J le was man ied in Ci i 
I ty, Ohio, ! I u eml ei 5, 1 67, to Miss Mar- 
: garet Dickson, who was born in that 

county in 1842, a daugl 

Agnes Dickson, and a ! 

Georgi Dickson, of Union 1 

county. Of the nine children bon 
i union, seven are living 

Leona, Jap, Cary, Ollie and Bert. Two 
' children died in infancy. In 1S76 Mr. 

Walters brought Ids family to Mt. Ayr, 

where lit lived four years, impn 

farm near that city, lie owned I 

adjoining that place and 320 a< 

a hall miles distant, imp 1 

farms, where hebu 

erected a fine residence in Mi. Ayr. Me 
; subsequent!} dis] ad van t; 

pro] rty at and near Mt. Ayr. M 
le; s came to Ri 

had bain ' 

rowed; but industry 

1 with j 
and a del I 11 

he is now 1 
; : 
H tive busini : - life, which 



nrsTORr ■ uxrr. 

; -. His real estate now amount; lo then i". Lphr.aim H., Mrs. 

about i,4; his ' f; i ! k and Mrs. Susan Llvii I 

1,200 acres . 1 I :. I . 

itical views Mr.. Walters is a Demo- wi ti years of age, and has since 

it. He is a member of Ivy Lodge, I. O. j been acting Tor him 

. O. F., at Grand River, Decatui Count)-, mal rial prosp lit} , ir. lie is a 

]■ ■:■■;:. Mrs. Waltei ': died at tl young 

resid ir subject in 1 », whil I 1 ability and is 1 me • >i Ril< y 

cm a visit. Tow hip's tial citizens. I le 

iv 11s 4 : ol ralui •!< land, all but 

.•#3 c^,-:....^ ^^ • twcnl cultivation. His 

homestc id i the 1 Rii 

TTLLIAM LUCAS, one of the first County, a hty acres of : 

j settlers of Union Towns! '• Mr. Longacre was married April 3, 

--, on section 6, in August, 1855. He J 1876, to Miss A. S. Foster, who was born 

entered over 1,000 acres of land, giving to in 1856, a daughter o! Andrew j 

each of his children 120 acres of prairie, They have six children— Merrill. G 

: and twenty acres of timber land. He lias Daniel W., Walter, Eveline and Ray. In 

< . ■ been a haul-working- man. and has assist* 1 politics Mr. Longacre affiliates with the Re- 

materiallyin the development of his town- publican party. 

• .. ship. Mr. Lucas was born in Mary! 

y .' but when seven years of age was taken to , Moomrs^r^-'^ 
■ '■■ Ohio, where he was reared. He marri 

• ' Margaret Carson, and to them w< re b rn 

eleven children, seven of whom came to ^ff H. BEESON, farm r, :. Clin- 

Jowa will) the parents, and one was I I ton Township, was born in Mont- 

'■ in Ringgold Count)-. These arc — Eliza- >£ gomery County, Ohio, C 

beth, Emeline, Sarah, Margaret 1 ' His parents were Jesse and Mary 
William L., Elreta, Oscar and Byron. Mr. (Woodhouse) Beeson, th< native 
Lucas died February 2, iS; euty- of North Carolina and the lati 1 
. six years. His widow survives him, and is They reared three children — J. H., Mar- 
still a resident of Rin ainty. garet and Lucinda. When J. II. v.. 

years of ; 

— o-£3S~« — ^ :-c— father by death. During his early life 

j he \ ' : and atl 


, Riley Township, v in M 

, Ohio, J . : 

oi 1 >anii 1 an 1 Ocl I C ninty, dam 
his 1 

: . : ' Cass 1 

' ... rni now owiic d by M. Indiana, 


father died ihe 1 

live: . Tl , ; 

BIOGR \PH. \1 ; 


sc\ en weeks. In i860 he buil 
in on his land, i<5 \ 18 feet. In 
built the house he 11 >\v occu] i It is in 

modern style and well furnisln I. He has 
a good barn, 24 x 32 feet, nativ< groves, 
a good orchard, and is engag< i in gen- 
era! farming and stock-raising. Mr. and \ 
Mrs. Beeson have six children William 
Perry, Sarah Emeline, M.nv Adaline, 
Francis Marion, Jos ;ph Asbury and Ora 
Alice. They have fifteen grandchildren, j 
Mr. Beeson has served as township trustee 
and member of the School Board. Polit- 
ically he is a Republican. 1 Ie started in life 
without means, but by industry, economy ; 
and good management he has acquired a ; 
good property. Postoffice, Mormontown. ! 


• the enterprising farmers of Liberty 
"Vi Township, residing on section 22, 
is a native of Ireland, born near Colerain, 
March 16, 1S30, a son of Alexander and 
Jane (Crow) Campbell, who were both na- 
tives of Scotland. Our subject remained 
in his native country till nineteen years of 
age, when he embarked on a sailing vessel 
at Liverpool, England, and after a stormy 
voyage of three weeks landed at New 
York. He proceeded at one* : 1 Philadel- 
phia, Pennsylvania, where hi; parent. 1 
sided, they having come to America some 
four years before. William A. Campbell 
found empl 13 m nl in a chemical factory in 
thai city, whei c he wa: ei 1 in the 

mami Is for seven ] ;. He 

was married to Mi Man A. Sam- 

ple, a native* 

I irriage 1 in Phi 

a:.- the ; 1 ci t< hild 

wife 01" James IJr ,'ti e, 11 ■ iw living in 
Texas ; H I cd R I N\ Wil- 

son, no a ie, ' Kai A I 

mining in Mi ; ■ 

A, 15. 1 ler- 

■. ! . .. : Sarah I .. 
r. an I Jose] ■ . li\ big 

I ;. [S56, Mr. C 

removed wit imily I 

I . iana, where he bought a fai m, and 
n fli iur an ! saw-mill. : 

I milling until the fall of 
1S74, when he came to Ringg I 

Iowa, h e in tio [6, ! . 

Townshi] i, ■■ ■ he remaiiu d till 

lie then settled on his pre cnl farm of 160 
acres, which he 'has converted from raw 
pi aii n land into a well cull 
and has a nee; and substantial roidence, 
and good farm buildings. In com 
with his general farming he is 
and horses, the latter being of the >■ 
breed. Although Mr. Campbell has met 
with heavy I 1 ses thi ous ■ having 

had his tine residence and mill in !.. 
destroyed by fire, by whii hi lost 
$ 1 2 ,0 . ; 1 1 1 ; mo t her tim e 1 
by going seen it] ; >r a parte — h< : 
his pei sc \ ering energy and uni 
try accumulate'! a compel his de- 

clining year-, and by his si rict and 1 
.able 'dealings has . cori 

1 will < 1 i\v him. Mr. 

Campbell has been elected to fill to 

but has refu : i I 

his family are members of the Unit : 
Pr< by1 rian cl :h, of which he . • 
as elder while living in In 

;\l)kl-W J. Hi 
O h i o H o 
- ■ > Ki Count)'. Oh 
ber 4, 1832, t 


• /< 



Ohio, living there until the summci 

removed to Ringg* ■ ' Coi 
Iowa, and settled on section i6, Union 

Tt >•■:. nship. In 18S4 1)'.- Iefl the fai 
removed to Wirt, and has since given his 
attention to the hotel and livery business. 
i [e has been successful in his business trans 
actions, and although a poor man when Ik: 
came to Iowa, now has a competency for 
his declining- years, lie lias held 
offices of trust in the township, lie was 
appointed postmaster at Union Hill under 
Johnson's administration and held the posi- 
tion scyen years. Me has served as justice 
of the peace eight years. Me is a member 
of the Masonic and Odd Fellows orders. 

' IRG E LILES, a prosperous and en- 
:■ r ,-- terprising farmer of Union Township, 
\7?, living on section 3, was born in Ross 
County, Ohio, September 21, 1828, a son of 
Lemuel and Hannah Liles, the father a na- 
tive of Tennessee, and the mother born in 
Pennsylvania, of Dutch descent. They 
moved with their family to Ohio in an 
early day, where both died, the mother in 
1852, and the father in 1875, in his ninety- 
seventh year. They were the parents of 
fourteen children — ten sons and four djtugh- 
whom our subject was the ninth 
child. Thirteen of the children grew to 
maturity, and at pie-cut seven are yet liv- 
ing. Georgi Liles was reared on a farm 
and 1 irly in life inured to toil. He grew 
to manhood in L >g; ty, Ohio, a I 

was there married July 13, [S54, to Miss 
Hannah Cooper, a native ol Hardi 1 
V . < '. : - >. b irn De' i S35, a daugh- 

1 r ol W ■ iain and Sarah < oop> r. To M 1 . 
and Mrs. Lib s ha\ e been bo 

I i v ing— J ose p I 
G., at In me ; Aramintia, wif< 1 

I ' p; Lemuel, at 

! : 

Union Ti fulia, John, Emma Agnes 

I. living at home. F01 
fancy, ai ; le, dice' at the 

sixteen years. Mr. Liles n 
' 11 ty. ( )i.i< 1, 1 ier his 

marriage, and in the fall of 1S55 located in 
Davis County, Iowa, where he followed 
farming and coal mining for several years. 
In January, [S65, lie visited Ri 
County, when he purchased 160 acres of 
John Paine, who had built a small cabin on 
the farm and opened twenty acres, and the 
same spring brought his family to their 
new home, where they have since resided. 
Mr. Liles made Ins first money in ( 1 
cutting hoop poles, --.etc. When 

lie readied Davis County, lie had but $240 
in cash and a team. There he bought a 
farm of 120 acres for $1,000, making his 
payments principally with the money he 
earned at coal-mining, and by his industri- 
ous habits and strict economy he has ac- 
quired from small beginnings a goo 
erty and is now the owner of a good home; 
and by his honorable and industrious life 
he has gained the confidence and r 
of the entire community. Mr. Liles has 
never allowed unfavorable weatln 1 
terrupt the usual farm 1 .believ- 

ing that seed time and harvest an 
ised, and he lias never failed to merit and 
receive lair returns for labor. In politics 
.Mr. Li! I : ■ .. In his r< 

faith he believes in the doctrine of the 

! ! i • lination. M. 

is a member of the Meth< idist Ep 
chun . 



Ohi 1, Januai ,-;:.■ 

born and rean d in I ■ md the 

:. ••■: 


mother a native of Vermont, but reared in 
New York State. died in Ma- 

ntv. Ohio, June <• ; ; . . ed fifty- 
four years. I f< lefl thn e child] 
now living- in Indianola, Iowa, married 
I ... ; . r, v ho enlisted in the | 

i :.- i < Ihio Infantry, and died in I In 
service of his country; William II., the 
subject of this sketch, and Benjamin (>.. ' 
who enlisted in Company C, Forty-eighth 
Iowa Infantry, and died at Rock Island, \ 
[Hi . is. Our subject was reared in his na- | 
ci anty. I Jib father dying when he ' 
: . ight rears old, he was in early 
life thrown on his own resources, his youth 
ent in toil. Receiving- fair educa- 
tional advantages, he made the most of his 
. '. nities, and became a well-informed 
man. In 1S61 he came to Iowa, locating in 
Decatur County, where he engaged in agri- 
cultural pursuits, remaining there till May 
22, 1S64, when he enlisted in Company C, 
Forty-eighth Iowa Infantry, and was with 
his regiment at Rock Island and Chicago, 
, guarding rebel prisoners. During 
• year of the war Mr. Barnes was 
active in recruiting his company, and on 
. animation he was commissioned 
: Lieutenant. He was honorably dis- 

charged, October 20, 1865, when he re- 
!' : County, Iowa. Desiring 

r educate himself, he entered Simp- 
son Centenary College, at Indianola, in 
: >5, attending that institution lour years, 
and st pfather, Harvey 
h; comi W< I : ith him, 
to hi farm in Riley Town I 

Mr. B; dlowed tl 

. . was very 

ful. Mr. B I : 1 • a so hi: 

te tl ■ 

as the 
imc the 

tli r of the to I ■ 

ship, when organized, was named. Mr. 
Barnes has add< d to his 
160 acres, and has made it 1 
farms in his n 1 1, where !. 

fr. 1 as united 

in marriagi , \<n < mb r 13, ] to 

Maggie A. Sii in Decatur County, 

Iowa. No\ eml ier 2, 1S54, a 1 
I lenry and Jane Sinco, of whom her father 
is now d< ceasi d. 1 ler mothei 
Kellerton. They have, one child— Virgin, 
born October 16, [885. In politics Mr. 
Barnes is identified with the Republican 
party. He h iwnship 

clerk since the township was org; 
with the exception of perhaps three years, 
and all the time has been secretary of the 
School Board. He has served three \ 
as a member of the County ! 
pervisors, and has twice been elected as- 

T 7~- D. THRIFT, section 2. Grant 
Township, was born in No h 
' Ca . ( )ct iber 29, 1 S25, a >n 

of David and L}*dia Thrift. In [845 he 
left his native State and went to Indiana, 
and from then 1 I Iowa, and lived a 

year in App: ■ unity. In 1852 he 

m ived to at 1 

blacksm I 1 

and in 1855 I seated < :• the fan •.. I 

ity. His farm 

i . iip. Mr. Thi ■ 


. 1 . i. . Y 



Iowa Infant! year. 1 le 

is a member of James Conway Past, No. 
- • . ( ,. A. R. In politics he is a Repub- 
lican. 1 lis father was a soldier in tl 
-. and is still living, and in the ■ 
m< nt ol ■ o id health. 

= :: 

fAMES BEARD was born in Brown 
County, Ohio, in Higginsport, on the 
banks of the Ohio River, December 
20, [844, the eldest son of Daniel and Cath- 
erine Beard, natives of Pennsylvania and 
Ohio respectively. The father of our sub- 
ject moved with his parents from P< yl 
vania to Ohio in 1809, he being then six 
ye rs of age, and in that Stale he grew to 
1 and learned the cooper's tr; de. 
lie was married to Catherine Richardson, 
and to them were born seven children — two 
sons and live daughters. The family sub- 
sequently removed to Indiana, where the 
father di d, in March, 1859. After his 
death, in 1869, the mother and her children 
cai c to Ringgold County, Iowa. The 
mother is still living, and is now 1 
her home in California. James Beard 
li\ 1 ii> his native county till about nine 
years of age, when he accompanied his 
ts to Indiana, where he was reared 
to manhood and ed 

lie enlisted in the ;crvii 

Lg of ! ixteen . 

• ci] m) A, F< >rt) 1 
1 Infantry. He pari i< ipati I in the 
■ ' Isla i \ T o. 1 . N<w Mad ! 

.. eat to Mcm- 
: 1 up Whit' Rivi x\v 

1 1 e w a s 
• ■ 

t thigh, 

I his n Jm. 


to Tyler, Tex; v h ., as placed in 

the sto . August 

! fe tra\ cled 
noi thward tin 1 ugh Texas and A 1 

recaptured ter seventeen days' 

hard travclinc:, his principal food during 

i . 

i this time being raw corn. lie was taken 

I back to Tyler, Texas, where he w 

i prisoner until February, 1S65, when he 

was exchanged. Me then went to New 

Orleans, where he received a furl'' 

thirty days. He was mustered out with 

; iment at Indi apolis, Indiana, in 

June, 1865, after serving four years. lie 

then returned to Parke County, Indiana, 

i where he remained until [869. lie was 

i married in 1S66 to Miss Amelia J. Ogden, 

I of Parke County, Indiana. He came to 

Ringgold County, Iowa, in 1869, where he 

has since followed agricultural 

I Mr. Beard was elected sheriff of Ri 

! County in the fall of i8S;,and re-el 

a ne office in the fall of 18S5, which po- 

j si tion he still holds to the entire sati 

of his constituents. Mr. Beard is a i 

j of the Odd Felloe Ancient Order 

: of United Workmen, and the Grai 

of the Republic. Mr. and Mrs. Beard are 

1 he parents of six children * \\ - 

1 four daughters. 

■*w\.t/i/i • 


: 1 IRGE R. STEPHENS, owi 

dag County. Ohio, 
Dei 1S53. He came with his 

Lo Iowa i in Linn 


! .. having 

• U T n< e 
Sam.*' i he subject 1 

ven years