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x x OF x x 



A Condensed History of t\\e State, a number of Biographies of Distinguished Citizens of 

the same, a Descriptive History of the County named herein, and numerous 

selected Biographical Sketches of the Citizens of such County. 



The Goodspeed Publishing Co. 




I Prefacr l 

HE method by which this book was prepared is the only successful plan 
yet devised for the preservation of local history and biography throughout 
the United States, and the number of volumes distributed seems fabulous. 
Over one million copies have been sold in the United States in the last 
fifteen years at prices ranging from $10 to $25 per copy, aggregating a 
total valuation of fully $15,000,000. Many of these works are purely bio- 
graphical, containing no history whatever; others are genealogical, extending 
back to the origin of the family on this continent. Whatever may be the objection 
to the method of preparation, whatever fault may exist in the celerity of compil- 
ation and publication, the enormous circulation and the wonderful and endur- 
ing popularity of the works, as shown in their steady sale at high prices, prove 
that the end justifies the means. The books are clearly a magnificent product 
of this great inventive and progressive age. The millions of biographies pub- 
lished and thus perpetually preserved will prove of the greatest value to the 
future in the investigation of family descent and in the entailment of estates. 

The Publishers have few if any excuses to offer in handing this fine volume to their patrons, 
for whom alone it was prepared. It is a work of permanent worth, carefully compiled from 
the most valuable material to be found, critically read and revised, and in mechanical make-up 
will challenge comparison with the most improved products of the art of book-making. Every 
biography was submitted by mail, and nearly all were promptly corrected and returned by the 
subjects. Much of the history was prepared by home talent and is accurate and valuable. The 
promises contained in the prospectus used by our agents on the canvass have been exceeded in 
almost every detail ; a candid comparison is solicited. 

Chapters XII, XIII and XIV were written by Col. John Scott, of Nevada, who needs no 
introduction to the people of Story County. The article on the Agricultural College was con- 
tributed by Prof. J. C. Hainer. The remainder of the history of Story County was prepared 
by Rev. B. A. Konkle, a young historian of fine ability and indomitable energy and persever- 
ance. The condensed State history was compiled by Weston A. Goodspeed from original 
sources, from official State documents and from former histories of Iowa. Thanking our patrons 
and friends for their liberal assistance, we respectfully tender them this beautiful volume. 

Chicago, August, 1890. 






Boundary and Area of the Slate— Its Rivers and the Sub- 
ject of Drainage — The Surface Soil — Character of the 
Valleys and Uplands — The Lakes and Causes of Their 
Formation— The Geological Strata— Their Description, 
Thickness and Economic Value — The Minerals and 
the Fossils — The Coal — Peat, Gypsum, Celcstinc, Ba- 
ryta, Epsomitc, etc 9-22 


The Period of Exploration and Discovery— The Labors 
of the French Jesuits— Their Paeitie Policy toward 
the Indians— Discovery of the Mississippi River — The 
Claims of Spain— English Domination — The Bubble 
of John Law — The French Population of Louisiana 
— Indian Wars — Rival Claims to the Soil — Cession 
Treaties and Peace — The Country Passes to the Unit- 
ed States— Formation of the Territory of Iowa, etc. 23-33 


Expeditions and Indian Cession Treaties — Pike's Expe- 
dition—The Indians of Iowa— Their Principal Villages 
and Battles— The Black Hawk Purchase— Keokuk's 
Reserve— First Individual Grant— A List of all In- 
dian Treaties Affecting Iowa Soil— The Spanish Grant 
to Dubuque— The Claim of Choteau— The Girard 
Tract and the Houori Tract— The Half-Breed Lands 
— Controversies over the Rival Claims 33-46 


The Louisiana Purchase Taken Possession of by the 
United States — District of Louisiana — Iowa a part of 
the Territories of Illinois, Missouri, Michigan and 
Wisconsin — The First Officer's to Govern the Terri- 
tory — Iowa Territory Formed— Its Legislature and 
Laws — Location of the Seat of Government — Public 
Buildings— Settlement of the Missouri Boundary 
Question, etc 47-51 


Era of Settlement— Dubuque and His Party of Miners— 
The Settlements of Honori and of Giard— English 

Pioneers Throughout the Territory— Efforts of Mr. 
Longwortby— Code of Laws for the Government of 
the Dubuque Miners— Forcible Removal of the Du- 
buque Settlers— The Lead Mines— Settlement of the 
Black Hawk Purchase— The First of Many Things- 
Pioneers at the Bluffs 53-59 


Organization of the State— Proceedings of the Constitu- 
tional Conventions — Elections and Seating of the 
First Stab- Officers— Meeting of the First General 
Assembly — Construction of Public Buildings— Change 
of Location of the Seat of Government 60-63 


Miscellaneous Matter— Population of the State by Dec- 
ades — Members of the First, Second and Third Con- 
stitutional Conventions — Gubernatorial Vote of the 
State from 1846 to 1887— Electoral Vote Since 1S4S— 
Vote on the Prohibitory Law and the Prohibitory 
Amendment— Territorial and State Officers from 
1838 to 1890— Full Catalogue of Congressmen— Stock 
—Statistics— Coal Output— Land Grants, etc 64-73 


Religious Denominations of the State— The Spanish and 
the French Catholics — Movements of the Protestant 
Denominations— The Organization into Church 
Groups— First Mass in Iowa— First Church— The 
Young Men's Christian Association — Number of Con- 
gregations — Wealth, Character, Membership and 
Standing of the Various Denominations Represented 
in -Iowa— Religious Educational Institutions— Crimi- 
nal Statistics 74-7S 


The Public School System of the State— First Schools 
Taught in Different Portions of Iowa — A Summary 
of the Development of the School Laws— Origin of 
the Educational Funds— Valuable Comparative Sta- 
tistics—The Amount of the School Fund for the 
Several Counties— Other Important Matter 79-84 



The Past Proven by the stale of Iowa in the War of 
the Rebellion— Response to the First Call for Vol- 
unteers—Work Dour by the state Officers to Facil- 
itate the Enlistment of Troop — The Protection of 
Her < '« n Border o Necessity— Engagements in Which 
Iowa Troops Participated— Sanitary Work Done by 
the Statu— Soldiers' Orphans' Home— Bounty and 
Drafts— Number of Volunteers Furnished 85- 


Biographical Sketches of the Governors of Iowa Terri- 
tory and the Stale of Iowa, Giving an Account of 
Their Ancestral Origin, Their Early Training, Their 
Entrance into That Public- Life upon Which They 
Reflected the Highest Renown, and the Great Acts 
Which Have Beeu Instrumental in Building up One 
of the Noblest iu the Sisterhood of States— State 
Institutions of Prominence— Their Rise and Progress 
— University and Colleges — Institutes for the Afflicted 
—Penitentiary— Sundry Societies 90-99 



Days — Drainage — Reminiscences of Interest — Mail Fa- 
cilities—Pioneer Customs — Indians — Storms — First 
Tilings— Nevada 101-134 


ng— Bridges 

iidered— Agr 

■ms of Government — County 
iws— Important Transactions 
Formation— Roster of Offl- 
— County Property and Re- 
Co ii it- II hum— Present Build- 
ways— Natural Wealth Con- 
ollege Bonds 135-146 


Matters of Legal Note— Pemonnel of Numerous Officials 
—Early Grand Juries— Proceedings— Array of Talent 
—Their Personal Characteristics and Peculiarities— 
The County Bar-Noted Trials-The Lowe] Tragedy 
Historj of the Case Other Homicides, etc.— The 
John J. Bell Defalcation-County Seal Trial 147-159 


litary Affairs— Story County iu Earlier Days of War- 
like Action— Mexican War Volunteers— Events Pre- 
ceding the Presidential Campaign of IMIJO — War 
Issues Defined— The Question of Slavery— An Agi- 
tated Subject— Fall of Sumter— Companies Organized 
— Character of Troops — Recruiting— Drafts— II Ulory 
of Affairs Hereabouts from 1861 to 1865 — Closing 
Sear of the War 1(30-177 


leral Miscellany— Development of Story County— Due 
Largely to the Presence of Railroads — Important 
Meetings— The First Railroad— Projected Routes- 
Assistance Rendered, etc. — Financial Presentation — 
Taxation and Valuation— Bonds and Funds— Popula- 
tion— The County's General Physical Condition— Pro- 
ductive Capacity — Industries — Sources of Wealth- 
Political Status — Election Returns — Sundry Societies 
— Professional Circles — Literary Activity — Varied 
Contributors and Contributions 178-190 


A Sketch of Story C 
offices— Early Co 
Nevada— Its lute 
From the Begin] 
ings — Early Arri 
corporation— His 
City's Upbuildii: 
bridge— Ames— Ii 



—Ames— Its Reputation— Present Interests— 
Sheldahl — Kelley — Collins — Zearing— Huxley— 
-11 — Other Places of Local Importance — Gen- 


ities— Activity in the establishment of Educational 
Centers— Financial Provision— Early Records— Pio- 
neer Accommodations— Teachers' Institute— Growth 

of the Public School System — Private Schools — 
Schools of the County at Present— Influence on Her 
General Welfare 337-237 


Sketch of the Iowa Agricultural College— Its Origin 
— Features of the Act of Creation — First Board of 
Trustees— Location of the Farm— Important Matters 
not Generally Known— Trials Through Which the 

The Land-Leasing System— The Buildings— Organi- 
zation Of the College-Inaugural Exercises— The Old 
Faculty— Student Manual Labor— The Rankin Defal- 
cation — Later Buildings and Improvements — Progress 
in Instruction— The Funds — The Presidents — Attend- 
ance and Results — The Experiment Station 23N-258 



igious Development of Story County— The Churches 
of the Pioneers and Their Manner, Time and Plaees 
of Worship — The Record of the Leading Congrega- 
tions in Different Portions of tlie County — Many 
Items of Interest Connected with the Local Organ- 

I.ocation and Boundary of the County — Elevation and the 
Subject of Drainage — The Groves and the Prairies — 
The Soil and Local Minerals — Springs and Natural 
Gas — Stock and Poultry Productions — Evidences of 
the Existence of Coal— Thickness of the Drift. . .274-276 


•.'.-.'.i ■•?:: UHHJllAPIIICAL :17 


D. A. Bigelow 

William Lockridge. 
Ehvood Furnas 

.Between 120 and 123 i Joseph A. Fitchpatrick Between 324 and 327 

.Between 170 and 173 Jay A. King Between 360 and 363 

.Between 252 and 255 j Hon. Thomas C. McCall Between 372 and 375 

.Between 282 and 285 | Col. John Scott Between 414 and 417 

J: W, Maxwell, between 204 nnd 205, 

Bon. George M. iiaxwell, between 382 and 383. 



gtistaig of %ow%. 




of the Valleys and Uplands— The Lakes and Causes of their Formation— The Geological 
Strata — Their Description, Thickness and Economic Value — The Minerals and the 
Fossils— The Coal — Peat, Gypsum, Celestine. Baryta, Epsomite, etc. 


"The earth, 
Though in comparison of lieav'n so small — 
Norglist'ring. may of solid good contain 
More plenty than the sun, that barren shines.' 

'HE State of Iowa lias an 
outline figure nearly ap- 
proaching that of a rec- 
tangular parallelogram, 
the northern and southern 
boundaries being nearly 
due east and west lines, 
and its eastern and western 
boundaries determined by 
southerly flowing rivers. The 
northern boundary is upon the 
parallel of forty -three degrees 
thirty minutes, and the south- 
ern is approximately upon that 
of forty degrees and thirty -six 
minutes. The distance from 
the northern to the southern boundary, exclud- 
ing the small prominent angle at the southeast 
corner, is a little more than 200 miles. Owing 
to the irregularity of the river boundaries, 
however, the number of square miles does not 

reach that of the multiple of these numbers ; 
but according to a report of the Secretary of 
the Treasury to tbe United States Senate, 
March 12, 1863, the State of Iowa contains 
35,228,200 acres, or 55,041 square miles. 
AVhen it is understood that all this vast extent of 
surface, except that which is occupied by rivers, 
lakes and peat beds of the northern counties, 
is susceptible of the highest cultivation, some 
idea may be formed of the immense agricult- 
ural resources of the State. Iowa is nearly as 
large as England, and twice as large as Scot- 
land; but when the relative area of surface 
which may be made to yield to the wants of 
man is considered, those countries of the Old 
World will bear no comparison with Iowa. 

A clear idea of the great uniformity of the 
surface of the State may be obtained from a 
statement of the general slopes in feet per 
mile, from point to point, in straight lines 
across it: 




From the northeast eorner to the southeast 

corner of the State l foot l inch per mile. 

From the northeast corner to Spirit Lake... 5 feet 5 inches per mile. 
From the northwest corner to spirit Lake. . 5 feet inches per mile. 
From the northwest eornri to the southwest 

corner of the State 2 feet o inches per mile. 

From the southwest corner to the highest 

ridge between the two .meat rivers (in 

Kin—oM i oimt\ ■ t feet i inch per mile. 

From tin- iliviiliiie; l in the southeast 

corner of the state 5 feet 7 inches per mile. 

From the highest point in the state (near 

Spirit Lake) to the lowest point in the 

State fat the mouth of lies Moines l!i\ en 4 feet o in, lies per mile. 

It will be seen, therefore, that there is a 
good degree of propriety in regarding the 
entire State as a part of a great plain, the low- 
est point of which within its borders, the 
southeast corner of the State, is only 444 feet 
above the level of the sea. The average height 
of the whole State above the level of the sea is 
not far from 800 feet, although it is more than 
1,000 miles inland from the nearest sea coast. 
These statements are, of course, to be under- 
stood as applying to the surface of the State as 
a whole. When its surface feature in detail is 
considered, there is found a great diversity of 
surface by the formation of valleys out of the 
general level, which have been evolved by the 
action of streams during the unnumbered years 
of the terrace epoch. 

It is in the northeastern part of the State 
that the river valleys are deepest; consequently 
the country there lias the greatest diversity of 
surface, and its physical features are most 
strongly marked. 

The drift and bluff deposits are both so thick 
in Iowa that its streams not only rise upon their 
surface, but they also reach considerable depth 
into these deposits alone, in some cases to a 
depth of nearly 200 feet from the general prairie 

The majority of streams that constitute the 
western system of Iowa drainage run either 
along the whole or a part of their course, upon 
that peculiar deposit known as bluff deposit. 
Their banks are often, even of the small 

streams, from five to ten feet in height, quite 
perpendicular, so that they make the streams 
almost everywhere unfordable, and a great im- 
pediment to travel across the open country 
where there are no bridges. 

The material of this deposit is of a slightly 
yellowish ash color, except where darkened by 
decaying vegetation, very fine and silicious, but 
not sandy, not very cohesive, and not at all 
plastic. It forms excellent soil, and does not 
break or crack in drying, except limy concre- 
tions, which are generally distributed through- 
out the mass, in shape and size resembling peb- 
bles ; not a stone or a pebble can be found in the 
whole deposit. The peculiar properties of this 
deposit are that it will stand securely with a 
precipitous front 200 feet high, and yet is 
easily excavated with a spade. Wells dug in it 
require only to be walled to a point just above 
the water line. Yet, compact as it is, it is 
very porous, so that water which falls on its 
surface does not remain, but percolates through 
it; neither does it accumulate within its mass, 
as it does upon the surface of and within the 
drift and the stratified formations. 

The bluff deposit is known to occupy a region 
through which the Missouri runs almost cen- 
trally, and measures, as far as is known, more 
than 200 miles in length and nearly 100 miles 
in width. The thickest part yet known in Iowa 
is in Fremont County, where it reaches 200 feet. 
The boundaries of this deposit in Iowa are 
nearly as follows: Commencing at the south- 
east corner of Fremont County, follow up the 
water-shed between the East Nishnabotany 
and the West Tarkio Rivers to the southern 
boundary of Cass County; thence to the center 
of Audubon County; thence to Tip Top Station. 
on the Chicago& Northwestern Railway; thence 
by a broad curve westward to the northwest 
corner of Plymouth County. 

Chariton and Grand Rivers both rise and 


run, for the first twenty-five miles of their 
courses, upon the drift deposit alone. The first 
strata that are exposed by the deepening valleys 
of both streams belong to the upper coal meas- 
ures, and they both continue upon the same for- 
mation until they make their exit from the State 
(the former in Appanoose County, the latter in 
Ringgold County), near the boundary of which 
they have passed nearly or quite through the 
whole of that formation to the middle coal 
measure. Their valleys gradually deepen from 
their upper portions downward, so that within 
fifteen or twenty miles they have reached a 
depth of nearly 150 feet below the general level 
of the adjacent high land. A considerable 
breadth of woodland occupies the bottoms and 
valley sides along a great part of their length ; 
but their upper branches and tributaries are 
mostly prairie streams. 

Platte River belongs mainly to Missouri. Its 
upper branches pass through Ringgold County, 
and, with the west fork of the Grand River, 
drain a large region of country. Here the 
drift deposit reaches its maximum thickness on 
an east and west line across the State, and the 
valleys are eroded in some instances to a depth 
of 200 feet, apparently, through this deposit 

The term "drift deposit" applies to the soil 
and subsoil of the greater part of the State, 
and in it alone many of the wells are dug and 
forests take root. It rests upon the stratified 
rocks. It is composed of clay, sand, gravel, 
and boulders, promiscuously intermixed, with- 
out stratification, varying in character in differ- 
ent parts of the State. 

One Hundred and Two River is repre- 
sented in Taylor County, the valleys of which 
have the same general character of those just 
described. The country around and between 
the east and west forks of this stream is 
entirely prairie. 

Nodaway River is represented by east, middle 
and west branches. The two former rise in 
Adair County, the latter in Cass County. They 
have the general character of drift valleys, and 
with beautiful undulating and sloping sides. 
The banks and the adjacent narrow flood plains 
are almost everywhere composed of a rich, deep, 
dark loam. 

Nishnabotany River is represented by east 
and west branches, the former having its source 
in Anderson County, the latter in Shelby 
County. Both these branches, from their source 
to their confluence — and also the main stream, 
from thence to the point where it enters the 
great flood plain of the Missouri — -run through 
a region the surface of which is occupied by 
the bluff deposit. The West Nishnabotany 
is probably without auy valuable mill sites. In 
the western part of Cass County, the East Nish- 
nabotany loses its indentity by becoming ab- 
ruptly divided up into five or six different 
creeks. The valleys of the two branches, and the 
intervening upland, possess remarkable fertility. 

Boyer River enters the flood plain of the 
Missouri, and nearly its entire course runs 
through the region occupied by the bluff deposit, 
and has cut its valley entirely through it along 
most of its passage. The only rocks exposed 
are the upper coal measures, near Reed's mill, 
in Harrison County. 

The east and middle branches of Soldier 
River have their source in Crawford County, 
and the west branch in Ida Coiinty. The whole 
course of this river is through the bluff deposit. 
It has no exposure of strata along its course. 
Little Sioux River includes both the main and 
west branches of that stream, together with the 
Maple, which is one of its branches. The west 
branch and the Maple are so similar to the Sol- 
dier River that they need no separate descrip- 
tion. The main stream has its boundary near the 
northern boundary of the State, and runs most of 


its course upon drift deposit alone, entering the 
region of the bluff deposit in the southern part 
of Cherokee County. The two principal upper 
branches, near their source in Dickinson and 
Osceola Counties, are small prairie creeks, with 
indistinct valleys. On entering Clay County 
the valley deepens, and at their confluence has 
a deptb of 100 feet, which still further increases 
until along the boundary line between Clay and 
Buena Vista Counties it reaches a depth of 200 

Floyd River rises upon the drift in O'Brien 
County, and flowing southward enters the re- 
gion of the bluff deposit a little north of the 
center of Plymouth County. Almost from its 
source to its mouth it is a prairie stream, with 
slightly sloping valley sides, which blend grad- 
ually with the uplands. 

Eock River passes through Lyon and Sioux 
Counties. It was evidently so named from the 
fact that considerable exposures of the red Sioux 
quartzite occurs along the main branches of 
the stream in Minnesota, a few miles north of 
the State boundary. 

Big Sioux River Valley from the northwest 
corner of the State to its mouth, possesses much 
the same character as do all the streams of the 
surface deposits. At Sioux Falls, a few miles 
above the northwest corner of the State, the 
stream meets with remarkable obstructions from 
the presence of Sioux quartzite, which outcrops 
directly across the stream, and causes a fall of 
about sixty feet within a distance of half a mile, 
producing a series of cascades. For the first 
twenty-five miles above its mouth the valley is 
very broad, with a broad flat flood plain, with 
gentle slopes occasionally showing indistinctly 
defined terraces. These terraces and valley 
bottoms constitute some of the finest agricult- 
ural land of the region. 

Missouri River is one of the muddiest streams 
on the globe, and its waters are known to be 

very turbid far toward its source. The chief 
peculiarity of this river is its broad flood plains, 
and its adjacent bluff deposits. Much the 
greater part of the flood plain of this river is 
upon the Iowa side, and continuous from the 
south boundary line of the State to Sioux. City, 
a distance of more than 100 miles in length, 
varying from three to five miles in width. This 
alluvial plain is estimated to contain more than 
half a million acres of land within the State, 
upward of 400,000 of which are now tillable. 

Des Moines River has its source in Minne- 
sota, but it enters Iowa before it has attained 
any size, and it flows almost centrally through 
it from northwest to southeast, emptying into 
the Mississippi at the extreme southeastern 
corner of the State. It drains a greater area 
than any river within the State. The upper 
portion of it is divided into two branches known 
as the east and west forks. These uflite in 
Humboldt County. The valleys of these 
branches above their confluence are drift-val- 
leys, except a few small exposures of subcar- 
boniferous limestone about five miles above 
their confluence. These exposures produce 
several small mill sites. The valleys vary from 
a few hundred yards to half a mile in width, 
and are the finest of agricultural lands. 

The principal tributaries of the Des Moines 
are upon the western side. These are the Rac- 
coon and the three rivers, viz. : South, Middle 
and North Rivers. The three latter have their 
source in the region occupied by the upper 
coal-measure limestone formation, flow east- 
ward over the middle coal measures, and enter 
the valley of the Des Moines upon the lower 
coal measures. These streams, especially South 
and Middle Rivers, are frequently bordered by 
high, rocky cliffs. Raccoon River has its 
source upon the heavy surface deposits of the 
middle region of Western Iowa. The valley of 
the Des Moines and its branches are destined 


to become the seat of extensive manufactures 
in consequence of the numerous mill sites of 
immense power, and the fact that the main val- 
ley traverses the entire length of the Iowa 
coal fields. 

Skunk River has its source in Hamilton 
County, and runs almost its entire course upon 
the border of the outcrop of the lower coal 
measures, or, more properly speaking, upon 
the subcarboniferous limestone, just where it 
begins to pass beneath the coal measures by its 
southerly and westerly dip. Its general course 
is southeast. 

Iowa River rises in Hancock County, in the 
midst of a broad, slightly undulating drift re- 
gion. ""It enters the region of the Devonian 
strata near the southwestern corner of Benton 
County, and in this it continues to its conflu- 
ence with the Cedar, in Louisa County. Be- 
low the junction with the Cedar, and for some 
miles above that point, its valley is broad, and 
especially on the northern side, with a well 
marked flood plain. 

Cedar River is usually understood to be a 
branch of the Iowa, but it ought really to be 
regarded as the main stream. It rises by nu- 
merous branches in the northern part of the 
State, and flows the entire length of the State, 
through the region occupied by the Devonian 
strata. The valley of this river, in the upper 
part of its course, is narrow, and the sides 
slope so gently as to scarcely show where the 
lowlands end and the uplands begin. Below 
the confluence with the Shell Rock, the flood 
plain is more distinctly marked and the valley 
broad and shallow. The valley of the Cedar is 
one of the finest regions in the State, and both 
the main stream and its branches afford abun- 
dant and reliable mill sites. 

Wapsipinnicon River has its source near the 
source of the Cedar, and runs parallel and 
near it almost its entire course, the upper half 

upon the same formation — the Devonian. It 
is 100 miles long, and yet the area of its drain- 
age is only from twelve to twenty miles in 
width. Hence, its numerous mill sites are 
unusually secure. 

Turkey River and the Upper Iowa are, in 
many respects, unlike other Iowa rivers. . The 
difference is due to the great depth they have 
eroded their valleys and the different charac- 
ter of the material through which they have 
eroded. Turkey River rises in Howard County, 
and in Winnesheik County, a few miles from 
its source, its valley has attained a depth of 
more than 200 feet, and in Fayette and Clay- 
ton Counties its depth is increased to 300 and 
400 feet. The valley is usually narrow, and 
without a well-marked flood plain. Water- 
power is abundant, but in most places inacces- 

Upper Iowa River rises in Minnesota, just 
beyond the northern boundary line, and enters 
Iowa in Howard County before it has attained 
any considerable size. Its course is nearly 
eastward until it reaches the Mississippi. 
This stream has the greatest slope per mile of 
any in Iowa, consequently it furnishes immense 
water-power. In some places, where creeks 
come into it, the valley widens and affords 
good locations for farms. The power of the 
river and the small spring streams around it 
offer fine facilities for manufacturing. This 
river and its tributaries are the only trout 
streams in Iowa. 

Mississippi River may be described, in gen- 
eral terms, as a broad canal cut out of the gen- 
eral level of the country through which the 
river flows. It is bordered by abrupt hills or 
bluffs. The bottom of the valley ranges from 
one to eight miles in width. The whole space 
between the bluffs is occupied by the river and 
its bottom, or flood plain only. The river itself 
is from half a mile to nearly a mile in width. 



There are but four points along the whole 
length of the State where the bluffs approach 
the stream on both sides. The Lower Silurian 
formations compose the bluffs in the northern 
part of the State, but they gradually disappear 
by a southerly dip, and the bluffs are contin- 
ued successively by the Upper Silurian, Devo- 
nian, and subcarboniferous rocks, which are 
reached near the southeastern corner of the 
State. Considered in their relation to the 
present general surface of the State, the rela- 
tive ages of the river valley of Iowa date back- 
only to the close of the glacial epoch; but the 
Mississippi, and the rivers of Northeastern 
Iowa, had at least a large part of the rocky por- 
tions of their valleys eroded by pre-glacial, or 
perhaps even by paleozoic rivers. 

The lakes of Iowa may be properly divided 
into two distinct classes. The first may be 
called drift lakes, having had their origin in 
the depressions left in the surface of the drift 
at the close of the glacial epoch; these have 
rested upon the undisturbed surface of the 
drift deposit ever since the glaciers disappeared. 
The others may be properly termed fluvatile 
or alluvial lakes, because they have had their 
origin by the action of rivers while cutting 
their own valleys out from the surface of the 
drift as it existed at the close of the glacial 
epoch, and are now found resting upon the al- 
luvium, as the others rest upon the drift. 

The regions to which the drift lakes are 
principally confined are near the head-waters 
of the principal streams of the State. Conse- 
quently they are found in those regions which 
lie between the Cedar and Des Moines Rivers, 
and the Des Moines and Little Sioux. No drift 
lakes are found in Southern Iowa. The largest 
of the lakes to be found in the State are Spirit 
and Okoboji, in Dickinson County ; Clear Lake, 
in Cerro Gordo County, and Storm Lake, in 
Buena Vista County. 

Spirit Lake in width and length is about 
equal; and it contains about twelve square 
miles of surface, its northern border resting 
directly on the boundary of the State. It lies 
almost directly upon the. great watershed. Its 
shores are mostly gravelly, and the country 
about it fertile. 

Okoboji Lake lies directly south of Spirit 
Lake, and has somewhat the shape of a horse- 
shoe, with its eastern projection within a few 
rods of Spirit Lake, where it receives the out- 
let of the latter. Okoboji Lake extends about 
five miles southward from Spirit Lake, thence 
about the same distance westward, and then 
bends northward about as far as the eastern 
projection. The eastern portion is narrow, 
but the western is larger, and in some places 
100 feet deep. The surroundings of this and 
Spirit Lake are very pleasant. Fish are abun- 
dant in them. 

Clear Lake is situated in Cerro Gordo Coun- 
ty, upon the watershed between the Iowa and 
Cedar Rivers. It is about five miles long and 
two or three miles wide, and has a maximum 
depth of only fifteen feet. Its shores and the 
country around it are like that of Spirit Lake. 

Storm Lake rests upon the great watershed 
in Buena Vista County. It is a clear, beauti- 
ful sheet of water, containing a surface area of 
between four and five square miles. 

The outlets of all these drift-lakes are dry 
during a portion of the year, except Okoboji. 

Along the watersheds of Northern Iowa great 
numbers of small lakes exist, varying from half 
a mile to a mile in diameter. One of the lakes 
in Wright County, and another in Sac, have 
each received the name of "Walled Lake," on 
account of the existence of embankments on 
their borders, which are supposed to be the 
work of ancient inhabitants. These embank- 
ments are from two to ten feet in height, and 
from five to thirty feet across. They are the 


result of natural causes alone, being referable 
to the periodic action of ice, aided, to some ex- 
tent, by the force of the waves. These lakes are 
very shallow, and in winter freeze to the bot- 
tom, so that but little unfrozen water remains 
in the middle. The ice freezes fast to every- 
thing upon the bottom, and the expansive pow- 
er of the water in freezing acts in all directions 
from the center to the circumference, and what- 
ever was on the bottom of the lake has been 
thus carried to the shore, and this has been 
going on from year to year, from century to 
century, forming the embankments which have 
caused so much wonder. 

The soil of Iowa may be separated into three 
general divisions, which not only possess dif- 
ferent physical characters, but also differ in the 
mode of their origin. These are drift, bluff 
and alluvial, and belong respectively to the de- 
posits bearing the same names. The drift oc- 
cupies a much larger part of the surface of the 
State than both the others. The bluff has the 
next greatest area of surface, and the alluvial 

The stratified rocks of Iowa range from the 
Azoic to the Mesozoic, inclusive; but the 
greater portion of the surface of the State is 
occupied by those of the Paleozoic age, viz. : 

The Sioux quartzite is found exposed in 
natural ledges only upon a few acres in the ex- 
treme northwest corner of the State, upon the 
banks of the Big Sioux Kiver, for which rea- 
son the specific name of Sioux quartzite has 
been given them. It is an intensely hard 
rock, breaks in splintery fracture, and a color 
varying, in different localities, from a light to 
a deep red. The process of metamorphism 
has been so complete throughout the whole 
formation that the rock is almost everywhere 
of uniform texture. The dip is four or five 
degrees to the northward, and the trend of the 
outd'op is eastward and westward. This rock 
may be quarried in a few rare cases, but usu- 
ally it can not be secured in dry forms except 
that into which it naturally cracks, and the 
tendency is to angular pieces. It is absolutely 

Potsdam sandstone is exposed only in a 
small portion of the northeastern portion of 
the State. It is only to be seen in the bases 
of the bluffs and steep valley sides which bor- 
der the river there. It may be seen underly- 
ing the lower magnesian limestone, St. Peter's 
sandstone and Trenton limestone, in their reg- 
ular order, along the bluffs of the Mississippi 
from the northern boundary of the State as 







Upper Silurian 

f Post Tertiary Drift 

f Inoceramous bed 

( Lower Cretaceous^ Woodbury Sandstone and Shales. 

I Nishnabo'tany Sandstone 

| Upper Coal Measures 

Coal Measures — - Middle Coal Measures 

[ Lower Coal Measures 

f jSt. Louis Limestone 

Subcarboniferous. ! Keokuk Limestone 

j Burlington Limestone 

• v jKinderhiiok beds 

Hamilton Hamilton Limestone and Shales.. 

Niagara Niagara Limestone 

Cincinnati Maquoketa Shale 

Lower Silurian. ) 

Galena Limestone 

) Trenton Limestone 

f St. Peter's Sandstone 

■j Lower Magnesian Limestone. 

L Potsdam Sandstone 

. . Sioux Quartzite 


far south as Guttenburg, along the Upper 
Iowa for a distance of about twenty miles from 
its mouth, and along a few of the streams 
which empty into the Mississippi in Allamakee 
County. It is nearly valueless for economic 
purposes. No fossils have been discovered in 
this formation in Iowa. 

Lower magnesium limestone has but little 
greater geographical extent in Iowa than the 
Potsdam sandstone. It lacks a uniformity of 
texture and stratification, owing to which it is 
not generally valuable for building purposes. 
The only fossils found in this formation in 
Iowa are a few traces of crinoids, near Mc- 

St. Peter's sandstone is remarkably uniform 
in thickness throughout its known geographical 
extent: and it is evident it occupies a large 
portion of the northern half of Allamakee 
County, immediately beneath the drift. 

Trenton limestone excepted, all the lime- 
stones of both upper and lower Silurian age 
in Iowa are magnesian limestones — nearly pure 
dolomites. This formation occupies large por- 
tions of Winnesheik and Allamakee Counties 
and a portion of Clayton. The greater part of 
J it is useless for economic purposes, yet there 
| are in some places compact and evenly bedded 
j layers, which afford fine material for window 
! caps and sills. In this formation fossils are 
I abundant, so much so that in some places the 
! rock is made up of a mass of shells, corals and 
fragments of trilobites, cemented by calcareous 
material into a solid rock. Some of these fos- 
sils are new to science and peculiar to Iowa. 

The Galena limestone is the upper forma- 
tion of the Trenton group. It seldom exceeds 
twelve miles in width, although it is fullo 150 
miles long. The outcrop traverses portions of 
the counties of Howard, Winneshiek, Allama- 
kee, Fayette, Clayton, Dubuque and Jackson. 
It exhibits its greatest development in Du- 

buque County. It is nearly a pure dolomite, 
with a slight admixture of silicious matter. It 
is usually unfit for dressing, though sometimes 
near the top of the bed good blocks for dress- 
ing are found. This formation is the source of 
the lead ore of the Dubuque lead mines.. The 
lead region proper is confined to an area of 
about fifteen miles square in the vicinity of 
Dubuque. The ore occurs in vertical fissures, 
which traverse the rock at regular intervals 
from east to west; some is found in those which 
have a north-and-south direction. The ore is 
mostly that known as Galena, or sulphuret of 
lead, very small quantities only of the car- 
bonate being found with it. 

Maquoketa shales occupy a long and narrow 
surface, seldom reaching more than a mile or 
two in width, but more than a hundred miles in 
length. Their most southerly exposure is in the 
bluffs of the Mississippi near Bellevue in Jack- 
son County, and the most northerly yet recog- 
nized is in the western part of Wmnesheik Coun- 
ty. The whole formation is largely composed of 
bluish and brownish shales, sometimes slightly 
arenaceous, sometimes calcareous, which weather 
into a tenacious clay upon the surface, and the 
soil derived from it is usually stiff and clayey. 
Its economic value is very slight. Several spe- 
cies of fossils which characterize the Cincin- 
nati group are found in the Maquoketa shales; 
but they contain a larger number than have 
been found anywhere else than in these shales 
in Iowa, and their distinct faunal characteris- 
tics seem to warrant the separation of the Ma- 
quoketa shales as a distinct formation from any 
others of the group. 

Niagara limestone occupies an area nearly 
one hundred and sixty miles long from north 
to south, and forty and fifty miles wide. This 
formation is entirely a magnesian limestone, 
with in some places a considerable proportion 
of silicious matter in the form of chert or 




coarse flint. A large part of it is evenly bed- 
ded, and probably affords the best and greatest 
amount of quarry rock in the State. The quar- 
ries at Auamosa, LeClaire and Farley are all 
opened in this formation. 

Hamilton limestone occupies an area fully as 
gi - eat as those by all the formations of both 
upper and lower Silurian age in the State. It 
is nearly two hundred miles long and from 
forty to fifty miles broad. The general trend 
is northwestward and southeastward. Although 
a large part of the material of this formation is 
practically quite worthless, yet other portions 
are valuable for economic purposes, and having 
a large geographical extent in the State, is one 
of the most important formations, in a practical 
point of view. At Waverly, Bremer County, 
its value for the production of hydraulic lime 
has been practically demonstrated. The heavier 
and more uniform inagnesian beds furnish ma- 
terial for bridge piers and other material requir- 
ing strength and durability. All the Devonian 
strata of Iowa evidently belong to a single 
epoch, and referable to the Hamilton, as recog- 
nized by New York geologists. The most con- 
spicuous and characteristic fossils of this for- 
mation are brachiopod, mollusks and corals. 
The coral Acervularia Davidsoni occurs near 
Iowa City, and is known as "Iowa City mar- 
ble," and "bird's-eye marble." 

The area of the surface occupied by the sub- 
carboniferous group is very large. Its eastern 
border passes from the northeastern part of 
Winnebago County, with considerable direct- 
ness in a southeasterly direction to the north- 
ern part of Washington County. Here it makes 
a broad and direct bend nearly eastward, strik- 
ing the Mississippi River at Muscatine. The 
southern and western boundary is to a consid- 
erable extent the same as that which separates 
it from the coal field. From the southern part 
of Pocahontas County it passes southeast to 

Fort Dodge, thence to Webster City, thence to 
a point three or four miles northeast of Eldora, 
in Hardin County, thence southward to the 
middle of the north line of Jasper County, 
thence southeastward to Sigourney, in Keokuk 
County, thence to the northeastern corner of 
Jefferson County, thence sweeping a few miles 
eastward to the southeast corner of Van Buren 
County. Its area is nearly two hundred and 
fifty miles long, and from twenty to fifty miles 

The Kinderhook beds have a southerly expos- 
ure near the mouth of Skunk River, in Des 
Moines County. The most northerly now 
known is in the eastern part of Pocahontas 
County, more than 200 miles distant. The 
principal exposures of this formation are along 
the bluffs which border the Mississippi and 
Skunk Rivers, where they form the eastern 
and northern boundary of Des Moines County, 
along English River, in Washington County; 
along the Iowa River, in Tama, Marshall, Ham- 
lin and Franklin Counties; and along the Des 
Moines River, in Humboldt County. The eco- 
nomic value of this formation is very consider- 
able, particularly in the northern portion of the 
region it occupies. In Pocahontas and Hum- 
boldt Counties it is almost invaluable, as no 
other stone except a few boulders are found 
here. At Iowa Falls the lower division is very 
good for building purposes. In Marshall Coun- 
ty all the limestone to be obtained comes from 
this formation, and the quarries near Le Grand 
are very valuable. At this point some of the 
layers are finely veined with peroxide of iron, 
and are wrought into ornamental and useful 
objects. In Tama County, the oolitic member 
is well exposed, where it is manufactured into 
lime. It is not valuable for building, as upon 
exposure to atmosphere and frost it crumbles 
to pieces. 

The remains of fishes are the only fossils 



yet discovered in this formation that can be 
referred to the sub-kingdom vertebrata; and, so 
far as yet recognized, they all belong to the 
order selachians. Of articulates, only two 
species have been recognized, both of which 
belong to the genus phillipsia. The sub-king- 
dom mollusca is largely represented. The 
radiata are represented by a few crinoids, 
usually fouud in a very imperfect condition. 
The sub-kingdom is also represented by corals. 
The prominent feature in the life of this epoch 
was molluscan, so much so, in fact, as to over- 
shadow all other branches of the animal king- 
dom. The prevailing classes are lamellibran- 
chiates, in the more arenaceous portions, and 
brachiopods, in the more calcareous portions. 
No remains of vegetation have been detected 
in any of the strata of this formation. 

The Burlington limestone consists of two 
distinct calcareous divisions, which are sepa- 
rated by a series of silicious beds. Both divis- 
ions are eminently crinoidal. The southerly 
dip of the Iowa rocks carries the Burlington 
limestone down, so that it is seen for the last 
time in this State in the valley of Skunk River, 
near the southern boundary of Des Moines 
County. The most northerly point at which it 
has been recognized is in the northern part of 
Washington County. It probably exists as far 
north as Marshall County. This formation 
affords much valuable material for economic 
purposes. The upper division furnishes excel- 
lent common quarry rock. The great abun- 
dance and variety of its fossils — crinoids — 
now known to be more than 300, have justly 
attracted the attention of geologists in all 
parts of the world. The only remains of 
vertebrates discovered in this formation are 
those of fishes, and consist of teeth and spines; 
bone of bony fishes, like those most common at 
the present day, are found in these rocks. On 
Buffington Creek, in Louisa County, is a 

stratum in an exposure so fully charged with 
these remains that it might with propriety be 
called bone breccia. Remains of articulates 
are rare in this formation. So far as yet dis- 
covered, they are confined to two species of 
tribolites of the genus phillipsia. Fossil 
shells are very common. The two lowest 
classes of the sub-kingdom radiata are repre- 
sented in the genera zaphrentis, amplexus and 
syringapora, while the highest class — echino- 
derms — are found in most extraordinary pro- 

The Keokuk limestone is only found in the 
four counties of Lee, Van Buren, Henry and 
Des Moines. In some localities the upper 
silicious portion of this formation is known as 
the Geode bed. It is not recognizable in the 
northern portion of the formation, nor in con- 
nection with it where it is exposed, about 
eighty miles below Keokuk. The geodes of the 
Geode bed are more or less spherical masses of 
silex, usually hollow and lined with crystals of 
quartz. The outer crust is rough and un- 
sightly, but the crystals which stud the interior 
are often very beautiful. They vary in size 
from the size of a walnut to a foot in diameter. 
The economic value of this formation is very 
great. Large quantities of its stone have 
been used in the finest structures in the State, 
among which are the post-offices at Dubuque 
and Des Moines. The principal quarries are 
along the banks of the Mississippi, from Keo- 
kuk to Nauvoo. The only vertebrate fossils 
found in the formation are fishes, all belonging 
to the order selachians, some of which indicate 
that their owners reached a length of twenty- 
five or thirty feet. Of the articulates, only 
two species of the genus phillipsia have been 
found in this formation. Of the mollusks, no 
cephalopods have yet been recognized in this 
formation in this State; gasteropods are rare: 
brachiopods and polyzoans are quite abundant. 


Of radiates, corals of genera zaphrentes, am- 
plexus and aulopera are found, but crinoids are 
most abundant. Of the low forms of animal 
life, the protozoans, a small fossil related to the 
sponges, is found in this formation in small 

The St. Louis limestone is the uppermost 
of tlie subcarboniferous group in Iowa. The 
superficial area it occupies is comparatively 
small, because it consists of long, narrow 
strips, yet its extent is very great. It is first 
seen resting on the geode division of the Keo- 
kuk limestone, near Keokuk. Proceeding 
northward, it forms a narrow border along the 
edge of the coal fields in Lee, Des Moines, 
Henry, Jefferson, Washington, Keokuk and 
Mahaska Counties. It is then lost sight of 
until it appears again in the banks of Boone 
River, where it again passes out of view under 
the coal measures until it is next seen in the 
banks of the Des Moines, near Fort Dodge. 
As it exists in Iowa, it consists of three tolera- 
bly distinct subdivisions — the magnesian, are- 
naceous and calcareous. The upper division 
furnishes excellent material for quicklime, and 
when quarries are well opened, as in the north- 
western part of Van Buren County, large 
blocks are obtained. The sandstone, or middle 
division, is of little economic value. The 
lower or magnesian division furnishes a valua- 
ble and durable stone, exposures of which are 
found on Lick Creek, in Van Buren County, 
and on Long Creek, seven miles west of Bur- 
lington. Of the fossils of this formation, the 
vertebrates are represented only by the remains 
of fish belonging to the two orders, selachians 
and ganoids. The articulates are represented 
by one species of the trilobite, genus phillipsia, 
and two ostracoid, genera, cythre and beyricia. 
The mollusks distinguish this formation more 
than any other branch of the animal kingdom. 
Radiates are exceedingly rare, showing a 

marked contrast between this formation and 
the two preceding it. 

The lower Silurian, upper Silurian and De- 
vonian rocks of Iowa are largely composed of 
limestone. Magnesia also enters largely into 
the subcarboniferous group. With the com- 
pletion of the St. Louis limestone, the produc- 
tion of the magnesian limestone seems to have 
ceased among the rocks of Iowa. Although 
the Devonian age has been called the age of 
fishes, yet, so far as Iowa is concerned, the 
rocks of no period can compare with the sub- 
carboniferous in the abundance and variety of 
the fish remains, and, for this reason, the Bur- 
lington and Keokuk limestones will in the 
future become more famous among geologists, 
perhaps, than any other formations in North 

The coal -measure group of Iowa is properly 
divided into three formations, viz., the lower, 
middle and upper coal measures, each having 
a vertical thickness of about 200 feet. A line 
drawn upon the map of Iowa as follows will 
represent the eastern and northern boundaries 
of the coal fields of the State: Commencing 
at the southeast corner of Van Buren County, 
carry the line to the northeast corner of Jeffer- 
son County by a slight easterly curve through 
the western portions of Lee and Henry Coun- 
ties. Trace this line until it reaches a point 
six or eight miles northward from the one last 
named, and then carry it north westward, keep- 
ing it at about the same distance to the north- 
ward of Skunk River and its north branch that 
it had at first, until it reaches the southern 
boundary of Marshall County, a little west of 
its center. Then carry it to a point three or 
four miles northeast from Eldora, in Hardin 
County; thence westward to a point a little 
north of Webster City, in Hamilton County; 
and thence further westward to a point a little 
north of Fort Dodge, in Webster County. 


In consequence of the, recedence to the south- 
ward of the borders of the middle and upper 
coal measures, the lower coal measures alone 
exist to the eastward and northward of Des 
Moines River. They also occupy a large area 
westward and southward of that river, but their 
southerly dip passes them below the middle 
coal measures at no great distance from the 
river. No other formation in the whole State 
possesses the economic value of the lower coal 
measures. The' clay that underlies almost 
every bed of coal furnishes a large amount of 
material for potters' use. The sandstone of 
these measures is usually soft and unfit, but in 
some places, as near Red Rock, in Marion 
County, blocks of large dimensions are ob- 
tained, which make good building material, 
samples of which can be seen in the State 
Arsenal, at Des Moines. On the whole, that 
portion of the State occupied by the lower coal 
measures is not well supplied with stone. But 
few fossils have been found in any of the strata 
of the lower coal measures, but such animal 
remains as have been found are, without excep- 
tion, of marine origin. Of fossil plants found 
in these measures, all probably belong to the 
class acrogens. Specimens of calamites and 
several species of ferns are found in all of the 
coal measures, but the genus lepidodendron 
seems not to have existed later than the epoch 
of the middle coal measures. 

The middle coal measures within the State 
of Iowa occupy a narrow belt of territory in 
the southern-central portion of the State, em- 
bracing a superficial area of about 1,400 square 
miles. The counties more or less underlaid 
by this formation are Guthrie, Dallas, Polk. 
Madison. Warren, Clarke, Lucas, Monroe, 
Wayne and Appanoose. This formation is 
composed of alternating beds of clay, sandstone 
and limestone, the clays or shales constituting 
the bulk of the formation, the limestone occur- 

ring in their bands, the lithological peculiarities 
of which offer many contrasts to the limestones 
of the upper and lower coal measures. The 
formation is also characterized by regular wave- 
like undulations, with a parallelism which indi- 
cates a widespread disturbance, though no dis- 
location of the strata have been discovered. 
Generally speaking, few species of fossils occur 
in these beds. Some of the shales and sand- 
stone have afforded a few imperfectly pre- 
served land plants — three or four species of 
ferns, belonging to the genera. Some of the 
carboniferous shales afford beautiful specimens 
of what appear to have been sea-weeds. Radi- 
ates are represented by corals. The mollusks 
are most numerously represented. Trilobites 
and ostracoids are the only remains known of 
articulates. Vertebrates are only known by the 
remains of salachians, or sharks, and ganoids. 
The upper coal measures occupy a very large 
area in Iowa, comprising thirteen whole coun- 
ties, in the southwestern part of the State. It 
adjoins by its northern and eastern boundaries 
the area occupied by the middle coal measures. 
The prominent lithological features of this for- 
mation are its limestones, yet it contains a con- 
siderable proportion of shales and sandstones. 
Although it is known by the name of upper 
coal measures, it contains but a single bed of 
coal, and that only about twenty inches in max- 
imum thickness. The limestone exposed in 
this formation furnishes good material for 
building, as in Madison and Fremont Counties. 
The sandstones are quite worthless. No beds 
of clay for potter's use are found in the whole 
formation. The fossils in this formation are 
much more numerous than in either the middle 
or lower coal measures. The vertebrates are 
represented by the fishes of the orders se- 
lachians and ganoids. The articulates are 
represented by the trilobites and ostracoids. 
Mollusks are represented by the classes ceph- 


alapoda, gasteropoda, lainelli, branchiata, bra- 
cliiapoda, and polyzoa. Radiates are more 
numerous than in the lower and middle coal 
measures. Protozoans are represented in the 
greatest abundance, some layers of limestone 
being almost entirely composed of their small 
fusiform shells. 

There being no rocks in Iowa of permian, 
triassic or Jurassic age, the next strata in the 
geological series are of the cretaceous age. 
They are found in the western half of the State, 
and do not dip, as do all the other formations 
upon which they rest, to the southwai-d and 
westward, but have a general dip of their own 
to the north of westward, which, however, is 
very slight. Although the actual exposures of 
cretaceous rocks are few in Iowa, there is reason 
to believe that nearly all the western half of 
the State was originally occupied by them ; but 
being very friable, they have been removed by 
denudation, which has taken place at two sepa- 
rate periods. The first period was during its 
elevation from the cretaceous sea, and during 
the long tertiary age that passed between the 
time of that elevation and the commencement 
of the glacial epoch. The second period was 
during the glacial epoch, when the ice pro- 
duced their entire removal over considerable 
areas. It is difficult to indicate the exact 
boundaries of these rocks; the following will 
approximate the outlines of the area: From 
the northeast corner to the southwest corner of 
Kossuth County; thence to the southeast cor- 
ner of Guthrie County ; thence to the southeast 
corner of Cass County; thence to the middle 
of the south boundary of Montgomery County ; 
thence to the middle of the north boundary of 
Pottawattamie County ; thence to the middle of 
the south boundary of Woodbury County; 
thence to Sergeant's Bluffs ; up the Missouri 
and Big Sioux Rivers to the northwest corner 
of the State ; eastward along the State line to 

the place of beginning. All the cretaceous 
rocks in Iowa are a part of the same deposits 
farther up the Missouri River, and in reality 
form their eastern boundary. 

The Nishnabotany sandstone has the most 
easterly and southerly extent of the cretaceous 
deposits of Iowa, reaching the southeastern 
part of Guthrie County, and the southern part 
of Montgomery County. To the northward, it 
passes beneath the Woodbury sandstones and 
shales, the latter passing beneath the inocera- 
mus, or chalky beds. This sandstone is, with 
few exceptions, almost valueless for economic 
purposes. The only fossils found in this for- 
mation are a few fragments of angiospermous 

Woodbury sandstones and shales rest upon 
the Nishnabotany sandstone, and have not been 
observed outside of Woodbury County, hence 
their name. Their principal exposure is at 
Sergeant's Bluffs, seven miles below Sioux City. 
This rock has no value except for purposes of 
common masonry. Fossil remains are rare. 
Detached scales of a lepidoginoid species have 
been detected, but no other vertebrate remains. 
Of remains of vegetation, leaves of salix meekii 
and sassafras cretaceum have been occasionally 

The Inoceramus beds rest upon the Wood- 
bury sandstones and shales. They have not 
been observed in Iowa, except in the bluffs 
which border the Big Sioux River in Wood- 
bury and Plymouth Counties. They are com- 
posed almost entirely of calcareous material, 
the upper portion of which is extensively used 
for lime. No building material is to be ob- 
tained from these beds; and the only value 
they possess, except lime, are the marls, which 
at some time may be useful on the soil of the 
adjacent region. The only vertebrate remains 
found in the cretaceous rocks are the fishes. 
Those in the inoceramus beds of Iowa are two 


species of squoloid selachians, or cestratront, 
and three genera of teliosts. Molluscan re- 
mains are rare. 

Extensive beds of peat exist in Northern 
Middle Iowa, which, it is estimated, contain 
the following areas in acres: Cerro Gordo, 
1,500; Worth, 2,000; Winnebago, 2,000; Han- 
cock, 1,500; Wright, 500; Kossuth, 700; Dick- 
inson, 80. 

Several other counties contain peat beds, but 
the character of the peat is inferior to that in 
the northern part of the State. The character 
of the peat named is equal to that of Ireland. 
The beds are of an average depth of four feet. 
It is estimated that each acre of these beds 
will furnish 250 tons of dry fuel for each foot 
in depth. 

The only deposits of the sidphates of the al- 
kaline earths of any economic value in Iowa 
are those of gypsum at and in the vicinity of 
Fort Dodge, in Webster County. All others 
are small and unimportant. The deposit 
occupies a nearly central position in Web- 
ster County, the Des Moines River running 
nearly centrally through it, along the valley 
sides of which the gypsum is seen in the form 
of ordinary rock cliff and ledges, and also oc- 
curring abundantly in similar positions along 
both sides of the valleys of the similar streams 
and of the numerous ravines coming into the 
river valley. 

Besides the great gypsum deposit of Fort 
Dodge, sulphate of lime in the various forms 
of fibrous gypsum, selenite, and small, amor- 
phous masses, has also been discovered in vari- 
ous formations in different parts of the State, 
including the coal-measure shales near Fort 
Dodge, where it exists in small quantities, 
quite independently of the great gypsum de- 
posit there. The quantity of gypsum in these 
minor deposits is always too small to be of any 
practical value, and frequently minute. 

Sulphate of strontia (celestine) has only 
been found in Iowa, so far as is known in one 
place — Fort Dodge. It occurs there in very 
small quantity in both the shales of the lower 
coal measures and in the clay that overlies the 
gypsum deposit, and which are regarded as of 
the same age with it. The first is just below 
the city, and occurs as a layer intercalated 
among the coal measure shales, amounting in 
quantity to only a few hundred pounds' weight. 
The mineral is fibrous and crystalline, the fibers 
being perpendicular to the plane of the layer. 
Breaking also with more or less distinct hori- 
zontal planes of cleavage, it resembles, in 
physical character, the layer of fibro-crystalline 
gypsum before mentioned. Its color is light 
blue, is transparent and shows crystalline facets 
upon both the upper and under surfaces. 

Sulphate of baryta (barytes, heavy spar) has 
been found only in minute quantities in Iowa. 
It has been detected in the coal-measure shales 
of Decatur, Madison and Marion Counties, the 
Devonian limestone of Johnson and Bremer 
Counties and in the lead caves of Dubuque. 
In all these cases, it is in the form of crystals 
or small crystalline masses. 

Sulphate of magnesia (epsomite) having been 
discovered near Burlington, there are repre- 
sented in Iowa all the sulphates of the alkaline 
earths of natural origin, except the sulphate 
of lime, which occurs in very small quantity. 
Even if the sulphate of magnesia were produced 
in nature, in large quantities, it is so very 
soluble that it can accumulate only in such 
positions as afford it complete shelter from 
the rain or running water. The epsomite 
was found beneath an overhanging cliff of 
Burlington limestone.. It occurs in the form 
of efflorescent encrustations upon the surface 
of stones and in similar small fragile masses 
among the fine debris that has fallen down 
beneath the overhanging cliff. 





The Period op Exploration and Discovery— The Labors of the French Jesuits— Their Pacific Policy to- 
ward the Indians— Discovery op the Mississippi River— The Claims op Spain— English Domina- 
tion—The Bobble of John Law— The French Population of Louisiana— Indian Wars— Rival 
Claims to the Soil— Cession Treaties and Peace— The Country Passes to the United 
States — Formation of the Territory of Iowa, etc. 

Extended Empire, like extended gold, 

Exchanges solid strength for public splendor.— Dr. S. Johnson. 

OWA, ill the symbolical 
and expressive language 
of the aboriginal inhab- 
itants, is said to signify 
"The Beautiful Land," 
and was applied to this 
magnificent and fruitful 
region by its ancient owners to ex- 
press their appreciation of its su- 
periority of climate, soil and loca- 
tion. Prior to 1803 the Missis- 
sippi River was the extreme west- 
ern boundary of the United States. 
All the great empire lying west of 
the "Father of Waters," from the 
Gulf of Mexico on the south to Brit- 
ish America on the north, and westward to the 
Pacific Ocean, was a Spanish province. A 
brief historical sketch of the discovery and 
occupation of this grand empire by the Spanish 
and French governments will be a fitting intro- 
duction to the history of the young and thriv- 
ing State of Iowa, which, until the commence- 
ment of the present century, was a part of the 
Spanish possessions in America. 

Early in the spring of 1542, fifty years after 
Columbus discovered the New World, and 130 
years before the French missionaries discov- 
ered its upper waters, Ferdinand De Soto dis- 
covered the Mississippi River at the mouth of 
the Washita. After the sudden death of De 
Soto, in May of the same year, his followers 
built a small vessel, and in July, 1543, de- 
scended the great river to the Gulf of Mexico. 

In accordance with the usage of nations, 
under which title to the soil was claimed by 
right of discovery, Spain, having conquered 
Florida and discovered the Mississippi, claimed 
all the territory bordering on that river and the 
Gulf of Mexico. But it was also held by the 
European nations that, while discovery gave 
title, that title must be perfected by actual 
possession and occupation. Although Spain 
claimed the territory by right of first discovery, 
she made no effort to occupy it; by no perma- 
nent settlement had she perfected and held her 
title, and therefore had forfeited it when, at a 
later period, the Lower Mississippi Valley was 
re-discovered and occupied by France. 

The unparalleled labors of the zealous 



French Jesuits of Canada in penetrating the 
unknown region of the West, commencing in 
1611, form a history of no ordinary interest, 
but have no particular connection with the scope 
of the present work, until in the fall of 1665. 
Pierre Claude Allouez, who had entered Lake 
Superior in September, and sailed along the 
southern coast in search of copper, had arrived 
at the great village of the Chippewas at Che- 
goincegon. Here a grand council of some ten 
or twelve of the principal Indian nations was 
held. The Pottawattamies of Lake Michigan, 
the Sacs and Foxes of the west, the Hurons 
from the north, the Illinois from the south, 
and the Sioux from the land of the prairie and 
wild rice, were all assembled there. The Illi- 
nois told the story of their ancient glory and 
about the noble river on the banks of which 
they dwelt. The Sioux also told their white 
brother of the same great river, and Allouez 
promised to the assembled tribes the protection 
of the French nation against all their enemies, 
native or foreign. 

The purpose of discovering the great river 
about which the Indian nations had given such 
glowing accounts appears to have originated 
with Marquette, in 1669. In the year previ- 
ous, he and Claude Dablon had established the 
Mission of St. Mary's, the oldest white settle- 
ment within the present limits of the State of 
Michigan. Marquette was delayed in the exe- 
cution of his great undertaking, and spent the 
interval in studying the language and habits of 
the Illinois Indians, among whom he expected 
to travel. 

About this time the French Government had 
determined to extend the dominion of France 
to the extreme western borders of Canada. 
Nicholas Perrot was sent as the agent of the 
government, to propose a grand council of the 
Indian nations at St. Mary's. 

When Perrot reached Green Bay, he extend- 

ed the invitation far and near; and, escorted 
by Pottawattamies, repaired on a mission of 
peace and friendship to the Miamis, who occu- 
pied the region about the present location of 

In May, 1671, a great council of Indians 
gathered at the Falls of St. Mary, from all 
parts of the Northwest, from the headwaters 
of the St. Lawrence, froni the valley of the 
Mississippi and from the Red River of the 
North. Perrot met with them, and after grave 
consultation, formally announced to the assem- 
bled nations that their good French Father felt 
an abiding interest in their welfare, and had 
placed them all under the powerful protection 
of the French Government. 

Marquette, during that same year, had gath- 
ered, at Point St. Ignace, the remnants of one 
branch of the Hurons. This station, for a long 
series of years, was considered the key to the 
unknown West. 

The time was now auspicious for the con- 
summation of Marquette's grand project. The 
successful termination of Perrot's mission and 
the general friendliness of the native tribes 
rendered the contemplated expedition much 
less perilous. But it was not until 1673 that 
the intrepid and enthusiastic priest was finally 
ready to depart on his daring and perilous 
journey to lands never trod by white men. 

The Indians, who had gathered in large 
numbers to witness his departure, were as- 
tounded at the boldness of the proposed under- 
taking, and tried to discourage him, represent- 
ing that the Indians of the Mississippi Valley 
were cruel and bloodthirsty, and would resent 
the intrusion of strangers upon their domain. 
The great river itself, they said, was the abode 
of terrible monsters, who could swallow both 
canoes and men. 

But Marquette was not to be diverted from 
his purpose by these fearful reports. He as- 



sured his dusky friends that he was ready to 
make any sacrifice, even to lay down his life 
for the sacred cause in which he was engaged. 
He prayed with them; and having implored 
the blessing of God upon his undertaking, on 
the 13th of May, 1673, with Joliet and five 
Canadian-French voyageurs, or boatmen, he 
left the mission on his daring journey. As- 
cending Green Bay and Fox Eiver, these bold 
and enthusiastic pioneers of religion and dis- 
covery proceeded until they reached a Miami 
and Kickapoo village, where Marquette was 
delighted to find "a beautiful cross planted in 
the middle of the town, ornamented with white 
skins, red girdles and bows and arrows, which 
these good people had offered to the Great 
Manitou, or God, to thank Him for the pity 
He had bestowed on them during the winter, 
in having given them abundant chase." 

This was the extreme point beyond which 
the explorations of the French missionaries 
had not then extended. Here Marquette was 
instructed by his Indian hosts in the secret of 
a root that cures the bite of the venomous rat- 
tle-snake, drank mineral water with them, and 
was entertained with generous hospitality. He 
called together the principal men of the vil- 
lage, and informed them that his companion, 
Joliet, had been sent by the French governor 
of Canada to discover new countries, to be add- 
ed to the dominion of France, but that he, 
himself, had been sent by the Most High God, 
to carry the glorious religion of the Cross, and 
assured his wondering hearers that on this 
mission he had no fear of death, to which he 
knew he would be exposed on his perilous 

Obtaining the services of two Miami guides, 
to conduct his little band to the Wisconsin 
River, he left the hospitable Indians on the 
10th of June. Conducting them across the 
portage, their Indian guides returned to their 

village, and the little party descended the Wis- 
consin to the great river which had so long 
been anxiously looked for, and boldly floated 
down its unknown waters. 

On the 25th of June, the explorers discov- 
ered indications of Indians on the west bank 
of the river, and landed a little above the 
mouth of the river now known as Des Moines, 
and for the first time Europeans trod the soil 
of Iowa. Leaving the Canadians to guard the 
canoes, Marquette and Joliet boldly followed 
the trail into the interior for fourteen miles 
(some authorities say six), to an Indian vil- 
lage situated on the banks of a river, and dis- 
covered two other villages on the rising ground, 
about half a league distant. Their visit, while 
it created much astonishment, did not seem to 
be entirely unexpected, for there was a tradi- 
tion or prophecy among the Indians that white 
visitors were to come to them. They were, 
therefore, received with great respect and hos- 
pitality, and were cordially tendered the cal- 
umet or pipe of peace. They were informed 
that this band was a part of the Mini nation, 
and that their village was called Mon-in-gou- 
ma, or Moingona, which was the name of the 
river on which it stood. This, from its simi- 
larity of sound, Marquette corrupted into Des 
Moines (Monk's river), its present name. 

Here the voyagers remained six days, learn- 
ing much of the manners and customs of their 
new friends. The new religion they boldly 
preached, and the authority of the king of 
France they proclaimed, were received without 
hostility or remonsti'ance by their savage en- 
tertainers. On their departure, they were ac- 
companied to their canoes by the chiefs and 
hundreds of warriors. Marquette received 
from them the sacred calumet, the emblem of 
id safeguard among the nations, and 

-embarked for the rest of his journey. 

It is needless to follow him further, as his 



explorations beyond his discovery of Iowa more 
properly belong to the history of another 

In 1682 La Salle descended the Mississippi 
to the Gulf of Mexico, and, in the name of 
the king of France, took formal possession 
of all the immense region watered by the 
great river and its tributaries from its source 
to its mouth, and named it Louisiana, in honor 
of his master, Louis XIV. The river he called 
" Colbert," after the French minister, and at 
its mouth erected a column and a cross bearing 
the inscription, in the French language: 

" Louis the Great, 

King of France and Navarre, 

Reigning April 9th, 1682." 

At the close of the seventeenth century, 
France claimed, by right of discovery and oc- 
cupancy, the whole valley of the Mississippi 
and its tributaries, including Texas as far as 
the Rio del Norte. 

The province of Louisiana stretched from 
the Gulf of Mexico to the sources of the Ten- 
nessee, the Kanawha, the Allegheny and the 
Monongahela on the east, and the Missouri 
and the other great tributaries of the Father of 
Waters on the west. Says Bancroft: "France 
had obtained, under Providence, the guardian- 
ship of this immense district of country, not, 
as it proved, for ber own benefit, but rather as 
a trustee for the infant nation by which it was 
one day to be inherited." 

By the treaty of Utrecht, France ceded to 
England her possessions in Hudson's Bay, 
Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. France still 
retained Louisiana, but the province had so 
far failed to meet the expectations of the crown 
and the people that a change in the govern- 
ment and policy of the country was deemed in- 
dispensable. Accordingly, in 1711, the prov- 
ince was placed in the hands of a governor- 

general, with headquarters at Mobile. This 
government was of brief duration, and in 1712 
a charter was granted to Anthony Crozat, a 
wealthy merchant of Paris, giving him the en- 
tire control and monopoly of all the trade and 
resources of Louisiana. But this scheme also 
failed. Crozat met with no success in- his 
commercial operations; every Spanish harbor 
on the Gulf was closed against his vessels; the 
occupation of Louisiana was deemed an en- 
croachment on Spanish territory; Spain was 
jealous of the ambition of France. 

Failing in his efforts to open the ports of the 
district, Crozat "sought to develop the internal 
resources of Louisiana, by causing trading 
posts to be opened, and explorations to be 
made to its remotest borders. But he actually 
accomplished nothing for the advancement of 
the colony. The only prosperity which it ever 
possessed grew out of the enterprise of humble 
individuals, who had succeeded in instituting 
a little barter between themselves and the na- 
tives, and a petty trade with neighboring 
European settlements. After a persevering 
effort of nearly five years, he surrendered his 
charter in August, 1717." 

Immediately following the surrender of his 
charter by Crozat, another and more magnifi- 
cent scheme was inaugurated. The national 
government of France was deeply involved in 
debt; the colonies were nearly bankrupt, and 
John Law appeared on the scene with his 
famous Mississippi Company, as the Louisiana 
branch of the Bank of France. The charter 
granted to this company gave it a legal exist- 
ence of twenty-five years, and conferred upon 
it more extensive powers and privileges than 
had been granted to Crozat. It invested the 
new company with the exclusive privilege of 
the entire commerce of Louisiana, and of New 
France, and with authority to enforce their 
rights. The Company was authorized to mo- 



nopolize all the trade in the country; to make 
treaties with the Indians ; to declare and prose- 
cute war; to grant lands, erect forts, open 
mines of precious metals, levy taxes, nominate 
civil officers, commission those of the army, 
and to appoint and remove judges, to cast can- 
non, and build and equip ships of war. All 
this was to be done with the paper currency of 
John Law's Bank of France. He had suc- 
ceeded in getting his majesty, the French king, 
to adopt and sanction his scheme of financial 
operations both in France and in the colonies, 
and probably there never was such a huge 
financial bubble ever blown by a visionary the- 
orist. Still, such was the condition of France 
that it was accepted as a national deliverance, 
and Law became the most powerful man in 
France. He became a Catholic, and was ap- 
pointed comptroller-general of finance. 

Among the first operations of the company 
was to send 800 emigrants to Louisiana, who 
arrived at Dauphine Island in 171S. 

In 1719 Philipe Francis Eenault arrived in 
Illinois with 200 miners and artisans. The 
war between France and Spain at this time 
rendered it extremely probable that the Missis- 
sippi Valley might become the theater of Span- 
ish hostilities against the French settlements. 
To prevent this, as well as to extend French 
claims, a chain of forts was begun, to keep 
open the connection between the mouth and 
the sources of the Mississippi. Fort Orleans, 
high up the Mississippi River, was erected as 
an outpost in 1720. 

The Mississippi scheme was at the zenith of 
its power and glory in January, 1720, but the 
gigantic bubble collapsed more suddenly than 
it had been inflated, and the company was de- 
clared hopelessly bankrupt in May following. 
France was impoverished by it ; both private and 
public credit were overthrown ; capitalists sud- 
denly found themselves paupers, and labor was 

left without employment. The effect on the 
colony of Louisiana was disastrous. 

While this was going on in Lower Louisiana, 
the region about the lakes was the theater of 
Indian hostilities, rendering the passage from 
Canada to Louisiana extremely dangerous for 
many years. The English had not only extended 
their Indian trade into the vicinity of the French 
settlements, but through their friends, the Iro- 
quois, had gained a marked ascendancy over the 
Foxes, a fierce and powerful tribe, of Iroquois 
descent, whom they incited to hostilities against 
the French. The Foxes began their hostilities 
with the siege of Detroit in 1712, a siege which 
they continued for nineteen consecutive days, 
and although the expedition resulted in dimin- 
ishing their numbers and humbling their pride, 
yet it was not until after several successive cam- 
paigns, embodying the best military resources of 
New France, had been directed against them, 
that they were fiually defeated at the great bat- 
tles of Butte des Morts and on the Wisconsin 
River, and driven west in 1746. 

The company, having found that the cost of 
defending Louisiana exceeded the returns from 
its commerce, solicited leave to surrender the 
Mississippi wilderness to the home govern- 
ment. Accordingly, on the 10th of April, 
1732, the jurisdiction and control over the 
commerce reverted to the crown of France. The 
company had held possession of Louisiana 
fourteen years. In 1735 Bienville returned to 
assume command for the king. 

A glance at a few of the old French settle- 
ments will show the progress made in portions 
of Louisiana during the early part of the 
eighteenth century. As early as 1705 traders 
and hunters had penetrated the fertile regions 
of the Wabash, and from this region, at that 
early date, 15,000 hides and skins had been 
collected and sent to Mobile for the European 





In the year 1716 the French population on 
the Wabash kept up a lucrative commerce with 
Mobile by means of traders and voyageurs. 
The Ohio River was comparatively unknown. 

In 1740 agriculture on the Wabash had at- 
tained to greater prosperity than in any of the 
French settlements besides, and in that year 
600 barrels of flour were manufactured and 
shipped to New Orleans, together with consid- 
erable quantities of hides, peltry, tallow and 

In the Illinois country, also, considerable 
settlements had been made, so that, in 1730, 
they embraced 140 French families, about 600 
" converted Indians," and many traders and 

In 1753 the first actual conflict arose be- 
tween Louisiana and the Atlantic colonies. 
From the earliest advent of the Jesuit fathers, 
up to the period now referred to, the great 
ambition of the French had been, not alone to 
preserve their possessions in the West, but by 
every possible means to prevent the slightest at- 
tempt of the English, east of the mountains, to 
extend their settlements toward the Mississippi. 
France was resolved on retaining possession of 
the great territory which her missionaries had 
discovered and revealed to the world. French 
commandants had avowed their purpose of 
seizing every Englishman within the Ohio 

The colonies of Pennsylvania, New York and 
Virginia were most affected by the encroach- 
ments of France in the extension of her domin- 
ion, and particularly in the great scheme of 
uniting Canada with Louisiana. To carry out 
this purpose, the French had commenced a line 
of forts extending from the lakes to the Ohio 
River. Virginia was not only alive to her own 
interests, but attentive to the vast importance 
of an immediate and effective resistance on the 
part of all the English colonies to the actual 

and contemplated encroachments of the French. 

In 1753 Gov. Dinwiddie, of Virginia, sent 
George Washington, then a young man just 
twenty-one, to demand of the French com- 
mandant " a reason for invading British do- 
minions while a solid peace subsisted." Wash- 
ington met the French commandant, Gardeur 
de St. Pierre, on the head-waters of the Alle- 
gheny, and having communicated to him the 
object of his journey, received the insolent 
answer that the French would not discuss the 
matter of right, but would make prisoners of 
every Englishman found trading on the Ohio 
and its waters. The country, he said, belonged 
to the French by virtue of the discoveries of 
La Salle, and they would not withdraw from it. 

In January, 1754, Washington returned to 
Virginia, and made his report to the governor 
and council. Forces were at once raised, and 
Washington, as lieutenant-colonel, was dis- 
patched at the head of 150 men, to the forks 
of the Ohio, with orders to "finish the fort 
already begun there by the Ohio company, 
and to make prisoners, kill or destroy all who 
interrupted the English settlements." 

On his march through the forests of Western 
Pennsylvania, Washington, through the aid of 
friendly Indians, discovered the French con- 
cealed among the rocks, and as they ran to 
seize their arms, ordered his men to fire upon 
them, at the same time, with his own musket, 
setting the example. An action lasting about 
a quarter of an hour ensued; ten of the 
Frenchmen were killed, among them Jumon- 
ville, the commander of the party, and twenty- 
one were made prisoners. The dead were 
scalped by the Indians, and the chief, bearing 
a tomahawk and a scalp, visited all the tribes 
of the Miamis, urging them to join the Six 
Nations and the English against the French. 
The French, however, were soon re-enforced, 
and Col. Washington was compelled to return 



to Fort Necessity. Here, on the 3d of July, 
De Villiers invested the fort with 600 French 
troops and 100 Indians. On the 4th Wash- 
ington accepted terms of capitulation, and the 
English garrison withdrew from the valley of j 
the Ohio. 

This attack of Washington upon Jumonville 
aroused the indignation of France, and war 
was formally declared in May, 1756, and the 
"French and Indian War" devastated the 
colonies for several years. Montreal, Detroit 
and all Canada were surrendered to the English, 
and on the 10th of February, 1763, by the 
treaty of Paris — which had been signed, 
though not formally ratified by the respective 
governments, on the 3d of November, 1762 — 
France relinquished to Great Britain all that 
portion of the province of Louisiana lying on 
the east side of the Mississippi, except the 
island and town of New Orleans. On the j 
same day that the treaty of Paris was signed, 
France, by a secret treaty, ceded to Spain all 
her possessions on the west side of the Missis- 
sippi, including the whole country to the head- 
waters of the Great Eiver, and west to the j 
Eocky Mountains, and the jurisdiction of 
France in America, which had lasted nearly a 
century, was ended. 

At the close of the Revolutionary War, by I 
the treaty of peafce between Great Britain and 
the United States, the English Government 
ceded to the latter all the territory on the east 
side of the Mississippi River and north of the 
thirty-first parallel of north latitude. At the, 
same time, Great Britain ceded to Sj>ain all the 
Floridas, comprising all the territory east of 
the Mississippi and south of the southern limits 
of the United States. 

At this time, therefore, the present State of 
Iowa was a part of the Spanish possessions 
in North America, as all the territory west of 
the Mississippi River was under the dominion 

of Spain. That government also possessed all 
the territory of the Floridas east of the great 
river and south of the thirty-first parallel of 
north latitude. The Mississippi, therefore, so 
essential to the prosperity of the western por- 
tion of the United States, for the last 300 
miles of its course flowed wholly within the 
Spanish dominions, and that government 
claimed the exclusive right to use and control 
it below the southern boundary of the United 

The free navigation of the Mississippi was 
a very important question during all the time 
that Louisiana remained a dependency of the 
Spanish crown, and as the flnal settlement in- 
timately affected the status of the then future 
State, of Iowa, it will be interesting to trace 
its progress. 

The people of the United States occupied 
and exercised jurisdiction over the entire east- 
ern valley of the Mississippi, embracing all 
the country drained by its eastern tributaries; 
they had a natural right, according to the ac- 
cepted international law, to follow these rivers 
to the sea, and to the use of the Mississippi 
River accordingly, as the great natural channel 
of commerce. The river was not only neces- 
sary but absolutely indispensable to the pros- 
perity and growth of the western settlements 
then rapidly rising into commercial and polit- 
ical importance. They were situated in the 
heart of the great valley, and with wonderfully 
expansive energies and accumulating resources, 
it was very evident that no power on earth 
could deprive them of the free use of the river 
below them, only while their numbers were 
insufiicient to enable them to maintain their 
right by force. Inevitably, therefore, imme- 
diately after the ratification of the treaty of 
1783, the western people began to demand the 
free navigation of the Mississippi — not as a 
favor, but as a right. In 1786 both banks of 



the river, below the mouth of the Ohio, were 
occupied by Spain, and military posts on the 
east bank enforced her power to exact heavy 
duties on all imports by way of the river for 
the Ohio region. Every boat descending the 
river was forced to land and submit to the 
arbitrary revenue exactions of the Spanish 
authorities. Under the administration of Gov. 
Miro. these rigorous exactions were sorne- 
what relaxed from 1787 to 1790; but Spain 
held it as her right to make them. Tak- 
ing advantage of the claim of the American 
people that the Mississippi should be open to 
them, in 1791, the Spanish Government con- 
cocted a scheme for the disnieinbership of the 
Union. The plan was to induce the Western 
people to separate from the Eastern States by 
liberal land grants and extraordinary commer- 
cial privileges. 

Spanish emissaries among the people of 
Ohio and Kentucky informed them that the 
Spanish Government would grant them favora- 
ble commercial privileges, provided they would 
secede from the Federal Government east of 
the mountains. The Spanish minister to the 
United States plainly declared to his confiden- 
tial correspondent that, unless the Western peo- 
ple would declare their independence and re- 
fuse to remain in the Union, Spain was deter- 
mined never to grant the free navigation of the 

By the treaty of Madrid, October 20, 1795, 
however, Spain formerly stipulated that the 
Mississippi Kiver, from its source to the Gulf, 
for its entire width, should be free to American 
trade and commerce, and that the people of the 
United States should be permitted, for three 
years, to use the port of New Orleans as a port 
of deposit for their merchandise and produce, 
duty free. 

In November, 1801, the United States Gov- 
ernment received, through Rufus King, its 

minister at the court of St. James, a copy of 
the treaty between Spain and France, signed at 
Madrid, March 21. 1801, by which the cession 
of Louisiana to France, made the previous 
autumn, was confirmed. 

The change offered a favorable opportunity 
to secure the just rights of the United States, 
in relation to the free navigation of the Missis- 
sippi, and ended the attempt to dismember the 
Union by an effort to secure an independent 
government west of the Alleghany Mountains. 
On the 7th of January, 1803, the American 
House of Representatives adopted a resolution 
declaring their " unalterable determination to 
maintain the boundaries and the rights of navi- 
gation and commerce through the River Mis- 
sissippi, as established by existing treaties." 

In the same month, President Jefferson nomi- 
nated and the Senate confirmed Robert R. Liv- 
ingston and James Monroe as envoys pleni- 
potentiary to the court of France, and Charles 
Pinckney and James Monroe to the court of 
Spain, with plenary powers to negotiate treaties 
to effect the object enunciated by the popular 
branch of the National Legislature. These 
envoys were instructed to secure, if possible, 
the cession of Florida and New Orleans, but it 
does not appear that Mr. Jefferson and his 
cabinet had any idea of purchasing that part of 
Louisiana lying on the west side of the Missis- 
sippi. In fact, on the 2d of March, following, 
the instructions were sent to our ministers, 
containing a plan which expressly left to France 
" all her territory on the west side of the Mis- 
sissippi." Had these instructions been fol- 
lowed, it might have been that there would not 
have been any State of Iowa, or any other mem- 
ber of the glorious Union of States west of the 
" Father of Waters." 

In obedience to his instructions, however. 
Mr. Livingston broached this plan to M. Tal- 
leyrand, Napoleon's prime minister, when that 




courtly diplomatist quietly suggested to the 
American minister that France might be will- 
ing to cede the whole French domain in North 
America to the United States, and asked how 
much the Federal Government would be willing 
to give for it. Livingston intimated .that 20,- 
000,000 of francs might be a fair price. Tal- 
leyrand thought that not enough, but asked the 
Americans to " think of it." A few days later, 
Napoleon, in an interview with Mr, Livingston, 
in effect informed the American envoy that he 
had secured Louisiana in a contract with Spain 
for the purpose of turning it over to the United 
States for a mere nominal sum. He had been 
compelled to provide for the safety of that prov- 
ince by the treaty, and he was " anxious to 
give the United States a magnificent bargain 
for a mere trifle." The price proposed was 
125,000,000 francs. This was subsequently 
modified to $15,000,000, and on this basis a 
treaty was negotiated, and was signed on the 
30th of April, 1803. 

This treaty was ratified by the Federal Gov- 
ernment, and by act of Congress approved 
October 31, 1803, the President of the United 
States was authorized to take possession of the 
territory and provide for it a temporary gov- 

Accordingly, on the 20th day of December 
following, on behalf of the president, Gov. 
Clairborne and Gen. Wilkinson took posses- 
sion of the Louisiana Purchase, and raised the 
American flag over the newly acquired domain, 
at New Orleans. Spain, although it had by 
treaty ceded the province to France in 1801, 
still held quasi possession, and at first objected 
to the transfer, but withdrew her opposition 
early in 1801. 

By this treaty, thus successfully consum- 
mated, and the peaceable withdrawal of Spain, 
the then infant nation of the New World ex- 
tended its dominion west of the Mississippi to 

the Pacific Ocean, and north from the Gulf of 
Mexico to British America. 

If the original design of Jefferson's adminis- 
tration had been accomplished, the United 
States would have acquired only that portion 
of the French territory lying east of the Mis- 
sissippi River, and while the American people 
would thus have acquired the free navigation 
of that great river, all of the vast and fertile 
empire on the west, so rich in its agricultural 
and inexhaustible mineral resources, would 
have remained under the dominion of a foreign 
power. To Napoleon's desire to sell the whole 
of his North American possessions, and Liv- 
ingston's act transcending his instructions, 
which was acquiesced in after it was done, does 
Iowa owe her position as a part of the United 
States by the Louisiana Purchase. 

By authority of an act of Congress, approved 
March 26, 1801, the newly acquired territory 
was, on the 1st day of October following, di- 
vided. That part lying south of the 33d paral- 
lel of north latitude was called the Territory of 
Orleans, and all north of that parallel the Dis- 
trict of Louisiana, which was placed under the 
authority of the officers of Indiana Territory, 
until July 4, 1805, when it was organized, with 
territorial government of its own, and so re- 
mained until 1812, when the Territory of Or- 
leans became the State of Louisiana, and the 
name of the Territory of Louisiana was changed 
to Missouri. On the 4th of July, 1814, that 
part of Missouri Territory comprising the pres- 
ent State of Arkansas, and the country to the 
westward, was organized into the Arkansas 

On the 2d of March, 1821, the State of Mis- 
souri, being a part of the territory of that name, 
was admitted to the Union. June 28, 1834, 
the territory west of the Mississippi River and 
north of Missouri was made a part of the Ter- 
ritory of Michigan ; but two years later, on the 





4th of July, 1836, Wisconsin Territory was 
erected, embracing within its limits the present 
States of Iowa, Wisconsin and Minnesota. 
By act of Congress, approved June 12, 1838, 

the Territory of Iowa was erected, comprising, 
in addition to the present State, much the 
larger part of Minnesota, and extending north 
to the boundary of the British possessions. 





v**- 1 — off 1 — !—-**" 

Expeditions and Indian Cession Treaties— Pike's Expedition— The Indians op Iowa— Their Principal 

Villages and Battles— The Black Hawk Purchase — Keokuk's Reserve — First Individual 

Grant— A List of all Indian Treaties Affecting Iowa Soil— The Spanish Grant 

to Dubuque — The Claim of Choteau — The Girard Tract and the Honori 

Tract— The Half-Breed Lands— Controversies over the 

Rival Claims. 

Who, not content 
With fair equality, fraternal state. 
Will arrogate dominion undeserved 
Over his brethren. — Milton. 


^OON after the acquisition of 
Louisiana, the United States 
Government adopted meas- 
ures for the exploration of 
the new territory, having 
in view the conciliation of 
the numerous tribes of In- 
ans by whom it was jx>ssessed, 
also, the selection of proper 
for the establishment of 
ilitary posts and trading sta- 
jns. The Army of the -West, 
en. James Wilkinson, com- 
manding, had its headquarters 
in St. Louis. From this post, 
Capts. Lewis and Clark, with a 
sufficient force, were detailed to explore the 
unknown sources of the Missouri, and Lieut. 
Zebulon M. Pike to ascend to the head-waters 
of the Mississippi. Lieut. Pike, with one ser- 
geant, two corporals and seventeen privates, 
left the military camp, near St. Louis, in a 
keel-boat, with four months' rations, on August 

9, 1805. On the 20th of the same month 
the expedition arrived within the present 
limits of Iowa, at the foot of the Des Moines 
Piapids, where Pike met William Ewing, who 
had just been appointed Indian agent at this 
point, a French interpreter and four chiefs 
and fifteen Sac and Fox warriors. 

At the head of the rapids, where Montrose 
is now situated, Pike held a council with the 
Indians, in which he addressed them substan- 
tially as follows: " Your great Father, the 
President of the United States, wished to be 
more intimately acquainted with the situation 
and wants of the different nations of red peo- 
ple in our newly acquired Territory of Louis- 
iana, and has ordered the general to send a 
number of his warriors in different directions 
to take them by the hand and make such in- 
quiries as might afford the satisfaction re- 
quired." At the close of the council he pre- 
sented the red men with some knives, whisky 
and tobacco. 

Pursuing his way up the river, he arrived 


on August 23, at what is supposed, from his de- 
scription, to be the site of the present city of 
Burlington, which he selected as the location 
of a military post. He describes the place as 
being " on a hill, about forty miles above the 
River de Moyne Eapids, on the west side of 
the river, in latitude about 41° 21' north. 
The channel of the river runs on that shore; 
the hill in front is about sixty feet perpendicu- 
lar; nearly level on top; four hundred yards 
in the rear is a small prairie fit for gardening, 
and immediately under the hill is a limestone 
spring, sufficient for the consumption of a 
whole regiment." In addition to this descrip- 
tion, which corresponds to Burlington, the 
spot is laid down on his map at a bend in the 
river, a short distance below the mouth of the 
Henderson, which pours its waters into the 
Mississippi from Illinois. The fort was built 
at Fort Madison, but from the distance, lati- 
tude, description and map furnished by Pike, 
it could not have been the place selected by 
him, while all the circumstances corroborate 
the opinion that the place he selected was the 
spot where Burlington is now located, called 
by the early voyagers on the Mississippi, 
" Flint Hills." 

On the 24th, with one of his men, he went 
on shore on a hunting expedition, and follow- 
ing a stream which they supposed to be a part 
of the Mississippi, they were led away from 
their course. Owing to the intense heat and 
tall grass, his two favorite dogs, which he had 
taken with him, became exhausted and he left 
them on the prairie, supposing that they would 
follow him as soon as they should get rested, 
and went on to overtake his boat. Reaching 
the river, he waited some time for his canine 
friends, but they did not come, and as he 
deemed it inexpedient to detain the boat longer, 
two of his men volunteered to go in pursuit of 
them, and he continued on his way up the 

river, expecting that the two men would soon 
overtake him. They lost their way, however, 
and for six days were without food, except a 
few morsels gathered from the streams, and 
might have perished, had they not accident- 
ally met a trader from St. Louis, who induced 
two Indians to take them up the river", and 
they overtook the boat at Dubuque. 

At Dubuque, Pike was cordially received by 
Julien Dubuque, a Frenchman, who held a min- 
ing claim under a grant from Spain. Dubuque 
had an old field piece, and fired a salute in honor 
of the advent of the first Americans who had 
visited that part of the Territory. Dubuque, 
however, was not disposed to publish the wealth 
of his mines, and the young and evidently in- 
quisitive officer obtained but little information 
from him. 

After leaving this place, Pike pursued his 
way up the river, but as he passed beyond the 
limits of the present State of Iowa, a detailed 
history of his explorations on the upper waters 
of the Mississippi more properly belongs to 
the history of another locality. 

It is sufficient to say that on the site of Fort 
Snelling, Minn., at the mouth of the Minne- 
sota River, Pike held a council with the Sioux, 
September 23, and obtained from them a grant 
of 100,000 acres of land. On the Sth of Janu- 
ary, 1806, Pike arrived at a trading post be- 
longing to the Northwest Company, on Lake 
De Sable, in latitude 47°. At this time the 
then powerful Northwest Company carried on 
their immense operations from Hudson's Bay 
to the St. Lawrence; up that river on both 
sides, aloug the great lakes to the head of 
Lake Superior, thence to the sources of the 
Red River of the north and west, to the Rocky 
Mountains, embracing within the scope of their 
operations the entire Territory of Iowa. After 
successfully accomplishing his mission, and 
performing a valuable service to Iowa and the 



whole Northwest, Pike returned to St. Louis, 
arriving there on the 30th of April, 1806. 

According to the policy of the European 
nations, possession perfected title to any terri- 
tory. It is seen that the country west of the 
Mississippi was first discovered by tbe Span- 
iards, but afterward was visited and occupied 
by the French. It was ceded by France to 
Spain, and by Spain back to France again, and 
then was purchased and occupied by the United 
States. During all that time, it does not ap- 
pear to have entered into the heads or hearts 
of the high contracting parties that the coun- 
try they bought, sold and gave away was in the 
possession of a race of men who, although sav- 
age, owned the vast domain before Columbus 
first crossed the Atlantic. Having purchased 
the territory, the United States found it still 
in the possession of its original owners, who 
had never been dispossessed; and it became 
necessary to purchase again what had already 
been bought before, or forcibly eject the occu- 
pants; therefore, the history of the Indian na- 
tions who occupied Iowa prior to and during 
its early settlement by the whites becomes an 
important chapter in the history of the State, 
that cannot be omitted. 

For more than 100 years after Marquette 
and Joliet trod the virgin soil of Iowa, not a 
single settlement had been made or attempted ; 
not even a trading post had been established. 
The whole country remained in the undisputed 
possession of the native tribes, who roamed at 
will over its beautiful and fertile prairies, 
hunted in its woods, fished in its streams, 
and often poured out their life-blood in obsti- 
nately contested contests for supremacy. That 
this State, so aptly styled "The Beautiful 
Laud," had been the theater of numerous fierce 
and bloody struggles between rival nations for 
possession of the favored region, long before 
its settlement by civilized man, there is no 

room for doubt. In these savage wars, the 
weaker party, whether aggressive or defensive, 
was either exterminated or driven from their 
ancient hunting grounds. 

In 1073, when Marquette discovered Iowa, 
the Ulini were a very powerful people, occupy- 
ing a large portion of the State; but when the 
country was again visited by the whites, not a 
remnant of that once powerful tribe remained 
on the west side of the Mississippi, and Iowa 
was principally in the possession of the Sacs 
and Foxes, a warlike tribe, which, originally 
two distinct nations, residing in New York and 
on the waters of the St. Lawrence, had grad- 
ually fought their way westward, and united, 
probably, after the Foxes had been driven out 
of the Fox River country, in 184G, and crossed 
the Mississippi. The death of Pontiac, a fa- 
mous Sac chieftaim, was made the pretext for 
war against the Ulini, and a fierce and bloody 
struggle ensued, which continued until the Illi- 
nois were nearly destroyed and their hunting 
grounds possessed by their victorious foes. The 
Iowas also occupied a portion of the State for 
a time, in common with the Sacs, but they, too, 
were nearly destroyed by the Sacs and Foxes, 
and, in " The Beautiful Land," these natives 
met their equally warlike foes, the Northern 
Sioux, with whom they maintained a constant 
warfare for the possession of the country for 
many years. 

When the United States came in possession 
of the great valley of the Mississippi, by the 
Louisiana purchase, the Sacs and Foxes and 
Iowas possessed the entire territory now com- 
prising the State of Iowa. The Sacs and Foxes 
also occupied the most of the State of Illinois. 

The Sacs had four principal villages, where 
most of them resided, viz. : Their largest and 
most important town — if an Indian village may 
be called such — aud from which emanated most 
of the obstacles and difficulties encountered by 



the Government in the extinguishment of In- 
dian titles to land in this region, was on Rock 
River, near Rock Island; another was on the 
east bank of the Mississippi, near the mouth 
of Henderson River ; the third was at the head 
of the Des Moines Rapids, near the present 
site of Montrose, and the fourth was near the 
mouth of the Upper Iowa. 

The Foxes had three principal villages, viz. : 
One on the west side of the Mississippi, six 
miles above the rapids of Rock River; another 
about twelve miles from the river, in the rear 
of the Dubuque lead mines, and the third on 
Turkey River. 

The Iowas, at one time identified with the 
Sacs, of Rock River, had withdrawn from them 
and become a separate tribe. Their principal 
village was on the Des Moines River, in Van 
Bureu County, on the site where Iowaville now 
stands. Here the last great battle between the 
Sacs and Foxes and the Iowas was fought, in 
which Black Hawk, then a young man, com- 
manded one division of the attacking forces. 
The following account of the battle has been 
given : 

" Contrary to long established custom of In- 
dian attack, this battle was commenced in the 
day time, the attending circumstances justify- j 
ing this departure from the well settled usages 
of Indian warfare. The battle-field was a level 
river bottom, about four miles in length, and 
two miles wide near the middle, narrowing to 
a point at either end. The main area of this 
bottom rises perhaps twenty feet above the 
river, leaving a narrow strip of low bottom 
along the shore, covered with trees that belted 
the prairie on the river side with a thick forest, 
and the immediate bank of the river was fringed 
with a dense growth of willows. Near the lower 
end of this prairie, near the river bank, was 
situated the Iowa village. About two miles 
above it and near the middle of the prairie is 

a mound, covered at the time with a tuft of 
small trees and underbrush growing on its sum- 
mit. In the rear of this little elevation or 
mound lay a belt of wet prairie, covered, at 
that time, with a dense growth of rank, coarse 
grass. Bordering this wet prarie on the. north, 
the country rises abruptly into elevated broken 
river bluffs, covered with a heavy forest for 
many miles in extent, and in places thickly 
clustered with undergrowth, affording a con- 
venient shelter for the stealthy approach of the 

" Through this forest the Sac and Fox war 
party made their way in the night, and secret- 
ed themselves in the tall grass spoken of above, 
intending to remain in ambush during the day 
and make such observations as this near prox- 
imity to their intended victim might afford, to 
aid them in their contemplated attack on the 
town during the following night. From this 
situation their spies could take a full survey of 
the village, and watch every movement of the 
inhabitants, by which means they were soon 
convinced that the Iowas had no suspicion of 
their presence. 

'" At the foot of the mound above mentioned, 
the Iowas had their race course, where they 
diverted themselves with the excitement of 
horse racing, and schooled their young war- 
riors in cavalry evolutions. In these exercises 
mock battles were fought, and the Indian tac- 
tics of attack and defense carefully inculcated, 
by which means skill in horsemanship was ac- 
quired rarely excelled. Unfortunately for them, 
this day was selected for their equestrian sports, 
and wholly unconscious of the proximity of 
their foes, the warriors repaired to the race 
ground, leaving most of their arms in the vil- 
lage, and their old men and women and chil- 
dren unprotected. 

" Pash-a-po-po, who was chief in command 
of the Sacs and Foxes, perceived at once the 


advantage this state of things afforded for a 
complete surprise of his now doomed victims, 
and ordered Black Hawk to file off with his 
young warriors through the tall grass and gain 
the cover of the timber along the river bank, 
and with the utmost speed reach the village 
and commence the battle, while he remained 
with his division in the ambush to make a 
simultaneous assault on the unarmed men, 
whose attention was engrossed with the excite- 
ment of the races. The plan was skillfully laid 
and most dexterously executed. Black Hawk, 
with his forces, reached the village undiscov- 
ered, and made a furious onslaught upon the 
defenseless inhabitants, by firing one general 
volley into their midst, and completing the 
slaughter with the tomahawk and scalping- 
knife, aided by the devouring flames with which 
they enveloped the village as soon as the fire 
brand could be spread from lodge to lodge. 

" On the instant of the report of fire arms at 
the village, the forces under Pash-a-po-po 
leaped from their couchant position in the grass 
and sprang, tiger-like, upon the astonished and 
unarmed Iowas in the midst of their racing 
sports. The first impulse of the latter natur- 
ally led them to make the utmost speed toward 
their arms in the village, and protect, if possi- 
ble, their wives and children from the attack of 
their merciless assailants. The distance from 
the place of attack on the prairie was two 
miles, and a great number fell in their flight 
by the bullets and tomahawks of their enemies, 
who pressed them closely with a running fire 
the whole way, and the survivors only reached 
their town in time to witness the horrors of its 
destruction. Their whole village was in flames, 
and the dearest objects of their lives lay in 
slaughtered heaps amidst the devouring ele- 
ment, and the agonizing groans of the dying, 
mingled with the exulting shouts of the victo- 
rious foe, filled their hearts with maddening 

despair. Their wives and children, who had 
been spared the general massacre, were pris- 
oners, and, together with their arms, were in 
the hands of the victors, and all that could 
now be done was to draw off their shattered 
and defenseless forces, and save as many lives 
as possible by a retreat across the Des Moines 
River, which they effected in the best possible 
manner, and took a position among the Soap 
Creek Hills." 

The Sacs and Foxes, prior to the settlement 
of their village on Rock River, had a fierce 
conflict with the Winnebagoes, subdued them 
and took possession of their lands. Their vil- 
lage on Rock River, at one time, contained up- 
ward of sixty lodges, and was among the larg- 
est Indian villages on the continent. In 1825 
the Secretary of War estimated the entire num- 
ber of the Sacs and Foxes at 4,600 souls. Their 
village was situated in the immediate vicinity 
of the upper rapids of the Mississippi, where 
the beautiful and flourishing towns of Rock 
Island and Davenport are now situated. The 
beautiful scenery of the island, the extensive 
prairies, dotted over with groves; the pictur- 
esque bluffs along the river banks, the rich and 
fertile soil, producing large crops of corn, 
squash and other vegetables, with little labor; 
the abundance of wild fruit, game, fish, and 
almost everything calculated to make it a de- 
lightful spot for an Indian village, which was 
found there, had made this place a favorite 
home of the Sacs, and secured for it the strong 
attachment and veneration of the whole nation. 

North of the hunting grounds of the Sacs 
and Foxes, were those of the Sioux, a fierce and 
warlike nation, who often disputed possession 
with their rivals in savage and bloody warfare. 
The possessions of these tribes were mostly 
located in Minnesota, but extended over a por- 
tion of Northern and Western Iowa to the Mis- 
souri River. Their descent from the north upon 

the hunting grounds of Iowa frequently brought 
them into collision with the Sacs and Foxes ; 
and after many a conflict and bloody struggle, 
a boundary line was established between them 
by the government of the United States, in a 
treaty held at Prairie du Chien in 1825. But 
this, instead of settling the difficulties, caused 
them to quarrel all the more, in consequence of 
alleged trespasses upon each other's side of the 
line. These contests were kept up, and became 
so unrelenting that, in 1830, the Government 
bought of the respective tribes of the Sacs and 
Foxes and the Sioux, a strip of land twenty 
miles in width, on both sides of the line, and thus 
throwing them forty miles apart by creating be- 
tween them a "neutral ground," commanded 
them to cease their hostilities. Both the Sacs 
and Foxes and the Sioux, however, were allowed 
to fish and hunt on this ground unmolested, 
provided they did not interfere with each other 
on United States territory. The Sacs and Foxes 
and the Sicfux were deadly enemies, and neither 
let an opportunity to punish the other pass 

In April, 1852, a fight occurred between the 
Musquaka band of Sacs and Foxes and a band 
of Sioux, about six miles above Algona, in 
Kossuth County, on the west side of the Des 
Moines Biver. The Sacs and Foxes were 
under the leadership of Ko-ko-wah, a subordi- 
nate chief, and had gone up from their home 
in Tama County, by way of Clear Lake, to 
what was then the "neutral ground." At Clear 
Lake, Ko-ko-wah was informed that a party of 
Sioux were encamped on the west side of the East 
Fork of the Des Moines, and he determined to 
attack them. With sixty of his warriors, he 
started and arrived at a point on the east 
side of the river, about a mile above the Sioux 
encampment, in the night, and concealed them- 
selves in a grove, where they were able to dis- 
cover the position and strength of their hered- 

itary foes. The next morning, after many of 
the Sioux braves had left their camp on hunt- 
ing tours, the vindictive Sacs and Foxes crossed 
the river and suddenly attacked the camp. The 
conflict was desperate for a short time, but the 
advantage was with the assailants, and the Sioux 
were routed. Sixteen of them, including some 
of their women and children, were killed, and 
a boy fourteen years old was captured. One of 
the Musquakas was shot in the breast by a 
squaw as they were rushing into the Sioux's 
camp. He started to run away, when the same 
brave squaw shot him through the body, at a 
distance of twenty rods, and he fell dead. Three 
other Sac braves were killed. But few of the 
Sioux escaped. The victorious party hurriedly 
buried their own dead, leaving the dead Sioux 
above ground, and made their way home with 
their captive with all possible expedition. 

At the close of the Black Hawk War, in 
1832, a treaty was made at a council held on 
the west bank of the Mississippi, where now 
stands the thriving city of Davenport, on 
grounds that are occupied by the Chicago, Bock 
Island & Pacific Bailroad Company, on the 
21st of September, 1832. At this council the 
United States was represented by Gen. Win- 
field Scott and Gov. Keynolds, of Illinois. 
Keokuk, Pash-a-pa-ho and some thirty other 
chiefs and warriors of the Sac and Fox nation 
were present. By this treaty, tbe Sacs and 
Foxes ceded to the United States a strip of land 
on the eastern border of Iowa fifty miles wide, 
from the northern boundary of Missouri to the 
mouth of the Upper Iowa River, containing 
about 6,000,000 acres. The western line of 
the purchase was parallel with the Mississippi. 
In consideration of this cession, the United 
States Government stipulated to pay annually 
to the confederated tribes, for thirty consecutive 
years, $20,000 in specie, and to pay the debts 
of the Indians at Bock Island, which had 


been accumulating for seventeen years, and 
amounted to §50,000, due to Davenport & 
Farnbam, Indian traders. Tbe Government 
also generously donated to tbe Sac and Fox 
women and children, whose husbands and fa- 
thers had fallen in the Black Hawk War, thirty- 
five beef cattle, twelve bushels of salt, thirty 
barrels of pork, fifty barrels of flour and 6,000 
bushels of corn. 

This territory is known as the " Black Hawk 
Purchase." Although it was not the first por- 
tion of Iowa ceded to the United States by the 
Sacs and Foxes, it was the first opened to actual 
settlement by the tide of emigration that flowed 
across the Mississippi as soon as the Indian 
title was extinguished. The treaty was rati- 
fied February 13, 1833, and took effect on the 
1st of June following, when the Indians quietly 
removed from the ceded territory, and this 
beautiful region was opened to white settlers. 

By the terms of the treaty, out of the Black 
Hawk Purchase was reserved for the Sacs and 
Foxes 400 square miles of land situated on the 
Iowa River, and including within its limits 
Keokuk's village, on the right bank of that 
river. This tract was known as " Keokuk's 
Reserve," and was occupied by the Indians 
until 1836, when, by a treaty made in Septem- 
ber between them and Gov. Dodge, of Wiscon- 
sin Territory, it was ceded to the United States. 
The council was held on the banks of the Mis- 
sissippi, above Davenport, and was the largest 
assemblage of the kind ever held by the Sacs 
and Foxes to treat for the sale of lands. About 
one thousand of their chiefs and braves were 
present, and Keokuk was their leading spirit 
and principal speaker on the occasion. By the 
terms of the treaty, the Sacs and Foxes were 
removed to another reservation on the Des 
Moines River, where an agency was established 
for them at what is now the town of Agency 

Besides the Keokuk Reserve, the Govern- 
ment gave out of the Black Hawk Purchase to 
Antoine Le Claire, interpreter, in fee simple, 
one section of land opposite Rock Island, and 
another at the head of the first rapids above 
the island, on the Iowa side. This was the 
first land title granted by the United States to 
an individual in Iowa. 

Soon after the removal of the Sacs and Foxes 
to their new reservation on the Des Moines 
River, Gen. Joseph M. Street was transferred 
from the agency of the Winnebagoes, at Prai- 
rie du Chien, to establish an agency among 
them. A farm was selected, on which the 
necessary buildings were erected, including a 
comfortable farm house for the agent and his 
family, at the expense of the Indian fund. A 
salaried agent was employed to superintend the 
farm and dispose of the crops. Two mills were 
erected, one on Soap Creek and the other on 
Sugar Creek. The latter was soon swept away 
by a flood, but the former remained and did 
good service for many years. Connected with 
the agency were Joseph Smart and John Good- 
ell, interpreters. The latter was interpreter 
for Hard Fish's band. Three of the Indian 
chiefs, Keokuk, Wapello and Appanoose, had 
each a large field improved, the two former on 
the right bank of the Des Moines, back from 
the river, in what is now "Keokuk's Prairie," 
and the latter on the present site of the city of 
Ottumwa. Among the traders connected with 
the agency were the Messrs. Ewing from Ohio, 
and Phelps & Co., from Illinois, and also Mr. 
J. P. Eddy, who established his post at what is 
now the site of Eddyville. 

The Indians at this agency became idle and 
listless in the absence of their natural and 
wonted excitements, and many of them plunged 
into dissipation. Keokuk himself became dis- 
sipated in the latter years of his life, and it has 
been reported that he died of delirium tremens. 




In May, 1843, most o£ the Indians were re- 
moved up the Des Moines River, above the 
temporary line of Red Rock, having ceded the 
remnant of their lands in Iowa to the United 
States on the 21st of September, 1837, and on 
the 11th of October, 1842. By the terms of 
the latter treaty, they held possession of the 
"New Purchase" till the autumn of 1845, 
when the most of them were removed to their 
reservation in Kansas, the balance being re- 
moved in the spring of 1840. 

1. Treaty with the Sioux, made July 19, 
1815; ratified December 16, 1815. This treaty 
was made at Portage des Sioux, between the 
Sioux of Minnesota and Upper Iowa and the 
United States, by William Clark and Ninian 
Edwards, commissioners, and was merely a 
treaty of peace and friendship on the part of 
tbose Indians toward the United States at the 
close of the War of 1812. 

2. Treaty with the Sacs. — A similar treaty of 
peace was made at Portage des Sioux, between 
the United States and the Sacs, by William 
Clark, Ninian Edwards and Auguste Choteau, on 
the 13th of September, 1815, and ratified on the 
same date as the above. In this, the treaty of 
1804 was reaffirmed, and the Sacs here repre- 
sented promised for themselves and their bands 
to keep entirely separate from the Sacs of Rock 
River, who, under Black Hawk, had joined the 
British in the war just then closed. 

3. Treaty with the Foxes. — A separate treaty 
of peace was made with the Foxes at Portage des 
Sioux, by the same commissioners, on the 14th 
of September, 1815, and ratified the same as 
the above, wherein the Foxes re-affirmed the 
treaty of St. Louis, of November 3, 1804, and 
agreed to deliver up all their prisoners to the 
officer in command at Fort Clark, now Peoria, 

4. Treaty with the Iowas. — ■ A treaty of 
peace and mutual good will was made between 

the United States and the Iowa tribe of In- 
dians, at Portage des Sioux, by the same com- 
missioners as above, on the 16th of September, 
1815, at the close of the war with Great Brit- 
ain, and ratified at the same date as the others. 

5. Treaty with the Sacs of Rock River, 
made at St. Louis on the 13th of May, 1816, 
between the United States and the Sacs of 
Rock River, by the commissioners, William 
Clark, Ninian Edwards and Auguste Choteau, 
and ratified December 30, 1816. In this treaty, 
that of 1804 was re-established and confirmed 
by twenty-two chiefs and head men of the Sacs 
of Rock River, and Black Hawk himself at- 
tached to it his signature, or, as he said, 
"touched the goose quill." 

6. Treaty of 1824.— On the 4th of August, 
1824, a treaty was made between the United 
States and the Sacs and Foxes, in the city of 
Washington, by William Clark, commissioner, 
wherein the Sac and Fox nation relinquished 
their title to all lands in Missouri, and that 
portion of the southeast corner of Iowa known 
as the "Half -Breed Tract" was set off and re- 
served for the use of the half-breeds of the Sacs 
and Foxes, they holding title in the same man- 
ner as Indians. Ratified January 18, 1825. 

7. Treaty of August 19, 1825.— At this 
date a treaty was made by William Clark 
and Lewis Cass, at Prairie du Chien, between 
the United States and the Chippewas, Sacs and 
Foxes, Menomonees, Winnebagoes and a. por- 
tion of the Ottawas and Pottawattamies. In 
this treaty, in order to make peace between the 
contending tribes as to the limits of their re- 
spective hunting grounds in Iowa, it was 
agreed that the United States Government 
should run a boundary line between the Sioux 
on the north, and the Sacs and Foxes on the 
south, as follows: 

Commencing at the mouth of the Upper 
Iowa River, on the west bank of the Missis- 


sippi, and ascending said Iowa River to its 
west fork; thence up the fork to its source; 
thence crossing the fork of Red Cedar River 
in a direct line to the second or upper fork of 
the Des Moines River ; thence in a direct line 
to the lower fork of the Calumet River, and 
down that river to its junction with the Missouri 

8. Treaty of 1830.— On the 15th of July, 
1830, the confederate tribes of the Sacs and 
Foxes ceded to the United States a strip of 
country lying south of the above line, twenty 
miles in width, and extending along the line 
aforesaid from the Mississippi to the Des 
Moines River. The Sioux also, whose pos- 
sessions were north of the line, ceded to the 
Government, in the same treaty, a like strip 
on the north side of the boundary. Thus 
the United States, at the ratification of this 
treaty, February 24, 1831, came into posses- 
sion of a portion of Iowa forty miles wide, ex- 
tending along the Clark and Cass line of 1825, 
from the Mississippi to the Des Moines River. 
This territory was known as the "Neutral 
Ground," and the tribes on either side of the 
line were allowed to fish and hunt on it unmo- 
lested till it was made a Winnebago reserva- 
tion, and the Winnebagoes were removed to it 
in 1841. 

9. Treaty with the Sacs and Foxes and 
other Tribes. — At the same time of the above 
treaty respecting the "Neutral Ground" (July 
15, 1830), the Sacs and Foxes, Western Sioux, 
Omahas, Iowas and Missouris ceded to the 
United States a portion of the western slope 
of Iowa, the boundaries of which were defined 
as follows: Beginning at the upper fork of 
the Des Moines River, and passing the sources 
of the Little Sioux and Floyd Rivers, to the 
fork of the first creek that falls into the Big 
Sioux, or Calumet, on the east side; thence 
down said creek and the Calumet River to the 

Missouri River; thence down said Missouri- 
River to the Missouri State line above the 
Kansas; thence along said line to the 
northwest corner of said State; thence to the 
high lands between the waters falling into the 
Missouri and Des Moines, passing to said 
high lands along the dividing ridge between 
the forks of the Grand River; thence along 
said high lauds or ridge separating the waters 
of the Missouri from those of the Des Moines, 
to a point opposite the source of the Boyer 
River, and thence in a direct line to the upper 
fork of the Des Moines, the place of beginning. 

It was understood that the lands ceded and 
relinquished by this treaty were to be assigned 
and allotted, under the direction of the Presi- 
dent of the United States, to the tribes then 
living thereon, or to such other tribes as the 
President might locate thereon for hunting and 
other purposes. In consideration of three 
tracts of land ceded in this treaty, the United 
States agreed to pay to the Sacs $3,000; 10 the 
Foxes, $3,000; to the Sioux, $2,000; to the 
Yankton and Santie bands of Sioux $3,000; to 
the Omahas, $2,500; and to the Ottoes and 
Missouris, $2,500 — to be paid annually for ten 
successive years. In addition to these annuities, 
the Government agreed to furnish some of the 
tribes with blacksmiths and agricultural im- 
plements to the amount of $200, at the ex- 
pense of the United States, and to set apart 
$3,000 annually for the education of the chil- 
dren of these tribes. It does not appear that 
any fort was erected in this territory jn-ior to 
the erection of Fort Atkinson on the Neutral 
Ground, in 1840-41. 

This treaty was made by William Clark, 
superintendent of Iudian affairs, and Col. 
Willoughby Morgan, of the United States 
First Infantry, and came into effect by procla- 
mation, February 24, 1831. 

10. Treaty with the Winnebagoes. — Made 


at Fort Armstrong, Bock Island, September 
15, 1832, by Gen. Winfield Scott and Hon. 
John Beynolds, governor of Illinois. In this 
treaty the Winnebagoes ceded to the United 
States all their land lying on the east side of 
the Mississippi, and in part consideration 
therefor the United States granted to the Win- 
nebagoes, to be held, as other Indian lands are 
held, that portion of Iowa known as the Neu- 
tral Ground. The exchange of the two tracts 
of country was to take place on or before 
June 1, 1833. In addition to the Neutral 
Ground, it was stipulated that the United 
States should give the Winnebagoes, beginning 
in September, 1833, and continuing for twen- 
ty-seven successive years, $10,000 in specie, 
and establish a school among them, with a 
farm and garden, and provide other facilities 
for the education of their children, not to ex- 
ceed in cost $3,000 a year, and to continue the 
same for twenty-seven successive years. Six 
agriculturists, twelve yoke of oxen, and plows 
and other farming tools were to be supplied by 
the Government. 

11. Treaty of 1832, with the Sacs and 
Foxes. — Already mentioned as the Black 
Hawk purchase. 

12. Treaty of 1836, with the Sacs and 
Foxes, ceding Keokuk's Beserve to the United 
States ; for which the Government stipulated to 
pay $30,000, and an annuity of $10,000 for 
ten successive years, together with other sums 
and debts of the Indians to various parties. 

13. Treaty of 1837.— On October 21, 1837, 
a treaty was made at the city of Washington, 
between Carey A. Harris, commissioner of In- 
dian affairs, and the confederate tribes of Sacs 
and Foxes, ratified February 21, 1838, wherein 
another slice of the soil of Iowa was obtained, 
described in the treaty as follows: " A tract of 
country containing 1,250,000 acres, lying west 
and adjoining the tract conveyed by them to the 

United States in the treaty of September 21, 
1832. It is understood that the points of 
termination for the pi-esent cession shall be 
the northern and southern points of said tract 
as fixed by the survey made under the author- 
ity of the United States, and that a line shall 
be drawn between them so as to intersect a line 
extended westwardly from the angle of said 
tract nearly opposite to Bock Island, as laid 
down in the above survey, so far as may be 
necessary to include the number of acres 
hereby ceded, which last mentioned line, it is 
estimated, will be about twenty-five miles." 

This piece of land was twenty-five miles 
wide in the middle, and ran off to a point at 
both ends, lying directly back of the Black 
Hawk purchase, and of the same length. 

11. Treaty of the Belinquishment. — At the 
same date as the above treaty, in the city of 
Washington, Carey A. Harris, commissioner, 
the Sacs and Foxes ceded to the United States 
all their right and interest in the country ly- 
ing south of the boundary line between the 
Sacs and Foxes and Sioux, as described in the 
treaty of August 19, 1825, aud between the 
Mississippi and Missouri Bivers, the United 
States paying for the same $160,000. The 
Indians also gave up all claims and interests 
under the treaties previously made with them, 
for the satisfaction of which no appropriations 
had been made. 

15. Treaty of 1842.— The last treaty was 
made with the Sacs and Foxes October 11, 
1842; ratified March 23, 1843. It was made 
at the Sac and Fox agency (Agency City), by 
John Chambers, commissioner on behalf of the 
United States. In this treaty the Sac and 
Fox Indians " ceded to the United States all 
their lands west of the Mississippi to which 
they had any claim or title." By the terms of 
this treaty they were to be removed from the 
country at the expiration of three years, and 

_5> v >> 



all who remained after that were to move at 
their own expense. Part of them were re- 
moved to Kansas in the fall of 1845, and the 
rest the spring following. 

While the territory now embraced in the 
State of Iowa was under Spanish rule as a part 
of its province of Louisiana, certain claims to 
and grants of land were made by the Spanish 
authorities, with which, in addition to the ex- 
tinguishment of Indian titles, the United States 
had to deal. ' It is proper that these should be 
briefly reviewed. 

On the 22d of September, 1788, Julien Du- 
buque, a Frenchman, from Prairie du Chien, 
obtained from the Foxes a cession or lease of 
lands on the Mississippi River for mining pur- 
poses, on the site of the present city of Du- 
buque. Lead had been discovered here eight 
years before, in 1780, by the wife of Peosta 
Fox, a warrior, and Dubuque's claim embraced 
nearly all the lead-bearing lauds in that vicin- 
ity. He immediately took possession of his 
claim and commenced mining, at the same time 
making a settlement. The place became known 
as the " Spanish Miners," or, more commonly, 
" Dubuque's Lead Mines." 

In 1796 Dubuque filed a petition with Baron 
de Carondelet, the Spanish governor of Louisi- 
ana, asking that the tract ceded to him by the 
Indians might be granted to him by patent 
from the Spanish Government. In this peti- 
tion Dubuque rather indefinitely set forth the 
boundaries of this claim as " about seven 
leagues along the Mississippi River, and three 
leagues in width from the river," intending to 
include, as is supposed, the river front between 
the Little Maquoketa and the Tete des Mertz 
Rivers, embracing more than 20,000 acres. 
Carondelet granted the prayer of the petition, 
and the grant was subsequently confirmed by 
the board of land commissioners of Louisiana. 

In October, 1804, Dubuque transferred the 

larger part of his claim to Auguste Choteau, 
of St. Louis, and on the 17th of May, 1805, he 
and Choteau jointly filed their claims with the 
board of commissioners. On the 20th of Sep- 
tember, 1806, the board decided in their favor, 
pronouncing the claim to be a regular Span- 
ish grant, made and completed prior to the 1st 
day of October, 1800, only one member, J. B. C. 
Lucas, dissenting. 

Dubuque died March 24, 1810. The Indians, 
understanding that the claim of Dubuque under 
their former act of cession was only a permit 
to occupy the tract and work the mines during 
his life, and that at his death they reverted to 
them, took possession and continued mining 
operations, and were sustained by the military 
authority of the United States, notwithstanding 
the decision of the commissioners. When the 
Black Hawk purchase was consummated, the 
Dubuque claim thus held by the Indians was 
absorbed by the United States, as the Sacs and 
Foxes made no reservation of it in the treaty of 

The heirs of Choteau, however, were not dis- 
posed to relinquish their claim without a strug- 
gle. Late in 1832 they employed an agent to 
look after their interests, and authorized him 
to lease the right to dig lead on the lands. 
The miners who commenced work under this 
agent were compelled by the military to aban- 
don their operations, and one of the claimants 
went to Galena to institute legal proceedings, 
but found no court of competent jurisdiction, 
although he did bring an action for the recov- 
ery of a quantity of lead dug at Dubuque, for 
the purpose of testing the title. Being unable 
to identify the lead, however, he was non- 

By act of Congress, approved July 2, 1836, 
the town of Dubuque was surveyed and platted. 
After lots had been sold and occupied by the 
purchasers, Henry Choteau brought an action 



of ejectment against Patrick Malony, who held 
land in Dubuque under a patent from the 
United States, for the recovery of seven undi- 
vided eighth parts of the Dubuque claim, as 
purchased by Auguste Choteau in 1804. The 
case was tried in the District Court of the United 
States for the district of Iowa, and was decided 
adversely to the plaintiff. The case was car- 
ried to the Supreme Court of the United States 
on a writ of error, when it was heard at the 
December term, 1853, and the decision of the 
lower court was affirmed, the court holding that 
the permit from Carondelet was merely a lease 
or permit to work the mines; that Dubuque 
asked, and the governor of Louisiana granted, 
nothing more than the "peaceable possession" 
of certain lands obtaiDed from the Indians; 
that Carondelet had no legal authority to make 
such a grant as claimed, and that, even if he 
had, this was but an "inchoate and imperfect 

In 1795 the lieutenant-governor of Upper 
Louisiana granted to Basil Giard 5,860 acres 
of land, in what is now Clayton County, known 
as the " Giard Tract." He occupied the laud 
during the time that Iowa passed from Spain 
to France, and from France to the United 
States, in consideration of which the Federal 
Government granted a patent of the same to Gi- 
ard, in his own right. His heirs sold the whole 
tract to James H. Lockwood and Thomas P. 
Burnett, of Prairie du Chien, for $300. 

March 30, 1799, Zenon Trudeau, acting lieu- 
tenant-governor of Upper Louisiana, granted 
to Louis Honori a tract of land on the site of 
the present town of Montrose, as follows: "It 
is permitted to Mr. Louis (Fresson) Henori, 
or Louis Honore Fesson, to establish himself 
at the head of the rapids of the Kiver Des 
Moines, and his establishment once formed, 
notice of it shall be given to the governor-gen- 
eral, in order to obtain for him a commission of 

a space sufficient to give value to such establish- 
ment, and at the same time to render it useful 
to the commerce of the peltries of this country, 
to watch the Indians and keep tbem in the 
fidelity which they owe to His Majesty." 

Honori took immediate possession of bis 
claim, which he retained until 1805. While 
trading with the natives, he became indebted 
to Joseph Bobidoux, who obtained an execu- 
tion on which the property was sold May 13, 
1803, and was purchased by the creditor. In 
these proceedings the property was described 
as being " about six leagues above the River 
Des Moines." Bobidoux died soon after he 
purchased the property. Auguste Choteau, his 
executor, disposed of the Honori tract to Thomas 
F. Reddeck, in April, 1805, up to which time 
Honori continued to occupy it. The grant, as 
made by the Spanish Government, was a league 
square, but only one mile square was confirmed 
by the United States. After the half-breeds 
sold their lands, in which the Honori grant 
was included, various claimants resorted to lit- 
igation in attempts to invalidate the title of the 
Beddeck heirs, but it was finally confirmed by 
a decision of the Supreme Court of the United 
States in 1839, and is the oldest legal title to 
any land in the State of Iowa. 

Before any permanent settlement had been 
made in the Territory of Iowa, white advent- 
urers, trappers and traders, many of whom 
were scattered along the Mississippi and its 
tributaries, as agents and employes of the 
American Fur Company, intermai-ried with the 
females of the Sac and Fox Indians, producing 
a race of half-breeds, whose number was never 
definitely ascertained. There were some re- 
spectable and excellent people among them, 
children of men of some refinement and edu- 
cation. For instance: Dr. Muir, a gentleman 
educated at Edinburgh, Scotland, a surgeon in 
the United States Army, stationed at a military 





post located on the present site of Warsaw, mar- 
ried an Indian woman, and reared his family 
of three daughters in the city of Keokuk. Other 
examples might be cited, but they are probably 
exceptions to the general rule, and the race is 
now nearly or quite extinct in Iowa. 

A treaty was made at Washington, August 
4, 1824, between the Sacs and Foxes and the 
United States, by which that portion of Lee 
County was reserved to the half-breeds of those 
tribes, and which was afterward known as 
" The Half- Breed Tract." This reservation is 
the triangular piece of land, containing about 
119,000 acres, lying between the Mississippi 
and Des Moines Rivers. It is bounded on the 
north by the prolongation of the northern line 
of Missouri. This line was intended to be a 
straight one, running due east, which would 
have caused it to strike the Mississippi River 
at or below Montrose, but the surveyor who run 
it took no notice of the change in the variation 
of the needle as he proceeded eastward, and, in 
consequence, the line he run was bent, deviat- 
ing more and more to the northward of a di- 
rect line as he approached the Mississippi, so 
that it struck that river at the lower edge of 
the town of Fort Madison. " This erroneous 
line, 1 ' says Judge Mason, " has been acquiesced 
in as well in fixing the northern limit of the 
Half-Breed Tract as in determining the north- 
ern boundary line of the State of Missouri." 
The liue thus run included in the reservation 
a portion of the lower part of the city of Fort 

Under the treaty of 1824, the half-breeds 
had the right to occupy the soil, but could not 
convey it, the reversion being reserved to the 
United States. But on the 30th day of Jan- 
uary, 1834, by act of Congress, this reversion- 
ary right was relinquished, and the half- 
breeds acquired the lands in fee simple. This 
was no sooner done, than a horde of specula- 

tors rushed in to buy land of the half-breed 
owners, and, in many instances a gun, a 
blanket, a pony, or a few quarts of whisky 
was sufficient for the purchase of large estates. 
There was a deal of sharp practice on both 
sides ; Indians would often claim ownership of 
land by virtue of being half-breeds, and had 
no difficulty in proving their mixed blood by 
the Indians, and they would then cheat the 
speculators by selling laud to which they had 
no rightful title. On the other hand, specula- 
tors often claimed land in which they had 
no ownership. It was diamond cut diamond 
until at last things became badly mixed. There 
were no authorized surveys, and no boundary 
lines to claims, and, as a natural result, nu- 
merous conflicts and quarrels ensued. 

To settle these difficulties, to decide the va- 
lidity of claims or sell them for the benefit 
of the real owners, by act of the Legislature 
of Wisconsin Territory, approved January 16, 
1838, Edward Johnstone, Thomas S. Wilson 
and David Brigham were appointed commis- 
sioners, and clothed with power to effect these 
objects. The act provided that these commis- 
sioners should be paid $6 a day each. The 
commission entered upon its duties and con- 
tinued until the next session of the Legislature, 
when the act creating it was repealed, invali- 
dating all that had been done and depriving the 
commissioners of their pay. The repealing 
act, however, authorized the commissioners to 
commence action against the owners of the 
half-breed tract, to receive pay for their serv- 
ices, in the district court of Lee County. 
Two judgments were obtained, and on execution 
the whole of the tract was sold to Hugh T. 
Reid, the sheriff executing the deed. Mr. 
Reid sold portions of it to various parties, but 
his own title was questioned and he became 
involved in litigation. Decisions in favor of 
Reid and those holding under him were made 



by both District and Supreme Courts, but in 
December, 1850, these decisions were finally 
reversed by the Supreme Court of the United 
States in the case of Joseph Webster, plaintiff 
in error, vs. Hugh T. Reid, and the judgment 
titles failed. About nine years before the 
"judgment titles " were finally abrogated as 
above, another class of titles was brought 
into competition with them, and in the conflict 
between the two, the final decision was ob- 
tained. These were the titles based on the 
" decree of partition " issued by the United 
States district court for the Territory of Iowa, 
on the 8th of May, 1841, and certified to by 
the clerk on the 2d day of June of that year. 
Edward Johnstone and Hugh T. Reid, then law 
partners at Fort Madison, filed the petition for 

the decree in behalf of the St. Louis claimants 
of half-breed lands. Francis S. Key, author 
of the " Star Spangled Banner," who was then 
attorney for the New York Land Company, 
which held heavy interests in these lands, took 
a leading part in the measure, and drew up the 
document in which it was presented to" the 
court. Judge Charles Mason, of Burlington, 
presided. The plan of partition divided the 
tract into 101 shares and arranged that each 
claimant should draw his proportion by lot, 
and should abide the result, whatever it might 
be. The arrangement was entered into, the 
lots drawn, and the plat of the same filed in 
the recorder's office, October 6, 1841. Upon 
this basis the titles to land in the half-breed 
tract are now held. 




The Louisiana Purchase Taken Possession op by the United States— District op Louisiana— Iowa a part 

of the Territories op Illinois. Missouri, Michigan and Wisconsin— The First Officers to Govern 

the Territory— Iowa Territory Formed— Its Legislature and Laws— Location opthe Seat op 

Government— Public Buildings— Settlement op the Missouri Boundary Question, etc. 

They did not leave the helm in storms, 

And such they are make happy States. — Ben Jonson. 

Y act of Congress, ap- 
proved October 31, 1803, 
the President of the Unit- 
ed States was authorized 
to take possession of the 
territory included in the 
Louisiana Purchase, and 
provide for a temporary 
government. By another act of the 
same session, approved March 26, 
1801, the newly acquired country 
was divided, October 1, 1801, into 
the Territory of Orleans, south of 
the thirty-third parallel of north 
latitude, and the District of Louisi- 
ana, which latter was placed under 
the authority of the officers of In- 
diana Territory. 
In 1805 the District of Louisiana was or- 
ganized as a Territory, with a government of its 
own. In 1807 Iowa was included in the Ter- 
ritory of Illinois, and in 1812 in the Territory 
of Missouri. When Missouri was admitted as 
a State, March 2, 1821, Iowa was left a polit- 
ical orphan, until by act of Congress, approved 
June 28, 1834, the Black Hawk purchase hav- 

ing been made, all the territory west of the 
Mississippi and north of the northern boundary 
of Missouri was made a part of Michigan 
Territory. Up to this time there had been no 
county or other organization in what is now the 
State of Iowa, although one or two justices of 
the peace had been appointed and a post-office 
was established at Dubuque in 1833. In Sep- 
tember, 1834, however, the Territorial Legis- 
lature of Michigan created two counties on the 
west side of the Mississippi River, viz.: Du- 
buque and Des Moines, separated by a line 
drawn westward from the foot of Rock Island. 
These counties were partially organized. John 
King was appointed chief justice of Dubuque 
County, and Isaac Leffler, of Burlington, of 
Des Moines County. Two associate justices in 
each county were appointed by the governor. 
On the first Monday in October, 1835, Gen. 
George W. Jones, now a citizen of Dubuque, 
was elected a delegate to Congress from this 
part of Michigan Territory. On the 20th of 
April, 1836, through the efforts of Gen. Jones, 
Congress passed a bill creating the Territory 
of Wisconsin, which went into operation July 
4, 1836, and Iowa was then included in the 


« 4« — ^ 



Territory of Wisconsin, of which Gen. Henry 
Dodge was appointed governor; John S. Hor- 
ner, secretary of the Territory ; Charles Dunn, 
chief justice; David Irwin and William C. 
Frazer, associate justices. 

September 9, 1836, Gov. Dodge ordered the 
census of the new Territory to be taken. This 
census resulted in showing a population of 10,- 
531 in the counties of Dubuque and Des 
Moines. Under the apportionment, these two 
counties were entitled to six members of the 
council and thirteen of the House of Repre- 
sentatives. The governor issued his procla- 
mation for an election to be held on the first 
Monday of October, 1836, on which day the 
following members of the First Territorial 
Legislature of Wisconsin were elected from the 
two counties in the Black Hawk purchase: 

Dubuque County. — Council: John Fally, 
Thomas McKnight, Thos. McCraney. House: 
Loring Wheeler, Hardin Nowlan, Peter Hill 
Engle, Patrick Quigley, Hosea T. Camp. 

Des Moines County. — Council: Jeremiah 
Smith, Jr., Joseph B. Teas, Arthur B. Ingram. 
House: Isaac Leffler, Thomas Blair, Warren 
L. Jenkins, John Box, George W. Teas, Eli 
Reynolds, David B. Chance. 

The first Legislature assembled at Belmont, 
in the present State of Wisconsin, on October 
25, 1836, and was organized by electing Henry 
T. Baird, president of the council, and Peter 
Hill Engle, of Dubuque, speakerof the House. 
It adjourned December 9, 1836. 

The second Legislature assembled at Bur- 
lington, November 10, 1837; adjourned Jan- 
uary 20, 1838. The third session was at Bur- 
lington; commenced June 1, and adjourned 
June 12, 1838. 

During the first session of the Wisconsin 
Territorial Legislature, in 1836, the county 
of Des Moines was divided into Des Moines, 
Lee, Van Buren, Henry, Muscatine and Cook 

(the latter being subsequently changed to 
Scott), and defined their boundaries. Dur- 
ing the second session, out of the territory 
embraced in Dubuque County, were created 
the counties of Dubuque, Clayton, Fayette, Dela- 
ware, Buchanan, Jackson, Jones, Linn, Clinton 
and Cedar, and their boundaries defined, but 
the most of them were not organized until 
several years afterward, under the authority 
of the Territorial Legislature of Iowa. 

The question of a separate territorial organ- 
ization for Iowa, which was then a part of Wis- 
consin Territory, began to be agitated early in 
the autumn of 1837. The wishes of the peo- 
ple found expression in a convention held at 
Burlington on November 1, which memorial- 
ized Congress to organize a territory west of 
the Mississippi, and to settle the boundary 
line between Wisconsin Territory and Mis- 
souri. The Territorial Legislature of Wis- 
consin, then in session at Burlington, joined in 
the petition. Gen. George W. Jones, of Du- 
buque, then residing at Sinsinawa Mound, in 
what is now Wisconsin, was delegate to Con- 
gress from Wisconsin Territory, and labored 
so earnestly and successfully, that " An act to 
divide the Territory of Wisconsin, and to es- 
tablish the Territorial Government of Iowa," 
was approved June 12, 1838, to take effect and 
be in force on and after July 3, 1838. The 
new territory embraced " all that part of the 
present territory of Wisconsin which lies west 
of the Mississippi River, and west of a line 
drawn due north from the head water or sources 
of the Mississippi to the Territorial line." 
The organic act provided for a governor, whose 
term of office should be three years, and for a 
secretary, chief justice, two associate justices, 
and attorney and marshal, who should serve 
four years, to be appointed by the President, 
by and with the advice and consent of the ' 
Senate. The act also provided for the elec- 



tiou, by the white male inhabitants, citizens 
of the United States, over twenty-one years of 
age, of a House of Representatives, consisting 
of twenty-six members, and a council, to con- 
sist of thirteen members. It also appropriated 
$5,000 for a public library, and $20,000 for the 
erection of public buildings. 

President Van Buren appointed Ex-Gov. 
Robert Lucas, of Ohio, to be the first governor 
of the new Territory. William B. Conway, of 
Pittsburgh, was appointed secretary of the Ter- 
ritory; Charles Mason, of Burlington, chief 
justice, and Thomas S. Wilson, of Dubuque, 
and Joseph Williams, of Pennsylvania, asso- 
ciate judges of the supreme and district courts ; 
Mr. Van Allen, of New York, attorney; Fran- 
cis Gehon, of Dubuque, marshal; Augustus C. 
Dodge, register of the land office at Burling- 
ton, and Thomas McKnight, receiver of the 
land office at Dubuque. Mr. Van Allen, the 
district attorney, died at Rockingham soon after 
his appointment, and Col. Charles Weston was 
appointed to fill his vacancy. Mr. Conway, the 
secretary, also died at Burlington, during the 
second session of the Legislature, and James 
Clarke, editor of the Gazette, was appointed to 
succeed him. 

Immediately after his arrival, Gov. Lucas 
issued a proclamation for the election of mem- 
bers of the first Territorial Legislature, to be 
held on the 10th of September, dividing the 
Territory into election districts for that pur- 
pose, and appointing the 12th of November for 
meeting of the Legislature to be elected, at 

The first Territorial Legislature was elected 
in September, and- assembled at Burlington on 
the 12th of November, and consisted of the fol- 
lowing members: 

Council. — Jesse B. Brown, J. Keith, E. A. 
M. Swazey, Arthur Ingrain, Robert Ralston, 
George Hepner, Jesse J. Payne, D. B. Hughes, 

James M. Clark, Charles Whittlesey, Jonathan 
W. Parker, Warner Lewis, Stephen Hemp- 

House. — William Patterson, Hawkins Tay- 
lor, Calvin J. Price, James Brierly, James 
Hall, Gideon S. Bailey, Samuel Parker, James 
W. Grimes, George Temple, Van B. Delash- 
mutt, Thomas Blair, *George H. Beeler, Will- 
iam G. Coop, William H. Wallace, Asbury 
B. Porter, John Frierson, William L. Toole, 
Levi Thornton, S. C. Hastings, Robert G. 
Roberts, Laurel Summers, f Jabez A. Burchard, 
Jr., Chauncey Swan, Andrew Bankson, Thomas 
Cox and Hardin Nowlin. 

Notwithstanding a large majority of the 
members of both branches of the Legislature 
were Democrats, yet Gen. Jesse B. Browne 
(Whig), of Lee County, was elected president 
of the council, and Hon. William H. Wallace 
(Whig), of Henry County, speaker of the 
House of Representatives — the former unani- 
mously and the latter with but little opposition. 
At that time, national politics were little heed- 
ed by the people of the new Territory, but in 
184-0, during the presidential campaign, party 
lines were strongly drawn. 

At the election in September, 1838, for mem- 
bers of the Legislature, a congressional dele- 
gate was also elected. There were four candi- 
dates, viz. : William W. Chapman and David 
Rohrer, of Des Moines County ; B. F. Wallace, 
of Henry County, and P. H. Engle, of Du- 
buque County. Chapman was elected, receiv- 
ing a majority of thirty-six over Engle. 

The first session of the Iowa Territorial 
Legislature was a stormy and exciting one. 
By the organic law the governor was clothed 
with almost unlimited veto power. Governor 

* Cyrus S. Jacobs, who was elected for Des Moines County, was 
killed in an unfortunate encounter at Burlington before the meeting 
of the Legislature, and Mr. Beeler was elected to fill the vacancy. 

t Samuel R. Murray was returned as elected from Clinton 
County, but his seat was successfully contested by Burchard. 




Lucas seemed disposed to make free use of it, 
and the independent Hawkeyes could not quiet- 
ly submit to arbitrary aud absolute rule, 
and the result was an unpleasant controversy 
between the executive and legislative depart- 
ments. Congress, however, by act approved 
March 3, 1839, amended the organic law by 
restricting the veto power of the governor to 
the two-thirds rule, and took from him the 
power to appoint sheriffs and magistrates. 

Among the first important matters demand- 
ing attention was the location of the seat of 
government and provision for the erection of 
public buildings, for which Congress had ap- 
propriated $20,000. Gov. Lucas, in his mes- 
sage, had recommended the appointment of 
commissioners with a view to making a central 
location. The extent of the future State of 
Iowa was not known or thought of. Only on a 
strip of land fifty miles wide, bordering on the 
Mississippi Eiver, was the Indian title extin- 
guished, and a central location meant some cen- 
tral point in the Black Hawk purchase. The 
friends of a central location supported the 
governor's suggestion. The southern members 
were divided between Burlington and Mount 
Pleasant, but finally united on the latter as the 
proper location for the seat of government. The 
central and southern parties were very nearly 
equal, and in consequence, much excitement 
prevailed. The central party at last triumphed, 
and on the 21st day of January, 1839, an act 
was passed, appointing Chauncey Swan, of Du- 
buque County ; John Bonalds, of Louisa Coun- 
ty, and Robert Ralston, of Des Moines County, 
commissioners, to select a site for a permanent 
seat of government within the limits of John- 
son County. 

Johnson County had been created by act of 
the Territorial Legislature of Wisconsin, ap- 
proved December 21, 1837, and organized by 
at the special session at Burlington 

in June, 1838, the organization to date from 
July 4, following. Napoleon, on the Iowa 
River, a few miles below the future Iowa City, 
was designated as the county seat, temporarily. 
Then there existed good reason for locating 
the capital in the county. The Territory of 
Iowa was bounded on the north by the British 
possessions ; east by the Mississippi River to 
its source; thence by a line drawn due north 
to the northern boundary of the United States ; 
south, by the State of Missouri, and west, by 
the Missouri and White Earth Rivers. But 
this immense territory was in undisputed pos- 
session of the Indians, except a strip on the 
Mississippi, known as the Black Hawk Pur- 
chase. Johnson County was, from north 
to south, in the geographical center of this 
purchase, and as near the east and west geo- 
graphical center of the future State of Iowa 
as could then be made, as the boundary line 
between the lands of the United States and 
the Indians, established by the treaty of Oc- 
tober 21, 1837, was immediately west of the 
county limits. 

The commissioners, after selecting the site, 
were directed to'lay out 640 acres into a town, 
to be called Iowa City, and to proceed to sell 
lots and erect public buildings thereon, Con- 
gress having granted a section of land to be 
selected by the Territory for this purpose. The 
commissioners met at Napoleon, Johnson Coun- 
ty, May 1, 1839, selected for a site Section 10, 
in Township 79 north of Range 6 west of the 
Fifth Principal Meridian, and immediately sur- 
veyed it aud laid off the town. The first sale 
of lots took place August 16, 1839. The site 
selected for-the public buildings was a little 
west of the geographical center of the section, 
where a square of ten acres on the elevated 
grounds overlooking the river was reserved 
for the purpose. The capitol is located in the 
center of this square. The second Territorial 


Legislature, which assembled in November, 
1839, passed an act requiring the commission- 
ers to adopt such plan for the building tbat the 
aggregate cost when complete should not ex- 
ceed $51,000, and if they had already adopted a 
plan involving a greater expenditure they were 
directed to abandon it. Plans for the building 
were designed and drawn by Mr. John F. 
Eague, of Springfield, 111., and on the 1th day 
of July, 1810, the corner-stone of the edifice was 
laid with appropriate ceremonies. Samuel C. 
Trowbridge was mai'shal of the day, and Gov. 
Lucas delivered the address on that occasion. 

When the Legislature assembled at Burling- 
ton in special session, July 13, 1810, Gov. 
Lucas announced that on the 1th of that month 
he had visited Iowa City, and found the base- 
ment of the capitol nearly completed. A bill 
authorizing a loan of $20,000 for the build- 
ing was passed January 15, 1811, the unsold 
lots of Iowa City being the security offered, 
but only $5,500 was obtained under the act. 

The boundary line between the Territory of 
Iowa and the State of Missouri was a difficult 
question to settle in 1838, in consequence of 
claims arising from taxes and titles, and at one 
time civil war was imminent. In defining the 
boundaries of the counties bordering on Mis- 
souri, the Iowa authorities had fixed a line that 
has since been established as the boundary be- 
tween Iowa and Missouri. The constitution of 
Missouri defined her northern boundary to be 
the parallel of latitude which passes through 
the rapids of the Des Moines River. The lower 
rapids of the Mississippi immediately above 
the mouth of the Des Moines River had always 
been known as the Des Moines Rapids, or "the 
rapids of the Des Moines River." The Mis- 
sourians (evidently not well versed in history 
or geography) insisted on running the north- 
ern boundary line from the rapids in the Des 
Moines River, just below Keosauqua, thus tak- 

ing from Iowa a strip of territory eight or ten 
miles wide. Assuming this as her northern 
boundary line, Missouri attempted to exercise 
jurisdiction over the disputed territory by as- 
sessing taxes, and sending her sheriffs to col- 
lect them by distraining the personal property 
of the settlers. The Iowans, however, were 
not disposed to submit, and the Missouri offi- 
cials were arrested by the sheriffs of Davis and 
Van Buren Counties and confined in jail. Gov. 
Boggs, of Missouri, called out his militia to 
enforce the claim and sustain the officers of 
Missouri. Gov. Lucas called out the militia of 
Iowa, and both parties made active prepara- 
tions for war. In Iowa, about 1,200 men were 
enlisted, and 500 were actually armed and en- 
camped in Van Buren County, ready to defend 
the integrity of the Territory. Subsequently, 
Gen. A. C. Dodge, of Burlington, Gen. Church- 
man, of Dubuque, and Dr. Clark, of Fort Madi- 
son, were sent to Missouri as envoys plenipo- 
tentiary, to effect, if possible, a peaceable 
adjustment of the difficulty. Upon their ar- 
rival they found that the county commissionei's 
of Clark County, Mo., had rescinded their order 
tor the collection of the taxes, and that Gov. 
Boggs had despatched messengers to the gov- 
ernor of Iowa proposing to submit an agreed 
case to the Supreme Court of the United States 
for the final settlement of the boundai-y ques- 
tion. This proposition was declined, but after- 
ward Congress authorized a suit to settle the 
controversy, which was instituted, and which 
resulted in a judgment for Iowa. Under this 
decision, William G. Miner, of Missouri, and 
Henry B. Hendershott were appointed commis- 
sion ers to survey and establish the boundary. 
The expenses of the war on the part of Iowa 
were never paid, either by the United States or 
the Territorial Government. The patriots who 
furnished supplies to the troops had to bear 
the cost and charges of the struggle. 




Era op Settlement— Dubuque and his Party of Miners — The Settlements op Honori and op Giard- 
English Pioneers Throughout the Territory— Efforts of Mr. Longworthy — Code op Laws for 
the Government op the Dubuque Miners — Forcible Removal of the Dubuque Set- 
tlers—The Lead Mines— Settlement op the Black Hawk Purchase — The 
First of Many Things— Pioneers at the Bluffs. 

For just experience tells in every soil, 

That those who think, must govern those who toil. 


'HE first permanent settle- 
ment by the whites within 
the limits of Iowa was 
made by Julien Dubuque, 
in 1788, when, with a 
small party of miners, he 
settled on the site of the 
city that now bears his name, 
where he lived until his death, 
in 1810. Louis Honori settled 
on the site of _ the present town 
of Montrose, probably in 1799, 
and resided there until 1805, 
when his property passed into 
other hands. Of the Giard set- 
tlement, opposite Prairie du 
Chien, little is known, except that it was occu- 
pied by some parties prior to the commence- 
ment of the present century, and contained 
three cabins in 1805. Indian traders, although 
not strictly to be considered settlers, had es- 
tablished themselves at various points at an 
early date. A Mr. Johnson, agent of the Amer- 
ican Fur Company, had a trading post below 

Burlington, where he carried on traffic with the 
Indians some time before the United States 
possessed the country. In 1820 Le Moliese, a 
French trader, had a station at what is now 
Sandusky, six miles above Keokuk, in Lee 
County. In 1829 Dr. Isaac Gallaud made a 
settlement on the Lower Rapids, at what is now 

The first settlement in Lee County was made 
in 1820, by Dr. Samuel C. Muir, a surgeon in 
the United States Army, who had been stationed 
at Fort Edwards, now Warsaw, 111., and who 
built a cabin where the city of Keokuk now 
stands. Dr. Muir was a man of strict integrity 
and irreproachable character. While stationed 
at a military post on the Upper Mississippi, he 
had married an Indian woman of the Fox na- 
tion. Of his marriage, the following romantic 
account is given: 

The post at which he was stationed was visited by a 
beautiful Indian maiden — whose native name, unfor- 
tunately, has not been preserved — who, in her dreams, 
had seen a white brave unmoor his ranoe. paddle it across 
the river and come directly to her lodge. She felt as- 
sured, according to the superstitious belief of her race, 




that, in her dreams, she had seen her future husband, and 
had come to the fort to find him. MeetiDg Dr. Muir, she 
instantly recognized him as the hero of her dream, which, 
with childlike innocence and simplicity, she related to 
him. Her dream was. indeed, prophetic. Charmed with 
Sophia's beauty, innocence and devoti in, the Doctor 
honorably married her. but after a while, the sneers and 
gibes of his brother officers— less honorable than he. per- 
haps—made him feel ashamed of his dark-skinned wife, 
and when his regiment was ordered down the river, to 
Bellefontaine, it is said he embraced the opportunity to 
rid himself of her, and left her, never expecting to see her 
again, and little dreaming that she would have the courage 
to follow him. But.with her infant child, this intrepid wife 
and mother started alone in her canoe, and, after many 
days of weary labor and a lonely journey of 900 miles, 
she, at last, reached him. She afterward remarked, when 
speaking of this toilsome journey down the river in search 
of her husband, " When I got there I was all perished 
away — so thin! " The Doctor, touched by such unexam- 
pled devotion, took her to his heart, and ever after, until 
his death, treated her with marked respect. She always 
presided at his table with grace and dignity, but never 
abandoned her native style of dress. In 1819-30 he was 
stationed at Fort Edward, but the senseless ridicule of 
some of his brother officers, on account of his Indian wife, 
induced him to resign his commission. 

After building his cabin, as above stated, he leased his 
claim for a term of years to Otis Reynolds and John Cul- 
ver, of St. Louis, and went to La Pointe, afterward Ga- 
lena, where he practiced his profession for ten years, when 
he returned to Keokuk. His Indian wife bore to him four 
children: Louise (married at Keokuk, since dead), James 
(drowned at Keokuk), Mary and Sophia. Dr. Muir died 
suddenly of cholera, in 1832, but left his property in such 
condition that it was soon wasted in vexatious litigation, 
and his brave and faitliful wife, left friendless and penni- 
less, became discouraged, and, with her children, disap- 
peared, and, it is said, returned to her people on the Up- 
per Missouri. 

Messrs. Reynolds & Culver, who had leased 
Dr. Muir's claim at Keokuk, subsequently em- 
ployed as their agent Mr. Moses Stillwell, who 
arrived with his family in 1828, and took pos- 
session of Muir's cabin. His brothers-in-law, 
Amos and Valencourt Van Ansdal, came with 
him and settled near. 

His daughter, Margaret Stillwell (afterward 
Mrs. Ford), was born in 1831, at tbe foot of 
the rapids, called by the Indians Puch-a-she- 
tuck, where Keokuk now stands. She was 

probably the first white American child born 
in Iowa. 

In 1831 Mr. Johnson, agent of the Ameri- 
can Fur Company, who had a station at the 
foot of the rapids, removed to another location, 
and, Dr. Muir having returned from Galena, 
he and Isaac R. Campbell took "the place and 
buildings vacated by the company, and carried 
on trade with the Indians and half-breeds. 
Campbell, who had first visited and traveled 
through the southern part of Iowa, in 1821, 
was an enterprising settler, and besides trading 
with the natives, carried on a farm and kept a 

In 1830 James L. and Lucius H. Langworthy, 
brothers, and natives of Vermont, visited the 
Territory for the purpose of working the lead 
mines at Dubuque. They had been engaged 
in lead mining at Galena, 111., the former from 
as early as 1824. The lead mines in the Du- 
buque region were an object of great interest 
to the miners about Galena, for they were 
known to be rich in lead ore. To explore these 
mines, and to obtain permission to work them, 
was therefore eminently desirable. 

In 1829 James L. Langworthy resolved to 
visit the Dubuque mines. Crossing the Mis- 
sissippi at a point now known as Dunleith, in 
a canoe, and swimming his horse by his side, 
he landed on the spot now known as Jones 
Street Levee. Before him spread out a beau- 
tiful prairie, on which the city of Dubuque 
stands. Two miles south, at the mouth of 
Catfish Creek, was a village of Sacs and Foxes. 
Thither Mr. Langworthy proceeded, and was 
well received by the natives. He endeavored 
to obtain permission from them to mine in 
their hills, but this they refused. He, how- 
ever, succeeded in gaining the confidence of 
the chief to such an extent as to be allowed to 
travel in the interior for three weeks and ex- 
plore the country. He employed two young 




Indians as guides, and traversed in different 
directions the whole region lying between the 
Maquoketa and Turkey Rivers. He returned 
to the village, secured the good-will of the 
Indians, and, returning to Galena, formed plans 
for future operations, to be executed as soon as 
circumstances would permit. 

In 1830, with his brother, Lucius H., and 
others, having obtained the consent of the In- 
dians, Mr. Langworthy crossed the Mississippi 
and commenced mining in the vicinity around 

At this time the lands were not in the act- 
ual possession of the United States. Although 
they had been purchased from France, the In- 
dian title had not been extinguished, and these 
adventurous persons were beyond the limits of 
any State or Territorial government. The first 
settlers were therefore obliged to be 'their own 
law-makers, and to agree to such regulations 
as the exigencies of the case demanded. The 
first act resembling civil legislation within the 
limits of the present State of Iowa was done by 
the miners at this point, in June, 1830. They 
met on the bank of the river, by the side of an 
old cottonwood drift log, at what is now the 
Jones Street Levee, Dubuque, and elected a 
committee, consisting of J. L. Langworthy, H. 
F. Lander, James McPhetres, Samuel Scales 
and E. M. Wren. This may be called the first 
Legislature in Iowa, the members of which 
gathered around that old cottonwood log, and 
agreed to and reported the following, written 
by Mr. Langworthy, on a half sheet of coarse, 
unruled paper, the old log being the writing 

We. a Committee having been chosen to draft certain 
rules and regulations (laws) by which we as miners will 
be governed, and having duly considered the subject, do 
unanimously agree that we will be governed by the regu- 
lations on the east side of the Mississippi River,* with the 
following exceptions, to wit: 

Article I. That each and every man shall hold 200 
yards square of ground by working said ground one day 
in six. 

Article II. We further agree that there shall be 
chosen, by the majority of the miners present, a person 
who shall hold this article, and who shall grant letters of 
arbitration on application having been made, and that 
said letters of arbitration shall be obligatory on "the par- 
ties so applying. 

The report was accepted by the miners pres- 
ent, who elected Dr. Jai - ote, in accordance with 
Article 2. Here, then, in 1830, was a primi- 
tive Legislature elected by the people, the law 
drafted by it being submitted to the people for 
approval, and under it Dr. Jarote was elected 
first governor within the limits of the present 
State of Iowa. And it is to be said that the 
laws thus enacted were as promptly obeyed, 
and the acts of the executive officer thus elected 
as duly respected, as any have been since. 

The miners who had thus erected an inde- 
pendent government of their own on the west 
side of the Mississippi River continued to work 
successfully for a long time, and the new set- 
tlement attracted considerable attention. But 
the west side of the Mississippi belonged to 
the Sac and Fox Indians, and the Government, 
in order to preserve ji>eace on the frontier, as 
well as to protect the Indians in their rights 
under the treaty, ordered the settlers not only 
to stop mining, but to remove from the Indian 
territory. They were simply intruders. The 
execution of this order was entrusted to Col. 
Zachary Taylor, then in command of the mili- 
tary post at Prairie du Chien, who, early in 
July, sent an officer to the miners with orders 
to forbid settlement, and to command the 
miners to remove within ten days to the east 
side of the Mississippi, or they would be driven 
off by armed force. The miners, however, 
were reluctant about leaving the rich "leads" 
they had already discovered and opened, and 
were not disposed to obey the order to remove 
with any considerable degree of alacrity. In 


due time, Col. Taylor dispatched a detachment 
of troops to enforce his order. The miners, 
anticipating their arrival, had, excepting three, 
recrossed the river, and from the east bank saw 
the troops land on the western shore. The 
three who had lingered a little too long were, 
however, permitted to make their escape un- 
molested. From this time, a military force 
was stationed at Dubuque to prevent the set- 
tlers from returning, until June, 1832. The 
Indians returned, and were encouraged to 
operate the rich mines opened by the late white 

In June, 1832, the troops were ordered to 
the east side to assist in the annihilation of the 
very Indians whose rights they had been pro- 
tecting on the west side. Immediately after 
the close of the Black Hawk War, and the 
negotiations of the treaty in September, 1832, 
by which the Sacs and Foxes ceded to the 
United States the tract known as the "Black 
Hawk Purchase," the settlers, supposing that 
now they had a right to re-enter the territory, 
returned and took possession of their claims, 
built cabins, erected furnaces and prepared 
large quantities of lead for market. Dubuque 
was becoming a noted place ou the river, but 
the prospects of the hardy and enterprising 
settlers and miners were again ruthlessly inter- 
fered with by the Government, on the ground 
that the treaty with the Indians would not go 
into force until June 1, 1833, although they had 
withdrawn from the vicinity of the settlement. 
Col. Taylor was again ordered by the War De- 
partment to remove the miners, and in Janu- 
ary, 1833, troops were again sent from Prairie 
du Chien to Dubuque for that purpose. This 
was a serious and perhaps unnecessary hard- 
ship imposed upon the settlers. They were 
compelled to abandon their cabins and homes 
in mid-winter. It must now be said, simply, 
that "red tape" should be respected. The 

purchase had been made, the treaty ratified, or 
was sure to be; the Indians had retired, and, 
after the lapse of nearly fifty years, no very 
satisfactory reason for this rigorous action of 
the Government can be given. 

But the orders had been given, and there 
was no alternative but to obey. Many of the 
settlers recrossed the river, and did not return ; 
a few, however, removed to an island near the 
east bank of the river, built rude cabins of 
poles, in which to store their lead until spring, 
when they could float the fruits of their labor to 
St. Louis for sale, and where they could re- 
main until the treaty went into force, when 
they could return. Among these were James 
L. Langworthy and his brother, Lucius, who 
had on hand about 300,000 pounds of lead. 

Lieut. Covington, who had been placed in 
command at Dubuque by Col. Taylor, ordered 
some of the cabins of the settlers to be torn 
down, and wagons and other property to be 
destroyed. This wanton and inexcusable action 
on the part of a subordinate clothed with a 
little brief authority was sternly rebuked by 
Col. Taylor, and Covington was superseded by 
Lieut. George Wilson, who pursued a just and 
friendly course with the pioneers, who were 
only waiting for the time when they could re- 
possess their claims. 

June 1, 1833, the treaty formally went into 
effect, the troops were withdrawn, and the 
Langworthy brothers and a few others at once 
returned and resumed possession of their home 
claims and mineral prospects, and from this 
time the first permanent settlement of this por- 
tion of Iowa must date. Mr. John P. Sheldon 
was appointed superintendent of the mines by 
the Government, and a system of permits to 
miners and licenses to smelters was adopted, 
similar to that which had been in operation 
at Galena since 1825, under Leut. Martin 
Thomas and Capt. Thomas C. Legate. Sub- 




stantially the primitive law enacted by the 
miners assembled around that old cottonwoocl 
drift log in 1830 was adopted and enforced by 
the United States Government, except that 
miners were required to sell their mineral to 
licensed smelters and the smelter]was required 
to give bonds for the payment of six per cent 
of all lead manufactured to the Government. 
This was the same rule adopted in the United 
States mines on Fever Kiver in Illinois, except 
that, until 1830, the Illinois miners were com- 
pelled to pay 10 per cent tax. This tax upon 
the miners created much dissatisfaction among 
the miners on the west side, as it had on 
the east side of the Mississippi. They thought 
they had suffered hardships and privations 
enough in opening the way for civilization, 
without being subjected to the imposition of 
an odious government tax upon their means of 
subsistence, when the Federal Government 
could better afford to aid than to extort from 
them. The measure soon became unpopular. 
It was difficult to collect the taxes, and the 
whole system was abolished in about ten years. 
During 1833, after the Indian title was 
fully extinguished, about 500 people arrived 
at the mining district, about 150 of them from 

In tbe same year Mr. Langworthy assisted 
in building the first school-house in Iowa, and 
thus was formed tbe nucleus of the now popu- 
lous and thriving city of Dubuque. Mr. 
Langworthy lived to see the naked prairie on 
which he first landed become the site of a city 
of 15,000 inhabitants, the small school-house 
wbich he aided in constructing replaced by 
three substantial edifices, wherein 2,000 chil- 
dren were being trained, churches erected in 
every part of the city, and railroads connecting 
the wilderness which he first explored with all 
the eastern world. He died suddenly on 
March 13, 1865, while on a trip over the Du- 

buque & Southwestern Railroad, at Monticello, 
and the evening train brought the news of his 
death and his remains. 

Lucius H. Langworthy, his brother, was 
one of the most worthy, gifted and influential 
of the old settlers of this section of Iowa. He 
died, greatly lamented by many friends, in 
June, 1865. 

Tbe name Dubuque was given to the set- 
tlement by tbe miners at a meeting held in 

In 1832 Capt. James "White made a claim 
on the present site of Montrose. In 1834 a 
military post was established at this point and 
a garrison of cavalry was stationed here, 
under tbe command of Col. Stephen W. Kear- 
ney. The soldiers were removed from this 
post to Fort Leavenworth, Kas., in 1837. 

During the same year, 1832, soon after tbe 
close of the Black Hawk War, Zachariah Haw- 
kins, Benjamin Jennings, Aaron White, Au- 
gustine Horton, Samuel Goocb, Daniel Thomp- 
son and Peter Williams made claims at Fort 
Madison. In 1833 these claims were pur- 
chased by John and Nathaniel Knapp, upon 
which, in 1835, they laid out the town. The 
next summer, lots were sold. The town was 
subsequently resurveyed and platted by the 
United States Goverment. 

At the close of the Black Hawk War, par- 
ties who had been impatiently looking across 
upon "Flint Hills," now Burlington, came over 
from Illinois and made claims. The first was 
Samuel S. White, in the fall of 1832, who 
erected a cabin on the site of the city of Bur- 
lington. About the same time, David Tothero 
made a claim on the prairie about three miles 
back from the river, at a place since known as 
the farm of Judge Morgan. In the winter of 
that year they were driven off by the military 
from Bock Island, as intruders upon the rights 
of the Indians, and White's cabin was burned 



by the soldiers. He retired to Illinois, where 
he spent the winter, and in the summer, as soon 
as the Indian title was extinguished, returned 
and rebuilt his cabin. White was joined by 
his brother-in-law, Doolittle, and they laid out 
the original town of Burlington in 1834. 

All along the river borders of the Black 
Hawk Purchase settlers were nocking into 
Iowa. Immediately after the treaty with the 
Sacs and Foxes, in September, 1832, Col. 
George Davenport made the first claim on the 
spot where the thriving city of Davenport now 
stands. As early as 1827, Col. Davenport had 
established a flat-boat ferry, which ran be- 
tween the island and the main shore of Iowa, 
by which he carried on a trade with the In- 
dians west of the Mississippi. In 1833 Capt. 
Benjamin W. Clark moved across from Illi- 
nois, and laid the foundation of the town of 
Buffalo, in Scott County, which was the first 
actual settlement within the limits of that 
county. Among other early settlers in this part 
of the Territory were Adrian H. Davenport, Col. 
John Sullivan, Mulligan and Franklin Easly, 
Capt. John Coleman, J. M. Camp, William 
White, H. W. Higgins, Cornelius Harrold, 
Richard Harrison, E. H. Shepherd and Dr. E. 
S. Barrows. 

The first settlers of Davenport were Antoine 
Le Claire, Col. George Davenport, Maj. Thom- 
as Smith, Maj. William Gordon, Philip Ham- 
bough, Alexander W. McGregor, Levi S. Col- 
ton, Capt. James May and others. Of Antoine 
Le Claire, as the representative of the two races 
of men who at this time occupied Iowa, Hon. 
C. C. Nourse, in his admirable Centennial ad- 
dress, says: "Antoine Le Claire was born at St. 
Joseph, Michigan, in 1797. His father was 
French, his mother a grand-daughter of a Pot- 
tawattamie chief. In 1818 he acted as official 
interpreter to Col. Davenport, at Fort Arm- 
strong (now Rock Island). He was well ac- 

quainted with a dozen Indian dialects, and was 
a man of strict integrity and great energy. In 
18?0 he married the grand-daughter of a Sac 
chief. The Sac and Fox Indians reserved for 
him and his wife two sections of land in the 
treaty of 1833, one at the town of Le Claire 
and one at Davenport. The Pottawattamies, 
in the treaty of Prairie du Chien, also re- 
served for him two sections of land at the 
present site of Moline, 111. He received the 
appointment of postmaster and justice of the 
peace in the Black Hawk Purchase at an early 
day. In 1833 he bought for $100 a claim 
on the land upon which the original town of 
Davenport was surveyed and platted in 1836. 
In 1836 Le Claire built the hotel, known since, 
with its valuable addition, as the Le Claire 
House. He died September 25, 1861. 

In Clayton County the first settlement was 
made in the spring of 1832, on Turkey River, 
by Robert Hatfield and William W. Wayman. 
No further settlement was made in this part of 
the State till the beginning of 1836. 

In that portion now known as Muscatine 
County, settlements were made in 1834, by Ben- 
jamin Nye, John Vanater and G. W. Kasey, who 
were the first settlers. E. E. Fay, William St. 
John, N. Fullington, H. Reece, Jona Pettibone, 
R. P. Lowe, Stephen Whicber, Abijah Whit- 
ing, J. E. Fletcher, W. D. Abernethy and Alexis 
Smith were early settlers of Muscatine. 

During the summer of 1835 William Ben- 
nett and his family, from Galena, built the first 
cabin within the preseut limits of Delaware 
County, in some timber since known as Eads' 

The first post-office in Iowa was established 
at Dubuque in 1833. Milo H. Prentice was 
appointed postmaster. 

The first justice of the peace was Antoine 
Le Claire, appointed in 1833, as " a very suita- 
ble person to adjust the difficulties between the 


\ <3_ 



white settlers and the Indians still remaining 

The first Methodist society in the Territory 
was formed at Dubuque on the 18th of May, 
1834, and the first class meeting was held June 
1st of that year. 

The first church bell brought into Iowa was 
in March, 1834. 

The first mass of the Eoman Catholic 
Church in the Territory was celebrated at Du- 
buque, in the house of Patrick Quigley, in the 
fall of 1833. 

The first school-house in the Territory was 
erected by the Dubuque miners in 1833. 

The first Sabbath-school was organized at 
Dubuque early in the summer of 1834. 

The first woman who came to this part of the 
Territory, with a view to permanent residence, 
was Mrs. Noble F. Dean, in the fall of 1832. 

The first family that lived in this part of 
Iowa, was that of Hosea T. Camp, in 1832. 

The first meeting-house was built by the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, at Dubuque, in 

The first newspaper in Iowa was the Du- 
buque' Visitor, issued May 11, 1836. John 
King, afterward Judge King, was editor, and 
William C. Jones, printer. 

The pioneers of Iowa, as a class, were brave, 
hardy, intelligent and enterprising people. 

As early as 1824, a French trader named 
Hart had established a trading post, and built 
a cabin on the bluffs above the large spring 
now known as "Mynster Spring," within 
the limits of the present city of Council Bltiffs, 
and had probably been there some time, as the 
post was known to the employes of the Ameri- 
can Fur Company as Lacote de Hart, or Hart's 
Bluff. In 1827 an agent of the American Fur 
Company, Francis Guittar, with others, en- 
camped in the timber at the foot of the bluffs, 
about on the present location of Broadway, and 

afterward settled there. In 1839 a block- 
house was built on the bluff in the east part of 
the city. The Pottawattamie Indians occupied 
this part of the State until 1846-47, when they 
relinquished the territory and moved to Kan- 
sas. Billy Caldwell was then principal chief. 
There were no white settlers in that part of the 
State except Indian traders, until the arrival 
of the Mormons under the lead of Brigham 
Toung. These people on their way westward 
halted for the winter of 1846-47 on the west 
bank of the Missouri Biver, about five miles 
above Omaha, at a place now called Florence. 
Some of them had reached the eastern bank of 
the river the spring before, in season to plant 
a crop. In the spring of 1847 Toung and a 
portion of the colony pursued their journey to 
Salt Lake, but a large portion of them returned 
to the Iowa side and settled mainly within the 
limits of Pottawattamie County. The princi- 
pal settlement of this strange community was 
at a place first called " Miller's Hollow," on 
Indian Creek, and afterward named Kanesville, 
in honor of Col. Kane, of Pennsylvania, who 
visited them soon afterward. The Mormon 
settlement extended over the county and into 
neighboring counties, wherever timber and 
water furnished desirable locations. Orson 
Hyde, priest, lawyer and editor, was installed 
as president of the Quorum of Twelve, and all 
that part of the State remained under Mormon 
control for several years. In 1846 they raised 
a battalion, numbering some 500 men, for the 
Mexican War. In 1848 Hyde started a paper 
called the Frontier Guardian, at Kanesville. 
In 1849, after many of the faithful had left to 
join Brigham Young, at Salt Lake, the Mor- 
mons in this section of Iowa numbered 6,552, 
and in 1850, 7,828, but they were not all within 
the limits of Pottawattamie County. This 
county was organized in 1848, all the first offi- 
cials being Mormons. In 1852 the order was 




promulgated that all the true believers should 
gather together at Salt Lake. Gentiles flocked 
in, and in a few years nearly all the first 
settlers were gone. 

May 9, 1843, Capt. James Allen, with a 
small detachment of troops on board the 
steamer lone, arrived at the present site of the 
capital of the State — Des Moines. The lone 
was the first steamer to ascend the Des Moines 
River to this point. The troops and stores 
were landed at what is now the foot of Court 
Avenue, Des Moines, and Capt. Allen returned 
in the steamer to Fort Sanford to arrange for 
bringing up more soldiers and supplies. In 
due time they, too, arrived, and a fort was 
built near the mouth of Raccoon Fork, at its 
confluence with the Des Moines, and named 
Fort Des Moines. Soon after the arrival of 
the troops a trading post was established on 
the east side of the river, by two noted Indian 
traders named Ewing, from Ohio. 

Among the first settlers in this part of Iowa 
were Benjamin Bryant, J. B. Scott, James 
Drake (gunsmith), John Sturtevant, Robert 
Kinzie, Alexander Turner, Peter Newcomer 
and others. The Western States have been 
settled by many of the best and most enter- 
prising men of the older States, and a large 
immigration of the best blood of the Old World, 

who, removing to an arena of larger opportu- 
nities, in a more fertile soil and congenial 
climate, have developed a spirit and an energy 
peculiarly Western. In no country on the 
globe have enterprises of all kinds been pushed 
forward with such rapidity, or has there been 
such independence and freedom of competion. 
Among those who have pioneered the civiliza- 
tion of the West, and been the founders of 
great States, none have ranked higher in the 
scale of intelligence and moral worth than the 
pioneers of Iowa, who came to the Territory 
when it was an Indian country, and through 
hardship, privation and suffering, laid the 
foundations of the populous and prosperous 
commonwealth which to-day dispenses its 
blessings to 10,000,000 people. From her 
first settlement and from her first organization 
as a Territory to the present clay, Iowa has had 
able men to manage her affairs, wise statesmen 
to shape her destiny and frame her laws, and 
intelligent and impartial jurists to administer 
justice to her citizens;- her bar, pulpit and 
press have been able and widely influential; 
and in all the professions, arts, enterprises and 
industries which go to make up a great and 
prosperous commonwealth, she has taken and 
holds a front rank among her sister States of 
the West. 




Organization op the State— Proceedings of the Constitutional Conventions — Election and Seating op the 

First State Officers— Meeting of the First General Assembly — Construction of Public 

Buildings— Change of Location of the Seat of Government. 


Men who their duties know, 
But know their rights, and knowing, dare maintain — Sir W. Jones. 

N act of the Territorial 
Legislature of Iowa, ap- 
proved on February 12, 
1844, submitted to the 
people, to be voted upon 
at their township elec- 
tions in April following, 
the question of the formation of a 
State constitution, and provided for 
the election of delegates to a con- 
vention to be convened for that pur- 
pose. The vote was largely in favor 
of the measure, and the delegates 
elected assembled in convention at 
Iowa City, on the 7th of October, 1844. On the 
1st of November following, the convention com- 
pleted its work and adopted the first State con- 

The president of the convention, Hon. Shep- 
herd Leffler, was instructed to transmit a cer- 
tified copy of this constitution to the delegate 
in Congress, to be by him submitted to that 
body at the earliest practicable day. It was 
also provided that it should be submitted, 
together with any conditions or changes that 
might be made by Congress, to the people of 

the Territory, for their approval or rejection, 
at the township election in April, 1845. 

The boundaries of the State, as defined by 
this constitution, were as follows: 

Beginning in the middle of the channel of the .Missis- 
sippi River, opposite mouth of the Des Moines River; 
thence up the said river Des Moines, in the middle of the 
main channel thereof, to a point where it is intersected 
by the Old Indian Boundary line, or line run by John C. 
Sullivan, in the year 181(5; thence westwardly along said 
line to the "old" northwest corner of Missouri; thence due 
west to the middle of the main channel of the Missouri 
River; thence up in the middle of the main channel of the 
river last mentioned to the mouth of the Sioux or Calumet 
River; thence in a direct line to the middle of the main 
channel of the St. Peters River, where the Watonwan 
River — according to Nicollet's map — enters the same; 
thence down the middle of the main channel of said river 
to the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi River; 
thence down the middle of the main channel of said 
river to the place of beginning. 

These boundaries were rejected by Congress, 
but by act approved March 3, 1845, a State 
called Iowa was admitted into the Union, pro- 
vided the people accepted the act, bounded as 
follows : 

Beginning at the mouth of the Des Moines River, at the 
middle of the Mississippi; thence by the middle of the 
channel of that river to a parallel of latitude passing 
through the mouth of the Mankato or Blue Earth River; 
thence west, along said parallel of latitude, to a point 




where it is intersected by a meridian line 17° and 30' west 
of the meridian of Washington City; thence due south, to 
the northern boundary line of the State of Missouri ; thence 
eastwardly, following that boundary to the point at which 
the same intersects the Des Moines River; thence by the 
middle of the channel of that river to the place of begin- 

These boundaries, had they been accepted' 
would have placed the northern boundary of 
the State about thirty miles north of its present 
location, and would have deprived it of the Mis- 
souri slope and the boundary of that river. The 
western boundai-y would have been near the west 
line of what is now Kossuth County. But it was 
not so to be. In consequence of this radical 
and unwelcome change in the boundaries, the 
people refused to accept the act of Congress 
and rejected the constitution at the election, 
held August 4, 1845, by a vote of 7,656 to 7,235. 
A second constitutional convention assem- 
bled at Iowa City on the 4th of May, 1846, 
and on the 18th of the same month another 
constitution for the new State with the present 
boundaries was adopted and submitted to the 
people for ratification on the 3d day of August 
following, when it was accepted; 9,492 votes 
were cast " for the constitution," and 9,036 
" against the constitution." The constitution 
•was approved by Congress, and by act of Con- 
gress, approved December 28, 1846, Iowa was 
admitted as a sovereign State in the American 

Prior to this action of Congress, however, 
the people of the new State held an election 
under the new constitution on the 26th of 
October, and elected Ansel Briggs, governor; 
Elisha Cutler, Jr., secretary of State; Joseph 
T. Fales, auditor; Morgan Beno, treasurer; 
and members of the Senate and House of Bep- 

At this time there were twenty-seven organ- 
ized counties in the State, with a population of 
nearly 100,000, and the frontier settlements 

were rapidly pushing toward the Missouri 
Biver. The Mormons had already reached 

The first General Assembly of the State of 
Iowa was composed of nineteen senators and 
forty representatives. It assembled at Iowa 
City, November 30, 1846, about a month before 
the State was admitted into the Union. 

At the first session of the State Legislature 
the treasurer of State reported that the cap- 
itol building was in a very exposed condi- 
tion, liable to injury from storms, and ex- 
pressed the hope that some provision would be 
made to complete it, at least sufficiently to pro- 
tect it from the weather. The General As- 
sembly responded by appropriating $2,500 for 
the completion of the public buildings. At 
the first session also arose the question of the 
relocation of the capital. The western bound- 
ary of the State, as now determined, left Iowa 
City too far toward the eastern and southern 
boundary of the State; this was conceded. 
Congress had appropriated five sections of land 
for the erection of public buildings, and toward 
the close of the session a bill was introduced 
providing for the relocation of the seat of 
government, involving to some extent the loca- 
tion of the State University, which had already 
been discussed. This bill gave rise to a deal 
of discussion and parliamentary maneuvering, 
almost purely sectional in its character. It 
provided for the appointment of three commis- 
sioners, who were authorized to make a loca- 
tion as near the geographical center of the 
State as a healthy and eligible site could be 
obtained; to select the five sections of land do- 
nated by Congress; to survey and plat into 
town lots not exceeding one section of the land 
so selected ; to sell lots at public sale, not to 
exceed two in each block. Having done this, 
they were then required to suspend further 
operations, and make a report of their pro- 




ceedings to the governor. The bill 
both houses by decisive votes, received the 
signature of the governor, and became a law. 
Soon after, by "An act to locate and establish 
a State University, 1 " approved February 25, 
1847, the unfinished public buildings at Iowa 
City, together with the ten acres of land on 
which they were situated, were granted for the 
use of the University, reserving their use, how- 
ever, by the General Assembly and the State 
officers, until other provisions were made by law. 

The commissioners forthwith entered upon 
their duties, and selected four sections and two 
half sections' in Jasper County. Two of these 
sections are in what is now Des Moines Town- 
ship, and the others in Fairview Township, in 
the southern part of that county. These lands 
ai - e situated between Prairie City and Monroe, 
on the Keokuk & Des Moines Railroad, which 
runs diagonally through them. Here a town 
was platted, called Monroe City, and a sale of 
lots took place. Four hundred and fifteen lots 
were sold, at prices that were not considered 
remarkably remunerative. The cash payments 
(one-fourth) amounted to $1,797.43, while the 
expenses of the sale and the claims of the com- 
missioners for services amounted to $2,206.57. 
The commissioners made a report of their pro- 
ceedings to the governor, as required by law, 
but the location was generally condemned. 

When the report of the commissionei - s, show- 
ing this brilliant financial operation, had been 
read in the House of Representatives, at the 
next session, and while it was under considera- 
tion, an indignant member, afterward known 
as the eccentric Judge McFarland, moved to 
refer the report to a select committee of five, 
with instructions 'to report " how much of said 
city of Monroe was under water and how much 
was burned." The report was referred, with- 
out the instructions, however, biit Mom-oe 
City never became the seat of government. 

By an act approved January 15, 1849, the law 
by which the location had been made was re- 
pealed and the new town was vacated, the 
money paid by purchasers of lots being re- 
funded to them. This, of course, retained the 
seat of government at Iowa City, and pre- 
cluded, for the time, the occupation of the 
building and grounds by the university. 

At the same session, $3,000 more was ap- 
propriated for completing the State building 
at Iowa City. In 1852 the further sum of 
$5,000, and in 1854 $4,000 more was appro- 
priated for the same purpose, making the 
whole cost $123,000, paid partly by the Gen- 
eral Government and partly by the State, but 
principally from the proceeds of the sale of 
lots in Iowa City. 

But the question of the permanent location 
of the seat of government was not settled, and 
in 1851 bills were introduced for the removal 
of the capital to Pella and to Fort Des Moines. 
The latter appeared to have the support of the 
majority, but was finally lost in the House on 
the question of ordering it to its third reading. 

At the next session, in 1853, a bill was in- 
troduced in the Senate, for the removal of the 
seat of government to Fort Des Moines, and, 
on final vote, was just barely defeated. At the 
next session, however, the effort was more suc- 
cessful, and on January 15, 1855, a bill relo- 
cating the capital within two miles of the Rac- 
coon Fork of the Des Moines, and for the ap- 
pointment of commissioners, was approved by 
Gov. Grimes. The site was selected in 1856, 
in accordance with the provisions of this act, 
the land being donated to the State by citizens 
and property holders of Des Moines. An 
association of citizens erected a building for a 
temporary capitol, and leased it to the State 
at a nominal rent. 

The third constitutional convention to re- 
vise the constitution of the State assembled at 




Iowa City, January 19, 1857. The new con- 
stitution framed by this convention was sub- 
mitted to the people at an election held August 
3, 1857, when it was approved and adopted by 
a vote of 40,311 "for" to 38,681 "against," 
and on September 3 following was declared by 
a proclamation of the governor to be the su- 
preme law of the State of Iowa. 

Advised of the completion of the temporary 
State house at Des Moines, on October 19 
following, Gov. Grimes issued another procla- 
mation, declaring the city of Des Moines to be 
the capital of the State of Iowa. 

The removal of the archives and offices was 
commenced at once and continued through the 
fall. It was an undertaking of no small mag- 
nitude ; there was not a mile of railroad to fa- 
cilitate the work, and the season was unusually 
disagreeable. Rain, snow and other accom- 
paniments increased the difficulties ; and it was 
not until December that the last of the effects 
— the safe of the State treasurer, loaded on 
two large "bob-sleds" — drawn by ten yoke of 
oxen, was deposited in the new capitol. It is 
not imprudent now to remark that, during 
this passage over hills and prairies, across 
rivers, through bottom lands and timber, the 
safes belonging to the several departments con- 
tained large sums of money, mostly individual 
funds, however. Thus, Iowa City ceased to be 
the capital of the State, after four Territorial 
Legislatures, six State Legislatures and three 
constitutional conventions had held their ses- 
sions there. By the exchange, the old capitol 
at Iowa City became the seat of the university, 
and except the rooms occupied by the United 
States district court, passed under the imme- 
diate and direct control of the trustees of that 

Des Moines was now the permanent seat of 
government, made so by the fundamental law 

of the State, and on the 11th of January, 
1858, the Seventh General Assembly convened 
at the new capital. The building used for gov- 
ernmental purposes was purchased in 1864. It 
soon became inadequate for the purposes for 
which it was designed, and it became apparent 
that a new, large and permanent State house 
must be erected. In 1870 the General Assem- 
bly made an appropriation and provided for 
the appointment of a board of commissioners 
to commence the work. The board consisted 
of Gov. Samuel Merrill, ex-officio, president; 
Grenville M. Dodge, Council Bluffs ; James F. 
Wilson, Fairfield; James Dawson, Washing- 
ton; Simon G. Stein, Muscatine; James O. 
Crosby, Gainsville; Charles Dudley, Agency 
City; John N. Dewey, Des Moines; William 
L. Joy, Sioux City; Alexander B. Fulton, Des 
Moines, secretary. 

The act of 1870 provided that the building 
should be constructed of the best material and 
should be fire proof; to be heated and ventil- 
ated in the most approved manner; should 
contain suitable legislative halls, rooms for 
State officers, the judiciary, library, committees, 
archives and the collections of the State agri- 
cultural society, and for all purposes of State 
government, and should be erected on grounds 
held by the State for that purpose. The sum 
first appropriated was $150,000; and the law 
provided that no contract should be made, 
either for constructing or furnishing the build- 
ing, which should bind the State for larger 
sums than those at the time appropriated. A 
design was drawn and plans and specifications 
furnished by Cochrane & Piquenard, architects, 
which were accepted by the board, and on the 
23d of November, 1871, the corner-stone was 
laid with appropriate ceremonies. The cost 
of the capitol is fixed, in round numbers in- 
cluding the grounds, at $3,000,000. 




miscellaneous matter— population of the state by decades— members op the flust. second and thikd 
Constitutional Conventions— Gubernatorial Vote op the State prom 1846 to 1887 — Elec- 
toral Vote since 1848 — Vote on the Prohibitory Law and the Prohibitory 
Amendment— Territorial and State Officers from 1838 to 
1890 — Full Catalogue of Congressmen— Stock- 
Statistics — Coal Output— Land 
Grants, etc. 

His corn and cattle were his only care 

And his supreme delight a country fair. — Dryden. 

HEN AVisconsin Territory 
was organized, in 183(5, 
the entire population 
numbered 10,531. 
What is now Iowa 
then consisted of two 
counties, Dubuque and 
Des Moines, formed by the Territory 
of Michigan in 1834, of which they 
then constituted a part. From 1836 
to 1838 the Territorial Legislature of 
Wisconsin increased the number of 
counties to sixteen, and the population 
had increased to 22,859. Since then, 
the counties have increased to nine- 
ty-nine, and the population, in 1880, was 
1,624,615. The following table will show the 
population at different periods since the erec- 
tion of Iowa Territory: 



1840 43,112 

1844 75,152 

1846 97,588 

1847 116.651 

1849 152,988 

1850 192,214 

1851 204,774 

1852 230,713 

1854 326,013 

1856 519,055 




.'..'. 674i913 

. . . 701,732 

.... 754.699 

1867 902,040 

1869 1,040,819 

1870 '1,194,020 

1873 1,251,333 

1875 1,366,000 

1880 1.624.615 

1885 1,753,980 

Not only in population, but in everything 
contributing to the growth and greatness of a 
State has Iowa made rapid progress. In a 
little more than forty years, its wild but beau- 
tiful prairies have advanced from the home of 
the savage to a highly civilized commonwealth, 
embracing all the elements of progress which 
characterize the older States. 

The following-named were members of the 
first constitutional convention of Iowa, which 
convened at Iowa City, October 7, 1844, and 
adjourned November 1, 1844. 

Lee County — Charles Stanley, Alexander 
Kerr, David Galland, Calvin J. Price, James 
Marsh, John Thompson, Henry M. Salmon, O. 
S. Peck. 

Des Moines County — James Clarke, Henry 
Robinson, John D. Wright, Shepherd Lefner, 
Andrew Hooten, Enos Lowe, John Ripley, 
George Hepner. 

Van Buren County — Elisha Cutler, Jr., John 
Davidson, Paul Brattain, David Ferguson, 
Gideon S. Bailey, John Hale, Jr., Thomas 

Jefferson County — Robert Brown, Hardin 
Butler, Sulifand S. Ross, James I. Murray, 
Samuel Whitmore. 





OF IOWA. 65 


Henry County — Joseph C. Hawkins, George 

vened at Iowa City May 4, 1846, and adjourned 

Hobson, John H. Randolph, Jonathan C. Hall, 

May 19, 1846. The members were as follows : 

Joseph D. Hoag. 

Lee County — David Galland, Josiah Kent, 

Washington County — William R. Harrison, 

George Berry. 

Enoch Ross, Caleb B. Campbell. 

Des Moines County — Enos Lowe, Shepherd 

Louisa County — John Brookbank, William 

Leffler, George W. Bowie. 

L. Toole, Wright Williams. 

Van Buren. County — Thomas Dibble, Erastus 

Muscatine County — Jonathan E. Fletcher, 

Hoskins, William Steele. 

Ralph P. Lowe, Elijah Sells. 

Jefferson County — Sulifaud S. Ross, William 

Johnson County — Robert Lucas, Samuel H. 

C. Coop. 

McCrory, Henry Felkner. 

Henry County — George Hobson, Alvin 

Linn County — Thomas J. McKean, Samuel 


W. Durham, Leeman M. Strong. 

Davis County — John J. Selman. 

Cedar County — Samuel A. Bissell, James H. 

Appanoose and Monroe Counties — Wareham 


G. Clark. 

Scott County — James Grant, Andrew W. 

Wapello County — Joseph H. Hedrick. 

Campbell, Ebenezer Cook. 

Iowa, Marion, Polk and Jasper Counties — 

Clinton County — Lyman Evans, Ralph R. 

John Courey. 


Mahaska County — Stephen B. Shelledy. 

Jones County — John Taylor. 

Keokuk County — Sanford Harned. 

Jackson County — Joseph S. Kirkpatrick, 

Washington County — Stewart Goodrell. 

William Monlen, Richard B. Wyckoff. 

Louisa County — John Ronalds. 

WapelJo County— William H. Galbraith, 

Muscatine County — J. Scott Richman. 

William W. Chapman. 

Johnson County — Curtis Bates. 

Davis County — -J. C. Blankinship, Samuel 

Linn and Benton Counties — Socrates H. 

W. McAtee. 


Keokuk County — Richard Quinton. 

' Cedar County — Samuel Bissell, 

Mahaska Count}' — Van B. Delashmutt, 

Scott County — James Grant. 

Stephen B. Shelledy. 

Clinton County — Henry P. Haun. 

Dubuque, Delaware, Black Hawk and Fay- 

Jackson County — William Hubbell. 

ette Counties — Francis Gihon, Edward Lang- 

Jones County — Sylvester G. Matson. 

worthy, Theophilus Crawford, Stephen Hemp- 

Clayton County — David Olmstead. 

stead, Samuel B. Olmstead, Michael O'Brien. 

Dubuque, Delaware, Buchanan, Fayette and 

Shepherd Leffler was elected president and 

Black Hawk Counties . 

George S. Hampton secretary October 7. The 

Enos Lowe was elected president and William 

constitution adopted by this convention was 

Thompson secretary, May 4. The constitution 

rejected by the people at an election held in 

adopted by this convention was ratified by the 

April, 1845, and also at one held on August 4, 

people at an election held August 3, 1846, there 

1845, there being at the latter 7,235 votes 

being 9,492 votes cast " for the constitution," 

cast "for the constitution," and 7,656 votes 

and 9,036 votes cast " against the constitution." 

"against the constitution." 

This constitution was presented to Congress in 


The second constitutional convention con- 

December, 1846, and on the 28th of the same 






month an act was passed for the admission of 
Iowa into the Union. The first election for 
State officers was held October 26, 1846, pur- 
suant to a proclamation of Gov. James Clarke, 
when Ansel Briggs was elected governor, 
Elisha Cutler, Jr., secretary of State, Joseph T. 
Fales auditor, and Morgan Reno, treasurer. 

The third constitutional convention convened 
at Iowa City, Januai-y 19, 1857, and adjourned 
March 5, 1857, and the following were the 
members : 

Lee County — Edward Johnston, William Pat- 

Lee and Van Buren Counties — Squire Ayres. 

Van Buren County — Timothy Day. 

Des Moines County — Jonathan C. Hall, 
Moses W. Robinson. 

Davis County — David P. Palmer. 

Jefferson County — James F. Wilson. 

Henry County — Rufus L. B. Clarke. 

Wapello County — George Gillaspy. 

Monroe, Lucas and Clarke Counties — John 

Appanoose, Wayne and Decatur Counties — 
Amos Harris. 

Fremont, Mills, Page, Taylor, Montgomery, 
Ringgold, Adams and Union Counties — Daniel 
H. Solomon. 

Pottawattamie, Harrison, Shelby, Wood- 
bury, Monona, Audubon, Crawford, Carroll, 
Calhoun, Sac, Ida, Cherokee, Buena Vista, 
Pocahontas, Palo Alto, Emmet, Clay, Dickin- 
son, Osceola, O'Brien, Plymouth, Sioux and 
Buncombe Counties — Daniel W. Price. 

Louisa County — Francis Springer. 

Washington County — David Bunker. 

Keokuk County — Jeremiah Hollingsworth. 

Mahaska County — James A. Young. 

Marion County — Hiram D. Gibson. 

Warren, Madison, Adair and Cass — Lewis 

Muscatine County — John A- Parvin. 

Johnson and Jones Counties — William Penn 

Scott County— George W. Ells. 

Cedar County — Robert Gower. 

Clinton County — Aylett R. Cotton. 

Linn County — Hosea W. Gray. 

Linn, Benton, Black Hawk and Buchanan 
Counties — James C. Traer. 

Poweshiek, Jasper, Marshall and Tama Coun- 
ties — Harvey J. Skiff. 

Polk, Dallas and Guthrie Counties — Thomas 

Jackson County — William A. Warren. 

Jackson and Jones Counties — Albert H. 

Dubuque County — John H. Emerson. 

Dubuque and Delaware Counties — John H. 

Clayton County — Alpheus Scott. 

Fayette, Bremer, Butler, Franklin, Grundy, 
Hardin, Wright, Webster, Boone, Story, Greene, 
Allamakee, Winneshiek and Humboldt Coun- 
ties — Sheldon G. Winchester. 

Howard, Chickasaw, Mitchell, Floyd, Worth, 
Cerro Gordo, Hancock, Winnebago, Bancroft 
and Kossuth Counties — John T. Clarke. 

Francis Springer was elected president and 
Thomas J. Saunders, secretary, January 20. 
The constitution adopted by this convention 
was ratified by the people at an election held 
August 3, 1857, there being 40,311 votes for 
it and 38,681 against it. It took effect by proc- 
lamation of the governor, September 3, 1857. 

The following is the vote for governor in 
Iowa from 1846 to 1889: 

1846— Ansel Briggs (D.), 7,626; Thomas 
McKnight (W.), 7,379. 1850— Stephen Hemp- 
stead (D.), 13,486; James L. Thompson ( W.), 
11,403; William Penn Clarke, 575; scattering, 
11. 1854— James W. Grimes (W.), 23,325; 
Curtis Bates (D.), 21,202; scattering, 10. 
1857— Ralph P. Lowe (R), 38,498; B. M. 





Samuels (D.), 36,088; W. T. Henry, 1,004 
1859— Samuel J. Kirkwoocl (R), 56,532; A. 
C. Dodge (D.), 53,332. 1801— S. J. Kirk- 
wood (R), 59,853; William H. Merritt (D.), 
■13,245; B. M. Samuels (D.), 1,492; Heury 
Clay Dean, 463; Charles Mason, 119; Lincoln 
Clark, 50; scattering, 25. 1863— William M. 
Stone (R), 86,107; James M. Tuttle (D.), 
56,132; scattering, 75. 1865 — W. M. Stone 
(R), 70,445; Thomas H. Benton (D.), 54,- 
070; scattering, 350. 1867— Samuel Merrill 
(R), 90,204; Charles Mason (D.). 62,966; 
scattering, 37. 1869— Samuel Merrill (R), 
97,243; George Gillaspie (D.), 57,257; scat- 
tering, 5. 1871 — Cyrus C. Carpenter (E.), 
109,228; Joseph C. Kuapp (D.), 68,199; scat- 
tering, 22. 1873— C. C. Carpenter (R), 105,- 
132; J. G. Vale (D.), 81,020; Joseph G. Vale 
(Allamakee County), 1,536; J. G. Bole, 20; 
scattering, 45. 1875 — S. J. Kirkwood (R), 
124,855; Shepherd Leffler (D.), 93,270; J. H. 
Lozier (Pro.), 737; scattering, 51. 1877— J. 
H. Gear (R), 121,516; John P. Irish (D.), 
78,995; Daniel P. Stubbs (G. B.), 34,347; 
Elias Jessup (Pro.), 10,545; scattering, 124. 
1879— J. H. Gear (E.), 157,408; Henry H. 
Trimble (D.), 85,365; Daniel Campbell (G. 
B.), 45,674; David E. Dungan (Pro.), 3,291; 
scattering, 76. 1881 — Buren E. Sherman (P.), 
133,328; L. G. Kinue (D.), 73,344; D. M. 
Clark (G. B.), 28,112; William Johnson, 254; 
scattering, 14. 1883— B. E Sherman (E.), 
164,141; L. G. Kinne (D.), 140,032; J. B. 
Weaver (G. B.), 23,093; scattering, 17. 1885— 
William Larrabee (E.), 175,605; Charles 
Whiting (D.), 168,619; James Michelwait, 
1,417; Elias Doty, 314; scattering 44. 1887— 
William Larrabee (E.), 169,592; T. J. Ander- 
son (D.), 153,706; M. J. Cain (Labor), 14.- 

Notk.— Tlie vote cast for governor in 1SC3. by the soldiers in 
the field, was as follows: Stone 1R.1. 17,001; Tuttle (DO, 3,000. The 
same in 1865 by the soldiers then in the field was as follows: Stone 
(E.), 736; Benton (D.), 607. 

570; V. G. Farnham (Pro.), 334; J. M. An- 
derson, 43 ; scattering, 52. 1889 — H. E. Boies 
(D), 180,111; J. Hutchison (R), 173,588. 
For Iowa presidential electors since 1848: 
1848— Taylor and Fillmore (W.), 11,084; 
Cass and Butler (D.), 12,093; Van Buren and 
Adams (F. S.), 1,126. 1852— Scott and Gra- 
ham (W.), 15,856; Pierce and King (D.), 
17,762; Hale and Julian (F. S.), 16,060. 
1856— Fremont and Dayton (R), 45,196; 
Buchanan and Breckinridge (D.), 37,663; Fill- 
more and Donaldson (Am.), 9,669. 1860 — 
Lincoln and Hamlin (E.), 70,316; Douglas 
and Johnson (D. ), 55,091; Breckinridge and 
Lane (S. D. ), 1,035; Bell and Everett (Union), 
1,763. 1864— Lincoln and Johnson (E.), 
89,042; McClellan and Pendleton (D.), 49,595. 
1868— Grant and Colfax (E), 120,399; Sey- 
mour and Blair (D), 74,040. 1872— Grant 
and Wilson (E. j, 131,273; Greeley and Brown 
(L. R), 71,134; O'Connor and Julian (B. D.), 
2,221. 1876— Hayes and Wheeler (E.), 171,- 
326; Tilden and Hendricks (D.), 112,121; 
Cooper and Cary (Inch), 9,431; Smith and 
, 99. 1880— Garfield and Arthur 

(E.), 183,901; Hancock and English (D), 
105,845; Weaver and Chambers (Ind.), 32,- 
327 ; scattering, 633. 1884— Blaine and Logan 
(E.), 197,089; Cleveland and Hendricks (D.), 
177,316 (the electors for the Butler and West 
ticket fused with the Cleveland electors) ; St. 
John and Daniel (Pro.), 1,472; scattering, 
175. 1888— Harrison and Morton (R), 211,- 
598; Cleveland and Thurman (D.), 179,877; 
Streeter and Cunningham (U. L), 9,105; Fisk 
and Brooks (Pro.), 3,550. 

In 1855 the vote for and against the prohib- 
itory liquor law was "for the law," 25,555; 
"against the law," 22,645. In 1882 the vote 
cast for the prohibitory amendment to the con- 
stitution was, "for the amendment," 155,436; 
'against the amendment," 125,677. 




The list of Territorial officers includes the 
names of the following: 

Governors. — Robert Lucas, 1838-41 ; John 
Chambers, 1841-45; James Clarke, 1845. 

Secretaries — William B. Conway, 1838, died 
1839; James Clarke, 1839; O. H. W. Stull, 
1841; Samuel J. Burr, 1813; Jesse Williams, 

Auditors. — Jesse Williams, 1840; William 
L. Gilbert, 1843 ; Robert M. Secrest, 1845. 

Treasurers. — Thornton Bayliss, 1839; Mor- 
gan Reno, 1840. 

Agents. — Jesse Williams, 1841; John M. 
Coleman, 1842; Anson Hart, 1844. 

Superintendent of Public Instruction. — 
William Reynolds, 1841 ; abolished 1842. 

Judges. —Charles Mason, chief justice, 1838; 
Joseph Williams, 1838; Thos. S. Wilson, 1838. 

Presidents of Council. — Jesse B. Browne, 
1838-39; Stephen Hempstead, 1839-40; M. 
Bainridge, 1840-41; Jonathan W. Parker, 
1841-42; John D. Elbert, 1842-43; Thomas 
Cox, 1843-44; S. Clinton Hastings, 1845; 
Stephen Hempstead, 1845-46. 

Speakers of the House. — William H. Wal- 
lace, 1838-39; Edward Johnston, 1839-40; 
Thomas Cox, 1840-41; Warner Lewis, 1841- 
42; James M. Morgan, 1842-43; James P. 
Carleton, 1843 44; James M. Morgan, 1845; 
George W. McCleary, 1845-46. 

The officers of the State government have 
been as follows: 

Governors. — Ansel Briggs, 1846-50; Stephen 
Hempstead, 1850-54; James W. Grimes, 
1854-58; Ralph P. Lowe, 1858-60; Samuel J. 
Kirkwood, 1860-64; William M. Stone, 1864- 
68; Samuel Merrill, 1868-72; Cyrus C. Car- 
penter, 1872-76; Samuel J. Kirkwood, 1876- 
77; Joshua G. Newbold, acting, 1877-78; 
John H. Gear, 1878-82; Buren R. Sherman, 
1882-86; W T illiam Larrabee, 1886-90; Horace 
Boies, 1890-92. 

Lieutenant-Governors. — Office created by the 
new constitution September 3, 1857 — Oran 
Faville, 1858-59; Nicholas J. Rusch, 1860-62; 
John R. Needham, 1862-64; Enoch W. East- 
man, 1864-66; Benjamin F. Gue, 1866-68; 
John Scott, 1868-70; M. M. Walden, 1870-71; 
H. C. Bulis, 1871-74; Joseph Dysart, 1874- 
76; Joshua G. Newbold, 1876-78; Frank T. 
Campbell, 1878-82; Orlando H. Manning, 
1882-85; J. A T. Hull, 1885-87; A. N. Pay- 
neer, 1887-92. 

Secretaries of State. — Elisha Cutler, Jr., 
1846-48; Josiah H. Bonney, 1848-50; George 
W. McCleary, 1850-56; Elijah Sells, 1856-63; 
James Wright, 1863-67; Ed. Wright, 1867- 
73; Josiah T. Young, 1873-79; John A. T. 
Hull, 1879-85; Frank D. Jackson, 1885-91. 

Auditors of State.— Joseph T. Fales, 1846- 
50; William Pattee, 1850-54; Andrew J. 
Stevens, 1854, resigned in 1855; John Pattee, 
1855-59; Jonathan W. Cattell, 1859-65; John 
A. Elliott, 1865-71; John Russell, 1871-75; 
Buren R. Sherman, 1875-81; William V. Lu- 
cas, 1881-82; John L. Brown, 1883-86; James 
A. Lyons, 1886-90. 

Treasurers of State. — Morgan Reno, 1846- 
50; Israel Kister, 1850-52; Martin L. Morris, 
185i-59; John W. Jones, 1859-63; William 
H. Holmes, 1863-67; Samuel E. Rankin, 
1867-73; W T illiam Christy, 1873-77; George 
W. Bemis, 1877-81; Edwin H. Conger, 188.- 
85; V. P. Twombly, 1885-91. 

Superintendents of Public Instruction. — Of- 
fice created in 1847 — James Harlan, June 5, 
1847 (supreme court decided election void) ; 
Thomas H. Benton, Jr., 1848-54; James D. 
Eads, 1854-57 (suspended by the governor, 
March 3, 1857); Joseph C. Stone (appointed 
by the governor), March to June, 1857; Matu- 
rin L. Fisher, 1857-58, when the office was 
abolished and the duties of the office devolved 
upon the secretary of the board of education. 



Secretaries of the Board of Education. — \ 
Josiali T. Tubby acted as secretary of the board 
during its session commencing December 6, 
1858, and continued after its adjournment. 
He qualified December 20; Thomas H. Ben- 
ton, Jr., 1859-63 (resigned) ; Oran Faville 
appointed, January 1, 1864. Board abolished 
March 23, 1864. 

Superintendents of Public Instruction. — Of- 
fice re-created March 23, 1864— Oran Faville, 
March 28, 1864, resigned March 1, 1867; D. 
Franklin Wells, March 4, 1867, to January, 
1868 (died November 24) ; Abraham S. Kissell, 
1868-72; Alonzo Abernethy, 1872-76 (re- 
signed); Carl W. Von Coelln, 1876-82; John 
W. Akers, 1882-85; Henry Soben, 1885-91. 

State Binders. — Office created February 21, 
1855— William M. Coles, May I, 1855, to May 
1, 1859; Frank M. Mills, 1859-67; James S. 
Carter, 1867-71; James J. Smart, 1871-75; 
Henry A. Perkins, 1875-79; Matt Parrott, 
1879-1885; M. S. Merchant, 1885-87; Otto 
Nelson, 1887-91. 

Registers of the State Land Office. — Office 
created February 9, 1858 — Anson Hart, May 
5, 1855, to May 13, 1857 ; Theodore S. Parvin, 
1857-59; Amos B. Miller, 1859-62; Edwin 
Mitchell, 1862-63; Josiah A. Harvey, 1863- 
67; Cyrus C. Carpenter, 1867-71; Aaron 
Brown, 1871-75; David Secor, 1875-79; James 
K. Powers, 1879-82. Office abolished Janu- 
ary 1, 1883. 

State Printers. — Office created January 3, 
1849— Garret D. Palmer and George Paul, 
1849-51; Harrison Holt and Andrew Kusecker, 
elected 1851, but declined; William H. Merritt, 
1851-53; William A. Hornish, 1853 (resigned 
May 16, 1853); Mahoney & Dorr, 1853-55; 
Peter Moriarty, 1855-57 ; John Teesdale, 1857- 
61; Francis W. Palmer, 1861-69; Frank M. 
Mills, 1869-71; G. W. Edwards, 1871-73; R. 
P. Clarkson, 1873-79; Frank M. Mills, 1879- 

83; George E. Roberts, 1883-86; George H. 
Ragsdale, 1886-90. 

Adjutants-General. — Daniel S. Lee, 1851- 
55; George W. McCleary, 1855-57: Elijah 
Sells, 1857 ; Jesse Bowen, 1857-61 ; Nathaniel 
Baker, 1861-77 ; John H. Looby, 1877 . 

Attorneys-General — David C. Cloud, 1853- 
56; Samuel A. Rice, 1856-61; Charles C. 
Nourse, 1861-65; Isaac L. Allen, 1865 (re- 
signed January, 1866) ; Frederick E. Bissell, 
1866 (died June 12, 1867); Henry O'Connor, 
1867-71; Marsena E. Cutts, 1872-76; John F. 
McJunkiu, 1877-81 ; Smith McPherson, 1881- 
85; A. J. Baker, 1885 ; John T. Stone. 

Presidents of the Senate. — Thomas Baker, 
1846-47; Thomas Hughes, 1848; John J. Sel- 
man, 1848-49; Enos Lowe, 1850-51; William 
E. Leffingwell, 1852-53; Maturin L. Fisher, 
1854-55; William W. Hamilton, 1856-57. 
Under the new constitution, the lieutenant- 
governor is president of the Senate. 

Speakers of the House. — Jesse B. Brown, 
1847-18 ; Smiley H. Bonhan, 1849-50 ; George 
Temple, 1851-52; James Grant, 1853-54; 
Reuben Noble, 1855-56; Samuel McFarland, 
1856-57; Stephen B. Sheledy, 1858-59; John 
Edwards, 1860-61; Rush Clark, 1862-63; 
Jacob Butler, 1864-65; Ed. Wright, 1866-67; 
John Russell, 1868-69; Aylett R. Cotton, 
1870-71; James Wilson, 1872-73; John H. 
Gear, 1874-77; John Y. Stone, 1878. 

Associate Judges. — Joseph Williams, 184f'>- 
17 (held over from Territory, appointed chief 
justice, 1847); Thomas S.Wilson, 1846-47 
(held over from Territory; resigned October, 
1847); John F. Kinney, 1847-54 (appointed 
June 12, 1847, and again January 26, 1848; 
elected aud commissioned December 8; re- 
signed in January, 1854) ; George Greene, 
1847-55 (appointed November 1, 1847, and 
again January 26, 1848; elected by the Gen- 
eral Assembly December 7, 1848); Jonathan 


C. Hall, 1853 to 1855 (appointed to succeed \ 
Kinney resigned); William G. Woodward, 
1855-60 (elected by the General Assembly) ; 
Norman W. Isbell, 1855-56 (resigned) ; La- 
con D. Stockton, 1856-60 (appointed 1856 
vice Isbel resigned, elected by people in 1857 
and re-elected in 1859) ; Caleb Baldwin, 1860- 
61 (became chief justice January 1, 1862); 
George G. Wright, 1860-63 and again 1866- 
70 (appointed first vice Stockton deceased, 
elected 1860; became chief justice January 1, 
1864, re-elected 1865, resigned September 1, 
1870, to take seat as Senator of the United j 
States) ; Ealph P. Lowe, 1862-65 (re-elected 
1861; became chief justice January 1, 1866), 
John F. Dillon, 1864-1867 (became chief jus- 
tice January 1, 1868, re-elected 1869 but de- 
clined to accept United States circuit judge- 
ship) ; Chester C. Cole, 1864-69, and again 
1871-76 (appointed March 1, 1864, elected 
November, 1864; re-elected 1870, became chief 
justice 1870 and 1876); Joseph M. Beck, 

1868-71, and 1874-78 and 1880 (became 

chief justice 1872 and 1879), Elias H.Williams, 
1870 (resigned in September) ; James G. Day, 
1870 and 1872-76 and 1878-82 (became chief 
justice, 1871, 1877, and 1883 was appointed to 
succeed Judge Wright), William E. Miller, 
1870-73 (became chief justice 1874, was ap- 
pointed vice Williams) ; Austin Adams, 1876- 
79 and 1882 (became chief justice 1880) ; 

James H. Eothrock, 1876-77 and 1879 

(appointed 1876, became chief justice 1878) ; 
William H. Seevers, 1877-81 and 1883 — - 
(became chief justice 1882) ; Joseph B. Beed, 
1883-85; James H. Eothrock, 1885 to 1890; 
Joseph M. Beck, Gifford S. Bobinson, Charles 
T. Granger. 

Chief Justices. — Charles Mason, resigned in 
June, 1847; Joseph Williams, June, 1847, to 
January, 1848; S. Clinton Hastings, 1848- 
49; Joseph Williams, 1849-55; George G. 

Wright, 1855-60; Ealph P. Lowe, 1860-62; 
Caleb Baldwin, 1862-64; G. G Wright, 1864- 
66; Ealph P. Lowe, 1866-68; John F. Dillon, 
1868-70; Chester C. Cole, 1870-71 ; James G. 
Day, 1871-72; Joseph M. Beck, 1872-74; W. 
E. Miller, 1874-76; C. C. Cole, 1870 and. Jan- 
uary — , 1876; William H. Seevers, February 
17,1876-77; James G. Day, 1877-78; James 
H. Eothrock, 1878-79; Joseph M. Beck, 
1879-80; Austin Adams, 1880-82; William 
H Seevers, 1882-83; James H. Eothrock, 
1883-85; Joseph M. Beck, 1885-86; Austin 
Adams, 1886-87 ; Joseph E. Eeed, 1888-89. 

U. S. Senators. — The first General Assembly 
failed to elect Senators. George W. Jones, De- 
cember 7, 1848-58; Augustus C. Dodge, De- 
cember 7, 1848-55; James Harlan, 1855-65; 
James W. Grimes, 1858-70 (died) ; Samuel J. 
Kirkwood, 1866 to March 4, 1866 ; James Har- 
lan, 1866-72; James B. Howell, 1870 to March 
3, 1870; George G. Wright, 1871-77; William 
B. Allison, 1872; Samuel J .Kirkwood 1877; 
James F. Wilson, 1883. 

The following members of the House of 
Eepresentatives have represented their respect- 
ive districts in the sessions mentioned: 

Twenty-ninth Congress — 1846-47. — S. Clin- 
ton Hastings; Shepherd Leffler. 

Thirtieth Congress— 1847-49.— First Dis- 
trict, William Thompson ; Second District, 
Shepherd Leffler. 

Thirty-first Congress— 1849-51.— First Dis- 
trict, First Session, William Thompson ; unseated 
by the House of Eepresentatives on a contest, 
and election remanded to the people. First 
District, Second Session, Daniel F. Miller; 
Second District, Shepherd Leffler. 

Thirty-second Congress — 1851-53. — First 
District, Bernhart Henn ; Second District, Lin- 
coln Clark. 

Thirty-third Congress — 1853-55. — First 
District, Bernhart Henn; Second, John P. Cook. 



Thirty-fourth Congress — 1855-57. — First 
District, Augustus Hall ; Second District, James 

Thirty-fifth Congress — 1857-59. — First 
District, Samuel R. Curtis: Second District, 
Timothy Davis. 

Thirty-sixth Congress — 1859-61. — First 
District, Samuel E. Curtis; Second District, 
William Vandever. 

Thirty-seventh Congress— 1861-63.— First 
District, first session, Samuel B. Curtis;* 
First District, second and third sessions, 
James F. Wilson; Second District, William 

Thirty-eighth Congress — 1863-65. — First 
District, James F. Wilson; Second District, 
Hiram Price ; Third District, William B. Al- 
lison; Fourth District, Josiah B. Grinnell; 
Fifth District, John A. Kasson ; Sixth District, 
Asahel W. Hubbard. 

Thirty-ninth Congress — 1865-67. — First 
District, James F. Wilson; Second District, 
Hiram Price ; Third District, William B. Alli- 
son ; Fourth District, Josiah B. Grinnell ; Fifth 
District, John A. Kasson; Sixth District, Asa- 
hel W. Hubbard. 

Fortieth Congress— 1867-69. —First Dis- 
trict, James F. Wilson ; Second District, Hiram 
Price; Third District, William B. Allison; 
Fourth District, William Loughridge; Fifth 
District, Grenville M. Dodge; Sixth District, 
Asahel W. Hubbard. 

Forty-first Congress— 1869-71.— First Dis- 
trict, George W. McCrary; Second District, 
William Smyth; Third District, William B. 
Allison ; Fourth District, William Loughridge ; 
Fifth District, Frank W. Palmer; Sixth Dis- 
trict, Charles Pomeroy. 

Forty-second Congress — 1871-73. — First 
District, George W. McCrary ; Second District, 

Aylett K Cotton ; Third District, W. G. Don- 
nan; Fourth District, Madison W. Waldon; 
Fifth District, Frank W. Palmer; Sixth Dis- 
trict, Jackson Orr. 

Forty-third Congress— 1873-75.— First Dis- 
trict, George W. McCrary; Second District, 
Aylett B. Cotton ; Third District, William G. 
Donnan; Fourth District, Henry O. Pratt; 
Fifth District, James Wilson ; Sixth District, 
William Loughridge; Seventh District, John 
A. Kasson; Eighth District, James W. McDill; 
Ninth District, Jackson Orr. 

Forty-fourth Congress — 1875-77. — First 
District, George W. McCrary ; Second District, 
John Q. Tufts; Third District, L. L. Aius- 
worth; Fourth District, Henry O. Pratt; Fifth 
District, James Wilson ; Sixth District, Ezekiel 
S. Sampson ; Seventh District, John A. Kasson ; 
Eighth District, James W. McDill ; Ninth Dis- 
trict, Addison Oliver. 

Forty-fifth Congress— 1877-79.— First Dis- 
trict, J. C. Stone; Second District, Hiram 
Price; Third District, T. W. Burdick; Fourth 
District, H. C. Deeriug; Fifth District, Eush 
Clark ; Sixth District, E. S. Sampson ; Seventh 
District, H. J. B. Cummings ; Eighth District, 
W. F. Sapp; Ninth District; Addison Oliver. 

Forty-sixth Congress— 1879-81.— First Dis- 
trict, Moses A. McCoid; Second District, Hiram 
Price; Third District, Thomas Uppdegraff; 
Fourth District, Nathaniel C. Deering; Fifth 
District, Rush Clark ; Sixth District, James B. 
Weaver; Seventh District, Edward H. Gillette; 
Eighth District, William F. Sapp ; Ninth Dis- 
trict, C. C. Carpenter. 

Forty-seventh Congress — 1881-83. — First 
District, M. A. McCoid; Second District, S. S. 
Farwell; Third District, Thomas Uppdegraff; 
Fourth District, N. C. Deering; Fifth District, 
William G. Thompson ; Sixth District, M. E. 
Cutts; Seventh, John A. Kasson; Eighth, W. 
P. Hepburn; Ninth, Cyrus C. Carpenter. 




« t*_ 





Forty-eighth Congress — 1883-85. — First 
District, M. A. McCoid ; Second District, J. M. 
Murphy; Third District, David B. Henderson; 
Fourth District, D. H. Weller; Fifth District, 
James Wilson; Sixth District, M. E. Cutts; 
Seventh District, John A. Kasson; Eighth 
District, William P. Hepburn ; Ninth District, 
W. H. M. Pusey ; Tenth District, Adoniram J. 

170.564; 449,328 horses, worth $19,172,050; 
44,636 mules, worth $1,719,873; 860,717 sheep, 
worth $539,872; 689,382 swine, over six months 
old, worth $2,133,000. In 1889 there were 
3,110,936 cattle, worth $23,970,341; 966,455 
horses, worth $26,679,110; 41,134 mules, worth 
$1,274,476; 256,166 sheep, worth $272,656; 
2,237,359 swine, worth $4,604,694. In 1880 
the materials manufactured were worth $48,- 

Forty-ninth Congress — 1885-87. — First 
District, B. J. Hall; Second District, J. H. 
Murphy; Third District, David B. Henderson; 
Fourth District, William E. Fuller; Fifth 
District, B. F. Frederick; Sixth District, J. B. 
Weaver; Seventh District, H. Y. Smith (to fill 
vacancy occasioned by resignation of J. A. 
Kasson) — E. H. Conger (elected); Eighth 
District, W. P. Hepburn; Ninth District, 
Joseph H. Lyman; Tenth District, Adoniram 
J. Holmes; Eleventh District, Isaac S. Struble- 

Fiftieth Congress— 1887-89.— First District, 
John H. Gear; Second District, Walter I. 
Hayes; Third District, D. B. Henderson; 
Fourth District, William E. Fuller; Fifth 
District, Daniel Kerr; Sixth District, J. B. 
Weaver; Seventh District, E. H. Conger; 
Eighth District, A. K. Anderson; Ninth 
District, Joseph Lyman ; Tenth District, A. T. 
Holmes; Eleventh District, I. S. Struble. 

704,311, and the products $71,045,926, and 
capital invested in the same $33,987,886. 

The following coal output of Iowa is by 














96,327 , 105.894 
5,187 18,305 
1,878 ! 6,669 i 
1.075 450 

1 317 












Van Buren 










1,009 1;780 

619.921 305.097 

3,821 8,634 


127 12,180 

1,778 26,331 

240.720 272.073 

13,727 1 24.796 > 

4.947 28,084 

214,014 | 146,221 

Fifty-first Congress— 1889-91.— First Dis- 
trict, John H. Gear; Second District, Walter 
I. Hayes; Third District, D. B. Henderson; 
Fourth District, J. H. Sweney; Fifth District, 
Daniel Kerr; Sixth District, John F. Lacey; 
Seventh District, Edwin H. Conger; Eighth 
District, James P. Flick; Ninth District, 
Joseph K. Reed ; Tenth District, J. P. Dolliver ; 
Eleventh District, Isaac S. Struble. 

A glance at the assessment rolls of 1870 and 
1889 reveals a decided increase in the amount 

The following lands were granted to the 
State by the United States: July 20, 1840, the 
university grant, consisting of 45, 928.84 acres; 
September 4,1841, the 500,000-acre tract, con- 
sisting of 535,473.54 acres; March 3, 1845, ; 
sixteenth sections, amounting to 1,013,014.21 
acres, and the same date five sections in Jas- 


and value of personal property. In 1870 the 
assessment showed 867,904 cattle, worth $11,- 

per County for a State capital, 3,200 acres; 
August 8, 1846, the Des Moines River grant 







of 592,760.57 acres; September 28, 1850, 
swamp laud (in place) 877,639.26; May 27, 
1852, saline land, 46,202.53 acres; March 2, 
1855, indemnity swamp land, 324,331.18 acres, 
and on the same date swamp land for which 
indemnity in cash was allowed, 373,998.74; 
May 15, 1886, the four following grants were 
made: Burlington & Missouri River Railroad 
292,806.41 acres; Mississippi & Missouri Rail- 
road (now Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific), 
482,374.36 acres; Iowa Central Air Line Rail- 

road (now Cedar Rapids & Missouri River), 
783,096.53 acres ; Dubuque & Sioux City, Iowa 
Falls & Sioux City and Tete des Nortes Branch 
Railroads, 1,233,481.70 acres; July 2, 1862, 
Agricultural College, 204,309.30 acres; July 
12, 1S62, Des Moines River, 513,207.48 acres; 
May 12, 1864, McGregor & Missouri River, 
and Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroads, 
321,595.16 acres; and the same date Sioux 
City & St. Paul Railroad, 407,879.31 acres- 
Grand total, 8,051,930.02 acres. 




Reltgiods Denominations of the State— The Spanish and the French Catholics— Movements op the Pro- 
testant Denominations— The Organization into Church Groups — First Mass in Iowa— First 
Church— The Young Men's Christian Association— Number op Congregations- 
Wealth, Character, Membership and Standing of the Various Denom- 
inations Represented in Iowa — Religious Educational 
Institutions — Criminal Statistics. 

God never had a house of prayer 
But Satan had a chapel there. — De Foe. 

N viewing the West as a 

mission field, it is well 
to distinguish three 
periods in its develop- 
ment. The first may be 
known as its discovery 
P "S^>> an( j occupation by the 
Spanish and French Catholics from 
1541 to 1803, nearly three cen- 
turies. This would be also char- 
acterized by their work among the 
Indians. The second period, fol- 
lowing the purchase of the trans- 
Mississippi region in 1803, may be 
characterized by the settlement of 
Protestant denominations as its 
predominant feature. This may 
extend to about 1865, when the close of the 
war allowed the western railway movement to 
resume an impetus it had checked somewhat. 
From 1865 to the present, the stupendous 
spread of western railways and the nineteenth 
century "migration of races" — far more mar- 
velous than that of the fifth century — may be 

called the period of organization and assimila- 
tion, for the most characteristic element of this 
period is the gathering together into churches 
the settlers from vai-ious parts of the world into 
convenient church groups. It is organization 
and assimilation, too, in another sense, namely, 
the rise of inter-denominational, religious and 
reformatory movements, such as the Young 
Men's Christian Association, the Sunday-school 
Association, the Woman's Christian Temper- 
ance Union, etc. If these distinctions are 
borne in mind they form an explanatory thread 
which is somewhat of a guide through the 
mazy, shifting and gigantic changes in our 
western empire. 

Iowa has passed through all of these periods, 
but with certain striking modifications, caused 
by her later settlement and her peculiarly rapid 
growth, arising from her location on the great 
trans-continental highway of trunk-line rail- 
ways, together with her ready-made prairie 
gardens that lay waiting for occupants. There 
is another essential cause, however, in some 
more important than any of the 





and that is the character of her settlers ; these 
have been people whose great pride was 
churches arid schools, so positively so that less 
fortunate States have sneeriugly spoken of 
"fanatical Iowa." But so long as Iowa fur- 
nishes such examples of literary, reformatory 
measures, patriotism and wealth as she does, 
she can well bear the taunt of envious sisters. 
It will be seen that Iowa has been most re- 
markable in the last two periods, and espe- 
cially the last, that of oi'ganization. This will be 
the more realized when it is remembered that 
over a million people have poured into Iowa 
since 1865, and that in 1836 the whole terri- 
tory of the State had but 10,531, or less than 
one- fifth the population of the single city of 
Des Moines. It will be still further apparent 
when it is recalled that the whole State has 
been open to white occupation since 1842 only. 
The earliest Christian work was no doubt 
done by the Catholics at the various river 
points and amoug the Indians, but that pioneer 
denomination, the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
brushed very close to them in society organi- 
zation. In the fall of 1833, the same year that 
the first Iowa post-office was established,* the 
first Koman Catholic mass in the Territory was 
celebrated at the house of Patrick Quigley at 
Dubuque, among the miners of the settlement. 
In March of the following spring (1834) the 
first church bell was brought into the Territory. 
On the 18th of the following May the first 
Methodist society in the Territory was formed 
at Dubuque, and the first class meeting held 
on the 1st day of June. This society at once 
proceeded to erect the first church building in 
the Territory, and during that summer the first 
Sabbath-school was organized. The Baptists 
also claim almost if not quite as early organi- 
zation. It was three years later that the Pres- 
byterians began at West Point, on June 24, 

1837, and as the population of the State had 
reached 43,112, or more than quadrupled by 
the close of this decade, 1840, it is probable 
that most of the denominations, if not all, in 
existence at that time had their representatives 
withiu the boundaries of Iowa Territory, and 
the rest reached Iowa no doubt as fast as they 
arose, for every shade of thought has found 
lodgment here, from the most free-thinking to 
the most superstitious or erratic of religionists 
or religio-philosophers. Iowa is as cosmopoli- 
tan in this respect as in its nativities, although, 
like its population, which comes in the greatest 
numbers from its own soil, Illinois and Ohio, 
so its greatest proportions follow in name 
those of the three great pioneers, followed by 
the Baptists, Congregationalists, Lutherans, 
etc. In distribution some followed the general 
course of population while others were confined 
to districts, the latter being especially true of 
foreign societies, the large element of which 
may be best understood by reference to statis- 
tics of their population. Another feature of 
this growth has been its changefulness previ- 
ous to 1865 and even later, due to the removal 
farther west of many of its inhabitants, tempted 
to it by the streams of migration that flow 
through its iron arteries to the west. In order 
to keep in view its relation to population, three 
census points are here taken — the earliest made, 
that of 1836, giving 10,531; that of 1865 giv- 
ing 754,699, a growth of about thirty years; 
and that of 1885, the latest obtainable at this 
writing, giving 1,753,980, an increase of a 
million in twenty years. This shows a marvel- 
ous increase in simple population, but general 
national statistics of various denominations 
show that under the impetus of the religious 
activities of this last half century, represented 
by the D. L. Moody movement, the Young 
Men's Christian Association, the Christian 
Temperance Union, the Society of Christian 




Endeavor, and such movements, the religious 
increase has considerably surpassed that of 
population in rate. There are several ways in 
which this increase is true beside that of mem- 
bership ; there is that of perfected organization ; 
that of increased pastorate both in persons and 
remuneration; that of increased number and 
quality of buildings; that of increased support 
to mission enterprises ; that of increased activ- 
ity in general reformatory measures and edu- 
cation; that of college and academic school 
founding; and especially that of earnestness 
and spirituality of personal life. It is difficult 
and even impossible to represent growth in 
some of these lines; they can not be put in 
figures and pen pictures. They are powerful, 
but intangible. They are inter-dependent 
though, and a statement of one line may be 
somewhat indicative of others. Even in mem- 
bership, could that be accurately known of all 
societies, the comparison is difficult because of 
various standards of what constitutes member- 

Probably the most reliable and accessible 
estimate of all denominations — -although not 
unobjectionable by any means — would be the 
census of 1885, almost an exact half-century 
after the erection of that modest little Meth- 
odist Church in Dubuque, which gives 3,762 
as the total number of organizations or con- 
gregations within the State of Iowa. This 
would be an average of almost thirty-eight or- 
ganizations to the county, or between two and 
three to a township. Of this large number 
only 386 do not own property, and are com- 
pelled to rent. These and but two others re- 
port no valuation of property, but the 3,406 
societies who do own property reported its to- 
tal value to the State at $11,911,966 in 1885, 
and churches have been going up every year 
since. Think of the people of one State giving 
nearly $12,000,000, a low estimate to the 

single item of property, not to mention its 
other large and numerous disbursements. 
About one-fifth* of these 3,762 organizations 
neglected to report any seating capacity to 
their buildings, but the remaining four-fifths 
report an ability to seat 821,838 people, or 
about half the entire population, while the re- 
mainder would probably seat nearly one-fifth 
as many more. 

All this is distributed chiefly among four- 
teen general denominations in the following 
order, although many others have a good show- 
ing: The Eoman Catholic, the Methodist 
Episcopal, the Presbyterian in its two branches, 
the Baptists of all classes, the Congregational, 
the various Lutheran Churches, the Unitarian, 
the Episcopal, the Christian or Disciple, the 
Evangelical Association, the United Brethren, 
the Universalist, the Friends and Adventists. 

The Roman Catholic Church leads with 
property valued at $2,865,168, and affording a 
seating capacity of 104,516. They are scat- 
tered among all the counties but eight, and 
are organized under two dioscesan bishops, 
namely of Dubuque and Davenport. These 
include the various nationalities. It will be 
seen that the property of this denomination is 
almost one-fourth of the entire church wealth 
of the State, while the Protestant Churches 
cover over three-fourths. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church, follows 
very closely the wealth of the Catholics, and 
but one county in the State reported no organ- 
ization in 1885. Their property is given at 
$2,575,349, with a seating capacity of 223,718, 
the largest of any denomination by far, and 
over double that of the Romam Catholic 
Churches. They are divided into four con- 

The Presbyterian Churches, including the 
Cumberland branch, which is the less numer- 


ous in Iowa, have given about half the wealth 
in edifices of the two above, $1,337,290, but 
the seating capacity does not fall far below the 
Catholic. This is given at 98,682 in the cen- 
sus of 1885. About fifteen of the ninety-nine 
counties reported no Presbyterian organiza- 
tions in 1885. The larger society has a synod 
of eight presbyteries. 

The Baptist Churches are scattered over all 
but thirteen counties, with property valued at 
$929, 035, and a reported seating capacity of 
81,835, in proportions not dissimilar to that of 
their Presbyterian friends. 

The Congregational Churches make a show- 
ing very close to this in several respects. Their 
seating capacity is stated at 56,495, and the 
property valued at $806,600, with a distribu- 
tion over all but fifteen counties. 

The Lutheran Churches are greatly divided 
by sect and nationality, but they aggregate very 
nearly the same showing as their Congrega- 
tional brethren, namely, $787,524 in property, 
and a seating capacity of 61,433, although 
twenty-five, or one-fourth of all the counties, 
have no organizations in them. This latter 
is due to the large foreign element, there being 
until recently (June, 1890), besides the Eng- 
lish Church, the Swedish Augustana synod, 
several Norwegian sects — recently almost all 
united — the Northwestern Danish synod, the 
German synod of Iowa, and the German Mis- 
souri synod. 

The Unitarian Churches are here mentioned 
because their churches are estimated next in 
value, at $690,000, although their seating ca- 
pacity falls to but 1,450, which would make it 
fall below all the other fourteen denominations. 

The Protestant Episcopal Churches likewise 
come next in the estimated value of their prop- 
erty, namely, $427,850, while their seating ca- 
pacity of but 14,529 would rate them below 
several that follow. 

The Christian or Disciple Clmrches rank next 
to the Congregational in seating capacity at 
45,515, although their churches, valued at 
$334,850, follow the Episcopalian. 

The Evangelical Association follows the Dis- 
ciple society in both features, their seating ca- 
pacity being 24,754, and the estimated value of 
property at $261,900. 

The United Brethren report about half this 
amount of property, $135,750, but give a seat- 
ing capacity of 17,092. 

The Universalist Churches have almost the 
same value in property, $132,800, but fall to 
6,250 seating capacity. 

The Friends or Quakers have churches that 
can seat as many as the United Brethren 
(17,055), but their property falls below that of 
the Universalists to $97,200. 

The Adventists, who have their services on 
Saturday, can seat as many as the Universalists 
(6,398), but their church buildings are re- 
ported at almost one-third in value, or $48,350. 

There are buildings aside from the above 
which are owned jointly by two or more socie- 
ties. These represent a seating capacity of 
10,491, and a value a little above that of the Ad- 
ventists ($56,750). But besides these there 
are numerous lesser denominations than any of 
the above, whose buildings are capable, in the 
aggregate, of seating 18,138 people, and rep- 
resent an estimated wealth of $740,000. These 
are the estimates of 1885, the latest accessible, 
and they take no account of the rapid devel- 
opment of the last five years. 

This review would be very unjust, if the vari- 
ous educational institutions were overlooked. Of 
the whole number of non-state educational in- 
stitutions in Iowa in 1885, there were thirty-one 
colleges and universities, nine seminaries, and 
175 other private schools. It is probable that 
all of the thirty -one colleges and universities are 
denominationally sustained and directed. As 




to the seminaries, most of them would also be 
included, while probably less than half of the 
other schools may be so classed. The influence 
of these institutions is beyond computation, 
but these numbers are loaded with significance. 
But there are other bodies which are of large 
religious importance to Iowa, distinguished 
from, yet dependent on the churches, and chief 
among these are the Young Men's Christian 
Association, which has grown to such pro- 
portions that it has thirteen paid general sec- 
retary offices in the State ; the Woman's Chris- 
tian Temperance Union, with societies to the 
number of 307 and 4,462 members, and that 
vigorous young people's association — the So- 
ciety of Christian Endeavor. The Temperance 
Union has been a powerful factor in Iowa's pro- 
hibitory movement, and her vigorous stand for 
the entire separation of the temperance issue 
from politics, led by Mrs. Ellen J. Foster, against 

the national organization recently, has been an 
event of national note. There are other reform- 
atory movements of various kinds. 

This view may very properly close with the 
relative criminal condition of the State. In 
1885 out of the entire population of 1,753,980, 
the total number of convicts in prisons were but 
530, or a proportion of but thirty-three to the 
100,000 persons, while the proportion of Ne- 
vada and California ran up to 228 and 182, re- 
spectively, and Illinois and Indiana were nearly 
double her proportion. Her rank in respect of 
total number in prison among the States 
is twenty-two, but in proportion of prisoners to 
population is thirty-seven. Iowa is tenth in 
population. This means that there are thirty- 
six of the sisterhood of States that have a worse 
criminal showing than Iowa, who heads them 
all in the proportion of persons over ten years of 
age able to read. 



The Public School System of the State— First Schools Taught in Different Portions of Iowa — A Sum- 
mary of the Development of the School Laws — Origin of the Educational Funds — Valu- 
able Comparative Statistics— The Amount of School Fund foe the Several 
Counties— Other Important Matter. 


To breed up the son to 
Is evermore the parent' 



*HE germ of the free ijub- 
lic school system of Iowa, 
which now ranks second 
to none in the United 
States, was planted by the 
first settlers. They had 
emigrated to "The Beau- 
tiful Land" from other and 
older States, where the com- 
mon-school system had been 
tested by many years' experi- 
ence, bringing with them some 
knowlege of its advantages, 
which they determined should 
be enjoyed by the children of 
the land of their adoption. 
The system thus planted was expanded and 
improved in the broad fields of the West, until 
now it is justly considered one of the most 
complete, comprehensive and liberal in the 

In the lead mining regions of the State, the 
first to be occupied by the white race, the 
hardy pioneers provided the means for the 
education of their children even before they 
had comfortable dwellings for their families. 

School teachers were among the first immi- 
grants to Iowa. Wherever a little settlement 
was made, the school-house was the first united 
public act of the settlers; and the rude, primi- 
tive structures of the early time only disap- 
peared when the communities had increased in 
population and wealth, and were able to re- 
place them with more commodious and com- 
fortable buildings. Perhaps in no single 
instance has the magnificent progress of the 
State of Iowa been more marked and rapid 
than in her common-school system and in her 
school-houses, which long since superseded 
the log cabins of the first settlers. To-day, 
the school-houses which everywhere dot the 
broad and fertile prairies of Iowa are unsur- 
passed by those of any other State in the great 
Union. More especially is this true in all her 
cities and villages, where liberal and lavish 
appropriations have been voted, by a gener- 
ous people, for the erection of large, commo- 
dious and elegant buildings, furnished with 
all the modern improvements, and costing from 
$10,000 to $60,000 each. The people of the 
State have expended more than $1,500,000 for 
the erection of public school buildings. 



The first school-house erected in Iowa was a 
log cabiu at Dubuque, built by James L. 
Laugworthy and a few other miners, in the 
autumn of 1833. When it was completed, 
George Cabbage was employed as teacher 
during the winter of 1833-34, and thirty-five 
pupils attended his school. Barrett Whitte- 
more taught the second term with twenty -five 
pupils in attendance. Mrs. Caroline Dexter 
commenced teaching in Dubuque in March, 
1836. She was the first female teacher there, 
and probably the first in Iowa. In 1839 
Thomas H. Benton, Jr., afterward for ten 
years superintendent of public instruction, 
opened an Euglish and classical school in Du- 
buque. The first tax for the support of 
schools at Dubuque was levied in 1840. 

Among the first buildings erected at Bur- 
lington was a commodious log school-house in 
1834, in which Mi\ Johnson Pierson taught 
the first school in the winter of 1834-35. 

The first school in Muscatine County was 
taught by George Bumgardner, in the spring 
of 1837, and in 1839 a log school-house was 
erected in Muscatine, which served for a long 
time for school-house, church and public hall. 
The first school in Davenport was taught in 

1838. In Fairfield, Miss Clarissa Sawyer, 
James F. Chambers and Mrs. Beed taught 
school in 1839. 

When the site of Iowa City was selected as 
the capital of the Territory of Iowa, in May, 

1839, it was a perfect wilderness. The first 
sale of lots took place August 18, 1839, and 
before January 1, 1840, about twenty families 
had settled within the limits of the town; and 
during the same year Mr. Jesse Berry opened 
a school in a small frame building he had 
erected on what is now College Street. 

The first settlement in Monroe County was 
made in 1843, by Mr. John R. Gray, about 
two miles from the present site of Eddyville ; 

and in the summer of 1844 a log school-house 
was built by Gray, William V. Beedle, C. 
Benfro, Joseph McMullen and Willoughby 
Bandolph, and the first school was opened 
by Miss Urania Adams. The building was 
occupied for school purposes for nearly ten 
years. About a year after the first cabin was 
built at Oskaloosa a log school-house was built, 
in which school was opened by Samuel W. 
Caldwell in 1844. 

At Fort Des Moines, now the capital of the 
State, the first school was taught by Lewis 
Whitten, clerk of the district court, in the 
winter of 1846-47, in one of the rooms on 
"Coon Bow," built for barracks. 

The first school in Pottawattamie County 
was opened by George Green, a Mormon, at 
Council Point, prior to 1849; and until about 
1854, nearly, if not quite, all the teachers in 
that vicinity were Mormons. 

The first school in Decorah was taught 
in 1853, by T. W. Burdick, then a young 
man of seventeen. In Osceola, the first school 
was opened by Mr. D. W. Scoville. The first 
school at Fort Dodge was taught in 1855 by 
Cyrus C. Carpenter, since governor of the 
State. In Crawford County, the first school- 
house was built in Mason's Grove, in 1856, 
and Morris McHenry first occupied it as 

During the first twenty years of the history 
of Iowa the log school-house prevailed, and in 
1861 there were 893 of these primitive struct- 
ures in use for school purposes in the State. 
Since that time they have been gradually dis- 
appearing. In 1852 there were 471; in 1860, 
876; in 1865, 796; in 1870, 356; in 1875, 121; 
in 1880, 67; in 1885, 40, and in 1889, 30. 

Iowa Territory was created July 3, 1838. 
January 1, 1839, the Territorial Legislature 
passed an act providing that "there shall be 
established a common school or schools in 




each of the counties in this Territory, which 
shall be open and free for every class of white 
citizens between the ages of five and twenty - 
one years." The second section of the act 
provided that " the county board shall, from 
time to time, form such districts in their re- 
spective counties, whenever a petition may be 
presented for the purpose by a majority of the 
voters resident within such contemplated dis- 
trict." These districts were governed by boards 
of trustees, usually of three persons; each dis- 
trict was required to maintain school at least 
three months in every year ; and later, laws were 
enacted providing for county school taxes for 
the payment of teachers, and that whatever ad- 
ditional sum might be required should be as- 
sessed upon the parents sending, in proportion 
to the length of time sent. 

When Iowa Territory became a State, in 
1846, with a population of 100,000, and with 
•JO, 000 scholars within its limits, 416 indepen- 
dent school districts had been organized. In 
1850, there was 1,262; in 1856, 2,850; in 1860, 
4,655 sub-districts; in 1869, 6,773 sub-dis- 
tricts; in 1875, 2,536 independent districts, 
and 7,062 sub-districts; in 1880, 3,192 inde- 
pendent districts, and 7,668 sub-districts; in 
1889, 3,451 independent districts, and 8,768 

In March, 1858, upon the recommendation 
of Hon. M. L. Fisher, then superintendent of 
public instruction, the Seventh General Assem- 
bly enacted that "each civil township is de- 
clared a school district," and provided that 
these should be divided into sub-districts. 
This law went into force March 20, 1858, and 
reduced the number of school districts from 
about 3,400 to 932. 

This change of school organization resulted 
in a very material reduction of the expen- 
ditures for the compensation of district secre- 
taries and treasurers. An effort was made for 

several years, from 1867 to 1870, to abolish the 
sub-district system. Mr. Kissell, superintend- 
ent, recommended it in his report of January 1, 
1870, and Gov. Merrill forcibly endorsed his 
views in his annual message. But the Legis- 
lature of that year provided for the formation 
of independent districts from the sub-districts 
of district townships. 

The system of graded schools was inaugur- 
ated in IS 19; and new schools, in which more 
than one teacher is employed, are universally 
graded. In 1868 there were 212 graded 
schools; in 1875, 407; in 1880, 2,209; in 1885, 
3,060, and in 1889, 3,523. 

The first official mention of teachers' insti- 
tutes in the educational records of Iowa occurs 
in the annual report of Hon. Thomas H. Ben- 
ton, Jr., made December 2, 1850, who said: 
" An institution of this character was organ- 
ized a few years ago, composed of the teachers 
of the mineral regions of Illinois, Wiscon- 
sin and Iowa. An association of teachers 
has also been formed in the county of 
Henry, and an effort was made, in October 
last, to organize a regular institute in the count v 
of Jones." At that time — although the ben- 
eficial influence of these institutes was admitted, 
it was urged that the expense of attending 
them was greater than teachers with limited 
compensation were able to bear. To obviate 
this objection, Mr. Benton recommended that 
"the sum of $150 should be appropriated an- 
nually for three years, to be drawn in install- 
ments of $50 each by the superintendent of 
public instruction, and expended for these in- 
stitutions." He proposed that three institutes 
should be held annually at points to be des- 
ignated by the superintendent. 

No legislation in this direction, however, was 
had until March, 1858, when an act was passed 
authorizing the holding of teachers' institutes 
for periods of not less than six working days, 



whenever not less than thirty teachers should 
desire. The superintendent was authorized to 
expend not exceeding $100 for any one insti- 
tute, to be paid out by the county superintend- 
ent as the institute might direct for teachers 
and lecturers, and $1,000 was appropriated 
to defray the expenses of these institutes. 

December 6, 1858, Mr. Fisher reported to 
the board of education that institutes had been 
appointed in twenty counties within the preced- 
ing six months, and more would have been, 
but the appropriation had been exhausted. 

The board of education at its first session, 
commencing December 6, 1858, enacted a code 
of school laws which retained the existing pro- 
visions for teachers' institutes. 

In March, 1860, the General Assembly 
amended the act of the board by appropriating 
" a sum not exceeding $50 annually for one 
such institute, held as provided by law in each 

In 1865 Mr. Faville reported that the " pro- 
vision made by the State for the benefit of 
teachers' institutes has never been so fully 
appreciated, both by the people and the teachers, 
as during the last two years." 

By act approved March 19, 1874, normal 
institutes were established in each county, to | 
be held annually by the county superintendent. 
This was regarded as a very decided step in i 
advance by Mr. Abernethy, and in 1876 the 
Sixteenth General Assembly established the 
first permanent State Normal School at Cedar 
Falls, Black Hawk County, appropriating the 
building and property of the Soldiers' Orphans' 
Home at that place for that purpose. This 
school is now in successful operation. 

The public schools are supported by funds 
arising from several sources. The sixteenth 
section of every congressional township was set 
apart by the general government for school 
purposes, being one-thirty-sixth part of all the 

lands of the State. The minimum price of 
these lands was fixed at $1. 25 per acre. Congress 
also made an additional donation to the State of 
500,000 acres, and an appropriation of five 
per cent on all the sales of public lands to the 
school fund. The State gives to this fund the 
proceeds of the sales of all lands which escheat 
to it; the proceeds of all fines for the violation 
of the liquor and criminal laws. The money 
derived from these sources constitutes the per- 
manent school fund of the State, which cannot 
be diverted to any other purpose. The penalties 
collected by the courts for fines and forfeitures 
go to the school fund in the counties where 
collected. The proceeds of the sale of lands 
and five per cent fund go into the State treasury, 
and the State distributes these proceeds to the 
several counties according to their request, 
and the counties loan the money to individuals 
for long terms at eight per cent interest, on 
security of land valued at three times the 
amount of the loan, exclusive of all buildings 
and improvements thereon. The interest on 
these loans is paid into the State treasury, 
and becomes the available school fund of the 
State. The counties are responsible to the 
State for all money so loaned, and the State is 
likewise responsible to the school fund for all 
moneys transferred to the counties. The 
interest on these loans is apportioned by the 
State auditor semi-annually to the several 
counties of the State, in proportion to the 
number of persons between the ages of five 
and twenty-one years. The counties also levy 
an annual tax for school purposes, which is 
apportioned to the several district townships in 
the same way. A district tax is also levied for 
the same purpose. The money arising from 
these several sources constitutes the support of 
the public schools, and is sufficient to enable 
every sub-district in the State to afford from 
six to nine months' school each year. 


4 4* — »- 


Tlie taxes levied for the support of schools 
are self-imposed. Under the admirable school 
laws of the State, no taxes can be legally 
assessed or collected for the erection of school- 
bouses until they have been ordered by the 
election of the district at a school meeting 
legally called. The school-houses of Iowa are 
the pride of the State and an honor to the 
people. If they have been sometimes built at 
a prodigal expense, the tax-payers have no one 
to blame but themselves. The teachers' and 
contingent funds are determined by the board 
of directors under certain legal restrictions. 
These boards are elected annually, except in 
the independent districts, in which the board 
may be entirely changed every three years. 
The only exception to this mode of levying 
taxes for support of schools is the county school 
tax, which is determined by the county board 
of supervisors. The tax is from one to three 
mills on the dollar, usually, however, but one. 
Mr. Abernethy, who was superintendent of 
public instruction from 1872 to 1877, said in 
one of his reports: 

" There is but little opposition to the levy of 
taxes for the support of schools, and there 
would be still less if the funds were always 
properly guarded and judiciously expended. 
However much our people disagree upon other 
subjects, they are practically united upon this. 
The opposition of wealth has long since ceased 
to exist, and our wealthy men are usually the 
most liberal in their views, and the most active 
friends of popular education. They are often 
found upon our school boards, and usually 
make the best of school officers. It is not 
uncommon for boards of directors, especially 
in the larger towns and cities, to be composed 
wholly of men who represent the enterprise, 
wealth and business of their cities. 

The following comparative statistics speak 
in eloquent terms of the extraordinary stride 

made in the growth of the common-school sys- 
tem of Iowa from 1849 to 1889, a period of but 
forty years: 1849 — Independent school dis- 
tricts, 1,005; ungraded schools, 554; average 
annual session, four months and four days; 
male teachers, 336 ; female teachers, 245 ; aver- 
age compensation per month — males, $14.53; 
females, $7.64; persons of school age between 
five and twenty-one years, 50,082; total scholas- 
tic enrollment, 17,350; frame and log school- 
houses, 349; brick, 35; stone, 3; total, 387; 
valued at $38,506; number of volumes in school 
libraries, 180; teachers' institutes, 0; total teach- 
ers' salaries, $24,648; expenditures on school- 
house grounds, buildings, apparatus and for 
fuel, etc., $20,090; annual interest of perma- 
nent school fund, $6,138 ; total equalized assess- 
ment of State, $18,509,000. 1889— District 
townships, 1,188; independent districts, 3,451; 
sub -districts, 8, 7(58; ungraded schools, 12,088; 
graded schools, 3,523; average annual session, 
seven months and fourteen days ; male teachers, 
5,432; female, 20,361; average compensation 
per month — males, $37.52; females, $30.37; 
persons of school age between five and twenty- 
one years, 649,606; scholastic enrollment, 489,- 
229; total average attendance, 304,856; frame 
school-houses, 11,847; brick, 777; stone, 225; 
log, 30; total houses, 12,879; valued at $12,- 
580,345 ; number of volumes in school libraries, 
74,891; number of teachers, 99; total teachers' 
salaries, $4,197,165; expenditures on houses, 
grounds, apparatus, fuel, etc., $2,650,963; an- 
nual interest of permanent school fund, $263,- 
690; total equalized assessment of the State, 

The report of the superintendent of public 
instruction for the year 1888-89 shows that 
satisfactory progress has been made in comply- 
ing with the law of 1886, touching the study 
and teaching of the effects of alcohol and stimu- 
lants upon the human system. This instruc- 



tion — oral, book, chart, or lecture — is universal 
throughout the State. 

Out of 96,392 children iu the State, between 
the ages of eight and sixteen years, inclusive, 
13,077 do not attend schools of any kind. 

The following was the amount of permanent 
school fund in the several counties on the 30th 
of June, 1889: 

Adair $29,244 69 

Adams 30,640 74 

Allamakee . . . 59,8*4 58 

Appanoose... 24.392 05 

Audubon 37,151 45 

Benton 36,161 38 

Black Hawk.. 18,061 19 

Boone 92,613 58 

Breuner 49,110 69 

Buchanan.... 9.819 16 

Buena Vista.. 53,103 69 

Butler 26,807 34 

Calhoun 54,065 75 

Carroll 15,100 00 

Cass 51,962 70 

Cedar 38.265 43 

Cerro Gordo.. 18,095 79 

Cherokee 64.967 91 

Chickasaw... 25,130 77 

Clark 42.568 54 

Clay 44,413 00 

Clayton 42,122 69 

Clinton 9,910 45 

Crawford 85,322 09 

Dallas 44,083 74 

Davis 24,928 91 

Decatur 80,812 15 

Delaware . . . 14,022 07 

Des Moines.. 44,424 77 

Dickinson.... 26,649 83 

Dubuque 11,555 00 

Emmet 33,965 47 

Fayette 68,523 57 

Floyd 29,705 46 

Franklin 19,404 35 

Fremont 55,718 46 

Greene 41,024 58 

Grundy 20,443 45 

Guthrie 24,155 07 

Hamilton 47.691 53 

Hancock 20,168 28 

Hardin 35.569 90 

Harrison 41.081 04 

Henry 14.510 07 

Howard 40.868 40 

Humboldt.... 27,656 46 

Ida 21.972 00 

Iowa 81.429 50 

Jackson 25,160 84 

Jasper 62.549 08 

Jefferson 24.493 33 

Johnson 26,418 40 

Jones 34.256 53 

Keokuk 24.959 56 

Kossuth :.7.630 22 

Lee 25.958 15 

Linn 21,602 10 

Louisa 18.789 57 

Lucas 22,387 47 

Lynn 74,732 18 

Madison 62.031 22 

Mahaska. . . - 22.896 79 

Marion 47,029 01 

Marshall 31,501 07 

Mills...'. 42.168 85 

Mitchell 12.532 49 

Monona 33.395 51 

Monroe 57,912 14 

Montgomery . 40,722 96 

Muscatine 22,006 68 

O'Brien 109.439 91 

Osceola 64,480 75 

Page 70,519 44 

Palo Alto. . . . 33.069 23 

Plymouth .. 108,661! 24 

Pocahontas.. . 62.188 91 

Polk 44,564 08 

Pottawattamie 69,244 31 

Poweshiek... 59.966 66 

Binggold 52.367 50 

Sac 14.292 43 

Scott 3,002 59 

Shelby 18.319 40 

Sioux 108.848 32 

Story 44,955 97 

Tama 38,567 45 

Taylor 45,092 61 

Union 39,178 46 

VanBuren... 23.998 53 

Wapello 43,373 13 

Warren 36.252 18 

Washington . 34,737 03 

Wayne 66,823 30 

Webster 45,718 00 

Winnebago... 68,195 66 

Winneshiek . 29,083 93 

Woodbury... 81,053 00 

Worth 25,725 00 

Wright 32,179 83 

Total $4,074,326 72 

The significance of such facts as these is 
unmistakable. Such lavish expenditures can 

only be accounted for by the liberality and 
public spirit of the people, all of whom mani- 
fest their love of popular education and their 
faith in the public schools by the annual dedi- 
cation to their support of more than one per 
cent of their entire taxable property ; this, too, 
uninterruptedly through a series of years, com- 
mencing in the midst of a war which taxed 
their energies and resources to the extreme, 
and continuing through years of general de- 
pression in business — years of moderate yield 
of produce, of discouragingly low prices, and 
even amid the scanty surroundings and priva- 
tions of pioneer life. Few human enterprises 
have a grander significance or give evidence of 
a more noble purpose than the generous con- 
tributions from the scanty resources of the 
pioneer for the purposes of public education. 

The educational institutions of the State are 
as follows : Iowa State University, Iowa City ; 
Iowa State Agricultural College, Ames; Iowa 
State College for the Blind, Vinton ; Iowa State 
Institution for Deaf and Dumb, Council Bluffs; 
Iowa State Industrial School for Boys, Eldora; 
Iowa State Industrial School for Girls, Mitchell- 
ville; Iowa State Soldiers' Orphans' Home, 
Davenport; Iowa State Normal School, Cedar 
Falls; Iowa State Asylum for Feeble-Minded 
Children, Glenwood ; Amity College, College 
Springs ; Burlington College, Burlington ; Calla- 
nan College, Des Moines; Central University, 
Pella; Coe College, Cedar Bapids; Cornell Col- 
lege. Mount Vernon; Drake University, Des 
Moines; Wesleyan University, Mt. Pleasant; 
Griswold College, Davenport; Iowa College, 
Grinnell; Lutheran College, Decorah; Oska- 
loosa College, Oskaloosa ; Parsons College, Fair- 
field ; Penn College, Oskaloosa ; Simpson Cente- 
nary College, Indianola; St. Joseph's College, 
Dubuque; Tabor College, Tabor; Upper Iowa 
University, Fayette; University of Des Moines, 
Des Moines; Western College, Toledo. 




The Past Proven by the State op Iowa in the War op the Rebellion— Response to the First Call por 

Volunteers— Work Done by the State Oppicers to Facilitate the Enlistment op Troops— 

The Protection op Her Own Border a Necessity— Engagements in Which Iowa Tkoops 

Participated— Sakitary Work Done by the State— Soldiers' Orphans' Home — 

Bounty and Drafts — Number op Volunteers Furnished. 

The mighty rivals, whose destructive rage 
Did the whole world in civil arms engage, 
Are now agreed.— Ro 

OWA may well be proud 
of her record during the 
war of the Rebellion, 
from 18G1 to 1865. In 
the promptitude of her 
responses to the calls 
made on her by the gen- 

eral Government, in the courage 
and constancy of hei soldiery in 
the field, in the wisdom and effi- 
ciency with which her civil admin- 
istration was conducted during the 
trying period covered by the War 
of the Eebellion, she proved herself 
the peer of any loyal State. The 
proclamation of her governor, re- 
sponsive to that of the President, calling for 
volunteers to compose her First Regiment, was 
issued on the fourth day after the fall of Sumter. 
At the end of only a single week men enough 
were reported to be in quarters (mostly in the 
vicinity of their own homes) to fill the regiment. 
These, however, were hardly more than a tithe of 
the number who had been offered by company 

commanders for acceptance under the Presi- 
! dent's call. So urgent were these offers that 
[ the governor requested (on the 21th of April) 
| permission to organize an additional regiment. 
While awaiting an answer to this request, he 
! conditionally accepted a sufficient number of 
I companies to compose two additional regi- 
ments. In a short time he was notified that 
both of these would be accepted. Soon after 
the completion of the Second and Third Regi- 
ments (which was near the close of May), the 
adjutant-general of the State reported that 
upward of 170 companies had been tendered 
j to the governor to serve against the enemies 
I of the Union. 

Much difficulty and considerable delay 
occurred in fitting these regiments for the field. 
For the first infantry a complete outfit (not 
uniform) of clothing was extemporized — prin- 
cipally by the volunteered labor of loyal 
women in the different towns — from material 
of various colors and qualities obtained within 
the limits of the State. The same was done 
in part for the Second Infantry. Meantime 



an extra session of the General Assembly had 
been called by the governor, to convene on the 
15th of May. With but little delay that body 
authorized a loan of $800,000, to meet the 
extraordinary expenses incurred, and to be 
incurred, by the executive department, in con- 
sequence of the new emergency. A wealthy 
merchant of the State (ex-Governor Merrill, 
then a resident of McGregor) immediately 
took from the governor a contract to supply a 
complete outfit of clothing for the three regi- 
ments organized, agreeing to receive, should 
the governor so elect, his pay therefor in State 
bonds at par. This contract he executed to 
the letter, and a portion of the clothing (which 
was manufactured in Boston to his order) was 
delivered at Keokuk, the place at which the 
troops had rendezvoused, in exactly one month 
from the day on which the contract had been 
entered into. The remainder arrived only a 
few days later. This clothing was delivered 
to the regiment, but was subsequently con- 
demned by the Government, for the reason that 
its color was gray, and blue had been adopted 
as the color to be worn by the national troops. 

Other States also clothed their troops, sent 
forward under the call of President Lincoln, 
with gray uniforms, but it was soon found that 
the Confederate forces were also clothed in gray, 
and that color was at once abandoned by the 
Union troops. If both armies were clothed 
alike, annoying if not fatal mistakes were liable 
to be made. 

But while engaged in these efforts to dis- 
charge her whole duty in common with all the 
other Union-loving States in the great emer- 
gency, Iowa was compelled to make immediate 
and ample provision for the protection of her 
own borders from threatened invasion on the 
south by the secessionists of Missouri, and 
from danger of incursions from the west and 
northwest by bands of hostile Indians, who were 

freed from the usual restraint imposed upon 
them by the presence of regular troops stationed 
at the frontier posts. These troops were with- 
drawn to meet the greater and more pressing 
danger threatening the life of the nation at its 
very heart. 

To provide for the adequate defense of her 
borders from the ravages of both rebels in arms 
; against the Government, and of the more irresist- 
ible foes from the western plains, the governor 
of the State was authorized to raise and equip 
two regiments of infantry, a squadron of cav- 
alry (not less than five companies) and a bat 
talion of artillery (not less than thi-ee com- 
panies). Only cavalry was enlisted for home 
defense; however in times of special danger, 
or when calls were made by the Unionists of 
Northern Missouri for assistance against their 
disloyal enemies, large numbers of militia on 
foot often turned out, and remained in the field 
until the necessity for their service had passed. 

The first order for the Iowa Volunteers to 
move to the field was received on the 13th of 
June. It was issued by Gen. Lyon, then com- 
manding the United States forces in Missouri. 
The First and Second Infantry immediately 
embarked in steamboats, and moved to Han- 
nibal. Some two weeks later, the Third Infan- 
try was ordered to the same point. These 
three, together with many other of the earlier 
organized Iowa regiments, rendered their first 
field service in Missouri. The First Infantry 
formed a part of the little army with which 
Gen. Lyon moved on Springfield, and fought 
the bloody battle of Wilson's Creek. It re- 
ceived unqualified praise for its gallant bear- 
ing on the field. In the following month (Sep- 
tember), the Third Iowa, with but very slight 
support, fought with honor the sanguinary en- 
gagementof Blue Mills Landing: and in Novem- 
ber, the Seventh Iowa, as a part of a force com- 
manded by Gen. Grant, greatly distinguished 



itself in the battle of Belmont, where it poured 
out its blood like water — losing more than half 
of the men it took into action. 

The initial operations in which the battles 
referred to took place were followed by the 
more important movements led by Gen. Grant, 
Gen. Curtis, of this State, and other command- 
ers, which resulted in defeating the armies de- 
fending the chief strategic lines held by the 
Confederates in Kentucky, Tennessee, Missouri 
and Arkansas, and compelling their withdrawal 
from much of the territory previously con- 
trolled by them in those States. In these and 
other movements, down to the grand culminat- 
ing campaign by which Vicksburg was capt- 
ured and the Confederacy permanently severed 
on the line of the Mississippi River, Iowa 
troops took part in steadily increasing num- 
bers. In the investment and siege of Vicks- 
burg, the State was represented by thirty reg- 
iments and two batteries, iu addition to which 
eight regiments and one battery were employed 
on the outposts of the besieging army. The 
brilliancy of their exploits on the many fields 
where they served won for them the highest 
meed of praise, both in military and civil cir- 
cles. Multiplied were the terms in which ex- 
pression was given to this sentiment, but these 
words of one of the journals of a neighboring 
State, " The Iowa troops have been heroes 
among heroes," embody the spirit of all. 

In the veteran re-enlistment that distin- 
guished the closing months of 1863 above all 
other periods in the history of re-enlistments 
for the national armies, the Iowa three years' 
men (who were relatively more numerous than 
those of any other State) were prompt to set 
the example of volunteering for another term of 
equal length, thereby adding many thousands 
to the great army of those who gave this re- 
newed and practical assurance that the cause of 
the Union should not be left without defenders. 

In all the important movements of 1864-65, 
by which the Confederacy was penetrated in 
every quarter, and its military power finally 
overthrown, the Iowa troops took part. Their 
drum-beat was heard on the banks of every 
great river of the South, from the Potomac to 
the Rio Grande, and everywhere they rendered 
the same faithful and devoted service, main- 
taining on all occasions their wonted reputation 
for valor in the field and endurance on the 

Two Iowa three-year cavalry regiments were, 
employed during their whole term of service in 
the operations that were in progress from 1863 
to 1866 against the hostile Indians of the west- 
ern plains. A portion of these men were among 
the last of the volunteer trooj)S to be mustered 
out of service. The State also supplied a con- 
siderable number of men to the navy, who took 
part in most of the naval operations prosecuted 
against the Confederate power on the Atlantic 
and Gulf coasts, and the rivers of the West. 

The people of Iowa were early and constant 
workers in the sanitary field, and by their 
liberal gifts and personal efforts for the benefit 
of the soldiery, placed their State in the front 
rank of those who became distinguished for 
their exhibitions of patriotic benevolence dur- 
ing the period covered by the war. Agents 
appointed by the governor were stationed at 
points convenient for rendering assistance to 
the sick and needy soldiers of the State, while 
others were employed in visiting, from time to 
time, hospitals, camps and armies in the field, 
and doing whatever the circumstances rendered 
possible for the health and comfort of such of 
the Iowa soldiery as might be found there. 

Some of the benevolent people of the State 
early conceived the idea of establishing a home 
for such of the children of deceased soldiers as 
might be left in destitute circumstances. This 
idea first took form in 1863, and in the follow- 





ing year a home was opened at Farmington, 
Van Buren County, in a building leased for 
that purpose, and which soon became filled to 
its utmost capacity. The institution received 
liberal donations from the general public, and 
also from the soldiers in the field. In 1865 it 
became necessary to provide increased accom- 
modations for the large number of children 
who were seeking the benefits of its care. 
This was done by establishing a branch at 
Cedar Falls, in Black Hawk County, and by 
securing, during the same year, for the use of 
the parent home, Camp Kinsman, near the city 
of Davenport. This property was soon after- 
ward donated to the instution by act of Con- 

In 1866, in pursuance of a law enacted for 
that purpose, the Soldiers' Orphans' Home 
(which then contained about 450 inmates) be- 
came a State institution, and thereafter the 
sums necessary for its support were appropri- 
ated from the State treasury. A second brauch 
was established at Glenwood, Mills County. 
Convenient tracts were secured and valuable 
improvements made at all the different points. 
Schools were also established, and employ- 
ments provided for such of the children as 
were of suitable age. In all ways the pro- 
vision made for these wards of the State has 
been such as to challenge the approval of every 
benevolent mind. The number of children 
who have been inmates of the home from its 
foundation to the present time is considerably 
more than 2,000. 

At the beginning of the war the population 
of Iowa included about 150,000 men presuma- 
bly liable to render military service. The 
State raised, for general service, thirty-nine 
regiments of infantry, nine regiments of cav- 
alry and four companies of artillery, composed 
of three years' men ; one regiment of infantry 
composed of three months' men, and four reg- 

iments and one battalion of infantry composed 
of 100 days' men. The original enlistments 
in these various organizations, including 1,727 
men raised by draft, numbered a little more 
than 69,000. The re-enlistments, including 
upward of 7,000 veterans, numbered very 
nearly 8,000. The enlistments in the regular 
army and navy, and organizations of other 
States, will, if added, raise the total to upward 
of 80,000. The number of men who, under 
special enlistments and as militia, took part at 
different times in the operations on the ex- 
posed borders of the State, was probably as 
many as 5,000. 

Iowa paid no bounty on account of the men 
she placed in the field. In some instances, 
toward the close of the war, bounty to a com- 
paratively small amount was paid by cities and 
towns. On only one occasion — that of the call 
of July 18, 1864 — was a draft made in Iowa. 
This did not occur on account of her proper 
liability, as established by previous ridings of 
the war department, to supply men under 
that call, but grew out of the great necessity 
that then existed for raising men. The gov- 
ernment insisted on temporarily setting aside, 
in part, the former rule of settlements, and en- 
forcing a draft in all cases where subdistricts 
in any of the States should be found deficient 
in their supply of men. In no instance was 
Iowa, as a whole, found to be indebted to the 
general Government for men, on a settlement 
of her quota accounts. 

It is to be said to the honor and credit of 
Iowa that while many of the loyal States, older 
and larger in population and wealth, incurred 
heavy State debts for the purpose of fulfilling 
their obligations to the general Government, 
Iowa, while she was foremost in duty, while 
she promptly discharged all her obligations to 
her sister States and the Union, found her- 
self at the close of the war without any ma- 




terial addition to her pecuniary liabilities in- 
curred before the war commenced. Upon final 
settlement after the restoration of peace, her 
claims upon the Federal Government were 
found to be fully equal to the amount of her 

bonds issued and sold during the war to pro- 
vide the means for raising and equipping her 
troops sent into the field, and to meet the in- 
evitable demands upon her treasury in conse- 
quence of the war. 


No. Regiment. 

1st Iowa Infantry. 
2d Iowa Infantry 
3d Iowa Infantry 
4th Iowa Infantry 
5th Iowa Infantry 
6th Iowa Infantry 
7th Iowa Infantry 
8th Iowa Infantry 
9th Iowa Infantry 
10th Iowa Infantry 
11th Iowa Infantry 
12th Iowa Infantry 
13th Iowa Infantry 
14th Iowa Infantry 
15th Iowa Infantry 
10th Iowa Infantry 
17th Iowa Infantry 
18th Iowa Infantry 
19th Iowa Infantry 
20th Iowa Infantry 
21st Iowa Infantry 
22d Iowa Infantry 
23d Iowa Infantry 
24th Iowa Infantry 
25th Iowa Infantry 
26th Iowa Infantry 
27th Iowa Infantry 
28th Iowa Infantry 
29th Iowa Infantry 
30th Iowa Infantry 
31st Iowa Infantry 
32d Iowa Infantry 
33d Iowa Infantry 
34th Iowa Infantry 
35th Iowa Infantry 
36th Iowa Infantry 
37th Iowa Infantry 

Nil. Regiment. 

3Nth Iowa Infantry 

39th Iowa Infantry 

40th Iowa Infantry 

list Battalion Iowa Infantry 

44lh Infantry (100-day men). 

45th Infantry (1 lav men) 

Kith Infantry (KM) day men) 

isili Battalion (100 day men) 

1st Iowa Cavalry 

2d Iowa Cavalry 

3d Iowa Cavalry 

4th Iowa Cavalry 

5th Iowa Cavalry 

6th Iowa Cavalry 

7th Iowa Cavalry , 

8th Iowa Cavalry 

9th Iowa Cavalry 

Sioux City Cavalry* 

Company A, 11th Pennsylvania Cavalry 

1st Battery Artillery 

2d Battery Artillery 

3d Batterv Artillery 

4th Battery Artillery 

1st Iowa African Infantry, 60th U. S.f 

Dodge's Brigade Band 

Band of 2d Iowa Infantry. . 

Enlistments as far as reported to January 1, 1864 

for the older Iowa regiments 

Enlistments of Iowa men in regiments of other 
States, over 


Hi' enlisted veterans for different regiments 

Additional enlistments 

Grand total as far as reported up to January 1, 1865 

























This does not include those Iowa men who veteran- 
ized in the regiments of other States, nor the names of 
men who enlisted during 1864, in regiments of other States. 

* Afterward consolidated with Seventh Cavalry, 
f Only a portion of this regiment was credited to 






Biographical Sketches of the Governors op Iowa Territory and the State op Iowa, Giving an 

Account op Their Ancestral Origin, Their Early Training, Their Entrance into That 

Public Life upon Which They Reflected the Highest Renown, and the Great Acts 

Which Have Been Instrumental in Building up One of the Noblest in the 

of States— State Institutions op Prominence— Their Rise 

and Progress— University and Colleges— Institutes for the 

Afflicted— Penitentiary — Sundry Societies. 

The gen'ral voice 
Sounds him, for courtesy, behaviour, language. 
And ev'ry fair demeanor, an example; 
Titles of honour add not to his worth. 
Who is himself an honour to his title. — Ford. 

ROBERT LUCAS, first governor 
of Iowa Territory, was born 
at Shepberdstown, Jefferson 
County, Va., in 1771, a direct 
descendant of William Penn. 
His fatber was a Revo- 
lutionary patriot, and a 
man to wbom the son owed not a lit- 
tle for bis success in after years. 
Robert was tbe pupil of a sturdy old 
Scotcbman in bis youth, and became 
well versed iu surveying and mathe- 
matics. In 1803 he made bis first 
appearance in public life as county 
surveyor of Scioto County, Ohio, whither he 
had moved shortly before. Later be was com- 
missioned justice of the peace by the governor. 
From an appointment as lieutenant of militia 
he rose to major-general of militia of the 
State; was a brigadier-general at tbe outbreak 
of tbe War of 1812, later a captain, and finally 

lieutenant-colonel and colonel. Col. 
served nineteen years, consecutively, in the 
Ohio Legislature; was twice chosen presidential 
elector, and in 1832 and 1834 was elected gov- 
ernor of Ohio. Under the act approved in 1838, 
establishing the Territorial government of Iowa, 
be was made at the head of affairs in the new 
Territory, his first act having to do with its 
division into districts. During his official term 
he demonstrated his ability as an individual of 
wisdom and foresight. He held office until 
succeeded by John Chambers in 1841, and 
afterward lived a retired life until his death in 
1853. He was twice married. 

John Chambers, the Territory's second gov- 
ernor, was of Irish parentage, though bom in 
New Jersey. Tbe youngest of seven children, 
be was privileged to enter Transylvania Uni- 
versity, at Lexington, Ey., but soon returned 
home, later studied law, was admitted to prac- 
tice, and in 1803 was enjoying a career of un- 




usual professional success. He took part in 
the War of 1812 as aid-de-camp to Harrison; 
in 1815 found himself in the Legislature, and 
in 1828 went to Congress. Served two more 
terms in the Legislature, and was twice ten- 
dered a position on the supreme bench of Ken- 
tucky. A Congressional career of four more 
years, closing in 1839, was followed in 1841 by 
his entrance upon the duties of governor of 
Iowa, to which he had been appointed by Presi- 
dent Harrison. His administration of affairs 
was most successful, he being especially for- 
tunate in his dealings with the Indians, who 
quietly abode by his counsel and suggestions. 
At the expiration of his first term he was re-ap- 
pointed, but subsequently removed by Polk, 
after which, greatly impaired in health, he 
returned to Kentucky. His latter years were 
passed in the society of his children, to whom 
he was devotedly attached, his death occurring 
in 1852. 

The third and last governor under Territorial 
organization was James Clarke, whose career 
as an official and whose character as a man are 
unmarred by the stain of any historical record. 
Early in life he turned his back upon the 
familiar scenes of his childhood, determined 
to carve for himself a name that should stand 
through ages. A location was found in Wis- 
consin, where the trade of a printer occupied 
him until after Iowa's formation as a Territory, 
when he moved to Burlington. Following 
Mr. Conway's death, he was appointed secre- 
tary of the Territory, his official career being 
especially distinguished for the large amount 
of business transacted. In other ways also he 
acquired extensive acquaintance. President 
Polk having removed Mr. Chambers appointed 
Mr. Clarke to succeed him in 1845, the latter 
serving until a new order of affairs necessi- 
tated the election of a State governor. It was 
during the term of Mr. Clarke that the friends 

of State government succeeded in bringing 
their desh'es before the Legislature to a suc- 
cessful issue. The governor was chosen a 
delegate to the convention for the framing of 
a constitution, and aided materially in the 
selection of laws suited to the needs of the new 
State. His last public act was a proclamation 
for a general election, at which Ansel Briggs 
was made governor. He appeared at the first 
session of the Legislature under the new 
regime, but died soon after at Burlington, of 
cholera. His wife was a sister of General 

A conservative, harmonious administration 
of four years covers the term of service of 
Iowa's first State governor, Ansel Briggs. He 
was not unlike his two immediate predecessors 
in having come from that wonderful nursery 
of progress, New England, where his boyhood 
was passed, largely in attendance upon the 
common schools, though after removing to 
Ohio he occupied himself in establishing stage 
lines. In what was then considered an early 
day for this locality, he became a pioneer of 
this State and settled in Jackson County, re- 
suming in connection with his former business 
the carrying of mails between prominent 
points. As a Democrat he was elected in 1842 
to the Territorial House of Representatives, 
and later as sheriff of his county. He was 
among the first candidates for governor of the 
new State, and by a peculiar but fortunate ut- 
terance at an opportune moment secured the 
nomination, having a small majority at the en- 
suing election. In official duties he exhibited 
an independent firmness not easily shaken, 
though not savoring of stubbornness. He 
afterward made his home in Jackson County, 
until removing to Council Bluffs, where he 
was well known. He died in Omaha in 1881, 
surviving by many years his worthy wife (his 
second), to whose womanly tact, grace and 




liospitality were due a large share of the gov- 
ernor's public success. 

Mr. Briggs' successor, Stephen Hempstead, 
deserves a prominent place in the esteem of 
all Iowans, for during his occupancy of the 
gubernatorial chair many important acts were 
passed and remain in force upon the statute 
books of to-day. Though a native of Connec- 
ticut, he found a home in the great west while 
still a boy, engaging in clerking in Galena, 111., 
whence he entered into the Black Hawk War. 
Withdrawing as a student from Illinois 
College to study law, he made good progress 
in his new profession, and in 1836 was ad- 
mitted to practice in the courts of the Terri- 
tory of Wisconsin. The same year he located 
at Dubuque, represented the northern portion 
of the Territory in the Legislative council, and 
during his second and third terms was presi- 
dent thereof. In 1848 he aided in revising 
the laws adopted as the code of Iowa in 1851, 
and in 1850 was by the choice of the peojile 
placed in charge of the affairs of State. The 
first Legislature under this reign formed fifty- 
two counties, most of them having at the present 
time the same names and boundaries. The 
last year of his term was marked by an era of 
advancing prosperity, which he had done much 
to invite. In the latter part of 1854 he re- 
tired to Dubuque, and for twelve years served 
as judge, resigning on account of impaired 
health. He survived, however, until early in 

Following Gov. Hempstead in order of serv- 
ice appears the name of one whose personal 
history is linked inseparably with that of the 
State — James Wilson Grimes, a faithful leader 
and sound official. He too was of New Hamp- 
shire nativity, born in 1816, and, though the 
youngest of a large family, early evinced such 
a decided taste for learning that he was sent 
to the district school, also studying Latin and 

Greek, and later entered Dartmouth College, 
after leaving which he engaged in reading law. 
With the spirit of bold determination and no- 
ble ambition, he came west to Burlington in 
1836, and soon had a substantial reputation as 
a rising lawyer. At a subsequent time he was 
a member of a firm which stood at the head of 
the legal profession in Iowa. Before receiving 
the nomination from the Whig element as gov- 
ernor, he had occupied various official positions, 
several times being called upon to represent 
his constituency in the Legislative and General 
Assemblies. In 1854 he assumed executive 
rule and at once introduced liberal measures to 
develop the resources of the State. It may be 
truthfully said that Gov. Grimes reclaimed Iowa 
from the thraldom of Democracy, and allied it 
to other truly Republican States. In 1858 he 
laid down this office to become United States 
Senator, and was again chosen for a six-year 
term in 1865. He was a most liberal man, and 
a warm friend to education. He died sudden- 
ly in 1872 of heart disease. 

No events of especial importance transpired 
during the administration of Gov. Balph P. 
Lowe, Iowa's fourth governor, though it was 
not a period devoid of anxious solicitude to all 
classes of citizens. Mr. Lowe was born in 
Ohio, but settled in Muscatine County, this 
State, when something over thirty years of age, 
very soon becoming prominent in local affairs, 
and of recognized ability in questions of public 
policy. His service as a member of the Con- 
stitutional Convention of 1844 was the only 
part taken by him in public matters for a 
number of years, but upon removing to Lee 
County he became district judge, filled the office 
a number of years, and in the summer of 1857 
was nominated by the Republicans as their 
candidate for the highest office within the gift 
of the people of the State. Two tickets were 
in the field at the election following, but the 



Republicans were successful, and Judge Lowe 
was soon known as Gov. Lowe. The term of 
office was reduced about this time from four to 
two years. He was especially active in appeal- 
ing to the Secretary of the Interior for the 
payment of the five per cent upon the military 
land warrants that it seemed the State was en- 
titled to, but his efforts were in vain. For a 
second term Gov. Lowe was defeated by Hon. 
S. J. Kirk wood, but as a compensation for his 
defeat he was made judge under the new con- 
stitution, and served, all told, eight years. He 
finally removed to Washington, and died there 
in 1883, leaving a large family. 

Perhaps no name is held in more grateful 
remembrance by the people of Iowa than that 
of its fifth and also its ninth governor, Samuel 
J. Kirkwood, familiarly though reverently re- 
ferred to as the "War Governor." A farmer's 
sou by birth, he was born in Harford County, 
Md., in 1813, the youngest of three children 
by his father's second marriage, his mother 
springing direct from stanch Scotch anteced- 
ents. Samuel was sent when ten years old to 
a school at Washington, remained four years, 
and later, until after arriving at manhood, 
clerked in a drug store, save for about eighteen 
months passed in school teaching. His law 
studies were commenced in Ohio, where he was 
duly admitted to practice, also serving as prose- 
cuting attorney, and later as representative to 
the constitutional convention. In 185-4 he was 
driven from the political fields of the pro- 
slavery Democrats by their position in the 
Kansas-Nebraska controversy. Coming to Iowa 
in 1855, he kept aloof from public affairs for 
awhile, but his record and ability soon followed 
him, and he was sent to the State Senate. In 
1859 he was the standard-bearer of the Repub- 
licans of the State, and was elected over a pop- 
ular opponent. Before his first term expired 
came the Civil War with it horrors, but his 

able wisdom and executive management were 
sufficient to avoid a "draft" for troops, and at 
the same time to maintain the State's financial 
credit. In 1861 he was re-elected, and during 
this term was offered by Lincoln the appoint- 
ment as minister to Denmark, but private in- 
terests compelled his subsequent declination. 
In 1866 he was made United States Senator, 
and while thus serving won fresh laurels by an 
outspoken and meritorious opposition of Charles 
Sumner, whose arrogant course was not pleas- 
ing to many of even his warmest friends. At 
the close of his term Gov. Kirkwood resumed 
the practice of law, later became president of 
an Iowa City bank, and in 1875 was again 
elected governor. He served, however, only a 
little over one year, as a call came in 1877 to 
be United States Senator. After filling this 
position four years he resigned to become sec- 
retary of the interior in Garfield's cabinet, in 
which office he was succeeded by Teller, of 
Colorado, in 1882. Gov. Kirkwood still resides 
at his home in Iowa City, well advanced in 
years. He was married in 1843. 

William Milo Stone was the sixth to fill the 
office of governor under the State organization, 
and served from 1864 to 1868. He was bom 
in 1827, of ancestors who gladly took up 
arms in defense of the young republic when 
war against the mother country was a neces- 
sity. When six years old he was taken to 
Ohio, and on the canal there spent two seasons 
as team-driver, his educational advantages be- 
ing limited to perhaps twelve months' attend- 
ance at a common school. While completing 
his apprenticeship to the chair-maker's trade, 
he read law during his leisure moments, care- 
fully prepared himself, and in 1851 was ad- 
mitted to the bar. After three years of practice 
at Coshocton, he settled at Knoxville, Iowa, 
his present home. He became a prime mover 
in forming the Republican party in this State, 




was a presidential elector oil that ticket in 
1856, and the following year was chosen judge 
of the Eleventh Judicial District; was judge 
of the Sixth District under the new constitu- 
tion, and was so serving when the war broke 
out. Immediately enlisting as a private, he 
was afterward appointed colonel by Gov. Kirk- 
wood, and won honorable distinction on the 
field of battle, attaining to such wide popular- 
ity that he was made governor in 1863, and 
remained in office until 1868. He made a 
very energetic and efficient executive. Since 
the expiration of his term he has devoted him- 
self principally to interests of a private nature, 
though in 1877 he was elected to the General 
Assembly for one term. His marriage in 
1857 resulted in the birth of one son. 

Col. Samuel Merrill was the seventh occu- 
pant of Iowa's seat of honor, being one of 
the few deserving men who have been called 
from private life to positions of public trust 
on account of a peculiar fitness for office. He 
is of English antecedents, his mother being a 
descendant of Peter Hill, from whom have 
sprung most of the Hills in America. Samuel 
was the youngest son and next to the youngest 
child of eight children. When sixteen years 
old he accompanied his parents to Buxton, Me., 
alternately teaching and attending school until 
arriving at maturity, when, determined to fol- 
low the occupation of teaching, he set out for 
the South, only to find the political elements 
of that clime too uncongenial for one bom so 
far north. He returned to Maine and thence 
to New Hampshire, being successful in busi- 
ness until 1856, when he established a branch 
house at McGregor, Iowa. During this time 
he took a quiet but active part in political af- 
fairs, and was twice elected to the New Hamp- 
shire Legislature. In this State also he 
served in a like capacity as a member of a 
regular and an extra session. In 1862 he was 

commissioned colonel, took a brilliant part in 
the military affairs of the Civil War, was 
wounded through the hips at Black River 
Bridge, and then returned to McGregor to re- 
cover. In 1867 he was chosen governor, and 
again in 1869. He is now a resident of Des 
Moines, occupied in the banking business. 

By reason of years of active and useful pub- 
lic service, Cyrus C. Carpenter, the successor 
of Gov. Merrill, is deserving of mention as one 
of Iowa's foremost men. Of Pennsylvania 
origin, he was deprived of parental care at the 
age of twelve years by the death of both his 
father and mother. Not discouraged, however, 
he attended school a few months each year 
until 1846, then taught and further prosecuted 
his studies, and finally started westward, reach- 
ing Des Moines in 1854. A little later he 
found his way to Fort Dodge, with but half a 
dollar in his pocket. From surveying, teach- 
ing, etc., he was led into the land business, and 
at every opportunity devoted his attention to 
reading law, with the intention of following 
that profession. During the war he entered 
field service as a commissioned captain, attain- 
ing the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and being 
mustered out as brevet-colonel. Various offi- 
cial capacities have demanded his attention 
since then. In 1857 he was elected representa- 
tive to the General Assembly, and four years 
served as register of the land office. In 1871, 
and again in 1873, he was elected governor of 
the State, and at the expiration of his second 
term was appointed second comptroller of the 
United States treasury. He resigned in fifteen 
months, and from 1881 to 1883 was in the 
XLVIIth Congress, also representing Webster 
County in the Twentieth General Assembly. 
He now lives the life of a private citizen at 
Fort Dodge, with his wife and adopted daugh- 

Tenth in order of service appears Joshua G. 


Newbold, still a resident, of Mouut Pleasant, a 
stanch supporter of the cardinal principles of 
the Republican party, and a man of honest re- 
ligious sentiments. Painstaking care and busi- 
ness-like methods in dealing with the interests 
of the State mark his official career. He comes 
originally from that sect known as Friends, 
and like so many of them grew up as a farmer 
boy in his native State of Pennsylvania. His 
educational advantages were quite good, and 
after assisting his father in running a flouring - 
mill some years he began the study of medi- 
cine, but later abandoned the idea of becoming 
a physician. In 1854 he moved to Iowa, being 
occupied in farming and mercantile pursuits in 
Henry County when the Rebellion with all its 
attending horrors burst upon the country. 
After three years' service as captain he resigned 
on account of disability, though his regiment 
was one that made Iowa troops famous. Re- 
turning home he resumed business, was three 
times a member of the General Assembly (once 
serving as speaker), and in 1875 was elected 
lieutenant-colonel on the ticket with Gov. Kirk- 
wood. The latter having been chosen to the 
United States Senate, Mr. Newbold became 
governor and served until succeeded by John 
H. Gear. He is now only about sixty years of 
age, beloved by all. His worthy wife, whom 
he married in 1850, has borne five children, 
three now living. 

In the list of Iowa's executives it would 
perhaps be difficult to find a man more popular, 
or who by reason of upright, honorable ability 
is more deserving of popularity, than John H. 
Gear, whose administration covered a period of 
four years of the State's history. He was born 
in Ithaca, N. Y., the son of a clergyman in the 
Protestant Episcopal Church, and occupied in 
Western New York until removing to Illinois 
in 1836. John H, his only son, came to Bur- 
lington in 1843, where he has since continued 

to reside. He early entered upon a clerical 
career, was soon taken into the firm of his 
employer, and later succeeded to the business 
by purchase. Similar interests still claim a 
share of his attention. Mr. Gear has been 
honored with many positions of trust, such as 
alderman, mayor, president of a railroad, etc. 
In 1871 the Republican party nominated and 
elected him representative to the general assem- 
bly, again in 1873 (when he was speaker), and 
also in 1875, with the same capacity. As is 
well known, he enjoys the distinction of being 
an able parliamentarian. His election as gov- 
ernor was the result in both instances of a 
large majority vote, and while an incumbent of 
this position his precise business methods 
enabled him to discharge the duties of his 
office with decided ability. His administration 
is recognized as being, perhaps, the most suc- 
cessful of any of the State governors. He is 
now representing the First District in Con- 
gress. Gov. Gear was married in 1852, and 
has two children living. 

The twelfth governor of the State was 
Buren R. Sherman, who also held office two 
terms, and demonstrated himself to be a public 
servant, having at heart the welfare and best 
interests of those whose suffrages had called 
him to this exalted position. He was of New 
York birth and antecedents, and in youth was 
fortunate in securing a thorough knowledge of 
the English branches. Later he learned the 
watch-maker's trade, in 1855 removed to Iowa, 
and on unbroken prairie in Tama County 
labored earnestly, employing his leisure hours 
in the study of law. In 1859 he was admitted 
to the bar, and became a member of a law firm 
at Vinton, which enjoyed a flourishing practice 
upon the opening of the war. Almost imme- 
diately Mr. Sherman entered the field and was 
promoted to captain. Though wounded, he 
continued in service until compelled to resign, 

g i 




when, after returning to Benton County, be was 
made county judge, then district court clerk, 
and in 1871 auditor of State, holding the lat- 
ter office six years. His nomination as gov- 
ernor was a fitting testimonial to his earlier 
public services, he remaining at the head of 
government until succeeded by Gov. Larrabee. 
His management of public business was hon- 
orable and thorough and heartily commended 
by all good citizens. The Governor's wife is 
the mother of two children. He is now enjoy- 
ing a well-earned rest. 

The last Republican candidate to serve as 
the executive of this State was William Larra- 
bee, an individual of noble ambition, broad 
comprehension and information, and a clear 
reasoner, who claims the French Huguenots 
as his ancestors. He was born in Connecticut 
in 1832, spent his early life on a rugged New 
England farm, and received moderate school 
advantages. His desire to form a plan for the 
future was retarded somewhat by the misfor- 
tune which early befell him in the loss of his 
right eye, but having decided to come west, he 
moved to Iowa in 1853, seeking the home of a 
sister in Clayton County. In time he became 
interested in mill property in Fayette County, 
but some years later sold out and started a 
bank. During the war his affliction forbade 
his service in the army, though he raised a 
company and was commissioned first lieutenant. 
In 1867 he began his political career by an 
election to the State Senate, in which capacity 
he served eighteen years, his popularity leading 
to his re-nominations by acclamation. In 1885 
he was the choice of the convention for gover- 
nor, and his election followed as a matter of 
course, and it is conceded that he made an 
excellent officer. His term of office expired on 
March I, 1890. Gov. Larrabee was married 
in 1861 and reared seven children. 

Certainly no resident of Iowa at the present 

time is more widely known, by reputation at 
least, than its present governor, Horace E. Boies, 
the successor of Gov. Larrabee, who enjoys 
the distinction of being the first man elected 
to this position by the Democratic party in 
thirty-five years. That he was the only success- 
ful candidate of his party on the State ticket 
at the last election, is a personal compliment, 
not at all disparaging to the campaign work 
of Ins party managers. Gov. Boies was born 
in Erie County, N. T., in 1827, but tiring of 
the restraint of home life on the farm, and ob- 
taining consent to depart for the west, he 
arrived in Racine Wis., poor in purse, but of 
an indomitable will. After some time of varied 
experience in farm work, he returned to his 
home and studied, later teaching in Illinois. 
In 1850 he began the study of law, was admitted 
to the bar at Buffalo, in 1852, and practiced 
with marked success until called upon to rep- 
resent his district in the House of Representa- 
tives in 1858. In April, 1«67, he removed to 
Waterloo, Iowa, where he still makes his home, 
and since that time has carried on a remunera- 
tive legal practice of wide repute, under various 
firm names; a portion of the time his eldest 
son has been associated with him. First a 
Whig in politics, Gov. Boies later became a 
Republican, and in 1882 joined the ranks of 
Democracy. He has never been a politician, 
and only accepted the nomination for his pres- 
ent position from a sense of duty. Though 
entering upon his official duties under peculiar 
circumstances, he has the confidence of all 
that his admin istration will be able, honest 
and fair. 

Of the present State institutions the capitol 
building is a beautiful specimen of modern ar- 
chitecture. Its dimensions are, in general, 
246x364 feet, with a dome and spire extending 
up to a height of 275 feet. In 1870 the Gen- 
eral Assembly made an appropriation, and pro- 


vided for the appointment of a board of com- 
missioners to commence the work of building. 
They were duly appointed and proceeded to 
work, laying the corner-stone with appropriate 
ceremonies November 23, 1871. The structure 
has only recently been completed at a cost of 
about $3,500,000. , 

The State University, at Iowa City, was es- 
tablished there in 1858, immediately after the 
removal of the capital to Des Moines. As had 
already been planned, it occupied the old cap- 
itol building. As early as January, 1849, two 
branches of the university were established — 
one at Fairfield and one at Dubuque. At Fair- 
held the board of directors organized and 
erected a building at a cost of $2,500. This 
was nearly destroyed by a hurricane the fol- 
lowing yeau, but was rebuilt more substantially 
by the citizens of Fairfield. This branch 
never received any aid from the State, and Jan- 
uary 24, 1853, at the request of the board, the 
General Assembly terminated its relation to 
the State. The branch at Dubuque had only 
a nominal existence. 

By act of Congress, approved July 20, 1840, 
two entire townships of land were set apart in 
Iowa for the support of a university. The 
Legislature of this State placed the manage- 
ment of the institution in the hands of a board 
of fifteen trustees, five to be chosen (by the 
Legislature) every two years, the superintend- 
ent of public instruction to be president of the 
board. This board was also to appoint seven 
trustees for each of the three normal schools, 
to be simultaneously established — one each at 
Andrew, Oskaloosa and Mount Pleasant. One 
was never started at the last-named place, and 
after a feeble existence for a short time the 
other two were discontinued. The uuiversity 
itself was closed during 1859-60 for want of 

The law department was established in June, 

1868, and soon afterward the Iowa Law School 
at Des Moines, which had been in successful 
operation for three years, was transferred to 
Iowa City and merged in the department. The 
medical department was established in 1869, 
and in 1874 a chair of military instruction was 

Since April 11, 1870, the government of the 
university has been in the hands of a board of 
regents. The present faculty comprises forty- 
two professors, and the attendance upwards of 
600 students. 

The State Normal School is located at Cedar 
Falls, and was opened in 1876. It has now a 
faculty of nine members, with an attendance 
of over 300 pupils. 

The State Agricultural College is located at 
Ames, in Story County, being established by 
the legislative act of March 23, 1858. In 
1862 Congress granted to Iowa 240,000 acres 
of land for the endowment of schools of agri- 
culture and the mechanic arts. The main 
building was completed in 1868, and the insti- 
tution opened the following year. Tuition is 
free to pupils from the State over sixteen years 
of age. The college farm comprises 860 acres, 
of which a major portion is in cultivation. 
[See sketch on subsequent pages.] 

The Deaf and Dumb Institute was estab- 
lished in 1855, at Iowa City, but was after- 
ward removed to Council Bluffs, to a tract of 
ninety acres of land two miles south of that 
city. In October, 1870, the main building and 
one wing were completed and occupied. In 
February, 1877, fire destroyed the main build- 
ing and east wing, and during the summer 
following a tornado partially demolished the 
west wing. It is at present manned with 
some fifteen teachers, and attended by about 
300 pupils. 

The College for the Blind has been at Vin- 
ton since 1862. Prof. Samuel Bacon, himself 



blind, a fine scholar, who had founded the In- 
stitution for the Blind at Jacksonville, 111., 
commenced as early as 1852 a school of in- 
struction at Keokuk. The nest year the insti- 
tution was adopted by the State and moved to 
Iowa City, with Prof. Bacon as principal. It 
was moved thence, in 1862, to Vinton. The 
building was erected and the college manned 
at vast expenditure of money. It is said that 
§282,000 were expended upon the building 
alone, and that it required an outlay of $5,000 
a year to heat it, while it had accommodations 
for 130 inmates. At present, however, they 
have accommodations for more pupils, with an 
attendance of 132. There are eleven teachers. 
The annual legislative appropriation is $8,000, 
besides $128 per year for each pupil. 

The first Iowa Hospital for the Insane was 
established by an act of the Legislature ap- 
proved January 24, 1855. It is located at 
Mount Pleasant, where the building was com- 
pleted in 1861 at a cost of $258,555. Within 
the first three months 100 patients were admit- 
ted, and before the close of October, 1877, an 
aggregate of 3,684 had been admitted. In 
April, 1876, a portion of the building was de- 
stroyed by fire. At this institution there are 
some ninety-four superintendents and assist- 
ants, in charge of 472 patients. 

Another hospital for the insane, at Inde- 
pendence, was opened May 1, 1873, in a build- 
ing which cost $88,114. The present number 
of inmates is 580, in the care of 111 superin- 
tendents and employes. 

The Soldiers' Orphans' Home is located at 
Davenport. It was originated by Mrs. Annie 
AVittenmeyer, during the late war, who called 
a convention for the purpose at Muscatine Sep- 
tember 7, 1863, and July 13 following the in- 
stitution was opened in a brick building at 
Lawrence, Van Buren County. It was sus- 
tained by voluntary contributions until 1866, 

when the State took charge of it. The Legis- 
lature provided at first for three " homes." 
The one in Cedar Falls was organized in 1865, 
an old hotel building being fitted up for it, and 
by the following January there were ninety six 
inmates. In October, 1869, the Home was 
removed to a large brick building about two 
miles west of Cedar Falls, and was very pros- 
perous for several years; but in 1876 the Leg- 
islature devoted this building to the State 
Normal School, and the buildings and grounds 
of the Soldiers' Orphans' Home at Gleuwood, 
Mills County, to an institution for the support 
of feeble-minded children, and also provided 
for the removal of the soldiers' orphans at the 
Gleuwood and Cedar Falls homes to the insti- 
tution at Davenport. The latter has now in 
charge 169 orphans. 

The Asylum for Feeble-Minded Children, 
referred to above, is at Gleuwood, established 
by the Legislature in March, 1876. The insti- 
tution was opened September 1, following, with 
a few puj>ils; but now the attendance is 215, 
in the care of four teachers. This asylum is 
managed by three trustees, one of whom must 
be a resident of that county, Mills. 

The first penitentiary was established in 
1841, near Fort Madison, its present location. 
The cost of the original building was $55,934, 
and its capacity was sufficient for 138 convicts. 
At present there are at this prison 361 con- 
victs, in charge of forty-three employes. 

The j^enitentiary at Anamosa was established 
in 1872-73. It now has 239 convicts and 
thirty-four employes. 

The Boys' Reform School was permanently 
located at Elclora, Hardin County, in 1872. 
For the three years previous it was kept at the 
building of the Iowa Manual Labor Institute, 
at Salem, Henry County. Only boys between 
seven and sixteen years of age are admitted. 
Credit of time for good conduct is given, so 


that occasionally one is discharged before he is 
of age. There were in 1885 201 pupils here. 

The "girls' department' 1 is at Mitchellville, 
similarly managed. Inmates, eighty-three. 

The State Historical Society is in part sup- 
ported by the State, the governor appointing 
nine of the eighteen curators. This society 
was provided for in connection with the uni- 
versity, by legislative act of January 28, 1857, 
and it has published a series of valuable col- 
lections, and a large number of finely engraved 
portraits of prominent and early settlers. 

The State Agricultural Society is conducted 
under the auspices of the State, and is one of 
the greatest promoters of the welfare of the 
people among all the State organizations. It 
holds an annual fair at Des Moines, and its 

proceedings are also published annually at the 
expense of the State. 

The Fish-Hatching House has been suc- 
cessfully carrying on its good work since its 
establishment in 1874 near Anamosa. Three 
fish commissioners are appointed, one for each 
of the three districts into which the State is 
for the purpose divided. 

The State Board of Health, established in 
1880, has an advisory supervision, and to a 
limited extent also a police supervision, over 
the health of the people, especially with refer- 
ence to the abatement of those nuisances that 
are most calculated to promulgate dangerous 
and contagious diseases. Their publications, 
which are made at the expense of the State, 
should be studied by every citizen. 


^ : 0*M 




farrxj (bounty. 


Naming the County— The Pioneers— Their Peculiar Experiences— Early Titles-Game, etc.— Names 
Early Settlers— Pioneer Mills— Grist, Flour and Saw-Mills— Timber and Tree Planting— Mer- 
chants op Earlier Days— Drainage— Reminiscences op Interest— Mail Facilities- 
Pioneer Customs— Indians— Storms— First Things— Nevada. 

Ye pioneers, it is to you 

The debt of gratitude is due; 

Ye builded wiser than ye knew 

The broad foundation 

On which our superstructure stands. 

Your strong right arms and willing hands. 

Your earnest effort, still command 

Our veneration. — Pierre. 

'HE twenty-four miles 
square in the heart of 
Iowa, comprised in the six- 
teen Congressional town- 
ships, in the Numbers 82, 
83, 84 and 85 north, and 
Eanges 21, 22, 23 and 24 
west of the fifth principal merid- 
ian, have the sole honor among 
political divisions in America of 
perpetuating the name of the 
great jurist and author of stand- 
ard treatises upon American law, 
Joseph Story, of Massachusetts. 
That eminent, able and just man 
was fully entitled to the compli- 
ment implied in this delicate and unique trib- 
ute to his memory, which was given at the in- 
stance of Hon. P. M. Cassady, of Des Moines, 

who was at the date of the christening a mem- 
ber of the General Assembly. 

The names of the early Presidents, espe- ' 
cially those of the popular Democratic party, 
Jefferson, Jackson and Van Buren, as well as 
the Father of his Country, had been commem- 
orated in the first purchase. Great orators and 
patriots of the early days, generals in the war 
for independence, and noted Indian chiefs, had 
already given names to portions of the Territo- 
ry, but those names were already stale or 
merely local in significance. It was a happy 
thought, to originate this peculiar use of the 
name of the great jurist, and it is to be hoped 
that the members of the bar of Story County 
will emulate the purity of character of the em- 
inent lawyer whose name appears on every pa- 
per they prepare; and if they may scarcely hope 
to compare with him in legal learning, they 



ought, at least, to aim to understand and hon- 

estly apply the great princij 

of justice 

which he illustrated with so much ability. Jo- 
seph Story was born September 8, 1779, and 
died September 10, 1845. 

The most interesting period in the history of 
any nation or country is that of its birth. But 
above that of any other is the rise and growth 
of the great interior basin, and the western 
slopes of the American States. It seems 
stranger than the wildest fiction when it is 
stated, that, in 1889, there was buried in Story 
County, Iowa, a man, who, as a child, was among 
the pioneers in the then unsettled parts of Ver- 
mont, who was successively a pioneer in the 
wilds of New York, of Ohio, of Indiana, of Illi- 
nois, and finally of Iowa, where he lived long 
enough to find himself in the heart of an em- 
pire of 65,000,000 of souls. In one life-time 
all this had been accomplished. 

For the last twenty years there has been but 
little real pioneer life in America. Railways 
have been during that time extended in ad- 
vance of civilization so that the emigrant 
might in a few hours reach his future home, 
surrounded by his family, and by many of those 
who had been his friends and neighbors afore- 
time, all of whom could come with houses 
ready to be set up, and with most of the luxu- 
ries to which they had been accustomed. But 
when Iowa was opened for settlement it re- 
quired weeks or months of toil and adventure 
to reach her borders, and many weary days in 
which to make choice of a location. The emi- 
grant wagon was commonly drawn by oxen. 
The trail of the buffalo indicated the crossings 
of the unbridged streams. The sun, the stars, 
the leaves of the Indian compass, and the pre- 
vailing winds indicated the course to be pur- 
sued on the treeless plains. In the early 
summer the caravan of the pioneer trod a 
boundless carpet of green. As the season ad- 

vanced the growth of the grass was such as to 
afford easy concealment except for the tops 
of the canvas- covered wagons. After the 
great fires had swept the face of the country 
in the fall, there was but blackness and deso- 
lation everywhere. 

To the child of to-day on his way to the 
school-house, on every hilltop, along the graded 
highway or the paved street, all this will seem 
to be an idle dream, or a tale of the long-ago. 
But it is a reality to parents yet in the prime 
of life, whose homes dot the wide prairies or 
line the streets of cities and villages, and for 
whom the advance agent was not the locomo- 
tive, but the surveyor who set the stakes which 
were the only signs of boundary lines. 

Under such conditions the physical features 
of the country did much to determine routes 
of travel and lines of settlement. Water and 
timber were prime factors in the problems of 
pioneer life. The tide of population flowed 
against the tide of the sti-eams, and meandered 
the groves on their borders. Many of the 
early home-seekers came from other lands 
where timber must needs be destroyed to make 
room for the growth of necessary food, and the 
habit of destroying timber was such with them 
that many of them chose to settle in the 
woods rather than on the magnificent farms 
made ready for them by nature. Not only so, 
but they were firmly convinced that all others 
had the same thought, and that the broad 
prairies would never be occupied for homes. 

Thus it followed that in the settlement of 
Central Iowa the borders of the rivers and 
groves were first occupied, and for social, as 
well as natural advantages, the population ex- 
tended far into the interior along the streams, 
while the great prairies were neglected. The 
borders of the Des Moines and the Iowa Rivers 
were explored before those of the smaller 
streams. About this time, also, the great Cal- 



ifornia trail was opened across the State, pass- 
ing through Jasper and Polk Counties. That 
tide dropped an occasional emigrant upon its 
line, and sometimes picked up a discontented 
floater and carried him to the Pacific slope. All 
these things combined to prepare for the occu- 
pation of Story County in the years closely fol- 
lowing upon 1850. 

It is cei-tainly true that under the Federal 
census of that year there was no enumeration 
of any citizen of Story County, as such. But 
it is also true that there were then at least two 
families which had homes within the county 
lines. One of these was probably reported in 
the census for Marshall County, the other in 
that of Polk County, or was omitted from 
the rolls. As these parties came into the 
county on different lines of travel, took claims 
about twenty miles distant from each other, 
and neither had knowledge of the other, each 
was morally the first settler in a county, the 
exact lines of which were then scarcely known, 
except to Government surveyors. For many 
years it was claimed for the Ballards, by citi- 
zens of the western part of the county, that the 
settlement in Ballard Grove had priority ; while 
in the southeasteim part of the county a simi- 
lar claim was made for William Parker. 

The claim for priority of settlement made by 
the Ballard brothers, is that Dan W. Ballard, 
who was then post butcher at FortDes Moines, 
obtained from Lieut. Green, of the Dragoons, 
and from Capt. Kobert Allen, United States 
quartermaster, permission for himself and his 
brother, Mormon Ballard, to select and locate 
claims. This was in 1847, and they made 
selections in the fall of that year. March 8, 
1848, they took possession of tbeir claims, 
which they occupied for many years. Their 
family name was given to the grove, which it 
still bears. Each of the brothers built a log 
house, 14x16 feet in size, with floors and doors 

made of puncheons, or logs split in halves and 
dressed to a fairly smooth surface. 

As bearing upon this subject, and helping to 
fix the date with exactness, Dan Ballard claims 
to have gone to Des Moines to vote in the pres- 
idential election in 1848. Also in the fall of 
that year the father, Simeon Ballard, joined 
the sons at the grove, where he died about two 
years later. The death of Simeon Ballard was 
the first in the county. His coffin was made 
by Squire M. Cory, and it was fashioned from 
walnut timber, split and dressed with an ax. 
Cory settled at the grove in the spring of 1850. 
Ben Jeffers, Reuben Baldock aud Washington 
Thomas had made selections in 1849, and 
they also brought their families in 1850. On 
the other hand, William Parker came to his 
location near the southeast corner of the 
county, and built a cabin 12x14 feet in size, 
April 14, 1849. It was a mere pen, with- 
out floor or roof. He cut au opening with his 
ax for a door, moved in his family and house- 
hold effects, and by using the boards of his 
wagon-box, soon had floor enough to keep his 
two babes off the ground. Without unneces- 
sary delay a tree was felled and made into 
boards for a roof, and in this castle the family 
remained until a better one could be completed, 
which was done by the following August. 

The better to understand the movements of 
these early settlers, it may be well to recur to 
a few facts of earlier date. In 1833, under the 
President's proclamation of June 1st, a tract of 
fifty miles in width, west of the Mississippi 
River, was thrown open to settlement. This 
was known as the " Black Hawk Purchase." It 
was soon largely occupied. In September, 
1836, a further cession was had. These were 
supplemented by other treaties in 1837 and 
1842, and on May 1, 1843, the west line of set- 
tlement was established on the meridian of Red 
Rock, in Marion County. At this time, also, a 




fort was built at the mouth of the Raccoon 
fork of the Des Moines. Under the last named 
treaty, known as the "Second Black Hawk Pur- 
chase," the eastern half of Jasper County was 
open to settlement, and was somewhat occupied 
during the years immediately prior to 1847. 
This brought the settlement comparatively near 
to the eastern border of Story County. 

The removal of the Indians to their Kansas 
reservation, in 1846, opened up the greater 
portion of Central Iowa to occupancy by the 
whites, but it was not until 1850, and within 
the year or two following, that there was any 
scramble for the choice locations in Story 
County. But about this time people began to 
pour in from the direction of Jasper County on 
the southeast, and from Fort Des Moines on 
the south, the Ballards on one line and Parker 
on the other, being the advance guard. Thus 
for about two or three yeai-s the settlements in 
the southeastern part of the county and those 
on the west were separated by Skunk River and 
an expanse of prairie that was seldom crossed, 
each party seeking necessary supplies by the 
route on which he had found his way into the 

The matter of securing supplies was one of 
grave consideration. William Parker states 
that he went sixty miles to mill. It took him 
a week to make the trip. Subsequently the 
neighborhood procured a cast iron mill on 
which corn could be partially broken up, and 
it was quite a favor to get a peck of corn 
cracked on it. Farms were soon opened in both 
settlements, of which those of the Ballards 
were the first to afford anything more than was 
needed by the family. George N. Kirkman 
was probably the first citizen of the county who 
raised a crop on his own land, having taken the 
title from the government April 8, 1851. For 
several years it was necessary to supply much 
of the rapidly increasing population with grain 

and flour from the older settlements. Even as 
late as 1857 corn was hauled from Marion and 
Mahaska Counties. The trip would require 
not less than four days, and in mid-winter the 
time was often protracted indefinitely by storms 
and accidents, or casualties to the teams. In 
illustration of the difficulties to be met with it 
may be stated that even so light a package as 
the weekly and semi-weekly mail from Des 
Moines was at times delayed for fifteen or 
twenty days. This was not so much from a 
want of bridges and highways as from the se- 
verity of the wintry weather, and from the 
drifting of the heavy snows in the unchecked 
blasts on the great prairies. The cold bridged 
the streams in those times, and the winds and 
snows obliterated every sign of travel in a few 
hours. The higher lands might be bare of 
snow, while the depressions were drifted many 
feet in depth. If there had been warmth 
enoiigh to soften the top, and followed by cold 
enough to make everything solid, loaded teams 
would travel on the prairie in every direction, 
without hindrance; but this would rarely hap- 
pen. At other times it was necessary for the 
lone traveler to provide himself with a coil of 
rope and a large shovel, and he might consider 
himself fortunate if not called on to use them 
many times during the drive. But the usual 
precaution was to go in companies of from two 
to ten teams. In that way obstruction would 
be rapidly overcome by the larger force, and 
teams could be doubled or tripled, as became 

In this way trains of corn, flour and bacon 
were brought from Pella or Oskaloosa, or 
farther east, and groceries, iron, nails, hard- 
ware, stoves, salt, and many of the necessaries 
and a few of the luxuries of life, were brought 
from Keokuk, or other places on the Missis- 
sippi River. The customary freight charges 
from Keokuk were $2 per hundred pounds. 




Thus it would cost for hauling a barrel of salt 
from Keokuk the sum of $6, whereas a barrel 
of salt is sold at the present time in our mar- 
kets at less than one-fifth of that amount. 

It may be worth while to note that the mer- 
chants never brought salt in barrels in those 
days. The charges for hauling a salt barrel 
would be nearly half a dollar, while the freight 
on a sack of equal capacity would be but a few 
cents. The sack therefore had the preference. 

On October 24, 1849, John Hart entered 
from the Government of the United States the 
east half of the southeast quarter of Section 
33 and the west half of the southwest quarter of 
Section 34 in Town 82 north, of Range 21 west. 
These lands constitute the 160-acre farm of 
William Parker, in Collins Township. This was 
the earliest entry in the county, and was the first 
land in the county owned by its occupant. This 
entry does not appear in the name of Mr. 
Parker, but is said to have been made in his 
interest, and for his use. If so, it was what 
was known as a time entry. This was a very 
common method among the early settlers. Such 
an entry was always in the interest of two per- 
sons, a capitalist and a settler. It was a mat- 
ter of speculation on the part of both of them. 
The capitalist bought up land warrants, and 
placed them in the hands of an agent near the 
land office. The settler wishing to obtain title 
to a specified tract would negotiate with the 
agent, who would locate a warrant on the land, 
and give the settler a bond for a deed. The 
usual terms were on a basis which paid the 
capitalist forty per cent, or more, for his money, 
paid the agent handsomely, and paid the settler 
more than both of them. It often gave the 
latter a home which he coiild secure in no 
other way. Some men were shrewd enough to 
engage in the business of locating lands in this 
way, that is, by securing bonds for deeds from 
the capitalist on which they managed to make 

sales at an advance, thus acquiring nice profits 
on what had really cost them nothing. 

If the party who held the bond could not 
sell at a profit before the bond matured, or pay 
up his note and get his deed, the capitalist, or 
his agent, would declare the contract forfeited, 
"time being of the essence of the contract," and 
would then sell it to any one else who would 
buy. If there had been no advance in value 
the settler simply permitted his rights to lapse, 
and the capitalist had the title to lands which 
he may not have wished to own, and found 
himself burdened with taxes which might cause 
him great inconvenience. This condition was 
described as being land poor. 

Because of the large number of such trans- 
actions, the public records do not always show 
the actual parties in interest. An examination 
of the abstract of original entries will, in many 
cases, show that the title from the Government 
was in the hands of the person who furnished 
the capital, who was distant 1,000 miles, while 
there was a resident on the land who, during 
several years, was paying him his interest, and 
finally paid off the principal, and obtained his 
deed. In many such cases these unrecorded 
bonds were the silent histories of years of bat- 
tle with untoward circumstances for a footing 
among the owners of the soil. These condi- 
tions existed for several years, or as long as 
the United States held any of these lands. It 
was not until the latter part of 1855 that a rush 
was made to absorb all these lands for specu- 
lation, and not till about February, 1856, that 
the last of them were taken. Those which re- 
mained unsought until 1856 were such as were 
farthest from timber. The latest entries of 
large bodies were made in Warren Township. 

Among those residents, or those who after- 
ward became residents, who entered lands at an 
early period, some dates and names of interest 
may be mentioned. George Flick entered 






parts of Section 34 in Nevada Township, June 
12, 1850; Isaac M. Hague made entry of 
eighty acres in Section 30, Nevada Townshrp, 
August 26, 1850; Curtis J. Brown entered the 
southeast quarter of Section 4, Indian Creek 
Township, November 13, 1850; George N. 
Kirkman entered his farm April 8, 1851; Jere- 
miah Cory entered in Section 9, Indian Creek 
Township, August 20, 1851; Nathan Webb, 
Milton Arnold, Isaac S. French, John Brough- 
ard, Robert John Harmon, Nelson S. Harmon, 
George Dye and James Sellers entered lands 
in Indian Creek Township in 1852; Levi Hop- 
per, Nicholas Kortright, W. S. Rodman, Lewis 
Burge, John Lockridge, C. P. Hempstead, F. 
D. Johnson entered lands in Nevada Township 
in 1852; John Neal, Amy Heald, Sam Mc- 
Daniel, W. W. Utterback, Adolphus Prouty, 
Elisha Alderman and Judiah Ray entered their 
lands in 1853. 

Meantime pre-emptions or claims were made 
upon many desirable selections, and direct en- 
tries as well as those on time, through agents 
of capitalists, continued to be made, and the 
country was overrun by home -seekers and 
speculators. The capacity to find section cor- 
ners on the prairie, or to follow a blazed line 
through the timber, constituted the early 
settler a guide and land agent, and put many 
quickly earned dollars in his pocket. Some of 
these men became the agents of those who en- 
tered the lands, paid their taxes, watched 
against depredations on their timber, and thus 
turned an honest penny by which they got 
cash with which to pay their own taxes. In 
some cases these entries and purchases proved 
more profitable to the agent who was fortunate 
enough to negotiate them than they did to 
those who furnished the money that lay at 
the base of the transaction. Non-residents 
who made such entries were called speculators, 
and were regarded by the settlers with such 

disfavor that they sometimes had scarcely fair 
treatment. Their possessions were occasion- 
ally rated high on the assessment rolls for 
taxation, and low on the i - olls for confiscation 
for public purposes where that was practicable. 
But their entries of timber lands fared the 
worst. These were not only the prey of 
those who needed fire-wood in winter, and who 
might be excused for appropriating that which 
was most convenient, but even the well-to-do 
farmer, with a timber lot of his own more con- 
venient, has been known to chop viciously 
upon the trees of the outlawed " speculator," 
and to seem to have immense enjoyment in his 
toil. If they had only known what would be 
proven by the lapse of a score of years, the 
" speculator " would not have been so much 
envied. The many years of depressed prices 
which followed the booming years of the early 
fifties more than made things even against the 
non-resident land-owner. Taxes and interest 
in course of time took his margins, and then 
his principal, and may finally have impover- 
ished him and his heirs; and if, to crown all, 
his estate consisted of stumps and brush lands 
from which the valuable timber had been 
robbed, the owners were left poor indeed. 
Such, however, is the short-sighted policy as 
well as indifferent honesty by which, at times, 
the plainest problems are observed, that one is 
content to injure the public, and by that means 
himself, to gratify an unworthy selfishness. 

Meantime the settlei-s drifted in. Some 
came with capital sufficient to make themselves 
comfortable as rapidly as the necessary labor 
could be performed. Others there were who 
had merely enough to secure a footing that 
would keep their heads above water for a time. 
Some of these managed to find solid ground, 
while others had the sand swept from under 
them, and drifted with the tide. Others still 
sought the new country with only hand and 


brain, and brave hearts. They were deter- 
mined to better their condition, asked for no 
favors and wrought without fear. The Old 
Settlers' Association in this county numbers 
all these classes in its membership, and does 
no more honor to the first than to the last. 

In all frontier countries there is another class 
that may not be ignored. Its members are 
those who belong to the frontier, and are never 
satisfied elsewhere. They follow the advice of 
the philosopher of the white hat and drab over- 
coat to the extent of going west, but they 
never remain to grow up with the country. 
Story County had its share of these. Many of 
the restless fellows are remembered kindly. 
There was no harm in them, but they could not 
stand crowding. When others settled near 
them it was taken as an order to move on. 
It is a pleasure to know that some of them 
have been good to themselves in other places, 
and are under the tongue of good report in 
homes found elsewhere. Others, however, can 
only be thought of with sorrow, as it is re- 
membered that even the west has a boundary, 
and that the shores of the great Pacific must 
end their journey. 

The events already recorded bring this vera- 
cious history to the summer of 1853. A birds- 
eye view of Story County at that time would 
show the physical features still in the condi- 
tion in which the Indian had seen them through 
all the ages in which it had been his hunting- 
ground. The smoke curled above a cabin here 
and there, but these were mostly sheltered and 
partly concealed by the forests which still stood 
with hardly a noticeable mark of the woodman's 
ax. The luxuriant grass hid the few cattle of 
the settler from view, even when the anxious 
owner might be within a few yards of them, 
and the searcher would stop and listen for the 
tinkle of the bell, which the wily old ox was 
careful not to sound, for thus by his cunning 

he for a time escaped the wearisome yoke. 
The head of the solitary horseman would barely 
peer above the tall grass as he skirted ponds 
or crossed the wide sloughs and low ground, 
and his centaur form was only made plain as 
he crossed the divides or climbed the prairie 
knolls to take note of his bearings. If he were 
miles distant from the grove, without a trail, 
and the day were dull, or the morning in fog, 
he might as well have been in mid-ocean with- 
out a compass, so far as the points of direction 
could be told. If a man iinder such conditions, 
were on foot and alone, he might wander in- 
definitely, and if night were coming on his sit 
uation was one for grave solicitude, and not 
without danger. 

Wild game was never as abundant here as 
on the great plains of the far west, or among 
the mountains and great forests. There were 
some deer, elk, wild turkeys and grouse. 
Geese, ducks and cranes were abundant. 
Squirrels frisked in the tree-tops and the song 
birds filled the groves. The great timber wolf 
skulked along the streams, and made raids 
upon the barnyards and poultry, while the mel- 
ancholy howl of the coyote or smaller wolf, 
made mournful music far into the night. Amid 
such surroundings the wife and children looked 
anxiously at nightfall for the coming of the 
absent husband and father, their anxiety being 
about equally divided between his welfare and 
their own. Many prairie wolves were destroyed 
in the early years of settlement, principally by 
poison. It is related that a timber wolf at- 
tacked Caleb Walters, on the creek near Ne- 
vada, and that Isaac Smith killed a black bear 
near his place in Howard Township, in mem- 
ory of which act of prowess the creek and grove 
were named for the bear. 

From these digressions we turn with 
pleasure to the interesting details of individual 
experiences in the newly selected homes. In 



the month of November, 1852, by way of the 
Jasper County trail, might have been seen a 
solitary and weary team crossing the county 
line about the head waters of the Wolf Creek 
branch of the Clear Creek fork of Indian 
Creek. This trail was not very far west of the 
residence of Mr. Parker, already referred to 
as the first settler in that part of the county. 
It was driven by Judiah Ray, and the wagon 
contained also his wife. He pursued a north- 
westerly course, in search of the cabin of 
Sam McDaniel, which was located near the 
center of Section 23, Town 83, Range 22. As 
he approached the Indian Creek timber, and 
could already see the smoke of the cabin 
sought for, he descried a man on the prairie 
whose course would presently intersect his 
own. In a short time he came face to face 
with a man of uncouth and forbidding aspect, 
who seemed disposed to make his acquaint- 
ance. On being told that he was looking for 
McDaniers place, he was informed by his 
newly found acquaintance that his family oc- 
cupied one of the apartments of the McDaniel 
cabins and his informant would be his guide. 
Mr. Ray found his companion so disagreeable 
to him that he gave him very scant courtesy 
and no confidence. For this he was chicled by 
his wife, his conduct seeming to her to be an 
improper return for hospitable effort. 

They reached the cabins, and found, in ad- 
dition to the occupants, a number of very 
rough characters from a distance, some of 
them being from the Des Moines River settle- 
ments. They had a fire of logs near the 
cabins, around which they played cards and 
drank whisky far into the night. Mr. Ray 
declined the hospitalities of the cabins for his 
wife as well as himself, preferring to once 
more rely on the shelter of the wagon which 
had brought him in safety for several hundred 
miles. Mr. McDaniel was absent, having 

gone on a visit to Ohio, and the ostensible 
guardian and host whom Mr. Ray found in 
his place was no other than the notorious and 
villainous Barnabas Lowell, who had no doubt 
previously and in the most brutal manner 
murdered a former wife in Ohio, and who in 
less than half a year perpetrated the same 
crime on her who slept in his bosom at the 
time now mentioned. As early as possible the 
following morning Mr. Ray skirted the tim- 
ber to the southwest, carefully avoiding his 
uncongenial companions of the previous night, 
and reached the home of Hiram Vincent, in 
Section 3, of what is now Indian Creek Town- 
ship. He selected, for his western home, lauds 
in the same section. 

At that time (November, 1852) Joseph P. 
Robinson's was the only family on the east side 
of West Indian Creek. His place was near the 
timber, not far from the center of Section 29, 
in Nevada Township. Robinson was a hale 
old man, with several sons and daughters, 
mostly grown. The Robinson farm now be- 
longs to the estate of W. R. Finley. Mr. Ray 
also remembers that when he came, in 1852, 
he found already located on East Indian, 
George Dye, Peter Gordy, Elisha Alderman, 
W. K. Wood, Adolphus Prouty, Hiram Vin- 
cent, Daniel and John Neal, Sam McDaniel 
and Barnabas Lowell. George Dye and Peter 
Gordy lived near the present site of the town 
of Maxwell. Dye afterward removed to a farm 
that is now owned by Samuel White, east of 
the Sam McDaniel farm. 

Hon. William K. Wood then lived in Section 
16, Indian Creek Township, near the site of 
his present residence, but nearer to the old ford 
across Indian Creek. He reached his place 
June 27, 1851, and was accompanied by his 
brother, Jesse R. Wood. Adolphus Prouty 
lived at that time southeast of Iowa Center, but 
afterward removed to a farm near the Elisha 




Alderman place, well known to all the old set- 
tlers as being on the west side of Indian Creek, 
nearly opposite to the farms of Hiram Vincent 
and Judiah Ray. George N. Kirkman came 
to the county in 1851; he opened the farm on 
which he lived till the date of his tragic death. 
Milton Arnold and William V. Alderman came 
in with the family of Elisha Alderman, and 
lived in Section 4, Township 82, Range 22. 

The name and fame of S. H. Dye are per- 
petuated in the name of the stream known as 
the Harvey Dye Branch of Indian Creek. He 
built a cabin on the bluff east of that stream, 
in the edge of the grove, not far from the 
southeast corner of Section 12 in Nevada 
Township. He had secured rights on several 
hundred acres of land, but permitted what 
would now be a fortune to slip through his 
fingers. Mrs. Dye was a daughter of the 
Widow Hague, who came iuto the township 
in the spring of 1853, and settled with her 
sons and daughters in Section 36, Richland 
Township. Those who had already located 
or squatted (as the taking of a claim was 
called) along East Indian Creek were 
James Hall, E. H. Billings, Horace Heald, 
Jennings Wilkinson and his son David, 
Charles Lucas, M. E. Miller, Sam McDaniel, 
Barnabas Lowell, Thomas Kirkman, Joe 
Cox, John Cox, Adolphus Prouty, I. S. French, 
Nelson Harmon and Hiram Vincent. 

The body of timber on East Indian, mostly 
iu Sections 12, 13, 14, 23 and 24, was known 
as the Big Grove on Indian Creek. In and 
around this was the nucleus of the most north- 
erly settlement on the creek. Hall and Lucas, 
brothers-in-law, lived north of the line of the 
Chicago & North- Western Railway. Hall's 
claim was bought by and was long the home 
of the Widow Hague. In her possession it 
often afforded shelter and food to the emigrant, 
the land-seeker and the traveler. Mrs. Hague 

bought Hall's claim in Section 36 in the spring 
of 1853; Hall was the first settler in Richland 
Township. The Wilkinsons lived south of the 
railway, their claims embracing, probably, 
most of the farms now owned by James Cook, 
and the brothers, Thomas and Oliver Ashford. 
One of the cabins in which they lived was 
between the Ashford places, about thirty rods 
northeast of Oliver Ashford' s house. Thomas 
Kirkman's place is that known as the old John 
Ford farm, recently sold by Fred Norris to 
Dr. Hostetter. This was probably the first 
place settled in New Albany Township. 

Three brothers named Cox — John, Joe and 
another — came into the Big Grove on Indian 
Creek. John Cox built a cabin near where W. 
W. Utterback now lives. He sold his claim to 
Utterback, and the latter moved into the cabin 
late in the fall of 1852. Utterback lived in the 
cabin for two years, and has continuously 
owned and lived on that farm. Joe Cox set- 
tled on the Wiggins place, north of John's 
cabin, and built a very small house, or pen of 
logs. He also cleared the timber off a small 
patch of ground, and planted some vegetables. 
Utterback first bargained for Joe Cox's place, 
but learning that it was a part of the selected 
school lands he was fearful of not obtaining 
title, and secured John Cox's claim and cabin. 
The other brother made a claim on Section 23, 
which, with his cabin, he sold to Samuel Mc- 
Daniel. Horace Heald lived in the southeast 
quarter of Section 26, and his place appears to 
have been a resort of the moral people of the 
community. Jerry Cory, of Iowa Center, a 
Baptist, and Dr. Jessup, of Cory Grove, some- 
times preached there. It was in Heald's cabin 
that the coroner's jury investigated the death 
of Mrs. Lowell. M. E. Miller lived a short dis- 
tance south of McDaniel's place. 

The center of interest, however, in the early 
days of the Indian Creek settlement was in 



Section 23, where Sam McDauiel, his brother- 
in-law, Doc Billings and the notorious Barna- 
bas Lowell held forth. Their cabins were 
under the shelter of timber lying north and 
west. This locality seemed to offer shelter not 
only to the emigrant seeking a home, as in the 
case of Mr. Ray, previously mentioned, but 
also to be a resort of those with less worthy 
pursuits. McDauiel was addicted to the use 
of intoxicants. The younger man, Billings, 
had similar tastes. McDauiel is said to have 
fallen in with Billings in Jasper County, and 
their social tastes harmonizing, Billings came 
home with McDauiel and married his sister. 
When Lowell joined them, and made his tem- 
porary home in one of the cabins, the place 
became the unsavory attraction already men- 

Farther south, and in Nevada Township, at 
the point of timber near the southeast corner 
of Section 26, lived Daniel and John Neal. 
This locality was known as " Hog-skin Point," 
and the first election, for county organization, 
was held at Neal's cabins. This place was 
afterward owned by Barnet Broughard. It is 
rather a singular circumstance that among the 
settlers in and about the Big Grove, the pio- 
neers in Richland and New Albany Townships 
are definitely known, while there seems to be 
no settled opinion as to who was the lone first 
settler in Nevada Township. Lucas, the Cox 
brothers, the Wilkinsons, father and son, and 
a son-in-law named Pierce, Heald and the 
Neals, must divide that honor among them. 
All of these, and McDauiel and Miller, were 
as early as the spring of 1852. 

At the same time, or a year earlier, George 
N. Kirkman, James Sellers, John Broughard, 
I. S. French, Nelson Harmon, Austin Prouty, 
and W. K. and J. R. Wood were living in In- 
dian Creek Township. There is little doubt 
that of all these the unfortunate Kirkman was 

the pioneer. Adolphus Prouty was the first 
justice of the peace. He lived at Prouty's 
Grove, northeast of Maxwell. Isaac S. French 
and Nelson Harmon kept bachelor's hall near 
what was long known as the W. B. Hand 
place. It is said that the exact site of George 
Dye's cabin is now included in the street of 
Maxwell, and immediately in front of the 
business house of Baldwin & Maxwell. James 
Sellers was in Section 34, Indian Creek Town- 
ship, where he remained until he removed to 

It is practicable at this point to procure but 
a few exact dates of the arrival of settlers in 
the western part of the county. Stephen P. 
O'Brien, who was one of the early county offi- 
cials, arrived on the 27th of October, 1852. 
He made a " squatter's claim " within a few 
days on the south half of Section 35, of Frank- 
lin Township. During the winter he built a 
cabin, into which he removed his family on the 
1st of February, 1853. The laud was not 
open to entry until April, 1853. On his arrival 
O'Brien found that others were in advance of 
him. Samuel Heistand and family were on 
Section 33, his sons being Harvey, William 
and Abraham. The eldest daughter, Sarah, 
was the wife of O'Brien, and Anna married 
William Taylor. Shadrack Worrall, with his 
sons James and William, lived at the grove 
that bears the family name. The Widow Bri- 
ley (Hannah) with her sons, James, Elisha, 
Ira and Albert, lived north of Ontario. Dr. 
Alexander Favre, an old and excellent physi- 
cian, a Frenchman, with his son Eugene, was 
on Section 32. John Hussong and his son, 
John Jackson, lived near Mrs. Briley. George 
B. Zenor, with his sons, John and James, also 
John J. Zenor, afterward sheriff, and known as 
"Major," lived in the same neighborhood. 
James Gildea and sons, John, Thomas and 
George, lived just north of Ontario, on what 


was long known as the farm of Calvary Ross. 
Thomas Vest and sons, Merriman and Joe, 
lived south of Ontario. Eli and Michael Deal 
and John Wheeler were also on their claims. 
Fred Echard and Squire M. Cory were occu- 
pying their respective claims. Evan C. Evans 
and his brother, William D., arrived only a 
few days in advance of O'Brien, while Henry 
C. Cameron, John Vest, James Jenkins, Frank 
Thompson and William Thompson arrived 
soon after. Echard, O'Brien and Cameron 
were soldiers of the Mexican war. John J. 
Keigley was about a year in advance of all 
those previously named, except Cory. His 
place was near the mouth of the creek that 
bears his name. The Arrasmiths were in the 
north part of this settlement at an early clay. 
Presley R. Craig, with his sons, Isaac H, 
Elisha B. and B. F., settled near O'Brien in 
March, 1S53. In that year there were many 
accessions, the names being given elsewhere. 

In June and July, 1853, S. P. O'Brien 
assessed the taxable property of the county, 
including that of the immigrants of that year, 
and listed 109 families. Many of these were 
camping in shanties or wagons, and busy turn- 
ing prairie sod for future bread. The lists 
were made on loose sheets instead of a perma- 
nent book, and these have doubtless long since 
been destroyed. The lists of the following, 
year, 1854, are well preserved and safely 
stored among the county treasures. 

In the spring of 1852 Robert Bracken, Sam- 
uel Smith, Jesse Smith and Daniel Prime 
selected lauds near Skunk River, in the north- 
west part of Howard Township. John Smith 
and Daniel Prime were their close neighbors, 
but were west of the township line, and there- 
fore in Lafayette Township. These were fol- 
lowed the next year by the father and brothers 
of the Smiths, and by Jonah Griffith, H. L. 
Boyes and Joseph Broughard. 

The assessment rolls for 1854 show the 
names of many others, some of whom may have 
come in as early as the fall of 1852, but most 
of them in 1853 and the early part of 1854. 
All are entitled to mention as early settlers. 
Among those not heretofore mentioned who set- 
tled on East Indian Creek might be named 
William L. Birge, Barnet, John and James 
Broughard, John C. Belcher, Ephraim Bowen, 
Joseph Brubaker, Jeremiah Cory, Sr. and 
Jr., T. C. Davis, I. S. French, Robert John 
Harmon, Nelson S. and Marion Harmon, Will- 
iam R., Arthur A., Mathias and Noah Hand, 
H. J. Hackathorn, Jeremiah and A. J. King, 
Abner Lewis, George Livingston, James 
Mitchell, Hiram Mitchell, S. A. Marler, James 
N. Moore, Zimri Pearson, Austin Prouty, Adol- 
phus Prouty, Frederic Pearce, John G. Sellers, 
Nathan Webb, John G., John S. and Christo- 
pher C. Wood. The names of Anderson Deter, 
J. W. Logson, C. P. McCord, Benton Warner 
and Robert Warner appear as citizens of the 
present Collins Township. Deter was in the 
southeast corner of the county, and attempted 
to start a town to which he boldly challenged 
competition by naming it "Defiance." The 
others were his neighbors, except Mr. McCord, 
who was on Section 3, and nearer to the set- 
tlers on Indian Creek. 

Among the settlers of the summer of 1853 
were William Dunahoo and a Mr. Johnson. 
The latter settled at Johnson's Grove, the 
most northerly timber on East Indian Creek. 
His memory is perpetuated in the beautiful 
grove that bears his name. He built the first 
cabin therein, in which he was assisted by his 
neighbors, as was the universal custom. Isaac 
and Samuel Hague were among those who gave 
him assistance. 

Also on the rolls of 1854 is the earliest au- 
thentic record, and not subject to dispute or 
subtraction, of a poll tax assessed to citizens in 

• » a fV 



the western part of the count}", as follows: Will- 
iam, Wesley and Massey Arrasmitb, Henry 
Burham, Joseph Broughard, James Briley, 
Bobert and William Bracken, Mormon, Dan, 
Joel and William Ballard, Noah Berry, Henry 
Cameron, Presley R., Isaac and Elisha Craig, 
S. M. Cory, I. W. Cory, Josiah, Jairus and 
Sereno Chandler, Michael Deal, E. C. and 
William D. Evans, Moses and Fred Echard, 
Eli H. and Otho French, Alexander Favre, 
Jonah Griffith, Robert and William Hawks, 
Almon Hughes, John Hand, Samuel Heistand, 
John Hussong, Nathaniel Jennings, John H. 
Keigley, Samuel Kelley, Tbomas Lowe, Peter 
McNernay, Jerry Marks, Ed. S. McKenzie, S. 
P. O'Brien, George and D. W. Prime, Jere- 
miah Pressnell, James C. Smith, Jesse, James 
A., Samuel, Isaac and John W. Smith, Warren 
Shaw, Frank Thompson, William Thompson, 
Thomas and John Vest, Shadrach Worrall, 
John Warren, Jacob Wheeler, and John, 
George B., Reuben J., John J. and Michael 
Zenor. While the absence of the name of any 
citizen from these rolls does not prove that he 
was not in the county in 1854, it must be con- 
ceded that the presence of the name on the 
roll is fair proof that at that time his residence 
was in Story County. Among the many citi- 
zens who can give the exact date of their ar- 
rival, and thus apjn-oximate claims of priority 
of settlement in the several townships, as they 
now exist, it would scarcely be practicable to 
settle this question in every instance. When 
the Ballards settled at their grove there were 
no townships defined. They were first in 
Story Precinct, afterward in Washington 
Township, then in Union, and finally in Pales- 
tine Township. They were really the pioneers, 
not only in the county, but in each one of 
these other several political organizations. 
Similar conditions existed in the case of Will- 
iam Parker, who in the final arrangement 

found himself the pioneer of the township of 

There had also settled in the county, in addi- 
tion to those already named, and prior to the 
assessment of polls for 1855, in the eastern 
part of the county, Henry J. and Joseph Bru- 
baker, Milton Cochran, R. C. Casebolt, William 
Dunahoo, J. W. Dawson, Jacob Emery, Samuel 
Floyd, Thomas Fitzgerald, William Fatish, M. 
Holtsclaw, Thomas Hall, Noah Kirkman, Zeno 
Lamb, Robert Lusk, Josephus Lowe, John Lane, 
Mathew McPherson, Thomas Mouahan, Daniel 
Maxwell, Elias Modlin, William McPherson, 
Elkanah Pearson, Oliver Pearson, John Parker, 
Jacob Ray, N. B. Tucker, John Wells, Shelby 
Baker, William W. Brown, Andrew Bales, Fred 
Casner, James A. Fry, James A. Ferguson, H. 
C. French, C. A. Gregory, D. M. Hame, Levi 
Hunter, Harris Hull, John Habbitt, Ainariah 
Mullen, W. C. Murphy, S. A. Martin, Peter P. 
Martin, William McGuire, Presly P. Pool, 
George H. Richardson, William H. Richardson, 
William Robinson, George D. Stoneking, John 
S. Thomas, and Allan Wheatley. 

In Washington Township were William Al- 
len, Samuel Allen, John Bracken, Reuben 
Baldock, S. J. Booker, William Barnett, J. W. 
Batterson, G. S. Barks, W. C. Beedle, John 
Ball, John Cook, John Delawyer, John Doty, 
Mathew Elliott, George C. Estlake, A. F. East- 
wood, John C. Elliott, William J. Freed, Will- 
iam H. Jones, T. J. Groseclose, William Illings- 
worth, Isaac Jones, Samuel Kelley, George 
Kintzley, Amos Kelley, Morgan Keltner, M. 
Livingston, Harvey Lewellen, Hugh McKee, 
Calvary Ross, Sebastian Rubar, J. C. Sladden, 
Amos Simmons and Henry Simmons. In 
Franklin Township were Sam. Eaglebarger, 
Adam L. Groves, I. T. Miller, Elias Pocock and 
William Ross. In Lafayette Township were 
Thomas Anderson, Hiram Boyes, George W. 
Sowers and Thomas Miller. 



The western pioneer, coming from a land of 
plenty farther east, and never having been 
compelled to resort to whole grain, parched or 
boiled, nor even to the black breads that still 
form so much of the daily food of the peasan- 
try of Europe, truly believed that fine flour 
was one of the necessaries of life. Appli- 
ances for grinding which are now common on 
stock farms, and may be had at any implement 
depot, were not known when the ax of the 
Story County pioneer began to fell trees for 
his cabin. There was then not a mill in Jas- 
per, Marshal], Boone nor Polk Counties. 
Mahaska County and the eastern part of Mar- 
ion County had been settled to a certain ex- 
tent as early as 1843-45. The country far- 
ther to the southeast had corn to spare, and 
presumably mills on which it could be ground. 
In that direction the early settler turned for 
bread, often leaving the women and children 
in dread of his absence, and watching im- 
patiently for his return. This state of affairs 
was not confined to a single family at one time 
with neighbors from whom one could borrow. 
It was more frequently the case that borrow- 
ing had progressed until all were alike scant 
as to supplies, and the long and weary trip had 
been postponed to the last day possible. Then 
would two or more men start together for the 
Egypt that had corn and flour to spare. In 
some cases such were the emergencies that 
there was but an old quilt bung up for a door 
to the cabin, and the timid wife and children 
took turns in keeping up the fire as a safeguard 
against the unknown perils concealed by sur- 
rounding darkness. 

Among the mills visited for custom work in 
those times were the two Parmlee mills, on 
Middle River, in Warren County. Each ar- 
rival with grain waited his turn, and carried 
home what the miller left him after taking 
substantial toll. Root's mill at Oskaloosa 

furnished flour for cash, or in exchange for 
grain. This method enabled the seeker of 
food to save time. Similar business was done 
at Iowa City. Thus it seems that a trip to 
mill meant a journey of from fifty to 120 
miles. The unbridged streams were a serious 
factor in this bread problem. Rain-storms 
were liable to come when the meal-sack was 
light, and if that should happen it might be 
that before a new supply could be had the sack 
had been turned and dusted, and parched corn, 
salt and potatoes for luck, were the only visi- 
ble foods. 

Even as late as 1856, during the sickness 
and death of Dr. Kellogg, the supply of flour 
failed in the house, and there was none for 
sale at the then thriving county seat, with a 
population of 500 souls. This was a time for 
the exercise of that practicable form of piety 
for wbich the pioneer was noted, lending and 
dividing family supplies. Mr. Alderman car- 
ried his entire supply of flour (about twenty- 
five pounds) to the house of mourning, and 
his large family subsisted on corn bread till 
wheaten flour could be obtained. 

It often required from four to eight days, 
according to the season, whether the team was 
of oxen or horses, to make the round trip 
to the mill and return. There were mills at 
Oskaloosa and Red Rock, but it was not always 
certain that flour and meal could be had. 
Thomas Fitzgerald tells that on one occasion 
William K. Wood and bimself went to the Red 
Rock Mill and got the entire supply on hand 
for half a dollar; and as if this were not hard 
enough luck, one of his horses died on the 
trip. Under such circumstances the securing 
of a mill that would crack corn when turned by 
hand, as in the case of Mr. Parker, was a not- 
able event, and "turns" were awaited with in- 
terest. The patient labor of Thomas Vest, near 
New Philadelphia (Ontario), working bowlders 


■*]«— -- 


into mill-stones for James C. Smith's mill on 
Long Dick Creek, comes near akin to patriotism. 
These things were the fulfilling of the law: 
" I was an hungered and ye gave me meat." 

Although the time of the construction of 
James C. Smith's mill is given as the summer 
of 1S5G, such was its importance that a town 
was laid oft', and hopes were entertained that 
the locality would become a seat of commercial 
enterprise. It was patronized by people from 
the south part of the county, at least fifteen or 
twenty miles distant, and probably from a much 
greater distance to the northward. The facil- 
ities which it offered were not equal to its 
early popularity, nor to the hopes it inspired. 
From the frequent repairs to the dam which 
were necessary to keep the power in form, it 
is probable that the civil engineering skill em- 
ployed in its construction was not of a high 
order. It is told by R. M. Ballard that one of 
the tolls exacted was that the customer and 
his team should work at repairing the dam 
while the grist was being ground. Thomas 
Fitzgerald says that the mill would grind " about 
as fast as a coffee mill, but not so fine." If 
both statements are without exaggeration the 
popularity of the institution would naturally 
have an early decline. 

About the same time, or soon after, Dr. W. 
H. Grafton and Jairus Chandler erected a mill 
at Cambridge, and Nathan Webb built one at 
Webb's Point, just north of Iowa Center. 
These mills were On quite a liberal scale, and 
should have rewarded the enterprising and 
sanguine builders by the return of a fortune. 
It is to be feared their hopes were not real- 
ized. The expense of purchasing the furnish- 
ings, and the transportation of heavy machinery 
for long distances over the unbridged aud miry 
roads of the early times, the price of labor 
and the want of skill in those employed, were 
costly beyond expectation. It is said not less 

than $13,000 was invested in the mill at Cam- 
bridge — an amount which invested in unim- 
proved real estate should have yielded a 
princely fortune. Webb's mill was used for 
sawing as well as grinding, and was a conven- 
ience to many in improving their farms. Sub- 
sequently mills were built on Skunk River, 
one of them in Franklin Township, west of 
Bloomington, and the other in Milford Town- 
ship, near the mouth of Keigley's Branch. 
These were respectively known for many years 
as " Hannum's " and " Soper's " mills, and 
did much custom and merchant milling in 
their days of prosperity. Other mills were in 
time erected at points on the railways — that at 
Nevada about 1868, one at Ames in 1873, 
others at Sheldahl, Ontario, Iowa Center and 
Story City still later. Meantime as the "wheat 
belt" moved north and west, and railway trans- 
portation became convenient in every locality, 
custom milling was neglected, aud the people 
'began to rely more on the grocer and less on 
the miller for their daily bread. 

In the present days of easy access to the 
lumber yards at every railway station, where 
are piled high the contributions of the pine 
forests of the North and the South and Canada, 
and the treasures of the cedar and cypress 
swamps, it may be a surprise to some to recall 
the time when the buzz of the saw aud the 
sound of the steam whistle was heard in nearly 
every grove in Story County. When settlers 
were rolling in on every trail, in 1855-56-57, 
the demand for lumber was such, and the 
expense of hauling it from points on the Mis- 
sissippi River so great, that it really seemed 
that a saw-mill would soon cut its way into a 
fortune for its possessor. As told elsewhere, 
George Childs hauled the lumber from the 
first log cut on the Jairus Chandler saw-mill, 
just above the bridge, at Cambridge, for his 
dwelling in Nevada, now occupied by Mr. War- 



rick. This was oak lumber, and was used for 
flooring in his dwelling. The saw was run by 
water-power. Samuel McDaniel built a water 
power saw-mill on East Indian Creek, near the 
fine oak and walnut timber on his farm. Cory 
had a mill on Squaw Creek, near the mouth. 
A man named Brown set up a mill on Skunk 
River, near Story City. T. McNaughton is 
said to have had a water-power saw on Onion 
Creek, northwest of Ontario. There was also 
a combination power, water and a treadwheel, 
at the Heistand place, northwest of the Indus- 
trial College, for sawing and carding wool. 
These mills all attempted to use water power. 
Webb's saw-mill, near Iowa Center, was run 
by steam power. This, later, passed into the 
hands of the Ayres Brothers, and did much 
business. The Hughes mill, in Milford Town- 
ship, was built and operated for a time as a 
saw-mill. John Parker and R. D. Coldren 
had a steam-power saw-mill in 1856, and later, 
ou Block 49, in Nevada. It is said this was 
afterward run by W. B. AVomack on the west 
side of Skunk River. It also passed into the 
hands of Jesse H. Talbott, and was run by 
him. A steam-power saw-mill was built at 
Fairview (Story City) in 1855 or 1850 by a 
man named House. It passed into the hands 
of George Prime, Noah Harding and Henry 
McCarthy, and was moved to the stream half 
a mile south of Ontario, where it was run at 
different times by the McCarthys, Thurmans, 
Rosses and Lathams. A man named Guy had 
a mill for a time in the southeastern part of 
Collins Township. In 1857 Robert, John and 
Nelson S. Harmon, brothers, set up a saw-mill 
near the east line of Section 1-1 in Nevada 
Township. It was operated at different times 
by the Harmons, Jonathan and Earl Lee, John 
W. Dawson, Bar Scott and David L. Stephens, 
and was removed by Scott and Stephens to a 
point just south of Ames. 

Joseph P. Robinson & Sons had for a time 
a mill near their residence in Section 29 of 
Nevada Township. Most of these mills could 
be traced through a troubled existeuce and 
peculiar history by patient investigation of the 
court records, if that were worth while. The 
means by which they were secured generally 
came from a sale or mortgage of the home- 
stead. They were sometimes foreclosed for 
balances due on the purchase money, and were 
often in litigation. They were prominent 
factors in the improvement of the country, and 
a common cause of financial embarrassment if 
not bankruptcy of the owners. There was 
a saw-mill in Ballard's Grove in 185G-5T, 
owned and operated by J. C. Sladden. There 
must have been, from time to time, others in 
the county not known or remembered by this 
historian. They were known as " portable " , 
mills, transferred as personal property, and 
had some of the characteristics of the prophet's 
gourd in the matter of growth and disappear- 
ance. One of the few mills which survived 
the pressure of the times and the exhaustion 
of timber for profitable sawing, was that of 
McCowau, at Iowa Center, which was removed 
to another county some years since. The only 
saw -mill in the county now capable of doing 
business is the Nellis mill, on Skunk River, 
just below Cambridge. This mill may be 
looked upon as a relic from the days when 
those of its kind were potent factors in the 
county's progress. 

The native timber on Skunk River and in 
adjacent groves, as well as on East and West 
Indian Creeks, was of fair quality, and in 
furnishing the early population with fuel, 
fencing and building material, was of great 
value. Very few of the trees that were suit- 
able for sawing now remain. A large portion 
of the best timbered lands was sold off in small 
tracts to those who lived on the adjacent prairie. 


The best trees were taken as logs to the saw- 
mills; others were cut and split into posts and 
rails for fencing; others were dressed down for 
framing timbers for dwellings and barns; and 
from the tops of these, and from standing and 
fallen trees in the timber there was obtained 
most of the fuel used for the first fifteen or 
twenty years of occupation. It was then 
thought that a farm on the prairie was not de- 
sirable unless some acres of timber were also 
to be had for the uses above named. The com- 
mercial value of these plats of timber, in tracts 
of from one to twenty acres, would range from 
$15 to $100 per acre, according to quality. 
The consequence was that during the period of 
most rapid settlement on the prairie and in 
villages, the best native timber rapidly disap- 
peared. In some instances the surface was so 
completely cleared of the timber that it was 
found practicable to put the land in cultivation, 
or to keep down the new growth and use it for 
pasturage. The building of the first railways 
also made a demand for such trees as would 
make ties, piles and bridge timber, as well as 
fuel for the locomotives, and in some instances 
contractors purchased considerable tracts of 
timber of which they soon left nothing but the 
soil and the stumps. And, as if these causes 
were not sufficient, many of the owners of these 
groves were wasteful in their habits, while 
others robbed the lands they did not own. 

As may be imagined, in 1864^-65, when the 
first railway entered the county, the demand 
for lumber was such that yards for its supply 
were opened at every station. Coal was soon 
found to be a practicable fuel.' It was dis- 
covered that the farm might be improved and 
conducted without the timber-lot. This idea 
spread, and in a few years even those who 
owned wood-lots ceased to visit them during 
wintry storms for fuel, finding that coal could 
be earned with less and lighter labor than the 

mere cutting and hauling of wood for that pur- 
pose. The destruction of the native groves 
and the consequent scarcity of lumber and fuel 
on the prairie gave an impetus to tree-planting. 
This was encouraged by legislation. Exemp- 
tion from taxes was allowed by the State for 
groves and lines of trees bordering the high- 
way. The State agricultural and horti- 
cultural societies offered premiums for groves 
and orchards. Although it was found that 
Story County was nearly, if not quite, north 
of the line of safety for the osage-orange and 
some other hedge plants, the introduction of 
the white willows seemed to offer a substitute. 
The ease with which it is propagated and its 
rapid growth combined to cause it to be very 
largely planted. And whatever may be the 
diversity of opinion as to its merits and de- 
merits as a barrier for live-stock and as a 
border for highways, one need only visit the 
treeless plains to discover that as a modifier of 
wind-currents alone it is worth in Story County 
many times its cost of land and labor. Thus 
its value for fuel and the variety and beauty 
its lines and groves give to the landscape are 
much more than clear profit. 

It is pleasant to believe that each year is re- 
placing the native groves with new growth, and 
that this, with artificial plantings, will more 
than restore the original value and acreage of 
timber. Groves and shelter-belts upon the 
farms add much to the comfort and pleasure of 
their occupants. If the patience and courage 
necessary to the successful planting of groves 
and awaiting slow returns indicate valuable 
traits of character, surely the citizens of both 
town and country in Story County have already 
earned commendation. The early wasting of 
the fine black walnut timber in the groves was 
a serious mistake. It was regarded as of no 
more vahie than other woods, and was cut and 
wastefully used for fence rails and the most 



common purposes in buildings. When the de- 
mand came for it from abroad for choice furni- 
ture and finishing lumber, and it might have 
been sold for remunerative prices, there was 
little remaining. 

As the first building in the town of Nevada 
was occupied as a general store, as well as for 
many other purposes, it follows that Mr. Alder- 
man, the first resident, was also the first mer- 
chant. The fact that he has been nearly con- 
tinuously from that time in the same or other 
lines of business in the town, always identified 
with its interests, is peculiar and exceptional. 
Others, by dozens, came and went, but the name 
of Alderman alone has stood the test of time. 
He states that Hon. William K. Wood, of Iowa 
Center, brought the first pork to this market, 
while James Broughard marketed the first but- 
ter, exchanging it for tobacco. There was, of 
course, early competition in trade. J. C. Har- 
ris opened business near the present site of the 
Advent Church, and T. J. Adamson on the 
southeast corner of Block 31, the front on Sec- 
ond Street, and facing the northeast corner of 
the park. Linn Street was then, and for many 
years after, impassable, and this separation of 
the business intei-ests did much to intensify 
local jealousy. S. S. Webb and George Childs 
built a frame store-house on Fifth Street, front- 
ing the north square, and soon occupied it with 
merchandise. This they afterward transferred 
to Alderman. Childs afterward joined Adam- 
son in business in the frame building on the 
northwest corner of Block 41, facing west. 
About this time the northeast corner of Second 
and Linn was also occupied, thus concentrating 
business in that place. In a short time the 
three sides of the park, east, north and west, 
were occupied by small frame buildings, with 
stores and offices. Facing the east side of the 
park were the pretentious New York Store 
(Adamson & Childs), with the "Nevada Hall' 1 

above (now standing northeast from the pub- 
lic well), the drug. store of Drs. V. V. Ad- 
amson and J. W. Davidson, C. G. Smith's shoe 
shop, and the store of Ellis Armstrong. Facing 
the west side was Melvin Swift's store and the 
old hotel building of Israel Helphrey. Bob- 
bins and Downing, and other parties held forth 
there for a short time. William Margason had 
the old frame first occupied by Adamson, look- 
ing south. J. S. Frazier had a law office 
farther west, and J. H. Talbott, afterward Tal- 
bott & Hawthorne, had a two-story building for 
merchandise on the southwest corner of the 
block— No. 31. Moore & Bell, Aldredge & 
Prouty, O. D. Bussell and Alderman & Bhoads 
were among the early merchants of Nevada. 

Among the early incidents in trade it may 
be mentioned that when Mr. Alderman brought 
his stock of goods with him, in August, 1853, 
he and his wife stopped with Squire Bobinson 
while the house at Nevada was in course of 
erection. The news of the new store was soon 
known throughout the neighborhood, and 
for such things as were in demand the boxes 
were opened by Mrs. Alderman, while the 
pioneer was house-building. Mr. Alderman 
at one time laid in quite a large supply of 
sugar at Keokuk, taking advantage of the 
market. It cost two cents per pound. The 
freight from Keokuk to Nevada was two cents 
per pound. Thus it is seen that he could have 
given one-half the sugar at Keokuk for de- 
livering the other half at Nevada. 

The various locations chosen from time 
to time for business in Nevada, from an 
uncertainty as to where trade would finally 
settle, caused by the two public half-squares, 
were matters of much interest. Had there 
been but one square, all would have agreed 
as to the point at issue, and the town would 
soon have presented the forlorn appearance 
of many other western county seats. The 




first jealousy was between the north and south 
sides. After this some business houses were 
built where the jail now stands. Then the 
business from the north was moved to the 
south side, and finally the true prophet, in the 
person of J. H. Sinclair, took the corner now 
occupied by Mr. Ringhiem. There was also a 
furniture house, that of Cessna & Frazier, 
south of the park. Davis & Cory were 
pioneer merchants at Iowa Center. From all 
accounts business was run on very primitive 
and inartistic methods by this firm. Cory 
was a Baptist exhorter, or preacher, and Davis 
an awkwai-d, honest, good-natured man, who 
was afterward elected county treasurer, and 
generally spoken of as "Uncle Tommy." 
Baldwin & Young and M. M. & T. J. Boss 
also were early business houses at Iowa Cen- 
ter. T. J. Ross became county treasurer. F. M. 
Baldwin has continued in business from that 
time, and has long been the senior of the firm 
of Baldwin & Maxwell, a house that has prob- 
ably done a total volume of business greater 
than that of any other firm in Central Iowa. 

J. C. Sladden did business in an early 
period at Cambridge and Iowa Center. The 
Larsons are very old merchants of Fairview 
(Story City). 

The general surface of this county is that of 
a comparatively level plain. In the early times 
many people thought much of it too nearly 
level for general husbandry. It is true that 
Skunk River flows across the entire length of 
the county from north to south, and has many 
miles of tributaries from the east and the west, 
all of which are so far below the general level 
as to furnish opportunity for the easy outflow 
of any superabundant moisture. The same 
condition is seen on the borders of Minerva 
Creek, in the northeast, and Clear Creek, in 
the southeast, but in seasons of excessive rain- 
fall, when the face of the country was covered 

with the heavy coating of the native grasses as 
then seen, the wild sod was like a sponge from 
which the grasses prevented evaporation. 
There were also innumerable depressions in 
the general surface, shallow cups of a few 
square rods in extent, or covering several 
acres, as the case might be, in which the water 
would stand throughout the summer. Some of 
these ponds would have a depth of two or three 
feet, while others would have but a few inches. 
But to such an extent did water prevail on the 
surface that several thousand acres were con- 
demned as swamp and overflowed lands, and so 
certified and granted by the general Govern- 

This character of the surface gave the lands 
of the county for many years an unsavory rep- 
utation. Thousands of acres were in reality 
at that time almost without value for crops of 
grain or grass. The settlers could see that by 
the treading of domestic live stock the outlets 
of these ponds were lowered, and lost their 
spongy character, and that gradually the sur- 
faces of the ponds were contracting. But to 
many an emigrant seeking a home the repre- 
sentation that such were the richest lands, and 
would in time be more valuable than the 
lighter soils in other counties, was not heeded, 
and they went farther, often, perhaps, faring 
worse. The passing traveler, too, sometimes 
found himself mired in a pond or slough, and 
went his way deriding and cursing " the frog- 
ponds" of Story County. All this has greatly 
changed. The mere settlement of the country 
has in places turned the quaking bog into a 
pasture of solid footing. The destruction of 
the wild sod has opened surface drains that 
leave the low places dry and firm. Grading up 
highways and opening roadside ditches have 
given increased drainage facilities. Above all 
these perhaps the use of tile in the farms and 
on the highways has had the greatest effect in 



this matter. To-day the county gives returns 
for judicious farming, acre for acre, that will 
compare favorably with the best counties in 
Iowa. The roads also have been improved, 
the streams have beeu bridged, and the trav- 
eler may pass not only in safety and comfort, 
but with absolute pleasure, wherever he will. 
The level lands have a recognized value in the 
market according to the certainty and amount 
of their liberal returns for labor exp3nded, and 
are sought as an investment and for homes by 
those who are the best informed. This differ- 
ent condition of the country in early times, 
and the sluggish character of Skunk River, 
had their influences .also on the early settle- 
ment, and such intercourse among the pioneers 
as might be practicable. In some seasons the 
river bottoms were overflowed from bluff to 
bluff, and for weeks at a time the smaller 
streams were not fordable. There were no 
bridges. If to this are added the difficulties 
of crossing the flat prairies, meandering the 
ponds and wading the. sloughs, it is not to be 
wondered that the widely scattered and small 
settlements should be little known outside of 
their immediate neighborhoods. As before 
stated, under these circumstances the citizens 
respectively of the eastern and western parts 
of the country were to each other as Jews to 

It is scarcely possible to convey to those who 
have settled in Story County within the. past 
ten years, much less to those who became citi- 
zens at a later date, the influence upon the set- 
tlement of the county exerted by the annual 
overflow of Skunk River, and the exhibition 
of the hundreds of rush ponds that covered the 
county in the early days. Neither of these was of 
very great importance, considered only in rela- 
tion to the amount of surface they occupied, 
but they influenced the value of every acre of 
good land, whether near it or not. Now the 

river is well bridged, the approaches have been 
graded up, and some labor has been done toward 
facilitating the outflow of the surplus waters 
that follow the heavy or long continued rains. 
Many of the large bends in the river have 
been cut off by ditches constructed especially 
through Polk and Jasper Coixnties, and this 
has measurably relieved many bottom lands 
farther up the stream. Before this work had 
been done, and before the grades had been 
made and the bridges built, Skunk River was 
a terror to the traveler in Central Iowa. Its 
moral effect was such upon the people of Des 
Moines that when that city sought an outlet 
for a first railway connection, the supposed ex- 
pense and trouble of grading and bridging that 
river near Cambridge, in Story County, was an 
element in bringing the directors to the deter- 
mination to make the railway connection with- 
out crossing the river. They for that reason 
voted to connect with the Chicago & North- 
western at Ames, notwithstanding they wanted 
the most direct connection possible with the 
East; also, because of the width of the bottoms 
and the height of the grade necessary in mak- 
ing passable crossings, the county and township 
authorities were slow to incur the heavy expense. 
Besides, the difficulty of grading and bridging 
ordinary roads across the sloughs and ponds 
entailed a much greater expense than would 
have been necessary had the general surface 
drainage been naturally better. It is therefore 
a fact that the early settlers have been so heav- 
ily taxed in this direction .that the delay in 
meeting some of these demands has been ex- 

The bearing of this question upon the de- 
velopment of the county has been such that 
its further illustration seems appropriate; and 
as the conditions have been so thoroughly 
changed and improved within the past fifteen 
years that one is liable to forget the former 



state of affairs unless reminded by actual 
facts and experiences, a few of them are here 

In those days driving across the country 
with success gave scope to the tact and judg- 
ment of the driver which is now rarely remem- 
bered. To haul Heavily laden wagons across 
treacherous fords and bottomless sloughs with- 
out accident, was the work of genius supple- 
mented with coin-age. Passable fords were as 
well known then as the principal bridges are 
now ; and to be informed as to the least danger- 
ous points of attempting the various "big 
sloughs" was to have valuable wisdom. Even 
as late as from 1860 to 1865 some of those who 
lived on the bluffs which overlooked the cross- 
ing of Skunk Eiver, near Cambridge, were em- 
ployed as guides in crossing the expanse of 
low ground that is now to be passed on the 
grade and bridges, without a thought as to 
why they were built where there is ordinarily 
no water. The guide, on horseback, governed 
by landmarks known to himself, would lead the 
way, avoiding the deeper places and the softer 
ground, followed by the team of the traveler, 
midside deep in water, the flood entering the 
carriage, the lady passengers and the luggage 
piled somewhat promiscuously upon the highest 
seats, room being made for them by the driver 
in broadcloth vacating the vehicle and striding 
one or other of the unhappy horses that floun- 
dered on with the load. The writer of this 
once saw the attorney-general of Iowa in this 
absurd position, accompanied by his wife and 
children. This must have been as early as 
1860, for the distinguished gentleman fell in 
battle during the war. Is it to be wondered 
that the memories of the early traveler in Story 
County should not be cheerful, and that he 
should regard one such experience as more 
than enough? 

Perhaps no single incident in pioneer life 

better illustrates the freaks of Skunk Eiver in 
its palmy days, and also the courage and skill 
that were born of extremity, than does the ex- 
perience of one even now a citizen in the vigor 
of life. It was an occasion in which Mrs. Julia 
Walker, then Miss Romane, took an involun- 
tary and remarkable bath. In the fall of 1862, 
with a horse and buggy, on her way to visit 
some friends in Mitchellville, a little before sun- 
set she reached the crossing near Plummer's, 
about two miles from Mitchellville. The road 
wound among the bayous in the bottom, 
through the timber, and was not a pleasant or 
attractive drive under its best conditions. But 
covered with water, the light fading, the dark 
shadows of the tress playing upon the surface 
and misleading the eye and judgment, it must 
needs have been a very brave girl that would 
attempt the treacherous passage at such an 

The fair Julia had little time for parley with 
the child near Plnmmer's house, who told her 
that men on horseback had crossed during the 
day. She had already driven many miles to 
find a bridge that showed above the flood, and 
being so near her destination, did not hesitate. 
With a stout heart she began to thread the 
labyrinth out and in among the trees, with 
water from fetlock to midside, holding her 
water course until the bridge was reached and 
the raging channel safely crossed. Though 
twilight was deepening, she was full of hope, 
for through openings in the trees could be seen 
the far-off shore. But soon the party came to 
grief. Deeper and deeper went the buggy, 
until the brave driver took perch upon the seat, 
as the tide rolled through the box. Even this 
resource failed, for, in a moment, without 
notice, all footing was lost, and horse, buggy 
and driver went into the depths. The subse- 
quent events will probably never be told in 
their exact order. After a lapse of more than 



a quarter of a century, Mrs. Walker is the sole 
survivor of what might have been a sad trag- 
edy, and she has little disposition to give the 
world her best impressions and recollections. 
No doubt she was more engrossed in those try- 
ing hours with the results to be attained than 
with the manner of their accomplishment. In 
imagination can be seen, even in the growing 
darkness, a somewhat obscure and tragic pict- 
ure of a rather ghostly horse, harness and 
buggy, in a waste of waters, badly confused as 
to the present, and almost hopeless as to the 
future. In the foreground of this scene, in 
what might safely be called a dissolving view, 
are glimpses of damp calico and other portions 
of feminine apparel, alternately floating and 
clinging about the form of a woman in a des- 
perate situation, but stout of heart, and with 
no thought of quitting until the job was done. 
But imagination will not do justice to the 
actual scene. Kate Shelly in her wild flight 
through the woods, over the pathless bluffs, 
and across the swollen river, in her errand of 
life and death had solid footing. Julia Ho- 
rn ane was in the flood, not above it, and had 
before her the task of saving her own life, 
and rescuing the only other living thing in 
sight, the faithful horse. Both of these she 
accomplished. It seems that in the plunge in 
which all were engulfed, the buggy and its oc- 
cupant were thrown forward, and Miss Bomane 
was not only on the horse's back, but securely 
fastened there by means of the interlacing of 
her steel-ribbed crinoline and the turrets of 
the harness. This fastening she could neither 
undo nor break. In his struggles the horse 
broke from the vehicle, and got a temporary 
but insecure footing, and his involuntary rider 
found no way of freeing herself but by slip- 
ping out of her heavy clothing, and leaving 
her garments on the horse. This she did, 
and, after securing her horse to a tree, to 

prevent him from following her, for the poor 
beast seem to feel that in her assistance his 
safety was to be found, she struck out for laud. 
Iu her wanderings she crossed the main chan- 
nel and attempted to stride a floating log, in 
the hope that it would help her on her way, 
but in the two attempts she made the log 
turned so quickly as to go over her each time 
to her grave peril. But she had already 
learned to swim, or rather she "found she 
could swim," and she breasted the current 
thereafter without the aid of floating logs, 
and finally reached the north shore about half 
a mile below where she had entered the water 
some hours before. 

Seeing a light that promised shelter and aid, 
she carefully advanced, and found it to proceed 
from the window of Mr. Blummer's dwelling. 
Knocking at the door, she was admitted by a 
thoroughly frightened little girl, sole occupant 
of the house, the remainder of the family, 
with some hastily summoned neighbors, being 
then engaged in exploring the river for the 
lost woman, who was supposed to have been 
drowned. Miss Bomane made a hasty con- 
tract with the child for some much-needed 
clothing, arrayed herself as best she could in 
misfit garments a world too small, and serenely 
awaited the surprise of her good friends on 
their return home, and their congratulations 
on her brave and successful struggle with the 
noted river on a bender. 

In 1864-65 the Western Stage Company 
connected the State capital with the Chicago 
& North-Western Bailway at Nevada. This line 
of railway being then extended farther west than 
any other, and affording the best means of get- 
ting from Des Moines to the world outside, and 
vice versa, the coaches did a rushing business. 
The highways were even then neither graded 
nor bridged, except at points where they were 
otherwise impassable. Much of the line of 



travel was over the unenclosed prairie, and 
wherever practicable followed the dry and hard 
summits or divides, often at an expense in dis- 
tance. Of necessity many low places were to 
be crossed on the quivering sod, or through 
depths of mud where much travel had worn it 
through. In these experiences the wily Jehu 
would drive at the bog in fury, hoping to so far 
pass it by virtue of inertia that the leaders 
could at last reach solid footing on the farther 
side and drag forth the coach before it had 
time with its human freight to sink hopelessly 
in the mire. Many an absurd and sorrowful 

< j >< - r 

ience was had in transit. If the coach 

"mired down," fair women were borne on the 
shoulders of brave men to solid ground. Heavy 
baggage was removed as best it could be done. 
Extra force of team and driver, with long ca- 
bles, were transferred from other coaches. 
Farmers were induced, by round sums in hand 
paid, to extricate the coach, or carry the load to 
the nearest station, or to the end of the route. 
These adventures were not confined to the 
humble and unknown traveler, but judges, gov- 
ernors, generals, some of whom still live, could 
tell tales of woe then experienced. 

It was in one of these coaches that the world 
came near losing the valuable services of its 
recent distinguished and most able first as- 
sistant postmaster-general. He was then the 
youthful and plain "Bet" Clarkson, full of hope, 
courage, and promise, engaged on the staff of 
the great journal of which he has been so long 
editor and owner with his no less able brother. 
The coach was overturned, and Mr. Clarkson 
was very seriously hurt. He was bi'ought to 
Nevada, where he laid by for repairs which 
only time and care could give. Thus did Story 
County in that early day have somewhat to do 
with civil service reform. 

The early settlers did not expect nor demand 
of the Government the amount of consideration 

now accorded to the pioneer. Before the days 
of free homesteads, laud for the landless, and 
squatter sovereignty, as political slogans, it 
was thought to be fair treatment to the man 
on the frontier if the Government gave such 
protection as enabled him to save his scalp for 
his own head. He was charged from 5 to 
25 cents for each half-ounce letter, according 
to the distance. There was no free delivery 
even in cities, and the family in the country 
that was within a few miles of a post-office 
was in luck to that extent. The j^ost-office 
least distant from the settlement on East In- 
dian was at Apple Grove, in Polk County. 
This was a station of the stage company on 
the lines both from Iowa City and Oskaloosa 
to Fort Des Moines, then briefly described as 
" The Fort." The lines from the east, by way 
of Newton, and from the southeast, by way of 
Toole's Point, came together near the Apple 
Grove station. It happened that some of the 
settlers on East Indian had friends at Trul- 
linger's Grove. The mail of East Indian set- 
tlers was sent to Trullinger's by unofficial 
hands, and forwarded as opportunity offered. 
Settlers west of Skunk Biver got their mail in 
these times at "The Fort." These were the 
conditions and facilities for Story County, from 
the first settlement until the building of the 
county seat was begun. 

The first post-office established in the county 
was at Nevada. It happened that when the 
commissioners met, June 27, 1853, to locate 
the county seat, T. E. Alderman was present. 
He then determined to make the proposed town 
of Nevada his future home. On his return to 
his residence in Henry County, he made appli- 
cation for the postmastership of the office, which 
must necessarily be soon established at the new 
county seat. His recommendations were from 
his home in Henry County. The application 
was granted; his commission was sent him. 

.9 > 



He was directed to employ a carrier on tbe 
route to Fort Des Moines and back once a 
week. Under these instructions Joseph P. 
Kobinson was employed to perform the service. 
The route was established by way of Iowa 
Center, Peoria, Cory's Grove and Daniel 
Justice's, ou Four-Mile. The first trip was 
made in November, 1853. Tbis first post-office 
in the county was kept in the famous pioneer 
store of T. E. Alderman, he having pluckily 
carried out his intentions of being the first set- 
tler in the town, first merchant in the county 
and first representative of the post-office de- 
partment. The receipts for the first quarter 
were $1.25, of which the postmaster had sixty 
per cent of a total of 75 cents. But the day 
of small things is not to be despised. This ap- 
parently insignificant establishment, with one 
mail in seven days, was but the harbinger of a 
service that now delivers its precious parcels 
through eighteen offices, some of which are 
supplied an average of five times each clay, and 
seven days in every week. If those were the 
days of hope these are the days of fruition. 
The mails became more frequent as population 
increased. The weekly was followed by semi 
and tri-weekly trips, and supplemented by 
mails on other routes. It was not till Feburary, 
1S64, that the mails came daily. 

Post-offices were next established at New 
Philadelphia and Bloomington, to be served 
from the office at Nevada, and for the trans- 
portation of the mail on that route, Joseph A. 
Fitchpatrick was the contractor. This was un- 
doubtedly a " star route, " for it is well re- 
membered that when it was impassable to every 
other conveyance, the contractor, still known 
affectionately to his intimate friends as "Joe," 
then a mere boy, braved storm and flood on 
foot in the service of the Government, and 
never missed a trip. His compensation was 
75 cents for each trip, once a week. 

In the Fifth General Assembly the Sena- 
torial and Representative districts which in- 
cluded Story County were severally repre- 
sented by Hon. James C. Jordan, of Polk 
County, and Hon. S. B. McCall, of Boone 
County. Both these gentlemen being neigh- 
bors and well acquainted with their constitu- 
ency in this county looked well to the local in- 
terests. Among the acts secured by them 
were several for the location of State roads. 
It was provided in one of these that Wesley 
A. Daniel, of Tama County, Nathan F. Yeo- 
mans, of Marshall County, and Samuel Mc- 
Daniel, of Story County, should be commis- 
sioners to locate a road from Toledo via Mar- 
shall to Nevada. The act provided that the 
commissioners, or a majority of them, should 
meet on the first Monday in April, or within 
six months thereafter, at Toledo, or at some 
other point by them agreed upon, and taking 
to their assistance a surveyor and the necessary 
chainmen and markers, and having been duly 
sworn to the faithful discharge of their several 
duties, to pi-oceed to locate said road accord- 
ing to law. These commissioners and their 
assistants were to receive a per diem that was 
to be paid from the county treasury. Another 
act of the same General Assembly provided 
for a similar road from Fort Des Moines via 
Nevada and Eldora to Cedar Falls. John 
Keigley was the commissioner from Story 
County. The same law made it the duty of 
Evan C. Evans and T. J. Adamson, on tbe 
part of Story County, to establish a similar 
road from Newton via Nevada and Smithville, 
in Story County, to Homer, in Webster County. 
At tbe same session and in the same manner 
similar highways were located from Marietta 
via Nevada, Boonsboro, Jefferson, and Ma- 
son's Grove to Ashton, in Monona County; 
and from Nevada to tbe town of Rapids, in 
Boone County. 




This General Assembly also adopted resolu- 
tions instructing and requesting the Iowa 
Senators and Representatives in Congress to 
use their influence to procure additional mail 
facilities as follows: "From Fort Des Moines 
via Nevada, Minerva Grove, Henry Grove, and 
Eldora, to Cedar Falls, in two-horse coaches, 
once a week." "From Newton via Nevada 
and Smithville to Homer, the county seat of 
Webster County, in two-horse coaches, once a 
week." "Fr'om Cedar Rapids via Vinton, 
Toledo, Marshall, Marietta, Nevada, and 
Boonsboro, to Jefferson, in two-horse coaches, 
semi- weekly." These acts and resolutions 
were approved by the governor in January, 
1855. Accordingly, at an early day, mail 
routes were established between Des Moines 
and Eldora, between Newton and Homer, be- 
tween Marietta and Boonsboro, all of which 
crossed Story County. Sheffield Post-office 
was established near Smithville, in Howard 
Township, of which Samuel Bates was the post- 
master; and an office was established at Fair- 
view of which F. W. Rhoads was the first post- 
master. This office was named Story City, 
which finally became the name of the town. 
An office was also established at Cambridge, 
of which Jairus Chandler was the first post- 
master. For a time this office supplied mail 
to an office in Ballard Grove, but there was no 
regular carrier. The service fell to the neigh- 
bors, and was performed according to conven- 
ience. There was also a post-office at an early 
date on the west side of Indian Creek, about a 
mile north of Maxwell. It was named Goshen, 
and the postmaster was the elder Jeremiah 

The first mail from Eldora arrived on the 
evening of October 8, 1858. It came in a 
hack drawn by two horses. On this route 
there was an office established at the residence 
of W. M. Kelley, Section 26 of Richland town- 

ship, of which Mr. Kelley was the postmaster. 
The office was named Johnson's Grove. 

It is said that the people of no other nation 
have the capacity of Americans for adapting 
themselves to circumstances. The western 
American, especially, having sundered old ties, 
while forming new ones, unconsciously appro- 
priates the better peculiarities of his new asso- 
ciates, and lops off some of his own that may 
well be spared. In this way he becomes a more 
rugged citizen, and runs ou a broader gauge. 
His environment has an influence on him 
socially. He yields to necessity, and learns to 
lend as well as borrow. His table and that of 
his neighbor are much alike, of necessity, and 
he accepts and extends courtesies without 
thought of hospitality. This freedom was so 
common among the pioneers that liberality was 
scarcely rated as a virtue. Still, self-interest 
may have had something to do with extending 
civilities to strangers. It was an object to have 
them locate here, and the intention was to 
make matters agreeable. Politeness grows 
on that it feeds. Frank courtesy became a 
habit with the western pioneer, who was not by 
nature or education a bear or a boor, and he 
thus learned to let the light of his countenance 
be seen by his associates. This western free- 
dom has had the sneers of dudes who affect 
superiority to such emotions as are generous 
and manly, but its indulgence has had much 
influence in forming the character of western 
men whom the world delights to honor. 

It was therefore but a matter of course that 
in every thing which concerned the public each 
one should have equal voice. If one were in 
distress all would give sympathy and aid, with- 
out special demand. Invitations to many social 
gatherings were not more formal than to the 
raising of the log cabin, where all were ex- 
pected to lend a hand if within hail. Aside 
from thoughts and manners that came out of 



the surroundings, the western pioneer differed 
not a whit from his brother that was left be- 
hind when he turned his face to the west. 
What he absorbed became a part of his own 
broader nature — was commuuicated in part to 
his children through inheritance and associa- 
tion — and when he or they returned to the old 
homestead, this was seen by those who had in 
long years worn more deeply the ruts in which 
they still moved. The early settler on the 
prairie at once became a husbandman and a 
live-stock man. He began immediately to care 
for his family and the dumb beasts, his friends, 
by which he was surrounded. He never donned 
the linsey hunting-shirt, buckskin leggins, 
bullet-pouch, powder-horn, rifle and knife in 
belt of the pioneer in the heavy forests farther 
east. His beef was not had from the cane- 
brake, nor his pork fatted on the mast, and 
only to be taken by the hunter's craft. He did 
not need to study the arts of the wild Indian 
that he might secure a living in a land that 
nature had prepared for civilized husbandry. 
On the contrary, he carried with him to his 
new home his love of order, decency and com- 
fort, and one of his earl}' efforts was to join his 
neighbors in the erection of the pioneer church 
and school-house. He had few "pioneer" 

If he came to the land of promise with a 
family carriage, it might be a long time before 
he would give it other shelter than a straw- 
covered shed. One of his "customs" was to 
leave his farm implements in the field where 
last used, or in the open yard near his primitive 
barn, to rust and rot in rain and sun. This 
expensive custom was one of the pioneer's most 
burdensome taxes. His faith in the possibili- 
ties of his soil and climate were such that he 
soon became wasteful in his customs of careless 
feeding and failure to shelter his live stock. 
Some of the early winters were mild and open. 

He had too much respect for the institutions of 
his chosen land to imply by his conduct that 
he had no confidence in the weather. He there- 
fore paid the fickle maiden the compliment of 
expecting mild winters. It goes without saying 
that he was at times greatly surprised as well 
as disappointed. This would indicate that it is 
the custom of the pioneer to be hopeful be- 
yond any reasonable warrant. 

It was the custom of the pioneer's wife and 
daughters to bring with them their best habits, 
and to wear and practice them as they had 
done in the old home. The prospector or 
home-seeker was therefore often surprised at 
the resources of the thrifty mistress of the 
humble prairie shanty or the village cabin. 
If she had been long away from the old 
orchards and fruit gardens, and the first sup- 
ply were exhausted, she supplemented the 
more substantial fare by portions of that 
which came from the forest, the wild prairie 
and her garden; plums, crabapples, raspber- 
ries, strawberries, melons, made great variety 
of excellent dishes, and dainties grew and mul- 
tiplied under skillful manipulation with hos- 
pitable intent. So, also, the old silks and 
satins were saved with care and worn with 
pardonable pride. They might not be pos- 
sessed by all, but for that reason they were all 
the more to be prized. And thus when the 
pioneers met for worship, public discussion, 
or in the social circle, they came together in 
form as did those of a less primitive civilization. 
It was the custom of the country. Incon- 
gruous and absurd incidents, connected with 
pardonable display of finery, might occur. 
Time and wear may have borne heavily upon 
some articles of apparel which could not 
readily be supplied; and though native taste 
and ingenuity were in many cases to be im- 
plicitly trusted, there were occasionally seen 
those of whom it might be truly said that 




" Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like 
one of these." 

An unfortunate accident occurred at one 
time to a most estimable lady in Nevada, 
which illustrates so aptly the spirit of the 
times that it may be mentioned. The first 
smith shop was built on the west side of Main 
street, just north of the Murrie Hotel. It 
was a low building, of rough logs, and with a 
wide and heavy door, on huge wooden hinges, 
which opened outward. The demands of rap- 
idly increasing population caused the place to 
be temporarily occupied as a residence. The 
excellent lady before mentioned, in silks, kids 
and feathers, made, as in duty bound, a formal 
call upon the more lately arrived mistress of 
the erstwhile smithy. As she daintily ap- 
proached the great door and was about to in- 
dicate her presence by a knock, it was hur- 
riedly thrown open by the lady inside, and the 
visitor felled by the blow from the door, with 
a broken nose and a bruised countenance. 

There are few indications that Story County 
was ever the home of known Indian tribes, or 
of prehistoric races. As shown elsewhere, it 
is a part of the comparatively recent forma- 
tions, and seems to have been used by roving 
tribes as hunting and fishing grounds. The 
great Sioux nations claimed the Missouri River 
and the Northwest, while the Iowas and more 
recent tribes were conceded the same rights on 
the Mississippi and the lower Des Moines. 
There were also Indian villages on the Iowa 
River near the present location of the Mus- 
quawkies, in Tama County, and there were occa- 
sional wars and predatory incursions on Iowa 
soil between various tribes, but there are no 
traditions of battles on Story County soil be- 
tween warring tribes, nor between Indians and 
whites. There was, however, one veritable In- 
dian scare. One memorable morning in the 
spring of 1857, before break of day, a man 

stopped at the door of the McLain House, 
in Nevada, his horses covered with foam. His 
wagon contained his family and such valuables 
as could be hastily gathered. He came from 
the northwest, and was escaf>ing from murder- 
ous savages. He evidently regarded his flight 
thus far as little short of a miracle, and did 
not believe that he had yet reached a place of 
security. The Indians were on the war path, 
and had already murdered all whites in his 
neighborhood. His honest excitement was con- 
tagious. Men took measures for defense, and 
women in dire fear and confusion ran to and 
fro. In the absence of stockades it was serious- 
ly proposed to occupy the frame court-house. 
Its walls would have afforded little more pro- 
tection from fire and bullets than if they had 
been made of paper. Within a few hours it was 
learned that the enemy was some miles distant, 
and had probably not ventured nearer than Spirit 
Lake, where they had committed great destruc- 
tion of life and property, and had taken some 
prisoners, entirely destroying that frontier set- 
tlement. But the panic was wide-spread and 
serious, and some families in this county fled 
from their homes. In one instance a physician 
on a visit to a patient discovered that the fami- 
ily, patient included, had sought a place of 
greater safety by flight. 

Small bands of friendly Indians some times 
camped in the groves, or on the borders of 
the streams, fishing and hunting, and occasion- 
ally startled the lone housekeeper by peering 
into the window, with nose flat against the 
pane, instead of giving an alarm by rapping 
on the door. Mrs. Dr. Kellogg had such a 
visit at the old Barndollar House, in Nevada. 
The Indian had killed a deer, and with a broken 
and bloody knife in his hand wished to borrow 
another. The Doctor had gone in the direc- 
tion of the slain deer, and was an object of 
much solicitude till he put in an appearance. S. 



S. Statler, when quite new to the country, got 
lost from his hunting party, on the open prai- 
rie in Howard township. He was approached 
by an Indian on horseback armed, and of seri- 
ous and formidable aspect. There was neither 
tree nor habitation in sight, and the Pennsyl- 
vania "tender-foot" was greatly relieved when 
he learned that old Johnny Green preferred 
his tobacco to his scalp. 

In the summer of 1855 the town of Nevada 
was visited by a windstorm, which tossed 
things about and made quite a commotion in 
the straggling village. It came in the night. 
The only house that was wrecked was that of 
Dr. Kellogg. The roof was blown off, some 
of the upper tiers of logs were displaced, and 
the family escaped in dishabille to the neigh- 
boring hotel. The building was that known 
as the old Barndollar House, on Block 4. It 
had no protection toward the northwest, and 
was yet unfinished. Though not destructive, 
the scare served to make many persons nervous 
for a time. 

The severity of the cyclone which nearly de- 
stroyed the village of Camanche thirty years ■ 
ago, and whose track extended from Fort Dodge 
to a considerable distance beyond the Missis- 
sippi River, and was everywhere marked by 
devastation, widely advertised the State as a 
land of storms. Many people in other States 
came to look upon a residence for themselves 
and friends in Iowa with dread on this account. ! 
The records show that this is not well founded, 
and that violent and abnormal atmospheric dis- 
turbances have occurred through a long series 
of years no more frequently in Iowa than in 
other States. It must surely be within the 
memory of all that for the past three years the 
State has been to such an extent exempt from 
storms, floods, cloudbursts, tornadoes, cyclones 
and similar phenomena as to attract much at- 
tention, and to cause comparison to be made 

with other sections, in nearly every direction. 
This seems but a proper explanation to make 
in narrating the conditions in 1882. On Sat- 
urday evening, April 8, of that year, in the 
western part of the' county, a terrible wind 
swept a narrow strip from south to north. It 
might rather be called a violent gale than a 
storm. Its duration at any one point was quite 
brief, but in those moments its violence was 
such as to do considerable damage over a lim- 
ited area. Its force seemed to culminate in the 
vicinity of the Agricultural College. It wrecked 
the house of Sim Keltner, near Worrell's Grove. 
It partially struck the house of Dan McCarthy 
as it passed northward, shaking it up so as to 
break the plastering and otherwise damage it. 
Just across the road to the west, was the smaller 
residence of Willard F. McCarthy. The young 
man had recently married, had taken posses- 
sion of his house on Monday, and was about to 
have his Saturday evening supper. The gale 
had so little respect for the circumstances, or 
any sentiment that might cling around them, 
as to at once take possession. The house was 
completely demolished, the material removed 
and the young man and his bride were picked 
out of the mud and water 300 feet farther 
north. Neither of them had any marks of con- 
tact with a barb-wire fence over which they 
must have been carried. On the college 
grounds the building known as " The Presi- 
dent's House," then occupied by Prof. Bessey, 
was somewhat damaged, and the North Hall, 
then in course of erection, had parts of the 
wall blown down. A small bridge on the farm 
was wrecked, the college 'bus was overturned, 
and a student named Connell was painfully in- 
jured. The wind soon after lifted and skipped 
some thirty miles, coming to the earth again 
near Gowrie, doing some damage there, also at 
Lake City. 

The circular windstorm which so greatly 



damaged the town of Grinnell, on Saturday 
evening, June 17, 1882, and which is for that 
reason commonly called the Grinnell cyclone, 
performed its first feats of destruction in Story 
County. Its worst work in this county was on 
the high prairie between Skunk River aud In- 
dian Creek, in the south part of Grant Town- 
ship. Its approach was observed in two ter- 
rific columns of cloud and dust from the west 
and southwest, both of which crossed Skunk 
Eiver within a distance of 100 rods, near the 
southwest corner of the township. Passing 
eastwardly, the two parts united near B. F. 
Everett's place, The family was not at home. 
The buildings were razed to the foundations ; 
the live stock was destroyed, and here, as else- 
where, trees were torn from the earth, or 
twisted as though they had been but twigs, 
stripped of their leaves, and even of the bark, 
and everything carried off even with the sur- 
face. In its track it took up the plowed soil, 
and in some cases a foot or more of the solid 
earth. It played most fantastic tricks, such 
as carrying off great bowlders and iron ma- 
chinery, and leaving, perhaps, a sack of 
feathers undisturbed. Moving east at a rate 
of some forty miles an hour, it struck the house 
of H. E. Mathews, moved it thirty feet west, 
tore off part of the roof, carried away beds and 
furniture, and did not break a single pane of 
glass. The children had previously, for 
amusement, formed a small cave. The family 
skurried into that and escaped injury. 

In its zigzag movements it took in its track 

the pi a 

of Ira Baker, Tooker, B. F. Chat: 

man, E. G. Pierce, George Hemstock, L. D. 
Thompson, Benton Carrington aud M. N. 
Whitney. A child of Mr. Thompson was torn 
from its mother's arms and dashed to death. 
Mrs. Thompson and another child were badly 
hurt. Hemstock, his wife, child, and a man 
named Eyan were all badly hurt at his place. 

Everywhere the wreck of property was com- 
plete. In a few instances domestic animals 
were lifted, carried some distance, and set 
down with little injury, but in its fury the rule 
was to break and kill. At nearly all these 
places houses, barns, cribs, fences, everything 
was destroyed. From Whitney's the storm 
crossed West Indian Creek, tearing timber to 
shreds and demolishing the " wilderness " 
school-house. Two miles east it took the Hal- 
ley school-house; it swept off the places of 
Silas Alderman and James Henry, in Nevada 
Township, presented its compliments to C. V. 
Norris, after crossing East Indian, and then 
skipped to Jasper County. Here it touched 
occasionally, sometimes separating, again unit- 
ing, and then poured all its vials of wrath on 
the goodly and godly city of Grinnell and her 
famous college. From thence it crossed the 
Mississippi River south of Burlington, badly 
shaking up Malcom, Brooklyn and points in 
Keokuk and Henry Counties, marking its path 
of a few hundred feet, or several miles, as the 
case might be, with death and destruction. 
It traversed 185 miles in five hours. 

As compared with the great cyclone, all other 
and previous storms were tame. It sometimes 
happened in the early days of the settlement, 
however, that after weeks of delightful weather 
in the fall, winter would set iu on a sharp turn. 
Such a storm occurred December 1, 1856. It 
lasted five days. Snow fell in quantity, and 
the wind blew so that one could not travel 
against it in safety for even a few rods. Those 
who happened to be caught away from home 
could do nothing but wait till the storm 
ceased. Such an event was a matter of much 
discomfort, anxiety, and not a little danger. On 
this occasion there was some loss of life on the 
trackless prairies north and west. In a bound- 
less expanse of snow, no visible sky, no land- 
mark, no token of direction except the shifting 



wind, the mind becomes confused, courage de- 
parts, and then comes death on the wild waste. 
Few if any such casualties ever occurred in 
this county. 

The pioneer physician of Story County was 
Alexander Favre, who located about one mile 
east of Ontario, and was among the first set- 
tlers in Franklin township. He was a man of 
ability in his profession, a native of France, 
and had the culture and manners of a Parisian. 
He lived among the pioneers, and was one of 
them until his death. The pioneer physician 
in the eastern half of the county was V. V. 
Adamson. He was a young man, scarcely hav- 
ing attained his majority, small of stature, 
weighing no more than the average boy of 
fifteen years, but bright and genial, and at- 
tained a good position and practice. He re- 
moved to Holton, Kas., where he is recog- 
nized as a leading citizen. 

The pioneer lawyer was Isaac Romane, who 
was then, 1854, about forty years old. He had 
a healthy brain and plenty of determination. 
He was not an educated man, nor a thoroughly 
well-read lawyer, but held his own in the local 
practice for a number of years, appearing 
mostly in the courts of the justice of the peace. 
He afterward retired from practice, and re- 
moved to Missouri. The second attorney was 
George A. Kellogg, a young man in 1855, the 
year of his arrival, who was afterward county 
judge, and who is now an influential citizen of 
Fairhaven, on Puget Sound. 

The pioneer preacher can hardly be named. 
Jeremiah Cory, Jr., of Iowa Center, conducted 
religious services as a member of the Baptist 
persuasion. He was called a " preacher," but 
may not have been regularly ordained. Prob- 
ably the first services ever conducted in the 
county by an ordained minister were led by 
Thompson Bird, the pioneer Presbyterian of 
Fort Des Moines. 

The pioneer hotel of the county was that 
opened by John H. McClain, in the summer of 
1854. Before and after that time all citizens 
"entertained man and beast," as occasion de- 
manded and necessity required, but Mr. Mc- 
Clain extended hospitality as a matter of busi- 

The first Independence Day celebration was 
at Iowa Center, in 1854. John G. Wood was 
president of the day, Rev. W. B. Hand was the 
orator, and Peter Gordy read the Declaration. 
The salute was fired from the anvil of the 
blacksmith, and the national colors were extem- 
porized by Thomas C. Davis, the material used 
being white muslin and lampblack. A bounti- 
ful dinner was spread, which was as free as air 
to all in attendance. 

The first church was built at Iowa Center in 
1857. It was of brick; was owned by the Bap- 

The first white willow trees, the forerunners 
of the many miles of fence-row and numerous 
groves, were planted near the northwest corner 
of the farm now owned by Mrs. Dinsmore, in 
Section 17, Nevada Township. The cuttings 
were set in 1857. 

The first county fair was held in 1859. The 
court-house was used as a fine art and vege- 
table hall, and the live stock was exhibited on 
open ground not distant, but farther north and 

The first suicide was that of Martin Batzner, 
a youug man who acted as village barber in 
Nevada and also kept a small grocery and 
candy store. He shot himself through the 
body with a rifle, in a vacant log house then 
standing in Wood's addition. 

Nevada, the seat of justice of this county, 
had its inception in the thought of providing 
for the necessities of a future not remote, and 
its authority in the statutes of the State. By 
an act of the Geueral Assembly three commis- 


sioners were appointed to locate a seat of jus- 
tice for Story County. They were Tboinas 
Mitchell, of Mitchellville, in Polk County, Jo- 
seph M. Thrift, of Boonsboro, and Johnson Ed- 
gar, of Jasper County. Because of sickness 
in his family, Mr. Mitchell could not be pres- 
ent. Messrs. Thrift and Edgar met by ap- 
pointment at tbe house of Joseph P. Robinson, 
in Section 29, Nevada Township. They came 
with a surveyor from Polk County, and made 
selection of the east half of the southwest 
quarter and the west half of the southeast 
quarter of Section 7, of Town 83 north, of 
Range 22 west of the fifth principal meridian, 
the same being then Government land. 

The location was made June 27, 1853. The 
county judge lived near the site of the proposed 
town of Bloomingtou, already laid off by former 
citizens of McLean County, III, and named 
for the thriving county seat of that county. 
He took no interest in favor of what must have 
seemed to him a removal of the county archives, 
and tbe necessity of changing his own resi- 
dence. If he had possessed the veto power, no 
doubt he would have exercised it with some 
pleasure. In this frame of mind he neglected 
to make an entry of the town site, for the ben- 
efit of the county, as was plainly what should 
have been done. But the chance to buy a 
county seat from the Federal Government for 
$1.25 per acre did not last very long. Jenkin 
W. Morris, of Des Moines, made the entry for 

The chance to secure the land having passed, 
Judge Evans entered into negotiations with 
Morris for a transfer, and secured the title by 
deeding back one-third of the lots and blocks 
after the survey had been made. This being 
settled, there was due notice given of the pub- 
lic offering of lots for sale, on the 8th of Sep- 
tember, 1853. Meantime, T. E. Alderman had 
engaged J. P. Robinson (who, though a justice 

of the peace, was not above earning an honest 
penny by hard labor) to deliver on the ground 
the necessary logs for a cabin 16x20 feet. With 
the help of those who had gathered at the sale 
of lots, the heavy work of house-raising was 
done on the day of sale, and the first building 
was erected. It was on the lot immediately 
south of the enclosed gi-ounds west of the 
court-house. The logs in the body of the 
building had been roughly faced. It was 
covered with split boards. The floors were 
made of rough lumber, hauled from a mill on 
Clear Creek, in Jasper County. The doors, 
sash and necessary hardware and finishing 
lumber were brought from Keokuk. When 
completed, which was on the 11th of October, 
it served as business house and dwelling. There 
was shelter for the family and space for the 
" pioneer store," and contained, besides, the 
post-office. It soon became the seat of county 
administration, as noted elsewhere. It was, of 
necessity, office and hotel, also, until additional 
room could be had. This was accomplished in 
a few weeks by the erection of another build- 
ing of the same size and construction, joining 
it on the west, with a door between, which was 
then appropriated for family and hotel pur- 

It is well remembered by the landlady, as 
well as guests, that the extending of hospital- 
ity to the traveling public was no small task. 
Moneyed men were spying out the land, seek- 
ing the choice spots for investment. The home- 
seeker sought a location for his family. The 
professional man, the mechanic, the laborer, 
the merchant, wanted to examine the new coun- 
ty seat. If he resolved to remain, he must 
have shelter until he could build. The land- 
lord could not shake him off if he had wished 
to do so. It is told that it was not an uncom- 
mon thing for the beds of this popular house 
to be crowded with women and children, and 




the floor to be covered with men as " close as 
sardines in a box," so that when turning out 
in the morning those near the door first gath- 
ered boots and wraps and donned them outside, 
followed in turn by others, thus making cooking 
and eating possible within. Many of the old- 
est inhabitants found their earliest shelter for 
themselves and families under the hospitable 
roof of Mi - . Alderman. 

On the second day of her home-life in the 
coming town, Mrs. Alderman tells that the 
" good man of the house " went down under a 
chill, followed by a raging fever. Tall grass 
was on every side. Water must be had for the 
parched throat and for domestic uses. No 
prospecting had yet been done for that neces- 
sary article. Pail in hand she took the trail 
made by hauling the logs for the house and 
found water at the crossing of the creek. At 
the first practicable hour the low ground south- 
east of the house was investigated with the 
spade. At a moderate depth the under-flow 
was found, probably the reservoir which sup- 
plies the public well, and pure water was had 
in sufficient quantity to satisfy all the needs of 
the town. 

It was not till the summer of the following 
year that another house was built. During 
the long winter the first one afforded shelter 
to the entire population, both permanent and 
transient, of the city. As dwelling, store- 
house, hotel, offices, parlor, kitchen, chambers, 
it was destined to be the scene of numerous 
pioneer events. Here the first child was born. 
Here occurred the first death. It was a house 
of feasting under a reign of hospitality that 
knew no limit except its capacity. Anon it 
was a hospital, in which at one time were no 
less than four patients prostrated with typhoid 
fever. Again it was the scene of marrying and 
giving in marriage. During these years it 
was the center of no small amount of traffic in 

things both great and small, and for two years 
it represented every postal facility which was 
afforded to the entire county. 

The second house in Nevada was built by 
John H. McLain, who arrived on the 7th 
of August, 1854. It stood on the northeast 
corner of Block 10, corner of Chestnut and 
Sixth Streets. The body was of logs, and it 
was finished in native lumber. An addition 
was attached on the west side. This made 
quite a commodious hotel, to which subsequent 
additions were also made, and it was kept in 
good form. Mrs. McLain was a woman of 
energy, a good cook, and is kindly remem- 
bered for her patient discharge of hospitable 

During the fall of 1854 George Childs 
built a residence. The house still stands on 
the southeast corner of Block 10. The 
sheeting is of black walnut, and was brought 
from a mill on Four-Mile, in Polk County. 
The flooring was from the first log sawed at 
Josiah Chandler's mill at Cambridge. George 
Childs and S. S. Webb built the first frame 
building, which they used for a general store. 
It stood just north of the present court-bouse. 
The lumber was partly obtained at Webb's 
mill, near Iowa Center, and partly from the 
mill on Four-Mile. A stranger employed Mr. 
Alderman to erect a house for business pur- 
poses just east of the Webb & Child's build- 
ing, near the entrance to the post-office. It 
was in this building, not finished, nor with 
even the spaces between the logs chinked up, 
the second term of the district court for Story 
County was held (August 14, 1854). McFar- 
land was judge. The houses of Alderman 
and McLain were the only ones occupied by 
families. The jury retired for consultation to 
the open prairie. 

During the late summer and fall of 1854 the 
families of T. J. Adamson and Isaac Komane 




came in. The former built on the northeast 
corner of Block 40, and the latter on the 
southwest corner of Block 14. Dr. V. V. 
Adamson had arrived on the 1st of May, and 
found shelter with Mr. Alderman. About this 
time a tailor named Kobert Hockley built near 
the southwest corner of Block 39. T. J. 
Adamson built the second frame building, 
which stood on the southeast corner of Block 
31, facing the park; and J. C. Harris pur- 
chased and removed the temporary court-house 
before mentioned to the northeast corner of 
Block 39. It was afterward a part of the hotel 
kept by Israel Helphrey. These, in substance, 
comprised the buildings erected during the 
year ending with December, 1854. 

In the early times, without any attempt to 
give exact dates, there were numerous addi- 
tions to the residents and residences of Nevada. 
A. P. Fitch built a cabin near the west end of 

Lot 1 in Block 42. J. W. Cessna lived in a 
house which stood on the northwest corner of 
Block 16. Dr. Kellogg, with his brother, 
George A. Kellogg, afterward county judge, 
lived in what was long known as " the old 
Barndollar house," on Block 4. Isaac Walker, 
J. C. Lovell, William Bennett and some others 
were bachelor boarders at McLain's Hotel, and 
E. G. Day, Wilson Dailey, Mr. Compton, S. S. 
Webb, Smith Goodin, Russell McLain, Thomas 
Larcom, Austin Prouty, Israel Helphrey, 
George W. Helphrey, Charles Smith, Ellis 
Armstrong, James N. Moore, Abner Lewis, 
John J. Bell, James Hawthorn, Thomas West- 
lake, David Childs and his sons, Jonathan 
Statler and his son, S. S., James D. Ferner, 
and numerous others made homes for them- 
selves in the several parts of the growing 
town, as mostly shown by the records of deeds 
to village lots. 





Public Administration-Forms of Government-County Organization- Early Laws-Important Transac 
tions-Elections-Township Formation-Roster op Officials of Public Service- County 
Property and Resources— Burning of the Court-house— Present Building- 
Bridges and Highways— Natural Wealth Considered- 
Agricultural College Bonds. 

Laws do not put the least restraint 
Upon our freedom, but maintain 't; 
Or if they do, 'tis for our good, 

To give us freer latitude.— Butler. 

T has been justly said 

that that government is 

-&(*«= liest which is best admin- 

S^Hiljflj isteml - Viewed in this 

%$$$"• j J^JL liffht ;t were hard to tel1 

which of the various 
-~^W forms of administration 

in Story County has been most sat- 
isfactory. When the county was 
first organized the statute vested 
the leading executive and adminis- 
trative duties and powers in the 
office of county judge. This was a 
very simple form of government, 
and when well administered was 
the best possible. In the hands of 
a wise, practical and honest judge, the counties 
were uniformly prosperous, but under other 
circumstances, with a dishonest or foolish ad- 
ministration it could not well be worse. The 
responsibility was clearly established, and most 
of the county judges did the best they knew. 
This system had control of county affairs until 

1860. It was a popular system in the newer 

In 1860, however, in the northern part of 
the State, under the influence of a New Eng- 
land sentiment for division of responsibility 
and power, and pressure for popular represen- 
tation, a county board comprising one repre- 
sentative from each township was established. 
This body was called the board of supervisors. 
The clerk of the district court was ex-officio 
clerk of this board. This system obtained 
for ten years. The office of county judge still 
continued, but its most important business was 
of a probate character, relating to settlement 
of estates of decedents. 

In 1870 another change was made. The 
county board was reduced to three members, 
all of whom were to be elected from the coun- 
ty at large. The office of county auditor was 
established, and he was made clerk of the 
board of supervisors. His records are a com- 
plete exhibit of all business of a public nature 
done by the board, including that relating to 



highways, bridges, support of paupers, collec- 
tion of revenues and public expenditures. 
They are supposed to be a complete check up- 
on the books of the treasurer. This system 
continues, and appears to give general satis- 

As the early settlers came from many of the 
older States, as well as from foreign countries, 
each one brought his own traditions and ex- 
periences, and was inclined with more or less 
tenacity to hold to them, and engraft them on 
the institutions of the new country. Neverthe- 
less, they found some environments here that 
were new to most of them, and which required 
their early attention. One of the most im- 
portant of these related to the rights of those 
who occupied the public lands. On this sub- 
ject there were no statutes, but if each were a 
law unto himself, violence would follow, and 
might would soon take the place of right. 
Therefore, by common consent, among individ- 
uals, as among nations, the right of discovery 
and occupation was formulated and observed. 
Being without law in its inception, it was al- 
most without legal enforcement; but this did 
not invalidate nor endanger the right among the 
sturdy pioneers. Their sense of justice was 
keen, and there were strong and willing arms 
to aid the weaker party in time of need. Cer- 
tain rude forms of organization were observed. 
In the absence of authority for the election of 
regular officers, the settlers met by agreement 
and appointed committees, investing these 
informally with the powers which the imposed 
duties required. In this manner the peace of 
the community was conserved, and order, in 
the absence of law, prevailed. There was no 
sense of insecurity in this. Every man felt, in- 
stinctively, the necessity of yielding what was 
for the good of all, and did so without mur- 

This first government may be said to have 

been under the higher law, the moral law, the 
sense that distinguishes between right and 
wrong. And though organization under law is 
a necessity of civilization, it is doubtful if jus- 
tice and right ever more thoroughly prevail 
over injustice and wrong than when these are 
left to the decision of the pioneers in an agri- 
culture district. Thus the first organization 
under the statute was not so essential, because 
the civil rights of the citizens were insecure, as 
for the purpose of concert of actiou in provid- 
ing for the wants of the community as a whole. 
The trail of the elk and deer might answer the 
purposes of the hunter, but the farmer's wagon 
and the traveler's carriage called for highways 
and bridges. When, therefore, immigration 
began in earnest, measures were taken by the 
people to secure the protection of the body 
politic under legal provisions. 

In the early history of the State, the organ- 
ization of each county was done by special act 
of the General Assembly. From and after 
1837 the territory known now as Story County 
was a portion of the county of Benton; but by 
an act of the General Assembly, approved Jan- 
uary 13, 1846, the boundaries of Story County 
were defined and the county was named. It 
was attached to Polk County for election, reve- 
nue and judicial purposes. As the Territory 
was then wholly unoccupied by white men, and 
remained substantially in that condition for 
several years, the only appreciable effect of this 
action was to give it a name. 

As shown in a former chapter, this Territory 
began to be occupied in 1849 and 1850. With- 
in two or three years the settlement had spread 
not only into Story County, but also into a 
large number of other counties that had re- 
ceived names in advance of occupation, and 
when Chapter XII of the acts of the Fourth 
General Assembly was passed, becoming a law 
January 22, 1853, providing a general law for 




organizing counties, the people within the lim- 
its of Story County were ready for action. At 
the same time the county was attached to Boone 
for election, revenue and judicial purposes, but 
before anything had been done other than caus- 
ing enumeration of inhabitants, and assessment 
of property, measures were taken by the citi- 
zens for county organization under the recently 
enacted law. The essential preliminary was 
the selection of the necessary officers, and 
after due notice was given, the electors as- 
sembled at their respective voting places for 
this purpose, on the fourth day of April, 1853. 
The people had ranged themselves in the two 
natural divisions, separated by the prairie east 
of Skunk Eiver. The settlement east of the 
center of the county took the name of its prin- 
pal stream, East Indian. That on the west was 
generally called the Skunk River settlement, or 
precinct, or neighborhood, but in some way, 
also, it came to be called after the county name, 
Story. This name probably was applied by the 
people of Boone, to which the whole county 
had been attached for certain purposes. This 
uncertainty in title has resulted in giving 
through the census records, priority of name to 
the township of Indian Creek. The fact is well 
established that the election, and township or 
voting organization, was of the same date in 
both neighborhoods. 

The voters in the Story, or Skunk River, 
precinct, on the day named, met at the house 
of Evan C. Evans, near the northeast corner 
of Section 24, in what is now Franklin Town- 
ship. Those in the Indian Creek precinct met 
on the same day at Hog Skin Point, afterward 
known as the Bar net Broughard place. This 
was about eight miles south and eleven miles 
east of the Evans place. The votes seem to 
to have been cast on purely local considera- 
tions. E. C. Evans had at his own home thirty- 
seven votes for the office of county judge. This 

was the full vote of the precinct. At the other 
precinct twenty-six votes were cast by his 
neighbors for Adolphus Prouty for the same 
office. From this date, or at least from the 
subsequent canvass and declaration of the re- 
sult, plain Mr. Evans may be properly desig- 
nated by his judicial title. 

By substantially the same vote Franklin 
Thompson was elected clerk of the courts over 
E. H. Billings; Eli Deal defeated I. N. Alder- 
man for sheriff, though the records indicate 
that the latter had one vote more than was cast 
for any one else at his precinct. John Zenor 
had no opposition for the office of recorder and 
treasurer, and had the total vote of both pre- 
cincts. Otho French was elected surveyor; 
Shadrack Worrell, coroner, and John Keigley, 
school fund commissioner. When these votes 
had been canvassed by Samuel B. McCall, 
county judge of Boone County, assisted by the 
justices of the peace from their respective town- 
ships, Adolphus Prouty and James Corbin, and 
the result recorded and officially declared, the 
organization of the county of Story was com- 

At this period the State statutes required 
that certain county officers should be chosen at 
the general election in August. It was there- 
fore necessary to hold another election in the 
same year, and in August John J. Zenor was 
elected sheriff; Otho French, surveyor; R. H. 
Robinson, coroner; Adolphus Prouty, drain- 
age commissioner, and Stephen P. O'Brien, 
school fund commissioner. There must have 
been less interest in this election than in that 
four months earlier, as the vote was less, while 
the population must have been greater. 

From the necessities of the case there were 
two voting precincts at the election in April, 
1853, as already stated. The county officers 
then elected were honest men and good citizens, 
though they had not been men of public af- 



fairs. It is not a matter for surprise, there- 
fore, to note that the records of the early coun- 
ty business should be somewhat informal, and 
that omissions of substance should occur. 
There is no record of the formation of the two 
precincts, Indian and Story (or Skunk River). 
But within the year the county was formally 
divided into five townships, as follows: First, 
Indian Creek, which then comprised also the 
territory of what is now Collins Township; 
second, Washington, which covered also the 
west half of Grant, and the present townships 
of Union and Palestine; third, Franklin, to 
which the west half of Milf ord then belonged ; 
fourth, Lafayette, in which was the west half 
of Howard; fifth, Nevada, which included all 
the remainder of the county, or seven and a 
half Congressional townships. 

In 1855 Union Township was organized, and 
included the present area of Palestine. In 
1857 the east half of Indian Creek was set off 
as the township of Collins. In 1858 Palestine, 
Mil ford and Howard were established; also 
New Albany, which then included nine sec- 
tions from the east side of Nevada Township. 
In 1866 Lincoln was organized; and in 1867 
Grant and Sherman were set up with their 
present boundaries. Warren and Richland 
were not organized until 1872; and at the same 
time the boundaries of all the sixteen town- 
ships were made to conform to the boundaries 
of the Congressional townships. 

It is among the traditions that in 1853 W. 
W. Utterback, Nathan Webb and J. P. Robin- 
son were the township trustees of Indian Town- 
ship, and in the new organization and division 
are responsible for the appropriate names of 
Indian Creek and Nevada, as township names. 

Tims it is seen that by the election of April 
4, 1853, the result of which was declared by a 
regular canvass of the votes five days later, 
and by the election of August following, the 

county was provided with a full corps of ad- 
ministrative and executive officers. But as 
there was then no central seat of county 
government, there could be no concert of action, 
nor even consultation on public affairs. The 
judge lived in a cabin on the east side of and 
contiguous to Skunk River, in what is " now 
Franklin Township, very close to the Milford 
Township line. The other officers lived in the 
settlements on Squaw Creek, near to the west 
line of the county. There were no books of 
record. Memoranda of necessary business 
transacted were made on loose papers by the 
county judge, and carried on his person, filed 
away in convenient crevices in the cabin ; desks 
and cases with pigeon holes duly labeled had 
probably rarely been seen by any of the honest 
men who were now entrusted with public affairs. 
The new judge, with much labor and exposure, 
traversed his jurisdiction on horseback and on 
foot, and made various visits to the land office 
at Des Moines, and no doubt some to the State 
capital, at Iowa City, in the public interest. 
He probably reimbursed himself for expenses 
out of the receipts for town lots in the new 
county seat, but for his labor and exposure, it 
is fair to presume that he had little compen- 

The first real conveniences and safeguards 
obtained by the judge for the public use were 
the privileges accorded by T. E. Alderman in 
his noted establishment, the Nevada Pioneer 
Store, erected in the fall of 1853, facing north 
toward the southwest corner of the court-house 
square. Here the judge says he kept the 
records and papers in a box in which dry goods 
had been transported. It was probably as ac- 
cessible to others as to himself, and the books 
and stationery were such as he felt able to sup- 
ply from an incipient treasury. Those now in 
existence certainly do not comport with the 
present styles. But the judge soon built a 



cabin in Nevada for his family. It was on the 
southeast corner of Chestnut and Fourth 
Streets. To this he removed the county arch- 
ives. It was built of logs, "chinked and 
daubed," and afforded many convenient crev- 
ices for the safe keeping of records and mem- 
oranda. The office of county judge remained 
in this residence until a frame court-house was 
erected in 1856, on the northeast corner of the 
same block, at the southwest corner of Main 
and Fourth Streets. 

John Zenor, who was elected recorder and 
treasurer, April 4, 1833, maintained his office 
at his residence on the southwest quarter of 
Section 18, in Franklin Township. His first 
official act appears to have been the placing on 
record of an exchange of lands by Frederic 
Echerd, of Story County, and E. H. French, 
of McLean County, 111. This was done Au- 
gust 15, 1853. The second was recording 
the transfer of the site of the county seat by 
J. W. Morris and wife to the county judge, 
August 26, 1853. He also in the same month 
recorded the last will and testament of Zeno 
Pearson, of Story County. The witnesses to 
this document were George N. Kirkman and 
Robert Malott. 

Reuben James Zenor appears as deputy re- 
corder, August 15, 1851. He paid taxes on 
lands, and probably lived in Section 31, of 
Franklin Township. He was succeeded by 
Thomas J. Adamson, December 12, 1854, who 
probably transacted the business of his office 
at his house or store in Nevada. James C. 
Moss was elected recorder and treasurer in 
August, 1855. His first official act was of 
September 1, 1855. He occupied as an office 
a small frame building which stood on the 
south side of First Street, facing the open 
square, now the park. The building was 
about 12x14 feet in size, and was no doubt 
the first one ever occupied in the county ex- 

clusively for public uses. The offices of the 
clerk, sheriff, surveyor and minor positions, 
not being encumbered with records of the 
past, were readily kept wherever the per- 
son of the officer might be. 

The first financial business of the county 
with the State treasurer is proven by the re- 
ceipt of that officer for the sum of $35.40, being 
the full amount of State taxes paid in for the 
two years ending October 31, 1854. 

The administrative and executive officers of 
the county at the date of its organization were 
those of county judge, recorder and treasurer 
(held by the same person), clerk of the courts, 
sheriff, surveyor, coroner, county attorney and 
school fund commissioner. The county judge 
had powers and duties such as are now per- 
formed by the county auditor and the board of 
supervisors. He represented the interests of 
the county in nearly all matters, and kept a 
record of his proceedings. The school fund 
commissioner had the power and duties in re- 
lation to school lands and school moneys that 
are now exercised by the county auditor. The 
duties of clerk, sheriff, coroner, surveyor and 
county attorney were similar to those of the 
same officers at this time. 

The various offices have been filled as fol- 

County judges: Evan C. Evans, 1853-57; 
George A. Kellogg, 1858-59; Evan C. Evans, 
18b0-65; R. H. Mitchell, 1866-69. Office 
abolished and duties transferred. 

Recorders and treasurers: John Zenor, 
1853-54; Thomas J. Adamson, 1855; James 
C. Moss, 1856; William Lockridge, 1857-59; 
Thomas J. Ross, 1860-65. In 1864 the 
duties of this officer were separated, and thence- 
forth different persons performed them. 

County treasurers: T. C. Davis, 1866-69 ;E. 
G. Day, 1870-71; S. S. Statler, 1874-75; Jay 
A. King, 1876-81; J. A. Mills, 1882-90. 


County recorders: Evan C. Evans, 1865- 
66; George F. Schoonover, 1867; Samuel 
Bates, 1868-74; O. K. Hill, 1875-80; H. H. 
Boyes, 1881-86; Joseph M. Ingram, 1887-90. 
County clerks: Franklin Thompson, 1853; 
Austin Prouty, 1854-55; E. G. Day, 1856; 
William Thompson, 1857; S. S. Webb, 1858- 
60; E. G. Day, 1861-64; D. P. Ballard,* 1865; 
J. A. Fitchpatrick, 1866-76; I. L. Smith, 
1877-88; Henry Wilson, Jr., 1889-90. 

Sheriffs: Eli Deal, 1853; John J. Zenor, 
1854-56; George Childs, 1857-61; L. Q. Hog- 
gatt, 1862-65; H. F. Murphy, 1866-69; All 
Goodin, 1870-71; H F. Murphy, 1872-73; 
Charles Christian, 1874-75; J. F. Gillespie, 
1876-79; A. K. Banks, 1880-88; Curtis A. 
Wood, 1889-90. 

Corouers: Shadrack Worrell, 1853; B. H. 
Bobinson, 1854; B. Hockley, 1855; J. W. 
Cessna, 1856-59; F. W. Bhoads, 1860-65; C. 
P. Bobinson, 1866-67 ; F. W. Bhoads, 1868- 
69; C. P. Bobinson, 1870-76; J W. Boggess, 
1877-81; J. I. Hostter, 1882-88; —Cham- 
berlain, 1889-90. 

Surveyors: Otho French, 1853; Eli H 
French, 1854; D. J. Norris, 1855-56; B. H. 
Mitchell, 1857-65; William G. Allen, 1866- 
67; M. C. Allen, 1868-71; William G. Allen, 
1872-73; E. H. Mitchell, 1874-90. 

Prosecuting attorneys: Eli H. French, 
1854-55; James S. Frazier, 1856-59 (office 
abolished, and restored in 1886) ; G. W. Dyer, 

♦Though the name of J). 1'. Ballard is listed above for the year 
18G5, and the returns show that lie was duly elected, it is propet to 
state that he never discharged the duties of theofflce. He was in the 
army at the time, and not able to assume the clerkship. E. G. Day 
held the office until September 5, 1864, on which date he tendered 
his resignation, to enter army service. This was accepted by the 
board of supervisors, and John M. Brainard was appointed to the 
place. Ballard failing to qualify. Brainard was re-appointed, and 
held the place until the election in October, 865, at which time 
Fitchpatrick was elected to till the vacancy, and entered at once 
upon the duties. He also, as shown above, served Ave full terms 

School fund commissioners: John H. 
Keigley, 1853; S. P. O'Brien, 1854-55; John 
J. Bell, 1856-58. 

County superintendents of schools: George 
M. Maxwell, 1858; W. H. Grafton, 1859; I. 
H. Bees, 1860-61; Deville P. Ballard, 
1862-63; W. M. White, 1864-65; J. G. Beck- 
ley, 1866-67; F. D. Thompson, 1868-69; John 
B. Hays, 1870-71; J. H Franks, 1872-75; 
Charles H. Balliet, 1876-77 ; L. B. Baughman, 
1878-81; Ole O. Eoe, 1882-90. 

County auditors: C. P. McCord, 1870-71; 
John B. Hays, 1872-81; C G. McCarthy, 
1882-89; A. P. King, 1890. 

The county administration was by statute 
passed in 1860 vested in a board of super- 
visors, consisting of one member from each 
township. This continued for ten years, when 
the board of sixteen members was changed to 
one of three members. Under the first system 
the board was a miniature Legislature, of 
which the townships were the districts. The 
members of that board from time to time wore 
as follows: W. B. Wiltse, B. W. Ballard, A. 
G. Person, Joseph Seal, W. H. Bichardson, 
Samuel Eaglebarger, Noah Harding, W. C. 
Carr, Franklin Thompson, William Arrasmith, 
A. P. Ball, T. C. Davis, John H. McLain, 
Cyrus Simmons, James M. Applegate, Milt 
Evans, Enoch Halley, Henry McCarthy, H. 
Boynton, C. P. McCord, H. Burham, Milo 
McCartney, W. B. Hopkins, B. M. Hunter, 
John Scott, John McCartney, Samuel 
Bates, Daniel Finch, B. B. Shenkle, J. 
P. Dewey, Jesse B. Wood, A. O. Hall, 
S. W. Adams, Richard Jones, H. H. 
Boyes, Daniel McCarthy, T. E. Alderman, 
James E. Jeffers, W. A. Wier, W. H. Fitch- 
patrich, J. H. B. Kerr, John Evanson, D. B. 
Brown, W. B. Woodward, John Jones, George 
Loucks, S. S. Statler, H. O. Higley, E. F. Far- 
rington, W. H. Terwillager, Frank Curtis, E. 



J. Peterson, AV. J. Freed, John Rich, Joseph 
Cadwallader, J. C. Kinsell and B. E. Shenkle. 
The county boards of three members 
(elected for three years) have comprised: W. 
R. Woodward, 1871-73; A. J. Graves. 1871; 
J. W. Maxwell, 1871-73; John Evanson, 
1872-77; W. C. Carr, 1874; Walter Evans, 
1874-76; S. I. Shearer, 1875-78; Ed. Elliott, 
1777-79; D. A. Bigelow, 1878-80; A. M. 
Norris, 1879-81; Anfen Ersland, 1880-85; 
B. W. Ballard, 1881-86; Anthony Hale, 
1882-86; J. Q. Burgess, 1884-86. 

The following named members of the State 
Senate have been citizens of Story County: 
John Scott, 1860-61, 1885-86; E. B. Potter, 
1862-63; George M. Maxwell, 1872-75; AV. 
H. Gallup, 1876-79. 

During 1868-69 John Scott was lieutenant- 
governor and president of the Senate. 

Members of House of Representatives: J. 
L. Dana, 1858-59; T. C. McCall, 1862-63, 
1882-85; George M. Maxwell, 1864-67; James 
Hawthorn, 1868-69; AVilliam K. AVood, 1870- 
73; L. Q. Hoggatt, 1874-75; Milton Evans, 
1876-77; Frank Curtis, 1878-79; AV. D. Lucas, 
1880-81; Oley Nelson, 1886-89; C. G. Mc- 
Carthy, 1890-91. 

The office of district attorney was filled by 
John L. Stevens in 1879-86; and that of dis- 
trict judge in 1887-90. 

The assessorship of real and personal prop- 
erty was made a county office in 1857. Isaac 
Romane held the office for a term of two years, 
when the duties again devolved upon a town- 
ship officer. 

The office of assessor of internal revenue 
for the Federal Government was held for sever- 
al years by John Scott. The district comprised 
about one-third of the State, extending from 
Black Hawk County to the Missouri River. 

The officials named above were citizens of 
Story County, and held the offices as such, by 

virtue of election or appointment, in the several 
districts. In other cases the county, being 
part of a district, was represented by citizens 
of other counties, as follows: In the Third 
General Assembly, by P. M. Cassady, of Polk, 
in the Senate, and by L. W. Babbitt, of Mar- 
ion, and E. R. Guiberson, of Madison, in the 
House; in the Fourth General Assembly, by 
A. Y. Hull, of Polk, in the Senate, and by Dr. 
Rice, of Boone, and J. C. Goodson, of Guthrie, 
in the House; in the Fifth General Assembly, 
by J. C. Jordan, of Polk, in the Senate, and by 
Samuel B. McCall, of Boone, in the House; in 
the Sixth General Assembly, by Aaron Brown, 
of Fayette, in the Senate; in the Eighth Gen- 
eral Assembly, by S. B. Rosecrans, of Hamil- 
ton, in the House; in the Tenth and Eleventh 
General Assemblies, by Henry C. Henderson, 
of Marshall, in the Senate; in the Twelfth and 
Thirteenth General Assemblies, by Isaac J. 
Mitchell, of Boone, in the Senate; in the 
Eighteenth, Nineteenth and Twentieth Gen- 
eral Assemblies, by John D. Gillett, of Boone, 
in the Senate; in the Twenty-second and Twen- 
ty-third General Assemblies, by Senator 
Davidson, of Boone. 

Members of the House of Representatives in 
the National Congress have represented Story 
County as follows: Lincoln Clarke, of Du- 
buque, 1851-52; John P. Cook, Davenport, 
1853-54 ; James Thorington, Davenport, 1855- 
56; Timothy Davis, Elkader, 1857-58; AVill- 
iam Vandever, Dubuque, 1859-62; A. W. 
Hubbard, Sioux City, 1863-68; Charles Pom- 
eroy, Fort Dodge, 1869-70; Jackson Orr, 
Boone, 1871-74; Addison Oliver, Monona, 
1875-78 ; C. C. Carpenter, Fort Dodge, 1879- 
82; A. J. Holmes, Boone, 1883-86; E. H. 
Conger, Des Moines, 1887-90. 

Elsewhere it has been noted that the first 
records, which were of that primitive character 
suited to the genius of a county official who 



looked only to substance and not to form, were 
kept at the judge's residence, first near Bloom- 
ington, afterward at the county seat. Also 
that during a portion of that time some facili- 
ties for transacting business and meeting his 
constituents were afforded at the Pioneer Store. 
The small building that was temporarily 
secured for the use of the recorder and treas- 
urer, south of the park, in Nevada, was not 
used by other county officers. It was not until 
1856 that a building for county offices and 
courts was erected. This was a two-story 
frame, about 40x32 feet, the court- room being 
on the first floor and the offices above. The 
vestibule and stairway were at the north end, 
and there were three rooms above. 

There was a low platform at the south end 
of the court-room, a part of which was en- 
closed by a slight railing and pickets for the 
protection of the clerk in the southeast corner. 
The county funds would not justify the fur- 
nishing of the house when it was first com- 
pleted. There was, therefore, no bar, nor per- 
manent seats for the audience. Temporary 
seats were arranged by placing planks upon 
.some primitive support, and the seats thus 
extemporized were used by attendants upon the 
courts, by audiences for church purposes, and 
even by the children for school seats. The 
entire cost of the structure was about $1,500. 
It was on the northeast corner of Block 25. 

There being no other room suitable for pub- 
lic meetings, and this building being county 
property, the court-room was used in that man- 
ner upon all occasions, even to the extent of 
being occupied for school purposes. It was 
understood that the school district paid rents to 
the county for such uses. As cold weather 
approached, it was discovered that no provision 
had been made for warming the building. It 
was, therefore, necessary to put in flues and set 
up stoves. It is probably to this fact that the 

destruction of the house by fire on the night of 
December 31, 1863, may be imputed. In the 
meantime an iron, supposed burglar-proof safe, 
had been placed in the office of the county 
treasurer, and the court-room had been fur- 
nished with fixed seats, tables, and other mat- 
ters of convenience. 

The facts in connection with the burning of 
the building are, that one of the rooms was 
used by the Good Templars for their stated 
meetings. The fire occurred after a meeting 
had been held. The evening being bitterly 
cold, a high wind prevailing from the north- 
west, and the room not very close, a very hot 
stove and pipe were a matter of course. When 
discovered nothing could be done except to 
save as many of the records as possible. This 
was accomplished in great measure through the 
efforts of the county treasurer, T. J. Boss, 
who, at peril to himself, entered the burniug 
building. Most of the volumes were saved, 
and the safe went down when the house fell in. 
It was fortunate that the funds were mostly 
in the national currency, and had been made 
into packages for the annual settlement at the 
close of the year. These packages were 
charred to mere blocks, and all loose bills and 
papers in the safe were in ashes. The few 
gold and silver coins were all right. Mr. 
Boss was sent to Washington with the rem- 
nants, from which the treasury experts assorted 
and identified national currency to the amount 
of $9,243, which was replaced by other bills. 
The loss shown by the books was $1,672, 
which was represented in bills burnt beyond 
identification, or in those of the State banks, 
many of which iudicated no more than the 
amounts on the face. The board of super- 
visors, on the report of experts, assumed the 
losses, and exonerated the treasurer. 

Another building, similar in size to the one 
destroyed, was erected on the old foundations 




in 1864, with the offices on the first floor and 
the court-room above. This was used by the 
county until the court-house now in use was 
erected, in 1876. The narrow escape of the 
public records from destruction in the previous 
fire had stimulated the erection of a small brick 
vault for safety. But this was found to be very 
inconvenient and to not afford the security de- 
sired. With commendable public spirit the 
liberal and patriotic people of the county de- 
termined to signalize the centennial anniver- 
sary by the erection of the secure and commo- 
dious county building which now occupies the 
north half of Block 17, which was dedicated in 
the original plat as a public square for the 
town of Nevada, but which was by the city con- 
veyed to the county. The cost of the edifice, 
with heating apparatus and decorations, has 
been over $50,000. This beautiful and sub- 
stantial edifice, designed by William Foster, of 
Des Moines, is of brick, with tables and caps 
of Anamosa stone, constructed substantially 
and finished with taste and care. It contains 
in the basement the necessary appliances for 
heating and rooms for the janitor, also two ca- 
pacious vaults. On the first floor are the offices 
and halls, with necessary vaults for conven- 
ience and security. The office of the clerk is 
25x28 feet, with vault 12x12. That of the 
auditor is 20x28, with private office and vault. 
The offices of sheriff and treasurer are each 
18x19, and the latter is connected with a 
private office, safe and vault. The recorder's 
office is 18x22, with vault for safety of the 
records. The office and consultation room of 
the board of supervisors is also on this floor, 
17x17, and opening by folding doors into the 
auditor's office. Two main stairways lead from 
the halls on the first floor to the court-room, 
offices and jury-rooms, on the second floor, 
while a third stairway connects the offices of 
the clerk and sheriff with an attorney's consult- 

ing-room, the bar, the clerk's desk, and the 
bench. On this floor also are the office of the 
county superintendent of common schools, the 
judge's private room, and the grand jury-room. 
These are all easily reached from the great 
court-room, 40x70 feet, extending from the sec- 
ond floor to the dome, with space of 40x32 feet 
in the south end for bench and bar, and an au- 
dience space, with raised seats, of 40x37 feet. 
This great hall of justice and the offices and 
halls throughout, are frescoed in the best style 
of the art. 

The numerous jury-rooms above, with roof, 
turrets, and tower surmounted by a statue of 
the blind goddess, constitute a very complete 
temple of justice, and safe repository of the 
county archives, and of which none need be 

A county jail was built in 1869, on Lot 5 of 
Block 18, Nevada. It is of brick, 24x30 feet, 
a hall and jailer's residence on first floor, and 
prisoners' cells above. The latter are made 
of timbers filled with spikes, and lined with 
iron plates. The cost was about $6,000. 

The county farm and infirmary are on 
Section 35, in Milford Township. The farm 
consists of 320 acres of good land. The in- 
firmary and other improvements, including 
commodious barns, have an approximate value 
of $15,000. The necessary live stock, imple- 
ments, furnishings and stores on hand are 
worth $5,000. This establishment serves for 
the care of county paupers, and with a small 
additional outlay would afford room for the 
incurable insane. 

The board of supervisors in 1868 had set- 
tled upon the policy of extending relief to 
paupers through a home, a farm and a superin- 
tendent. At the sessions of June and Septem- 
ber contracts and appropriations were made 
to the extent of $5,000 for that purpose. It was 
soon discovered that the completion of the im- 



provenients, furnishings and incidentals would 
require a further sum of $2,000. This amount 
was appropriated at the January session of 
1869. Bonds were issued in the sum of these 
several amounts, of the validity of which 
doubts were entertained. The customary re- 
sort to the General Assembly for a legalizing 
act was had, and the bonds were, on March 
30, 1870, thus declared "legal in every respect, 
and to the same extent as if said board had 
acted strictly according to law." 

It is not necessary to particularly describe 
every bridge, culvert and grade made by the 
pioneers in the settlement of the county, to 
arrive at the conclusion that this part of then- 
work is one of no small proportions. The tax 
lists will show that from 1875 to 1890 the coun- 
ty, as a corporation, has collected and expend- 
ed for bridging and grading the highways of 
the county the sum of $180,000. This in- 
cludes no taxes for this purpose levied by 
townships, or by towns and villages, or as road 
polls. The mileage of highways in the county, 
exclusive of streets and alleys in the towns and 
villages, is about 1,200 miles. The labor and 
material that have been expended in the con- 
struction and maintaining of these highways 
under township authority, including bridges, 
culverts and grades, in the same period, may be 
safely estimated at double the sum thus expend- 
ed by the county authorities, or not less than 
$3('>0,000. Of the construction and maintaining 
of more than 100 miles of village streets and 
crossings, the cost would be fully $ L00,000. At 
least half that sum would be required to build 
and maintain the thirty miles of sidewalk, and 
this has taken $50,000. 

If to the sums above stated should be added 
a reasonable estimate for expenditures for the 
same purposes made during the preceding 
twenty-five years, the total would be more 
than $1,000,000. This would seem to have 

been a very heavy tax upon the pioneers of 
Story County in their struggle of only forty 
years to lay broad and deep the founda- 
tions of a creditable civilization, and pre- 
pare the country for habitation. But in doing 
this the burdens have been borne with .cour- 
age, and with the hopeful thought that their 
posterity would share these benefits often 
laboriously purchased. Carrying this thought 
to its proper conclusion would show the 
present public assets of Story County to con- 
sist in part of 10,000 acres of good land occu- 
pied by streets and highways, and at a low es- 
timate worth $300,000; highways, bridges, 
streets and sidewalks, $700,000; court-house, 
jail and county farm, $75,000; school-houses 
and grounds $100,000; churches and grounds, 
$100,000; making a total of over one and one- 
quarter millions of dollars already donated to 
posterity by the pioneers. This does not in- 
clude the interest of the people of Story 
County in the many State institutions. This 
may be considered as one part in ninety-nine, 
the number of counties. The values of the 
State capitol, three hospitals for the insane, 
two penitentiaries, two reform schools, the 
State University, the Industrial College, schools 
for the blind, deaf mutes and feeble minded, 
homes for soldiers and soldiers' orphans, nor- 
mal schools, and the appliances, furnishings, 
and farms and grounds attached to all these 
institutions, may be reasonably estimated at 
not less than $10,000,000. Nor is this an 
over-estimate. The taxes assessed upon the 
property of the county, as shown by the 
latest rolls placed in the hands of the treas- 
urer for collection, are $118,161.96. Out 
of this great amount of hardly earned cash an- 
nually paid, it were more than a pity if some 
valuable properties were not accumulated for 
public uses. 

The condition of this vast property in high- 


ways has been greatly improved within a few 
years, and its value much increased by better 
management. Much interest has been taken 
in this subject by the people of Story County, 
since the organization of the State association 
for the encouragement of highway improve- 
ment in 1883. Under the auspices of this 
association, of which Col. John Scott, of Story 
County, was president, and C. F. Clarkson, of 
Des Moines, Judge Seevers, of Oskaloosa, and 
Judge Whiting, of Monona County, were vice- 
presidents, a competitive trial of the leading 
road machines was had at Nevada, June 28, 
1884. The mayor and common council of 
Nevada, as well as all public-spirited citizens, 
joined to make the occasion a success. It was 
demonstrated in the trial that machines had 
already been constructed that were of great 
value in building grades of earth, and keeping 
the same in condition for pleasant and profit- 
able use. The mayor and council at once 
acted on the matter, and purchased machines, 
the use of which has been of great value and 
economy. Since the adoption of the improved 
methods and machines, the streets and high- 
ways have been of greatly increased interest 
and value to the public. The authorities in 
most of the townships have given their best 
efforts in the same direction, with results high- 
ly gratifying in the present, and giving prom- 
ise of greater benefits in the future. From a 
condition that was a reproach twenty-five years 
ago, the county roads are now such that they 
would do no discredit to an older civilization. 
Among the important acts of the county ad- 
ministration in 1860 was the negotiation of the 
bonds voted by the county in securing the 
location of the Agricultural College. Because 
of certain alleged informalities in the issuance 
of the bonds, which were for $10,000, the 
General Assembly was asked to step in and 
cure the supposed defects. This was done by 

an act which took effect April 2, 1860. It was 
therein declared "that the acts of the county 
judge of Story County, in issuing certain 
bonds of the county for the use and benefit of 
the State Agricultural College and Farm, be 
and the same are hereby declared valid, bind- 
ing and legal, and said bonds are hereby legal- 
ized and declared to be valid and binding on 
said county, and it is hereby made the duty of 
the county judge to levy and cause to be col- 
lected sufficient taxes to pay the interest on 
said bonds, and the principal thereof according 
to the tenor and effect thereof." 

While the amount annually paid for the 
maintenance of the State and county govern- 
ment and these great institutions of charity, 
education and piety may seem large to some, 
it is only commensurate with the well known 
resources of a State whose name is at the top 
of the roll in all that constitutes real wealth 
and prosperity, and of a county that is the cen- 
ter and " hub " of such a State. But if so much 
has been done, by the pioneers of less than forty 
years, beginning with nothing except the naked 
soil and their stout hearts and willing hands, 
what may not be anticipated as the probable 
advance in a steady progress of another forty 
years ? Three hundred thousand acres of ex- 
traordinary fertility, fairly managed, should 
yield more than $2,000,000 annually for support 
and accumulation. This sum should be annually 
increased by better methods and the natural 
increase of wealth, population, and the devel- 
opment of the present and other industries. 
Much of that which has heretofore gone to 
build up the great cities of the country will at 
last be kept at home. As a single example, it 
may be said that instead of pouring wealth an- 
nually into the coffers of the great centers of 
insurance, and again borrowing the same money 
at high rates of interest, the west must soon 
"have money to sell." These broad acres will 




then be the happy and luxurious homes of one 
of the richest portions of the earth. This is 
to be the not distant heritage of the near 
future, and for this all should well be content 
" to labor and to wait." 

With such a hopeful condition before the 
people of this State and county, when it shall be 
fully realized by themselves, there will be little 

disposition to seek pastures new, for they must 
of necessity be found in less favored lands. And 
if true to themselves and to their locality, their 
spirit of patriotic devotion to home interests 
will have its reward in causing a like apprecia- 
tion of their advantages to permeate less fa- 
vored sections, and to attract population, enter- 
prise and consequent wealth. 






p Legal Note— Personnel of Numerous Officials— Early Grand Juries— Proceedings— Array of 
Talent — Their Personal Characteristics and Peculiarities— The County Bab — 
Noted Trials— The Lowell Tragedy— History of the Case— Other 
Homicides, etc.— The John J. Bell Defalcation- 
County Seat Thial. 

The good need fear no law; 

It is his safety, and the bad man's awe. — Jonson. 


Des Moines, was dis- 
trict judge of the Fifth 
District at the time of 
the organization of 
Story County. He was 
quite prominent in the 
minds of the pioneers by reason of 
the noted criminal trial, State vs. 
Barnabas Lowell, which occurred dur- 
ing his term. He presided at the 
rst court, at which Lowell was in- 
dicted for the murder of his wife. 
He is remembered by those who then 
knew him as a pleasant gentleman and 
careful judge. 

In April, 1854, Phineas M. Cassady, of 
Fort Des Moines, was elected judge of the 
same district, but he resigned soon thereafter, 
not having held any court in Story County. 

In July, 1854, Cave J. McFarland, of Boone 
Countj', was appointed by the governor to the 
vacancy occasioned by the resignation of Judge 
Cassady. In the following April William W. 
Williamson was declared elected, but this was 

contested by Judge McFarland, in whose favor 
the contest was decided. Judge Williamson 
held no court in Story County while he held 
the office. 

The incidents of the first term of the dis- 
trict court ever held in Story County, in the 
summer of 1853, at the home of the county 
judge, near the east line of Franklin Town- 
ship, are set out in the account of the trial of 
Barnabas Lowell for murder. There was little 
other business done. 

The judge who appeared and presided over 
the second term for the county, and the first 
term at the new county seat, was C. J. McFar- 
land, of Boone County, who appeared as suc- 
cessor to Judge Cassady, resigned. This term 
was convened August 14, 1854. It was held 
in an unfinished log building that had been 
partly constructed under a contract with a 
stranger who never appeared to claim it, and 
was situated near the site of the present post- 
office. The building was never completed. 
The logs were sold to J. C. Harris, who re- 
moved them to the south part of town and used 
them in another building. 



_» * 



The grand jury at this term consisted of J. 
P. Robinson, Adolphus Prouty, Elisha Alder- 
man, Nathan Webb, Shadrack Worrell, Thomas 
G. Vest, Samuel Heistand, Jacob Wheeler, 
John Hussong, George B. Zenor, P. R. Craig, 
James C. Smith, Joseph Broughard, Jonah 
Griffith and Judiah Ray. Worrell and Wheeler 
failed to answer when called, and their places 
were filled by selecting Frederic Pierce and 
W. W. Utterback from the bystanders. They 
held their inquisition in the log stable attached 
to the McLain Hotel. It is among the tradi- 
tions that Juryman Heistand was kicked by a 
mule that occupied an adjacent stall, and that 
the procuring of arnica and other liniments for 
the disabled inquisitor sadly interfered with 
the deliberations as well as dignity of the 
august body. 

The criminal calaudar for the term showed 
but one cause, entitled State of Iowa vs. James 
P. Kinney. There were two civil causes, of 
which the first on the docket was that of Jen- 
nings Wilkinson vs. Michael Hughes. The 
bar consisted of D. O. Finch, M. M. Crocker, 
James S. Woods, John A. Hull, Cornelius Beal, 
William L. Burge and John F. House. This was 
quite an array of legal talent (the attorneys 
being from abroad) considering the small 
amount of business to be done, but they were 
scenting future business as well as having 
pleasant hours with the people, and making ac- 

The third term for the county, and the sec- 
ond for the town, was begun and held on the 
5th of May, 1856. McFarland was judge, 
E. G. Day was clerk, and George Childs, as 
deputy, acted as sheriff. At this term J. S. 
Frazier and George A. Kellogg were admitted 
as attorneys. More than twenty causes on the 
docket were disposed of in two days. 

The fourth term began September 22, 1857. 
James D. Thompson, of Eldora, who was elected 

judge of a district recently formed under an 
act of the General Assembly, appeared as 
judge. William Thompson had been elected 
clerk; George Childs, sheriff; and James S. 
Frazier, prosecuting attorney. John Scott, E. 
B. Potter and A. D. Shaw were admitted as at- 
torneys at this time, on certificates from other 
States. It was understood that the main cause 
for the creation of the new district was to cir- 
cumscribe the jurisdiction of McFarland, whose 
habits of dissipation had grown upon him until 
his position as judge was regarded generally as 
being greatly disgraced. Thompson was a 
judge with limited knowledge of law, but a 
pleasant gentleman of good character. 

In 1858 John Porter, of Cerro Gordo County, 
was elected district judge, and at the same time 
a State's attorney for the district, instead of 
one for each county, was elected. The first 
district attorney was W. P. Hepburn, of Mar- 
shall County. Hepburn went into the army in 
1861, and was succeeded by D. D. Chase, who 
was appointed judge, in 1866. At this time 
John H. Bradley, of Marshall County, became 
district attorney. In 1868 the judicial system 
was modified by providing for an additional 
court which was called the circuit court, and 
in each district or circuit were two judges. The 
district judge had exclusive jurisdiction in 
criminal matters, and the circuit judge in mat- 
ters of probate. The two courts had concur- 
rent jurisdiction in many civil causes. 

Henry Hudson, of Boone County, was the 
first circuit judge, 1868-74. 

I. J. Mitchell, of Boone County, followed 
Judge Chase on the district bench in January, 
1875, and was followed by James W. McKenzie, 
of Franklin County, in Jauuary, 1879. Judge 
McKenzie's health failed. He had done valu- 
able service during the war, and went on the 
bench with a constitution utterly broken, and 
died before his term expired. 





Henry C. Henderson, of Marshall County, 
was elected to the vacancy in 1881, and for the 
next full term in 1882. He was followed by 
John L. Stevens, of Story County, who was 
elected in 1886. * 

Meantime on the circuit bench John H. 
Bradley, of Marshall County, succeeded Judge 
Hudson in 1874, and was in turn followed by 
D. D. Miracle, of Hamilton County, in 1882, 
who was also elected to a second term in 1886. 

The judicial system was again changed in 
1886. The office of circuit judge was abol- 
ished, and Story was assigned with other coun- 
ties to a district in which three district judges 
were provided, two of these being Miracle and 
Stevens, both already on the bench, and to 
whom was added S. M. Weaver, of Hardin 
County, by election. On the death of D. D. 
Miracle, D. K. Hindman, of Boone, was elected 
his successor, and the three district judges are 
now, 1890, Stevens, Weaver and Hindman. 

Judge Thompson removed to another State 
many years since. Porter has been long in 
practice in Hardin County. Bradley and Hen- 
derson resumed practice in Marshall County. 
D. D. Chase is in practice at Webster City. 
Hudson removed to Chicago. McFarland, 
Mitchell, McKenzie and Miracle are dead. 

It may reasonably and modestly be said that, 
with very few exceptions, the judges of the 
courts of Story have been men of respectable 
standing in their profession, and quite a num- 
ber of them possessed of superior ability and 
legal learning. Those who still live in Iowa 
sustain themselves well upon the bench or in 
the practice of the law to which they have re- 
turned. Story County has furnished but one 
of the number, who, still young, maintains a 
standing with the ablest and best of them. 

[The judicial convention of 1890 has, with- 
out opposition, nominated the judges now on 
the bench, Stevens, Hindman and Weaver, for 

another term, to which they will without doubt 
be elected. J 

Of the judges of the courts of record in Story 
County, from the earliest times until now, there 
stands forth, unique and peculiar, the figure of 
C. J. McFarland. Physically, as well as intel- 
lectually, he was pre-eminent. He was of large 
frame, well balanced, had a well-rounded con- 
tour, but carried no superfluous flesh. A large 
head well covered, a beard extending to his 
girdle, and a florid face well lighted with ex- 
pression, he was a man to be marked and re- 
membered by all who met him. He was fond 
of athletic and other sports. Being addicted 
to the use of intoxicants, he was often under 
their influence when on the bench, and, drunk 
or sober, was liable to do whimsical things. 
Many amusing things have been published re- 
specting him, and many more have passed from 
lip to ear that would not bear the light of the 
printed page. One incident that happened at 
Marietta, then the county seat of Marshall 
County, found its way, with appropriate illus- 
tration, into the press. It was said that a case 
was on trial before the court, and a lawyer from 
Burlington was addressing the jury ; the name 
of the attorney was James S. Woods. He was 
jovial, rollicking, and of a youthful appearance, 
though his age fairly entitled him to the play 
upon his name which was indulged in by the 
younger fellows who traveled the circuit with 
his honor. They, as well as others, spoke of 
him familiarly and impudently as " Old Tim- 
ber," or "Timber Woods." The court-room 
was on the first floor; the day was warm; the 
windows were open ; in the rear of the building 
was a feeding-yard filled with teams; Lawyer 
Woods was earnest in his cause, and his re- 
sounding voice was heard in the yard and on 
the streets. When he was at the very highest 
pitch of earnest eloquence, a mule in the yard 
set up a loud and long continued bray that 




startled the lawyer and caused him to halt. 
The judge reassured him by joiuing in with the 
mule, and roaring out: "Go it, Old Timber! 
There's two of you now!" 

Judge McFarland is remembered by all the 
early settlers, and not unkindly. He drank 
intemperately, but he passed his bottle gener- 
ously among the crowd, even as he sat upon 
the bench, or jumped and wrestled with spec- 
tators outside. He had no concealment of his 
judicial or personal conduct. He would some- 
times arbitrarily take the case from the attor- 
neys and the jury and decide it without refer- 
ence to anything except his momentary whim. 
Such acts were regarded rather as matter of 
jest than anger by the even-tempered people, 
and excited little comment. It is said that in 
stating the law and their official duty to the 
grand jurors in another county he said: " This 
Maine liquor law, fanatics made it, and some 
think it unconstitutional, but that is not your 
business. You are to indict all persons who 
sell liquor. There is plenty of liquor sold in 
this town. If you want to know where it is 
sold, wait until court adjourns, watch the by- 
standers, and see where the judge goes." 

It should be remembered that public senti- 
ment as to the use of intoxicants as a bever- 
age has greatly changed in the last thirty-five 

Among McFarland's accomplishments and 
tastes should be noted his fondness for his 
dog and gun, and his ability as a keen sports- 
man. From court to court on the circuit he 
was invariably accompanied by his two finely 
trained bird dogs and his fowling piece. The 
first act on his arrival at the door of the primi- 
tive hotel was to unload and care for the game 
he had taken on his journey. Then an inter- 
val in court business, or an early adjourment 
in the afternoon, would be the signal for the 
gun and dogs, and a scout on the prairie for 

game. When such a jaunt was taken at Ne- 
vada he was usually accompanied by the boys 
and idlei - s, who in addition to the pleasure of 
beholding and applauding the fine work of 
the judge and his dogs, had the further in- 
centive of as many prairie chickens as -they 
cared to carry home. 

It is but justice to the memory of C. J. Mc- 
Farland to state that examination of the rec- 
ords, as well as the testimony of those who 
practiced before him, indicate that with all his 
failings he was an upright and conscientious 
judge, faithful to his friends, and kind and 
indulgent in his family. He had the pro- 
nounced and terrible misfortune of being a 
drunkard without shame, and his seat on the 
bench was a gross outrage on the people and 
an insult to common decency. 

Among those who traveled the circuit with 
him and tried causes before him were the 
brilliant and genial D. O. Finch, Marcellus 
M. Crocker, the then able attorney and subse- 
quent distinguished soldier, John A. Hull, 
young, vigorous and aggressive, and taking 
his share of both work and play, and the not 
to be forgotten " Timber " Woods. These at- 
torneys were among the interpreters and found- 
ers of jurisprudence here. They practiced 
law in courts where the library consisted of 
the Code of Iowa and a copy of Blackstone's 
Commentaries. Beyond this they were thrown 
on their own resources. To present their 
causes to court and jury they must rely on 
their own sense of right for the discovery of 
the true principles involved, and upon inven- 
tion and discovery for the means of making 
these clear to others. There were then few 
decisions by which to be governed, and these 
young men were engaged in formulating the 
precedents of to-day and the future. That they 
did this wisely and well is the testimony of 
those who now profit by their labor and genius. 


As to many other judges and attorneys of 
the bench and bar of Story County, some of 
the oldest of whom yet live and work, it is 
scarcely time to speak. It may in general be 
said that those who may not have been brilliant 
were at least painstaking and earnest in their 
work, which is much the better. Their monu- 
ments are still under the mallet and the chisel, 
which themselves yet wield. 

McFarland and Crocker and Hull and 
Woods are dead. Maj.-Gen. M. M. Crocker's 
fame as a brave and able soldier is a part of 
Iowa's proud heritage. As the friend and 
confidant of McPherson, as the organizer of 
the famous Iowa Brigade which bore his uame 
throughout the war, as one whose memory is 
cherished in the hearts of the people, the State 
did honor to herself in ordering his features to 
be frescoed in her capitol. It may please 
some old-time citizens of Story County, many 
of whom knew him well, to be told that in his 
failing health and fading life he turned with 
pleasure to memories of men and things of in- 
terest alike to him and to them. His last 
meal in Iowa, taken when on his way from his 
command in Arizona to report to President 
Lincoln, at Washington, where he died, was 
eaten at the table of a friend in this county. 

Hon. D. O. Finch, long a law partner with 
the lamented Crocker, represented the firm in 
many of the causes tried in the early courts of 
this county. He was brilliant, witty, genial 
and greatly admired by the pioneers. His 
home was then, as now, at the State capital, 
where he is still engaged in law practice. He 
has within few years past filled the office of 
district attorney for the United States in the 
southern district of Iowa. 

Hon. Enoch Eastman, who at an early day 
lived in Burlington, afterward in Oskaloosa, 
and subsequently in Eldora, was one of the 
pioneer lawyers who practiced in Story County. 

He was lieutenant-governor of the State dur- 
ing the war, and a member of the State Senate 
at the time of his death. He was the author 
of the patriotic sentiment inscribed on the Iowa 
stone in Washington's monument; "Iowa: 
The affection of her People, like the Bivers of 
her Borders, flow to an inseparable Union." 
It is told as an incident bordering on the pa- 
thetic, that when both were frail with advanc- 
ing years, Eastman was counsel for his long- 
time associate of the bar, "Timber" Woods, 
in a cause tried in Hardin County, to which 
the latter was a party plaintiff. Woods then 
lived at Steamboat Bock, where he died at an 
advanced age. 

What unwritten memories of the pioneer 
courts of Central Iowa are buried with these 

The first attorney to locate in the new county 
was Isaac Bomane (1854). He turned his at- 
tention gradually to farming and live stock, 
and drifted out of the practice of law. He re- 
moved to Missouri many years ago. George 
A. Kellogg came in next. He was young, 
modest, never of rugged health, and went to 
the Pacific States some years since, hoping for 
improved health. He is comfortably fixed at 
Fairhaveu, on Puget Sound. James S. Frazier 
(1856) has been an industrious attorney, but 
has mixed in lands and farming at the expense 
of his law practice. He still lives in his pleas- 
ant home in Nevada. 

John L. Dana (1856) has also dallied with 
real estate and pensions. He still has his 
home, where he has continuously lived for 
about thirty-five years. John Scott (1856) 
has been more in other lines than in the regu- 
lar practice. [See biographical notice.] Paul 
A. Queal (1859) was a brilliant young law- 
yer, and bade fair to take a leading place 
at the bar. He died in the army, during the 
war. L. Irwin was a genial fellow, of good 




ability, a fine sense of humor, and of singular 
modesty. He was a soldier in an Indiana regi- 
ment, settled in Story County at the end of the 
war, served a term as postmaster - , and died 
about 1880. 

To Mr. Irwin more than to any other person 
belongs the credit of establishing the Nevada 
Public Library. It was through his labor and 
influence that interest was aroused, and a tax 
ordered. He was for some years entrusted 
with the selection of the books, a trust that he 
executed with ability and taste. He was a 
systematic reader of good books, and was en- 
thusiastic in bringing them within the reach 
of others. 

J. R. Gage, remembered mostly for his 
genial comradeship, has been for some years 
collector for manufacturers in other States. J. 
R. McDonalds ran to invention in machinery 
rather than Blackstone, and he is in business 
in Chicago. The brothers Balliett practiced 
law in Nevada for several years. S. F. Balliett 
is practicing law in Des Moines; Samuel 
A. Balliett has been in practice for several 
years in Idaho and Montana. Charles H. Bal- 
liett, a fine chancery and business lawyer, is 
now in practice in Omaha. N. A. Rainbolt's 
law office was in Ames. He removed to Ne- 
braska some years since. 

George A. Underwood, Cyrus E. Turner, 
Daniel McCarthy, George Barnes and M. J. 
Smith are attorneys at Ames. Underwood and 
McCarthy have engaged also in live-stock 
farming, and have had other financial interests 
that demanded attention. 

John L. Stevens' county law practice was 
done at his office at Ames. His promotion as 
district attorney, and thence to the bench, where 
he now is, was in recognition of his ability and 
character. [See biographical notice.] 

John A. McCall, T. L. Sellers and G. W. 
Barnes are comparatively young men, whose 

ambition called them to the more crowded bars 
and yet more busy courts at tbe State capital. 

John R. Hays emigrated to Nebraska some 
years since. T. C. McCall has given his atten- 
tion to loans and lands, as have also M. C. Al- 
len and J. A. Fitchpatrick, making a specialty 
of collections rather than legal contests. F. D. 
Thompson, having taken the post-office, to that 
extent leaves the law. [See, for each of these, 
biographical notices. J 

The bar numbers as its present members G. 
W. Dyer, H. M. Funson, J. F. Martin, D. J. 
Vinje and E. W. Gifford, of Nevada; A. K. and 
M. P. Webb, of Slater; E. H. Addison, of Max- 
well, and Lewis Nelson and M. M. Keller, of 
Cambridge, aside from those of Nevada and 
Ames already specially mentioned, who are all 
engaged in active practice as attorneys. As a 
whole, the bar of Story County will compare 
not unfavorably with that of any section where 
the general business of the population is agri- 
culture. That occupation is not conducive to 
litigation proper, nor does it offer a promising 
field to the criminal lawyer. If not a large 
number of famous jurists have arisen here, it 
may be matter for congratulation that the peo- 
ple have not furnished the litigation on which 
they feed, and that if without the luxury, they 
have been spared the cost of maintenance. 

Because the alleged murder of the wife of 
Barnabas Lowell by her husband was the first 
crime of that magnitude committed within the 
limits of the county, and because of the cir- 
cumstances connected therewith, the homicide 
and the trial of the accused have always been 
matters of interest. The facts, or at least the 
stories related at the time, or said to have been 
told, were quite sensational in character*. 

In the month of November, 1852, as told by 
Mr. Ray in the chapter on early settlement, 
Barnabas Lowell lived in one of the two con- 
tiguous cabins on the claim of Samuel McDaniel, 


near the center of Section 23, in Nevada 
Township; but early in April of 1853, when 
the Widow Hague and her family arrived at the 
same place, Lowell had set up for himself in a 
cabin which he had built about half a mile 
farther north. This was on Section 14, on the 
land afterward owned by Pierce, and about 
forty rods northeast of the house built by 
Pierce. The place is now owned by John M. 
Wells. The Lowell cabin consisted of a house 
of logs, with a shed-room on one side, and a 
door between the two apartments. The logs 
of these cabins form a part of the stable near 
the house where Pierce lived. 

Doc. Billings had a cabin in Section 23, 
northwest of McDaniel's place, into which Mrs. 
Hague moved. She had bargained for the 
claim, which was held by the custom of the 
country rather than by fixed statute, but was 
induced to yield it to McDaniel on some pre- 
tense, and had bought a claim of a man named 
Hall, in Section 36, of Richland Township, 
four miles farther north, which, for man}' years 
thereafter, was her home. While she lived in 
the Billings cabin she was the neighbor nearest 
to the Lowell place, and McDaniel was not 
much farther distant. 

While Mrs. Hague still remained at the Bil- 
lings cabin, awaiting possession of the Hall 
place, she was called upon, one Sunday night, 
by one of the Lowell children, who urged her 
to visit the mother, alleging a sudden and 
severe illness. Mrs. Hague responded prompt- 
ly to the call, but on hurrying to the place the 
woman was found to be already dead. Other 
neighbors came in. It was represented by 
Lowell that the woman " had a fit, 1 ' and that 
its probable cause lay in her very hearty eating 
of the Sunday dinner and supper of Mrs. Mc- 
Daniel, where the day had been passed in vis- 
iting. Lowell's actions, however, were peculiar, 
and, in connection with his unsavory reputa- 

tion, aroused suspicion of foul play. He re- 
fused to permit the body to be prepared for 
burial in the usual manner, and insisted that 
it should be wrapped in sheets without chang- 
ing the clothing, or removing a coarse hand- 
kerchief that was about the neck. He kept 
watch of everything that was done until the 
body was buried in the Mound Cemetery, on 
the McDaniel farm. 

Within a few days, on comparison of views 
and further investigation, the neighbors de- 
termined to have the body exhumed and exam- 
ined by physicians. This was done. The 
disclosures of this inspection and the testimony 
of Lowell's children, and others, satisfied the 
examining magistrate, Joseph P. Robinson, 
that Lowell should be held to answer for the 
murder of his wife. It appeared that on the 
day previous to her death the woman seemed 
to be in good health. During the night the 
children heard sounds which indicated a des- 
perate struggle in the small room occupied by 
Lowell and his wife. The door between the 
two apartments was of heavy slabs, and was 
braced by a beam that extended from the far- 
ther side of the room. Lowell refused the chil- 
dren admittance. They testified that the 
sounds were such as would be produced by 
striking, choking and struggling. Lowell was 
a man of such strength that he could readily 
take the woman's life by such brutality, and 
the impression was general that he had done 
so. It is also said that the children stated 
that their mother, a former wife, had died in 
Ohio under similar circumstances. 

During the magistrate's examination, at the 
house of Mr. Heald, Lowell lay upon the bed, 
and threatened those who testified against him, 
or gave opinions in favor of his guilt. He was 
reputed in the neighborhood to have been a 
pirate on the high seas in his earlier years. 
He habitually carried a weapon " like a sword " 



in a sort of sheath on his leg, and he succeeded 
in terrifying some of the witnesses to such an 
extent that they would not tell what little they 
knew. Lowell was committed to the jail of 
Polk County until his supposed crime could be 
placed before the grand jury. Judge McKay 
ordered a special term of the district court to 
be convened at the house of Judge Evans for 
the disposal of this case. A grand jury was 
called and charged, consisting of Joseph P. 
Robinson as foreman, Samuel Heistand, John 
H. Keigley, William D. Evans, Jennings Wil- 
kinson, David Wilkinson, Jeremiah Cory, Will- 
iam K. Wood, Hiram Vincent, David B. Neal, 
Judiah Ray, Horace Heald, John G. Sellers, 
Nathaniel Jennings and JohnZenor; William 
Arrasmith served as bailiff. The principal of- 
ficers of the court were, judge, William McKay, 
of Des Moines; Frank Thompson, clerk; Eli 
Deal, sheriff, and W. W. Williamson, of Des 
Moines, district attorney. As seven of the jur- 
ors were near neighbors of the accused, and 
under the excitement of the case had prejudged 
it and already condemned him, and as the fore- 
man had already acted as the examining and 
committing magistrate, it is not surprising that 
the indictment was promptly endorsed " a true 
bill," and returned into court. The sessions of 
the grand jury were held in an unfinished 
house in course of erection by William D. 

The opening of the court and investigation 
by the grand jury occupied two days. The in- 
terest in the case was very great, especially 
among the citizens of the eastern part of the 
county, and they attended the court in large 
numbers. The distinguished visitors, attor- 
neys, and officers of the court, among whom 
were D. O. Finch, John A. Hull, and " Old 
Timber," slept in the court-house, and took 
their meals with Judge Evans, but the general 
crowd must needs lunch and sleep as best they 

could in fence corners and under the trees, or 
around the blazing heaps of burning logs. 
The trail made by the travel to and from this 
trial by the crowds from the eastern part of the 
county was used for many years as the leading 
highway in that direction. 

On being arraigned, the accused took a 
change of venue, and he was afterward tried at 
Des Moines, found guilty, and sentenced to the 
penitentiary, where he died. 

Although the judgment of the people was 
quite unanimous as to Lowell's guilt, and is 
entitled to respect, yet to such an extent has a 
sickly sentiment within the past thirty years 
hedged in the criminal, that it would be now 
difficult, if not impossible, to convict a man on 
the evidence of the crime alleged to have been 
committed by him. 

At this first term the court "ordered, that 
the clerk use the eagle side of a United States 
half dollar as the temporary seal." 

On the 17th of October, 1864, some chil- 
dren following a path near the ravine, on the 
west side of the creek, about the west line of 
Block 36, in Nevada, discovered appearances 
of a hasty interment of a human body. The 
locality was but a short distance from the line 
of travel, near what was then called the "lower 
ford," and was covered with a growth of hazel. 
Being near the creek, it afforded water, and was 
used as a camping place. An investigation dis- 
covered the mutilated body of a man. Inquiry 
showed that two men, traveling together, had 
camped there quite recently. The trail of the 
outfit was soon struck. Active pursuit was 
made. The destination of the survivor was dis- 
covered to be not far from Springfield, 111., 
and he was arrested there. His name was Mc- 

Photographs of the murdered man were dis- 
tributed, and he was identified as one Town- 
send, whose home was in Southwestern Wis- 

-"i sfv 



eonsin, to which he was returning from the 
mines in Colorado. It transpired that Town- 
send had picked up his murderer as a fellow- 
traveler, and in return for his kindness met 
the fate mentioned. In addition to the bru- 
tality of the murder there were elements of 
treachery and ingratitude in the crime that 
made it most inhuman and revolting. When 
the case came to trial, the attorney for the 
State was induced to accept the plea of guilt}' 
of murder in the second degree. There was 
profound feeling when the judge, John Porter, 
sentenced McMullen to ten years' imprison- 
ment. At the expiration of this time, less the 
commutation for good behavior as a convict, 
McMullen went free. 

June 14, 1870, south of the grade of the 
Chicago & North-Western Railway, on the bot- 
tom west of Skunk River, a mau was seen run- 
ning through the tall grass toward the main 
highway. Afterward the body of a man was 
found on the track of the railway in the cut west 
of the grade. The bullet of the assassin had 
done its work. William Patterson, a foreman 
of the laborers, had been murdered. In a nook 
at the roadside were evidences of the delibera- 
tion. with which the murderer had waited for his 
prey. He had taken food with him, and for 
more than one day, apparently, had held watch 
and guard over his intended victim. The cir- 
cumstances preceding the homicide, a quarrel, 
threats, etc., all pointed to George Stanley, 
who had been one of the laborers, as the man 
of blood. He was captured, tried, convicted, 
and sentenced to death at the hands of the 

There was soon a great clamor over the fate 
of this murderer. The governor was urged to 
extend executive clemency, and to commute the 
capital sentence to life imprisonment. A re- 
prieve was granted, which gave time to urge 
the matter upon the General Assembly. A 

bill was introduced, and capital punishment 
was abolished. The governor then changed 

i the sentence of George Stanley, and he was 

I sent to the penitentiary at Fort Madison. The 
death penalty has since been restored. 

May 9, 1875, one of the pioneers, known 

I personally to all the early citizens of the 
county, and heretofore named with credit, 
George N. Kirkman, of Indian Creek Town- 
ship, was taken from his bed under cover of 

! darkness and slain. The prominence of the 
murdered man, former family jars of some 
notoriety, a separation and supposed reconcili- 

: ation of husband and wife, all tended to excite 
interest. The manner of the death, the body 
being found suspended on a small tree, indi- 
cated that several persons were concerned in 
his foul taking-off. The investigation made by 
the coroner, who examined about seventy-five 
witnesses, resulted in holding a son and a son- 
in-law of the murdered man, a former employe, 
and two neighbors to answer for the crime. 
The wife was also arrested. All the suspected 
parties were liberated, and to the general pub- 
lic the matter is still wrapped in mystery. » 
All these homicides, though occurring within 
the limits of Story County, were known or 
strongly suspected to have been committed by 
those who lived elsewhere, and are in no sense 
to be considered a stain upon the fair fame of 
our own people. The same is true of the kill- 
ing of Mr. J. O. French, the mayor of Max- 
well, October 22, 1887. His death at the 
hands of Perry Ackers, who also killed him- 
self before he could be arrested, appears to 
have been simply the wild freak of an insane 
man. It was a very sad tragedy, but if done 
under the mad pulse of insanity cannot be 
called a crime. 

The famous homicide by the notorious Bar- 
nabas Lowell may also be properly classed 
among those committed by non-citizens. He 



was but a bird of passage on his way from the 
scene of one crime to that of another, and 
happened to find shelter here till whisky and 
his fiendish nature asserted themselves as there 

The murder of Samuel Porter is the only 
one that may be laid to residents of the county. 
Even that was from family troubles, and 
implicated no member of the community other i 
than those under the roof of the murdered 
man. The very singular facts and confessions 
developed by investigation are as follows: 

On the Porter farm, the title to which had 
been previously placed in Elizabeth, the wife 
of Samuel Porter, and situated in Section 12, 
of Indian Creek Township, occupied by Porter 
and his family, Samuel Porter's body was 
found in the fields, about noon, October '29, 
1882. There were gunshot wounds in the back 
and in the face. The discovery was made by a 
lad eleven years old, named George Pointer. 
He was employed on the farm, and, with George 
Porter, a son of the murdered man, was herd- 
ing the farm cattle on some grass that was en- 
closed in a field of corn. It was Sunday. The 
cattle had not been grazed on this ground pre- 
viously, and the circumstances indicated that 
young Porter directed the lad's movements to 
bring about his discovery of the body. It was 
found near a willow fence-row. An old gun 
was fixed among the willows in a very bungling 
way, with a cord and wire attached, with the 
evident thought that this would indicate suicide. 
But the circumstances very plainly showed that 
the death did not occur at this spot; that the 
body had been dragged to the place ; and blood- 
stains and other evidences pointed to a murder 
at or near the house. 

The post-mortem examination showed that 
the wounds in the back were not fatal, and that 
death was caused by the wounds in the face. 
It was also clear that death occurred from 

seven to ten days before the body was found. 
It was also shown that Porter had not been 
seen alive by others than members of the family 
after Friday, October 20. In the ten days in- 
tervening the work of the farm had been done 
much as usual. A nephew of the murdered 
man had paid a visit of some days, and his un- 
cle's absence was accounted for without excit- 
ing suspicion of foul play. The members of 
the family on the farm during this time, and 
also on the Black Friday, were Elizabeth (the 
wife) and the two sons, George and John Ed- 
ward. The latter stated his age at fourteen 

The ghastly find caused much excitement. 
It was known that Samuel Porter, a man of 
about fifty-five years of age, without any not- 
able traits to cause unkind remarks among his 
neighbors, was accustomed to take his occa- 
sional glass of intoxicants. He was industrious, 
thought to be peaceful, and not improvident. 
The family assumed that his death was by his 
own hand. One fact after another was gradu- 
ally brought to light that showed a guilty 
knowledge and concealment of the death on the 
part of the wife and both sons. It was de- 
veloped that parts of the clothing found near 
the body had been seen in the dwelling after 
his death. It was clear that much falsehood 
was indulged in to maintain the false theory of 
self-destruction. In short, there was no room 
for doubt that Porter's life had been taken by 
his own family, and that each member was im- 
plicated in the crime. When arraigned and 
tried in the district court, the chain of evi- 
dence was such that the accused thought best 
to make confession. They stated that the kill- 
ing was done by the boy aged fourteen years; 
that his father was assaulting his mother, who 
cried out for help; that the boy fired the shot 
which entered his back; that Porter then 
turned upon the boy, who was in a corner 


from which he could not escape, and the fatal 
shot in the face was fired at short range. It 
was claimed by this boy that he dragged the 
body of his father to the granary, and covered 
it with an old quilt and a door; that he after- 
ward drew it behind a riding-plow into a field, 
where lie buried it in ground lately plowed; 
that he plowed up and obliterated the trail 
thus made; that this was done alone and at 
night; that he afterward took up and removed 
the body to the place where it was found, and 
placed the gun to indicate self-destruction; 
that he carried the gun as he moved the body, 
and had no assistance. 

These statements were in contradiction of 
those previously made by the accused, but in 
some respects corresponded with facts as proven 
by circumstances already known. Some of 
them could not be reconciled with facts clearly 
proven, and some seemed too horrible for be- 
lief. But on the evidence adduced, the jury 
found Elizabeth and John Edward Porter 
guilty as charged. They were each sentenced 
to the State prison for twenty-one years. 

George Porter had a separate and subse- 
quent trial in Boone county, and was acquitted. 

One of the most interesting trials that has 
taken place in Story County was for a murder 
committed in Grundy County in 1874. A beau- 
tiful German girl about sixteen years old, 
named Wipka Martin, was sent to carry a plow- 
lay to the smith-shop. The distance was about 
two miles along a highway not much traveled, 
between prairie farms. Not returning home, 
search was made, and her lifeless body was 
found in a field of growing corn, a few rods 
from the highway. There could be but one 
cause for the brutal deed. There had been a 
severe struggle in the grass-grown highway, 
and it was evident that by giving her life the 
child saved her honor. In a few minutes from 
the meeting of two on the lone highway, the 

one who seemed to have before her an ordinary 
life of hope and love was a most piteous corpse, 
and the other was under the ban of Cain. Sus- 
picion pointed to a man who had for a time 
been staying about Eldora, which was some 
eight miles distant. He was known as Will- 
iam P. Glyndou, but this was found to be an 
assumed name. He had been a soldier; was 
at one time a member of the personal retinue 
of Gen. Sherman; deserted, and became a pro- 
fessional bounty-jumper. He was under the 
ban of suspicion for a similar deed in Min- 

The finding of the girl's body caused wide- 
spread indignation and horror in the peaceful 
community. It was soon learned that an un- 
known man, apparently in a state of excite- 
ment, and showing signs of recent violent 
physical exertion, called at a house not far 
distant, in the afternoon of the same day, and 
asked for a drink of water. The same man 
had been seen on the highway where the 
murder was committed. Comparison of the 
time showed that his apparent course and 
movement would bring him to the fatal spot 
near the moment when it would be reached 
by Wipka Martin, on her errand. Tracks in 
the soft ground, when carrying the body of his 
victim, and indicating his course in the direc- 
tion in which Glyndon was soon seen, supplied 
the circumstances on which he was tried for the 
crime, and convicted. A change of venue was 
first taken to Hardin County, where he was 
convicted. The case was taken to the supreme 
court on error, and reversed. Because of 
alleged excitement, and taking advantage of a 
law the intent of which is manifestly good, 
another change was granted, and the case sent 
to Story County for trial. It occupied the 
court for eight days, called for the attendance 
of more than one hundred witnesses from the 
scene of the crime, and resulted in a life sen- 




tence to the penitentiary of one of the most 
brutal murderers that ever escaped the merited 

This trial afforded a fine field for the display 
of the arts of attorneys. The circumstances 
were at once pathetic and fiendish. There was 
no one who could have absolute knowledge of 
the crime, except the brute who had no mercy, 
and the child who died in terror of his violence 
and lust. The tongue of the former was mute ; 
that of the latter was in the quiet of the grave. 
But iu spite of the care with which the crim- 
inal is hedged in by the rules of courts, the 
granting of new trials upon technicalities and 
matters of form, and the glamour that makes a 
hero in the court-room of every cowardly mur- 
derer, the web of circumstances was so woven 
about Glyndon that he could not escape. 

Among the court trials in the history of the 
county, few have been watched with greater in- 
terest than was that of John J. Bell, a default- 
ing school fund commissioner. Suit was 
brought upon his official bond, and the cause 
was tried at the October term of the district 
court for 1859. Judgment was obtained against 
Bell and certain of his sureties, in the sum of 
$-1,553, and for costs of suit. 

Bell was elected to that office in 1856. Those 
were flush times. The lands of the county had 
rapidly advanced in the market. As long as 
there were Government lands to be had at SI. 25 
per acre, other lands, except those most de- 
sirably located, were affected in price by that 
circumstance. During the winter of 1855-56, 
however, capitalists absorbed all government 
lands, and- there was a rapid appreciation in 
estimated values. The market soon jumped to 
$2.50, then to $3, and soon thereafter thou- 
sands of acres were held at from $5 to $10 per 
aci - e, and some were sold beyond these figures. 
The spirit of speculation was abroad, and a 
man who had not gold coins in his pocket had 

consideration. There were many selec- 
tions of the 500,000-acre grant of school lands 
in Story County, some of which were valuable 
timber lands, and the sale of these came under 
the authority of the commissioner. The hand- 
ling of so much money, with the contagion of 
speculation all about him, probably turned Bell's 
head. He invested for his own use what did 
not belong to him, hoping to square his ac- 
counts from returns to be had at greatly ad- 
vanced values when he should be willing to 
sell. But the tide turned. The ebb set in. 
The undertow took him so suddenly that he 
could scarce take breath before he was drawn 
under. Some of his sureties were swamped by 
the same current, but most of them were steady- 
going men, and were able to pay the debt. 
Bell's property became liable. The principal 

I hotel in Nevada, with barn and other improve- 
ments connected, which then stood on the 
southeast corner of Block 32, and was after- 
ward removed and enlarged into the present 
Hutchings House, had probably absorbed most 
of the missing funds. A dry goods store and 
bad credits had more than taken the remainder. 
The General Assembly, by an act which be- 
came a law on the 2d of April, 1860, extended 
relief to the sureties, E. Armstrong, John 
Hempstead, Isaac Hague, Amariah Mullen, T. 
J. Westlake, S. S. Webb, William Lockridge, 

j E. G. Day, D. J. Norris, James Hawthorn, 
Abner Bell, Charles D. Berry and Jonathan 
Statler, by authorizing the county judge to 
make them a loan of the amount for five years, 
with annual interest. At or before the expira- 
tion of this period the property was sold, and 
the deficit made good by the sureties. 

The trial in the contest to declare the county 
bonds invalid, which were issued for the build- 
ing of the court-house, in 1874-, was one of no 
little interest. This may be classed as a part 
of the county-seat fight. Nevada having been 

~® r y 


selected as the site for the county archives in 
1853, over tbe ambitious village of Blooming- 
ton, and being near the center of the county, 
long felt secure in the stability of that honor. 
When the question of locating the great Indus- 
trial College came up, her citizens subscribed 
personally to expenses and bounties, and voted 
taxes on themselves to secure the institution 
for the county. They little dreamed then that 
around this foster child would flourish in- 
fluences that would soon endanger the welfare 
of their own homes. But so it was. 

The town of Ames, under the influences so 
generously furnished by the citizens of the 
county, led by Nevada in purse and spirit, 
soon became an ambitious and spirited rival 
not only for business, but also for public favor. 
Out of this grew an active contest for the 
county seat. A vote was ordered on the ques- 
tion of county bonds to the amount of $40,000 
for building a suitable court-house. Ames not 
only opposed this before the people, but also 
brought the matter into the courts. 

On the trial it is said to have been shown 
that students from the college were illegally 
voted against the bonds. This, with the active 
opposition of the numerous excellent and able 
professors, tended to cause the people at Nevada 
to feel that their unselfish efforts to do a 
good thing for the county in the early days 
had returned to plague rather than to bless 
them. But there is no thought now that these 
matters will ever again be unsettled. Har- 
mony prevails within the borders of the county, 
aud all are ready to extend best wishes to every 
interest. The trial resulted in a judicial dec- 
laration in favor of the issuing and validity 
of tbe bonds, and the court-house was erected 
in accordance with the vote of the people. 

Although not resulting in a trial, nor even 
the certain discovery of any crime, another in- 
cident that occurred in the McDaniel neighbor- 
hood may as well be recorded here. This was 
the disappearance of a peddler, of whom the 
last that was known to the ordinary citizen was 
his visit to this locality. It was a nine days' 
wonder aud gossip among the neighbors. Bu- 
mors of violence were rife; doubtless some 
search was made; but neither the man, his re- 
mains, nor any of his belongings were ever 
discovered. A man known as Doc Spring, who 
for many years lived about Iowa Center, and 
died there, was known to hint when " in his 
cups " that he would disclose something when 
he should come face to face with death. It 
was supposed that his secret referred to the 
disappearance of the peddler. It seemed to 
those about him when that time came that he 
was anxious to do as he had long intended, but 
he delayed until his power to tell had gone, 
and for two or three days he was conscious but 
unable to make his story known. His knowl- 
edge, whatever it was, died with him. 

When the workmen were excavating for the 
construction of the railway, not far from Dye's 
Branch, an old building was removed, and un- 
der its walls was found a rough box which 
contained the skeleton of a man. The place 
had been in au early day occupied by the 
Wilkinson family, and afterward by the family 
of a suspicious character familiarly known as 
" Old Meeks." The latter left the cabin and 
the country in the night, and without notice of 
his intention. Ic is not known where he went. 
Some think there is but a missing link between 
the unknown skeleton and the peddler who dis- 
appeared so mysteriously. At least no other 
explanation can be offered. 






Military Affairs — Story Coonty in Earlier Days of Warlike Action— Mexican War Volunteers- 
Events Preceding the Presidentiai, Campaign of 1860— War Issdes Defined— The 
Question of Slavery — An Agitated Subject — Fall of Sumter— Com- 
panies Organized— Character of Troops— Recruiting — 
Drafts— History of Affairs Hereabouts 
from 1861 to 186"> — Closing 
Year of the War. 

War is honourable 
In those who do their native rights 

»TOKY COUNTY was the 
happy hunting-ground of 
the Iowas and Foxes when 
the French were compelled 
to let go their hold on the 
great Mississippi Valley by 
Gen. Wolf, at Quebec, in 
1759. The Indians were still the 
only denizens of the Skunk and 
Indian Creek forests and prairies 
when Gen. AVashington forced the 
British to give up all claim to the 
new country east of the Missis- 
sippi, called tbe United States. 
Not only that, but the Story 
County Indians were subjects of 
their "Spanish father,"' and were indignant 
when they were turned over to their new "Amer- 
ican father " in 1803. Indeed tbey stopped 
fighting among themselves, in order to join 
the old British enemies of the " Great Father 
at Washington," jn the War of 1812, under 
their Sac leader, Black Hawk. Still more, 

scarcely a score of years later, as this keen-eyed 
Indian leader saw this rising young empire 
steadily absorbing the lands of his people — the 
Sacs and Foxes, and purposely or accidentally 
precipitated the famous Black Hawk War — 
even then the " pale-face " was a stranger to 
Chicaugua bottoms and the prairie grass. This 
was 1832. A decade later and the Indians left 
all silent in the present boundaries of Story 
County, and it was not until after our conflict 
with Mexico, in 1846, that white men inhab- 
ited it. 

Those who came, however, had taken part in 
these wars from other parts of the United 
States. Among these may be mentioned 
Michael French, who was a soldier of 1812. 
Among those in the Mexican War, the follow- 
ing names are obtainable: Col. John Scott, 
Stephen P. O'Brien, Fred. Eckhart, Henry 
Cameron, L. Q. Hoggatt, J. J. Butler, A. J. 
Marshall, and, it is thought, a few others. A 
few, no doubt, were also in the Black Hawk 



During the "fifties" the various elements 
that carne to Story County worked together to 
determine her attitude to the war. The census 
of 1859 gave a population of 3,826, of which 
1,948 were males; of these there were 821 vot- 
ers, leaving 1,127 under age. The 130 for- 
eigners, probably, do not affect these figures. 
The militia is given as 682. In this connec- 
tion it may be observed that the vote for gov- 
ernor, in 1859, is very evenly divided, giving 
the Republicans 395, and the Democratic can- 
didate 358, a majority of 37 only for the Re- 
publicans. But in 1860, as the war issues 
grew more defined, and the population rose to 
■4,051, Lincoln received 418, with but 332 for 
his opponent, Douglass. But these were not 
all the votes ; there were some who were known 
to favor Breckinridge and his cause, who did 
not cast a ballot. Here are but 740 votes out 
of probably 900 or 950, many of whom may 
have been foreigners or indifferent. This 
serves only to show the political pulse, not the 
actual fighting force, for, like the subject of 
prohibition, when Story County laid aside pol- 
itics and faced a call for volunteers, she was 
overwhelmingly for fighting for " Uncle Sam.' 1 

The subject was kept warm by news from 
" bleeding Kansas " for some time previous to 
the outbreak of 1861. The eastern newspapers 
had a considerable circulation in the county, and 
the people were well informed on outside move- 
ments. The New York Tribune, now scarcely 
seen within the county, had probably the larg- 
est circulation of any foreign paper. This, of 
course, reached the people a little late, because 
for a time only weekly mails were had from 
Iowa City, and at the best there were but 
semi-weekly mails, alternating byway of Cam- 
bridge and Iowa Center, and later on from 
Marshalltown. The only paper published in 
the county was the Advocate, by R. R. Thrall, 
at Nevada, and this became the voice of the 

bulk of the county, and made Nevada the po- 
litical headquarters. This paper covered the 
years 1857-58-59-60-61, and part of 1862, 
years of the greatest historic interest. The 
files of 1857-58-59, and a part of 1860, are 
preserved by the Representative at Nevada, but 
it is a great misfortune that the most valuable 
volumes, namely, the latter part of 1860-61 
and the first half of 1862, are not in the coun- 
ty, nor is their existence anywhere positively 
known. The paper voiced an unmistakable 
Union sentiment, and the issues were defi- 
nitely grasped, too. At an early date (June 
21, 1860) an editorial says: "The American 
people, as a nation, are opposed to slavery; its 
existence in our country is merely tolerated, 
which, from the peculiarity of our Government, 
based in part upon the sovereignty of the 
States, renders it purely a municipal institu- 
tion, confined to the States where it exists, con- 
sequently beyond the power of the people, in a 
national capacity, to abolish it in the States in 
which it exists as an institution. Congress has 
no power to say to Virginia you shall manumit 
your slaves; neither does the State constitu- 
tion confer any power upon it by which it can 
say to Iowa you shall admit slaves into your 
State ; neither does the constitution confer the 
power upon the Congress of the United States 
to pass any laws or regulations which will sus- 
pend for one moment the operation of the slave 
regulations of Virginia, or to enforce for one 
moment, under any circumstances, the right of 
property in man upon the citizens of Iowa." 
Then using the transfer of a slave by his mas- 
ter to a non-slave-holding State as an illustra- 
tion, he affirms the freedom of the slave; " His 
very act manumits the slave, for he is no longer 
a slave, there being nothing by which to hold 
him in that situation but mere brute force." A 
clearer statement of the point can not be found. 
Meanwhile the discussion was carried on in 



all the school-houses in the county, and in the 
villages of Nevada, Iowa Center, Cambridge, 
Old Fairview, New Philadelphia, Bloomington 
and Palestine, and these places were scarcely 
more than " corners," many of them. The 
churches took up the question, and it was con- 
fined mostly to the slavery phase of it, and 
they became known as pro-slavery or anti- 
slavery churches, meaning thereby that the 
anti-slavery churches would not tolerate a pro- 
slavery member, while the others considered 
it out of the realm of church discipline. An 
early paper says many pro-slavery members 
left the Methodist Church and went to the 
Evangelical, and that the United Brethren, 
Congregationalists, Free-Will Baptists and 
Lutherans boasted their intolerance of the pro- 
slavery member. Bev. X. A. Welton, of the 
Episcopal Church, at an early day undertook 
to prove in a public discussion, that negro 
slavery is a divine institution based upon the 
authority of the Bible. His opponent, as is 
recalled by Col. John Scott, was Bev. Joseph 
Cadwalader, who afterward became captain of 
a company and chaplain of a regiment. The 
subject was a common one in the pulpit, and 
had many vigorous champions in every denom- 
ination. Among others who attracted atten- 
tion were Bevs. Richard Swearingen, Thomp- 
son Bird and Rev. J. W. Hankins. The en- 
thusiasm of Rev. Hankins, later on in the war, 
would lead him to ring the bells for hours in 
honor of any good army news. 

It should be borne in mind here that the 
people of the county had a more personal ac- 
quaintance with all parts of the county than 
now. There were fewer people — scarcely 
more than are now in Nevada, Ames and Story 
City together — while at the same time life was 
less complex, and the outside world attracted 
less attention. It took the news of the fall of 
Fort Sumter, however, to thoroughly awaken 

Story County, as it did the rest of the country. 
It is not known who first brought the news in- 
to the couuty, but it was several days after 
the eventful April 19, 1861, before news was 
received; but it spread over the county like a 
prairie fire when it did come. War-meetings 
were held at once in every precinct. Nevada 
led off with the first in the old Cumberland Pres- 
byterian Church on, it is thought, about April 
26 or 27. Mr. E. B. Potter was made chair- 
man of the meeting, and at a very early point 
in the procedure J. L. Dana offered for adop- 
tion an oath of loyalty to be taken by the en- 
tire assembly. Mr. Potter was a notary and 
vested with the right to administer such an 
oath. His leadership in the opposition after- 
ward made his position here unique and not at 
all accidental. All who would take the oath 
were asked to rise, and every man arose and 
stood while with raised hand the oath was ad- 
ministered. This meeting gave a powerful 
impetus to public feeling, and the first call 
for three-months' men was responded to with 
such alacrity all over the country that Story 
alone could have filled the Iowa quota. 
Squads were enrolled all over the county. 
Men who had quibbled over the techuicalties 
of the slavery question and taken up the de- 
fense of the Southern cause, dropped all 
quibbles and sprang to the breach when union 
was threatened. Little agitation was needed 
for this; patriotic speeches were unnecessary; it 
was a spontaneous uprising. 

The first company was organized at Nevada 
uuder the three months' call, and Capt. John 
Scott, with Paul A. Queal and George Childs 
were made a committee to tender its services 
to Gov. Kirkwood, at Des Moines. This must 
have beeu soon alter May 1, but on their ar- 
rival the three months' regiment was already 
full. It will be remembered that these were 
the days when the North and the South had 


very vague ideas of each other — the days 
when ladies and gentlemen in their carriages 
went out to see the South whipped in a half 
hour at Bull Kun, and came back in unseemly 
haste, uncertain whether they could ever be 
whipped or not; while the South, with their 
chivalric pride, only wanted one stroke at the 
hated " Yank " to subdue him forever. The 
result was that when the committee returned 
with the news and the assurance that the gov- 
ernor would accept one company from Story 
County for " three years, or during the war," 
the second call, the Kebellion was seen in a 
new light — it was no holiday affair, but a 
bloody reality. The spontaneous uprising 
was very perceptibly cooled, and the ranks of 
volunteers thinned out. Those May days on 
the Story prairies were crowded with per- 
plexities and uncertainties. News traveled 
westward slowly and conflicting reports, with 
more or less vague ideas of the stupendous 
character of the war, the conflicts of personal 
interests, and other things, often, no doubt, 
made it a matter of intellectual judgment 
rather than patriotism, subject to change with 
better information. 

A company could have been formed at once, 
however, but Capt. S. B. McCall, of Boone, 
had raised a company and it was desired that 
these should be consolidated, as but one com- 
pany would be received from this region. Capt. 
McCall and about forty men came on to Ne- 
vada and reorganized with the following offi- 
cers: Captain, John Scott: first lieutenant, 
S. B. McCall ; second lieutenant, W. A. Wise, 
of Iowa Center. " There was quite a scram- 
ble for those offices," says Col. Scott, "but the 
war lasted long enough to enable those who 
were disappointed on this occasion to satisfy 
their ambition by getting like positions in 
other organizations." The company was en- 
rolled as Company E, Third Iowa Infantry, on 

May 21, 1861, scarcely a month after the firing 
on Sumter, and was ordered to Keokuk at 
once to join the regiment. It took about a 
week to fiuish all preparations. There were 
ninety-five men at first; eight were added 
afterwai-d; several were from other counties. 
It may be of interest to know who the Story 
men among them were: Capt. John Scott, 
George W. Crosley (who afterward became 
first lieutenant), W. A. Wise, Robert J. Camp- 
bell, Jesse R. Wood, Thomas Dent, Nathaniel 
Jennings, Samuel A. Daniel, Guilford Mullen, 
W. H. McCowan, Jesse Bowen, E. B. Craig, 
W. H. Casebolt, David H. Dill, Mich. D. Deal, 
J. N. Dye, Thomas M. Davis, Charles F. Elli- 
son, Joseph A. Fitzpatrick, \V. W. Fitzpatrick, 
George W. Groves, E. F. Hampton, H. H. 
Hally, George Jones, Ed. D. John, I. N. 
Johnston, Charles B. Maxwell, J. H. Miller, 
I. U. Riddle, Moses J. Riddle, John Sessions, 
John U. Schoonover, L. M. Vincent, W. R. 
White, W. C White and Asa AValker. The 
oldest of these was but forty-one and the 
youngest eighteen, while the most of them 
were in the twenties. The Keokuk rendez- 
vous was 178 miles away. On May 28 they 
started in wagons, and on reaching Iowa Cen- 
ter were feasted in royal style. Four days 
later, on June 1, they reached Keokuk, and 
on June 8 were mustered into service by 
Lieut. Alexander Chambers, U. S. A. Their 
movements will be traced farther on. 

National events were crowding upon each 
other very fast by this time, and after this first 
departure of troops from the county, the real 
situation began to be more fully realized. Every 
sort of opinion arose from the most rabid Abo- 
litionist down to the avowed Secessionist, with a 
great bulk of stout Unionists between. Among 
those, at various times, who were prominent 
Union speakers were John Scott, T. C. McCall, 
G. M. Maxwell, D. P. Ballard, J. L. Dana, L. 



Q. Hoggatt, George A. Kellogg and others. , 
War-meetings were a common occurrence in 
every settlement. The public meetings were 
all Union, although there were meetings that 
opposed the Government politically, but not 
openly in sympathy with the South. From the 
campaign of the fall of 1860 on, the fight grew 
in bitterness. The Eepublicans were dubbed 
" Black Republicans," " Negro Worshipers," 
"Flat Noses," "Long Heels," " Amalgaina- 
tionists," etc., while the opposition received 
such titles as "Copperheads," " Knights of the 
Golden Circle," " Ku Klux," etc. In Indian 
Creek Township, on one occasion, there were i 
speakers from abroad who verged very closely 
on the open advocacy of Southern sympathy. 
On a certain occasion, too, a song was sung in 
burlesque of Gov. Kirkvvood's supposed aid to 
Coppoc, one of the adherents of John Brown; 
the refrain ended with " Samuel Johnson Cop- 
poc Kirkwood." 

During the summer, constant recruiting was 
going on in a scattered way. Many joined 
with troops from other counties, so that by the 
close of the war, Story County was represented 
in not less than twenty-seven different regi- 
ments. Among these were the First, Second, 
Third, Tenth, Eleventh, Twelfth, Thirteenth, 
Fourteenth, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Eighteenth, 
Twentieth, Twenty-third, Thirty-second, Thir- 
ty-seventh, Fortieth, Forty-fourth, Forty- 
seventh and Forty-eighth Regiments of In- 
fantry; the Second and Fourth of Artillery, 
and the Second, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, Ninth 
and Tenth Cavalry. In July, 1861, Paul A. 
Queal recruited about forty men for Company 
B, Second Cavalry, and became, successively, 
its first lieutenant and captain. This company 
was ordered into quarters at Davenport, July 

30, 1861, and mustered into service August 

31. Excepting six, who were rejected, those 
from Story County in this company were Paul 

A. Queal, Joseph W. Brown, Elijah Pervis, 
Thomas Booth, William J. Deal, P. J. Webb, 
J. C. McHone, P. H. Rheam, F. M. Coffelt, 
H. H. Boyce, George Bruhard, W. F. Baker, 
H. D. Ballard, G. W. Boyes,* J. W. Clarke, 
W. M. Freeman, H. F. Ferguson, James Mc- 
Collister, W. C. Roberson, A. M. See, W. R. 
Schreckondcost, N. H. Schooler, William 
Thomas, James M. Tanner, David Waumick 
and G. P. Tokum. Of these, J. C. McHone 
deserted, and was never after heard from. Their 
career will be traced farther on in an account 
of the regiment. 

Early in 1802 the cause was agitated. with 
increasing vigor. This is well illustrated in the 
brief but pointed salutatory of Editor George 
F. Schoonover, who issued the first number of 
the Republican Reveille on June 5, 1862; he 
says: " Its political feature is Republican — con- 
servative and just, uttering its sentiments with 
candor, fearlessness and independence, and for 
the prosecution of the war against treason until 
the last rebel has laid down his arms." 

In this number also appears an army letter 
from H. H. Boyes, of the Second Cavalry, 
which illustrates a prominent feature of the 
pages of the county paper from this time until 
the close of the war. " Camp near Corinth, 
Miss., May 11, 1862.— Dear friend: * * * 
This morning finds me seated on the ground 
with an old barrel-head on my knee, and pen, 
ink, and paper, that I have been obliged to 
borrow, cheerfully trying to comply with your 
wishes, and shall give you as nearly as possi- 
ble a synopsis of the affairs and proceedings of 
Company B, since arriving in this part of 
Uncle Sam's dominions. We have had some 
quite active service since the advance com- 
menced, and yesterday the Second Iowa made 
one of the greatest cavalry charges on record. 
It was about noon when the bugle sounded 

* These names are spelled as given in the adjutant's report. 




' boots and saddles,' and in five minutes we 
were 'all saddled, all bridled and fit for a fight,' 
and were under way for the battle-field, which, 
by the rapid roar of the cannon, fully warned 
us that the battle had opened in real earnest. 
Arriving there, we were drawn up in line and 
waited for orders, and there we stood while 
cannon balls and shells played havoc among 
us, expecting each moment would be our last. 
We were in fine view and made a conspicuous 
mark, and you had better believe they improved 
it; they had four batteries of four guns each, and 
two of sis, while we had only one of six and 
that unsupported by infantry, and that was 
obliged to fall back when the rebels advanced 
theirs and formed in open field. Then was our 
time; our line was formed, and we were ready 
and getting impatient to either get out or in, 
for there is nothing that tires a man like stand- 
ing under fire doing nothing. But pres- 
ently the word ' draw sabre ' came, and out 
they flashed in an instant; 'Forward, charge!' 
rang out next, and in a moment more the Sec- 
ond Iowa went into it, 'neck or nothing,' 
with those twenty-eight guns in front and 
thousands of infantry on each side pouring 
death among us with very rapid volleys. We 
entered in line, but before we had gone far, 
Company B led the van, and such a shout as 
they set up you never heard, I will bet. I had 
not got a hundred yards before I had jumped 
my horse over more than a dozen dead horses 
and men, but I knew he was sure-footed and I 
gave him the spur, and on he went like a streak, 
while I held a firm grip to my butter-knife, and 
thought of the blood of one spilled on Pitts- 
burg battle-ground, and those that are held 
prisoners by these vile hellhounds. Well, we 
made them get out of that, and quick, too, but 
our loss was quite severe — sixty men and one 
hundred horses from the regiment. Walker is 
among the missing. Freeman, J. S. Brush, Dan- 

iel Craft, Claud Brock are wounded. John 
Williams was killed in a skirmish that we had on 
the 8th, and Johny Burg wounded. Bill Pax- 
ton was killed in a skirmish we had about two 
weeks ago. There are quite a number at home 
ou a furlough. * * * We are bound to 
give it to ' Sesesh ' here at Corinth, and that 
I believe will be the last hard battle of this 
war. I don't think they can hold out much 
longer; they are about played out, and will 
soon have to acknowledge ' Uncle's ' capability 
to take care of the affairs of his extensive 
farm without any dividing line between the 
cotton-field and corn-field." "Uncle" had 
several Corinths to pass through, however, 
after May, 1862. 

Such letters had a powerful influence on 
public feeling at home. It even blazed forth 
in advertising head lines: "No Compromise 
with Rebels, at the Hoosier Store! " " Chicago 
not taken by the Rebels, but by Otis Briggs, 
Druggist, etc! "' 

A call was made, also, for a public meeting 
for August 5 (1862), by E. G. Day, J. H. 
Talbott and W. S. Garrett, at which a Soldiers' 
Aid Society was organized. The society passed 
through various experiences, but did much 

A letter from Benton Barracks, St. Louis, 
dated July 26, 1862, by J. A. Fitzpatrick, pre- 
sents another phase of service: " Affairs pre- 
sent rather a poor aspect at present for the 
Union cause. It seems that the tide has turned 
in favor of the enemy, but it is no time for us 
to doubt the holiness of our cause, or the suc- 
cess of our arms — let not the free sons of the 
North falter one moment on account of our re- 
verses, but let it be a stimulant to hasten them 
to action. The President calls for 300,000 
men: they are needed, and if they do not vol- 
untarily come to the standard, the}' will be 
drafted, so I think every young man in the 


North should volunteer immediately, and not 
wait until they are compelled to go, whether 
they want to or not. Some will object to en- 
listing on account of negroes being allowed to 
enlist, but if they should happen to be drafted, 
before they are in the service six months they 
will wish that there were a few more ' niggers ' to 
work on entrenchments and let them rest. The 
army needs at least 150,000 negroes to work 
on fortifications, and do the drudgery of the 
camp. We are now having a big time in St. 
Louis. Every man that is able to bear arms 
is called into the service of the State. The 
' dandys ' have a hard time of it — they can't 
leave the city without a pass, and they can't 
get that. The office of the British consul is 
crowded from morning till night with persons 
claiming British protection, and wanting pass- 
ports to Canada. Irish, that have been voting 
here for the last fifteen or twenty years, swear 
they have never been naturalized, and claim 
British protection. There are two strings of 
soldiers from the door of the office reaching 
across the street, and whenever a man gets a 
passport, he must run the gauntlet, subject to 
a kick from each of the bystanders. The Union 
Aid Society of St. Louis, composed of ladies, 
took pity on us the other day, and presented 
each of us with a towel, handkerchief, fine 
comb and a cake of soap ; we stood greatly in 
need of these articles, for we are rather a dirty 

About this time a new company was formed 
by D. P. Ballard, and largely of Story County 
men. Said he, in a letter from Des Moines, 
August 15, 1862: "Company A, Twenty- 
third Iowa Infantry, is now full — numbering 
101 able-bodied men. Our officers are L. B. 
Houston, captain ; D. P. Ballard, first lieuten- 
ant; T. G. Cree, second lieutenant, with our old 
friend, S. P. O'Brien, as orderly. Story County 
can claim from fifty-five to sixty of the men of 

this company, aud consequently she must share 
one-half the honor or dishonor of its doings. 
One thousand Enfield rifles, with other para- 
phernalia are here, and our 'brass coats with 
blue buttons ' are on the road." Their after 
career will appear with the sketch of the Twen- 
ty-third Infantry. The Story County men 
were D. P. Ballard, S. P. 0*Brien, Bichard 
Jones, Ira Bailey, Charles P. Miller, G. W. 
Smiley, N. A. Alfred, Charles M. Banning, H. 
P. Banning, J. E. Banning, G. C. Baldock, J. 
Bevington, J. O. Booth, J. Born, P. Brown, A. 

C. Chamberlain, I. H. Craig, A. Cofman, J. J. 
Deal, N. V. Foote, 1). V. Foster, J. R. Foster, 
S. W. Gossard, J. A. Grove, T. J. Harrison, T. 
Hegland, I. P. Helphrey, I. Helphrey, Jr., H. J. 
Hiestand, A. Hiestand, C. Hussong, J. Howard, 
J. P. Jenkins, A. Kintsley, E. May, T. J. Miller, 

D. AV. McCoy, C. Ness, T. Opstoet, L. Stratton, 
O. Scott, C. Snyder, G. W. Taylor, S. Teastel, 
C Torkelson, D. J. Walters, O. Weeks, J. J. 
Wiltse and P. Zenor. They were mustered 
into service September 19, 1862. 

About the same time (August, 1862) a fourth 
company was formed, for the Thirty second 
Iowa Infantry, with the following officers: Jo- 
seph Cadwalader, captain; Gideon Wheeler, 
first lieutenant, and George Child, second lieu- 
tenant. Their Story members were as follows: 
Joseph Cadwalader (of Iowa Center). George 
Child (of Nevada), V. Tomlinson, J. Burger, 
Nat. A. Mount, I. S. French, F. M. Anderson, 
Jonas Duea, W. M. Edwards, G. H. Dunlap, 
Cyrus Davis, A. Prouty, A. O. Hall, H. Apple- 
gate, J. M. Applegate, I. N. Alderman, L. F. 
Brown, S. M. Childs, N. A. Cole, O. Egeland, 
W. M. Edwards, H. Eliasson, P. Egeland, E. 
French, D. Funk, E. A. Grubb, J. L. Hark- 
ness, H. B. Henryson, E. Hefley, G. F. Hilton, 
H. S. Halleck, J. A. Howard, J. E. Hand, J. 
B. Jacobson, A. Josleyn, T. A. Lein, E. E. Lar- 
son, J. P. Mecum, W. McGuire, D. A. Moore, 



J. Middleton, W. McCullough, John Nelson, 
N. L. Nelson, J. C. Russell, John Ritland, T. 
I. Spiller, S. N. See, C. M. Sellers, J. S. Stark, 

E. L. Sheldahl, J. F. Smith and J. S. Wood. 
They had a total of ninety-six men. and were 
ordered into quarters by the governor on Sep- 
tember S, 18(52, and mustered into service at 
Dubuque on October 6, 1862. But before 
they left Nevada, a committee, composed of 
Misses Nancy Loucks, Mattie E. Dunning, 
Julia Barnes, and Messrs. John Diffenbacher, 

F. D. Thompson and J. D. Ferner, announced 
that " Capt. Cad's " company would be royally 
entertained by the citizens on September 12, 
and the expectation of all were fully realized 
when the day arrived. It may be of interest 
to add that A. O. Hall and Adolphus Prouty 
were the fifer and drummer of this company. 

This company was scarcely settled at the 
Dubuque rendezvous of the regiment (the 
Thirty-second), when it was found a Story 
County man was its colonel and one its quar- 
termaster, the former being Col. John Scott 
and the latter Hon. T. C. McCall. Of the lat- 
ter a paper said: "We know that no better ap- 
pointment could have been made." Of Col. 
Scott the Dubuque Times chronicled a very 
pleasant affair: " Company I, of the Thirty- 
second, determined, after making the acquaint- 
ance of their colonel, and witnessing his labors 
in the work of organizing the regiment, to evi- 
dence to him in a substantial manner their appre- 
ciation of him as an officer and a man. By the 
unanimous consent of the members, it was de- 
termined that they should present him with a 
horse. Great pains were taken in the selec- 
tion, which finally resulted in the purchase of 
a splendid dark bay gelding, six years old last 
spring, and one of the best saddle horses ever 
seen in this section." Rev. L. S. Coffin of the 
company made the presentation, and among 
other things said: " This horse, sir, is a pledge 

on our part that we will obey. We present 
him to you, praying that that Being who 
has 'given hiin strength and clothed his neck 
with thunder, and made the glory of his nos- 
trils terrible, 1 may give you that terribleness 
of prowess that you too ' may mock at fear and 
not be affrighted,' and that ' amid the thunders 
of the captains and the shouting,' you may 
not ' turn back from the sword,' though the 
quiver against you may rattle and the spear 
glitter; and may you like him on the 'white 
horse.' ' ride forth from conquering unto con- 
quer.' " Col. Scott's response, made with evi- 
dent feeling, closed with: "And now, as befits 
this pleasant occasion, before Him who hath 
given the horse strength, who hath clothed 
his neck with thunder, let us renew our service 
vows to stand as comrades should, shoulder to 
shoulder, and to discharge our every duty to 
our country, imperiled but more loved, until 
we shall be permitted one and all to return to 
our loved homes in pride and peace. That 
this may be the lot of all now here, shall be my 
my effort, as it is my prayer." 

During these months, too, Story County was 
carrying on her political campaign. The lead- 
ing feature was the activity of the party op- 
posed to the administration, among the leaders 
of which were Hon. E. B. Potter, J. S. Frazier 
and others. The Republicans were charged 
with responsibility for the war, and belief was 
expressed that the difficulty could have been 
settled by compromise. Early in 1863 they 
issued a new party organ at Nevada called the 
Nevada Democrat. It was under the manage- 
ment of Messrs. Potter, Frazier and Hawthorn. 
Its motto was: "The Constitution as it is and 
the Union as it was." No files of this paper 
are accessible. Its career was brief, but it was 
a noticeable figure in Story's war career. 

In December, 1862, an order for thirty-four 
more men from Storv County before January 




1, 1863, or the alternate of a draft on that date 
caused a flutter of wonder and consternation 
among certain classes. Says Editor Schoon- 
over: "We know that there were in this county 
820 persons reported ' fit for duty." According 
to the adjutant-general's report, Story County's 
quota is only 298, and we are credited with 259. 
We are informed by the drafting commission- 
er that we have sent 320 volunteers to the 
army, and it was so reported to the governor, 
yet thirty-four men are required to fill out her 
quota." This proved to be an error as was 
supposed, and no draft was made. 

A year later, however, another demand was 
made on Story for sixty-four men to meet 
another call of the President, and a draft was 
to take place January, 5, 1864, if the quota 
was not filled before. The time was afterward 
extended to March 10. In the quiet humor of 
another's* words: " This announcement caused 
great consternation among the home guards, 
and a regular epidemic appeared to have at 
once broken out all over the county among 
those who had heretofore been considered in 
good health. Doctors were in great demand, 
and they reaped a rich harvest. Nearly every- 
body turned agent and tried to prevail on his 
neighbor to enlist. Great was the running to 
and fro, and finally only twenty (eighteen, more 
exactly) were wanting to make out the required 
number. The draft was ordered, and that 
number of our patriotic citizens were drafted. 
Some of the unlucky ones submitted to it 
gracefully, and some who had the funds hired 
substitutes. This ordeal having passed, quiet 
reigned and people became more healthy." 

"January 1, 1863, is the commencement of 
the year of Jubilee," says the Eeveille of that 
date. " On this day Old Abe's proclamation 
takes effect, and thousands of loyal men in the 
South will be found enrolled in the grand army 

*Col. John Scott. 

of the Union and Freedom. The shackles will 
fall from the manacled limbs of thousands of 
now voiceless maidens. There is nothing in 
either ancient or modern history, save only the 
proclamation of Cyrus, king of Persia, who lib- 
erated the Jewish prisoners who repaired to 
Jerusalem again to help rebuild the house of the 

I Lord, that will compare with the event of this 
day." An emancipation meeting was held that 

! day at the court-house, with overflowing doors. 

| E. G. Day was made chairman, and F. D. 
Thompson, secretary, while eloquent speeches 
were made by Rev. Haukins, Lieut. D. P. Bal- 
lard and L. Q. Hoggatt, Esq.; and appropriate 
resolutions, prepared by T. J. Ross, R. D. Col- 
dreu, L. Q. Hoggatt, A. H. Ingersoll and I. 

( Walker, were adopted. 

During 1863 Union war meetings were 
numerous all over the county. Letters from 
the field were frequent and full of interest and 
patriotism. The common appearance of such 
terms as " copperhead " and " abolitionist," 
showed the intensity of feeling, yet with all of 
this Story agitated for a railway. News of the 
army vote was a matter of great interest. Oc- 
casional return of the army " boys " were times 
of pleasure. The new editorial advocate of 
the Union — John M. Brainard — succeeded Mr. 
Schoonover, who volunteered. Recruiting offi- 
cers were abroad. In December, 1863, the 
board of supervisors decreed that each volun- 
teer from that time on should receive $100, or 
if married, $150, while soldiers' families were 
all voted $100. After the war this was still 
further augmented, so that all together there 
was paid out of the county treasury to soldiers' 
widows and orphans over $46,000. 

The year 1864 came, and with it a railroad, 
daily papers, telegraph and the like. News 
from the field brought accounts of great cas- 
ualties for Story county. All eyes were turned 
on Richmond. In October the Nevada Guards 



of Home Militia were organized with eighty- 
two members. The officers were: Captain, J. L. 
Dana; first lieutenant, Isaac Walker; second 
lieutenant, John M. Brainard. The only occa- 
sion they found for active service was in cor- 
raling a squad of Irish railway " paddies," who 
resisted the enrolling officer. They were cap- 
tured on Indian Creek and taken to Des Moines. 
In November, 1864, another draft for twenty- 
three men was found necessary. It was car- 
ried on at Marshalltown. 

Scarcely four years had passed since the war 
meeting in the old Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church and other places in the county, when 
the joyful news of " Richmond taken ! " on Mon- 
day, April 3, 1865, roused the people of the 
county to a demonstration. An Aegis local 
says: " The news of the capture of Richmond 
was received by our people about noon on 
Monday last, by favor of Mr. Mills, the tele- 
graph operator here, and was at first hardly 
credited, but by noon of the nest day, we all 
knew it was a sure thing, and the bunting was 
flung out. At this writing (Tuesday) the big 
flag floats from the top of the school-house. 
The Aegis office has its rag out, the bells are 
ringing and the boys and men are bawling until 
all are hoarse. Posters are out calling the 
people together for a grand jubilee to-night at 
the court-house, and all feel gay. Business is 
irksome, and all feel — -'Let her swing!'" The 
town was illuminated and speeches were made 
by Capt. Hambleton, Col. Scott, Sheriff Hoj;- 
gatt and others. 

It was but ten days later (April 14) when 
the operator took from the wires another dis- 
patch : " As the stunning intelligence flew from 
mouth to mouth, each lip became palid in the 
communication; proud heads bowed as the 
stricken oak before the storm, and tears un- 
bidden started from eyes long unused to weep. 
Old men turned away their heads and wept, 

and young men, strong in conscious youth, 
ground their teeth and stamped their feet in 
conscious rage. There was only wanting some 
tangible object to give vent to their feelings. 
Mothers and sisters, who had mourned a hus- 
band, brother, father, offered up at the shrine 
of their country's altar, again unsealed the 
fountains of their tears, and mourned anew 
the loss of our National Father." Business 
houses were closed; crape was on every door, 
and flags were at half mast. The night of the 
14th and the early morning of the 15th were 
spent by crowds in the court-house listening to 
dispatches. Touching but brief remarks were 
made by Col. Scott, Rev. Reid, Capt. Hamble- 
ton and Mr. Aldermau, while a committee was 
appointed, composed of Col. Scott, J. H. Tal- 
bott, John M. Brainard, A. S. Condon, G. A. 
Kellogg, Rev. I. Reid, Rev. J. Hestwood, Dr. 
Sinclair and Major Hawthorn, to arrange for 
funeral services for the martyred President. 
This is a fair picture of the whole country. 
On Thursday, the 28th of April, solemn serv- 
ices were held at the south square; remarks 
were made by Col. Scott, and were listened to 
by an immense concourse of people. 

The war was over. Very soon attention 
was given to the returning soldiers, and the 
joy of their friends, or to the widows and or- 
phans of those who would never return. The 
empty sleeve and the crutches began to be 
familiar sights, and on every heart the war, 
the long, bloody war, had left scars that 
will never be removed. A quarter of a century 
has passed, and still these scars are conimon 
sights on every hand. But. notwithstanding 
all this, Story County turned with vigor to re- 
cuperation — to a growth made possible by the 
new railway, which opened to her a new career. 

But what of Story's men in the field? Out 
of 820 able-bodied men reported fit for duty in 
1861, considerably over half found their way 



into service in some regiment, and, like other 
Iowa men, were among the brave in the thick- 
est of the fight. Says the leader among them : 
" Not an important battle was fought, nor an 
important event occurred during the whole war 
in which some of her citizens did not take an 
active part. They were with the immortal 
Lyons at Wilson's Creek ; with Gen. Grant at 
Fort Henry, Donelson, Shiloh, and the siege 
of Corinth ; with Rosecrans at Iuka and Chicka- 
mauga; with Sherman in his first attack on 
Vicksburg, and in when it surrendered to 
Grant; with Hooker on Lookout Mountain, and 
with Thomas when he scaled the heights of 
Mission Ridge; with Sherman from Chatta- 
nooga to the sea, and engaged in every battle 
of that memorable campaign; with brave Corse 
at Altoona Pass, when Sherman signaled from 
Kenesaw to ' Hold the fort, for I am coming:' 
with Sherman at Columbia and Goldsboro, and 
with Grant at Appomattox. They experienced 
horrors at Libby, Belle Isle and Andersonville. 
and joined in the triumphal march in the Grand 
Review at Washington. In all these phases of 
the war the citizen soldiery from Story County 
sustained a conspicuous part, and returned at 
the end to their homes, resuming their quiet 
and peaceful vocations as though they had only 
been absent on a holiday excursion.'' 

They were scattered in so many regiments 
that no attempt will be made to trace any regi- 
ments but those to which the four Story County 
companies were assigned, and in the order of 
the companies' dates of muster. These were 
the Third Iowa Infantry, to which Capt. Scott's 
company was assigned, as Company E ; the Sec- 
ond Iowa Cavalry, of which Capt. Queal's men 
were Company B; the Twenty-third Iowa In- 
fantry, which Lieut. Ballard's men joined in 
Company A, and the Thirty-second Iowa In- 
fantry, Col. John Scott, of which Capt. Cad- 
walader's men formed Company K. 

The Third Iowa Volunteer Infantry was or- 
ganized at Keokuk, from June 8 to 10, 1861. 
Nelson G. Williams, of Dubuque County, was 
made colonel; John Scott, lieutenant-colonel, 
and W. M. Stone, of Marion, mayor. 

On Juue 29 they went to Hannibal, Mo., and 
were generally engaged in that region. Lieut. - 
Col. Scott was in command of the regiment for 
a time, and led it in the battle of Blue Mills 
Landing. He " was in the midst of the fight, 
conspicuous for coolness and bravery. His 
horse was hit several times, and several bul- 
lets passed through his uniform." Lieut. Cros- 
ley, of Company E, and others received special 
mention. They were returned to St Louis, and 
in April, 1862, were at Pittsburg Landing, or 
Shiloh, where they suffered greatly. They 
were next at Corinth and the battle of Hatchie, 
where they were notable. During 1862 and 
early 1863 they were in Mississippi. Lieut. 
Crosley was promoted major. In May they 
moved toward Vicksburg, and were, in the siege 
and the campaign following, the most conspicu- 
ous Iowa regiment. They suffered great loss, and 
during early 1864 were on the Meridian raid. 
During the year the veterans, under Maj. Cros- 
ley, were allowed a furlough, and the non-veter- 
ans, after a campaign with Gen. Banks, were dis- 
charged at expiration of enlistment. The vet- 
erans of the " old Third " kept together, and 
at Atlanta, July 22, the " battalion literally 
fought itself out of existence." Those left 
were given prominent positions in other com- 
mands. It was a noble regiment, and Story 
County furnished its share of the noble. It 
was consolidated largely with the Second Vet- 
eran Infantry, as Companies A, F and P, those 
from Story County being in Company A, and 
with Sherman to the close. Out of fifty who 
enlisted from the county, only ten returned 
with the company in July, 1865; others had 
preceded them, having been discharged on ac- 





count of disease and wounds received in battle. 
But the following, who will always live in the 
memories of their friends and comrades, who 
went forth with strong hands and brave hearts, 
will never return: Nathaniel Jennings, Elisha 
B. Craig, George W. Grove, Henry H. Halley, 
William B. Taylor, Lewis M. Vincent, Asa 
Walker, W. R. White, Thomas Dent and 
Thomas M. Davis. Some of them died in bat- 
tle, others of disease, and one, the last named, 
succumbed to the horrible treatment at Ander- 
sonville prison.* 

The Second Iowa Cavalry had its rendezvous 
in Davenport late in 1861, and service was 
formally entered by the 28th of September. 
Capt. W. L. Elliott, of the Third Cavalry, 
U. S. A., became colonel, because it was the 
governor's desire that this should be an expert 
cavalry company, thoroughly trained. Edward 
Hatch, of Company A, became lieutenant-colo- 
nel. W. P. Hepburn, D. E. Coon and H. W. 
Love were majors. On December 7, 1861, the 
regiment left for Benton Barracks, St. Louis, 
where about sixty men were lost by disease. 
In February they were at Bird Point, and later 
at New Madrid, while on the evacuation of 
Island No. 10, they were the first to occupy it, 
and were in continual skirmish. In May, un- 
der Gen. Pope, they lost their first men, in the 
battle of Farmington, where they did valuable 
service, and saved the day by a most audacious 
charge. Of Lieut. Queal, it is said " he dar- 
ingly cheered his men to the very muzzles of 
the rebel cannon."f By the 20th they were 
about Corinth. Here Gen. Pope dispatches to 
Gen. Halleck the following: -'It gives me 
pleasure to report the brilliant success of the 
expedition sent out on the 28th inst., under 
Col. Elliott, with the Second Iowa Cavalry. 
After forced marches day and night, through a 

Cnl. S.-.itt's Centennial :ttl<lri'ss. 
Ingei-soll's Iowa and the Rebellii 

very difficult country and obstructed by the 
enemy, he finally succeaded in reaching the 
Mobile & Ohio Railroad at Boouville, at 2 
o'clock a. M., on the 30th. He destroyed the 
track in many places south and north of the 
town, blew up one culvert, destroyed the switch, 
and burned the depot and locomotive and train 
of twenty-six cars, loaded with supplies of all 
kinds. He destroyed 10,000 stand of small 
arms, three pieces of artillery, and a great 
quantity of clothing and ammunition, and pa- 
roled 2,000 prisoners, which he could not keep 
with his cavalry. The enemy had heard of his 
movements, and had a train of box-cars, with 
flying artillery and 5,000 infantry, running up 
and down the road to prevent him from reach- 
ing it. The whole road was lined with pickets. 
Col. Elliott's command subsisted on meat alone, 
such as they could find in the country. For 
daring and dispatch, this expedition has been 
distinguished in the highest degree, and en- 
titles Col. Elliott and his command to high 
distinction. The result will be embarrassing to 
the enemy, and contribute greatly to their loss 
and demoralization." Col. Elliott was soon 
promoted a brigadier-general, and Lieut. -Col. 
Hatch became colonel, with Maj. Hepburn to 
succeed him. The Second Michigan was asso- 
ciated with them under Col. P. H. Sheridan, 
and after a brief camp rest, they gained the 
brilliant Boonville victory of July 1. for which 
" Phil " Sheridan gained a brigadier-general- 
ship. Capts. Gilbert and Queal received special 
mention from Col. Hatch. The loss was twen- 
ty-two killed, wounded and missing. The next 
campaigns were numerous and active — Iuka, 
Corinth, etc., and Hatch's cavalry won from 
Gen. Rosecrans the high appellation of " the 
eye of the army." They were with Gen. Grant 
in Central Mississippi, and in actions too 
numerous to enumerate here. Col. Hatch, 
during 1863, commanded the brigade in North- 




ern Mississippi, and made a preliminary move- 
ment called "the Grierson Raid," until the 
arrival of a senior officer; this received a high 
coniplimeut from Gen. Grant, and the Second 
Iowa played a large part in it. Col. Hatch 
then led other raids of importance, against 
Forrest and others in Mississippi and Tennes- 
see. They were in continual use as the " eye 
of the army,"' and as strategists of great impor- 
tance. They were at Memphis Camp in Feb- 
ruary, 1864, where a re-enlistment was made 
as the Second Iowa Cavalry, Veteran Volun- 
teers, on March 28, and they went home on a 
furlough, and visited their colonel, then gen- 
eral, at Muscatine. April 15, at Davenport, 
Maj. Coon became colonel, and Capts. Horton, 
Schmitzer and Moore became majors. At the 
battle of Tupelo the division, brigade and regi- 
ment were commanded by officers of the Sec- 
ond. Their operations under Gen. Thomas 
were as remarkable as before, and they reached 
Nashville in December, where they were in 
the thickest of the fight, and their loss was 
considerable. Their remaining movements are 
of less interest. On their return to Iowa, in 
October, 18(35, they received a royal welcome, 
as they deserved. Capt. Queal and A. M. Lee 
were the only Story County losses iu this 

The Twenty-third Iowa Infantry, largely 
recruited from the center of the State, were 
the heroes of the battle of Black River Bridge. 
They rendezvoused at Des Moines and were 
mustered into service on September 19, 1862. 
Their officers were: Col. William Dewey, of 
Fremont County, Lieut.-Col. William H. Kins- 
man, of Pottawattamie, and Maj. Samuel L. 
Glasgow, of Wayne. They left for Missouri very 
soon, and were engaged there several mouths 
in post duty. They were on the march from 
West Plains, Iron Mountain and New Madrid 
early in 1863, and soon pushed on to the region 

of Vicksburg under McClernand. They were 
at Milliken's Bend, Grand Gulf and Port Gib- 
son, where they " were the first in the battle 
and the last out of it." Their losses were the 
heaviest of all the regiments in the brigade, 
and the wounded were largely Story County 
men, Lieut. Ballard being among the num- 
ber. They were in the sharp engagement at 
Black River Bridge ou May 17, near Vicks- 
burg. Col. Kinsman was killed. The regi- 
ment bore the brunt of the fight and suffered 
heavily, the companies scarcely averaging a 
score each. " Gen. Lawler passed down the 
line, and with speechless emotion seized every 
man by the hand. Thus, completely overcome, 
the brave man lifted up his voice and wept."* 
After guarding prisoners, they took part in the 
battle of Milliken's Bend on June 6 and 7, not- 
withstanding their reduced numbers, and again 
suffered, this time a loss of about fifty officers 
and men. Gen. Dennis gave special mention of 
"Col. Glasgow, of the Twenty-third Iowa, and 
his brave men." After this they were in the 
investment of Vicksburg, at Jackson, where, 
during August, they were transferred with the 
Twenty-second to the Department of the Gulf. 
They were in action in Louisiana, Texas, and 


it the winter at Indianola. For awhile in 

the spring at Metagorda Island, Maj. Houston, 
of the Twenty-third, had command of the 
Twenty-second. Iu early 1864 they were with 
Gen. Warren up the Red River, in which 
Capt. Cree had charge of a part of the Twenty- 
second. After some charges, the Twenty- 
third was engaged in Arkansas, and early in 
1865 was taken to New Orleans. In the cam- 
paign against Mobile, which followed, the bri- 
gade was under Col. Glasgow, and the regi- 
ment under Lieut.-Col. Charles J. Clark. 
Here its losses were great again, and it whipped 
the Twenty-third Alabama, which by strange 




coincidence was the first one it defeated in its 
first action at Port Gibson. After some time 
in Texas, where Maj. Houston was in com- 
mand, the regiment was discharged on July 
26, with the following officers: Col. S. L. Glas- 
gow, brevet brigadier-general; lieutenant- 
colonel, C. J. Clark; major, L. B. Houston; 
surgeon, O. Peabody; assistant surgeon, T. J. 
Caldwell; adjutant, E. B. Nelson; quartermas- 
ter, P. E. Grier; Company A — captain, D. P. 
Ballard; first lieutenant, J. W. Mattox; Com- 
pany B — captain, J. M. Walker; first lieuten- 
ant, M. C. Brown; second lieutenant, F. Weit- 
man; Company C — captain, Benjamin Jen- 
nings; first lieutenant, L. A. Garrett; Com- 
pany D — captain, W. M. Littell ; first lieuten- 
ant, F. Crathorne; Company E — captain, W. 
E. Houston; Company F — captain I. H. 
Walker; first lieutenant, N. C. Ridenour; sec- 
ond lieutenant, A. Van Eaton; Company G — 
captain, T. H. Miller; Company H — captain, 
B. W. Cross; first lieutenant, J. L. Shipley; 
Company I — captain, J. J. Van Houten; first 
lieutenant, E. P. Mills; Company K — captain, 
J. McGowen, and first lieutenant, H. C. Wil- 
son. They reached Davenport early on Au- 
gust 8 and disbanded, a regiment of noble vet- 
erans. Among those who slept in soldiers' 
graves over the South were Harvey J. Hei- 
stand, Charles P. Miller, G. W. Smiley, James 
Bevington, Pierson Brown, Henry Barber, D. 
V. Foster, J. R. Foster, J. A. Grove, Thomas J. 
Harrison, Toor Hegland, J. P. Jenkins, A. 
Kintzly, D. M. McCoy, Christ. Ness, L. J. Strat- 
tou, O. Scott, O. Week and C. Snyder, of 
Company A; A. B. Illiugsworth, E. Ersland, 
D. A. Breezley and W. Sunday, of Company 
E; John Ballard and W. Mencer, of Company 
B; John Yocum, of Company C; and John 
See, I. N. Shenkee and C. E. Culver, of Com- 
pany K, while C. P. McCord and R. May each 
lost a limb at Black River Bridge. 

The Thirty-second Infantry. Iowa Volun- 
i teers, received from Story County its colonel, 
quartermaster, and a fine company of men un- 
der Capt. Cadwalader. It was recruited from 
< the Sixth Congressional District, and rendez- 
voused at Camp Franklin, near Dubuque in the 
early fall of 18(32, and was sworn into service 
on October 6, for three years or during the 
war. Lieut. -Col. Scott had given up his posi- 
tion in the Third to take the colonelcy of this 
regiment, the other officers being Lieut. -Col. 
E. H. Mix, of Butler; Maj. G. A. Eberhart, of 
I Black Hawk, and Adjt. Charles Aldrich, of 
! Hamilton County. T. C. McCall, of Story, was 
| made quartermaster. By November 18 they 
were ordered to St. Louis, whence Col. Scott, 
with six companies, and Maj. Eberhart, with 
the remaining four, were detached to Southeast 
Missouri, under Gen. Curtis. This separation 
continued until the spring of 1864, and was a 
cause of great annoyance. As the Story men 
were in the main body, no account of the de- 
tachment under Maj. Eberhart will be neces- 
sary. Col. Scott made his headquarters at New 
Madrid, where he commanded the post, and, in 
the peculiar duties of a border post, displayed 
firmness and ability. On December 28, Col. 
Scott received orders to "immediately proceed 
to New Madrid, burn the gun-carriages and 
wooden platforms, spike the guns and destroy 
the ammunition totally." He obeyed, against 
his own judgment, and the public, disapproving 
of the act which followed, caused the case to be 
tried before a military commission. The blame 
was rightly attached to Brig. -Gen. T. A. Da- 
vies, who gave the order, and the commission 
said that Col. Scott " not only did his duty, but 
is honorably acquitted of all blame." After 
being on garrison duty at Fort Pillow, they 
embarked for Columbus, Ky., on June 18, 1863, 
where Col. Scott was in command of the post. 
The regiment was on detached duty of an im- 




portaut character from this time until January, 
1864. They had control of an important guer- 
rilla-infested region, requiring duties as arduous 
and daring as the front, and they were well 
performed. Numerous raids were carried on, 
and in January, 1864, they embarked for Vicks- 
burg, under Maj.-Gen. Hurlbut. In February 
they were with that raid under Maj.-Gen. Sher- 
man, and on their return the entire regiment 
was reunited amid rejoicings, and eager for 
active service. They were soon ordered to the 
Department of the Gulf, and on the disastrous 
Red River campaign probably suffered more 
than any other regiment engaged. In the at- 
tack on Fort De Russey the Thirty-second 
made the chief assault, and " the men on the 
right took the fort," as the prisoners put it; 
these " men on the right " were the brave 
Thirty-second. They next moved to Grand 
Ecore, and on April 9, Shaw's " Iron Brigade," 
of which Scott's regiment was a part, led in the 
victory of Pleasant Hill, " stood the brunt of the 
fight, being the first in the battle, fighting 
longer than any others, in the hardest of the 
contest, the last to leave the field, and losing 
three times as many officers and men as any 
brigade engaged."* In this action the Thirty- 
second held the center of the Union lines. "Of 
Col. John Scott, Thirty-second Iowa," says the 
brigade commander, " it is sufficient to say 
that he showed himself worthy to command the 
Thirty-second Iowa Infantry, a regiment which, 
after having been entirely surrounded and cut 
off from the rest of the command, with nearly 
one-half of its number killed or wounded, 
among them many of the best and most promi- 
nent officers, forced its way through the ene- 
my's line, ready and anxious to meet the foe, 
in less than thirty minutes." Says one writer: 
"It is certain no regiment ever fought 
with a sublimer courage than did the Thirty- 

second on the field of Pleasant Hill." The 
loss was great — 210 officers and men killed, 
wounded and missing, many of the missing 
also wounded or killed; eighteen of these were 
from Capt. Cadwalader's company. After men- 
tioning the loss of many officers and men, Col. 
Scott's official report says: "Language fails 
me when I would attempt to tell you how much 
I, in common with their comrades, deplore the 
irreparable loss we have sustained in these gal- 
lant men. The painful circumstances surround- 
ing the abandonment of these and other wounded 
comrades, on a field we had so gallantly con- 
tested and won, must live only in our hearts." 
Further on he says, modestly: "Undaunted 
courage is a virtue so common among the troops 
from our noble State, that it is no boast for me 
to say that my command fought bravely, skill- 
fully and well." The bravery and losses of the 
Thirty-second spread through Iowa and evoked 
the following lines from one of Iowa's gifted 
ladies — Mrs. Caroline A. Soule: 

"Cold are the sleepers 

Wrapped in their shrouds- 
Pale are the weepers 

The battle has bowed; 
Sofily they slumber, 

Our soldiers in death — 
While hearts without number 

Cry, wilh hushed breath — 
O God, are they dead!" 

After various movements, the regiment 
reached Memphis on June 10, having taken part 
in the battle at Point Chicot. It then took act- 
ive part in the Tupelo and Oxford expedition, 
and in a severe campaign of marching in Mis- 
souri after Price. By November it was at 
Cairo, 111. It then won great credit at Nash- 
] ville battle, in Gilbert's brigade, where it made 
some valuable captures. Early in 1865 it was 
moved to Eastport, Miss., to take part in the 
Mobile campaign, under Gen. Canby, which it 
did with accustomed honor. Later in the sum- 





mer it was disbanded, and returned home. 
Capt. Cadwalader was made chaplain of the 
regiment, and his subordinate officers promoted, 
when Vincent Tomlinson became second lieu- 
tenant of Company K. Quartermaster T. C. 
McCall was promoted captain and acting quar- 
termaster in March, 1864. Among the dead the 
following were Story men: N. A. Mount, O. 
Egland, E. Modlin, F. M. Anderson, W. C. 
Ballard. D. J. Bloys, F. S. Daniels, H. Ellia- 
son, Peter Egland, H. B. Henryson, E. Hetley, 
J. B. Hand. W. L. Lemmon, W. Pierce, C. M. 
Sellers, J. Sorter, N. A. Tichenor and John S. 

Other regiments containing a less number 
of Story County men made records that rival 
those of the above regiments, and other men 
deserve mention; it is always embarrassing to 
select from the rich list of examples of bravery 
and valor in a State of such soldier fame as 
Iowa. It is an honor to be simply known as an 
Iowa veteran. 

Among other of Story County's dead are the 
following: William Crum and William Tanner, 
Company A, Tenth Infantry ; B. F. Craig and 
H. Howard, Company D, Tenth Infantry; S. 
Kelley, Company K, Tenth Infantry; E. D. 
Casebolt. J. T. Mount, S. D. Allen, Company 
E, Thirteenth Infantry: S. W. Jenks, J. J. Al- 
dredge, Thomas Snelling, John T. Shumaker, 

H. Spangler. J. L. Martin, George Lowell 
and Z. F. Martin, Company G, Fourteenth 
Infantry: E. Elliott, Company B, Fifteenth 
Infantry; H. Hunt, Company I, Nineteenth In- 
fantry (died in prison in Tyler, Texas) ; D. C. 
Vail, Company G, Fourteenth Infantry (also 
died at same place I ; M. D. Coug, F. Lowell and 
D. Womack, Company B, Thirty-ninth Infantry; 
Thomas Fatland, Compauy F, Forty-seventh 
Infantry; William Keltner, Company G, 
Seventh Cavalry ; A. G. Briley and S. P. Shaw, 
Company I, Eighth Cavalry: W. C. Evans, 
Company H, Ninth Cavalry : and Lieut. Jason 
D. Ferguson, Twelfth Infantry, killed at 

A quarter of a century has passed, and the 
veterans are old men ; their numbers are grow- 
ing less year by year, and the few remaining 
are loved and prized the more. Their organi 
zation into local posts of the Grand Army of 
the Kepublic gives the younger generation a 
tangible form to which they can give general 
honor; while to the old soldier himself it fur- 
nishes a nucleus for his war memories to 
gather pleasantly about, and affords many an 
occasion by which he can instill and invig- 
orate a healthy patriotism into the young man- 
hood of Story County, to whom the bitter 
war is only a story that is told and listened to. 
but by no means realized. 





General Miscellany— Development of Story County— Due Largely to the Presence of Railroads— Impor- 
tant Meetings— The First Railroad -Projected Routes — Assistance Rendered, etc. — Finan- 
cial Presentation— Taxation and Valuation— Bonds and Funds— Population— The 
County's General Physical Condition— Productive Capacity — Industries 
— Sources of Wealth — Political Status— Election Returns — 
Sundry Societies— Professional Circles — Literary 
Activity — Varied Contributors and 

From the blessings they bestow 

Our times are dated, and our eras move. 


AY construction has 

one more to develop Story 

^ County than any other one 

cause. The roads h a v e 

breathed the breath of life" 

into her, and their trains 

have been to her like 

Ps>^ throbbing arteries bearing rich blood 
f^fe> info every member. One can hard- 

imagine these 
s without them: 

even a 

town - 


phia, Bloomingtou and Palestine — many of 
them now not even a name — took days and 
days to get goods from Keokuk or Iowa City, 
guided over the prairie through the tall grass 
by a furrow line, and fortunate if no blazing 
field of grass on fire swept over them and left 
nothing but the charred bones and wagon irons 
on the black prairie. Try to imagine going 
from any of those points to Keokuk to mill, or 
even to Iowa City; and yet that was a common 
experience. Such a condition gave little mo- 

lelayed mail-train is felt throughout tive for production beyond the needs of the 

the county within twenty-four hours. 

They have become her motor and 
sensory nerves. But this is true of railroads 
anywhere, although it is especially realized 
for Story County, when it is recalled that be- 
fore 1864, while Story's soldiers prepared for 
war, and long before, there was nothing but 
stage-lines in the county. The few small "cor- 
ners," such as Nevada, Iowa Center, Cam- 
bridge, Fair View, New Albany, New Philadel- 

local communities too. Is it any less difficult 
to imagine weekly and semi-weekly mails to 
those who have two mails a day from two di- 
rections, and telephone and telegraph besides? 
Those restrictions early began to chafe the 
glowing young county of frog-ponds and 
skunk bottoms, and its citizens, led by Nevada, 
began to agitate for a railway to connect the 
county-seat with one of the great trunk lines 
that were proposed to cross the State, accord- 




ing to the Congressional act of May 15, 1856. 
Of course the old paper road, the Iowa Central 
Air Line, which made a pretty horizontal mark 
across the map of the State, passed through 
Story County, but it showed no signs of life, 
and did not accept the grant of alternate sec- 
tions of land for six sections on each side of 
the track and bearing odd numbers. The roads 
leading from Dubuque and Davenport then at- 
tracted attention, and measures were taken to 
reach the former by a Waterloo & Des Moines 
Railway in 1857, at a meeting at Nevada court- 
house. Among the speakers of the occasion 
were Messrs. Scott, Coldren, Alderman and 
Frazier, and a corporation was formed to push 
the scheme. This would have passed through 
Nevada in a north easterly and southwesterly 
direction, but it came to naught. The next 
step came two years later, after the Air Line 
grant was transferred to . the new company 
— Cedar Rapids & Missouri River Railroad. 
The Congressional act of March 29, 1860, un- 
tangled some of the difficulties of the former 
legislation, and gave the people the right to 
vote its swamp-lands for railway purposes. 
Story County, although taking part in the war, 
kept up a lively interest in this road, and in 
1863 took a vote on giving these lands to the 
new company. After a spirited canvas the vote 
stood 334 to 98, overwhelmingly in favor of 
making this concession of 6,711.87 acres of her 
overflowed land to secure a railway. The Hon. 
James Hawthorn was a representative of Story 
County in the directory of the new company, and 
work was pushed rapidly, so that the track 
reached the limits of the county in the follow- 
ing winter. During the open season of 1864 
it was pushed through the county, and Colo, 
Ames and Ontario were its new towns. At 
this time its terminus was the farthest west- 
ern railway terminus in the United States. 
The new line was soon consolidated with the 

Chicago & North-Western Railway, and trade 
was henceforth held to the county. A rapid 
influx of settlers and speculators followed this 
opening up, so that the county had its greatest 
"boom," though not its most valuable growth, 
until the transient element had sloughed off. 
This line has been most typical of the county's 
solid growth, and has gained the good-will 
of the people throughout the acrid contest 
between Iowans and their railways. The 
main line now has four depots in the county, 
and 24.23 miles of track, valued at $10,100 
per mile, or a total value of $244,723. This 
is the highest valuation per mile of any rail- 
way in the county — over $4,000 higher than 
its rival to the south. 

In 1870 and 1871 a demand for a cross-road 
culminated. There were several applicants for 
the place, and they came from various cross- 
directions, all attempting to pass through Ne- 
vada. They all received encouragement from 
the citizens of the county, many of whom were 
very active. The Nashua & Milwaukee Rail- 
road was surveyed, but nothing farther was 
done. The Iowa, Minnesota & Northern Pa- 
cific made a trial the same year; probably there 
never has been such a year of railway fever as 
1871. The McGregor & Des Moines Railroad 
Company was a third, and suffered the same 
fate. Nevada and Ames made brave struggles 
to secure the cross line, avd after much delay 
and numerous failures the western part of the 
county, led by Ames, together with Des Moines 
parties, organized a corporation to build a nar- 
row gauge called the Des Moines & Minneapo- 
lis Railway. Washington Township voted a 
five-mill tax, and after many delays the road 
reached Ames on July 4, 1874. The terminus 
lay at Ames for some time. In 1877 La Fay- 
ette voted a five-mill tax toward having it 
pushed through to Story City; this was com- 
pleted by December, 1877. This line was of 


less advantage than was anticipated until the 
Chicago & North-Western Railway secured it 
and broadened the gauge; siuce then it has 
given a valuable outlet to the capital, and to the 
north, while Story City, Gilbert, Kelley, Slater 
and Sbeldahl are its new towns, that have arisen 
upon it to the north and south of Ames, where 
it crosses the main line, and furnishes a most 
prominent transfer point and union depot. 
This line now has 20.4 miles of track in the 
county, valued at $5,000 per mile, or a total 
value of $132,000. 

The year 1881 was a year of culmination 
of some activity for new lines, this time in 
diagonals for the east part of the county. The 
only failure in this line was the St. Louis, New- 
ton & Northwestern Railway, but out of this 
move grew the Story City Branch of the Cen- 
tral of Iowa. It was to give the north part of 
the county a more direct outlet to Marshall- 
town, and quietly they secured the right of way 
and a three-mill tax from Howard Township 
and a four-mill one, each, from Warren and 
Lincoln Townships. The track was finished by 
November and December, 1881, and forthwith 
arose the new towns of Zearing, McCallsburg, 
and Roland, while the terminus was made at 
Story City. The line has developed the north 
part of the county remarkably and rapidly. 
It is now called the Story City Branch of the 
Iowa Central, and has 19.5 miles of track in 
the county, valued at $3,000 per mile, or $58,- 
500 worth of property altogether. 

During the same months the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul Railway, quietly, and with 
no agitation or subscription except from towns 
en route, built its line through the southern 
tier of townships, and crossing the Des Moines 
& Minneapolis Branch at Slater. Early in 
1882, by the time trains were running, and be- 
fore, new towns were springing up all along its 
line as briskly as on the Story City Branch. 

There are Collins, Maxwell, Elwell, Cambridge, 
Huxley and Slater, of which Cambridge is the 
only old town, while Maxwell has nearly ab- 
sorbed Iowa Center, and Slater taken a goodly 
amount of Shelclahl. This line has exception- 
ally good depot buildings and does a very large 
local business. It now has 24.79 miles of 
track within the county, at a value of $6,025 
per mile, or $149,359.75. 

These roads are so convenient that no farmer 
in the county is over six miles from a station, 
where they can find good markets and all ship- 
ing accommodations, there being seventeen 
railway stations altogether, 94.92 miles of 
track, adding to the county's taxable wealth 
§584,583. They have been town-makers, too, 
and moved towns to their own sites as if they 
were chess-men, the only town that shows any 
signs of resisting them being Iowa Center. 

Practically, there has been added to Story 
County fifteen towns since the first railway 
appeared, in 1864, and this urban population 
furnishes a considerable home market. The 
mere presence, too, of the railways within the 
county enhances its wealth many fold. 

The history of Story County finances maybe 
illustrated by a review of her valuation, taxa- 
tion and bonds. The rate of valuation in 
Iowa has been scarcely more than from thirty 
to forty per cent, so that the following figures 
ought really to be doubled or nearly trebled 
in order to estimate the actual wealth of the 
county. The valuation assessed in 1855 is 
not accessible; in 1865 it was $1,795,120; in 
1875 it reached $3,482,114; in 1885 the 
amount was $4,670,955; and in 1889 the total 
reached $4,863,043, which, if the assessment 
rate be taken at thirty per cent, would make 
the real wealth of the county at about $15,- 

The total amount of taxes levied by decades 
is as follows: In 1855 but $3,990.30 was 


levied; iu 1865 it sprang up to $41,638.77: in 
1875 it more than doubled to S97.tfS3.06; in 
1885 scarcely a third was added, making $134,- 
400.36;and in 1889 it fell to 8118,161.96. 

There have been but three notable occasions 
for bonding the county, namely, to secure the 
location of the Agricultural College, and for 
funding the floating and court-house debts. 
The first bonds were ordered from a vote of 
the county on February 7, 1859, to give $10,- 
000 to the college. The location was secured 
by this and other means, and bonds were issued 
payable in ten yea is and bearing seven per cent. 
These were all paid off on time. Then followed 
the issue of July 15, 1870, for funding the floating 
debt accrued during and since the war, and in 
March, 1876, another issue for a similar purpose 
followed, including the floating court-house debt. 
This issue was for $40,000, bearing ten per cent 
interest and due in ten years, and payable at 
the option of the county. Iq 1879 there was 
810,000 retired for anuual payment, and a re- 
issue made of 825,000 at seven per cent. The 
entire amount was paid from time to time until 
it was cleared in 1889, since which period the 
county has been entirely free from indebted- 

On May 31, 1890. the twenty-four funds of 
the county treasury all showed balances in their 
favor. The county fund, for general county pur- 
poses, had a balance of $14,775.28 in the vaults, 
the largest balance of the various funds. The 
teachers 1 fund, for the payment of public- 
school teachers, came next with 84-4-13.69 in 
cash, while $2,528.22, the next largest, was 
credited to the domestic animal fund, a fund 
formed from dog tax to pay private claims for 
domestic animals killed by dogs. Four other 
funds had nearly equal balances. The school 
fund, a tax levied annually according to school 
enumeration, had $1,560.32; the bridge fund, 
a general county tax for bridges and roads. 

had $1,298.67; the poor fund, a tax to sup- 
port the county farm and others in poverty, 
had 81,135.16; and the contingent school fund, 
a tax to meet miscellaneous school necessities, 
as fuel. etc.. had 81.316.33. Other funds with 
balances above 8100 were the bond fund, 
which has a surplus of $861.95 left over from 
former bonding actions, ready to be applied to 
future cases of bonding that may arise; the 
soldiers' relief fund, with a balance of $691.47, 
which was provided by State action to aid 
cases of need not reached by other sources; 
the school-house fund, credited with $777.38, 
from a district tax for building purposes and 
still unused; the road fund, having 8668.15 
in the treasury, from local township taxes: 
the institute fund, with 8102.38 accrued from 
teachers 1 license fees for the support of 
county institutes : the permanent school fund, 
having 8992.65 unloaned, out of the (over) 
814,000 held in trust from the State as the 
proceeds of sixteenth-section sales, but, at this 
writing, all loaued; and the temporary school 
fund, the interest on the permanent, with a 
surplus of $451.64. Other funds falling below 
a S400 balance, are the State fund, a tax for 
State purposes, credited with S199.95; the in- 
sane fund, with 8167.79 in its favor for the State 
support of insane; the corporation fund, a tax 
collected by town corporations, having a balance 
of $344.55; the library fund, having 89.82 for 
the Nevada library; the cemetery fund, another 
local surplus of 87.41; the railroad fund, hav- 
ing 812.14, what was left from the operations 
of townships in voting tax for railways; the 
board of health fund, another local surplus of 
$5.51, held for those divisions of the county 
who have such officers; the drainage fund, a 
small amount of $ltf(>.42, left from a former 
tax for ditches along Skunk River and in Rich- 
laud Township; the school-house site fund, 
with 822.50, accrued from condemned sites for 

J a f- 




school-houses; and the water- works fund, 
the tax collected by Nevada for her water- 
works, with a small credit of $33.55. These 
make a grand total of $32,887.20 in Story 
County's treasury on May 31, 1890, and no 
indebtedness. They also illustrate the extent 
of subjects over which the " county fathers,'" 
the State and local divisions of the county, have 
shown watchful care and interest. 

It must be of interest to trace the growth 
of Story's population from the earliest days of 
the first settler. As far as known, the first 
white man located within the boundaries of 
the county in 1847 or 1848. According to an 
early map of Iowa, published in 1854, the cen- 
sus of 1850 found forty-two persons in the coun- 
ty. This census was taken for Story with other 
counties, however, as she had no organization, 
but the number seems altogether probable. In 
1852, two years later, the number had increased 
to 214 — a five-fold growth ; in the next two years 
it quadrupled to 836 in 1854, the second year of 
the county's organized existence, when it had not 
a railroad, but two post-offices, miles of Skunk 
Kiver overflowed bottoms, multitudes of prairie 
frog-ponds, tall prairie grass frequented by the 
terrible prairie fire, roads that were mere paths 
along furrows, log houses along the streams, 
and only two townships. In 1856 it had 
trebled to 2,868; in 1859 it was 3,826; in 
1860 there were 4,051 people; in 1863 but 
4,368, while many were in the army; 1865 en- 
rolled 5,918; then in 1867 it sprang to 6,888; 
in 1869 to 9,347; in 1870 to 11,662; in 1875 
to 13,311; in 1880 to 16,906; in 1885 to 17,- 

527, and in 1890 to — . It is interesting 

to note, too, that in 1885 but 10 were colored, 
and those were all in Nevada. Of the 17,527, 
there were 14,034 native and 3,473 foreign 
born, the latter being distributed as follows: 
2,057 from Norway. 415 from Denmark, 243 
each from Canada and Ireland. 212 from Ger- 

many, 154 from England, 74 from Sweden, 
41 from Scotland, 20 from various countries, 
8 from France, and 3 each from Wales and 
Holland. These lived in 3,410 dwellings scat- 
tered over the county, and in 3,510 families. 
Omitting towns, Palestine Township was the 
most densely populated (1,201), Howard came 
next (1,190), and Collins third (1,003). Of 
the entire population, 6,425 were married, 10,- 
593 single, 476 widowed and 33 divorced; 392 
were born in the year 1884. The voting pop- 
ulation was 3,866. while there were 491 aliens, 
of whom 372 had not taken out first papers. 
There were 111 above ten years of age unable 
to read or write, while 23 were deaf, blind, in- 
sane or idiotic. The nativity of the 14,054 
native born were as follows: 1 from Arkan- 
sas, 6 from California, 4 from Colorado, 35 
from Connecticut, 7 from Delaware, 1 from 
Florida, 2 from Georgia, 1,673 from Illinois, 
782 from Indiana, 7,952 from Iowa, 66 from 
Kansas, 59 from Kentucky, 3 from Louisiana, 
36 from Maine, 69 from Maryland, 41 from 
Massachusetts, 88 from Michigan, 43 from 
Minnesota, 69 from Missouri, 23 from Ne- 
braska, 3 from Nevada, 38 from New Hamp- 
shire, 40 from New Jersey, 752 from New 
York, 14 from North Carolina. 1,110 from 
Ohio, 2 from Oregon, 582 from Pennsylvania, 
2 from Rhode Island, 3 from South Carolina, 
32 from Tennessee, 4 from Texas, 127 from 
: Vermont. 82 from Virginia, 18 from West Vir- 
ginia, 266 from Wisconsin, 13 from Dakota, 1 
from Montana, 4 from Utah and 1 from Wy- 
oming. The only States or Territories not 
represented were Alabama. Mississippi, Ari- 
zona, Idaho, New Mexico and Washington — a 
most remarkable condition, which promises 
excellent things for Story County if the theory 
regarding the superiority of mixture of blood 
hohls good. Of the entire population, but one 
person was over ninety-five years of age — 




Mary Brennan, of Ames, aged one hundred 
and twelve years, the second oldest person in 

As to the county's general physical condition 
in 1885, there were 21-1,194 acres of improved 
land, 139,152 of it in cultivation, 88,537 acres 
unimproved and 60,306 acres in pasture, while 
the farms averaged 124 acres in size, there be- 
ing 1,553 managed by the owner, 66 by a man- 
ager, 142 by a tenant for money rent, and 485 
by a tenant for crop rent. These farms were 
fenced with 564, 150 rods of barbed-wire fence, 
216,636 rods of hedge, and 206,881 rods of 
other fence. On these farms were produced 
(in 1884) 86,384 bushels of Irish potatoes on 
1,124 acres; 399 bushels of sweet potatoes on 
2 acres; 1,267 bushels of onions on 2 acres; 
675 bushels of beets. 3,722 bushels of turnips, 
1,136 bushels of peas and beans, 3,745 pounds 
of tobacco (3 acres) ; 2,848,625 bushels of corn 
on 87,158 acres; 70,318 bushels of spring 
wheat on 5,281 acres; but 70 bushels of fall 
wheat (12 acres) ; 1,292,534 bushels of oats on 
37,263 acres (the straw reaching 20,394 tons) ; 
20,169 bushels of rye on 1,585 acres; 937 
bushels of barley on 66 acres; 4,217 bushels 
of buckwheat on 567 acres; 3 tons of broom- 
corn on 6 acres; 314 acres in sorghum, 20,888 
gallons of syrup and 175 pounds of sugar, but 
11 gallons of maple syrup. Iu timber, there 
were 12,595 acres of natural and 1,316 acres 
of planted forest, while from these were cut 
6,730 cords of wood (in 1884). The orchards 
had 44,226 apple trees, furnishing 30,246 
bushels in that year: 18 pear trees, giving but 
a solitary bushel of its fruit, and only 3 peach 
trees, not bearing, while 4,079 plum trees pro- 
duced 1,453 bushels; 4,6 10 cherry trees gave 
726 bushels, and there were 3,783 other bear- 
ing trees, with 109,587 not yet bearing. From 
11 acres of vineyard, 21,740 pounds of grapes 
and 44 gallons of wine were produced, while 

14,771 independent vines gave 17,143 pounds 
and 418 gallons. From 1,715 stands of bees 
were gathered 28,061 pounds of honey and 376 
pounds of wax. The grasses and the dairy: 
1,107 acres of clover gave 1,115 tons of hay 
and 209 bushels of seed; 18 acres of Hunga- 
rian gave 8 tons of hay and 45 bushels of seed; 
65 acres of millet gave 115 tons of hay and 34 
bushels of seed; 17,005 acres of timothy gave 
15,652 tons of hay and 5,155 bushels of seed, 
while 46,576 tons of wild hay was cut; 2,798 
acres of flax gave 24,001 bushels of seed; 70,- 
837 gallons of milk were sold or sent to butter 
and cheese factories, with 204,603 gallons of 
cream; 665,626 pounds of butter, 3,009 pounds 
of which was factory made, came out of Story 
Couuty iu 1881. In stock, there were 187 Short- 
horn, 1 Holstein and 2 Jersey thorough- bred 
cattle, 2,132 grade cattle, 11,194 milch cows, 
with 20,489 other cattle, 5,108 of which were 
slaughtered or sold for slaughter; there were 
20 Percherou, 5 Clydesdale and 247 other pure- 
bred draft horses, with 1 standard-bred, and a 
total of 10,167, there having been 225 sold for 
export during 1884; the number of mules and 
asses were 359, but 7 only sold for export; 
there were 12,200 Poland China, 1,484 Berk- 
shire, 1,730 Chester White, 586 Duroc-Jersey, 
87 Essex and 1,183 other improved breeds of 
hogs, with a total number of all kinds of 56,- 
771, there having been 36,128 slaughtered or 
sold for export besides. There were 55 Merino, 
222 Cotswold, 104 Leicester, 214 Southdowns 
and 149 of other improved breeds of sheep, the 
total of all kinds reaching 3,418, besides 1,022 
slaughtered or sold for export and 48 killed by 
dogs; 2,508 fleeces giving 14,860 pounds of 
wool were produced. The common chickens 
numbered 131,333, improved breeds 10,417, 
with 18,727 other domestic fowls, aud 434,292 
dozen of eggs. It may be observed that 1,776 
dogs were abroad in Story County that year, 


some of which may be, no doubt, classed as 
refined poodles. In manufactures, brick and 
tile, foundry, furniture and saddlery products 
deserve mention, and in this order: Of 346,613 
acres of land in the county, the reported aver- 
age acre value was $8.94, equalized to $8.05, 
making a total value of $3,020,280, besides 
which $513,201 was the value of town lots. 
The personality was valued at $998,031, and 
railroad property at $488,393. The total re- 
ported value was $5,019,911. The exemption 
for trees planted was $64,279. This sort of 
wealth supported 8 newspapers, and made nec- 
essary 14 post-offices, of which 2 were inter- 
national offices. It also made necessary 16 
voting precincts. The large Danish popu- 
lation has led to the appointment of W. D. 
Gandrup, of Story City, as consul for Denmark. 
He is one of but two foreign consuls located 
in Iowa. 

Let the whole be illustrated by the successive 
semi-decades of corn production — the leading 
crop: In 1856 there were 116,000 bushels; in 
■1860, 194,000; in 1865, 374,000; in 1870, 390,- 
000; in 1875, 1,783,000; in 1880, 3,580,000, 
and in 1885, 2,884,625. 

In politics Story County first divided on 
mere geographical locations; the two town- 
ships, Indian Creek and Story, on April 4, 
1853, voted solid, the former casting 26 votes 
for Adolph Prouty and the latter 37 for E. C. 
Evans as county judge. Story, of course, se- 
cured Judge Evans' election. In 1856 the 
first real political division was shown by the 
vote for Fremont, 232; Buchanan, 272, and 
Fillmore, 79. In 1857 the Democratic candi- 
date for governor had 243 and the Eepublican, 
217. The vote on the State bank law in 1858 
was 424 for, to 18 against, and was not polit- 
ical, neither was the vote of 1859 on $10,000 
donation to the Agricultural College, 402 for, 
to* 48 against. In 1859 the gubernatorial 

election showed a turn to the Republicans, 
395 to 358 Democratic, and the presidential 
vote of 1860 gave a still larger bound toward 
Lincoln, giving him 418 to 332 for Douglas. 
There were about a half-dozen Breckinridge 
men in the county, but no ticket was out. The 
gubernatorial vote of 1861 gave 412 Repub- 
lican to 317 Democratic. Of course, the vote 
of swamp lands in 18113 to the Cedar Rapids 
& Missouri River Railway Company, which 
was 334 to 98 in favor, was not political, but 
the State election of that year still continued 
Republican by 453 to 342, while the presiden- 
tial vote of 1804 gave 549 for Lincoln and 
342 for McClellan, the returned soldiers evi- 
dently all voting for Lincoln. The State elec- 
tion of 1865 had three gubernatorial candi- 
dates, the Republican received 539 Story 
votes, the old Conservative Democratic candi- 
date but 2, while Thomas H. Benton, Jr., who 
was called the "soldiers' candidate," received 
most of the Democratic and a few Repub- 
lican votes, to the number of 439, while the 
State vote of 1867 came out strongly Repub- 
lican, 767 to 406. In 1868 Grant received 1,058 
and Seymour but 432 votes, and the guberna- 
torial votes of 1869 and 1871 were respect- 
ively Republican, with 992 to 374, and Repub- 
lican, with 1,199 to 470 votes. The vote of 1872 
gave Grant 1,405, Greeley, the Liberal-Demo- 
crat and Republican candidate, 340, and Charles 
O'Connor, the straight Democratic candidate, 
but 26. The State vote of 1872 began to show 
signs of scattei-ing, the Republican vote being 
958, the Democratic, 696, and 1 scattering; 
and that of 1875 gave 1,346 Republican, 603 
Democratic and 2 Prohibition. The famous 
presidential vote of 1876 gave Hayes 1843; 
Tilden, 579, Cooper, the "Greenback" candi- 
date, 327, and a few Prohibition votes. In 
the State elections of 1877 and 1879 these di- 
visions were still more marked; in the former 


it was 1,260 Republican 344 Democratic, 644 
Greenback, 187 Prohibition, and in the latter 
1,701 Republican, 308 Democratic, 736 Green- 
back and 42 Prohibition. In 1880 Garfield 
received 2,054, Hancock 339, and 467 were 
Greenback and 1 Prohibition. The State 
election of 1881 gave candidates for governor — 
Sherman, 1,474: Clark, 474; Kinne, 283, and 
Allen, 1, while in 1883 they were Republican, 
1,912. Democrat, 840, Greenback, 263, and 
Prohibition, 1. In the gi-eat campaign of 
1884 the vote sprang back into the two old 
paths and gave Blaine 2.314. Cleveland. 1.212. 
with 11 St. John and 2 Butler votes. The 
only appreciable change in the county vote in 
the next two State elections was the appear- 
ance of the Union Labor party. In 1885 there 
were 1.078 Republican. 1,083 Fusion Demo- 
crat and 22 Prohibition, and in 1887 the re- 
turn was 1,897 Republican, 991 Democrat, 51 
" Union Labor " and 2 Prohibition. The last 
presidential contest showed the vote to be Har- 

I rison, 2,420; Cleveland, 1,050: Streeter (U. 

! L.), 98, and Fisk (Pro.), 37; The State 
election of 1889 showed much the same with 
the usual falling off, 2,196 Republican, 937 
Democratic, 37 Union Labor, 15 Prohibition 
and 3 scattering. There need be no further 
comment, for whatever the activity of any party, 
the vote is the only real description of political 
opinion. Locally there was a Republican bolt 

I in 18*57, and slight breaks in the seventies and 
in 1889. It may be mentioned though that the 
above Prohibition vote does not in the least 
indicate Story County's fighting power for a 
distinctively prohibitory amendment or any 
prohibitory measure disconnected witli national 
politics. In the vote on the amendment in 
June, 1882. thecounty stood 1,921 for, and but 
553 against — a clear majority of 1,368, with 
not a single precinct giving a majority against 

A marked characteristic of Story County 
has been its general unity in any organized 
movement within or embracing the county. 
Associations have been formed for various sorts 
of protection, for the promotion of agriculture, 
horticulture, stock improvement, public fairs, 
various kinds of agitation — political, railway, 
temperance and the like. The medical frater- 
nity have also united to promote common inter- 
ests, while the old soldiers have also re-welded 
the old-time fraternal links, as have the pio- 
neers of the Skunk and Indian Creek regions. 
Probably the first association was the Story 
County Agricultural Society, organized August 
14. 1858, at the court-house, with John Scott 
as president. A fair was held in the court- 
house and yard, on a homely, modest scale. 
After the war the society was reorganized, and 
although a similar society sprang up in the 
west part of the county, all united later on to 
form one. A reorganization took place on 
January 2, 1869, with forty stockholders and a 
capital of §200. This has since been increased 
to §3,000, and the membership is 325. They 
have held twenty-four annual exhibitions and 
have twenty-nine acres of land at Nevada, with 
an excellent half-mile track, two good halls, am- 
phitheater, barns, booths, pens, etc. The presi- 
dents of the association since 1880 have been 
Col. John Scott, Solomon Young, James C. 
Lovell, F. D. Thompson. W. K. Boardman. A. 
M. Norris and George H. Maxwell. 

The Story County Grange movement began 
very earl}-, probably before 1871, and grew 
rapidly, so that at its county reorganization on 
February 15, 1873, there were fifteen granges 
in the county. R. R. Paine was chosen presi- 
dent at this time. Their stores and other co- 
operative schemes arose all over the county. 
and their influence in a political way became 
very marked, both as to local and State affairs. 
The movement has gradually died out or merged 




into some other. An offshoot of it was the 
Farmers' Institute, which was organized in 
1871 to reach those outside the Grange society. 
It nourished and fell with the Grange, and both 
served good purposes. In a sort of new form 
this movement revived again in The Story 
County Farmer's Alliance, which was formed at 
Nevada on May 28, 1887, with the following 
officers: O. D. Allen, president: El wood Fur- 
nas, vice-president, and A. L. Stuntz, secretary. 
It is non-partisan, and was intended to absorb 
all sorts of farmers' associations and local alli- 
ances. There were six local alliances repre- 
sented. These have increased to thirteen, with 
537 members. Its annual meetings are held 
in the Nevada City Hall. The successive presi- 
dents have been: O. D. Allen, 1887; Elwood 
Furnas, 1888-89, and J. M. Wells, 1890. On 
July 1, 1887, this society organized the 
Farmers' Mutual Fire and Lightning Insurance 
Association, with these officers: A. J. Graves 
president; E. Furnas, vice-president; D. M. 
Hayden, secretary, and B. Confare, treasurer. 
A director was also chosen — B. Confare, of Mil- 
ford ; E. Hex, of Washington; R. W. Liddle, 
of Franklin; E. Furnas, of Richland; C. W. 
Mills, of Grant; J. A. McFarlan, of La Fayette; 
Col. John Scott, of Nevada; D. M. Hayden, of 
Franklin, and A. J. Graves, of Washington. 

In another line a call was made for an or- 
ganization in 1879, by Capt. I. L. Smith and 
others. The meeting was held at Nevada, and 
the ex-soldiers of the county proposed a reunion. 
Seventy-eight were present, and at once the 
Story County Veteran Regiment was formed, 
with these officers: Colonel, John Scott; lieu- 
tenant-colonel, H. H. Boyes; major, J. R. 
Wood, and adjutant, F. D. Thompson. The 
first enrollment reached 428. Reunions have 
been held every year in August, and are occa- 
sions of great general interest. They have 
been held as follows, and with officers elected 

as indicated: In 1879, at Nevada, colonel, 
John Scott; lieutenant-colonel, H. H. Boyes: 
major, S. P. O'Brien, and adjutant, H. R. Boyd. 
In 1880, at Nevada, colonel, S. P. O'Brien; 
lieutenant-colonel, H. H. Boyes; major, S. F. 
Balliet, and adjutant, A. H. Buck. At Ames, 
in 1881, colonel, S. F. Balliet: lieutenant- 
colonel, W. M. Greeley; major, A. H. Buck, 
and adjutant, H. H. Boyes. In 1882, at Ne- 
vada, colonel, A. P. King; lieutenant-colonel, 
Richard May ; major, John O'Neil, and adju- 
tant, J. M. Brown. In 1883, at Cambridge, 
colonel, W. A. Weir; lieutenant- colonel, H. F. 
Ferguson ; major, George Barnard, and adjutant, 
J. H. Leighton. In 1884, at Story City, colonel, J. 
R.Wood; lieutenant-colonel. C. H. Dickey; ma- 
jor, Jesse Bowen, and adjutant, C. M. Morse. In 
1885, at Maxwell, colonel, John Scott; lieuten- 
ant colonel, I. L. Smith ; major, C. E. Haverly, 

and adjutant, . In 1886, at Nevada, 

colonel, T. C. McCall; lieutenant-colonel, D. 
A. Bigelow: major, J. C. Burkart, and ad- 
jutant, I. L. Smith. In 1887, at Nevada, 
colonel, 1). A. Bigelow; lieutenant-colonel, C. E. 
Haverly; major, Parley Sheldon, and adjutant. 
Heniy Wilson. In 1888, at Ames, colonel, 
A. P. King; lieutenant-colonel, Richard May; 
major, S. W. Snyder, and adjutant, A. Ersland. 
In 1889, at Cambridge, colonel, W. M. Starr; 
lieutenant-colonel, J. R. Wood; major, C. H. 
Dickey, and adjutant, C. M. Morse. 

The Story County Equal Rights Society was 
an organization to agitate for equal suffrage, 
and had a brief existence early in the eighties, 
and about the same time the various societies 
of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union 
of the county had a county organization, which 
exerted a great influence on the public temper- 
ance sentiment. A county temperance associa- 
tion flourished about this time also. In Au- 
gust, 1889, there was a call for a meeting at 
Ames of all persons who had been residents of 



the county over twenty years. Attbis meeting 
steps were taken to organize the Old Settlers' 
Association of Story County with the following 
temporary officers: A. J. Graves, president, 
and T. J. Miller, secretary. Among those 
active in its organization were A. J. Graves, L. 
Q. Hoggatt, S. P. O'Brien, B. Brennan, T. J. 
Miller, et al. The membership has reached 
about 300, and Col. John Scott has been the 
only permanent president. Among its oldest 
members are Col. Scott, Wesley Arrasmith, 
William Arrasmith, Dr. W. H. Grafton, E. 
Elliott, Jacob Born, Henry Cameron, T. E. 
Alderman, Otis Briggs, and others. It is to be 
hoped that this society will take special pains 
to cull from the memories of its oldest mem- 
bers that multitude of early incidents which 
will otherwise perish. 

In professional lines also there has been 
co-operation. A preliminary meeting was held 
at Ames in Dr. D. S. Fairchild's office June 
19, 1873, which led to the organization of the 
Story County Medical Society July 17 follow- 
ing. The officers chosen were Dr. D. S. Fair- 
child, president, and Dr. S J. Starr, secretary 
and treasurer. After holding quarterly meet- 
ings until 1884 the interest had so increased 
that monthly sessions were adopted, while the 
membership, which at first numbered but five, 
rose in three years to eleven, and now reaches 
sixteen. The Iowa College of Physicians and 
Surgeons is represented by one of its profes- 
sors — Dr. Eairchild, of the chair of principles 
and practice of medicine and pathology. This 
society is in striking contrast to the early days 
of (the early fifties) Dr. Sheldon, of Iowa 
Center, and Dr. Grafton, of Cambridge, the 
latter of whom used frequently to boat across 
the Skunk bottoms in search of a patient who 
had called him. Those were the ague days, 
too, when even the dogs "got the shakes." 
Since then there have been numerous personal 

changes in the medical fraternity of Story 
County, not greater, however, than in other 
lines of occupation. The offices of this so- 
ciety have passed from one to another until the 
presidency now rests on Dr. F. S. Smith, of 
Nevada, and the records are in the hands of 
Dr. H. M. Templeton, of Ames. 

Literary activity in Story Couuty has been 
of a varied character, from the scientific papers 
of learned professors down to the merest "siz- 
zors " compilation and the spring poet of the 
local paper. The largest mass of it, however, 
has been of the nature of college text-books, 
scientific pamphlets and papers, with a consid- 
erable amount of editorial and journalistic con- 
tributions, in which the feminine pen bears a 
very respectable part. The college community 
and the remainder of the county present two 
very natural divisions, and the former, on ac- 
count of the varied character of its production, 
is treated alphabetically. 

Prof. A. C. Barrows, of the chair of En- 
glish literature and history, a graduate of West- 
ern Reserve College, 1861, and located at the 
Iowa Agricultural College since 1887, has been 
a contributor to various agricultural and re- 
ligious papers. 

Charles E. Bessey, Ph. D., now acting-chan- 
cellor of the University of Nebraska and pro- 
fessor of botany and horticulture, was con- 
nected with the college from 1870 to 1884. 
Among his publications are seven scientific 
pamphlets on the flora, insects, geography, 
etc., of Iowa and Nebraska, three text-books 
on botany, one of which reached the sixth 
edition, and botanical papers in the American 

Joseph L. Budd, M. H., of the chair of hor- 
ticulture and forestry since 1877, has pub- 
lished fourteen volumes of the Iowa Horticult- 
ural Society, and the Forestry Annual from 
1877 to 1884. Besides this he has been the 




horticultural editor of the Iowa State Regis- 
ter, a regular contributor to numerous other 
scientific journals, a lecturer before scientific 
societies and conventions, such as the Ameri- 
can Forestry Association, and others, and con- 
tributor to scientific papers on observations 
in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. 

William I. Chamberlain, A. B., A.M., LL. 
D., president, and professor of psychology, 
ethics and civics, has been a staff contributor 
for many years to The Country Gentleman (Al- 
bany, N. T.), The Eural New Yorker, The 
Ohio Farmer, and occasionally has written for 
The Independent (N. Y.), the American Agri- 
culturist, The Iowa Homestead, The Regis- 
ter, and other papers devoted to agriculture. 
Several articles of the American Supplement 
to the Encyclopedia Britannica, devoted to his 
specialties, were written by him, and during a 
six-year service as secretary of agriculture in 
Ohio, he issued monthly pamphlets (forty 
pages) and edited the annual Agricultural Re- 
port. He is now preparing a small volume 
on " The Rights and Duties of Citizenship." 

Gen. James L. Geddes, of the chair of mili- 
tary science from 1872 to 1883, and for niaDy 
years treasurer of the college, died in its serv- 
ice in 1887. His war song, " The Bonny Blue 
Flag," written wbile in the army about 1862 
63, has a place among our national airs. Aside 
from this his chief literary work was confined 
to sermons, addresses and newspaper articles. 
He was formerly, for seven years, in the mili- 
tary service of Great Britain in India. 

Byron D. Halsted, Sc. D., now of the chair 
of botany in the New Jersey Agricultural Col- 
lege, but from 1885 to 1889 at Iowa Agricult- 
ural College, published three books of a scien- 
tific and practical nature, entitled Barn Plans 
and Out-Buildings, Farm Conveniences, and 
Household Conveniences. Three scientific 
pamphlets also appeared, one of which was is- 

sued by the Boston Society of Natural History. 
Among a great variety of other articles were 
addresses before the State Boards of Agricult- 
ure, papers for The American Naturalist, Popu- 
lar Science Monthly, Scribner's Monthly, and 

E. R. Hutchins, M. D., State commissioner of 
labor statistics, but formerly of the cliair of 
chemistry, has published a professional volume 
— Obstetrical Aphorisms (fourth edition), and 
three volumes of biennial reports as labor com- 
missioner, together with various other writings 
of a general character. His work in the cause 
of temperance is well known. 

George W. Jones. A. M., now of the chair of 
mathematics at Cornell University, Ithaca, N. 
Y., but from 1868 to 1874 in this cliair at Col- 
lege Farm, has published four volumes, two 
being interest and logarithmic tables, and the 
others treatises on algebra and trigonometry, 
the latter in connection with Profs. Oliver and 
Wait. He also edited and published the Pa- 
tron's Helper. 

Herbert Osborn, M. Sc, a teacher in the col- 
lege for the past ten years, has written numer- 

ous papers 

on insects fur the State Horticultural 

Society, the College Quarterly, Western Stock 
Journal and Farmer, Iowa Homestead, Regis- 
ter, Leader, New York Tribune, Germantown 
Telegraph, Chicago Herald, Orange Judd 
Farmer and others. He has also published a 
large number of scientific pamphlet reports, 
bulletins and addresses of a professional nat- 
ure, edited posthumous scientific papers of the 
late J. Duncan Putnam, of Davenport, and 
published several volumes of a scientific ento- 
mological nature. 

Louis H. Pammel, B. Agr., and professor 
of botany, has written numerous botanical 
works, issued independently and by the Torrey 
Botanical Club, the Minnesota State Horti- 
cultural Society, the St. Louis Academy of 




Science, the Botanical Gazette and others. 
Some of them were illustrated. Besides these 
and others he has contributed to the Prairie 
Farmer, Iowa Homestead, Column's Rural 
World, Texas Farm and Ranch and the Ameri- 
can Bee Journal. 

A. S. Welch, A. M., LL. D., for nineteen 
years connected with the college, as president 
and professor from 1869 to 1884, and after 
that to 1889 as professor only, had the depart- 
ments of psychology, economics and history of 
civilization. His books are well known — Ob- 
ject Lessons, Welch's Analysis of the English 
Sentence, Teacher's Psychology, and Talks 
on Psychology. He was also editor of the 
Progressive Farmer and the College Quarterly, 
while his lectures and sermons were of a high 

Mrs. Mary B. Welch, the president's wife, 
held the chair of domestic economy from 1875 
to 1884, and published her well-known cook 
and receipt book, which has passed through 
several editions. She was also on the editorial 
staff of the Iowa State Register for many 
years, and among other general writings pre- 
pared numerous papers and addresses before 
the National and State Woman's Suffrage Asso- 

William H. Wynn, Ph. D., now of Midland 
College, Atchison, Kas., was for fifteen years 
at College Farm, in the chair of English 
literature, Latin and history. During his first 
year he conceived the idea of issuing annual 
pamphlets on current literary and philosoph- 
ical topics, a practice he has kept up for nine- 
teen years. Among those who have commend- 
ed them are Dr. George S. Morris, Dr. James 
B. Augell, W. D. Howells, Dr Noah Porter, 
and Dr. W. T. Harris, while copies have been 
solicited for the library of Johns Hopkins 
University. Some of these have also ap- 
peared in the New Englander and the Gettys- 

burg Quarter^, both scholarly periodicals. 
He is an associate editor of the latter organ. 
A volume of poems sprang from his facile pen 
also, and a collection of his students' sermons 
are now awaiting issue. Besides being on the 
editorial staff of two weekly papers, he is a 
stated contributor to the New and Old, a 
monthly magazine. 

It is a delicate task to speak of men now 
living, and as a large proportion of literary 
work is done sub rosa — at least as far as the 
public eye is concerned, no effort is here made 
except to gather the plain obtainable facts. 

But there have been Story County writers 
not so peculiarly identified with the college. 
Col. John Scott, of Nevada, whose pen has 
dipped very pleasantly into local history, has 
also done a more pretentious literary work. 
His Encarnacion, or the Prisoner in Mexico, 
was a pleasant volume published after his re- 
turn from the Mexican War. He has also had 
considerable editorial experience in Kentucky 
and Iowa as editor of local and agricultural 
papers, and for a time edited a column of 
the latter nature in the Davenport Gazette. 
Besides this he has read numerous addresses 
before national and State associations on his 
favorite branches of agriculture. His work 
on this volume embraces the first, second and 
third chapters, while his centennial address 
on the local history of Story County will be a 
standard source of reference in the local 

Mrs. Mary S. Scott, the wife of Col. Scott, 
has issued an artistic little volume, on Indian 
Corn as Human Food. 

Mrs. Matilda M. Turner, of Ames, began 
writing early in the seventies for The Lakeside, 
a Chicago magazine, by the present editor of 
The Dial. Among the serial stories that ap- 
peared were " Seven Years' Service," " The 
Fall of Eve," " Saluting the Gods," " The 



Ruined Shriue," and others. She afterward 
wrote for Hearth and Home, The New York 
Graphic, American Homes, and Chicago and 
Milwaukee dailies. The Graphic compli- 
mented her stories by illustration. For sev- 
eral years she edited three departments in the 
Western Farm Journal. She is now an edi- 
torial writer on a prominent Iowa daily. 

Rev. Isaiah Reid, of Nevada, editor of The 
Highway, has published two doctrinal pam- 
phlets and numerous tracts which have a con- 

stant sale. " God's Way and Man's Method of 
Becoming Holy," is a volume of sixty-eight 
pages, issued in 1880. " Holiness Bible Read- 
ings," a larger volume, and " Highway Hym- 
nal " are his other works, the latter the joint 
effort of himself and G. L. Brown, of David 
City, Neb. 

A little volume of clippings from local 
newspaper files was issued by W. G. Allen, of 
Nevada, an old resident of the county, and had 
quite a circulation. 






Sketch op Story County's Towns. Villages and Post offices— Early Commercial Centers- 
Defunct Towns— Nevada — Its Interesting Growth and Development — From the Beginning 
until the Present— First Buildings — Early Arrivals— Industrial Advancement- 
Incorporation— Historical Review— An Outline of Story City's Upbuilding— 
Iowa Center— Ontario— Cambridge— Ames— Its Reputation— Present Inter 
ests— Colo — Sheldahl — Kelley— Collins — Zearing— Huxley — Max- 
well — Other Places of Local Importance — General 
Commercial Inti 

How blest is he who crowns, in shades like these, 
A youth of labor with an age of ease.— Goldsmith. 

ENERALLY speaking, the 
post-office is the embryo 
village or town. It usu- 
ally follows the settle- 
ment. The old laws of 
settlement along water- 
courses have become al- 
most obsolete in these western 
prairies with their railways. There 
are new elements that now enter j 
in to determine where a town shall 
be. The almost universal excel- 
lence of the land and the compar- 
ative absence of barriers to easy 
transit in any direction likewise distribute the 
population more evenly, so that it is safe to say j 
that the location of towns in Story County has 
been governed comparatively little by water- 
courses, except in probably the first decade. 
For the most part, the railways have been the | 
decisive factor, and to such a remarkable de- 
gree that they have moved towns already es- 

tablished to their own sites, until but one place 
in all the county now remains off the railway, 
namely, Iowa Center, one of the oldest towns 
in the county. 

The result has been the following towns and 
post-offices, which have survived the changes 
of years, and mentioned in the order of their 
estimated size: Nevada, Ames, Story City, 
Maxwell, Cambridge, Slater, Colo, Roland, 
Zearing, Collins, Gilbert, Sheldahl, Iowa Cen- 
ter, McCallsburg, Kelley, Ontario, Huxley and 

Among those that were attempts and are 
now defunct are Dayton, which was to be a 
rival of Iowa Center; Smithfield, near Roland; 
New Albany, southwest of Colo ; Prairie City, 
about two miles northeast of Ames; Blooming- 
ton, once called Camden, southeast of Gilbert; 
Sheffield, northwest of Nevada; Defiance, in 
Collins township; and these post-offices: Col- 
byville, Willow Grove, Story, Sunset, John- 
son's Grove, Boardman, Camden, Point Pales- 


tine, Latrobe and others elsewhere mentioned. 
The only post-offices now are the towns first 
mentioned, exclusive of Sheldahl. There are 
seventeen in all, and it is thought best to treat 
them according to the dates of their plat rec- 
ords, in chronological order. No attempt is 
made to give business directories, as those are 
very changeable, and may be found either in 
the personal department of this work or in other 
works devoted to that purpose. Story County' 
has seventeen live shipping points, and all of 
them are live, progressive, wide-awake towns, 
that any county may well be proud of. 

Nevada, the metropolis of the county as well 
as capital, lies with beautifully shaded avenues 
very near its exact center. From the dome of 
her court-house the " county fathers " may 
behold, spread like a park before them, laid 
with lawns and winding streams, dotted with 
groves, and striped with highways and iron 
bands, the whole of their broad domain. The 
eye would fall on the neat court lawn, too, and 
a few blocks to the south the thick foliage of 
evergreens, maples, and the like of the park, 
or run a hasty glance along the metropolitan 
proportions of Nevada's main thoroughfare — 
Linn street — to the tracks of the great North 
Western railway to the north. This capital of 
Story County contains nearly 2,000 people, and 
is the growth of only thirty-seven years. 

It was July 1, 1853, that the bare site was 
entered by a non-resident — Dr. Jenkin W. 
Morris, of Des Moines — for speculative pur- 
poses. The locating commissioners for the 
county seat of justice, however, seemed to be 
ignorant of this, and, notwithstanding the 
" slough " and numerous prairie ponds, they 
proposed to enter the same site. Dr. Morris 
soon satisfied them by a generous offer, else- 
where mentioned, and, in September following 
the entry, the first town in the county was laid 
out by the commissioners and Surveyor John 

M. Barnard, of Polk County. The plat em- 
braced all bounded by Seventh, East, South 
and West streets, and, like all prairie towns, 
was laid out in regular squares, but, unlike 
most towns, was provided with two public half 
squares on both sides of the " slough," which 
thus became a sort of Mason and Dixon's line 
to the new town's early business men. A name 
was suggested by Commissioner Joseph Thrift, 
of Boone County, an old miner in the Sierra 
Nevada Mountains, the adjective part of the 
name being chosen — Nevada or " snowy," a 
Spanish name, which became very appropriate, 
as the plat lay all the succeeding winter with 
only a single log house upon it. On the 8th 
of September, the day of lot sale, the lots of 
the south side seemed to attract most attention, 
but Dr. Morris gave the first buyer, Mr. T. E. 
Alderman, a lot on Main street, immediately 

j south of the present court yard, on condition 

I that he build there. This was agreed to, and 
forthwith arose a log cabin, 16x20 feet, with 

i one door facing Main street, and all complete 
and occupied by October 11. This was the 
only building for nearly a year, and Mr. Alder- 
man's family, embracing himself, his wife, 
mother, son Oscar and infant daughter, Mary 
Nevada, were the only inhabitants for a similar 
period. The daughter's birth in January, 
1854, and her death in the following December, 

; were the first birth and death in Nevada, while 
the marriage of Mr. Alderman's mother to 
James W. Smith was probably the first event 
of that kind in the place. 

This one-roomed cabin was the first store, 
post-office and tavern or inn of the county, and 
Mr. Alderman the first merchant, postmaster, 
and host in the midst of this unfenced prairie. 
The old house now stands on the Cessna farm 
northeast of town. The second house was 
built in August, 1851, by the next arrival, 
John H. McClain, and was erected on the 


southwest corner of Sixth and Chestnut Streets 
for a hotel. 

Mr. George Childs and family were the 
next arrivals, soon after. During the autumn 
of that year about twelve families were added, 
among whom were those of Isaac Eomane (the 
first lawyer), A. P. Fitch, George Helphrey (the 
first blacksmith), John Harris and T. J. Adam- 
son (both early merchants). Of these, Messrs. 
Fitch, Harris and Adamson located about the 
north, east and west sides of the south half- 
square, and forthwith arose that rivalry for the 

, location of business that did not end for over a 
decade. Mr. Adamson and others succeeded 
in securing the post-office on the south side. 

J A second tavern was opened opposite the north- 
west corner of the present park by Israel Hel- 
phrey, and Mr. Alderman and W. W. Rhodes 
opened the first hardware store on a site imme- 
diately south of the present court-house. 
Charles Smith, the first shoemaker, located on 
Linn Street. Dr. V. V. Adamson, the sod of 
T. J., was the first of his profession, and was 
soon followed by Dr. Kellogg. The county 
buildings, as has been mentioned elsewhere in 
this volume, were on the north side, but that 
did not prevent the south side from securing 
almost two-thirds of the entire business of the 
place at the end of fifteen years. 

From 1855 to 1800 the place built up slowly 
but considerably, but still clung largely to the 
south side. During the war little pi-ogresswas 

i made, although all this time Nevada continued 

| the leading place in the county. Railway agi- 
tation began early, and was vigorously cham- 
pioned by the citizens of Nevada, but it was 
not until July 4, 1864, that the first train en- 
tered from the east. All the usual accompani- 
ments came about the same time, the telegraph, 
daily mails aud the express companies. The 
depot was placed on the north side of the track, 
just two blocks east of its present site, with 

warehouses on the south side of the track. 
This gave busiuess a tendency toward the de- 
pot, though not appreciably until later. In two 
years the population had increased until it was 
estimated in 1806 at 1,000 people. The rivalry 
over the location of the permanent business 
center continued to distract the town until in 
1808 a number of citizens united in a private 
movement to grade Linn Street and induce 
business men to locate upon it, froni the pres- 
ent court-house site to the railway. The mat- 
ter was so energetically pushed that it was soon 
acknowledged that Linn Street was the main 
thoroughfare, although its sides did not bristle 
with brick blocks, as at present. To further 
determine this street as the main one, another 
private movement to widen it from seventy to 
ninety feet arose in 1872, and was effected 
by the property owners of the west side giving 
twenty feet and those of the east side paying 
the cost of moving back the buildings. Linn 
Street was greatly improved and steadily built 
up, but during the next few years, as business 
about the depot began to increase, there arose 
a movement, along with the platting of Blair's 
Addition, to lead it down East Street. A counter 
effort began in 1877 to defeat this by securing 
the re-location of the depot at the head of Linn 
Street, as at present situated. The petitioners 
for this had their committee, composed of 
Messrs. Briggs, Lockridge aud Thompson, ne- 
gotiate with the railroad authorities, whose con- 
sent was secured on condition that they should 
receive fifty feet of the land just south of their 
track, between Linn and Main Streets, and a 
diagonal half of fifty feet for side-tracks simi- 
larly from the blocks east and west of this, to- 
gether with §1,500 in cash. All of this was 
effected and the depot moved in 1877 to its 
present site, and for over a dozen years busi- 
ness has continued to line Linn Street with its 
solid and commodious fronts, which can hardly 


be surpassed by any town of similar size in the 

Among those in business in 1871, just be- 
fore the widening of Linn Street, were O. B. 
Dutton and T. Cree, bankers; I. A. Ringheim, 
W. S. Garrett, Liddle Bros., and James Haw- 
thorn, general stores; John Schoouover. E. D. 
Fenn and C. Burdick furnished groceries; 
heavy hardware was handled by E. B. Potter 
and T. E. Alderman; 0. Briggs and V. A. 
Ballou kept drugs, while John Dowling cut 
broadcloth to fit, and footwear could be found 
with D. S. Snyder, J. A. Boss, G. Hutchinson, 
or O. G. Hegland. Mr. Ruefly was jeweler. 
Travelers found a home with 0. B. Dutton, 
T. J. Bartlett and Mr. Blackman. Attorneys 
flourished in the persons of F. D. Thompson, 
J. S. Frazier, Morris L. Wheat, J. L. Dana, S. 
F. Balliett, J. R. Gage, L. Irwin, S. L. Cal- 
vert and George A. Kellogg, and the sick were 
cared for by Drs. A. Patton, P. Cook, A. C. 
Shelldon and George Stitzell. In the furniture 
line were John Barr, W. H. Harmon and 
Aumoth & Company, and Wakeman & Linkfield 
made wagons, while the anvil rang under the 
strokes of William Gates, J. Q. Leffingwell, D. 
L. Beach and J. Schermerhorn. C. Heald & 
Co. were foundrymen. C. C. McManus and 
" Old Sol " took photographs. Miss Mary A. 
Bamberger and Mrs. Sanders were milliners. 
The firms interested in real estate were McCall 
& Thompson, Ross & Irwin, Davis & Allen 
and J. A. Fitchpatrick. Farmers bought ma- 
chinery of J. R. McDonald & Co., J. C. Mitch- 
ell and A. E. Aumoth. Bunker & Wood and 
Becktil & Thompson were butchers, while 
livery barns were owned by George Childs and 
George W. Hall. The elevator and steam 
flouring- mills belonged to J. H. Talbot, and 
lumber was handled by S. H. Templeton and 
Letson & Lockridge. Those who wanted paint- 
ing done called on Davis & Coe, J. 0. Elwell, 

W. Templeton or P. Hopkins, while P. 0. Fenn 
and Burdick & Leonard burned them brick, 
or their houses were built by I. W. King, W. 
K. Smith, J. G. Tanner, Frank Bobo, C. 
P. Robinson, Mr. Hoel, or J. C. Burkhart. 
" Warm meals at all hours " was the sign of 
AVilliam Killen, and Mr. Yeagge advertised a 
" Temperance Billiard Saloon." The railway 
and telegraph agents were W. C. Bowers and 
S. Shaffer. These were the days of William 
H. Gallup's editorship of The Representative, 
the only paper of the place. These compare 
well with the solitary log cabin, of a score of 
years before, which contained the entire popu- 
lation and business within its walls. 

A score more years has passed since the 
seventies began, and this has been the period 
of development, in which wood has given place 
to brick, the temporary removed for the per- 
manent, and an enterprising improvement and 
cultivation evinced in all lines. Not only this, 
but its business firms have increased in num- 
ber and extent, and become distinctly classified 
— an element most indicative of growth. There 
are several very strong lines of business that are 
difficult to distinguish in relative importance. 
There is no doubt that the egg, butter and 
poultry business leads; following this it would 
be difficult to decide between general merchan- 
dise and the brick and tile interests ; the ship- 
ment of hogs, cattle and horses would, no 
doubt, come next; although banking, grain 
dealing, lumber, real estate and loans, approach 
it in importance from one point of view. Fur- 
niture, harness, market gardening and agricult- 
ural implements might come next, with similar 
difficulty in deciding between them. Foundry, 
blacksmitliing and milling cut a smaller figure. 
There are many other lines of business, but 
they are matters of course, and naturally 
depend on the above. 

In manufactures the first movement was made 



by Mr. H. F. Murphy in a tannery in 1859. 
During the seventies other enterprises arose and 
flourished for a longer or shorter period, such 
as cheese factory, vinegar works, an establish- 
ment for making soap, which did considerable 
shipping, and one for making gloves. One or 
two brick yards, too, have been in almost con- 
tinuous operation and furnished the local trade. 
Intermittent efforts in the manufacture of bee- 
hives, wagons, patent medicines, furniture, 
washing-machines (the Leffingwell patent), 
etc., have been made from time to time on a 
modest scale. The Nevada Foundry was estab- 
lished about 1870, on its present site near the 
depot. The firm of Hague & Heal did a good 
general foundry business, stove-making, etc., 
with few changes, except in members of the firm, 
in which feature the changes were numerous, 
James Earl and William Hansell being inter- 
ested at times, the latter being owner a few 
years since when it was burned. The plant 
was valued at about $6,000. In 1889 it was 
rebuilt by a new company with a plant val- 
ued at $5,000, and in January, 1890, Wright 
Bros. & Sellers began a general foundry bus- 
iness, boiler works, etc. Just west of this site 
is the Lockridge Tile Factory, corner of Main 
and Ninth Streets, started in 1883 by Lockridge 
& Beatty, with a plant valued at about $0,000. 
Mr. Beatty withdrew in 1888. They use a 
Nolan & Madden machine of about 400,000 
annual capacity for two and a half to twelve- 
inch tile, and employ ten men and two teams. 
Their trade covers Story County. The Ly- 
man Tile Factory is located about one mile west 
of the depot, and was also begun in 1883, but 
the following year it was purchased by J. C. 
Mitchell, and was enlarged to a capacity of 
about 6,000 feet of tile per week. It was sold 
in 1885 to Lyman & Co. Their buildings are 
48x140 feet, with the Ohio Brick and Tile Ma- 
chine and the Quaker Brick Machine, capable 

of making 15,000 three-inch tile and 25,000 
brick per ten hours. They employ a force of 
from eleven to sixteen persons, and have a trade 
in and beyond the county to Western Iowa. 
One other manufactory need be mentioned, 
the Nevada Flouring Mills and Elevator, at the 
railway crossing of East Street. It was estab- 
lished about 1865 by Talbott & Day, and in 
1871 Mr. Day withdrew, and the present pro- 
prietor, Mr. Lockwood, became partner for a 
time, until he secured full ownership. The 
mill has about forty to fifty barrels daily capac- 
ity, while the elevator holds about 10,000 
bushels. The latter is on the site of the first 
haud elevator ever built in Nevada. West of this 
is the large Sillimau Elevator, wtih a capacity 
of '20,000 bushels, and which was built several 
years ago, and was successively owned by Au- 
moth & Co., Mr. Childs and Mr. Silliman. In 
this connection may be mentioned the large 
lumber yards near the railway, the Lockridge 
and the Silliman, each carrying probably $7,000 
worth of stock, and having a country trade. 

The Nevada Mining Company was an effort 
of twenty or twenty-five stockholders in 1878 
to invest in western mines. It was not success- 
ful. A company was organized April 18, 1889, 
to promote Nevada industries, called the Ne- 
vada Improvement Company. Its first move- 
ment was to erect the foundry building. It 
began with seventeen members, and now enrolls 
forty-four members and firms. Its authorized 
capital is $20,000. The officers are William 
Lockridge, president; M. E. Hix, vice-presi- 
dent; T. J. Lyman, secretary, and J. A. King, 

Shipping of stock, grains and produce, and 
the importation and breeding of fine stock, to- 
gether with tree and shrub culture, have had 
their representatives at Nevada from the first, 
and on large scales. Among these Col. John 
Scott has had in this line a national reputation, 




and has exerted a large influence in scientific 
culture in several of these interests. In 1879 
the Board man Bros, established a large butter, 
egg, and poultry shipping business, with brick 
buildings 50x140 feet, two floors and basement, 
at a cost of $21,000. The first year's business 
amounted to $50,000, and has so increased that 
it reached $350,000 in 1889, the shipments 
being 1,000,000 dozen eggs, 400,000 pounds 
ladle butter, 500,000 pounds creamery butter, 
and 500,000 pounds dressed poultry. Their 
cold storage and pickling rooms for eggs have 
a 500,000-dozen capacity. They employ twen- 
ty men, and have creameries at Roland, Cam- 
bridge (Story County), Algona, Whittemore 
(Kossuth County), Emmetsburg (Palo Alto 
County), Auburn, Lake City, Carnarvon (Sac 
County) and Mount Carmel (Carroll County), 
in connection with which are employed about 
sixty men and fifty teams. At Nevada, Car- 
roll, Odebolt and Algona are their poultry 
houses which employ 150 men during the win- 
ter months, thus making it one of the largest 
institutions in Iowa. 

The average monthly shipments of the 
Nevada depot for the past year are fifteen cars 
live stock, pretty well divided between hogs 
and cattle with a few horses; thirty-three and 
a half cars of grain, and nine and a half cars 
chiefly of eggs, poultry, etc. The receipts are 
nine and a half cars of lumber and thirty-one 
cars of general merchandise. 

Fires have played a considerable part in 
Nevada's business history, and, although caus- 
ing great loss, they have been the indirect 
cause of her substantial building. The first 
notable one was the burning of the court-house 
on the evening of December 31, 1863, as else- 
where mentioned in this volume. The second 
and most disastrous one occurred just after 
midnight on the 2d of December, 1880, in the 
row of blocks on the west side of Linn, between 

Fifth and Sixth Streets. The buildings were 
of wood and the entire row was destroyed, ex- 
cepting the brick-veneered one at the north 
corner. The loss was estimated at $50,000, 
with insurance of about $15,000. Scarcely 
two years later and the row immediately north 
of this was almost entirely destroyed, between 
Sixth and Seventh Streets, early on the morn- 
ing of January 25, 1882. The loss was esti- 
mated at $17,300 with $5,203 insurance. 
Beautiful brick blocks replaced these ashes, 
however, very soon, and the town rested for 
about five years, when, on the night of Decem- 
ber 21, 1887, the next fire began on the east 
side of the street immediately south of the 
First National Bank Building, and cleared out 
six wooden structures to the south. This loss 
has been estimated at from $8,000 to $10,000, 
with some insurance. The establishment of a 
fire limit provides for the burnt district being 
replaced with brick or stone when rebuilt. 

The incorporation followed the movement of 
business to Linn Street, and on November 23, 
1869, the first council meeting was held with 
George A. Kellogg, mayor; aldermen, J. S. 
Frazier, J. H. Talbott, J. C. Mitchell, I. A. 
Riugheim and W. E. Waring, and John R. 
Hays as recorder. Excepting the ordinary 
routine work of a young incorporation, there 
was little of importance for the fii-st ten years. 
In July, 1875, it was decided to buy the re- 
maining half of the south public square, and 
on April 10, 1876, $250 was appropriated for 
grading and setting out trees to transform the 
square into a city park. In January, 1879, 
the council established a city public library, 
and it is one of the very few councils of equal 
sized towns that have voted the half-mill tax 
for this purpose. There has been invested 
about $1,500 in books, of which fifty-two vol- 
umes are poetical, 190 historical, 312 miscel- 
laneous, and 900 of fiction, making a total of 

-1 -»p 



1,454 volumes of a character that shows careful 
selection. It was re-organized in 1SS6, and 
has been removed from the court-house to its 
present brick room adjoining the city hall. 
The building is 18x30 feet, and cost §500. The 
successive librarians have been Wilbur Hunt, 
H. B. Blanchard, Miss Mattie Kellogg, and 
Miss Flora Emmons, the present incumbent. 
In 1881 the " city fathers" determined to have 
a home of their own, and erected the present 
two-story brick on the corner of Fifth and Oak 
Streets, at a cost of $2,800. The first floor is 
used for the fire department, and the second as 
the council room. This had been agitated in 
1877, as also had the fire department. Fires 
prompted the organization of a force of about 
twenty men, into two companies, A and 
B, with Frank Bishop and S. S. Statler as 
foremen. One was supplied with a hand en- 
gine, and the other with hook and ladder out- 
fit. Among the fire marshals were Messrs. 
Rodearmel, Bishop and Statler. This company 
resigned in 1885, and a reorganization took 
place in April, with H. F. Murphy, fire marshal; 
S. E. Armstrong, foreman of engine, and C. 
W. Wood, of hook and ladder company. A 
force pump was put in at the corner of Linn 
and Sixth Streets. The officers in 1886 were 
T. P. Worsley, F. M. ; John Peterson, F. E. ; 
George Brady, F. H. and L. ; and those of 1887 
were W. H. Jones, F. M. ; John Peterson, F. 
E., and J. H. Boyd, F. H. and L. A third re- 
organization took place in October, 1888, under 
the new water-works system, with two hose 
companies, under Fire Marshal A. K. Banks, 
who was succeeded by the present incumbent, 
J. H. Ridelsberger, in November, 1889. Each 
company is composed of fifteen men, and the 
apparatus embraces two hose carts, 1,200 feet 
of three-inch hose, one hook and ladder outfit, 
and two full suits of rubber clothing, the total 
value of which is over $1,900. The foreman 

of No. 1, Ed. T. Alderman, has served continu- 
ously to the present, while that office in No. 2 
has been filled successively by John Mc- 
Cutchen and F. A. Flach. A select running 
team has been formed from the two companies, 
and officered by the foremen above mentioned. 
No very serious fires have given the depart- 
ment an opportunity to test its full strength. 
The force has given occasional aid to Ames. 
The new water-works system grew from the 
desire for better fire protection, and after a 
committee, composed of Mayor Boardman and 
Messrs. Thompson, Gates and Capt. Smith, had 
investigated several systems suited for places of 
Nevada's population, the elevated tank system 
was adopted, and a proposition to bond the cor- 
poration for $12,000, was submitted to the 
people on January 9, 1888. The result was 
237 for aud but twenty-four against it. The 
plans of a Batavia (111. ) company were adopted, 
and the contract given to Fremont Turner, of 
Ames, for $11,600. A tank 20x30, with 100,- 
000 gallons capacity, was placed on a 75-foot 
tower in Stewart's Addition, and 2,550 feet of 
8-inch and 3,600 feet of 6-inch mains were 
laid, with 18 fire hydrants. A 25-foot wind- 
mill was placed at the corner of Fourth and 
Linn Streets, on a 70-foot tower and with force 
pumps. It was completed by September, and 
on trial 150 feet of hose threw a stream over 
the court-house, while 1,000 feet gave a stream 
-20 feet above the well-known Central House. 
The excellent water is furnished by a well of 
10,000 gallons daily capacity. The absence of 
wind during several weeks in 1889 made a 
steam-pump necessary for such emergencies, 
and a double-acting Dean pump was planted, 
with a brick engine-house 20x22, of one story, 
near the wind-mill. This has a capacity of 
10,000 gallons per hour. The system gives 
perfect satisfaction, and is a marvel of cheap- 
ness in current expense, the entire cost for 


1889 being but $142. There are other enter- 
prises of the councils of the last few years 
that deserve mention, and among tliese are the 
complete drainage system, embracing over three 
miles of tile, stone arches over Main and Linn 
Streets slough crossings, and a sewer of twelve- 
inch size, laid about eleven to thirteen feet 
below the middle of Linn Street, between 
Fourth and Seventh Streets. The council's 
energy shown in capturing the State road- 
grader contest, mentioned elsewhere in tins 
volume, indicates the public spirit which has 
given Nevada such excellent and remarkably 
clean and shaded streets, which are surpassed 
by no other town of its size in the State of 
Iowa. The Nevada Cemetery Association, 
organized about 1865, transferred its beautiful 
cemetery to this city in 1871. 

The successive mayors have been George 
A. Kellogg, 1869; E. B. Potter, 1870; J. H. 
Talbott, 1871-72; D. H. McCord, 1873; J. L. 
Dana, 1874; James Hawthorn, 1875-76; 
George A. Kellogg, 1877 ; William Lockridge, 
1878-80; E. D. Fenn, 1881; J. A. Fitch- 
patrick, 1882; H. M. Funson, 1883; F. D. 
Thompson, 1884-85; William Gates, 1886-87, 
and H. C. Boardman, 1888-90. 

Banking generally begins in money loaning 
of a private character, and Nevada had its 
share of this until a New York firm, controlled 
by T. Cree, established the Story County 
Bank about 1867, with a Mr. Parker as cashier. 
This ran but a couple of years or more until a 
creditor, John Hall, secured it long enough to 
close it up. In 1870 O. B. Dutton opened a 
private bank on the present site of the First 
National Bank, and later on built that block. 
In 1881 he sold out to W. F. Swayze, who 
proceeded to organize the First National Bank, 
with an authorized capital of $50,000. The 
officers chosen were R. J. Silliman, president; 
J. A. Fitchpatrick, vice-president, and W. F. 

Swayze, cashier. The directors included these 
officers and Frank Curtiss, D. W. Read, Will- 
iam Lockridge, J. C. Mitchell and J. A. Fitch- 
patrick. The only change made officially is 
the substitution of James Hawthorn for D. W. 
Read, deceased, in the directory. Their cor- 
respondents are the Bank of New York (N. 
B. A.), Union National Bank of Chicago, and 
banks at Des Moines and Marshall town. 
Another gentleman, Otis Briggs, added bank- 
ing to other business in 1870, with a capital 
of $20,000. He soon turned his whole atten- 
tion to it, and in 1882 Jay A. King became a 
partner. It has been a private bank from the 
first, with the name Farmers 1 Bank. Its corre- 
spondents are the Bank of New York (N. B. 
A.) and Commercial National Bank, Chicago. 
The press of Nevada, besides being news- 
papers, have represented the Republican and 
Democratic parties, the Anti-Monopoly move- 
ment and religious life. It began early, too, 
in that first paper of the county, the Story 
County Advocate, of which No. 4 of Vol. I 
was issued January 29, 1857, the first issue 
now obtainable, and owned by the Representa- 
tive, a lineal successor to it. It was published 
at Nevada by R. R. Thrall, its editor. In the 
early winter of 1862-63 it was succeeded by 
another Republican sheet, or rather, simply 
changed its name to the Republican Reveille, 
under the editorship of one of the most inde- 
pendent writers in the list of Story County 
editors, George F. Schoonover. Vol. I, No. 
26, was issued on December 4, 1862. Late in 
1863 its name was changed again to the Story 
County Aegis, of which No. 19, as Vol. II, 
was issued November 25, of that year. Mr. 
A. Keltz owned the plant then, and its editor 
was John M. Brainard, a Republican, now of 
the Boone Standard, and who became proprie- 
tor in July, 1866. In November, 1868, its 
policy became Independent Republican, under 


the management and ownership of V. A. Bal- 
lou, now editor of The Watchman, but in 1870 
the full-blooded Republicans captured it again 
through a new editor, W. H. Gallup, who gave 
it the name the Nevada Representative. Its 
first issue was made May 5, 1870, as Vol. 
XIII, No. 46. Its form and part of its name 
were changed for a time early in the seventies. 
Prof. W. P. Payne secured it and, on Septem- 
ber 6, 1882, assumed control, with his wife, 
Mrs. A. M. Payne, as an accomplished asso- 
ciate editress. The firm has been Payne & Son 
since August, 1883, and under this manage- 
ment the clean, reliable pages of The Repre- 
sentative have achieved a leading place. 
Their foreman, J. T. Stone, has had continu- 
ous charge for twenty-three years. For a time 
in 1 887-88 it issued a real-estate monthly, and 
is now publishing a weekly of the same 
nature for Smith & Son. 

The next paper was a short-lived one, pub- 
lished for a time during 1862 by Potter, Fra- 
zier & Hawthorn, under the title, the Nevada 
Democrat. Its name indicates its policy, and 
its chief editor was Mr. E. B. Potter, now of 
Denver, Colo. 

It was on November ii, 1871, when Vol. I, 
No. 9, of the third Nevada journal was issued, 
bearing the name Story County Watchman, 
and holding Anti-Monopoly and "Greenback" 
principles. It was established by Vaughn <fc 
Stoddard, but passed through several hands 
during the next six years, among whom were 
J. A. Fitchpatrick and R. H. Rodearmel. It 
was purchased in 1880 by Mr. V. A. Ballon, 
who assumed control on April 2, and after a 
few issues of an independent nature, it boldly 
took its stand for Democracy and has since 
continued the only editorial champion of that 
party in Story County. Since 1880 its form has 
been that of an eight-page seven-column weekly. 

The Highway began its career in 1875 as a 

twenty-four page monthly magazine devoted 
to Christian holiness, and purposing to be un- 
denominational and evangelical. In January, 
1879, it became a weekly, and about 1886 as- 
sumed its present eight-page form. Its circu- 
lation has spread through the Northwest, where 
it has become the successful organ of this class. 
From its office are issued Gospel Arrows, a 
semi-monthly tract, established in March, 1888, 
and Apples of Gold, a booklet quarterly for 
daily Bible reading and commentary. The 
Sunday-school Reporter, a two-column sixteen- 
page monthly, edited by E. J. G. Reid, is also 
printed by them, besides a large amount of 
pamphlets, tracts, etc., the number of tracts in 
1889 reaching over a million and a half. They 
have steam-power press and stereotyping 
foundry in well-equipped rooms on the first 
floor of the Odd Fellows' Block. Their mailing 
list is such that the post-office department 
furnishes them with from fifteen to twenty extra 
mail sacks. The editor and proprietor is Rev. 
Isaiah Reid, formerly a Presbyterian pastor 
at Nevada. 

The Nevada Opera Housewas completed in 
December, 1877, at a cost of $9,000. It was 
erected by a company with S. Balliett, president, 
but afterward fell into the hands of Otis Briggs, 
and finally sold to foreign parties. It has two 
stories, is of brick, and is 50x96 feet. The as- 
sembly hall is well arranged and decorated. 

Fraternities and other social organizations 
had their beginning in Nevada Lodge No. 99, 
F. & A. M., the first-born of Story County 
lodges, organized January 15, 1857, with these 
charter members: John Scott, W. M. ; E. 
Schoonover, S. W. ; T. B. Kelly, J. W. ; James 
Hawthorn, Treas. ; W. H. Richardson, Sec. ; 
Charles Schoonover, S. D. ; Henry F. Mur- 
phy, J. D.; William McGuire Tyler; B. 
J. Dunning, T. J. Adamson, John A. Miller, 
William E. Aldridge and Ephraim Bowen. 



They began using T. J. Adamson's hall in the 
building then standing on the corner west of 
Dr. Hoag's present residence. It is unfortu- 
nate that their records have been destroyed. A 
Chapter was organized February 28, 1881, 
with nine charter members and these officers: 
S. F. Balliet, H. P.; James Hawthorn, K. ; 
W. D. Lucas, scribe. They now have seventy- 
eight members. Mr. Balliet has been suc- 
ceeded as high priest by Jay A. King and L. 
T. Weld, the present incumbent. 

Central Iowa Lodge No. 101, I. O. O. F., 
was instituted a few months later on October 
15, 1857, by D. G. M., Samuel Noel, at Neva- 
da. The charter members were S. S. Statler, 
N. G. ; James Hawthorn, S. S. Webb, R. J. 
Dunning and J. S. Blickensdiffer. In 1859 
they united with the Masons in securing a hall 
on Linn Street. This was used until Decem- 
ber, 1880, when it was burned with a loss to the 
lodge of over §1,000. They then used the A. 
O. U. W. hall, Ringheim's and Bamberger's, 
until December, 1877, when their fine brick 
block on Linn Street was completed — a two- 
story one, 27x80 feet. Their representatives to 
Grand Lodge have been J. S. Blickensdiffer, 
J. R. Hays, D. E. McKim. They have fifty- 
three members. Their Nevada Encampment 
No. 94 was organized February 1, 1877, by J. 
G. Weatherby, with charter members S. S. 
Statler, C. F. Edwards, D. S. Snyder, J. R. 
Hays, W. F. Vinson, J. M. Gates and D. E. 
McKim, whom together wifh F. D. Thompson 
constituted the officers. They now have thirty- 
five members. 

The next lodge was organized May 2, 1877, 
by Deputy Grand Master Kerns. It was 
Nevada Lodge No. 115, A. O. U. W., and its 
first officers were: J. R. McDonald, P. M. W. ; 
D. E. McKim, M. W. ; J. F. Gillespie, G. F. ; 
A. C. Sheldon, O. ; H. D. Ballard, recorder; 
M. L. Kahn, financier; O. B. Alderman, re- 

ceiver; George E. Smith, G. : J. Kirkendall. I. 
W. ; William Hansell, O. W. Their first rooms 
were in the second story of the old court-house, 
afterward in the Bamberger Block and finally 
in the new Odd Fellows' temple. Their mem- 
bership has been as high as seventy, but now 
enrolls not more than twenty-five. Their pay- 
ments have reached §10,000. Their successive 
master workmen have been A. C. Sheldon 
(1877), George E. Smith and D. W. Ballard 
(1878), I. L. Smith and D. L. Stevens (1879), 
L. Irwin and H L. Swofford (1880), John 
Kirkendall and P. W. Farrar (1881), J. F. 
Gillespie and H. H. Boyce (1882), O. B. Al- 
derman and James Hawthorn (1883), O. I. 
Spencer and P. D. Dale (1884), N. Simzer 
(1885), John Beatty (1886), A. C. Elliott 
(1887), John Kirkendall to the present. In 
September, 1877, following this organization, 
the Nevada W. C. T. U. was formed by Mrs. 
Aldrich, of Cedar Rapids, with Mrs. M. A. Al- 
len, president, and eighteen members. Tbe so- 
ciety existed for about six years and reached a 
membershipof forty. They secured a Mr. Drew, 
who organized a blue ribbon club, and an effort 
was made to secure temperance instruction in 
the public schools. About the same time a Y. 
M. C. A. existed for a brief period. It was 
not until May 25, 1882, that the Knights- of 
Pythias formed a society in Nevada. Its title 
is Samson Lodge No. 77, and the charter 
membership embraced: O. B. Alderman, V. C. : 
Frank S. Bishop, M. at A. ; W. K. Boardman, 
A. D. Bishop, W. W. Stockwell, H. M. Funson. 
E. W. Gifford, K. of R. & S. ; H. L. Swofford, 
M. of F. ; I. L. Smith, Jay A. King, P. ; A. L. 
Thornblom P. C. ; Seth Humphrey, A. F. Win- 
gert, J. A. Mills, C. G. McCarthy, C. C. ; N. 
Simzer, John A. Stone, S. F. Balliett, E. H. 
Monk, D. E. McKim, C. E. Hoag, J. A. Fitch- 
patrick, M. of E. ; M. G. Rodearmel, H. C. 
Boardman, J. W. White and O. A. Lyssand. 




The lodge has increased in membership to 
sixty-five, and has used the rooms of the A. O. 
U. W. and Odd Fellows. The successive 
chancellors have been: O. B. Alderman, C. G. 
McCarthy, W. K. Boardman, O. O. Roe, C. E. 
Iloag. J. T. Stone, O. A. Lyssand, H. L. Car- 
roll, E. T. Alderman, H. D. Chamberlin and 
II. S. Alderman. On the following July 7. 
1882, another fraternity arose, Enterprise 
Lodge No. 13, I. L. of H., organized by J. H. 
Helm, D. G. P. and with the following officials: 
J. F. Gillespie, P.; T. J. Ross, V. P.; J. W. 
White, C. S. ; R. J. Silliman, F S. ; L. E.White, 
Treas. ; William Lockridge, chaplain ; I. K. 
Larue, U. ; T. H. Stephens, D. K. ; 1. L. Smith, 
O. S. These with D. J. Buuce, H. H. Boyes, 
E. H. Murrie, F. L. Ogden, O. O. Roe, G. W. 
Boyd, J. A. Fitchpatrick, G. W. Dyer, P. W. 
Farrar, E. S. Bamberger and H. D. Fitch em- 
braced the charter membership. The society 
has paid about $4,000 insurance. Their suc- 
cessive presidents have been: J. F. Gillespie 
(1882), J. D. Ferner (1883), I. L. Smith 
(1884), and D. J. Bunce since 1885. They 
have twenty-three members and use the I. O. 
O. F. hall. This society was followed on Jan- 
uary 7, 1884, by the formation of Jason D. 
Ferguson Post No. 31, G. A. R., as a re-organ- 
ization of a defunct society — the A. B. Miller 
Post No. 31. There were fifty-six charter 
members and the following officers: I. L. 
Smith, C; O. W. Wilson, S. V. C. : Guilf Mul- 
len, J. V. C. ; F. D. Thompson, Q. M. ; P. W. 
Farrar, surgeon : Rev. A. K. Bone, chaplain ; 
C. W. Wood, 0. of D. : H. H. Boyes, O. G. ; 
M. C. Allen, Adj. ; George Childs, Q. S. ; A. 
W. Davis, S. M. The post has used the Odd 
Fellows' halls since they began and in member- 
ship have increased to sixtj'-nine. They have 
exerted a great influence in the community in 
the observance of Decoration Day and in other- 
wise stimulating public patriotism. Their 

post commanders have been I. L. Smith (1884), 
Jay A. King (1885), J. F Gillespie (1886), 
J. D. Ferner (1887), Charles A. Schermerhorn 
(1888), John Beatty (1889) and James Dillin 
(1890). On March 3, 1888, was also formed 
The Woman's Relief Corps No. 147. Three 
years after the formation of the post, there was 
organized The Nevada Driving Club, on Feb- 
ruary 19, 1887, to promote the " speed, style, 
and docility of trotting, running, carriage and 
single horses." Their work influences from 
twenty to thirty speed horses, and an effort is 
being made to enter the National Association. 
They have leased the fair grounds, and hold 
occasional shows at their fine half-mile track. 
Their first officers were W. Gates, president: 
Charles E. Smith, secretary: Jay A. King, treas- 
urer: with Messrs. Banks, Simzer, Lockwood 
and Boardman as directors. Mr. Gates has been 
succeeded by Mr. Boardman as president. 
About the same time (January 28, 1887) was 
organized Frontier Camp No. 296, Modern 
Woodmen of America, with twenty-one mem- 
bers for insurance purposes, and their chief 
rendezvous have been the A. O. U. W. halls 
and Dr. Chamberlain's office. Their first 
officers were: W. H. Gallup, C. ; O B. Ingalls, 
Adv. : Jay A. King, B. : Charles E. Smith, C. ; Dr. 
H. D. Chamberlain, Exam. ; E. W. Gifford. Esc. : 
A. K. Banks, W.. and Z. Presnell, S. George 
W. Dyer succeeded Mr. Gallup in 1887. About 
tne same time too was formed New Hope Lodge 
No. 140, I. O. G. T. on March 2, 1887, at the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, with the following 
officials: Mr. Shugan, C. T. ; Mrs. W. R. Kirk, 
V. T.; D. V. Thrift, chaplain; John Beatty, 
Sec. ; C. P. Robinson, Fin. Sec. ; Cora Groat, 
Treas.; E. Silliman, marshal, and others — in 
all twenty-two charter members. They have 
increased in numbers to seventy, and are in a 
prosperous condition. They use the Odd Fel- 
lows' hall. Their successive chief templars 


are Mr. Shugan, Mrs. W. R. Kirk, J. G. Tan- 
ner (1887), D. V. Thrift, L. Lockwood (1888), 
R. J. Silliman, Dr. T. J. Jeffry, Edwin Reid 
(1889), John Briggs and Rev. Danner (1890). 

The post-office has been filled in appoint- 
ments as follows: T. E. Alderman, January 14, 
1854; J. C. Harris, December 6, 1855; Will- 
iam Aldridge, March 25, 1856; James Haw- 
thorn, November 22, 1858; W. G. Allen, April 
25, 1861; James S. Blickensderfer, March 14, 
1864; Otis Briggs, February 16, 1865; E. D. 
Fenn, September 3, 1866; L. Irwin, May 28, 
1869; John Beatty, January 27, 1873; T. J. 
Ross, June 28, 1881; E. D. Fenn, August 7, 
1885; F. D. Thompson, May 28, 1889. The 
growth of its business is illustrated by the re- 
port for the week ending May 12, 1890: Let- 
ters, 2,086; postals, 514; foreign, 13; second- 
class matter, 4,119 pieces; third class, 46: other 
matter, 169; total pieces, 6,947, weighing 4,541 
pounds; postage paid, 852.91; to be collected, 
$.48. This was not the week for the sub-issues 
of the Highway office. 

Story City, with its diminutive annexed par- 
ent, Fairview, on the east, is a kind of Ameri- 
canized Norway and Denmark. It is the home 
of the only Danish consul in Iowa, W. D. 
Gandrup, and its population of about 800 is 
very largely Norwegian, with a liberal sprink- 
ling of the Dane. Indeed, as the quaint, awk- 
ward skeleton of the old Scandinavian wind- 
mill, with its sails long since blown off, rises 
above the busy stores of Broad Street, and looks 
down on the neat residences along the 140-foot 
Park and Elm Avenues, it seems a type of the 
steady absorption of the Scandinavian into 
American customs, which latter may be illus- 
trated in the slender, shapely wind-mills which 
tower above the surrounding farms. As a cen- 
ter of a wealthy and industrious foreign popu- 
lation, it became the objective point of two rail- 
ways. — the predecessors of the North- Western 

and the Story City Branch of the Iowa Central. 
Its founders laid out its streets witli a lavish 
hand, making the business street — Broad — 100 
feet, and the two park streets 140 feet, to pro- 
vide for a line of trees and lawn in the middle. 
It has its share of the flowing wells near by. 

This is the second town in age in the county, 
and has had two periods in its career, which 
may be called the Hoosier and Scandinavian, 
the former covering the years from 1855 to the 
war, and the latter the time since then. On 
January, 5, 1855, George W. Sowers entered 
the land on the Fairview site, and on the fol- 
lowing June 25, and March 14, Lacount Lam- 
bert and Miles White entered the Story City 
site. Messrs. Lambert, Sowers and George S. 
Prime were Indianians, and on June 4 they 
platted a few acres on the southwest corner of 
the northeast quarter of Section 12, which, 
from its beautiful, unobstructed view, was 
named Fairview. Very soon Richard E. Jen- 
ness built a log house on the west street of 
Fairview. During 1856 he erected a frame 
and opened a store. William Estell next built 
on the northeast of the plat a frame store, in 
1856. F. W. Rhoades opened business, and 
on November 29, 1856, was commissioned post- 
master, and the name made Story City, because 
of the existence of another Fairview in the 
State. John J. Foot erected a frame on the 
plat too. About 1857 Messrs. Prime, Hard- 
ing and Smith brought on a steam saw-mill, 
which enlivened business; then they made 
special inducements, such as giving town lots 
to those who would build. The second of those 
who took this offer was Capt. (now) W. A. 
Wier. D. L. Stultz and T. A. Squires located 
about 1859. The Rhoades' store passed through 
the hands of William Margason, Prime & 
Harding, Carl Smith, and was finally closed 
up, so there was little or no business by 1860, 
and during the war the mill was removed. 


A new and largely foreign class came in 
after the war. J. P. Duea opened a store in 
the Estell building about the close of the war. 
Then this became a point on the stage line, 
first from Colorado, then Nevada. Norman & 
Hegland started a store about 1SG0, and after- 
ward sold to the Larsons. Norman afterward 
opened a hardware and drug store. Late in 
the sixties John Swan began his various enter- 
prises, and Allen & Amlund opened a drug 
store. From this time on railway agitation 
flourished, and Ames and Nevada vied with 
each other to secure the renewed town's aid for 
a cross-line across the county either to Des 
Moines or to the southeast. A tax was finally 
voted, on condition that a town be laid out and 
the track laid by a given time. This was in 
1878, and B. E. Hurley, of the railway con- 
struction company, together with L. E. and E. 
E. Larson and Capt. Wier laid out the plat of 
Story City by December of that year. Build- 
ing was at once begun on Broad Street, and 
Fairview business all moved over. J. A. Oien 
built the first building on the site of the 
American House, but it was burned before 
completion. For the next two years there was 
a ;< boom " in business, as it raised its many 
fronts on both sides of Broad Street, between 
Park and Elm, and took on much of its present 
appearance. The main growth since then has 
been in residences and general improvements. 
In 1881 the Story City branch of the Iowa 
Central received a subscription from the people 
of a few thousand dollars, and a new railway 
outlet was made to Marshalltown. Business, 
however, was but slightly affected by this, as 
the appearance of rival towns to the east 
divided a heretofore large trade. The widen- 
ing of the gauge by the North- Western people's 
line was of considerable advantage, and has 
led to the solid, permanent growth of Story 
City. The receipt charges for March, 1890, 

by the North-Western agent here were $1,024; 
shipment charges, $2,312; and ticket sales, 
$375, which is an average month, and the 
average for the Iowa Central office per month 
is $295.14 receipts and $325.47 forwarding. 

The leading business, in which there is the 
greatest activity, is generally merchandise 
houses, with S. E. Cornel iussen & Co. and Lar- 
sen, Hansen & Cassem taking the lead. Proba- 
bly hardware, headed by Boyd, Henryson & Co., 
would follow next. Lumber and grain assumes 
large proportions in the hands of John Butler, 
C. & George P. Christianson, and others. The 
Citizens' Bank (private), which was established 
in 1882 by John Swan and Mr. Charlson, with 
$10,000 capital, may be mentioned about next 
, in importance. The death of Mr. Charlson 
soon left Mr. Swan alone. His capital has 
since been increased to $15,000, and his cor- 
respondents are the Prairie State National 
Bank of Chicago, and the Citizens' National 
Bank of Des Moines. Next to this in invest- 
ment may be named Swan's flouring- mill, one 
of the largest in the State, with a capacity of 
sixty barrels daily. It was built in 1880 at a 
cost of $24,000. Mr. Swan has a creamery 
also, but next in importance to Story City is 
the hog and cattle trade, in which Thomas 
Johnsou and Ward <fe Pyle probably lead the 
rest. Close upon this is M. A. Tendeland's 
butter and egg shipment, which will soon have 
brick quarters in the new Opera Block. S. H. 
Thompson's cooper factory may come next, as a 
supply to Mr. Tendeland's trade. Butler & 
Molstre's Brick and Tile Works, with a 50,000 
a week each of brick and tile production, easily 
comes next, while among many others may be 
mentioned Overland's implement and black- 
smith shops, Holm Bros', harness shops, furni- 
ture stores, drug stores, jewelers, barber shops, 
liveries, dress-making, etc., in abundance. 

The Story City Improvement Company, 



John Swan, president, is soon to erect a $5,000 
Opera Block on Broad Street, 59x70 feet, and 
two stories in brick. 

The first council meeting of the incorpora- 
tion of the two plats was held March 29, 1882, 
with Capt. W. A. Wier, as mayor. But little 
outside of ordinary business was done for the 
first few years. A 240-foot well had been sunk 
at the comer of Broad Street and Penn Avenue 
before the incorporation, and in 188(3 about 
$550 was invested in a force-pump, hose, fire- 
bell, ladders, etc., and a fire department organ- 
ized under Capt. H. R. Boyd. Capt. E. L. 
Erickson is the present incumbent. A hose- 
house and calaboose has since been erected, 
and a sight for a public park has been chosen 
and negotiations are pending. About two and 
a-half miles of tile have been planted. The 
successive mayors are: Capt. W. A. Wier, 
1882-83; O. B. Peterson, 1881; C. W. Allen, 
1885-86; S. K, Corneliussen, 1887; and H. R. 
Boyd, 1888 to the present. 

The newspaper arrived before the incorpora- 
tion in the form of the Story City Herald, a 
Republican weekly under the direction of M. 
Swartout, who issued his first number on Jan- 
uary 7, 1881. This was replaced by the Story 
City Review on January 17, 1885, as an inde- 
pendent paper, edited by H. C. Carlson. C. 
W. Allen and O. B. Peterson secured the plant 
and on May 20, 1887, issued the Story City 
News. Since January, 1888, Mr. Peterson has 
been its sole editor, and makes of it a lively 
Republican, local newspaper. 

Societies on the American plan seem to grow 
in favor with the foreign population slowly. 
It was August 13, 1886, that the first lodge— 
Mizpah No. 249, I. O. G. T., was organized 
by Col. Long, of Kentucky. The first officers 
were S. R. Corneliussen, W. C. T. ; A. S. Allen, 
secretary, and Mrs. A. S. Allen, treasurer, 
with other officers, and eighteen charter mem- 

bers. The successive chief templars are: S. 
R. Corneliussen; A. S. Allen, May, 1887; Mrs. 
C. AV. Allen, August, 1887 ; S. R. Cornelius- 
sen, November, 1887; J. M. Clark, May, 1888; 
about which time the lodge was discontinued. 
They met in the school-house. The Story 
City Literary Society has been in operation 
several years, with the especial purpose of form- 
ing a library and for general culture. It was 
not until July 30, 1887, that the only other 
society was formed. This was Erick L. Shel- 
dahl Post No. 439, G. A. R., named after a 
popular Norwegian soldier of the community. 
Comrade Henry Wilson, Jr., of Ames, mus- 
tered in eighteen charter members, and the 
following officers were chosen: W. A. Wier, 
C. ; George Larson, S. V.; H. F. Ferguson, 
J. V. ; T. J. Moses, Adj. ; H. R. Boyd, Q. ; N. 
Erickson, secretary; B. Hollings worth, chap- 
lain ; C. Torkelson, O. D. ; A. Sampson, O. G. 
The membership has not increased, and Capt. 
Wier has served from the first as commander. 

The mail service has been cared for as fol- 
lows: F. W. Rhoades, November 29, 1856; 
Noah Harding, January 7, 1858; L. R. Larsen, 
August 18, 1863 ; M. Swartout, December 30, 
1885; A. N. Torp, October 24, 1887; O. B. 
Peterson, May 23, 1889. 

Iowa Center, with its quaint " village-green" 
stretching its oblong proportions north and 
south, as if Nevada and Maxwell had combined 
to pull it apart, and nearly succeeded, is pret- 
tily scattered along Nevada, its chief street, on 
an elevated site, and with just enough ruined 
mill and the like to make it look historic. For 
it is historic, the most so of any spot in Story 
County. Its hundred inhabitants could hardly 
be seen beside Des Moines' 50,000 now, but 
from 1853 to 1855 there seemed to be no rea- 
son why these figures might not have changed 
places, for Iowa Center, the approximate cen- 
ter, was a strong candidate for the State capi- 






tol, so strong that several capitol-seekers 
located there, such as E. B. Potter, Judge 
Kellogg, Mr. Strong, and others, who removed 
to Nevada or elsewhere as soon as " the cen- 
ter " was not chosen. 

Jeremiah Cory, Jr., entered the land on 
February 16, 1853, and the post-office, Goshen, 
at his farm, became necessary by September 
- 28, 1854. Mr. Cory and T. C. Davis opened 
up the first log store a half lot south of the 
present post-office, and laid out some lots; the 
plat was not recorded, however, until August, 
1855. The next store was opened very soon 
by F. M. Baldwin, at his present site, where he 
was joined many years later by J. W. Maxwell. 
About 1856 T. J. and M. M. Ross built oppo- 
site the present post-office. Then a Mr. Slat- 
ten located north of Baldwin's, and L. B. and 
H. B. Young, who left at the Pike's Peak ex- 
citement of 1859. Among early physicians 
were Dr. Floyd. Dr. M. D. Sheldon and Dr. 
E. B. Fenn. Miss Cochran was an early 
teacher. About the year 1856, may be called 
the high-water mark of the " Center's" pros- 
perity; there were two large hotels; business 
stretched along Nevada Street as at present. 
There was an early mill, steam, saw and grist- 
mill, on the north end owned by Webb & 
Wood. It was moved to Mongona several 
years ago. An early one also was that of 
Jeremiah Cory, Sr., now in ruins. But after 
1856 the place stood still, excepting something 
of an exodus to Nevada and Des Moines and 

This second period is so identified with one 
firm, that of F. M. Baldwin, and later, Bald- 
win & (J. W. ) Maxwell, that it may be of in- 
terest to notice their changes. When Mr. 
Baldwin began business he hauled his stock 
from Keokuk. By about 1856 the Rock Island 
Railway had reached Iowa City, and he went 
there, then Marengo was the next trading 

point, and finally Kellogg. When the North- 
Western Railway reached Marshall, the firm 
went there, and successively followed the ter- 
minal point from there to State Center, and 
Colo. After Mr. Maxwell joined him the 
firm expanded rapidly, and from that time on 
have had the reputation of handling as large, 
if not larger stock than any other house in 
the county. Besides general merchandise they 
dealt very largely in lumber, grain, stock, har- 
ness, etc. They employ nine or ten men and as 
high as from eighteen to thirty teams at times. 
They began branch houses too, one at Cam- 
bridge, later at Clyde and Colo, until the 
rise of the town of Maxwell made Iowa Cen- 
ter itself a branch. 

The third period began with the advent of the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway in the 
county. There was an effort to secure the 
survey to Iowa Center, but the engineer's in- 
exorable instructions were to keep close to the 
county line. After this fact became known 
Iowa Center's doom was sealed. In 1882 
there was a general exodus of houses and peo- 
ple to Maxwell, headed by the removal of 
Baldwin & Maxwell's main store. Since then 
the " Center " has been a sort of suburb of 
Maxwell. Its only business of any import- 
ance is general merchandise, represented by the 
branch store and that of J. W. Will. 

This is the second post-office established in 
Story County, the first being Nevada. The 
successive postmasters have been: Jeremiah 
Cory, September 28, 1854; T. C. Davis, Au- 
gust 27, 1856; L. B. Young, April 30, 1857; 
after the name Goshen was changed to Iowa 
Center, August 31, 1858, under Mr. Young, 
there were: Jeremiah Cory, April 10, 1860; T. 
C. Davis, August 1, 1861; William White, 
September 27, 1865; T. D. Casebolt, November 
30, 1865; William AYhite, May 31, 1866; E. 
B. Fenn, September 8, 1868; A. K. Banks, 




May 1, 1876; E. B. Fenn, September 18, 1877; 
James S. Will, January 20, 1879; E. W. Gif- 
ford, March 30, 1880; C. E. Leonard, July 4, 
1881; H. B. Stoddard, May 9, 1882; T. Carle- 
ton, August 17, 1883; Minnie L. Sheldon, 
November 2, 1885, and Agnes T. Higley, 
December 1, 1886. 

Their fraternities are confined to the Iowa 
Center Lodge No. 7, I. O. G. T., which was 
organized on October 2, 1883, by Drs. Brown 
and Beck, of Cambridge, with forty-one mem- 
bers. The officers chosen were Aaron Acker, 
C. T. ; E. J. Acker, V. T. ; T. Carleton, chap- 
lain; J. W. Will, secretary; Mrs. F. M. Bald- 
win, treasurer, and other usual officers. They 
rented rooms until 1887, when they purchased 
the old Methodist Episcopal Church, and re- 
fitted it, making probably the best Good Tem- 
plar lodge in the county. Two saloons only 
have attempted to open in Iowa Center since 
1860, but " an apron full of small stores " 
backed by general sentiment routed them, for 
as old " Jimmy " Doyle said in his farewell 
address: "Whin, ye-z git the Timperince 
ladys of Iowa Cinter uroused, je-z moight as 
well be a travelin'." Out of the officers elect- 
ed at the recent meeting of the Central Dis- 
trict Lodge convened at Iowa Center in May, 
1890, four were from Iowa Center. The local 
society has a membership of thirty-seven. 

Ontario, which has absorbed old New Phila- 
delphia, was laid out in January, 1869, over 
thirteen years after the latter-, which was laid 
out in April, 1856. 

New Philadelphia's site was entered by 
Thomas G. Vest on January 5, 1855, and Au- 
gust 14, 1851. He laid it out just southeast 
of Ontario's site in April, 1856, and January 
17, 1858, the post-office was established, with 
the following successive postmasters: A. Ball- 
man ; W. H. Foster, March 14, 1859; D. Schaef- 
fer, September 8, 1860; W. H. Foster, Novem- 

ber 13, 1861, and Hiram Scott, November 6, 
1867. After the name was changed, December 
16, 1868, F. M. Coffelt, May 7, 1884; A. C. 
McCracken, November 15, 1886; J. L. Stoll, 
March 29, 1887, and T. M. Aylesworth, April 
5, 1889, were postmasters. Mr. Vest, J. De- 
trick and one other, probably, were the first 
merchants, and a few changes were made in 
following years until the railway arrived, and 
the desire to be nearer the depot led the rail- 
way to plat Ontario in January, 1869, on the 
south side of the track. Hiram Scott put the 
first building on this plat, and Thurman Bros, 
and Cox & Crowl soon followed. The place 
does some grain shipping, in which R. Jones 
leads; stock shipment, managed by T. L. Jones, 
and merchandise sale, in the hands of W. H. 
Foster and T. M. Aylesworth, come next. The 
population has never reached above probably 
sixty or seventy-five. They have no societies 
except churches. 

Cambridge might have been called Chicau- 
qua Bridge (certainly not Skunk Bridge) if it 
had been named as its great original in Eng- 
land was on the river — Cam, for its high plat 
lies along the high Skunk River banks, over- 
looking the broad bottoms, which in overflow' 
seasons are like a lake, making bridges and 
embankment crossings necessary to reach the 
opposite shore. Its old ruined mill and old 
trees and many other features give it an ap- 
pearance of age which the younger towns of 
the last decade can not counterfeit. It has an 
older population, generally, of long fixed set- 
tlers, and none of the youthful rush and boom 
of Maxwell, Slater, Zearing and such places. 
Its fine school park, in the midst of which 
rises their prized school building, is more of 
a leading feature in her appearance than even 
her depot and coaling-station with their tanks 
and coal-houses, that loom up in the broad and 
fine-viewed Skunk Valley. Like Nevada, she 



is embowered in groves, through which is 
scattered a population of probably 500, as es- 

On October 15, 1852, James Alexander de- 
cided to enter some land on the west bank of 
Skunk River. He was followed by John D. 
Sauford, who entered land adjoining on De- 
cember 26, 1853; and he, in turn, followed by 
Samuel A. Patterson, with an adjoining entry 
October 24, 1854. These three pieces cornered 
together. In 1851, however, a Maine man, who 
had spent some years as superintendent in 
the Lake Superior copper-mines, and after- 
ward located in Illinois, came to Story County 
site prospecting. This was Josiah Chand- 
ler. He looked over the Skunk bottoms, then 
water covered, and selected an elevated site, 
which was then surrounded by water, but above 
high-water mark, as that on which he should 
settle. This is now owned by J. Lee. He 
went back and persuaded Sylvanus and Jairus 
Chandler and others with families to come with 
him, and work a saw-mill in the midst of the 
valuable timber that lined the bottoms. With- 
in a couple years after his first arrival, a log 
store and inn was built by Jairus Chandler. 
It is not known just when Josiah and Jairus, 
with Mr. Alexander, secured the site of the 
present town as above entered, but it may have 
been as late as 1854. Josiah concluded he 
would plat a town of about square dimensions, 
with its streets running parallel to the river 
instead of in cardinal directions. He did so, 
and named the new town Cambridge, and, of 
course, the plat is like the old French surveys. 
The center is near the school building in the 
park. The plat was not recorded, however, 
until November, 1850, although it is Dr. Graf- 
ton's opinion, that it was laid out probably 
three years before. The saw-mill, built in 
1854, did a good business, with J. Battersou 
as sawyer, and in August, 1855, the house now 

used by McKee's meat market was built on the 
plat. The first store was built not far from 
the site of Baldwin & Maxwell's. 

In the winter of 1855-56 thirty-one per- 
sons were led to the new town by Mr. Chandler, 
and the entire company wintered in the McKee 
house, with curtains for partitions. Among 
these were Wallace Williams, G. A. Macy (a 
blacksmith), Isaac Mitchell, Esq., Joseph Jones, 
Esq., John Cook, Sebastian Rubar and oth- 
ers. On one of his trips that winter Mr. Chan- 
dler met in stage coach to Des Moines a young 
Baltimore physician, Dr. W. H. Grafton, and 
persuaded him to come to Cambridge and look 
over the site. He came in January, 1856, and 
the result was an agreement between them to 
put up a large grist-mill, which now stands in 
half-ruin but still running. The mill was fin- 
ished September 1, 1857. Dr. Grafton was 
the first and only physician, and often crossed 
the Skunk bottoms in a boat to visit patients. 
He also had nearly every person soon indebted 
to him for ague medicine and care, and as 
there was no money circulating, he took then- 
notes, which he turned over to merchants on 
his own bills; the merchants in turn gave 
these notes to Des Moines merchauts for goods, 
and the Des Moines parties would pay them 
back for produce, until they would often pass 
this way as currency for a time. The second 
store was erected on the corner of Third and 
Water Street, on Lot 6, in 1856, by Williams & 
Alexaudei', and was the only store until after 
1860, during which time there was no growth 
scarcely. Almost all the houses were on Water 
Street between Second and Fourth. Mr. Macy 
and S. Bossuot, now of the hotel, were among 
those who built. The gold-fever of the mount- 
ains led many to go away in 1859 and 1860, 
and among these were Williams and Mitchell, 
to Colorado, and Chandler, Grafton, Living- 
ston and others, to Pike's Peak. The place 



stood still during the war. M. C. Seal & Co. 
had secured the only store in the place by 
1865; this was on Lot 8, Block 16, Water 
Street. This store has been the leading one, 
and has been successively owned by G. M. 
Maxwell & Co., Maxwell, King & Co., and 
Baldwin & Maxwell. Besides this store in 
1865 there was a post-office, hotel, drug store, 
mill, wagon-shop, etc., and about 200 people. 
Nevada and Colo were the main depots for 
them. In 1868 Dr. Hays began building, and 
his enterprise was such that it was pleasantly 
said of him, that " Doc. would build a railroad 
for us if we'd give him a hundred dollars." 
His two buildings on Lot 2, Block 28, Water 
Street, arose in 1868, and the brick store soon 
after. Seal Bros, soon built also, and there 
was a quiet slow improvement. The Max- 
well store was burued in 1878 and rebuilt. 
Among others here by this time were John D. 
Breezely, Mr. Gillett, D. Whitehead, A. P. 
King, W. P. Clark, J. C. Kiusell, Samuel Max- 
im, James Mallory and others. 

The news of a railway in 1881, when the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul people were 
surveying, put new life into the place. In or- 
der to insure a depot at Cambridge, the citizens 
made up $1,700 to pay the right of way through 
the township. The depot and coaling outfit 
was put up at the foot of Water Street, and 
business took a boom down that street. An 
effort was made to put it about the depot, but 
that failed. The Grafton and Livingstone & 
Bodearmal buildings went up that year, but the 
greatest boom was in 1882, when buildings 
arose much as at present on Blocks 30, 28 and 
15 on Water Street. Others went up on this 
street between First and Second Streets. After 
1882 the growth was not so marked, on account 
of the location of Elwell and Huxley Stations. 
About three years later, also, the most of the 
buildings on Block 30 were burned. Quiet im- 

provement has been making, however, in resi- 
dences, and the population is about 500. 

General merchandise leads all the life of the 
place, and their excellent schools are a factor 
very near to this in importance, as many locate 
on that account. Stock and grain would come 
about next, while implement sale, banking and 
manufacture would follow, probably, in that or- 
der. In the factory line are the creamery, the 
mill, repair shops, and the manufacture, near 
town, of a patent hog-pen and cattle-poke on a 
small scale. There are also two elevators. The 
depot coaling station, the only one between 
Perry and Ferguson, receives about seventy to 
100 cars of coal monthly, which increases help 
employed and side-tracks. The charges on re- 
ceived freight for May, 1890, was $100, and the 
charges on forwarding $2,071, the latter being 
about twice the average month's business, while 
$100 for receipts is about an average. 

Banking began with the Exchange Bank, 
owned and opened by Williams & Bidwell 
about 1881, but discontinued in 1883. Then 
the Citizens' Bank was started up by W. H. 
Gallup, or rather removed from Nevada to Cam- 
bridge, but he not long after took P. T. Keller 
as partner. Mr. Gallup secured it again in 
1887, and made H. N. Silliman cashier, who, in 
October, became partner. Since May, 1888, 
it has been owned by R. J. Silliman & Son. 
Their correspondents are the First National 
Banks of Chicago and Nevada. 

On March 15, 1882, Cambridge was incor- 
porated and held its first council meeting. F. M. 
Livingston was mayor; D. W. C. Beck, recorder, 
and D. D. Hayes, Levi Nellis, O. M. Johnson, 
J. D. Breezley and George W. Waud were 
trustees. The following gentlemen have served 
as "His Honor, the Mayor:" D. D. Hayes, 
1883; C. Bidwell, 1884; J. C. Kinsell, 1885; 
O. M. Johnson, 1886; J. M. Brown, 1887; D. 
W. C. Beck, 1888, and M. C. Seal, 1889-90. 



In fraternities Cambridge seems to have 
moved very slow at first, but has, since 1882, 
evidently determined to make up for lost time, 
for there is now in existence Masonic, Odd 
Fellows, Grand Army, Relief Corps, Sons of 
Veterans, United Workmen and Good Templar 
societies. Tabernacle Lodge No. 452, A. F. 
& A. M., was the first permanent one, organ- 
ized by Grand Master George B. Van Laun 
July 13, 1883. The first officers were G. M. 
Hall, W. M. ; G. W. Barrows, S. W. ; and M. 
G. Rodearmel, J. W., with charter members P. 
H. Ream, A. S. Aplin, M. D. Livingston, S. 
Bossuot, T. J. McKee, W. P. Clark, W. H. 
Clark, W. H. Grafton, S. and J. Flickinger. 
Since then they have increased to twenty-eight 
members, and used the United Workmen's hall. 
Their successive worshipful masters have been 
as follows: G. M. Hall, 1883; P. H. Ream, 1884; 
A. S. Aplin, 1885; S. Flickinger, 1886; A. P. 
King, 1887; A. F. Mills, 188S-89; and A. S. 
Aplin, 1890. About two months later, Sep- 
tember 20, 1883, was formed Ersland Post 
No. 234, G. A. R., with thirty-four members, 
by Capt. W. T. Wilkinson, of Des Moines. 
The successive commanders are R. May, 1883; 
A. P. King, 1884; H. R, Detwiler, 1885; P. 
H. Ream, 1886; H. R. Detwiler, 1887; John 
Jory, 1888; A. J. Hainline, 1889, and J. M. 
Brown, 1890. Their post property is valued 
at about $100, and their membership has 
increased to forty-three. After using the A. 
O. U W. and A. F. & A. M. halls they secured 
one of their own. The Relief Corps was 
formed in 1885, with Mrs. M. Jory as president. 
They number about forty persons. Following 
this, December 10, 1885, Story Lodge No. 
486, I. O. O. F., was instituted by T. B. 
Schmeltzer, D. D. G. M. The charter mem- 
bers were H. J. Maxwell, A. W. Southwick, J. 
S. Kies, Frank Rutan and J. E. Shafer. They 
use their own hall, and have cash and property 

to the amount of $605, while their membership 
has reached fifty. These are the noble grands 
in order of service: J. S. Kies, 1885-86; J. E. 
Shafer, 1886; H. J. Maxwell, 1887; A. W. 
Southwick, 1887; M. M. Mason, 1888; D. W. 
C. Beck, 1888; K. A. Ersland, 1889; and J. 
M. Brown, 1890. Nearly two years after the 
organization of this one, Gen. J. M. Tuttle 
Camp No. 77, Sons of Veterans, began their 
career on May 19, 1887, under the direction of 
Capt. John H. Picket, of Ames. The first 
officers were Capt. J. E. Murphy; K. A. Ers- 
land, first lieutenant: W. S. Cronk, second lieu- 
tenant; Clarence King, first sergeant; W. J. 
Detwiler, Q. M. S. ; E. A.. Ersland, chaplain; 
M. F. King, S. of G. ; J. E. Jones, color ser- 
geant, and other usual officers. They have 
doubled their first membership of thirteen to 
twenty-six. They used the G. A. R. hall. 
These are successive captains: J. E. Murphy, 
1887; K. A. Ersland, 1887-88; and Clarence 
King, 1889-90. Besides these the Ancient 
Order of United Workmen and the Good 
Templars have both built up fair societies. 

One striking evidence of the new life in- 
fused by the railway's advent was the begin- 
ning of the Cambridge press. The Inde- 
pendent headed the list, with its first issue 
June 7, 1881, by Lee & Rash as a five-column 
folio. It lasted but a few months, and was 
succeeded, April 27, 1882, by Dolph Brothers' 
(Republican) Cambridge Reporter, which be- 
came a six-column paper about a year later in 
the hands of G. Dolph. This in turn made 
room for its successor, the Cambridge Argus, 
a seven-column folio, first issued June 6, 1884, 
by W. B. Bachtell, a Republican. Another 
change occurs, and Vol. I, No. 1, of the 
Cambridge Herald appears on February 27, 
1885, of smaller size, and under the direction 
of Parks & Brinkerhoff, the latter of whom 
withdrew a few months later. The next change 




was August 2, 1887, when Dr. J. M. Brown 
started the Cambridge Garland, now the only 
paper there, and since October, 1888, edited by 
H. N. Silliman, and published at Maxwell. 

Cambridge was the third post-office estab- j 
lished within the county, following Nevada and j 
Goshen, now Iowa Center, which were both I 
commissioned in 1854. William G. Buswell, | 
the first postmaster, was appointed April 21, 
1856. His successors were as follows: Will- 
iam W. Williams, August 21, 1857; Joseph H. 
Jones, May 10, 1859; Jairus Chandler, April 

28, 1860; Samuel Bossueot, November 14, 
1861; Oliver Chamberlin, August 18, 1863; 
Albert M. Gillett, May 25, 1865; John D. 
Breezley, December 2, 1872; George D. South- 
wick, January 2, 1880; A. W. Southwick, No- 
vember 5, 1883, and James B. Green, October 

29, 1885. 

Ames is the most widely known of the towns 
of Story County, as is well typified in its 
busy depot, where the North-Western traveler 
" changes cars for all points north, south, east 
and west " amid the clang of bells and snorts of 
iron-horses, or where the verdant freshmen by 
scores annually step off the trains and take the 
modest omnibus out to the beautiful acres of 
the Agricultural College and Farm, there to 
spend years in growing into the clear-minded 
finished graduate, who again takes the modest 
omnibus to the busy depot and buys a North- 
western ticket into the busy world. But while 
these two streams of travel and student life 
pass through Ames, she has also a fixed popu- 
lation of probably 1,600, as the second town in 
the county. The traveler will not see this unless 
he leaves the broad and begrimed strip of railway 
grounds, which divides the town, and, taking a 
few steps to the north, finds himself on Onon- 
daga, the business street, from which extends 
north, Douglass Street, the Euclid Avenue of 
Ames, lined as it is with the finest residences 

of the place. Here, too, will be found a certain 
mixture of the civilian and collegian tone typi- 
fied somewhat in the papers and social life of 
the Ames Social Club. 

And yet but twenty-six years ago this was the 
site of a cluster of the much maligned " frog 
ponds of Story County.' 1 John I. Blair, of the 
Cedar Rapids & Missouri River Railroad and 
the Iowa Land Compauy, had an eye on that spot 
as a station for the first great trunk line across 
the State. The land had been entered on 
February 11, 1855, and December 26, 1857, by 
Hoyt Sherman and Sarah Weymouth, respect- 
ively, but Isaac Black had secured a strip of 
it, and when the survey in 1864 crossed his 
land he objected unless he should receive what 
Mr. Blair thought was exhorbitant terms. 
Mr. and Mrs. A. Duff, now of Nevada, were 
quietly interested by Mr. Blair's friends to 
purchase the land privately, which lay so near 
their farm. This was done, and in December of 
that year the plat was made north of the track, 
and the railway completed on through to Boone. 
Onondaga was the name desired by Mrs. 
Duff, a New Yorker, but as Mr. Blair desired 
to immortalize the name of his friend, Oakes 
Ames, the infamous or unfortunate great west- 
ern railway contractor, a courteous compromise 
gave these names to the town and the principal 
street. Douglass was one of the contractors 
also, and Kellogg Street honored Mrs. Duff's 
maiden name. The first house was built im- 
mediately by Noah Webster on the site of Mr. 
Greeley's present home. H. F. Kingsbury 
erected the first frame store on the site of the 
Maxwell House early in 1865, and became 
there the first merchant, host, railway and ex- 
press agent and the first postmaster September 
27, 1865, while the name was still College 
Farm; it was changed to Ames January 15, 
1866. It may be of interest to mention that 
while the present depot was building two wild 


deer were shot from its door. The second 
store was on the northwest corner of Onondaga 
and Douglass Streets, built by S. O. Osborne, 
a druggist, in 1866, and the third was on 
the opposite corner, erected about the same 
time by Samuel Miller for a hardware store, j 
Capt. K. W. Brown soon built a grocery, and 
Starr & Brenneman built another drug store ! 
on the former site of the Nichols Livery 
Stable — all on Onondaga Street, which has ever 
since held the business. Gale & Son had a 
grocery on the site of the post-office. W. G. 
Wright was the first permanent blacksmith, and 
Dr. Carr the first permanent physician. The j 
first teacher was Henry May. About this time j 
Mr. Hunnycut opened a meat-market, and 
Hoggatt & Erwin built a grain-house on the 
site of the present elevator. Kingsbury kept a 
boarding house, but very soon Mr. Sherwood 
built the present West House and Mr. Rain- 
bolt opened a hotel just east of the depot. 
Early in the seventies the first brick building 
was erected — the present Goble's harness 

The center of business, very early, was de- 
termined about the corner of Douglass and 
Onondaga Streets, chiefly in the two blocks on 
each side of Douglass, which gradually built 
up with neat frame structures to meet the 
growing demands of trade, for it must be re- 
membered that in 1864, when the railway 
reached Ames, it was the farthest western rail- 
way terminus in Iowa. It became the source 
of College Farm supplies too. Since then, along 
with continuous improvement, there has been 
a steady transformation of frame into brick. 
This has not been entirely caused by fires, for, 
although Ames has had numerous isolated fires, 
there has been none so extensive as in Nevada, 
which compelled large rebuilding, and pro- 
voked to the use of brick. It is to be hoped 
that the buildings burned, from time to time, 

east of Douglass Street, may soon be replaced 
to satisfy the need for more business room. 

The present status of Ames, as to its busi- 
ness vitality or the most prominent features of 
it, is in rather striking contrast to many other 
towns in Story County. General merchandise, 
probably, leads everything else. Stock ship- 
ment would probably come next, while banking 
would intervene between that and the grain 
trade. At times these have taken different 
relations. Probably manufactures, including 
mill, wagons, creamery, furniture and wind- 
mills, would come next, while the egg, butter 
and poultry trade would be next. The pi - ox- 
imity of the college is a feature in Ames 1 busi- 
ness that ought to be mentioned next, and the 
railway crossing, which makes Ames an advan- 
tageous home for commercial travelers, renders 
also the hotel and restaurant business not far 
behind the preceding lines. Horse importa- 
tion and culture should certainly come next, 
and be followed, probably, by the loan and real 
estate business. These are the essential feat- 
ures of her business, and other lines are more 
or less dependent on them, and are matters of 
course. Ames and Nevada lead the county in 
professional men, the latter having the largest 
number of legal, and the former probably the 
largest number of other professions. 

In manufactures Ames has some to boast. 
The Wright & Childs wagon shops in the early 
seventies, and those of William Barnes in the 
early eighties, with the grist-mill, about covers 
the list. The Ames flour-mills, elevators, re- 
pair shops, wind-mill factory, and a few of this 
kind, complete the list. Ames' shipments for 
the year ending June 30, 1890, are: 205 cars 
grain, 113 stock, 23 general merchandise, and 
1,008,055 pounds way freight, with total charges 
of $14,141.81 ; while receipts for the same time 
were 238 cars general merchandise, 65 lumber, 
and 2,614,565 pounds way freight, at $12,517.- 




29 charges. There were 18,656 tickets sold. 

Ames was incorporated in 1869, but the ab- 
sence of early records makes very accurate 
detailed information impossible. The most 
complete list of mayors obtainable is as follows: 
William West, the first; W. D. Lucas, in 1870; 
William Clark, 1870; C. E. Turner, 1871; 
Walter Evans, 1872; I. L. Smith, 1873; Will- 
iam Clark, 1874-76; G. A. Underwood, 1877- 
78; E. E. Chamberlain, 1879; G. G. Tilden, 
1880; Henry Wilson, Jr., 1881-82; John 
Watts, 1883; Parley Sheldon, 1884-85; M. C. 
Jones, 1886-87; W. M. Greeley, 1888-89; and 
Parley Sheldon, 1890. Little but routine busi- 
ness was done by the council until about 1883, 
when the Douglass Street drainage system was 
perfected, and the gutter and other improve- 
ments of Onondaga Street were made. About 
1884 the public park was purchased, and some 
two years later a $2,000 city hall was erected. 
Aside from these, the council has two projects 
under arrangement, namely, an opera house 
on the corner of Onondaga and Kellogg Streets, 
and an electric motor line of two miles from 
the town to the college, the plant of which is 
expected to furnish electric lights for both town 
and college. 

The social life of Ames affords what is called 
the Ames Club, organized in 1889, by about 
fifty gentlemen of the town and college. They 
have a suite of four rooms, all joined by double 
doors, and well furnished, lighter! and heated, 
with newspapers and periodicals open to the 
casual visitor who may drop in at any time in 
the day. The rooms are in the Stephens Block. 
On Thursdays ladies are in charge, and on oc- 
casions the club listens to lectures, papers, etc. 

The fraternities are also represented. The 
first was Arcadia Lodge No. 249, F. & A. M., 
which was formed under dispensation, October 
15, 1868, and chartered the subsequent June, 
with the following members: M. J. Bundy, W. 

M. ; W. D. Lucas, and L. Q. Hoggatt, P. L. 
Porter, I. P. Miller, E. I. Carr, D. A. Bigelow, 
John Hancock, W. G. Wright, A. J. Graves, 
S. L. Lucas, A. McFarland, S. J. Starr, B. B. 
Selby, Barr Scott, O. Eddy, D. W. Gage, E. 
Kendall, S. B. Farwell. Their worshipful mas- 
ters have been M. J. Bundy, 1869 ; W. D. Lucas, 
1871; S. L. Lucas, 1872; W. D. Lucas, 1873; 
A. H. Duckworth, 1874-80; G. A. Underwood, 
1881; E. D. French, 1882; A. H. Duckworth, 
1883-84; M. C. Jones, 1885, to death, on May 
28, 1887; L. M. Bosworth, 1887-88; M. J. 
Smith, 1889; and C. E. Hunt, 1890. They 
have a large membership of ninety persons, 
and a fine hall in the Tilden Block. 

Some ten years later was organized Ames 
Lodge No. 166, A. O. U W., on May 9, 1878, 
by a Mr. Ellsworth. The first officers were: 
H. H. Kobinson, P. M. W. ; J. M. King, M. 
W. ; G. W. Lamberston, G. F. ; J. W. Durgee, 
O. ; F. W. Booth, Rec. ; G. H. Maxwell, Fin. ; 

C. B. Russ, Receiver ; C. M. Soper, G. ; M. E. 
McMichall, I. W. ; G. B. Robinsou, O. W., with 
a charter membership of eighteen persons. 
The lodge is prosperous, but is not increased 
in membership at present. The hall above the 
post-office is the only one used. A list of 
master workmen seems not obtainable. Only 
three years later, on February 16, 1881, Ells- 

| worth Post No. 30, G. A. R., was formed, and 
named in honor of the famous zouave colonel 
who tore down the rebel flag of the Jackson 
House, at Alexandria, Va. There were eight- 
een charter members and the following officers: 

D. A. Bigelow, C. ; D. S. Bosworth, S. V. C. ; 
W. M. Greeley, J. V. C : A. H. Thayer, Q. M. ; 

E. B. Cramblit, S. ; Charles Barston, Chaplain ; 
W. D. Lucas, O. D. ; M. Hemstreet, O. G. ; 
Henry W 7 ilson, Jr., Adj. (acting) ; S. P. 
O'Brien, Q. M. S., and Benjamin Brenneman, 
S. M. They began in the Masonic, then used 
Cook"s, and finally located in Odd Fellows' 




hall, while their numbers have increased to 
seventy-two. The post commanders have been 
D. A. Bigelow, 1881; D. S. Bosworth, 1882; 
Henry Wilson, Jr., 1883; M. Hemstreet, 1884; 
Thomas J. Miller, 1885; George G. Tilden, 
1886; C. E. Haverly, 1887; J. E. Duncan, 
1888; D. A. Bigelow, 1889, and S. P. O'Brien, 
1890. Gen. James L. Geddes and Col. (by 
brevet) D. A. Bigelow are two deceased mem- 
bers who should be honorably mentioned. It 
was in honor of the former that the nest soci- 
ety, J. L. Geddes Camp No. 58, S. of V., was 
named and formed November 2, 1885. It be- 
gan with thirty-one charter members, and 
officers — J. H. Pickett, captain; George M. 
Pitson, first lieutenant; E. L. Loughran, sec- 
ond lieutenant. The General presented them 
with a fine silk flag, which they prize highly. 
The successive captains are J. H. Pickett, to 
August 3, 1887; Henry Wilson, Jr., to 1889; 
S. G. Hamilton, to August, 1889, since which 
time L. C. Tilden has been the incumbent, It 
was February 4, 1887, that the Woman's Be- 
lief Corps was organized, by Gen. Geddes, with 
thirty-four members, and Mrs. Elizabeth Ged- 
des as president. On October 20, 1887, Ames 
Lodge No. 309, I. O. O. F., was chartered, 
with these members and officers: C. Diehl, 
N. G. ; W. F. Chevalier, V. G. ; H. McDaniels, 
Treas. ; E. B. Albright, Sec. ; W. West and G. 
H. Gates. This number has since increased 
remarkably to 102, with property and cash 
covering about $2,000. The noble grands fol- 
lowing Mr. Diehl are J. J. Dayton, 1887; W. 
F. Chevalier, 1888; H. P. McLain, 1888; M. 
Hemstreet, 1889; C. E. Hunt, 1889, and C. 
M. Soper, 1890. They lease their hall in the 
Tilden Block to six other societies. A lodge 
of Knights of Pythias was formed with the 
title Champion Lodge No. 150, with J. L. 
Stevens, P. C, and the other usual officers, but 
its charter was surrendered January 24, 1888. 

Good Templar and Modern Woodmen fraterni- 
ties have also been organized. 

Scarcely four years after Ames was laid out 
banking was begun by W. D. Lucas, in a pri- 
vate bank, in 1869. He occupied various rooms 
until in 1873 he built the rooms of the Union 
National Bank. In 1879-80 W. M. Greeley 
was his partner, but they dissolved and Gree- 
ley & Rainbolt (N. A.) opened a second bank; 
in 1881, however, a new company was formed 
under the State banking laws, called the 
Union Bank of Ames, into which were merged 
the other banks, W. M. Greeley, .president, 
with E. B. Chamberlain, cashier, being its offi- 
cers. The capital of the new bank was $50,- 

000. A complete reorganization occurred July 

1, 1883, by the formation of the Union Na- 
tional Bank of Ames, with the same capital 
and the following directory: W. M. Greeley, 
president; G. G. Tilden, vice-president; E. R.. 
Chamberlain, cashier; D. McCarthy, D. A. 
Bigelow, J. L. Stevens and E. W. Stanton. 
The only changes made have been the succes- 
sion of D. A. Bigelow (deceased iu 1890) to 
the office held by G. G. Tilden, on Jauuary 1, 
1887, and the substitution of D. G. Ives for 
Mr. Chamberlain iu the directory. The bank's 
condition is as follows: Undivided profits, 
$7,500, and surplus, $8,000. Their corre- 
spondents are: Atlas National Bank, Chicago; 
Third National Bank, New York ; and Valley 
National Bank, Des Moines. On the opposite 
side of Onondaga Street, on Block 13, was es- 
tablished a private bank, in 1888, by Arm- 
strong & Robinson, with the title of the Story 
County Bank. Its capital from the first, has 
been about $20,000. In May, 1890, it was pur- 
chased by Sheldon & Shelden, the officers be- 
ing Parley Sheldon, president, and B. J. Shel- 
den, as cashier. The First National Banks of 
Chicago and Marshalltown are their corre- 



The newspapers of Ames from the first issue 
of the Ames Reflector, early in 1868, to the 
present, have all given way to the clean, and 
well edited pages of the Intelligencer. The 
Reflector was the first, although it was pub- 
lished at Montana, Iowa, by J. White & Co., 
and issued by Rev. S. Gilbert, of Ames, now a 
well-known religious editor of the Congrega- 
tional Church. Vol. 1, No. 21, was issued 
June 15, 1868, and is the earliest date obtain- 
able. Its career closed about a year later, 
and another Republican paper made its ap- 
pearance very soon after March, 1868, when 
Mr. A. McFadden, its editor, located at Ames. 
This was the Intelligencer, the first paper pub- 
lished in Ames. It began as a seven-column 
folio, and has ever since preserved that form, 
with slight change, varying from seven to nine 
columns at times. In 1875 W. O. Robinson 
became a partner, but the following year it 
passed into the hands of John Watts, who was 
associated at intervals with Messrs. Gilliland 
and Alexander for the next two years, and 
about 1882 disposed of the entire outfit with 
steam-power press, to J. E. Duncan. On Jan- 
uary 1, 1890, the present owners and editors, 
H. and S. K. Wilson, assumed control. Mr. 
and Mrs. Wilson still preserve its Republican 
tone, and furnish another example of the emi- 
nent fitness of the feminine pen in the weekly 
press of Story County. The Intelligencer had 
a short-lived rival in the Ames Monitor, a Re- 
publican paper, whose first number was issued 
August 20, 1885, by E. W. Clark. It passed 
into the hands of H. R. Crenshaw & Son, in 
April, 1886, and expired in July, following. 
During this year, also, the Message, a religious 
monthly, issued by Editor Everly, published a 
few numbers. 

The post-office established at the college in 
1862 was called College Farm, its postmasters 
being W 7 . H. Fitzpatrick, appointed April 23, 

1862; A. J. Travis, June 17, 1864, and H. F. 
Kingsbury, September 27, 1865. On January 
15, 1866, the name was changed to Ames, and 
the following postmasters have been appointees 
under it: H. F. Kingsbury; L. Q. Hoggatt, 
April 13, 18611; S. L. Lucas, June 2, 1871; 
Mrs. Hattie Lucas, February 25, 1876; John 
Watts, February 4, 1884; Parley Sheldon, Oc- 
tober 19, 1885, and John E. Duncan, January 
9, 1890. The report of the week ending May 
12, 1890, shows its growth in capacity — first- 
class matter mailed, 2,636 letters and 460 
cards; second-class, 713 pieces; third-class, 
105, and fourth-class, 18. 

Colo, with its wagons of produce backed up 
at the depot, its busy grain and stock ship- 
pers, its creamery and its lumber yard, was in- 
tended for business from the first. It had the 
honor of inaugurating railway trade in Story 
County and so beginning a new epoch in her 
history. It was the most western finger-tip of 
the railway iron-hands that reached out into 
Iowa in the winter of 1863-64, and with it 
John I. Blair, the Cedar Rapids & Missouri 
River Railway town-maker, pointed to this spot 
as the first station in Story County, with which 
to first dump that hungry crew of speculators 
who follow close upon the wheels of the last 
construction train. It was intended for busi- 
ness, and, as the terminus lay here winter- 
locked, he began to lay out a town on his rail- 
way swamp-lands, secured a post-office, and, it 
seems, named it affectionately after a pet ca- 
nine, which his new railway had cruelly crushed. 
The new office was established May 18, 1861, 
with Oscar F. Gear as the first postmaster, and 
a depot on the site of the present one was the 
first building. These arrangements however, did 
not count on a counter-claim to this land held 
by Hon. J. L. Dana, now of Nevada, and the re- 
sult was that defective title stopped everything 
until Mr. Dana's claim was made good, in 1865, 

-± — *£\ 


and a new plat was made and recorded in May, 
with the old as Blair's Addition. Lots were at 
once sold, and C. H. Mcintosh built the first 
house and store on Front Street, northwest of 
the depot, in the original plat. J. W. Bishop 
followed, as the first mechanic, merchant, black- 
smith, wagon-maker, and painter, who built on 
Main Street, southeast corner of Fourth. With- 
in a year or so, J. W. Kinsell became a mer- 
chant, also William Sellers located, and Bald- 
win & Maxwell of Iowa Center, put a branch 
house just south of the depot. County Super- 
intendent J. H. Franks lived there, and C. 
Gross opened a store too. J. H. Vorhees 
opened a hotel just north of the depot on Front 
Street. On account of the larger population to 
the country south of the track, business seemed 
inclined to settle on Main Street, and from that 
time on — early seventies — it has clung to a 
couple of blocks on that street. While the 
population has not reached but about 400, the 
amount of business as a shipping point has 
grown to the proportions of many larger towns 
in the county. For 1889 the average monthly 
shipment was 15 cars of live-stock and 20 
cars of grain. During May, 1890, 450 cases 
of eggs and 38,000 pounds of butter were 

P. W. Hopkins and H. Cumming are two pri- 
vate bankers; Gales & Reed's creamery does a 
good business ; Stewart & Cody are large horse 
buyers, while C. F. Wiggins deals more in cat- 
tle and hogs; W. A. Miller and Vail & Brown 
handle grain and coal, and lumber is kept by 
G. H. Richardson. L. C. Adams, H. Cumming. 
J. W. Kinsell, Lax & Hefley, John Niland and 
others are the leading business firms. There 
are no brick buildings. Two hotels, the 
Commercial and Colo, are on Frout Sreet. 
There have been no newspapers. The postmas- 
ters have been as follows: Oscar F. Gear, May 
18, 1864; J. H. Vorhees, September 27, 1865, 

James Dayton, April 9, 1867; J. H. Vorhees, 
July 15, 1867; Samuel L. Bailey, March 23, 
1869; M. J. Hanks, July 8, 1872; John W. 
Kinsell, September 11, 1874; John R. McCoy, 
November 3, 1885; and W. A. Miller, April 9, 
1889. Dr. White was the first physician, and 
among others who followed him were Drs. Fra- 
zee, Daugherty, McTavish and J. I. Hostetter, 
the last only being left. 

Incorporation became necessary March 2, 
1876, and the list of mayors from the first to 
present reads thus: S. L. Bailey, 1876-77; P. 
E. Granger, 1878; Leroy Wilkins, 1879; I. S. 
French, 1880; W. S. Morgan, 1881; P. E. 
Granger, 1882; A. T. Bartlett. 1883; W. A. 
Miller, 1884-85; and Henry Yeager, 1886 to 
the present. The council has built several 
small slough bridges and done a great deal of 
drainage, while in 1880 a town hall was erected 
at the cost of $700. 

Their fraternity inclinations first took form in 
June, 1870, when a dispensation was granted 
to Columbia Lodge No. 292, F. & A. M., and 
a charter granted June 8, 1871. 

The next organization was formed November i 
3, 1883, J. B. Steadman Post No. 238, G. A. 
R., named in honor of the distinguished gen- 
eral. Their first members and officers were 
John O'Niel, C. ; P. W. Hopkins, S. V. C. ; 
William Sapp, J. V. C. ; I. S. French, O. of 
D. ; J. T. Graves, O. of G. ; A. M. Norris, Q. ; 
S. Pontious, chaplain ; J. Daugherty, S. ; D. P. 
Wood, Adj.; A. Ladd, S. M. ; H. C. French, J. 
B. Kindig, S. F. Griffin, Robert Hefley and 
John Reynolds. They have used successively 
the " Church of God," Masonic Hall and their 
own since 1888, and have about $300 in prop- 
erty. They now have twenty-two members. 
Their successive commanders are John O'Neil, 
1883 ; I. S. French, 1884; O'Neil, 1885 ; John H. 
Shammo, 1886; J. C. Sawtell, 1887; W. W. 
Brunei-, 1888; J. M. Elmore, 1889; and John 


O'Neil, 1890. They have also organized a 
Woman's Relief Corps. 

Sheldahl was the outgrowth of the Narrow 
Gauge railway that appeared from Des Moines 
in 1874, and of the desire of the Norwegian 
and Swede population of the southwest corner 
of the county to have a railway station; for it 
must be remembered that the Narrow Gauge, 
now the Des Moines & Minneapolis branch of 
the North- Western Railway, is a sort of dividing 
line between a Sweden on the west and a Nor- 
way on the east in that region. While Messrs. 
Polk & Hubble, of this railway, were locating 
stations, H. Sheldahl, the owner of land in the 
Story County corner, D. McGraw, the Polk 
County owner, and Mr. Hopkins, owner of the 
Boone County corner of this site, tried to get 
the station there. Hon, Oley Nelson, a leader 
among the Norwegian people, tried to secure 
the location farther north in one county to 
avoid school district inconvenience, which was 
certain to follow in a town located in three 
counties, and also because a site farther north 
was higher land. Mr. Sheldahl, who had 
secured the land since its entry February 1, 
1856, by Dr. J. W. Morris, of Des Moines, 
offered twenty-five acres for the site and 
secured it, and the name of the Sheldahl 
family was used. In August, 1874, an engineer, 
Mr. Pelton and Mr. Oley Nelson laid out the 
town. The Boone County line was named 
Fifth Street, and the street on the line between 
Story and Polk Counties was called County 
Avenue, and this proved to be the leading 
street, for the. depot grounds were laid out just 
north of it in Story, and the first business was 
planted on it east of the depot. Hon. Oley 
Nelson built a warehouse on the depot grounds 
first, and was the postmaster from the first 
until 1882. Buildings went up at once in 
1874 on County Avenue. Mr. Nelson put up 
the first store on Block 15; L. Soderland built 

i one on Lot 10; within a year J. N. Scott, of 
Cambridge, moved his drug store to Block 16; 
C. C. Holm built a shoe shop. Others came in 
during the next four years who were almost 
without exception Norwegian, until the pop- 
ulation reached probably 500. Business still 
kept to County Avenue east of the railway. C. 
J. Cassell built a grist-mill; and an elevator. 
recently burned, was erected by Evans Bros., 
of Ames. The residence portion was north- 
west, west and south of the business center. 

After 1878 everything was at a standstill 
until the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Rail- 
way came into the county a little to the north 
of them in 1881. As trade had been done 
largely with Des Moines, it was at once felt 
that the new trunk line would offer such ad- 
vantages to shippers to the Chicago market, 
that some town would arise to destroy Shel- 
dahl, unless the road could be persuaded to 
come to it. An attempt was made, but of no 
avail, and the railway in 1881 took the course 
it has now. Then there was a general desire 
to get over on the trunk line, at Madrid, Shel- 
dahl Crossing, or Cambridge. Every one 
wanted to dispose of his pi'operty, and the de- 
preciation in price was wonderful. Some went 
to one town and some to another. A large 
mass remained in suspense, not knowing what 

I to do, until 1887, when a general meeting of 
citizens was held, and it was voted to move 
bodily to Sheldahl Crossing — houses, business, 
homes and all. This was done at once, and 
further notice will be taken of it in the sketch 
of Slater. From that time on, Sheldahl has 
been dwindling to a station and corners — a 

! "deserted village" in fact. On the Story 
County side there is but one grocery, while a 
general store, grocery and furniture, hardware, 
post-office and feed-mill are the extent of its 
business center, with a population of less than 
100. It is a good shipping point, the charges 



on freight received for May, 1890, being $147.- 
22, and for forwarding $2,002.19, the latter 
being about twice that of an average month. 

They have two churches, but no newspapers, 
banks, or secret societies. They have held to 
their old incorporation. The grain shipment 
keeps the town in existence; nearly $2,000 in 
charges for forwarding being on grain alone. 

In her palmy days Sheldahl had two news- 
papers at different times. The Sheldahl 
Journal came out in a new dress, May 7, 1880, 
and with seven columns in folio. The editor, 
W. G. Cambridge, avowed his Republican in- 
tentions, and all went well until January 7, 
1881, Charles H. Lee secured it, and for a time 
had a partner — Rash. A. L. Rowen succeeded 
Lee in December, 1881, but the spring flowers 
of 1882 bloomed over its grave, and a juvenile 
effort, called the Iowa Cyclone, ran long enough 
to celebrate both its own and the Journal's 

Kelley is a little clump of elevator, depot, 
store, tile and brick works, all compactly set in 
around the depot of the Des Moines & Minne- 
apolis Branch of the Chicago & North- Western 
Railway, between Slater and Ames, and with a 
population of about eighty persons. This site 
was entered July 20, 1855, by Thomas E. Judd, 
and it lay idle until the arrival of the Narrow 
Gauge Railway in 1874; then Bardwell & 
Bardwell opened a store, and laid out the town 
in August, 1875, on both sides of the township 
line. They afterward sold out to Shields & 
Cook, and later Mr. A. Wortnian secured it, 
and with the creamery is the leader of the 
place ; this together with the fine tile works of 
J. M. Stark makes the leading business of the 
place. The grain shipment is large, and with 
the creamery business and tile interests the 
town leads a busy life. The postmasters have 
been as follows: H. R. Bardwell, June 8, 1875; 
W. Peckard, January 31, 1876; M. C. Stevens, 

April 3, 1876; J. McCoy, June 7, 1880; J. M. 
Tanner, April 19, 1887; A. Wortman, April 8, 

Collins boasts of 275 people, and a goodly 
number of these are retired farmers. The lit- 
tle plat lying north of the St. Paul tracks and 
grounds and Railroad Street spreads its bus- 
iness along Main Street to the north, and pre- 
sents a thriving appearance, as the capital of 
Collins Township should. Its comely elevators 
and depot, too, look business-like ; and the aver- 
age monthly charges on received freight, 
$355.17, and $1,082.65 on that forwarded, with 
$119.04 for ticket sales, show that it does 
not belie its appearance. This is not bad for 
a St. Paul eight-year-old. 

Collins began really about a mile to the 
northeast, about 1875, in the store of James 
Plumb. This was afterward secured by James 
Chapman, who obtained the establishment of 
Collins Center post-office January 20, 1879. 
Then, almost three years later, the Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway line concluded 
to have a station on the present site. This had 
been entered September 25, 1855, by J. S. 
Easley and Edgar Beardsley ; but by this time 
Henry and John Angelo had secured the land, 
and the former sold it to the railway company, 
i. c, an east and west forty acres. The east 
forty acres has since been vacated, although 
both were platted and recorded in February, 
1882. Before it was platted Riley Hampton 
built a hotel, and the plat placed him on the 
back end of his lot, and he had to move. The 
second house was erected by C. W. Eatherton. 
About third was the Hidy Bros.' store, the first 
on Main and Railroad Streets, and now used as 
a warehouse. Very soon James Chapman and 
the post-office came in, and the name changed 
on December 9, 1881. Mr. Woods, the Brad- 
shaw Bros., the Ozmun Bros, and others also 
built in the spring following. Business sprang 





up very much, as at present, within two years. 
The only perceptible growth since has been in 
the residence portion, which is chiefly west of 
Main Street. Brick buildings have not ap- 
peared yet. The Exchange Bank, Charles 
Mead, president, and James Hanson, cashier, 
was established in 1889. There are two large 
elevators, one of which uses steam. 

The relative importance of various lines of 
business has been estimated as follows, mak- 
ing a very liberal allowance for the single item 
of the tendency of retired farmers to settle. 
Grain and stock leads, followed by general 
merchandise; banking, of course, is large for 
this sized place; lumber has been a large ele- 
ment from the first opening of the depot, while 
machinery and furniture would be mentioned 
next. Other businesses naturally depend 011 

The mail has been handled since Mr. Chap- 
man's time by the following persons: S. J. 
Shearer, November 19, 1883; A. P. Edgar, 
December 7, 1885; C. E. Campbell, March 2, 
1886 ; James B. Hanson, December 4, 1889. 

The Odd Fellows, Good Templars and Ma- 
sons have gained a footing here. Collins 
Lodge No. 191, I. O. G. T., was organized May, 
1889, with Albert Jones, C. T., and has increased 
to a flourishing membership of eighty-three 
persons. Amity Lodge No. 361, 1. O. O. F., 
was formed August >\ 1889, with J. P. Wells, 
J. W. Ozmun, J. C. Patton, I. Ozmun, C. C. 
Shackleford and S. W. Poorbaugh as charter 
members. Mr. W T ells was the first noble grand, 
and has been succeded by W. H. Thompson. 
They now have thirty-nine members, and about 
$350 in property. The Masons have not yet 

Zearing is the child of the Central Iowa & 
North-Western Railway — the first born in Story 
County, and withal a comely one, as it rests on 
the side of a long and gentle declivity of 

prairie in a beautiful part of the county. Zear- 
ing is robust, too, in its business as a shipping 
point, and as bright as robust. Still more, it 
is growing, and has been from the first in both 
extent and activity. Main Street, with its rows 
of business houses lying parallel to and above 
the railway, seems formed purposely to gather 
stock, grain and produce, and roll it down into 
the ever greedy mouth of the freight car. No 
town in the county feeds the monster much 
better. It is but nine years old, and has about 
300 inhabitants. 

A non-resident, Chester B. Clark, entered 
the land August 20, 1855, and then years 
passed, 1865, 1875, and one day late in 1881, 
the owner, E. G. Richardson, received a prop- 
osition from the new railway to locate a town, 
if he would give the right of way, five acres and 
land for switches, with half of the lots of a 
twenty-acre plat. It was done, and in Novem- 
ber. 1881, the town was a reality. The rail- 
way tried to name it Ashurst, but Mr. Rich- 
ardson named it after a Mr. Zearing, of Chicago, 
who promised some pecuniary aid. Mr. Rich- 
ardson's home was the first house on the plat, 
and was a log one. Very soon several busi- 
ness houses arose on Main, near Center Street, 
the first being those of "Gus" Tuttle and 
James Williams. Others sprang up rapidly on 
the north side of the street on two blocks: 
William Calhoun, in agricultural implements; 
Patton & Johnson, in hardware; W. Brooks, 
with a general store; A. W r . Squires, as post- 
master; Gordon Wood, as grocer; the Willits 
drug store; Joseph Ingram, with groceries; 
Burkhart & Hix, with lumber; John Rodgers, 
as blacksmith; J. Golly, in the hotel line; Dr. 
S. F. Newton, as a physician, and so on. The 
south side of the street soon built up, and with- 
in a year or so business was determined much 
as it is at present, as far as business rooms are 
concerned. There has been no "boom" since, 



but the steady growth has been most marked 
in home improvements. 

The sinews of the town are the grain and 
coal trade, headed by Ira Barnes, for the St. 
Paul & Kansas City Grain Company; N. 11. 
Clift, for the Brackett & Stoddard Company; 
E. G. Kichardson, in the cattle and hog busi- 
ness; in general merchandise, Smith Brothers 
and McConnell & Thatcher; witli hardware, F. 
Wohlheter and J. Tisdale; J. C. Burkhart, in 
lumber; A. D. Hix, W. Smith and C. A. Burk- 
hart, in groceries, while among others may be 
mentioned such firms as the Welton drug store, 
the Harter furniture store, two meat markets, 
two millinery stores, two repair shops, Clift & 
Fry's implement store, a job printing office and 
others. The Flowing Well Creamery, by D. O. 
Fenton, is a considerable institution. Two ele- 
vators were built about 1882-83, the Barnes 
having a capacity of 80,000 bushels, to facili- 
tate the heavy shipments of oats and corn. 

The Farmers Bank of Zearing, private, was 
founded in 1887, by B. A. Armstrong. Very 
soon it was sold to N. B. Clift and the capital 
made $10,000. Their correspondents are the 
First National Bank of Chicago and the first 
National Bank of Marshalltown. 

The place was incorporated in 1883 with A. 
M. Williams as the first mayor. His succes- 
sors have been: Joseph Johnson, 1884-85; C. 
Burgess, 188(5; J. H. V. Willits, 1887; N. B, 
Clift, 1888-89, and J. S. Smith, 1890. Little 
has been done outside of routine business, ex- 
cept the establishment of a good system of 
sidewalks. They have also prompted the or- 
ganization of a local company which will soon 
lay out an addition. 

The post-office has been occupied by the 
following servants of "Uncle Sam:" A. W. 
Squires^ December 20, 1881; John C. Burk- 
hart, May 8, 1882; A. D. Hix, October 28, 
1885; William H. Schafer, May 13, 1889. 

Several modest newspaper efforts have been 
made. The Zearing Begister, a diminutive 
paper edited by A. W. Lewis, began January 
26, 1883, and lasted about a year. The Cruci- 
ble, by Morton Kuhn, ran from October, 1885, 
for a time. The Branch, by H. B. Miller, ran 
from August, 1887, to about October, 1889. 
All of these were small folios. 

Four societies have had their birth in Zear- 
ing, the Masonic, the Odd Fellows, the Good 
Templars and the Grand Army of the Bepub- 
lic. Electric Lodge No. 333, I. O. O. F., was 
chartered on October 18, 1883, by H. O. Nor- 
ton, N. G. ; E. A. Allen, V. G. ; A. M. Williams, 
secretary; E. G. Bichardson, treasurer; J. M. 
Ingram, G. D. Williams, F. S. Newton and J. 
M. Allen. Their membership has since in- 
creased to twenty-three persons, with E. G. 
Bichardson as the last noble grand. About 
two years later, on June 4, 1885, Pacific 
Lodge No. 409, A. F. & A. M., received a 
charter with the following officers: H. N. 
Bogers, W. M. ; E. C. Wallace, S. W. ; M. M. 
Dunham, J. W. ; Edwin Gross, treasurer; W. 
H. Brooks, secretary ; George Barnard, S. D. ; 

E. G. Bichardson, J. D. ; Joseph Bogers, tyler; 
D. D. Dunham, S. S. ; and H. T. Dimmitt, J. S., 
with five other members. They have reached 
as high as forty-two members, but now enroll 
but thirty-one. The successive worshipful mas- 
ters have been : Messrs. H. N. Bogers, E. C. 
Wallace, H. N. Bogers. George Barnard and J. 
S. Smith. It was not until October 18, 1887, 
that the Good Templar lodge was formed, 
with nineteen members, by A. M. Allen and 
Bev. Yerger, of Story City. They now have 
twenty-eight enrolled. Their chief templars 
have been: J. Q. Burgess, F. S. Newton, J. 

F. Beed, Mrs. Clift, J. F. Beed, N. B. Clift 
and Sidney Clift. A post of the Grand Army 
of the Bepublic is also in operation — Andrew 
Pattern Post No. 239, G. A. K., named in honor 



of Dr. Andrew Patton, deceased, of Nevada. 
It was organized October 16, 1883, by C. H. 
Brock, of Marshalltown, with the following 
officers: J. C. Burkhart, C. ; Ira Barnes, S. V. 
C. ; S. R. Davis, O. D. ; D. E. Weatherly, Q. 
M. ; H. F. Dimmit, O. G. ; Gordon "Wood, J. V. 
C. ; T. E. Delaney, adjutant ; M. Hamilton, S. 
at A., and I. F. Oldenburg, Q. M. S. Very 
soon the post was presented a choice steel en- 
graving of Dr. Patton mounted on his war- 
horse ; it was the gift of Mrs. Patton, and is 
highly valued by the post. Their membership 
has grown to twenty-six, and their headquar- 
ters are the Odd Fellows' hall. The succes- 
sive commanders are: J. C. Burkhart, 1883- 
^85; M. V. Bump, 1886; J. C. Burkhart, 1887; 
Ira Barnes, 1888-89, and W. H. Shafer, 1890. 

The railroad business of the place is illus- 
trated by the following figures for an average 
month : Charges for forwarded matter, $1,386.- 
88; for receipts, $788.64. 

Huxley is a young Norwegian station, with 
a clump of houses between a church and the 
depot, and two or three stores at the east side, 
and all north of the railway track. The site 
was owned by Mr. Oleson, who claimed such 
damages that the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
Paul Railway Land Company bought him out, 
and laid out the town in February, 1882. 
Oleson & Mickelsou had the first store. There 
is now not more than three stores and a popu- 
lation of fifty to seventy-five Norwegians. 
The land was entered by Rebecca McDaniel in 
May, 1855. The postmasters are Jacob Steen- 
sou, June 1, 1882, and Ole L. Hatteberg, since 
April 22, 1890. It is a Considerable Nor- 
wegian shipping point. 

Maxwell and Iowa Center are really part- 
ners who control the rolling, wooded banks of 
the Indian Creek, there securing a footing by 
which to attract the trade of many miles of 
prairie. It is laid out on the edge of the 

prairie with a background of native forest; 
it seems built to attract the keen, bustling 
Yankee business man ; at least that is what it 
lias done, and Maxwell's reputation for a live 
class of business men is acknowledged wher- 
ever known. Maxwell is feverish, congested; 
her hands are full; she needs more houses and 
more men to do the business to be done. She 
is clean-cut and intelligent, the brightest, 
busiest, cleanest of the St. Paul's numerous 
progeny in Story County. And all this with 
about 600 people — live people though, and 
scarcely more than eight years old at that. 
Her trade is extensive, too — her market prices 
seem to have a power of gravitation for the 
country producer, that reaches out a long dis- 
tance. Her most vital lines of business are 
stock shipment and general merchandise, the 
latter especially represented by Baldwin & 
Maxwell and J. G. Wells & Co. and others. 
These two lines of business stock and merchan- 
dise, stand pre-eminently above all others, and 
furnish the sinew of the town. Next to this 
would probably come grain, with that of butter, 
eggs and poultry next. Following this it 
would be difficult to distinguish between bank- 
ing and lumber and coal, while the tile and 
brick interests might at one time come next, 
although the R. R. Thompson & Co.'s factory, 
established several years since, with a trade 
that warranted the planting of a side-track to 
their works, are not running at present. 

But how did it all come about? Did John 
G. Wood, as he entered this site on May 10, 
1853, imagine that a town would arise on it? 
Probably not, and 1863 came, then 1873 passed, 
and almost 1883 came before there was any 
thought of it, meanwhile Iowa Center held its 
own, as has been already indicated. Mr. 
Daniel Brubaker owned the land. The St. Paul 
Railway will not go to Iowa Center, so " Mo- 
hammed goes to the mountain," and Baldwin 


& Maxwell secure the laud, give Hie railway 
one-half the plat aucl right-of-way, and the 
railway lays it out. This is recorded in De- 
cember, 1881. The plat was very regular, and 
all lay north of the track. J. O. French opened 
his lumber yard as the first business. Early in 
the spring of 1882 Albert H. McNall built 
the first store-room on the corner of First and 
Main Streets, and the signal was given for 
business to begin to line Main Street. Bald- 
win & Maxwell, the latter of whose name the 
town bears, moved to their present quarters, 
which became their main store, and other 
"Center" people moved in. Charles Heitchn 
next built a hardware on the southwest corner 
of Main and First Streets, and was soon fol- 
lowed in the same line by Ed. Raft on the 
northeast corner of Broad and Main. Nearby 
arose a grocery for N. B. Wilcox, of Iowa 
Center. The hotel at the corner of Railroad 
Avenue and Maiu followed, and Boweu's Hotel 
arose on the corner of Maiu and Second Streets. 
The building occupied by Dickey & Hill came 
about next, and King & Starr's creamery also. 
King, Starr <fe Co. erected the first brick block, 
and Cooper & Co. opened a furniture store. 
Mr. Roe's store and the drug store of George 
Benedict were about all erected in 1882. That 
was a year of boom. Since then the growth 
has been more steady, but continuous, while 
the amount of business has surpassed the 
growth. The growth is now marked in the 
line of residences. Maxwell has hardly passed 
the robust youth state yet. Her manufacture 
is represented by the creamery and tile and 
brick factory, the former now operated by the 
Co-operative Farmers' Association. Of two 
elevators, one has a capacity of about 12,000 
bushels, the other being smaller and containing 
a steam feed mill. The Bank of Maxwell, es- 
tablished by E. D. Dorn, in 1884, and after- 
ward bought by H. A. Church, has been owned 

by Clark McLain since August, 1889. Its 
correspondents are the Union National and the 
First National Banks of Chicago and Nevada, 
respectively. And this is how it all came about. 

Maxwell was an incorporated town after De- 
cember, 1883, and the election of January 21, 
1884, gave the following council: Mayor, J. 
W. Maxwell; councilmen, J. O. French, Will- 
iam Starr, W. G. Dickey, G. W. Olinger, S. E. 
Cooper and T. B. Schmeltzer, with J. F. Allen 
as recorder. Aside of the establishment of a 
good system of sidewalks, and a town well in 
1884, little else has been done outside of the 
regular routine of council work. Other things 
will be cared for in the future. The successive 
mayors are: J. W. Maxwell, 1884; S. T. 
Goodman, 1885; J. O. French, 1886-87; W. 
M. Starr, 1888-89; and J. G. Wells, 1890. 

The newspaper has had as vigorous a career 
as the town that supports it. The first issue of 
a paper began November 30, 1882. It was the 
Maxwell Times, edited by W. D. McTavish, and 
in form was a five-column folio, of Republican 
tone. This was removed a few months later, 
and the present Maxwell Tribune, of the same 
size, started out on December 28, 1883, as an 
Independent-Republican news-gatherer, and ed- 
ited by L. R. Shepherd. J. F. Allen became 
partner ill 1884, and sole proprietor in 1885, 
but Mr. Shepherd soon re-secured it, as a seven- 
column folio. The office uses steam-power, and 
does stereotyping, and besides its own paper, 
issues the Garland, of Cambridge. 

Two well-known fraternities were Maxwell's 
Pioneers, in 1883, and the Good Templars and 
Grand Army organized in the following year. 
Social Lodge No. 463, I. O. O. F., was organ- 
ized April 3, 1883, by D. McKim, D. D. G. M., 
with T. B. Schmeltzer, N. G. ; F. A. Jackson, 
V. G. ; J. O. French, Secy. ; R. W. Roe, Treas. ; 
and D. M. Ruth, W. H. Bair, as charter mem- 
bers and officers. The lodge has grown pros- 




perous and increased to sixty members, with 
several hundred dollars of loaned money out. 
Their noble grands have been: T. B. Smeltzer, 
1883-84; F. A. Jackson, 1884; S. E. Cooper, 
1885; J. G. Wells, 1885; J. W. Maxwell, 1886; 
J. P. Wells, 1880; George Benedict, 1887; F. 
W. Hill, 1887 ; J. G. Wells, 1888 ; T. B. Schmelt- 
zer, 1889; W. J. Venemon, 1889; George F. 
Berlin, 1890, and F. M. McClure, 1890. On 
September 24 following the Odd Fellows es- 
tablishment, Herald Lodge No. 455, A. F. & 
A. M., was formed under dispensation to J. W. 
Maxwell, W. M. ; S. T. Goodman, S. W. ; James 
H. Schuyler, J. W. ; R. E. Thompson, C. A. 
Wood, John Thompson, Henry Funk, W. W. 
Carr, D. F. Shope, C. H. Dickey, M. M. Ran- 
dall, W. G. Dickey, A. Laughery, F. H. Hig- 
ley and John Clevesly. A charter was granted 
the following June, and the society has grown 
until it now owns its hall and other property, 
valued at $1,000. Its membership is sixty-four. 
Mr. Maxwell's successors as worshipful master 
are: S. T. Goodman, 1887-88 ;C. M. Morse, 1889, 
and J. H. Schuyler, 1890. Maxwell Lodge, 
I. O. G. T., existed from March, 1884, to De- 
cember, 1886, when a fire destroyed their hall 
and its contents. James H Ewiug Post No. 
305, organized March 20, 1884, has fared bet- 
ter. They began with twenty-eight charter 
members, and have increased to forty-two, 
although their property was destroyed by the 
same fire, and also erected in 1887 a hall, with 
property valued at $600. Their first officers 
were: C. H. Dickey, C. ; W. M. Starr, S. V. C. ; 
J. Bowen, J. V. C.*; John Cole, Q. M. ; W. J. 
Venemon, O. D. ; Giles Rnndlett, D. ; John 
Doty, C. ; H. Dick, O. G. ; C. M. Morse, Adjt. ; 
D. H. Sacia, S. M. ; George Hardenbrook, Q. 
M. S. The successive commanders have been 
W. M. Starr, Jesse R. Wood, C. M. Morse, W. 
M. Starr and Jesse Bowen. The post was 
named in honor of James H. Ewing, of Com- 

pany E, Third Iowa Infantry, who was killed at 
the battle of Shiloh. The Iowa Legion of 
Honor have also a society. 

The masters of mails at Maxwell have been 
as follows: Albert H. McNall, February 14, 
1882; Daniel M. Ruth, December 3, 1885, and 
Celine Laughery, March 19, 1889. 

McCallsburg, with its grain-bins and eleva- 
tors, bristled up on the prairies of Warren 
Township, although it is and has been a large 
shipping point, has grown very slowly until 
within the last two years, since which it has 
sprung to about 100 population. There have 
been few of the numerous railway offspring of 
Story County that have passed through severer 
struggles to get a name. When the Story City 
Branch Railway was surveyed in 1881, Hon. H. 
E. J. Boardman, of Marshalltown, and Capt. T. 
C. McCall, of Nevada, arranged to lay out a 
plat of forty acres, mostly on the south side of 
the track, where Main Street was made, a 
block distant from and parallel to the track. 
The construction company called the station 
Boardman, but as the proprietors reserved that 
right to themselves, it was decided between 
them that one should pay the other $50 and 
name it. Mr. Boardman's choice of name was 
Gookin, his mothers maiden name, while Capt. 
McCall, on the same grounds, chose Sinclair, 
and because of its more euphonious sound, the 
lot fell to Capt. McCall, and the place was 
called Sinclair. While arrangements were 
pending to secure a post-office and Capt. McCall 
was busy at the capitol at Des Moines, the rail- 
way company had received the track and se- 
cured a post-office named after an official — La- 
trobe. Capt. McCall's name, Sinclair, could 
not be used by the post-office department, but 
he still had the right to name it under the 
agreement, and as his friend would not release 
him he concluded to use his own name. 

In the fall of 1881 the first store was built 





by a very numerous man — John Smith — on the 
northwest corner of Main and C Streets, and 
was followed by Smith Brothers. The next 
store was that of N. B. Churchill, or about the 
same time John A. Boston and Mr. Solyst. 
Changes were very numerous, both in men and 
firms, but business fastened itself on Main 
Street, between B and C Streets. 

The grain and implement business leads in 
the persons of J. P. Hesson, and Hendrickson 
& Griffith for the St. Paul & Kansas City Grain 
Company. Both of these firms have elevators, 
and large bins, and this has become one of the 
largest shipping points in the country. 

Samuel Reid and the Boston Company lead 
in general merchandise. Reid & Silliman head 
the hardware trade, while a large stock busi- 
ness is carried on by John Peck, J. P. Hesson, 
and others, with a few other firms of the usual 

Although no innovations of a metropolitan 
nature have been made, there is one in the 
newspaper line which deserves mention, namely 
the Northern Light, a diminutive local sheet, 
published by a boy, J. E. Lewis, during the 
Latrobe days. 

The postmasters have been J. W. Smith, 
February 23, 1882 (name changed from La- 
trobe to McCallsburg, February 23, 1883); A. 
B. Griffith, December 29, 1886; and J. H. Bos- 
ton, May 23, 1889. 

Roland, unlike any other town in Story 
County, arose from the Grange movement. It 
has been a Scandinavian community from the 
first, and surrounded by rich Norwegian farms 
and thrifty wealth. Like Chicago, the great 
English critic, Matthew Arnold, would call it 
"beastly prosperous." It seems to be a part 
of the country around more than almost any 
other center in the county; while its strong 
Norwegian stamp and the striking abseuce of 
Democrats give it a quaint, quiet and unique 

air among its sister towns in Story County. It 
has nearly 300 inhabitants, it is thought, and 
schools and churches that are their pride, al- 
though they have shown no tendency to have 
the usual secret societies, newspapers, and in- 
corporation that the American town usually 
aspires to at a very early stage in its career. 
The land was entered June 14, 1855, by Jacob 
Erickson. As the community increased in 
Norwegian farmers, there arose occasional union 
of effort, and in the early seventies the Grange 
movement found a ready hearing, resulting in 
the organization of Norway Grange No. 218. 
Very soon a Grange store was proposed, and in 
June, 1873, Jonas Duea & Co. built the 
store on the site of the present school- 
house. The associates of Mr. Duea were John 
Evenson, Paul Thompson and Abel Oleson. 
After several changes in the firm, a new build- 
ing was erected opposite the Norwegian Lu- 
theran Church for filestore in which Mr. Even- 
sou and Mr. Duea were the active spirits. A 
post-office had been secured May 4, 1870, with 
Jonas Duea as postmaster, and although ad- 
ministrations " may come and they may go," 
he seems to keep right on "forever. 1 ' The 
name, Roland, unusual and easy to spell, was 
suggested by Mr. Evenson in memory of a cer- 
tain legendary character of ancient Norway. 
With the post-office and store came Albert 
Thompson's blacksmith shop on the site of the 
creamery, and the wagon shops of Ole and An- 
drew Axelton within three or four years. This 
went on until on December 3, 1880, a three-mill 
tax was voted for the new railway from Mar- 
shalltown to Story City. The track got through 
just in time, the last day of October, 1881. 
Jacob Erickson, who had contracted with the 
company to plat thirty acres on the south side 
of the track and give alternate lots, died June 
27, 1881, and although the survey was made 
the next autumn, the settlement of the estate 



delayed the official recognition of the plat until 
March, 1883. The depot was erected in 1881, 
and business at once sprang up on Main Street. 
A hardware store on the post-office site was 
the first on the plat, and closely following this 
was Evenson's removal to this street, the erec- 
tion of Gaard's furniture store, the building 
of Solyust & Johnson's grocery. Buildings 
seemed to rise alternately on both sides of the 
street. Abel Oleson opened a general store, 
Barney Jacobs, a grocery; John Axelton, a 
boot and shoe shop; D. Hegland, a hotel, and 
by 1884 it stood much as it stands now as to 
Main Street. The growth since then has been 
chiefly in manufactures and residences. Of 
the former, the Boardman Creamery was al- 
ready established before the railway. Within 
a few years after the railway, the Roland Brick 
& Tile Company, put in a plant valued at about 
$7,000, with a main building 50x60 feet of 
four floors. They use the Brewer machine of 
about 15,000 daily tile capacity, and the Pen- 
field brick machine with patent steam dryer, 
etc. In 1888 it was the second outfit 
in the State. In 1885 Swenson, Thorson & 
Co. built a two-story plant of a size equal 
to 2-1x140 feet, with other houses, track, 
steam-power and the Brewer and Potts ma- 
chines. They have taken first premium at the 
county fairs from the first, and their large ex- 
tra brick find a sale all over the State. The 
Abbott Elevator, built in 1883, is now owned 
by St. Paul & Kansas City Grain Co., and 
Britson's wagon-shop, Oleson's general shop 
and Haaland's blacksmith shop complete the 

The real life of the town depends primarily on 
the following lines of business: The cattle and 
hog trade, led by Duea & Oleson and Sowers & 
Evenson, ei. al. ; the corn and oats market, man- 
aged by the St. Paul & Kansas City Grain Com- 
pany and Duea & Stole; Johnson & Michaelson 

and A. Oleson & Sons in geqeral merchandise ; 
hardware implements by Duea & Stole and 
Britson; lumber by Erickson & Christian; the 
Gaard grocery; the tile factories; drugs by T. 
B. Jones; furniture by P. A. Solem ; with mil- 
linery stores, etc. A good bank is needed. 
The average monthly railway receipts are $600, 
while the forwarding reaches from $1,200 to 

Elwell site was entered by Jacob Emery on 
February 29, 1856. The land west of the 
township road afterward was owned by J. M. 
Griffith, and a plat made on it after the rail- 
way arrived was called Griffithville. The land 
east of the road was owned by Robert Richard- 
son, and the plat made on that south of the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway tracts, 
was named Elwell in December, 1886. Rich- 
ardson & Paine manage the only store and 
creamery and elevator, and are surrounded by 
a population of twenty-five to fifty. It is a 
shipping point of value. Elwell Lodge No. 
473, I. O. G. T., was organized on May 9, 
1889, with forty members, but it disbanded 
the same year. Smith Paine has been the only 
postmaster, appointed March 23, 1882. 

Slater is the capital of Story County's lower 
Norway and Sweden, which reverses the situa- 
tion of the mother countries in Europe, for 
if the North- Western Railway bed be called 
the Scandinavian mountain range, the Swedes 
will be on the west and the Norwegians in 
the country to the east. From the railway 
crossing one looks over a little to the south- 
east and beholds a fresh young town with 
its new paint and new roads, scattered in 
regular order over the treeless prairie in a 
very youthful way. It is not old enough to 
be dignified yet, and it seems as if the mixed 
Norway, Swedish, Danish and American popu- 
lation had hardly got used to itself yet; even 
the Hon. Oley Nelson, the leader and repre- 


sentalive of the foreign races in this part of 
the county, is familiarly spoken of as "Oley." 
But this will all change with age, and Slater 
will be a l-obust young town with more than its 
present 400 people, and abundance of dignity 
when its trees grow up. 

It has been said that in 1874 Mr. Nelson | 
opposed the location of Sheldahl on account of 
its site and the inconvenience of the school dis- 
trict being in three counties. He, however, led 
off in Sheldahl, and for years the land to the 
north, and especially the present site of Slater, 
which was entered by Samuel Moffatt as early 
as August 10, 1855, remained idle lands until 
the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway 
put a depot at the crossing in the summer of 
1884, as provided in the act of the previous | 
Legislature ordering depots at all crossings. 
In the following winter, upon this, A. M. 
Jenks laid out a little plat in the southeast cor- | 
ner of the crossing, composed of five blocks, 
and bearing the name Sheldahl Crossing; the 
railway wanted to call it Pascal. Very soon 
Nels Norman moved a store over from Shel- 
dahl, and a few others started over, and the ex- 
odus from Sheldahl was only a matter of time. 
Then Fred Miller built the elevator and gave 
the grain business a great boom here for the 
next two years. Meanwhile Sheldahl was in 
suspense as to what to do, when a post-office at 
Slater Junction was established March 25, 
1887, with Lewis Askeland postmaster. He 
put up a grocery store also on Lot 0, Block 1, 
and this led to a public meeting at Sheldahl to 
decide what to do; it was soon evident that the 
most of those present were for putting their 
stores and home on wheels and moving with all 
their chicken-coops and fences to the new post- 
office of Slater. Among those who voted to 
do this were Hon. Oley Nelson, M. P. Webb, 
Ben Owens, Ed. H. Miller, George Hellen, C. 
C. Holm, Mr. Ustling, A. A. Lande, O. B. Ap- 

land, W. B. Miller, Dr. E. A. Rawson, L. 
Gamrath, John Johnson, August Peterson, M. 
Clark. S. Vinset, K. P. Hanson, J. N. Scott, G. 
Reynius and others. Mr. Jenks at once laid 
out a strip of blocks east and south of the for- 
mer plat under the title, Slater Junction, and 
offered twenty-five lots to as many people who 
would move over buildings or build from Shel- 
dahl. During that summer, too, the entire 
name was changed to Slater. Twenty-five 
men, headed by Mr. Nelson, came over and 
examined the site to choose their lots. Mr. 
Nelson was given first choice and he took Lot 
12 on First Avenue (Block 7). The rest all 
picked out on both sides of the avenue, between 
Story and Second Streets, and business was 
fastened as at present. Some speculators had 
quietly bought up Main Street, thinking that 
business would be there, but they have been 
disappointed. During the summer about 
fiftv-five buildings were moved over to these 
and other sites and more were built until the 
town was much as it is now. This movement 
cost probably about $0,000, but it is more 
than made up in increased price of their Slater 

With about 400 population, Slater's business 
has grown until the railway crossing, with its 
leading importance, has made grain, produce 
and poultry take the lead. Stock shipment 
would follow closely after this, and general 
merchandise next. There is no doubt that 
school facilities have been a leading factor not 
far beyond the above in drawing in and keep- 
ing a large share of the population. Bank- 
ing and foreign exchange in the hands of 
Mr. Nelson is a very important feature, and 
implement sale, the importation and breeding 
of fine stock would follow next. Blacksmith- 
ing, the Slater Scoop & Dump Board Com- 
pany, a wagon shop, and a very extensive clock 
and watch trade by George Hellen also are 




of value to the town's activity. There are the 
usual number of other business firms, hotels, 
etc., to be found in a place of this size. The 
average receipt charges for an average month 
from both roads is about §100. Slater was 
incorporated in 1890 and the first mayor, Alex 
Peterson. The council are Oley Nelson, Dr. 
E. A. Kawson, E. H. Miller, P." Hatfield, A. 
Peterson and B. Owens. Little has been done 
aside from routine business. 

Slater Lodge No. 384, I. O. O. F., was 
changed from Sheldahl Lodge No. 384, which 
received its charter October 17, 1878, with the 
following officers: A. Hollcraft, N. G. : L. 
Schooler, V. G. ; W. B. Miller, E. S. : and J. 
N. Scott, Treas. The lodge has been prosper- 
ous, and now owns about $1,000 in property, 
of which their building, containing the post- 
office, is a part. They have thirty members. 
The following is a list of noble grands from 
the first: A. Hollcraft, W. B. Miller, J. N. 
Scott, A. K. Ersland, C. B. Owen, M. Clark, 
S. W. Snider, M. P. Webb, W. Croft, W. H. 
Porter, Charles Myers and J. H. Larson. 

The press of the town began with the Slater 
News, on January 17, 1890, with Frank B. 
Cramer & Co. at the helm. It is a six-column 
folio. The postmasters have been Lewis Aske- 
land, March 25, 1887, and J. N. Scott, Feb- 
ruary 26, 18S8. 

Gilbert is a late town, laid out in January, 
1889, since which it has sprung to about 100 
population. Its site was entered by Lyman F. 
Wisner and Joshua Saylor, September 8, 1855, 
and H. B. Uinwiddie on August 4, 1855. When 
the railway, now the North-Western, reached 
there, Hezekiah Gilbert, who had been one of 
the most earnest advocates of the railway, was 
made postmaster on April 3, 1878. Then Mr. 
Gilbert, Charles Matthews and J. T Shepherd 
J each offered the railway ten acres, and others 
gave five acres more for a town plat, which was 
mostly west of the track. Gilbert Brothers 
opened the first store on Main Street, and from 
time to time arose an elevator, Gilbert's two 
other buildings, depot, Frank Wilson's store, 
Stewart & Thomas, Oliver's lumber yard, Gil- 
bert Brother's cheese factory, which handles 
5,500 pounds of milk daily, and so on until 
now it has a population of about 125. Graiu, 
stock shipping, general merchandise and lum- 
ber are the order of the leading lines, now, in 
importance. The depot charges for receipts 
average §378 per month, and §2,232 for for- 
warding. It is a large grain point. Frank 
Bently Post No. 89, G. A. E., organized in 
August, 1883, now has eighteen members. The 
postmasters have been H. Gilbert, 1878; F. B. 
Gilbert, June 1, 1880; B. J. Grinnell, Septem- 
ber 4, 1885; and E. B. Stewart, May 14, 1889. 

— » ^m^> 




Education and Learning -Story County's School Facilities— Activity in the Establishment of Educa- 
tional Centers— Financial Provision— Early Records — Pioneer Accommodations— Teachers' 
Institute — Growth of the Public School System— Private Schools— Schools of the 
County at Present— Influence on Her Genkkal Welfare. 

Schoolmasters will I keep within my house 

Fit to instruct her youth. To cunning men 

I will be very kind; and liberal 

To mine own children, in good bringing up. — Shakespea 

Y virtue of her position 
among the States in liter- 
ature and associated ad- 
vanced ideas it follows as 
a matter of course that 
Iowa's school system is 
vigorously managed, and 
aat education holds a 
high place in the hearts of 
all her people. A State that stands 
first among all her sisters in the pro- 
portion of her population who can 
read and write, and almost last in 
the proportion of population in crim- 
inal reformatories, could not be con- 
ceived of as holding any other ideas 
than high ones on the subject of the 
training of her youth. But it may 
be asked, whether there is a difference 
in the vigor shown among the ninety-nine coun- 
ties of the State on this subject, and it could be 
well replied to that there is some difference ; there 
are counties who are leaders in the generous riv- 
alry for good schools, and among these leaders 
is Story County. It is often boasted of the 

State that Iowa began enacting laws for higher 
education in her earliest assemblies; it can 
also be boasted of Story Count)-, that before 
scarcely a half dozen years of her existence 
had passed, she was voting $10,000 to secure 
within her borders one of the two highest in- 
stitutions of learning of the State, and, suc- 
ceeding, she paid it along with the burdens im- 
posed by a civil war. This shows her leaders 
to be men who have valued education at its 

Laying aside private institutions, a county's 
school activities are expressed in the machinery 
of the State, thereby being a part of the State 
in this, probably more than in any other phase 
of her higher life. A cursory glance at the 
code of 1873, with its amendments, may be 
noticed in this connection, although no attempt 
to trace the growth of the legal system from 
the first need be made here. The head of the 
system is the State superintendent of public 
instruction, who has advisory supervision only 
over the county superintendents and the edu- 
cational welfare of the State. It has been de- 
sired by some that his office be more executive 





and vested with larger power, as in some other 
States, but this proposition has never yet met 
with approval. As a sort of standard is the 
State University, and also a perpetual renewer 
of the highest elements of the system. Count}' 
high schools are to the county what the univer- 
sity is to the State, and also a feeder to the 
university. The district township is the next J 
lowest subdivision, while sub-districts are the 
ultimate unit. "Within and yet separate from 
either of these is the independent district, 
which has been primarily intended to enable 
town corporations to meet their peculiar needs, 
but has been, it is thought, in some cases per- 
verted to a wholesale independency of entire 
district townships. The district township is, 
however, the unit of government, while the 
regular county officers carry out their purposes 
as expressed by the township board of directors' 
acts. The county also has its superintendent, 
elected by the people, and, who, like the State 
superintendent, has merely advisory power, his 
duties being the visitation of schools to sug- 
gest and advise, to examine and license teach- 
ers, and to hold county institutes. This office 
is one of the most valuable features of the sys- 
tem, and while some States give it more exec- 
utive power than Iowa, and, as they think, are 
thereby the gainers in its efficiency to the sys- 
tem, Iowa has been content to let it be advisory 
and resting for its power on the personal agi- 
tation and influence of its incumbent, it may 
be said to secure safety by sacrificing efficiency 
and power. But even with this power the of- 
fice has been a great lever in the system since 
its beginning in 1858. The superintendent's | 
power, too, is dependent on persons, and not on j 
any organized body, as in some States where 
the trustees of each township together form a 
county board of education, of which the super- 
intendent is president ex-officio, and by which 
he is elected, thus giving him an organ through 

which to act. Iowa, however, makes him re- 
sponsible only to the voters of the county, a 
large body which can only be slowly moved, 
while his personal influence on teachers is his 
only other vehicle of power. His collection of 
fees from persons attending institutes is one 
source of defraying the expense of the insti- 
tute. Besides this fund a permanent school 
fund, a fund perpetually in loan, and arising 
from the sale of sixteenth sections, furnishes 
interest for one fund, while other funds are 
from taxes estimated by the various school 
boards and levied and collected by the county 
officers. The independent district, established 
by the laws of 1880, provide for the organiza- 
tion of town communities into a more exclusive 
school corporation, when they shall have shown 
200 population within its chosen limits. This 
law allowed at one time the wholesale entrance 
of entire townships into independency, Union 
and Palestine Townships, of Story County, be- 
ing among the number who took advantage of 
it. These districts can issue bonds. One 
other feature of the system, which has not been 
taken advantage of in Story County, except by 
Collins Township, is the provision for a town- 
ship graded or high school, which is to the 
township what the high school is to the county 
or the university is to the State. Among laws 
which have been added to the code of 1873 are 
those providing for industrial expositions in 
schools, the State Normal and training school 
for teachers, the eligibility of women as school 
officers, the setting out of trees on school 
grounds, a State board of examiners, the teach- 
ing of effects of stimulants and narcotics, and 
for other purposes. Other parts of the system 
are either well known or unnecessary to men- 
tion here. 

Of Story's use of this machinery, it may be 
said to have been more vigorous in succes- 
sive years, and will be best indicated in the 





statistics, showing tbe growth from year to 
year in schools, buildings, enumeration, en- 
rollment, teachers, funds, salaries, districts, 
etc., fi'om the earliest reports to the present. 
To illustrate this, the most reliable matter is 
found in the earlier records of the county and 
the county superintendent's reports to the 
State superintendent, which show some strik- 
ing features, and are here made use of. 

The first record, that of January 13, 1854, 
describes "District No. 1, in Township 82, 
Eange 22," as containing sixteen square miles, 
with the center at the corner uniting Sections 
4, 3, 9 and 10, of Indian Creek Township, just 
west of the site of Iowa Center. That dated 
January IS is District No. 1, Town 82, Range 24, 
at the corner uniting Grant, Union, Washing- 
ton and Palestine Townships, the notice being 
issued to George W. Thomas. District 3, 
Town 84, Eange 24, was formed January 23, 
and the notice issued to John J. Zenor; it cen- 
tered at New Philadelphia site. Another dis- 
trict centered in Section 2(3, of the present 
Milford Township, and notice was issued to 
Evan C. Evans on the same date. Still 
another was formed, July 3, south of the Iowa 
Center site. On January 20, 1855, Jonah 
Griffith received notice of a district formed 
in the north part of the county, and on the fol- 
lowing May 5 a twenty-five square-mile dis- 
trict was formed, with Nevada as its center, and 
E. C. Evans also received this notice. The 
old Mullen District, the Squire M. Cory and 
the W. W. Utterback Districts were formed in 
the fall and winter of 1854-55. 

The first school fund commissioner was J. 
H. Keigley, in 1853, and S. P. O'Brien served 
. two years after him. His records show the 
fabulous sum of $37.23 received from the county 
treasurer on February 15, 1854, as county 
school tax collected for the previous year, but 
the entire population of the county was not as 

large as is the single town of Ames now. 
The secretaries of the three districts reported 
enumerations as follows: Jeremiah Marks, 
twenty-two persons of school age in his dis- 
trict; F. Thompson, fifteen in his, and N. 
Webb, forty-three in his, whereupon the com- 
missioner, after "reserving the sum of $17.47 
for part of salary out of the amount received," 
apportioned the remainder among the three 
districts as follows: $5.25, $3.75 and $10.75. 
Says a local historian:* " From this time un- 
til the summer of 1857 the accommodations of 
the schools were of the most humble character. 
The citizens of the year 1856 will remember 
the various log school-houses, situated mostly in 
the timber, of which one was in the north part 
of Nevada, one at the west end and one at the 
east end of Walnut Grove, one at McCartney's, 
near Utterback's, one at New Philadelphia, 
and one at Cameron's. In the Advocate of 
October 20, 1857, John H. Keigley boasts of 
the finest school-house in the county. It was 
a frame, 20x20 feet, and a lobby of six feet, 
leaving a school-room twenty feet square. In 
the same paper of date December 9, 1857, 
some one writes of the school-house in the 
John P. Pool District, generally known as 
Murphy's school-house, which was 20x30 feet, 
or four feet longer than the other. S. E. 
Briggs taught the first school in the last- 
named house. About this time there were 
quite a number of very comfortable frame school- 
houses built, some of which were seated with 
walnut desks, that being then considered a 
great advance." 

The earliest records of the Department of 
Education show that, for the year ending Octo- 
ber 31, 1854, there was but one school in a 
frame house in Story County, while the chil- 
dren of school age numbered but 80, but 30 
of whom were enrolled in the school for 

*Col. Scott's address of 187C. 





a sixty-days' term. From the teachers' fund 
but 810 was paid, to which §20 was added by 
voluntary subscription. The tax raised for the 
building was §75.* There were no reports 
made for the following three years, during 
which period the euumeration increased to 
1,069. The first full report was that of 1858, 
showing 8 districts, 35 sub-districts, and 24 
schools, with 25 teachers, of whom 14 were 
male and 11 female, whose monthly compen- 
sations were, respectively, §22.39 and §12.44. 
This is somewhat of aii improvement over the 
first monthly wages of §10. These teachers 
taught 326 of the 1,363 children enumerated, 
in 9 frame, 1 brick and 9 log school-houses, 
altogether valued at §7,900, and the total 
amount paid teachers was §1,396. A marked 
increase was made in 1859, for §2,736 was paid 
23 male and 18 female teachers in 33 schools 
with 45 sub-districts and 10 township districts. 
The number of pupils enrolled rose to 1,208, 
and the average attendance was 695. The 
buildings, too, had increased in number — 15 
frame, 1 brick and 10 log, all valued at §8,770. 
In 1860 the value arose to §11,008, with 16 
frame, 1 brick and 11 log buildings, in which 
49 schools were taught, and in which 27 male 
and 25 female teachers were employed, at a to- 
tal salary of §2,748. A slight increase was 
made in the feminiue salary, and the gentle- 
men had to be content with a little less than 
the previous year. The enumeration reached 
1,484. In 1861 it sprang to 1,517, with an 
enrollment of 1,152, out of which the average 
attendance was but 632. The gentlemen had 
a still greater reduction in salary, although the 
whole amount paid to teachers was increased 
to §2,824, which was distributed to 32 male 
and 27 female educators in 46 schools, using 
20 frame, 1 brick, and but 10 log school-houses. 

that is I.Mlli.l i 

ltiniMit of Ed- 

Here we have the first indication of a change 
from the log to frame school-houses, and the 
districts are increased from 10 to 11. In 1862 
there were 44 schools with 26 frame, 1 brick 
and 9 log buildings valued at §12,354. To 35 
male and 25 female teachers was paid §3,506, 
with still greater favor to the ladies. The enu- 
meration reached 1,662, of whom but 1,585 
were enrolled. In 1863 the enumeration was 
1,702, with 1,402 enrolled in 46 sub-districts, 
with 28 frame, 1 brick and 10 log "founts of 
knowledge." In these, with the young men in 
the army, were employed but 15 male and 42 
female teachers, who were paid a total of 
§4,279, with the old differences in compensa- 
tion between ladies and gentlemen. But 
§3,815 was paid in 1864 to 25 male and 50 
female teachers, in 65 schools and 47 sub-dis- 
tricts, in which were 33 frame, 2 brick, 1 stone 
and 7 log buildings, all valued at §15,465. 
The enumeration reported 1,823 children, of 
whom but 1,581 were enrolled. All this 
shows a remarkable growth for one decade, 
and that too the first of a county's existence, 
and while it took part in the greatest civil war 
that ever occurred on earth. The west is so 
familiar with gigantic strides in growth, that 
these evidences of it are seldom fully realized, 
and are too frequently takeu as a matter of 

By the year 1865 the Teachers' Institute 
was well established and attended by over 
three-fourths of the teachers of the county. 
The great value of county supervision was 
acknowledged, and it was recognized as the 
greatest need. There were no libraries worth 
mention, and the total value of apparatus in 
the entire county was estimated at only §15! 
There were 24 male and 58 female teachers 
distributed over the county, as follows: Indian 
Creek, 7 male and 7 female; Washington, 5 
male and 5 female; Franklin, 1 male and 6 


female; Union, 7 female; Howard, 1 male 
and 6 female; Palestine, 2 male and 3 female; 
La Fayette, 1 male and 5 female; Milford, 
1 male and 2 female, with none in Col- 
lins reported. These were in 49 schools, 
with an enrollment of 2,196 out of 2,597 
enumerated, an average attendance of 1,198. 
The proportion of time occupied by schools was 
represented by 3,009 for summer and 2,375 for 
winter. The buildings were 2 brick, one in 
Union and one in Nevada Township, at Nevada, 
37 frame, the largest number of which (7) 
were in Nevada Township, and but log, the 
largest number (3) being in Indian Creek 
Township. Their value was estimated at 
$23,523. Among the workers and lecturers 
in the institute that year were W. S. McFea- 
ters, F. D. Thompson, Col. John Scott and L. 
Q. Hoggatt. The institute of the following 
year was conducted by D. Franklin Wells, 
State superintendent, with an attendance of 30. 
During that year there were 55 schools in 55 
districts,* employing 42 male and 123 female 
teachers. This probably included the entire 
college faculty, for the enumeration was but 
2,924, and the enrollment 2,042. The build- 
ings numbered 44 frame, 2 brick and but 5 log, 
valued at $25,790, and new apparatus at 
$294.80. The entire amount paid teachers 
was $10,501.92. That paid them in 1867 was 
$11,760.31, there being 41 male and 63 female 
teachers in 63 schools of 62 districts, in 
which were enumerated 3,206 children, with 
2,317 enrolled. These were in 5 brick, 54 
frame, and 2 log buildings valued at $36,825, 
with apparatus valued at $2,277.75. County 
Superintendent Kev. J. G. Beckley's report 
says: "The schools have improved at least 200 
per cent in the past two years." Nevada Town- 
ship stood first and Washington second in the 
number of schools; Washington first in the 

number of male teachers, Nevada first and 
Indian Creek next in the number of female 
teachers ; Washington first and Nevada next in 
the amount paid teachers. In 1870 the number 
of certificates issued was: First grade, 22 
male and 19 female; second grade, 20 male 
and 22 female; third grade, 20 male and 49 
female. The number of these reading profes- 
sional books was seventy-five. The attend- 
ance at the institute was 45 male and 58 
female. In 1874 there were 12 independent dis- 
tricts and 108 sub-districts, with 108 un- 
graded and 5 graded schools, employing 84 
male and 126 female teachers, at average 
monthly salaries of $33.93 and $26.25 re- 
spectively. The enumeration reached 4,990 
and the enrollment 4,227, with an average 
attendance ' of but 2,303. These were taught 
in ten brick, 106 frame but no log buildings, 
and all valued at $66,945. Certificates were 
issued to 77 male and 127 female teach- 
ers, all of first and second grade. The 
institute had an attendance of 65. In 1875 
there were 105 frame and 12 brick build- 
ings, valued at $82,925. There were 113 un- 
graded and 4 graded schools. The amount 
I paid teachers was $27,985.69. The attend- 
ance at the institute was 124. In 1876 
County Superintendent C. H. Balliet said: 
"Tax-payers are annually raising the onerous 
tax of about $71,000 for all purposes and that 
without a murmur, but saying give us better 
schools." The need for more careful official 
reports was recognized. The independent dis- 
tricts had risen to 22 and the districts to 
112, with 114 ungraded and 4 graded schools, 
employing 99 male and 139 female teachers. 
The great effect of the Agricultural College was 
beginning to be more clearly marked. The aver- 
age attendance was improved, being 2,340 out 
of 4,750 enrollment. The 108 frame and 14 
brick school-houses were valued at $89,421, and 



118 library volumes were reported. The total 
amount paid to teachers was $30,534.37. In 

1877 Nevada, Ames, Colo, Iowa Center and 
Cambridge were reported as graded schools. In 

1878 County Superintendent L. B. Baughman 
reported the increased use of impi-oyed seats 
and the marked supply of good teachers de- 
rived from the Agricultural College, together 
with a noticeable decrease in salaries. The 
institute on its improved plan held for three 
weeks with an attendance of 151, and under 
the instruction of E. R. Eldridge and Prof. 
W. P. and Mrs. A. M. Payne. 

In 1879 there were 110 districts and 22 inde- 
pendent districts, with 124 ungraded and 16 
rooms of graded schools, employing 119 
male and 141 female teachers at average 
monthly salaries of $27.89 and $23.25 respect- 
ively. Of the 5,131 enumerated, 4,947 were 
enrolled, with an average attendance of 2,813. 
These used 117 frame and 13 brick buildings 
valued at $88,045, and the teachers were paid 
$27,963.20. The Normal Institute had a three- 
week session, with 47 male and 83 female 
teachers in attendance. The bonded indebted- 
ness of independent districts reached $7,700. 
The library volumes were reported over 300. In 
1880 a better class of school houses, better 
wages, and a healthy public sentiment were 
noted. In 1881 there were 127 ungraded and 20 
graded schools, employing 93 male and 159 
female teachers, using 122 frame and 13 brick 
buildings, valued at $93,920, and apparatus at 
$2,135. During these years, too, the length of 
the school year was steadily increasing, and 
likewise the attendance on the Normal In- 
stitute. In 1882, the first year of the present 
superintendent, Mr. O. O. Roe, there were 24 
independent and 109 sub- districts, with 126 
ungraded and 21 graded schools, employ- 
ing 79 male and 196 female teachers. The 
enumeration was 6,089, the enrollment 5,318, 

and the average attendance 2,912, while the 
120 frame and 14 brick buildings were esti- 
mated at $115,935. The teachers were paid 
$33,402.01, all of whom held first and second- 
grade licenses. In 1885 there were 25 inde- 
pendent and 118 sub -districts, with 135 un- 
graded and 27 graded schools, with 91 male 
and 195 female teachers at average monthly 
salaries of $38.54 and $29.23 respectively. Of 

; 6,288 of school age enumerated, 5,553 were 
enrolled and 3,121 the average attendance. 
The 130 frame and 15 brick buildings were 
valued at $126,775 and apparatus at $2,040. 
The total amount paid teachers was $39,024.78, 
while in 1886 it reached $40,060.43 to 82 male 
and 207 female teachers, in 32 rooms of graded 

| and 134 ungraded schools, in 129 frame and 
16 brick buildings, valued at $129,990 and ap- 
paratus at $2,972. On the grounds were re- 
ported 848 trees set out, and the Normal Insti- 
tute was increased to a four- weeks session, with 
an attendance of 227. The enumeration was 
6,073, of whom 5,370 were enrolled, with an 
average attendance of 3,004. In 1887 Super- 
intendent Roe reported the Normal Institute as 
closely following the graded course of the State 
and with nine graduates. He directed attention 
to needed improvement in school-house ventil- 
ation, etc., reported Arbor Day as successfully 
observed, showed that special attention was 
given to reading, language and drawing, and 
recognized the high influence of the Agricult- 
ural College and the high schools of Nevada 
and Ames upon public education in the county. 
In 1888 there were 27 independent and 116 
sub-districts, with 145 buildings, of which 111 
were good, 24 fair and 10 poor. In these were 
131 ungraded and 37 rooms of graded school, 
employing 90 male and 212 female teachers, 
who received $42,662.83. The buildings were 
valued at $137,350 and the apparatus at $2,- 
977, while 1,439 trees shaded the "rounds, anc l 




374 volumes were reported in school libraries. 
There were also 167, practically the entire 
number of schools, in which special attention 
was given to teaching the evil effects of stimu- 
lants and narcotics. The institute had an at- 
tendance of 172, but twenty of whom were 
male teachers. The report of 1889 showed an 
increased average attendance of 3,109 out of 
the total enrollment. 5,027, from an enumeration 
of 5,982, attending in 27 independent and 116 
sub-districts, with 35 rooms of graded and 133 
ungraded schools, employing 79 male and 233 
female teachers, at average monthly salaries of 
§31.80 and §29.01 respectively. The total 
amount paid teachers was §11,713.41. The 
increase over the last decade was about §7 for 
men and about §0 for women per month. The 
1G brick and 129 frame buildings were valued 
at §128,125, the apparatus at §2,929, the libra- 
ry volumes numbering 670. and the number of 
trees 1,512. There were issued 99 first-grade 
and 184 second-grade certificates, while the 
attendance at the Normal Institute was 190. 
While the last decade may not compare favor- 
ably with the first in increase of quantity, it 
certainly will far surpass it in development 
and quality to a degree that places Story 
County among the first counties of the State. 

Private schools have been below par in Story 
County. Palestine Seminary, a solitary effort 
of this kind, was intended by its founder, Rev. 
Ives Marks, an energetic and business-like 
pastor of the United Brethren Church, to be 
the beginning of a denominational college and 
seminary. In 1858 he secured a subscription 
of §1,800 in the Big Creek region, and at once 
erected a two story building on Section 14 of 
Palestine Township, near "Pickard's Store." 

The first term began in October of that year 
with Mr. Leonard Brown as instructor, and 
about twenty-eight pupils. Robert Wilson 
taught afterward, but a failure in finances and 

the removal of Rev. Marks caused the project to 
come to naught, and the building, after service a 
while longer for subscription schools, degener- 
ated into a barn. 

The only State institution ever in the county 
is the Agricultural College and Farm, a mile 
and a half west of Ames, the location of which 
in the county is due to the county's vigorous 
efforts to secure it in her early years, when 
she herself had existed scarcely a decade 
either in population or organization. This 
wise foresight displayed by the early pioneers 
has proven its wisdom over and over again in 
the great influence exerted by this institution 
on the entire educational system of Story County 
as well as her general intelligence. 

The list of county superintendents with 
school fund commissioners who, in a meager 
way, represented the superintendent's position 
before the creation of the latter, are as follows: 
School fund commissioners, John H. Keigley, 
1853; S. P. O'Brien, 1854-55; John J. Bell, 
1856-58; the county superintendents — George 
M. Maxwell, 1858; Dr. W. H. Grafton, 1859; 
I. H. Rees, 1860-61; D. P. Ballard, 1862-63'; 
W. M. White, 1864-65; Rev. J. G. Beckley, 
1866-67; F. D. Thompson, 1868-69; John 
R. Hays, 1870-71; J. H. Franks, 1872-75; 
j Charles H. Balliet, 1876-77; L. B. Baughmau, 
. 1878-81; and O. O. Roe. from 1882 to the 

As has been said, the county superintendent's 
personal element is the standard above which 
the county schools seldom rise. It is not easy 
to distinguish between the excellencies of all 
these officers, but, as length of service generally 
indicates satisfaction on both sides, it may be 
noticed that J. H. Franks, L. B. Baughman 
and Supt. Ole O. Roe have had the longest 
terms of service — the last mentioned, double 
that of any other, and it is safe to say in addi- 
> tion, that Mr. Roe's executive ability, his solid, 



progressive educational views, and his profes- 
sional spirit have done more for the schools of 
Story County than any other one personal ele- 
ment. The standard of requirement has been 
kept up; the institutes have been put on the 
footing of a thorough course of study and 
graduation since 1874. Their attendance has 
risen from thirty-six in 1866 to 190 in 1889, 
when the session held four weeks. Besides 
this, for the past ten years, nearly a voluntary 
teachers' association has been kept up for the 
purpose of mutual improvement in a profes- 
sional way. 

There are a few schools in the county which 
have outgrown their early country dimensions, 
and require from two to nine teachers, while 
their enumeration has reached, in the highest 
case, 477, and the enrollment 385. It will be 
of interest to glance at these separately and in 
the order of size or estimated rank. 

The Nevada public schools began in the fall 
of 1854, in an old log building, near the site 
of Mr. S. E. Harrison's new home, and with 
William Margason as the first teacher. Mr. 
Alderman headed the districts in establishing 
it. During the next few years Randolph Good- 
in, Mrs. B. R. Mitchell, Wilson Cessna, Mrs. 
S. Statler, Roland C. Macomber, S. E. Briggs 
and others were the pedagogues. The old 
court-house and private houses were used. 
About 1859 a brick was built — now a part of 
O. B. Alderman's residence — and Dr. E. Fuller 
and Miss Mary Moore (now Boynton) were 
the first teachers. During the war, a frame 
was built in the street, just north of the brick, 
for the noticeable development of the school. 
In 1875 it was determined to build a large 
brick, worthy of the place, and a part of the 
present building was erected, at a cost of about 
$16,000. A few years later the present im- 
posing structure was made by an addition to 
that of 1875, early in the present decade, at 

a large, additional cost. It has a beautiful, 
elevated situation in the east part of town, 
and with its nine school-rooms, two recitation- 
rooms, basement, steam-heating apparatus and 
outfits, the brick structure is probably the lead- 
ing one in the county. It cost about $25,000 
entire, and has a good reference library of 100 
volumes, and other general appliances in keep- 
ing with a school of this character. 

The district became independent in March, 
1867, with the following board of education: 
E. G. Day, president; G. A. Kellogg, vice- 
president; E. Lewis, secretary; I. Reid, treas- 
urer, and T. E. Alderman, J. L. Dana and 
James Hawthorn, directors. Among the presi- 
dents of the board since then have been G. A. 
Kellogg, T. Kiudlespire, T. C. McCall, R. J. 
Silliman and others. 

Among the principals of the school from 
1867 to the present are L. W. Wells, in 1867 ; 
J. R. Hays, in 1868; C. H. Balliet, in 1869; 
Samuel Morgan, in 1870; Mr. Balliet, in 1871- 
72; E. R. Munk, in 1873; Mr. Clingan, in 
1874; W. P. Payne, from 1875 to 1880; A. H. 
Smith, two years; T. E. Plummer, three years; 
L. M. Hastings, one year, and L. T. Weld, 
four years to the present. Among these and 
other teachers who should receive special men- 
tion are J. R. Hays (who excelled as an in- 
structor), Mr. Morgan, W. P. and Mrs. Payne 
(who were excellent organizers), T. E. Plum- 
mer (whose enthusiasm was contagious), Prof. 
Weld (whose work is marked by thorough- 
ness and scholarship). Among others (not 
principals) who might be mentioned, Mrs. Mary 
Boynton, who has served Nevada so long as a 
teacher, should not be omitted. 

In 1859 there were two teachers; in 1867, 
four; in 1877, seven, and in 1890, eight, be- 
sides the superintendent. The enumeration of 
1889 was 477, and the enrollment 380— the 
largest in the county. 


Improvements in the course began under J. 
R. Hays, and Prof. Payne brought it to a com- 
plete course, with eight grades below high 
school, and four in the latter, with the usiial 
high-school studies. The first class graduated 
was that of 1877, and it included Minnie Ald- 
erman, Florence Daua, Rose Murphy, Lina 
Hambleton, Helen Harper, W. O. Payne, New- 
ton Simmons, Will Hague and Peter Joor. 
The course has been developed some by succes- 
siveprincipalsandsuperintendents. Theschools 
have won a reputation for good work, and sent 
out bright representatives in several lines. j 
There are 120 pupils now, about sixty-two being 
in the high school. It is unfortunate that this, 
as well as all other high schools, should, year 
by year, show a smaller proportion of male 

The Ames public schools also have seven i 
rooms and eight teachers, besides the princi- 
pal, who has not been made superintendent, 
as at Nevada, however. Her architectural 
brick structure, too, looming up on the west 
edge of the town, between Story and Iowa 
Streets, is probably the finest one in the place. 
It is of brick, somewhat irregular in form, two 
stories, basement and seven rooms with halls 
and general rooms heated by steam. It was 
finished about 1882, at a cost of probably 
$16,000 or $17,000. An old building on the 
south side of the track also is used for a 
primary department, for in 1889 Ames enu- 
merated 389 of school age, and had an enroll- 
ment of 313, some of whom, living on the 
south side, were given a special primary room 
in the old building. The graduates of 1889, 
five in number, had the advantage of a com- 
plete course, that was adopted in 1883, with ten 
grades below, and three in the high-school, 
with usual studies found in a standard school 
of this order. 

This has grown since about 1867, when the 

first old building near the timber, on the south 
side, was ready for Richard May to teach the 
first Ames school. Charles Chrisman was an 
early teacher. In a short time the present 
south side building — a two-story frame of two 
rooms, was erected on the corner of Kellogg 
and Grant Streets, at a cost of probably $1,000. 
But these were Aines 1 years of boom, and by 
about 1875 a new building was necessary. To 
meet this need, a one-story frame of four rooms 
was built, on the corner of Kellogg and Grant 
Streets, on the north side. This cost about 
$1,400, and at once became the principal 
building. These were used until the present 
building was built, as before mentioned, and 
the old north side property sold, while that on 
the south was retained. 

The principals began in the new building in 
1875. Profs. Mahan and Ashton taught in 
1876 and 1877, and were followed by G. A. 
Garard in 1878-79. W. F. Chevalier had a 
long service, from 1880 to 1889, when the 
present principal, W. F. Morgan, assumed 
charge. Prof. Garard was the first to give the 
school anything of a grade, and to begin giv- 
ing diplomas. He had many excellent quali- 
ties as a teacher and gentleman, but it was 
Principal W. F. Chevalier who placed the 
school more firmly on its feet in his long serv- 
ice, and under whom the present course of 
study was adopted. This course is now under 
process of revision. 

Among other gentleman of the board and 
others who have been active in school affairs, 
space will permit the mention of but a few: 
H. F. Kingsbury, William West, I. L. Smith, 
D. A. Bigelow, L. Q. Hoggatt, G. Tilden, Dr. 
A. Richmond, B. Reed, M. Hemstreet, Isaac 
Black, G. A. Underwood and others. 

The Story City schools afford four rooms, 
and three teachers besides the principal, while 
in 1889 the enrollment was sixty-two in the 





principal's room, thirty-two intermediate and 
seventy primary. Their course embraces ten 
grades, but there has been no graduation as 
yet. The building is a pleasantly situated 
frame structure of two stories, completed in 
1881, at a cost of about $3,500, and is well 
supplied with apparatus. This is 1890, but 
the first school was taught in the winter of 
1856-57, thirty-four years since, by Anne Sut- 
lief, in the old Jenness log hut. Among those 
who followed her were W. A. Wier, Mrs. K. P. 
Sheffield, Jennie Overton, Annie Brinson, E. 
D. Maynard, J. A. Dewey, Eose Eieman, O. 0. 
Eoe for several years, J. E. McCready, O. B. 
Peterson, J. A. Wellington, J. H. Leighton, 
W. H. Wier and E. L. Ericson for several years 
to the present. Mr. Eoe and Mr. Ericson have 
beeu the greatest influences in the success of 
the school. It was Mr. Eoe who gave the 
school its grade. 

The first building was erected in 1857; the 
second cost about $500, and was sold in 1881. 
A third teacher was added in 1882 and a fourth 
in 1887. The district was organized inde- 
pendently in February, 1881, and among those 
citizens who have been careful of the welfare 
of their schools may be mentioned B. F. Allen, 
S. E. Corneliussen, S. S. Larson, O. B. Peter- 
son and John Swan. The district does not hesi- 
tate to tax itself well for the welfare of its 

The Maxwell schools also have three teach- 
ers besides the principal, with four large 
study-rooms and two recitation-rooms. The 
course has ten grades, with extra high-school 
studies in the last grade. The building, with 
its two stories of brick veneer, graces an ele- 
vation in the northeast part of town, and holds 
within its walls a fair library, apparatus, etc., 
the entire school building being probably 
worth $5,000. Among their early teachers 
were Davis Hankins, Eufus Hanson, Hattie 

Underwood and Mattie Livingstone. The 
principals have been Clark McClain, Charles 
Stalkup, A. Bartlet and Frank Jarvis. 

The first building was the old warehouse 
opposite the Maxwell Hotel, and the district 
was organized in 1888. A course of study 
was adopted in 18S9. The citizens have 
spared no pains to improve their schools, and 
among those who have led in this movement are 
Dr. Goodman, J. AV. Maxwell, Mr. Starr, F. 
W. Hill, S. E. Cooper, J. O. French, Sr., and 
C. W. Morse. 

The Cambridge public schools started back in 
the fifties, Dr. Grafton teaching Mr. Chandler's 
children, and he therefore was a pioneer in 
that line for the county as well as Cambridge. 
There were few teachers before the war. Orin 
Crowser taught as early as 1862, but it was a 
mere country school until 1870, when two 
teachers were employed in the new building. 
About 1882 Prof. McCord gave the schools 
such a new impetus and grade that three teach- 
ers were soon needed. Since his time Mr. H. 
E. Wheeler, the present principal, has given 
the school the most systematic organization. 

The first building was a small one on the 
south edge of town, and the second one, built 
in 1870, was made to grace the beautiful 
groves of the public square. It was of brick 
with two stories, until two more rooms were 
built on at a total cost of about $6,500. The 
fourth room is a public hall. The building and 
grounds are the pride of the town, and present 
to the stranger a fine appearance. 

The course of study is followed closely, but 
as yet no graduation has been had. The enu- 
meration is about 120, and, like all of Union 
township, it has been an independent dis- 
trict since the early seventies. Among the pa- 
trons of the schools most active in its behalf 
are: J. C. Kinsell, Dr. Grafton, G. M. Max- 
well, A. W. Bartlet, A. P. King, Dr. J. M. 




Brown, O. Hill, J. E. Jones, Henry Cronk, N. 
D. Livingston and otbers. 

The Roland schools are the Norwegians' 
pride. They point to them above their business 
interests. They afford two teachers in winter 
besides the principal, but have no course of 
study. A few branches above the ordinary 
are taught, and effort is making at a grade. 
They were made independent in 1887, and the 
principals have been J. P. Thomas, L. A. 
Stulland and Miss Belle H. Garrett. A two- 
story frame house was finished in 1885 at a 
cost of $1,800, but in 1889 a one-story build- 
ing was moved in from the country to meet the 
growing needs. They are both pleasantly lo- 
cated. The district and township have a j 
public library, to which the pupils have access. 
Jonas Duea has been continuously president of 
the board. 0. O. Hegland and John Evenson 
were among the first members of the board. 

The Collins Township graded school is 
merely a country school of one room, with the ! 
upper room a township graded school. This [ 
is the only township in the county which has ] 
taken advantage of this law. 

The Slater schools became an independent | 
district in 1875, and for the first term had two 

teachers in 1889, when they built a neat two- 
story frame building valued at about $3,000. 
The school facilities were a great reason for 
the general exodus from Sheldahl to Slater. 
It is graded and has about 130 pupils. H. J. 
Garlock was its first principal. 

The Iowa Center schools have suffered with 
the town as far as size is concerned. They em- 
ploy two teachers. 

The Zearing schools have a grade estab- 
lished, covering nine years. They have a two- 
story frame building completed in 1887, at a 
cost of $3,000, although begun in 1883. The 
grade was established by J. F. Reed, when 
two teachers were first had in 1887. J. C. 
Burkhart and J. M. Price, have been presi- 
dents of the board. 

In conclusion it will be safe to say that 
Story County's schools have, if anything, 
more than kept pace with her material pros- 
perity, and it is not too much to say that her 
prosperity has been made subservient to her 
love of education. The cause for this lies in 
the people first, and next to that the Agricult- 
ural College, and the schools of Nevada and 
Ames have no doubt been strong factors, to- 
gether with excellent county superintendence. 




A Sketch of the Iowa Agricultural College— Its Origin— Features of the Act of Creation— First Board 
of Trustees— Location of the Farm -Important Matters not Generally Known— Trials Through 
Which the Institution has Successfully Passed— National Aid— The Land-Leasing System— 
The Buildings— Organization of the College— Inaugural Exercises— The Old Fac- 
di/py— Student Manual Labor— The Rankin Defalcation— Later Buildings 
and Improvements— Progress in Instruction— The Funds— The Presi- 
dents—Attendance and Results— The Experiment Station. 

Knowledge, when wisdom is too weak to guide her, 

Is like a headstrong horse that throws the rider.— Quarles. 

'HE first session of the 
General Assembly held 
under the new constitu- 
tion convened at Des 
Moines on January 11, 
1858. At this session, 
Hon. E. A. Eichardson, 
Hon. B. F. Gue, Hon. Ed. 
Wright, Hon. William Lundy 
and Hon. Charles Foster pre- 
p- pared a bill providing for the 
organization of a State agri- 
cultural college and model 
farm, for the purpose of af- 
fording higher education to the 
industrial classes. The bill 
was introduced into the House on the 4th of 
February, by Mr. Eichardson, and referred to 
the committee on ways and means; on the 10th 
of March, Mr. Wilson, chairman of the com- 
mittee, reported the bill back to the House, 
with the recommendation that its further con- 
sideration be indefinitely postponed. This 

brought on a spirited contest between the 
friends and the opponents of the measure. 
Speeches were made in advocacy of the meas- 
ure by the above named gentlemen, who had 
prepared the bill, showing the necessity for 
and the benefits which would inure to the 
State from the founding and maintenance of 
such an institution as was contemplated by the 
bill. J. F. Wilson, W. H. Seevers, John Ed- 
wards and others made speeches against the 
bill, basing their opposition principal^ on the 
ground of inexpediency, owing to the de- 
pressed financial condition of the State. Fear- 
ing that the bill might be defeated, the friends 
of the bill consented to reduce the appropria- 
tion to $10,000, just half the original amount 
asked for; and the bill, thus modified, passed 
both branches of the Legislature by a large 
majority, and became a law the 22d of March. 

This act provided that there is hereby estab- 
lished a State agricultural college and model 
farm, which shall be connected with the entire 



agricultural interests of the State; that it 
should be managed by a board of trustees, 
elected by the Legislature — one trustee from 
each judicial district — the governor of the 
State and the president of the State Agricult- 
ural Society being ex-officio members; that 
vacancies in the board be filled by the board; 
that the term of office be four years, provided 
one-half the members of the first board be two 
years; that the president of the college be 
president of the board, and that he shall con- 
trol, manage and direct the affairs of the col- 
lege and farm, subject to such rules as the board 
may prescribe; that it should be the duty of 
the board to elect a president of the college 
and model farm, and other officers of the board, i 
to buy lands and erect necessary buildings, and 
to keep a full and complete record of all their ] 
proceedings ; that the first session of the board 
be held at the capitol of the State on the second 
Monday of January, 1859; that the trustees 
receive no compensation, only mileage. The act 
authorized the board to select and purchase 
suitable lands, not less than 640 acres, for the j 
use and purposes of the college and farm. 
" Said board shall receive proposals for sale of 
lands for use of said college before purchasing 
the same, and in the purchase the price, loca- 
tion, quality and variety of soil, advantages of 
water, timber, stone, et cetera, shall be con- 

The act appropriated SI 0,000 for the purchase 
of land, which purchase should be made in 1859, 
prior to July 1, 1859; and any moneys remain- 
Ing over after purchase of land, could be used ! 
by the trustees to erect necessary buildings 
and other improvements ; and further appropri- | 
ated the proceeds of the sale of five sections of 
land, heretofore granted to the State of Iowa 
for the erection of capitol buildings for the 
use and benefit of the college — provided Con- j 
gress diverts the same for the purpose — which 

Congress did in the fall of 1862 — and also 
appropriated the proceeds of the sale of all 
other lands granted, or which may be granted, 
by Congress to the State of Iowa for the pur- 
pose contemplated by this act. 

The act declared that the course of instruc- 
tion shall include natural philosophy, chemistry, 
botany, horticulture, fruit-growing, forestry, 
animal and vegetable physiology, geology, 
mineralogy, meteorology, zoology, the veterin- 
ary art, surveying, leveling, book-keeping, and 
such mechanical arts as are directly connected 
with agriculture; and also such other studies 
as the trustees may from time to time prescribe, 
not inconsistent with the main purpose of the 

The act also declared that no student should 
be exempt from manual labor not less than two 
hours per day in winter, nor less than three 
hours in summer, only on account of sickness 
or other infirmity. 

The act further declared that at the first 
meeting of the board they shall elect one of 
their own number secretary, who shall reside 
at the capitol, and whose duties, among others, 
shall be to encourage agricultural societies 
throughout the State, import breeds of domestic 
animals, secure seeds for distribution, collect 
and publish important agricultural information 
in the papers of the State. (This feature of 
the act, known as the " Agricultural Bureau," 
was by the Legislature of 1864 abolished, and 
the office at the capitol discontinued. During 
the five years of its existence, much good was 
done to the State in developing the agricultural 
resources of the State. ) 

These are the main features of the act out of 
which developed the present Iowa Agricultural 
College. Its provisions were many, hetero- 
geneous, and as subsequent events proved, not 
a few ill-advised. Industrial education, at that 
time, was a new departure and untried experi- 

-^i a 



ment, but the men who projected the enterprise 
were content to trust the future to vindicate 
the correctness of their judgment as to the 
principle involved. 

Under this act the following gentlemen were 
elected, forming the first board of trustees: 
M. W. Eobinson, Timothy Day, J. D. Wright, 
G. W. F. Sherwin, William Duane Wilson, 
Richard Gaines, Suel Foster, J. W. Henderson, 
Clermont Coffin, E. H. Williams, and E. G. 

The first meeting of the board of trustees 
took place at Des Moines, January 10, 1859, 
according to law, and organized by the election 
of the following officers: Jesse Bowen, presi- 
dent pro tern, j Richard Gaines, treasurer; Will- 
iam Duane Wilson, secretary. Mr. Wilson 
held the office of secretary during the entire 
period of the existence of the " Agricultural 
Bureau." E. H. Williams having resigned, 
John Pattee, auditor of State, was elected to 
fill the vacancy. 

Proposals for the sale of lands for the col- 
lege farm were issued at this meeting, and cir- 
culated over the State, to be acted on at the 
meeting of the board June next. 

A " correspondence committee " of three was 
appointed to find and recommend to the board 
suitable persons for the president and profes- 
sors of the college. 

In June propositions were received from the 
counties of Hardin, Polk, Marshall, Tama, Jef- 
ferson and Story. Committees were appointed 
to visit the various sites offered, and a spirited, 
but good-natured, contest for location ensued. 
The record shows that at one time Hardin 
County received seven votes and Polk County 
four votes, but was next day reconsidered, and 
finally the location was awarded to Story 

In determining the location of the college 
farm, the value of the county bonds voted to 

aid the enterprise was taken into considera- 
tion, and private donations of land and sub- 
scriptions of money were important items. 

On the 20th of June, 1859, the board located 
the farm in the western part of Story County; 
buying a tract of 647i acres of unimproved 
land in one body for $5,380. 

The donations to the college were: $10,000 
in Story County bonds; individual subscrip- 
tions, $5,400, with ten per cent interest from 
date of location, payable in two years ; and 980 
acres of land located in Story and Boone Coun- 
ties, mostly near the farm. The estimated 
cash value, at the time of the several donations, 
was $21,500. 

The following paragraph occurs in the re- 
port of the joint committee appointed to visit 
the college and farm in 18G4, and examine 
into the condition of affairs connected with the 
institution : " Your committee, after a thorough 
examination, are of the opinion that it would 
have been difficult for the trustees to have 
made a selection more fully complying with 
the requirements of the law than the one pur- 
chased. It has upon it at least six different 
varieties of soil, representing the prevailing 
kinds in the State ; it has more than fifty varie- 
ties of timber, bushes and shrubs, and running 
water, spring and well water in abundance; 
plenty of gravel, stone, sand and material for 
brick; high dry land, level dry land, rolling 
clay, second bottom, sloughs, fiat wet bottom 
and timber bottom, besides the genuine prairie 
land. We know of no other farm of the size in 
the State combining so many leading charac- 
teristics of Iowa soil, and we are satisfied that 
the main object had in view by the framers of 
the organic law was, that the experimental farm 
should combine as many leading characteristics 
of the lands of our State as possible to be 
found on one farm, that all the different varie- 
ties might be thoroughly tested with the vari- 



ous grains, grasses, vegetables and fruits, witb 
the hope that the final results might add to the 
experimental knowledge of the cultivators of 
the soil." 

The "correspondence committee" made a 
report, recommending two gentlemen for the 
presidency, and two professorships — physics 
and mathematics. The minutes show that the 
recommendations were adopted, but nothing 
further, at this meeting, was done toward or- 
ganizing a faculty. 

An executive committee of three, to transact 
necessary business during the interim of the 
regular meetings of the board, was appointed, 
and instructed to prepare plans and specifica- 
tions for a farm-house and a barn ; enclose 160 
acres, and have it broken ; survey and plat the 
farm ; secure plans and specifications for a col- 
lege building, and to perfect the title of all 
transfers and donations to the college. 

One of the first acts of the trustees, at tbe 
regular January meeting in 1860, was to de- 
clare it inexpedient now to elect a president of 
the college. This action was taken very re- 
luctantly, the trustees believing that this action 
postponed that officer's election at the farthest 
one year. Could they have known then that 
eight harvests would come before the president 
would be elected, it would have seemed as if 
the enterprise were abandoned by its fathers. 
A great civil war was to be fought and brought 
to a favorable issue; vast social problems, 
which had waited years for solution, would be 
solved; a race would be emancipated from 
bondage — all this would take place before the 
doors of the industrial college would open. 

Mr. Coffin resigned, and Peter Melendy was 
elected to fill the vacancy. Trustee Gaines 
was appointed farm agent, to carry on the im- 
provements to be made the coming year. The 
kitchen part of the farm-house and a barn 
were ordered to be built this spring. 

At the session of the Legislature in 1860 
the enemies of the college made a strong effort 
to secure the repeal of the act providing for its 
establishment. The committee were directed 
to inquire into the expediency of repealing an 
act providing for the establishment of the 
agricultural college. The majority report 
was strongly against the repeal, characterizing 
the proposed step as unwise, unjust and clearly 
inexpedient. The minority of the committee 
submitted, with their report, a bill repealing 
the act by which the college was established. 
Time must be gained or else, as the friends of 
the college saw, the House was disposed to 
vote for the repealing bill. The chairman of 
the committee on agriculture, Hon. B. F. Gue, 
arose and moved that tbe bill be laid on the 
table, for tbe present, as its opponents were 
not quite ready to act upon it. The motion 
seemed reasonable, and prevailed. About two 
weeks later an effort was made to take the bill 
from the table, but tbe friends of the college 
were not ready yet, and raised the point that 
where objection was made it required a two- 
thirds vote to call the bill up. The speaker 
sustained the point, and as the friends of tbe 
college never got ready during the session to 
take up the bill, and its opponents were never 
able to get a two-thirds vote, it has rested 
there in quietness from that date to this. 

The friends of the college, well satisfied that 
they had barely saved their embryo institu- 
tion from destruction, made no effort during 
tbe remainder of the session to secure an ap- 
propriation for a college building, but decided 
to wait for a more auspicious occasion. 

All the meetings of the board previous to 
January 5, 1861, were held at Des Moines. 
Now for the first time the trustees met on the 
college farm at the farm-house. It was de- 
cided to rent the farm and apply the proceeds 
to improvements. Mr. W. H. Fitzpatrick 





rented the farm for a term of two years at §200 
per year, to be paid partly in labor, fencing 
and breaking. 

By the close of 1861 an excellent frame 
barn, still standing and serviceable, 40x60 feet; 
and the farm-house 42x32 feet, two stories 
high, and a kitchen 16x24 feet, one and a half 
stories high, were completed; also about 120 
acres were enclosed by a good fence, eighty 
acres under cultivation, part of which was taken 
up with an orchard of 500 apple trees. 

All these improvements were made by money 
paid in from subscriptions, no lands having 
yet been sold, or any of the interest due on 
Story County bonds collected. 

As long as agricultural colleges exist, the 
name of Justin S. Morrill will not be forgot- 
ten by their friends. In 1862 a bill was passed 
by Congress, donating public lands to the 
several loyal States and Territories which may 
provide colleges for the benefit of agriculture 
and mechanic arts. The provisions of this bill 
will be noted further on. The Congressional 
grant was accepted by the State of Iowa, at the 
special session of the Legislature in Septem- 
ber, 1862. 

At the thirty-fifth session of Congress, in 
December, 1857, Mr. Morrill, as chairman of 
the committee on agriculture, introduced his 
first bill granting lands to the States for the 
endowment of institutions devoted to giving 
instruction in agriculture and mechanic arts. 
It met with strong opposition both in the 
House and the Senate. In the House the 
most active opponent was Mr. Cobb, of Ala- 
bama; and in the Senate, Jefferson Davis, of 
Mississippi; J. M. Mason, of Virginia, and 
Senator Pugh, of Ohio. The bill passed the 
House on February 22, 1858, by only five ma- 
jority. In the Senate, the bill was not reached 
till the winter of 1859, when, on February 
7, it passed that body by a majority of three. 

True to his aristocratic sympathies, the bill 
was vetoed by President Buchanan. 

Upon the opening of a new Congress under 
the administration of President Lincoln, Sen- 
ator Wade introduced the bill again, and after 
a long delay, it was passed by a vote of thirty- 
two to seven. It went to the House and on 
June 17, 1862, was passed by a vote of ninety 
to twenty-five, and on July 2, 1862, received the 
signature of Abraham Lincoln and became 
law. The following are the main provisions 
of this law : 

"Be it enacted by the Senate and House of 
Representatives of the United States in Con- 
gress assembled, That there be granted to the 
several States, for the purpose hereinafter 
named, an amount of the public land, to be ap- 
portioned to each State, a quantity equal to 
30,000 acres for each Senator and Representa- 
tive in Congress, to which the States are re- 
spectively entitled, by the apportionment, under 
the census of 1860. Provided: That no 
mineral lands shall be selected under the pro- 
visions of this act. 

'•Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That all 
expenses of management, superintendence and 
taxes from date of selection of said lands 
previous to their sale, and all the expense 
incurred in the management and disbursement 
of the moneys which may be received there- 
from, shall be paid by the State to which they 
may belong, out of the treasury of said State, 
so that the entire proceeds of the sales of said 
lands shall be applied without any diminution 
whatever to the purposes hereinafter men- 

"Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That 
all moneys derived from the sale of the lands 
aforesaid by the States to which the lands are 
apportioned, aud from the sale of land-scrip 
hereinbefore provided for, shall be invested in 
stocks of the United States, or of the States, or 



some other safe stocks, yielding not less than five 
per centum upon the par value of said stocks ; 
and that the money so invested shall constitute 
a perpetual fund, the capital of which shall re- 
main forever undiminished, and the interest of 
which shall be inviolably appropriated by each 
State, which may take and claim the benefit of 
this act, to the endowment, support and mainte- 
nance of at least one college, where the leading 
object shall be, without excluding other scien- 
tific and classical studies, and including mili- 
tary tactics, to teach such branches of learning 
as are related to agriculture and the mechanic 
arts, in such manner as the Legislatures of the 
States may respectively prescribe, in order to 
promote the -liberal and practical education of 
the industrial classes in the several pursuits and 
professions of life. 

" Sec. 5. And be it further enacted. That the 
grant of land and land-scrip hereby authorized 
shall be made on the following conditions, to 
which, as well as to the provisions hereinbefore 
contained, the previous assent of the several 
States shall be signified by legislative acts: 

" First. — If any portion of the fund invested, 
or any portion of the interest thereon, shall, by 
any action or contingency, be lost or dimin- 
ished, it shall be replaced by the State to 
which it belongs, so that the capital of the 
fund shall remain forever undiminished, and 
the annual interest shall be regularly applied, 
without diminution, to the purposes mentioned 
in the fourth section of this act; except 
that a sum not exceeding ten per centum upon 
the amount received by any State, under the 
provisions of this act, may be expended for 
the purchase of lands for the sites or experi- 
mental farms, whenever authorized by the re- 
spective Legislatures of said States. 

" Second. — No portion of said fund, nor the 
interest thereon, shall be applied directly or 
indirectly, under any pretense whatever, to the 

purchase, erection, preservation, or repair of 
any building or buildings. 

"Third. — Any State which may take and 
claim the benefit of the provisions of this act 
must provide, within five years at least, not less 
than one college, as described in Section 4, 
or the grant to such State shall cease. 

" Seventh. — No State shall be entitled to the 
benefit of this act unless it shall express its 
acceptance thereof by its Legislature within two 
years from the date of its approval by the 

The Ninth General Assembly convened in 
extra session, passed an act approved Septem- 
ber 11, 18(32, entitled: " An act to accept the 
grant and carry into execution tne trust con- 
ferred upon the State of Iowa by an act of 
Congress,''' entitled: ''An act granting public 
lauds to the several States and Territories which 
may provide colleges, etc." 

The State hereby accepted the grant, upon 
the conditions and under the restrictions con- 
tained in said act of Congress; required the 
governor to appoint an agent to select and 
locate the land granted in said act, requiring 
said agent to report to the governor, and 
making it the duty of the governor to lay the 
list of selections before the board of trustees 
of the agricultural college for their approval, 
etc. Hon. Peter Melendy was appointed to 
select the lands, so donated, within the limits 
of the State. At the rate 30,000 acres for each 
member of Congress, the amount of land granted 
to Iowa would have been 240,000 acres. But 
as Mr. Melendy, after careful examination, 
selected 50,000 acres of railroad lands, at double 
the minimum price, the real amount certified to 
the State under the Congressional grant was 
204,309 acres. Nearly all the lands are located 
in the so-called Fort Dodge, Sioux City and 
Des Moines districts. 



At the next regular session of the Legisla- 
ture, 1864, a determined and systematic effort 
was made by some friends of the State Univer- 
sity to divert the land granted by Congress for 
the benefit of agricultural colleges to increase 
the endowment of the University upon the 
conditions that a department of agriculture 
should be established, an experimental farm 
secured, and an agricultural course provided at 
the University for those who wished to pursue 
it. This was claimed would be a substantial 
compliance with the law making the grant; 
that it would save a large expense in buildings, 
professors' salaries, libraries and museums, 
that the endowment of the University would 
be increased, and that in no way could it be so 
easily obtained as by diverting the college grant. 
These views were ably urged, and with much 
good sense, by Gov. Kirkwood, President 
Spencer and Kepresentative Hilderth. 

On the other hand, the friends of the agri- 
cultural college resisted the attempt to divert 
the grant from its original purpose, contending 
that it belonged to the agricultural college by 
the express terms of the act; that the indus- 
trial classes comprised the majority of the 
people and tax- payers of the State; that they 
were striving to build up an institution that 
should be devoted to their interests, and that 
after having assisted in securing the grant of 
lauds for its endowment, it would be gross in- 
justice to divert it to an institution already 
richly endowed. 

Public discussions were held for several 
evenings in the hall of the House of Represent- 
atives, in which Gov. Kirkwood appeared as the 
champion of the diversion, while Senator Gue 
appeared as the champion of the agricultural 
college. The scheme was finally defeated, and 
the entire grant confirmed as a perpetual en- 
dowment to the Iowa State Agricultural Col- 

The problem then arose as to the best man- 
ner of disposing of the lands so as to secure 
an immediate income for the support of the 
college. After much thought on the subject, 
Gov. Kirkwood and Senators Gue and C. F. 
Clarkson devised the plan of leasing them in- 
stead of offering them for sale. This scheme 
was approved by the Legislature, and passed in- 
to a law, which authorizes the trustees to lease 
for a term of ten years any of the endowment 
lands. This plan was so successful that by 
1868 the income of the college from this source 
was nearly $30,000 per annum. 

By the terms of the lease, the lessee pays 8 
per cent interest on the appraised value of the 
land annually in advance, with the privilege of 
buying the same at the expiration of the lease. 
In case the lessee fails to pay the interest 
promptly, his right to hold the land is forfeited 
with all the improvements thereon. In 1865 
the lands were appraised, a land office opened 
at Fort Dodge, and the Hon. G. W. Bassett 
appointed agent for the sale and lease of 

By 1868 quite a fund of "interest money" 
had accumulated. The trustees deemed the 
safest investment to be laud, and accordingly, 
the same year, bought about 15,000 acres 
located in the northwestern part of the State. 
These lands, known as the " Sioux City Pur- 
chase," cost, including location, nearly $16,000. 
Mr. T. J. Stone, of Sioux City, was ajjpointed 
agent for the sale and lease of the same, and 
who, resigning in 1876, the agency was trans- 
ferred to Mr. Bassett, of Fort Dodge. 

When the State accepted the Congressional 
grant, with all the imposed conditions, and 
confirmed the grant to the agricultural college, 
it ceased to be a purely State institution, and 
became a national institution, the State being 
trustee in charge. The national endowment 
act became its fundamental law, its charter, and 




its whole scope aud purpose and development 
must conform thereto. 

The following table gives the dates and 
amounts of the several appropriations made by 
the General Assembly for the erection of a 
college building: 1864, to aid in the erection 
of a college building, §20,000; 1866, for com- 
pleting the college building, §01,000; 186S, 
for beating and cooking apparatus, §10,000; for 
extra work on college building, $3,000; for 
completing college building. §10,000; 1870, 
for extending and completing wings of college 
building. §50,000: 1870, for engine house 
and air duct. §5,000; for steam heating appa- 
ratus, §15,000: repairing brick walls, §14,000; 
for other repairs on main building, §3,400. 

Only about §25,000 of the appropriation of 
187(3 was expended, but on the other hand vari- 
ous sums from time to time were expended on 
the building for minor repairs, so that the act- 
ual cost to the State as the building now stands 
(July, 1890) amouuts to §221,400. 

Let us trace briefly the evolution of this 
structure. Work was begun on the foundation 
in the summer of 1864, and what little was done 
on the stone foundation was found to be defective 
and had to be done over again, at a cost of 
§1,000 and half of next summer. The archi- 
tect, Mr John Browne, was discharged as in- 
competent, and Mr. C. A. Dunham of Burling- 
ton, Iowa, architect, was employed. 

Many changes were made now in the origi- 
nal design. "Perhaps it was fortunate for the 
institution that an incompetent architect was 
at first engaged. The trustees were, bound by 
the terms of the law making the appropriation to 
procure plans, the total estimated cost of which 
when the building should be completed would 
not exceed §50,000. The trustees, guided by the 
sworn estimates of the architect, which were 
within the amount named, unconsciously adopted 
plans which required nearly three times the 

amount to carry out. The State was thus saved 
from being placed in the ridiculous position of 
being committed to the erection of a building 
totally inadequate to meet the wants of even to- 
day, the first formal opening of the college." 
[Extract from address of John A. Russell, chair- 
man of building committee, in presenting the 
keys to President-elect Welch. ] During 1865 
the foundations were completed. The contract 
for the building was let to Jacob Reichard 
for §74,000, the brick to be furnished by the 
board. The work progressed rapidly during 
the fall of 1860; and in the spring of 1867 
work was resumed on the walls. Over one and 
a half million bricks were used in the building, 
exclusive of wings, all being burned on the college 
farm, the contractor hoping to complete the 
building by January, 1868. Owing to the many 
difficulties encountered, the building was not 
completed till the fall of 1868. 

The heating of so large a building is an 
important item. At first steam-heating was 
proposed and preferred by the trustees, but 
the cost would not permit it; after inves- 
tigation the Buttan system of heating by hot 
air was adopted. The system did not work 
well even when new, and after putting in a few 
more furnaces, when the college wings were 
extended in 1871 and 1872, the system 
was tolerated only by necessity. In 1876 the 
Ruttan system was abandoned, and a steam- 
heating system introduced, since which time 
the heating of the building has been very sat- 
isfactory. The cooking range, water supply 
and gas plant were put in working order in 
1868 and 1869. The water was obtained from 
a well dug near the head of a spring a few 
rods west of the present dynamo room, and 
forced by means of a wind-mill into a tank in 
the main building. 

When Mr. Reichard had completed his con- 
tract, the building was wholly destitute of all 

,4* — ^ 

^ 9j 2> 



those conveniences which would put it in a fit 
condition for the reception of students. With 
a singular lack of foresight, the architect had 
completed the structure without making any 
provision for heating, lighting, supplying with 
water and adequate drainage. These in- 
dispensable requisites for health and con- 
venience had to be put in subsequently at a 
great disadvantage and at an increased cost. 

The main building lias undergone a few 
modifications since the above noted, the prin- 
cipal being the present water supply in use 
since 1872, the lighting of the building by 
electricity since 1885, and the removal of the 
water closets from the building and placed 
into brick towers near the rear of the building, 
in 1888. 

The main college building is five stories 
high including the basement, and is 158 feet 
long by 112 feet through the wings. In the 
basement, which is almost wholly above ground, 
are the dining-room, kitchen, room for help, 
and a lecture room. On the first floor proper 
are the chapel, steward's office, library, recep- 
tion, recitation, music rooms and rooms for 
teachers. On second floor are three recitation 
rooms, teachers' rooms and dormitories for lady 
students. On the remaining floors are dormi- 
tories for gentlemen students. The museum 
occupies nearly all the third and fourth floors 
of the south wing. 

The library, chapel and museum will be 
removed from the main building in 1891 and 
placed in the new building, for which purpose 
the last General Assembly appropriated $35- 
000. The space thus vacated will be made 
into rooms for students, making the capacity of 
the main building about 300 students. 

At the January meeting of the trustees in 
1867, Gov. Stone, Lieut-Gov. Gue, and Presi- 
dent of the State Agricultural Society Peter 
Melendy were charged with the duty to exam- 

ine into, and, if necessary, visit agricultural col- 
leges in other States in order to get all in- 
formation necessary for the successful organi- 
zation of the Iowa Agricultural College, to 
select a competent faculty, engage them, fix 
their salaries and make full report to the 
board. Gov. Stone, owing to official duties, 
could not serve, and the work was done by 
Messrs. Gue and Melendy. This committee 
reported to the board in January, 1868. Their 
investigations extended through twelve States, 
embracing visits to the chief seats of learning 
therein, and conferences with the leading edu- 
cators of the land. The plan of organization, 
recommended by the committee, was closely 
followed, and embodied as its main features: 

(1. ) The election of a president, four profes- 
sors and two assistants; the president to be 
chosen as early as possible to assist in select- 
ing the faculty. 

(2.) A course of study substantially as laid 
down in the law of 1858 (already quoted). 

(3.) The adoption of a system of instructive 
manual labor, including operations on the farm 
and the mechanical trades, the student to re- 
ceive a reasonable compensation. 

(4. ) A boarding department under thecharge 
of a steward selected by the trustees. 

(5.) The admission of students to be on the 
basis of one or more from each county, for each 
representative in the popular branch of the Gen- 
eral Assembly; to be selected in a manner to 
be fixed hereafter, subject to such examination 
of qualifications as to education and moral 
character as may be prescribed by the trustees 
and faculty. 

(6.) Politics and sectarianism of any de- 
scription to be carefully excluded, and never 
be permitted to control the selection of students 
or members of the faculty, and under no cir- 
cumstances to be taught in any department of 
the college. 



(7.) Apparatus and instruments to be of the 
most approved style. 

(8.) That non-resident professors, men emi- 
nent in science or art, be secured to deliver 
lectures before the students and such citizens 
as desire to attend. [ This provision was never 
put into practice. ] 

The proposition to admit ladies to the col- 
lege on the same basis as gentlemen, was 
strongly urged by the committee on organiza- 
tion, and finally adopted by a vote of nine to 

This sensible paragraph occurs in the com- 
mittee's report on organization: "Believing as 
we do that the success of the college will, in a 
great degree, depend upon the president and 
his qualifications for the work, we have devoted 
much time and labor to this most important 
mission, to secure a man of liberal education, 
large experience and great executive ability, 
and who, moreover, comprehends the nature 
and leading objects of an agricultural college. 
After several months of careful investigation 
we are confident that we have found and secured 
a gentleman eminently qualified for the place, 
in the person of Prof. A. S. Welch." 

A. S. Welch was elected to the presidency of 
the college May 11, 1868. He assisted in the 
preliminary organization of the college that 
year; was given leave of absence from Novem- 
ber to March next, when he was formally inaug- 
urated as president March 17, I860. 

The following professors were elected early 
in 1868: G. W. Jones, mathematics; N. S. 
Townsend, practical agriculture, horticulture 
and zoology; A. E. Foote, chemistry. Students 
were admitted to the preliminary term begin- 
ning October 21 and closing January 7. The 
duties of president were discharged by Prof. 
Jones during the absence of President Welch. 
The total number of students eurolled was 
seventy. Many difficulties were met during 

the term. The manual labor system did not 
work well; the heating of the building was 
poor, and the lighting was done by candles. 

On March 17, 1869, the Iowa Agricultural 
College was formally dedicated to the cause of 
the new education, and its officers inaugurated. 
The address of welcome was delivered by 
Lieut. -Gov. Scott. 

An eloquent address was delivered by the 
Hon. B. F. Gue, president of the board of 
trustees, and truly the father of the college. 
The idea for which he had labored for years 
so untiringly and unselfishly he knew would be 
realized. An institution dedicated to the pur- 
pose of providing the industrial classes a 
" liberal and practical education in the several 
pursuits and professions of life" was now a 
fact, not a vision. He now saw that the time 
had come when science would take the laborer 
by the hand and lift him up with the loving 
injunction: "I say unto thee, arise." The ad- 
dress was mainly historical and expository of 
the principles on which the college was 

Governor Merrill delivered the charter and 
sear to the president, saying: " The hopes and 
good wishes of the people of the State are 
centered on you, eager for your success. Your 
connection dates from its opening chapters, 
and its policy is yours to originate, shape and es- 
tablish, with no mistakes of others to correct, 
with no errors of the past to redeem by 
the success of the future. Here, then, let 
the utility of scientific labor be demonstrated. 
From this institution let there go forth in an- 
nual procession a line of educated, intelligent 
men and women trained in the secrets of nature 
which underlie their profession, and filled with 
an earnest, devoted enthusiasm for their work. 
May the fruits of your labors be as abundant 
and valuable as the fruits of the soil whose 
mysteries you are called to reveal." 





The address of Hon. John Kussell, in de- 
livering the keys of the college to the presi- 
dent, was devoted, mainly, to a history of "This 
Noble Building." 

President A. S. Welch then delivered his in- 
augural. The address was marked by genuine 
eloquence, profound thought, clear exposition, 
and all expressed in that matchless diction 
which characterized all of President Welch's 
public addresses. Only a few extracts can be 
given: " The novel event that distinguishes the 
opening of this new institution is the fact 
that the plan of organization which has been 
adopted commits it to the promotion of two 
great and salutary educational reforms. One 
of these is the withdrawal of the ancient clas- 
sics from the place of honor which they have 
largely held in our college curricula, and the 
liberal substitution of those branches of nat- 
ural science which underlie the industries of 
this beautiful State. The other is the free 
admission of young women, on equal terms 
with young men, to all the privileges and 
honors which the institution can bestow. It 
is fitting that a college dedicated under cir- 
cumstances which scarcely find a parallel in 
history, should, regardless of precedent how- 
ever honored by time, establish its laws and 
arrange its courses of study on the principles 
of wisdom and justice; of wisdom, in deter- 
mining that the learning gathered in these 
halls shall contribute to the success and dig- 
nity of labor; of justice, in extending to a 
large class of students opportunities of which 
they have been hitherto, in great measure, un- 
justly deprived." 

These two propositions were exhaustively 
discussed, and, after a few fitting words to the 
faculty, closed with the following beautiful 
words: "God give us faithfulness and devo- 
tion — God give us mutual confidence, mutual 
esteem and mutual helpfulness. Thus shall we 

be able to gather and concentrate all the ele- 
ments of strength we possess — and thus with 
the Great Father's blessing, will the rolling 
years bring their full harvest of fruits.'" 

Prof. Towusend made a brief reply in be- 
half of the faculty. 

The exercises were closed by the reading of 
an original poem by Prof. H. W. Parker, of 
Iowa College, now of Amherst. Mass. The sub- 
ject of the poem was " The Ideal Farmer and 
his Wife." 

The closing lines of his poem embody his 
views on co-education : 

"The manly and the maiden mind 
Together grow more bright, refined, 
That place is holy ground and sweet. 
Where earth and heaven together meet." 

During this interval, 1861-69, correspond- 
ing iuqjrovernents had been made on the farm. 
In January, 1865, Peter Melendy was elected 
farm superintendent for two years. During 
his term of office the farm-house was well-nigh 
completed, considerable fencing was done, and 
more land subdued. His report shows a net 
profit on farm produce for 1865 of $1,340. 
About 400 acres were now enclosed, 150 acres 
under cultivation, and an orchard of 400 trees 
and about seventy-five grapevines planted. 

The improvements were continued next 
year under the superintendency of W. M. Eob- 

The board, at their January meeting, or- 
dered that no more improvements be made on 
the farm by the superintendent except in ac- 
cordance with a general plan adopted by the 
board or ordered to be made by the executive 

H. M. Thompson was elected farm superin- 
tendent and secretary of the board, at this 
meeting, and held the office till October 1, 
1869, he having tendered his resignation the 
previous August. Extensive improvements 

<<* <5~ 



were made on the farm during this period; the 
principal being laying 200 rods of tile drain, 
about 100 rods of fence put up, and forty acres 
of land brought under the plow. 

In the spring of 18611 the real work of col- 
lege instruction began. By 1871 the courses 
of study were planned and laid out. The faculty 
had been gradually enlarged to meet the grow- 
ing needs of the college, and at the close of 
1872, was constituted, as follows: 

A. S. Welch, LL. D., president and profes- 
sor of psychology and political economy; G. 
W. Jones, A. M., professor of mathematics, 
civil engineering and architecture ; James Math- 
ews, professor of pomology; W. A. Anthony, B. 
Ph., professor of physics; A. E. Foote, M. D., 
professor of chemistry; Gen. J. L. Geddes, 
professor of military tactics, engineering, and 
steward; W. H. Wynii, A. M., professor of 
English literature and history; C. E. Bassey, 
M. S., professor of botany and horticulture; I. 
P. Roberts, professor of practical agriculture 
and superintendent of farm ; A. Thompson, C. 
E., professor of mechanical engineering; Mary 

A. Lovelace, preceptress and instructor in 
mathematics; Margaret P. McDonald, instruct- 
or in English and French; Mary L. Barnes, 
instructor in piano music. To above the fol- 
lowing were added for 1873: J. K. Macomber, 

B. Sc., instructor in physics; E. W. Stanton, B. 
Sc., instructor in mathematics; G. C. Hubner, 
instructor in German. 

It is uot possible to give, even in outline, the 
various courses of study. A careful inspec- 
tion of the duties of the above corps of instruct- 
ors will indicate very clearly the character of 
instruction ; it will also be noted that the or- 
ganization of the faculty is in harmony with 
the organic law establishing the college. 

The biennial reports beginning with the 
year 1870 are readily accessible, and give full 
and detailed information on all features of the 

work in all its departments. A few of 
the more important changes in the faculty will 
be noted in a subsequent paragraph. 

In the early years of the college, student- 
labor received much attention from faculty and 
trustees. As the experience of most eastern 
schools was unfavorable to the system, the pro- 
moters of the plan here watched its practical 
workings and development with the keenest of 
interest. At the beginning (186U) the re- 
sults were of the most gratifying character 

Though the farm had made many valuable 
improvements, much heavy work remained to 
be done before it could be called a model 
farm except by courtesy. This fact was an 
important item in the genuine success which 
atteuded the organization of the student-labor. 

"There was, indeed, enough to do. The 
grounds around the building were to be put 
into a lawn, the terrace to be built, roads to be 
made, ornamental trees to be set out, grading 
to be done, cellars to be prepared for the new 
houses, a large sewer to be dug for the drain- 
age of the college building, many acres of 
woodland to be cleared of underbrush, ten 
acres of garden to be cultivated, fuel to be cut, 
an orchard to be laid out, fences to be made, 
farm crops to be raised and gathered — all 
these, and much more, gave promise of work 
for all. But it was quite clear that the rough 
jobs which required muscle were greatly in 
excess of the jobs that required artistic skill." 

The compensation ranged from three to nine 
cents per hour, according to the efficiency of 
the student; but labor requiring close super- 
vision and instruction received no compen- 

Practice in surveying, work in the labora- 
tories, and drafting, so far as laid down in the 
courses of study, were regarded as labor in the 
meaning of the law, though not subject to pay. 




In 1869 $4,600 was paid out by the college 
to the students for labor. In 1870 and 1871 
$7,000 was so paid out. 

By the time we reach 1876 the distinction 
between instructive and uniustructive labor 
was carefully elaborated — the latter was com- 
pensated by wages, the former by instruction 
given and expertness acquired, and a very 
carefully drawn rule defined each class of 

By 1880 we find that the freshmen are 
alone required to engage in uniustructive labor 
— three hours per day, four days per week; but ,' 
that the members of the higher classes shall 
engage in instructive labor daily. Special 
details were gradually coming into vogue, 
given by the heads of departments to the most 
faithful and meritorious students of the higher 

In proportion as the " rough jobs " were 
completed, the capacity of the college to supply 
work diminished ; but, at the same time, and 
in a higher ratio, the instructive labor in 
laboratory aud workshop increased. Much 
executive energy of faculty and trustees in the 
years ~of 1876-1882 was absorbed in the 
solution of this labor problem. Gradually the 
mental asserted itself over the manual, and 
since 1884 the problem has dropped out of 
sight. Many students do uniustructive labor 
in the various departments now; but there is ! 
no systematized plan on which it is conducted. 
The student who wants work applies to the 
head of the department, and if any work needs 
to be done gets it, and is paid what it is worth 
to the college. 

So the experience here, in the long run, has 
brought the college around to the same point 
as other schools that had given the system a 
fair trial in good faith had been brought. 

It is an abuse of terms to call laboratory 
practice, of whatever sort, labor. It is instruc- 

tion — in fact, the essence of instruction in a 
scientific course of study. 

The manual labor of students, even when the 
college had "heavy jobs" to do, was never 
profitable to the college. Of course many 
students were enabled to work their way through 
college by means of the plan, who otherwise 
would have been compelled to give up the 
college course. Where tuition is offered free, 
it is considered the college has done its duty. 
The young man must do something also. 

The proposition that " when a student ceases 
to labor (uniustructive) he is related to the 
industries only in theory, and a tendency to 
gain wealth without labor is fostered,"' is sup- 
posed to be a fallacy, and is certainly negatived 
by practical experience. 

The Fifteenth General Assembly appointed a 
joint committee to investigate the affairs of the 
Iowa Agricultural College and Farm. The 
immediate object of the investigation was caused 
by the defalcation of the college treasurer, S. 
E. Kankin. 

From an examination of all the college 
accounts to the date of defalcation, the expert 
accountant made the following statement, which 
is here transcribed: 

Mai a laboratory building $-22,000 00 

Farm improvement fund 4,000 00 

Endowment interest fund :iTs ."ill 

Contingent fund 11,023 29 

Main college building fund 1.000 00 

Total amount of defalcation $38,400 70 

The Fourteenth General Assembly made an 
appropriation of §25.000 for a main laboratory 
building. The first item in above table relates 
to this appropriation. So the loss to the interest 
fund of the college was about $12,000: the 
remainder of the loss fell to the State. But 
Treasurer Rankin turned over enough property, 
which more than covered the loss of the State. 
When the next General Assembly made an 




appropriation of §25,000 for a physical labora- 
tory, it was on condition that the college deed 
over to the State all the property of Rankin 
held by the college. This was done by the 
college. The State realized more out of the 
property than the loss it sustained by reason of 
the defalcation. For a double reason, then, 
the State is bound to pay over to the college all 
it lost of its interest fund. For as matters now 
stand the State has actually gained through 
Rankin's defalcation. 

In the report of the investigating commit- 
tee is found this paragraph: "Your committee 
are of the opinion that the endowment fund 
has been wisely, judiciously, and honestly 
managed: and that the leasing of the lands 
was the best policy that could have been pur- 
sued and make them available and remunerative 
to the college. Your committee find that there 
is no evidence tending to show that any officer or 
trustee of the college has ever speculated in or 
appropriated to his own use any of the funds 
of the college, or acted in bad faith in the 
management of the same." 

In 1870 a tract of 190 acres located about 
one mile west from the farm-house across 
Squaw Creek, and called North Farm, was 
bought for §5,200. This money was drawn 
from the -'interest fund." The purchase was 
not made until the written opinion of the at- 
torney-general should be obtained declaring 
such use of the so-called "interest fund" to 
be legal. Such opinion was obtained, and the 
purchase made. This farm has proved a 
source of expense to the college from the day 
of purchase to the present time. 

In 18(38 the General Assembly appropriated 
$12,000 for the purpose of building three 
dwelling houses for professors; work was be- 
gun on them in the summer of 18G8. The 
material, concrete blocks, was of such poor 
quality that one of them — afterward the presi- 

dent's house, now South Hall — fell down in 
the course of construction. One of the three 
houses was abandoned next year, while the 
other two were built of brick and completed in 
1870. These two houses, when completed, cost 
nearly $26,000. 

The years 1871 and 1872 saw many improve- 
ments made. The wings of the college build- 
ing, already related, were finished. A profes- 
sor's house, costing $4,500, built of brick, was 
completed. This house was first occupied by 
Prof. Anthony, then by Prof. Thompson, and 
now by Col. Lincoln, professor of military 
science, and college steward. 

A frame work-shop, 30x50 feet, two stories 
high, with an engine house, etc., 27x23 feet, 
with a brick smoke-stack 50 feet high, was 
erected at a total cost of $5,000. 

The chemical laboratory, a brick building 
30x60 feet, one story high, with a basement 
fitted up for lecture purposes, was finished at a 
cost of $5,000. The walls were made thick, so 
that in time the roof might be raised for an 
additional story. This will be done next year. 
The original design was just twenty years in 

A brick horse-barn and accessories, 30x60 
feet, costing a trifle over §2,500; a gas house 
near the rear of the college building, §500; 
and various farm improvements aggregating 
§3,000, were successfully completed before the 
close of 1872. 

An appropriation of §25,000 for a main 
laboratory building was secured in 1872. The 
plans adopted, if carried out, would have needed 
$45,000. Very little was done in 1873 except 
to excavate the basement and lay the founda- 
tion, when the Rankin defalcation carried away 
$22,000, as related. 

The next General Assembly made an appro- 
priation for a physical laboratory of §25,000, 
and this structure was finished and occupied 




by classes in 1876. This building is 40x70 
feet, three and one-half stories including base- 
ment. The basement was assigned to the me- 
chanical engineering department, the first floor 
to chemistry, the second floor to physics, and 
the top floor to the civil engineering depart- 
ment as drafting rooms. The money was ap- 
propriated for a physical laboratory, and 
legally and morally should be devoted to that 
purpose. The building is at present occupied 
by the departments of chemistry and physics. 
It is heated by steam, having its own boiler in 
the basement. 

In 1872 a barn, 54x70 feet and 24 feet to 
top plate, and 21 feet rise to ridge, and fine 
stone basement under all, of 9 feet, was com- 
pleted, at a cost of $5,000. 

In 1878 a horticultural laboratory and mu- 
seum was erected, costing $2,500. 

In 1880 North Hall, a two-story brick build- 
ing, for the use of botany, veterinary science 
and agriculture, was erected, at a cost of $6,000. 

A brick boarding cottage, three stories high, 
including basement, was finished in 1880, cost- 
ing $3,500, and accommodating fifty students. 

In 1882 another brick boarding cottage, sim- 
ilar in plan to previous one, was built, but some- 
what larger, costing $5,000. 

Two professors' houses were also erected on 
the college campus the same year, at a cost of 
$5,000. One of these houses is used by the 
professor of botany, the other by the professor 
of zoology, entomology and geology. 

Work was also begun, and in part finished, 
on Engineering Hall. This building was com- 
pleted in 1884, at a total cost of $12,500. 

In 1884 two buildings were built for the use 
of the veterinary department, costing $10,000. 
One of these, built of brick, is used as a veter- 
inary barn and hospital; the other, a frame 
building, is two stories; the lower story is used 
as a lecture room and veterinary museum ; the 

upper story is fitted up as a hospital, used by 
sick students. 

Also the same year a neat brick office build- 
ing was erected, for use of president, treasurer 
and seci-etary; cost, $3,000. 

The board also bought the house occupied 
by Prof. Budd, and also the one owned by Prof. 
Pope, the two costing $5,800. 

From this brief outline of material improve- 
ments made in the equipment of the college, 
the careful reader notes a corresponding in- 
crease in the facilities for imparting instruc- 
tion. For the true function of the college, af- 
ter all, is to turn out noble men and women, 
loyal citizens and leaders in society and opinion. 

The uses to which the various buildings are 
devoted indicates the lines along which devel- 
opment has taken place. One of the charges 
brought against the management of the college 
in 1872 was, "that the college was drifting 
away from its original intent, as a school of 
agriculture and mechanic arts," and the com- 
mittee, after a careful examination into all the 
facts charged by the enemies of the college, 
declared the charge not sustained. The charge, 
however, has from time to time been reiterated, 
and to quiet all such rumors, and settle beyond 
dispute all such questions, the Twentieth Gen- 
eral Assembly ordered, "That there shall be 
adopted at the State Agricultural College a 
broad, liberal and practical course of study, in 
which the leading branches of learning shall 
relate to the agricultural and mechanical arts, 
and which shall also embrace such other 
branches of learning as will most practically 
and liberally educate the agricultural and in- 
dustrial class in the several pursuits and pro- 
fessions of life, including military tactics." 
This is seen to be essentially the object ex- 
pressed in the national grant making the en- 
dowment. By the above act, the State has 
itself in complete harmony with the 







national act establishing agricultural colleges. 

The endowment fund of the college is nearly 
$650,000. The income of the college from this 
fund, annually, is nearly $42,000. 

If ever the complete history of the college 
will be written, one of the most brilliant 
chapters will be the method of handling this 
fund without loss, and in such skillful manner 
as to yield a steady revenue to the college. 

The first president of the college was A. S. 
Welch. Elected May 11, 1868, he served con- 
tinuously as chief executive till the fall of 
1883. Kesigning, the succeeding year he was 
elected to the professorship of psychology and 
history of civilization, which he held to the 
day of his death, March 14, 1889. 

His body lies in the college cemetery. His 
spirit lives in the hearts and lives of the many 
students who came in contact with him during 
his long career as president of the college. 
His individuality is apart of the history of the 
college. May the college never part with her 
rich legacy. 

S. A. Knapp succeeded Dr. Welch as pres- 
ident. He served one year. The work not 
proving congenial, he resigned, and was suc- 
ceeded by Leigh Hunt. On account of failing 
health, President Hunt resigned after serving 
two and one-half years. The board elected W. 
I. Chamberlain president in May, 1886, and 
President-elect Chamberlain took charge of 
his office early in July of the same year. 

It is not proposed to give a complete account 
of the changes in the faculty since the organ- 
ization of the college. It may be well, how- 
ever, to note a few of the more important 
changes made from time to time. 

In 1872 Prof. Anthony resigned, and Prof. 
Macomber was appointed to the chair of phys- 
ics. Prof. Macomber held the position for 
twelve years and then resigned; no changes 
since. Prof. Thompson held the chair of 

mechanical engineering for twelve years, re- 
signing in 1884, since which time three 
changes have occurred in the head of the de- 
partment. Prof. Jones resigned in 1874. 
Prof. Stanton was promoted from time to time 
and elected full professor of mathematics in 

1877. There have been no changes in this 
department. The department of civil engi- 
neering, after several changes following the res- 
ignation of Prof. Jones, was placed in charge 
of Prof. Mount in 1883. 

Prof. Foote resigned in 1874, was suc- 
ceeded by Prof. Pope, who resigned in 1884. 
Two changes have taken place since then in 
the head of the department. 

Prof. Bessey continued to take care of bot- 
any till 1884, when heresigned. Two changes 
have also taken place since in this department. 

The department of zoology and entomology 
was organized as a distinct department in 
1883, with Prof. Osborn in charge; no changes. 

The veterinary department was organized in 

1878, with Prof. Stalker in charge; no changes. 
Prof. Wynn, after fifteen years 1 continuous 
service, resigned in 1886; no change in de- 
partment since, but work has been considerably 

The department of horticulture was organ- 
ized as a separate department in 1875, with 
Prof. McAfee in charge, who, resigning in 
1876, was followed by Prof. Budd; no changes 

Prof. Roberts resigned the chair of agricult- 
ure in 1874, and after a few yearly changes 
Prof. Knapp was elected to the chair in 1880, 
and resigned in 1885; no changes since. 

Gen. J. L. Geddes continued to discharge 
the duties of the chair of military tactics to the 
close of the college year, 1882. During most 
of the period since his connection with the 
college he discharged the duties of vice-presi- 
dent, and also for many years was college 


treasurer. In 1884 (November) he was re- 
elected college treasurer, and when Mr. Bassett 
resigned the land agency in 188(3 Gen. Geddes 
was entrusted with the responsible duties con- 
nected with the land agency. 

Death removed Gen. Geddes February 23, 
1887. He was a faithful and efficient officer 
of the college during the trying years of its 
infancy and early manhood. 

Herman Knapp, Esq., was elected treasurer 
and land agent in March, 1887. 

The duties of military instructor during the 
college year 1883 were discharged by Col. 
John Scott. 

Col. J. E. Lincoln was elected steward in 
1883, his duties to begin March 1, 1881. The 
duties of the department of military science 
were also assigned him. 

The department of domestic economy was 
organized in 1875, with Mrs. Mary B. Welch 
in charge. Mrs. Welch resigned on account 
of failing health iu 1883. The number of 
changes in the department since have been two. 

For full information on all these points, ref- 
erence must be had to the college biennials. 
All changes can not be noted, nor all pro- 
fessors named. Enough has been given to 
show the tendency of the several depart- 

The attendance at the college since 1872 
has varied between 250 and 306 annually. 
The average can safely be placed as high as 
280. Its graduates now number over 500, 
and in their daily lives exemplify the value of 
the practical education received at the I. A. C. 
Many of its graduates fill positions of honor 
and trust in this and other States. The in- 
struction imparted here does prepare men and 
women for " the several pursuits and profes- 
sions of life." 

Congress passed an act approved March, 
1887, known as the " Hatch Bill," to estab- 

lish experiment stations in connection with the 
agricultural colleges established by the " Mor- 
rill Bill." The General Assembly assented to 
the conditions in the Hatch bill, and estab- 
lished the experiment station as a department 
of the college. The station is under the im- 
mediate control of a committee of the board 
of trustees. The general object of the station 
may be expressed in the following terms: To 
conduct original researches and experiments 
bearing directly on the agricultural industry 
of the United States, when broadly and liberal- 
ly interpreted. The officers of the station are: 
A director, a chemist, an entomologist, and 
several specialists as occasion may require. 
By law, the results, or whatever is done by 
way of research, must be published quarterly. 
All the expenses of each station are met by an 
annual appropriation by Congress of $15,000. 

According to the original plan there should 
be as many members of the board as there are 
judicial districts in the State. The first board 
was composed of eleven members elected by 
the Legislature, in all thirteen members. 
They were divided in two moieties, one hold- 
ing office two years; the other four years. In 
1866 the Legislature declared all the offices or 
terms at an end, and elected an entirely new 
board. The Legislature of 1871 abolished the 
former method of selecting the members from 
the judicial districts, and declared that the 
membership of the board be reduced to five 
members, and elected by the Legislature from 
the State at large. 

By an act of the Twentieth General Assem- 
bly, the membership of the board was in- 
creased to eleven, one from each Congressional 
district. And this law prevails at the present 

That the public may know, in part, what the 
Iowa Agricultural College has been doing 
all these years, we present a short list of 



some of the men who date their intellectual 
birth from their student days at the Iowa 
Agricultural College. The quality of its work 
must be of a high order to prepare men for 
such positions as are named below: E. W. 
Stanton, professor of mathematics and polit- 
ical economy in the Iowa Agricultural College, 
and secretary of its board of trustees; F. L. 
Harvey, professor of botany, Maine Agricult- 
ural College, and entomologist of the Maine 
Experiment Station; G. C. Faville, veterinary 
surgeon of the National Bureau of Animal 
Industry; W. T. Hornaday, chief taxidermist 
of the National Museum, Washington, D. C. ; 
G. K. Cherrie, chief taxidermist of the Nation- 
al Museum of the Island of Costa Kica; G. 
W. Cxirtis, professor of agriculture and direc- 
tor of the experiment station in the Agri- 
cultural College, Texas; W. B. Niles, State 
veterinarian of South Carolina and professor 
of veterinary science in the University of South 
Carolina; E. S. Rich man, botanist and horti- 
culturist to the Utah Experiment Station; J. 
C. Arthur, professor botany, Perdue University 
of Indiana, also botanist of Experiment Sta- 
tion of Indiana; Herbert Osborn, entomologist 
of United States Department of Agriculture 
for Iowa, professor of zoology, entomology 
and geology in I. A. C; Albert Hitchcock, 
botanist to the Shaw Gardens, St. Louis; 
Frank Everrett, on staff United States geolog- 
ical survey. Luther Foster, professor of agri- 
culture in South Dakota Agricultural College; 
C. A. Cary, professor of veterinary science, 
South Dakota Agricultural College; D. E. 
Collins, State veterinarian of South Dakota; 
C. A. Keffer, professor horticulture, South 
Dakota Agricultural College; L. E. Benton, 
assistant professor horticulture in University 
of California; C. M. Ross, horticulturist to 
Experiment Station, South Carolina; John 
Craig, horticulturist to Central Experiment 

Station of Canada, and general superintendent 
of the nine horticulturist stations in the Do- 
minion of Canada; M. Stalker, professor vet- 
erinary science, Iowa Agricultural College and 
State veterinarian of Iowa; C. F. Curtiss, sta- 
tistician for Iowa, of the United States Agri- 
cultural Department; W. K. Robbins, expert 
chemist to the Amoskeag Mills, Manchester, 
N. H. ; Peter Burns, assistant in agricultural 
chemistry in " Boston Institute of Technolo- 
gy;" J. C. Hainer, professor physics in Iowa 
Agricultural College; J. C. Meredith, United 
States mechanical engineer in charge of river 
improvements, Missouri River; E. Mead, 
State engineer in charge of irrigation, Colo- 
rado; J. E. Dougherty, chief engineer, Fort 
Scott & Gulf Railway; W. G. McCoimon, elec- 
trician, Edison Electric Light Company, N. Y. ; 
W. Whited, superintendent testing department 
Montreal Bridge Company; A. M. Blodgett, 
manager and president, Kansas Bridge Com- 
pany; Weston A. Goodspeed, president Good- 
speed Publishing Company, Chicago; L. W. 
Noyes, inventor of Noyes' Dictionary Holder; 
C. F. Mount, professor civil engineering, Iowa 
Agricultural College ; G. W. Catt, chief engi- 
neer, San Francisco Bridge Company; G. S. 
Govier, general agent, King Bridge Company 
for Texas; George Goodno, expert chemist, 
gas company, Dedham, Mass. ; C. H. Stearns, 
professor of science and instructor of cadets 
in Drake University, Iowa; J. N. Muncey, 
breeder of Dutch Fresian cattle and well-known 
agricultural writer; Greeley Gue, breeder of 
fine cattle and agricultural writer; J. F. Por- 
ter, electrician and contractor for electrical 
supplies, St. Louis, Mo. ; J. B. Hungerford, 
editor and proprietor, Carroll (Iowa) Herald; 
Richard Burke, editor and proprietor, What 
Cheer (Iowa) Reporter; C. H. Boardman, trus- 
tee Iowa Agricultural College; C. F. Say lor, 
superintendent county schools, Polk County, 




Iowa, and trustee of Iowa Agricultural Col- 
lege; W. O. MacElroy, trustee Iowa Agricult- 
ural College; F. D. Jackson, for sis years 
Secretary of State of Iowa; J. B. Grant, ex- 
governor of State of Colorado. 

Many are principals of schools, some are 

lawyers, some are doctors, some are farmers, 
some are active business men, some are bank- 
ers; scarcely an avenue of successful business 
or social life, but some graduate of Ames can 
be found 'therein, and all successful in the 
" several pursuits and professions of life." 







Religious Development op Story County— The Churches op the Pioneers and Their Manner, Time and 

Places op Worship— The Record op the Leading Conguegations in Different Portions op the 

County — Many Items of Interest Connected With the Local Organizations. 

' The groves were God's first temples. 

RELIGIOUS life and education 
are closely associated in the 
ilife career °f mei) - and- Story 
IfF County has proved no ex- 
m ception to the rule. Besides 
marvelous prosperity- 
and not next to it but 
before it, is so-called fanaticism, 
woven into the very fibre of Iowa's 
existence, and a visible characteristic 
by which she is best known among 
the nations of the world and by her 
sister States. If Iowa is fanatical, 
it may be recalled that Luther was a 
fanatic, so was Calvin, so was Augustine, and 
so was the great leader of them all, Jesus 
Christ. It has been said that insanity is only 
a relative thing; that Jones is considered in- 
sane by Brown, because Brown and Jones do 
not agree in their views on a given point; so 
might it be remarked of fanaticism — Brown is 
a fanatic because he holds views a little ear- 
nestly, and opposed to Jones. The chief char- 
acteristic of fanaticism seems to be its earnest- 
ness and zeal; here again Iowa and her coun- 
ties may be proud of the appellation, fanatic. 
Story County may well be proud to be a mem- 

ber of such a family, and of the part she has 
taken in it all. 

Religious life in America generally means 
Christian life, as there is so little of any other 
form of religion. The old Catholic mother 
church and those who have, since Luther's 
time, been separated from her, protesting 
against her prelatical authority, and advancing 
with marvelous strides in spreading the life of 
Christ, are her chief representatives in Story 
County. Each of the Protestant (a name 
wdiich has lost much of its significance, because 
they are less devoted to protesting now than to 
aggressive growth) churches are, according to 
the wisdom and limits of human minds, holding 
up and testing truth, each from its point of 
view, and thus in the end making all humanity 
the richer in new truth. In earlier days when 
knowledge was less easily diffused, each body 
of men who were in one continent of truth — 
i and had never been off of it; — said there was no 
other continent, and if there was it was inhab- 
ited by hideous monsters and hippogriffs. But 
there have arisen many a Columbus and en- 
gine and press and rail, and men see other 
continents, study them, trade with them, seek 
what is good in them, but they do not try to live 



in Europe and America at the same time; they 
make their home in one country, and, according 
to the local peculiarities of that country, live 
and grow. So it is with religious bodies, and 
it is well that it is so; truth, great truth, is so 
many sided, it takes a good many men to see 
all sides of it. The superficial man will speak 
of the fanatical man; the fanatic speak of the 
superficial; and both speak of the common- 
place man; but what of it? Are not the views 
from the mountain and the mine and the level 
all necessary? Who shall judge? 

This condition has led to numerous allied 
movements, moral reforms, temperance agita- 
tation, prohibition, the Moody movement, the 
Y. M. C. A. and W. C. T. U. movements, hu- 
mane agitation, and they have all had their 
influence on Story County. Her American 
population have been largely people interested 
in these lines, and her Norwegian settlers have 
been not a whit behind, for their church and 
school are the things about which they cluster. 

One difficulty attending an account of the 
churches in Story County is the shifting of pop- 
ulation elsewhere mentioned, either by transient 
settlement in it or the shifting of towns by the 
railways. This has been so marked that church 
buildings have been frequently moved from 
one settlement to another, while buildings oc- 
casionally stand idle because the people have 
moved away. In this sketch little attempt 
will be made to trace these changes; it will 
rather be confined to the tracing those so- 
cieties that have proved permanent, so far as 
matter was obtainable with lost records, treach- 
erous memories, and a foreign tongue, as ob- 


n many cases. 

The early settlers were made up of almost 
all the old denominations, as duringthe first five 
years of the county's existence the population 
rose to about 3,000. These were Cumberland 
Presbyterians, Bajitists, members of the vari- 

ous Norwegian Lutheran Churches, Dunkards, 
Methodists, Christians or Disciples, Episcopals, 
Dnited Brethren, Evangelicals, Presbyterians, 
and others, and they held meetings and organ- 
ized as fast as possible. It is not known what 
was the first organization ; no doubt several 
societies were organized about the same' time ; 
although several, as the Catholic, Congrega- 
tional, Presbyterian, Adventist, Universalists, 
Protestant Methodists and others did not 
have permanent organization until during and 
! after the war. These will be treated by de- 
! nominations in the order of dates of perma- 
nent organizations now within the count}-, as 
far as obtainable. 

The Cumberland Presbyterian Churches of 
Story County are under Colesburg Presbyter}', 
and embrace New Hope, McCallsburg, Maxwell 
and Gilbert congregations with their depend- 

New Hope Church. In 1854 John S. Thom- 
as corresponded with Rev. J. R. Lawrence, of 
Hardin County, telling him of the existence of 
several of this faith in Story, and asking him to 
come and see the field. He did so, and was 
afterward followed by Revs. Stephen Hay and 
P. H. Crider, the latter's ministry covering 
the time to 1867. Others succeeding him were 
Revs. Hampton Smith, L. L. Lorrimor, "W. 
M. Medcoff and F. M. Johnson to 1880. Then 
Rev. A. K. Bone came, and in 1881 the present 
house of worship, four miles southeast of Ne- 
vada, was built. After he left, in 1883, Rev. 
W. M. Stockinger was pastor. In the fall of 
1885 Rev. R. A. Ferguson assumed charge. In 
1889 he was called to Maxwell, and Rev. J. B. 
Howard has since served this congregation. The 
society was first called Iowa Center, but New 
Hope has since been assumed. The building 
is valued at about $2,000. Among the first 
members were: Mr. and Mrs. J. S. Thomas, 
W. G. Mullen and wife, Mr. and Mrs. W. Gol- 



den. The first elders were: Messrs. Thomas, 
Mullen, Golden, Gamble and John. The church 
is in fair condition, with a Sunday-school. 

Mt. Pisgah Church, at McCallsburg, at Mil- 
ford School, No. 5, was organized November 
22, 1873, by Rev. L. L. Lorrimor, with J. 
H. Keigley, L. McKim, Mary J. McKim, D. 
H. Spencer, B. Confare and Grizzell M. Con- 
fare. Rev. F. M. Johnson began his pastorate 
in 1876, and Eev. A. K. Bone in 1878, and 
Rev. S. McCall in 1880. The congregation 
moved its headquarters to the Valley View 
School, about six miles north of Nevada, in 1879, 
and out of it was organized Bethel Congrega- 
tion, which has since located at Gilbert. Rev. 
W. Stockinger was the next pastor. When 
Rev. Ferguson became the pastor in 1885 he 
held services also three miles southwest of town, 
and in February, 1889, opened services at Mc- 
Callsburg, which took the place of the others. 
Services were at first held in a building to- 
gether with the Disciples, as at present. They 
have auxiliary societies and a membership of 
forty-three persons. 

The Maxwell Church grew out of the desire 
of the Iowa Center new-comers for services. 
School-houses were used as early as 1881, and 
afterward the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
until in 1889 a neat building was erected at a 
cost of §2,500. Rev. Bone was the first pas- 
tor, Rev. Stockinger in 1884, and Rev. R. A. 
Ferguson since 1885. They have a member- 
ship of about seventy-five, and a Sabbath-school 
of over one hundred, with B. Confare, super- 
intendent. They also have the usual auxiliary 
societies. The officers are elders J. D. Gam- 
ble and D. W. John, and trustees, J. G. 
Wells, J. D. Gamble and B. Confare. 

Bethel Church, at Gilbert, was organized, as 
has been said, by Rev. F. M. Johnson, from the 
Mt. Pisgah congregation, at Union School. 
They began with sixty-seven members and 

officers as follows: Elders, J. H. Keigley, W. 
J. Tripp, J. A. McFarlan and James Dodds. 
They moved to Gilbert, when the new church 
was dedicated on Sejatember 25, 1881. It is a 
frame, costing $1,500. The pastors have been 
Revs. Johnson, McCall, Stockinger, Ferguson, 
R. L. McWhorter and J. B. Howard. They 
now have forty-two members. 

The Baptist Churches of Story belong to the 
Upper Des Moines Association, which was or- 
ganized in 1860 at Mount Pleasant, with Rev. 
O. A. Holmes as moderator. There were then 
but five churches with 178 members, while in 
1889 there were thirty- two churches and 1,781 
members — a tenfold increase in thirty years. 
The churches in Story County are Iowa Cen- 
ter, Ames, Nevada and Kelley, and their asso- 
ciated points. 

The First Baptist Church of Iowa Center 
was organized at Iowa Center, on Decem- 
ber 3, 1854, by Elder Ira Rees. with these 
officers and members: Deacon John G. 
Wood, Jeremiah Cory, Jr., H. J. Hackethom, 
W. K. Wood, Thomas C. Davis, Mary Davis, 
Eliza J. Wood, Malinda Wood, Sarah Hacke- 
thom and Mary A. Wood. The pastors began 
with Elder Rees, who served until 1850; B. F. 
Leavit, to 1860; D. Robinson, to 1862; John 
Parker, to 1864; irregular supplies until 1867, 
when Elder Herring was called. Elder Her- 
ring's service was suddenly cut off by his death 
on March 28, 1868. Rev. John Cassady next 
had charge until 1871, when they had to be 
content with occasional supplies again, until 
1876, on the arrival of Rev. John Bodenham. 
Since 1877, however, supplies have been neces- 
sary, among whom were Revs. Robinson, Hall, 
Brown, Mitchell, Groat and D. C. Clouse, the 
present incumbent. They have only a small 
membership. Schools were used to meet in 
until in 1858 a brick church was erected, 
36x40 feet, at a cost of $2,000. 



The First Baptist Church of Ames was or- 
ganized on July 11, 1868, by Dr. Nash, of Des 
Moines, with W. H. Pollard as moderator. 
The first members were Frank Hays and wife, 
J. A. Streight and wife, K. W. Brown, Gus- 
tavus Fritch and wife, Mary and Mina Fritch, 
and D. Alvord and wife. The deacons were 
Messrs. Stebbins and Pollard. The Methodists 
kindly offered their building for services, and 
the school-house served them for awhile. Rev. 
Day, of Boone, was the first regular pastor, 
and the church with its twenty-three members 
was received into the Upper Des Moines Asso- 
ciation on the following October 4. On April 
28, 1869, Rev. H. A. Barden became pastor, 
and held services on Sunday afternoons in the 
Congregational Church, but in December fol- 
lowing the Rev. S. H. Mitchell took his place, 
to remain five years, during which time they 
used Tombliu's Hall chiefly. In 1871 lots were 
purchased, and in 1872 a building was erected 
on the corner of Kellogg and Story Streets. It 
is a frame structure pleasantly situated among 
Ames' group of churches, and cost about $1,000. 
The dedication occurred in October, 1873, with 
Rev. J. F. Childs, of Oskaloosa, officiating. 
At this time the church was already paid for, 
and a collection of §100 was taken for State 
mission work. In January, 1870, a Sunday- 
school was formed with Mr. D. A. Bigelow as 
superintendent, and all the Baptists' children 
in Ames to the number of seven, a complete 
number if not very large. Rev. Mitchell's pas- 
torate was worthy of the old pioneer, as it 
doubled in membership and more. In June, 
1875, Rev. D. D. Propee entered upon a two- 
years' pastorate, during which the church in- 
creased in numbers considerably. Rev. R. J. 
Reynolds succeeded him in December, 1877, 
and Rev. Amos Robinson followed next in Oc- 
tober, 1879. In November, 1880, Rev. H. D. 
Weaver was called, and daring his pastorate in 

1882 a church was organized • at Kelley, which 
had some of the Ames members as a nucleus. 
A parsonage, costing $500, was also secured, 
and other improvements made. Rev. Weaver 
resigned, however, and in the autumn of 1881 
Rev. George Starring assumed charge of the 
society, but was in turn succeeded in March or 
April, 1886, by Rev. H. W. Wilson. Among 
other improvements made during his pastor- 
ate was the addition of a bell, the gift of Mr. 
H. C. Huntington, formerly a member of the 
church at Ames. This was in honor of his 
wife, who was an active member during her 
connection with the church. Rev. Wilson re- 
signed on May 18, 1890, to take charge of a 
church in Paola, Kan., and at this writing 
he has not been replaced (June, 1890). The 
society is in a flourishing condition, with a 
membership of about ninety, many also hav- 
ing removed. They have successful Sunday- 
school and mission societies. The superin- 
tendent of the Sabbath-school is Miss Letty 
F. Mount, and the school numbers over 100. 
Mrs. Huntington's children's mission band in 
early days was known as " Tee Way's Band," 
because they furnished the means to carry a 
boy through the theological school at Tavoy, 
Burmah; the boy's name was "Tee Way." 

The First Baptist Church at Nevada suc- 
ceeded an earlier organization which became 
defunct. During the early seventies Rev. S. 
H. Mitchell and others preached there, and 
about 1874 an organization was effected, with 
the following among the members. Mr. and 
Mrs. W. R. Woodward, Mrs. Foster, Mr. Da- 
vis, Mrs. Jane Rodearmel, Mrs. S. E. Ogden, 
Mr. and Mrs. Miller, and Mr. E. Armstrong. 
The organization was effected in the Presby- 
terian Church, and that and the old court-house 
were used until about 1876, when their pres- 
ent neatly arranged frame church on Seventh 
Street was erected at a cost of probably over 

^S r- 


$2,000, and all paid for before dedication. 
The church rose to a membership of about 
forty, but, on account of removals and other 
causes, there are not more than twenty now. 
The first pastor, Rev. Ohilds, officiated for 
several years, and was succeeded by Rev. 
Houten; after him came Revs. D. L. Clouse 
and E. O. Groat, each of whose pastorate 
lasted two years. For the last two years 
they have been compelled to be content with 
supplies, of whom the Rev. Mills, a young stu- 
dent, is the last. 

The First Baptist Church of Kelley was or- 
ganized on February 11. 1882, as stated, by 
Elders D. D. Propee and H. W. Weaver, of 
Ames. Mr. and Mrs. A. Wortman, Mr. and 
Mrs. J. T. Cook, Mr. and Mrs. Jones, James 
Drago, Mrs. L. Crane and Mr. D. D. Crane 
were the original members, and Messrs. Cook 
and Wortman the first deacons, while the trus- 
teeship was vested in Messrs. Cook, Wortman 
and Crane, with Mrs. Cook, treasurer, and 
Mrs. Crane, secretary. They at once erected 
a frame church costing about $1,000, and ded- 
icated on December 16, 1882. Rev. Weaver, 
the first pastor, served two years, and Rev. 
Starring about the same length of time, dur- 
ing which latter pastorate about eighteen 
members were added. His call to another 
field led to the pastorate of Rev. H. W. Wil- 
son, which began in May, 1886, and ended in 
May, 1890, with no successor at the present 
writing. A Sabbath-school was organized in 
March, 1883, and has had a successful career. 
The present superintendent is Mr. A. Wort- 
man, and the attendance is about fifty. The 
membership of the church is thirty. They 
also have the other usual societies in connec- 
tion with the church. 

The Norwegian Lutheran Churches have an 
existence based upon nationality, and also have 
had several divisions among themselves, based 

upon differences that are usual among churches 
of one general belief. The churches in Story 
County have been in three or four sub-denom- 
inations, the main conference, the Hauge 
branch, the Wisconsin synod, and the Augus- 
tan a synod. As most of these were recently 
united, at Minneapolis, in the United Norwe- 
gian Lutheran Church of America, the church- 
es of Story County naturally fall in the Des 
Moines District, and will be here treated by 
congregations, with a liberal allowance for the 
spelling of foreign names. 

Palestine Norwegian Lutheran Church was 
organized on March 25, 1856, by Rev. O. 
Aufinsen, the first pastor, with the following 
officers: K. A. Bauge, secretary; O. Sheldahl 
and O. Fatland, board of deacons; Oscar Lar- 
son and P. Christian, trustees; and about fifty 
members. In 1858 Rev. O. Sheldahl suc- 
ceeded Rev. Aufinsen, and served for the long 
period between that and 1875, when Rev. T. 
H. Myhre succeeded him. Rev. H. C. Holm, 
a graduate of Augsburg Theological Seminary, 
at Minneapolis, has had charge since 1881, and 
has had a very successful career. The other 
officers, at present, are: John Stenberg, secre- 
tary ; H. Larson, T. Sivertsen, Oliver Hill and 
Ole Fretz, the board of deacons; C. Pederson, 
O. R. Olesen, W. W. Weeks and Andrew Rich- 
ardson, board of trustees. There are three 
well organized ladies' societies for various 
purposes, and a young people's reading circle 
in connection with the church. A private re- 
ligious school is also had in addition to the 
public school, and Sunday-schools are con- 
ducted in both English and Norwegian. Two 
churches and parsonage belong to the congre- 
gation, one at Cambridge and the other at 
Palestine, and both valued, in the aggregate, 
at about $7,000. The total membership of 
both is about 600 souls. 

The Bergen Norwegian Lutheran Church, 



at Roland, was in the original parish, organ- 
ized in 1855 by Rev. . In I860 a 

pastor from Norway arrived, and the member- 
ship included nearly all the Norwegians within 
a radius of probably twelve miles about Story 
City. In 1877 Rev. C. B. Jacobsen was called 
to assist the pastor, Rev. N. Amlund, and in 
1879 the Roland Church became a separate 
parish, and he became its pastor. In 1874 a 
frame edifice, seating some 600 people, was 
erected at a cost of about $5,000, and in 1885 
a pipe organ, valued at $800, was added to it. 
In 1890 they were able to have a $2,500 par- 
sonage. The growth since Rev. Jacobsen's 
work began is well illustrated by the member- 
ship increase, it being 630 in 1879 and 1,194 
at the present writing. They have a large 
Sunday-school and four flourishing ladies' 

St. Peters Norwegian Lutheran Church, at 
Story City, the center of Story County's Nor- 
way, has a large congregation of about 900 
souls, and a Sunday-school in a flourishing con- 
dition. Their first pastor, Rev. N. Amlund, 
began his service in 1860, and has continued 
ever since, except during the period between 
1883 and 1888, the pastorate of Rev. L. Sher- 
ven. The church has prospered, and has a fine 
building valued at about $6,000. The present 
trustees are K. Egland, S. Anderson, G. Lee 
and T. Henryson. 

Salem Norwegian Lutheran Church, at Ro- 
land, is a member of the Hauge synod, and was 
organized by the members of this branch of 
the church, located in Story and Hamilton 
Counties, in 1868. The first officers were 
John Evenson, L. Henderson and Jonas Duea, 
trustees, with Deacons J. B. Jacobson, J. Pier- 
son and B. Henderson. Rev. Andrew Johnson 
was the first pastor, from 1869 to 1873, when 
Rev. I. Eisteinson began a pastorate, extend- 
ing from 1873 to the present pastorate of Rev. 

C. C. Holter, in 1884. The society has stead- 
ily prospered, until it has reached a member- 
ship of 450, while its building, which was 
erected a mile west of Roland, at a cost of 
$2,000, has since been moved to Roland, and 
is now having about $1,500 worth of improve- 
ments made to it. They also have a Sunday- 
school and the usual societies. 

The First Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran 
Church of Nevada, until recently, has been a 
member of the Augustana synod. The society 
was formed by Rev. O. Sheldahl, on March 6, 
1870, and with the following members: I. A. 
Ringheim and wife, Nels Simonson and wife, 
Colben C. Sime and wife, Henry Rasmusen 
and wife and Gertrude Sime. Rev. Sheldahl 
was the first pastor, and has been successively 
followed by Revs. I. Eisteinson, P. J. Solberg 
and Rev. C. C. Holter. Their services are not 
very regular, so that for all practical purposes 
they have become more or less identified with 
the English Lutheran Church at Nevada, whose 
building they have used since it was erected. 
They use the English language in their Sun- 

The First Church of Sheldahl was organized 
on December 2, 1876, with about twelve fami- 
lies, by Rev. O. Sheldahl. The officers were: 
Ole Hauge, leader; I. Fisher, secretary; T. 
Hauge, Nels Veste and H. Ferdahl, elders, and 
others as trustees. They had no church until 
1882, when Rev. Sheldahl, the pastor, erected 
one at his own expense, costing about $1,000. 
They now have a membership of but about 
twenty-four, on account of the moving away of 
many of the Sheldahl people. They have a 
prosperous Sunday-school. 

Bethlehem Norwegian Church, at Slater, was 
organized at Sheldahl in the fall of 1877, and 
held its first yearly meeting on January 12. 
1878. The first officers were: E. Holverson, 
H. H. Warren, C. L. Askeland, L. Thompson, 



H. Boinsa and Elias Fronsdabl, deacons, and 
B. Erslaiid, J. E. Holverson aud C. Christian- 
son, trustees; with H. O. Hendrikson, treas- 
urer, and John Stenberg, secretary. They 
began with about twenty-five families under 
Pastor Eev. E. H. Myhre, and have been under 
Eev. H. C. Holm since 1881. After meeting in 
tbe school-house at Sheldahl, a frame church, 
erected by the Polk City congregation of the 
Hauge Church, was used, and in 1878 it was 
moved into town and rebuilt. In 1888 it was 
again removed to its present site at Slater, 
where it is the only church. There are but 
few Hauge families. The church is valued 
at about -SI, 200, and the membership includes 
about seventy families. They have the usual 

There are also small societies at Huxley and 
Fieldburg Church. 

The Dunkard or Tunker Churches of Story 
County belong to the middle district of Iowa, 
a territory embraced by two east and west tiers 
of counties across the State. The chief society 
is at Maxwell, while a few members are west of 

The Indian Creek Church at Maxwell was be- 
gun in Jul) - , 1S5G, by Elder Henry Xeff, of In- 
diana, and Isaac Neff, of Virginia, with these 
members: Henry Flora aud wife, Joel Brubaker 
and wife, Joseph Brubaker aud wife, Washing- 
ton Turner and wife, and John E. Ellison, all 
but two from Virginia. Eev. Henry Flora be- 
came the first pastor, and Joel and Joseph Bru- 
baker, deacons. Within four years this society 
succeeded in forming four other societies iu its 
territory, with a total membership of about 
150. At first the district used school-houses, 
but now they have ten churches of a plain 
style, most of them from fort}' feet to seventy 
feet. At present the Indian Creek Church 
near Maxwell has ninety members. Eev. Joel 
Brubaker assisted the first pastor from 1858 to 

1862. Elder G. E. Baker was the third pastor 
from 1863 to 1875, when the present pastor, 
Elder D. E. Brubaker, took charge. They 
have a good Sabbath-school. It may be ex- 
plained that Tunker, or Baptist, is the proper 
name, as Dunkard is an American corruption 
of the German. 

The Methodist Episcopal Churches, which 
began in Iowa in 1839, had two districts in 
1840, a conference in 1841, two conferences iu 
1858, now have four, and of these the Des 
Moines Conference, which was organized in 
1860, covers Story County churches, which 
embrace, of the Boone District, Nevada, Ames, 
Colo, Cambridge, Maxwell, Collins and their 
associate charges, among which are Gilbert and 
Bloomiugton. The earliest records of general 
Methodist meetings in Story County state that 
a quarterly meeting was held in Iowa Center 
School-house February 24, 1855, and that 
Story Mission belonged to Montezuma District. 
Another meeting of the same year, held at 
George Holland's home, west of Iowa Center, li- 
censed J. J. Cole, N. Applegate, John Parker, 
E. Alderman and John Anderson. The officers 
for Story Mission had been, in 1854, William 
Simpson, presiding elder; John Anderson, 
preacher in charge; Elisha Alderman, exhorter; 
W. M. Allen and George Hestell, class-leaders, 
and Benjamin Cuyler, H. Alderman, W. H. 
Allen, Huper Parsons and W. W. Utterback, 
stewards. Other meetings followed, one in 
1856 at Mr. Baker's, when Eev. J. L. Hest- 
wood was the preacher in charge; one at Ne- 
vada, June 24, that relieved Eichard Jenness 
as steward, and put Melburn Pettibone in his 
place: and one on the camp ground, near Iowa 
Center, where a new building had been erected. 
At meetings in 1857 it was decided that the 
mission was self-supporting, and Nevada was 
made a circuit of the Upper Iowa Conference, 
with Eev. Joseph Cadwallader in charge. In 


1858 there were classes at Nevada, McCart- 
ney's, Applegate's, Mullen's, Blooruiugton, 
Smith's and Cambridge, and Rev. R. Swearin- 
geD was pastor. 

The Nevada Methodist Episcopal Church 
was organized at the house of J. W. Cesna in 
the latter part of May, 1856, with Mr. and Mrs. 
E. G. Day, Mrs. AV. G. Allen, Mrs. Hannah 
Kellogg, M. Pettibone, and Mrs. J. W. Cesna, 
as members, and J. L. Hestwood, as preacher. 
Of these, Mesdames Kellogg and Cesna are the 
only ones left. Among pastors that followed 
Rev. Hestwood are, Revs. Ashbaugh, R. Swear- 
ingen, Frank Thompson, Kelley, Hankins, 
Neigh, John Hestwood, Slusser, Samuel Jones, 
B. Shinn, T. M. Williams, D. Thompson, Jacob 
Fegtley, F. W. Vinson, E. W. Sage, A. Thorn- 
brue, A. M. Wright, A. T. Jeffrey, and W. W. 
Danner, the present pastor. It was a circuit 
until 1866, and included Iowa Center, Bloom- 
iugton, Johnson's Grove and Nevada, with F. 
M. Slusser as its last pastor. Services were at 
first held in private houses, school-houses, and 
the old court-house, until 1869, when the pres- 
ent large frame building was erected at a cost 
of about $5,000. There were as high as ninety 
conversions during the pastorate of Rev. Slus- 
ser, and this, with others following, placed the 
society on a vigorous basis. The membership 
is now about 190, and the church and its 
various auxiliary societies are in a prosperous 

The Ames Methodist Episcopal Church was 
founded in 1859, with Rev. S. F. Gossard in 
charge, and the following trustees: Isaac Black, 
W. F. Wakefield, Thomas Greyson, S. O. Os- 
born, S. H. Miller ; Ira Bixby and Thomas Gos- 
sard were appointed April 7, 1866. A church 
was built during the latter year on Main Street, 
at a cost of $2,000. This was used until 1887, 
when a brick structure was completed, at a cost 
of $10,500, and dedicated in February, 1888. 

This is no doubt the finest church building in 
Story County. The present board of trustees 
are H. Westerman, Dr. C. E. Hunt, Dr. E. B. 
Plumb, Prof. H. Kuapp, and C. W. McElyia. 
The Epworth League and Woman's Foreign 
Missionary Society are their auxiliaries; the 
membership, including a class five miles south- 
west of Ames, reaches the number 220. The 
successive pastors have been, Revs. S. G. Gos- 
sard, beginning in 1859; W. O. Glasner, 1861; 
W. S. Dorwin, 1865; T. P. Newland, 1867; E. 
Kendall, 1868; J. G. Eckels, 1870; A. Wilson, 
1871; A. Brown, 1873; I. T. Miller, 1875; E. 
W. Brady, 1877; B. F. Durfee, 1878; W. Abra- 
ham, 1880; E. Kendall, 1881; D. Thompson, 
1883; H. J. Everly, 1884; A. H Hunt, 1887; 
and William Stevenson, 1888. 

The Colo Methodist Episcopal Church began 
its career in 1865, and on September 9, 1867, 
the following trustees were elected: Peter 
Martin, W. W. Utterback, Joshua Cooper. G. 
H. Richardson, J. H. Vorhees, M. J. Hanks 
and Abel Hankins. Church services were held 
in the town hall, school-house, the building of 
the " Church of God " and that of the Pro- 
testant Methodists until 1886. when they 
bought the building of the first-mentioned 
society and refitted it, so that it is now valued 
at about $1,500. The present trustees are: G. 
H. Richardson, H. Cummings, J. W. Kinsell, 
J. H. Shammo and Charles Nickren. The 
entire charge numbers 123, of which sixty are 
in the Colo class. Among the successive pas- 
tors are: Revs. John Dorwin, J. S. Coit, S. 
Snyder, A. A. Vanscoy, J. A. Jefferson, J. S. 
Morrow, C. H. Burleigh, J. A. Stephens, C. A. 
Croney, A. B. Shipman, F. D. Funk, A. W. 
Armstrong, S. S. Todd, W. A. Welker, I. M. 
O'Flyng and J. S. Throckmorton. 

The Cambridge Methodist Episcopal Church 
was a part of the Fort Dodge District at first, 
under Presiding Elder Daniel Lamont. The 

J s> r- 


first class was organized here June 23, 1866, 
by Rev. W. S. Dorwin, and Cambridge Circuit 
was formed in the fall of 1867 under Rev. i 
Samuel Jones, P. E., and Rev. A. A. Vanscoy 
in charge. The circuit embraced Palestine, 
Walnut Grove, Applegate's School, Center 
Grove and Mount Fairview, with the day j 
points at Cory Grove and Oak Grove. The first 
members at Cambridge were J. D. Breezley, 
G. M. Maxwell, Rebecca E. Breezley, Eliza 
Livingston, Sarah B. Livingston, R. Buell, 
Ellen J. Chandler, Mary Hughes, James Lew- ! 
ellen and Mary Breezley. Private houses and j 
schools were used for services until September j 
8, 1877, when a Methodist Episcopal Church, 
36x50 feet, was completed and dedicated with 
cupola and bell, at a cost of from $1,700 to 
$1,800, and clear of debt at dedication. Rev. 
J. D. Moore was effective in this as pastor, 
while Rev. M. D. Collins, P. E., made the 
dedicatory address. The parsonage was built 
under the pastorate of Rev. B. B. Lane about 
1870, and, together with improvements made 
while Rev. G. M. Hall had charge, in 1883, the 
entire cost would be about $1,000. The orig- 
inal class-leaders of the circuit were as follows: 
G. M. Maxwell, Cambridge; J. D. Breezley, 

Palestine; , Walnut Grove; James 

Matthews, at Applegate School ; James Kirk, at 
Center Grove; John Penn, at Mount Fairview; 
W. Veneman, at Cory Grove, and Mr. Griffith, 
at Oak Grove. The successive pastors and 
presiding elders are as follows: Pastors — W. 
S. Dorwin, organizing; A. A. Vanscoy, in 
charge three years; B. B. Lane, from 1869; I. 
T. Miller, from 1872; D. O. Steward, 1873; 
O. H. Baker, 1875; J. D. Moore, 1876; W. 
Abraham, 1878; W. E. Harvey, 1880; G. M. 
Hall, 1882; J. M. Conrad, 1883; D. Thompson, I 
1884; W. H. H. Smith, 1886; R, J. Tennant, \ 
1888, and John Elliott, 1889. The presiding j 
elders were: Revs. D. Lamont, 1866; Samuel 

Jones, 1868; C. C. Mabee, 1872; M. D. Col- 
lins, 1875; A. J. Andres, 1877; H T. Curl, 
1880; B. F. W. Cozier, 1881, and W. W. Ram- 
say, 1888. Iu 1871 there were 105 members 
on the circuit, and three Sabbath-schools. It 
was then that the Cambridge school became a 
regular one. Maxwell was a part of the cir- 
cuit from 1882 to 1888, when it was made in- 
dependent, including Elwell, while Cambridge 
held Slater and Pleasant Hill. The circuit 
now has eighty-eight members on its three 
appointments. Rev. I. T. Miller should receive 
special mention as a pastor under whom re- 
markable growth was made. 

The First Methodist Episcopal Church of 
Maxwell grew up rapidly, like the town. In 
1882 Iowa Center, Peoria City and Center 
Grove were the nearest points, and were parts 
of Cambridge Circuit, which was placed in 
charge of Rev. G. M. Hall in 1882. It was 
during this pastorate that Maxwell Church was 
formed, on June 4, 1883, with thirty-seven 
members, and John Doty as class-leader. On 
June 3 there was dedicated a neat, new brick - 
veneered church, with audience -room, class- 
room and gallery, and furnished with furnace, 
organ, bell, etc., at an entire cost of over 
$3,000. The pastor lived at Cambridge until 
September, 1888, when the circuit was divided 
and a parsonage erected at Maxwell. The 
charge now includes Elwell, but the member- 
ship at Maxwell alone is eighty-five. George 
B. Dry is class-leader, and the trustees who 
have served from the beginniug, with one ex- 
ception, are George Benedict, William Scoles, 
J. W. Maxwell, W. J. Veneman and Jeff. Mil- 
ler, the last-mentioned having succeeded J. O. 
French, whose assassination occurred in 1887. 
The Sunday-school, under the superintendence 
of J. W. Maxwell, the Epworth League, and the 
Ladies' Aid and Foreign Missionary Societies, 
are all in a flourishing condition. The succes- 



sive pastors have been Eevs. G. M. Hall, be- 
ginning September, 1882; J. M. Conrad, 1883; 
D. Thompson, 1884; W. H. H. Smith, 1886, 
and J. E. Nichol, 1888, to the present. 

The Collins Methodist Episcopal Church 
began as a part of Colo Circuit in March, 
1885, under Eev. S. S. Todd, and with the fol- 
lowing members: S. A. Kush, Kate B. Rush, 
Mrs. L. Fowler, Mr. and Mrs. C. W. Eather- 
ton, "William Price and Mrs. G. A. Muhs. The 
church was built in the fall of that year, and 
is a frame 30x4(3 feet, costing $1,600. It was 
dedicated June 21, 1886. The Sunday-school 
was formed February 1, 1887, with Mrs. Kate 
B. Rush as superintendent. The membership 
is now 30, and that of the Sabbath-school, 100. 

The Christian or Disciple Churches in 
Iowa organized their State convention in 1869, 
but Story County had local societies of this 
faith long before that. Those in the county 
now are Ontario, McCallsburg, Ames, Zearing, 
Maxwell, with less important points of preach- 

The Ontario Christian Church began in 
1857, under the direction of Rev. Jessup, who 
organized it with Mr. and Mrs. S. Beadle, Mr. 
and Mrs. A. Beadle, Mr. and Mrs. I. Hopkins, 
Mr. and Mrs. Rose, and others as members. 
They prospered with about twenty-five mem- 
bers, until in 1872 they erected a building at 
a cost of over $3,600. Among the pastors 
have been Revs. Brokaw, Snider, Corban, 
Ames, and H. P. Bunce, the present pastor. 

The McCallsburg Christian Church. Oc- 
tober 10, 1886, J. W. and M. J. Smith, E. L. 
and Susan Griffith and A. B. Griffith were 
formed into a church at McCallsburg, with E. 
L. Griffith and J. W. Smith, elders, and A. B. 
Griffith, dencon. In 1888 a church building 
was erected and dedicated on October 6, 1889. 
It cost about $1,000. The pastors have been 
as follows: Revs. J. W. Sibbit, beginning in 

1886; J. M. Vankirk, in 1887; H. P. Bunce, 
in 1888, and J. W. Vanderwalker since 1889. 
They now have a membership of twenty-seven, 
with Elders J. W. Smith and H. C. Vail, and 
Deacons A. B. Griffith and G. R. Vernon, with 
Deaconess L. B. Ricketts as officers. They 
have a union Sabbath-school, of which S. Reid 
is superintendent. 

The Church of Christ at Ames has a mem- 
bership of forty-one persons, and a Sabbath- 
school of seventy-five pupils, under the super- 
intendence of Charles Lyon. This society was 
formed April 20, 1887, by Elder J. H. Painter, 
after a series of meetings held in the Methodist 
Church. The first members were Mrs. Re- 
becca Adams, Miss Minnie Adams, Mrs. G. A. 
Armstrong, J. P. Alderman, Mrs. Alice Baker, 
Miss May Goldsmith, George Goldsmith, Mrs. 
Mary T. Grove, W. A. Hicks, Thomas Hard- 
castle, Mrs. P. Raff, and Mrs. S. B. Sexton, 
the first officers being Messrs. Hicks and Hard- 
castle. They purchased the old Methodist 
Ej>iscopal Church on Douglass aud Onondaga 
Streets, but since moved up to Story Street, 
and in March, 1888, dedicated to its new pur- 
poses. It is valued at $1,000. The only regular 
pastor has been Elder J. AV. Vankirk, from 
1888, in March, to January, 1889, when his 
death occurred while he was at Rutherford, 
Iowa, temporarily. There has been no regular 
pastor since. 

The Zearing Christian Church has been in 
existence about three years, and has increased 
to about fifty members. The present pastor is 
Rev. Vanderwalker. 

The Maxwell Church of Christ grew from an 
effort of Dr. E. C. Scott, J. B. Angelo and 
others, who secured the services of a pastor from 
Des Moines for a few meetings. After this 
Rev. D. A. Wickizer was sent on, and after a 
six weeks' series of meetings a church was 
organized on February 23, 1890, with eighty- 


five members. Rev. J. H. Stockholm became 
pastor and before the year closes a church 
80x50 feet will be completed. In April a Sab- 
bath-school was formed, with Dr. E. C. Scott as 

The Protestant Episcopal Church has had 
members in Story County almost from the 
first, but attempts at organization at Iowa 
Center, Nevada and Ames have not been per- 
manent. There is uow no society in the county, 
although several members. 

The Iowa Center Church was organized by 
Rev. X. A Welton in 1858, and among the 
members were Mr. and Mrs. E. B. Fenn, Mrs. 
E. J. Potter, Mrs. F. M. Baldwin, Mr. and 
Mrs. J. Will and Mr. and Mrs. McKee. The 
church, erected in 1860, was destroyed very 
soon and the society ceased to exist. 

The Ames Mission existed for a few years 
under the care of Rev. C. S. Percival and 
others. Among its members were Mrs. M. B. 
Welch, wife of President Welch, of the col- 
lege, Mrs. W. D. Lucas, Mrs. M. M. Turner, 
Professor and Mrs. Pope, Miss Sinclair, Mr. 
and Mrs. Skinner, Mrs. Prof. McComber, and 
others. The mission lasted from about 1877 
for three years or more. 

The United Brethren Churches appeared in 
Iowa first of the trans-Mississippi region, and 
in 1876 Iowa Conference was divided into Iowa 
and Des Moines, on account of language, the 
Iowa being German and the latter English. 
Of course the churches of Story belong to the 
Des Moines Conference, and these now include 
Fairview, south of Colo, Evergreen Chapel, 
south of Ames, and a class at Ontario. There 
were other churches in early days, notably that 
at Palestine in the thirties under Rev. Ives 
Marks, with its embryo seminary, and one at 
Ames strong enough to own a building, but 
these are of the past. 

Fairview United Brethren Church was or- 

ganized in New Albany Township, October 19, 
1885, by Elder George Miller, aud Rev. F. M. 
Boyd as pastor. The members were Josiah 
and Margaret Dunahoo, Sarah Dunahoo, J. W. 
Tory, Mary Tory, Mrs. C. A. Sawtell and F. 
V. Sawtell, and meetings were held in School 
No. 9. Rev. W. W. Lewis began work in 
18S5 and increased the membership to eighty- 
five in 1886. Trustees J. F. Loucks, J. W. 
Tory, S. P. Rinehart, W. D. Martin and J. C. 
Sawtell proceeded to build a church, which was 
dedicated by August 22, 1886. It cost proba- 
bly $1,500. The membership still increased 
and a Sabbath-school was founded. Rev. L. F. 
Bufkin became pastor in 1887, but was soon 
succeeded by Rev. D. N. Craner. Sickness 
soon compelled the pastor to resign, and in 
1888 Rev. W. W. Lewis was recalled, and 
served until called to Des Moines in 1889. 
Rev. N. W. Burtner, of Toledo College, has 
since served. The present membership is 

Evergreen Chapel is about four miles south- 
east of Ames, and its society was formed in 
February, 18S6, by Rev. G. W. Vandeven- 
ter. Fifty-two members were enrolled, and 
the officers were W. S. Anderson, steward; 
James Robb, R. B. Buell, A. D. Wherry, J. 
E. Vanscoy, T. Bates and W. S. Anderson, 
trustees. After using the school-house, a 
church was built in 1886 at a cost of $1,700, 
and dedicated November 7, 1886. Rev. L. H. 
Bufkin followed the first pastor in 1888, and 
Rev. J. X. Talbott in 1889. Rev. J. H. Snoke 
is the present pastor. A Sunday-school was 
organized in 1884. The church now has a 
membership of 51. 

Ontario Class was organized in April, 1889, 
by Rev. J. Talbott with about fourteen mem- 

The (English) Evangelical Lutheran Church 
organized its Synod of Iowa in 1854. Story 




has two congregations, namely, Nevada and 
Johnson Grove. 

St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church in 
Richland Township, at Johnson Grove, had its 
beginning in a visit made to Absalom Smay, 
on Indian Creek, by Rev. G. W. Schaeffer, 
who held a service in December, 1860, at the 
Murphy School. Late in 18G1 Rev. J. G. 
Beckley came to Nevada as a teacher, and in 
course of time succeeded in organizing this 
church February 16, 1865, after a success- 
ful revival. Pastor Beckley, Elders Absalom 
Smay and W. McCain and Deacon J. A. Snelling 
were the officers, who, with Mrs. A. S. May, 
Mrs. E. Hague, Mrs. W. McCain, Mrs. Agnes 
Snelling and Alexander Snelling constituted 
the membership. The school-house was used 
until 1880, when the present frame church, 
30x40 feet, and located on the south side of 
Section 24, was built at a cost of $1,200. The 
Sabbath-school was begun by W. McCain as 
early as 1858, and the Woman's Foreign Mis- 
sionary Society was organized about 1885. 
They now have a membership of sixty-seven 
resident and eleven non-resident. The pas- 
tors have been as follows: Revs. J. G Beck- 
ley, from 1861 to June 4, 1871; J. J. Crigler, 
January 1, 1874, to April 1, 1875; P. S. Nellis, 
June 1, 1875, to March 1,1876; C. Baird, 
November 1, 1877, to August 1, 1883; J. A. 
Ziegler, January 1, 1884, to August 1, 1889, 
and Rev. George H. Schnur, since October 1, 
1889. The Revs. Beckley and Ziegler's pas- 
torates were marked by especial growth. 

Memorial Church, at Nevada, had its incep- 
tion under the pastorate of Rev. C. Baird, at 
Johnson Grove. In June, 1882, he organized 
with the following members: Z. M., J. F. and 
Rebecca J. Baird, Mrs. J. C. Bechtel, Mrs. M. 
S. Beckley, C. C. Eicher, Mrs. C. Ewald, Con- 
rad Ewald, Miss Margaret Ewald, Mrs. K. A. 
Grauel, Mrs. M. E. Payne, N. W. Simmons, 

Elias Stamm, Mrs. Mary Stamm, and Miss 
Lillie Stamm. Elder E. Stamm and Deacon 
J. F. Baird were officers. Services were held 
in an old store-room, owned by I. A. Ringheim, 
for three years, when their handsome frame 
church was erected, in 1885, at a eost of 
$3,600, the parsonage having been built in 
1884, at a cost of $1,200. Both buildings are 
of pleasant architectural arrangement, and have 
late improvements. These were built under 
the pastorate of Rev. (now) Dr. Zeigler, of the 
chair of mathematics and astronomy in Car- 
thage College, Illinois. Dr. Zeigler built both 
buildings at his own expense, and was reim- 
bursed by the society five years later. The 
pastors have been the same as those of John- 
son Grove, with which it is associated. They 
have a membership of thirty-six and a Sabbath 
school of fifty, which was organized in Novem- 
ber, 1881, by Rev. Baird. The superintendent 
is O. O. Roe. The Woman's Missionary Soci- 
ety, organized in 1883, is in successful opera- 
tion under the presidency of Rev. Mrs. Schnur. 

The Evangelical Association organized its 
Des Moines Conference in April, 1870, at Blairs- 
town, with Rev. Dr. R. Dubs as president and 
a membership of 2,781. At its meeting in 
Aftou, in 1889, when the same gentleman pre- 
sided, there were 4,219 members represented. 
Their societies in Story County include Iowa 
Center, Story City, and small societies at Colo, 
Pleasant Vale, Zearing, and Summit, near Ne- 
vada, from but two of which information seems 

The Iowa Center Church was organized in 
1861, by Rev. Holdridge, with John Applegate 
and wife, Hezekiah Applegate and wife, M. 
Ellison and wife, Thomas Maxwell and wife, 
John John and wife, and others. John Apple- 
gate was class-leader. The Baptist Church was 
used until 1867, when a frame church was built 
at a cost of $1,500, and dedicated by Rev. H. 



J. Bowman. The pastors have been: Revs. 
Holdridge, from 1861; Buzzard, from 1863; 
Bowman, from 1865 ; Yerger, from 1867 ; Kook- 
er, from 1869; Hahn, 1871; Monuysmith, 1873; 
Johnson, 1875; Long, 1878; Hoover, 1880; 
Neibel, 1882; Skogsberg, 1883; Evans, 1884; 
S. A. Walton, 1886; W. J. Hahn, 1888, and J. 
E. Staufacher, 1890. The present officers are, 
D. D. Sheldon, class-leader; C. Webb, exhorter ; 
L. Moore, and J. J. Stratton, stewards. The 
church has increased until it now has 109 mem- 
bers, and growth has been especially marked 
in late years. 

Story City Church really began with the first 
visit, in 1870, of Rev. J. F. Yerger. After 
that this point steadily developed under the 
care of Rev. Holdridge; Rev. S. A. Pettet, the 
first real pastor, 1876; Rev. C. H. Grarnley, 
1878; Rev. D. P. Ellenberger and Rev. S. S. 
Kogsberg, 1880; Rev. C. M. Palmer, 1882; 
Rev. T. M. Evans, soon after; Rev. B. H. Nie- 
bel, 1883, under whom a church was organized 
and an edifice built; Rev. A. E. Mosher, 1886, 
and J. F. Yerger in 1887. This church is in 
the Des Moines District, while Colo and Iowa 
Center are in the Cedar Rapids District. 

Colo Circuit includes Zearing also, and an 
entire membership of 131, which was adminis- 
tered to by Rev. J. F. Yerger in 1870 and Rev. 
N. B. Niebel, in 1889. This is smaller than 
Iowa Center Circuit, which has a membership 
of 238, and larger than Story City Circuit, with 
its eighty-eight members. 

The Presbyterian Church, which began so 
early in Iowa, and now includes in its synod 
eight presbyteries with 358 churches, had Pres- 
byterians in Story at an early date, and now 
includes the county in the presbytery of Water- 
loo. There were attempts at organization at 
Nevada in the fifties, and at Elwell, by Rev. 
Reid, later on, but Nevada is the only survivor 
of these attempts. 

The Central Presbyterian Church at Nevada 
was organized by Rev. Thompson Bird, of Des 
Moines, in December, 1863, with the following 
members: R. B. Harper, Eliza J. Harper, J. 
M. Applegate, Lizzie Applegate, Sarah Beck- 
ley, Fred Diffenbacher, Eliza Diffenbacher, T. 
C. McCall, Mary A. B. McCall, Julia Ross, D. 
B. Stout, Mrs. D. B. Stout, Elizabeth Stevens. 
The first meeting was held in the old court- 
house on January 29, 1866; Rev. I. Reid was 
moderator; William Garrett, treasurer; J. L. 
Dana, clerk, and T. C. McCall, J. M. Apple- 
gate and John Scott, trustees; these last men- 
tioned secured articles of incorporation. T. C. 
McCall donated a lot, and a building — that now 
used opposite and east of the court-house — was 
erected in 1867 at a cost of about $3,500. The 
dedication occurred in 1868, and Rev. Isaiah 
Reid became their pastor. His successful 
career with the church extended down to the last 
day of December, 1877. Rev. D. B. Gordon 
succeeded him as stated supply until March 23, 
1879, and on June 8, 1879, Rev. Eugene R. 
Mills held services and soon assumed regular 
pastorate. In May, 1883, he resigned, and in 
October, 1881, Rev. S. B. Neilson began serv- 
ing the church as stated supply for a period of 
about six months. It was not until April 30, 
1887, that Rev. W. A. Smith, a supply, held 
services a short time, and not until April 4, 
1889, that a regular pastor was secured in the 
person of Rev. Campbell Coyle, whose installa- 
tion occurred May 12, and whose pastorate 
gives promise of excellent results. R. M. 
Harper was the first ruling elder, and in 1868 
T. C. McCall and G. A. Kellogg were elected. 
Other elders have been G. B. Toby, Thomas 
Ashford and O. B. Ingalls. The present active 
leaders in the Sabbath-school are: The pastor, 
O. B. Ingalls and wife, Mrs. J. L. Dana and Mrs. 
J. A. Fitch patrick. A society of Christian En- 
deavor is in successful operation. 




The Congregational Church has but one rep- 
resentative in Story County, namely, that at 

The First Congregational Church of Ames 
was founded November 5, 1865, with H. F. 
Kingsbury, Mary Kingsbury, Cynthia O. Duff, 
John Whitelaw, Lyman Pierce, Phebe Pierce, 
Robert B. Shearer and Elizabeth Shearer as 
members. This handful has, in a quarter of a 
century, increased to 124, the present member- 
ship. The movement to erect a church in 1867 
received some notable encouragement. Two lots 
offered to Mrs. Duff for her intelligent service 
to the railroad company, then finishing their 
road, were transferred to the church at the re- 
quest of Mrs. Duff, and Hon. Oakes Ames, of 
Massachusetts, donated a sweet-toned bell. 
The building cost about $1,800, and is located 
on Kellogg and College Streets. About $1,500 
worth of improvements have been added to it 
from time to time. The Sabbath-school, or- 
ganized in 1865, had 125 members; the aid so- 
ciety, organized in 1870, the missionary society 
organized in 1877, and the Christian Endeavor, 
formed in 1889, are all in flourishing condition. 
The successive pastors are: Revs. John White, 
beginning in November, 1865; S. Gilbert, in 
March, 1868; A. A. Baker, October, 1869; G. 
G. Pen-ins, March, 1875; W. P. Bennett, June, 
1880; C. C. Moulton, March, 1885, and J. D. 
Wells, in April, 1888. 

The Methodist Protestant Church organized 
the Iowa Conference in 1845. It had but one 
circuit in Story, namely Colo, with Collins as a 
part of Peoria City Circuit. 

Colo Church was organized about 1870 by 
Kev. H. C. Rosenberger, the pastor of Peoria 
City Circuit. Mr. and Mrs. A. W. Gilchrist, 
Mr. and Mrs. L. Baily and others were among 
the original members. This building was 
completed in 1873, and was soon dedicated un- 
der the pastorate of Rev. B. Belt. It cost 

about $1,500 and was built during the pastorate 
of Rev. J. A. Smay. Among other pastors 
have been Revs. Kirkpatrick, A. W. Gilchrist, 
Bradford, T. S. Striker and F. D. Keamer. 
Rev. Smay, the present pastor, has had a long 
service. The membership has been as- high as 
250, but it does not exceed twenty now. 

The Collins Church was begun in February, 
1889, by Rev. W. F. Price, the pastor at Peoria 
City. It then had twenty two members and 
has held its meetings in the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church. They have a parsonage and hold 
union Sabbath-school with the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church. Mr. S. A. Price is class-leader. 

The Universalist Church had a society in 
Nevada supported by about twenty-five to 
thirty families, among whom were O. B. Dut- 
ton and wife, E. W. Lockwood and wife, T. E. 
Alderman and wife, D. H. McCord and wife, A. 
Dayton and wife, C. H. Balliet and wife, U. Al- 
exander and wife, D. Childs and wife, J. C. 
Lovell, I. Walker, Otis Briggs and others. It 
lasted a short time, early in the seventies. 

The Society of Friends had a .society near 
Zearing some years since, but none now. 

The Roman Catholic Church, by its members, 
discovered Iowa, and was, with the Methodists, 
the first denomination in the Territory. There 
are but two churches in Story County, namely, 
Nevada and Colo, with a small German so- 
ciety in Franklin Township. These are under 
the bishop of Dubuque, one of two Iowa 

St. James Catholic Church at Nevada was 
organized about 1874 by Father Delaney, of 
Boone. They used the home of Mr. James 
Doyle until their present church was erected. 
Father Mackey was the first stationed pastor, 
and was succeeded by Father Smith, under 
whom Colo Church was created. Father Mur- 
phy came next, and during a successful pastor- 
ate removed and refitted the buildings on their 

~^\ : 


present site. Rev. Father McNamara is the 
present pastor. The membership reaches 150. 

St. Patrick's Church at Colo was built about 
1880 by Father Smith, of Boone. It is a 
large building of 30x60 feet dimensions. The 
church has been in a prosperous condition 
from the first, and is the real Catholic center 
in the county. The congregation now num- 
bers about 350 members, among whom are some 
of Colo's leading citizens. The pastorate has 
been the same as that of Nevada. 

The Seventh Day Adventists have two socie- 
ties in Story, one at Nevada and one at Ames. 

The Nevada Church began in the tent meet- 
ing of Elders L. McCoy and It. M. Kilgore in 
1875, and was organized by the latter gentle- 
man October 15, 1876, with fifteen members. 
John N. Calhoun was leader and J. M. Whit- 
ney, clerk and treasurer. Meetings were held 
in Adventist Hall and the Baptist Church 
until their church was completed in January, 

1888. It is a frame, costing about $1,700, op- 
posite the park on Main Street. It was dedi- 
cated July 1, 1888. They have no regular 
pastor. Mary E. Cook is superintendent of 
the Sabbath-school, while two auxiliary socie- 
ties are in successful operation. 

The Ames Church has about twenty-nine 
members and was organized August 26, 1883, 
with twelve members. Peter Christofersen 
was leader and Carrie Fries, secretary. They 
have no pastor or building but meet in private 
houses. Elder P. L. Hoen is superintendent 
of the Sabbath-school. 

There have been Y. M. C. A. and W. C. T. 
U. societies in the county, but there are none 
at present. A county Sunday-school Associa- 
tion has been in successful operation for years 
and now enrolls 102 schools, 700 teachers, and 
4,975 pupils. The temperance question has 
been vigorously handled from earliest days, 
and no saloon exists in the county. 




Location and Boundary op the County— Elevation and the Subject of Drainage— The Groves and thb Prai- 
ries — The Soil and Local Minerals— Springs and Natural Gas— Stock and Poultry Pro- 
ductions — Evidences op the Existence op Coal — Thickness op the Drift. 


" How rich in humble poverty is he 
Who leads a quiet country life; 
Discharged of business, void of strife 

■ N the north of Story County 
lie the counties of Hamil- 
ton and Hardin, and on 
the south Jasper and Polk, 
gGS while on the east and west 
\ ; 0*^ are Marshall and Boone, 
respectively, thus enclosing an 
area of 576 square miles in a perfect 
square of sixteen townships, all 
with a slight inclination toward 
the south and east. The most ele- 
vated point is probably in the 
north part of Warren, near the 
north county line, and the lowest 
where the Skunk and Indian Creeks pass the 
southern boundary and emerge into Polk 
County. There is no doubt, too, that the cen- 
ter of the State lies in some part of the south- 
west quarter of the county, presumably in Ne- 
vada or Indian Creek Townships. 

The Skunk River, legally known as Chicau- 
qua, with its branches, drains the two west 
tiers of townships, excepting a part of Milford 
and a small part of Palestine, while Indian 

Creek, with its branches, waters the two east 
tiers, and parts of Milford and Grand, and ex- 
cepting a part of Sherman, New Albany and 
Lincoln, the last-mentioned township being 
drained by Minerva Creek. The lower half of 
the Skunk Eiver averages a depression of two 
and one-half miles in widtb, while a similar 
portion of the Indian averages less than one 
mile in the same feature. In the order of length 
and size the streams would be as follows: 
Skunk, emptying into the Mississippi; East In- 
dian, about the same length, but not so lai'ge, 
into the Des Moines; West Indian, into East; 
Squaw Creek, into Skunk, below Ames; Long 
Dick and Bear Creeks, in Howard Township, 
into Skunk; Keigley's Branch, into Skunk, in 
La Fayette; Walnut Creek, in Washington, and 
Ballard Creek, in Palestine and Union, into 
Skunk; Dye's Branch, in Sherman, into East 
Indian; Clear Creek, in New Albany, Willow 
and Wolf, in New Albany, and Minerva Creek, 
in Lincoln. All are rather sluggish, and be- 
come in many cases dry in seasons of drouth, 
while in wet seasons they are frequently over- 


flowed. For years the prairie grass kept them 
from having channels in their upper courses. 

The whole county was originally prairie, 
except some noted groves along the lax-ger 
sti - eams — on the Skunk and on Indian Creek, 
below Richland Township; on Squaw; Ball- 
ard's Grove, on Ballard Creek; Walnut Grove, 
on "Walnut Creek, aud Center Grove, in Union, 
near Skunk River. These include nearly all 
the natural wooded land, but artificial groves 
can be seen on every farm now. 

The heavy prairie grass, which only ex- 
ists in a few uncultivated quarter sections, and 
a very few hay fields, once covered the county 
to a height of many feet. This held the water 
in places, and made multitudes of small ponds; 
but cultivation and natural and artificial drain- 
age have reduced these very fast. 

The soil is a dark prairie loam, except on the 
river blufflets, where sand and gravel are occa- 
sionally disclosed. 

The chief quarries are on the Skunk, in 
Franklin Township, where good building stone 
is secured and fossils of great interest are 
found. As the southern limit of the drift is 
said to be near the north county line, drift 
bowlders would be naturally found, as they 
are chiefly in Sherman and Richland Town- 
ships. Occasionally lime bowlders have been 
used for lime. 

Flowing wells are common in the north part 
of the county, the largest being the Watkin's 
well, on Section 26, La Fayette Township. 
This flows at a height of fifteen feet, and sup- 
plies a pond. These are made possible by the 
alternate layers of clays and quicksands. 
There are but few springs. 

Natural gas was found in 1888, on Section 
23, of Nevada Township, and is being used by 
the owner of the well for household purposes. 

Clays for brick and tile are found in abun- 
dance, and of excellent quality. 

The county is agriculturally rich. Its arti- 
ficial groves are chiefly soft maple, ash, black 
walnut and a few larch, all of which grow well 
and fast. Windbreaks are often willow, and 
hedges are almost entirely so. Orchards do 
well, but have suffered a little of late years. 
Apples, cherries and berries take the lead in 

The importation and cultivation of blooded 
stock of all kinds is one of the most marked 
features of Story County's later industries, and 
for which she is happily fitted. Everybody 
breeds, grazes and feeds cattle and hogs, and 
many on large scales, while horses are also 
receiving marked attention. Corn and oats 
outstrip all the grains; and the dairy and poul- 
try business has assumed stupendous propor- 
tions of late years. 

With these features, there needs but to be 
noticed the invigorating and healthful climate 
of this county and its vicinity, to recognize 
one of the choice portions of the choicest part 
of the West. 

Story County is situated within the area of 
the lower and middle coal measures, yet, not- 
withstanding this fact, the efforts to mine coal 
therein have not reached that extent which in- 
sures paying returns, save in a few instances. 
Evidences of the existence of coal in the county 
have existed since the earliest times. No of- 
ficial showing was made until 1887, when it 
was reported that about 2,000 tons had been 
taken out that year in the county. At this 
date sufficient evidence is at hand to establish 
the probable value of the Story County coal 
fields. It remains for the future to develop this 
great industry here. 

While it is true that the lower coal meas- 
ures constitute the surface proper of Story 
County, it must be understood that all this 
general surface is covered to a considerable 
depth with the drift deposit, and that only here 

s> \ ' 




and there -where streams have cut through this 
drift are the lower coal measures revealed. 
Wells and other excavations also have gone 
through to the underlying strata. The drift 
varies in depth from a few feet to several 
hundred feet, and has no special local charac- 
teristics. It is composed of clay, sand, gravel 
and bowlders, promiscuously intermixed. 

Northwestward of Ames about three miles, 
in the bed and on the bank of the Skunk River, 
occur exposures of impure and shaly lime- 
stone, overlaid by softer and clayey strata. 
The former seems to belong to the subcarbon- 
iferous age and to the epoch of the St. Louis 
limestone. If this be true, the base of the 
lower coal measures must be near the surface; 
this would indicate that the quantity of coal 
likely to be found is small. But the discovery 
of several large mines in the county is proof 
that valuable fields of coal are here, and no 
doubt the future will abundantly substantiate 

Edwin H. Addison is an attorney at law, loan 
collector, insurance and real estate agent of 
Maxwell, Iowa, and was born in Rock Island 
County, 111., January 1, 1859, being a son of 
E. J. and Catherine (Colburn) Addison, who 
were born in Erie County, Penn., the former 
May 9, 1830, and the latter September 9, 1830, 
her death occurring in Polk County, Iowa, May 
29, 1882. The father is now a banker in Eureka, 
Kas. After attending the public schools, Ed- 
win H. Addison, in 1876, entered Universalist 
College, at Mitchellville, where he spent three 
and one-half years. A part of this time was 
passed in reading law in the office of John Fay, 
and a part of the years 1879-80 he studied 
law under the instruction of Judge Jonah Given. 

From 1880 to 1887 he was engaged in farming 
and buying and shipping stock in Polk Coun- 
ty, and although he is now giving his attention 
to his present business, he still owns his fine 
farm of 240 acres, five miles south of Maxwell. 
October 3, 1888, he was admitted to practice 
in the Supreme Court of Iowa, at Des Moines, 
and soon after opened an office at Maxwell, 
where he has since held forth. He is now one 
of the successful young attorneys of the coun- 
ty, and gives every promise of becoming a 
leader in his profession. He has always sup- 
ported the measures of the Republican party, 
and socially is a member o£ Lodge No. 463, of 
the I. O. O. F., of Maxwell. His marriage, 
which occurred on the 12th of February, 1880, 
was to Miss Mary Sherwood, a native of Illi- 
nois, born February 12, 1861, and to their 
union two children have been born: Anna E. 
and Hazel M. Mr. Addison came to Iowa with 
his parents in 1870, and during a twenty years' 
residence in this State he has taken an active 
part in all worthy movements. 

Dr. Charles W. Allen is a leading physician 
and surgeon of Story County, Iowa, and is 
justly proud of the name he bears, which has 
descended to him from a long line of illustri- 
ous and honored ancestry. The first of the 
family in this country, of whom he has any 
knowledge, was Edward Allen, who was born 
in Ipswich, England, and was at one time an 
officer of Oliver Cromwell's army, but upon the 
enthronement of Charles II., king of England, 
he fled from the wrath of His Majesty, taking 
refuge in the New World, and in the State of 
Connecticut married, and reared the following 
family: John, born in 1660; Edward, in 1663; 
Elizabeth, in 1665; Sarah, in 1667; William, 
in 1669; Martha, in 1671; Benjamin, in 1673; 
David, in 1676; Samuel, in 1679; Abigail, in 
1681; Mary, in 1683 and Caleb, in 1685. Of 
this family, Edward, the second child, married 



and became the father of these named children: 
Elizabeth, born in 1686; Edward, in 1687; 
Mercy, in 1689; Sarah, in 1691; Martha, in 
1694; Jemima, in 1696; Hannah, in 1698; 
Consider, in 1701 and Samuel, in 1702. The 
youngest of this family, Samuel, was born in 
Connecticut, married, and in time became the 
father of the following offspring: Samuel, born 
in 1729 ; Sarah, in 1730 ; Chloe, in 1731 ; Eunice, 
in 1733 ; Hannah, in 1735 ; Caleb, in 1737 ; Sam- 
uel, in 1738 ; Susanna, in 1739 ; Mercy, in 1741 ; 
Lamberton, in 1742 ; Enoch, in 1744, and Icha- 
bod, in 1746. Enoch was the next to the young- 
est in this family, and passed from life July 8, 
1789, his children being thus named: Enoch, 
born May 6, 1772; Abishai, April 1, 1774; He- 
man, June 14, 1777; Aretas, July 30, 1779; 
Obed, September 19, 1781; Mercy, November 
4, 1783; Eunice, May 14, 1786, and Joel, May 
9, 1788, the latter being one of twins, the 
other twin dying. Joel was born in Ver- 
mont, and was married January 8, 1812, to 
Miss Lura Clapp, also of that State, and unto 
their union a family of eight children were 
born: Enoch, born December 5, 1812, and died 
June 10, 1831; Reuben C, born March 10, 
1814; Asahel, born August 21, 1816; Lucre- 
tia A., born November 20, 1818; Joel, born 
January 21, 1821, and died June 26, 1840; He- 
man W., born November 11, 1823; Horace, 
born December 18, 1827, and died December 
16, 1829, and Celinda, born December 12, 1830. 
The parents of these children died April 18, 
1868, and April 29, 1883, father and mother 
respectively. In this family Mercy Allen, a 
niece of Joel Allen, made her home for a 
great many years and died July 25, 1888, at 
the age of seventy-eight years. Reuben C, 
the second member of the above named family, 
was born in the " Green Mountain State" and 
was there married to Miss Amanda Dewey, also 
of that State, and by her became the father of two 

children of whom Dr. Charles W. Allen, the im- 
mediate subject of this sketch, was one, his 
birth occurring in North Hero, Vt., in 1855. 
That the above facts are true in every respect, 
there can be no doubt, as they are copied from 
the old Deer field (Connecticut) book of rec- 
ords, in the vicinity of which town the old 
homestead known as " The Bars " still exists. 
The house is still standing in which Samuel 
Allen, the great-great-grandfather, was slain by 
the Indians. Edward Allen, the first one of 
the family in this country, was one of a com- 
mittee appointed for the settlement of Suffield, 
Conn., in 1678, and received for his services a 
grant of sixty acres of land. Peter Dewey, 
Dr. Allen's maternal grandfather, was born in 
Vermont, on the 6th of January, 1770; his wife, 
formerly Miss Hannah Clapp, being born Jan- 
uary 5, 1789, also in that State, their marriage 
taking place August 3, 1808, and resulting in 
the birth of six children: Horace M., born 
Junel, 1811; Sarah, September 6, 1814; Ce- 
linda C, November 3, 1816; Amanda N, Jan- 
uary 18, 1819; Reuben C, June 10, 1825, and 
Lura R, July 7, 1831 ; all of whom are living 
except Reuben, who died August 11, 1870, and 
Sarah, who died January 1, 1846. Dr. Allen's 
father, Reuben C. Allen, was married twice, 
the first time on March 17, 1841, to Miss 
Sarah A. Dewey, by whom he became the 
father of three children: Lucien, born April 
15, 1842; Lucius, born October 18, 1843, 
and died May 26, 1844, aud Horace D., born 
June 16, 1845. The mother of these children 
passed to her long home January 1, 1846, and 
Mr. Allen afterward married Miss Amanda N. 
Dewey, on the 21st of September, 1847, and 
besides Dr. Charles W., who was born to them 
on the 17th of July, 1855, Hattie M. was born 
on the 23d of April, 1857. She married W. 
G. Robinson, October 14, 1886, and is living 
in Ness City, Kas. They have one child, Ethel 




F., bom October 3, 1889. The Doctor's 
brother, Lucien, married Nancy A. Dodge, 
September 11, 1865, but she died November 3, 
1876, without issue. Horace D. married Miss 
Lnra E. Landon, November 21, 1878, and 
has two children: Lucy, born May 4, 1885, 
and a son born May 14, 1890. Dr. Charles 
W. Allen received excellent opportunities 
in his youth and early manhood, and his 
literary education was received in Dartmouth 
College, an institution he attended during 1875, 
after which he entered the University of Ver- 
mont, at Burlington, and was graduated from 
the same in June, 1879. During the fall of 
that year he traveled, and later he began the 
study of medicine in the Toledo School of Med- 
icine, at Toledo, O. In the spring of 1880 he 
returned to Vermont, and finished his medical 
education in the University, graduating in June, 
1882, receiving the degree of A. M. in course. On 
the 16th of August, 1882, he was married to Miss 
Angie L. Stewart, a daughter of E. B. Stewart, 
of Vergennes, Vt, They now have two children : 
Carlton Stewart, who was born on the 4th of 
July, 1884, and Mary Harriet, born April 7, 
1889. Dr. Allen first settled down to practic- 
ing his profession at Bristol, Vt., but in Janu- 
ary, 1883, came to Gilbert, Story County, Iowa, 
and the following year settled in Story City, 
where he has been a successful medical practi- 
tioner ever since. Socially he is connected with 
the State Medical Society, the Central District 
Medical and the Story County Medical Socie- 
ties. In his political views he is a Republican, 
and has been mayor of Story City for two 
terms. He is a worthy member of the Congre- 
gational Church, and his wife belongs to the 
Baptist Church of Ames. 

Oley Apland (deceased). Mr. Apland was 
one of the much esteemed and respected citi- 
zens of Union Township, and as an agricultu- 
rist was a complete success, having made a 

competence by this occupation. He was born 
in Norway in July, 1828, received his educa- 
tion in that country, and in 1854 emigrated to 
America, locating first in Kendall County, 111., 
and then in Story County, Iowa. He supported 
the Republican ticket, was a thorough partisan, 
and held a number of local positions, viz. : 
township trustee, school director, etc. He was 
a devoted member of the Lutheran Evangel- 
ical Church, and his death was not only mourned 
by his relatives, but by all who were favored 
with his acquaintance. He was in every way 
a worthy man and citizen. His remains rest in 
the Fjiedberg Cemetery, where a beautiful mon- 
ument stands at his head, erected by his loving 
wife and family. Mrs. Anna Apland (the widow 
of Oley Apland) was also a native of Norway, 
born September 10, 1838, and the eldest of nine 
children, who are named as follows: Anfen 
Ersland, Martha (married Andrew Nelson, a 
farmer, and now resides in Polk County), Elias 
(was in the United States service, and died dur- 
ing the Rebellion), Carrie (died at the age of 
about twenty-eight years, and was the wife of 
Erick Viland, a farmer), Isabelle (resides in 
Iowa, and is the wife of Oley Nelson, who is a 
general merchant and grain dealer), Amos Ers- 
land (single, resides in Iowa, and is a lumber 
dealer). There were two half-brothers, Hector 
Mason (who is a farmer, married, and resides 
in Polk County) and Morris Mason (who is 
married and resides in Polk County, where he 
tills the soil). The parents of these children 
were both natives of Norway, and both are now 
deceased. The father was a farmer. Mrs. Ap- 
land received her education in Norway, and in 
1853 was married to Mr. Oley Apland in Story 
County. The fruits of this union were fourteen 
children, nine living: Ole O. (is a farmer of 
Story County, and married Miss Julia Stor- 
hew), Knute (married Tomina Erickson, re- 
sides in Story County, engaged in farming), 



Carrie (resides in Story County, and is the 
wife of Rev. Holm, who is pastor of the 
Lutheran Evangelical Church), Rachel (resides 
in Story County, and is the wife of Kuute 
Ersland, a farmer), Lizzie (resides in Story 
County, but is fitting herself for a music- 
teacher in the College of Music, at Decorah, 
Iowa), Anfin (is single and engaged in farming 
on the homestead), Elias (is on the old home- 
stead and is fitting himself for a teacher, being 
a student at the Iowa State Normal School at 
Cedar Falls), Peter (is a farmer and resides in 
Story County) and Martin Oley (the youngest, 
who is ten years of age). The family are de- 
vout members of the Lutheran Church, and are 
liberal contributors to all benevolent institu- 
tions. Mrs. Apland emigrated from Kendal] 
County, 111., in the spring of 1855, when Story 
County was in a primitive state, when all was 
a vast prairie, and when Cambridge was but a 
hamlet. Mrs. Apland is the owner of 240 acres 
of land, has it all under cultivation, and has 
the largest and finest barn in the township. 
She has also a commodious residence, and every- 
thing to contribute to her comfort and happi- 
ness. She lost her husband on July 26, 1880, 
by a sudden attack of cholera morbus. 

Arthur S. Aplin, M. D., is a prominent phy- 
sician, surgeon and practical pharmacist, resid- 
ing in the town of Cambridge, Iowa. He was 
born in Hocking County, Ohio, September 6, 
1852, and was the eighth of a family of thir- 
teen children, whose names are here given: 
Emily (who died at the age of seven years), 
Mary and Lydia (twins, the former married to 
Rudolph Smith, a furniture dealer of Tennes- 
see, and the latter the wife of E. Smith, a 
farmer by occupation), Benjamin (is a clerk 
in a general store in Story County), Charles 
(who married Miss Aldie Reed, and is a prac- 
ticing physician and surgeon of Dunreath, 
Marion County, Iowa, a town named after the 

old abbey in Scotland), William (who is a 
successful physician, surgeon and pharmacist 
of Hamilton, Mo., is married to Miss Belle 
Eggleston), Alice (who resides in Hamilton, 
j Mo., and is the wife of Clark McCoy, a native 
| of Ohio; he is a dealer in general merchandise, 
I and is quite successful), Dr. Arthur S. (the next 
in order of birth), Emma (resides in Story Coun- 
ty and is the wife of Joseph C. Mather, a farm- 
er and direct descendant of "Cotton Mather," 
so well known in history), Clarence (who 
is studying medicine with his brother at Hamil- 
ton, Mo.), Clara (is a resident of Cambridge, 
and has been a successful teacher of the county 
for several terms). The entire Aplin family 
are intelligent and exceptionally well educated, 
and eight members of the family have followed 
the occupation of teaching. Anna is married 
to E. L. Meek, principal of the graded schools 
of Polk City, Polk County, Iowa, a position he 
has filled for the past four years and is ably 
assisted by his wife ; and Maurice, the youngest 
of the family, is a resident of Cambridge. 
Albert C. Aplin, the father of these children, 
was born in Connecticut in 1816, and, although 
he is yet living at the age of seventy-three 
years, he is hale and hearty, showing but little 
the ravages of time. He followed the occupa- 
tion of shoemaker in connection with the boot 
and shoe business, and in these enterprises 
accumulated a fair share of this world's goods. 
He obtained a fair education in the free schools 
of New England, and his wife, formerly Miss 
Elizabeth Miller, also obtained a fair education. 
She owes her nativity to Ohio, where she was 
born in 1820. They reside in the town of 
Cambridge, and are ardent supporters of all 
educational institutions. Dr. Arthur S. Aplin 
obtained his early scholastic advantages in the 
common schools, being a regular attendant 
until he was sufficiently advanced to obtain a 
teacher's certificate, whereupon he engaged in 


wielding the ferule in the- public schools of 
Iowa, and followed that calling with success 
for eight years. In the meantime he had com- 
menced reading medicine under Dr. J. C. Cor- 
selius, a graduate of the University of Ann 
Arbor, Mich. He afterward entered the Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons of Keokuk, 
Iowa, and graduated in a class of 120 in 1879. 
He at once commenced practicing under his 
old instructor, Dr. J. C Corselius, of Gales- 
burg, Iowa, continuing until 1881, when he 
went to Red Rock, Iowa, and a year later came 
to Cambridge, where he has since made his 
home, having built up an extensive acquaint- 
ance and an excellent reputation. He was 
married, on December 13, 1888, to Miss Sylvia 
Bossuot, a native of Cambridge, Iowa, born 
September 27, 1863, and to them a little daugh- 
ter has been born, named Maurine, aged seven 
months. Dr. Aplin has always identified him- 
self with the Republican party, and has strenu- 
ously upheld the sound principles of Republic- 
anism, his first vote for the presidency being 
cast for the "Soldier President," Gen. U. S. 
Grant. He has always been an active worker 
in local politics, and has done all he could to 
secure the nominations of men who were well 
qualified to fill the different offices in the town 
and county. He is master of Taberuacle 
Lodge No. 452, A. F. & A. M., of Cambridge, 
and is past master in the A. O. U. W. Lodge 
No. 232, of that place. The Doctor and his 
wife are liberal supporters of all charitable 
enterprises, and have liberally contributed of 
their means as they have been called upon from 
time to time. The Doctor can say for the 
development of Story County, since he has 
known it, that many thousands of acres have 
been reclaimed by the drainage system. The 
development and improvement of Story County 
have been very marked, indeed, ever since he 
has known it. Upon locating in Cambridge, 

in 1882, he had just $1.50 in money, and the 
property which he now has has been earned 
since that time by his own industry and per- 
severance. He has built up an extensive prac- 
tice, and has gained the full confidence of his 
patrons, his services being required over a 
large area. He has a neat and comfortable 
home and an excellent library, both of literary 
and medical books. The " golden wedding " 
of Dr. Aplin' s parents occurred December 3, 
1889, at Cambridge, Iowa. Eleven of Mr. 
Aplin's children were present, besides many 
of his near relatives. The children presented 
their parents with a beautiful town residence, 
and this happy milestone in the pathway of 
life was as a beacon light, illuminating their 
journey. The epoch will never be effaced 
from the memory of parents and children. 

Wesley Arrasmith, farmer and stock-raiser, 
Roland, Iowa. This enterprising agricultur- 
ist has been a resident of the county since 
1853 and of Milford Township since 1854. 
In April, of the following year, he moved 
to his present farm, where he erected a log 
house, and where he has resided ever since. 
He was born in the Blue Grass State, Bath 
County, Ky., in 1827, and was the eldest of 
ten children born to Massey and Lucy (Mor- 
gan) Arrasmith, the father a native of Vir- 
ginia and the mother of Kentucky. The 
former was a pioneer of Kentucky and there 
carried on farming until 1832, when he moved 
to Indiana and opened up a farm in that State. 
In 1852 he moved to Dallas County, Iowa, 
and two years later to Story County, Iowa, 
settling near his son, Wesley. There his 
death occurred in October, 1854. The mother 
was of Welsh descent and died in 1862. Her 
father was a pioneer of Kentucky. The Arra- 
smith family was well represented in both the 
Revolutionary War and in the War of 1812. 
The children of the above-mentioned couple are 


named as follows: Wesley, William (resides 
in Story County, Iowa), Leauah (now Mrs. 
Stanley, of Jasper County, Mo.), Sally (now 
Mrs. Zenor, of Jasper County, Mo.), Nancy 
(now Mrs. Alfred, of Milford Township), 
Abner (was taken sick aud died at Cape Girar- 
deau, Mo., during the late war), Mary A. 
(now Mrs. Blunk, of Labette County, Kas. ), 
James D. (married and resides in Story Count y, 
Iowa; lie was in the late war, enlisting in 
1862, in the Eighth Iowa Cavalry), Joseph 
(married and resides in Washington), and 
John N. (who is also married and resides in 
Jasper County, Mo. ). Wesley Arrasmith di- 
vided his time in youth in assisting on the 
farm and attending the subscription schools of 
Indiana. He was married, September 14, 
1851, in Indiana, to Miss Catherine Grove, a 
native of Ohio and the daughter of Adam L. 
and Rachel (Antrum) Grove. The father 
was born in Virginia aud of German descent, 
but the mother was born in Ohio, whither the 
father had moved at an early day. The latter 
remained there for some time and then moved 
to Indiana. In June, 1854, he came to Story 
County, Iowa, settled in Franklin Township, 
and here his death occurred on May 29, 1869. 
The mother is still living, and resides in Ames. 
After his marriage Mr. Arrasmith settled in 
Indiana, but moved to Story County, Iowa, in 
1853. He entered 120 acres of land, improved 
it, but later sold out and in 1851 entered 
eighty acres of his present farm. This helms 
improved and added to until he now has 240 
acres of land in a good state of cultivation. 
He also, in connection with his farming in- 
terest, is engaged in raising a good grade of 
stock. He votes with the Republican party, 
but is not active in politics. He is a member 
of the Co-operative Club. Mr. and Mrs. Arra- 
smith are members of the Baptist Church, and 
are much esteemed citizens. To their mar- 

riage were born the following children: 
Thomas J. (born in Indiaua and died in 1854), 
Frances Rachel (now Mrs. Noble), William 
H. (married and resides in Plymouth County, 
Iowa), Lucy M. (died June 3, 1859), John M. 
(married and resides iu Franklin Township), 
George A. (teaching the Gilbert school), 
James L. (died December 10, 1881, at the age 
of over sixteen years), Emma May (died Sep- 
tember 15, 1885, at the age of seventeen 
years and ten months), Oliver F. (in Ply- 
mouth County, Iowa), Elijah G. and Charles A. 
Mr. Arrasmith has given his children good 
educations and is interested in all school mat- 
ters. He is the earliest settler now living in 
Milford Township, and has been a witness to 
the rapid development of the country. When 
he first came to Story County there was not a 
house in Nevada, and they had to do their mar- 
keting and go to mill at Des Moines. Mr. 
Arrasmith has been a school director, township 
trustee and justice of the peace. 

William Arrasmith, one of the early pioneers 
of this county, owes his nativity to Kentucky, 
where his birth occurred on November 30, 
1828, being the son of Massey and Lucy 
(Morgan) Arrasmith, both natives of Ken- 
tucky, of which State their parents were early 
pioneers, coming originally from Virginia. 
They reared a family of ten children — six sons 
and four daughters — all of whom are still liv- 
ing with the exception of one son who died in 
the army, and three of the sons aud one daugh- 
ter are residents of Iowa. The father was a 
farmer by occupation, and pursued that calling 
in Kentucky until 1831 or 1832, when he went 
to Indiana, and there carried on farming oper- 
ations until 1853. He then moved to Story 
County, and chose a home in Milford Town- 
ship, but shortly after settling here he departed 
this life, dying in 1856. His widow survived 
him until 1862. When his parents removed 

\ « fc_ 



to Indiana, William Arrasmith accompanied 
them, and there he attained his growth and ob- 
tained a meager education, his schooling 
amounting to about eighteen months, all told. 
In 1852 he married Miss Alvina Grove, and in 
August of the same year the young couple 
moved to Iowa and settled on the place where 
they now live. At that time the county was 
unorganized, and wolves, deer, turkey and elk 
were frequently seen, and land that is now 
worth from $30 to $55 could then be had for 
$1.25 per acre. Immediately after his arrival 
Mr. Arrasmith entered 160 acres of land, and 
he has since added the balance of 240 acres. 
One hundred and thirty acres of this are under 
a high state of cultivation, and well improved 
with a good house and out-buildings, orchard, 
etc. His farm, which is watered by the Skunk 
Eiver, is very valuable, and he devotes his en- 
tire time and attention to its cultivation. In 
addition to farming, which he carries on quite 
extensively, he is largely interested in raising 
cattle, horses and hogs. He and wife have had 
a family of fourteen children — seven sons and 
seven daughters, viz.: James (a resident of 
Cherokee County, Iowa), Lucy (wife of John 
Cox, of this county), George W. (of Gage 
County, Neb.), Lizzie (wife of S. T. Tripp, of 
Gage County, Neb.), John W. (a resident of 
Story County, Iowa), Frank M. (living in Cher- 
okee County, Iowa), Ida (now living in Wash- 
ington County, Kas.), Emma (now the wife of 
Man ford Hunter, of Story County), Charles E. 
(a resident of Nebraska), Hattie (now living in 
Kansas), and Aden, Jennie, Clarence D. and 
Edith at home. The wife is a worthy member 
of the Christian Church. Mr. Arrasmith takes 
an active interest in local politics, votes the 
Republican ticket, and has been honored by his 
party with the offices of township constable and 
trustee, and he has also been a member of the 
board of county supervisors. 

Oliver G. Ashford, farmer and stock-raiser, 
Nevada, Iowa. The subject of this sketch needs 
no introduction to the people of Story County, 
for a long residence here, and above all, a 
career of usefulness and prominence, have given 
him a very extensive acquaintance. He was 
originally from Columbiana County, Ohio, 
where his birth occurred on the 5th of Novem- 
ber, 1846, and was the twelfth of thirteen chil- 
dren, eight of whom are living, born to the 
marriage of George M. and Deborah (Vail) 
Ashford. The father was a native of Alexan- 
dria, Va., born in September, 1789, and died 
in Columbiana County, Ohio, in January, 1871. 
The mother was born in Washington County, 
Penn., in 1806, and now resides in Columbiana 
County, Ohio. The paternal grandfather, 
Aaron Ashford, was born in Loudoun County, 
Va., about 1734, and moved with his family to 
Ohio in 1802. His death occurred in 1835, at 
the age of one hundred and one years. It fell 
to the lot of Oliver G. Ashford to grow up with 
a farm experience, and from the very first he 
has closely and energetically applied himself 
to agricultural pursuits and stock raising. He 
was educated in the public schools, and when 
twenty-one years of age, he started out for 
himself, being for some time engaged in rais- 
ing small fruit in Columbiana County, in con- 
nection with his fanning interests. He came to 
Story County, Iowa, in 1875, settled in Nevada 
Township, and nine years ago he removed to 
his present place of residence, four miles east 
of Nevada, where he owns a well-improved 
farm. He was married on the 21st of Feb- 
ruary, 1867, to Miss Josephine Lones, a native 
of the Buckeye State, Columbiana County, 
born on the 12th of April, 1847, and the fruits 
of this union have been seven children: George 
M. (born January 2, 1868), Theodore L. (born 
October 8, 1869), John H. (born January 24, 
1875), Albert E. (born July 28, 1878), Charles 




R. (born January 21, 1881) and Carrie and 
Cassie (twins, born February 2, 1886). Mr. 
Ashford is a Republican, and an ardent sup- 
porter of that party. He is a member of Ne- 
vada Lodge No. 99, A. F. & A. M., and is one 
of the leading men of the county. 

F. M. Baldwin is one of the oldest and most 
successful merchants in Story County, Iowa, 
and although his birth occurred in Onondaga 
County, N. Y., November 10, 1829, he has 
identified himself with the interests of Story 
County for the past thirty-eight years. His 
parents, Wallace and Mary (Burnett) Bald- 
win, were born in Connecticut and Vermont, 
respectively, the former's birth occurring in 
1790. He was by occupation a salt manufact- 
urer, and died in the State of New York in 
1881, his wife also passing from life in that 
State at the age of ninety-two years. F. M. 
Baldwin is the eldest of two living children, 
and was reared to manhood and educated in 
Onondaga County, N. Y. In 1849 he came 
west and for three years was a clerk in a dry 
goods store in Chicago, after which he came 
to Story County, and entered land in Indian 
Creek Township, where he remained one sea- 
son. Subsequently he returned to Cook County, 
111., and until 1855 followed the mercantile 
business in what was known as Dundee Sta- 
tion. He then returned to Story County, Iowa, 
and located at Iowa Center, where he has since 
made his home. Until 1864 he was engaged 
in business with the Young Bi - os., but since 
that time he has been senior member of the 
firm of Baldwin & Maxwell, one of the oldest 
mercantile firms of this commonwealth. So 
successfully has the business of the firm been 
transacted, that it passed through all panics 
and other trying times without financial em- 
barrassment, and has held its own in every re- 
spect for almost a quarter of a century. This 
firm has two extensive stocks of goods, one at 

Iowa Center, the home of Mr. Baldwin, and 
the other at Maxwell, the home of Mr. Max- 
well. Both these gentlemen are practical 
business men, and the policy on which they 
have ever conducted their affairs has been 
such as to merit public commendation, and 
those forming relations with their houses may 
be assured of receiving that liberal treat- 
ment which has characterized their dealings 
from the commencement. Mr. Baldwin was 
united in marriage in 1859 to Miss Mary Max- 
well, who was born in Ohio in 1837, and to 
them a family of four children have been born: 
Jennie, Charles G., William and Jessie. He 
has always been a Republican in his political 
views, and is a man who has ever had the best 
interests of the county at heart. 

Russell W. Ballard, the subject of this sketch, 
is a prosperous farmer of Story County. He 
was born in New York, Chenango County, on 
December 24, 1826. His father, Moses R 
Ballard, a native of Massachusetts, moved to 
New York when quite a young man, and there 
married Miss Eliza Beecher, a cousin of Henry 
Ward Beecher, and born in New Haven, Conn. 
Mr. Ballard was at one time a blacksmith, but 
studied medicine and practiced for a number 
of years in various counties of New York. He 
moved west in 1843, residing in Ohio about 
two years and afterward settling in Illinois in 
1845, where he lived for twelve years practic- 
ing his profession. In 1857 he settled in Iowa, 
Story County, where he continued a prominent 
and successful physician until the time of his 
death. Russell Ballard grew to manhood in 
Illinois, attending the common schools. He 
moved to Iowa in 1855, returned again to Illi- 
nois, and finally made a permanent location in 
Howard Township, this county. Here he owns 
192 acres of very valuable land, which is highly 
improved. A strong Republican, Mr. Ballard 
has held many prominent offices, and was for 




eleven years one of the board of supervisors 
for this county. He married twice; his first 
wife was Miss Louise E. Stolt, of Illinois, who 
died April 26, 1864, leaving three children: 
Alice J., Eliza E. and Albert A. In October, 
1864, he was united at the hymenial altar with 
Miss B. M. Sheffield, of Iowa, a daughter of 
Nathan and Maria Sheffield. They have six 
children: Anson E., Kussell N., Minnie C, 
Fred S., Kestin S. and John F. Mrs. Ballard 
is a member of the Methodist Church. The 
subject of the sketch is a Master Mason, and 
enjoys a well deserved popularity. 

Vivaldo A. Ballou is the editor and proprie- 
tor of the Watchman, a newspaper published 
in the interests of the Democratic party at Ne- 
vada, Story County, Iowa, and under his able 
management it has come to be regarded as one 
of the leading journals in this section of the 
country. He was born in Prattsburg, Steuben 
County, N Y., September 7, 1840, a son of 
David H. and Helena A. (Whitman) Ballou, 
who were also born in this State, the former 
in March, 1814, and the latter in 1818. In 
1850, Vivaldo A. Ballou first came to the State 
of Iowa, and in the spring of 1856 began learn- 
ing the printer's trade in the Tribune office at 
Dubuque, but in June, 1858, he went to Web- 
ster City, and for about two years worked in 
the Freeman office, and from there in Septem- 
ber, 1860, he entered the Upper Iowa Univer- 
sity, remaining a student in the same until the 
following June. In July he enlisted in Com- 
pany F, Second Iowa Cavalry, being sworn in- 
to the United States service in September. At 
the end of one year he was discharged on ac- 
count of physical disability. He subsequently 
returned to Webster City, and after managing 
the Webster City Freeman for two years, he 
became a student in Cornell (Iowa) College, 
and was earnestly engaged in pursuing his 
studies in that institution for two years. In 

the fall of 1868 he came to Nevada, and after 
being engaged in conducting the Aegis for one 
year he sold out, and the subsequent ten years 
were spent in selling drugs. In 1880 he be- 
came proprietor and began editing the Watch- 
man, and is now one of the oldest and most 
successful newspajjer men in this section of the 
State. Having acquainted himself with the 
printing business at a very early day, he is a 
thorough master of this calling, and under his 
able management his paper has proven a de- 
cided success. He was married, in 1868, to 
Miss A. M. Sharp, and by her has had four 
children : Maude, Edith, Victor and Ruth. Mr. 
Ballou is a Mason, belonging to Nevada Lodge 
No. 99, and 3X3 Chapter No. 92. He also 
belongs to J. D. Ferguson Post No. 31, of the 
G. A. R., and has been adjutant for the last five 

Ambrose K. Banks. The life record of this 
gentleman is one of more than usual interest, 
and his career has been of such influence 
and benefit to the people of Story County, that 
a sketch of his life will be of more than passing 
interest. He was born in Ontario, Canada, 
near Kempville, September 21, 1845, and is a 
son of Israel and Mary (Clothier) Banks, who 
were born in New Hampshire and Vermont, in 
December, 1804, and 1813, respectively, both 
dying in Iowa Center, Iowa, in 1863. The 
subject of this sketch is the youngest of their 
nine children, seven of whom are living. At the 
age of ten he was taken to Ogle County, 111., 
where he acquired the rudiments of his educa- 
tion in the common schools near his home. In 
1861 he removed to the State of Missouri,for the 
purpose of driving mules in the employ of the 
Government, and later was a soldier in the 
Fourth Missouri Cavalry, and was in the fight at 
W T ilson's Creek, where the lamented Gen. Lyon 
was killed. In 1862 hereturnedto Rockford, 111., 
and began learning the machinist's trade, but in 


the spring of 1864 enlisted in Company G, One 
Hundred Fifty-third Illinois Infantry, and 
served his country faithfully until the close of 
the war, being, for about eight months, orderly 
under Brevet Brig. -Gen. A. M. Dudley. He was 
honorably discharged at Springfield, 111., Sep- 
tember 21, 1865, then returning to Rockford, 
where he built the first livery barn erected in 
that place, and there he continued to success- 
fully conduct business until 1869, when he re- 
moved to Story County, Iowa. However, in the 
fall of 1865, he had come thither, and pur- 
chased a farm, and his parents permanently lo- 
cated here the same year. Mr. Banks spent the 
year 1869 on his farm, after which he opened 
a drug store at Iowa Center, but eight years 
later removed to Nevada, and for one year acted 
in the capacity of city marshal. He has al- 
ways been an uncompromising Republican in 
his political views, and in 1880 was elected 
sheriff of Story County, and so ably did he dis- 
charge his duties that he was twice re-elected 
to that position, and time showed the wisdom 
of the people's choice. He is now extensively 
engaged in the breeding of fine horses, in 
partnership with Jay A. King, and in March, 
1889, they purchased "King Onward" of Lewis 
Bros., of Kentucky, at a cost of $1,500, when he 
was only seventeen months old. He was sired by 
"Onward" (whose time is 2:25j), by "George 
Wilkes," time 2:22. His dam was "Mist," her 
time being 2:29^, and he is a full brother of 
"Advance," with a record of 2 :244. Besides this 
fine animal, for which they were offered $5,000 
in the spring of 1890, they have eleven thorough- 
bred brood mares. Mr. Banks is a Mason, and a 
member of Lodge No. 99 of Nevada, and he also 
belongs to the M. W. of A., and the G. A. R. 
He is a man of family, having been married in 
1861 to Miss Sarah E. Rice, a native of Illinois, 
by whom he has five children: Edith L., How- 
ard A., Arthur, Jay K. and Alma. 

Ira Barnes is agent for the St. Paul & Kan- 
sas City Grain Company at Zearing, Iowa, but 
was born in Erie County, Ohio, in 1832, being 
the eighth of nine children born to the mar- 
riage of Ira and Eunice (Tuttle) Barnes, who 
were born in York State in 1790, being also 
reared and married there. They were among 
the first to locate in Erie County, Ohio, their 
settlement there being before it was surveyed, 
and here they spent the rest of their lives, 
dying in 1876, at the age of eighty-six years. 
Ira Barnes attained his twenty-first year in 
Ohio, his youth and early manhood being spent 
in tilling the soil and attending the common 
schools, but in 1853 he removed to Wisconsin, 
and was married in that State, in 1860, to Miss 
Ettie M. Warren. In 1861 he joined Company 
B, Eleventh Wisconsin Infantry, and served un- 
til the close of the war, being in the following 
engagements: Port Gibson, Champion's Hill, the 
charge of Black River Bridge, Vicksburg, Fort 
Blakeley, besides a number of engagements of 
less importance. He served with different com- 
mands, and at the close of the war returned 
to Wisconsin, where he remained until 1872, 
at which time he located in St. Charles, 111., 
remaining there four years. He then came to 
Iowa, and has been engaged in his present 
business since 1878 ; the duties of which he 
discharges in a very creditable manner. He 
has always been a Republican in politics; is a 
member of the G. A. R., Andrew Patton Post 
No. 239, of Zearing, and in his religious views 
is a Methodist. He and wife are the parents of 
four children: Cora (now Mrs. William Pat- 
ton, of Zearing), Katie, Harry and Warren. 
Mr. Barnes' brothers and sisters are as fol- 
lows: James, Grant, Lorenzo, Farwell, Ellen, 
AVealthy (now Mrs. M. Prentiss, of Sandusky 
County, Ohio), Burton and Nelson. 

George M. Barnes is the leading harness 
dealer and manufacturer of Nevada, Story 





County, Iowa, and although he was born in 
Allegany County, N. T., December 21, 1846, 
he has been a well-known resident of Nevada, 
Iowa, since February, 1870. His parents, Or- 
lando and Salorna (Moon) Barnes, were born 
in York State, and the former is still living at 
the age of seventy-two years, being a resident 
of Grant Township, Story County, Iowa. His 
wife died here in 1884 at the age of sixty-six 
years. Of a family of eight children born to 
them, the subject of this sketch is seventh in 
order of birth, and seven of tbe family are now 
living, R. J. Barnes having died while serving 
in the Rebellion. George M. Barnes was 
reared on a farm in New York until he was 
ten years of age, at which time he moved with 
his parents to Illinois and settled in Sheffield, 
Bureau County, where he was given the advan- 
tages of the common schools. At the age of 
fourteen years he was apprenticed to the har- 
ness-maker's trade at Sheffield, and continued 
to work at this calling until 18G3, when he en- 
listed in Company C, Sixty-sixth Illinois, and 
served until the close of the war, being honor- 
ably discharged July 13, 1865. He was in all 
the battles in which Sherman's army partici- 
pated from the 9th of May, 1864, until the 
final surrender. He then returned to his old 
home in Illinois and resumed his trade, but 
becomiug dissatisfied with his location he came 
to Iowa in 1866, and until 1870 was a resident 
of Marengo. Since that time he has resided 
in Story County, and has built up an excellent 
business for himself in Nevada. He has a 
complete line of harness, saddles, etc., and is 
also extensively engaged in the manufacture of 
these articles, and finds a ready sale for them 
throughout the county. He has been engaged 
in this business for about thirty years, and as far 
as enterprise, push and honesty are concerned, 
has few superiors. He was married December 7, 
1882, to Miss Josie Hefler, a native of Iowa. 

He has one child, Ada E. He belongs to 
Nevada Lodge No. 99, A. F. & A. M., and also 
belongs to the G. A. R., two of his brothers 
who served in the late war being also members. 
He is one of the substantial, law-abiding citi- 
zens of the place, and is looked up to and re- 
spected by his fellow-men. 

Elnathan Bates, farmer and stock-raiser, Ne- 
vada, Iowa. Mr. Bates is a native of Williamson 
County, Ohio, where his birth occurred on the 
17th of April, 1853, and was the youngest of 
four children born to his father's second mar- 
riage. Of his brothers and sisters, Rhoda 
was married to Gilbert Barber, and died in 
1878. Oliver died in infancy, and Stephen is 
a farmer of Jewell County, Kas., and was mar- 
ried to Miss Katherine Alldridge, a native of 
Iowa. The father of these children was a na- 
tive of the Empire State, and was a farmer by 
vocation. The mother was also a native of 
New York State. Both are deceased. Elna- 
than Bates received his education in the 
schools of Ohio and Iowa, and has ever been 
an ardent supporter of all educational institu- 
tions. He began working for himself at the 
early age of thirteen, and has made what he 
has by his own exertions. He was married to 
Miss Margaret Miller in Story County, Iowa, on 
the 27th of March, 1872, and four children are 
the result of this union: Ada May, Delia, and 
Leland and Eland (twins, now ten years of age). 
Mrs. Bates was born in Defiance County, Ohio, 
on the 1st of August, 1852, and was educated 
in the common schools of Ohio and Iowa. Her 
father was a farmer by occupation, served al- 
most three years in the late Rebellion, was 
wounded in the left hand, and was honorably 
discharged in 1865. He was present at the 
Grand Review at Washington, D. C. He was a 
native of Indiana, and died in 1876, at the 
age of fifty-five years. The mother was a 
native of Ohio, and died at the age of thirty- 




two years. Mr. Bates lias always been iden- 
tified with the Democratic party, and his first 
presidential vote was for S. J. Tilden. He 
has filled the position of assessor, and has 
been school director for a number of years. 
He and wife are members of the Evangelical 
Church. He came to Story County in 1864, 
and has witnessed the rapid development of the 
country since that time. They expect to make 
this county their home, and here, surrounded 
by their children and many warm friends, will 
pass the balance of their days. 

William O. Bates. Many years ago, in the 
Emerald Isle, dwelt Mathew Bates. After 
nineteen summers of happy school-days he 
ventured forth to test the desirableness of the 
far-famed United States, and finding it all and 
more than admirers had painted it, determined 
to desert the land of his fathers for this broader 
country. Before reaching Uncle Sam's fair 
domain William settled for a time in Canada, 
where he became acquainted with Miss Cyn- 
thia Bentley, to whom he was married. 
Locating in Story County immediately after 
touching American soil, he appreciated the 
advantages of this district to such an extent 
that he started at once to build up a prosper- 
ous farming business there, remaining in the 
same place until his death, September 23, 1885. 
He had the misfortune to lose his beloved 
wife by death several years before. Of the 
family, consisting of four sons and five daugh- 
ters, William O., the subject of this sketch, is 
the oldest. He remained at home until his 
fifteenth year, when he started to Tilford Col- 
lege, and later Webster College, and afterward 
to Waterloo College, preparing himself in this 
way to meet with grand success in all intel- 
lectual pursuits. Eor a while Mr. Bates con- 
ducted a prosperous school, and still devotes 
much of his time to teaching in connection 
with farming. He is the owner of 200 acres 

of valuable land, which is in an excellent 
state of cidtivation. November 29, 1888, our 
subject married Miss Carrie Ballard, daughter 
of H. L. Ballard. Their only child is Florence 
May. A Bepublican in politics, Mr. Bates is 
prominent in all matters; was elected con- 
stable in 188(3, and is a member of the Masonic 

Lemuel Holmes Beckley is a farmer and 
stock-raiser, of Union Township, Story Coun- 
ty, Iowa, and is a native of Ohio, his birth hav- 
ing occurred on February 15, 1834, he be- 
ing the fifth in a family of ten children born 
to George and Nancy Beckley, both of whom 
were born in West Virginia on the 25th and 
24th of December, 1804 and 1803, respect- 
ively. He was of German lineage, his parents 
having been born in Germany, and by occupa- 
tion he was an agriculturist, and prior to his 
death, which occurred in his seventy-ninth 
year, could well remember the scenes of the 
War of 1812. His widow survives him at the 
age of eighty-seven years, being a resident of 
Mt. Vernon, Ohio. Their children's names 
are as follows: Marie M. (Mrs. Morgan, re- 
sides in Ohio), Mary Jane (Mrs. Mills, died 
at the age of forty-three years), Samuel (mar- 
ried Miss Castile, a native of Ohio, and re- 
sides in Buchanan County, Iowa), Jacob (was 
married to S. McCray, a native Ohioan, and 
died at the age of forty-eight years, having 
been a school teacher and preacher, his educa- 
tion having been received in Springfield, Ohio), 
Lemuel H. (next in order of birth), then came 
Josiah (residing on the old home farm near 
Mt. Vernon, Ohio, bis wife being a Miss Beach, 
a native of that State), Henry (came to Iowa in 
1864, but now lives in Missouri, being engaged 
in farming; he first married a Miss Parrott, 
and after her death a Miss Boyle, both natives 
of Ohio), Sarah Ann (Mrs. Buchanan, resides 
in Ohio), Louisa (Mrs. Parrott, also lives 



there) and Talitha (who is the wife of Taylor 
Eky, of Ohio, a horticulturist and fruit-grower). 
Lemuel Holmes Beckley obtained his educa- 
tion in the old subscription schools of Ohio, 
and acquired a sufficient fund of useful infor- 
mation to fit him for the practical duties of 
life. At the age of twenty he began the life of 
an agriculturist on his own responsibility, his 
means that time being less than a dollar, but 
on the 26th of March of the same year he was 
married in Mt. Vernon, Ohio, to Miss Delilah 
Stecker, who was born in Pennsylvania, May 
2G, 1835. In time a family of nine children 
were born to them, their names being as fol- 
lows: John (who married Frances Crouse, is 
engaged in farming), Warner (is a city dray- 
man in Aurora, Hamilton County, Neb., and is 
married to Agnes Tipton, a native of Ohio), Da- 
vid (is farming in Story County, and was mar- 
ried to a Miss Jacobson), George (whoistill- 
ing the soil in Story County), Charles S. (who 
married Fannie E. Cronk, June 25, and who is 
working on the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 
Kailway), Allie, Bertha and Effie, the latter of 
whom expects to become a school teacher. Min- 
nie B., a bright little girl, died at the age of 
nine years. Mr. Beckley has always been a 
Republican, and his first presidential vote was 
cast for John C. Fremont. He has been a 
director in his school district ever since he has 
resided in Union Township, and is a stanch 
supporter of the public school system — the 
bulwark of the State and nation. In 1867 
they came to Story County, Iowa, from Ohio, 
coming through with a four-horse team, and 
they can tell with accuracy of the primitive 
condition of Story County, even at that date. 
They came across country from Nevada to 
Cambridge, as there were no highways at that 
time, and narrate with interest their experience 
in crossing the numerous sloughs between 
those places. Mr. Beckley has an excellent 

farm of 180 acres, and one of the prettiest 
building sites west of Cambridge. He can 
farm every foot of his land, although at one 
time a man on horseback could not pass over 
the same ground. This desirable state of 
things is the result of a thorough system of 
farming and draining, and their farm, which 
is one of the finest for its size in this portion 
of the county, has been earned by honest and 
faithful endeavor, frugality and economy. 
They now have all necessary comforts, and 
here, surrounded by numerous friends, ac- 
quaintances and their dutiful family of chil- 
dren, they expect to spend the rest of their 
days. They have ever been noted in their 
neighborhood as open-hearted and benevolent 
patrons of worthy enterprises, and as friends 
and neighbors have not their superiors. AVhile 
living in the East, Mr. Beckley was a member 
of the Lutheran Church, but since his resi- 
dence in the West has not been connected with 
any religous denomination. In conclusion, it 
might be added that Mrs. Beckley's maternal 
grandfather was a soldier in the War of 1812, 
and that a pension is lying at Washington, 
D. O, for his heirs. 

D. A. Bigelow (deceased). Callimachus 

'Tis ever wrong to say a good man dies. 
And this, written over 2,000 years ago, is as 
true now as then, true at all times and in 
all countries; the good man never dies. The 
influence of his life is imperishable. During 
his career Mr. Bigelow lived a life that has left 
a tender memory behind, and that was an ex- 
emplification of the purest and most exalted 
principles. He was born at Chester, Mass., 
November 24, 1839, and came to Illinois in 
1856, locating at Kewanee. In 1861 he entered 
the University of Chicago, with a view of a 
professional life before him, but at the break- 
ing out of the war he was filled with a patriotic 



desire to aid his country, and as a result en- 
listed in Company A, One Hundred and Twenty- 
fourth Illinois Volunteers in 1862, serving un- 
til the close of the war. He was acting quar- 
termaster for some time, but retired from the 
service with the rank of first lieutenant. He 
was aid-de-camp of Gen. Geddes, and was 
known by his comrades as a brave and gallant 
soldier. In Aiigust, 1868, he came to the new 
town of Ames, but in November of the same 
year returned to Kewanee, where he was mar- 
ried by the Rev. K. W. Benton to Miss Sara 
E. Moore, a native of Pennsylvania, and the 
daughter of John E. and Sarah (Bodle) Moore. 
Four children were the fruits of this union: 
Margaret M., Robert E., C. Pearl and Alida. 
From the time of his first residence here Mr. 
Bigelow did all in his power to promote the 
welfare of the town and community in every 
way, and the civic organization to which he be- 
longed knew him as a faithful and efficient 
worker. As a member of the school board his 
liberal views and constant interest added greatly 
to the efficiency of the public schools, and as a 
business man his career was both upright and 
honorable. For quite a number of years he 
was vice-president of the Union National Bank 
of Ames, and was engaged in merchandising in 
that city from 1868 to the time of his death. 
This sad event occurred March 9, 1890, and 
was the occasion of universal sorrow, for all felt 
the loss which would be sustained by the de- 
parture of such a man. He gave to Story 
County the best energies of his life, and to the 
community and all among whom he lived the 
example of a life well and usefully spent. He 
was a worthy member of the Baptist Church, 
and gave much of his time to church and Sab- 
bath-school work, taking a leading part in all 
religious matters. He was a good man in the 
fullest sense of the word, a kind father, loving 
husband and true friend. He was a sincere, 

active and consistent Christian. He was buried 
with Masonic and G. A. R. honors. Mr. Bige- 
low was a delegate to the Republican National 
Convention held in Chicago in 1888, and was 
chairman of the State Central Committee at the 
time of his death. He was a natural orator, 
and was a brilliant extemporaneous speaker on 
any occasion. He was the son of Daniel E. 
and Margaret (Baker) Bigelow, the father a na- 
tive of Massachusetts. The mother was left an 
orphan in her youth, and was an adopted child 
of the Rev. John Grant, who was a prominent 
Scotch minister. The parents moved to Illi- 
nois in 1856, located in Henry County, and 
there both received their final summons. They 
had four children — three sons and one daughter, 
all deceased with the exception of one, Andrew. 
Homer C. Boardman belongs to the firm of 
Boardman Bros., dealers in butter, eggs and 
poultry at Nevada, Iowa. This firm is one of 
the most progressive in the town, and since 
opening their establishment in 1S79 they have 
added eminently to the strength of the produce 
interests in this section. Homer C. Board- 
man is a native of Troy, Vt., where he first 
saw the light of day on February 22, 1851, 
being the eldest of three surviving children 
born to his parents. In early boyhood he was 
brought by them to Iowa and was reared at 
Lyons, in Clinton County, the rudiments of 
his education being received in the public 
schools of that place. Later he took a com- 
mercial course in the University of Notre 
Dame, at South Bend, Ind., after which he 
returned to Lyons, and for some time clerked 
in a dry goods store. He next went to Mil- 
waukee, Wis., and for five years was in the 
employ of the firm of Hand & Seymour, acting 
in the capacity of a traveling salesman. He 
then returned to Lyons and for three subse- 
quent years was in the dry-goods business. 
From there he came to Nevada in 1879, and, 



as above stated, has since been engaged in his 
present business, in which he has built up an 
excellent reputation for integrity and execu- 
tive ability. In politics he has always been a 
stanch friend of the Republican party, and for 
a number of years was a member of the city 
council, and is now serving his third term as 
mayor of Nevada. During his administration 
the City Water Works have been built, owing 
in a great measure to his advocacy and energy 
in supporting the enterprise, and the town has 
been otherwise much improved since he has 
been an incumbent of his office. He has 
always been a patron of education, and he is 
now a member of the Nevada school board. 
Socially he is a member of the A. O. U. W., 
the M. W. of A., and belongs to Samson Lodge 
No. 77, of the K. of P., of which he is a char- 
ter member. His marriage to Miss Emma F. 
Jacobsen, who was born in Lyons, Iowa, took 
place in 1874, and their union has resulted 
in the birth of two children, William C. and 
Homer N. Mr. Boardman is a son of Nor- 
man and Lois (Knight) Boardman, who were 
born in Vermont and New York, respectively. 
William K. Boardman is a member of the 
firm of Boardman Bros., dealers in butter, eggs 
and poultry at Nevada, Iowa. He was born in 
Troy, Vt, June 22, 1852, and is a sou of Hon. 
Norman and Lois (Knight) Boardman. In 
1856 he came with his parents to Lyons, Clin- 
ton County, Iowa, and there attended the pub- 
lic schools for some time. Later he became a 
student in Dean Academy at Franklin, Mass., 
graduating therefrom in 1873. The following 
year he began mercantile life for himself in 
Lyons, Iowa, becoming the proprietor of a dry 
goods and clothing house, but in 1877 he re- 
moved to Nevada, and was here engaged in the 
clothing business for two years. However, in 
1879, he commenced a wholesale butter, egg 
and poultry trade, and has given his attention 

to this up to the present time, being one of the 
leading business men in this section of the State. 
He is a Republican, R. B. Hayes receiving his 
first presidential vote, and socially he belongs 
to the K. of P., a member of Samson Lodge 
No. 77. He is now past chancellor and has 
twice represented Samson Lodge in the Grand 
Lodge of Iowa, and in 1888 and 1889 was 
special grand deputy for this district of the 
State. His marriage, which took place in 1877, 
was to Miss Addie Henningsen, who was born 
in Jackson County, Iowa, in 1857, a daughter 
of Hon. B. H. A. and E. Henningsen. Mr. 
and Mrs. Boardman are the parents of two chil- 
dren: Frank M. (born May 11, 1878) and Lois 
K. (born April 18, 1887). Mr. Boardman's 
name is identified with the welfare and mate- 
rial and social progress of this section, and his 
reputation for honesty and true stability has 
been fully substantiated. 

Jesse Bowen has been a resident of Story 
County, Iowa, for the past thirty-seven years, 
and is well and favorably known to a host of 
friends and acquaintances in this community. 
His birth occurred in Marion County, eight 
miles north of Indianapolis, Ind., December 
15, 1839, being the fourth in a family of eight 
children born to Ephraim and Gillie Aud 
(Johnson) Bowen, the former born in Ohio in 
1818 and the latter in Kentucky, her death oc- 
curring in Iowa Center, Iowa, when about 
sixty-six years of age. Jesse Bowen is one of 
six surviving members of his father's family, 
and although he was obliged to assist his 
father on the farm, he succeeded in obtaining 
a good common-school education. His father 
came to Story County in 1853, and entered land 
in Indian Creek Township, after which he re- 
turned to Indiana to bring his family thither, 
which he did, reaching Story County on June 
11, 1854. In 1861 Jesse enlisted in the Union 
army in defense of his country and served 

fc*— - 



in Company E, Third Iowa Infantry until mus- 
tered out of service on June 18, 1864. He was 
a participant in the engagements at Shiloh, 
Corinth, Hatchie Kiver, siege of Vicksburg, 
Jackson, Miss., and numerous minor battles. 
After his return home he was engaged for some 
three years in farming, but since 1868 has been 
in tbe employ of the well-known general mer- 
chants, Baldwin & Maxwell. He has also given 
considerable attention to the hotel business in 
the past twelve years, and is now the owner of 
the Maxwell Hotel, one of the best kept houses 
in the county. He was married in 1864 to 
Miss M. E. Will, who was born in Virginia in 
1846, and to them have been born the follow- 
ing children: Ulysses R, Alice M., Edna I., 
William S., John E., Kate, Curtis, Esther, 
Glenn and Anna. He is a member of James 
H. Ewing Post No. 305 of the G. A. R., of 
which he is the present commander. He has 
always been porjular throughout this section of 
the country, and is one of the men who is 
working to bring Iowa into the very front ranks 
as a Republican State. 

George W. Boyd is a butcher and dealer in 
ice at Nevada, Story County, Iowa, and was 
born in Carter County, Tenn., on March 16, 
1843, being a son of J. R. and Elizabeth 
(Boyd) Boyd, who were born in 1810 and 
1816, respectively, the former being now a 
resident of Nevada, the latter dying on May 
27, 1883. The paternal grandfather was James 
R. Boyd, and the great-grandfather was Will- 
iam Boyd, who was a soldier in the Revolu- 
tionary War. George W. Boyd is the third of 
a family of ten children, of whom eight are 
living, an