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Full text of "Biographical and historical record of Vermillion County, Indiana : containing portraits of all the presidents of the United States from Washington to Cleveland, with accompanying biographies of each; a condensed history of the state of Indiana; portraits and biographies of some of the prominent men of the state; engravings of prominent citizens in Vermillion county, with personal histories of many of the leading families, and a concise history of the county and its villages"

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Biographical, and historical. 
RECORD OF Vermillion 
Co., IND. 



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VEEMILLKM COUITY. mPIAIA 



CoxT.viNiNG Portraits of all the Presidents of the United States from Washington to 
Cleveland, with accompanying Biographies of bach; A Condensed History of the 
State of Indiana; Portraits and Biographies of some of the Prominent 
Men of the State: Engravings of Prominent Citizens in 
Vermillion County, with Personal Histories of many 
OF THE Leading Families, and a Concise His- 
tory OF the County and its 
Cities and Villages. 



THE LEWIS PUBLISHING COMPANY' 



113 Adams Street, Chicago 




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.,##&^ 




'■■■■■"■aa^i 



1218Jil2 




PRESIDENTS OF THE UMTED 


STATES. 




George Wasliington 


9 


John Adams 


14 


Thomas Jefferson 


20 


James Madison 


2() 


James Monroe 


^:ri 


John Quincy Adams 


:;8 


Andrew Jackson 


4'i 


Martin Van Buren 


ry^ 


William Henry Harrison 


r,(i 


John Tyler 


uu 


James K. Polk 


Gl 


Zachary Taylor 


G8 


Millard Fillmore 


78 


Franklin Pierce 


72 


James Buchanan 


80 


Abraham Lifleoln 


84 


Andrew Johnson 


m 


Ulysses S. Grant 


90 



Rutherford B. Hayes U>2 

James A. Garfield W-i 

Chester A. Arthur 11:1 

Grover Clereland 117 

HISTORY OF IM)1AXA. 

Former Occupants 120 

Pre-Historic Uacos 12:! 

Exploration by the Whites . . .12."> 

National Policies 120 

Expeditions of Colonel George 

Pv. Clark 127 

Government ol the Northwest.. 129 
Expeditions of St. Clair and 

Wayne 132 

Organization of Indiana Terri- 
tory 133 

Governor Harrison and the In- 
dians 134 

Civil Matters 130 



General Review 

Ornani/ati<in of the State 

Imliana in the Mexican War .. 

Iiuliana in the War for tlie 
Union ^ 

Financial 

Internal Improvements 

Geology 

Agricultural 

Eduraticmal 

Benevolent and Penal Institu- 
tions 



PROMINEJiT MEN OF 
INDIANA. 



Oliver P. Morton 
Thomas A. llendric 
Schuyler Colfax... 
James D. Williams. 
Robert Dale Owen. 



^^--f-> 



"^ 



History of Vermillion County,^- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



Anderson, N. C. 
Anderson, P. Z 
Andrews, John. 
Asbury, James . 
Aye, H. H... . 
Aye, Henry. . .". 



Bales, Caleb . . . 
Bales, Caleb . . . . 
Bales, Robert . . 

Bales, W. F 

Bales, William.. 
Beauchamp, J. ^ 

Beck, A. J 

Beckman, L. H 
Bell, D. W 



Bell, T. W 

Bell, W. M 

Benefiel, W. H.... 

Bertolet, J. R 

Betson, A. J 

Betson, Hamilton . 

Bilsland, J. E 

Bilsland, John 

Bishop, F. M 

Bishop, L. O 

Blair, James 

Bogart, J. H 

Bogart, W. C 

Bowman, Moses . . 

Bremer, W. P 

Brindlev, Eli 

Brindley, .)i>hu ... 

Burns, Jusepli 

Burnside, J. 11. . . . 



4(!.") 


Cade, Henry 


...498 


.-)l(i 


Cady, II, S 


....4119 


;!(ii 


Camiiliell .] . (i 


... 340 


407 


Caniii.rk, J F 


....374 


:M7 


earmark, W , P 


....410 


410 


Carter, M. 11 


....323 


:i24 


Carither.s Jonathan 


....482 


2:« 


Casebeer, Hezekiah 


....514 


.512 


Casebeer,J.W 


. . . :J7 1 


320 


Gates, W.H 


....401 


518 


Clark, John 


....390 


400 


Clover, J. A 


. . . 37.5 


410 


Coffin, S. W 


. . . .:i88 


.118 


Coil, Lewis 


...4.53 


:V2:i 


Collett, John 


....311 


:li(7 


Collett, John 


....441 


.-.10 


Collett, Josephus 


....4-17 



. ■ ■ ■ .- ■ ■ ■ - ■ - ■ ^ ■ - ■ -■- ■ - ■ - ■^■-■-■-■-■-■■■■'■■■■^■-■'-■■'^ 



CoUett, Joseplius 450 

Collelt, S. S 309 

Collett, S. S 877 

Couley, H. H 347 

Conley, Jeiemiali 488 

Combes, F. C 439 

Codk, W. C 459 

Orabb, Ct. A 362 

Craig, R. A 406 

Curtis, Philo 513 

Ciisliman, Tliomaa 321 

D. 

Dallas, Hugh 354 

Davis, C. S 459 

Davis, F. M 332 

Davis, Robert 501 

Davis, S.B 267 

Downing, Decatur 319 

Diingan, B. F 277 

Dunlap, J. R 495 

Duzan, James 453 



Eaton, H.C 

Eclwanls, G. W 


515 

398 

4G2 


Elder, J. A 

Ellis, J. E 


333 

413 



Finney, D. TV 340 

Flaugher, E. A 363 

Fleshraan, Amos 395 

Foland, J. A 516 

FoncaDon,Tilgliman 473 

Ford, John 402 

Formau, Amos 465 

Fortner,W. P 498 

Fox, J. L 491 



Gessie, R. J 336 

Gibson, O. 15 452 

Goft; Philander 388 

Goodwin, L. L 402 

Goodwin, W. A 407 

Gouty, David 438 

(irimes, H. L 417 

Grimes, John 485 

Groves, W. C 455 



H. 



Hall, S.J 475 

Hall, W. 1 433 

Hamilton, W. iM 449 

Harkness, Philo 412 

Harlan, Eldridge 323 

llarlin, John 406 

Harrison, Benjamin 318 

Harrison, ('. B 389 

Harris n, Robert 477 

Harrison, T. II 363 

Haworth, G. F 499 



Haworth, J. P 422 

Hedges, C. C 511 

Hedges, Noah 385 

Helt, Daniel 414 

Helt, Hiram 510 

Helt, Michael 390 

Henderson, John 340 

Henderson, Josiali 493 

Hendricks, W. J 505 

Herbert, W. J 397 

HighfiU, John 3!i!) 

Hill, Judge A 51:. 

Hollingsworlh, Simeon I^H 

Hoobler, John . 

Hood, T. S 496 

Hood, W. B 5i)8 

Hood, W. H 451 

Hopkins, A. R 485 

Hopkins, G. R 436 

Hosford, M. G 346 

Hosford. Philo 3.53 

Hosford, W. N 410 

Houchin, Jesse 373 

Houchin, J. S 517 

Hughes, Ehud 492 

Hughes, William 433 

Hunt, Harvey 478 

I. 

lies, Jacob 333 

lies, J. B 339 

J. 

Jackson, G. AV 451 

Jackson, J. C 35 1 

Jacobs, Nathan 4!57 

James, Edmund 507 

James, H. B 407 

James, H. H 466 

James, S. R 411 

James, W. A 373 

James, Z. D 361 

Jarvis, J. W 497 

Jenkins, J. M 494 

Jones, Wiley 455 

Jones, William 519 

K. 

Kearns, J. S 413 

Kerns, A. H 519 

Kerns, W. F 404 

Keyes, C. F 430 

Keyes, O. M 480 

Kibby, Thomas 358 

Kiuderman, Alexander 332 

Knowles, C. B 343 

Knowles, J. E 348 

L. 

Lacey, E. A 344 

Lamb, Elias 386 

Lamb, I. R 403 

Langston, J. F 380 

Leilon, N. T 383 

Lewis, Joshua 351 

Lewis, J. C 396 



Lewis, J. J 377 

Lindsey, John 379 

Linn, J. H :i,'5 

Little, R. P :;7s 

Lusadder, Homer .."■ : 

Lynn, J. C 4-'>^ 

M. 

Mack, A. L 409 

Mack, Krastus 503 

-Malnue, .Mrs. Sarah 383 

-Malone.S.W 499 

jMarlin, Aaron 417 

Matthews, Claude 489 

McBelh, David 370 

McFall, W. D 466 

McKnight, L. A 437 

McNeill, 6. H 317 

McNeill, John 316 

McNeill, J. R 314 

Merriman, P. M 413 

Metzger, Rezin 339 

Miller, Jacob 425 

Mitchell, T.J 462 

Mitchell, T.J 477 

Mock, G. L 403 

Moflatt, R. D 518 

Moore, Joseph 481 

Morehead, J. A 428 

Morey, W. L 351 

Morgan, B. H 444 

Myers, T. B 514 

N. 

Nebeker, Henry 474 

Nebeker, Seymour 48:1 

Newlin, A. R 34.". 

Nichols, J. M 157 

Nichols, T. J 4(11 

Nichols, William 3.-)il 

Nixon, R. H 381 

Nolan, Madison 431 

Norris, John 'iurt 

O. 

Osborn, James 498 

Osmou, J. B 479 

P. 

Parrett, J. W 356 

Pearman, Adam 510 

Peer, John 383 

Peer, J. L 486 

Peer, Robert 503 

Peters, J. C 470 

Peters, J. L 475 

Pinson, A. J .507 

Pinson,T. P .504 

Ponton, J. T 359 

Ponton, O. P. M 355 

Porter, W. L 343 

Porter, W. W 380 

Potts, C. P 314 

Pritchard, Elias 313 



R. 




Skidmore, John 


509 


Walter, Frederick 


...334 






Skidmore, Josiah 


378 


Walthall, T.E 


..505 


Ranger, D. A 


469 


Skidmore, T.J 


387 


Walthall, W.B 


..443 


Redman, J. W 


489 


Skidmore, William 


376 


Ward.C. W.... 


..338 


Reed, D. A 


873 


Skidmore, W. U 


399 


Washburn, J. Q 


..341 


Reed, L. H 


5^0 


Slaer, William 


374 


Watkins, H. T 


..424 


Reeder, J.W 


403 


Smith, David 


461 


Watson, G. L 


..454 


Reynolds, G. H 

Rbeuby, William 

Rhoads, M. G 


SUO 

415 

327 


Smith, James 

Smith, J. M 

Smith, J. L 


437 

427 

254 


Watson G. W 


407 




503 


Wells, George 


..488 


Rice, Isaac 


474 


Sparks, E. G 


439 


Wells, Horace 


..485 


Rice,W. Y 


460 


Sparks, G. B 


454 


Whipple, L.R 


..342 


Richardson, John 


488 


Spotswood, E. T 


467 


Whitcomb,A. L 


..470 


Ricliardson, J. B 


381 


Sprouls, Andrew 


479 


Whitcomb, John 


457 


Riley, F. M 


364 


Staats, J. H.'. 


512 


White, J. A 


..509 


Roberts, James 


359 


Stab), J. U 


481 


White, R.M 


. .387 


Rodgers, Elisha 

Rogers, J. O 


497 


Stokes, R. B 


328 


Whited, J. W 




327 


Strain, D. E 


422 


Whitted, Enoch 


..400 




333 


Stullz, G. W 

Sturn, Henry 


424 

349 


Wilson, J. H 

Wood, William 


..463 
.408 


Rufker, R. M 


487 


Rudy, M.J 

Runyan, Daniel 


325 

350 


Stutler, J C 


401 


Wright, F.M 

Wright, L. a 


403 


Swinehart, R. H 


372 


..506 


Rush, Fred 


338 


Switzer, Wesley 


434 


Wright, John 


..315 


Rush, James 


314 






Wright, Milton 


..484 


Russell, William 


501 

391 

456 


T. 


480 


Wright, William 


392 


8. 


Z. 

Zeruer, Adam 




Samuels, S. H 


Thompson, Thomas 

Tillotson, D. G 

Tillotson, G. B 


375 

476 

478 


470 








Sanders, J. A 


335 

517 


Tipton, Captain 


511 






Saxton, G. W 


Todd, S.N 


464 


GENERAL HISTORY. 




Scott, L. S 


418 


U. 








Scott, M.W 


333 




Introductory 


..133 


Sears, Daniel 

Sears, R.B 


436 

352 


Underwood, Jacob 


411 


Aboriginal 

Governmental 


..188 
..200 






V. 










483 

389 






Shepard, Lewis 


Clinton Township 


..230 


Shew, Eli 


431 


Vansickle, Edgar 


506 


Helt Township 

Vermillion Township 


..242 


Shew, Henry 


491 






..257 


Shew, Leonard 


430 


W. 




Eugene Township 


27S 


Shute, Daniel 


339 






Highland Township 

Perrysville 


..288 


Shute, Ephraim 


440 


Wade, A. H 


337 


..292 


Skidmore, G. F 


423 


Walker, C.P 


418 


Pioneers 


.302 



^tm^naiwe. 



Adams, John. .. .- 15 

Adams, John Quincy 39 

Arthur, Chester A 112 

Buchanan, James 81 

Cleveland, Giover .116 

Colfax, Schuyler 168 

Collett, John 310 

Davis, S. B 266 

Fillmore, Millard 73 

Garfield, James A 108 

Grant, Ulysses S 97 

Harrison,"Willlam Henry .57 



Hayes, Rutherford B 103 

Hendricks, Thomas A 164 

Jackson, Andrew 46 

Jefferson, Thomas 21 

Johnson, Andrew 92 

Kinderman, Alexander 332 

Lincoln, Abraham 85 

Madison, James 27 

Monroe, James 33 

Morgan, B. H 445 

Morton, Oliver P 160 

Owen, Robert Dale.: 176 



Pierce, Franklin 77 

Polk, James K 65 

Riley, F. M 306 

Riley, Mrs. M. M 367 

Taylor, Zachary 69 

Tyler, John 61 

Van Buren, Martin ,53 

Washington, George 8 

Walker, Charles P 419 

Whitcomb, A. L 471 

Williams, James D 172 

Wright, William 393 







^iPSlDENTS * 










^/^y^^^/C^.^^^C^^-^'^ 





EORGE WASHING- 
TON, the " Father of 
his Country" and its 
first President, 1789- 
'97, was born Febru- 
ary 22, 1732, in Wasii- 
ington Parish, West- 
moreland Count y, Virginia. 
His father, Augustine Wash- 
ington, first married Jane But- 
ler, who bore him four chil- 
dren, and March 6, 1730, he 
married Mary Ball. Of six 
children by his second mar- 
riage, George was the eldest, 
the others being Betty, Samuel, John, Au- 
gustine, Charles and Mildred, of whom the 
youngest died in infancy. Little is known 
of the early years of Washington, beyond 
the fact that the house in which he was 
born was burned during his early child- 
hood, and that his father thereupon moved 
to another farm, inherited from his paternal 
ancestors, situated in Stafford County, on 
the north bank of the Rappahannock, where 
he acted as agent of the Principio Iron 
Works in the immediate vicinity, and died 
there in 1743. 

From earliest childhood George devel- 
oped a noble character. He had a vigorous 
constitution, a fine form, and great bodily 
Strength. His education was somewhat de- 



fective, being confined to the elementary 
branches taught him by his mother and at 
a neighboring school. He developed, how- 
ever, a fondness for mathematics, and en- 
joyed in that branch the instructions of a 
private teacher. On leaving school he re- 
sided for some time at Mount Vernon with 
his half brother, Lawrence, who acted as 
his guardian, and who had married a daugh- 
ter of his neighbor at Belvoir on the Poto- 
mac, the wealthy William Fairfax, for some 
time president of the executive council of 
the colony. Both Fairfax and his son-in-law, 
Lawrence Washington, had served with dis- 
tinction in 1740 as officers of an American 
battalion at the siege of Carthagena, and 
were friends and correspondents of Admiral 
Vernon, for whom the latter's residence on 
the Potomac has been named. George's 
inclinations were for a similar career, and a 
midshipman's warrant was procured for 
him, probably through the influence of the 
Admiral ; but through the opposition of his 
mother the project was abandoned. The 
family connection with the Fairfaxes, how- 
ever, opened another career for the young 
man, who, at the age of sixteen, was ap- 
pointed surveyor to the immense estates of 
the eccentric Lord Fairfax, who was then 
on a visit at Belvoir, and who shortly after- 
ward established his baronial residence at 
Green way Court, in the Shenandoah Valley. 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



Three years were passed by )'Oung Wash- 
ington in a rough frontier life, gaining ex- 
perience which afterward proved very es- 
sential to him. 

In 1751, when the Virginia militia were 
put under training wiih a view to active 
service against France, Washington, though 
only nineteen years of age, was appointed 
Adjutant with the rank of Major. In Sep- 
tember of that year the failing health of 
Lawrence Washington rendered it neces- 
sary for him to seek a warmer climate, and 
George accompanied him in a vo3-age to 
Barbadoes. They returned earl3' in 1752, 
and Lawrence shortly afterward died, leav- 
ing his large property to an infant daughter. 
In his will George was named one of the 
executors and as eventual heir to Mount 
Vernon, and by the death of the infant niece 
soon succeeded to that estate. 

On the arrival of Robert Dinwiddle as 
Lieutenant-Governor of Virginia in 1752 
the militia was reorganized, and the prov- 
ince divided into four districts. Washing- 
ton was commissioned by Dinwiddle Adju- 
tant-General of the Northern District in 
1753, and in November of that year a most 
important as well as hazardous mission was 
assigned him. This was to proceed to the 
Canadian posts recently established on 
French Creek, near Lake Erie, to demand 
in the name of the King of England the 
withdrawal of the French from a territory 
claimed by Virginia. This enterprise had 
been declined by more than one officer, 
since it involved a journey through an ex- 
tensive and almost unexplored wilderness 
in the occupancy of savage Indian tribes, 
either hostile to the English, or of doubtful 
attachment. Major Washington, however, 
accepted the commission with alacrit)' ; and, 
accompanied by Captain Gist, he reached 
Fort Le Boeuf on French Creek, delivered 
his dispatches and received reply, which, of 
course, was a polite refusal to surrender the 
posts. This reply was of such a character 



as to induce the Assembly of Virginia td 
authorize the executive to raise a regiment 
of 300 men for the purpose of maintaining 
the asserted rights of the British crown 
over the territory claimed. As Washing- 
ton declined to be a candidate for that post, 
the command of this regiment was given t(j 
Colonel Joshua Fr\', and Major Washing- 
ton, at his own request, was commissioned 
Lieutenant-Colonel. On the march to Oiiio, 
news was received that a party previously 
sent to build a fort at the confluence of the 
Monongahela with the Ohio had been 
driven back bv a considerable French force, 
which had completed the work there be- 
gun, and named it Fort Duquesne, in honcM- 
of the Marquis Duquesne, then Governor 
of Canada. This was the beginning of the 
great " French and Indian war," which ccmi- 
tinued seven years. On the death of Colonel 
Fry, Washington succeeded to the com- 
mand of the regiment, and so well did he 
fulfill his trust that the Virginia Assembly 
commissioned him as Commander-in-Chief 
of all the forces raised in the colony. 

A cessation of all Indian hostility on the 
frontier having followed the expulsion of 
the French from the Ohio, the object of 
Washington was accomplished and he re- 
signed his commission as Commander-in- 
Chief of the Virginia forces. He then pro- 
ceeded to Williamsburg to take his seat in 
the General Assembly, of which he had 
been elected a member. 

January 17, 1759, Washington married 
Mrs. Martha (Dandridge) Custis, a young 
and beautiful widow of great wealth, and de- 
voted himself for the ensuing fifteen years 
to the quiet pursuits of agriculture, inter- 
rupted only by his annual attendance in 
winter upon the Colonial Legislature at 
Williamsburg, until summoned by his 
country to enter upon that other arena in 
which his fame was to become world wide. 

It is unnecessary here to trace the details 
of the struggle upon the question of local 



self-government, which, after ten years, cu! 
minated by act of Parliament of the port of 
Boston. It was at the instance of Virginia 
that a congress of all the colonies was called 
to meet at Philadelphia September 5, 1774, 
to secure their common liberties — if possible 
by peaceful means. To this Congress 
Colonel Washington was sent as a dele- 
gate. On dissolving in October, it recom- 
mended the colonies to send deputies to 
another Congress the following spring. In 
ihe meantime several of the colonies felt 
impelled to raise local forces to repel in- 
sults and aggressions on the part of British 
troops, so that on the assembling of the next 
Congress, May 10, 1775, the war prepara- 
tions of the mother country were unmis- 
takable. The battles of Concord and Lex- 
ington had been fought. Among the earliest 
acts, therefore, of the Congress was the 
selection of- a commander-in-chief of the 
colonial forces. This office was unani- 
mously conferred upon Washington, still a 
member of the Congress. He accepted it 
on June 19, but on the express condition he 
should receive no salary. 

He immediately repaired to the vicinity 
of Boston, against which point the British 
ministry had concentrated their forces. As 
early as April General Gage had 3,000 
troops in and around this proscribed city. 
During the fall and winter the British policy 
clearly indicated a purpose to divide pub- 
lic sentiment and to build up a British party 
in the colonies. Those who sided with the 
ministr)' were stigmatized by the patriots 
as " Tories," while the patriots took to them- 
selves the name of " Whigs." 

As early as 1776 the leading men had 
come to the conclusion that there was no 
hope except in separation and indepen- 
dence. In May of that year Washington 
wrote from the head of the army in New 
York : " A reconciliation with Great Brit- 
ain is impossible When I took 

command of the army, I abhorred the idea 



of independence ; but I am now fully satis- 
fied that nothing else will save us." 

It is not the object of this sketch to trace 
the military acts of the patriot hero, to 
whose hands the fortunes and liberties of 
the United States were confided during the 
seven years' bloody struggle that ensued 
until the treaty of 1783, in which England 
acknowledged the independence of each of 
the thirteen States, and negotiated with 
them, jointly, as separate sovereignties. The 
merits of Washington as a military chief- 
tain have been considerably discussed, espe- 
cially by writers in his own country.. Dur- 
ing the war he was most bitterly assailed 
for incompetency, and great efforts were 
made to displace him ; but he never for a 
moment lost the confidence of either the 
Congress or the people. December 4, 1783, 
the great commander took leave of his offi- 
cers in most affectionate and patriotic terms, 
and went to Annapolis, Maryland, where 
the Congress of the States was in session, 
and to that body, when peace and order 
prevailed everywhere, resigned his com- 
mission and retired to Mount Vernon. 

It was in 1788 that Washington was called 
to the chief magistracy of the nation. He 
received every electoral vote cast in all the 
colleges of the States voting for the office 
of President. The 4th of March, 1789, was 
the time appointed for the Government of 
the United States to begin its operations, 
but several weeks elapsed before quorums 
of both the newly constituted houses of the 
Congress were assembled. The city of New 
York was the place where the Congress 
then met. April 16 Washington left his 
home to enter upon the discharge of his 
new duties. He set out with a purpose of 
traveling privately, and without attracting 
any public attention ; but this was impossi- 
ble. Everywhere on his way he was met 
with thronging crowds, eager to see the 
man whom they regarded as the chief de- 
fender of their liberties, and everywhere 



II 




le was hailed with those public manifesta- 
tions of jov. legard and love which spring 
spontaneously from the hearts of an affec- 
tionate and grateful people. His reception 
in New York was marked by a grandeur 
and an enthusiasm never before witnessed 
in that metropolis. The inauguration took 
jilace April 30, in the presence of an immense 
multitude which had assembled to witness 
the new and imposing ceremony. The oath 
of office was administered by Robert R. 
Livingston. Chancellor of the State. When 
liiis sacred pledge was given, he retired 
with the other officials into the Senate 
chamber, where he delivered his inaugural 
address to both houses of the newly con- 
stituted Congress in joint assembly. 

In the manifold details o[ his civil ad- 
ministration, Washington proved himself 
equal to the requirements ot his position. 
The greater portion of the first session of 
the first Congress was occupied in passing 
tlie necessary statutes for putting the new 
organization into complete operation. In 
the discussions brought up in the course of 
this legislation the nature and character of 
the new svstem came under general review. 
On no one of them did any decided antago- 
nism of opinion arise. All held it to be a 
limited government, clothed only with spe- 
cific powers conferred by delegation from 
the States. There was no change in the 
name of the legislative department ; it still 
remained "the Congress of the United 
States of America." There was no change 
in the original flag of the country, and none 
in the seal, which still remains with the 
Grecian escutcheon borne by the eagle, 
with other emblems, under the great and 
expressive motto, " E P/iiribiis Unitiii." 

The first division of parties arose upon 
the manner of construing the powers dele- 
gated, and they were first styled "strict 
constructionists" and " latitudinarian con- 
structionists." The former were for con- 
ing the action of the Government strictly 



within its specific and limited sphere, while 
the others were for enlarging its powers by 
inference and implication. Hamilton and 
Jefferson, both members of the first cabinet 
were regarded as the chief leaders, respecl 
ively, of these rising antagonistic parties 
which have existed, under different names, 
from that day to this. Washington was re 
garded as holding a neutral position between 
them, though, by mature deliberation, he 
vetoed the first apportionment bill, in 1790, 
passed by the party headed by Hamilton, 
which was based upon a principle construct- 
ively leading to centralization or consoli- 
dation. This was the first exercise of the 
veto power under the present Constitution. 
It created considerable excitement at the 
time. Another bill was soon passed in pur- 
suance of Mr. Jefferson's views, which has 
been adhered to in principle in every a])- 
portionment act passed since. 

At the second session of the new Con- 
gress, Washington announced the gratify- 
ing fact of " the accession of North Caro- 
lina" to the Constitution of 17S7, and June 
I of the same year he announced by special 
message the like " accession of the State of 
Rhode Island," with his congratulations on 
the happy event v/hich " united under the 
general Governinent" all the States which 
were originally confederated. 

In 1792, at the second Presidential elec- 
tion, Washington was desirous to retire ; 
but he vielded to the general wish of the 
country, and was again chosen President 
by the unaniinous vote of ever)' electoral 
college. At the third election, 1796, he was 
again most urgently entreated to consent to 
remain in the executive chair. This he 
positively refused. In September, before 
the election, he gave to his countrymen his 
memorable Farewell Address, which in lan- 
guage, sentiment and patriotism was a fit 
and crowning glory of his illustrious life. 
After March 4, 1797, he again retired to 
Mount Vernon for peace, quiet and repose. 



aEORGE WA SHIXG TON. 



'"(i\ 



His administration for the two terms had 
been successful be3-ond the expectation and 
hopes of even the most sanguine of his 
friends. The finances of the country were 
no longer in an embarrassed condition, the 
I-'ublic credit was fully restored, Hfe was 
tjiven to every department of industry, the 
workings of the new system in allowing 
Congress to raise revenue from duties on 
imports proved to be not only harmonious 
in its federal action, but astonishing in its 
results upon the commerce and trade of all 
the States. The exports from the Union 
increased from $19,000,000 to over §56,000,- 
000 per annum, while the imports increased 
in about the same proportion. Three new 
members had been added to the Union. The 
progress of the States in their new career 
under their new organization thus far was 
exceedingly encouraging, not only to the 
friends of Ijbertv within their own limits, 
but to their S3'mpathizing allies in all climes 
and countries. 

Of the call again made on this illustrious 



chief to quit his repose at Mount Vernon 
and take command of all the United States 
forces, with the rank of Lieutenant-General, 
when war was threatened with France in 
1798, nothing need here be stated, except to 
note the fact as an unmistakable testimo- 
nial of the high regard in which he was still 
held by his countrymen, of all shades of po- 
litical opinion. He patriotically accepted 
this trust, but a treaty of peace put a stop 
to all action under it. He again retired to 
Mount Vernon, where, after a short and 
severe illness, he died December 14, 1799, 
in the sixt)'-eighth year of his age. The 
whole countr)' was filled with gloom by this 
sad intelligence. Men of all parties in poli- 
tics and creeds in religion, in every State 
in the Union, united with Congress in " pay- 
ing honor to the man, first in war, first in 
peace, and first in the hearts of his country- 
men." 

His remains were deposited in a family 
vault on the banks of the Potomac at Mount 
Vernon, where they still lie entombed. 









'^m^ 



PRESIDENTS OP- TUB VNlTEt) STATES. 



i! 





OHN ADAMS, the second 
President of the United 
States, 1797 to 1801, was 
born in the present town 
of Ouinc}-, then a portion 
of Braintree, Massachu- 
setts, October 30, 1735. His 
father was a farmer of mod- 
erate means, a worthy and 
industrious man. He was 
a deacon in the church, and 
was very desirous of giving 
his son a collegiate educa- 
tion, hoping that he would 
become a minister of the 
_ 3spel. But, as up to this 
time, the age of fourteen, he had been only 
a play-boy in the fields and forests, he had 
no taste for books, he chose farming. On 
being set to work, however, by his father 
out in the field, the very first day con- 
verted the boy into a lover of books. 

Accordingly, at the age of si.xteen he 
entered Harvard College, and graduated in 
1755, at the age of twenty, highly esteemed 
for integrity, energy and ability. Thus, 
having no capital but his education, he 
started out into the stormy world at a time 
of great political excitement, as France and 
England were then engaged in their great 
seven-years struggle for the mastery over 
the New World. The fire of patriotism 



seized young Adams, and for a time he 
studied over the question whether he 
should take to the law, to politics or ihe 
army. He wrote a remarkable letter to a 
friend, making prophecies concerning the 
future greatness of this country which have 
since been more than fulfilled. For two 
years he taught school and studied law, 
wasting no odd moments, and at the early 
age of twenty-two years he opened a law 
ofifice in his native town. His inherited 
powers of mind and vmtiring devotion to 
his profession caused him to rise rapidly 
in public esteem. 

In October, 1764, Mr. Adams married 
Miss Abigail Smith, daughter of a clergy- 
man at Weymouth and a lad}^ of rare per- 
sonal and intellectual endowments, who 
afterward contributed much to her hus- 
band's celebrity. 

Soon the oppression of the British in 
America reached its climax. The Boston 
merchants employed an attorney by the 
name of James Otis to argue the legality of 
oppressive tax law before the Superior 
Court. Adams heard the argument, and 
afterward wrote to a friend concerning the 
ability displayed, as follows : " Otis was a 
flame of fire. With a promptitude of 
classical allusion, a depth of research, a 
rapid summary of historical events and 
dates, a profusion of legal authorities and a 




J(r^iJd(i^m 



yOHN ADAMS. 



prophetic glance into futurity, he hurried 
away all before him. American hidepcndcnce 
was then and there born. Every man of an 
immensely crowded audience appeared to 
me to go away, as I did, ready to take up 
arms." 

Soon Mr. Adams wrote an essay to be 
read before the literary club of his town, 
upon the state of affairs, which was so able 
as to attract public attention. It was pub- 
lished in American journals, republished 
in England, and was pronounced by the 
friends of the colonists there as " one of the 
very best productions ever seen from North 
America." 

The memiorable Stamp Act was now 
issued, and Adams entered with all the 
ardor of his soul into political life in order 
to resist it. He drew up a series of reso- 
lutions remonstrating against the act, which 
were adopted at a public meeting of the 
citizens of Braintrec, and which were sub- 
sequently adopted, word for word, by more 
than forty towns in the State. Popular 
commotion prevented the landing of the 
Stamp Act papers, and the English author- 
ities then closed the courts. The town of 
Boston therefore appointed Jeremy Grid- 
ley, James Otis and John Adams to argue a 
petition before the Governor and council 
for the re-opening of the courts; and while 
the two first mentioned attorneys based 
their argument upon the distress caused to 
the people by the measure, Adams boldly 
claimed that the Stamp Act was a violation 
both of the English Constitution and the 
charter of the Provinces. It is said that 
this was the first direct denial of the un- 
limited right of Parliament over the colo- 
nies. Soon after this the Stamp Act was 
repealed. 

Directly Mr. Adams was employed to 
defend Ansell Nickerson, who had killed an 
Englishman in the act of impressing him 
(Nickerson) into the King's service, and his 
client was acquitted, the court thus estab- 



lishing the principle that the infamous 
royal prerogative of impressment could 
have no existence in the colonial code. 
But in 1770 Messrs. Adams and Josiah 
Quincy defended a party of British soldiers 
who had been arrested for murder when 
they had been only obeying Governmental 
orders ; and when reproached for thus ap- 
parently deserting the cause of popular 
libert\% Mr. Adams replied that he would a 
thousandfold rather live under the domina- 
tion of the worst of England's kings than 
under that of a lawless mob. Next, after 
serving a term as a member of the Colonial 
Legislature from Boston, Mr. Adams, find- 
ing his health affected by too gixat labor, 
letired to his native home at Braintree. 

The year 1774 soon arrived, with its fa- 
mous Boston " Tea Party," the first open 
act of rebellion. Adams was sent to the 
Congress at Philadelphia ; and when the 
Attorney-General announced that Great 
Britain had " determined on her system, 
and that her power to execute it was irre- 
sistible," Adams replied : " I know that 
Great Britain has determined on her sys- 
tem, and that very determination deter- 
mines me on mine. You know that I have 
been constant in my opposition to her 
measures. The die is now cast. I have 
passed the Rubicon. Sink or swim, live or 
die, with my country, is my unalterable 
determination." The rumor beginning to 
prevail at Philadelphia that the Congress 
had independence in view, Adams foresaw 
that it was too soon to declare it openl}'. 
He advised every one to remain quiet in 
that respect; and as soon as it became ap- 
parent that he himself was for independ- 
ence, he was advised to hide himself, which 
he did. 

The next year the great Revolutionary 
war opened in earnest, and Mrs. Adams, 
residing near Boston, kept her husband ad- 
vised by letter of all the events transpiring 
in her vicinity. The battle of Bunker Hill 



t 




I L^^^ 



came on. Congress had to do something 
immediately. The first thing was to 
choose a commander-in-chief for the — we 
can't say " army " — the fighting men of the 
colonies. The New England delegation 
was almost unanimous in favor of appoint- 
ing General Ward, then at the head of the 
Massachusetts forces, but Mr. Adams urged 
the appointment of George Washington, 
then almost unknown outside of his own 
State. He was appointed without oppo- 
sition. Mr. Adams offered the resolution, 
which was adopted, annulling all the ro)'al 
authority in the colonies. Having thus 
prepared the way, a few weeks later, viz., 
June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee, of Vir- 
ginia, who a few months before had declared 
that the British Government would aban- 
don its oppressive measures, now offered 
the memorable resolution, seconded by 
Adams, "tliat these United States are, and 
of right ought to be, free and independent." 
Jefferson, Adams, Franklin, Sherman and 
Livingston were then appointed a commit- 
tee to draught a declaration of independ- 
ence. Mr. Jefferson desired Mr. Adams 
to draw up Ihe bold document, but the 
latter persuaded Mr. Jefferson to perform 
that responsible task. The Declaration 
drawn up, Mr. Adams became its foremost 
defender on the floor of Congress. It was 
signed by all the fifty-five members present, 
and the next day ^Ir. Adams wrote to his 
wife how great a deed was done, and how 
proud he was of it. Mr. Adams continued 
to be the leading man of Congress, and 
the leading advocate of American inde- 
pendence. Above all other Americans, 
he was considered by every one the prin- 
cipal shining mark for British vengeance. 
Thus circumstanced, he was appointed to 
the most dangerous task of crossing the 
ocean in winter, exposed to capture by the 
British, who knew of his mission, which 
was to visit Paris and solicit the co-opera- 
tion of the French. Besides, to take him- 



self away from the country of which he 
was the most prominent defender, at that 
critical time, was an act of the greatest self- 
sacrifice. Sure enough, while crossing th • 
sea, he had two very narrow escapes from 
capture ; and the transit was otherwise :■ 
stormy and eventful one. During th 
summer of 1779 he returned home, but u;.^ 
immediately dispatched back to France, ti. 
be in readiness there to negotiate terms ol 
peace and commerce with Great Britain as 
soon as the latter power was ready for sucb. 
business. But as Dr. Franklin was more 
popular than heat the court of France, Mr. 
Adams repaired to Holland, where he was 
far more successful as a diplomatist. 

The treaty of peace between the United 
States and England was finally signed at 
Paris, January 21, 1783; and the re-action 
from so great excitement as Mr. Adams had 
so long been experiencing threw him into 
a dangerous fever. Before he fully re- 
covered he was in London, whence he was 
dispatched again to Amsterdam to negoti- 
ate another loan. Compliance with this 
order undermined his physical constitution 
for life. 

In 17S5 Mr. Adams was appointed envoy 
to the court of St. James, to meet face to 
face the very king who had regarded him 
as an arch traitor! Accordingly he re- 
paired thither, where he did actually meet 
and converse with George III.! After a 
residence there for about three years, he 
obtained permission to return to America. 
While in London he wrote and published 
an able work, in three volumes, entitled : 
" A Defense of the American Constitution." 

The Articles of Confederation proving 
inefficient, as Adams had prophesied, a 
carefully draughted Constitution was 
adopted in 1789, when George Washington 
was elected President of the new nation, 
and Adams Vice-President. Congress met 
for a time in New York, but was removed 
to Philadelphia for ten years, until suitable 



^ 



JOHN ADAMS. 



buildings should be erected at the new 
capital in the District of Columbia. Mr. 
Adams then moved his family to Phila- 
delphia. Toward the close of his term of 
office the French Revolution culminated, 
when Adams and Washington rather 
sympathized with England, and Jefferson 
with France. The Presidential election of 
1796 resulted in giving Mr. Adams the first 
place by a small majority, and !Mr. Jeffer- 
son the second place. 

Mr. Adams's administration was consci- 
entious, patriotic and able. The period 
was a turbulent one, and even an archangel 
could not have reconciled the hostile par- 
ties. Partisanism with reference to Eng- 
land and France was bitter, and for four 
years Mr. Adams struggled through almost 
a constant tempest of assaults. In fact, he 
was not truly a popular man, and his cha- 
grin at not receiving a re-election was so 
great that he xiid not even remain at Phila- 
delphia to witness the inauguration of Mr. 
Jefferson, his successor. The friendly 
intimacy between these two men was 
interrupted for about thirteen years of their 
life. Adams finally made the first advances 
toward a restoration of their mutual friend- 
ship, which were gratefully accepted by 
Jefferson. 

Mr. Adams was glad of his opportunity 
to retire to private lite, where he could rest 
his mind and enjo)' the comforts of home. 
By a thousand bitter experiences he found 
the path of public duty a thorny one. For 
twenty-six years his service of the public 
was as arduous, self-sacrificing and devoted 
as ever fell to the lot of man. In one im- 
portant sense he was as much the " Father 
of his Country " as was Washington in 
another sense. During these long years of 
anxiety and toil, in which he was laying, 
broad and deep, the foundations of the 



greatest nation the sun ever shone upon, he 
received from his impoverished country a 
meager support. The only privilege he 
carried with him into his retirement was 
that of franking his letters. 

Although taking no active part in public 
affairs, both himself and his son, John 
Quincy, nobly supported the policy of Mr. 
Jefferson in resisting the encroachments of 
England, who persisted in searching 
American ships on the high seas and 
dragging from them any sailors that might 
be designated by any pert lieutenant as 
Bi-itish subjects. Even for this noble sup- 
port Mr. Adams was maligned by thou- 
sands of bitter enemies ! On this occasion, 
for the first time since his retirement, he 
broke silence and drew up a ver}^ able 
paper, exposing the atrocity of the British 
pretensions. 

Mr. Adams outlived nearly all hisfamil3^ 
Though his physical frame began to give 
way many years before his death, his mental 
powers retained their strength and vigor to 
the last. In his ninetieth year he was 
gladdened by the popular elevation of his 
son to the Presidential office, the highest in 
the gift of the people. A few months more 
passed away and the 4th of July, 1826, 
arrived. The people, unaware of the near 
approach of the end of two great lives — 
that of Adams and Jefferson — were making 
unusual preparations for a national holiday. 
Mr. Adams lay upon his couch, listening to 
the ringing of bells, the waftures of martial 
music and the roar of cannon, with silent 
emotion. Only four days before, he had 
given for a public toast, " Independence 
forever." About two o'clock in the after- 
noon he said, "And Jefferson still survives." 
But he was mistaken by an hour or so ; 
and in a few minutes he had breathed his 
last. 



m 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 










}m^ 







fHOMAS JEFFER- 
son, the third Presi- 
dent of the United 
States, i8oi-'9, was 
born April 2, 1743, 
the eldest child of 
his parents, Peter 
and Jane (Randolph) Jef- 
ferson, near Charlottes- 
ville, Albemarle County, 
Virginia, upon the slopes 
ofthe Blue Ridge. When 
he -was fourteen years of 
age, his father died, leav- 
ing a widow and eight 
children. She was a beau- 
tiful and accomplished 
lady, a good letter-writer, with a fund of 
humor, and an admirable housekeeper. His 
parents belonged to the Church of England, 
and are said to be of Welch origin. But 
little is known of them, however. 

Thomas was naturally of a serious turn 
of mind, apt to learn, and a favorite at 
school, his choice studies being mathemat- 
ics and the classics. At the age of seven- 
teen he entered William and Mary College, 
in an advanced class, and lived in rather an 
expensive style, consequently being much 
caressed by gay society. That he was not 
ruined, is proof of his stamina of character. 
But during his second year he discarded 



society, his horses and even his favorite 
violin, and devoted thenceforward fifteen 
hours a day to hard study, becoming ex- 
traordinarily proficient in Latin and Greek 
authors. 

On leaving college, before he was twenty- 
one, he commenced the study of law, and 
pursued it diHgently until he was well 
qualified for practice, upon which he 
entered in 1767. By this time he was also 
versed in French, Spanish, Italian and An- 
glo-Saxon, and in the criticism of the fine 
arts. Being very polite and polished in his 
manners, he won the friendship of all whom 
he met. Though able with his pen, he was 
not fluent in public speech. 

In 1769 he was chosen a member of the 
Virginia Legislature, and was the largest 
slave-holding member of that bod3^ He 
introduced a bill empowering slave-holders 
to manumit their slaves, but it was rejected 
by an overwhelming vote. 

In 1770 Mr. Jefferson met with a great 
loss ; his house at Shadwell was burned, 
and his valuable library of 2,000 volumes 
was consumed. But he was wealthy 
enough to replace the most of it, as from 
his 5,000 acres tilled by slaves and his 
practice at the bar his income amounted to 
about $5,000 a year. 

In 1772 he married Mrs. Martha Skelton, 
a beautiful, wealthy and accomplished 




Vyt^l^ 



^ 



THOMAS JEFFERSON. 



young widow, who owned 40,000 acres of 
land and 130 slaves; yet he labored assidu- 
ously for the abolition of slavery. For his 
new home he selected a majestic rise of 
land upon his large estate at Shadwell, 
called Monticello, whereon he erected a 
mansion of modest yet elegant architecture. 
Here he lived in luxury, indulging his taste 
in magnificent, high-blooded liorses. 

At this period the British Government 
gradually became more insolent and op- 
pressive toward the American colonies, 
and Mr. Jefferson was ever one of the most 
foremost to resist its encroachments. From 
time to time he drew up resolutions of re- 
monsti-ance, which were finally adopted, 
thus proving his ability as a statesman and 
as a leader. By the year 1774 he became 
quite busy, both with voice and pen, in de- 
fending the right of the colonies to defend 
themselves. His pamphlet entitled : " A 
Summary Vifew of the Rights of British 
America," attracted much attention in Eng- 
land. The following year he, in company 
with George Washington, served as an ex- 
ecutive committee in measures to defend 
by arms the State of Virginia. As a Mem- 
ber of the Congress, he was not a speech- 
maker, yet in conversation and upon 
committees he was so frank and decisive 
that he always made a favorable impression. 
But as late as the autumn of 1775 he re- 
mained in hopes of reconciliation with the 
parent country. 

At length, however, the hour arrived for 
draughting the " Declaration of Indepen- 
dence," and this responsible task was de- 
volved upon Jefferson. Franklin, and 
Adams suggested a few verbal corrections 
before it was submitted to Congress, which 
was June 28, 1776, only six days before it 
was adopted. During the three days of 
the fiery ordeal of criticism through which 
it passed in Congress, Mr. Jefferson opened 
not his lips. John Adams was the main 
champion of the Declaration on the floor 



of Congress. The signing of this document 
was one of the most solemn and momentous 
occasions ever attended to by man. Prayer 
and silence reigned throughout the hall, 
and each signer realized that if American 
independence was not finally sustained by- 
arms he was doomed to the scaffold. 

After the colonies became independent 
States, Jefferson resigned for a time his seat 
in Congress in order to aid in organizing 
the government of Virginia, of which State 
he was chosen Governor in 1779, when he 
was thirty-six years of age. At this time 
the British had possession of Georgia and 
were invading South Carolina, and at one 
time a British officer, Tarleton, sent a 
secret expedition to Monticello to capture 
the Governor. Five minutes after Mr. 
Jefferson escaped with his family, his man- 
sion was in possession of the enemy ! The 
British troops also destroyed his valuable 
plantation on the James River. " Had they 
carried off the slaves," said Jefferson, with 
characteristic magnanimity, " to give them 
freedom, they would have done right." 

The 3-ear 1781 was a gloomy one for the 
Virginia Governor. While confined to his 
secluded home in the forest by a sick and 
dying wife, a party arose against him 
throughout the State, severely criticising 
his course as Governor. Being very sensi- 
tive to reproach, this touched him to the 
quick, and the heap of troubles then sur- 
rounding him nearly crushed him. He re- 
solved, in despair, to retire from public life 
for the rest of his days. For weeks Mr. 
Jefferson sat lovingly, but with a crushed 
heart, at the bedside of his sick wife, during 
which time unfeeling letters were sent to 
him, accusing him of weakness and unfaith- 
fulness to duty. All this, after he had lost 
so much property and at the same time 
done so much for his country ! After her 
death he actually fainted away, and re- 
mained so long insensible that it was feared 
he never would recover! Several weeks 



PRESTDEyrS OF THE U.VITED STATES. 



passed before he could fully recover his 
equilibrium. He was never married a 
second time. 

In the spring of 17S2 the people of Eng- 
land compelled their king to make to the 
Americans overtures of peace, and in No- 
vember following, Mr. Jefferson was reap- 
pointed by Congress, unanimously and 
without a single adverse remark, minister 
plenipotentiary to negotiate a treaty. 

In March, 1784, Mr. Jefferson was ap- 
pointed on a committee to draught a plan 
for the government of the Northwestern 
Territory. His slavery-prohibition clause 
in that plan was stricken out by the pro- 
slavery majority of the committee; but amid 
all the controversies and wrangles of poli- 
ticians, he made it a rule never to contra- 
dict anybody or engage in any discussion 
as a debater. 

In company with Mr. Adams and Dr. 
Franklin, Mr. Jefferson was appointed in 
May, 1784, to act as minister plenipotentiary 
in the negotiation of treaties of commerce 
with foreign nations. Accordingly, he went 
to Paris and satisfactorily accomplished his 
mission. The suavity and high bearing of 
his manner made all the French his friends; 
and even Mrs. Adams at one time u^rote 
to her sister that he was " the chosen 
of the earth." But all the honors that 
he received, both at home and abroad, 
seemed to make no change in the simplicit}' 
of his republican tastes. On his return to 
America, he found two parties respecting 
the foreign commercial policy, Mr. Adams 
sympathizing with that in favor of England 
and himself favoring France. 

On the inauguration of General Wash- 
ington as President, Mr. Jefferson was 
chosen by him for the office of Secretary of 
State. At this time the rising storm of the 
French Revolution became visible, and 
Washington watched it with great anxiety. 
His cabinet was divided in their views of 
constitutional government as well as re- 



garding the issues in France. General 
Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury, was 
the leader of the so-called Federal partv, 
while Mr. Jefferson was the leader of the 
Republican party. At the same time there 
was a strong monarchical party in this 
country, with which Mr. Adams sympa- 
thized. Some important financial measures, 
which were proposed by Hamilton and 
finally adopted by the cabinet and approved 
by Washington, were opposed by Mr. 
Jefferson ; and his enemies then began to 
reproach him with holding office under an 
administration whose views he opposed. 
The President poured oil on the troubled 
waters. On his re-election to the Presi- 
dency he desired Mr. Jefferson to remain 
in the cabinet, but the latter sent in his 
resignation at two different times, probably 
because he was dissatisfied with some of 
the measures of the Government. His 
final one was not received until January i, 
1794, when General Washington parted 
from him with great regret. 

Jefferson then retired to his quiet home 
at Monticello, to enjoy a good rest, not even 
reading the newspapers lest the political 
gossip should disquiet him. On the Presi- 
dent's again calling him back to the office 
of Secretary of State, he replied that no 
circumstances would ever again tempt him 
to engage in any-thing public ! But, while 
all Europe was ablaze with war, and France 
in the throes of a bloody revolution and the 
principal theater of the conflict, a new 
Presidential election in this country came 
on. John Adams was the Federal candi- 
date and Mr. Jefferson became the Republi- 
can candidate. The result of the election 
was the promotion of the latter to the Vice- 
Presidency, while the former was chosen 
President. In this contest Mr. Jefferson 
really did not desire to have either office, 
he was "so weary ** of party strife. He 
loved the retirement of home more than 
any other place on the earth. 




THOMAS ^EFFEliSON. 



But for four long years his Vice-Presi- 
dency passed joylessl}- away, while the 
partisan strife between Federalist and Re- 
publican was ever growing hotter. The 
former party split and the result of the 
fourth general election was the elevation of 
Mr. Jefferson to the Presidency ! with 
Aaron Burr as Vice-President. These men 
being at the head of a growing party, their 
election was hailed everywhere with joy. 
On the other hand, man}' of the Federalists 
turned pale, as they believed what a portion 
of the pulpit and the press had been preach- 
ing — that Jefferson was a " scoffing atheist," 
a "Jacobin," the "incarnation of all evil," 
" breathing threatening and slaughter ! " 

Mr. Jefferson's inaugural address con- 
tained nothing but the noblest sentiments, 
expressed in fine language, and his personal 
behavior afterward exhibited the extreme 
of American, democratic simplicit\'. His 
disgust of European court etiquette grew 
upon him with age. He believed that 
General Washington was somewhat dis- 
trustful of the ultimate success of a popular 
Government, and that, imbued with a little 
admiration of the forms of a monarchical 
Government, he had instituted levees, birth- 
daj's, pompous meetings with Congress, 
etc. Jefferson was always polite, even to 
slaves everywhere he met them, and carried 
in his countenance the indications of an ac- 
commodating disposition. 

The political principles of the Jeffersoni- 
an party now swept the country, and Mr. 
Jefferson himself swayed an influence which 
was never exceeded even by Washington. 
Under his administration, in 1803, the Lou- 
isiana purchase was made, for $15,000,000, 
the " Louisiana Territory " purchased com- 
prising all the land west of the Mississippi 
to the Pacific Ocean. 

The year 1804 witnessed another severe 
loss in his family. His highl}' accomplished 
and most beloved daughter Maria sickened 
and died, causing as great grief in the 



stricken parent as it was possible for him to 
survive with any degree of sanity. 

The same year he was re-elected to the 
Presidency, with George Clinton as Vice- 
President. During his second term our 
relations with England became more com- 
plicated, and on June 22, 1807, near Hamp- 
ton Roads, the United States frigate 
Chesapeake was fired upon by the Brit- 
ish man-of-war Leopard, and was made 
to surrender. Three men were killed and 
ten wounded. Jefferson demanded repara- 
tion. England grew insolent. It became 
evident that war was determined upon by 
the latter power. More than 1,200 Ameri- 
cans were forced into the British service 
upon the high seas. Before any satisfactory 
solution was reached, Mr. Jefferson's 
Presidential terra closed. Amid all these 
public excitements he thought constantly 
of the welfare of his family, and longed 
for the time when he could return home 
to remain. There, at Monticello, his sub- 
sequent life was very similar to that of 
Washington at Mt. Vernon. His hospi- 
talit}' toward his numerous friends, indul- 
gence of his slaves, and misfortunes to his 
property, etc., finally involved him in debt. 
For years his home resembled a fashion- 
able watering-place. During the summer, 
thirty-seven house servants were required ! 
It was presided over by his daughter, Mrs. 
Randolph. 

Mr. Jefferson did much for the establish- 
ment of the University at Charlottesville, 
making it unsectarian, in keeping with the 
spirit of American institutions, but poverty 
and the feebleness of old age prevented 
him from doing what he would. He even 
went so far as to petition tiie Legislature 
for permission to dispose of some of his 
possessions by lottery, in order to raise the 
necessary funds for home expenses. It was 
granted ; but before the plan was carried 
out, Mr. Jefferson died, July 4. 1826, at 
2:50 P. M. 



PRESIDEXrS OF THE UNITED STATES. 








AMES MADISON, the 
fourth President of the 
United States, iSog-'iy, 
was born at Port Con- 
\\a.y, Prince George 
County, Virginia, March 
175 1. His father, 



Colonel James Madison, was 
a wealthy planter, residing 
upon a very fine estate 
called " Montpelier," only 
twenty-five miles from the 
home of Thomas Jefferson 
at Monticello. The closest 
personal and political at- 
tachment existed between 
these illustrious men from their early youth 
until death. 

James was the eldest of a family of seven 
children, four sons and three daughters, all 
of whom attained maturity. His early edu- 
cation was conducted mostly at home, 
under a private tutor. Being naturally in- 
tellectual in his tastes, he consecrated him- 
self with unusual vigor to study. At a very 
early age he made considerable proficiency 
in the Greek, Latin, French and Spanish 
languages. In 1769 he entered Princeton 
College, New Jersey, of which the illus- 
trious Dr. Weatherspoon was then Presi- 
dent. He graduated in 1771, with a chai'- 



acter of the utmost purit}-, and a mind 
highly disciplined and stored with all the 
learning which embellished and gave effi- 
ciency to his subsequent career. After 
graduating he pursued a course of reading 
for several months, under the guidance of 
President Weatherspoon, and in 1772 re- 
turned to Virginia^ where he continued in 
incessant study for two years, nominally 
directed to the law, but reall}' including 
extended researches in theology, philoso- 
phy and general literature. 

The Church of England was the estab- 
lished church in Virginia, invested with all 
the prerogatives and immunities which it 
enjoyed in the fatherland, and other de- 
nomi nations labored under serious disabili- 
ties, the enforcement of which was rightly 
or wrongly characterized by them as per- 
secution. Madison, took a prominent stand 
in behalf of the removal of all disabilities, 
repeatedly appeared in the court of liis own 
county to defend the Baptist nonconform- 
ists, and was elected from Orange County to 
the Virginia Convention in the sj^ring of 
1766, when he signalized the beginning of 
his public career by procuring the passage 
of an amendment to the Declaration of 
Rights as prepared by George Mason, sub- 
stituting for "toleration" a more emphatic 
assertion of religious liberlv. 



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In 1776 he was elected a member of the 
Virginia Convention to frame the Constitu- 
tion of the State. Like Jefferson, he took 
but little part in the public debates. His 
main strength lay in his conversational in- 
fluence and in his pen. In November, 1777, 
he was chosen a member of the Council of 
State, and in March, 1780, took his seat in 
the Continental Congress, where he first 
gained prominence through his energetic 
opposition to the issue of paper money by 
the States. He continued in Congress three 
years, one of its most active and influential 
members. 

In 1784 Mr. Madison v.'as elected a mem- 
ber of the Virginia Legislature. He ren- 
dered important service by promoting and 
participating in that revision of the statutes 
which effectually abolished the remnants of 
the feudal system subsistent up to that 
time in the form of entails, primogeniture, 
and State support given the Anglican 
Church ; and his " Memorial and Remon- 
strance" against a general assessment for 
the support of religion is one of the ablest 
papers which emanated from his pen. It 
settled the question of the entire separation 
of church and State in Virginia. 

Mr. Jefferson says of him, in allusion to 
the study and experience through which he 
had already passed : 

" Trained in these successive schools, he 
acquired a habit of self-possession which 
placed at ready command the rich resources 
of his luminous and discriminating mind and 
of his extensive information, and rendered 
him the first of every assembly of which he 
afterward became a member. Never wan- 
dering from his subject into vain declama- 
tion, but pursuing it closely in language 
pure, classical and copious, soothing al- 
wa3's the feelings of his adversaries by civili- 
ties and softness of expression, he rose to tlie 
eminent stati(in which he held in the great 
National Convention of 1787; and in that of 
Virginia, which followed, he sustained the 



new Constitution in all its parts, bearing ofi 
the palm against the logic of George Mason 
and the fervid declamation of Patrick 
Henry. With these consummate powers 
were united a pure and spotless virtue 
which no calumny has ever attempted to 
sully. Of the power and polish of his pen, 
and of the wisdom of his administration in 
the highest office of the nation, I need say 
nothing. They have spoken, and will for- 
ever speak, for themselves." 

In January, 1786, Mr. Madison took the 
initiative in proposing a meeting of State 
Commissioners to devise measures for more 
satisfactory commercial relations between 
the States. A meeting was held at An- 
napolis to discuss this subject, and but five 
States were represented. The convention 
issued another call, drawn up by Mr. Madi- 
son, urging all the States to send their dele- 
gates to Philadelphia, in May, 1787, to 
draught a Constitution for the United 
States. The delegates met at the time ap- 
pointed, every State except Rhode Island 
being represented. George Washington 
was chosen president of the convention, 
and the present Constitution of the United 
States was then and there formed. There 
was no mind and no pen more active in 
framing this immortal document than the 
mind and pen of James Madison. He was, 
perhaps, its ablest advocate in the pages of 
the Federalist. 

Mr. Madison was a member of the first 
four Congresses, 1789-97, in which he main- 
tained a moderate opposition to Hamilton's 
financial policy. He declined the mission 
to France and the Secretaryship of State, 
and, gradually identifying himself with the 
Republican party, became from 1792 its 
avowed leader. In 1796 he was its choice 
{ox the Presidency as successor to Wash- 
ington. Mr. Jeffei'son wrote: "There is 
not another person in the United States 
with whom, being placed at the helm of our 
affairs, my mind would be so completely at 



r 



PJ^ESIDEXTS OF THE UN /TED STATES. 



rest for the fortune of our political bark." 
But Mr. Madison declined to be a candi- 
date. His term in Congress had expired, 
and he returned from New York to his 
beautiful retreat at Montpelier. 

In 1794 Mr. Madison married a young 
widow of remarkable powers of fascination 
— Mrs. Todd. Her maiden name was Doro- 
thy Paine. She was born in 1767, in Vir- 
ginia, of Quaker parents, and had been 
educated in the strictest rules of that sect. 
When but eighteen years of age she married 
a young lawyer and moved to Philadelphia, 
where she was introduced to brilliant scenes 
of fashionable life. She speedily laid aside 
the dress and address of the Quakeress, and 
became one of the most fascinating ladies 
of the republican court. In New York, 
after the death of her husband, she was the 
belle of the season and was surrounded with 
admirers. Air. Madisnn won the prize. 
She proved an invaluable helpmate. In 
Washington she was the life of society. 
If there was an}' diffident, timid young 
girl just making her appearance, she 
found in Mrs. Madison an encouraging 
friend. 

During the stormy administration of John 
Adams Madison remained in private life, 
but was the author of the celebrated " Reso- 
lutions of 1798," adopted by the Virginia 
Legislature, in condemnation of the Alien 
and Sedition laws, as well as of the " report" 
in which he defended those resolutions, 
which is, by many, considered his ablest 
State paper. 

The storm passed away ; the Alien and 
Sedition laws were repealed, John Adams 
lost his re-election, and in 1801 Thomas Jef- 
ferson was chosen President. The great re- 
action in public sentiment which seated 
Jefferson in the presidential chair was large- 
ly owing to the writings of Madison, who 
was consequently well entitled to the post 
of Secretary' of State. With great ability 
he discharged the duties of this responsible 



office during the eight years of Mr. JeiTt i 
son's administration. 

As Mr. Jefferson was a widower, and 
neither of his daughters could be often with 
him, Mrs. Madison usually presided over 
theJestivities of the White House; and as 
her husband succeeded Mr. Jefferson, hold- 
ing his office for two terms, this remarkable 
woman was the mistress of the presidential 
mansion for sixteen years. 

Mr. Madison being entirely engrossed by 
the cares of his office, all the duties of so- 
cial life devolved upon his accomplished 
wife. Never were such responsibilities 
more ably discharged. The most bitter 
foes of her husband and of the administra- 
tion were received with the frankly prof- 
fered hand and the cordial smile of wel- 
come; and the influence of this gentle 
woman in allaying the bitterness of party 
rancor became a great and salutary power 
in the nation. 

As tlie term of Mr. Jefferson's Presidency 
drew near its close, party strife was roused 
to the utmost to elect his successor. It was 
a death-grapple between the two great 
parties, the Federal and Republican. Mr. 
Madison was chosen President by an elec- 
toral vote of 122 to 53, and was inaugurated 
March 4, 1809, at a critical period, when 
the relations of the United States with Great 
Britain were becoming embittered, and his 
first term was passed in diplomatic quarrels, 
aggravated by the act of non-intercourse of 
May, 1810, and finally resulting in a decla- 
ration of war. . 

On the 1 8th of June, 181 2, President 
Madison gave his approval to an act of 
Congress declaring war against Great Brit- 
ain. Notwithstanding the bitter hostility 
of the Federal party to the war, the countrv 
in general approved ; and in the autumn 
Madison was re-elected to the Presidency 
by 12S electoral votes to 89 in favor of 
George Clinton. 

March 4, 1817, Madison vielded the Pre;.! 



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yAMES MADISON. 



31 



deiicy to his Secretary of State and inti- 
mate friend, James Monroe, and retired to 
his ancestral estate at Montpelier, where he 
passed the evening of iiis days surrounded 
by attaciied friends and enjoying the 
merited respect of the whole nation. He 
took pleasure in promoting agriculture, as 
president of the county society, and in 
watching the development of the University 
of Virginia, of which he was loug rector and 
visitor. In extreme old age he sat in 1829 
as a member of the convention called to re- 
form the Virginia Constitution, where his 
appearance was hailed with the most gen- 
uine interest and satisfaction, though he 
was too infirm ^o participate in the active 
work of revision. Small in stature, slender 
and delicate in form, with a countenance 
full of intelligence, and expressive alike of 
mildness and dignity, he attracted the atten- 
tion of all who attended the convention, 
and was treated v/ith the utmost deference. 
He seldom addressed the assembly, though 
he always appeared self-possessed, and 
watched with unflagging interest the prog- 
ress of every msasure. Though the con- 
vention sat sixteen weeks, he spoke only 
twice ; but when he did speak, the whole 
house paused to listen. His voice was 
feeble though his enunciation was very dis- 
tinct. One of the reporters, Mr. Stansbury, 
relates the following anecdote of Mr. Madi- 
son's last speech: 

" The next day, as there was a great call 
for it, and the report had not been returned 
for publication, I sent my son with a re- 
spectful note, requesting the manuscript. 
My son was a lad of sixteen, whom I had 
taken with me to act as amanuensis. On 
delivering my note, he was received with 
the utmost politeness, and requested to 
come up into Mr. Madison's room and wait 
while his eye ran over the paper, as com- 
pany had prevented his attending to it. He 
did so, and Mr. Madison sat down to correct 
the report. The lad stood near him so that 



his eye fell on the paper. Coming to a 
certain sentence in the speech, Mr. Madison 
erased a word and substituted another ; but 
hesitated, and not feeling satisfied with the 
second word, drew his pen through it also. 
My son was young, ignorant of the world, 
and unconscious of the solecism of which he 
was about to be guilty, when, in all simplic- 
ity, he suggested a word. Probably no 
other person then living would have taken 
such a liberty. But the sage, instead of 
regarding such an intrusion with a frown, 
raised his eyes to the boy's face with a 
pleased surprise, and said, ' Thank you, sir ; 
it is the very word,' and immediately in- 
serted it. I saw him the next day, and he 
mentioned the circumstance, with a compli- 
ment on the young critic." 

Mr. Madison died at Montpelier, June 28, 
1836, at the advanced age of eighty-five. 
While not possessing the highest order of 
talent, and deficient in oratorical powers, 
he was pre-eminently a statesman, of a well- 
balanced mind. His attainments were solid, 
his knowledge copious, his judgment gener- 
ally sound, his powers of analysis and logi- 
cal statement rarely surpassed, his language 
and literary style correct and polished, his 
conversation witty, his temperament san- 
guine and trustful, his integrity unques- 
tioned, his manners simple, courteous and 
winning. By these rare qualities he con- 
ciliated the esteem not only of friends, but 
of political opponents, in a greater degree 
than any American statesman in the present 
century. 

Mrs. Madison survived her husband thir- 
teen years, and died July 12, 1849, ''i the 
eighty-second year of her age. She was one 
of the most remarkable women our coun- 
try has produced. Even now she is ad- 
miringly remembered in Washington as 
" Dolly Madison," and it is fitting that her 
memory should descend to posterity in 
1 company with thatof the companion of 
her life. 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 




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AMES MONROE, the fifth 
President of the United 
States, i8i7-'25, was born 
in Westmoreland County 
Virginia, April 28, 1758] 
He was a son of Spence 
Monroe, and a descendant 
of a Scottish cavalier fam- 
ily. Like all his predeces- 
sors thus far in the Presi- 
dential chair, he enjoyed all 
the advantages of educa- 
tion which the country 
could then afford. He was 
early sent to a fine classical 
school, and at the age of six- 
teen entered William and Mary College.. 
In 1776, when he had been in college but 
two years, the Declaration of Independence 
was adopted, and our feeble militia, with- 
out arms, amunition or clothing, were strug- 
gling against the trained armies of England. 
James Monroe left college, hastened to 
General Washington's headquarters at New 
York and enrolled himself as a cadet in the 
army. 

At Trenton Lieutenant Monroe so dis- 
tinguished himself, receiving a wound in his 
shoulder, that he was promoted to a Cap- 
taincy. Upon recovering from his wound, 
he was invited to act as aide to Lord Ster- 
ling, and in that capacity he took an active 
part in the battles of Brandywine, Ger- 
mantown and Monmouth. At Germantown 



he stood by the side of Lafayette when the 
French Marquis received his wound. Gen- 
eral Washington, who had formed a high 
idea of young Monroe's ability, sent him to 
Virginia to raise a new regiment, of which 
he was to be Colonel; but so exhausted was 
Virginia at that time that the effort proved 
unsuccessful. He, however, received his 
commission. 

Finding no opportunity to enter the army 
as a commissioned officer, he returned to his 
original plan of studying law, and entered 
the ofifice of Thomas Jefferson, who was 
then Governor of Virginia. He developed 
a very noble character, frank, manly and 
sincere. Mr. Jefferson said of him: 

"James Monroe is so perfectly honest 
that if his soul were turned inside out there 
would not be found a spot on it." 

In 1782 he was elected to the Assembly 
of Virginia, and was also appointed a mem- 
ber of the Executive Coimcil. The next 
3-ear he was chosen delegate to the Conti- 
nental Congress for a term of three years. 
He was present at Annapolis when Wash- 
ington surrendered his commission of Com- 
mander-in-chief. 

With Washington, Jefferson and Madison 
he felt deeply the inefBciency of the old 
Articles of Confederation, and urged the 
formation of a new Constitution, which 
should invest the Central Government with 
something like national power. Influenced 
bv these views, he introduced a resolution 




^.^-^-^^/^ X /^^-^^^^^^^^^ 



yAMES MONROE. 



121 8 J 82 



35 



that Congress should be empowered to 
regulate trade, and to lay an impost duty 
of five per cent. The resolution was refer- 
red to a committee of which he was chair- 
man. Tiie report and the discussion which 
rose upon it led to the convention of five 
States at Annapolis, and the consequent 
general convention at Philadelphia, which, 
in 1787, drafted the Constitution of the 
United States. 

At this time there was a controversy be- 
tween New York and Massachusetts in 
reference to their boundaries. The high 
esteem in which Colonel Monroe was held 
is indicated by the fact that he was ap- 
pointed one of the judges to decide the 
controvers}-. While in New York attend- 
ing Congress, he married Miss Kortright, 
a young lady distinguished alike for her 
beauty and accomplishments. For nearly 
fifty years this happy union remained un- 
broken. In London and in Paris, as in her 
own country, Mrs. Monroe won admiration 
and affection by the loveliness of her per- 
son, the brilliancy of her intellect, and the 
amiabilit)' of her character. 

Returning to Virginia, Colonel Monroe 
commenced the practice of law at Freder- 
icksburg. He was very soon elected to a 
seat in the State Legislature, and the next 
year he was chosen a member of the Vir- 
ginia convention which was assembled to 
decide upon the acceptance or rejection of 
the Constitution which had been drawn up 
at Philadelphia, and was now submitted 
to the several States. Deeply as he felt 
the imperfections of the old Confederacy, 
he was opposed to the new Constitution, 
thinking, with many others of the Republi- 
can party, that it gave too much power to 
the Central Government, and not enough 
to the individual States. 

In 1789 he became a member of the 
United States Senate, which office he held 
acceptably to his constituents, and with 
honor to himself for four years. 



Having opposed the Constitution as not 
leaving enough power with the States, he, 
of course, became more and more identi- 
fied with the Republican party. Thus he 
found himself in cordial co-operation with 
Jefferson and Madison. The great Repub- 
lican party became the dominant power 
which ruled the land. 

George Washington was then President. 
England had espoused the cause of the 
Bourbons against the principles of the 
French Revolution. President Washing- 
ton issued a proclamation of neutralit}' be- 
tween these contending powers. France 
had helped us in the struggle for our lib- 
erties. All the despotisms of Europe were 
now combined to prevent the French 
from escaping from tyranny a thousandfold 
worse than that which we had endured. 
Colonel Monroe, more magnanimous than 
prudent, was anxious that wc should help 
our old allies in their extremity. He vio- 
lently opposed the President's procla- 
mation as ungrateful and wanting in 
magnanimity. 

Washington, who could appreciate such 
a character, developed his calm, serene, 
almost divine greatness by appointing that 
very James Monroe, who was denouncing 
the policy of the Government, as the Minis- 
ter of that Government to the republic of 
France. He was directed by Washington 
to express to the French people our warm- 
est sympathy, communicating to them cor- 
responding resolves approved by the Pres- 
ident, and adopted by both houses of 
Congress. 

Mr. Monroe was welcomed by the Na- 
tional Convention in France with the most 
enthusiastic demonstrations of respect and 
affection. He was publicly introduced to 
that body, and received the embrace of the 
President, Merlin de Douay, after having 
been addressed in a speech glowing with 
congratulations, and with expressions of 
desire that harmony might ever exist be- 



Presidents of the UNiTEt) states. 



tween the two nations. The flags of the 
two republics were intertwined in the hall 
of the convention. Mr. Monroe presented 
the American colors, and received those of 
France in return. The course which he 
pursued in Paris was so annoying to Eng- 
land and to the friends of England in 
this country that, near the close of Wash- 
ii.gton's administration, Mr. Monroe, was 
recalled. 

After his return Colonel Monroe wrote a 
book of 400 pages, entitled " A View of the 
Conduct of the Executive in Foreign Af- 
fairs." In this work he ver}' ably advo- 
cated his side of the question; but, with 
the magnanimity of the man, he recorded a 
warm tribute to the patriotism, ability and 
spotless integrity of John Jay, between 
whom and himself there was intense antag- 
onism ; and in subsequent years he ex- 
pressed in warmest terms his perfect 
\ eneration for the character of George 
Washington. 

Shortly after his return to this countrv 
Colonel Monroe was elected Governor of 
Virginia, and held that office for three 
years, the period limited by the Constitu- 
tion. In 1802 he was an Envoy to France, 
and to Spain in 1805, and was Minister to 
England in 1803. In 1806 he returned to 
his quiet home in Virginia, and with his 
wife and childrenandan ample competence 
from his paternal estate, enjoyed a few years 
of domestic repose. 

In 1809 Mr. Jefferson's second term of 
office expired, and many of the Republican 
party were anxious to nominate James 
Monroe as his successor. The majority 
were in favor of Mr. Madison. Mr. Mon- 
roe withdrew his name and was soon after 
chosen a second time Governor of Virginia. 
He soon resigned that office to accept the 
position of Secretary of State, offered him 
by President Madison. The correspond- 
ence which he then carried on with the 
British Government demonstrated that 



there was no hope of any peaceful adjusi 
ment of our difficulties with the cabinet oi 
St. James. War was consequently declared 
in June, 1812. Immediately after the sack 
of, Washington the Secretary of War re- 
signed, and Mr. Monroe, at the earnest 
request of Mr. Madison, assumed the ad- 
ditional duties of the War Department, 
without resigning his position as Secretary 
of State. It has been confidently stated, 
that, had Mr. Monroe's energies been in the 
War Department a few months earlier, the 
disaster at Washington would not have 
occurred. 

The duties now devolving upon Mr. Mon- 
roe were extremely arduous. Ten thou- 
sand men, picked from the veteran armies 
of England, v.-ere sent with a powerful fleet 
to New Orleans to acquire possession of 
the mouths of the Mississippi. Our finan- 
ces were in the most deplorable condition. 
The treasur}' was exhausted and our credit 
gone. And yet it was necessary to make 
the most rigorous preparations to meet the 
foe. In this crisis James Monroe, the Sec- 
retai-y of War, with virtue unsurpassed in 
Greek or Roman story, stepped forward 
and pledged his own individual credit as 
subsidiary to that of the nation, and thus 
succeeded in placing the city of New Or- 
leans in such a posture of defense, that it 
was enabled successfully to repel the in- 
vader. 

INIr. Monroe was truly the armor-bearer 
of President Madison, and the most efficient 
business man in his cabinet. His energy 
in the double capacity of Secretary, both 
of State and War, pervaded all the depart- 
ments of the country. He proposed to 
increase the arm}^ to 100,000 men, a meas- 
ure which he deemed absolutely necessary 
to save us from ignominious defeat, but 
which, at the same time, he knew would 
render his name so unpopular as to preclude 
the possibility of his being a successful can- 
didate for the Presidency. 



The happy result of the conference at 
Ghent in securing peace rendered the in- 
crease of the army unnecessary; but it is not 
too much to say that James Monroe placed 
in the hands of Andrew Jackson the 
weapon with which to beat off the foe at 
New Orleans. Upon the return of peace 
Mr. Monroe resigned the department of 
war, devoting himself entirely to the duties 
of Secretary of State. These he continued 
to discharge until the close of President 
Madison's administration, with zeal which 
was never abated, and with an ardor of 
self-devotion which made him almost for- 
getful of the claim.s of fortune, health or 
life. 

Mr. Madison's second term expired in 
March, 1817, and Mr. Monroe succeeded 
to the Presidency. He was a candidate of 
the Republican party, now taking the name 
of the Democratic Republican. In 1821 he 
was re-elected, with scarcely any opposition. 
Out of 232 electoral votes, he received 231. 
The slavery question, which subsequently 
assumed such formidable dimensions, now 
began to make its appearance. The State 
of Missouri, which had been carved out of 
that immense territory which we had pur- 
chased of France, applied for admission to 
the Union, with a slavery Constitution. 
There were not a few who foresaw the 
evils impending. After the debate of a 
week it was decided that Missouri could 
not be admitted into the Union with slav- 
ery. This important question was at length 
settled by a compromise proposed by 
Henry Clay. 

The famous "Monroe Doctrine," of which 
so much has been said, originated in this 
way: In 1823 it was rumored that the 
Holy Alliance was about to interfere to 
prevent the establishment of Republican 
liberty in the European colonies of South 
America. President Monroe wrote to his 
old friend Thomas Jefferson for advice in 
the emergency. In his reply under date of 



October 24, Mr. Jefferson writes upon the 
supposition that our attempt to resist this 
European movement might lead to war: 

" Its object is to introduce and establish 
the American system of keeping out of our 
land all foreign powers; of never permitting 
those of Europe to intermeddle with the 
affairs of our nation. It is to maintain our 
own principle, not to depart from it." 

December 2, 1823, President Monroe 
sent a message to Congress, declaring it to 
be the policy of this Government not to 
entangle ourselves with the broils of Eu- 
rope, and not to allow Europe to interfere 
with the affairs of nations on the American 
continent; and the doctrine was announced, 
that any attempt on the part of the Euro- 
pean powers " to extend their system to 
any portion of this hemisphere would be 
regarded by the United States as danger- 
ous to our peace and safety." 

March 4, 1825, Mr. Monroe surrendered 
the presidential chair to his Secretary of 
State, John Quincy Adams, and retired, 
with the universal respect of the nation, 
to his private residence at Oak Hill, Lou- 
doun Count}', Virginia. His time had been 
so entirely consecrated to his country, that 
he had neglected his pecuniary interests, 
and was deeply involved in debt. The 
welfare of his country had ever been up- 
permost in his mind. 

For many years Mrs. Monroe was in such 
feeble health that she rarely appeared in 
public. In 1830 Mr. Monroe took up his 
residence with his son-in-law in New York, 
where he died on the 4th of July, 1831. 
The citizens of New York conducted his 
obsequies with pageants more imposing 
than had ever been witnessed there before. 
Our country will ever cherish his mem- 
ory with pride, gratefully enrolling his 
name in the list of its benefactors, pronounc- 
ing him the worthy successor of the illus- 
trious men who had preceded him in the 
presidential chair. 







nin^j 



Br. 



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p^'OHN QUINCY ADAMS, 

,f 3- the sixth President of the 
Iji,'^ United States, 1825-9, 
J "J was born in the rural 

\.^ home of his honored 
J.° father, John Adams, in 
Q u i n c y , Massachusetts, 
July II, 1767. Hismother, 
a woman of exalted worth, 
watched over his childhood 
during the almost constant 
absence of his father. He 
commenced his education 
at the village school, giving 
at an early period indica- 
ions of superior mental en- 
dowments. 

When eleven years of age he sailed with 
his father for Europe, where the latter was 
associated with Franklin and Lee as Minister 
Plenipotentiary. The intelligence of John 
Quincy attracted the attention of these men 
and received from them flattering marks of 
attention. Mr. Adams had scarcely returned 
to this country in 1779 ^f^ he was again 
sent abroad, and John Quinc}^ again accom- 
panied him. On this vo3'age he commenced 
a diary, which practice he continued, with 
but few interruptions, until his death. He 
journeyed with his father from Ferrol, in 
Spain, to Paris. Here he applied himself 
for six months to study; then accompanied 



his father to Holland, where he entered, 
first a school in Amsterdam, and then the 
University of Leyden. In 1781, when only 
fourteen years of age, he was selected by 
Mr. Dana, our Minister to the Russian 
court, as his private secretary. In this 
school of incessant labor he spent fourteen 
months, and then returned alone to Holland 
through Sweden, Denmark, Hamburg and 
Bremen. Again he resumed his studies 
under a private tutor, at The Hague. 

In the spring of 1782 he accompanied his 
father to Paris, forming acquaintance with 
the most distinguished men on the Conti- 
nent. After a short visit to England, he re- 
turned to Paris and studied until Maj', 
1785, when he returned to America, leav- 
ing his father an embassador at the court 
of St. James. In 1786 he entered the jun- 
ior class in Harvard University, and grad- 
uated with the second honor of his class. 
The oration he delivered on this occasion, 
the " Importance of Public Faith to the 
Well-being of a Community," was pub- 
lished — an event very rare in this or any 
other land. 

Upon leaving college at the age of twenty 
he studied law three years with the Hon. 
Theophilus Parsons in Newburyport. In 
1790 he opened a law office in Boston. The 
profession was crowded with able men, and 
the fees were small. The first year he had 




3. 2. M. 



yOIJN ^UINCr ADAMS. 



no clients, but not a moment was lost. The 
second year passed away, still no clients, 
and still he was dependent upon his parents 
for support. Anxiously he awaited the 
third year. The reward now came. Cli- 
ents began to enter his office, and before 
the end of the year he was so crowded 
with business that all solicitude respecting 
a support was at an end. 

When Great Britain commenced war 
against France, in 1793, Mr. Adams wrote 
some articles, urging entire neutrality on 
the part of the United States. The view 
was not a popular one. Many felt that as 
France had helped us, we were bound to 
help France. But President Washington 
coincided with Mr. Adams, and issued his 
proclamation of neutrality. His writings 
at this time in the Boston journals gave 
him so high a reputation, that in June, 
1794, he was appointed by Washington 
resident Minister at the Netherlands. In 
July, 1797, he left The Hague to go to Port- 
ugal as Minister Plenipotentiary. Wash- 
ington at this time wrote to his father, John 
Adams: 

" Without intending to compliment the 
father or the mother, or to censure any 
others, I give it as my decided opinion, 
that Mr. Adams is the most valuable char- 
acter we have abroad; and there remains 
no doubt in ni}' mind that he will prove the 
ablest of our diplomatic corps." 

On his way to Portugal, upon his arrival 
in London, he met with dispatches direct- 
ing him to the court of Berlin, but request- 
ing him to remain in London until he should 
receive instructions. While waiting he 
was married to Miss Louisa Catherine John- 
son, to whom he had been previously en- 
gaged. Miss Johnson was a daughter of 
Mr. Joshua Johnson, American Consul 
in London, and was a lady endowed with 
that beauty and those accomplishments 
which fitted her to move in the elevated 
sphere for which she was destined. 



In July, 1799, having fulfilled all the pur- 
poses of his mission, Mr. Adams returned. 
In 1802 he was chosen to the Senate of 
Massachusetts from Boston, and then was 
elected Senator of the United States for six 
years from March 4, 1804. His reputation, 
his ability and his experience, placed him 
immediately among the most prominent 
and influential members of that body. He 
sustained the Government in its measures 
of resistance to the encroachments of Eng- 
land, destroying our commerce and insult- 
ing our flag. There was no man in America 
more familiar with the arrogance of the 
British court upon these points, and no 
one more resolved to present a firm resist- 
ance. This course, so truly patriotic, and 
which scarcely a voice will now be found 
to condemn, alienated him from the Fed- 
eral party dominant in Boston, and sub- 
jected him to censure. 

In 1805 Mr. Adams was chosen professor 
of rhetoric in Harvard College. His lect- 
ures at this place were subsequently pub- 
lished. In 1809 he was sent as Minister to 
Russia. He was one of the commissioners 
that negotiated the treaty of peace with 
Great Britain, signed December 24, 1814, 
and he was appointed Minister to the court 
of St. James in 1815. In 1817 he became 
Secretary of State in Mr. Monroe's cabinet 
in which position he remained eight years. 
Few will now contradict the assertion that 
the duties of that office were never more 
ably discharged. Probabl}^ the most im- 
portant measure which Mr. Adams con- 
ducted was the purchase of Florida from 
Spain for $5,000,000. 

The campaign of 1824 was an exciting 
one. Four candidates were in the field. 
Of the 260 electoral votes that were cast, 
Andrew Jackson received ninety-nine; John 
Quincy Adams, eighty-four; William H. 
Crawford, forty-one, and Henry Clay, 
thirty-seven. As there was no choice by 
the people, the question went to the House 




of Representatives. Mr. Clay gave the 
vote of Kentucky to Mr. Adams, and he 
was elected. 

The friends of all disappointed candidates 
now combined in a venomous assault upon 
Mr. Adams. There is nothing more dis- 
graceful in the past history of our country 
than the abuse which was poured in one 
uninterrupted stream upon this high- 
minded, upright, patriotic man. There was 
never an administration more pure in prin- 
ciples, more conscientiously devoted to the 
best interests of the country, than that of 
John Quincy Adams; and never, perhaps, 
was there an administration more unscru- 
pulously assailed. Mr. Adams took his seat 
in the presidential chair resolved not to 
know any partisanship, but only to con- 
sult for the interests of the whole Republic, 

He refused to dismiss any man from of- 
fice for his political views. If he was a faith- 
ful officer that was enough. Bitter must 
have been his disappointment to find that the 
Nation could not appreciate such conduct. 

Mr. Adams, in his public manners, was 
cold and repulsive; though with his per- 
sonal friends he was at times very genial. 
This chilling address very seriously de- 
tracted from his popularity. No one can 
read an impartial record of his administra- 
tion without admitting that a more noble 
example of uncompromising dignity can 
scarcely be found. It was stated publicly 
that Mr. Adams' administration was to be 
put down, " though it be as pure as the an- 
gels which stand at the right hand of the 
throne of God." Many of the active par- 
ticipants in these scenes lived to regret the 
course they pursued. Some years after, 
Warren R. Davis, of South Carolina, turn- 
ing to Mr. Adams, then a member of the 
House of Representatives, said: 

" Well do I remember the enthusiastic 
zeal with which we reproached the admin- 
istration of that gentleman, and the ardor 
and vehemence with which we labored to 



bring in another. For the share I had in 
these transactions, and it was not a small 
one, I ho fie God will forgive vie, for I shall 
never forgive myself. ' ' 

March 4, 1829, Mr. Adams retired from 
the Presidency and was succeeded by An- 
drew Jackson, the latter receiving 168 out 
of 261 electoral votes. John C. Calhoun 
was ejected Vice-President. The slavery 
question now began to assume pretentious 
magnitude. Mr. Adams returned to 
Quincy, and pursued his studies with una- 
bated zeal. But he was not long permitted 
to remain in retirement. In November, 
1830, he was elected to Congress. In this 
he recognized the principle that it is honor- 
able for the General of yestei'day to act as 
Corporal to-day, if by so doing he can ren- 
der service to his country. Deep as are 
our obligations to John Quincy Adams for 
his services as embassador, as Secretary of 
State and as President; in his capacity as 
legislator in the House of Representa- 
tives, he conferred benefits upon our land 
which eclipsed all the rest, and which can 
never be over-estimated. 

For seventeen )'ears, until his death, he 
occupied the post of Representative, tow- 
ering above all his peers, ever ready to do 
brave battle for freedom, and winning the 
title of " the old man eloquent." Upon 
taking his seat in the House he announced 
that he should hold himself bound to no 
party. He was usually the first in his 
place in the morning, and the last to leave 
his seat in the evening. Not a measure 
could escape his scrutiny. The battle 
which he fought, almost singl)-, against the 
pro-slavery part}' in the Government, was 
sublime in its moral daring and heroism. 
For persisting in presenting petitions for 
the abolition of slavery, he was threatened 
with indictment by the Grand Jury, with 
expulsion from the House, with assassina- 
tion; but no threats could intimidate him, 
and his final triumph was complete. 






JOHN ^UINC2- ADAMS. 



On one occasion Mr. Adams presented a 
petition, signed by several women, against 
the annexation of Texas for tlie purpose of 
cutting it up into slave States. Mr. How- 
ard, of Maryland, said that these women 
discredited not only themselves, but their 
section of the country, by turning from 

j their domestic duties to the conflicts of po- 

[ litical life. 

[ "Are women," exclaimed Mr. Adams, 

I " to have no opinions or actions on subjects 
relating to the general welfare? Where 
did the gentleman get his principle? Did 
he find it in sacred history, — in the language 
of Miriam, the prophetess, in one of the 
noblest and sublime songs of triumph that 
ever met the human eye or ear? Did the 
gentleman never hear of Deborah, to whom 
the children of Israel came up for judg- 
ment ? Has he forgotten the deed of Jael, 
who slew the dreaded enemy of her coun- 
try ? Has he forgotten Esther, who, by her 
petition saved her people and her coun- 
try? 

" To go from sacred history to profane, 
does the gentleman there find it ' discredita- 
ble ' for women to take an interest in politi- 
cal affairs? Has he forgotten the Spartan 
mother, who said to her son when going 
out to battle, ' My son, come back to me 
ivith thy shield, or upon thy shield ? ' Does 
he remember Cloelia and her hundred com- 
panions, who swam across the river under 
a shower of darts, escaping from Porsena ? 
Has he forgotten Cornelia, the mother of 
the Gracchi ? Does he not remember Por- 
tia, the wife of Brutus and the daughter of 
Cato? 

" To come to later periods, what says the 
history of our Anglo-Saxon ancestors? 
To say nothing of Boadicea, the British 
heroine in the time of the Cajsars, what 
name is more illustrious than that of Eliza- 
beth ? Or, if he will go to the continent, 
will he not find the names of Maria Theresa 
of Hungarv, of the two Catherines of 



Prussia, and of Isabella of Castile, the pa- 
troness of Columbus ? Did she bring ' dis- 
credit ' on her sex by mingling in politics ? " 

In this glowing strain Mr. Adams si- 
lenced and overwhelmed his antagonists. 

In January, 1842, Mr. Adams presented 
a petition from forty-five citizens of Haver- 
hill, Massachusetts, praying for a peaceable 
dissolution of the Union. The pro-slavery 
party in Congress, who were then plotting 
the destruction of the Government, were 
aroused to a pretense of commotion such as 
even our stormy hall of legislation has 
rarely witnessed. They met in caucus, and, 
finding that they probably would not be 
able to expel Mr. Adams from the House 
drew up a series of resolutions, which, if 
adopted, would inflict upon him disgrace, 
equivalent to expulsion. Mr. Adams had 
presented the petition, which was most re- 
spectfully worded, and had moved that it be 
referred to a committee instructed to re- 
port an answer, showing the reason why 
the prayer ought not to be granted. 

It was the 25th of January. The whole 
body of the pro-slavery party came crowd- 
ing together in the House, prepared to 
crush Mr. Adams forever. One of the num- 
ber, Thomas F. Marshall, of Kentucky, was 
appointed to read the resolutions, which 
accused Mr. Adams of high treason, of 
having insulted the Government, and of 
meriting expulsion; but for which deserved 
punishment, the House, in its great merc3^ 
would substitute its severest censure. With 
the assumption of a very solemn and mag- 
isterial air, there being breathless silence in 
the audience, Mr. Marshall hurled the care- 
fully prepared anathemas at his victim. 
Mr. Adams stood alone, the whole pro-slav- 
ery part}' against him. 

As soon as the resolutions were read, 
every eye being fixed upon him, that bold 
old man, whose scattered locks were whit- 
ened by sevent)'-five years, casting a wither- 
ing glance in the direction of his assailants, 



r" 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



in a clear, shrill tone, tremulous with sup- 
pressed emotion, said: 

" In reply to this audacious, atrocious 
charge of high treason, I call for the read- 
ing of the first paragraph of the Declaration 
of Independence. Read it'! Read it! and 
see what that says of the rights of a people 
to reform, to change, and to dissolve their 
Government.' 

The attitude, the manner, the tone, the 
words; the venerable old man, v»'ith flash- 
ing eye and flushed cheek, and whose very 
form seemed to expand under the inspiration 
of the occasion — all presented a scene over- 
flowing in its sublimity. There was breath- 
less silence as that paragraph was read, in 
defense of whose principles our fathers had 
pledged their lives, their fortunes and their 
sacred honor. It was a proud hour to Mr. 
Adams as they were all compelled to listen 
to the words: 

" Thai, to secure these rights, govern- 
ments are instituted among men, deriving 
their just powers from the consent of the 
governed; and that whenever any form of 
government becomes destructive of those 
ends, it is the right of the people to alter or 
abolish it, and to institute nev/ government, 
laying its foundations on such principles 
and organizing its powers in such form 
as shall seem most likely to effect their 
safety and happiness." 

That one sentence routed and baffled the 



foe. The heroic old man looked around 
upon the audience, and thundered out, 
" Read that again ! " It was again read. 
Then in a few fiery, logical words he stated 
his defense in terms which even prejudiced 
minds could not resist. His discomfited 
assailants made several attempts to rally. 
After a conflict of eleven days they gave 
up vanquished and their resolution was ig- 
nominiously laid upon the table. 

In January, 1846, when seventy-eight 
years of age, he took part in the great de- 
bate on the Oregon question, displaying 
intellectual vigor, and an extent and accu- 
racy of acquaintance with the subject that 
excited great admiration. 

On the 2 1st of February, 1848, he rose on 
the floor of Congress with a paper in his 
hand to address the Speaker. Suddenly 
he fell, stricken by paralysis, and was caught 
in the arms of those around him. For a 
time he was senseless and was conveyed 
to a sofa in the rotunda. With reviving 
consciousness he opened his eyes, looked 
calml}' around and said, " This is the end of 
earth." Then after a moment's pause, he 
added, " / am content." These were his last 
words, and lie soon breathed his last, in the 
apaitment beneath the dome of the capitol 
— the theater of his labors and his triumphs. 
In the language of hymnology, he " died at 
his post;" he " ceased at once to work and 
live." 



,,#1§^^. 




^a>zu^<L^ b:rp'<Q:^.,.-«^^L-t^ ^ 



ANDREW JACKSON. 





^^f/^^'^NDREW JACKSON, 
the seventh President 
of the United States, 
29-'37, was born at 
the Waxhaw Settle, 
ment, Union Coun- 
''j'i^ ty, North Carolina, 
Maich i6, 1767. His parents 
uere Scotch-Irish, natives of 
Cariickfergus, who came to 
America in 1765, and settled 
on Twelve-Mile Creek, a trib- 
utary of the Catawba. His 
fathei, who was a poor farm 
labuiCi, died shortly before An- 
drew's birth, when his mother removed to 
Waxhaw, where some relatives resided. 

Few particulars of the childhood of Jack- 
son have been preserved. His education 
was of the most limited kind, and he showed 
no fondness for books. He grew up to be a 
tali, lank boy, with coarse hair and freck- 
led cheeks, with bare feet dangling from 
trousers too short for him, very fond of ath- 
letic sports, running, boxing and wrestling. 
He was generous to the younger and 
weaker boys, but very irascible and over- 
bearing with his equals and superiors. He 
was profane — a vice in which he surpassed 
all other men. The character of his mother 



he revered; and it was not until after her 
death that his predominant vices gained 
full strength. 

In 1780, at the age of thirteen, Andrew, 
or Andy, as he was called, with his brother 
Robert, volunteered to serve in the Revo- 
lutionary forces under General Sumter, and 
was a witness of the latter's defeat at Hang- 
ing Rock. In the following year the 
brothers were made prisoners, and confined 
in Camden, experiencing brutal treatment 
from their captors, and being spectators of 
General Green's defeat at Hobkirk Hill. 
Through their mother's exertions the boys 
were exchanged while suffering from small- 
pox. In two days Robert was dead, and 
Andy apparently dying. The strength of 
his constitution triumphed, and he regained 
health and vigor. 

As he was getting better, his mother 
heard the cry of anguish from the prison- 
ers whom the British held in Charleston, 
among whom were the sons of her sisters. 
She hastened to their relief, was attacked 
by fever, died and was buried where her 
grave could never be found. Thus Andrew 
Jackson, when fourteen years of age, was 
left alone in the world, without father, 
mother, sister or brother, and without one 
dollar which he could call his own. He 



PI^ESIDBNTS OF THE UNITED 



soon entered a saddler's shop, and labored 
diligently for six months. But gradually, 
as health returned, he became more and 
more a wild, reckless, lawless " boy. He 
gambled, drank and was regarded as about 
the worst character that could be found. 

He now turned schoolmaster. He could 
teach the alphabet, perhaps the multiplica- 
tion table; and as he was a very bold boy, 
it is possible he might have ventured to 
teach a little writing. But he soon began to 
think of a profession and decided to study 
law. With a very slender purse, and on 
the back of a ver}- fine horse, he set out 
for Salisbury, North Carolina, where he 
entered the law office of Mr. McCay. 
Here he remained two years, professedly 
studying law. He is still remembered in 
traditions of Salisbury, which say: 

" Andrew Jackson was the most roaring, 
rollicking, horse-racing, card-playing, mis- 
chievous fellow that ever lived iu Salisbur}'. 
He did not trouble the law-books much." 

Andrew was now, at the age of twent}', 
a tall young man, being over six feet in 
height. He was slender, remarkably grace- 
ful and dignified in his manners, an exquis- 
ite horseman, and developed, amidst his 
loathesome profanity and multiform vices, a 
vein of rare magnanimity. His temper was 
fiery in the extreme; but it was said of him 
that no man knew better than Andrew 
Jackson when to get angry and when not. 

In 1786 he was admitted to the bar, and 
two years later removed to Nashville, 
in what was then the western district of 
North Carolina, with the appointment of so- 
licitor, or public prosecutor. It was an of- 
fice of little honor, small emolument and 
great peril. Few men could be found to 
accept it. 

And now Andrew Jackson commenced 
vigorously to practice law. It was an im- 
portant part of his business to collect debts. 
It required nerve. During the first seven 
years of his residence in those wilds he 



traversed the almost pathless forest between 
Nashville and Jonesborough, a distance of 
200 miles, twent)'-two times. Hostile In- 
dians were constantl}' on the watch, and a 
man was liable at any moment to be shot 
down in his own field. Andrew Jackson 
was just the man for this service — a wild, 
daring, rough backwoodsman. Daily he 
made hair-breadth escapes. He seemed to 
bear a charmed life. Boldl}', alone or with 
few companions, he traversed the forests, 
encountering all perils and triumphing 
over all. 

In 1790 Tennessee became a Territory, 
and Jackson was appointed, by President 
Washington, United States Attorney for 
the new district. In 1791 he married Mrs. 
Rachel Robards (daughter of Colonel John 
Donelson), whom he supposed to have been 
divorced in that year by an act of the Leg- 
islature of Virginia. Two years after this 
Mr. and Mrs. Jackson learned, to their 
great surprise, that Mr. Robards had just 
obtained a divorce in one of the courts of 
Kentucky, and that the act of the Virginia 
Legislature was not final, but conditional. 
To remed}' the irregularity as much as pos- 
sible, a new license was obtained and the 
marriage ceremony 'was again performed. 

It proved to be a marriage of rare felic- 
ity. Probably there never was a more 
affectionate union. However rough Mr. 
Jackson might have been abroad, he was 
alwa3^s gentle and tender at home; and 
through all the vicissitudes of their lives, he 
treated Mrs. Jackson with the most chival- 
ric attention. 

Under the circumstances it was not un- 
natural that the facts in the case of this 
marriage were so misrepresented b}- oppo- 
nents in the political campaigrts a quarter 
or a century later as to become the basis 
of serious charges against Jackson's moral- 
ity which, however, have been satisfactorily 
attested by abundant evidence. 

Jackson was untiring in his duties as 



I 



United States Attorney, which demanded 
frequent journeys through the wilderness 
and exposed him to Indian hostilities. He 
acquired considerable property in land, and 
obtained such influence as to be chosen 
a member of the convention which framed 
the Constitution for the new State of Ten- 
nessee, in 1796, and in that year was elected 
its first Representative in Congress. Albert 
Gallatin thus describes the first appearance 
of the Hon. Andrew Jackson in the House: 
"A tall, lank, uncouth-looking personage, 
with locks of hair hanging over his face and 
a cue down his back, tied with an eel skin; 
his dress singular, his manners and deport- 
ment those of a rough backwoodsman." 

Jackson was an earnest advocate of the 
Democratic party. Jefferson was his idol. 
He admired Bonaparte, loved France and 
hated England. As Mr. Jackson took his 
seat, General Washington, whose second 
term of office was just expiring, delivered 
his last speech to Congress. A committee 
drew up a complimentary address in reply. 
Andrew Jackson did not approve the ad- 
dress and was one of twelve who voted 
against it. 

Tennessee had fitted out an expedition 
against the Indians, contrary to the policy 
of the Government. A resolution was intro- 
duced that the National Government 
should pay the expenses. Jackson advo- 
cated it and it was carried. This rendered 
him very popular in Tennessee. A va- 
cancy chanced soon after to occur in the 
Senate, and Andrew Jackson was chosen 
United States Senator by the State of Ten- 
nessee. John Adams was then President 
and Thomas Jefferson, Vice-President. 

In 1798 Mr. Jackson returned to Tennes- 
see, and resigned his seat in the Senate. 
Soon after he was chosen Judge of the Su- 
preme Court of that State, with a salary of 
$600. This office he held six years. It is 
said that his decisions, though som.etimes 
ungrammatical, were generally right. He 



did not enjoy his seat upon the bench, and 
renounced the dignity in 1804. About 
this time he was chosen Major-General of 
militia, and lost the title of judge in that of 
General. 

When he retired from the Senate Cham- 
ber, he decided to try his fortune through 
trade. He purchased a stock of goods in 
Philadelphia and sent them to Nashville, 
where he opened a store. He lived about 
thirteen miles from Nashville, on a tract of 
land of several thousand acres, mostly un- 
cultivated. He used a small block-house 
for a store, from a narrow window of 
which he sold goods to the Indians. As he 
had an assistant his office as judge did not 
materially interfere with his business. 

As to slavery, born in the midst of it, the 
idea never seemed to enter his mind that it 
could be wrong. He eventually became 
an extensive slave owner, but he was one of 
the most humane and gentle of masters. 

In 1804 Mr. Jackson withdrew from pol- 
itics and settled on a plantation which he 
called the Hermitage, near Nashville. He 
set up a cotton-gin, formed a partnership 
and traded in New Orleans, making the 
voyage on flatboats. Through his hot tem- 
per he became involved in several quarrels 
and "affairs of honor," during this period, 
in one of which he was severely wounded, 
but had the misfortune to kill his opponent, 
Charles Dickinson. For a time this affair 
greatly injured General Jackson's popular- 
ity. The verdict then was, and continues 
to be, that General Jackson was outra- 
geously wrong. If hesubsequently felt any 
remorse he never revealed it to anyone. 

In 1805 Aaron Burr had visited Nash- 
ville and been a guest of Jackson, with 
whom he corresponded on the subject of a 
war with Spain, which was anticipated and 
desired by them, as well as by the people 
of the Southwest generally. 

Burr repeated his visit in September, 
1806, when he engaged in the celebrated 



P/fEJ/DENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



combinations which led to his trial for trea- 
son. He was warml)- received by Jackson, 
at whose instance a public ball was given 
in his honor at Nashville, and contracted 
with the latter for boats and provisions. 
Early in 1807, when Burr had been pro- 
claimed a traitor by President Jefferson, 
volunteer forces for the Federal service 
were organized at Nashville under Jack- 
son's command; but his energy and activ- 
ity did not shield him from suspicions of 
connivance in the supposed treason. He 
was summoned to Richmond as a witness 
in Burr's trial, but was not called to the 
stand, probably because he was out-spoken 
in his partisanship. 

On the outbreak of the war with Great 
Britain in 1812, Jackson tendered his serv- 
ices, and in January, 181 3, embarked for 
New Orleans at the head of the Tennessee 
contingent. In March he received an or- 
der to disband his forces; but in Septem- 
ber he again took the field, in the Creek 
war, and in conjunction with his former 
partner. Colonel Coffee, inflicted upon the 
Indians the memorable defeat at Talladega, 
Emuckfaw and Tallapoosa. 

In May, 18 14, Jackson, who had now ac- 
quired a national i^eputation, was appointed 
a Major-General of the United States army, 
and commenced a campaign against the 
British in Florida. He conducted the de- 
fense at Mobile, September 15, seized upon 
Pensacola, November 6, and immediately 
transported the bulk of his troops to New 
Orleans, then threatened by a powerful 
naval force. Martial law was declared in 
Louisiana, the State militia was called to 
arms, engagements with the British were 
fought December 23 and 28, and after re-en- 
forcements had been received on both sides 
the famous victory of January 8, 1815, 
crowned Jackson's fame as a soldier, and 
made him the typical American hero of 
the first half of the nineteenth century. 

In i8i7-'i8 Jackson conducted the war 



against the Seminoles of Florida, during 
which he seized upon Pensacola and exe- 
cuted by courtmartial two British subjects, 

Arbuthnot and Ambrister acts which 

might easily have involved the United 
States in war both with Spain and Great 
Britain. Fortunately the peril was averted 
by the cession of Florida to the United 
States; and Jackson, who had escaped a 
trial for the irregularity of his conduct 
only through a division of opinion in Mon- 
roe's cabinet, was appointed in 1821 Gov- 
ernor of the new Territory. Soon after he 
declined the appointment of minister to 
Mexico. 

In 1S23 Jackson was elected to the United 
States Senate, and nominated by the Ten- 
nessee Legislature for the Presidency. This 
candidacy, though a matter of surprise, and 
even merryment, speedil}^ became popular, 
and in 1824, when the stormy electoral can- 
vas resulted in the choice of John Quincy 
Adams by the House of Representatives, 
General Jackson received the largest popu- 
lar vote among the four candidates. 

In 1828 Jackson was triumphantly elected 
President over Adams after a campaign of 
unparalleled bitterness. He was inaugu- 
rated March 4, 1829, and at once removed 
from office all the incumbents belonging to 
the opposite party — a procedure new to 
American politics, but which naturally be- 
came a precedent. 

His first term was characterized by quar- 
rels between the Vice-President, Calhoun, 
and the Secretary of State, Van Buren, at- 
tended by a cabinet crisis originating in 
scandals connected with the name of Mrs. 
General Eaton, wife of the Secretary of 
War; by the beginning of his war upon the 
United States Bank, and by his vigorous 
action against the partisans of Calhoun, 
who, in South Carolina, threatened to 
nullify the acts of Congress, establishing a 
protective tariff. 

In the Presidential campaign of 1832 



ANDREW JACKSON. 



m 



% 



Jackson received 219 out of 288 electoral 
votes, his competitor being Mr. Clay, while 
Mr. Wirt, on an Anti-Masonic platform, 
received the vote of Vermont alone. In 
1833 President Jackson removed the Gov- 
ernment deposits from the United States 
bank, thereby incurring a vote of censure 
from the Senate, which was, however, ex- 
punged four years later. During this second 
term of office the Cherokees, Choctaws and 
Creeks were removed, not without diffi- 
culty, from Georgia, Alabama and Missis- 
sippi, to the Indian Territory; the National 
debt was extinguished; Arkansas and 
Michigan were admitted as States to the 
Union; the Seminole war was renewed; the 
anti-slavery agitation first acquired impor- 
tance; the Mormon delusion, which had 
organized in 1829, attained considerable 
proportions in Ohio and Missouri, and the 
country experienced its greatest pecuniary 
panic. 

Railroads with locomotive propulsion 
were introduced into America during Jack- 
son's first term, and had become an impor- 
tant element of national life before the 
close of his second term. For many rea- 
sons, therefore, the administration of Presi- 
dent Jackson formed an era in American 
history, political, social and industrial. 
He succeeded in effecting the election of 



his friend Van Buren as his successor, re- 
tired from the Presidency March 4, 1837, 
and led a tranquil life at the Hermitage 
until his death, which occurred June 8, 
1845. 

During his closing years he was a pro- 
fessed Christian and a member ol the Pres- 
byterian church. No American of this 
century has been the subject of such oppo- 
site judgments. He was loved and hated 
with equal vehemence during his fife, but 
at the present distance of time from his 
career, while opinions still vary as to the 
merits of his public acts, few of his country- 
men will question that he was a warm- 
hearted, brave, patriotic, honest and sincere 
man. If his distinguishing qualities were 
not such as constitute statesmanship, in the 
highest sense, he at least never pretended 
to other merits than such as were written 
to his credit on the page of American his- 
tory — not attempting to disguise the de- 
merits which were equally legible. The 
majority of his countrymen accepted and 
honored him, in spite of all that calumny 
as well as truth could allege against him. 
His faults may therefore be truly said to 
have been those of his time; his magnifi- 
cent virtues may also, with the same jus- 
tice, be considered as typical of a state of 
society which has nearly passed away. 



EB*M»«"«--Jia»iSWS»&«»»»»,»J««W,B,B.5gB»g»gBiS»iE»g«IS«riB»^^ 



PRESIDENTS OF THE U.XITED STATES. 




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\RTIN VAN BU- 
REN, the eighth 
'j.-^ps, President of the 
United States, 1837- 
_ _ _ '41, was born at Kin- 
"^•X derhook, Ne w York, 
December 5, 1782. 
His ancestors were of Dutch 
origin, and were among the 
earliest emigrants from Hol- 
land to the banks of the 
Hudson. His father was a 
tavern-keeper, as well as a 
farmer, and a very decided 
Democrat. 
*" Martin commenced the study 
of law at the age of fourteen, and took an 
active part in politics before he had reached 
the age of twenty. In 1803 he commenced 
the practice of law in his native village. 
In 1809 he removed to Hudson, the shire 
town of his county, where he spent seven 
years, gaining strength by contending in 
the courts with some of the ablest men 
who have adorned the bar of his State. 
The heroic example of John Quincy Adams 
in retaining in office every faithful man, 
without regard to his political preferences, 
had been thoroughly repudiated by Gen- 
eral Jackson. The unfortunate principle 
was now fully estabhshed, that " to the 
victor belong the spoils." Still, this prin- 
ciple, to which Mr. Van Buren gave his ad- 



herence, was not devoid of inconveniences. 
When, subsequently, he attained power 
which placed vast patronage in his hands, 
he was heard to say : " I prefer an office 
that has no patronage. When I give a man 
an office I offend his disappointed competi- 
tors and their friends. Nor am I certain of 
gaining a friend in the man I appoint, for, 
in all probability, he expected something 
better." 

In 18 1 2 Mr. Van Buren was elected to 
the State Senate. In 181 5 he was appointed 
Atiorne3f-General, and in t 8 16 to the Senate 
a second time. In 18 18 there was a great 
split in the Democratic party in Nev/ York, 
and Mr. Van Buren took the lead in or- 
ganizing that portion of the party called 
the Albany Regency, which is said to have 
swayed the destinies of the State for a 
quarter of a century. 

In 1 82 1 he was chosen a member of the 
convention for revising the State Constitu- 
tion, in which he advocated an extension of 
the franchise, but opposed universal suf- 
frage, and also favored the proposal that 
colored persons, in order to vote, should 
have freehold property to the amount of 
$250. In this year he was also elected to 
the United States Senate, and at the con- 
clusion of his term, in 1S27, was re-elected, 
but resigned the following year, having 
been chosen Governor of the State. In 
March, 1829, he was appointed Secretary of 



■■■■■^■■■■^■■■■■■■d 




O 7 lyi^^ .^^-/j^.^^^1-^^^ 



MARTIN VAN BUREN. 



55 



State by President Jackson, but resigned 
in April, 1831, and during the recess of 
Congress was appointed minister to Eng- 
land, whitlier he proceeded in Septembci", 
but the Senate, when convened in Decem- 
ber, refused to ratify the appointment. 

In May, 1832, Mr. Van Buren was nomi- 
nated as the Democratic candidate for Vice- 
President, and elected in the following 
November. May 26, 1836, he received the 
nomination to succeed General Jackson as 
President, and received 170 electoral votes, 
out of 283. 

Scarcely had he taken his seat in the 
Presidential chair when a financial panic 
swept over the land. Many attributed 
this to the war which General Jackson had 
waged on the banks, and to his endeavor to 
secure an almost exclusive specie currency. 
Nearly every bank in the country, was com- 
pelled to suspend specie payment, and ruin 
pervaded all our great cities. Not less than 
254 houses failed in New York in one week. 
All public works were brought to a stand, 
and there was a general state of dismay. 
President Van Buren urged tlie adoption of 
the independent treasury system, which 
was twice passed in the Senate and defeated 
in the House, but finally became a law near 
the close of his rxlministration. 

Another important measure was the pass- 
age of a pre-emption law, giving actual set- 
tlers the preference in the purchase of 
public lands. The question of slavery, also, 
now began to assume great prominence in 
national politics, and after an elaborate 
anti-slavery speech by Mr. Slade, of Ver- 
mont, in the House of Representatives, the 
Southern members withdrew for a separate 
consultation, at which Mr. Rhctt, of South 
Carolina, proposed to declare it expedient 
that the Union should be dissolved ; but 
the matter was tided over by the passage 
of a resolution that no petitions or papers 
relating to slavery should be in any way 
considered or acted upon. 



In the Presidential election of 1840 Mr. 
Van Buren was nominated, without opposi- 
tion, as the Democratic candidate, William 
H. Harrison being the candidate of the 
Whig party. The Democrats carried only 
seven States, and out of 294 electoral votes 
only sixty were for Mr. Van Buren, the re- 
maining 234 being for his opponent. The 
Whig popular majority, however, was not 
large, the elections in many of the States 
being very close. 

March 4, 1841, Mr. Van Buren retired 
from the Presidency. From his fine estate 
at Lindenwald he still exerted a powerful 
influence upon the politics of the country. 
In 1844 he was again proposed as the 
Democratic candidate for the Presidency, 
and a majority of the delegates of the 
nominating convention were in his favor ; 
but, owing to his opposition to the pro- 
posed annexation of Texas, he could not 
secure the requisite two-thirds vote. His 
name was at length withdrawn by his 
friends, and Mr. Polk received the nomina- 
tion, and was elected. 

In 1848 Mr. Cass was the regular Demo- 
cratic candidate. A schism, however, 
sprang up in the party, upon the question 
of the permission of slavery in the newly- 
acquired territory, and a portion of the 
party, taking the name of " Free-Soilers," 
nominated Mr. Van Buren. They drev/ 
away sufficient votes to secure the election 
of General Taylor, the Whig candidate. 
After this Mr. Van Buren retired to his es- 
tate at Kinderhook, where the remainder 
of his life was passed, with the exception of 
a European tour in 1853. He died at 
Kinderhook, July 24, 1862, at the age of 
eighty years. 

Martin Van Buren was a great and good 
man, and no one will question his right to 
a high position among those who have 
been the successors of Washington in the 
faithful occupancy of the Presidential 
chair. 






PRESIDENTS OP THM UNITED STATES. 





^^%ILLIAffl HENRY MfiRISHI. ^^^^^ 








ILL I AM HENRY 
HARRISON, the 
ninth President of 
the United States, 
I 8 4 I , was born 
February 9, 1773, 
in Charles County, 
Virginia, at Berkeley, the resi- 
dence of his father. Governor 
Benjamin Harrison. He studied 
at Hampden, Sidney College, 
with a view of entering the med- 
ical profession. After graduation 
he went to Philadelphia to study 
medicine under the instruction of 
Dr. Rush. 
George Washington was then President 
of the United States. The Indians were 
committing fearful ravages on our North- 
western frontier. Young Harrison, either 
lured by the love of adventure, or moved 
by the sufferings of families exposed to the 
most horrible outrages, abandoned his med- 
ical studies and entered the army, having 
obtained a commission of ensign from Pres- 
ident Washington. The first duty assigned 
him was to take a train of pack-horses 
bound to Fort Hamilton, on the Miami 
River, about forty miles from Fort Wash- 
ington. He was soon promoted to the 



rank of Lieutenant, and joined the army 
which Washington had placed under the 
command of General Wayne to prosecute 
more vigorously the war with the In- 
dians. Lieutenant Harrison received great 
commendation from his commanding offi- 
cer, and was promoted to the rank of 
Captain, and placed in command at Fort 
Washington, now Cincmnati, Ohio. 

About this time he married a daughter 
of John Cleves Symmes, one of the fron- 
tiersmen who had established a thriving 
settlement on the bank of the Maumee. 

In 1797 Captain Harrison resigned his 
commission in the army and was appointed 
Secretary of the Northwest Territory, and 
ex-officio Lieutenant-Governor, General St. 
Clair being then Governor of the Territory. 
At that time the law in reference to the 
disposal of the public lands was such that 
no one could purchase in tracts less than 
4,000 acres. Captain Harrison, in the 
face of violent opposition, succeeded in 
obtaining so much of a modification of 
this unjust law that the land was sold in 
alternate tracts of 640 and 320 acres. The 
Northwest Territory was then entitled 
to one delegate in Congress, and Cap- 
tain Harrison was chosen to fill that of- 
fice. In 1800 he was appointed Governor 




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g » -II I ^M«H-«-|M«M« l «'a. -Bii«ai!H«H » «»»—«»W.j;«H«lEWg«^M-M«*«», 



IVJLL/AAf HENnr HARRISON. 



59 



' of Indiana Territory and soon after of 
Upper Louisiana. He was also Superin- 
tendent of Indian Affairs, and so well did he 
fulfill these duties that he was four times 
appointed to this office. During his admin- 
istration he effected thirteen treaties with 
the Indians, by which the United States 
acquired 60,000,000 acres of land. In 1804 
he obtained a cession from the Indians of 
all the land between the Illinois River and 
the Mississippi. 
In 1S12 he was made Major-General of 
j Kentucky militia and Brigadier-General 
\ in the army, with the command of the 
I Northwest frontier. In 1813 he was made 
I Major-General, and as such won much re- 
: nown by the defense of Fort Meigs, and the 
battle of the Thames, Octobers, 1813. In 
1 8 14 he left the army and was employed in 
Indian affairs by the Government. 

In 1816 General Harrison was chosen a 
member of the National House of Repre- 
sentatives to represent the district of Ohio. 
In the contest which preceded his election 
he was accused of corruption in respect to 
the commissariat of the army. Immedi- 
ately upon taking his seat, he called for an 
investigation of the charge. A committee 
was appointed, and his vindication was 
triumphant. A high compliment was paid 
to his patriotism, disinterestedness and 
devotion to the public service. For these 
: services a gold medal was presented to him 
j with the thanks of Congress. 

In 1 8 19 he was elected to the Senate of 
Ohio, and in 1824, as one of the Presiden- 
■ tial electors of that State, he gave his vote 
to Henry Clay. In the same year he was 
elected to the Senate of the United States. 
In 1828 he was appointed by President 
Adams minister plenipotentiary to Colom- 
bia, but was recalled by General Jackson 
immediately after the inauguration of the 
latter. 

Upon his return to the United States, 
General Harrison retired to his farm at 



North Bend, Hamilton County, Ohio, six- 
teen miles below Cincinnati, where for 
twelve years he was clerk of the County 
Court. He once owned a distillery, but 
perceiving the sad effects of whisky upon 
the surrounding population, he promptly 
abandoned his business at great pecuniary 
sacrifice. 

In 1836 General Hairison was brought 
forward as a candidate for the Presidency. 
Van Buren was the administration candi- 
date; the opposite party could not unite, 
and four candidates were brought forward. 
General Harrison received seventy-three 
electoral votes without any general concert 
among his friends. The Democratic party 
triumphed and Mr. Van Buren was chosen 
President. In 1839 General Harrison was 
again nominated for the Presidency by the 
Whigs, at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Mr. 
Van Buren being the Democratic candi- 
date. General Harrison received 234 elec- 
toral votes against sixty for his opponent. 
This election is memorable chiefly for the 
then extraordinary means employed during 
the canvass for popular votes. Mass meet- 
ings and processions were introduced, and 
the watchwords " log cabin " and " hard 
cider " were effectually used by the Whigs, 
and aroused a popular enthusiasm. 

A vast concourse of people attended his 
inauguration. His address on that occasion 
was in accordance with his antecedents, and 
gave great satisfaction. A short time after he 
took his seat, he was seized by a pleurisy- 
fever, and after a few days of violent sick- 
ness, died April 4, just one short month after 
his inauguration. His death was universally 
regarded as one of the greatest of National 
calamities. Never, since the death of 
Washington, were there, throughout one 
land, such demonstrations of sorrow. Not 
one single spot can be found to sully his 
fame; and through all ages Americans will 
pronounce with love and reverence the 
name of William Henrv Harrison. 



Presidents of the united states. 











OHN TYLER, the tenth 
President of the United 
States, was born in 
Charles City County, 
Virginia, March 29, 1790. 
His father. Judge John 
Tyler, possessed large 
landed estates in Virginia, 
and was one of the most 
distinguished men of his 
day, fining the offices of 
Speaker of the House of 
Delegates, Judge of the Su- 
preme Court and Governor 
of the State. 
At the early age of twelve 
John entered William and Mary 
College, and graduated with honor when 
but seventeen years old. He then closely 
applied himself to the study of law, and at 
nineteen years of age commenced the prac- 
tice of his profession. When only twenty- 
one he was elected to a seat in the State 
Legislature. He acted with the Demo- 
cratic party and advocated the measures of 
Jefferson and Madison. For five years he 
was elected to the Legislature, receiving 
nearly the unanimous vote of his county. 

When but twenty-six years of age he was 
elected a member of Congress. He advo- 
cated a strict construction of the Constitu- 
tion and the most careful vigilance over 



youn^ 



State rights. He was soon compelled to 
resign his seat in Congress, owing to ill 
health, but afterward took his seat in the 
State Legislature, where he exerted a 
powerful influence in promoting public 
works of great utility. 

In 1825 Mr. Tyler was chosen Governor 
of his State — a high honor, for Virginia 
had many able men as competitors for 
the prize. His administration was signally 
a successful one. He urged forward inter- 
nal improvements and strove to remove 
sectional jealousies. His popularity secured 
his re-election. In 1827 he was elected 
United States Senator, and upon taking his 
seat joined the ranks of the opposition. He 
opposed the tariff, voted against the bank 
as unconstitutional, opposed all restrictions 
upon slavery, resisted all projects of inter- 
nal improvements by the General Govern- 
ment, avowed his sympathy with Mr. Cal- 
houn's views of nullification, and declared 
that General Jackson, by his opposition to 
the nullifiers, had abandoned the principles 
of the Democratic party. Such was Mr. 
Tyler's record in Congress. 

This hostility to Jackson caused Mr. 
Tyler's retirement from the Senate, after 
his election to a second term. He soon 
after removed to Williamsburg for the 
better education of his children, and again 
took his S2at in the Legislature. 




JCrj'i^rc Mj^^ 



In 1839 he was sent to the National Con- 
vention at Harrisburg to nominate a Presi- 
dent. General Harrison received a majority 
of votes, much to the disappointment of the 
South, who had wished for Henry Cla3^ 
In order to conciliate the Southern Whigs, 
John Tyler was nominated for Vice-Presi- 
dent. Harrison and Tyler were inaugu- 
rated March 4, 1841. In one short month 
from that time President Harrison died, 
and Mr. Tyler, to his own surprise as well 
as that of the nation, found himself an 
occupant of the Presidential chair. His 
position was an exceedingly difficult one, 
as he was opposed to the main principles of 
the party which had brought him into 
power. General Harrison had selected a 
Whig cabinet. Should he retain them, and 
thus surround himself with councilors 
whose views were antagonistic to his own? 
or should he turn against the party that 
had elected him, and select a cabinet in 
harmony with himself? This was his fear- 
ful dilemma. 

President Tyler deserves more charity 
than he has received. He issued an address 
to the people, which gave general satisfac- 
tion. He retained the cabinet General 
Harrison had selected. His veto of a bill 
chartering a new national bank led to an 
open quarrel with the party which elected 
him, and to a resignation of the entire 
cabinet, except Daniel Webster, Secretary 
of State. 

President Tyler attempted to conciliate. 
He appointed a new cabinet, leaving out all 
strong party men, but the Whig members 
of Congress were not satisfied, and they 
published a manifesto September 13, break- 
ing off all political relations. The Demo- 
crats had a majority in the House ; the 
Whigs in the Senate. Mr. Webster soon 
found it necessary to resign, being forced 
out by the pressure of his Whig friends. 

April 12, 1844, President Tyler concluded, 
through Mr. Calhoun, a treaty for the an- 



nexation of Texas, which was rejected by 
the Senate ; but he effected his object in the 
closing days of his administration by the 
passage of the joint resolution of March i 
1845. 

He was nominated for the Presidency by 
an informal Democratic Convention, held 
at Baltimore in May, 1844, but soon with- 
drew from the canvass, perceiving that he 
had not gained the confidence of the Demo- 
crats at large. 

Mr. Tyler's administration was particu- 
larly unfortunate. No one was satisfied. 
Whigs and Democrats alike assailed him. 
Situated as he was, it is more than can 
be expected of human nature that he 
should, in all cases, have acted in the wisest 
manner ; but it will probably be the verdict 
of all candid men, in a careful review of his 
career, that John Tyler was placed in a 
position of such difficult}^ that he could not 
pursue an}' course which would not expose 
him to severe censure and denunciation. 

In 18 1 3 Mr. Tyler married Letitia Chris- 
tian, who bore him three sons and three 
daughters, and died in Washington in 1842. 
June 26, 1844, he contracted a second mar- 
riage with Miss Julia Gardner, of New 
York. He lived in almost complete retire- 
ment from politics until February, 1861, 
when he was a member of the abortive 
" peace convention," held at Washington, 
and was chosen its President. Soon after 
he renounced his allegiance to the United 
States and was elected to the Confederate 
Congress. He died at Richmond, January 
17, 1862, after a short illness. 

Unfortunately for his memory the name 
of John Tyler must forever be associated 
with all the misery of that terrible Re- 
bellion, whose cause he openly espoused. 
It is with sorrow that history records that 
a President of the United States died while 
defending the flag of rebellion, which was 
arrayed against the national banner in 
deadly warfare. 





VxMES KNOX POLK, 
the eleventh President of 
the United States, 1845- 
*49, was born in Meck- 
» lenburg County, North 
CaroHna, November 2, 
1795. He was the eldest 
son of a family of six sons 
and four daughters, and was 
■ a grand-nephew of Colonel 
Thomas Polk, celebrated in 
^ connection with the Meck- 
lenburg Declaration of In- 
dependence. 

In 1806 his father, Samuel 
Polk, emigrated with his fam- 
il}' two or three hundred miles west to the 
valley of the Duck River. He was a sur- 
veyor as well as farmer, and gradually in- 
creased in wealth until he became one of 
the leading men of the region. 

In the common schools James rapidly be- 
came proficient in all the common branches 
of an English education. In 1813 he was 
sent to Murfreesboro Academy, and in the 
autumn of 181 5 entered the sophomore class 
in the University of North Carolina, at 
Chapel Hill, graduating in 1818. After a 
short season of recreation he went to Nash- 
ville and entered the law office of Felix 
Grundv. As soon as he had his finished 



legal studies and been admitted to the 
he returned to Columbia, the shire town of 
Maury County, and opened an office. 

James K. Polk ever adhered to the polit- 
ical faith of his father, which was that of 
a Jeffersonian Republican. In 1823 he was 
elected to the Legislature of Tennessee. As 
a " strict constructionist," he did not think 
that the Constitution empowered the Gen- 
eral Government to carry on a system of 
internal improvements in the States, but 
deemed it important that it should have 
that power, and wished the Constitution I 
amended that it might be conferred. Sub^ 1 
sequently, however, he becariie alarmed lest | 
the General Government become so strong | 
as to undertake to interfere with slavery. ' 
He therefore gave all his influence to 
strengthen the State governments, and to 
check the growth of the central power. 

In January, 1824, Mr. Polk married Miss 
Mary Childress, of Rutherford County, Ten- 
nessee. Had some one then whispered to 
him that he was destined to become Presi- 
dent of the United States, and that he must 
select for his companion one who would 
adorn that distinguished station, he could 
not have made a more fitting choice. She 
was truly a lady of rare beauty and culture. 

In the fall of 1825 Mr. Polk was chosen 
a member of Congress, and was continU' 




^ 



JAMES K. POLK. 



oiisly re-elected until 1839. He then with- 
drew, only that he might accept the 
gubernatorial chair of his native State. 
He was a warm friend of General Jackson, 
who had been defeated in the electoral 
contest by John Quincy Adams. This 
latter gentleman had just taken his seat in 
the Presidential chair when Mr. Polk took 
his seat in the House of Representatives. 
He immediately united himself with the 
opponents of Mr. Adams, and was soon 
regarded as the leader of the Jackson party 
in the House. 

The four years of Mr. Adams' adminis- 
tration passed awa}-, and General Jackson 
took the Presidential chair. Mr. Polk had 
now become a man of great influence in 
I Congress, and was chairman of its most 
j important committee — that of Wa3^s and 
Means. Eloquently he sustained General 
Jackson in all his measures — in his hostility 
to internal improvements, to the banks, and 
to the tariff. Eight years of General Jack- 
son's administration passed away, and the 
powejs he had wielded passed into the 
hands of Martin Van Buren ; and still Mr. 
Polk remained in the House, the advocate 
of that type of Democracy which those 
distinguished men upheld. 

During five sessions of Congress Mr. 
Polk was speaker of the House. He per- 
formed his arduous duties to general satis- 
faction, and a unanimous vote of thanks to 
, him was passed by the House as he with- 
I drew, March 4, 1839. He was elected 
! Governor by a large majorit}', and took 
1 the oath of office at Nashville, October 14, 
1839. He was a candidate for re-election 
in 1 841, but was defeated. In the mean- 
time a wonderful revolution had swept 
over the country. "W. H. Harrison.the Whig 
candidate, had been called to the Presiden- 
tial chair, and in Tennessee the Whig ticket 
had been carried by over 12,000 majority. 
Under these circumstances Mr. Polk's suc- 
cess was hopeless. Still he canvassed the 



State with his Whig competitor, Mr. Jones, 
traveling in the most friendly manner to- 
gether, often in the same carriage, and at 
one time sleeping in the same bed. Mr. 
Jones was elected by 3,000 majority. 

And now the question of the annexation 
of Texas to our country agitated the whole 
land. When this question became national 
Mr. Polk, as the avowed champion of an- 
nexation, became the Presidential candidate 
of the pro-slavery wing of the Democratic 
party, and George M. Dallas their candi- 
date for the Vice-Presidency. They were 
elected by a large majority, and were in- 
augurated March 4, 1845. 

President Polk formed an able cabinet, 
consisting of James Buchanan, Robert J. 
Walker, William L. Marcy, George Ban- 
croft, Cave Johnson and John Y. Mason. 
The Oregon boundary question was settled, 
the Department of the Interior was created, 
the low tariff ot 1846 was carried, the 
financial system of the Government was 
reorganized, the Mexican war was con- 
ducted, which resulted in the acquisition of 
California and New Mexico, and had far- 
reaching consequences upon the later fort- 
unes of tlie republic. Peace was made. 
We had wrested from Mexico territory 
equal to four times the empire of France, 
and five times that of Spain. In the prose- 
cution of this war we expended 20,000 
lives and more than $100,000,000. Of this 
money $15,000,000 were paid to Mexico. 

Declining to seek a renomination, Mr. 
Polk retired from the Presidency March 4, 
1849, when he was succeeded by General 
Zachary Taylor. He retired to Nashville, 
and died there June 19, 1849, i" the fifty- 
fourth year of his age. His funeral was at- 
tended the following day, in Nashville, with 
every demonstration of respect. He left 
no children. Without being possessed of 
extraordinary talent, Mr. Polk was a capable 
administrator of public affairs, and irre- 
proachable in private life. 




' ,r • ,:yK-4^^^^t£i^ 







^'o^t 




ACHARY TAY- 
LOR, the twelfth 
President of the 
United States, 
1 849-' 50, was born 
in Orange County, 
Virginia, Septem- 
ber 24, 1784. His father, 
Richard Taylor, was Colo- 
nel of a Virginia regiment 
in the Revolutionary war, 
and removed to Kentucky 
in 1785 ; purchased a large 
plantation near Louisville 
and became an influential cit- 
izen ; was a member of the convention that 
framed the Constitution of Kentucky ; served 
in both branches of the Legislature ; was 
Collector of the port of Louisville under 
President Washington ; as a Presidential 
elector, voted for Jefferson, Madison, Mon- 
roe and Clay; died January 19,1829. 

Zachary remained on his father's planta- 
tion until 1808, in which year (May 3) he 
was appointed First Lieutenant in the 
Seventh Infantry, to fill a vacancy oc- 
casioned by the death of his elder brother, 
Hancock. Up to this point he had received 
but a limited education. 

Joining his regiment at New Orleans, he 



was attacked with yellow fever, with nearly 
fatal termination. In November, 1810, he 
was promoted to Captain, and in the sum- 
mer o( 18 1 2 he was in command of Fort 
Harrison, on the left bank of the Wabash 
River, near the present site of Terre Haute, 
his successful defense of which with but a 
handful of men against a large force of 
Indians which had attacked him was one of 
the first marked military achievements of 
the war. He was then brevetted Major, 
and in 18 14 promoted to the full rank. 

During the remainder of the war Taylor 
was actively employed on the Western 
frontier. In the peace organization of 1815 
he was retained as Captain, but soon after 
resigned and settled near Louisville. In 
May, 1816, however, he re-entered the army 
as Major of the Third Infantry ; became 
Lieutenant-Colonel of the Eighth Infantry 
in 1819, and in 1832 attained the Colonelcy 
of the First Infantry, of which lie had been 
Lieutenant-Colonel since 1821. On different 
occasions he had been called to Washington 
as member of a military board for organiz- 1 
ing the militia of the Union, and to aid the 
Government with his knowledge in the , 
organization of the Indian Bureau, having 
for many years discharged the duties of 
Indian agent over large tracts of Western 




/::i^<0^/Q:^V''7-y/yc^ 



Z AC HART TAYLOR. 



country. He served through the Black 
Hawk war in 1832, and in 1837 was ordered 
to take command in Florida, then the scene 
of war with the Indians. 

In 1846 he was transferred to the com- 
mand of the Army of the Southwest, from 
which he was relieved the same year at his 
own request. Subsequently he was sta- 
tioned on the Arkansas frontier at Forts 
Gibbon, Smith and Jesup, which latter work 
had been built under his direction in 1822. 

May 28, 1845, he received a dispatch from 
the Secretary of War informing him of the 
receipt of information by the President 
"that Texas would shortly accede to the 
terms of annexation," in which event he 
was instructed to defend and protect her 
from "foreign invasion and Indian incur- 
sions." He proceeded, upon the annexation 
of Texas, with about 1,500 men to Corpus 
Christi, where his force was increased to 
some 4,000. 

Taylor was brevetted Major-General May 
28, and a month later, June 29, 1S46, his full 
commission to that grade was issued. After 
needed rest and reinforcement, he advanced 
in September on Monterey, which city ca- 
pitulated after three-days stubborn resist- 
ance. Here he took up his winter quarters. 
The plan for the invasion of Mexico, by 
way of Vera Cruz, with General Scott in 
command, was now determined upon by 
the Govenrment, and at the moment Taylor 
was about to resume active operations, he 
received ordeis to send the larger part of 
his force to reinforce the army of General 
Scott at Vera Cruz. Though subsequently 
reinforced by raw recruits, yet after pro- 
viding a garrison for Monterey and Saltillo 
he had but about 5,300 effective troops, of 
which but 500 or 600 were regulars. In 
this weakened condition, however, he was 
destined to achieve his greatest victory. 
Confidently relying upon his strength at 
Vera Cruz to resist the enemy for a long 
tim.e, Santa Anna directed his entire army 



against Taylor to overwhelm him, and then 
to return to oppose the advance of Scott's 
more formidable invasion. The battle of 
Bucna Vista was fought February 22 and . 
23, 1847. Taylor received the thanks of 
Congress and a gold medal, and '• Old 
Rough and Ready," the sobriquet given 
him in the army, became a household word. 
He remained in quiet possession of the 
Rio Grande Valley until November, when 
he returned to the United States. 

In the Whig convention which met at 
Philadelphia,June 7, 1848, Taylor was nomi- 
nated on the fourth ballot as candidate of 
the Whig party for President, over Henry 
Clay, General Scott and Daniel Webster. 
In November Ta3'lor received a majority 
of electoral votes, and a popular vote of 
1,360,752, against 1,219,962 for Cass and 
Butler, and 291,342 for Van Buren and 
Adams. General Taylor was inaugurated 
March 4, 1849. 

The free and slave States being then equal 
in number, the struggle for supremacy on 
the part of the leaders in Congress was 
violent and bitter. In the summer of 1849 
California adopted in convention a Consti- 
tution prohibiting slavery within its borders. 
Taylor advocated the immediate admission 
of California with her Constitution, and the 
postponement of the question as to the other 
Territories until they could hold conven- 
tions and decide for themselves whether 
slavery should exist within their borders. 
This policy ultimately prevailed through 
the celebrated " Compromise Measures" of 
Henry Clay; but not during the life of the 
brave soldier and patriot statesman. July 
5 he was taken suddenly ill with a bilious 
fever, which proved fatal, his death occur- 
ring July 9, 1850. One of his daughters 
married Colonel W. W. S. Bliss, his Adju- 
tant-General and Chief of Staff in Florida 
and Mexico, and Private Secretary during 
his Presidency. Another daughter was 
married to Jefferson Davis. 



rr 



PUES/DENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



.g., ; ^jB^ 










LL A RD FILL- 
MORE, the thir- 
Ik^^^kI/ teenth President 
of the United 
[i^ States, i85o-'3, was 
born in Summer 
Hill, Cayuga 
County, New York, Janu- 
ary 7, 1800. He was of 
New England ancestry, and 
his educational advantages 
were limited. He early 
karned the clothiers' trade, 
but spent all his leisure time 
111 study. At nineteen years 
)f age he was induced by 
Wood to abandon his trade 
and commence the study of law. Upon 
learning that the young man was entirely 
destitute of means, he took him into his 
own office and loaned him such money as 
he needed. That he might not be heavily 
burdened with debt, young Fillm.ore taught 
school during the winter months, and in 
various other ways helped himself along. 
At the age of twenty-three he was ad- 
mitted to the Court of Common Pleas, and 
commenced the practice of his profession 
in the village of Aurora, situated on the 




eastern bank of the Cayuga Lake. In 1825 
he married Miss Abigail Powers, daughter 
of Rev. Lemuel Powers, a lady of great 
moral worth. In 1825 he took his seat in 
the House of Assembly of his native State, 
as Representative from Erie County, 
whither he had recently moved. 

Though he had never taken a very 
active part in politics his vote and his S3'm- 
pathies were with the Whig part}'. The 
State was then Democratic, but his cour- 
tesy, ability and integrity won the respect 
of his associates. In 1832 he was elected 
to a seat in the United States Congress. 
At the close of his term he returned to his 
law practice, and in two years more he was 
again elected to Congress. 

He now began to have a national reputa- 
tion. His labors were very arduous. To 
draft resolutions in the committee room, 
and then to defend them against the most 
skillful opponents on the floor of the House 
requires readiness of mind, mental resources 
and skill in debate such as few possess. 
Weary with these exhausting labors, and 
pressed by the claims of his private affairs, 
Mr. Fillmore wrote a letter to his constitu- 
ents and declined to be a candidate for re- 
election. Notwithstanding this ccramuni- 



\ r^VJii^ii5^»M'"MBi^^«i»« ,g B 



'■■■»'a"«« 




^M. 



(y(X/.rA.H^(j </^Ci^v-i^cm:u) 



MILLARD FILLMORE. 



cation his friends met in convention and 
renominated him by acclamation. Though 
gratified by this proof of their appreciation 
of his labors he adhered to his resolve and 
returned to his home. 

In 1847 Ml"- Fillmore was elected to the 
important ofSce of comptroller of the State. 
In entering upon the very responsible duties 
which this situation demanded, it was nec- 
essary for him to abandon his profession, 
and he removed to the city of Albany. In 
this year, also, the Whigs were looking 
around to find suitable candidates for the 
President and Vice-President at the ap- 
proaching election, and the names of Zach- 
ary Taylor and iMillard Fillmore became 
the rallying cry of the Whigs. On the 4th 
of March, 1849, General Taylor was inaug- 
urated President and Millard Fillmore 
Vice-President of the United States. 

The great question of slavery had as- 
sumed enormous proportions, and perme- 
ated every subject that was brought before 
Congress. It was evident that the strength 
of our institutions was to be severely tried. 
July 9, 1850, President Taylor died, and, by 
the Constitution, Vice-President Fillmore 
became President of the United States. 
The agitated condition of the country 
brought questions of great delicacy before 
him. He was bound by his oath of office 
to execute the laws of the United States. 
One of these laws was understood to be, 
that if a slave, escaping from bondage, 
should reach a free State, the United States 
was bound to do its utmost to capture him 
and return him to his master. Most Chris- 
tian men loathed this law. President Fill- 
more felt bound by his oath rigidly to see 
it enforced. Slavery was organizing armies 
to invade Cuba as it had invaded Texas, 
and annex it to the United States. Presi- 
dent Fillmore gave all the influence of his 
exalted station against the atrocious enter- 
prise. 

Mr. Fillmore had serious difficulties to 



contend with, since the opposition had a 
majority in both Houses. He did every- 
thing in his power to conciliate the South, 
but the pro-slavery party in that section 
felt the inadequency of all measures of tran- 
sient conciliation. The population of the 
free States was so rapidly increasing over 
that of the slave States, that it was inevita- 
ble that the power of the Government 
should soon pass into the hands of the free 
States. The famous compromise measures 
were adopted under Mr. Fillmore's admin- 
istration, and the Japan expedition was 
sent out. 

March 4, 1853, having served one term. 
President Fillmore retired from office. He 
then took a long tour through the South, 
where he met with quite an enthusiastic 
reception. In a speech at Vicksburg, al- 
luding to the rapid growth of the country, 
he said: 

" Canada is knocking for admission, and 
Mexico would be glad to come in, and 
without saying whether it would be right 
or wrong, we stand with open arms to re- 
ceive them; for it is the manifest destiny of 
this Government to embrace the whole 
North American Continent." 

In 1855 Mr. Fillmore went to Europe 
where he was received with those marked 
attentions which his position and character 
merited. Returning to this country in 
1856 he was nominated for the Presidency 
bv the "Know-Nothing" part}'. Mr. Bu- 
chanan, the Democratic candidate was 
the successful competitor. Mr. Fillmore 
ever afterward lived in retirement. Dur- 
ing the conflict of civil war he was mostly 
silent. It was generally supposed, how- 
ever, that his sympathy was with the South- 
ern Confederacy. He kept aloof from the 
conflict without any words of cheer to the 
one party or the other. For this reason 
he was forgotten by both. He died of 
paralysis, in Buffalo, New York, March 8, 
1874. 




PRESIDENTS OF THE UN/TED STATES. 



! 



<^<^5.^-*<^isf-» 



I Fpi]I^IiII] PIER6E. W 

~> „ ^ , , _ . # 



'^$^;^^.^s^m^m^,^0^i^^^^xmm^m^ 




^""^ RAN KLIN PIERCE, 
the fourteenth Presi- 
^ dent of the United 
States, was born in 
Hillsborough, New 
Hampshire, Novem- 
ber 23, 1804. His 
father. Governor 
Benjamin Pierce, was a Rev- 
olutionary soldier, a man of 
rigid integrity ; was for sev- 
eral years in the State Legis- 
lature, a member of the Gov- 
ernor's council and a General 
of the militia. 
Franklin was the sixth of eight children. 
As a boy he listened eagerly to the argu- 
ments of his father, enforced by strong and 
ready utterance and earnest gesture. It 
was in the days of intense poHtical excite- 
ment, when, all over the New England 
States, Federalists and Democrats were ar- 
rayed so fiercely against each other. 

In 1820 he entered Bowdoin College, at 
Brunswick, Maine, and graduated in 1824, 
and commenced the study of law in the 
office of Judge Woodbury, a very distin- 
guished lawyer, and in 1827 was admitted 
to the bar. He practiced with great success 
in Hillsborough and Concord. He served 



in the State Legislature four years, the last 
two of which he was chosen Speaker of the 
House by a very large vote. 

In 1833 he was elected a member of Con- 
gress. In 1837 he was elected to the United 
States Senate, just as Mr. Van Buren com- 
menced his administration. 

In 1834 he married Miss Jane Means 
Appleton, a lad}- admirably fitted to adorn 
every station with which her husband was 
honored. Three sons born to them all 
found an early grave. 

Upon his accession to office. President 
Polk appointed Mr. Pierce Attorney-Gen- 
eral of the United States, but the offer was 
declined in consequence of numerous pro- 
fessional engagements at home and the 
precarious state of Mrs. Pierce's health. 
About the same time he also declined the 
nomination for Governor by the Demo- 
cratic party. 

The war with Mexico called Mr. Pierce 
into the army. Receiving the appointment 
of Brigadier-General, he embarked with a 
portion of his troops at Newport, Rhode 
Island, May 27, 1847. He served during 
this war, and distinguished himself by his 
bravery, skill and excellent 'judgment. 
When he reached his home in his native 
State he was enthusiastically received by 




^;^a/^c!^^ 



HgggMg»"«"a"«"«iiTi 



FRANKLIN PIERCE. 



79 



the advocates of the war, and coldly by its 
opponents. He resumed the practice of his 
profession, frequently taking an active part 
in political questions, and giving his sup- 
port to the pro-slavery wing of the Demo- 
cratic party. 

June 12, 1852, the Democratic convention 
met in Baltimore to nominate a candidate 
for the Presidency. For four days they 
continued in session, and in thirty-five bal- 
lotings no one had received the requisite 
two-thirds vote. Not a vote had been 
thrown thus far for General Pierce. Then 
the Virginia delegation brought forward 
his name. There were fourteen more bal- 
lotings, during which General Pierce 
gained strength, until, at the forty-ninth 
ballot, he received 282 votes, and all other 
candidates eleven. General Winfield Scott 
was the Whig candidate. General Pierce 
was elected with great unanimity. Only 
four States — Vermont, Massachusetts, Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee — cast their electoral 
votes against him. March 4, 1853, he was 
inaugurated President of the United States, 
and William R. King, Vice-President. 

President Pierce's cabinet consisted of 
William S. Marcy, James Guthrie, Jefferson 
Davis, James C. Dobbin, Robert McClel- 
land, James Campbell and Caleb Cushing. 

At the demand of slavery the Missouri 
Compromise was repealed, and all the Ter- 
ritories of the Union were thrown open to 
slavery. The Territor}' of Kansas, west of 
Missouri, was settled by emigi^ants mainly 
from the North. According to law, they 
were about to meet and decide whether 
slavery or freedom should be the law of 
that realm. Slavery in Missouri and 
other Southern States rallied her armed 
legions, marched them into Kansas, took 
possession of the polls, drove away the 
citizens, deposited their own votes by 
handfuls, went through the farce of count- 
ing them, and then declared that, by an 
overwhelming majority, slavery was estab- 



lished in Kansas. These facts nobody 
denied, and yet President Pierce's adminis- 
tration felt bound to respect the decision 
obtained by such votes. The citizens of 
Kansas, the majority of whom were free- 
State men, met in convention and adopted 
the following resolve : 

"Resolved, That the body of men who, 
for the past two months, have been passing 
laws for the people of our Territory, 
moved, counseled and dictated to by the 
demagogues of other States, are to us a 
foreign body, representing only the lawless 
invaders who elected them, and not the 
people of this Territory ; that we repudiate 
their action as the monstrous consummation 
of an act of violence, usurpation and fraud 
unparalleled in the history of the Union." 

The free-State people of Kansas also sent 
a petition to the General Government, im- 
ploring its protection. In reply the Presi- 
dent issued a proclamation, declaring that 
Legislature thus created must be recog- 
nized as the legitimate Legislature of Kan- 
sas, and that its laws were binding upon 
the people, and that, if necessary, the whole 
force of the Governmental arm would be 
put forth to inforce those laws. 

James Buchanan succeeded him in the 
Presidency, and, March 4, 1857, President 
Pierce retired to his home in Concord, 
New Hampshire. When the Rebellion 
burst forth Mr. Pierce remained steadfast 
to the principles he had always cherished, 
and gave his sympathies to the pro-slavery 
part}', with which he had ever been allied. 
He declined to do anything, either by 
voice or pen, to strengthen the hands ot 
the National Government. He resided in 
Concord until his death, which occurred in 
October, 1869. He was one of the most 
genial and social of men, generous to 
a fault, and contributed liberally of his 
moderate means for the alleviation of suf- 
fering and want. He was an honored 
communicant of the Episcopal church. 



PBESIDE\TS OF THE UXITED STATES. 








'AMES BUCHANAN, the 
fifteenth President of the 
United States, 1857-61, 
was born in Franklin 
Count }-, Pennsylvania, 
April 23, 1791. The 
place where his father's 
cabin stood was called 
Stony Batter, and it. was 
situated in a wild, romantic 
spot, in a gorge of mount- 
ains, with towering sum- 
mits rising all around. He 
was of Irish ancestry, his 
father having emigrated in- 
1783, with very little prop- 
erty, save his own strong arms. 

James remained in his secluded home for 
eight years enjoying very few social or 
intellectual advantages. His parents were 
industrious, frugal, prosperous and intelli- 
gent. In 1799 his father removed to Mer- 
cersburg, where James was placed in 
school and commenced a course in English, 
Greek and Latin. His progress was rapid 
and in 1801 he entered Dickinson College 
at Carlisle. Here he took his stand among 
the first scholars in the institution, and was 
able to master the most abstruse subjects 
with facility. In 1809 he graduated with 
the highest honors in his class. 

He was then eighteen years of age, tall. 



graceful and in vigorous health, fond of 
athletic sports, an unerring shot and en- 
livened with an exuberant flow of animal 
spirits. He immediately commenced the 
study of law in the city of Lancaster, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1812. He rose 
very rapidly in his profession and at once 
took undisputed stand with the ablest law- 
yers of the State. When but twent3--si.\- 
years of age, unaided, by counsel, he suc- 
cessfully defended before the State Senate 
one of the Judges of the State, who was 
tried upon articles of impeachment. At 
the age of thirty it was generally admitted 
that he stood at the head of the bar, and 
there was no lawyer in the State who had 
a more extensive or lucrative practice. 

In 1812, just after Mr. Buchanan had 
entered upon the practice of the law, our 
second war with England occurred. With 
all his powers he sustained the Govern- 
ment, eloquently urging the rigorous pros- 
ecution of the war; and even enlisting as a 
private soldier to assist in repelling the 
British, who had sacked Washington and 
were threatening Baltimore. He was at 
that time a Federalist, but when the Con- 
stitution was adopted by both parties, 
Jefferson truly said, " We are all Federal- 
ists; we are all Republicans." 

The opposition of the Federalists to the 
war with England, and the alien and sedi- 



'a*'grg5»S»r_B,»,» _ia,ii 




^T^Zj^^ <S-^^<^>^C5i' /Z-<5'>^^ 



i » -»-B«»« W - » «- W B 



^AMES BUCHANAN: 



83 



tion laws of John Adams, brought the party 
into dispute, and the name of Federalist 
became a reproach. Mr. Buchanan almost 
immediately upon entering Congress began 
to incline more and more to the Repub- 
licans. In the stormy Presidential election 
of 1824, in which Jackson, Clay, Crawford 
and John Ouincy Adams were candidates, 
JNIr. Buchanan espoused the cause of Gen- 
eral Jackson and unrelentingly opposed the 
administration of Mr. Adams. 

Upon his elevation to the Presidency, 
General Jackson appointed Mr. Buchanan, 
minister to Russia. Upon his return in 1833 
he was elected to a seat in the United States 
Senate. He there met as his associates, 
Webster, Clay, Wright and Calhoun. He 
advocated the measures proposed by Presi- 
dent Jackson" of making reprisals against 
France, and defended the course of the Pres- 
ident in his unprecedented and wholesale 
removals from office of those who were not 
the supporters of his administration. Upon 
this question he was brought into direct col- 
lision with Henry Clay. In the discussion 
of the question respecting the admission of 
Michigan and Arkansas into the Union, Mr. 
Buchanan defined his position by saying: 

" The older I grow, the more I am in- 
clined to be what is called a State-rights 
man." 

M. de Tocqueville, in his renowned work 
upon " Democracy in America," foresaw 
the trouble which was inevitable from the 
doctrine of State sovereignty as held by 
Calhoun and Buchanan. He was con- 
vinced that the National Government was 
losing that strength which was essential 
to its own existence, and that the States 
were assuming powers which threatened 
the perpetuity of the Union. Mr. Buchanan 
received the book in the Senate and de- 
clared the fears of De Tocqueville to be 
groundless, and yet he lived to sit in the 
Presidential chair and see State after State, 
in accordance with his own views of State 



rights, breaking from the Union, thus 
crumbling our RepubHc into ruins; while 
the unhappy old man folded his arms in 
despair, declaring that the National Consti- 
tution invested him with no power to arrest 
the destruction. 

Upon Mr. Polk's accession to the Presi- 
dency, Mr. Buchanan became Secretary of 
State, and as such took his share of the 
responsibility in the conduct of the Mexi- 
can war. At the close of Mr. Polk's ad- 
ministration, Mr. Buchanan retired to pri- 
vate life; but his intelligence, and his great 
ability as a statesman, enabled him to exert 
a powerful influence in National affairs. 

Mr. Pierce, upon his election to the 
Presidency, honored Mr. Buchanan with 
the mission to England. In the year 1856 
the National Democratic convention nomi- 
nated Mr. Buchanan for the Presidency. 
The political conflict was one of the most 
severe in which our country has ever en- 
gaged. On the 4th of March, 1857, Mr. 
Buchanan was inaugurated President. His 
cabinet were Lewis Cass, Howell Cobb, 
J. B. Floyd, Isaac Toucey, Jacob Thomp- 
son, A. V. Brown and J. S. Black. 

The disruption of the Democratic party, 
in consequence of the manner in which the 
issue of the nationality of slavery was 
pressed by the Southern wing, occurred at 
the National convention, held at Charleston 
in April, i860, for the nomination of Mr. 
Buchanan's successor, when the majority 
of Southern delegates withdrew upon the 
passage of a resolution declaring that the 
constitutional status of slavery should be 
determined by the Supreme Court. 

In the next Presidential canvass Abra- 
ham Lincoln was nominated by the oppo- 
nents of Mr. Buchanan's administration. 
Mr. Buchanan remained in Washington 
long enough to see his successor installed 
and then retired to his home in Wheatland. 
He died June i, 1868, aged seventy-seven 
years. 



1 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 





IL 



BRAHAM LIN- 
■'i^ COLN, the sixteenth 
-r President of the 
United States, i86i-'5, 
_^ , was born February 
J^ir^n^j]^ 12, 1S09, in Larue 
^■i^ (then Hardin) County, 
Kentuck)', in a cabin on Nolan 
Creek, three miles west of 
Hudgensville. His parents 
\\ ere Thomas and Nancy 
(Hanks) Lincoln. Of his an- 
cestry and early years the little 
that is known may best be 
given in his own language : " M}- 
parents were both born in Virginia, of un- 
distinguished families — second families, per- 
haps I should say. M}' mother, who died 
in my tenth year, was of a family of the 
name of Hanks, some of whom now remain 
in Adams, and others in Macon County, 
Illinois. My paternal grandfather, Abra- 
ham Lincoln, emigrated from Rockbridge 
County, Virginia, to Kentucky in 1781 or 
1782, where, a year or two later, he was 
killed by Indians — not in battle, but by 
stealth, when he was laboring to open a 
farm in the forest. His ancestors, who were 
Quakers, went to Virginia from Berks 
County, Pennsylvania. An effort to iden- 



tify them with the New England family of 
the same name ended in nothing more defi- 
nite than a similarity of Christian names in 
both families, such as Enoch, Levi, Mor- 
decai, Solomon, Abraham and the like. 
My father, at the death of his father, was 
but six years of age, and he grew up, liter- 
ally, without education. He removed from 
Kentuck}' to what is now Spencer County, 
Indiana, in my eighth year. We reached 
our new home about the time the State came 
into the Union. It was a wild region, with 
bears and other wild animals still in the 
woods. There I grew to manhood. 

" There were some schools, so called, but 
no qualification was ever i-equired of a 
teacher beyond ' readin', writin', and cipher- 
in' to the rule of three.' If a straggler, sup- 
posed to understand Latin, happened to 
sojourn in the neighborhood, he was looked 
upon as a wizard. There was absolutely 
nothing to excite ambition for education. 
Of course, when I came of age I did not 
know much. Still, somehow, I could read, 
write and cipher to the rule of three, and 
that was all. I have not been to school 
since. The little advance I now have upon 
this store of education I have picked up 
from time to time under the pressure of 
necessity. I was raised to farm-work, which 




/^. 



U" /r^-^-c- ^r-'^ e>H 



g/y^6<>-^^ cct^^ 



ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 



I continued till I was twenty-two. At 
twent3'-one I came to Illinois and passed 
the first year in Macon County. Then I got 
to New Salem, at that time in Sangamon, 
now in Menard County, where I remained 
a year as a sort of clerk in a store. 

" Then came the Black Hawk war, and I 
was elected a Captain of volunteers — a suc- 
cess which gave me more pleasure than any 
I have had since. I went the campaign, 
was elated ; ran for the Legislature the 
same year (1832) and was beaten, the only 
time I have ever been beaten by the people. 
The next and three succeeding biennial 
elections I was elected to the Legislature, 
and was never a candidate afterward. 

" During this legislative period I had 
studied law, and removed to Springfield to 
practice it. In 1846 I was elected to the 
Lower House of Congress ; was not a can- 
didate for re-election. From 1849 to 1854, 
inclusive, I practiced the law more assid- 
uously than ever before. Always a Whig 
in politics, and generally on the Whig elec- 
toral tickets, making active canvasses, I was 
losing interest in politics, when the repeal 
of the Missouri Compromise roused me 
again. What I have done since is pretty 
well known." 

The early residence of Lincoln in Indi- 
ana was sixteen miles north of the Ohio 
River, dn Little Pigeon Creek, one and a 
half miles east of Gentryville, within the 
present township of Carter. Here his 
mother died October 5, 181 8, and the next 
year his father married Mrs. Sally (Bush) 
Johnston, of Elizabethtown, Kentucky. She 
was an affectionate foster-parent, to whom 
Abraham was indebted for his first encour- 
agement to stud}'. He became an eager 
reader, and the few books owned in the 
vicinity were many times perused. He 
worked frequently for the neighbors as a 
farm laborer ; was for some time clerk in a 
store at Gentryville ; and became famous 
throughout that region for his athletic 



powers, his fondness for argument, his in- 
exhaustible fund of humerous anecdote, as 
well as for mock oratory and the composi- 
tion of rude satirical verses. In 1828 he 
made a trading voyage to New Orleans as 
" bow-hand " on a flatboat ; removed to 
Illinois in 1830; helped his father build a 
log house and clear a farm on the north 
fork of Sangamon River, ten miles west of 
Decatur, and was for some time employed 
in splitting rails for the fences — a fact which 
was prominentl}' brought forward for a 
political purpose thirty years later. 

In the spring of 185 1 he, with two of his 
relatives, was hired to build a flatboat on 
the Sangamon River and navigate it to 
New Orleans. The boat "stuck" on a 
mill-dam, and was got off with great labor 
through an ingenious mechanical device 
which some years later led to Lincoln's 
taking out a patent for "an improved 
method for lifting vessels over shoals." 
This voyage was memorable for another 
reason — the sight of slaves chained, mal- 
treated and flogged at New Orleans was 
the origin of his deep convictions upon the 
slavery question. 

Returning from this voyage he became a 
resident for several years at New Salem, a 
recently settled village on the Sangamon, 
where he was successively a clerk, grocer, 
surveyor and postmaster, and acted as pilot 
to the first steamboat that ascended the 
Sangamon. Here he studied law, inter- 
ested himself in local politics after his 
return from the Black Hawk war, and 
became known as an effective " stump- 
speaker." The subject of his first political 
speech was the improvement of the channel 
of the Sangamon, and the chief ground on 
which he announced himself (1832) a candi- 
date for the Legislature was his advocacy 
of this popular measure, on which subject 
his practical experience made him the high- 
est authority. 

Elected to the Legislature in 1834 as a 



11^ 



s^ 



PRES/DEXTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



" Henry Clay Whig," he rapidly acquired 
that command of language and that homely 
but forcible rhetoric which, added to his 
intimate knowledge of the people from 
which he sprang, made him more than a 
match in debate for his few well-educated 
opponents. 

Admitted to the bar in 1837 he soon 
established himself at Springfield, where 
the State capital was located in 1839, 
largely through his influence; became a 
successful pleader in the State, Circuit and 
District Courts; married in 1842 a lady be- 
longing to a prominent family in Lexington, 
Kentucky; took an active part in the Pres- 
idential campaigns of 1840 and 1844 as 
candidate for elector on the Harrison and 
Clay tickets, and in 1846 was elected to the 
United States House of Representatives 
over the celebrated Peter Cartwright. 
During his single term in Congress he did 
not attain any prominence. 

He voted for the reception of anti-slavery 
petitions for the abolition of the slave trade 
in the District of Columbia and for the 
Wilmot proviso; but was chiefly remem- 
bered for the stand he took against the 
Mexican war. For several years there- 
after he took comparatively little interest 
in politics, but gained aleading position at 
the Springfield bar. Two or three non- 
political lectures and an eulog}'^ on Henry 
Clay (1852) added nothing to his reputation. 

In 1854 the repeal of the Missouri 
Compromise by the Kansas-Nebraska act 
aroused Lincoln from his indifference, and 
in attacking that measure he had the im- 
mense advantage of knowing perfectly well 
the motives and the record of its author, 
Stephen A. Douglas, of Illinois, then popu- 
larly designated as the " Little Giant." The 
latter came to Springfield in October, 1854, 
on the occasion of the State Fair, to vindi- 
cate his policy in the Senate, and the " Anti- 
Nebraska" Whigs, remembering that Lin- 
coln had often measured his strength with 



Douglas in the Illinois Legislature and be- 
fore the Springfield Courts, engaged him 
to improvise a reply. This speech, in the 
opinion of those who heard it, was one of 
the greatest efforts of Lincoln's life ; cer- 
tainly the most effective in his whole career. 
It took the audience by storm, and from 
that moment it was felt that Douglas had 
met his match. Lincoln was accordingly 
selected as the Anti-Nebraska candidate for 
the United States Senate in place of General 
Shields, whose term expired March 4, 1855, 
and led to several ballots; but Trumbull 
was ultimately chosen. 

The second conflict on the soil of Kan- 
sas, which Lincoln had predicted, soon be- 
gan. The result was the disruption of the 
Whig and the formation of the Republican 
party. At the Bloomington State Conven- 
tion in 1856, where the new party first 
assumed form in Illinois, Lincoln made an 
impressive address, in which for the first 
time he took distinctive ground against 
slavery in itself. 

At the National Republican Convention 
at Philadelphia, June 17, after the nomi- 
nation of Fremont, Lincoln was put for- 
ward by the Illinois delegation for the 
Vice-Presidency, and received on the first 
ballot no votes against 259 for William L. 
Dayton. He took a prominent part in the 
canvass, being on the electoral ticket. 

In 1858 Lincoln was unanimously nomi- 
nated by the Repubhcan State Convention 
as its candidate for the United States Senate 
in place of Douglas, and in his speech of 
acceptance used the celebrated illustration 
of a "house divided against itself" on the 
slavery question, v.hich was, perhaps, the 
cause of his defeat. The great debate car- 
ried on at all the principal towns of Illinois 
between Lincoln and Douglas as rival Sena- 
torial candidates resulted at the time in the 
election of the latter ; but being widely cij- 
culated as a campaign document, it fixed 
the attention of the country upon the 



ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 



former, as the clearest and most convinc- 
ing exponent of Republican doctrine. 

Early in 1S59 he began to be named in 
lUinois as a suitable Republican candidate 
for the Presidential campaign of the ensu- 
ing year, and a political address delivered 
at the Cooper Institute, New York, Febru- 
ary 27, i860, followed by similar speeches 
at New Haven, Hartford and elsewhere in 
New England, first made him known to the 
Eastern States in the light by which he had 
long been regarded at home. By the Re- 
publican State Convention, which met at 
Decatur, Illinois, May 9 and 10, Lincoln 
was unanimously endorsed for the Presi- 
dency. It was on this occasion that two 
rails, said to have been split by his hands 
thirty years before, were brought into the 
convention, and the incident contributed 
much to his popularity. The National 
Republican Convention at Chicago, after 
spirited efforts made in favor of Seward, 
Chase and Bates, nominated Lincoln for 
the Presidency, with Hannibal Hamlin 
for Vice-President, at the same time adopt- 
ing a vigorous anti-slavery platform. 

The Democratic party having been dis- 
organized and presenting two candidates, 
Douglas and Breckenridge, and the rem- 
nant of the " American" party having put 
forward John Bell, of Tennessee, the Re- 
pubhcan victory was an easy one, Lincoln 
being elected November 6 by a large plu- 
rality, comprehending nearly all the North- 
ern States, but none of the Southern. The 
secession of South Carolina and the Gulf 
States was the immediate result, followed 
a few months later by that of the border 
slave States and the outbreak of the great 
civil war. 

Tlie life of Abraham Lincoln became 
thenceforth merged in the history of his 
country. None of the details of the vast 
conflict which filled the remainder of Lin- 
coln's life can here be given. Narrowly 
escaping assassination bj' avoiding Balti- 



more on his way to the capital, he reached 
Washington February 23, and was inaugu- 
rated President of the United States March 
4, 1861. 

In his inaugural address he said: " I hold, 
that in contemplation of universal law and 
the Constitution the Union of these States is 
perpetual. Perpetuity is implied if not ex- 
pressed in the fundamental laws of all na- 
tional governments. It is safe to assert 
that no government proper ever had a pro- 
vision in its organic law for its own termi- 
nation. I therefore consider that in view 
of the Constitution and the laws, the Union 
is unbroken, and to the extent of my ability 
I shall take care, as the Constitution en- 
joins upon me, that the laws of the United 
States be extended in all the States. In 
doing this there need be no bloodshed or vio- 
lence, and there shall be none unless it be 
forced upon the national authority. The 
power conferred to me will be used to hold, 
occupy and possess the property and places 
belonging to the Government, and to col- 
lect the duties and imports, but beyond 
what may be necessary for these objects 
there will be no invasion, no using of force 
against or among the people anywhere. In 
your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-country- 
men, is the momentous issue of civil war. 
The Government will not assail you. You 
can have no conflict without being your- 
selves the aggressors. You have no oath 
registered in heaven to destroy the Gov- 
ernment, while I shall have the most sol- 
emn one to preserve, protect and defend 
it." 

He called to his cabinet his principal 
rivals for the Presidential nomination — 
Seward, Chase, Cameron and Bates; se- 
cured the co-operation of the Union Demo- 
crats, headed by Douglas; called out 75,000 
militia from the several States upon the fust 
tidings of the bombardment of Fort Sumter, 
April 15; proclaimed a blockade of the 
Southern posts April 19; called an extra 



session of Congress for July 4, from which 
he asked and obtained 400,000 men and 
$400,000,000 for the war; placed McCIellan 
at the head of the Federal army on General 
Scott's resignation, October 31; appointed 
Edwin M. Stanton Secretary of War, Jan- 
uary 14, 1862, and September 22, 1862, 
issued a proclamation declaring the free- 
dom of all slaves in the States and parts of 
States then in rebellion from and after 
January i. 1863. This was the crowning 
act of Lincoln's career — the act by which 
he will be chiefly known through all future 
time — and it decided the war. 



Johnson assumed the Presidency, and active 
measures were taken which resulted in the . 
death of Booth and the execution of his 
principal accomplices. 

The funeral of President Lincoln was 
conducted with unexampled solemnity and * 
magnificence. Impressive services were 
held in Washington, after which the sad 
procession proceeded over the same route 
he had traveled four years before, from 
Springfield to Washington. In Philadel- 
phia his body lay in state in Independence 
Hall, in which he had declared before his 
first inauguration " that I would sooner be 



October 16, 1863, President Lincoln called ; assassinated than to give up the principles 
for 300,000 volunteers to replace those ot the Declaration of Independence." He 



whose term of enlistment had expired ; 
made a celebrated and touching, though 
brief, address at the dedication of the 
Gettysburg military cemetery, November 
19, 1863; commissioned Ulysses S. Grant 
Lieutenant-General and Commander-in- 
Chief of the armies of the United States, 
March 9, 1864; was re-elected President in 
November of the same year, by a large 
majority over General McCIellan, with 
Andrew Johnson, of Tennessee, as Vice- 
President; delivered a very remarkable ad- 
dress at his second inauguration, March 4, 
1865; visited the army before Richmond the 
Game month; entered the capital of the Con- 
federacy the day after its fall, and upon the 
surrender of General Robert E. Lee's army, 
April 9, was actively engaged in devising 
generous plans for the reconstruction of the 
Union, when, on the evening of Good Fri- 
day, April 14, he was shot in his box at 
Ford's Theatre, Washington, byJohnWilkcs 
Booth, a fanatical actor, and expired early 
on the following morning, April 15. Al- 
most simultaneously a murderous attack 
was made upon William H. Seward, Secre- 
tary of State. 

At noon on the 15 th of April Andrew 



was buried at Oak Ridge Cemetery, near 
Springfield, Illinois, on May 4, where a 
monument emblematic of the emancipation 
of the slaves and the restoration of the 
Union mark his resting place. 

The leaders and citizens of the expiring 
Confederacy expressed genuine indignation 
at the murder of a generous political adver- 
sar)'. Foreign nations took part in mourn- 
ing the death of a statesman who had proved 
himself a true representative of American 
nationality. The freedmen of the Soutib 
almost worshiped the memorj- of their de- 
liverer; and the general sentiment of the 
great Nation he had saved awarded him a 
place in its affections, second only to that 
held by Washington. 

The characteristics of Abraham Lincoln 
have been familiarly known throughout the 
civilized world. His tall, gaunt, ungainly 
figure, homely countenance, and his shrewd 
mother-wit, shown in his celebrated con- 
versations overflowing in humorous and 
pointed anecdote, combined with an accu- 
rate, intuitive appreciation of the questions 
of the time, are recognized as forming the 
best type of a period of American history 
now rapidly passing away. 



» - ■ , ■ J^- - , " J ii _i i _ Jj aa a 




'y^K£.,C.^i^- 



^^/J^yt^ 



ANDREW JOHNSON. 







P*^ 



^;s&'-S;S^'->^NDREW JOHNSON, 

- ' the seventeenth Presi- 
1^ , ^ dent of the United 
^^ «" States, 1865-9, '^^'''S 

— b o r n at R a 1 c i g h , 
rr^' ^ North Carolina, De- 
'-* ^^ c ember 29, 1808. 

His father died when 
he was four yeais old, and in 
his eleventh year he was ap- 
pi enticed to a tailor. He nev- 
ci attended school, and did 
not learn to read until late in 
his apprenticeship, when he 
W suddenly acquired a passion for 
obtaining knowledge, and devoted 
all his spare time to reading. 

After working two years as a journe}-- 
man tailor at Lauren's Court-House, South 
Carolina, he removed, in 1826, to Green- 
ville, Tennessee, where he worked at his 
trade and married. Under his wife's in- 
structions he made rapid progress in his 
education, and manifested such an intelli- 
gent interest in local politics as to be 
elected as " workingmen's candidate ',' al- 
derman, in 1828, and mayor in 1830, being 
twice re-elected to each office. 

During this period he cultivated his tal- 
ents as a public speaker by taking part in a 




debating society, consisting largely of stu- 
dents of Greenville College. In 1835, and 
again in 1839, ^e was chosen to the lower 
house of the Legislature, as a Democrat. 
In 1 841 he was elected State Senator, and 
in 1843, Representative in Congress, being 
re-elected four successive periods, until 
1853, when he was chosen Governor of 
Tennessee. In Congress he supported the 
administrations of Tyler and Polk in their 
chief measures, especially the annexation 
of Texas, the adjustment of the Oregon 
boundary, the Mexican war, and the tariff 
of 1846. 

In 1855 Mr. Johnson was reelected Gov- 
ernor, and in 1857 entered the United 
States Senate, where he was conspicuous 
as an advocate of retrenchment and of the 
Homestead bill, and as an opponent of the 
Pacific Railroad. He was supported by the 
Tennessee delegation to the Democratic 
convention in i860 for the Presidential 
nomination, and lent his influence to the 
Breckenridge wing of that party. 

When the election of Lincoln had 
brought about the first attempt at secession 
in December, i860, Johnson took in the 
Senate a firm attitude for the Union, and 
in Ma}^, 1861, on returning to Tennessee, 
he was in imminent peril of suffering from 



lii 



s 



m 



popular violence for his loyalty to the " old 
fiag." He was the leader of the Loyalists' 
convention of East Tennessee, and during 
the following winter was very active in or- 
ganizing relief for the destitute loyal refu- 
gees from that region, his own family being 
among those compelled to leave. 

By his course in this crisis Johnson came 
prominently before the Northern public, 
and when in iS'Iarch, 1862, he was appointed 
by President Lincoln military Governor of 
Tennessee, with the rank of Brigadier-Gen- 
eral, he increased in popularity by the vig- 
orous and successful manner in which he 
labored to restore order, protect Union 
men and punish marauders. On the ap- 
proach of the Presidential campaign of 1864, 
the termination of the war being plainly 
foreseen, and several Southern States being 
partially reconstructed, it was felt that the 
Vice-Presidency should be given to a South- 
ern man of conspicuous loyalty, and Gov- 
ernor Johnson was elected on the same 
platform and ticket as President Lincoln; 
and on the assassination of the latter suc- 
ceeded to the Presidency, April 15, 1865. 
In a public speech two days later he said: 
" The American people must be taught, if 
they do not already feel, that treason is a 
crime and must be punished; that the Gov- 
ernment will not always bear with its ene- 
mies; that it is strong, not onl}- to protect, 
but to punish. In our peaceful history 
treason has been almost unknown. The 
people must understand that it is the black- 
est of crimes, and will be punished." He 
then added the ominous sentence: " In re- 
gard to my future course, I make no prom- 
ises, no pledges." President Johnson re- 
tained the cabinet of Lincoln, and exhibited 
considerable severity toward traitors in his 
earlier acts and speeches, but he soon inaug- 
urated a policy of reconstruction, proclaim- 
ing a general amnesty to the late Confeder- 
ates, and successively establishing provis- 
ional Governments in the Southern States. 



These States accordingly claimed represen- 
tation in Congress in the following Decem- 
ber, and the momentous question of what 
should be the policy of the victorious Union 
toward its late armed opponents was forced 
upon that body. 

Two considerations impelled the Repub- 
lican majority to reject the pohcy of Presi. 
dent Johnson: First, an apprehension that 
the chief magistrate intended to undo the re- 
sults of the war in regard to slavery; and,sec- 
ond, the sullen attitude of the South, which 
seemed to be plotting to regain the policy 
which arms had lost. The credentials of the 
Southern members elect were laid on the 
table, a civil rights bill and a bill extending 
the sphere of the Freedmen's Bureau were 
passed over the executive veto, and the two 
highest branches of the Government were 
soon in open antagonism. The action of 
Congress was characterized by the Presi- 
dent as a " new rebellion." In July the 
cabinet was reconstructed, Messrs. Randall, 
Stanbury and Browning taking the places 
of Messrs. Denison, Speed and Harlan, and 
an unsuccessful attempt was made by 
means of a general convention in Philadel- 
phia to form a new party on the basis of the 
administration policy. 

In an excursion to Chicago for the pur- 
pose of laying a corner-stone of the monu- 
ment to Stephen A. Douglas, President 
Johnson, accompanied by several members 
of the cabinet, passed through Philadelphia, 
New York and Alban}', in each of which 
cities, and in other places along the route, 
he made speeches justifying and explaining 
his own policy, and violently denouncing 
the action of Congress. 

August 12, 1867, President Johnson re- 
moved the Secretary of War, replacing 
him by General Grant. Secretary Stanton 
retired under protest, based upon the ten- 
ure-of-office act which had been passed the 
preceding March. The President then is- 
sued a proclamation declaring the insurrec- 



ANDREW JOHNSON. 



tion at an end, and that " peace, order, tran- 
quility and civil authority existed in and 
throughout the United States." Another 
proclamation enjoined obedience to the 
Constitution and the laws, and an amnesty 
was published September 7, relieving nearly 
all the participants in the late Rebellion 
from the disabilities thereby incurred, on 
condition of taking the oath to support the 
Constitution and the laws. 

In December Congress refused to confirm 
the removal of Secretary Stanton, who 
thereupon resumed the exercise of his of- 
fice; but February 21, 1868, President 
Johnson again attempted to remove him, 
appointing General Lorenzo Thomas in his 
place. Stanton refused to vacate his post, 
and was sustained by the Senate. 

February 24 the House of Representa- 
tives voted to impeach the President for 
" high crime and misdemeanors," and March 
5 presented eleven articles of impeachment 
on the ground of his resistance to the exe- 
cution of the acts of Congress, alleging, in 
addition to the offense lately committed, 
his public expressions of contempt for Con- 
gress, in " certain intemperate, inflamma- 
tory and scandalous harangues" pronounced 
in August and September, 1866, and there- 
after declaring that the Thirty-ninth Con- 
gress of the United States was not a 
competent legislative body, and denying 
its power to propose Constitutional amend- 
ments. March 23 the impeachment trial 
began, the President appearing by counsel, 
and resulted in acquittal, the vote lacking 



one of the two-thirds vote required for 
conviction. 

The remainder of President Johnson's, 
term of office was passed without any such 
conflicts as might have been anticipated. 
He failed to obtain a nomination for re- 
election by the Democratic party, though 
receiving sixty-five votes on the first ballot. 
July 4 and December 25 new proclamations 
of pardon to the participants in the late 
Rebellion were issued, but were of little 
effect. On the accession of General Grant 
to the Presidency, March 4, 1869, Johnson 
returned to Greenville, Tennessee. Unsuc- 
cessful in 1870 and 1872 as a candidate re- 
spectively for United States Senator and 
Representative, he was finally elected to the 
Senate in 1875, and took his seat in the extra 
session of March, in which his speeches 
were comparatively temperate. He died 
July 31, 1875, and was buried at Green- 
ville. 

President Johnson's administration was a 
peculiarly unfortunate one. That he should 
so soon become involved i« bitter feud with 
the Republican majority in Congress was 
certainly a surprising and deplorable inci- 
dent; yet, in reviewing the circumstances 
after a lapse of so many years, it is easy to 
find ample room for a charitable judgment 
of both the parties in the heated contro- 
versy, since it cannot be doubted that any 
President, even Lincoln himself, had he 
lived, must have sacrificed a large portion 
of his popularity in carrying out any pos- 
sible scheme of reconstruction. 



!ar^ 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNI TED STATES. 







iii^iiii^iaii«» 



I 



'■«^^*:r-i«i^^j*^-^>^^ 



<M4«»S'i-#»i«S-'#<S*'##i^i^i^ 





I-^'^^'L^SSES SIMPSON 
GRANT, the eight- 
eenth President of the 
United States, iSeg-';/, 
^\ as born April 27, 1822, 
at Point Pleasant, 
^ Clermont County, 
His father was of Scotch 






descent, and a dealer in leather. 
At the age of seventeen he en- 
tered the Military Academy at 
West Point, and four years later 
graduated twenty -first in a class 
of thirty-nine, receiving the 
commission of Brevet Second 
Lieutenant. He was assigned 
to the Fourth Infantry and re- 
mained in the army eleven years. He was 
engaged in every battle of the Mexican war 
except that of Buena Vista, and received 
two brevets for gallantry. 

In 1848 Mr. Grant married Julia,daughter 
of Frederick Dent, a prominent merchant of 
St. Louis, and in 1854, having reached the 
grade of Captain, he resigned his commis- 
sion in the army. For several years he fol- 
lowed farming near St. Louis, but unsuc- 
cessfully ; and in i860 he entered the leather 
trade with his father at Galena, Illinois. 

When the civil war broke out in 1861, 
Grant was thirty-nine years of age, but en- 
tirely unknown to pubUc men and without 



any personal acquaintance with great affairs. 
President Lincoln's first call for troops was 
made on the 15th of April, and on the 19th 
Grant was drilling a company of volunteers 
at Galena. He also offered his services to 
the Adjutant-General of the army, but re- 
ceived no reply. The Governor of Illinois, 
however, employed him in the organization 
of volunteer troops, and at the end of five 
weeks he was appointed Colonel of the 
Twenty-first Infantry. He took command 
of his regiment in June, and reported first 
to General Pope in Missouri. His superior 
knowledge of military life rather surprised 
his superior officers, who had never before 
even heard of him, and they were thus led 
to place him on the road to rapid advance- 
ment. August 7 he was commissioned a 
Brigadier-General of volunteers, the ap- 
pointment having been made without his 
knowledge. He had been unanimously 
recommended by the Congressmen from 
Illinois, not one of whom had been his 
personal acquaintance. For a few weeks 
he was occupied in watching the move- 
ments of partisan forces in Missouri. 

September i he was placed in command 
of the District of Southeast Missouri, with 
headquarters at Cairo, and on the 6th, with- 
out orders, he seized Paducah, at the mouth 
of the Tennessee River, and commanding 
the navigation both of that stream and of 



g^ig^PS» ~a^a' ■« ■ — ■ - ■ '■■ '' 



C/LrSSES S. GRANT. 



the Ohio. This stroke secured Kentucky 
to the Union ; for the State Legislature, 
which had until then affected to be neutral, 
at once declared in favor of the Govern- 
ment. In November following, according 
to orders, he made a demonstration about 
eighteen miles below Cairo, preventing the 
crossing of hostile troops into Missouri ; 
but in order to accomplish this purpose he 
had to do some fighting, and that, too, with 
only 3,000 raw recruits, against 7,000 Con- 
federates. Grant carried off two pieces of 
artiller}^ and 200 prisoners. 

After repeated applications to General 
Halleck, his immediate superior, he was 
allowed, in February, 1S62, to move up the 
Tennessee River against Fort Henry, in 
conjunction with a naval force. The gun- 
boats silenced the fort, and Grant immedi- 
ately made preparations to attack Fort 
Donelson, about twelve miles distant, on 
the Cumberland River. Without waiting 
for orders he moved his troops there, and 
with 15,000 men began the siege. The 
fort, garrisoned with 21,000 men, was a 
strong one, but after hard fighting on three 
successive days Grant forced an " Uncon- 
ditional Surrender" (an alliteration upon 
the initials of his name). The prize he capt- 
ured consisted of sixty-five cannon, 17,600 
small arms and 14,623 soldiers. About 4,- 
000 of the garrison had escaped in the night, 
and 2,500 were killed or wounded. Grant's 
entire loss was less than 2,000. This was the 
first important success won by the national 
troops during the war, and its strategic re- 
sults were marked, as the entire States of 
Kentucky and Tennessee at once fell into the 
National hands. Our hero was made a 
Major-General of Volunteers and placed in 
command of the District of West Ten- 
nessee. 

In March, 1862, he was ordered to move 
up the Tennessee River toward Corinth, 
where the Confederates were concentrat- 
ing a large army ; but he was directed not 



to attack. His forces, now numbering 38,- 
000, were accordingly encamped near Shi- 
loh, or Pittsburg Landing, to await the 
arrival of General Buell with 40,000 more; 
but April 6 the Confederates came out from 
Corinth 50,000 strong and attacked Grant 
violently, hoping to overwhelm him before 
Buell could arrive ; 5,000 of his troops were 
beyond supporting distance, so that he was 
largely outnumbered and forced back to the 
river, where, however, he held out until 
dark, when the head of Buell's column 
came upon the field. The next day the 
Confederates were driven back to Corinth, 
nineteen miles. The loss was heavy on 
both sides ; Grant, being senior in rank to 
Buell, commanded on both days. Two 
days afterward Halleck arrived at the front 
and assumed command of the army, Grant 
remaining at the head of the right wing and 
the reserve. On May 30 Corinth was 
evacuated by the Confederates. In July 
Halleck was made General-in-Chief, and 
Grant succeeded him in command of the 
Department of the Tennessee. September 
19 the battle of luka was fought, where, 
owing to Rosecrans's fault, only an incom- 
plete victory was obtained. 

Next, Grant, with 30,000 men, moved 
down into Mississippi and threatened Vicks- 
burg, while Sherman, with 40,000 men, was 
sent by way of the river to attack that place 
in front; but, owing to Colonel Murphy's 
surrendering Holly Springs to the Con- 
federates, Grant was so weakened that he 
had to retire to Corinth, and then Sherman 
failed to sustain his intended attack. 

In January, 1863, General Grant took 
command in person of all the troops in the 
Mississippi Valley, and spent several months 
in fruitless attempts to compel the surrender 
or evacuation of Vicksburg; but July 4, 
following, the place surrendered, with 31,- 
600 men and 172 cannon, and the Mississippi 
River thus fell permanently into the hands 
of the Government. Grant was made a 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



Major-General in the regular army, and in 
October following he was placed in com- 
mand of the Division of the Mississippi. 
The same month he went to Chattanooga 
and saved the Army of the Cumberland 
from starvation, and drove Bragg from that 
part of the country. This victory over- 
threw the last important hostile force west 
of the AUeghanies and opened the way for 
the National armies into Georgia and Sher- 
man's march to the sea. 

The remarkable series of successes which 
Grant had now achieved pointed him out 
as the appropriate leader of the National 
armies, and accordingly, in February, 1864, 
the rank of Lieutenant-General was created 
for him by Congress, and on March 17 he 
assumed command of the armies of the 
United States. Planning the grand final 
campaign, he sent Sherman into Georgia, 
Sigel into the valley of Virginia, and Butler 
to capture Richmond, while he fought his 
own way from the Rapidan to the James. 
The costly but victorious battles of the 
Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna and 
Cold Harbor were fought, more for the 
purpose of annihilating Lee than to capture 
any particular point. In June, 1864, the 
siege of Richmond was begun. Sherman, 
meanwhile, was marching and fighting daily 
in Georgia and steadily advancing toward 
Atlanta ; but Sigel had been defeated in the 
valley of Virginia, and, was superseded by 
Hunter. Lee sent Early to threaten the Na- 
tional capital ; whereupon Grant gathered 
up a force which he placed under Sheridan, 
and that commander rapidly drove Early, 
inasuccessionof battles, through the valley 
of Virginia and destroyed his army as an 
organized force. The siege of Richmond 
went on, and Grant made numerous attacks, 
but was only partially successful. The 
people of the North grew impatient, and 
even the Government advised him to 
abandon the attempt to take Richmond or 
crush the Confederacy in that way ; but he 



never wavered. He resolved to " fight it 
out on that line, if it took all summer." 

By September Sherman had made his 
way to Atlanta, and Grant then sent him 
on his famous " march to the sea," a route 
which the chief had designed six months 
before. He made Sherman's success possi- 
ble, not only by holding Lee in front of 
Richmond, but also by sending reinforce- 
ments to Thomas, who then drew off and 
defeated the only army which could have 
confronted Sherman. Thus the latter was 
left unopposed, and, with Thomas and Sheri- 
dan, was used in the furtherance of Grant's 
plans. Each executed his part in the great 
design and contributed his share to the re- 
sult at which Grant was aiming. Sherman 
finally reached Savannah, Schofield beat 
the enemy at Franklin, Thomas at Nash- 
ville, and Sheridan wherever he met him ; 
and all this while General Grant was hold- 
ing Lee, with the principal Confederate 
army, near Richmond, as it were chained 
and helpless. Then Schofield was brought 
from the West, and Fort Fisher and Wil- 
mington were captured on the sea-coast, so 
as to afford him a foothold ; from here he 
was sent into the interior of North Caro- 
lina, and Sherman was ordered to move 
northward to join him. When all this was 
effected, and Sheridan could find no one else 
to fight in the Shenandoah Valley, Grant 
brought the cavalry leader to the front of 
Richmond, and, making a last effort, drove 
Lee from his entrenchments and captured 
Richmond. 

At the beginning of the final campaign 
Lee had collected 73,000 fighting men in 
the lines at Richmond, besides the local 
militia and the gunboat crews, amounting 
to 5,000 more. Including Sheridan's force 
Grant had 1 10,000 men in the works before 
Petersburg and Richmond. Petersburg fell 
on the 2d of April, and Richmond on the 
3d, and Lee fled in the direction of L3Mich- 
burg. Grant pursued with remorseless 



CTLISSES S. GRANT. 



energy, only stopping to strike fresh blows, 
and Lee at last found himself not only out- 
fought but also out-marched and out-gen- 
eraled. Being completely surrounded, he 
surrendered on the 9th of April, 1865, at 
Appomattox Court-House, in the open field, 
with 27,000 men, all that remained of his 
army. This act virtuall}' ended the war. 
Thus, in ten days Grant had captured 
Petersburg and Richmond, fought, by his 
subordinates, the battles of Five Forks and 
Sailor's Creek, besides numerous smaller 
ones, captured 20,000 men in actual battle, 
and received the surrender of 27,000 more 
at Appomattox, absolutely annihilating an 
army of 70,000 soldiers. 

General Grant returned at once to Wash- 
ington to superintend the disbandment of 
the armies, but this pleasurable work was 
scarcely begun when President Lincoln was 
assassinated. It had doubtless been in- 
tended to inflict the same fate upon Grant ; 
but he, fortunately, on account of leaving 
Washington early in the evening, declined 
an invitation to accompany the President 
to the theater where the murder was com- 
mitted. This event made Andrew Johnson 
President, but left Grant by far the most 
conspicuous figure in the public life of the 
country. He became the object of an en- 
thusiasm greater than had ever been known 
in America. Every possible honor was 
heaped upon him ; the grade of General 
was created for him by Congress; houses 
were presented to him by citizens ; towns 
were illuminated on his entrance into them ; 
and, to cap the climax, when he made his 
tour around the world, "all nations did him 
honor" as they had never before honored 
a foreigner. 

The General, as Commander-in-Chief, 
was placed in an embarrassing position by 
the opposition of President Johnson to the 
measures of Congress ; but he directly man- 
ifested his characteristic loyalty by obeying 
Congress rather than the disaffected Presi- 



dent, although for a short time he had 
served in his cabinet as Secretary of War. 

Of course, everybody thought of General 
Grant as the next President of the United 
States, and he was accordingly elected as 
such in 1868 "by a large majority," and 
four years later re-elected by a much larger 
majority — the most overwhelming ever 
given by the people of this country. His first 
administration was distinguished by a ces- 
sation of the strifes which sprang from the 
war, by a large reduction of the National 
debt, and by a settlement of the difficulties 
with England which had grown out of the 
depredations committed by privateers fit- 
ted out in England during the war. This 
last settlement was made by the famous 
"Geneva arbitration," which saved to this 
Government $1 5,000,000, but, more than all, 
prevented a war with England. " Let us 
have peace," was Grant's motto. And this 
is the most appropriate place to remark 
that above all Presidents whom this Gov- 
ernment has ever had, General Grant was 
the most non-partisan. He regarded the 
Executive office as purely and exclusively 
executive of the laws of Congress, irrespect- 
ive of " politics." But every great man 
has jealous, bitter enemies, a fact Grant 
was well aware of. 

After the close of his Presidency, our 
General made his famous tour around the 
world, already referred to, and soon after- 
ward, in company with Ferdinand Ward, 
of New York City, he engaged in banking 
and stock brokerage, which business was 
made disastrous to Grant, as well as to him- 
self, by his rascality. By this time an in- 
curable cancer of the tongue developed 
itself in the person of the afflicted ex- 
President, which ended his unrequited life 
July 23, 1885. Thus passed away from 
earth's turmoils the man, the General, who 
was as truly the " father of this regenerated 
country" as was Washington the father of 
the infant nation. 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 





UTHERFORD BIRCH- 
ARD HAYES, the nine- 
teenth President of 
the United States, 
i877-'8i, was born in 
Delaware, Ohio, Oc- 
tober 4, 1822. His 
anccstiy can be traced as far 
back as 1280, when Hayes and 
Rutherford were two Scottish 
chieftains fighting side by side 
with Baliol, William Wallace 
and Robert Bruce. Both fami- 
lies belonged to the nobility, 
owned extensive estates and had 
a large following. The Hayes 
family had, for a coat of-arms, a 
shield, barred and surmounted by a flying 
eagle. There was a circle of stars about 
the eagle and above the shield, while on a 
scroll underneath the shield was inscribed 
the motto, " Recte." Misfortune overtaking 
the family, George Hayes left Scotland in 
1680, and settled in Windsor, Connecticut. 
He was an industrious worker in wood and 
iron, having a mechanical genius and a cul- 
tivated mind. His son George was born 
in Windsor and remained there during his 
life. 

Daniel Hayes, son of the latter, married 
Sarah Lee, and lived in Simsbury, Con- 



necticut. Ezekiel, son of Daniel, was born 
in 1724, and was a manufacturer of scythes 
at Bradford, Connecticut. Rutherford 
Hayes, son of Ezekiel and grandfather of 
President Hayes, was born in New Haven, 
in August, 1756. He was a famous black- 
smith and tavern-keeper. He immigrated to 
Vermont at an unknown date, settling in 
Brattleboro where he established a hotel. 
Here his son Rutherford, father of Presi- 
dent Hayes, was born. In September, 1813, 
he married Sophia Birchard, of Wilming- 
ton, Vermont, whose ancestry on the male 
side is traced back to 1635, to John Birch- 
ard, one of the principal founders of Nor- 
wich. Both of her grandfathers were 
soldiers in the Revolutionary war. 

The father of President Hayes was of a 
mechanical turn, and could mend a plow, 
knit a stocking, or do almost anything that 
he might undertake. He was prosperous 
in business, a member of the church and 
active in all the benevolent enterprises of 
the town. After the close of the war of 1812 
he immigrated to Ohio, and purchased a 
farm near the present town of Delaware. 
His family then consisted of his wife and 
two children, and an orphan girl whom he 
had adopted. 

It was in 1817 that the family arrived at 
Delaware. Instead of settling upon his 




s 






RUTHERFORD B. HAYES. 



loS 



farm, Mr. Hayes concluded to enter into 
business in the village. He purchased an 
interest in a distillery, a business then as re- 
spectable as it was profitable. His capital 
and recognized ability assured him the 
highest social position in the communitj-. 
He died July 22, 1822, less than three 
months before the birth of the son that was 
<l<-stined to fill the office of President of the 
United States. 

Mrs. Hayes at this period was very weak, 
and the subject of this sketch was so feeble 
at birth that he was not expected to live 
beyond a month' or two at most. As the 
months went by he grew weaker and weaker 
so that the neighbors were in the habit of 
inquiring from time to time " if Mrs. 
Hayes's baby died last night." On one oc- 
casion a neighbor, who was on friendly 
terms with the family, after alluding to the 
boy's big head and the mother's assiduous 
care of him, said to her, in a bantering way, 
"That's right! Stick to him. You have 
got him along so far, and I shouldn't won- 
der if he would really come to something 
yet." " You need not laugh," said Mrs. 
Hayes, " you wait and see. You can't tell 
but I shall make him President of the 
United States yet." 

The boy lived, in spite of the universal 
predictions of his speedy death; and when, 
in 1825, his elder brother was drowned, he 
became, if possible, still dearer to his mother. 
He was seven years old before he was 
placed in school. His education, however, 
was not neglected. His sports were almost 
wholly within doors, his playmates being 
his sister and her associates. These circum- 
stances tended, no doubt, to foster that 
gentleness of disposition and that delicate 
consideration for the feelings of others 
which are marked traits of his character. 
At school he was ardently devoted to his 
studies, obedient to the teacher, and care- 
ful to avoid the quarrels in which man)^ of 
his schoolmates were involved. He was 



always waiting at the school-house door 
when it opened in the morning, and never 
late in returning to his seat at recess. His 
sister Fannie was his constant companion, 
and their affection for each other excited 
the admiration of their friends. 

In 1838 young Hayes entered Kenyon 
College and graduated in 1842. He' then 
began the study of law in the office of 
Thomas Sparrow at Columbus. His health 
was now well established, his figure robust, 
his mind vigorous and alert. In a short 
time he determined to enter the law school 
at Cambridge, Massachusetts, where for 
two years he pursued his studies with great 
diligence. 

In 184s he was admitted to the bar at 
Marietta, Ohio, and shortly afterward went 
into piactice as an attorney-at-law with 
Ralph P. Buckland, of Fremont. Here he 
remained three years, acquiring but limited 
practice, and apparently unambitious of 
distinction in his profession. His bachelor 
uncle, Sardis Birchard, who had always 
manifested great interest in his nephew and 
rendered him assistance in boyhood, was 
now a wealth)^ banker, and it was under- 
stood that the young man would be his 
heir. It is possible that this expectation 
may have made Mr. Hayes more indifferent 
to the attainment of wealth than he would 
otherwise have been, but he was led into no 
extravagance or vices on this account. 

In 1849 he removed to Cincinnati where 
his ambition found new stimulus. Two 
events occurring at this period had a pow- 
erful influence upon his subsequent life. 
One of them was his marriage to Miss 
Lucy Ware Webb, daughter of Dr. James 
Webb, of Cincinnati; the other was his 
introduction to the Cincinnati Literary 
Club, a body embracing such men as Chief 
Justice Salmon P. Chase, General John 
Pope and Governor Edward F. Noyes. 
The marriage was a fortunate one as every- 
body knows. Not one of all the wives of 



PRESIDENTS OF THE VS'ITED STATES. 



our Presidents -.vas more universally ad- 
mired, reverenced and beloved than is Mrs. 
Hayes, and no one has done more than she 
to reflect honor upon American woman- 
hood. 

In 1856 Mr. Hayes was nominated to the 
office of Judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas, but declined to accept the nomina- 
tion. Two years later he was chosen to the 
office of City Solicitor. 

In 1861, when the Rebellion broke out, 
he was eager to take up arms in the defense 
of his country. His military life was 
bright and illustrious. June 7, 1861, he 
was appointed Major of the Twenty-third 
Ohio Infantry. In July the regiment was 
sent to Virginia. October 15, 1 861, he was 
made Lieutenant-Colonel of his regiment, 
and in August, 1862, was promoted Colonel 
of the Seventy-ninth Ohio Regiment, but 
refused to leave his old comrades. He was 
wounded at the battle of South Mountain, 
and suffered severely, being unable to enter 
upon active duty for several weeks. No- 
vember 30, 1862, he rejoined his regiment as 
its Colonel, having been promoted Octo- 
ber 15. 

December 25, 1862, he was placed in com- 
mand of the Kanawha division, and for 
meritorious service in several battles was 
promoted Brigadier-General. He was also 
brevetted Major-General for distinguished 



services in 1864. He was wounded four 
times, and five horses were shot from 
under him. 

Mr. Hayes was first a Whig in politics, 
and was among the first to unite with the 
Free-Soil and Republican parties. In 1864 
he was elected to Congress from che Sec- 
ond Ohio District, which had always been 
Democratic, receiving a majority of 3,098. 
In 1866 he was renominated for Congress 
and was a second time elected. In 1867 he 
was elected Governor over Allen G. Thur- 
man, the Democratic candidate, and re- 
elected in 1869. In 1874 Sardis Birchard 
died, leaving his large estate to General 
Hayes. 

In 1876 he was nominated for the Presi- 
dency. His letter of acceptance excited 
the admiration of the whole country. He 
resigned the office of Governor and retired 
to his home in Fremont to await the result 
of the canvass. After a hard, long contest 
he was inaugurated March 5, 1877. His 
Presidency was characterized by compro- 
mises with all parties, in order to please as 
man}' as possible. The close of his Presi- 
dential term in 1881 was the close of his 
public life, and since then he has remained 
at his iiome in Fremont, Ohio, in Jefferso- 
nian retirement from public notice, in stink- 
ing contrast with most others of the world's 
notables. 




-\: 




yAA/ES A. GARFIELD. 



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sis:^3^^^535^5ELij^i^ic-£.i^3A^.ri33n.^i^r^^s^r^i^ 



vrvrv^b^^i 





AMES A. GARFIELD, 
twentieth President of 
the United States, 1881, 
was born November 19, 
1 83 1, in the wild woods 
o f Cuyahoga County, 
Ohio. His parents were 
Abram and EUza (Ballou) 
Garfield, who were of New 
• England ancestry. The 
senior Garfield was an in- 
dustrious farmer, as the 
rapid improvements which 
appeared on his place at- 
tested. The residence was 
the familiar pioneer log cabin, 
and the household comprised the parents 
and their children — Mehetable, Thomas, 
Mary and James A. In May, 1833, the 
father died, and the care of the house- 
hold consequently devolved upon young 
Thomas, to whom James was greatly in- 
debted for the educational and other ad- 
vantages he enjo3-ed. He now lives in 
Michigan, and the two sisters live in Solon, 
Ohio, near their birthplace. 

As the subject of our sketch grew up, he, 
too, was industrious, both in mental aad 
physical labor. He worked upon the farm, 
or at carpentering, or chopped wood, or at 
any other odd job that would aid in support 
of the family, and in the meantime made the 



most of his books. Ever afterward he was 
never ashamed of his humble origin, nor for- 
got the friends of his youth. The poorest 
laborer was sure of his sympathy, and he 
always exhibited the character of a modest 
gentleman. 

Until he was about sixteen years of age, 
James's highest ambition was to be a lake 
captain. To this his mother was strongly 
opposed, but she finally consented to his 
going to Cleveland to carry out his long- 
cherished design, with the understanding, 
however, that he should Vxy to obtain some 
other kind of employment. He walked all 
the way to Cleveland, and this was his first 
visit to the city. After making many ap- 
plications for v/ork, including labor on 
board a lake vessel, but all in vain, he 
finally engaged as a driver for his cousin, 
Amos Letcher, on the Ohio & Pennsyl- 
vania Canal. In a short time, however, he 
quit this and returned home. He then at- 
tended the seminary at Chester for about 
three years, and next he entered Hiram In- 
stitute, a school started in 1850 by the 
Disciples of Christ, of which church he was 
a member. In order to pa}' his way he 
assumed the duties of janitor, and at tunes 
taught school. He soon completed Ihe cur- 
riculum there, and then entered Williams 
College, at which he graduated in 1856, 
taking one of the highest honors of his class. 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UN/TED STATES. 



Afterward he returned to Hiram as Presi- 
dent. In his youthful and therefore zealous 
piety, he exercised his talents occasionally 
as a preacher of the Gospel. He was a 
man of strong moral and religious convic- 
tions, and as soon as he began to look into 
politics, he saw innumerable points that 
could be improved. He also studied law, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1859. 
November 11, 1858, iNIr. Garfield married 
Miss Lucretia Rudolph, who ever after- 
ward proved a worthy consort in all the 
stages of her husband's career. They had 
seven children, five of whom are still living. 

It was in 1859 that Garfield made his 
first political speeches, in Hiram and the 
neighboring villages, and three years later 
he began to speak at county mass-meetings, 
being received everywhere with popular 
favor. He was elected to the State Senate 
this year, taking his seat in January, i860. 

On the breaking out of the war of the 
Rebellion in 1861, Mr. Garfield resolved to 
fight as he had talked, and accordingly he 
enlisted to defend the old flag, receiving 
his commission as Lieutenant-Colonel of tlie 
Forty-second Regiment of the Ohio Volun- 
teer Infantr}', August 14, that year, rle 
was immediately thrown into active service, 
and before he had ever seen a gun fired in 
action he was placed in command of four 
regiments of infantry and eight companies 
of cavalry, charged with the work of driv- 
ing the Confederates, headed by Humphrey 
Marshall, from his native State, Kentucky. 
This task was speedily accomplished, al- 
though against great odds. On account of 
his success, F'resident Lincoln commissioned 
him Brigadier-General, January 11, 1862; 
and, as he had been the youngest man in 
the Ohio Senate two years before, so now 
he was the youngest General in the army. 
He was witii General Buell's army at Shi- 
loh, also in its operations around Corinth 
and its march through Alabama. Next, he 
was detailed as a member of the general 



court-martial for the trial of General Fitz- 
John Porter, and then ordered to report to 
General Rosecrans, when he was assigned 
to the position of Chief of Staff. His mili- 
tary history closed with his brilliant ser- 
vices at Chickamauga, where he won the 
stars of Major-General. 

In the fall of 1862, without any effort on 
his part, he was elected as a Representative 
to Congress, from that section of Ohio 
which had been represented for sixty years 
mainly by two men — Elisha Whittlesey and 
Joshua R. Giddings. Again, he was the 
youngest member of that bod}', and con- 
tinued there by successive re-elections, as 
Representative or Senator, until he was 
elected President in 1880. During his life 
in Congress he compiled and published by 
his speeches, there and elsewhere, more 
information on the issues of the day, espe- 
cially on one side, than any other member. 

June 8, 18S0, at the National Republican 
Convention held in Chicago, General Gar- 
field was nominated for the Presidencj", in 
preference to the old war-horses, Blaine 
and Grant ; and although many of the Re- 
publican party felt sore over the failure of 
their respective heroes to obtain the nomi- 
nation, General Garfield was elected by a 
fair popular majority. He was duly in- 
augurated, but on July 2 following, before 
he had fairly got started in his administra- 
tion, he was fatally shot by a half-demented 
assassin. After very painful and protracted 
suffering, he died September 19, 1881, la- 
mented by all the American people. Never 
before in the history of this countrj- had 
anything occurred which so nearly froze 
the blood of the Nation, for the moment, as 
the awful act of Guiteau, the murderer. 
He was duly tried, convicted and put to 
death on the gallows. 

The lamented Garfield was succeeded by 
the Vice-President, General Arthur, who 
seemed to endeavor to carry out the policy 
inaugurated by his predecessor. 








^L-Ly\ 



CHESTER A. ARTHUR. 




I 




ESTER ALLEN 
ARTHUR, the twcn- 
hist Chief Execu- 
tne of this growing 
icpublic, i88i-'5, was 
bom in Franklin 
C o u n 1 3' , Vermont, 
Octobei 5 1830, the eldest of a 
famih of two sons and five 
daiiThtei';. His father, Rev. 
Di Willi im Arthur, a Baptist 
clergyman, immigrated to this 
country from County Antrim, 
Ireland, in his eighteenth year, 
and died in 1875, in Newton- 
ville, near Albany, New York, 
after serving many years as a successful 
minister. Chester A. was educated at that 
old, conservative institution. Union Col- 
lege, at Schenectady, New York, where he 
excelled in all his studies. He graduated 
there, with honor, and then struck out in 
life for himself by teaching school for about 
two years in his native State. 

At the expiration of that time young 
Arthur, with $500 in his purse, went to the 
city of New York and entered the law office 
of ex-Judge E. D. Culver as a student. In 
due time he was admitted to the bar, when 
he formed a partnership with his intimate 



friend and old room-mate, Henry D. Gar. 
diner, with the intention of practicing law 
at some point in the West ; but after spend- 
ing about three months in the Western- 
States, in search of an eligible place, they 
returned to New York City, leased a room, 
exhibited a sign of their business and al- 
most immediately enjoyed a paying patron- 
age. 

At this stage of his career Mr. Arthur's 
business prospects were so encouraging 
that he concluded to take a wife, and ac- 
cordingly he married the daughter of Lieu- 
tenant Herndon, of the United States Navy, 
who had been lost at sea. To the widow 
of the latter Congress voted a gold medal, 
in recognition of the Lieutenant's bravery 
during the occasion in which he lost his 
life. Mrs. Artnur died shortly before her 
husband's nomination to the Vice-Presi- 
dency, leaving two children. 

Mr. Arthur obtained considerable celeb- 
rity as an attorney in the famous Lemmon 
suit, which was brought to recover posses- 
sion of eight slaves, who had been declared 
free by the Superior Court of New York 
Cit}'. The noted Charles O'Conor, who 
was nominated by the " Straight Demo- 
crats" in 1872 for the L^nited States Presi- 
dency, was retained b\- Jonathan G. Lcm- 



114 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



mon, of Virginia, to recover the negroes, 
but he lost the suit. In this case, however, 
Mr. Arthur was assisted by William M. 
Evarts, now United States Senator. Soon 
afterward, in 1856, a respectable colored 
woman was ejected from a street car in 
New York City. Mr. Arthur sued the car 
company in her behalf and recovered $500 
damages. Immediately afterward all the 
car companies in the city issued orders to 
their employes to admit colored persons 
upon their cars. 

Mr. Arthur's political doctrines, as well 
as his practice as a law3'er, raised him to 
prominence in the party of freedom ; and 
accordingly he was sent as a delegate to 
the first National Republican Convention. 
Soon afterward he was appointed Judge 
Advocate for the Second Brigade of the 
State of New York, and then Engineer-in- 
Chief on Governor Morgan's staff. In 1861, 
the first year of the war, he was made In- 
spector-General, and next, Quartermaster- 
(xeneral, in both which offices he rendered 
great service to the Government. After 
the close of Governor Morgan's term he 
resumed the practice of law, forming first a 
partnership with Mr. Ransom, and subse- 
quently adding Mr. Phelps to the firm. 
Each of these gentlemen were able law3'ers. 

November 21, 1872, General Arthur was 
appointed Collector of the Port of New 
York by President Grant, and he held the 
office until July 20, 1878. 

The next event of prominence in General 
Arthur's career was his nomination to the 
Vice-Presidency of the United States, under 
the influence of Roscoe Conkling, at the 
National Republican Convention held at 
Chicago in June, 1880, when James A. Gar- 
field was placed at the head of the ticket. 
Both the convention and the campaign that 
followed were noisy and exciting. The 
friends of Grant, constituting nearly half 



the convention, were exceedingly persist- 
ent, and were sorely disappomted over 
their defeat. At the head of the Demo- 
cratic ticket was placed a very strong and 
popular man ; yet Garfield and Arthur were 
elected by a respectable plurality of the 
popular vote. The 4th of March following, 
these gentlemen were accordingly inaugu- 
rated ; but within four months the assassin's 
bullet made a fatal wound in the person of 
General Garfield, whose life terminated 
September 19, 1881, when General Arthur, 
ex officio, was obliged io take the chief 
reins of government. Some misgivings 
were entertained by many in this event, as 
Mr. Arthur was thought to represent espe 
cially the Grant and Conkling wing of the 
Republican party ; but President Arthur 
had both the ability and the good sense to 
allay all fears, and he gave the restless, 
critical American people as good an ad- 
ministration as they had ever been blessed 
with. Neither selfishness nor low parti- 
sanism ever characterized any feature of 
his public service. He ever maintained a 
high sense of every individual right as well 
as of the Nation's honor. Indeed, he stood 
so high that his successor, President Cleve- 
land, though of opposing politics, expressed 
a wish in his inaugural address that he 
could only satisfy the people with as good 
an administration. 

But the day of civil service reform had 
come in so far, and the corresponding re- 
action against " third-termism" had en- 
croached so far even upon "second-term" 
service, that the Republican party saw fit 
in 1884 to nominate another man for Presi- 
dent. Only by this means was General 
Arthur's tenure of office closed at Wash- 
ington. On his retirement from the Presi- 
dency, March, 1885, lie engaged in the 
practice of law at New York City, where he 
died November 18, 1886. 




^^ ^.^^ <r>i^^^--f 



alio VER CI. E VEL A ND. 












^S^ 






^. 






i'^> 




ROVER CLEVE- 
LAND, the twenty- 
second President of the 
I'liited States, 1885—, 
was born in Caldwell, 
Essex County, New 
Jersey, March 18, 
The house in which he 
was boin, a small two-story 
•^$jfX^- ■ wooden building, is still stand- 
^^Se^^^-^ ^"rt- ^^ ^^'-^s the parsonage of 
the Presbyterian church, of 
which his lather, Richard 
Cleveland, at the time was 
pastor. The family is of New 
England origin, and for two centuries has 
contributed to the professions and to busi- 
ness, men who have reflected honor on the 
name. Aaron Cleveland, Grover Cleve- 
land's great-great-grandfather, was born in 
Massachusetts, but subsequently moved to 
Philadelphia, where he became an intimate 
friend of Benjamin Franklin, at whose 
house he died. He left a large family of 
children, who in time married and settled 
in different parts of New England. A 
grandson was one of the small American 
force that fought the British at Bunker 
Hill. He served with gallantry through- 
out the Revolution and was honorably 
discharged at its close as a Lieutenant in 
the Continental army. Another grandson, 
William Cleveland (a son of a second Aaron 






Cleveland, who was distinguished as a 
writer and member of the Connecticut 
Legislature) was Grover Cleveland's grand- 
father. William Cleveland became a silver- 
smith in Norwich, Connecticut. He ac- 
quired by industry some property and sent 
his son, Richard Cleveland, the father of 
Grover Cleveland, to Yale College, where 
he graduated in 1824. During a year spent 
in teaching at Baltimore, Maryland, after 
graduation, he met and fell in love with a 
Miss Annie Neale, daughter of a wealthy 
Baltimore book publisher, of Irish birth. 
He was earning his own way in the world 
at the time and was unable to marry; but 
in three years he completed a course of 
preparation for the ministry, secured a 
church in Windham, Connecticut, and 
married Annie Neale. Subsequently he 
moved to Portsmouth, Virginia, where he 
preached for nearly two years, when he 
was summoned to Caldwell, New Jersey, 
where was born Grover Cleveland. 

When he was three years old the family 
moved to Fayetteville, Onondaga County, 
New York. Here Grover Cleveland lived 
until he was fourteen years old, the rugged, 
healthful life of a countr}' bo}-. His frank, 
generous manner made him a favorite 
among his companions, and their respect 
was won by the good qualities in the germ 
which his manhood developed. He at- 
tended the district school of the village and 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



was for a short time at the academy. His 
lather, however, belie%'ed that boys should 
be taught to labor at an early age, and be- 
fore he had completed the course of study 
at the academy he began to work in the 
village store at $50 for the first year, and the 
promise of $100 for the second year. His 
work was well done and the promised in- 
crease of pay was granted the second year. 

Meanwhile his father and family had 
moved to Clinton, the seat of Hamilton 
College, where his father acted as agent to 
the Presbyterian Board of Home Missions, 
preaching in the churches of the vicinit}'. 
Hither Grover came at his father's request 
shortly after the beginning of his second 
year at the Fayetteville store, and resumed 
his studies at the Clinton Academy. After 
three years spent in this town, the Rev. 
Richard Cleveland was called to the vil- 
lage church of Holland Patent. He had 
jireached here only a month when he was 
suddenly stricken down and died without 
an hour's warning. The death of the father 
left the family in straitened circumstances, 
as Richard Cleveland had spent all his 
salary of %\,ooo per year, which was not 
required for the necessary expenses of liv- 
ing, upon the education of his children, of 
whom there were nine, Grover being the 
fifth. Grover was hoping to enter Hamil- 
ton College, but the death of his father 
made it necessary for him to earn his own 
livelihood. For the first year (1853-4) ^e 
acted as assistant teacher and bookkeeper in 
the Institution for the Blind in New York 
City, of which the late Augustus Schell was 
for many years the patron. In the winter 
of 1854 he returned to Holland Patent 
where the generous people of that place, 
Fayetteville and Clinton, had purchased a 
home for his mother, and in the following 
spring, borrowing S-'5, he set out for the 
West to earn his living. 

Reaching Buffalo he paid a hasty visit to 
an uncle, Lewis F. Allen, a well-known 



stock farmer, living at Black Rock, a few 
miles distant. He communicated his plans 
to Mr. Allen, who discouraged the idea of 
the West, and finally induced the enthusi- 
astic boy of seventeen to remain with him 
and help him prepare a catalogue of blooded 
short-horn cattle, known as " Allen's Amer- 
ican Herd Book," a publication familiar to 
all breeders of cattle. In August, 1855, he 
entered the law office of Rogers, Bowen 
ct Rogers, at Buffalo, and after serving a 
few months without pay, was paid $4 a 
week — an amount barely sufficient to meet 
the necessary expenses of his board in the 
family of a fellow-student in Buffalo, with 
whom he took lodgings. Life at this time 
with Grover Cleveland was a stern battle 
with the world. He took his breakfast by 
candle-light with the drovers, and went at 
once to the office where the whole day was 
spent in work and study. Usually he re- 
turned again at night to resume reading 
which had been interrupted by the duties 
of the day. Gradually his employers came 
to recognize the ability, trustworthiness 
and capacity for hard work in their yoimg 
employe, and by the time he was admitted 
to the bar (1859) he stood high in their con- 
fidence. A year later he was made confi- 
dential and managing clerk, and in the 
course of three 3'ears more his salary had 
been raised to $1,000. In 1863 he was ap- 
pointed assistant district attorney of Erie 
Count}' by the district attorney, the Hon. 
C. C. Torrance. 

Since his first vote had been cast in 1858 
he had been a staunch Democrat, and until 
he was chosen Governor he always made 
it his duty, rain or shine, to stand at the 
polls and give out ballots to Democratic 
voters. During the first year of his term 
as assistant district attorne}', the Democrats 
desired especially to carry the Board of Su- 
pervisors. The old Second Ward in which 
he lived was Republican- ordinarily by 250 
majority, but at the urgent request of the 



!-< jI^SMSSSSi 



GRO VEli CL E VELA ND. 



party Grover Cleveland consented to be 
the Democratic candidate for Supervisor, 
and came within thirteen votes of an elec- 
tion. The three years spent in the district 
attorney's office were devoted to assiduous 
labor and the extension of his professional 
attainments. He then formed a law part- 
nership with the late Isaac V. Vanderpoel, 
ex-State Treasurer, under the firm name 
of Vanderpoel & Cleveland. Here the bulk 
of the work devolved on Cleveland's shoul- 
ders, and he soon won a good standing at 
the bar of Erie County. In i86g Mr. 
Cleveland formed a partnership with ex- 
Senator A. P. Laning and ex-Assistant 
United States District Attorney Oscar Fol- 
som, under the firm name of Laning, Cleve- 
land & Folsom. During these years he 
began to earn a moderate professional in- 
come; but the larger portion of it was sent 
to his mother and sisters at Holland Patent 
to whose support he had contributed ever 
since i860. He served as sheriff of Erie 
County, i87o-'4, and then resumed the 
practice of law, associating himself with the 
Hon. Lyman K. Bass and Wilson S. Bissell. 



The firm was strong and popular, and soon 
commanded a large and lucrative practice. 
Ill health forced the retirement of Mr. Bass 
in 1879, and the firm became Cleveland & 
Bissell. In 1881 Mr. George J. Sicard was 
added to the firm. 

In the autumn election of 1881 he was 
elected mayor of Buffalo by a majority of 
over 3,500 — the largest majority ever given 
a candidate for mayor — and the Democratic 
city ticket was successful, although the 
Republicans carried Buffalo by over 1,000 
majority for their State ticket. Grover 
Cleveland's administration as mayor fully 
justified the confidence reposed in him b}' 
the people of Buffalo, evidenced by the 
great vote he received. 

The Democratic State Convention me( 
at Syracuse, September 22, 1882, and nomi- 
nated Grover Cleveland for Governor 
on the third ballot and Cleveland was 
elected by 192,000 majoritv. In the fall of 
1884 he was elected President of the United 
States by about 1,000 popular majority, 
in New York State, and he was accordingly 
inaugurated the 4th of March following. 



u^ 




HISTORY OF INDIANA. 



^'^b^^^e^'^^t^:^?^^,^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



HISTORY OF INDIANA. 




w%'^mmm mmmmw^wm^ 



PREHISTORIC RACES. 




CIENTISTS have as- 
cribed to the Mound 
Builders varied origins, 
and though their diver- 
gence of opinion may for 
a time seem incompati- 
ble with a thorough in- 
^Cotigation of the subject, and 
tend to a confusion of ideas, no 
doubt wliatever can exist as to 
the comparative accuracy of 
conclusions arrived at by some 
of them. That this continent is 
co-existent with the world of 
the ancients cannot be ques- 
tioned; the results of all scien- 
tific investigations, down to the present time, 
combine to establish the fact of the co-exist- 
ence of the two continents. Historians and 
learned men differ as to the origin of the first 
inhabitants of the New World; the general 
conclusions arrived at are, that the ancients 
came from the east by way of Behring's 
Strait, subsequent to the confusion of tongues 
and dispersion of the inhabitants at the time 
of the construction of the Tower of Babel, 
1757 A. M. The ancient mounds and earth- 
works scattered over the entire continent tend 



to confirm the theory that the Mound Build- 
ers were people who had been engaged in 
raising elevations prior to their advent upon 
this continent. They possessed religious 
orders corresponding, in external show, at 
least, with the Essenes or Theraputse of the 
pre-Christian and Christian epochs, and to 
the reformed Therapntte, or monks, of the 
present. 

Every memento of their coming and their 
stay which has descended to us is an evidence 
of their civilized condition. 

The free copper found within the tumuli, 
the open veins of the Superior and Iron 
Mountain copper mines, with all the imple- 
ments of ancient mining, such as ladders, 
levers, chisels and hammer-heads, discovered 
by the explorers of the Northwest and the 
Mississippi, are conclusive proofs that these 
prehistoric people were highly civilized, and 
that many flourishing colonies were spread 
throughout the Mississippi Valley. 

Within the last few years great advances 
have been made toward the discovery of an- 
tiquities, whether pertaining to remains of 
organic or inorganic nature. Together with 
many small but telling relics of the early 
inhabitants of the country, the fossils of pre- 



HISTORY OF INDIANA. 



historic animals have been uneartlied from 
end to end of this continent, many of which 
are remains of enormous animals long since 
extinct. Many writers who have devoted 
their lives to the investigation of the origin 
of the ancient inhabitants of this continent, 
and from whence they came, have fixed a 
period of a second immigration a few centu- 
ries prior to the Christian era, and, imlike 
the first expeditions, to have traversed North- 
eastern Asia to its Arctic confines, then east 
to Behring's Strait, thus reaching the New 
World by the same route as the first immi- 
grants, and, after many years' residence in the 
North, pushed southward and commingled 
with and soon acquired the characteristics of 
the descendants of the first colonists. 

The Esquimaux of North America, the 
Sanioieds of Asia and the Laplanders of Eu- 
rope are supposed to be of the same family; 
and this supposition is strengthened by the 
affinity which exists in their languages. The 
researches of Humboldt have traced the Mex- 
icans to the vicinity of Behring's Strait; 
whence it is conjectured that they, as well as 
the Peruvians and other tribes, came origi- 
nally from Asia. 

Since this theory is accepted by most anti- 
quarians, there is every i-eason to believe that 
from the discovery of what jnay be termed 
an overland route to what was then consid- 
ered an eastern extension of that country, 
that the immigration increased annually until 
the new continent became densely populated. 
The ruins of ancient cities discovered in Mex- 
ico and South America prove that this conti- 
nent v>'as densely populated by a civilized peo- 
ple prior to the Indian or the Caucasian races. 

The valley of the Mississippi, and indeed 
the country from the trap rocks of the Great 
Lakes southeast to the Gulf and southwest 
to Mexico, abound in monumental evidences 
of a race of people much further advanced 



in civilization than the Montezumas of the 
sixteenth century. 

The remains of walls and fortifications 
found in Ohio and Indiana, the earth-works 
of Yincennes and throughout the valley of 
the Wabash, the mounds scattered over the 
several Southern States, also in Illinois, Min- 
nesota and Wisconsin, are evidences of t!ie 
advancement of the people of that day toward 
a comparative knowledge of man and cosmol- . 
ogy. At the mouth of Fourteen-mile Creek, 
in Clark County, Indiana, there stands one of 
these old monuments, known as the " Stone 
Fort." It is an unmistakable heir-loom of a 
great and ancient people, and must have 
formed one of their most important posts. 

In Posey County, on the Wabash, ten miles 
from its junction with the Ohio River, is 
another remarkable evidence of the great 
numbers once inhabiting that country. This 
is known as the " Bone Bank," on account of 
the human bones continually washed out from 
the river bank. This process of unearthing 
the ancient remains has been going on since 
the remembrance of the earliest white settler, 
and various relics of artistic wares are found 
in that portion of Indiana. Another great 
circular earth- work is found near New Wash- 
ington, and a stone fort near the village of 
Deputy. 

Yigo, Jasper, Sullivan, Switzerland and 
Ohio counties can boast of a liberal endow- 
ment of works of antiquity, and the entire 
State of Indiana abounds with numerous rel- 
ics of the handiwork of the extinct race. 
Many of the ancient and curiously devised 
implements and wares are to be seen in the 
State Museum at Indianapolis. 

The origin of the red men, or American 
Indians, is a subject which interests all read- 
ers. It is a favorite with the ethnologist, 
even as it is one of deep concern to the ordi- 
nary reader. 



HISTORY OF INDIANA. 



Tho difference of opinion concerning our 
aboriginals, among aiitliors M'ho Lave made a 
profound study of races, is both curious and 
interesting. 

Blunienbach treats tiiein as a distinct vari- 
ety of the human family. Dr. Latham ranks 
them among the Mongolidfe. Morton, Nott 
and Glidden claim for the red men a distinct 
origin. 

Dr. Robert Brown, our latest authority, 
gives them as of Asiatic origin, which is cer- 
tainly well sustained by all evidence which 
has thus far been discovered bearing upon the 
question. 

Differences arising among communities 
produced dissensions, which tended to form 
factions and tribes, which culminated in wars 
and gradual descent from a state of civiliza- 
tion to that of barbarism. 

The art of hunting not only supplied the 
Indian with food, but, like that of war, was 
a means of gratifying his love of distinction. 
The male children, as soon as they acquired 
sufficient age and strength, were furnished 
with a bow and arrow, and taught to shoot 
birds and other small game. 

Their general councils were composed of 
the chiefs and old men. When in council 
they usually sat in concentric circles around 
the speaker, and each individual, notwith- 
standing the iiery passions that rankled within, 
preserved an exterior as immovable as if cast 
in bronze. Laws governing their councils 
were as strictly enforced and observed as are 
those of similar bodies among modern civil- 
ized and enlightened races. 

The dwellings of the Indians were of the 
simplest and rudest character. 

The dwellings of the chiefs were some- 
times more spacious, and constructed with 
greater care, but of the same materials, which 
were generally the barks of trees. 

Though principally depending on hunting 



for food, they also cultivated small patches of 
corn, the labor being performed by the women, 
their condition being little better than slaves. 

EXPLORATIONS BY TUE WHITES. 

The State of Indiana is bounded on the 
east by the meridian line which forms also 
the western boundary of Ohio, extending due 
north from the mouth of tho Great Miami 
River; on the south by the Ohio River, from 
the mouth of the Great Miami to the mouth 
of the Wabash; on the west by a line drawn 
along the middle of the Wabash River from 
its mouth to a point where a due north line 
from the town of Yincennes would last touch 
the shore of said river, and thence directly 
north to Lake Michigan; and on the north 
by said lake and an east and west line ten 
miles north of the extreme south end of the 
lake, and extending to its intersection with 
the aforesaid meridian, the west boundary of 
Ohio. These boundaries include an area of 
33,809 square miles, lying between 37° 47' 
and 41° 50' north latitude, and between 7° 
45' and 11° 1' west longitude from Wash- 
ington. 

After the discovery of America by Colum- 
bus, in 1492, more than 150 years passed 
before any portion of the territory now com- 
prised within the above limits was explored 
by Europeans. Colonies were established by 
rival European powers in Florida, Virginia 
and Nova Scotia, but not until 1670-'72 did 
the first white travelers venture as far into 
the Northwest as Indiana or Lake Michigan. 

These explorers were Frenchmen by the 
names of Claude Allouez and Claude Dablon, 
who probably visited that portion of the State 
north of the Kankakee River. In the fol- 
lowing year M. Joliet, an agent of the French 
Colonial Government, accompanied by James 
Marquette, a Catholic missionary, made an 
exploring trip as far westward as the Missis 



HISTORY OF INDIANA. 



sippi, the banks of wliicli they reached June 
17, 1673. 

In 1682 La Salle explored the West, but 
it is not known that he entered the region 
now embraced within the State of Indiana. 
He took formal possession of all the Missis- 
sippi region in the name of Louis, King of 
France, and called the country Louisiana, 
which included what is now the State of 
Indiana. At the same time Spain claimed 
all the country in the region of the Gulf of 
Mexico, thus the two countries became com- 
petitors for the extension of domain, and 
soon caused the several Indian tribes (who 
were actually in possession of the country) 
to take sides, and a continual state of warfare 
was the result. The Great Miami Confed- 
eracy ot Indians, the Miamis proper (an- 
ciently the Twightwees), being the eastern 
and most powerful tribe, their country ex- 
tended from the Scioto River west to the 
Illinois Hi ver. These Indians were frequently 
visited by fur traders and missionaries from 
both Catholic and Protestant creeds. The 
Five Nations, so called, were tribes farther 
east, and not connected with Indiana history. 

The first settlement made by the white 
man in the territory of the present State of 
Indiana was on tlie bank of the river then 
known as tlie Ouabache, the name given it 
by the French explorers, now the river 
Wabash. Francis Moi-gan de Vinsenne, who 
served in a military regiment (French) in 
Canada as early as 1720, and on the lakes in 
1725, first made his advent at Vincennes, 
possibly as early as 1732. Records show 
him there January 5, 1735 He -was killed 
in a war with the Chickasaw Indians in 1736. 
The town which he founded bore his name, 
Vinsenne, until 1749, when it was changed 
to Vincennes. 

Post Vincennes was certainly occupied 
prior to the date given by Vinsenne, as a 



letter from Father Marest, dated at Kas- 
kaskia, November 9, 1712, reads as follows: 
" The French have established a fort upon the 
river Wabash, and want a missionary, and 
Father Mermet has been sent to them," Mcr- 
met was therefore the first preacher of Chris- 
tianity stationed in this part of the world. 
Vincennes has ever been a stronghold of 
Catholicism. Contemporaneous with the 
church at Vincennes was a missionary work 
among the Ouiatenons, near the mouth of 
the Wea River, which was of but sliort 
duration. 

NATIONAL POLICIES. 

The wars in which France and England 
were .engaged, from 1680 to 1697, retarded 
the growth of the colonies of those nations 
in North America. The English, jealous of 
the French, resorted to all available means to 
extend their domain westward, the French 
equally active in pressing their claims east- 
ward and south. Both sides succeeded in 
securing savage allies, and for many years 
the pioneer settlers were harrassed and cruelly 
murdered by the Indians who were serving 
the purposes of one or the other contending 
nations. 

France continued her effort to connect 
Canada with the Gulf of Mexico by a chain 
of trading-posts and colonies, which increased 
the Jealousy of England and laid the founda- 
tion for the French and Indian M-ar. 

This war was terminated in 1763 by a 
treaty at Paris, by which France ceded 'to 
Great Britain all of North America east of 
the Mississippi except New Orleans and the 
island on which it is situated. 

The British policy, after getting entire 
control of the Indiana territory, was still 
unfavorable to its growth in population. In 
1765 the total number of French families 
within the limits of the Northwestern Terri- 



Bistort of Indiana. 



tory did not exceed 600. These were iu 
Bettlements about Detroit, along the river 
Wabash, and the neigliborhood of Fort Char- 
tres on the Mississippi. 

Of these families, eighty-five resided at 
Post Vincennes, fourteen at Fort Ouiatenon, 
on the AYabash, and ten at the confluence of 
tlie St. Mary and St. Joseph rivers. 

The colonial policy of the British Govern- 
ment opposed any measures which might 
strengthen settlements in the interior of this 
country, lest they become self-supporting and 
independent of tlie mother country. 

Thomas Jefferson, the shrewd statesman 
and then Governor of Virginia, saw from the 
first that actual occupation of western lands 
was the only way to keep them out of the 
hands of foreigners and Indians. 

He accordingly engaged a scientific corps, 
and sent them to the Mississippi to ascertain 
the point on that river intersected by latitude 
36° 30', the southern limit of the State, and 
to measure its distance to the Ohio. He 
entrusted the military operations in that 
quarter to General Clark, with instructions 
to select a strong position near the point 
named, and erect a fort, and garrison the same, 
for protecting the settlers, and to extend his 
conqiiests northward to the lakes. Conform- 
ing to instructions, General Clark erected 
" Fort Jefferson," on the Mississippi, a few 
miles above the southern limit. 

The result of these operations was the 
addition to Virginia of the vast Northwestern 
Territory. The simple fact that a chain of 
forts was established by the Americans iu 
this vast region, convinced the British Com- 
missioners that we had entitled ourselves to 
the land. 

During this time other minor events were 
transpiring outside the territory in question, 
wliich subsequently promoted the early set- 
tling of portions of Indiana. 



On February 11, 1781, a wagoner named 
Irvin Hinton was sent from Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, to Ilarrodsburg for a load of provi- 
sions. 

Two young men, Richard Rue and George 
Holman, aged respectively nineteen and six- 
teen years, accompanied Hinton as guards. 
When eight miles from Louisville they were 
surprised and captured by the renegade white 
man, Simon Girty, and twelve Indian war- 
riors. They were marched hurriedly for 
three days through deep snow, when they 
reached the Indian village of Wa-proc-ca- 
nat-ta. Hinton was burned at the stake. Rue 
and Holman were adopted in the trilie, and 
remained three years, when Rue made his 
escape, and Holman, about the same time, 
was ransomed by relatives in Kentucky. The 
two men were the first white men to settle 
in Wayne County, Indiana, where they lived 
to a good old age, and died at their homes 
two miles south of Richmond. 

EXPEDITIONS OF COLONEL GEORGE ROGERS 
CLARK. 

In the spring of 1776 Colonel George 
Rogers Clark, a native of Virginia, who 
resided in Kentucky at the above date, con- 
ceived a plan of opening up and more rapidly 
settling the great Northwest. That portion 
of the West called Kentucky was occupied by 
Henderson & Co., who pretended to own the 
land, and held it at a high price. Colonel 
Clark wished to test the validity of their 
claim, and adjust the government of the 
country so as to encourage Immigration. He 
accordingly called a meeting of the citizens 
at Harrodstown, to assemble June 6, 1776, 
and consider the claims of the company, and 
consult with reference to the interest of the 
country. 

The meeting was held on the day ap- 
pointed, and delegates elected to confer with 



lILSTOnr OF INDIANA. 






the State uf Virginia as to the propriety of 
attaching the new country as a county to 
that State. 

Many causes prevented a consummation 
of this object until 1778. Virginia was 
favorable to the enterprise, but would not 
take action as a State; but Governor Henry 
and a few other Virginia gentlemen assisted 
Colonel Clark all tliey could. Accordingly 
Clark organized his expedition. He took in 
stores at Pittsburg and Wheeling, and pro- 
ceeded down the Ohio to the " falls," where 
he constructed some light fortifications. 

At this time Post Vincennes comprised 
about 400 militia, and it was a daring under- 
taking for Colonel Clark, M-ith his small force, 
to go up against it and Kaskaskia, as he had 
planned. Some of his men, becoming alarmed 
at the situation, deserted him. 

He conducted himself so as to gain the 
sympathy of the French, and through them 
the Indians to some extent, as both these 
people were very bitter against the British, 
who had possession of the lake region. 

From the nature of the situation Clark 
concluded to take Kaskaskia first, which he 
did, and succeeded by kindness in winning 
them to his standard. It was difficult, how- 
ever, for him to induce the French to accept 
the Continental paper in payment for provi- 
sions. Colonel Vigo, a Frenchman who had 
a trading establishment there, came to the 
rescue, and prevailed upon the people to ac- 
cept the paper. Colonel Vigo sold coffee at 
$1 a pound, and other necessaries of life at 
an equally reasonable price. 

The post at Vincennes, defended by Fort 
Sackville, was the next and all-important 
position to possess. Father Gibault, of Kas- 
kaskia, who also had charge of the church 
at Vincennes, being friendly to the Amer- 
icans, used his influence with the people of 
the garrison, and wow them to Clark's stand- 



ard. They took the oath of allegiance to 
Virginia, and became citizens of the United 
States. Colonel Clark here concluded treaties 
with the several Indian tribes, and placed 
Captain Leonard Helm, an American, in 
command of Vincennes. On learning the 
successful termination of Clark's exjjedition, 
the General Assembly of Virginia declared 
all the settlers west of the Ohio organized 
into a county of that State, to be known as 
" Illinois '• County ; but before the provisions 
of the law could be made effective, Henry 
Hamilton, the British Lieutenant-Governor 
of Detroit, collected an army of thirty regu- 
lars, fifty French volunteers and 400 Indians, 
and moved upon and took Post Vincennes in 
December, 1778. Captain Helm and a man 
named Henry were the only Americans at 
the fort, the only members of the garrison. 
Captain Helm was taken prisoner, and tlie 
French disarmed. 

Colonel Clark was at Kaskaskia when he 
learned of the capture of Vincennes, and de- 
termined to retake the place. He gathered 
together what force he could (170 men), and 
on the 5th of February started from Kas- 
kaskia, and crossed the river of that name. 
The weather was wet, and the lowlands cov- 
ered with water. He had to resort to shoot- 
ing such game as chanced to be found to 
furnish provisions, and use all the ingenuity 
and skill he possessed to nerve his little force 
to press forward. He waded tlie water and 
shared all the hardships and privations with 
his men. They reached the Little Wabash 
on the 13th. The river was overflowing the 
lowlands from recent rains. Two days were 
here consumed in crossing the stream. The 
succeeding days they marched through water 
much of the time, reaching the Big Wabash 
on the night of the 17th. The 18th and 
19th were consumed trying to cross tlie river. 
Finally canoes were constructed, and the 



,_™___,': 

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=^^i 



BiStOnt OF INDtAHA. 



entire iorco crossed the main stream, but to 
iind the lowlands under water and consider- 
able ice formed from recent cold. His men 
mutinied and refused to proceed. All the 
persuasions of Clark had no effect upon the 
half-starved, and half-frozen, soldiers. 

In one company was a small drummer boy, 
and also a Sergeant who stood six feet two 
inches in socks, and stout and athletic. He 
■was devoted to Clark. The General mounted 
the little drummer on the shoulders of the 
Sergeant, and ordered him to plunge into the 
water, half-frozen as it was. He did so, the 
little boy beating the charge from his lofty 
position, while Clark, sword in hand, fol- 
lowed them, giving the command as he threw 
aside the floating ice, " Forward." The efl'ect 
v.-as electrical; the men hoisted their guns 
above their heads, and plunged into the water 
and followed their determined leader. On 
arriving within two miles of the fort, General 
Clark halted his little band, and sent in a 
letter demanding a surrender, to which he 
received no reply. He next ordered Lieu- 
tenant Bayley with fourteen men to advance 
and fire on the fort, while the main body 
moved in another direction and took posses- 
sion of the strongest portion of the town. 
Clark then demanded Hamilton's surrender 
immediately or he would be treated as a 
murderer. Hamilton made reply, indignantly 
refusing to surrender. After one hour more 
of fighting, Hamilton proposed a truce of 
three days. Clark's reply was, that nothing 
would be accepted but an unconditional sur- 
render of Hamilton and the garrison. In 
less than an hour Clark dictated the terms of 
sui'render, February 24, 1779. 

Of this expedition, of its results, of its 
importance, as well as of the skill and bravery 
of those engaged in it, a volume would not 
suffice for the details. 

This expedition and its gifrantic results 




has never been surpassed, if equalled, in 
modern times, when we consider that by 
it the whole territory now included in the 
three great States of Indiana, Illinois and 
Michigan was added to the Union, and so 
admitted by the British Commissioners to 
the treaty of peace in 1783. But for the 
results of this expedition, our western bound- 
ary would have been the Ohio instead of the 
Mississippi. When we consider the vast 
area of territory embracing 2,000,000 people, 
the human mind is lost in the contemplation 
of its eflects; and we can but wonder that a 
force of 170 men, the whole number of Clark's 
troops, should by this single action have pro- 
duced such important results. 

General Clark reinstated Captain Helm in 
command of Vincennes, with instructions to 
subdue the marauding Indians, which he did, 
and soon comparative quiet was restored on 
Indiana soil. 

The whole credit of this conquest belongs 
to General Clark and Colonel Francis Vigo. 
The latter was a Sardinian by birth. He 
served for a time in the Spanish army, but 
left the army and engaged in trading with the 
Indians, and attained to great popularity and 
influence among them, as well as making 
considerable money. He devoted his time, 
influence and means in aid of the Clark 
expedition and the cause of the United States. 

GOVERNMENT OF THE NORTHWEST. 

Colonel John Todd, Lieutenant for the 
County of Illinois, visited Vincennes and 
Ivaskaskia in the spring of 1779, and organ- 
ized temporary civil government. He also 
proceeded to adjust the disputed land claim. 
With this view he organized a court of civil 
and criminal jurisdiction at Vincennes. This 
court was composed of several magistrates, 
and presided over by Colonel J". M. P. Legras, 
who was then commander of the post. 



al»B*HJaiSgK'l 



.■i^B,a,Mi iM,M»«, i i „ g_B»ig.i» « »»» «« « »«»«W i ia » M Mg« BagH*aBB=as«JgSJ! 



130 



EI8T0RT OF INDIANA. 



This court, from precedent, began to grant 
lands to the French and American inhabitants. 
Forty -eight thousand acres had been disposed 
of in this manner up to 1787, when the prac- 
tice was proliibited by General Ilarmar. 

In the fall of 1780 La Balma, a French- 
man, made an attempt to capture the British 
garrison of Detroit by leading an expedition 
against it from Kaskaskia. 

He marched with his small force to the 
Britisli trading-post at the head of the Mau- 
mee, where Fort Wayne now stands, plun- 
dered the British traders and Indians, and 
retired. While in camp on his retreat, he 
was attacked by a bandof Miamis; a number 
of his men were killed, and the expedition 
was ruined. In this manner war continued 
between the Americans and their enemies 
until 1783, when the treaty of Paris was 
c'onchided, resulting in the establishment of 
the independence of the United States. 

Up to this time the Indiana territory be- 
longed by conquest to the State of Virginia. 

In January, 1783, the General Assembly 
of that State resolved to cede the territory to 
the United States. The proposition made by 
Virginia was accepted by the United States, 
and the transfer confirmed early in 1784. The 
conditions of the transfer of the territory 
fo the United States were, that the State of 
Virginia should be reimbursed for all expen- 
ditures incurred in exploring and protecting 
settlers in the territory ; that 150,000 acres 
of land should be granted to General Clark 
and his band of soldiers, who conquered the 
French and British and annexed the terri- 
tory to Virginia. 

After the above deed of cession had been 
accepted by Congress, in the spring of 1784, 
tlie matter of the future government of the 
territory was referred to a committee con- 
sisting of Messrs. Jefferson, of Virginia; 
Chase, of Maryland; and Howell, of Rhode 



Island; which committee, among other 
things, reported an ordinance prohibiting 
slavery in the territory after 1800, but this 
article of the ordinance was rejected. 

The ordinance of 1787 has an interesting 
history. Considerable controversy has been 
indulged in as to who is entitled to the credit 
of framing it. This undoubtedly belongs 
to Nathan Dane; and to Rufus King and 
Timothy Pickering belongs the credit for 
the clause prohibiting slavery contained in it. 

Mr. Jefferson had vainly tried to secure a 
system of government for the Northwestern 
Territory excluding slavery therefrom. The 
South invariably voted him down. 

In July, 1787, an organizing act without 
the slavery clause was pending, which was 
supposed would secure its passage. Congress 
was in session in New York. July 5 Eev. 
Manasseli Cutler, of Massachusetts, came to 
New York in the interest of some land spec- 
ulators in the Northwest Territory. lie was 
a graduate of Yale; had taken the degrees of 
the three learned professions — medicine, law 
and divinity. As a scientist, in America 
his name stood second only to that of 
Franklin. 

He was a courtly gentleman of the old 
style. He readily ingratiated himself into 
the confidence of Southern leaders. He 
wished to purchase 5,500,000 acres of land 
in the new Territory. Jefferson and his ad- 
ministration desired to make a record on the 
reduction of the public debt, and this was a 
rare opportunity. Massachusetts representa- 
tives could not vote against Cutler's scheme, 
ns many of their constituents were interested 
in the measure; Southern members M'ere 
already committed. Thus Cutler held the 
key to the situation, and dictated terms, 
which were as follows: 

1. The exclusion of slavery from the 
Territorv forever. 



HI8T0RT OF INDIANA. 



2. Providing one-tliirty-sixtli of all the 
land for public schools. 

3. Be it forever remembered that this 
compact declares that religion, morality and 
knowledge being necessary to good govern- 
ment and the liappiness of mankind, schools 
and the means of education shall always be 
encouraged. 

Dr. Cutler planted himself on this plat- 
form, and would not yield, stating that 
unless they could procure the lands under 
desirable conditions and surroundings, they 
did not want it. July 13, 1787, the bill 
became a law. Thus the great States of 
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wis- 
consin — a vast empire — were consecrated to 
freedom, intelligence and morality. 

October 5, 1787, Congress elected General 
Arthur St. Clair Governor of the JSTorth- 
western Territory. He assumed his official 
duties at Marietta, and at once proceeded to 
treat with the Indians, and organize a Terri- 
torial government. lie first organized a 
court at Marietta, consisting of three judges, 
himself being president of the court. 

The Governor with the judges then visited 
Kaskaskia, for the purpose of organizing civil 
government, liaving previously instructed Ma- 
jor Ilamtramck, at Vincennes, to present the 
policy of the new administration to the sev- 
eral Indian tribes, and ascertain their feelings 
in regard to acquiescing in the new order of 
things. They received the messenger with 
cool indifference, whicli, when reported to the 
Governor, convinced him that nothing short 
of military force would command compliance 
with the civil law. He at once proceeded to 
Fort Washington, to consult with General 
Harmar as to future action. In the mean- 
time he intrusted to the Secretary of the 
Territory, "Winthrop Sargent, the settlement 
of tlie disputed land claims, who found it an 
arduous task, and in his report states that 



he found the records had been so falsified, 
vouchers destroyed, and other crookedness, 
as to make it impossible to get at a just 
settlement, which proves that the abuse of 
public trust is not a very recent discovery. 

The General Court in 1790, acting Gov- 
ernor Sargent presiding, passed stringent 
laws prohibiting the sale of intoxicating liq- 
uors to Indians, and also to soldiers within 
ten miles of any military post; also prohib- 
iting any games of chance within the Terri- 
tory. 

Winthrop Sargent's administration was 
highly eulogized by the citizens. lie had 
succeeded in settling the disputed land ques- 
tion satisfactory to all concerned, had estab- 
lished in good order the machinery of a free, 
wise and good government. In the same ad- 
dress Major Hamtramck also received a fair 
share of praise for his judicious management 
of public affairs. 

The consultation of Governor St. Clair and 
General Harmar, at Fort Washington, ended 
in deciding to raise a large military force 
and thoroughly chastise the Indians about 
the head of the Wabash. Accordingly Vir- 
ginia and Pennsylvania were called upon for 
troops, and 1,800 men were mustered at Fort 
Steuben, and, with the garrison of that fort, 
joined the forces at Vincennes under Major 
Ilamtramck, who proceeded up the Wabash 
as far as the Vermillion River, destroying 
villages, but without finding an enemy to 
oppose him. 

General Harmar, with 1,150 men, marched 
from Fort Washington to the Maumee, and 
began punishing the Indians, but with little 
success. The expedition marched from Fort 
Washington September 30, and returned to 
that place November 4, having lost during 
the expedition 183 men killed and thirty- 
one wounded. 

General Harmar's defeat alarmed as well 



'.; 



■■■■■■■■■"■■■■■■■a 



133 



HISTORY OF INDIANA. 



as aroused the citizens in the frontier counties 
of Virginia. They reasoned that the sav- 
ages' success would invite an invasion of 
frontier Virginia. 

A memorial to this eft'ect M'as presented 
before the State General Assembly. This 
'memorial caused the Legislature to authorize 
tlie Governor to use such means as he might 
deera necessary for defensive operations. 

The Governor called upon the western 
counties of Virginia for militia; at the same 
time Charles Scott was appointed Brigadier- 
General of the Iventuchy militia, now pre- 
paring for defending their frontier. 

The proceedings of the Virginia Legisla- 
ture reaching Congress, that body at once 
constituted a board of war consisting of five 
men. March 9, 1791, General Knox, Secre- 
tary of War, wrote to General Scott recom- 
mending an expedition against the Indians 
on the AVabash. 

General Scott moved into the Indian set- 
tlements, reached the Wabash; the Indians 
principally fled before his forces. He de- 
stroyed many villages, killed thirty-two war- 
riors and took fifty-eight prisoners; the 
wretched condition of his hpj'scs prevented 
further pursuit. 

March 3, 1791, Congress invested Govern- 
or St.Clair with the command of 8,000 troops, 
and he was instructed by the Secretary of 
War to march to the Miami village and es- 
tablish a strong and permanent military post 
there. The Secretary of War gave him strict 
orders, that after establishing a permanent 
base at tlie Miami village, he seek the enemy 
Mith all his available force and make them 
feel the eftects of the superiority of the whites. 

Previous to marching a strong force to the 
]\nami town, Governor St. Clair, June 25, 
1791, authorized General Wilkinson, with 
500 mounted men, to move against the In- 
dians on the Wabash. General Wilkinson 



reported the results of this expedition as fol- 
lows: " I have destroyed the chief town of 
the Ouiatenon nation, and have made prisoners 
of the sons and sisters of the King; I have 
burned a Kickapoo village, and cut down 
400 acres of corn in the milk." 

EXPEDITIONS OF ST. CLAIR AND WAYNE. 

The Indians had been seriously damaged 
by Harmar, Scott and Wilkinson, but were 
far from subdued. The British along the 
Canada frontier gave them much encourage- 
ment to continue the warfare. 

In September, 1791, St. Clair moved from 
Fort Washington with a force of 2,000 men 
and a number of pieces of artillery, and No- 
vember 3 he reached the headwaters of the 
Wabash, where Fort Recovery was afterward 
erected, and here the army camped, consist- 
ing of 1,400 effective men ; on the morning 
of November 4 the army advanced and en- 
gaged the Indians 1,200 strong. 

The Americans were disastrously defeated, 
having thirty-nine officers and 539 men 
killed and missing, twenty-two officers and 
232 men wounded. Several pieces of artil- 
lery and all their provisions fell into the 
hands of the Indians; estimated loss in prop- 
erty, S32,000. 

Although no particular Llame was attached 
to Governor St. Clair for the loss in his ex- 
pedition, yet he resigned the office of Major- 
General, and was succeeded by Anthony 
Wayne, a distinguished officer of the Revo- 
lutionary war. 

General Wayne organized his forces at 
Pittsburg, and in October, 1793, moved west- 
ward from that jioint at the head of an army 
of 3,600 men. 

He proposed an offensive campaign. The 
Indians, instigated by the British, insisted 
that the Ohio River should be the boundary 
between their lands and the lands of the 



HISTORY OF 1X1)1 AS. 



133 



United States, and were sure tliey could 
niaintain that line. 

General Scott, of Kentucky, joined General 
Wayne with 1,600 mounted men. They 
erected Fort Defiance at the mouth of the 
Auglaize Eiver. August 15 the army 
moved toward the British fort, near the 
rapids of the Maumee, where, on the morn- 
ing of August 20, they defeated 2,000 
Indians and British almost within range of 
the guns of the fort. About 900 American 
troops were actually engaged. The Ameri- 
cans lost thirty-three killed and 100 wound- 
ed, tlie enemy's loss being more than double. 
AVayne remained in that region for three 
days, destroying villages and crops, then re- 
turned to Fort Defiance, destroying every- 
thing pertaining to Indian subsistence for 
many n;iles on cacli side of his route. 

September 14, 1794, General Wayne 
moved his army in the direction of tlie de- 
serted Miami villages at the confluence of 
St. Joseph's and St. Mary's rivers, arriving 
October 17, and on the following day the 
site of Fort Wayne was selected. The fort was 
completed November 22, and garrisoned by 
a strong detachment of infantry and artillery 
commanded by Colonel John F. Hamtramck, 
who gave to the new fort the name of Fort 
Wayne. General Wayne soon after con- 
cluded a treaty of peace with the Indians at 
Greenville, in 1795. 

ORGANIZATION OF INDIANA TEEEITOEY. 

On the final success of American arms and 
diplomacy in 1796, the principal town within 
the present State of Indiana was Vincennes, 
which comprised fifty houses, presenting a 
thrifty appearance. Besides Yincennes there 
was a small settlement near where Law- 
renceburg now stands. There were several 
other small settlements and trading-posts in 
the present limits of Indiana, and the num- 



ber of civilized inhabitants in the Territory 
was estimated at 4,875. 

The Territory of Indiana was organized by 
act of Congress, May 7, 1800, the material 
features of the ordinance of 1787 remaining 
in force, and the inhabitants were invested 
with all the rights and advantages granted 
and secured by that ordinance. 

The seat of government was fixed at Yin- 
cennes. May 13, 1800, William Henry Har- 
rison, a native of Yirginia, was appointed 
Governor, and John Gibson, of Pennsylvania, 
Secretary of the Territory ; soon after Will- 
iam Clark, Henry Yanderburg and John 
Griffin were appointed Territorial Judges. 

Governor Harrison arrived at Yincennes 
January 10, 1801, when he called together 
the Judges of the Territory to pass such laws 
as were deemed necessary for the new govern- 
ment. This session began March 3, 1801. 

From this time to 1810, the principal sub- 
jects which attracted the citizens of Indiana 
were land speculations, the question of Afri- 
can slavery, and the hostile views and pro- 
ceedings of the Shawnee chief, Tecumseh, 
and his brother, the Prophet. 

Up to this time the Sixth Article of the 
ordinance of 1787, prohibiting slavery, had 
been somewhat neglected, and many French 
settlers still held slaves; many slaves were 
removed to the slave-holding States. A ses- 
sion of delegates, elected by a popular vote, 
petitioned Congress to revoke the Sixth Ar- 
ticle of the ordinance of 1787. Congress 
failed to grant this, as well as many other 
similar petitions. When it appeared from the 
result of a popular vote in the Territory, that a 
majority of 138 were in favor of organizing a 
General Assembly, Governor Harrison, Sep- 
tember 11, 1804, issued a proclamation, and 
called for an election to be held in the several 
counties of the Territory, January 3, 1805, 
to choose members of a House of Represent- 



Hl.sTOiil- 0/ lNt)lANA. 



\\\ 



ativcs, who should meet at Yincennes Feb- 
ruary 1. The delegates were elected, and 
assembled at the place and date named, and 
perfected plans for Territorial organization, 
and selected five men who should constitute 
the Legislative Council of the Territory. 

The first General Assembly, or Legisla- 
ture, met at Vincennes July 29, 1805. Tlie 
members constituting this body were Jesse 
B. Thomas, of Dearborn County; Davis 
Floyd, of Clark County; Benjamin Park 
and John Johnson, of Knox County; Shad- 
rach Bond and William Biggs, of St. Clair 
County, and George Fisher, of Piandolph 
County. 

July 30 the Governor delivered his first 
message to the Council and House of Repre- 
sentatives. Benjamin Park, who came from 
New Jersey to Indiana in 1801, was the first 
delegate elected to Congress. 

The Western Sun was the first newspaper 
published in Indiana, first issued at Vin- 
cennes in 1803, by Elihu Stout, of Kentucky, 
and first called the Indiana Gazette, and 
changed to the Sun July 4, 1804. 

The total population of Indiana in ISIO 
was 24,520. There were 33 grist-mills, 14 
saw-mills, 3 horse-mills, 18 tanneries, 28 
distilleries, 3 powder-mills, 1,256 looms, 
1,350 spinning wheels. Value of woolen, 
cotton, liemp and flaxen cloths, $159,052; of 
cotton and woolen spun in mills, $150,000; 
of nails, 30,000 pounds, $4,000; of leather, 
tanned, $9,300; of distillery products, 35,950 
gallons, $16,230; of gunpowder, 3,600 pounds, 
$1,800; of wine from grapes, 96 barrels, 
. $6,000, and 50,000 pmnds of maple sugar. 
During the year 1810, a commission was 
engaged straightening out the confused con- 
dition of laud titles. In making their report 
they, as did the previous commissioners, 
made complaints of frauds and abuses by 
oificials connected with the land department. 



The Territory of Indiana was divided in 
1809, when the Territory of Illinois was 
erected, to comprise all that part of Indiana 
Territory west of the Wabash River, and a 
direct line drawn from that river and Vin- 
cennes due north to the territorial line be- 
tween the United States and Canada. For 
the first half century from the settlement of 
Vincennes the place grew slowly. 

Tlie commandants and priests governed 
with almost absolute power; the whites lived 
in peace with the Indians. 

The necessaries of life were easily pro- 
cured ; tliere was nothing to stimulate energy 
or progi-ess. In such a state of society there 
was no demand for learning and science; few 
could read, and still fewer could write; they 
were void of public spirit, enterprise or 
ingenuity. 

OOVEENOK HARBISON AND THE INDIANS. 

Immediately after the organization of In- 
diana Territory, Governor Harrison directed 
his attention to settling the land claims of 
Indians. He entered into several treaties 
with the Indians, whereby, at the close of 
1805, the United States had obtained 46,000 
square miles of territory. 

In 1807 the Territorial statutes were re- 
vised. Under the new code, the crimes of 
treason, murder, arson and horse-stealing 
were made punishable by death; burglary, 
robbery, hog-stealing and bigamy were punish- 
able by whipping, fine and imprisonment. 

The Governor, in his message to the Leg- 
islature in 1806, expressed himself as believ- 
ing the peace then existing between tlie 
whites and the Indians was permanent. At 
the same time he alluded to the probability 
of a disturbance in consequence of enforce- 
ment of law as applying to tlie Indians. 

Altliough treaties with the Indians defined 
boundary lines, the whites did not strictly 



1 



HISTORY OF INDIANA. 



observe them. They trespassed on the In- 
dian's reserved rights, and thus gave hira just 
groTinds for his continuous complaints from 
1805 to 1810. This agitated feeling of the 
Indians was utilized by Law-le-was-i-kaw, a 
brother of Tecnmseh, of the Shawnee tribe. 

He was a warrior of great renown, as well 
as an orator, and had an unlimited influence 
among the several Indian tribes. 

He used all means to concentrate the com- 
bined Indian strength to annihilate the 
whites. Governor Harrison, realizing the 
progress this Prophet was making toward 
opening hostilities, and hoping by timely 
action to check the movement, he, early in 
1808, sent a speech to the Shawnees in 
which he advised the people against being 
led into danger and destruction by the 
Prophet, and informed them that warlike 
demonstrations must be stopped. 

Governor. Harrison, Tecnmseh and the 
Prophet held several meetings, the Governor 
charging them as being friends of the British, 
they denying the charge and protesting 
against the farther appropriation of their 
lands. 

Governor Harrison, in direct opposition to 
their protest, continued to extinguish Indian 
titles to lands. 

While the Indians were combining to pre- 
vent any further transfer of lands to the 
whites, the British were actively preparing 
to use them in a war against the Americans. 

Governor Harrison, anticipating their de- 
signs, invited Tecnmseh to a council, to talk 
over grievances and try to settle all differ- 
ences without resort to arms. 

Accordingly, August 12, 1810, Tecumseh, 
with seventy warriors, marched to the Gov- 
ernor's house, where several days were spent 
without any satisfactory settlement. On the 
20th, Tecumseh delivered his celebrated 
speech, in which he gave the Governor the 



alternative of returning their lands or meet- 
ing them in battle. In his message to the 
Legislature of 1810, the Governor reviewed 
the dangerous attitude of the Indians toward 
the whites as expressed by Tecumseh. In 
the same message he also urged the establish- 
ment of a system of education. 

In 1811 the British agent for Indian af- 
fairs adopted measures calculated to secure 
the Indians' support in a war which at this 
time seemed inevitable. 

In the meantime Governor Harrison used 
all available means to counteract the British 
influence, as well as that of Tecumseh and the 
Prophet, with the Indians, but without suc- 
cess. 

The threatening storm continued to gather, 
receiving increased force from various causes, 
until the Governor, seeing war was the last 
resort, and near at hand, ordered Colonel 
Boyd's regiment to move to Vincennes, where 
a military organization was about ready to 
take the field. 

The Governor, at the head of this expedi- 
tion, marched from Vincennes September 26, 
and encamped October 3 near where Terre 
Haute now stands. Here they completed a 
fort on the 28th, which was called Ftirt Har- 
rison. This fort was garrisoned with a small 
number of men under Lieutenant Miller. 

Governor Harrison, with the main army, 
910 men, marched to the Prophet's town on 
the 29th, where a conference was opened, and 
the Indians plead for time to treat for peace; 
the Governor gave them until the following 
day, and retired a short distance; from the 
town and encamped for the night. The In- 
dians seemed only to be parleying in order to 
gain advantage, and on the morning of No- 
vember 7, at 4 o'clock, made a desperate 
charge into the camp of the Americans. For 
a few moments all seemed lost, but the troops 
soon realizing their desperate situation, fought 



with a determination equal to savages. The 
Americans soon routed their savage assail- 
ants, and thus ended the famous battle of 
Tippecanoe, victoriously to the whites and 
honorably to General Harrison. 

The Americans lost in this battle thirty- 
seven killed and twenty-five mortally wound- 
ed, and 126 wounded. The Indians left 
thirty -eight killed on the field, and their faith 
in the Prophet was in a measure destroyed. 
November 8 General Harrison destroyed the 
Prophet's town, and reached Vincennes on 
the 18th, where the army was disbanded. 

The battle of Tippecanoe secured peace 
but for a short time. The British continued 
their aggression until the United States de- 
clared war against them. Tecumseh had fled 
to Canada, and now, in concert with the Brit- 
ish, began inroads upon the Americans. 
Events of minor importance we pass here. 

In September, 1812, Indians assembled in 
large numbers in the vicinity of Fort Wayne 
with the purpose of capturing the garrison. 
Chief Logan, of the Shawnee tribe, a friend 
to the whites, succeeded in entering the fort 
and informing the little garrison that General 
Harrison was coming with a force to their 
relief, which nerved them to resist the furious 
savage assaults. 

September 6, 1812, Harrison moved with 
his army to the relief of Fort Wayne. Sep- 
tember 9 Harrison, with 3,500 men, camped 
near the fort, expecting a battle the follow- 
ing day. The morning of the 10th disclosed 
the fact that the enemy had learned of the 
strong force approaching and had disappeared 
during the previous night. 

Simultaneous with the attack on Fort 
Wayne the Indians also besieged Fort Har- 
rison, then commanded by Zachariali Taylor, 
and succeeded in destroying considerable 
property and getting away M-ith all the stock. 
About the same time the Indians massacred 



the inhabitants at the settlement of Pidgeon 
Hoost. 

The war now being thoroughly inaugurated, 
hostilities continued throughout the North- 
west between the Americans and the British 
and Indians combined. Engagements of 
greater or less magnitude were of almost 
daily occurrence, the victory alternating in 
the favor of one or the other party. 

The Americans, however, continued to hold 
the territory and gradually press back the 
enemy and diminish his numbers as well as 
his zeal. 

Thus the war of 1812 was waged until De- 
cember 24, 1814, when a treaty of peace was 
signed by England and the United States at 
Ghent, which terminated hostile operations 
in America and restored to the Indiana set- 
tlers peace and quiet, and opened the gates 
for immigration to the great and growing 
State of Indiana as well as the entire North- 
west. 

CIVIL MATTERS. 

The Legislature, in session at A'incennes 
February, 1813, changed the seat of govern- 
ment from Vincennes to Corydon. The same 
year Thomas Posey, who was at the time 
Senator in Congress, was appointed Governor 
of Indiana to succeed Governor Harrison, 
who was then commanding the army in the 
field. The Legislature passed several laws 
necessary for the welfare of the settlement, 
and General Harrison being generally suc- 
cessful in forcing the Indians back from the 
settlements, hope revived, and the tide of im- 
migration began again to flow. The total 
white population in Indiana in 1815 was es- 
timated at 63,897. 

GENERAL REVIEW. 

Notwithstanding the many rights and 
privileges bestowed upon tlie people of the 
Northwestern Territory by the ordinance of 



nisTonr of Indiana. 



1787. they were far from eiijo^-iiig a full 
form of republican government. A freehold 
estate of 500 acres of land was a necessary 
(junlification o become a member of the 
Legislative Council. Each member of the 
House of Representatives Wiis required to 
possess 200 acres of land; no man could cast 
a vote for a Representative but such as owned 
iifty acres of land. The Governor was in- 
vested with the power of appointing all civil 
and militia officers, judges, clerks, county 
treasurers, county surveyors, justices, etc. 
He had the power to apportion the Repre- 
sentatives in the several counties, and to 
convene and adjourn the Legislature at his 
pleasure, and prevent the passage of any 
Territorial law. 

In 1809 Congress passed an act empow- 
ering the people of Indiana to elect their 
Legislative Council by a popular vote; and 
in 1811 Congress abolished property qualifi- 
cation of voters, and declared that every free 
white male person who had attained to the 
age of twenty-one years, and paid a tax, 
should exercise the right of franchise. 

The Legislature of 1814 divided the Terri- 
tory into three judicial circuits. The Gov- 
ernor was empowered to appoint judges for 
the same, whose compensation should be 
S~00 jier annum. 

The same year charters were granted to 
two banking institutions, the Farmers' and 
Mechanics' Bank of Madison, authorized cap- 
ital 8750,000, and the Bank of Vincennes, 
$500,000. 

OKGANIZATION OF THE STATE. 

The last Territorial Legislature convened 
at Corydon, in December, 1815, and on the 
14th adopted a memorial to Congress, pray- 
ing for authority to adopt a Constitution 
and State Government. Mr. Jennings, their 
delegate in Congress, laid the matter before 



that body on the 28th; and April 19, 1810, 
the President approved the bill creating the 
State of Indiana. The following May an 
election was held for a Constitutional Con- 
vention, which met at Corydon June 15 to 
29, John Jennings presiding, and "William 
Hendricks acting as secretary. 

The people's representatives in this As- 
sembly were an able body of men, and the 
Constitution which they formed for Indiana 
in 1816 was not inferior to any of the State 
constitutions which were existing at that 
time. 

The first State election was held the first 
Monday of August, 1816, and Jonathan Jen- 
nings was elected Governor, Christopher 
Harrison, Lieutenant-Governor, and William 
Hendricks .was elected Representative to 
Congress. 

The first State General Assembly began 
its session at Corydon November 4, 1816, 
John Paul, Chairman of the Senate, and Isaac 
Blackford, Speaker of the House of Repre- 
sentatives. 

This session of the Legislature elected 
James Noble and Waller Taylor to the Sen- 
ate of the United States; Robert A. New, 
Secretary of State; W. II. Lilley, Auditor of 
State, and Daniel C. Lane, State Treasurer. 

The close of the war, 1814, was followed 
by a rush of immigrants to the new State, 
and in 1820 the State had more than doubled 
her population, having at this time 147,178. 
The period of 1825-'30 was a prosperous 
time for the young State. Immigration con- 
tinued rapid, the crops were generally good, 
and the hopes of the people raised higher 
than ever before. 

In 1830 there still remained two tribes of 
Indians in the State of Indiana, the Miamis 
and Pottawatomies, who were much 
to being removed to new territory. This 
state of discontent was used by the celebrated 




BISTORT OF INDIANA. 



warrior, Black Hawk, who, hoping to receive 
aid from the discontented tribes, invaded 
the frontier and slaughtered many citizens. 
Others fled from their homes, and a vast 
amount of property was destroyed, This 
was in 1832, and known as the Black Ilawk 
war. 

The invaders were driven away with severe 
punishment, and when those who had aban- 
doned their homes were assured that the 
Miamis and Pottawatomies did not contem- 
plate joining the invaders, they returned and 
again resumed their peaceful avocations. 

In 1837-'38 all the Indians were removed 
from Indiana west of the Mississippi, and 
very soon land speculations assumed large 
proportions in the new State, and many ruses 
were resorted to to bull and bear the market. 
Among other means taken to keep out specu- 
lators was a regular Indian scare in 1827. 

In 1814 a society of Germans, under Fred- 
erick Eappe, founded a settlement on the 
Wabash, tifty miles above its mouth, and 
gave to the place the name of Harmony. In 
1825 the town and a large quantity of land 
adjoining was purchased by Robert Owen, 
father of David Dale Owen, State Geologist, 
and of Robert Dale Owen, of later notoriety. 
Robert Owen was a radical philosopher, from 
Scotland. 

INDIANA IN THE MEXICAN WAE. 

During the administration of Governor 
Whitcomb, the United States became in- 
volved in the war with Mexico, and Indiana 
was prompt in furnishing her quota of vol- 
unteers. 

The soldiers of Indiana who served in this 
war were five regiments, First, Second, 
Third, Fourth and Fifth. Companies of the 
the three first-named regiments served at 
times with Illinois, New York and South 
Carolina troops, under General Shields. The 



other regiments, under Colonels Gorman and 
Lane, were under other commanders. 

The Fourth Regiment comprised ten com- 
panies; was organized at Jefl'ersonville, by 
Captain K. C.^Gatlin, June 5, 1847, and 
elected Major Willis A. Gorman, of the 
Third Regiment, Colonel; Ebenezer Du 
mont, Lieutenant-Colonel, and W. McCoy, 
Major. They were assigned to General Lane's 
command, and the Indiana volunteers made 
themselves a bright record in all the engage- 
ments of the Mexican war. 

INDIANA IN THE WAR FOR THE UNION. 

The fall of Fort Sumter was a signal for an 
uprising of the people, and the State of In- 
diana M-as among the first to respond to the 
summons of patriotism, and register itself on 
the national roll of honor. Fortunately for the 
State, she had a Governor at the time whose 
patriotism has seldom been equaled and 
never excelled. Governor Oliver P. Morton, 
immediately upon receiving the news of the 
fall of Sumter, telegraphed President Lin- 
coln, tendering 10,000 troops in the name ot 
Indiana for the defense of the Union. 

The President had called upon the several 
States for 75,000 men; Indiana's quota was 
4,683. Governor Morton called for six regi- 
ments April 16, 1861. 

Hon. Lewis Wallace, of Mexican war fame, 
was appointed Adjutant-General; Colonel 
Thomas Morris, Quartermaster-General, and 
Isaiah Mansur, of Indianapolis, Commissary- 
General. Governor Morton was also busy ar- 
ranging the finances of the State, so as to 
support the military necessities, and to his 
appeals to public patriotism he received 
prompt and liberal financial aid from public- 
spirited citizens throughout the State. On 
the 20th of April Major T. J. Wood arrived 
from Washington, to receive the troops then 
organized, and Governor Morton telegraphed 



BISTORT OF INDIANA. 



the President that he could place six regi- 
ments of infantry at the disposal of the Gov- 
ernment; failing to receive a reply, the 
Legislature, then in extra session, April 27, 
organized six new regiments for three 
months service, and notwithstanding the 
fact that the first six regiments were already 
mustered into the general service, were 
known as " The First Brigade Indiana Vol- 
unteers," and were numbered respectively: 
Sixth Eegiment, Colonel T. T. Crittenden; 
Seventh Regiment, Colonel Ebenezer Du- 
mont; Eighth Eegiment, Colonel W. P. Ben- 
ton; Ninth Eegiment, Colonel E. H. Milroy; 
Tenth Eegiment, Colonel T. T. Eeynolds; 
Eleventh Eegiment, Colonel Lewis Wallace. 
The idea of these numbers was suggested 
from the fact that Indiana was represented 
in the Mexican war by one brigade of five 
regiments, and to observe consecutiveness 
the regiments comprised in the first division 
of volunteers were thus numbered, and the 
entire force placed under the command of 
Brigadier-General T. A. Morris, with the 
following stafi": John Love, Major; Cyrus 
C. Hines, Aid-de-camp, and J. A. Stein, 
Assistant Adjutant-General. They rendered 
valuable service in the field, returned to In- 
dianapolis July 29, and the six regiments, 
with the surplus volunteers, now formed a 
division of seven regiments. All organized 
for three years, between the 20th of August 
and 20th of September, with the exception 
of the Twelfth, which was accepted for one 
year, under the command of Colonel John M. 
Wallace, and reorgaiiized May, 1862, for 
three years, under Colonel W. H. Link. The 
Thirteenth Eegiment, Colonel Jeremiah Sul- 
livan, was mustered into service in 1861, 
and assigned to General McClellan's com- 
mand. 

The Fourteenth Eegiment organized in 
1861, for one year, and reorganized soon 



thereafter for three years, commanded by 
Colonel Kimball. 

The Fifteenth Eegiment organized June 
14, 1861, at LaFayette, under Colonel G. D. 
Wagner. On the promotion of Colonel 
Wagner, Lieutenant-Colonel G. A. Wood be- 
came Colonel of the regiment in November, 
1862. 

The Sixteenth Eegiment organized, under 
P. A. Ilackleman, of Eichmond, for one 
year. Colonel Hackleman was killed at the 
battle of luka. Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas 
J. Lucas succeeded to the command. The 
regiment M-as discharged in Washington, D. 
C, in May, 1862; reorganized at Indianapo- 
lis May 27, 1862, for three years, and par- 
ticipated in the active military operations 
until the close of the war. 

The Seventeenth Eegiment was organized 
at Indianapolis June 12, 1861, under Colonel 
Hascall, who was promoted to Brigadier- 
General in March, 1862, when the command 
devolved on Lieutenant-Colonel John T. 
Wilder. 

The Eighteenth Eegiment was organized 
at Indianapolis, under Colonel Thomas Pat- 
terson, August 16, 1861, and served under 
General Pope. 

The Nineteenth Eegiment organized at 
Indianapolis July 29, 1861, and was assigned 
to the Army of the Potomac, under Colonel 
Solomon Meridith. It was consolidated with 
the Twentieth Eegiment October, 1864, under 
Colonel William Orr, formerly its Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel. 

The Twentieth Eegiment organized at La 
Fayette, for three years service, in July, 1861, 
and was principally engaged along the coast. 

The Twenty-first Eegiment was organized, 
under Colonel I. W. McMillan, July 24, 1861. 
This was the first regiment to enter New Or- 
leans, and made itself a lasting name by its 
various valuable services. 



HISTORY OF INDIANA. 



The Twenty-second Eegiraent, under Col- 
onel Jetf. C. Davis, joined General Fremont's 
Corps, at St. Louis, on the 17th of August, 
1861, and performed gallant deeds under Gen- 
eral Sherman in the South. 

The Twenty-third Battalion was organized, 
xinder Colonel W. L. Sanderson, at New Al- 
bany, July 29, 1861. From its unfortunate 
marine experiences before Fort Henry to 
Bentonville it M-on unusual honors. 

The Twenty-fourth Battalion was organ- 
ized, under Colonel Alvin P. Hovey, at Vin- 
cennes, July 31, 1861, and assigned to 
Fremont's command. 

The Twenty-fifth Regiment was organized 
at Evansville, for three years, under Colonel 
J. C. Yeach, August 26, 1861, and was en- 
gaged in eighteen battles during its term. 

The Twenty-sixth Battalion was organized 
at Indianapolis, under W. M. Wheatley, Sep- 
tember 7, 1861, and served under Fremont, 
Grant, Heron and Smith. 

The Twenty-seventh Regiment, under Col- 
onel Silas Colgrove, joined General Banks 
September 15, 1861, and was with General 
Sherman on the famous march to the sea. 

The Twenty-eighth Regiment, or First 
Cavalrj', was organized at Evansville August 
20, 1861, under Colonel Conrad Baker, and 
performed good service in the Virginias. 

The Twenty-ninth Battalion, of La Porte, 
under Colonel J. F. Miller, was organized in 
October, 1861, and M'as under Rousseau, 
McCook, Rosecrans and others. Colonel 
Miller was promoted to the rank of Brig- 
adier-General, and Lieutenant-Colonel D. M. 
Dunn succeeded to the command of the 
regiment. 

The Thirtieth Regiment, of Fort "Wayne, 
under Colonel Silas S. Bass, joined General 
Rousseau October 9, 1861. The Colonel re- 
ceived a mortal wound at Shiloh, and died 
a few days after. Lieutenant-Colonel J. B. 



Dodge succeeded to the command of the 
regiment. 

The Thirty-first Regiment organized at 
Terre Haute, under Colonel Charles Cruft, in 
September, 1861, and served in Kentucky 
and the South. 

The Thirty-second Regiment of German 
Infantry, under Colonel August Willich, or- 
ganized at Indianapolis August 24, 1861, and 
served with distinction. Colonel Willich was 
promoted to Brigadier-General, and Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Henry Yon Trebra succeeded to 
the command of the regiment. 

The Thirty-third Regiment, of Indianapo- 
lis,was organized, under Colonel John Coburn, 
September 16, 1861, and won a series of dis- 
tinctions throughout the war. 

The Tliirty-fourth Battalion organized at 
Anderson, under Colonel Ashbury Steele, 
September 16, 1861, and gained a lasting rep- 
utation for gallantry during the M-ar. 

The Thirty-fifth, or First Irish Regiment, 
oi'ganized at Indianapolis, under Colonel John 
C. Walker, December 11, 1861. On the 22d 
of May, 1862, it was joined by the Sixty- 
first, or Second Irish Regiment, when Colonel 
Mullen became Lientenant-Colonel of the 
Thirty-fifth, and soon after its Colonel. 

Tiie Thirty-sixth Regiment was organized, 
under Colonel William Grose, at Richmond, 
September 16, 1861, and assigned to the army 
of the Ohio. 

TheThirty-seventh Battalion was organized 
at Lawrenceburg, September 18, 1861, Col- 
onel George W. Ilazzard commanding, and 
was with General Sherman to the sea. 

The Thirty-eighth Regiment was organized 
at New Albany, under Colonel Benjamin F. 
Scribner, September 18, 1861. 

The Thirty-ninth Regiment, or Eighth 
Cavalry, was organized as an infantry 
regiment, under Colonel T. J. Harrison, 
at Indianapolis, August 28, 1861. In 



HISTORY OF INDIANA. 



1863 it was reorganized as a cavalry reg- 
iment. 

The Fortieth Eegiment was organized at 
La Fayette, under Colonel W. C. Wilson, 
December 30, 1861, and subsequently com- 
manded by Colonel J. W. Blake, and again 
by Colonel Henry Learning, and saw service 
with Buell's army. 

The Forty-first Eegiment, or Second Cav- 
alry, the tirst complete regiment of horse 
raised in the State, was organized at Indian- 
apolis, under Colonel John A. Bridgland, 
September 3, 1861; was with General Sher- 
man through Georgia, and with General 
"Wilson in Alabama. 

The Forty-second Regiment was organized 
at Evansville, under Colonel J. G. Jones, 
October 9, 1861, and participated in the 
Sherman campaign. 

The Forty-third Battalion was organized at 
Terre Haute, under Colonel George K. Steele, 
September 27, 1861, and assigned to Pope's 
army; was the first regiment to enter Mem- 
phis, and was with Commodore Foote at the 
reduction of Fort Pillow. 

The Forty-fourth Regiment was organized 
at Fort Wayne, under Colonel Hugh B. 
Reed, October 24, 1861, and attached to 
General Cruft's Brigade. 

The Forty-fifth, or Third Cavalry, was at 
difterent periods, 1861-'62, under Colonel 
Scott Carter and George H. Chapman. 

The Forty-sixth Regiment organized at 
Logansport, under Colonel Graham N. Fitch, 
in February, 1862, and was assigned to Gen- 
eral Pope's army, and served under Generals 
Sherman, Grant and others. 

The Forty-seventh Regiment was organized 
at Anderson, under Colonel I. R. Slack, early 
in October, 1862, and was assigned to Gen- 
eral Buell's army, thence to General Pope's. 
In December, 1864, Colonel Slack was 
promoted to Brigadier-General, and Colonel 



J. A. McLaughton succeeded to the command 
of the regiment. 

The Forty-eighth Regiment was organized 
at Goshen, under Colonel Norman Eddy, 
December, 6 1861, and made itself a bright 
name at the battle of Corinth. 

The Forty-ninth Regiment organized at 
Jeffersonville, under Colonel J. W. Ray, 
November 21, 1861, and first saw active ser- 
vice in Kentucky. 

The Fiftieth Regiment, under Colonel 
Cyrus L. Dunham, was organized at Sey- 
mour in September, 1861, and entered the 
service in Kentucky. 

The Fifty-first Regiment, under Colonel 
Abel D. Streight, was organized at Indian- 
apolis December 14, 1861, and immediately 
began service with General Buell. 

The Fifty-second Regiment was partially 
raised at Rushville, and completed at Indian- 
apolis by consolidating with the Railway 
Brigade, or Fifty-sixth Regiment, February 
2, 1862, and served in the several campaigns 
in the South. 

The Fifty- third Battalion was raised at 
New Albany, with the addition of recruits 
from Rockport, and made itself an endurable 
name under Colonel W. Q. Gresham. 

The Fifty-fourth Regiment organized at 
Indianapolis, under Colonel D. J. Rose, for 
three months, June 10, 1862, and was assigned 
to General Kirby Smith's command. 

The Fifty-fifth Regiment organized for 
three months, under Colonel J. R. Malion, 
June 16, 1862. 

The Fifty-sixth Regiment, referred to in 
the sketch of the Fifty-second, was designed 
to be composed of railroad men, under Col- 
onel J. M. Smith, but owing to many railroad 
men having joined other commands, Colonel 
Smith's volunteers were incorporated with 
the Fifty-second, and this number left blank 
in the army list. 



The Fifty-seventli Battalion was organized 
by two ministers of tlie gospel, the Eev. I. W. 
T. McMullen and Eev. F. A. Hardin, of 
Kichmond, Indiana, November 18, 1861, 
Colonel McMullen commanding. The regi- 
ment was severally commanded by Colonels 
Cyrus C. Haynes, G. W. Leonard, Willis 
Blanch and John S. McGrath. 

The Fifty-eiglith Kegiraent was organized 
at Princeton, under Colonel Henry M. Carr, 
in October, 1861, and assigned to General 
Buell's command. 

The Fifty-ninth Battalion was organized 
under Colonel Jesse I. Alexander, in Feb- 
ruary, 1862, and assigned to General Pope's 
command. 

The Sixtieth Eegiment Avas partially or- 
ganized at Evansville, under Lieutenant- 
Colonel Eichard Owen, in November, 1861, 
and perfected its organization at Camp Mor- 
ton in March, 1862, and immediately entered 
the service in Kentucky. 

The Sixty-first Eegiment was partially 
organized in December, 1861, under Colonel 
B. F. Mullen. Li May, 1862, it was incor- 
porated with the Thirty-fifth Eegiment. 

The Sixty-second Eegiment, raised under 
Colonel William Jones, of Eockport, was 
consolidated with the Fifty -third Eegi- 
ment. 

The Sixty-third Eegiment, of Covington, 
under Colonel James McManomy, was par- 
tially raised in December, 1861, and im- 
mediately entered upon active duty. Its 
organization was completed at Indianapolis, 
February, 1862, by six new companies. 

The Sixty-fourth Eegiment was organized 
as an artillery corps. The War Department 
prohibiting consolidating batteries, put a stop 
to the movement. Subsequently an infantry 
regiment bearing the same number was 
raised. 

The Sixty-fifth Eegiment, under Colonel 



J. W, Foster, completed its organization at 
Evansville, August, 1862. 

The Sixty-sixth Eegiment organized at 
New Albany, under Colonel Eoger Martin, 
August 19, 18.62, and entered the service 
immediately in Kentucky. 

The Sixty-seventh Eegiment was organ- 
ized in the Third Congressional District, 
under Colonel Frank Emerson, and report. "1 
for service at Louisville, Kentucky, in Au- 
gust, 1862. 

The Sixty-eighth Eegiment organized at 
Greenburg, under Major Benjamin C. Slia\\ , 
and entered the service August- 19, ISf. ,', 
under Colonel Edward A. King, with Maj-r 
Shaw as Lieutenant-Colonel. 

The Sixty-ninth Eegiment was organi:;<'i 
at Eichmond, under Colonel A. Bickle; v. : 
taken prisoners at Eichmond, Kentucl;; : 
when exchanged they reorganized in ISd'J, 
Colonel T. W. Bennett commanding. 

The Seventieth Eegiment was organized 
at Indianapolis, August 12, 1862, under 
Colonel B. Harrison, and at once marched to 
the front in Kentucky. 

The Seventy-first, or Sixth Cavalry, was 
an unfortunate regiment, organized at Terre 
Haute, under Lieutenant-Colonel Melville D. 
Topping, August 18, 1862. At the battle 
near Eichmond, Kentucky, Colonel Topping 
and Major Conklin, together with 213 men, 
were killed; 347 taken prisoners; only 225 
escaped. The regiment was reorganized un-' 
der Colonel I. Bittle, and was captured by 
the Confederate General Morgan on the 28th 
of December, same year. 

The Seventy-second Eegiment organized 
at La Fayette, under Colonel Miller, August 
17, 1862, and entered the service in Kentucky. 

The Seventy-third Eegiment, under Colo- 
nel Gilbert Hathaway, was organized at 
South Bend, August 16, 1862, and saw ser 
vice under Generals Eosecrans and Granger. 



Ui STORY OF INDIANA. 



Tlio Seventj-fourtli Regiment was par- 
tially organized at Fort Wayne, and com- 
pleted at Indianapolis, August 22, 1862, and 
repaired to Kentucky, under command of 
Colonel Charles W. Chapman. 

The Seventy-fifth Regiment was organized 
within the Eleventh Congressional District, 
and marched to the front, under Colonel I. 
W. Petit, August 21, 1862. 

The Seventy-sixth Battalion was organized 
for thirty days' service in Jiily, 1862, under 
Colonel James Gavin, of Newburg. 

The Seventy-seventh, or Fourth Cavalry, 
was organized at Indianapolis, August, 1862, 
under Colonel Isaac P. Gray, and carved its 
way to fame in over twenty battle-fields. 

The Seventy-ninth Regiment organized at 
Indianapolis, under Colonel Fred. Ivnefler, 
September 2, 1862, and performed gallant 
service until the close of the war. 

The Eightieth Regiment was organized 
within the First Congressional District, un- 
der Colonel C. Denby, August 8, 1862, and 
left Indianapolis immediately for the front. 

The Eighty-first Regiment, under Colonel 
W. "W". Caldwell, organized at New Albany, 
August 29, 1862, and was assigned to Gen- 
eral Buell's command. 

The Eighty-second Regiment, under Colo- 
nel Morton C. Hunter, organized at Madison, 
August 30, 1862, and immediately moved to 
the front. 

The Eighty-third Regiment, under Colo- 
nel Ben. J. Spooner, organized at Lawrence- 
burg, Sejjtember, 1862, and began duty on 
the Mississippi. 

The Eighty-fourth Regiment organized at 
Richmond, Indiana, September 8, 1862, Colo- 
nel Nelson Trusler commanding, and entered 
the field in Kentucky. 

The Eighty-fifth Regiment organized under 
Colonel John P. Bayard, at Terra Haute, 
September 2, 1862. and with Coburn's Bri- 



gade surrendered to the rebel General For- 
rest in March, 1863. 

The Eighty-sixth Regiment left La Fayette 
for Kentucky under Colonel Orville S. Ham- 
ilton August 26, 1862. 

The Eighty-seventh Regiment organized 
at South Bend, under Colonels Kline G. 
Sherlock and N. Gleason, and left Indianap- 
oplis for the front August 31, 1862, and was 
with General Sherman through Georgia. 

The Eighty-eighth Regiment organized 
within the Fourth Congressional District, 
under Colonel George Humphrey, and moved 
to the front August 29, 1862, and was pres- 
ent with General Sherman at the surrender 
of General Johnston's army. 

The Eighty-ninth Regiment organized 
within the Eleventh Congressional District, 
under Charles D. Murray, August 28, 1862. 

The Ninetieth Regiment, or Fifth Cavalry, 
organized at Indianapolis, under Colonel 
Felix W. Graham, August to November, 
1862, assembled at Louisville in March, 1863, 
and participated in twenty-two engagements 
during its term of service. 

The Ninety-first Battalion, under Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel John Mehringer, organized in 
October, 1862, at Evansville, and proceeded 
at once to the front. 

The Ninety -second Regiment failed to or- 
ganize. 

The Ninety-third Regiment, under Col- 
onel De "Witt C. Thomas, organized at Mad- 
ison October 20, 1862, and joined General 
Sherman's command. 

The Ninety-fourth and Ninety-fifth Regi- 
ments were only partially raised, and the 
companies were incorporated with other regi- 
ments. 

The Ninety-sixth Regiment could bring 
together but three companies, which were in- 
corporated with the Ninety-ninth at South 
Bend, and the number left blank. 



I 



;«; 



^^»g»g»«Mw*'M"Bi"i»«»ai"'^"'Hga5 



HISTORY OF INDIANA. 



The Kinety-seventh Kegiment organized 
at Terra Haute, under Colonel Kobert F. Cat- 
tersoii, September 20, 1861, and took position 
at the front near Memphis. 

The Ninety-eighth Eegiment failed to or- 
ganize, and the two companies raised were 
consolidated with the One Hundredth Regi- 
ment at Fort Wayne. 

The JSTinety-ninth Battalion organized in 
the Ninth Congressional District, under Col- 
onel Alex. Fawler, October 21, 1862, and 
operated with the Sixteenth Army Corps. 

The One Hundredth Regiment organized 
at Fort "Wayne, under Colonel Sanford J. 
Stoughton, and joined the army of the Ten- 
nessee November 26, 1862. 

The One Hundred and First Regiment 
was organized at Wabash, under Colonel 
William Garver, September 7, 1862, and im- 
mediately began active duty in Kentucky. 

The One Hundred and Second Regiment 
organized, under Colonel Benjamin F. Gregry, 
at Indianapolis, early in S\\\j, 1864. 

The One Hundred and Third Regiment 
comprised seven companies from the counties 
of Hendricks, Marion and Wayne, under Col- 
onel Lawrence S. Shuler. 

The One Hundred and Fourth Regiment 
was recruited from members of the Legion 
of Decatur, La Fayette, Madison, Marion and 
Rush counties, under Colonel James Gavin. 

The One Hundred and Fifth Regiment was 
formed from tlie Legion and Minute Men, 
furnished by Hancock, Union, Randolph, 
Putnam, Wayne, Clinton and Madison coun- 
ties, under Colonel Sherlock. 

The One Hundred and Sixth Regiment, 
under Colonel Isaac P. Gray, was organized 
from the counties of Wayne, Randolph, Han- 
cock, Howard and Marion. 

The One Hundred and Seventh Regiment 
was organized in Indianapolis, under Colonel 
De Witt C. Ruggs. 



The One Hundred and Eighth Regiment, 
under Colonel W.C.Wilson, was formed from 
the counties of Tippecanoe, Hancock, Car- 
roll, Montgomery and Wayne. 

The One Hundred and Ninth Regiment, 
under Colonel J. R. Malion, was composed of 
companies from La Porte, Hamilton, Miami 
and Randolph counties, Indiana, and from 
Coles County, Illinois. 

The One Hundred and Tenth Regiment 
was composed of companies from the counties 
of Henry, Madisun, Delaware, Cass and Mon- 
roe ; tliis regiment was not called into the field. 

The One Hundred and Eleventh Regiment, 
from Montgomery, La Fayette, Rush, Miami, 
Monroe, Delaware and Hamilton counties, 
under Colonel Robert Canover, was not called 
out. 

The One Hundred and Twelfth Regiment, 
under Colonel Hiram F. Brax, was formed 
from the counties of Lawrence, Washington, 
Monroe and Orange. 

The One Iliindred and Thirteenth Regi- 
ment, from the counties of Daviess, Martin, 
Washington and Monroe, was commanded by 
Colonel George W. Burge. 

The One Hundred and Fourteenth Regi- 
ment, under Colonel Lambertson, was wholly 
organized in Jolmson County. 

These twelve last-named regiments were 
organized to ineet an emergency, caused by 
the invasion of Indiana by the rebel General 
John Morgan, and disbanded when he was 
captured. 

The One Hundred and Fifteenth Regiment, 
under Colonel J. R. Mahon, was organized at 
Indianapolis August 17, 1863. 

The One Hundred and Sixteenth Regiment, 
under Colonel Charles Wise, organized Au- 
gust, 1863, and served in Kentucky. 

The One Hundred and Seventeenth Regi-- 
ment, under Colonel Thomas J. Brady, or- 
ganized at Indianapolis September 17, 1863. 



T^!^^'^^:zZ'^^'z^'^^!!^^^i^t !^^i^^i^'^^^z\ 



ni STORY OF INDIANA. 



Tlie One Hundred and Eigliteeuth Eegi- 
ment, under Colonel George W. Jackson, 
organized September 3, 1863. 

The One Hundred and Nineteenth Eegi- 
ment, or Seventh Cavalry, Avas organized, 
under Colonel John P. C. Shanks, in October, 
1SG3; made an endurable name on many 
fields of battle. Many of this regiment lost 
their lives on the ill-fated steamer Sultana. 

The One Hundred and Twentieth Eegi- 
ment was organized in April, 1864, and 
formed a portion of Erigadier-General Ho- 
vey's command. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-first Eegi- 
ment, or Ninth Cavalry, was organized at 
Indianapolis, under Colonel George W.Jack- 
son; this regiment also lost a number of men 
on the steamer Sultana. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-second 
Eegiment failing to organize, this number 
became blank. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-third Eegi- 
ment, uhder Colonel John C. McQuiston, 
perfected an organization in March, 1864, 
and did good service. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-fourth 
Eegiment, under Colonel James Burgess, 
organized at Eichmond March 10, 1864, and 
served under General Sherman. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Eegi- 
ment, or Tenth Cavalry, under Colonel T. M. 
Pace, completed its organization at Columbus, 
May, 1863, and immediately moved to the 
front. This regiment lost a number of men 
on the steamer Sultana. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-sixth Eegi- 
ment, or Eleventli Cavalry, organized at 
Indianapolis, nnder Colonel Eobert E. Stew- 
iirt, in March, 1864, and entered the field in 
Tennessee. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-Seventh 
Eegiment, or Twelfth Cavalry, under Colonel 
Edward Anderson, organized at Kendallville 



in April, 1864, and served in Georgia and 
Alabama. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-eighth 
Eegiment organized at Michigan City, under 
Colonel E. P. De Hart, March 18, 1864, and 
served under General Sherman in his famous 
campaign. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-ninth Eegi- 
ment organized at Michigan City, nnder Col- 
onel Charles Case, in April, 1864, and shared 
in the fortunes of the One Hundred and 
Twenty-eighth. 

The One Hundred and Thirtieth Eegiment 
organized at Kokomo, under Colonel C. S. 
Parish, March 12, 1864, and served with the 
Twenty-third Army Corps. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-first Eegi- 
ment, or Thirteenth Cavalry, moved from 
Indianapolis to the front, under Colonel G. 
M. L. Johnson, April 30, 1864. 

April, 1864, Governor Morton called for 
volunteers to serve one hundred days. In 
response to this call: 

The One Hundred and Thirty-second Eegi- 
ment, under Colonel S. C. Yance, moved 
from Indianapolis to the front May 18, 1864. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-third Eegi- 
ment moved from Eichmond to the front 
May 17, 1864, under Colonel E. N. Hudson. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-fourth Eegi- 
ment, under Colonel James Gavin, moved 
from Indianapolis to the front May 25, 1864. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-fifth Eegi- 
ment, composed of companies from Bedford, 
Noblesville and Goshen, and seven companies 
from the First Congressional District, entered 
the field, under Colonel W. C. Wilson, May 
25, 1864. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-sixth Eegi- 
ment, from the First Congressional District, 
moved to the front, nnder Colonel J. W. 
Foster, May 24, 1864. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-seventh 



EISTOBT OF INDIANA. 



Eegiment, under Colonel E. J. Kobinson, 
moved to the front May 28, 1864. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-eiglith Regi- 
ment perfected its organization at Indian- 
apolis, under Colonel J. II. Shannon, May 
27, 1864, and marched immediately to the 
front. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-ninth Regi- 
ment was composed of companies from various 
counties, and entered the field, under Colonel 
George Ilumphrev, in June, 1864. 

All these regiments gained distinction on 
many fields of battle. 

Under the President's call of 1864: 

The One Hundred and Fortieth Regiment, 
under Colonel Thomas J. Brady, proceeded 
to the South November 16, 1864. 

The One Hundred and Forty-first Regi- 
ment failing to organize, its few companies 
were incorporated in Colonel Brady's com- 
mand. 

The One Hundred and Forty-second Regi- 
ment moved to the front from Fort Wayne, 
under Colonel I. M. Comparet, in November, 
1864. 

The One Hundred and Forty-third Regi- 
ment reported at Nashville, under Colonel J. 
T. Grill, February 21, 1865. 

The One Hundred and Forty-fourth Regi- 
ment, under Colonel G. W. Riddle, reported 
at Harper's Ferry in March, 1865. 

The One Hundred and Forty-fifth Regi- 
ment, from Indianapolis, under Colonel W. 
A. Adams, joined General Steadman at Chat- 
tanooga, February 23, 1865. 

The One Hundred and Forty-sixth Regi- 
ment, under Colonel M. C. "Welch, left In- 
dianapolis March 11, 1865, for the Shenan- 
doah Valley. 

The One Hundred and Forty-seventh Reg- 
ment, under Colonel Milton Peden, moved 
from Indianapolis to the front March 13, 
1865. 



The One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regi- 
ment, under Colonel N. R. Ruckle, left the 
State Capital for Nashville February 28, 1865. 

The One Hundred and Forty-ninth Regi- 
ment left Indianapolis for Tennessee, under 
Colonel W. H. Fairbanks, March 8, 1865. 

The One Hundred and Fiftieth Regiment, 
under Colonel M. B. Taylor, reported for 
duty in the Shenandoah Valley March 17, 
1865. 

The One Hundred and Fifty-first Regi- 
ment arrived at Nashville, under Colonel J. 
Ilealy, March 9, 1865. 

The One Hundred and Fifty-second Regi- 
ment organized at Indianapolis, under Col- 
onel W. W, Griswold, and left for Harper's 
Ferry March 18, 1865. 

The One Hundred and Fifty-third Regi- 
ment organized at Indianapolis, under Col- 
onel O. H. P. Carey, and reported immedi- 
ately at Louisville for duty. 

The One Hundred and Fifty-fourth Regi- 
ment left Indianapolis for West Virginia, 
under Major Simpson, April 28, 1865. 

The One Hundred and Fifty-fifth Regi- 
ment, recruited throughout the State, were 
assigned to the Ninth Army Corps in April, 
1865. 

The One Hundred and Fifty-sixth Bat- 
talion, under Lieutenant-Colonel Charles M. 
Smith, moved for the Shenandoah Valley 
xipril 27, 1865. 

All these regiments made a fine record in 
the field. 

The Twenty-eighth Regiment of Colored 
Troops was recruited throughout the State of 
Indiana, and placed under command of Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Charles S. Russell, who was 
subsequently Colonel of the regiment. The 
regiment lost heavily at the "Crater," Peters- 
burg, but was recruited, and continued to do 
good service. 

The First Batterv was organized at Evans- 



i^ » iP«" ^ «'J"g' 






niSTOET OF INDIANA 



ville, under Captain Martin Klauss, August 
16, 1861, and immediately joined General 
Fremont's army; in 1864 Lawrence Jacoby 
was promoted to the captaincy of the battery. 

The Second Battery, under Captain D. G. 
Rubb, was organized at Indianapolis August 
9, 1861. This battery saw service in the West. 

The Third Battery, under Captain W. W. 
Fryberger, organized at Connersville August 
2-1:, 1861, and immediately joined Fremont's 
com maud. 

The Fourth Battery recruited in La Porte, 
Porter and Lake counties, and reported to 
(ieneral Buell early in 1861. It was first 
commanded by Captain A. K. Bush, and re- 
organized in October, 1864, under Captain 
]>. F. Johnson. 

The Fifth Battery was furnished by La 
Porte, Allen, Whitley and IN'oble counties, 
couimanded by Captain Peter Simonson, re- 
ported at Louisville November 29, 1861; 
during its term it participated in twenty bat- 
tles. 

The Sixth Battery, under Captain Fred- 
erick Behr, left Evansville for the front Octo- 
ber 2, 1861. 

The Seventh Battery was organized from 
various towns: first under Captain Samuel J. 
Harris; succeeded by G. li. Shallow and O. 
H. Morgan. 

Tlie Eighth Battery, under Captain G. T. 
Cochran, arrived at the front February 26, 
1862, and entered upon its real duties at 
Corinth. 

Tlie Ninth Battery, under Captain N. S. 
Thompson, organized at Indianapolis in Jan- 
uary, 1862, and began active duty at Shiloh 
in January, 1865; it lost fifty-eight men by 
the explosion ot a steamer above Paducah. 

The Tenth Battery, under Captain Jerome 
B. Cox, left Lafayette, for duty in Kentucky, 
in January, 1861. 

The Eleventh Battery organized at La Fay- 



ette, and left Indianapolis for the front, under 
Captain Arnold Sutermeister, December 17, 
1861 ; opened fire at Shiloh. 

The Twelfth Battery, from Jeffersonville, 
perfected organization at Indianapolis, under 
Captain G. W. Sterling; reached Nashville 
in March, 1862. Captain Sterling resigned 
in April, and was succeeded by Captain James 
E. White, and he by James A. Dunwoody. 

The Thirteenth Battery, under Captain 
Sewell Coulson, organized at Indianapolis 
during the winter of 1861, and proceeded to 
the front in February, 1862. 

The Fourteenth Battery, under Captain M. 
H. Kidd, left Indianapolis April 11, 1862, 
entering the field in Kentucky. 

The Fifteenth Battery, under Captain I. 
C. II. Von Schlin, left Indianapolis for the 
front in July, 1862. The same year it was 
surrendered with the garrison at Harper's 
Ferry, reorganized at Indianapolis, and again 
appeared in tlie field in March, 1862. 

The Sixteenth Battery under Captain 
Charles A. Naylor, left La Fayette for the 
front in June, 1862, and joined Pope's com- 
mand. 

The Seventeenth Battery organized at In- 
dianapolis, under Captain Milton L. Miner, 
May 20, 1862; participated in the Gettysburg 
battle, and later in all the engagements in 
the Shenandoah Valley. 

The Eighteenth Battery, under Captain 
Eli Lilly, moved to the front in August, 
1862, and joined General Eosecrans' army. 

The Nineteenth Battery, under Captain S. 
J. Harris, left Indianapolis for Kentucky in 
August, 1862, and performed active service 
until the close of the war. 

The Twentieth Battery, under Captain 
Frank A. Kose, left the State capital for 
the front in December, 1862. Captain Rose 
resigned, and was succeeded by Captain 
O shorn. 



148 



HISTORY OP IN-JDTAlfA. 



The Twenty-first Battery, under Captain 
"W. W. Andrew, left the State capital for 
Covington, Kentucky, in September, 1862. 

The Twenty-second Battery moved from 
Indianapolis to tlie front, Tinder Captain B. 
F. Denning, December 15, 1862, and thi-ew 
its first shot into Atlanta, where Captain 
Denning was killed. 

The Twenty-tliird Battery, under Captain 
I. II. Myers, took a position at the front in 
1862. 

The Twenty-fourth Battery, under Captain 
J. A. Simms, moved from Indianapolis to the 
front in March, 1863, and joined the Army 
of the Tennessee. 

The Twenty-fifth Battery, under Captain 
Frederick C. Sturm, reported at Nashville in 
December, 1864. 

The Twenty-sixth, or " Wilder's Battery," 
was recrui'^ed at Greensburg in May, 1861, 
and became Company " A " of the Seven- 
teenth Infantry, with Captain Wilder as Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel. Subsequently it was converted 
into the " First Independent Battery," and 
became known as " Eigby's Battery." 

The total number of battles in which the 
soldiers of Indiana were engaged for the 
maintenance of the Union was 308. 

The part which Indiana j^erformed in the 
war to maintain the union of the States is 
one of which the citizens of the State may 
well be proud. In the number of troops 
furnished, and in tiie amount of contribu- 
tions rendered, Indiana, in proportion to 
wealth and population, stands equal to any 
of her sister States. 

The State records show that 200,000 men 
entered the army; 50,000 were organized to 
defend the State at home; that the number 
of military commissions issued to Indiana 
soldiers was 17,114, making a total of 267,- 
114: men engaged in military afi'airs during 
the war for tlie Union. 



FINANCIAL. 

In November, 1821, Governor Jennings 
convened the Legislature in extra session, to 
provide for the payment of interest and a 
part of the principal of the public debt, 
amounting to $20,000. The state of the 
public debt was indeed embarrassing, as the 
bonds executed in its behalf had been as- 
signed. 

This state of aftairs had been brought 
about in part by mismanagement of the 
State bank, and by speculators. From 181G 
to 1821 the people liad largely engaged 
in fictitious speculations. Numerous banks, 
with fictitious capital, were established; im- 
mense issues of paper were made, and the 
circulating medium of the country was 
increased four-fold in the course of three 
years. 

This inflation produced the consequences 
which always follow such a scheme. Conse- 
quently the year 1821 was one of great 
financial panic. 

In 1822 the nev/ Governor, William Hen- 
dricks, took a hopeful view of the situation. 
In consequence of good crops and the grow- 
ing immigration, everything seemed more 
promising. 

In 1822-'23 the surplus money was prin- 
cijjally invested in home manufactures, which 
gave new impetus to the new State. Noah 
Noble was Governor of the State from 1831 
to 1837, commencing his duties amid peculiar 
embarrassments. The crops of 1832 were 
short. Asiatic cholera came sweeping along 
the Ohio and into the interior of the State, and 
the Black Hawk war raged in the Northwest. 
All these at once, and yet the work of 
internal improvements was actually begun. 

The State bank of Indiana was established 
January 28, 1834. The act of the Legisla- 
ture, by its own terms, ceased to be a law 
January 1, 1857. At the time of organization 



BISTORT OF IKDtANA 



149 



the outstanding circulation was $4,208,725, 
with a debt, due principally from citizens of 
the State, of 66,095,368. 

The State's interest in the bank was pro- 
cured by issue of State bonds, the last of 
which was payable in 1866, the State thus 
placing as capital in the bank $1,390,000. 

The nominal profits of the bank were 
$2,780,604. This constituted a sinking fund 
for the payment of the public debt, the ex- 
penses of the Commissioners, and for the 
cause of common schools. 

In 1836 the State bank was doing good 
service; agricultural products were abundant, 
and markets were good. 

In 1843 the State M-as suftering from over 
banking;', inflation of the currency and decep- 
tive speculation. 

Governor Whitcomb, lS43-'49, succeeded 
well in maintaining the credit of the State 
and effecting a compromise with its creditors, 
by which the State public works passed from 
the hands of the State to the creditors. 

In 1851 a general banking law was adopted, 
which again revived speculation and inflation, 
wliich culminated in much damage. In 1857 
the charter of the State bank expired, and 
the large gains of the State in that institu- 
tion were directed to the promotion of com- 
mon school education. 

October 31, 1870, found the State in a 
very prosperous condition; there was a sur- 
plus in the treasury of $373,249. The re- 
ceipts of the . year amounted to $3,605,639, 
and the disbursements to $2,943,600, leaving 
a balance of $1,035,288. The total debt of 
the State in November, 1871, was $3,937,821. 

Indiana is making rapid progress in the 
various manufacturing industries. She has 
one of the largest wagon and carriage manu- 
factories in the world, and nearly her entire 
wheat product is manufactured into flour 
within the State. In 1880 the population 



was 1,978,301, and the true valuation of 
property in the State for 1880 was $1,584,- 
756,802. 

IXTEENAL IMPEOVEJIENTS. 

This subject began to be agitated as early 
as 1818, and continued to increase in favor 
until 1830, when the people became much 
excited over the question of railroads. 

In 1832 the work of internal improvements 
fairly commenced. Public roads and canals 
were begun during tliis year, the "Wabash and 
Erie Canal being the largest undertaking. 

During the year 1835 public improvements 
were pushed vigorously. Thirty-two miles 
of the Wabash and Erie Canal were completed 
this year. 

During 1830 many other projected works 
were started, and in 1837, when Governor 
Wallace took the executive chair, he found a 
reaction among the people in regard to the 
gigantic plans for public improvements. The 
people feared a State debt was being incurred 
from which they could never be extricated. 

The State liad borrowed $3,827,000 for 
internal improvements, of which $1,327,000 
was for the Wabash and Erie Canal, the re- 
mainder for other works. 

The State had annually to pay $200,000 
interest on the public debt, and the revenue 
derived which could be thus applied amounted 
to only $45,000 in 1838. 

In 1839 all work ceased on these improve- 
ments, with one or two exceptions, and the 
contracts were surrendered to the State, in 
consequence of an act of the Legislature pro- 
viding for the compensation of contractors 
by the issue of treasury notes. 

In 1840 the system of improvements em- 
braced ten different works, the most impor- 
tant of which was the Wabash and Erie 
Canal. The aggregate length of the lines 
embraced in this system v,-as 1,289 miles, 



BISTORT OF INDIANA. 



aiul of this only 140 miles Lad been com- 
pleted. 

lu 1840 the State debt amounted to $18,- 
469,146; her resources for payment were 
such as to place her in an unfavorable liglit 
before the world, but be it recorded to her 
credit, she did not repudiate, as some other 
States of the Union have done. In 1850, the 
State having abandoned public improve- 
ments, private capital and enterprise pushed 
forward public work, and although the caiuil 
has served its day and age, and served it well, 
yet Indiana has one of the finest systems of 
water-ways of any State in the Union, and 
her railroad facilities compare favorably with 
the majority of States, and far in advance of 
many of her elder sisters in the family of 
States. lu 1884 there were 5,521 miles of 
railroad in operation in the State, and new 
roads being built and projected where the 
demand justified. 



In 1869 the development of mineral re- 
sources in the State attracted considerable 
attention. Near Brooklyn, twenty miles from 
Indianapolis, is a fine sandstone formation, 
yielding an unlimited quantity of the best 
building material. The limestone formation 
at and surrounding Gosport is of great va- 
riety, including some of the best building 
stone in the world. 

Men of enterprise worked hard and long 
to induce the State to have a survey made to 
determine tlio quality and extent of the min- 
eral resources of the State. 

In 1869 Professor Edward T. Cox was ap- 
pointed State Geologist, to M'hom the citizens 
of Indiana are indebted for the exhaustive 
report on minerals, and the agrrcultural as 
well as manufacturing resources of the State. 

The coal measures, says Professor Cox, 
cover an area of 6,500 sqiiare miles, in tlic 



southwestern part of the State, and extend 
from Warren County on the north to the 
Ohio River on the south, a distance of 150 
miles, comprising the counties of Warren, 
Fountain, Parke, Vermillion, Vigo, Clay, 
Sullivan, Greene, Knox, Daviess, Martin, 
Gibson, Pike, Dubois, Vanderburg, War- 
wick, Spencer, Perry and a portion of Craw- 
ford, Monroe, Putnam and Montgomery. 

This coal is all bituminous, but is divis- 
able into three well-marked varieties; cak- 
ing coal, non-caking coal, or block coal, and 
cannel coal. The total depth of the seams 
or measures is from 600 to 800 feet. The 
caking coal is in the western portion of the 
area described, ranging from three to eleven 
feet in thickness. The block coal prevails in 
the eastern pa; t of the field, and has an area 
of 450 square miles; this coal is excellent in 
its raw state for making pig-iron. 

The great Indiana coal field is within 150 
miles of Chicago or Michigan City by rail- 
road, from which ports the valuable Superior 
iron ores are loaded from vessels that run 
direct from the ore banks. 

Of the cannel coal, one of the finest seams 
to be found in the country is in Daviess 
County, this State. Here it is three and a 
half feet thick, underlaid by one and a half 
feet of block caking coal. Cannel coal is also 
found in great abundance in Perry, Greene, 
Parke and Fountain counties. 

Numerous deposits of bog-iron ore arc 
found in the northern part of the State, and 
clay iron-stones and impure carbonates are 
found scattered in the vicinity of the coal 
field. In some places the deposits are oi 
considerable commercial value. An abund- 
ance of excellent lime is also found in Indi- 
ana, especially in Huntington County, where 
it is manufactured extensively. 

In 1884 the number of bushels of lime 
burned in the State were 1,244,508; lime- 



ET8T0BT OF INDIAlifA. 



stone quarried for building purposes, 6,012,- 
110 cubic feet; cement made, 362,014 
bushels; sandstone quarried, 768,376 cubic 
feet; gravel sold, 502,115 tons; coal mined, 
1,722,089 tons; value of mineral products in 
the State for the year 1884, $2,500,000; 
value of manufactured products same year, 
$163,851,872; of agricultural products, 
$155,085,663. Total value of products in 
the State for the year 1884, $321,437,535. 

AGEICULTDEAL. 

In 1852 tlie Legislature authorized the 
organization of county and district agricult- 
ural societies, and also established a State 
Eoard of Agriculture, and made suitable pro- 
visions for maintaining the same, the hold- 
ing of State fairs, etc. 

In 1873 suitable buildings were erected at 
Indianapolis, for a State exposition, which 
was formally opened September 10, of that 
year. The exhibits there displayed showed 
that Indiana was not behind her sister States 
in agriculture as well as in many other in- 
dustrial branches. 

As stated elsewhere in this work, the value 
of agricultural products in the State for the 
year 1884 amounted to $155,085,663. 

In 1842 Henry Ward Beecher resided in 
Indianapolis, and exercised a power for good 
aside from his ministerial work. He edited 
the Indiana Farmer and Gardener, and 
through that medium wielded an influence 
toward organizing a society, which was ac- 
complished that year. Among Rev. Beech- 
er's co-laborers were Judge Coburn, Aaron 
Aldridge, James Sigarson, D. V. CuUey, 
Eeuben Ragan, Stephen Hampton, Cornelius 
Eatlift", Joshua Lindley, Abner Pope and 
many others. The society gave great en- 
couragement to the introduction of new va- 
rieties of fruit, but the sudden appearance of 
noxious insects, and the want of shipping 



facilities, seriously held in check the advance 
of horticulture in accordance with the desires 
of its leaders. 

In 1860 there was organized at Indianap 
olis the Indiana Pomological Society, with 
Reuben Ragan as President, and William II. 
Loomis as Secretary. 

From tliis date interest began to expand, 
but, owing to the M-ar, but little was done, 
and in January, 1864, the title of the society 
was changed to that of the Indiana Horticult- 
ural Society. 

The report of the society for 1868 shows 
for the first time a balance in the treasury of 
$61.55. 

The society has had a steady growth, and 
produced grand results throughout the State, 
the product of apples alone in the State for 
the year 1884 being 4,181,147 bushels. 

EDUCATION. 

The subject of education is the all-impor- 
tant subject to any and all communities, 
and the early settlers of Indiana builded 
greater than they then knew, when they laid 
the foundation for future growth of the edu- 
cational facilities in the State. 

To detail the educational resources, its ac- 
complishments from its incipiency to the 
present date, would require a number of 
large volumes; but as space in this work will 
not permit, and as the people have access to 
annual State reports of the school system in 
detail, we will here give only the leading 
features and enormous growth, as well as 
flourishing condition of Indiana's school sys- 
tem to the present time. 

The free-school system was fully established 
in 1852, which has resulted in placing Indi- 
ana in the lead of this great nation in ed- 
ucational progress. In 1854 the available 
common school fund consisted of the congres- 
sional township fund, the surplus revenue 



fund, the saline fund, the bank tax fund and 
miscellaneous fund, amounting in all to 
82,460,600. 

This amount was increased from various 
sources, and entrusted to the care of the sev- 
eral counties of the State, and by them loaned 
to citizens of the county in sums not exceed- 
ing $300, secured by real estate. 

In 1880 the available school fund derived 
from all sources amounted to $8,974,455.55. 

In 1884 there were in the State children 
of school age, 722,846. Number of white 
children in attendance at school during the 
year, 461,831; number of colored children in 
school during the year, 7,285; total attend- 
ance, 469,116 ; number of teachers employed, 
13,615, of whom 145 were colored. 

And lastly we are pleased to say that In- 
diana has a larger school fund than any other 
State in the Union. The citizens may well 
be proud of their system of schools, as well as 
the judicious management of its funds, which 
have been steadily increased, notwithstand- 
ing the rapid increase of population, which 
has demande(5 an increased expenditure in 
various ways, which have all been promptly 
met, and the educational facilities steadily 
enlarged where any advancement could be 
made. 

In 1802 Congress granted lands and a 
charter to the people residing at Vinceunes, 
for the erection and maintenance of a semi- 
nary of learning; and five years thereafter an 
act incorporating the Vincennes University 
asked the Legislature to appoint a Board of 
Trustees and empower them to sell a town- 
ship of land in Gibson County, granted by 
Congress for the benefit of the university. 
The sale of the land was slow and the pro- 
ceeds small; the members of the board were 
apathetic, and failing to meet, the institution 
fell out of existence and out of memory. 

In 1820 the State Legislature passed an 



act for a State University. Bloomington 
was selected as the site for locating the insti- 
tution. The buildings were completed and 
the institution formally opened in 1825. 
The name was changed to that of the " In- 
diana Academy," and subsequentlj', in 1828, 
to the " Indiana College." The institution 
prospered until 1854, when it was destroyed 
by fire, and 9,000 volumes, with all the 
apparatus, were consumed. The new col- 
lege, with its additions, was completed in 
1873, and the routine of studies continued. 

The university may now be considered 
on a fixed basis, carrying out the intention 
of the president, who aimed at scholarship 
rather than numbers. The university re- 
ceives from the State annually $15,000, and 
promises, with the aid of other public grants 
and private donations, to vie with any other 
State university within the republic. 

In 1862 Congress passed an act granting 
to each State for college purposes public 
lands to the amount of 30,000 acres for each 
Senator and Representative in Congress. In- 
diana having in Congress at that time thir- 
teen members, became entitled to 390,000 
acres; but as there was no Congress land in 
the State at that time, scrip was instituted, 
under the conditions that the sum of the 
proceeds of the lands should be invested in 
Government stocks, or other equally safe 
investment, drawing not less than five per 
centum on the par value of said stock, 
the principal to stand undiminished. The 
institution to be thus founded was to teach 
agricultural and the mechanical arts as its 
leading features. It was further provided 
by Congress that should the principal of the 
fund be diminished in any way, it should be 
replaced by the State to which it belongs, 
so that the capital of the fund shall remain 
forever undiminished; and further, that in 
order to avail themselves of the benefits of 



BISTORT OF INDIANA. 



dl 



this act, States must comply with the pro- 
visos of the act within live years after it 
became a law, viz., to erect suitable buildings 
for such school. 

March, 1865, the Legislature accepted of 
the national gift, and appointed a board 
of trustees to sell the land. The amount 
realized from land sales was $212,238.50, 
which sum was increased to $400,000. 

May, 1869, John Purdue, of La Fayette, 
offered $150,000, and Tippecanoe County 
$50,000 more, and the title of the institu- 
tion was established — "Purdue University." 

Donations were also made by the Battle 
Ground Institute, and the Institute of the 
Methodist Episcopal church. 

The building was located on a 100-acre 
tract, near Cliauncey, which Purdue gave in 
addition to his magnificent donation, and to 
which eighty-six and one half acres more 
have since .been added. The university was 
formally opened March, 1874, and has made 
rapid advances to the present time. 

The Indiana State Normal School was 
founded at Terre Haute in 1870, in accord- 
ance with the act of the Legislature of that 
year. 

The principal design of this institution was 
to prepare thorough and competent teachers 
for teaching the schools of the State, and the 
anticipations of its founders have been fully 
realized, as proven by the able corjDS of 
teachers annually graduating from the insti- 
tution, and entering upon their responsible 
missions in Indiana, as well as other States 
of the Union. 

The Northern Indiana Kormal School and 
Business Institute, at Valparaiso, was organ- 
ized in September, 1873. The school occu- 
pied the building known as the Valparaiso 
Male and Female College building. This 
institution has had a wonderful growth; the 
first year's attendance was tliirty-five. At 



this time every State in the Union is repre- 
sented, the number enrolled being over 3,000. 
All branches necessary to qualify students for 
teaching, or engaging in any line of buei- 
ness, are taught. The Commercial College 
connected with tlie school is of itself a great 
institution. 

In addition to the public schools and State 
institutions there are a number of denomi- 
national and private schools, some of which 
have a national as well as a local reputa- 
tion. 

Notre Dame University, near South Bend, 
is the most noted Catholic institution in the 
United States. It was founded by Father 
Sorin, in 1842. It has a bell weighing 
13,000 pounds, the largest in the United 
States, and one of the finest in the world. 

The Indiana Asbury University, at Green- 
castle, Methodist, was founded in 1835. 

Howard College, not denominational, is 
located at Kokomo; founded in 1869. 

Union Christian College, Christian, at 
Merom, was organized in 1858. 

Moore's Hill College, Methodist, at Moore's 
Hill, was founded in 1854. 

Earlliam College, at liichmond, under 
the management of the Orthodox Friends, 
was founded in 1859. 

Wabash College, at Crawfordsville, under 
Presbyterian management, was founded in 
1834. 

Concordia College, Lutheran, at Fort 
Wayne, was founded in 1850. 

Hanover College, Presbyterian, was found- 
ed at Hanover in 1833. 

Hartsville University, United Brethren, 
was founded at Hartsville in 1854. 

Northwestern Christian University, Dis- 
ciples, is located at Irvinton; organized in 
1854. 

All these institutions are in a flourishing 
condition. 




154 



HISTORY OF INDIANA. 



\\\ 



Di^ 



BENEVOLENT AND PENAL INSTITCTIONS. 

By the year 1830 the influx of paupers 
and invalid persons was so great as to demand 
legislation tending to make provisions for 
tlie care of such persons. The Legislature 
was at first slow to act on the matter. At 
the present time, however, there is no State 
in the Union which can boast a better system 
of benevolent institutions. 

In behalf of the blind, the first efibrt was 
made by James M. Ray in 1846. Through 
his eflbrts William H. Churchman came 
from Kentucky with blind pupils, and gave 
exhibitions in Mr. Beecher's church in Indi- 
anapolis. These entertainments were attended 
by members of the L^islature, and had the 
desired effect. That body passed an act for 
founding an institution for the blind in 1847. 
The buildings occupy a space of eight acres 
at the State capital, and is now in a flourish- 
ing condition. 

Tlie first to awaken an interest in the State 
for the deaf and dumb was William Willard, 
himself a mute, who visited Indianapolis in 
1843. He opened a school for mutes on his 
own account with sixteen pupils. The next 
year tlie Legislature adopted this school as a 
a State institution, and appointed a board of 
trustees for its management. The present 
buildings were completed in 1850, situated 
east of the city of Indianapolis. The grounds 
comprise 105 acres, devoted to pleasure 
grounds, agriculture, fruits, vegetables, flowers 
and pasture. 

The question in regard to taking action in 
the matter of providing for the care of the 
insane, began to be agitated in 1832-"83. Iso 
definite action was taken, however, until 1844, 
when a tax was levied, and in 1845 a com- 
mission was appointed to obtain a site for a 
building. Said commission selected Mount 
Jackson, near the State capitol. 

The Legislature of 1846 instructed the 



commission to proceed to construct a suitable 
building. Accordingly, in 1847, the central 
building was completed at a cost of $75,000. 

Other buildings have been erected from 
time to time, as needed to accommodate the 
increased demand, and at the present time 
Indiana has an institution for the insane 
equal to any in the West. 

The State hospital not afl'ordiiig sufficient 
accommodations for her insane, March 7, 
1883, an act providing for the location and 
erection of " Additional Hospitals for the 
Insane " was passed by the Legislature, and 
March 21 commissioners were appointed. 
After careful consideration three sites were 
located, one at Evansville, one at Logansport 
and one at Richmond, called respectively the 
Southern, Northern and Eastern hospitals. 
The Southern Indiana Hospital for Insane is 
located four miles east of Evansville, and is 
built on the corridor plan. The buildings 
are situated near the center of the hospital 
domain, which consists of 160 acres of highly 
improved land. The structure proper con- 
sists of a central oblong block, which is prac- 
tically the vestibule of the entire hospital. 
From the first floor and the two galleries 
above, entrance is had into the four lateral 
wings. The total capacity is 162 patients. 
This building has been erected at a cost of 
$391,887.49. 

The Korthern Indiana Hospital for the 
Insane is located a mile and a half west of 
Logansport, on a tract of land including 281 
acres, lying on the south bank of the Wabash 
River, and is built on the pavilion plan. At 
the center of the ridge, in the maple grove, is 
situated the administration house. This is 
flanked on each side by tire pavilions, ar- 
ranged in a straight line, which are intended 
and designed for the accommodation of the 
sick and infirm. On either side of the above 
named group, 205 feet distant, are located 



HISTORY OF INDIANA. 



1 



two pavilions, alike in every particular, in- 
tended for quiet patients. This hospital has 
a capacity for 342 patients, and was erected 
at a cost of $417,992.98. 

The Eastern Indiana Hospital for the In- 
sane is located on a tract of 306 acres, two 
miles west of Richmond, and is constructed 
on the cottage plan. The buildings, seven- 
teen in number, are arranged in and around 
three sides of a quadrangle, 1,000 feet long, 
by 700 feet broad, near the center of the 
farm, the third, or northern side, being closed 
in by a grove. The southern front contains 
the administration house; the eastern front, 
five houses for female patients, and the west- 
ern front, similar houses for male patients. 
This hospital has a capacity of 448 patients, 
and was erected at a cost of §409,867.88. 

The first penal institution established in 
the State, known as the State Prison South, 
is located at Jeifersouville. It was estab- 
lished in 1821, and was the only prison un- 
til 1859. Before this prison was established, 
it was customary to resort to the old-time 
punishment of the whipping-post. For a 
time the prisoners were hired to contractors ; 
later, they were employed constructing new 
prison buildings, which stand on si.xteen 
acres of ground. From 1857 to 1871, they 
were employed manufacturing wagons and 
farm implements. In 1871 the Southwestern 
Car Company leased of the State all convicts 
capable of performing labor pertaining to the 
manufacture of cars. This business ceased to 
be profitable to the company in 1873, and in 
1876 all the convicts were again idle. 

In 1859 the Legislature passed an act 
authorizing the construction of a State 
prison in the north part of the State, and ap- 
propriated $50,000 for that purpose: Michi- 
gan City, on Lake Michigan, was the site 
selected, and a large number of convicts from 
the prison South, were moved to that point 



and began the work which has produced one 
of the best prisons in the country. It difi'ers 
widely from the Southern, in so much as its 
sanitary condition has been above the average 
of similar institutions. 

The prison reform agitation, which in this 
State attained telling proportions in 1869, 
caused a legislative measure to be brought 
forward which would have a tendency to 
ameliorate the condition of female convicts. 

The Legislature of 1873 voted $50,000 
for the erection of suitable buildings, which 
was carried into effect, and the building de- 
clared ready in September, 1873, located at 
the State capital, and known as the Indiana 
Heformatory Institution for "Women and 
Girls. To this institution all female con- 
victs in other prisons in the State were im- 
mediately reinoved, and the institution is 
one of the most commendable for good re- 
sults to be found in any State. 

In 1867 the Legislature appropriated $50,- 
000, for the purpose of founding an institu- 
tion for the correction and reformation of 
juvenile offenders. A Board of Control was 
appointed by the Governor, who assembled 
in Indianapolis, April 3, 1867, and elected 
Charles F. Coffin as President. Governor 
Baker selected the site, fourteen miles from 
Indianapolis, near Plainfield, where a fertile 
farm of 225 acres was purchased. 

January 1, 1868, a few buildings were 
ready to receive occupants; the main build- 
ing was completed in 1869. Everything is 
constructed upon modern principles, ' and 
with a view to health and comfort. The in- 
stitution is in a prosperous condition, and 
the good eflects of the training received there 
by the young well repays the tax-payers, in 
the way of improving society and elevating 
the minds of those who would otherwise be 
wrecked on life's stream befoi'e attaining to 
years of maturity. 



^ v..t 








'^sS^^m^^yi^A 



Prominent Men of Indiana. 




■2^i^i^^i^^ 



■^^ 




i 




"^J.U/^ 



'^U^ 



OLIVER PEIUIT MORTON. 





LIVEE PEERT MOE- 
TOX, the War Governor 
of Indiana, and one of 
the most eminent United 
States Senators, was born 
j-,,^ '2^'<>2 in Salisbury, Wayne 
-^ County, til is State, August 4, 
1823. The name, which is of 
_. ,,. ^ English origin, was originally 
'o'lSj^ Throckmorton. When young Oli- 
^ iTvO" ^^''' ^^came a lad he attended the 
l\^(^ academy of Professor Hoshour at 
Q_^'j\^ Centreville, in his native county, 
r" \) but could not continue long there, 
as the family was too poor to defray his 
expenses. At the age of fifteen, therefore, 
he was placed with anolder brother to learn 
the hatter's trade, at which he worked four 
years. Determining then to enter the pro- 
fession of law, he began to qualify himself by 
attending the Miami University, in 1843, 
where he remained two years. Eeturning to 
Centreville, he entered the study of law 
with the late Judge Newman. Succeeding 
well, he soon secured for himself an inde- 
pendent practice, a good clientage, and rapidly 
I'ose to prominence. In 1852 he was elected 
circuit judge; but at the end of a year he 
resigned, preferring to practice as an advocate. 
Up to 1854 Mr. Morton was a Democrat 
in his party preferences; but the repeal of 
the Missouri Compromise caused him to 



secede, and join the incoming Republican 
party, in which he became a leader from its 
beginning. lie was a delegate to the Pitts- 
burg Convention in 1856, where he so ex- 
hibited his abilities that at the next Repub- 
lican State Convention he was nominated for 
Governor against Ashbel P. Willard, the 
Democratic nominee. His party being still 
young and in the minority, was defeated; 
but Mr. Morton came out of the contest with 
greatly increased notoriety and popularity. 

In 1860 Judge Morton received the nomi- 
nation for Lieutenant-Governor of Indiana, 
on the ticket with Henry S. Lane, and they 
were elected; but only two days after their 
inauguration Governor Lane was elected to 
the United States Senate, and Mr. Morton 
became Governor. It was while filling this 
position that he did his best public work, 
and created for himself a fame as lasting as 
the State itself. He opposed all compromise 
with the Rebellion, and when the Legislature 
passed a joint resolution providing for the 
appointment of peace commissioners, he 
selected men who were publicly known to 
be opposed to any compromise. 

During the dark and tedious days of the 
war, in 1864, Governor Morton defeated Jo- 
seph E. McDonald, in the race for Governor, 
by a majority of 20,883 votes. The next 
summer lie had a stroke of partial paralysis, 
from which he never fully recovered. The 



disease so aifected the lower part of his body 
and his limbs, that he was never afterward 
able to walk without the assistance of canes; 
but otherwise he enjoyed a high degree of 
physical and mental vigor. In December 
following he made a voyage to Europe, where 
he consulted eminent physicians and received 
medical treatment, but only partially recov- 
ered. In March, 1866, he returned to the 
executive chair to resume his official duties. 

In January, 1867, Governor Morton was 
elected to the United States Senate, being 
succeeded in his State duties by Lieutenant- 
Governor Baker. In 1873 Senator Morton 
was re-elected, and he continued a member 
of that body while he lived. In that position 
Mr. Morton ranked among the ablest states- 
men, was one of the four or five chiefs of his 
party, and, being Chairman of the Committee 
on Privileges and Elections, he did more in 
determining the policy of the Senate and of 
the Kepublican party than any other member 
of the Senate. It was during this period that 
the many vexed questions of the reconstruc- 
tion period came up, and with reference to all 
of them he favored radical and repressive 
measures in dealing with the rebellious States. 

In the spring of 1877 Senator Morton 
went to Oregon as Chairman of a Senate 
Committee to investigate the election of Sen- 
ator Grover, of that State, and while there he 
delivered, at Salem, the last political speech 
of his life. During his return, by way of 
San Francisco, he suffered another paralytic 
stroke, and he was brought East on a special 
car, taken to the residence of his mother-in- 
law, Mrs. Burbanks, at Richmond, this State, 
and passed the remainder of his days there, 
dying November 1, 1877. The death of no 
man, with the exception of that of President 
r>incoln, ever created so much grief in Indi- 
ana as did that of Senator Morton. The 
lamentation, indeed, was national. The Presi- 



dent of the United States directed the flags 
on public buildings to be placed at half-mast, 
and also that the Government departments 
be closed on the day of the funeral. The re- 
mains of the great statesman were interred 
at the spot in Crown Hill Cemetery where 
he stood on Soldiers' Decoration Day, in 
May, 1876, when he delivered a great speech 
to a large assemblage. Never before did so 
many distinguished men attend the funeral 
of a citizen of Indiana. 

Personally, Senator Morton was character- 
ized by great tenacity of purpose and shrewd 
foresight. Taking his aim, he ceased not 
until he attained it, without compromise and 
without conciliation, if not by the means first 
adopted, then by another. As Governor of 
Indiana he exhibited wonderful energy, tact 
and forethought. He distanced all other 
Governors in putting troops in the field, and 
he also excelled them all in providing for their 
wants while there. His State pride was in- 
tense, and in respect to tlie general character 
of the people of his State he brought Indiana 
"out of the wilderness" to the front, since 
which time the Hoosier State has been more 
favorably known. In the great civil war 
which tried the mettle and patriotism of the 
people, Indiana came to the front under his 
guidance, yea, to the forei'ront of the line. 
As a legislator, he originated and accom- 
plished much, being naturally, as well as by 
self-discipline, the most aggressive, bold and 
clear-headed Eepublican politician of his 
time. He was also well versed in the sciences, 
especially geology; and even in theology he 
knew more than many whose province it is 
to teach it, although he was not a member of 
any church. 

A statue of Senator Morton is placed in 
one of the public parks at Indianapolis by 
the contributions of a grateful common- 
wealth. 






?- 
^^p^ 



V 




•^- <^ H<^^^^-AA^y.xyn2 



'TMOMAS A. HENDRICKS. 








l: 



nOMAS ANDREWS 
HENDRICKS, elected 
Vice-President of the 
United States in 1884, 
was born in Musking- 
um County, Oliio, near 
the city of Zanesville, Septem- 
ber 7, 1819. The following 
spiing the family moved to 
Madison, this State, and in 
1S22 to Shelby County, where 
they opened up a farm in a 
spaisely settled region near the 
center of the county. It was 
here that Thom.as grew to man- 
hood. After the completion of 
his education at Hanover College he studied 
law in the office of his uncle. Judge Thomson, 
at Chanibersburg, Pennsylvania, and in due 
time was admitted to the bar. 

In 1848 he was elected to the Legislature; 
in 1850, to the convention which framed the 
present Constitution of the State, being an 
active participant in the deliberations of that 
body; in 1851 and 1852, to Congress; in 
1855, was appointed Commissioner of the 



General Land Office, which he resigned in 
1859; 1863-'69, United States Senator; 1872- 
'77, Governor of Indiana; and finally, July 12, 
1884, he was nominated by tlie Democratic 
National Convention at Chicago a-; second on 
the ticket with Grover Cleveland, which was 
successful in the ensuing campaign; but a 
few days before he should begin to serve as 
Speaker of the Senate, November, 1885, he 
suddenly died at his home in Indianapolis. 

Going back for particulars, we should state 
that in 1860 he was candidate for Governor 
of Indiana against Henry S. Lane, and was 
defeated by 9,757 votes, while the Repub- 
lican majority of the State on the national 
ticket was 23,524, showing his immense 
popularity. Again, in 1868, Conrad Baker 
defeated him by 1,161 votes, when Grant's 
majority over Seymour in the State was 
9,579, and this, too, after he had so bitterly 
opposed the policy of Lincoln's administration, 
and thereby lost from his constituency luaiiy 
Union sympathizers. And finally, in 1872, 
his majority for Governor over General 
Thomas M. Brown was 1,148; the same year 
Grant's majority in the State over Greeley 



'M^MMllMMWgl^ ! 



PBOMISEKT MEX OF IXDIANA. 



was 22,924. Governor Hendricks was the 
only man elected on his ticket that year, 
excepting Professor Hopkins, who was chosen 
to a non-political office. 

In 1876 Governor Hendricks was a con- 
spicious candidate for the Presidency, being 
the favorite of the Western Democracy; but 
the East proved too powerful, and nominated 
Tilden, giving Hendricks the second place on 
the national ticket, thereby strengthening it 
greatly in the "West. 

During the intervals of official life, Mr. 
Hendricks practiced law with eminent suc- 
cess, being equally at home before court or 
jury, and not easily disturbed by unforeseen 
turns in a case. He had no specialty as an 
advocate, being alike efficient in the civil and 
criminal court, and in all kinds and forms of 
actions. "When out of office his voice was 
frequently heard on the political questions of 
the day. Indiana regarded him with pride, 
and among a large class he was looked upon 
as the leader of the Democracy of the "West. 
His adherents rallied around him in 1880, 
and his name was again prominent for the 
Presidential nomination, and might have 
been carried were it not for the opposition of 
the friends of Mr. McDonald. 

As his views on governmental affairs were 
critical, definite and positive, he had many 
political enemies, but none of them have ever 
charged him with malfeasance in offi.ce, or 
incompetency in any of his public positions. 
He was a man of convictions, conservative, 
eloquent in public address, careful of his 
utterances, and exceedingly earnest. 



Mr. Hendricks belonged to a family noted 
in the history of Indiana. His uncle, "Will- 
iam Hendricks, was secretary of the conven- 
tion that formed the first Constitution of the 
State; was Indiana's first Eepresentative in 
Congress, her second Governor, and for two 
full terms represented it in the Senate of the 
United States. A cousin, John Abram Hen- 
dricks, fell at the battle of Pea Eidge while 
leading his regiment against the enemy; and 
another cousin, Thomas Hendricks, was 
killed in the Teche country while serving in 
the Union army. Mr. Hendricks' father was 
an elder in the Presbyterian church, and he 
himself %yas baptized and brought up under 
the auspices of that denomination. He never 
joined any church until 1867, when he 
became a member of the Protestant Epis- 
copal church, retaining his Calvinistic views. 
In person Mr. Hendricks was five feet nine 
inches high, weighed about 185 pounds; his 
eyes gray, hair of a sandy hue, nose largo 
and prominent, complexion fair and inclined 
to freckle, and his mouth and chin were 
expressive of determination and tenacity. 
He wore no beard except a little near the ear. 
He was a man of good habits, health good, 
step firm and prompt, and voice resonant and 
steady. 

After his nomination for the Yice-Prcsi- 
dency he took an active part in the campaign, 
delivering a number of powerful addresses, 
and while waiting for his term of official 
service to begin, death ended his days and 
cast an indescribable shade of gloom over his 
family. State and nation. 









>^' 




8CHUTLER COLFaS. 



ffV^^ 



W SCHUYLER COLFAX, ii 



^^^t/^'M»^^»####^«i'^##^'i > ^ '<W - « »« »^ ^, 




'HIS eminent statesman 
was born in New York 
Citj, March 23, 1823, 
the only son of his 
widowed inother; was 
taught in the common 
schooL of tlie city, finished his 
education at a high-school on 
Ci'Obby street, and at ten years 
of age he had received all the 
school t''aining he e\er had. 
Alter clerking in a store for 
three years, he removed to In- 
diana with his mother and 
V^V\^ stepfather, Mr. Mathews, set- 
^ ^ tling in St. Joseph Connty. 

Here, in the village of New Carlisle, the 
j^oiith served four years more as clerk in 
a store; then, at the age of seventeen years, 
he was appointed deputy county auditor, 
and to fulfill his duties he moved to the 
county seat. South Bend, where he remained 
a resident until his death. 

Like almost every Western citizen of 
any mental activity, young Colfax took 
a practical hold of political matters about 
as soon as he could vote. He talked and 
thought, and began to publish his views, 
from time to time, in the local newspaper of 
the place. His peculiar faculty of dealing 



fairly, and at the same time pleasantly, with 
men of all sorts, his natural sobriety and 
common sense, and his power of stating 
things plainly and correctly, made him a 
natural newspaper man. He was employed 
during several sessions of the Legislature, to 
report the proceedings of the Senate for the 
Indianapolis Journal, and in this position 
made many friends. In 1845 he became 
proprietor and editor of the St. Joseph Val- 
ley Eegister, the South Bend newspaper, 
which then had but 250 subscribers; but 
the youthful editor had hope and energy, and 
after struggling through many disappoint- 
ments, including the loss of his ofiice by fire, 
he succeeded in making a comfortable living 
out of the enterprise. 

Mr- Colfax was a Whig so long as that 
party existed. In 1848 he was a delegate to 
the convention which nominated General 
Taylor for President, and was one of the sec- 
retaries of that body. The next year he was 
a member of the State Constitutional Con- 
vention, being elected thereto from a Demo- 
cratic district. Soon afterward he was 
nominated for the State Senate, but declined 
because he could not be spared from his busi- 
ness. His first nomination for Congress was 
in 1851, but was beaten by 200 votes, which 
was less than the real Democratic majority 



1^0 



Prominent mmn of Indiana. 



in his district. His successful competitor 
was Dr. Graham N. Fitch, who, along wi^-h 
Mr. Bright, became so conspicuous in the 
^ujiport of Buchanan. In 1852 he was a 
delegate to the Whig National Convention 
that nominated General Scott, and was again 
secretary. 

Franklin Pierce, the Democratic nominee, 
was elected President, and during his term 
the Wliig party was dissolved upon the issue 
of slavery, and, naturally enough, Mr. Colfax 
drifted m with the party of freedom. So did 
the people of his Congressional district; for, 
after having given their Democratic repre- 
sentative 1,000 majority two years before, 
tliey now nominated and elected Mr. Colfax 
to succeed him by about 2,000 majority. 

The Congress towhicli he was thus elected 
is noted for the tedious struggle in the elec- 
tion of a Speaker of the House, resulting, 
February 2, 1856, in the choice of N. P. 
Banks. Mr. Colfax, who was second in the 
race for the Speakership, exhibited wonderful 
parliamentary tact in staving off the South- 
erners, who at times seemed on the point ot 
success. As to parties at this time, they 
■were considerably broken np, comprising 
"Anti-Nebraska" (Eepublican), Democrats, 
Know-Nothings and nondescripts. During 
tliis and the succeeding Congress, to which 
Mr. Colfax was elected, he delivered several 
telling speeches, some of which were printed 



almost by the million and distributed tu 
the voters throughout the North. These 
speeches were full of solid facts and figures 
with reference to the Pro-Slavery party, 
especially in Kansas, so that, by a sort of 
play upon his name, the people often re- 
ferred to him as "Cold-facts." 

In 1860 Mr. Colfax was elected to Con- 
gress the third time, and in 1862 the fourth 
time. In December, 1863, he was chosen 
Speaker of the House, which position he re- 
tained to the end of the term for which 
Lincoln and Johnson were elected, exhib- 
iting pre-eminent jiarliamentary skill and 
an obliging disposition. Equally polite to 
all, he was ever a gentleman worthy of the 
highest honor. 

The favorable notoriety gained by his 
" cold facts " against slavery, parliamentary 
ability, his power of debate, and his suavity 
of manner, led the Eepublican party in IStls 
to place him on the national ticket, secf.nd 
only to the leading soldier of the Union, 
U. S. Grant. Being elected, he served as 
President of the Senate with characteristic 
ability throughout his term. Then, retiring 
from political life, he devoted the remaining 
years of his life to lectures upon miscella- 
neous topics; and it was during a lecturing 
tour in Minnesota that he was stricken down 
v,'ith his final illness. He died at Mankato, 
that State, January 13, 1885. 



^[f 



i 




V - 




(7^ 



JAMES D. WILLIAMS. 







•>>aAMES D. WILLIAMS. 



m^ 



t^iSn'iSn>ii^i&i't&?(Sg>B^O 



^it'^'^Si^^i^^'mt's^mi' 



m 



ERE ■we have present- 
3d a practical illustra- 
tion of the type of man 
pi educed by a young 
and vigorons republic, 
wlucb had, but a few 
■5 ears preceding his 
buth, a-^&eited, with justice, and 
successful]) maintained, her claim 
to assume her rightful position as 
one of the nations of the earth. 
James D.Williams was born in 
Pickaway County, Ohio, January 
8, 1808, soon after that State had 
assumed her place among that 
galaxy of stars destined to become tlie great- 
est nation in the world. 

In cliildhood he removed with his parents 
to Knox County, Indiana, where he received 
a common-school education, and grew to 
manhood a tiller of the soil. 

He entered the theater of life at a time 
when the stage scenery was of the most 
gigantic grandeur ever beheld by the eye of 
man. Nature in her stupendous splendor 
was around and about the young actor, and 
he readily imbibed the spirit of his sur- 
roundings, and was filled with enthusiastic 
hope for tlie future greatness of the vast and 
beautiful conntry, which but awaited the call 
of the husbandman to answer in bountiful 



harvests to his many demands. With young 
Williams the grandeur of the scene tilled his 
soul with a hopeful determination to act 
well his part in the great drama before him, 
as the reader will find wJiile following him 
down life's pathway. 

Wlien he attained to manhood he engaged 
in agricultural pursuits and stock-raising, and 
became widely known as a practical and suc- 
cessful Indiana farmer. 

He had closely observed the passing events 
in tlie clash and conflict of political parties, 
and his fellow citizens saw in him the qual- 
ified elements of a representative man, and 
he was frequently elected as a Democrat to 
represent his county in the Lower House of 
the Legislature, M'here he discharged the 
duties devolving upon him with marked 
ability and even beyond the expectations of 
his constituents. The sagacity and ability 
with which he dealt with public measures 
in the Lower House opened the avenue to 
higher honors and more weighty responsi- 
bilities. 

In 1859 he was elected to the State Senate, 
where he continuously served his constitu- 
ency until 1867, maintaining the reputation 
he had gained in the LoM'er House for ability 
and the faithful performance of duty, and 
still developing a capacity for a wider field 
of operations. 



PROMINENT MEN OF INDIANA. 



He was not permitted to long live in the 
home life which he so much enjoyed. The 
able and faithful manner in which he had 
discharged his duties as a public servant, his 
common sense and social manner, made him 
i'riends even among his political opponents, 
lie bore honors conferred upon him nobly 
but meekly, never ceasing to gratefully re- 
member those to whom gratitude was due for 
the positions of honor and trust to which 
they had called him. 

He was destined to spend his life as a 
public servant. His fellow citizens again 
elected him to the State Senate in 1871, and 
in 1874 he was again crowned with higher 
honors, and was elected to rejjresent his dis- 
trict in the Congress of the United States, 
where he displayed the same ability in deal- 
ing with public questions that he had in the 
legislative body of his State. During his 
term in Congress he served in tlie impor- 
tant position of chairman of the Committee 
on Public Accounts. 

He was a prominent and leading member 
of the Indiana State Board of Agriculture for 
seventeen years, and served as its president 
for three years. ISTo one citizen of Indiana 
was more deeply interested and active in de- 
veloping and promoting the agricultural and 
other industrial resources of his State than 
lie. One leading feature of his ambition was 
to be in the front rank of progress, and to 
place his State on a plane with the sister 
States of the prosperous Union. He was 
equally active in the educational interest of his 
fellow citizens, and advocated facilities for 
diffusing knowledge among the masses, plac- 
ing an education within the reach of children 
of the most humble citizen. 

He gathered happiness while promoting 
the welfare of others, and step by step, year 
by year, his friends increased in numbers 
und warmed in devotion to their trusted, 



faithful and grateful servant. He was rapid- 
ly growing in State popularity, as he had 
long enjoyed the confidence of his own county 
and district, and in his quiet, unassuming 
way was building larger than he knew. His 
plain manner of dress, commonly " blue 
jeans," caused him to become widely known 
by the sobriquet of " Blue Jeans," of which 
his admirers were as proud as M-ere those of 
" Old Hickory " as applied to Andrew Jack- 
son, or " Eough and Eeady " as applied to 
General Zachariah Taylor. 

The civil war had made fearful inroads in 
party lines; the public questions to be set- 
tled immediately following the close of the 
war involved problems which many leading 
men, who had previously acted with the 
Democratic party, could not solve satisfacto- 
rily to themselves from a Democratic stand- 
point; hence they cast their fortunes with 
the popular party, the Eepublican. 

The Democratic party had been impatient 
ly but energetically seeking State supremacy. 
James D. Williams, so far as tried, had led 
the column to success, why not make him 
their Moses to lead them to possess the 
promised land. State Supremacy? 

The centennial anniversary of American 
independence, 1876, seemed to them the auspi- 
cious period to marshal their forces under an 
indomitable leader and go forth to conquer. 

They accordingly in that year nominated 
the Hon. James D. "Williams for Governor, 
and the Eepublicans nominated General Ben- 
jamin Harrison, a military hero and a lineal 
descendant of General W. II. Harrison. Tlie 
contest will stand m history as the most ex- 
citing campaign In the political history of 
the United States, and resulted in the elec- 
tion of the Democratic leader. His services 
as Governor of the State were characteristic 
of his past public life. He died, full of hon- 
ors, on November 20, 1880. 



*^ 




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ROBERT DALE OWE I,' 



1 



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i ^ROBERT DALE OWEN, }^ 



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)OKING outside of the 
realm of statesmen, we 
find that the most emi- 
nent citizen of Indi- 
ana not now living 
^ci,' '' '-'^^-^"* was the learned 
Scotchman named at the head of 
this sketch. Eobert Owen, his 
father, was a great theorist in 
social and religious reforms. He 
was born in Newtown, Montgom- 
eryshire, North AVales, March 14, 
1771, where he died November 
19, 1858. 

He (the father) entered npon a 
commercial life at an early age, and subse- 
quently engaged in the cotton manufacture 
at New Lanark, Scotland, where he introduced 
important reforms, having for their object 
the improvement of the condition of tlie 
laborers in his employ; afterward he directed 
his attention to social questions on a broader 
scale, publishing in 1812 " New Yiews of 
Society, or Essays upon the Formation of the 
Human Character," and subsequently the 
" Book of the New Moral "World,' ' in which 
he advocated doctrines of human equality 




and the abolition of class distinctions. Hav- 
ing won a large fortune in his business, he 
M-as able to give his views a wide circulation, 
and his followers became numerous; but, 
being outspoken against maiiy of the gen- 
erally received theological dogmas of the 
time, a zealous opposition was also aroused 
against him. After the death of his patron, 
the Duke of Kent, he emigrated to this 
country, in 1823, and at his own expense 
founded the celebrated communistic society 
at New Harmony, this State. The scheme 
proving a failure he returned to England, 
where he tried several similar experiments 
with the same result; but in spite of all his 
failures he was universally esteemed for his 
integrity and benevolence. His later years 
were spent in efforts to promote a religion of 
reason, and to improve the condition of the 
working classes. 

His eldest son, the subject of this biographi- 
cal sketch, was born in Glasgow, Scotland, 
November 7, 1801 ; was educated at Fellens- 
berg's College, near Berne, Switzerland ; came 
with his father to the United States in 1823, 
and assisted him in his efforts to found the 
colony of New Harmony. On the failure of 



that experiment he visited France and Eng- 
land, but returned to this country in 1827 
and became a citizen. In 1828, in partner- 
ship with Miss Frances Wright, he founded 
"The Free Enquirer," a weekly journal de- 
voted to socialistic ideas, and to opposition to 
the supernatural origin and claims of Chris- 
tianity. The paper was discontinued after 
an existence of three years. In 1832 he 
married Mary Jane Kobinson, of JS'ew York, 
who died in 1871. After marriage he settled 
again in New Harmony, where for three suc- 
cessive years (1835-'38) he was elected a mem- 
ber of the Legislature. It was through his 
influence that one-half of the surplus revenue 
of the United States appropriated to the 
State of Indiana was devoted to the support 
of public schools. From 1843 to 1847 he 
represented the First District of Indiana in 
Congress, acting with the Democratic party; 
took an active paat in the settlement of the 
northwestern boundary question, serving as 
a member of the committee of conference on 
that subject, and introduced the bill organ- 
izing the Smithsonian Institute, and served 
for a time as one of the regents. In 1850 he 
was a member of the Indiana Constitutional 
Convention, in which he took a prominent 
part. It was through his efforts that Indiana 
conferred independent property rights upon 
women. In 1853 he went to Naples, Italy, 
as United States Charge cV Affaires, and from 
1855 to 1858 he held the position of Min- 
ister. 

In 1860, in the New York Tribune, he 
discussed the subject of divorce with Horace 
Greeley, and a pamphlet edition of the con- 
troversy afterward obtained a wide circula- 
tion. 

After the breaking out of the Rebellion, 
Mr. Owen was a warm champion of the 
policy of emancipation, and the letters which 
he addressed to members of the cabinet and 



the President on that subject were widely 
disseminated. "When the proposition was 
made by certain influential politicians to 
reconstruct the Union with New England 
<' left out in the cold," Mr. Owen addressed 
a letter to the people of Indiana exposing 
the dangerous character of the scheme, 
which the Union Leagues of New York 
and Philadelphia published and circulated 
extensively. In 1862 he served as a mem- 
ber of the Commisson on Ordnance Stores, 
and in 1863 was Chairman of the American 
Freedmen's Commission, which rendered val- 
uable service to the country. 

Mr. Owen was a prominent Spiritualist in 
his philosophical views, and publislied sev- 
eral remarkable works inculcating them. 
His mind, in his later years, beginning to 
totter, he was often too credulous. He also 
published many other works, mostly of a 
political nature. To enumerate: he pub- 
lished at Glasgow, in 1824, " Outlines of 
System of Education at New Lanark ;" at New 
York, in 1831, "Moral Physiology;" the 
next year, "Discussion with Origen Bachelor 
on the Personality of God and the Authentici- 
ty of the Bible;" and subsequently, "Pocahon- 
tas," an historical drama; " Hints on Public 
Architecture," illustrated ; " Footfalls on the 
Boundary of Another World," probably his 
most wonderful work; "The Wrong of Slav- 
ery, and the Right of Freedom;" "Beyond 
the Breakers," a novel; "The Debatable 
Land between this World and the Next," 
and "Threading My Way," an autobiography. 

The giant intellect of Mr. Owen being 
linked to a large and tender heart, his sym- 
pathies were constantly rasped by witnessing 
the boundless but apparently needless amount 
of sufi'ering in the world, and chafed by 
the opposition of conservatism to all efforts 
at alleviation, so that in old age he was liter- 
ally worn out. He died at an advanced age. 




I 






ENERAL k 

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I STORY. 




TOPOGRAPHY 




EKMILLION, spelled 
witli two Z's, is from the 
French vermilion, 
spelled with one Z, and signi- 
iies, according to "Webster, " a 
bright red sulplmret of mercury, 
^' consisting of sixteen parts of sul- 
^\ phur and one hundred parts of 
mercury." This substance, he 
remarks, is sometimes found na- 
^ tive, of a red or brown color, and 
is then called cinnabar. Used as 
a pigment. The word is a literal 
translation of the Miami Indian 
word pe-auk-e-shaw, which was given to the 
Vermillion Eivers on account of the red earth 
or "keel" found along their banks. This 
substance was produced by the burning of the 
shale overlying the outcrops of coal, the latter 
igniting from tlie autumnal tires set by the 
aborigines. From the rivers the county was 
named. 

The position which Vermillion County oc- 
cupies in the world can best be indicated by 
describing the geodesic situation of Newport, 



the county seat, which is near the middle of 
the county. This point is 39° 55' north of 
the ecjuator of the earth, and therefore the 
north star appears to the observer here at that 
angle above the horizon. Newport is also 
87° 10' west longitude from Greenwich (Lon- 
don, England), and railroad standard time, 
which is here conformed to that of tlie 
ninetieth meridian, is about eleven minutes 
slower than local, or sun-time. Newport 
is also about 520 feet above the level of the 
ocean, and fifty feet above the low- water mark 
of the Wabash River opposite. 

The beautiful, picturesque scenery of Ver- 
million County, Indiana, is equal to that of 
any otlier in the State. The modest mean- 
derings of the classic old "Wabash, which ever 
and anon are hiding their silvery waters away 
amid the luxurious foliage of the forest trees, 
give to its eastern border a lineal presenta- 
tion of romantic beauty such as attracts 
universal attention, while the long range of 
bench hills which skirt the western boi-der of 
this garden valley throw along its railroad 
line a continued display of panoramic rural 



HISTORY OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



beauty wliich even without any coloring, 
might be termed " the lovely valley of the 
West." Tlie county, stretching its narrow 
length along the river for thirty-seven miles, 
is wholly made up of beautiful scenery. 

All the minor streams draining Vermillion 
County ai-e of course tributary to the Wabash, 
and most of them have a general southeasterly 
direction. Spring Brancli, or Creek, flows 
southwesterly through the northeast corner 
of Highland Township. Coal Brancli flows 
south near the western border. Big Yer- 
niillion River winds southeasterly through 
the sonthwest corner of Highland and the 
northern portion of Eugene. Little Vermill- 
ion River wends its way through t he south- 
western corner of Eugene, and empties into 
the Wabash near the middle of the east side 
of Vermillion Township. Jonathan Creek, 
in the western part of Vermillion Township, 
flows northeasterly into the Little Vermill- 
ion. Bi-ouillet's (pronounced in American 
style, IvH-lefs) Creek is wholly in Clinton 
Township, running at first southeasterly and 
then east, into the Wabash; and the Little 
Raccoon Creek, in Helt Township, runs 
southeasterly, rather toward the northeastern 
corner of the township, into the Wabash be- 
tween Highland and Alta. 

GEOLOGY. 
From one-fourth to one-third of Vermillion 
Connty consists of the rich bottoms and ter- 
races of the valleys of the Wabash and its 
affluents, the Big and Little Vermillion 
Rivers and Norton's Creek. The main ter- 
race, or " second bottom," is especially de- 
veloped in the region between Perrysv'ille 
and Newport, a fact probably resulting from 
the combined action of the two main tributa- 
ries in this county. The terrace is from one 
to four miles wide, furnishing a broad stretch 
of rich, well drained farming lands, having 



an average elevation of about forty feet above 
the present (or " first") bottoms. Below 
Newport the blnfts approach the r-iver so 
closely that the terrace is nearly obliterated, 
and the immediate bottoms become very nar- 
row. At the mouth of Little Raccoon Creek 
the bottoms are considerably widened; but 
the terrace has no considerable extent until 
we reach the head of Helt Prairie, about si.x 
miles north of Clinton, whence it stretches 
southward, with an average width of one to 
three miles. About three miles below Clin- 
ton it narrows again as we approach the 
month of Brouillet's Creek and the county 
line. 

At the first settlement of the country the 
bottoms were heavily timbered, but a large 
proportion of the terrace was devoid of tim- 
ber. We are scarcely permitted to believe 
that these timberless tracts were originally 
prairie, as, on account of their nature and 
fav^orable situation, we should presume tluit 
they were grounds cleared and cultivated hy 
the same aboriginal race, possibly the Mound- 
Builders, for mounds abound in this region, 
and the annual tires prevented a re-occupation 
by trees or shrubbery. 

Rising from the upper bottom lands we 
find bhiffs, more or less abrupt, which attain 
a general level of 120 to 130 feet above the 
river, and form the slightly elevated border 
of Grand Prairie. The most gradual ascent 
is to the westward from Perrysville, favorable 
for the construction of the present railroad. 
South of the Big Vermillion the blufl's are 
much steeper, where a moderate grade for a 
railroad can be found only by tracing one of 
the smaller streams. These blufts, being too 
steep for cultivation, are still covered with 
timber, which consists principally of oak, 
hickory, maple and walnut, and toward the 
soutiiern end of the county, beech. In many 
of the ravines, and along the foot of the blufl's. 



■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■.■ ^ ■■■ ■ ■■■■■■■■■■■"■"^Hi 



INTRODUCTORY. 



185 



there are large groves of sugar maple. Near 
the principal streams this timbered region 
extends westward to the State line. The 
nortliern and middle portions of the county 
are in great part a portion of the Grand 
Prairie, which covers all eastern Illinois, from 
the forest of the Little Wabash to Lake Mich- 
igan. 

Yermillion County is singularly blessed 
with spj-ings, bursting forth from below the 
boulder clay of the drift period. Some of 
these springs are very strong. 

The alluvium of the river bottoms have the 
common features of river deposits. A'egetable 
remains are mingled with find sand and mud 
washed from the drift beds higher up the 
streams, and occasional deposits of small 
stones and gravel, derived either from the 
drift or from the rock formations into which 
the rivers have cut their winding ways. The 
only definite knowledge obtained as to the 
depth of these beds refers to the prairie be- 
tween Eugene and Perrysville, where wells 
have been sunk si.vty feet through alluvial 
sand, and then encountered six to ten feet 
of a soft, sticky, blui.h mud filled with leaves, 
twigs and trunks of trees, and occasionally 
small masses of what appears to have been 
stable manure. This stratum is sometimes 
called "Noah's Barnyard." The lake-bottom 
deposits, of corresponding age, which com- 
monly underlie the soil of the Grand Prairie, 
have been found west of the State line, con- 
sisting of marly-clays and brick-clay subsoil, 
and probably exist equally under such por- 
tions of the prairie as extend into this county. 

Tiiere are several very good gravel beds in 
the county, principally developed since the 
building of the railroads. 

The boulder-clay referred to above, which 
forms the mass of the drift formation, is a 
tough, bluish drab, unlaminated clay, more 
or less thoroughly filled with fine and coarse 



gravel, and including many small boulders. 
On the bluff west of Perrysville this bed was 
penetrated to a depth of about 100 feet before 
reaching the water-bearing quicksand com- 
monly found beneath it. Out-crops of 110 
feet have been measured, and the bed very 
probably attains a thickness of 125 feet or 
more where it has not been worn away. It 
is much thinner in the southern part of the 
county. From the difference in character of 
the included boulders at different levels, we 
are led to the conclusion that the currents 
which brought the materials composing these 
beds flowed in different directions at diilerent 
times. 

Illustrating the above remarks we give a 
section from a brancli of Johnson's Creek, in 
Eugene Township: Boulder clay, with peb- 
bles of Silurian limestone and trap, thirty feet; 
yellow clay, with fragments of coal, shale, 
sand-stone, etc., four inches; boulder clay, 
with pebbles of Silurian limestone, twenty- 
live feet; ferruginous sand, a streak; boulder 
clay from the northwest, with pebbles of va- 
rious metamorphic rocks and trap, and 
nuggets of native copper, fifty feet. 

The section of rocks exposed at the Horse- 
shoe of the Little Vermillion exhibits the 
following strata: Black, slaty shale; coal, 
two and a half to four feet; fire-clay and soft- 
clay shales, with iron-stones, fifteen feet; 
argillaceous (clayey) limestone, one to two 
feet; dark drab clay shale, one foot; coal, four 
to live feet; light-colored fire-clay, two f<.et; 
dark-colored lire-clay, one foot; soft, drab 
shale, with iron-stones, ten to fifteen feet; 
fossiliferous, l)lack slaty shale, often pyritous, 
with many large iron-stone nudides, two to 
three feet. 

A considerable portion of the boulders and 
pebbles of these beds, especially those con- 
sisting of limestone and the metamorphic 
rocks, are finely polished and striated on one 




HISTORY OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



or more of their sides, showing the power of 
the forces which were engaged in their trans- 
portation from their original beds. Nuggets 
of galena (suljihide of lead) and of native 
copper are occasionally met with, and have 
had the usual effect of exciting the imagina- 
tions of those who are ignorant of the fact 
that the rocks which contain these metals do 
not occur nearer than the galena region of 
Nortliern Illinois. 

The "coal measures," as given in the para- 
graph preceding the last, furnish the only 
rock formations to be found in the county. 
There seem to be no outcrop of beds overlying 
this section. The first, or uppermost, vein of 
coal is covered by a few feet of soil only. 
The argillaceous limestone below it is very 
thinly laminated, being mingled with much 
clay; but the shales covering the next vein 
constitute a fair working roof. 

The sandy iron-stones areinteresting to the 
fossil hunter, as they contain numerous frag- 
mentary remains of lishes, insects, etc. Fos- 
siliferous strata of an interestiiig character 
continue exposed along the Little Veriuillion 
to its mouth and down the Wabash. Out- 
crops of the above mentioned strata are found 
along the principal streams throughout the 
county. 

In ascending the Big Vermillion we find 
on its south bank, a mile below Eugene, a 
bluff of banks of from twenty-tive to thirty 
feet of irregularly bedded, highly ferruginous, 
coarse-grained sandstone, often containing 
comminuted plant remains, with some large 
fragments of trees, etc. Some of the beds 
are sutticiently solid to make good building 
stone. In quarrying them many fine trunks 
and branches of Lepidodendron and Sigillaria 
have been found, with a few fruits of Trig- 
onocarpum. In the vicinity are some fine 
large stems of Syringodendron Porteri. 

Wells sunk below the limestone at Perrys- 



ville, to a reported depth of ninety feet, are 
said to have encountered no coal; but coal 
may be found in the vicinity, in consequence 
of the irregular dip of the strata. 

Good coal underlies most of the surface of 
Vermillion County, and is now mined abun- 
dantly at various points. A total thickness 
of eight feet would probably be a small 
enough estimate for the coal underlying every 
square mile of the county. Since the advent 
of railroads many large coal mines have been 
opened and worked, although some have been 
wholly or in part abandoned, either on account 
of competition in other parts of the country 
or of finding better mines in the vicinity. 

The principal iron ore found in the county 
is an impure carbonate, occurring in nodules 
and irregular layers or bands. These nodules 
once were supplied to a furnace on Brouillet's 
Creek, where they yielded thirty-tliree per 
cent, of iron. The ore in the county varies 
from twenty-five to forty-five per cent, of 
iron. Along the bottoms of Norton's Creek, 
near the head of Plelt's Prairie, a bed of bog 
iron ore, said to be three feet thick and cov- 
ering six to eight acres, has been discovered. 

Zinc blende (sulphide of zinc), frequently 
occurs, in small quantities, in the cracks and 
cavities of some of the iron-stone nodules. 
Its appearance at one place on the Little 
Vermillion gave rise to the so-called " Silver 
Mine." 

The second bottoms, or terrace prairies, in 
Vermillion County, in order from the north, 
are named Walnut Mound, Eugene or Sand, 
Newport and Kelt's. The soil is a black, 
sandy loam, producing the richest crops. 
These terraces comprise about three-tenths of 
the county, and are from tliirty-five to sixty- 
five feet above low-water mark, while the 
higher portions of the county are from 250 
to 270 feet above low- water. 

Says Professor Collett, in his Geological 



INTRODUCTORY. 



Keport for 1880: " Remains of the maimnotli 
have been discovered in nearly all sections of 
of Indiana. They have consisted, as a rule, 
of the most compact bones of these animals, 
as the teeth, tusks, jaws and thigh-bones. 
Some of the best preserved teeth of the mam- 
moth were found in the counties of Vigo, 
Parke, Yermillion, AVayne, Putnam and Van- 
derbiirg. Thirty individual specimens of the 
remains of the mastodon have been found in 
tliis State," etc. 

Reading the above report inspired a wag- 
gish son of the Muse, Judge Buskirk, formerly 
Attorney-General of the State, to indict the 
following warning: 

It thus appears that Professor Collett, 
Our State geologist 
And paleontologist, 
Is digging up for his learned wallet 
Every colossal 
Dirty old fossil 
In the shape of jaw-bones, tusk and teeth. 
He is able to find our swamps beneath. 
Handed down from the old heroic 
Ages, named the Paleozoic. 
When he strikes a huge nasty one 
Named Giganteus Mastodon, 



Or in the beds of ancient ponds 
Digs up big Bison latifrons, 
Or an Elephas Americanus, 

And others the name of which, 

Preserving the fame of which. 
To pronounce is enough to cause tetanus. 
It seems that at once, with his fossil-stuffed 

wallet. 
Out marches the palaeontologist Collett, 

And with his little hammer 

And scientific grammar 
First knocks a mammoth tooth. 

To put into his grip-sack; 
Tlien constructs an awful name 

By means of which to skip back 
With a great rhonchisouant fury, on 
The epochs carboniferous and Silurian. 

Now allow me as a friend, Professor Collett, 
To advise you to put up your learned wallet. 
Until the present Legislature has adjourned ; 
Or else by misadventure it might come to pass 
Some day you'd strike the bones of a mammoth 

ancient ass ; 
And when by the Legislature the circumstance 

was learned, 
At once you'd feel the tempest of their ire 
Roused by your sacrilege upon their ancient 

sire, "^ 

And straight they'd have your salary in no fix,— 
Worse than you ever knocked a tooth from a 

Jeffersoni Megalouyx. 




HISTORY OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 




MOUND-BUILDERS. 



HE following sketches 
of the Mound-Builders, 
Indians, etc., are com- 
piled from data furnish- 
ed l>y lion. John Collett. 
When tirst explored 
hy the white race, this county 
was occupied by savage Indians, 
without fi.xed habitation, averse 
to labor and delighting only 
in war and the cliase. Their 
misty traditions did not reach 
i^^JX^^ Ji^ liack to any previous people 
or age, but numerous earth- 
works are found in this region 
of such extent as to require for 
their construction much time and the per- 
sistent labor of many people. Situated on 
river bluffs, their location combines pictur- 
esque scenery, adaptability for defense, con- 
venience for transportation by water, and 
productive lands. These are not requisites 
in the nomadic life of red men, and identifies 
the Mound-Builders as a partially civilized 
people. Their mounds and other works are 
ot such extent tliat it required years of labor. 



with basket and shovel, to erect, and such co- 
ordination of labor as to indicate the rule of 
priestly government or regal authority; they 
were certainly to that extent civilized. The 
vastness of their work indicates a large com- 
munity of people, so that governments were 
necessary, which must have had civil power 
to request and require the necessary labor. 
The implements found in the graves, mounds 
and tombs, were more often domestic and 
agricultural, and indicate a peaceful, obedient 
race. Tlieir temples were defended by bul- 
warks of loving hearts rather than by warrior 
braves. Many of the religious emblems and 
articles of utility made of stone, point back 
to the earliest forms of sentiment represented 
by the fire and sun worshipers of Central 
Asia, and give a clue to the reason why their 
favorite habitations and mounds were as a 
rule never placed beneath the eastern blufl's 
of streams, but on the other hand were so 
located in elevated positions or on the west- 
ern bluifs, that when the timber was cleared 
away and the land reduced to cultivation, a 
long outlook was given to the east and to the 
sunrise, from which direction their expected 






ABORIOINAL. 



Messiah or ruler was to come. Similar cus- 
toms still prevail in Mexico. 

Traditions intimate that the tribes were 
driven southward from the northern portion 
of the continent, and these traditions are cor- 
roborated bj the discovery of relics in this 
region made from material found only far to 
the nortli. 

Clusters of mounds are found in Yermiil- 
ion County on Mound Prairie, near the 
Shelby battle-ground, and nearly all along 
the tract between Eugene and Newport, many 
of them twenty to forty feet in diameter, 
four, five or six feet high, and the clusters 
containing from ten to eigiity mounds. One 
memorable mound is situated in the northern 
part of the town of Clinton, from which earth 
was removed for road building about 1830. 
In it were found stone implements of the 
Mound-Builders, accompanied with copper 
lieads, five copper rods, half an inch in diame- 
ter and eighteen inches long, showing that it 
■was one of the earliest of the Mound-Builder's 
works, whilst they were also accompanied 
with other implements imported from the 
north. 

Another, on the Head farm near Newport, 
had copper rods or spear heads and smaller 
stone implements. These were probably 
burial mounds. A majority of them con- 
tained no relics, but were simply abandoned 
mounds of habitation. Mr. Pigeon in his 
volume called " Dacoudah," says he noticed 
figured mounds of men and beasts on the 
south bank of the Little Vermillion, three or 
four miles from its mouth. A burial mound 
near the northeast corner contains a chief in 
a sitting position at the center. Radiating 
from his body like the spokes of a wheel 
were five persons, slaves or wives, to wait 
upon him in the other world. His useful 
implements for the other world were a great 
number of copper beads, from a half inch to 



an inch and a quarter in diameter, seven 
copper axes, one of which contained unmelted 
virgin silver as it occurs at Lake Superior, 
varying in weight from two to eight pounds, 
and seven copper rods, (spear-heads), with 
pots and crocks containing black mold as if 
it were food. The streams near their homes 
afforded fish for food, and the implements 
found indicated that they were skilled in 
handling fish spears and gigs. The soil sur-* 
rounding their homes was always the choicest, 
with the addition of beautiful and engaging 
scenery. The relics found in their mounds 
show that in their more northern homes in 
Wisconsin, Minnesota and Michigan, the 
common northern material, the striped slate 
and copper, was abundant. In Vermillion 
County relics of this character, were scarce 
and precious, if not holy. At more southern 
points striped-slate implements of northern 
stone are very rare, while the precious copper 
could no longer be used in implement-making, 
but was beaten into the finest of sheets and 
bent over ornamental pendants. All these, 
and the customs of their burial, indicate an 
Asiatic origin, and prove conclusively that 
in their migration to this region they pass by 
more northern regions, including Lake Su- 
perior. 

Afterward the northern barbarian came, of 
an intermediate race between the Mound- 
Builder and the red man. The Mound- 
Builders were driven away by this irruption, 
their property seized, many of their wives 
made captive and adopted by the new people. 
Many of the customs of the old people conse- 
quently remained with the new comers, and 
the latter also deposited their dead in the old 
mounds, ovei' the remains of the more ancient 
people. The number of individuals thus 
found buried together number from five to 
2,000 or 3,000. Their graves and relics from 
the tombs are the only story of their lives. 



BISTORT OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



\\\ 



Throughout all these a deep spirit of religious 
devotion is indicated, as well as a belief in 
the existence of another world, and that im- 
plements of a domestic nature were necessary 
to the comfort of the departed. 

On the Moore farm, three miles nortliwest 
of Eugene, Mr. Zeke Sheward, in making an 
underground " dug-out," for the storing of 
vegetables, on a small mound surrounded by 
giants of the original forest, found at a depth 
of three feet, and at least one foot below the 
surface of the surrounding soil, some pieces 
of metal about the size of a teaspoon handle, 
and one coin. On analysis they were found 
to be made of lead, antimony and tin. The 
coin had in relief easily identified figures of 
a worshiped crocodile of Egypt or a holy 
water-dog of America, and word characters 
much resembling those of China or Ilindo- 
stan. Prof. W. D. Wiiitney, of Yale College, 
one of the most thorough linguists of America, 
believed the characters to be Arabic, but of so 
ancient a date that the Oriental Society was 
unable to read them. The director of the 
British Museum in London determined them 
to be ancient Hindostanee, but of so ancient 
a date that no scholar in England could read 
the inscription. Trees and their remains 
indicate an age of over 2,000 years for these 
mounds. 

In March, 1880, while a company of gravel- 
road workers were excavating gravel from 
the bank on the ridge at the southwest corner 
of the Newport fair-ground, live human 
skeletons were found, supposed to be tlie 
remains of fndians buried at that point in an 
early day. In the gravel bank along the 
railroad, at the southeast corner of the fair- 
ground, another skeleton was found. No 
implements of war were found with the bones, 
but ashes were perceivable, which would indi- 
cate that they were the remains of Indians. 
Aftei' burying the dead it was their custom, 



in some parts of the country, to build a fire 
over the corpse. Many of the skeletons thus 
discovered, as well as a large portion of the 
bones of the lower animals, on exposure to 
the air crumble away so easily that it becomes 
impossible to preserve them for exhibition. 

A collection of a dozen skeletons shows, by 
measurements of the thigh l)ones found, that 
the warriors, including a few women, average 
over six feet and two inches in height. 
Without animals for transportation, their 
bones were made wonderfully strong by the 
constant carrying of heavy burdens, and their 
joints heavily articulated, and the troclianters 
forming the attachments of muscles show 
that they were a race not only of giant stature 
but also of more than giant strength. 

Manyj-elics from these mounds, as well as 
from the surface of the earth elsewhere, have 
been collected by old resident physicians and 
others, especially Professor John Collett, late 
State Geologist, and Josephus Collett; and 
an interesting museum may here and there 
be found presenting great variety of arrow 
points, spear-heads, stone axes, tomahawks, 
pestles, mortars, aboriginal pottery, pipes, 
ornaments, bones of Indian skeletons, etc. 
These collections also generally include an 
odd variety of geological and anatomical 
specimens. 

INDIANS. 
At the advent of the wbite man to the 
Wabash Valley, the Indians had ceased from 
their long warfare and were living in a state 
of quietude. They had no fixed villages or 
places of residence. For a few months 
their homes were at some point for summer, 
and at another location for winter; and their 
wigwams, made of deer-skins and bufi'alo 
hides, could be easily removed, or be suljsti- 
tuted by others made from the bark of trees. 
Many of the older settlers can remember 



1i^ 

I 



seeing trees the bark of which had beeu torn 
off in zigzag fashion seven or eight feet from 
the ground for the construction of wigwams. 
All along the banks of creeks and rivers were 
circular fire holes in which they cooked their 
food, and at night would sleep upon the 
ground with their feet hanging down in the 
warm places thus made. 

The Wabash River was by them called 
Wahbahshikka; by the French, Ouabache; 
the Vermillion was called Osanamon, but by 
the French a name which signifies Yellow, 
lied or Vermillion afterward translated into 
English as Yellow Kiver. 

The Miamis occupied a portion of the 
county, but their general territory was east 
of the AValjash. They were a tall straight 
race, of handsome countenance, — especially 
the girls — brave and terrible as enemies, 
kind and faithful as friends, and chivalrous in 
disposition. 

The Kickapoos, or Mosquitans, originally 
from the north and northwest, occupied the 
regions south and southwest of the Big Ver- 
million River, but occasionally, by comity of 
neighbors, camped for a greater or less time 
north of the Vermillion, on their neighbor's 
territory. The Pottawatomies, also of north- 
ern origin, owned the territory, and their 
rights were recognized by the Government in 
treaties. The county was at times the home 
of each of these tribes, who at the zenith of 
their power had their headquarters at the 
Big Springs, a half rnile south of Eugene, 
and the place was known among the whites 
as Springfield. There the councils of their 
confederacy were lield, decisions as to wars 
and other difficulties determined, the great 
treaty with the British merchants made, and 
the Governor of Virginia took possession of 
immense tracts of land on the Lower Wabash. 
Many of the early settlers, as Esquire James 
Armour. Samuel Groenendyke, Sr., and Irvin 



Uigby, can recollect meetings held there 
comprising 800 to 1,000 individuals. The 
Bottawatomies were of a rather subdued dis- 
position, somewhat stoop-shouldered and of 
unpleasant countenance; the Kickapoos, on 
the other hand, were a warlike race, quarrel- 
some in disposition, addicted to controversy 
and happy only in giving and receiving 
blows. 

It is believed that the early explorers and 
the French missionaries passed down or up 
the Wabash as early as 1702, — or even as 
early as 1670. The missionaries, being 
Jesuits, were very successful by their winning 
methods in making converts among tlie sav- 
ages. Near the Indian village on section 16, 
township 17 north, 9 west, on cutting down 
a white oak tree, the rings of growth over the 
scar made by a white man's ax showed that 
the incision was made not later than 1720. 

In 1790, or later, General Hamtramck led 
an expedition of Indiana volunteers and 
militia from Vincennes to attack the non- 
aggressive Indians and their village on the 
Shelby farm near the' mouth of the Vermill- 
ion. These were the remnants of tlie now 
weakened Pottawatomie and Kickapoo tribes. 
This was their favorite camping ground; the 
confluence of tiie rivers gave them opportu- 
nities for taking fish, which were then very 
abundant; the adjoining terrace lands were 
filled M'ith thousands of the greatest variety 
of plum bushes and grape-vines, and it was 
known as the great plum patch. The expe- 
dition, in two columns, crossed the Indian 
ford at Eugene, just north of the present 
mill-dam, where stepping stones were placed 
for crossing the stream at low water. Thence 
they marched in a circuitous manner to at- 
tack the village in the rear, when the direct 
division should attack it at the same time 
from the south. The warriors and braves 
were off on a hunting expedition, and there 



were none to molest or make afraid these 
"gallant" soldiers except the broken-down 
old men, the women and tlie children, and 
these were unmercifnlly slaughtered in the 
coldest of cold blood! It is not a matter of 
wonder, therefore, that the Indians of this 
region snbseqnently took part in the battles 
of Fallen Timbers and Tippecanoe. 

A portion of the Indians of this county 
became connected with the confederacy that 
fought the battle of Fallen Timbers near Fort 
Recovery, Ohio, and participated in the 
treaty of Greenville, which they tried to ob- 
serve; but later a smaller division of tliem 
were compelled to join the confederacy of 
Tecumseh at Tippecanoe. i 

La Chappelle is tlie name of the tirst j 
French trading post established at the Ver- 
million village, near Hamtramck's battle 
ground, the northwest quarter of section 33, 
18 north, 9 west, by M. Laselle, fatlier of 
Hon. Charles Laselle, one of the distinguish- 
ed lawyers of Logansport, this State. Another 
trading post was subsequently established by 
an Englishman on the John Collett farm, 
sections 9 and 16. It was the custom of the 
French traders here to strike small lead 
medals, in siz3 a little less than a silver quar- 
ter of a dollar, with a few figures and initial 
letters upon them, and tack them upon trees 
at the mouths of the tributaries claimed, as a 
sign of possession. 

The Indians of the southern end of tlie 
county did their trading at stockades in Sul- 
livan and Kno.x counties. Among the earliest 
traders were two brothers. Frenchmen, named 
I3rouillet, which was generally pronounced 
by the Americans, Bruriet. For some reason 
the Indians of that region entertained a strong 
enmity toward one of these brothers. He 
was captured and brought to their village, 
near the mouth of a creek south of Clinton, 
tiiat now liears liis name. At once it was 



decided to burn him at the stake; and to the 
stake he was fastened, with buckskin thongs. 
After the men had ceased talking, the squaws, 
according to Indian custom, had a right to 
be heard. An aged squaw, who had had a 
son killed in warfare, demanded the right to 
adopt the prisoner as a substitute for her lost 
son; and, whilst this privilege was generally 
granted, on this occasion the demand was 
refused, although she pleaded earnestly ainl 
long. In her wild but heroic determination, 
she seized a butcher-knife, and before any one 
could interfere, cut the prisoner loose, pointed 
to a canoe on the sandy shore of the Wabash, 
and told liim to run and save his life if he 
could. He did run. Pushing the canoe out 
into the water as far as possible, and giving 
it directive force toward the middle of the 
river he sprang aboard, and, lying flat in its 
bottom, paddled it into the stream ))eyond 
the reach of the Indians' rifles and escaped. 
This incident gave name to Brouillet's Creek. 

The Brouillets took wives from the Miami 
tribe. The wife of the elder Brouillet be- 
longed to a family in the line of promotion 
to the chieftianship. On his death the mother 
returned to her people, and the children were 
entitled, according to Indian law, to her jjropei- 
home and position among her people. Her 
eldest son grew up an athletic and vigorous 
young man, and became one of the chiefs of 
the Miamis. He was equitable in his deal- 
ings, and energetic in his duties, and chival- 
rous as a commander. His prudence served 
to avoid in a great measure any difiiculties 
with his wliite neighbors, wlio were constantly 
encroaching upon his territory and often in- 
flicting injustice upon his people. Frequently 
the young men desired to avenge their 
wrongs, but he was able to prevent the butch- 
ering episodes of Indian warfare and retalia- 
tion. 

loseidius Collett, Sr., after sm 



ABORIGINAL. 



through the then swampy grounds of Hen- 
dricks and Montgomery Counties, found that 
his camp was without sufficient provisions, 
and all, including himself, were more or less 
sick. On the return march of Harrison's 
army to Fort Harrison, now Terre Haute, he 
directed the others to go on and secure food, 
and leave him on the bank of Raccoon Creek 
in a little tent. Chief Brouillet came to him, 
offered his services to kill game and to dress 
and cook it for him, and to care for him, M'hich 
he did as carefully and gently as could a 
woman. Fifty years afterward, when an old 
man of eighty, Mr. Collett only could recall 
the scene with tears in his eyes, and declared 
that Chief Brouillet was the best looking 
man that ever trod the banks of the Wabash, 
and was as kind hearted as he was brave. 

In the march to Tippecanoe, the confeder- 
ate Indians had prepared an ambuscade for 
Harrison's army at the narrow pass between 
the high rocky bluffs and the Wabash River, 
at Vicksburg, near Ferrysville. The army 
forded the river near Montezuma and marched 
up on the west side of the river and thus 
avoided that ambuscade. They crossed the 
Little Vermillion near the present railroad 
bridge, passed up the hollow just back of 
Joe Morehead's residence. Remnants of 
their corduroy bridge may be seen in the 
miry bottom of Spring Branch, near the brick 
house on the Head farm. On that march the 
useless shooting of a gun was prohibited, and 
even loud talking, under penalty of death. 
Judge Naylor, of Crawfordsville, who was 
one of the volunteers, tells the incident that 
on Oak Island, on S. S. CoUett's farm, a 
frightened deer jumped over the outer rank 
of men, and finding himself hemmed in, ran 
in various directions over the enclosed space; 
and, although the soldiers needed fresh meat, 
they were not permitted to shoot the animal. 
It was allowed to get away in safety. On 



the two spring branches on the John Collett 
farm, sections 9 and 16, corduroy roads may 
be seen to this day. 

The army marched as close to the river 
bank as possible for the protection of the 
pirogues and keel-boats, which carried corn 
for their horses and provisions for the men. 
Spies reported that on account of low water, 
further navigation was impracticable at Coal 
Creek bar. The boats were landed near 
where Gardner's old ferry was once estab- 
lished, on the John Collett farm, until a 
reconnoisance could be made and a site for a 
stockade reconnoisance could be selected. 
It was determined to build the stockade on 
the farm of the late J. W. Forter, at a point 
known as Porter's eddy, and that it should 
partially overhang the river so as to protect 
the boats and their stores. Such a fqrt could 
usually have been built in one day, but in the 
bnstle and hurry of handling they lost half 
their axes in the water. One of these was a 
long time afterward found, and it was con- 
sidered curious that a new axe, unused, and 
mounted with an unused handle, should be 
found tliere, nntil Judge Naylor explained 
the fact that many axes were there lost on 
the occasion just referred to, while the men 
were busily engaged in building the blockade. 
Fersons are now living who remember having 
seen parts of the stockade. 

The Kentuckians and the mounted rifie- 
men recruited their horses on the rich blue- 
grass pastures in the river valley bottoms, on 
the Forter and Collett farms. 

A sergeant and eight men were left toguard 
the stockade. About seven days afterward a 
wild looking soldier returned, reporting a 
disastrous battle at Tippecanoe, the defeat 
and destruction of the whole army, that he 
alone was left to tell the story, and that they 
must quickly destroy the post and retreat to a 
safe place. The sergeant's reply was, " I was 




I 



ordered to hold this post; I shall do so; and 
as for yon, deserter and coward, my men will 
pnt you upon the ridge-pole of the stockade, 
and tie your feet together. If the In- 
dians come you will catch the first bullet and 
shall be the first to die. We will die at our 
post of dut}^" 

The army marched through the prairie 
regions west of Perrysville to where State 
Line City now stands, and near which place 
they pass the north boundary of the county. 

Major James Blair and Judge J. M. Cole- 
man settled on section 16, township 17 north, 
9 west, between Eugene and Newport, before 
the land in that region was offered for sale 
by the Government. The prairie was known 
as Little Vermillion, or Coleman's Prairie. 
These two men had always been pioneers. 
Blair had been one of the heroes of Perry's 
victories on Lake Erie, and afterward held 
conspicuous positions of honor and trust in 
the community and State; but at this time 
he and Coleman were })eacemakers between 
the Indians, whose confidence they had; and 
they knew that Indians, if properly treated, 
could be trusted. 

Se-Seep, or Siie-Sheep. a small, Ijow-legged, 
stoop-shouldered, white-haired man, 110 years 
old, was chief of the Pottawatomies and their 
allied Kickapoos. Their territory ranged 
from the Little Vermillion to Pine Creek, 
including the north-half of Vermillion Coun- 
ty, all of "Warren, and the west-half of Foun- 
tain. Se-Seep had been a gallant fighter in 
the defense of his people and coimtry at the 
battle of Fallen Timbers (Wayne's Victory), 
and afterward in the terrible defeat of his 
people at Tippecanoe. Brave and heroic in 
battle, after signing the treaties of peace with 
the American authorities, he was faithful and 
trustworthy, and finally became a reliable 
friend of the white people. He. became the 
liero of a serio-comic incident wherein Noah I 



Hubbard, who settled on Indian land where 
Cayuga now stands, became the butt of ridi- 
cule. Hubbard was cultivating a portion of 
a ten acre tract. One day the Indians crossed 
at the army ford and " stole " roasting ears 
and squashes as rental. Hubbard found 
Se-Seep with some ears of corn and two 
squashes within the folds of his blanket, and 
he undertook to castigate the chief with a 
cane. Se-Seep did " not scare worth a cent," 
but, dropping the squashes and corn, chased 
Hubbard out of the field with a stick. Then 
Hubbard went to Blair and Coleman and de- 
manded that they should call out the rangers 
and the mounted riflemen, declaring that the 
Indians were destroying liis property and that 
they should be dealt with and punished. 
They refused to call out the rangers, but said 
he might notify them to assemble at their 
house the next morning. He did so, and the 
next morning some of the riflemen also as- 
sembled and commenced practice, shooting at 
a mark. The Indians had camped for the 
night a mile north, at the famous Bufi'alo 
spring near the residence of the late John W. 
Porter. Blair introduced to the Indians the 
matters of difi'erence, and concluded to have an 
imitation Indian pow-wow. Accordingly, he 
and Coleman, who had been chosen as arbitra- 
tors, rejiaircd to a plum thicket with a well worn 
testament, a wooden-covered spelling-book, a 
dilapidated almanac, and a remnant of an old 
law book, as authorities. Here they held a 
sham court, chattering gibberish, and gesti- 
culating like Indians, and finally rendered 
the following verdict: That the two litigants 
settle the whole matter by a fist fight. The 
decision was no sooner announced than the 
little old Indian chief, who was dressed 
only with a blanket belt, threw it off and 
made rapidly for Hubbard. Of course the 
latter ran, and ran as fast as he could, mount- 
ed his pony and was soon out of sight. The 



ABORIGINAL. 



Indians, who were scarcely ever known to 
langh, indulged heartily on this occasion. 

Se-Seep was finally murdered, in a foul 
manner, at Nebnker's Springs, Fountain 
County, at the age of 110 years, by a lazy, 
vicious renegade Indian named Namqua. 
He had a splendid son, who at the of seven- 
teen years was killed by falling fifty feet 
from a tree while fighting a bear, near the 
residence of John Collett. 

Although no battles nor skirmishes in con- 
nection with the war of 1812 took place in 
this county, the " Vermillion country" was 
two or three times crossed by belligerents. 
From a copy of General John Tipton's jour- 
nal, kindly lent us by Stephen S. Collett, 
Esq., of Newport, we extract the following 
paragraphs. 

Tipton was an illiterate man but a daring 
fighter, and in the autumn of 1811, he, as a 
private in Captain Spencer's Harrison County 
Riflemen, journeyed from Corydon, that 
county, down the Wabash to Fort Harrison, 
four miles north of Terre Haute, and up the 
same stream again, in the Indian campaign 
which ended in the hloody battle of Tippe- 
canoe. The company compi-ised forty-seven 
men, besides oflicers, and these were joined 
by Captain Heath and twenty-two men. In 
going down]tlie river they guarded a keel-boat 
of provisions for Camp Harrison, and con- 
cerning this trip we quote: 

"October 6. — We moved early; one mile, 
came to the river at the coal bank; found it 
was below the Vermillion half a mile; we 
took coffee; moved after the boat started 
down. The coal bank is on the east side of 
the Wabash. We went through a small 
prairie; crossed the river to the west side; 
went in on the head of a bar and came out on 
the lower end of another on the west side; 
went through a small prairie, then came to a 
big prairie, where the old Vermillion town 



was. We crossed the Wabash half a mile 
above the mouth of the Vermillion River 
before we came to the above town. Crossed 
the Vermillion River, took a south course 
through timbered land, and then through a 
prairie with a good spring and an old Indian 
hut; then tlirougli a beautiful timbered ground 
to a small creek, and stopped to let our horses 
graze; then went through a good land with a 
ridge on our right, out of which came four 
springs, and for two miles nothing but large 
sugar and walnut. The hill and the river 
came close together. We found a good coal 
bank fourteen miles below Vermillion. AV^e 
then crossed to the east side, went three 
miles and camped with the boat; after coming 
twenty miles and finding two bee trees, left 
them." 

On the 31st, coming northward, the 
following entry is made: 

" We moved early. Two of the oxen miss- 
ing. Three of our men sent to hunt them. 
We crossed Raccoon Creek. Saw our men 
who went to guard the boats on the 29th; 
they left us. We came to the river where 
we camped on our return fi-om Vermillion on 
the night of the sixth; thence up to the ford. 
Saw our boat guard just crossing the river. 
We halted until the army came up, then rode 
the river, which was very deep, then ca:nped. 
Our boat guard and the men who went to 
hunt the oxen came up, when we left the 
guards. We took a north course up the east 
side of the Wabash and crossed to the west, witli 
orders to kill all the Indians we saw. Fine 
news. The Governor's wagon was left this 
morning in consequence of the oxen being lost. 
All the army crossed in three hours. We 
drew corn. 

" Friday, November 1. — I was sent with 
eighteen men to look for a way for the army to 
cross the Little Vermillion. Marched at day- 
break; canje to the creek; found and marked 




tlie road: waited till the army-came np; went 
on and camped on the river two miles below 
the Big Vermillion. Captain Spencer, my- 
self and three others went np to the Big Ver- 
million; retnrned to camp. General Wells, 
with forty men, and Captain Berry with nine 
men, had come up. Our camp marched in 
front to-day, as usual, which now consisted 
of thirty-seven men, in consequence of Captain 
Berry and Lindley being attached to it. 

" Saturday, November 2. — A fine day. 
Captain Spencer, M'ith ten men went out on a 
scout. Onr company not parading as usual, 
the Uovernor threatened to brake the officers. 
I staid in camp. The army staid here to 
bnild a block house on the bank of the 
Wabash three miles below Vermillion, in a 
small prairie. The house, twenty-five feet 
square, and a breast-work from each corner 
next the river down to the water. Took 
horses and drew brush over the prairie to 
break down the weeds. This evening a man 
came from the garrison: said last niglit his 
was boat llred upon. One man who was asleep, 
was killed. Three boats came up, unloaded; 
went back taking a sick man with them. 
One of Captain Bobb's men died to-night." 

" Sunday, the 3d. — A cloudy day. We 
moved early. Our company marched on the 
right wing to-day. Crossed the Big Ver- 
million, through a prairie six miles, through 
timber, then through a wet prairie with 
groves of timber in it," etc. 

Thus we have quoted all of General Tip- 
ton's journal that pertains] to Vermillion 
County. Under date of November 7, 1811, 
he gives an account of the battle of Tippe- 
canoe, in a paragraph scarcely longer than 
tiie average in his journal, as if unaware that 
the action was of any greater importance than 
an insignificant skirmish. Tipton was pro- 
moted from rank to rank tintil he was finally 
made General, His orthography, punctuation, 



etc., were so bad that we concluded not to 
follow it in the above extracts. Nearly every 
entry in his jonrnal not quoted above opens 
with the statement that the weather was very 
cold. He also makes occasional mentions of 
the soldiers' drawing their rations of whisky, 
— from one to three or four quarts at a time. 

In Harrison's march to Tippecanoe his 
boats (pirogues) could not pass Coal Creek 
bar, spoken of under date of October 31 
above and for their protection he built a 
stockade fort at the head of Porter's eddy, 
the precise locality being the northeast quar- 
ter of section 9, 17 north, 9 west. Here he 
left the sergeant and ten men to guard them. 
The remains of the heavy timbers were still to 
be seen in 1888. Corduroy or pole bridges 
buried in mud may yet be seen on the spring 
branches on the farms of Hon. John Collett, 
S. S. Collett and the Head family, — sec- 
tions 9, and 15, 17 north, 9 west. 

General Harrison also had caches in this 
county along the Wabash. 

According to one of the treaties, General 
Harrison made a purchase for the Govern- 
ment, the northern line of which, west of the 
AVabash, extended from a point directly op- 
posite the mouth of the Big Eaccoon Creek 
northwesterly. This tract was opened for 
white settlement long before the northern 
portion of the county was, which i-emained 
in the possession of the Kickapoos and Potta- 
watomies for a few years longer. 

FIKST WHITE SETTLER. 

In the year 1816, John Vannest, a man 
who was not afraid of the Indians, in 
company with a man named Hunter, who was 
also a hunter by occupation, ventured west 
of the Wabash to select land for a permanent 
home. Arriving at a point aboiit a mile 
north of where Clinton now stands, — the 
e}(act spot being the southeast corner of sec- 



ABORiaiNAL. 



tioii 9, township 14 north, range 9 west, they 
halted for the night. Hunter soon seared up 
a deer, which was killed, and thus they liad 
a choice supper of fresh venison. After the 
night's rest Mr. Vannest looked about a little, 
and without tramping around further con- 
cluded that tiiat spot was about as good as 
any he would likely find. Keturning to 
his temporary home at Fort Harrison, about 
four miles this side of Terre Haute, he waited 
a short time for the day of the Government land 
sales to arrive at Vincennes. Repairing 
thither, he entered three quarters of section 9. 
Subsequently he bought the remaining quar- 
ter of William Bales. This land is on the 
second batton, very high and beautifully un- 
dulating, but originally covered with timber. 
Had he proceeded a little further north he 
would have found a beautiful little prairie, 
which would be land already cleared for him ; 
but that point was either unknown to him, 
or it was too near or over the line between 
Government land and the Indians. Besides, 
at the stage of the country's development 
existing at that time it was not believed that 
the prairies could be cultivated, or dwelt upon 
with comfort, on account of the greater and 
more constant cold winds. 

On the beautiful timbered land above de- 
scribed, Mr. Yannest, settled bringing with 
him his wife and several children. Erecting 
lirst a log cabin on the west side of his land, he 
cocupied it for a long period, when he built a 
large brick residence, from bricks he had made 
near by. It was the first brick building in 
the county. The mason employed upon it 
was a Mr. Jones, residing toward Newport. 
This house finally became unsafe and was 
torn away. 

The land which Mr. Vannest obtained re- 
mains mostly in the possession of his descend- 
ants to this day; and it is a remarkable fact 
that from this tract no less than forty-five 



men entered the service of their country dur 
ing the late war. 

John Vannest, Jr., son of the precedin 




was the first white child born 
County, though this honor 



11 Vermillion 
as also been 
claimed for the late Hon. William Skidmore, 
of Ilelt Township. 

John Vannest, Sr., died September 28, 
184:2, at age of sixty-two years, and liis wife 
Mary, August 29, 1824, aged forty years, and 
they lie buried in the Clinton cemetery, 
north of the village. A daughter, Mrs. 
Sarah, widow of Scott Malone, stilloccupies 
the old homestead, being the oldest female 
resident of Clinton County. She well re- 
members the time when the girls, as well as 
the boys, had to " go to meeting " and to 
school barefoot, sometimes walking and some- 
times on horseback. The school and the 
meetings were held in the characteristic pio- 
neer log school-house, with puncheon floor, 
raud-and-stick chimney, flat rails for benches, 
a slab pinned up for a writing desk, and 
greased-paper windows. These and otlier 
pioneer customs are described in detail else- 
where in this volume. 

Mrs. Malone and her twin sister, Jane, 
were born August 6, 1812, and were conse- 
quently about four years old when their 
parents nioved with them to this county. It 
was a remarkable fact that these sisters, as long 
as the latter was living, — who died in old age, 
— always resembled each other so closely in 
their personal appearance that even their child- 
ren often mistook one for the other. Jane 
married Thomas Kibby, and died in March, 
1880. [It is from Mr. Kibby and Mrs. 
"Malone that we have learned many fiicts of 
this early history.] 

Mrs. Vannest had two narrow escapes from 

death at the hands of the Indians. The 

origin of this vengeance on the part of the 

was as follows; Two white 





soldiers at Camp Harrison became engaged in 
a quarrel one day, and one of them in attempt- 
ing to shoot the other, carelessly missed his 
aim and killed an Indian Sqnaw beyond. 
Thereupon the reds vowed they would kill 
the first white " squaw " who should cross to 
this side of the Wabash Eiver. Accord- 
ingly they watched their opportunity, and 
made two attempts to take the life of 
Mrs. Vannest. On the first occasion her life 
was saved by the timely interference of a 
friendly Indian, and the other time by the 
violent interference of iier relatives and friends. 
Directly after this her husband took her back 
to Fort Harrison, where she remained until 
the "holy ardor" of the fiery savages had 
died down. 

Most of the early settlers throughout the 
county are mentioned in the histories of the 
respective townships. See Index. 

In the first portion of this volume is given 
a description of the features of pioneer life 
in this part of the country, of the privations 
and sicknesses suffered, as well as of dangers 
from Indian and beast, and of the abundance 
of wild game. 

WILD GAME. 

Several circular " hunts ■' or " drives " have 
been held in this county; but as tliey have 
been conducted without the employment of 
dogs, their success lias not been great. The 
largest competitive chase ever held in this 
county was in early day, and lasted three 
months. Two leaders were chosen; they 
picked their men and divided the neighbor- 
hood in two parties for a compass often miles; 
they were to bring in the scalps of the slain 
animals at the end of three months, and the 
leader who showed the most scalps could de- 
mand five gallons of whisky as a treat from 
the beaten side. A wolf, fox, crow, coon or 
mink scalp was to be considered equal in 



value to five other scalps. A squirrel or 
chipmunk scalp counted one. On the ap- 
pointed day the opposing forces assembled. 
The committees began counting early in the 
morning, and completed theexciting task about 
three o'clock in the afternoon, when it was 
ascertained that over 70,000 scalps had been 
taken ! Thus, by a general rivalry the settlers 
enjoyed the execution of a plan which proved 
the means of safety and protection to tlieir 
crops. 

EAELY NAVIGATION. 

In the settlement of Indiana, before the 
age of canals, railroads, or even wagon roads, 
the Wabash Valley was the center of attraction, 
for it was the only means of transportation 
of products and supplies. Hence the towns 
and villages along the river were the centers 
of trade and civilization. All the adjoining 
region to the east in Indiana and to tlie 
west in Illinois were compelled to bring 
their produce to the Wabash for transpor- 
tation to New Orleans and other southern 
markets. At first, flat-boats by hundreds 
and thousands, forty, fifty, eighty, one-hun- 
dred and one-hundred and twenty-five feet 
long were built, loaded with pork, hogs, beef, 
cattle, corn, wheat, oats and hay, and sent 
south. Five hundred of these boats have 
been sent out of the Big Vermillion from 
Eugene, Danville and other points on that 
stream in one year. Scarcely a day in the 
long April, May and June floods but that 
from twenty to forty of these boats would 
pass. They were generally manned by 
a steersman, — who was also captain, — four 
oarsmen, with long side sweeps, and one 
general utility boy, who did the cooking. 
Supplies of food were taken along; and no 
boat was considered safely equipped which 
had less than twenty gallons of whisky. 

To the boatmen these trips were occasions 



ABORIGINAL. 



199 



of joyous festivity; and the wonderful stories 
which they bronght hack of the dangers and 
terrors of the navigation of the Mississippi, 
and tlie strange, mysterious eddies in which 
yet might ilow for weeks, — especially the 
"Widow Woman's eddy, tiie Grand Gulf, the 
i^rick-house Point, the Red Church — were as 
remarkable as Scylla and C'liaribdis in Roman 
song and story. Dozens of captains and ex- 
pert boatmen resided at Clinton, Eugene and 
Perrysville. The boatmen would sometimes 
return from the southern markets on foot 
through the Cherokee nation. The greatest 
danger to whicii they were exposed, however, 
was an attack from some of the noted 
Jlurrell's gang of robbers in Southern Illi- 
nois and AVestern Kentucky. "While many 
from Southern Indiana, Ohio, and Eastern 
Kentucky were robbed and murdered by these 
desperadoes, all the "V^ermillion County men 
fortunately came through safely. 

Captain N. H. Adams, who died at Eugene 
fiom an over-supply of whisky, started in 
ISll with a loaded boat from the Wabash, 
and had landed at New Madrid, Missouri, 
wlien the terrible earthquake occurred, dur- 
ing the night, which was dark and stormy. 
The trees were shaken and the crash and 
noise of nature, and the horror of the alarmed 
people of the doomed town, rendered the 



scene more terrific than imagination can con- 
ceive. And what could have been the feel- 
ing of those who witnessed the current of the 
Mississippi turned furiously up stream for 
hours! It seemed that the bottom of the 
river had fallen out. Wlien the cavity 
made by the "earthquake was filled, the 
current resumed its natural flow, but the 
sunken lauds and broken or inclined forest 
trees showed that over a large adjoining 
region a terrible earthquake had taken place. 

Mercantile and other supplies were wagoned 
across the Alleghany mountains, were taken 
down the Ohio in flat-boats, transferred to 
keelboats and brought up the Wabash by 
push-poles and cordelling by ropes which 
were sent out in advance, tied to trees, and 
wound up on improvised capstans. 

The first steamer on the Wabash made its 
appearance about 1820, an event of signal 
importance and popular excitement. x\li the 
people both wondered and rejoiced. The 
screaming fife, the throbbing drum and the 
roaring cannon welcomed the new power. 
Afterward steamers became more common, 
one or more passing every day. At one time, 
when Vermillion was at its flood, and the 
river at Perrysville obstructed by ice, as 
many as eleven steamers sought harbor at 
Eugene. 






''HE territory comprising 
Vermillion County was 
originally a part of 
Vigo County. In 1821 
Vigo County was di- 
vided by the organiza- 
tion of Parke County, which 
comprised Vermillion as a part 
of it, and Roseville, on the Big 
Raccoon Creek, was the county 
seat. 

In 1823, by an act of the 
Legislature of the State, Parke 
!^t^ Cwinty was divided by the 
AV abash River, the part west 
of the river being organized 
as Vermillion County, and named from the 
rivers. The Big Vermillion had been for 
many years tlie boundary between tlie pos- 
sessions of the Peaukeshaws on the south and 
the Kickapoos and Pottawatomies on the 
north, and during the period of ownership by 
France it was a part of the boundary between 
Canada and Louisiana. 

Vermillion County was created by an act 
of the General Assembly, approved January 
2, 1824. The full text is as follows: 

" Section 1. Be it enacted- hij the General 
Assenihly of the State of hidiana^ That from 



and after the first day of February next, ail 
that part of the counties of Parke and Wabash 
included within the following bounds shall 
form and constitute a new county, that is to 
say: Beginning on the west bank of the 
Wabash River, where the township line 
dividing townships numbered thirteen ami 
fourteen north of the base line, of range 
number niiie west of the second principal 
meridian crosses the same; thence west to 
the State line; thence north to the line 
dividing townships numbered nineteen and 
twenty north; thence east to the Wabash 
River; and thence south with the meanders 
of said river to the place of beginning. 

"Section 2. The said new county shall, 
from and after- the first day of February ne.xt, 
be known and designated by the name of the 
county of Vermillion, and it shall enjoy all 
the rights, privileges and jurisdictions which 
to a separate and independent county do or 
may properly belong or appertain: Provided 
always, That all suits, pleas, plaints, actions 
and proceedings which may before the first 
day of Marcli next have been commenced, 
instituted and jjending within the county of 
Parke, shall be prosecuted to final judgment 
and cficct in the same manner as if this act 
had not been passed: Provided also, That 



OOVERNMENTAL. 



201 



the State and county taxes wliicli are now 
due within the bounds of the said new county 
shall lie collected and paid in the same man- 
ner and l)y the same otticers as the}' wonld 
have been if the creation of the said new 
county had not taken place. 

"Section 3. Eobert Sturgus and Samuel 
Caldwell, of the county of Vigo, Moses Rob- 
bins, of Parke County, William Pugh, of 
Sullivan County, and AVilliam Mcintosh, of 
tlie county of Putnam, are hereby appointed 
commissioners, agreeably to the act entitled 
'Au act for the fixing of the seats of justice 
in all new counties hereafter to be laid off.' 
The commissioners above named, or a major- 
ity of them, shall convene at the house of 
James Blair, in the said new county of Ver- 
million, on the first Monday of March next, 
and immediately proceed to discharge the 
duties assigned them by law. It is hereby 
made the duty of the sheriff of Parke County 
to notify the said commissioners either in 
person or by written notice of their appoint- 
ment, on or before the first day of February 
next: and the said sherift" of Parke County 
shall receive from the said county of Ver- 
million such compensation therefor as the 
county commissioners of said new county of 
Vermillion shall deem just and reasonable; 
who are hereby authorized to allow the same 
out of any monies in the treasury of said 
county, not otherwise appropriated, in the 
same manner as other allowances are made. 

"Sectiox 4. The Circuit Court of the 
county of Vermillion shall meet at the house 
of James Blair, in the said new county of 
Vermillion, until suitable accommodations 
can be had at the seat of justice; and so soon 
as the courts of said county are satisfied that 
suitable accommodations can be had at the 
county seat, they shall adjourn their courts 
thereto, after which time the courts of the 
said county shall be holden at the seat of 



justice of said county established by law: 
Provided alwajs, That the Circuit Court 
shall liave authority to adjourn tiie court 
from the house of James Blair as aforesaid, 
to any other place, previous to the comple- 
tion of the public buildings, should the said 
court or a majority of them deem it ex- 
pedient. 

"Section 5. The Board of County Com- 
missioners of the said county of Vermillion 
shall, within six months after the permanent 
seat of justice of said county shall have been 
selected, proceed to erect the necessary pub- 
lic buildings thereon. 

Section 6. The agent who shall be ap- 
pointed for the sales of lots at the seat of 
justice of said new county shall reserve and 
receive ten per centum out of the proceeds 
ot all donations made to the said county, and 
also out of the proceeds of all sales made of 
lots at the county seat of said county, and 
pay the same over to such person or persons 
as may be appointed by law to receive the 
same, for the use of a county library for the 
said county of Vermillion, whicii he shall 
pay over at such time and place as may be 
directed by law. 

" Section 7. The powers, privileges and 
authorities that are granted to the qualified 
voters of the county of Dubois and others 
named in the act entitled 'an act incorpo- 
rating a county library' in the counties 
therein named, approved January 28, 1818, 
to organize, support and conduct a county 
library, are hereby granted to the qualified 
voters of the county of Vermillion; and the 
same powers and authorities therein granted, 
and the same duties therein required of the 
several officers and persons elected by the 
qualified voters of Dubois and other counties 
therein named, for the purpose of carrying 
into effect the provisions of the act aforesaid, 
according to the true intent and meaning 



thereof, are hereby granted to and required 
of the otticers and other persons elected by 
tlie qualified voters of the county of Yer- 
niillion. 

" Section 8. The said county of Vermill- 
ion shall have both civil and criminal 
jurisdiction over all the country north of said 
county, which is or may be included in ranges 
nine and ten west, to the northern boundary 
of the State. 

" Section 9. The said new county of Ver- 
million shall be attached to the counties of 
Pike and Vigo, for the purpose of electing 
Representatives to Congress, and to the same 
Senatorial and Eepresentativedistricts to which 
said counties now belong, for the purpose of 
electing Senators and Representatives to the 
General Assembly, and to the first return dis- 
trict for the purpose of returning votes for 
electors of President and Vice-President of 
the United States." 

For the space of a year Vermillion County 
thus had jurisdiction over more than a hun- 
dred miles of country north and south — to 
Lake Michigan, but a few miles from the 
modern city of Chicago. The presidential 
election referred to in the closing sentence 
was that at which John Quincy Adams was 
chosen, and during the administration of 
President Monroe. It takes us back almost 
to " ancient " history. 

The county is thirty-seven miles long, 
north and south, by an average of seven miles 
in width, east and west. It is bounded on 
the north by Warren County, on the east by 
the "Wabash River, or Fountain and Parke 
counties, on the south by Vigo County, and 
on the west by the State of Illinois, that is, 
by Edgar and Vermillion counties, that State. 

The county seat was located at its present 
point, in what was then (1824) a wilderness, 
by Commissioners Robert Sturgis, Samuel M. 
Caldwell, William Pugh and William Mc- 



intosh, of adjoining counties. A fifth com- 
missioner was probably appointed, but did 
not act. Tradition gives four reasons wliy 
the seat of government was fixed at Nepurt: 
First, the site is nearly central; second, it 
was convenient to a good big spring, and to 
a grist and saw mill on the Little Vermillion 
River; third, those who owned the land were 
more liberal in their donations to the county 
than were others who sought the seat of g"\ - 
ernment elsewhere; and fourth, a few have 
intimated that the commissioners were bought 
up by parties in interest; but of course no 
proof of this lias ever been given; the first 
three reasons are sufficient. There has never 
since been a serious effort made to remove the 
county seat; and, although Dana may out- 
grow the other towns in the county and 
some cay bid strong for the honor, the pres- 
ent railroad system of the county constitutes 
an additional reason, and a more cogent rea- 
son than all the others combined, for retain- 
ing the seat of county government at its 
present place. It is more convenient than 
any other point in the county can be, unless 
Dana should grow to a city and become a 
kind of railroad center. 

EAELT ACTS OF THE COMJIISSIONEKS. 

The earliest acts of the commissioners of 
Vermillion County were recorded in a "home- 
made" book manufactured for the purpose 
by the clerk. Tiiis record was left in some 
place e.xposed to the depredations of mice, 
which mutilated it seriously, and some of the 
minutes therefore cannot be deciphered. In 
March, 1882, by order of the commissioners, 
as much of this mutilated record as was pos- 
sible was carefully transcribed in a large, 
well-bound book of modern manufacture. 
This transcript begins with the minutes of 
the March session of 1824, the year the county 
was organized, and therefore but very little 



GOVERNMENTAL. 



203 



of tlie record is really lost. Tliis iirst session 
was held at the residence of James Blair, 
situated near the southeast corner of the 
northeast quarter of section 16, in township 
17 north, of range 9 west. That was on the 
west side of the old wagon road leading from 
Eugene to Newport, and about half way 
heuwecn those two towns. As these earliest 
acts of the County Legislature gather increas- 
ing interest with lapsing years, we p'-int the 
tirst few pages ot them. 

" At a special meeting of the board of com- 
missioners of Vermillion County, begun and 
held at the house of James Blair, on Tuesday, 
the 23d day of March, 1824, and the com- 
missioners having their certificates of election, 
and having taken the necessary oath, took 
their seats. Commissioners present — John 
Haines, Thouias Durliam and Isaac Cliambers. 

" 1st. Ordered, That William W. Kennedy 
be and is hereby appointed clerk of the board 
of commissioners of Vermillion County for 
this session. 

" 2d. Ordered, That Caleb Bales be and is 
hereby appointed lister of the County of Ver- 
millioi', upon his giving bond and security. 

" 3d. Ordered, That all that part of the 
County of Vermillion contained in the fol- 
lowing bounds, to wit: Beginning at the 
Wabash River where the line dividing town- 
ships 13 and 14 crosses the same, thence with 
said line to the line dividing the States of 
Lidiana and Illinois, thence north to the line 
dividing townships 14 and 15, thence east 
with said line to the Wabash River, thence 
south with said river to the place of begin- 
ning, shall constitute the township of Clin- 
ton; and that the election in said township 
be held in said township at the house of John 
Sargeant, in Clinton. 

" 4th. Ordered, That all that part of the 
county of Vermillion contained in the follow- 
ing bounds, to wit: Beginning at the Wabash 



River where the line between townships 14 
and 15 crosses the same, thence west with 
said line to the line dividing the States of 
Indiana and Illinois, thence north with said 
line to the center of township 16, thence east 
with said central line to the Wabash River, 
thence south with said river to the place of 
beginning, — shall constitute the township of 
Ilelt, and that elections for said township be 
held at the house of John Van Camp. 

"5th. Ordered, That all that part of Ver- 
million County contained in the following 
bounds, to wit: Beginning at the Wabash 
River at the center of township 16, thence 
west with said central line to the line dividing 
the States of Indiana and Illinois, thence 
north with said line until it strikes the Big 
Vermillion River, thence east with said river 
until it empties into the Wabash, thence 
south with said river to the place of begin- 
ning, shall constitute the township of Ver- 
million; and that elections in said township 
be held at the school-house on section 16 in 
township 16. 

" 6th. Ordered, That all that part of Ver- 
million County contained in the following 
bounds, to wit: Beginning at the Wabash 
River at the mouth of the Big Vermillion 
River, thence west with said river to the line 
dividing the States of Indiana and Illinois, 
thence north with the said line to the line 
dividing townships 19 and 20, thence east 
with said line to the Wabash River, thence 
south with said river to the place of begin- 
ning, shall constitute the township of High- 
land, and that elections in said township be 
held at the house of Jacob Andrick." 

The next four orders appoint inspectors of 
the elections first to l>e held in the above 
described townships — Salmon Luck, for Clin- 
ton; William Bales, for Helt; John Gardner, 
for Vermillion; and Jacob Haines, for High- 
land. 




HISTORY OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



The next four orders direct that justices 
of the peace be chosen at these elections, and 
that the sheriff give due notice of the time, 
place and purposes of the same. 

The succeeding four orders appoint consta- 
bles for the townships — Cliarles Trowbridge, 
for Clinton; John Harper, for Ilelt; Jacob 
Custer, for Yermillion; and George Han- 
sucker, for Highland; upon their giving bond 
and security. 

The above constitutes the business of the 
first day's session. 

Clinton and Helt townships remain un- 
changed to this day; but the other two town- 
ships have been made into three, as follows: 
The line between Vermillion and Eugene 
townships is the line dividing sections 19 and 
30 of surveyed township 17 north and 10 
west, running east to the northeast corner of 
section 21, township 17 north and 9 west, 
thence north a half mile, and thence east to 
the river; the line dividing Eugene and 



ig sec- 



Highland townships is the line divid 
tions 19 and 30 of township 18 north and 10 
west, running east to the river; and from the 
northern side of Highland Township has 
been cut off one tier of sections of Congres- 
sional township 19 nortli, 9 west, and thrown 
into Warren County. 

On the second day -^ the session the fol- 
lowing were appointed grand jurors for the 
May (1824) term of the Circuit Court: David 
W. Arnold, Horace Luddington, Rezin Shel- 
by, Andrew Thompson, John Tipton, William 
Coffin, John Scott, Jesse Higgins, Morgan 
De Puy, AVilliam Hedges, John Tannest, 
William Boyles, James Andrews, James 
Harper, Sr., and James Davis; and tlie fol- 
lowing as petit jurors: Joel Dicken, Robert 
Elliott, James Groenendyke, John Thompson, 
Simeon Dicken, Isaac Worth, Lewis Zebres- 
key [or Zabriskie], Benjamin Shaw, Alexan- 
der Bailey, William Rice, Harold Hayes, 



Amos Reeder, William Hamilton, John Clo- 
ver, Ralph Wilson, John Wimsett, Abraham 
Moore, John Maxadon, Joseph Dillow, 
Thomas Matheny, John E. Anderson, 0\ ed 
Blakesley, John Van Camp, and Joshua Skid- 
moi-e. 

For some reason, however, the most of 
those appointed as grand jurors failed to 
serve, as the Circuit Court record for the May 
(1824) term opens by giving the following 
named gentlemen as constituting the grand 
jury: Simeon Dicken, Ralph Wilson, Joseph 
Schooling, Obed Blakesley, James Harper, 
Sr., Carter Hollingsworth, Joshua Skidmore, 
Amos Reeder, Joel Dicken, Robert Elliott, 
Jesse Higgins, John Thompson, John Tipton, 
Joseph Dillow, Ludlow Ludwick, James 
Davis and William Rice. 

This day they also appointed " superintend- 
ents " of the school sections — Harold Hughes 
for Clinton Township, William Bales for 
Helt, James Davis for Vermillion, William 
Coflin for that in 17 north, 9 west, in High- 
land Township, Hoi'ace Luddington in 18 
north, and Jacob Andrick in 19 north, also 
in Highland. 

For overseers of the poor, John Vannest 
was appointed for Clinton Township, James 
Andrews and Augustus Ford for Helt, Zeno 
Worth and John Tipton for Vermillion, and 
John Haines and AVilliatn Gonger for High- 
land. 

John Collett was appointed ''agent for 
laying out a county seat," and also "for sell- 
ing such lots as were donated by John Jus- 
tice and George Miner for the use of tiie 
county, and such lands as were by them do- 
nated as more fully appears by their bonds." 
Josephus Collett and William Fulton were 
accepted as security for John Collett. 

Alexander Bailey was appointed collector 
of State and county tax. 

James Blair was appointed agent for the 



GOVERNMENTAL. 



library of the county, and authorized to re- 
ceive the moneys appropriated for the pur- 
pose from the sales of the county seat lots. 
(There is no " county library " now.) 

On the third day of this session the bills 
of the sheriff and commissioners appointed 
by the State government to locate the county 
seat, were audited and ordered paid. Will- 
iam Fulton was allowed §35 " as a sheriff in 
organizing the county of Vermillion," and 
also $2.50 for obtaining a copy of the laws 



regi 



ilati 



the duties of sheriffs 



counties. 

John Collett was authorized to receive a 
deed of the land for the county seat from 
John Justice, Josephus Collett and Stephen 
Collett, the land being " all that part of the 
west halt of the southwest quarter of section 
26, in townsliip number 17 north, of range 
9 west, which may be south of the Little 
Vermillion Creek, should the same contain 
more or less." 

"William Fulton was substituted for Alex- 
ander Bailey as collector of taxes. 

For the May (1824) session the same com- 
missioners first met at the house of James 
Blair, and, before transacting any business, 
adjourned to 4 p.m., at the house of Josephus 
Collett, at Vermillion Mills. At this place 
Mr. Haines did not appear. The other two 
commissioners decreed that ferry licenses be 
$7; " that the clerk list all property liable to 
taxation for county purposes to the full 
amount allowed by law; " that tavern licenses 
be $5; that the seat of justice shall be known as 
" the town of Newport," and that the lots in 
said town be laid off according to the 
following form, viz: Lots sixty-six feet in 
front, and 1811 feet in depth; the main street 
to be 100 feet in breadth, all other streets 
eighty feet; the alleys running north and 
south to be thirty-three feet, those east and 
west, sixteen; and that tlie sale of lots take 



place on the first Monday in June next, at 
the public square in said town, one-fifth of 
the purchase money to be paid in hand, the 
residue in four seini-annnal installments; and 
one-half of the lots donated to the county 
only shall be offered at said time." 

Next, the county was divided into thirteen 
road districts, and supervisors for them were 
appointed. 

James Blair was authorized to run a ferry 
at Perrysville, at the following rates: Wagon 
and five horses, 75 cents; wagon and four 
horses, 62^ cents; wagon and three horses, 
50 cents; wagon and two horses, 37|- cents; 
man and horse, 12^ cents; pedestrian, 6J 
cents; neat cattle, 4 cents a head; hogs and 
sheep, 2 cents a head. 

John Gardner was authorized to run a ferry 
across the Wabash about two miles north of 
Newport. 

For the proceedings of the next day the 
record says that "the grand and petit jurors, 
being duly selected for the present year, M-ere 
deposited in a box prepared for that pur- 
pose !" No wonder they dreaded to serve ! 

" License to vend foreign merchandise for 
the present year [remainder of 1824] was 
established at $10." 

At the June (182^ session the commis- 
sioners ordered a conwact to be let for the 
building of a court-house of the folloM'ing de- 
scription: "36 feet in length, and 24 feet in 
depth; containing two jury rooms, to l)e fur- 
nished with a window of fifteen lights, and a 
door opening from each into the court-room; 
the latter to have eight feet for a passage be- 
tween it and the jury room; balance of six- 
teen feet to be finished, laid off and worked 
in a semicircular form, in a workmanlike 
manner; with seats for the judges, bar and 
jury; with bannisters to separate the said 
court and jury rooms, eight feet one from 
the other across said court-house, at the dis- 



HISTORY OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



tance of eight feet from said jury rooms, ex- 
cept so much as may be necessary for the 
admission of persons in and to the Lar and 
court, which said space is not to exceed three 
feet; and the said court-room is to be fur- 
nished with three windows of fifteen lights 
eacli, and two good doors. Said building is 
to be erected on the southeast corner of the 
public square, of good, substantial frame of 
a ten-foot story, covered with joint shingles; 
and said frame is to be settled on a sufficient 
number of eighteen-inch blocks two feet 
long." 

June 26, 1824, the board of commissioners 
met and awarded to John Justice the con- 
tract for building the above described court- 
house, for $345, the structure to be completed 
by the first of the following November. 



PLAN OF FIRST' COURTHOUSE. 

Although the commissioners refused to 
accept this building when Mr. Justice 
thought he had it completed, it was used for 
courts and pnblic meetings of all kinds until 
another was erected, of brick. The county 
paid Mr. Justice in part; he sued for the 
balance, and finally recovered it, the Supreme 
Court ordering the county to pay the full 
amount and the cost of the proceedings. 

In February, 1831, the coramistioners had 
a plan for a new court-house drawn up, and 
advertised for proposals for furnishing the 



material with whicb to build it. James Skin- 
ner, being tlie lowest responsible bidder, was 
awarded the contract for furnishing the 
brick, at $3.50 per thousand; and Stephen 
B. Gardner was promised $2.50 a perch for 
the stone. Other material was contracted 
for, and the court-house completed under the 
immediate supervision of the county com- 
missioners, and was occupied until Januaiy 
29, 1844, at half past eleven o'clock in the 
forenoon, when it was partly burned down. 
The commissioners called a session immedi- 
ately and arranged for repairing the building. 
It WHS fully repaired, and re-occupied during 
the following summer. This served until 
1868, when the present beautiful structure 
was built. 

In June, 1828, the board of commissioners 
let the contract for the erection of the first 
jail, which was to be 16 x 28 feet in ground 
area, two stories high, of hewed timbers, 
with a partition of twelve feet for debtors' 
and criminals' room, lower story eight and a 
half feet in the clear, upper story eight feet, 
with partition as below, to be built of double 
timbers 8 x 10 inches thick, or wider if con- 
venient; roof to be of joint shingles, etc., etc. 
Samuel Hedges was the contractor, who was 
to receive for the work $369. 

In connection with the same building was 
to be a clerk's office, 16 x 14 feet, one story 
nine feet in the clear, two fifteen-light win- 
dows, one door, etc., etc. For this Mr. 
Jledges was to receive $116. 

This building was erected in due time, 
according to contract. 

PROBATE KECOED. 

The first page of the probate record begins 
thus: 

" Order Book 1. Probate Court, April 16, 
1827. Present, the Honorable Jacob Castle- 



GOVERNMENTAL. 



iiiau and Jacob Andrick, Associate Judges of 
Vermillion Count}'. 

"Court was adjourned to meet at the 
clerk's office in Newport. 

''Ordered, That Phebe Miller be and she 
is hereby appointed guardian of Matilda 
Miller, of lawful age to choose a guardian, 
and Eliza Ann, Charlotte, Jothani, Jacob, 
John, Lucretia and Massey Miller, infant 
heirs of Joshua Miller, deceased, that she 
give bond in the sum of §600, and that John 
Haines and John Gardner be approved as 
sureties. 

"On motion of James Groenendyke, ordered 
that John Armour, John Tipton and Robert 
Elliott be and they are hereby appointed coin- 
missiouers to make a partition of the real 
estate of John Groenendyke, deceased, among 
the heirs of- said deceased, and report to the 
next terra. 

''Ordered., That Sarah Lamphier, adminis- 
trutri.x of the estate of Elijah Lamphier, de- 
ceased, be allowed the following credits, she 
having filed sufficient vouchers to that eflect: 
[Here follows a list of expenses, footing up 
812.] 

"Ordered, That Hiram Shepherd, admin- 
istrator of the estate of William W. Ken- 
nedy, deceased, be allowed a credit of $39 on 
said estate, he having produced sutKcient 
vouchers for the sum. 

"Ordered, That court adjourn till court in 
course. 

"Jacob Andeick. 
"Jac. Castlkman." 

Mr. Andrick's name is signed mostly in 
German letter, while Mr. Castleman swings 
a fancy pen in modern style. 

FIRST MARBIAGES. 

The first marriages within the present 
bounds of Vermillion County are probably 
recorded at the county seats of Parke and 



Vigo counties, as the record at Newport 
opens with certificates at the rate of almost 
one a week, or forty for the year ending May 
1, 1825. The record here begins with the 
following, in the order here given : 

1. Jesse McGee, Minister of the Gospel, 
married Moorman Hayworth and Elizabeth 
Mardick, May 30, 1824; and June 2, same 
year, Hugh Johnson and Polly Tipton. 

2. John Porter, Justice of the Peace, May 
10, 1824, married Philo Heacock and Dian- 
tha Smith; June 10 following, Joshua Dean 
and Susan Nolan; June 27, Isaac I>. Potter 
and Semiah Seymour; July 1, Noah Kirken- 
dol and Mary Wallen; and August 12, Ashur 
Sargent and Delilah Cooper, etc. 

Some of the above names are probably 
wrongly spelled. 

THE CIRCUIT COURT. 

The first civil suit brought into the Circuit 
Court was instituted by Mark Hays against 
Mary Hays for divorce. The case was con- 
tinued for several terms and ended by Mark 
having to pay Mary's lawyers' fees, dis- 
missing and pa^'ing costs, and then the 
twain living together thereafter. " Vermillion 
County," says M. G. Rhoades, Esq., "has the 
reputation of settling more lawsuits by com- 
promise than any other county in the State. 
This effect may be directly traceable to the 
example set in the case just related." 

The fii'st volume of the Circuit Court record 
opens thus: "May Term, 1824. Pleas be- 
gun and held before the Honorable Jacob 
Call, President of the First Judicial Circuit 
in the State of Indiana, and Jacob Andrick 
and Jacob Castleman, Associate Judges for 
the county of Vermillion, at the house of 
James Blair, on Thursday, the sixth day of 
May, in the year of our Lord one thousand 
eight hundred and twenty-four. 

" State of Indiana vs. Josephus Collett and 



Ealpli Wilson." This was for assault and 
battery, although no memorandum of the fact 
is entered. Tlien follows the plea of indict- 
ment, which is interesting on account of the 
heavy wording characteristic of that day. 
Thus: 

"The jurors, for and in the name and body 
of the county of Vermillion, upon their oaths 
present that Josephus CoUett, late of the 
township of Vermillion, laboring [laborer?], 
and Ralph Wilson, late of the same town- 
ship and county aforesaid, laborer, on the 
fifth day of March, in the year of our Lord 
one thousand eight hundred and twenty-four, 
with force and arms, at [in ?] the township 
aforesaid, in the county aforesaid, did, in a 
certain public place, to wit, the house yard of 
James Blair, being a puljlic place, did agree 
to fight at fisticulis, and then and there 
actually did fight, and then and there, in a 
rude, insolent, angry and unlawful manner, 
did touch, strike, beat, bruise, wound and ill- 
treat each other, to the terror of the citizens 
of the State of Indiana, then and there being 
contrary to the force of the statutes of that 
case made and provided, and against the peace 
and dignity of the State of Indiana. 

" Georgk R. C. Sullivan, Pros. Atty." 

Among the tautologies and slips of the pen 
in the above document, is the old familiar 
phrase, " with force and amis," connected 
with a case of simple "fisticufis !" "Arms" 
were employed, no doubt I — two by each 
party. 

According to tradition, the \^hole court 
were indictable as accessories to the affray, 
as, while they had no regular business on 
hand for the day, they " adjourned to see the 
fun!" 

At the second term of the court Mr. Col- 
lett pleaded guilty and was fined §2; but Mr. 
Wilson continued his case for several terms, 
and was ultimately fined $10, — -for the use of 



the county seminary. Judge John R. Porter 
presided at this term of court. His circuit, 
by the several changes that were made, ex- 
tended from the Ohio to Lake Michigan. 

Of course it is not necessary for us to fol- 
low the criminal records further, or even give 
any statistics of crime in this county. In 
reading a modern newspaper one often gets 
the impression that " this section of tiic 
country" is awfully addicted to crime, for- 
getting that it is the province of the paper tn 
gather and publish all that is sensational, 
though other things be excluded. In reading 
the modern newspaper, therefore, one is 
almost constantly looking at the worst side 
of society. 

There has been but one case of capital 
punishment in Vermillion County, a lu-ief 
account of which wc now proceed to give. 

THE SCAFFOLD. 

Walter AVatson was executed April 3, 1879, 
for iiaving murdered Ezra Compton at High- 
land January 10, preceding. 

Watson was born in Vermillion County, 
Indiana, March 20, 1852, and when grown 
was five feet nine inches in height, weighed 
about 165 pounds, and had a light complexion 
and auburn hair. When he M-as fourteen 
years of age his mother died, a little before 
which time he joined the Methodist Episcopal 
church; but in 1876 he joined the Baptist 
church, and December 25, 1877, married 
Mary E. Sharp, a memberof the same church. 
His father kept house but a short time after 
his mother's death, and he and his brother 
were consequently left to shift for themselves. 
He was generally industrious, however, work- 
ing mostly on a farm, and some as a car- 
penter; he carried mail four months, and was 
also engaged in numerous other odd jobs, in 
various places. 

Being a creature ot high temper, he occa- 



GOYERNMENTAl.. 



sioiially had a fight, and, according to what 
he said, was always victorions. The hist 
light he liad was with a man named Lon 
Glaric, in Illinois. Tliej snapped revolvers 
at each other, hut neither of tlie revolvers 
fired. The ti'ouble began on the qncstion 
who should go home with a certain girl. 
After the revolvers failed, the parties clinched, 
when Watson gained the victory and marched 
off with the girl. 

Watson never made a practice of getting 
drunk, but would occasionally drink with a 
friend. He had such a disposition as one 
would suppose was developed by being teased 
and tantalized when an infant; was fretful, 
suspicious, overbearing and ugly; but in jail 
he was always kind to his fellow prisoners 
and to the jailor, Spencer H. Dallas. 

January 9, 1879, Watson went to High- 
land and purchased of Ezra Compton 25 
cents worth of soap, on credit. The next 
(\-Ay his brother Florence bought an ax 
at the same place, and in paying for it he 
handed Mi-. Compton a $2 bill to change. 
The latter, not being well acquainted with 
the brothers, and thinking this was the same 
who had bought the soap the preceding day, 
reserved pay for it also, in making the change. 
Florence asked for an explanation, when 
Compton said he supposed he desired to pay 
for the soap also. Then Florence had to 
explain that it was his brother who obtained 
the soap, and added that it was all right, and 
mark that debt cancelled also. 

Arriving home, Florence told his brother 
Walter that he thought it was " a little thin " 
to buy so small a quantity of soap and having 
it charged. Walter denied the charge, flew 
into a terrible rage and declared he would 
have satisfaction out of Compton. Seizing 
his brother's revolver I'lom an adjoining 
room, he sallied forth, despite the entreaties 
of his wife, and walked to the village, two 



miles away, bent on revenge. First, he de- 
manded to know of Mr. Compton why he had 
caused his brother to pay for the soap when 
he had promised to wait on him till he could 
get the money. Mr. Compton explained the 
matter to him, but he was too greatly excited 
to be reasonable. Even handing back the 
twenty-five cents by Mr. Compton had no 
effect in cooling down the boiling caldron. 
Compton then ordered him out of the store. 
He withdrew for a moment, but stepping 
back upon the threshold, he pointed the deadly 
weapon toward his victim, and exclaimed, 
" D — n you ! I'll shoot you anyhow," and 
fired the fatal shot, which passed into Comp- 
ton's body in the inguinal region and lodged 
in the spinal column. The poor man died 
the next day. 

Immediately after the shooting, Watson 
started for home, brandishing his revolver 
and making terrible threats of what he should 
do if Compton should attempt to follow him. 
He told several parties in bravado style tliat 
he had killed Compton, and had a few more 
pills left for any of his friends who might 
sympathize with him. Late that evening he 
was arrested. 

The next month he was indicted for mur- 
der in the first degree, and tried during that 
term of court, Thomas F. Davidson, Judge. 
The attorneys for the prosecution were Prose- 
cutor A. P. Harrell, and Messrs. Jump & 
Cnshman and K. B. Sears. As Watson was 
poor and had no means to employ legal talent. 
Judge Davidson appointed Messrs. Rhoads& 
Parrett and J. C. Sawyers to defend him. 
The jury consisted of William Collett, T. J. 
Stark, Solomon Ilines, M. J. liudy, AVallace 
Moore, William C. Groves, J. S. Shaner, R. 
C. Jones, J. R. Gouty, J. R. Dunlap, Alfred 
Carmack and John Van Duyn, who on the 
first ballot unanimously found the accused 
guilty. The usjial steps for a n,ew trial, coin- 



BISTORT OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



mutation of sentence, etc., were made, but in 
vain, and on the 3d of April, between 12 and 
1 o'clock, Walter Watson was hanged in the 
jail yard, in the presence of a few spectators, 
who were admitted by ticket. 

Ezra Compton, the murdered man, was a 
young gentleman of integrity and high char- 
acter, and had been married but four weeks. 
By steady, hard manual labor, protracted for 
six years, he had managed to save $1,300, 
which but a few weeks previous to his mur- 
der he had invested in general merchandise, 
and was commencing as a merchant at High- 
land, lie had not an enemy in the world, 
except the high-tempered, unreasonable Wal- 
ter Watson, a few hours before the linal 
tragedy. 

The renuiins of the executed criminal were 
interred in Kelt's Prairie Cemetery, where 
his father and others guarded the place 
for several nights to prevent body-snatching 
by physicians. Becoming weary of such 
duty, they buried about six inches of heavy 
plank over the coffin, making it a tedious task 
for vandals to " resurrect " the remains. 

Many citizens thought that Florence Wat- 
son was as much to blame as Walter, if not 
more, as he, knowing his brother's ungovern- 
able temper, inflamed his passions by inti- 
mating that Crompton was afraid to trust 
him any more, etc., and left the county after- 
ward refusing to help his accused brother. 

But there is a sequel to the above tragedy, 
portrayed in the Indianapolis Herald in terms 
characteristic of the old-fashioned novel. It 
describes Mrs. Watson as a remarkable hero- 
ine. She was determined to accompany her 
husband to the scaffold, despite the remon- 
strance of all around her. One of the attend- 
ing ministers remarks in gentle accents, 
" Mrs. Watson, this will never do." As quick 
as the lightning's flash she turned on him, 
replying, " 1 should not have expected this 



from a minister. When I was married I 
promised a minister that I would cleave to 
my husband ' for better or for worse,' and 1 
am going to keep that promise as far as God 
will let me." 

Mrs. Watson was a small woman, but with 
a great soul. Her face was a study for an 
artist, being a blonde of pronounced tyjte, 
with high and broad forehead, irregular 
features, but exquisite in their delicacy fi,nd 
mobility; eyes large and intelligent. At 
one moment her mouth would indicate great 
tenderness and sweetness of disposition, but 
in an instant her lips would compress with a 
firmness that would fill one with surprise. 

She assisted in arranging her husband for 
the final scene, and even contributed some 
articles to his wardrobe — a neck-tie and a 
pair of slippers. The latter, with her own 
hands, she placed upon his feet, and put 
the tie around his neck with a care and de- 
tail that could not have been out of place had 
she been decking him out for a mari-iage 
feast. She then combed his hair, and, after 
having finished the last loving touch, re- 
marked, " Xow you are ready, Walter, and I 
will go M'ith you." Holding her husband's 
hand, the brave little woman accompanied 
him to the scatfold, amid the stillness that 
was absolutely painful. They took seats side 
by side; she, tenderly taking his hand in 
hers, caressed it, and then, giving away to 
tears, she fell wailing upon his breast. Thus 
they sat, while prayers ascended to heaven 
asking mercy upon the doomed man, she 
sobbing upon his bosom and he calm, await- 
ing his fate. 

The sheriff' changed the scene, saying, 
" Stand up, Walter Watson." The wife arose 
with him. " Good by, Walter," were her 
parting words as she once more passionately 
kissed him. Then turning her pale face, full 
of bitterness and reproach, upon the specta- 



^ 



GOVERNMENTAL. 



tors, she fell into the loving arms of some 
female friends and was borne away. 

After the execution, the body of her dead 
husband was delivered to her. She had been 
weeping loud and bitterly, but she heroically 
dried lier eyes, approached the coffin, looked 
lovingly upon the dead face, kissed his lips, 
eyes and brow, arranged the neck-tie with 
tender hands once again, and quietly said, 
" JS'ow please close the coffin and let no one 
yce my Walter again. I cry no more. God 
have mercy upon me and little baby! '' 

EARLY JUSTICES OF THE PEACE. 

The following are the names of all the jus- 
tices of the peace, with dates of commissions, 
who were appointed for Vermillion County 
previous to 1830: 

James Blair, Zeno Worth, William Ar- 
nold, John Hair, Sr., Michael Patton, John 
Porter, James Andrew and Joseph Schooling, 
August 7, 1824; Christian Zabrisky, October 
10, 1825; John Gardner, December 17, 
1825; Samuel Paish, October 16, 1826; Nor- 
man D. Palmer, IS'ovember 1, 1826; Jacob 
Custer, March 19, 1827; John T. Chunn, 
June 11, 1827; Isaac Keys, January 2, 1828; 
John Anglin, February 24, 1828; John Ar- 
mour, June 13, 1828; James Groenendyke, 
June 13, 1828; John Payne, December 8, 
1828; Thomas Chenoweth, June 19, 1829; 
Joseph Shaw, September 18, 1829; George 
Hansncker, September 18, 1829; Joseph 
Schooling, September 18, 1829. 

OFFICIAL REGISTER. 

Below are given the names of the incum- 
bents of the several county offices, with the 
dates of their legal assumption of office, 
from the organization of the county in 1824 
to the present yer.r, 1887. The names and 
dates are strictly correct, being obtained from 



the official records in the Secretary of State's 
office at Indianapolis. 



William Fulton, February 1, 1824; Caleb 
Bales, September 8, 1825; Charles Trow- 
bridge, August 14, 1828; William Craig, 
August 28,1832; Allen Stroud, August 16, 
1834; William Bales, August 13, 1838; 
Charles Trowbridge, August 8, 1842; Owen 
Craig, August 20,1846; Eli Newlin, August 
25, 1848;'Ricliard Potts, August 12, 1852; 
James II. Weller, November 18, 1856; Isaac 
Porter, November 18, I860: Harvey D. 
Crane, November 18, 1861; Jacob S. Steph- 
ens, November 18, 1868; Lewis II. Beck- 
man, November 18, 1872; Spencer II. 
Dallas, November 18, 1876; William C. 
Myers, November 18, 1880; John A. Darby, 
November 18, 1884. 

CLERKS AND REOJRDERS. 

James Thompson, April 22, 1824 (declined 
to qualify); William Kennedy, September 8, 
1824 (died in office); James T. Pendleton, 
August 29, 1826; Stephen B. Gardner, Au- 
gust 27, 1827; John W. Push. June 8,1833; 
Alexander B. Florer, April 22, 1838. Offices 
separated in the spring of 1852. 



James A. Bell, April 22, 1852; William 
E. Livengood, April 22, 1860; James A. 
Bell, April 22, 1868; William Gibson, April 
22, 1872; James Roberts, April 22, 1880; 
Alfred R. Hopkins, April 22, 1884. 



Alexander B. Florer, April 22, 1852; An- 
drew F. Adams, November 2, 1861; Robert 
E. Stephens, November 2, 1865; Jacob A. 
Souders, November 2, 1874; Cornelius S. 



! 







i( 



Davis, October 26, 1878; Melville B. Carter, 
November 13, 1886. 

TREASURERS. 

William Utter, November 23, 1852; 
George 11. Sears, November 23, 1854; 
George W. Englisb, November 23, 1856; 
James A. Foland, November 23, 1860; 
James A. Bell, November 23, 1864; Samuel 
B. Davis, November 23, 1865; James A. 
Foland, November 23, 1870; James Os- 
borne, November 23, 1874; John H. Bogart, 
November 23, 1876; Henry O. Peters, No- 
vember 23, 1880; William L. Porter, Novem- 
ber 23, 1884. 

ASSOCIATE JUPGES. 

Jacob Castleiuan, April 22, 1824 (resigned); 
Jacob Andrick, April 22, 1824; Christian 
Zabrisky, February 4, 1828; Joseph Hain, 
Aug'.ist 14, 1828 (resigned on being elected 
Judge); John Porter, April 22, 1831 (resign- 
ed); Alexander Morehead, August 19, 1831; 
Mattliew Stokes, JVJarch 4, 1835 (resigned); 
Robert G. Roberts, August 18, 1835 (resign- 
ed); Charles Johnston, July 11, 1836; Joseph 
Shaw, August 9, 1836 (removed from coun- 
ty); Alexander Morehead, April 22, 1838 
(resigned) ; Joel Hume, August 27, 1838 
(resigned); Ashley Harris, August 11, 1840; 
Eli Brown, August 11, 1840 (removed from 
county); James M. Morris, October 17, 1842. 
Office abolished by Constitution of 1852. 

PROBATE JUDGES. 

Asaph Hill, August 14, 1829; John W. 
Rush, January 8, 1833 (resigned); Rezin 
Shelby, May 6, 1833; Francis Chenoweth, 
August 19, 1847. Office abolished by Con- 
stitution of 1852. 

AUIIITORS. 

David Shelby, August 30, 1854; Henry D. 
Washburn, June 7, 1856; George W. English, 



November 18, 1860; James Tarrence, No- 
vember 18, 1864; Thomas Cnshman, Novem- 
ber 18, 1872; Elias Pritchard, November 18, 
1880. 

SURVEYORS. 

Greenup Castleman, March 6, 1824; James 
Osborn, November 11, 1826; John Collett. 
August 30, 1854; Edward Griffin, November 
18, 1856; John Fleming, November 2,1857; 
David Shelby, November 2, 1859; B. E. 
Rhoads, November 2, 1860; Daniel Shelby, 
November 2, 1861; James M. Lacy, Novem- 
ber 7, 1862; Buskin E. Rhoads, November 2, 
1863; John Davis, November 7, 1864; 
Martin G. Rhoads, October 28, 1865; Will- 
iam F.Henderson, October 26, 1870; John 
Henderson, October 30, 1872; Richard Hen- 
derson, October 30, 1874; John Ilendei-son, 
October 30, 1876; Piatt Z. Anderson, Octo- 
ber 30, 1878; Fred Rush, November 13, 
1884. 

CORONERS. 

Matthew Stokes, September 8, 1824; Carter 
Hollingsworth, August 29, 1826; Matthew 
Stokes, August 14, 1828; Edward Marlow, 
August 28, 1832; Matthew Stokes, August 
16, 1834 (resigned); Peter J. Yandever, 
August 18, 1835; Alfred T. Duncan, August 
9, 1836; William Malone, August 14, 1837; 
Leonard P. Coleman, August 10, 1841; Will- 
iam Malone, August 8, 1842; Durham Hood, 
August 23, 1844; Daniel C. Sanders, August 
25, 1848; Joseph E. Ilepner, August 23, 
1850; Andrew Dennis, August 12, 1852; 
John Vanduyn, August 30, 1854; Robert 
Elliott, November 18, 1856; David Smith, 
November 2, 1857; George Luellen, Novem- 
ber 18, 1858; John L. Howard, November 2, 
1861; R. Harlow Washburn, October 30, 
1868; Tliomas Brindley, October 30, 1870; 
Hezekiah Casebeer, October 30, 1880; 
Thomas Brindley, October 30, 1882, 



OOVERNMENTAL. 



EARLY CAMPAIGNIMG. 

As a relic of tlie enthusiasm -wliicli existed 
in the old Whig party at the date mentioned, 
the following letter will prove interesting. 
It was signed l>j prominent citizens of Per- 
rysville. 

Pekeysville, Ind., July 10, 1844. 
Dk. R. M. Waterman, Lodi: 

Respected Sir: — Owing to the political 
excitement of the times, and to the expected 
visit of Mr. R. W. Thompson to our place on 
next Friday, with all creation besides, we 



have been induced to ask you to favor the 
AVhigs of this place with the loan of your 
cannon for PMday next. We wish to put a 
stop to the noise of this little loco-foco pocket 
piece, with a few rounds from a Whig gun. 
Yours, etc., 
Thomas II. Smith, — Parnes, John Kirk- 
patrick, David Hulick, James Plair, P. H. 
P.oyd, M. Gookins, C. R. Jewett, R. Haven, 
W. II. Prown, Joseph Cheadle, AV. P. Mof- 
fatt, J. S. Paxter, R. J. Gessie, S. Parnes, 
A. Hill, C. F. McNeill, Jacob Sherfy, Austin 
Pishop, J. S. Stephens, P. R. Howe, John R, 
McNeill, A. Dennis, G. II. McNeill. 




^^ 






UISTOItY OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 





'HE greatest difference 
l)et\\een the Northern 
and the Southern States 
of this Union evidently 
lias always related to 
the institution of slave- 
ry; but thib, in the early his- 
tory of the republic, engendered 
other prejudices, especially in 
the South against the customs 
of the Yankee, so that, in course 
of time, and in accordance with 
that feature of human nature' 
licli inclines to find other 
faults than the main one with 
the opposite party, the South- 
ern people began to hate the Northern more 
on account of certain " Yankee" customs than 
on account of abolitionism itself. Like a 
mass of food in a nauseated stomach, the 
slavery question would not remain settled, 
after all the attempts at compromise in 1820, 
1850 and 1854, so that, on the approach of 
the Presidential election of 1860, it became 
evident, on account of the division of the 
Democratic party, that the " abolition " party 



would for the first time elect their nominee 
for President of the United States. He was 
elected, and the most hot-headed Southern 
State immediately led off in a reltellion, other 
States following during the winter. They 
mustered their military forces, and by the 
12th of April, 1861, concluded they were 
ready to commence shooting. On that day 
they opened upon Fort Sumter and comjielled 
it to surrender. 

As to the part taken by the Vermillion 
County people in suppressing this great in- 
surrection, we give a brief sketch of the re- 
spective regiments in which this county wa» 
represented by volunteers. 

FOCKTEENTH IXFANTRY. 

The patriotism of Vermillion County was 
quick to demonstrate itself, as a company was 
formed at Clinton within three or four weeks 
after the bombardment of Fort Sumter, the 
first overt act of rebellion. This was organ- 
ized as Company I of the Fourteenth Indiana 
Volunteer Infantry, with Philander E. Owen 
as Captain, who was during the war promoted 
Lieutenant Colonel, when John Lindsey was 



«SS«??sa«is5S? 



^^iga«5gB gMg»gBgg.fa' ^?ag 5»y»^"i^»«^ ; ^ 



THE CIVIL WAR. 



commissioned Captain to sncceed him. Cap- 
tain Lindsey, who enlisted as First Lieuten- 
ant, was mustered out June 24, 1864, on the 
expiration of his term. Upon his promotion 
to the position of Captain, William P. Has- 
kell, who had been appointed Second Lieuten- 
ant of the organization, was commissioned 
First Lieutenant to till the vacancy, and was 
discharged November 25, 1863, for promo- 
tion in the Fourth liegimentof United States 
colored troops. James M. Mitchell was pro- 
moted tVom the ottice of Second Lieutenant 
to that of P''irst Lieutenant. The Colonels 
of the Fourteenth, in succession, were: Na- 
than Kimball, of Loogootee, who was pro- 
moted Brigadier General; William Harrow, 
of Vincennes, also promoted, and John Coons, 
of Vincennes, who was killed in the battle of 
Spottsylvania • Court-House, Virginia, May 
12, 1864. 

The Fourteenth Regiment was originally 
organized at Camp Vigo, near Terre Haute, 
in May, 1861, as one of the six regiments of 
State troops accepted for one year. Upon the 
call for three years troops the regiment vol- 
unteered almost unanimously for that ser- 
vice. The new organization was mustered 
into the United States service at Terre Haute, 
June 7, 1861, being the lirst three years regi- 
ment mustered into service in the whole State 
of Indiana. On its organization there were 
1,134 men and otiicers. They left Indianap- 
olis July 5, fully armed and equipped, for the 



seat ot war 



Western Vi 



•gini 



They 



served on outpost duty until October, when 
they had their first engagement at Cheat 
Mountain, with Lee's army, losing three 
killed, eleven wounded and two prisoners. 
Their second engagement was vii'tually in the 
same battle, at Greenbrier, October 3, when 
they lost live killed and eleven wounded. 

March 23, 1862, under General Shields, 
Colonel Kimball and Lieutenant Colonel Har- | 



row, they participated in the decisive battle 
of Winchester, when they lost four killed 
and fifty wounded. 

Besides a great deal of marching and other 
duty, they marched 839 miles between May 
12 and June 23, a part of which time most 
of the men were without shoes and short of 
rations. In July, for some twenty days, they 
were kept on outpost duty in the Army of 
the Potomac, coming in contact with the 
enemy almost night and day. August 17 
they participated in the great battle of 
Antietam, serving in Kimball's brigade of 
French's division, it being the only portion 
of the line of battle tliat did not, at some 
time during the engagement, give waj'. On 
this account the men received from General 
French the title of the "Gibraltar Brigade." 
The Fourteenth was engaged for four hours 
within sixty yards of the enem3''s line, and, 
after exhaustiiig sixty rounds of cartridges, 
they supplied themselves with others from 
the boxes of their dead and wounded com- 
panions. In this fight the men were reduced 
in number from 320 to 150 ! Soon afterward 
they were still further reduced at the battle 
of Fredericksburg. 

April 28, 1863, being a little recruited by 
some of the wounded recovering, they were 
at the front in the battle of Chancellorsville, 
and also at the desperate battle of Gettysburg, 
where they lost heavily, but did splendid 
work. Even after this they engaged in sev- 
eral severe fights, and some of the men re- 
enlisted, December 24, 1863. This noble 
regiment — what there was left of it — was 
finally mustered out at Louisville, Kentucky, 
July 12, 1865. 

SIXTEENTH INFANTRY. 

This was first organized in May, 1861, as a 
one-year regiment, containing some volun- 
teers from Vermillion County. Pleasant A 



HISTORY OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



Hackleman, of Eusliville, wasthe first Colonel, 
and, on his promotion- to the brigadier- 
generalship, Thomas J. Lucas, of Lawrence- 
bnrg, was placed as Colonel. Horace S. 
Crane, of Clinton, this county, was mustered 
in as Second Lieutenant of Company I, and 
mustered out w-ith the regiment as Sergeant. 
May 27, 1862, this was re-organized for 
three years service, but was not mustered in 
until the nineteenth of August. On the 30tli 
of this month it took part in the battle of 
Richmond, Kentucky, losing 200 men killed 
and wounded and 600 prisoners! After the 
defeat the prisoners were paroled and sent to 
Indianapolis, and were exchanged November 
1. The regiment afterward participated in 
the Vicksburg campaign, and did great duty 
in Texas and at Arkansas Post, where it was 
the first to plant the Union colors within the 
fort. Its loss was seventy-seven men, killed 
and wounded. In April it participated in a 
successful engagement at Port Gibson, and 
during the ensuing several mouths it was 
engaged in the siege of Vicksburg, in which 
it lost sixty men, killed and wounded. Sub- 
sequently it had several skirmishes with the 
enemy in Louisiana, and, in the expedition 
np the Red River, sixteen engagements. The 
regiment was mustered out at New Orleans, 
June 30, 1865. 

EIGHTEENTH INFANTKV. 

Company C, of this regiment, was wholly 
made up of Yermillion's noble sons, and all 
its officers in the roster are credited to New- 
port. John C. Jcnks was promoted from 
Captain to Major; James A. Bell, from First 
Lieutenant to Captain; Josiah Campbell and 
William B. Hood, from private to Captain; 
Harvey D. Crane and Oscar B. Lowroy, from 
Sergeants to First Lieutenants; William II. 
Burtut was promoted from private to First 
Lieutenant; AVilliam M, Mitchell, from pri- 



vate to Second Lieutenant; William W.Zener, 
from First Sergeant to Second Lieutenant, and 
then to Adjutant; Jasper Nebeker was Second 
Lieutenant, and died in the service; Robert 
H. Nixon and John Anderson wer eSergeants; 
the Corporals were Samuel B. Davis, soon 
disabled by disease, and now editor of the 
Iloosier State; John F. Stewart, James O. 
Boggs, Alonzo Hostetter, Aaron Ilise, James 
Henry, Charles Gerrish and John A. Henry. 
John F. Leighton, of the recruits, was pro- 
moted from the ranks to the position of Cor- 
poral. Hugh H. Conley, another recruit, 
has since become a prominent citizen of the 
county. 

Thomas Pattison, of Aurora, was the first 
Colonel of the Eighteenth, and on his resigna- 
tion, June 3, 1862, Henry D. Washburn, of 
Newport, succeeded him. The latter was 
brevetted Brigadier General December 15, 
1864, and mustered out July 15, 1865. 

The first service rendered b}' this regiment 
— which was mustered in August 16, 1861 
— was in Fremont's march to Springfield, 
Missouri. Soon afterward at Black Water, 
it participated in capturing a large number 
of prisoners. In March, 1862, it was en- 
gaged in the fierce contest at Pea Ridge, 
where its brigade saved from capture another 
brigade, and the Eighteenth recaptured the 
guns of the Peoria Artillery. After several 
minor engagements in Arkansas it returned 
to Southeastern Missouri, where it was on 
duty during the ensuing winter. The fol- 
lowing spring it was transferred to Grant's 
army, and, as part of the divis'ion commanded 
by General Carr, participated in the flanking 
of the enemy's position at Grand Gulf, and 
May 1, in the battle at Port Gilison, captur- 
ing a stand of colors and some artillery; also, 
on the 15th, at Champion Hills, and on the 
ITtli, at Black River Bridge. From the lUtli 
until July 4, it was employed in the fanmus 



siege of Vicksburg, where, during the assault, 
it was tlie first regiment to plant its colors on 
the enemy's works. 

After tlie capitulation of Vicksburg, July 
4, 1863, the regiment moved to New Orleans, 
and during the fall participated in the cam- 
paign up the Teche River, and in the opera- 
tions in that part of Louisiana. November 
12, it embarked for Texas, wliere, on tlie 17tli, 
it was engaged in the capture of a fort on 
Mustang Island, and also in the successful 
attack on Fort Esperanza, on the 26th. After 
a furlough, in the winter and spring of 1864, 
it joined General Butler's forces at Bermuda 
Hundred, in July, where it had several severe 
skirmishes. August 19, it joined General 
Sheridan's Army of the Shenandoah. In the 
campaign that followed, the regiment par- 
ticipated in t-he battle of Opequan, losing 
fifty-four, killed and wounded; also, in the 
pursuit and defeat of Early, seven killed and 
wounded; and in the battle of Cedar Creek, 
October 19, losing fifty-one, killed and wound- 
ed, besides thirty-five prisoners. 

From the middle of January, 1805, for 
three months, the Eighteenth was assisting in 
building fortifications at Savannah. May 3, 
it was the first to raise the stars and stripes 
at Augusta, Georgia. "Was mustered out 
August 28, 1865. 

THIKTY-FIKST INFANTRY. 

This regiment, in which were a number of 
volunteers from Vermillion Count}-, was or- 
ganized at Terre Haute, September 15, 1861, 
for three years' service. The colonels were, 
in order, Charles Cruft, of Terre Haute, John 
Osborn, of Bowling Green, John T. Smith, 
of Bloomfield, and James E. Hallowell, of 
Bellmore. It participated in the decisive 
battle of Fort Donelson; in the battle of 
Shiloh, where it lost twenty-two killed, 110 
wounded and ten missing; in the siege of 



Corinth; was stationed at various places in 
Tennessee; engaged in the battle of Stone 
Iviver and Chattanooga, of the Atlanta cam- 
paign, Nashville, etc., and was on duty in the 
Southwest until late in the fall of 1865, 
many months after the termination of the 
war. 

FOETY-THIRD INFANTRY. 

Company I, of this regiment, was from 
Vermillion County. Samuel J. Hall was 
Captain from the date of muster, October 9, 
1861, to January 7, 1865, the close of his 
term of enlistment; and then Robert B. 
Sears was Captain until the regiment was 
mustered out. He was promoted from the 
position of Corporal to that of First Lieuten- 
ant, and finally to that of Captain. David A. 
Ranger, of Toronto, was First Lieutenant. 
William L. Martin, of Newport, was first the 
Second and then the First Lieutenant. George 
W. Shewmaker was Second Lieutenant for the 
first seven and a half months. John Love- 
lace was first a private and then Second Lieu- 
tenant. 

George K. Steele, of Rockville, was Colo- 
nel of the regiment until January 16, 1862; 
William E. McLean, of Terre Haute, until 
May 17, 1865, and John C. Major from that 
time till the regiment was mustered out. 

The first engagement this regiment had 
was the sieges of New Madrid and Island 
No. 10. Next it was attached to Commodore 
Foote's gunboat fleet in the reduction of Fort 
Pillow, serving sixty-nine days in that cam- 
paign. It was the first Union regiment to 
land in the city of Memphis, and, with the 
Forty-sixth Indiana, constituted the en- 
tire garrison, holding that place for two 
weeks, until reinforced. In July, 1862, the 
Forty-third was ordered up AVhite River, 
Arkansas, and subsequently to Helena. At 
the l)attle at this place a year afterward, the 



HISTORY OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



regiment was especially distinguished, alone 
supporting a battery that was three times 
charged by the enemy, repulsing each at- 
tack, and linally capturing a full rebel regi- 
ment larger in point of numbers than its own 
strength. 

It aided in the capture of Little Kock. At 
this place, January 1, 1864, the regiment re- 
enlisted, numbering aboiit 400. Next it was 
in the battles of Elkins' Ford, Jenkins' 
Ferry, Camden and Marks' Mills, near Saline 
River. At the latter place, April 30, the 
brigade to which it was attached, while guard- 
ing a train of 400 wagons returning from 
Camden to Pine Bluffs, was furiously attacked 
by about 6,000 of Marmaduke's cavalry. The 
Forty-third lost nearly 200 in killed, woiinded 
and missing in this engagement. Among 
the captured were 104 of the re-enlisted vet- 
erans. 

The regiment next came home on veteran 
furlough, but while enjoying this vacation 
they volunteered to go to Frankfort, Ken- 
tucky, which was threatened by Morgan's 
cavalry, and where they remained until the 
rebel forces left Central Kentucky. For the 
ensuing year it guarded the rebel prisoners at 
Camp Morton, near Indianapolis. After the 
war was over it was among the first regi- 
ments mustered out, being mustered oxit at 
Indianapolis, June 14, 1865. Of the 164 
men captured from this regiment in Arkansas 
and taken to the rebel prison at Tyler, Texas, 
ten or twelve died. 

SEVENTY-FIRST INFANTRY, SUBSEQUENTLY THE 
SIXTH CAVALRY. 

Company A of this regiment was exclu- 
sively from Yermillion County. Andrew J. 
Dowdy, of Clinton, was Ca])tain; Robert 
Bales, of Clinton, First Lieutenant; William 
O. Norris, of the same place. Second Lieuten- 
ant, killed at the battle of Richmond, 



Kentucky; Joseph Hasty, from Newport, 
succeeded him as Second Lieutenant; First 
Sergeant, William O. Washburn, of Clinton; 
Sergeants — Francis D. Weber, of Newport, 
Johnson Malone, Alexander M. Staats and 
George W. Scott, of Clinton; Corporals — 
Joseph Brannan, Richard M. Rucker, Lewis 
H. Beckman, Larkin Craig, Daniel Buntin, 
Reuben H. Glearwaters, John L. Harris and 
Charles Blanford; Musicians, George W. Har- 
bison and James Simpson. Most of these 
were credited to Clinton, though some of 
them, as well as many of the privates, which 
were accredited to Clinton, and some to New- 
port, were from Helt Township. 

The Colonel of this regiment was James 
Biddle, of Indianapolis. 

The Seventy-first was first organized as in- 
fantry, at Terre Haute, in July and August, 
1862. Its first duty was to repel the invasion 
of Kirby Smith in Kentucky. August 30 it 
was engaged in the battle of Richmond, Ken- 
tucky, with a loss of 215 killed and wounded, 
and 847 prisoners. After the latter were ex- 
changed, 400 men and ofiicers of the regiment 
were sent to Mnldraugh's Hill to guard tres- 
tle work; and on the following day they were 
attacked by a force of 4,000 rebels under 
command of General John H. Morgan, and 
after an engagement of an hour and a half 
were surrounded and captured. The remain- 
der of the regiment then returned to Indian- 
apolis, where they remained until August 26, 
1863. 

During the ensuing autumn, with two ad- 
ditional companies, L and M, they were or- 
ganized as a cavalry regiment, and were sent 
into Eastern Tennessee, where they engaged 
in the siege of Knoxville and in the opera- 
tions against General Longstreet, on the IIol- 
ston and Clinch rivers, losing many men in 
killed and wounded. ISfay 11, 1S04, they 
joined General Sherman's ai-my in front of 



TSE CIVIL WAR. 



Dal ton, Georgia, wlierc it was assigned to the 
cavalry corps of the Army of the Ohio, com- 
manded by General Stonenian. They en- 
gaged in the battles of Resaca, Cassville, 
Kenesaw Monntain, etc., aided in the capture 
of Alatoona Pass, and was the first to take 
possession of and raise the flag upon Lost 
Monntain. In Stoneinan's raid to Macon, 
Georgia, tlie Sixth Cavalry lost 166 men. 

Returning to Nashville for another equip- 
ment, it aided General Rousseau in defeating 
Forrest at Pulaski, Tennessee, September 27, 
and pursued him into Alabama. In the en- 
gagement at Pnlaski the regiment lost twenty- 
three men. December 15 and 16 it participated 
in the battle at Nashville, and, after the re- 
pulse of Hood's army, followed it some dis- 
tance. In June, 1865, a portion of the men 
were mustered out of the service. The re- 
mainder were consolidated with the residual 
fraction of the Fifth Cavalry, constituting 
the Sixth Cavalry, ami they were mustered 
out in September following. 

EIGHTY-FIFTU INFANTKV. 

Company D, of this regiment, was made 
up from the southern portion of Vermillion 
County. William Reeder, of Rockville, was 
Captain until June 10, 1863, and thencefor- 
ward Caleb Bales, of Toronto, was Captain, 
being promoted from the rank of Second 
Lieutenant. The vacancy thus made was 
fllled by Elisha Pierce, of Clinton, who was 
promoted from the position of First Sergeant. 
The Sergeants were James W. Taylor, of To- 
ronto, William A. Richai'dson, John A. C. 
Norris and David Mitchell, of Clinton; and 
the Corporals were Brazier E. Henderson, 
Ben White, Samuel Craig, James Andrews, 
Valentine Foos, Harrison Pierce, Joseph Foos 
n;id Wesley A. Brown. Musicians, Andrew 
•I. Owen and John A. Curry. 

The Colonels of the Eighty-fifth were John 



P. Baird, of Terre Haute, to July 20, 1864, 
and Alexander B. Crane, of the same city, 
until the mustering out of the regiment. 

This regiment was organized at Terre 
Haute, September 2, 1862. Its first engage- 
ment was with Forrest, with Colonel John 
Coburn's brigade, March 5, 1863, when the 
whole brigade was captured. The men Avere 
marched to Tullahoma, and then transported 
to Libby Prison at Richmond, amid much 
suffering, many dying along the route. 
Twenty-six days after their incarceration the 
men were exchanged, and stationed at Frank- 
lin, Tennessee, where they fought in skir- 
mishes until Bragg's army fell back. The 
following summer, fall and winter the Eighty- 
fifth remained in the vicinity of Murfrees- 
boro, guarding the railroad from Nashville 
to Chattanooga. It participated in every im- 
portant engagement in the Atlanta campaign, 
being in the terrible charge upon Resaca, and 
in the battles at Cassville, Dallas Woods, Gol- 
gotha Church, Gulp's Farm and Peach Tree 
Creek. At the last mentioned place it did 
deadly work among the rebels. 

This brave regiment then followed Sher- 
man in his grand march to the sea, and back 
through the Carolinas, engaging in several 
battles. At Averysboro it was the directing 
regiment, charging the rebel works through 
an open fleld, but suffered greatly. It de- 
stroyed a half mile of railroad in forty min- 
utes, corduroyed many miles of wagon road, 
and after a twenty-mile march one day it 
worked hard all night making a road up a 
steep, muddy bluff, for which they were 
highly complimented by Generals Siierman 
and Slocum, M'ho had given directions for the 
work and were eye witnesses to its execution. 
After several other important movements, it 
had the pleasure of looking as proud victors 
upon Libby Prison, where so many of them 
had suffered in captivity in 1802. Marching 




HISrORY OF YBllMILLION COUNTY. 



to Washington, it was mustered out of ser- 
vice, June 12, 1865. The remaining recruits 
were transferred to the Thirty-third Indiana, 
who were mustered out July 21, at Louisville, 
Kentucky. 



THE ONE HUMDRED AND 

FANTKY, 



WENTV-NINTH IN- 



contaiiiing Company K from Vermillion 
County, was recruited from the Tenth Con- 
gressional District during the winter of 
18G3-'64, rendezvoused at Michigan City, 
and was mustered into service March 1, 1864, 
with Charles Case, of Fort Wayne, as Colo- 
nel, and Charles A. Zollinger, of the san:e 
city, as Lieutenant Colonel. Of Company K, 
John Q. Washburn, of Newport, was Captain; 
Joseph Simpson, of Highland, First Lieuten- 
ant, and the Second Lieutenants in succession 
were Thomas C. Swan, of Clinton, Joseph 
Simpson, of Highland, William F. Eddy, of 
Warsaw, and James Roberts, of Clinton. 
Henrj' J. Howard, of Toronto, was Sergeant. 
Corporals — Jasper Hollingsworth, Granville 
Gideon and John A¥. Nixon, of this county, 
besides others from other counties. 

After marching a great deal, the first bat- 
tle in which the One Hundred and Twenty- 
ninth regiment engaged was the severe contest 
at Resaca, opening the celebrated campaign 
of Atlanta. This was a great victory for the 
Union troops. Tiie next battle was that at 
New Hope Church. Before and after this, 
however, there was almost constant skirmish- 
in very rainy weather. July 19, 1864, 



the regiment was 



igage 



d in a severe fitjht 



near Decatur, Georgia, where they lost heav- 
ily. Soon afterward they were in the fight 
at Strawberry Run, where they lost twenty- 
five men, but enabled General Hascall toturn 
a position whicli our forces, a brigade of Gen- 



eral Schofield's corps, had failed to turn the 
day before. 

Thence, until mid-winter, tlie regiment 
were kept busy guai'ding and engaging in 
skirmishes. November 29 occurred the bat- 
tle of Franklin, where the enemy were re- 
pulsed with great loss. During the latter 
portion of the winter they were marching 
and skirmisliing around near the coast of 
Virginia and North Carolina, and engaged in 
the battle of Wise's Forks, where the enemy 
met with signal disaster. The regiment was 
engaged in provost duty about Raleigh dur- 
ing the summer of 1865, and August 29 was 
miistered out of the service. 

CONCLUSION. 

The foregoing is of course but a meager 
outline of what the brave patriots of Ver- 
million County did for their country during 
the last war; and those who did not go to the 
battle-field did their duty also, in giving 
moral support to the Government and labor- 
ing with heart and hand in raising materia! 
supplies and comforts for these in the field. 
Soldiers' aid societies, county and township 
levies, etc., were forthcoming in due time, 
and tlie people of this division of the com- 
monwealth were not behind in those noble 
and terribly self-sacrificing offices which a 
gigantic insurrection devolves upon them. 

It would be a pleasure were we able to 
print here a list of the soldier dead of Ver- 
million County in glowing colors; but a list 
only of those in Vermillion Township has 
been compiled, and we concluded that unless 
we could get all we had better not print any. 
It is to be hoped that the Grand Army of 
the Republic in this county will be able in 
the course of time to complete the list. 



m 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



^^3^,^^^ , _^^,^-^^ , „^^- , ^^^^-^,^^^^^^^^,^ 




ll MISCELLANEOUS, i 0, 



J:^^^^^^:^^:^:^^^^^::^^^^^:^-^^:^^^^^ 



RAILROADS. 



CHICAGO & E.\STERN IIXIXOIS. 



lIOUGir railroad lines 
running cast and west 
t li ro VI g li Vermillion 
County were projected 
as long ago as 1847, 
the north and south 
line was first coni- 
ted, is the most important in 
county, and will therefore be 
■ first topic under this head. 
The division from Evansville to 
re Haute was built as early as 
)3-'54:; but the link tlirough 
s county, connecting Terre 
Haute with Danville was not completed until 
it was taken up by Josephus Collett, Jr., in 
1868-'69. This wealthy and enterprising gen- 
tleman, with the assistance of O. P. Davis, 
Nathan Harvey, William E. Livengood, Jo- 
seph B. Cheadle and others, held rousing 
mass meetings throughout the county, when 
they explained the advantages of the road and 
the feasibility of building it with a very light 
tax. But little opposition or indifference was 




manifested. All tlie townships in the county, 
in 1869, voted for a two per cent tax — the 
limit of the law — or, rather, one per cent, in 
addition to the one per cent, voted b}' the 
county, provided it should be needed. 

While this enterprise was pending, a few 
men elsewhere organized themselves as the 
" Eaccoon A^alley Eailroad Company," osten- 



Har 



nony, 



Clay 



sibly to build a road fror 
County, to a point on the State line near the 
road-bed of the old " Indiana & Illinois Cen- 
tral liailroad Company," passing through 
Clay, Parke and Vermillion counties; but it 
was generally supposed by the citizens here 
that that was merely a ruse, just prior to the 
vote to be taken on the north and south line, 
to defeat the latter. Additional discourage- 
ment was also derived from other projected 
east and west lines, notably the narrow-gauge 
route through Eugene Township, in which 
the people along the line felt much interest. 

The ensuing election, however, gave a de- 
cided majority for aiding the nortli and south 
line, then called the "Evansville, Terre 
Haute & Chicago Eailroad." This, under 
the management of Mr. Collett was com- 
pleted, in 1870, to the great joy of the peo- 



BISTORT OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



pie of Vermillion County, but not " to the 
joy " of most of tlie villages along the route; 
for, strange to say, it seemed to be the object 
of those in power to work in the interests of 
Terre Hante and Dauville, and accordingly 
located the road a mile or so distant from all 
the villages on and near the M-est bank of the 
Wabash except Clinton. This location of the 
road has had the desired effect, iu building 
up Terre Haute and Danville. To prove the 
advantages of railroad communication, even 
Clinton has been set forward of all the other 
towns in the county. 

Mr. Collett was made president of this sec- 
tion of the road, which position he held until 
May 1, 1880, when the link was leased to the 
Chicago & Eastern Illinois Company, the 
present operators. The subsequent year ef- 
forts were made for leasing the whole line to 
the Louisville & Nashville, and were nearly 
successful. The present lessee pays the pro- 
prietors $75,000 a year rental, besides all 
taxes and expeuses for repairs. The road has 
a funded debt of $1,100,000, the interest on 
which is six per cent. 

On this line there are 34^ miles of main 
track, which in 1880 was assessed at $17,000 
per mile; seven miles of side-track, assessed 
at $2,500 per mile, and rolling stock at 
$1,300. 

The stations arc, in order commencing at 
the south — Clinton, Summit Grove, Hills- 
dale, Opeedce, Newport, Walnut Grove, 
Cayuga (or Eugene), Perrysville, Gessie, 
Riley sburg and perhaps two or three ]ioints 
of less importance. 

INDIANAl'OLIS, BLOOMINGTON it WESTKUN. 

The first railroad proposed through Vermil- 
lion County was an cast and west line, through 
the northern portion, projected as early as 1847, 
and known in short as the Wabash route, to 
run from Toledo, Ohio, to Springtield, Illinois. 



Stock was subscribed in this county, and a 
route surveyed. The first eifort was to build 
the road to Paris and then to St. Louis; and 
after considerable grading was done, the en- 
terprise was placed under anew management, 
who located the road through La Fayette, 
Attica, Danville and Springfield to St. Louis, 
and completed it in 1851-'52, without touch- 
ing any part of this county. After the final 
location of the road in this jnanner the people 
of Vermillion, of course, lost all interest iu it. 
This road has had various names: at present it 
is known as the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific. 
The most active men here to work for the 
location of this road through Vermillion 
County were James Blair, J. F. Smith, J. N. 
Jones, of Perrysville, and Joseph Moore and 
Robert A. Barnett, of Eugene. 

After struggling and waiting for many 
tedious years, a company was finally formed 
which was accommodating enough to'give \gy- 
million County two and one-fifth miles of track 
and a flag station, completing it in 1871-'72. 
This has long been known as the Indianapolis, 
Bloomington & Western Railway Company, 
but we understand they have recently been 
merged into another, comprising an extendeii 
system of railways. In 1880 their track in 
this county was assessed at $6,700 per mile. 

TOLEDO, ST. LOUIS & KANSAS CITY RAILWAY (nAR- 

kow-gauge). 

In this road the citizens of Eugene Town- 
ship were more interested than any other 
section of the county. They took subscrip- 
tions and voted a tax, but the original com- 
pany failed to come to time and did not 
realize subscriptions, stock or tax. The link 
here was then known as the Frankfort & 
State Line Road. The Toledo, Cincinnati & 
St. Louis Railroad Company constructed the 
road, of a narrow gauge, in 1882, but, like 
the other company, left the village of Eugene 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



223 



a mile and a half to one side, crossing the 
Chicago & Eastern Illinois Road at Cayuga. 
About two years ago the company was re- 
organized under the name given in our head- 
ing, and proceeded immediately to enlarge 
the track to the standard width, put on first- 
class rolling stock and made the road in all 
respects as good as the best. 

The longest bridge on its route is across 
tiie Wabash opposite Eugene, having five 
spans of 160 feet each. Of this line there 
are eight and a half miles of main track in 
his county, assessed in 1880 at $12,000 per 
mile, and one mile of side track, assessed at 
$(100. 

INDIANAPOLIS, KECATUR ,V SPRINGFIELD. 

This railway was completed about 1874, 
without much ado in raising stock, or sub- 
scriptions or tax in this county. Many years 
ago, about 1852-'5-4, — during the great period 
of railroad projects every where, — the "Indiana 
& Illinois Central Railway Company" nearly 
completed the grading on this route. The 
road is now leased from the old Indianapolis, 
Bloom ington & Western Railway Company. 
It has nine and a half miles of main track in 
this county, assessed in 1880 at $5,000 per 
mile, and the rolling stock at $1,700. It has 
two stations in Vermillion County, namely — 
Hillsdale, where it crosses the Chicago & 
Eastern Illinois track, and Dana, an enter- 
prising town two and a half miles east of the 
State line. 

AGRICULTURAL. 

Every acre of Yermillion County is good 
farming land. About one-fourth the area 
was originally prairie, and most of this prairie 
is of the common black-soil variety. Nearly 
all the rest of the county is second bottom. 
All this area, Ijping easily and well drained, 
is available for profitable cultivation. The 



lower bottom lands are rich, much of it being 
subject to inundations, which leave a sediment 
equal to the best compost, and are therefore 
the best for corn, except that the floods and 
frosts are often untimely. As high as si.xty- 
five bushels of wheat to the acre, and 110 
bushels of corn, have been raised in Yermil- 
lion County. 

In pioneer times hemp, flax and cotton 
were raised here to a considerable extent. 
The flax and cotton were "home-made" into 
clothing. Every cabin was a factory, on a 
small scale. The machinery for the manu- 
facture of flax consisted of a brake, a wooden 
knife to swingle out shives witli, and a hackle 
to remove the tow and straighten out the lint. 
They also used the small spinning-wheel 
("jenny") to twist it into thread. For cot- 
ton, a hand gin was used, and hand cai-ds 
were employed to make it into rolls, which 
were spun into thread upon a large spinning- 
wheel. A day's work for a woman was to 
card and spin from six to eight cuts. Ready- 
made clothing was not then known. Nearly 
every man was his own shoemaker. Some of 
the settlers employed an itinerant cobbler, 
who went from house to house in the fall and 
winter seasons with hiskit of tools, which was 
quite limited, and boarded with the family 
where he worked until they were shod all 
around, or until the leather was all used up. 
If there was not enough to go round the 
youngest had to go barefoot all winter, which 
was frequently the case. 

At first the settlers could not enter less 
than 160 acres of land, M'hich at the Congress 
price, $2 an acre, amounted to more than 
most of the settlers could pay. This hardship, 
however, was soon recognized by Congress, 
who reduced the amount that might be en- 
tered to forty acres, and the price to $1.25, 
so that any one who could raise $50 could 
obtain a respectable home. 



lii 



Agricultural history strictly involves more 
statistics than the average reader has the pa- 
tience to study, or even refer to, and we must 
therefore omit at least the details, contenting 
ourselves with only a few general results. 

Of wheat there was raised in Vermillion 
County, in 1880, 635,501 bushels; 1881, 
307,938 bushels; 1882,569,i20 bushels; 1883, 
14,955 bushels; 1884, 411,624 bushels. 

Of corn, in bushels, there was raised, in 
1880, 662,701 ; 1881, 564,108 ; 1882, 970,051 ; 
1883, 832,260; 1884, 1,126,065. 

Of oats, during those years, from 54,000 
to 104,000 bushels was raised; of barley, from 
none to 1,760 bushels; of rye, from 100 to 
6,180 bushels; Irish potatoes, 18,000 to 
37,000 bushels; sweet potatoes, 48 to 840 
bushels; buckwheat, 160 bushels (only the 
crop for 1883 is reported); tobacco, from 200 
to 3,000 pounds; timothy seed saved, 200 to 
800 bushels. 

The diminution of certain crops does not 
indicate actual decline of the agricultural 
interest generalh', as more ground is devoted 
to pasturage certain periods than others. 

A county agricultural society was organ- 
ized in 1866, the tirst year after the termina- 
tion of the war, and a successful fair held. 
That society continued to bold annual -ex- 
liibitions on their grounds northeast of New- 
port until 1879, when, apparently on account 
of the railroad running through the grounds 
and becoming more and more a nuisance, 
public interest so declined that they practi- 
cally disbanded. In 1880 a joint stock com- 
pany was orgaTiized, but they failed to do 
anything. Last year, liowever, two agri- 
cultural associations were organized in this 
county, namely, the Vermillion County Fair 
Association, liaving its headquartei-s at Eu- 
gene, and the Vermillion County Joint Stock 
Societ}', with ]iead(]uarters at Newport. Both 
held fairs last year, the latter with success, 



but the former with a red need aggregate of 
receipts on account of rainy weather. Tiiey 
will try it again this year. At the Newport 
fair, which was held the first week of Octo- 
ber, the total receipts were over $2,200. 
Every premium was paid in full. Two hun- 
dred and fifty stalls were occupied by horses 
and cattle, steam water-works and reser- 
voirs. No drunkenness nor gambling on the 
ground, and everything passed otf (quietly. 

rOPCLATION AND WEALTH. 



Townships, 




Personal prop- 


inchuling 


Pop. in 


erly in 


towns. Sq. miles. 


1880. 


1883. 


Clinton, 42 


3,000 


S 643,675 


Helt, 72 


3,027 


1,411,745 


Vermillion, 45 


2,215 


1,086,385 


Eugene, 33 


1,340 


680,870 


Highland, 00 


2,433 
12,015 


1,300,950 


257 


$5,123,625 



The data for tlie above figures are some- 
what characterized by discrepancy, but for 
practical purposes they are sufhciently exact. 
The real estate is estimated at about §6,000,- 
000 for the county. The total wealth of tlie 
county may now be given in round numbers 
at about $12,000,000. 

The taxes in 1880 were, for State purposes, 
$17,219; county, $21,683; town, village and 
school district, $16,962. The bonded debt 
then was $27,600; floating, $100; no sink- 
ing fund. 

There were, in 1880, forty-seven manufac- 
turing establishments, with an invested 
capital of $127,700, employing 105 hands, 
to whom were paid in wages that year (end- 
ing May 31, 1880), $22,025; value of materi- 
als, $166,732; of products, $222,946. 

Tlie population of most of the villages 
grown a great deal since the last Federal cen- 
sus was taken. The estimates given by th 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



residents of the respective villages are given 
in the township histories on succeeding 
pages. The school enumeration, being about 
one-tliird of the total population, gives cor- 
roboration of the estimates adopted. 

It has often been a subject of remark that 
there is something aT)out Vermillion County 
that is very favorable to longevity. In 1877 
it was ascertained that there were ninety-six 
voters in the county between seventy and 
eighty years of age, nineteen between eighty 
and ninety, and two over ninet3-. At that 
time Jesse Richmond was the oldest man in 
the county, being ninety-five years of age, 
and his wife, who was then still living, was 
ninety-four years old. 

THOKOUGHFAEES. 

In addition to the account we have given 
of the railroads, we should note the advance 
made over the rest of the territory. At first 
the Wabash River constituted the only outlet 
for the exports of the county, and hence fiat- 
boating was a prominent pursuit, many of the 
old settlers having made twenty to fifty trips 
to I^ew Orleans. James L. Wishard once 
made the return trip on foot, but generally 
the voyagers returned by steamboat. "Will- 
iam Swan and "Wesley Southard each made 
about sixty trips to New Orleans. 

In the fall season goods were brought from 
Evansville and Cincinnati by wagon. The 
men often went in companies for mutual pro- 
tection and assistance, with five or six horse 
teams. One of the lead horses always wore 
a set of bells. If a team got stuck in a mud- 
hole or on a hill, it was the custom for any 
teamster with the same number of horses to 
make an efi'ort to ])ull the wagon out. In 
case of success the bells changed ownership. 
In this way the bells were constantly changing 
from one to another. In a few years the 



river boats superseded this expensive mode of 
shipping. 

The surface of Vermillion County is natu- 
rally far more favorable for wagoning than 
most counties in the State. In addition to 
this, the enterprise of the citizens has added 
the following well-finished turnpikes: One 
from Newport to Walnut Grove and Eugene; 
Newport to Quaker Point; from a point on 
the latter to Dana; from Dana to Clinton; 
from Clinton to the State line, on the Paris 
road; Clinton to the county line, on the road 
to Terre Haute; from Perrysville southwest 
about eighty miles. 

EDUCATION. 

Vermillion County is confessedly ahead of 
most others in this latitude in the character 
of her public schools. As the people " take 
pride " in this institution, so do the teachers. 
Institutes and normals have been faithfully 
attended and zealously and profitably con- 
ducted. 

Helt, Eugene and Highland townships 
have graded schools, while Vermillion Town- 
ship united until recently with Newport in 
sustaining a graded school, and the town of 
Clinton has an excellent graded school, to 
which the pupils of the township are some- 
times admitted. 

Arrangements have been made by the 
school board for a uniform length of school 
session throughout the county. The per cent, 
of enrollment was raised from 78 in 1882- 
'83, to 85 in •1883-'84, and the per cent, of 
attendance correspondingly increased. In 
1874 it was reported that 418 children who 
had attended school could not read. The 
number has been growing smaller each year 
until none are so reported by the last enu- 
meration, although there are probably a few. 

The last log cabin school-house was supeiN 



!«L— •«!«-_»: 



seded many years ago. The respective town- 



ii 



ps n<jw have the 


following: 




Clinton, 


Brick. 
3 


Frame 
9 


Ilelt, 


3 


20 


Verniillion, 


1 


12 


Eugene, 


1 


7 


Highland, 


1 


11 



9 59 

Estimated value of school-houses and lots, 
$59,000; of school apparatus, globes, maps, 
etc., about S4,000. Number of teachers em- 
ployed in the county, about eighty-five. The 
enumeration of school children (six to twenty- 
one years of age) for September, 1886, was 
4,291, and the enrollment 8.467, or about 
eighty per cent. 

The county seminary at Newport was 
built in early days, under the general law 
appropriating a fund for the purpose. The 
same building, with an addition, constitutes 
the present "public-school " house. 

The earnestness of the teachers in seeking 
professional knowledge is shown by their 
large attendance at the various normal schools 
of the State, their general habit of reading 
educational journals, and the wide-spread in- 
terest taken in institutes and associations. The 
townships principals appointed to preside 
over and superintend the township institutes 
are expected to organize and direct the work 
of the " Teachers' Eeading Circle." 

Atone of the institutes the following in- 
genious poem was read, which deserves a 
place in this work: 

A PEDAGOGICAL POEM. 

Written for the Hoosier State, by C. W. Joab. 

I'm Tvith vou here, my teachers dear, 

To read a little poem. 
I often have some queer ideas about the calami- 
ties and 
Jlisfortunes in the teacher's sad career, 

y^n' I thought you'd like to kiiow 'em. 



We tug and sweat, with care we fret, 

In this vacation toiling. 
Now just give me your undivided attention 

while I speak of some misfortunes 
With which our pathway is beset: 

To do so, I am spoiling. 

For years we toil, in constant broil 

To get an education; 
And after many disappointments. 
Burdened with anguish and turmoil. 

We get a situation. 

The most of men consider then 

That we from care are free, sir; 
But I'd have you understand that I've 
The business tried, time and again: 

We're in up to our knees, sir. 

With all our might, from morn till night, 

Our weary brain we rob, sir; 
For when you manage a house full of little sav- 
ages 
In a village school, you're right,— 

You "have no idle job," sir. 

You'll meet with scorn, sure as you're born ; 

Some men will be your foes, sir. 
Yes, some old fogies can not digest the solid 
kernel of truth; they hanker after husks and 
chaff 
And small potatoes and soft corn ; 
I've met with such as those, sir. 

In humor grum, they will not come. 

To see tlie order there, sir, 
And witness the fact that some pupils 
Are stupid, lifeless, deaf and dumb. 

And view the subject fair, sir. 

But all Ihey know about the show- 
Is what by chance they hear, sir. 

They are ever ready to catch all tales of scandal 
and idle gossip 

As the children homeward go. 
Believing all, I fear, sir. 

Some say that you will never do : 

The pupils do not mind, sir. 
They plainly tell you to give the little youk^rs 

regular old Sam Hill, 
And just to put Ihem through. 

And not to be too kind, .sir, 



i 



i^g»s^-^i s» 8 i i »»~«-»» " » g-"-"-»-iW.i»nir'»^»J»i« B ii '"«* i ii» « " ia '; 



Bui when, forsooth, you flog a youth, 

His pa comes in to beat you. 
"See here! what right had you to whip Biy boy? 

1 know the facts iu the case : 
My children tell the truth." 

And that's the way they treat you. 

Day after day, for little pay. 

We work, witli few vacations; 
And bear all this meanness and abu>e 
In a good-natured, Christian way, — 

Iu never-ending patience. 

COUNTY SOCIETIES. 

Veniiilllon County Medical Societij. — In 
July, 1869, a meeting was held at Newport, 
comprising James McMeen and William C. 
Eichelbarger, of Eugene; Hiram and Lewis 
Shepherd, of Quaker Point; Henry C. Eaton, 
of Brouillet's Creek, and M. L. Hall and C. 
Leavitt, of Newijort, — for the purpose of 
organizing a county medical society. They 
a<ljourned to meet again a week or two after- 
ward, but we tind no account of further 
meetings until 1873, when they organized, 
electing I3r. I. B. Hedges, of Clinton, presi- 
dent. The membership subsequently attained 
twenty-two in number, but the association 
was permitted to " run down " in the course 
of about four years. 

Western Indiana Scientific Association. — 
The scientific spirit of AVilliam Gibson, then 
of Newport but previously of Perrysville, led 
him during the summer of 1875 to call a 
meeting of the friends of science with the 
view of organizing for efficient work. In 
August, tliat year, a preliminary meeting was 
held at Newport, comprising, among others. 
Professor !>. E. Rhoads, William Gibson, M. 
L. Hall, William L. Little, Jesse Houchin. 
P. Z. Anderson and Samuel Groenendyke, — 
the last two, however, sending letters of 
regj-et for tlieir absence. 

At the next meeting, August 30, they or- 
ganized as the " Westeni Indiana Ilistorical 



and Scientific Association," with a con- 
stitution and by-laws, " for the purpose of 
promoting discovery in geology, archaeology 
and other kindred sciences; for our mut- 
ual improvement therein, and for securing 
a cabinet of natural history and a collection 
of minerals and fossils as will illustrate the 
resources and wealth of Vermillion and ad- 
joining counties in these respects." The con- 
stitution was signed by John Collett, William 
L. Little, William Gibson, H. H. Conley, M. L. 
Hall,S. E. Davis, M. G. Ehoads, Jesse Hou- 
chin, W. C. Eichelberger, Samuel Groenen- 
dyke, B. E. lihoads and P. Z. Anderson. Mr. 
Collett was elected President, M. G. Rhoads, 
Vice-President; AVilliam L. Little, Treasurer; 
H. II. Conley, Corresponding Secretary; M. 
L. Hall, Recording Secretary, and AVilliam 
Gibson Librarian and Curator. 

But the association, like most others of the 
kind, forgot to provide (or perhaps could not) 
for longevity by finding successors for the 
most active man. Mr. Gibson, the moving 
spirit, after fitting up and filling a neat little 
building with specimens, moved away: the 
soul gone, the organism was ot course dead. 

The Patrons'' Mutual Aid Society, or Ver- 
million County Fire Insurance Company, was 
organized in the summer of 1879, by the 
Patrons of Husbandry, and is still flourishing. 

The County Bible Society, with auxiliary 
societies in the respected townships, and the 
County Sunday -school Association, similarly 
organized, are still at work, the latter quite 
vigorously. These, especially the former, are 
old institutions. 

A county temperance organization, as a 
result of the '• blue-ribbon movement, " was 
eflected February 16, 1882, at Newport. The 
meeting was called to order by Capt. R. B. 
Sears, of Newport, a member of the State or- 
ganization. i)r. E. T. Spotswood, of Perrys- 
villcj was chosen temporary chairman, and E: 



!i 






H. Hayes, of Clinton, 'secretary. The per- 
manent officers elected were, William Gibson, 
President; Thomas Cushman, Secretary; 0. 
S. Davis, Ti-easurer. Vice presidents were 
appointed for the various townships, and an 
executive committee. Mrs. Emma Molloy, 
a noted temperance lecturer, was invited to 
make a canvass of the county. The con- 
stitution of the grand council was adopted. 
The members adopted resolutions to vote for 
none but temperance men for offices, and 
favoring a prohibitory liquor law for the State. 
Not being a religious or a secret society, of 
course it died. 

THE COUNTY POOR FAEM, OR INFIRM.\EY. 

The farm, about two miles south of New- 
port, near the Clinton road, and comprising 
a quarter section of land, Avas first entered by 
Wilbur and Davis from the Government; sub- 
sequently Peter Smith became the owner, and 
upon it as security he borrowed a sum of 
money from the county; failing to pay, the 
land became the property of the county, and 
many years ago was made a resort for the 
helpless poor. The land is valued at $35 an 
acre. The buildings hitherto used being 
almost valueless, the county this year (1887) 
is having erected a magnificent brick build- 
ing, to cost 815,750. It includes a depart- 
ment for the ins^ane. The plan for this 
structure was drafted by Mr. Buntin, an 
architect of Indianapolis. The building is 
two stories high, with basement under the 
whole ground area, which is 40 x 108 feet. 
Can be heated with either steam or hot air. 
There are thirty-two rooms for inmates, six 
of which are iinished for occupation by the 
insane. Five rooms are set apart for the 
superintendent and his family. The contract 
for the erection of this building was let 
March 30, 1887, to Moore & McCoy, of 
Danville, Illinois. The present superintend- 



ent is Joseph Conrad, who has had the office 
since the spring of 1881. His salary is 
$600. Average number of inmates, about 
twenty. 

POSTOFFICES. 

The postoffices of Vermillion County, 
enumerating from Clinton northward, are as 
follows: 

Clinton. 

St. Bernice, at Jonestown, in the north- 
western portion of Clinton Township. 

Summit Grove, on the C.& E. I. 11. R., in 
Helt Townihip. 

Toronto, at or near Bono, Ilelt Township. 

Hillsdale, in Helt Township, at the crossing 
of the C. & E. I. and the I., D. & S. R. Rs. 

Dana, in the northwestern portion of Helt 
Township, on the 1., D. & S. R. R. 

Newport. 

Quaker Hill, at a place sometimes called 
" Quaker Point," eight miles west of New- 
port and in Vermillion Township. 

Cayuga, in Eugene Township, at the 
crossing of the C. & E. I. and the T., St. L. 
& K. R. Rs.. 

Eugene. 

Perrysville. 

Gessie, on the C. ct E. I. R. R., in the 
western portion of Highland Township. 

Rileysburg, on the same road, two miles 
northwest of Gessie. 

Walnut Grove, Brownton, Highland, Atla, 
Opeedee, etc., are names of other points in 
the county where there are no postoffices. 

XOTABLE METEOROLOGICAL EVENTS. 

The winter of 18I8-'19 was so mild that 
but one light snow fell, which was on the 
night of February 18. Livestock of all kinds 
wintered well without being fed. 

November 18, 1842, the Wabash River, 
although full, was frozen over, and remained 



so until April 2. The day preceding the 
break-up a man with four yoke of oxen 
hauled saw-logs upon a wagon across the 
river at Perrysville. 

In August, 1875, and in February, 1883, 
and also in February, 1884, the floods of the 
Wabash rose unusually high and swept away 



hundreds of thousands of dollars worth 
property. 

COUNTY WALL MAP. 

A good wall map, 3x6 feet, of Vermillion 
County was published in 1870-'72, by James 
Tarrance, County Auditor, who afterward 
moved to Terre Haute and then to Texas. 



Ij 



! 




Ul STOUT OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 




EARLY SETTLERS. 




OIIN VANNEST, tlie first 
settler of Vermillion Comi- 
ty, located on section 9 of 
this townsliip, in 1816. See 
a previous chapter for par- 
ticulars. The second settler 
in the county, John Beard, 
also located in this township, 
building the first house in the 
town of Clinton, and in 1819 
or 1820 the first mill in the 
county, afterward known as 
Patton's Mill, three and a half 
miles southwest of C'linton. 
lie was also the first justice of the peace in 
the county. 

William Hamilton came in March, 1818. 
His son John is the oldest living resident of 
the county, and very frail. William, another 
son, died about 1878. 

Nelson Eeeder, deceased, was but two 
years old when his parents came from Ohio 
and settled here in 1818, 



Judge Porter, from New York State, set- 
tled here in 1819. His son Charles, born in 
1816, was a good citizen, but ended his life 
by suicide. 

John J. Martin, who died about three 
years ago, was in his second year M'hen his 
parents immigrated to this township in 
1819. 

The same year Daniel McCulloch, who 
was born in the State of New York in 1797, 
settled in Clinton Township, upon a farm 
five miles southwest of Clinton, where he 
died a number of years ago. W. B., his sun, 
who was born in 1830, is still a resident 
here. 

John Wright, Sr., now an undertaker at 
Clinton, was born in New York State in 
1818, and in 1820 his parents brought him, 
in emigration, to this county. George Wright 
came in 1832, and died many j'ears ago. 
His wife Mary, who was born November 13, 
1805, in New York, came to Indiana in 1S17. 
settling near Terre Haute, and in 1832 came 



CLINTON TOWNSHIP. 



to this county, where she died December 18, 
1882. Her only surviving child, "William 
Wright, has been county commissioner. 

Major Chunn, an officer in the regular 
array, came here from Terre Haute some 
time previous to 1820, and was an efficient 
soldier in driving away the Indians; was 
also a participant in the battle of Tippecanoe. 
He was a justice of the peace here for many 
years. His son Thomas is still a resident of 
this township. 

John Clover, from Ohio, located in Clinton 
Township in 1821, with his son Joseph A., 
who is yet living six miles west of Clinton. 

Joshua Dean, who was born in Virginia in 
1801, settled liere in 1822, and died about 
ten years ago. 

A family named Andrews located in this 
township the- same year, in which were sev- 
eral sons. 

Henry and Eli Shew, natives of Xorth 
Carolina, were boys when they became resi- 
dents of Clinton Township. The former was 
born in 1815 and came in 1825, and the 
latter, born in 1819, was brought here in 
1823. 

Captain AVilliam Swan was born in Penn- 
sylvania in 1802, settled in Clinton Town- 
ship in 1823, was a member of the first jury 
in tlie county, followed the river, making over 
sixty trips to New Orleans on both rafts and 
flats, was a Universalist in his religious be- 
lief, and a Freemason, and died January 29, 
1887, at Clinton. 

Washington Potter, still living, was about 
eight years old when, in 1823, he was brought 
to this township. He is a native of Ohio, 
and a carpenter by trade. 

Silas Davis, a cooper and farmer, now 
living in Kansas, was born in Ohio in 1818, 
brought here in 1823, and lived here many 
years. 

The parents of William and Israel Wood 



came in 1824. The latter are still residents 
here. 

John W. Hedges came also in 1824. His 
son, Dr. I. B. Hedges, was born October 30, 

1819, died February 24, 1883, and was 
buried in Clinton Cemetery. He was a re- 
spectable, well known physician, of many 
years' standing in his native county. 

In 1824 came also Mr. Crabb, father of 
Walter G., who was born in Fayette County, 
Ohio. Tlie former moved into Parke 
County. 

James H. Allen, of Clinton, born in Ohio 
in 1822, has been a resident here sines 1827. 

John Payton, an early merchant of Clin- 
ton, was born in Ohio in 1818, and settled 
here in 1828. 

This year also came James Clark, Sr., from 
Ohio, where he was born in 1798, became a 
farmer a mile and a half west of Clinton, 
and is now deceased. 

Samuel Davidson, also deceased, was born 
in Ohio in 1817, and settled in this township 
in 1830. Martin M. Davidson, born in Ohio 
in 1829, was brought here in 1832, lived 
here many years, and is now a resident of 
Terre Haute. 

George W. Edwards, of Clinton, was born 
in this State in 1827, and became a resident 
here in 1830. 

Andrew Eeed, born in Nortli Carolina in 

1820, settled here in 1830. 

Thomas Kibby, who was born in this State 
in 1810, came to Clinton Township in the 
fall of 1830, and is still a resident here. 

Benjamin K. Whitcomb, born in Vermont 
in 1798, and his cousin and business partner, 
John Whitcomb, came in 1828, .settling in 
the village of Clinton, where they were 
among the first merchants, pork packers, etc. 
John died August 29, 1830, aged forty-one 
years. Benjamin H. died April 23, 18G1, 
and his wife, Anna S., died May 21, 1800, 



UISTOJRT OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



at the age of fifty-five and a half years. 
John R. Whitcoinb, another merchant, born 
in Ohio in 1804, first settled in Edgar Coun- 
ty, Illinois, in 1832, and in the village of 
Clinton in 1834. He died in March, 1873, 
leaving a widow (third wife), who is living a 
half mile west of town. His first wife, 
Eunice, died May 15, 1832, aged only twenty- 
three years. 

Scott Malone, who married Miss Sarah, 
one of the twin daughters of John Vannest, 
came from Ohio, and resided here until his 
death a few years ago. 

Simeon Taylor, horn in Indiana in 1818, 
settled in this county in 1831, and died a few 
years ago. His brother, John F., born in 
Ohio, in 1816, came in 1833, and is yet 
living. 

In 1832 there settled in Clinton Township, 
Thomas G. Wilson, born in Yirginiain 1804; 
William J. Noblitt, born in Tennessee in 
1825, and still living here; Benjamin Harri- 
son, born in Virginia in 1805, was justice of 
the peace many years, and is still living: his 
M'ife died this year (1887); their son Robert, 
born in the " Old Dominion" in 1831, is still 
a resident of this township. 

Eobert H. and Adaliue (West) Nichols, 
came in 1835. He died here in 1872, aged 
fifty-live 3'ears, and she in 1874, aged sixty- 
five. 

Huram B. Cole, John Ferral and John 
Marks were early merchants of Clinton. The 
latter went South. Ferral- died February 25, 
1832, at the age of thirty-six years. 

In 1836 came William Payton and Philo 
Harkness, who are still living here. Payton 
was born in Kentucky in 1814, and Harkness 
in New York in 181G. 

In 1837 came Reuben Propst, and the next 
year Isaac Propst, natives of Virginia, but 
finally moved away. 

Aquilla Nebekerjborn in Delaware in 1815, 



located in Clinton Township in 1837. lie 
was a man of liberal views, a good citizen 
and a kind neighbor. He died February 10, 
1880, after a long period of illness. II i.-^ 
widow died in January, 1881, an exempl:;iv 
member of the Methodist Episcopal church. 

Jesse Spangler, born in Pennsylvania in 
1807, settled here in 1837, and died about 
1881. 

D. F. Fawcett came from Virginia in 1833, 
settling near Goshen, Vigo County, and then, 
in 1837, in this county, near the southwest 
corner. He died in 1845, in Jasper County. 
Illinois. Mrs. Fawcett died in 1837, in this 
township. 

Many others we could mention who came 
in pioneer times, resided liere many years, 
becoming prominent citizens, and died in 
honored old age, or are still living. 

MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS. 

The opening of the iron mines and build- 
ing of the " Indiana Furnace," in section 27, 
township 14, range 10, Clinton Township, 
commenced in 1837. In 1839 the furnace 
was in full blast. Stephen P. Uncles was 
the chief owner and superintendent. Asso- 
ciated with him were Hugh Stuart and Ches- 
ter Clark, the firm name being. Uncles & Co. 
Years later, the lands and works passed into 
the hands of Stuart & Sprague, and still later 
to E. M. Bruce & Co., the Co. being David 
Sinton. 

In 1859, George B. Sparks, now a resi- 
dent of Clinton, bought a controlling interest, 
and under the firm name of G. B. Sparks (N: 
Co., the business was continued until 1864. 
Captain John Lindsey, who still resides near 
the site of the old Furnace, was many yeais 
its superintendent. He relates that of the 
hundreds of men employed then, all but one, 
a pattern-maker, voted regularly the Demo- 
cratic ticket, and jokingly says, no others 



CLINTON TOWNSHIP. 



could get eniploymeat. The company's office 
and large general supply store, and a score or 
two of cabins of more or less pretensions, 
made quite a village. Castings of nearly all 
kinds, largely stoves, were turned out. Pig 
iron in large quantities were also produced. 

The works were among tlie early enter- 
prises of the Wabash Valley, and distributed 
a large amount of money among the early 
settlers as well as furnishing employment to 
all comers — of the right political ftvith (ac- 
cording to Captain Lindsey)! The 1,700 
acres of land connected with the plant is now 
owned by George B. Sparks, and devoted to 
agricultural purposes, and all that remains to 
indicate the site of the old " Indiana Fur- 
nace" is here and there debris of rotting 
and rusting machinery, and one or two log 
cabins. 

The " Norton Creek Coal Mines " are lo- 
cated on the line between Clinton and Helt 
townships, on section 5 of Clinton Township, 
and section 32 of Helt Township. Their de- 
velopment commenced in December, 1884. 
F. A. Bowen was the proprietor, and Charles 
P. Walker, of Clinton, the superintendent 
and manager. In the spring of 1885, under 
the general laws of Wisconsin the " Norton 
Creek Coal Mining Company," was organ- 
ized, with a paid up capital of $40,000, with 
its general office at Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 
II. M. Benjamin, of that city, is the presi- 
dent of the company, and Charles P. Walker, 
of Clinton, superintendent and treasurer, and 
general agent for Indiana. Connected with 
the property are 255 acres of land. The 
mines are about two and one-half miles west 
of the " Eastern Illinois Railroad," and con- 
nected by a spur track. The company also 
own the old " Briar Hill " mines, on section 
'J, Clinton Township, but they are not now 
operated. 

On the southeast portion of section 5 is 



located the company's large mercantile estab- 
lishment and local office, which, with twenty- 
seven tenement houses, constitutes quite a 
village, called "Geneva," named in honor of 
a daughter of Superintendent Walker. The 
sales of coal in 1886 reached $160,000, and 
and the mei'cantile establishment $42,000. 
Near the mines are several tenement houses, 
and at the Briar Hill mines eleven houses. 
All are occupied by employes of the com- 
pany. The business is increasing, owing to 
the excellent quality of coal produced. Com- 
mencing with the winter of 1887-'88 an 
average working force of 300 men are em- 
ployed. 

In Clinton Township there are three or 
four saw-mills, besides two in town, and one 
grist-mill. 

One of the chief business interests of 
Clinton Township is the immense stock farm 
of Claude Mathews at Hazel Bluff, on Brouil- 
et's Creek, some three miles from Clinton. 

It is said that in early day crime became so 
prevalent in the southern part of Vermillion 
County that a vigilance committee was organ- 
ized, wjio executed a lynching or two and 
thus effectually checked the evil. 

Some years ago the Indianapolis & St. 
Louis Bail road Company talked some of run- 
ning a track through this portion of the 
county', but no subscriptions were taken. 
When the Cleveland & St. Louis railroad was 
projected via Clinton, a little effort was made 
for it, but nothing accomplished. Now the 
Anderson, Lebanon & Paris Kailroad is pro- 
posed, by way of Clinton, and A. V. Brown 
is the leading citizen of the place working 
for it, in conjunction with Eockville. Sec- 
tions of this line, in other counties, are 
already bnilt and used. 

In this township, outside of Clinton, Henry 
C. Eaton, of Brouillet's Creek, has been the 
principal practicing physician. Ilev. S. S. 



Sims is a United Brethreti minister residing 
also on this creek. Betliel United Brethren 
Cluircli is located five miles southwest of 
Clinton, and the "Union Class," of the same 
church, worsliip at a point six and a half 
miles southwest of Clinton. 

The Centenary Methodist Episcopal Church 
is located about five miles west of Clinton, 
where Lewis Walraven is class-leader; and 
Trinity Church, nearly south of Clinton, is a 
place wliere a prosperous class worships, of 
whom John Ryan, Harrison Cole and William 
'Wright are official members. These two 
classes are in the Clinton Circuit, of which 
Kev. J. B. Combs is preacher in charge, with 
residence at the parsonage in Clinton. This 
is in the Greencastle District, Northwest 
Indiana Conference, of which Rev. A. A. 
(lee is presiding elder. Clinton Circuit, in- 
cluding the town, had 300 members lastyear. 

CLINTON. 

The town of Clinton was laid out in 1824, 
liy William Harris, a resident of Martin 
County, Indiana, who was a Government 
surveyor, and named the place in honor of 
DeWitt Clinton, of New York. 

Up to the time the railroad was assured, 
about 1868, the growth of Clinton was slow, 
hut during all that long ante-railroad period 
it was nevertheless the entrepot for an agri- 
cultural district around it fifty miles or more 
in diameter. Across the Wabash the peoi:)le 
traded mostly at Terre Haute, only fifteen 
miles distant from Clinton, and always an 
absorbing factor in the country trade. 

The first mercantile establisiiment opened 
at this point was by John and Benjamin R. 
Whitcomb, who kept a general store. Other 
early business men of Clinton were John 
Payton, John R. Whitcomb, Huram B. Cole, 
Jolm Ferrel, and John Marks. Later, were 
James McCnliocli, Ctis il. Conkoy. Jones & 



Chestnut, from Paris, Illinois, Leander Mun- 
sell, from the same place, Alanson Baldwin, 
of Baldwinsville, Illinois, O. & D. Bailey, 
of Bloomfield, Illinois, who were exten- 
sive pork-packers at this point. This was 
for a long period a prominent shipping point 
for pork. 

Minor business men were, J. W. and Field- 
ing Shepard, and Volney Hutchison, me- 
chanics, who afterwai'd moved into the country 
and became successful farmers; S. E. Patton, 
cooper; H. F. Redding, carriage-maker and 
blacksmith, and others. 

Many of the buildings occupied by the 
above parties are still standing, on the bank 
of the river near tlie wagon bridge, where tiie 
old boat landing was, as monumental 2'elies 
of the steamboat period. How many scenes 
of the past, and associations concerning the 
characteristics of the early business men of 
Clinton, does their venerable presence still 
suggest! 

Clinton is now, and has long been, the 
largest town in Vermillion County; but what 
its population is we cannot ascertain. It is 
variously estimated at 1,200 to 1,800. The 
town is beautifully located, streets running 
" square with the world," and withal it is a 
pleasant place in every respect. 

It was first incorporated about 1848 or 
1849, by a special act of the Legislature, 
which empowered the trustees to prohibit 
the sale of intoxicants. In later years, about 
1879, the town was re-incorporated, under 
the general law. It is divided into five 
wards, from each of which one trustee is 
elected biennially. The general officers are 
elected annually, — the president being elect- 
ed by tlie board, and the other officers by the 
people directly. 

On account of the absence of the. old rec- 
ords, we are unable to give a complete list 
of officers. Since 1880 the following have 



CLINTON TOWNSHIP. 



I 



served: Presidents — Neil J. McDougall, 
1880-'84; Decatur Downing, 1885; W. L. 
Morev, 1886-'87. Clerks— D. C. Johnson, 
1880 j L. O. Bishop, 1881; Decatur Downing, 
1882; J. M. Hays, 1883-'8-i; Ed. H. John- 
son, 1885-'87. 

Here, as elsewhere, have been the usual 
contests with the liquor traffic. The most 
remarkable movement in modern times was 
the "woman's crusade" of 187'^'76. In 
1874 a band of praying women laid siege to 
a saloon day and night, being on duty in di- 
visions and by turns. The proprietor sur- 
rendered. In April, 1875, a company of 
forty hidies, headed by Mrs. Maloneand Mrs. 
Kibby, marched in double file to the saloon 
owned by Tice & Mechler, to hold an inter- 
view with the proprietors; but on arrival 
found the fbrt evacuated and the doors wide 
open. The ladies guarded the place until 
evening and then retired. The next night 
one of the proprietors was arrested, and while 
he was in custody the citizens gathered at 
the point of contest and demolished every- 
thing that contained intoxicating liquor. Tlie 
proprietor sued fifteen of the citizens for 
$5,000 damages, but the case was compro- 
mised or dismissed. Otlier events of this 
crusade occurred, but of minor importance. 

"While on the subject of municipal govern- 
ment, we may notice that under corporate 
management the streets have been graded and 
macadamized, nuisances generally kept in 
abeyance, and a satisfactory government gen- 
erally administered. 

pnrsiciANS. 

Dr. Joseph Hopkins, from Ohio, was the 
first physician to locate in Clinton, in 1830 
or previously. He was an acceptable practi- 
tioner. Died out West, leaving a wife and 
two daualiters. 



Dr. Erstman was here a short time, about 
the same period. 

Dr. I. S. Palmer, a well educated graduate 
of a medical college at Philadelphia, settled 
in Clinton during its pioneer period, accumu- 
lated some property, but finally became in- 
temperate and lost it, althongh he was a 
gentleman of a shrewd intellect. He finally 
lost his life in a horrible manner, althoiigh 
not drunk at the time. Visiting & patient 
across the "Wabash one day about fifteen years 
ago, he noticed on his return many squirrels 
in the woods. On arriving home he took 
his gun, and started out to indulge in the 
sports of the chase. "While crossing the river 
on the ice, he broke through, but held him- 
self from being drawn under by clinging to 
the edge of tlie ice; and there he lield fast 
until parties had arrived from points a mile 
or more distant for his rescue. But his 
strength gave out and he went nnder, never 
more to be seen; his body was never re- 
covered. Charles Knowles nearly lost his 
life in his efforts to save him. 

Dr. "William Kile, from Ohio, was a man 
of great energy and industry, and with an 
extended practice he accumulated a handsome 
amount of property. This lie finally sold 
and went to Paris, Illinois, where he engaged 
in mercantile business, and also ftirming and 
handling live-stock, for a number of years, 
and ultimately banking. In visiting patients 
on the other side of the Wabash he would 
sometimes swim his horse across the river on 
his return, rather than to come a few miles 
out of his way to the wagon bridge. One 
tinie he was violently attacked with small- 
])ox, when scarcely any one expected he could 
survive; but his "vitativeness" was so large 
that, as he was being taken out into the 
country for treatment, passing a store, he 
called out to the proprietor, "Save me that 
largest pair of boots, v.'ill yon V He had 



B?g«««w»«»B»a 



.a»,MiM«nai«»w»»«" 




imsTORY OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



L 



vory large feet. He died at Paris many 
years afterward. 

Dr. Perkins, a botanic physician, practiced 
liere a number of years, and finally removed 
to Oregon. 

Dr. Rollin Whitcomb, a botanic physician 
from New York, came in 1841, and, after 
practicing here a number of years, moved 
away, and returned again and remained until 
his deatli. 

Dr. I. B. Hedges was a boy when his 
parents brought him here from New York in 
1824:. Commencing practice about 1845, he 
])roved to be a successful physician as well as 
business man. On dying here three or four 
years ago, he left considerable property to 
his family, lie was a man of high standing. 

Dr. P. R. Owen came to Clinton about 
1854, from New GoshcL, Indiana, but was a 
native of Ohio. At the beginning of the 
war lie enlisted in the army, was elected 
Captain of Company I, Fourteenth Indiana 
Infantry, promoted Major and then Lieuten- 
ant Colonel of his regiment; came home and 
jH-acticed his profession until 1871, when he 
died, leaving a widow and several children. 
He was also an excellent Methodist preacher. 
The Grand Army post at Clinton is named 
in his honor. 

Dr. Corkins, after practicing here a while, 
moved to Texas. 

Dr. William Reeder practiced medicine at 
Clinton for a period before the war, in which 
he enlisted and held some ofhce. About 
1874 he moved to Texas, where he is now 
following his profession. 

Dr. J. C. Crozier ai-rived here also some 
time before the war, entered the army as a 
Surgeon, continued in the service until the 
;dose, then practiced here a number of years, 
and finally went to Washington, D. C, where 
he has for a number of years been engaged I 
in the pension department. | 



Dr. William H. Stewart, who came from 
Illinois and practiced medicine here two or 
three years, was in Terre Haute when last 
heard from. 

The present physicians of Clinton are Drs. 
Henry Nebeker, J. H. Bogart and C. M. 
White. 

LAWYERS. 

James R. Baker, although he did not prac- 
tice law a great deal, may be counted among 
the bar. He left here, entering the Method- 
ist ministry. 

Lyman J. Smith practiced law at Clinton 
three or four years, and moved to Paris, 
Illinois. 

"Judge" John Porter, who lived in the 
country in this township, followed the law to 
some e.xtent, was a man of considerable lit- 
erary attainments, a member of the Legisla- 
ture, etc. He died some time before the war 
period. 

Also, some time before the last war, a man 
named Ragan was a practitioner of law at 
Clinton for about a j-ear. 

Henry D. Washburn was born in Yermont, 
in March, 1832; came to this county about 
1S50; taught school three or four years — 
principally in Helt Township and some at 
Newport; studied law while teaching, with 
Thomas C. W. Sale at Newport; admitted to 
the bar in 1853, and opened office at New- 
port; was in partnership with M. P. Lowry 
for a time; elected auditor of the county in 
1854, serving one term; entered the army as 
Captain of Company C, Eighteenth Indiana 
Infantry, promoted Lieutenant-Colonel, and 
then Colonel, and Brevetted General and 
then Major General, serving in the army 
about four years, first in Missouri, next in 
the Army of the Potomac, and then in 
Georgia; but in 1864, before the termination 
of the war, was elected, while a resident of 



CLINTON TOWNSHIP. 



S37 



Clinton, to the lower house of Congress, 
against Daniel W. Voorhees, serving from 
March, 1865, to March, 1869, having been 
re-elected; was appointed in the latter year 
by President Grant to the office of Surveyor- 
General for the Territory of Montana; and 
while holding this office he died, in January, 
1871, at Clinton, leaving a wife and two 
children. Commanding a company of fifty 
men, he made the first thorough exploration 
of tlie Yellowstone Valley, in 1870, in which- 
journey the exposure brought on the illness 
which proved fatal. In his religion he was a 
Methodist, in his social relations a Knight 
Templar, and in his politics a Republican, 
and a good campaignist for his party. Mrs. 
Washburn now resides in Greencastle, this 
State. Dr. A. A. Washburn, her son, is 
practicing medicine at Atwood, Illinois; and 
her daughter is the wife of Professor J. B. 
De Motte, of De Pauw University, at Green- 
castle. 

Henry A. White, a native of lielt Town- 
ship, this county, practiced law at Clinton a 
number of years, and is now in Kansas. 

M. B. Davis, a native of this county, and 
a graduate of Asbury University at Green- 
castle, was admitted to the bar in 1881, com- 
menced practice while a very young man, 
and was in partnership for a short time with 
11. H. Conley, of Newport, and in 1885 left 
for Beatrice, Nebraska, where he is now prac- 
ticing law and has an interest in the Beatrice 
liejniblican. 

Tiie present lawyers of Clinton are Daniel 
C. Johnson, Piatt Z. Anderson, Benjamin R. 
AVhitcomb, I. II. Strain and Melvin B. Davis. 



In 1873 the Clinton Exponent was estab- 
lished by B. S. Blackledge and James R. 
Baker, Esq., in Allen's picture gallery, a 



short distance west of the present Argus 
office, and was Republican in politics. F. L. 
Whedon, from Ohio, edited the paper for a 
short time. After a time Baker sold his in- 
terest to his partner, and Mr. Blackledge 
conducted the paper alone until the first 
week of November, 1876, when he sold to 
Lyman E. Knapp. In June, 1877, he sold 
to R. S. Knapp, but King Alcohol foreclosed 
a mortgage on the institution and killed it. 
It raised its fainting form at Perrysville, as 
the Perrysville Exponent, gasped a few 
months, and breathed its last. In 1877 H. 
A. White, a lawyer of Clinton, bought the 
office material, returned with it to Clinton, 
and started the Western Indianian, in the 
building now occupied by Harry Dudley as a 
meat market. Subsequently it was removed 
to the room now occupied by the Argus. By 
this time the organ was "National" in its 
politics. 

White sold out to T. A. Kibby, H. S. 
Evans and John McMahon. The last men- 
tioned soon left, and Evans became editor and 
publisher, Kibby remaining as a silent part- 
ner. Then Evans left, and Mr. Kibby, in 
September, 1879, leased the off.ce to L. O. 
Bishop and Mont. L. Casey. In June, 1880, 
this firm bought the Clinton .Herald, to 
which the Western Indianian had been 
changed by Mr. Evans, and published it 
until July 1, 1882, when Mr. Bishop sold to 
Casey. August 31, Mr. Bishop started the 
Saturday Argots. In twelve or fifteen montlis 
the Herald suspended. Shortly afterward 
Alexander Myers tried his hand at the busi- 
ness of journalism, by starting the Toma- 
hawh and Scalping-Knife, which he imme- 
diately changed to the Democrat: died in 
six weeks. In June, 1884, Mr. Casey came 
out with the Clinton Siftlngs, which sifted 
occasionally and irregularly along for about 
three years, when it entirely sifted out. 



HISTORY OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



All the above nsM-spapers, except the Argiis, 
were pi-inted upon the same press. 

During the summer of 1887 Mont. L. 
Casey started " Caser/s Si/tings," as an organ 
laboring for the "elevation of morals and 
horse-thieves," and as tlie only " religious " 
paper iu the county and the "best advertising 
medium on earth," published every Friday 
evening, " the Lord permitting," and on 
Saturday morning " any %vay." 

It seems that the ^4/yHS-eyed journal has 
come to stay, having a clear tield and run- 
ning steadily. It is a " free, untrammeled 
newspaper for the people," handicapped by 
no idiosyncrasy. In connection with the 
paper, Mr. Bishop has also a good job office. 

Lucius 0. Bishop was born iu Clinton, a 
son of Francis M. and Melinda (Anderson) 
Bishop, April 17, 1859. Approaching the 
years of manhood he began the study of law 
in the office of Henry A. White, in his native 
town, but, before completing his course, he, 
in partnership with Mont. L. Casey, leased 
the printing office of the Clinton Herald, in 
1879, since which time he lias been engaged 
as a journalist and job printer, as above re- 
lated. He is a rising young man, and being 
endowed with energy and mental activity, he 
is destined to make a mark in this world of 
life. lie is a member of the order of Odd 
Fellows, and takes an active interest in the 
literary societies and other local enterprises of 
the community. 

LATE ENTEEPEISES. 

The Clinton Building and Loan Associa- 
tion was organized in March, 1882, and is 
still alive. William L. Morey is president, 
and J. W. Robb, secretary. 

Clinton Building and Loan Association 
Xo. 2 was organized January 1, 1887, with a 
capital stock of $50,000. David McBeth, 



President; J. W. Robb, Secretary; and W. 

A. Hays, Treasurer. 

The Clinton Natural Gas Company was 
organized in the spring of 1887, witli a capi- 
tal stock of $2,000 to $1,000. C. Mathews, 
President; John Whitcomb, Vice-President; 
W. H. Hamilton, Secretary; N. C. Anderson, 
Treasiirer. The other directors ai"e J. J. Hig- 
gins, Decatur Downing, J. E. Knowles, C. 

B. Knowles and W. A. Hays. The material 
for the derrick, etc., is now (June) on the 
ground, and the company intend to com- 
mence drilling within a few days, in the 
western portion of the town. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

The first school-house in Clinton Township, 
as elsewliere described, was a log structure 
of the most primitive kind, located at tlie 
Davidson hill, a mile west of town, when the 
only school books were the English Reader, 
AVebster's Elementary Spelling Book and tlie 
New Testament, and sometimes a copy of 
Daboll's Aritlimetic. Since then a remark- 
able growth of the present free-school system 
has taken place. In the meantime, according 
to the character of the respective periods, two 
or three attempts have been made toward the 
establishment of special or select schools of 
an advanced order. For example, just pre- 
vious to tlie war, Myrain G. Towsley's Mili- 
tary Institute and the Farmers' College, which 
went down on account of the war coming on. 
Part of the building, a large frame, was 
afterward converted into an opera house, and 
the wings into dwelling-houses. 

The present fine school building, of six 
rooms, v/as erected in 1881, at a cost of about 
$8,000, including seating, furnishing and 
the ground. The enrollment last year was 
368. The school is divided into ten or twelve 
grades, and prepares its graduates for admis- 



CLINTON TOWNSHIP. 



239 



sion into the State University. The principal 
is J. H. Tomlin, who has six assistants. 

SOCIETIES. 

Freemasonry was organized in Clinton pre- 
vious to D. A. Eanger's arrival here in 1843, 
but interest in it declined and the charter 
was surrendered. 

Jerusalem Lodge, No. 9D, F. cfi A. M., 
received its charter May 29, 1850, and has 
ever since then been kept alive. The charter 
members were — Sylvester Redlield, Worship- 
ful Master, who afterward moved to Nebraska, 
John N. Perkins, Hiram Barnes, John li. 
Whitcomb, Benjamin E. Whitcorab, William 
S. Price, James Gazsoway, James McCuUoch, 
Nathan Sidwell, J. J. Moore and William 
Barrick. The present membership is fifty- 
six, with these officers: James Robert, Wor- 
shipful Master; Eobert B. Bailey, Senior 
Warden; Jasj)er Frisk, Junior Warden; N. 
C. Anderson, Treasurer; D. A. Eanger, Sec- 
retary; II. I). Dudley, Senior Deacon; John 
Ilorney, Junior Deacon; and William Hughes, 
Tyler. 

Ainant Lodge, No. 35G, I. 0. 0. F., was 
instituted November 16, 1870, with about 
twelve members, who have increased to about 
seventy-five. The present officers are — A. V. 
McWethy, Noble Grand; J. II. Black, Vice 
Grand; Frank Swinehart, Eecordiug Secre- 
tary; W. H. Hill, Permanent Secretary; John 
II. Birt, Treasurer. The past grands num- 
ber twenty-three. The lodge has an unusu- 
ally nice room for their meetings. 

Clinton Encampment, No. US, was char- 
tered May 16, 1876. Present officers— W. 
II. Hill, Chief Priest; ^N. II. Cale, Senior 
Warden; Harry Swinehart, Junior Warden; 
J. il. Blagg, High Priest; W. F. Wells, Per- 
manent Secretary; Ed. II. Johnston, Scribe; 
J. II. Black, Treasurer. 



Vermillion Lodge, No. 182, Degree of 
Rebekah, was organized July 9, 1877. It has 
at present about forty active members. The 
officers are — Mrs. Anna Davis, Noble Grand; 
Miss Ella Bishop, Vice-Grand; Mrs. Katie 
McWethy, Treasurer; Lillie Birt, Recording 
Secretary; Miss Lulu Allen, Permanent Sec- 
retary. 

F. E. Owen Post, No. 3^9, G. A. R., was 
instituted April 15, 1884. (See a j)recedinf,r 
page for a sketch of Dr. Owen). The Post 
was organized X)j Captain li. B. Sears, 
of Newport, mustering officer, with about 
twenty-five or tliirty members. They now 
number fifty-four, and are in prospei'ous 
condition. Officers — L. H. Beckman, Post 
Commander; Cornelius Quick, Senior Vice 
Commander; T. B. Wells, Junior Vice Com- 
mander; S. Weatherwax, Adjutant; J. II. 
Wilson, Quartermaster; William Kelp, Chap- 
lain; D. A. Ranger, Quartermaster Sergeant; 
Enoch Whitted, Sergeant.- 

Cotmcil No. 3, Sovereigns of Indiistni. 
was organized May 5, 1874, with twenty-five 
members. James A. Greenwalt was elected 
President; David McBeth, Vice-President; 
J. C. Campbell, Secretary; T. Victor, Treas- 
urer; S. B. Blackledge, Lecturer; J. C. Hall. 
Steward; D. Moore, Inside Guard. 

The A. O. IT. W. organized here eight or 
ten years ago; soon had thirty or forty mem- 
bers, but in about a year they practically dis- 
banded. Perry Jones, superintendent of a 
coal mine in tiie vicitiity at the time, Avas 
master workman of the lodge. He moved 
away some years ago. Probably he constituted 
the soul of the lodge, and \vlien he went away 
the body died. 

Some eight years ago an orchestra was or- 
ganized in Clinton, which is still efficient, 
and more recently a cornet band, led by White 
and Wells. 



Methodism. — Itinerant Methodist minis- 
ters of pioneer times were especially marked 
fur their energy and daring in threading the 
wild woods and prairies in search of the iso- 
lated settler, for the purpose of preaching to 
liiin the gospel and of organizing "classes" 
(church congregations) as soon as he could 
iind three or four residents who were zealous 
enough to meet, coming from far and from 
near. The first Methodist class in Yermill- 
ion Connty was organized some time previ- 
ous to 1830, at the house of John Tannest, 
the first settler of the county, comprising 
besides Mr. Vaniiest himself, also his brother, 
and George Eush, James, Amos and Joseph 
Reeder, the Brannons, etc. The minister, 
who walked his rounds, preached here every 
four weeks. Revs. Smith and McGinnis are 
remembered as being among the early Meth- 
odist preachers in this section. 

Not having space to detail the particulars 
of Methodist history from that time to the 
present, we are obliged to leap in our imagi- 
nation over half a century, to the present 
period. 

At the present time the Clinton society 
comprises ninety-four members. Class-leader, 
L. II. Beckman. Stewards, James M. Hayes 
and Robert Allen. The flourishing Sunday- 
school is superintended by John Whitcomb 
and L. IT. Beckman. Pastor, Rev. J. B. 
Combs, now in his second year here, and oc- 
cupying the parsonage, a neat residence in a 
retired place. This circuit is in the Green- 
castle District, Northwest Indiana Conference. 
Rev. A. A. Gee, of Greencastle, is the pre- 
siding elder. 

As to a house of worship, the Methodists 
jiassed from the log-cabin residence and 
f-chool-house to a frame church, erected 
mainly by the Presbyterians in 1831; and 



next into a frame, 38 x 60 feet, built about 
1852, at a cost of about $1,400, which is now 
used as a dwelling; and finally, in 1883, they 
reared their present massive and imposing 
brick edifice, 40 x 80 feet in ground area, at 
a cost of §6,500. 

The African Methodist Episcopal Churdt 
of Clinton, was organized in 1876, by Kev. 
W. S. Langford, of Rockville, at the time, who 
was also pastor for a while. The class, led 
by George Harris, started out with only six 
members, but now numbers about twenty, 
with Mrs. Lida Brown as class-leader. Stew- 
ards, "William Bowen, John Cooper, Elbert 
Brown, John Bowen and John Walker. Sun- 
day-school, of about fifteen pupils generally, 
is superintended by James Bowen. The 
pastor is Rev. W. R. Hutchison, now a resi- 
dent of Lost Creek, Yigo County; this is his 
third year. The church building, 26 x 80 
feet in dimensions, was erected in 1881, at 
a cost of $250, and is free from debt. It is 
located in the central part of town. 

The Presbyterian Church at Clinton was 
also organized in pioneer times, being the 
first to erect a house of worship in the 
county, in 1831, with the aid of the Method- 
ists. Ennning down somewhat in the course 
of years, they were re-organized about 1850, 
by Rev. John Gerrish, of Ilelt Township, who 
died in the spring of 1887, in Kansas. There 
are now fifty-five members. The ruling 
elders are E. V. lirown and David McBeth. 
They maintain a Sunday-school the year 
round, with an average attendance of ninety 
pupils, superintended by D. C. Johnson. The 
present pastor is Rev. L. G. Hay, D. D., of 
Terre Haute, who has been serving as 
" stated supply " since the first of February 
1887. Former pastors (or supplies) have 
been, so far as can be conveniently remem- 
bered, Revs. James Boggs, in 1855; John 
A. Tiffner, of Bono, two or three years; 



3 ' 



CLINTON TOWNSHIP. 



John Hawks, of Eockville, two or three 
years; Thomas Griffith, of Montezuma, three 
or four years, and L. H. Davidson, who re- 
sided here at the time, two years. The first 
church bnikling was converted into a barn, and 



is still used as such. The present house of 
worship was erected about 1852, is a frame 
40x70 feet in dimensions, and located cen- 
trally, on the school-house lot. 





EARLY SETTLERS. 




'HE following list of 
early settlers of Kelt 
Township, altliougli 
apparently systematic, 
can not be supposed 
to be complete or free 
fruiii error, but it is as accurate, 
we trust, as such data can gen- 
erally be made. The years in- 
dicated at the head of the re- 
spective paragraphs are the 
years in which those mentioned 
came liere as settlers, except 
where otherwise specified. 

1817-'18.— In the winter of 
1817-'18 came Obadiah Swayze, 
who occupied as a "squatter" one of the 
three cabins just built by the Helts, spoken 
of in the next paragraph. He, however, re- 
mained as a permanent citizen. His remains 
now lie buried in Helt's Prairie Cemetery, 
with his wife, two sons and a daughter. He 
has a grandson, "Wesley "Wright, living in 
Kansas City. 

1818. — Daniel Holt, after wliom the prai- 
rie and the township Avere named. He was 
born in Pennsylvania, in 1791, was a soldier 



in the war of 1812 under General Harrison, 
and died March 25, 1879, a good man and a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal church. 
George, John and Michael Helt — all now de- 
ceased. C. B., Thomas, Hiram, E. B. and F. 
M. Helt were all born here in pioneer times. 
Augustus Ford, from Ohio, long since de- 
ceased. His son John, born in Ohio in 1809, 
came with him, and died May 6, 1882, an 
exemplary member of the Methodist Episco- 
pal church, after having lived upon the farm 
first occupied lor half a century. Mr. Rod- 
ney, from Maine. John Skidmore, who died 
at the age of eighty years. Hon. "V\'illiam 
Skidmore, who was born February 19, 1819, 
died several years ago. George Skidmore 
was born in 1824, and Josiah Skidmore in 
1831. Samuel Eush, father of James, who 
was born in Ohio in 1817. This year, or soon 
afterward, C. C. Hiddle (or John Hiddle, ac- 
cording to one authority), and John Martin 
came and built the first cabins on Hiddle's 
Prairie. 

1819 — Samuel Ryerson, who died January 
31, 1862, at Clinton. His wife, Phebe, died 
in the fall of 1874, at the age seventy-nine 
years. She wa* a remarkable woman. At 



UELT TOWNSHIP. 



tlie age of twelve years she had never heard 
one pray. At that time she attended a 
Methodist meeting, where the expected 
preacher did not arrive, and the class-leader 
sang and prayed, which was tlie means of her 
conviction and conversion, and she remained 
a zealous member of tlie church all her life. 
She and her husband formed the first Method- 
ist class on Helt's Prairie, consisting of 
eight persons, soon after their settlement 
here. A short time before her death she willed 
§1,500 to the Missionary Society, $500 to 
Asbury University, $200 to the educational 
fund of this county, and $200 to the Biblical 
Institute at Evanston, Illinois, besides other 
sums, to various individuals. 

Matthew Harbison came this year. Joseph 
Harbison was born in this township in 1834. 

1820.— Mr. Hood, father of Charles D. 
and S. S., both of whom were born in Ten- 
nessee, in 1814 and 1815, and are still living 
here. According to one authority, Joel IIol- 
lingsworth arrived in Ilelt Township this year. 

1821.— Abraham and Enoch White. The 
latter was born in Kentucky, in 1814. James 
Harper. Stephen Harrington, who was born 
in Ohio in 1814, was a resident here during 
most of the connty's existence. Warham (or 
" Wirnm ") Mack, born in Ohio in 1801, 
died here. The other Macks came later: see 
under 1832 and 1886. 

1822. — William Andrews, Sr., tanner and 
farmer, born in Ohio in 1807, (see under 
1832), and died of heart decease in De- 
cember, 1879, two miles southwest of St. 
Bernice, a member of the United Brethren 
church. (For others by the name of Andrews, 
see under 1832.) John Conley. M. A. Con- 
ley, long a resident, was born in this town- 
ship this year. James Conley, born in Ohio 
in 1817, is still living here. William Conley 
was another pioneer. 

1823. — Alanson Church. Ills son Josiah 



was born here, September 29, 1823, and died 
January 7, 1884, two and a half miles west 
of Summit Grove. Eleven of his twelve 
children are still living. John Peer, Sr., 
born in Virginia in 1803, and deceased. John 
Peer, Jr., a resident, was born here in 1834. 
The Pearman family; of the younger mem- 
bers, John is living, I'enjamin is dead, and 
besides these there M-ere S. D. and AVilliam. 

1824. — John Van Camp, whose house this 
year was where the first township election 
was held, moved to Missouri. John Langs- 
ton, father of Oliver, of Dana. William L. 
Malone, born in Ohio in 1805, deceased. 
Richard, his son, was born in the same State, 
in 1826, and lives in Dana. 

1825.— Caleb Bales, Sr., from Virginia, 
died in 1836. Caleb Bales, Jr. is living. 
George Bales, early settler, father of Robert, 



is dead. William Bales, boru in Vi 



rginia in 



1827, settled in this county in 1831. Will- 
iam F. Bales was born here in 1829. 
Chandler Tillotson, who came to the county 
abont this pei'iod, is dead. Daniel G. and 
G. B. Tillotson were born here in 1825. 
1826.— Edwin (or Edmund), William and 
Elijah James. S. R., Joseph, W. A. and S. 
S. James are all natives of this C(ninty. Mr. 
Keyes, father of Dr. C. F. Keyes. The 
doctor was born in Indiana, in 1822, brought 
up in Ilelt Township, became a competent 
physician, although somewhat eccentric in 
style, and died at Dana, February 8, 1884, 
leaving a wife and five children. John Van- 
duyn born in New Jersey in 1803, still i-e- 
sides in this township. M. Thompson. Mr. 
Rhoades, father of Stephen, was born in 
Kentucky in 1822. William Kearns, born 
in Kentucky in 1806, is dead. John, his 
son, was born in 1832, and is still living here. 
Samuel Pyle, was two years old at this time, 
when he was brought here; he is still a resi- 
dent of this township. 






1827. — Washington Engram, bom in Ken- 
tucky in 1812. John 0. Rogers, born this 
year in Helt Township, resides in Dana. 
Asa Mack came this year or previouely. His 
son, Dr. Erastus Mack, was born this year, 
and another son, N. B., born in 1832, went to 
California. 

1828. — Joel Ilollingsworth, who was born 
in South Carolina in 1801, died May 30, 
1875, in this township. (See sketch of 
Simon Hollingsworth, in the biographical de- 
partment of this work.) George Hollings- 
worth, a carpenter, was born in 1827, In- 
diana, and was brought here in 1839. 

1829.— The French family. Eelix French, 
born here this year, went to Michigan. Sam- 
uel French, long a resident. Joseph and 
John Staats, brothers, are still living here. 
Joseph, born in Virginia in 1801, came in 
1830, and John, who was born in Ohio in 
1806, came in 1829. Israel and Abraham 
Leatherman were lads when they arrived this 
year. Samuel Hoagland (deceased), was born 
in this county in 1829, and was a citizen here 
for a life time. Wesley Southard (deceased), 
was born in Virginia in 1811. William 
Ruisell, Sr., born in Virginia in 1797, is still 
living here. David and Mahlou Russell 
were born here, in 1830 and 1833. 

1830. — James L. Wishard, born in Ken- 
tucky in 1794, was a soldier of the war of 
1812, and died two or three years ago. John 
O. Wishard, born in the same State, in 1805, 
came in 1834, and is now deceased. J. H. 
Wishard, a life-long resident, born this year. 
James L. Payton, born in Kentucky in 1800, 
is dead. James Payton, born in 1835, also 
deceased. A. M. Payton, born in Kentucky 
in 1823, was seven years of age when brought 
here. James A. Edmanston, born in Indiana 
in 1828, was brought here in 1830 and lived 
here many years, but is now living in Illinois. 
Robert Norris, born in South Carolina in 



1796, died here in 1878. His sons, John 
and Lewis, are living. John T. Boren, Sr., 
born in Tennessee in 1800, is not living. J. 
T. Boren, Jr., was born in this county in 
1831. Jacob Miller, born in Kentucky in 
1818, is still a resident here. Mary E. Mil- 
ler, born in North Carolina in 1816, came iu 
1831. John and O. R. Blakesley, born here 
in 1830 and 1833, remained as residents until 
their death. 

1831. — Joseph Jones, born in Kentucky in 
1810; Matthew Jones, born in North Carolina 
in 1818; Thomas Jones, shoemaker, born in 
the same State in 1820; and AViley Jones, 
born also in the same State in 1824, all came 
this year. Wiley soon moved on to Illinois. 
William Jones, an old resident, was born in 
Indiana in 1829. 

1832. — James Andrews came previously 
to 1834. John Andrews, still living here. 
Sara Eliza Andrews, born in 1820, married 
Mr. Dethrick and moved West. Hannah 
Andrews, born in Massachusetts in 1823, 
came to this county in 1839. John W. Reed, 
born in North Carolina in 1822, resided 
here from 1832 until his death September 14, 
1885, at Dana. David Reed, born in North 
Carolina in 1825, is still living. P. M. 
Stokesberry, born in Ohio in 1808, is not 
now living. James H. White,Vho was born 
in Teunessee^in 1805; and O. J. White was 
born this year in Helt Township. William 
Higbie, born in Ohio in 1814, lived here 
until recently. 

1833. — J. S. Fisher (deceased), born in 
Kentucky in 1808. Benjamin, James and 
Joseph Fisher, pioneers, and life-long citizens, 
are all deceased. Benjamin Miles, born in 
Kentucky in 1813, is still living here. Mr. 
Foncannon, from Virginia. H. W. and John 
R. Roshstan, living in Dana. James A. 
Elder and James R. Finnell, the former from 
Ohio, and the latter from Kentucky, were 



both eleven years of age when brought here 
in 1833, and are still living in Helt Town- 
ship. O. Chambers and Charles Craig were 
burn here tliis year. 

1834. — Saninel Aiknian, born in Indiana 
in 1814, is living in Dana. Robert Mc- 
Dowell, born in Kentucky in 1820, is 
deceased. J. D. McDowell, born in this 
county in 1836, is a life-long resident. Mr. 
Johnson, some time this year or previously. 
John R. Jolmson, born in Ohio in 1833, was 
brouglit here in 1834; and S. Johnson was 
born liere in 1835. 

1835. — Samuel Tullis, born in Virginia in 
1794, resided here until his death, at Bono, 
October 14, 1877, a member of the Christian 
ciiurch. His wife died two months previously. 
Jolm Jenks, born in Vermont in 1803, is not 
living. S. Ponton, born in A'irginia in 
1787, is deceased. John 8. Ponton, born in 
Ohio in 1831, died here about a year ago. 
John Jackson, who had several sons, and is 
deceased. Anflrew Jackson, born in Oliio in 
1823, is still living here. Joseph Jackson. 
James C. Burson. Isaac N. BuUington, born 
in Kentucky in 1807. 

1836. — Cephas Mack, born in Massachu- 
setts in 1815, died April 29, 1885, in Ilelt 
Township. His brother, Spencer, born in 
the same State, in 1818, settled here in 1838, 
and is not living. 

1837. — Benjamin Harper, born in Virginia 
in 1796, died August 2, 1877. His wife, 
Charlotte, died March 2, 1884, aged nearly 
eighty-two years. John R. Porter, born in 
Massachusetts in 1824,died in 1878. James F. 
Barnett, Sr., born in Kentucky in 1815, after 
settling here became- a merchant in Eugene. 

1838. — Henry Mitchell, blacksmith, born 
in New York in 1809, died here, June 20, 
1881. AVilliam M. Price, born in Maryland 
in 1811, is still a resident of this township. 
W. C. and Abel Randall, from Oiiio. 



1839. — William Thompson, born in Ken- 
tucky in 1818, died here in the spring of 1887. 
David D. Thompson, born in the same State, 
in 1827, died i^^ebruary 1, 1880. Erastus 
Crane, born in Vermont in 1804, resided in 
Helt Township from 1839 to the time of his 
death. Elijah and N. E. Taylor, Reuben 
Puffer, F. S. Aye and many others. 

1840. — Stephen Milliken, born in Pennsyl- 
vania in 1803; deceased. J. L. Powers, born 
in Virginia in 1803; also deceased. 

Other early settlers were — Samuel Rice, 
William Hays, Peter Higbie, Henry Bogart, 
Richard, Isaac and John Sliort, Carmack, 
etc., etc., nearly all of whom are dead. 

MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS. 

The first white child born in Helt Town- 
ship was Honorable William Skidmore, in 
1819; and it is not a settled point whether 
he or Jolm Vannest, Jr., of Clinton Town- 
ship, was the first born in the county. 

The first church building in the township 
was the Salem Church, on Helt's Prairie, 
erected in 1848. 

The first school was taught on this prairie, 
prior to 1830. 

The first mill in the township was built 
upon the bank of Coal Branch, a little stream 
which takes its rise in the central part of the 
township and flows southwest. This mill 
was built by William Anderson in 1836, but 
it has long since fallen into disuse, and Coal 
Branch looks as if it could never have run a 
mill. 

The Davis Ferry, at Opeedee, about three 
and a half miles below Newport, was a fa- 
mous place in early day, as it was the favorite 
place of crossing the Wabash for those who 
were traveling north, the second bottoms on 
the west side of the river attbrding much 
better wagon roads than the east side. By 



! 



this route some teaming was done even to 
Chicago. 

Helt Township has contributed an inter- 
esting share to the science of archseology. In 
the summer of 1884, a number of workmen, 
while digging gravel in the mound Just east 
of William Bales' place, brought to light the 
skeletons of more than half a dozen of the 
aborigines. Various relics were found, con- 
sisting of bone and stone. There was no 
metallic tool of any sort in the grave. Under 
the skull of the first skeleton found, — un- 
doubtedly the chief or sachem of the tribe, — 
was perhaps half a bushel of arrow-heads. A 
pipe was found, the bowl of which was per- 
fectly hollowed. It was made of a hard 
species of soapstone. . Was it his calumet of 
peace? Two pieces of what one would sup- 
pose to be a tish-spear, made from the aiitler 
of a deer, was procured from the heap of 
arrow-heads, together with the jaw-bones of 
a dog and several beaver teeth. One spear- 
head, six inches long, the middle portion of 
which was gone, had barbs, about an inch 
apart, on one side only. The absence of fire- 
arms indicates that these remains have been 
lying here since a period prior to the advent 
of the white man. 

March 31, 1883, occurred the first " fox 
drive" ever held in Vermillion County. The 
citizens placed themselves, according to ad- 
vertised programme, in a kind of circle around 
a large section of territory, mostly in Helt 
Township. They started forward at 9:30 A. 
M. All the marshals exercised due diligence 
to keep the uien in proper shape, none of 
whom wei-e allowed to be intoxicated or to 
have a dog or gun. The east and north di- 
visions, having to travel over a very broken 
section of the country, and some of the men 
also disobeying orders, permitted eight foxes 
to escape. At half past 11 o'clock men and 
boys could be seen in every direction, about 



800 strong, approaching the center; and it 
was also observed at this moment, that three 
red foxes were surrounded. Forming into a 
ring about forty yards in diameter on the 
meadow near the Conley school-house, three 
of the most active young men entered the 
ring to captvire the game by their unassisted 
hands. One fox, which was crippled in try- 
ing to pass out, was soon caught; but the 
other two were chased for some time, when 
finally one of them broke the line where 
some women were standing and got away. 
The remaining one, after being chased fur 
some time by dififerent ones, was finally caught 
by Fred Ford. 

William Darnell was called for, who at 
auction sold the two foxes to the highest 
bidder, Richard Wimsett, of Opeedee. Every 
one present enjoyed the sport. 

It could plainly be seen that many impor- 
tant improvements could be made in the plan 
and execution of the " drive," and accordingly 
the next spring, March 15, 1884, they tried 
it again, on a larger scale, Muthout catching 
a single fox. The conclusion was that there 
were no foxes on the ground to be caught; 
but some say the territory was too large. It 
comprised a portion of Helt and Vermillion 
Townships. 

In looking through the ijlesoi the Iloosicr 
State five to twenty years back, one finds 
many crimes and misdemeanors reported from 
every part of the county, — appropriate enough 
for a newspaper but inappropriate in a general 
history like this. The execiition of Walter 
Watson, for the murder of Ezra Compton at 
Highland, has already been related in this 
w'ork. AVe hope every reader will pardon us 
for introducing one more item from that 
newspaper, as an example of the amusing 
style in which many of the squabbles in this 
county were related. 

" Hair Pulling: a Church Scene in Helt 



BELT TOWNSHIP. 



Township: Two Belligerent Females Get on 
Their Muscle and Make the Hair Fly. It 
becomes our sad duty this week to record a 
big hair pulling by a couple of young women 
of Helt Township. Both bear a respectable 
character, and also a first-class temper. The 
time was Sunday, December 20, 1874, and 
the Brick Church, three miles west of High- 
land, was the place. The young ladies met 
in the aisle after services were over, and, after 
a few hot words, the hair pulling commenced, 
and was continued with fury for several 
minutes, hair, ciirls and chignons flying in 
every direction, to the dismay of the as- 
sembled multitude. Both will now have to 
wear wigs for a spell, to conceal their prairie 
heads from public gaze. It is through fear 
that we withhold their names from the public; 
for we don't want to be put to the necessity 
of buying a wig these hard times." 

TORONTO. 
This is the name of the postoffice at the 
village called Bono, in the southwestern part 
of the township. The village was started in 
1848, by Tilly Jenks and others, when the 
site was covered with a thick growth of tim- 
ber and under-brush. The first store was 
established by James Bacon, between 1850 
and 1860. In the spring of 1863, Edward 
English established a grocery, selling out in 
August of the same year to Francis M. 
Austin, who now keeps a "general store" at 
the place. John F. Hays is another merchant 
here. The village, although never laid out 
and platted, has all the elements of a little 
town. The population now is over eighty. 
There is one physician here, three church 
organizations, — Presbyterian, Baptist and 
Methodist, — one church building, a school- 
house, blacksmith shop and a post of the 
Grand Army of the Republic. In early day 
a society of Sons of Temperance existed here, 



and later, in the '60s, a lodge of the Good 
Templars. The postoflice was established 
here in 1871, with Francis M. Austin as post- 
master, who still holds the office. There 
being anotlier Bono in Indiana, the postoffice 
was named Toronto, the office by this name a 
mile and a half north having been previously 
discontinued. 

John C. Jenl-s Post, No. 263, G. A. 7?., 
was chartered with the following officers 
and members: Francis M. Austin, Post 
Commander; William L. Kerns, Senior Yicc- 
Commander; Henry Barnhart, Junior Vice- 
Commander; George W. Campbell, Quarter- 
master; Edwin Tiffany, Chaplain; Lewis II. 
Beckman, Adjutant; Henry H. Aye, Ofiictr 
of the Day; A. J. Pitts, Surgeon; Solomon 
Carpenter, John Beard, William F. Morrison, 
Francis C. Combs, William A. Goodwin and 
John Myers. The post is in good working 
order, enjoying peace and hainiony. Mem- 
bership, twenty-six, meeting the first Satur- 
day of each month. Present officers — Henry 
H. Aye, Post-Commander; W. F. Kerns, 
Senior Vice-Commander; Henry Barnhart, 
Junior Vice-Commander; Stej^hen Jenks, 
Quartermaster; William A. Goodwin, Chap- 
lain; L. L. Goodwin, Adjutant; F. M. Austin, 
Officer of the Day ; Edwin Tiffany, Officer of 
the Guard. 

This is the most appropriate place we can 
find for the list of deceased soldiers of tlie 
last war, from Helt Township, compiled 
under the auspices of the Grand Army of the 
Republic. 

Aikman, Elijah Andrews, Edward 

Aikman, James Andrews, John 

Aikman, William Andrews, James 

Amerman, Henry Anderson, John P. 
Bride, James Blakesley, Albert, 

Brady, James Burnett, Samuel 

Burnett, William Clark, John 

Castle, Dirah Crane, Benjamin 



HISTOriT OF VEItMILLION COUNTY. 



Dorsliam, Christopher 
Ford, Josephus, Lean- 

der and Perry- 
Fisher, James 
Gerrish, Charles 
Gosnold, Oscar 
Harbison, James 
Harris, John 
Hamilton, Benjamin 
James, Joseph L. 
Jackson, Ross 
Longfellow, "William 
JIalone, William C. 
Millikin, Lintott 
Miller, H. B. 
Martin, William 
Morgan, Marion 
Osborn, William 
Pollard, Absalom 
Price, David 
Staats, George 
Smith, John 
Strain, George 
Spriggs, Enoch 
Taylor, Leroy 
Thompson, James 
White, Frank 
Winesburg, Henry. 
Ashnry Lodge, JS^o. 320, F. db A. M., was 
organized at Bono in 1861, but the meraber- 
sliip is now transferred to Dana, which see. 
Toronto Presbyterian Church was organ- 
ized as early as 1850 or '51, by Kev. Gerrish, 
the house of worship was built during the 
latter year. It is a frame, 36x40 feet in 
dimensions, and is still in a good state of 
preservation. Among the early members of 
the church were James A. Elder and wife, 
Samuel Elder and wife, etc. Rev. John A. 
Tiflany was pastor from 1858 to 1866. There 
are now about twenty commnnicants; a large 
proportion are changing their membership to 
Dana. Rev. Thomas Griffith is the present 



Curry, John 
Ford, Henry 
Foncannon, Joseph 
Foticannon, John 
Gamell, Charles 
Gerrish, Lucien 
Hendrixon, Elliott 
Harper, Daniel 
Homida}', David 
Hunter, Solomon 
James, Solomon R. 
Luck, Edward 
Malone, William 
Mitciiell, Benson 
Mack, Reuben 
McNamer, John 
Martin, Levi 
Nebeker, Jasper 
Pearman, Sebert 
Potterofi", Marion 
Paulley, James 
Skid more, Asa 
Smitli, William 
Southard, John P. 
Straight, Elmor 
Tullis, Samuel 
Wellman, Louis 
Whiteliead, Thomas 




pastor. A union Sunday-school is kept up 
throughout the year: Edwin Tiflany, super- 
intendent. A union prayer-meeting is sus- 
tained in the church by the Presbyterians, 
Baptists and Methodists. 

laddie's Prairie Baptist Chitrch. — In 
1852 a branch or " mission " of the Bloom - 
field Baptist Church was established at 
Toronto, and July 23, 1853, it was organized 
as a separate body in the Toronto Presby- 
terian Chapel, by Rev. G. W. Riley. The 
constituent members were Chandler Tillotson, 
John Depuy, James Drinen, Reiiben Pufter, 
Daniel G. Tillotson, John Newton, A. II. 
Depuy, Hannah Martin, Mary Newton, Eliza 
J. Depny, Harriet Puffer, Elizabeth Tillotson, 
Rebecca Tillotson, Rametha Scott, O. Z. 
Derthic, Harriet Derthic, Adalinc Derthic 
and Mary Derthic. 

Revs. John and G. W. Riley were preach- 
ers in 1852, the latter being the first pastor. 
Up to August, 1861, the following were either 
pastors or supplies: Revs. Joseph Shirk, 
William McMasters and A. J. Riley; thence 
to the present. Revs. William McMasters 
1861-'62; Melvin McKee, 1862-'63; Will-' 
iam McMasters, 1863-'65; Melvin McKee, 
1865-'66; D.S.French, 1866-'68; William 
McMasters, 1868-'77; A. J. Riley, 1877-'79; 
G. T. Willis, 1879-'82; J. M. Kendall, 1883; 
no pastor, 1882-'86, except a few months in 
1883; W. T. Cuppy, 1886-'87. 

Services every fourth Sunday. 

Toronto Methodist Episcopal Church was 
organized in February, 1853, by Rev. John 
Lach, who had just conducted a successful 
series of revival meetings here. He died 
twenty years ago. Among the first members 
were John Jenks and family, William Jordan 
and wife, Mrs. Tiller Jenks, John R. Wish- 
ard and wife, Almeda Jenks (now Eatoii), 
and others. In 1875 a great revival was held 
by Rev. Jacob Musser. There are now about 



/'S-'^-^'^'^' 



KELT TOWNSHIP. 



sixty members, Avitli Stephen Jenks as class-, 
leader. Services every two weeks, by Rev. 
William Smitb, in the Presbyterian church. 
Sunday-school, union: Peter Aikman, super- 
intendent. 

JONESTOWN. 

Tliis point is at the southwest corner of 
Ilelt Township. It was named for Philip 
Jones, who owned a part of the ground upon 
which it was founded. It was laid out in 
1862, by Junes tt Wellman, the surveying 
being done by James Osburn, now of Dana, 
assisted by Josepli C. Lane and DeWitt Wat- 
son. A log cabin was upon the site, and also 
a better dwelling, erected by Dr. Grimes the 
previous year. John Amnierman established 
the first store. There are now two general 
stores, one" drug and grocery store, a flouring- 
mill, built in 1879, a blacksmith shop, a car- 
penter and a cabinet-maker, a post of the 
Grand Army of the Kepublic, a brick school- 
house, a United Brethren church, one phy- 
sician, a justice of the peace, a constable, and 
a postoffice, named St. Bernice, there being 
another Jonestown in the State. The office 
was established here in 1863, with Dr. Wil- 
son Grimes as postmaster. It was first named 
"Jones," but it was soon found that there 
was already a Jones postoffice in Indiana. 

The population is about 100. There are 
four brick buildings in the place, — the school- 
house, a store and two dwellings. The store, 
a fine business block, was built in 1880, by 
William D. JVIcFall, who occupies it with his 
large stock of goods and the postoffice, he 
being the present postmaster. 

Dr. Tliomas M. Lownsdale, practicing phy- 
sician at Jonestown, was born in Petersburg, 
Indiana, August 12, 1841, graduated at the 
Cincinnati College of Medicine and Surgery 
in February, 1875, and came to this place in 
October, 1885. 



Pleasant Chaj^el United Brethren Church 
was organized first at Sugar Grove, Edgar 
County, Illinois, in pioneer times, and re- 
moved to Pleasant Hill School-house, No. 
13, about 1867. Their present commodious 
church edifice, 30.\42 feet in size, and cost- 
ing SI, 350, was erected in 1875. There are 
now eighty or ninety members. Services 
every two weeks, conducted by Rev. S. S. 
Sims. Prayer-meeting, Wednesday evening. 
Sunday-school all the year, at 9:30 A. M. 
Class-meeting when there is no preaching. 

A Christian Church was organized here in 
April, 1883, with nineteen members, now 
increased to fifty-two. Elders — Walter Paul- 
ley and James Holston. Pastor — Elder 
Williams, of Parke County. Sunday-school 
during the summer. 

HILLSDALE, 

situated mostly on section 2, Township 15 
north, range 9 west, Ilelt Township, was laid 
out in 1873, by E. Montgomery. The first 
house was built by Hart Montgomery soon 
afterward, and the same year he and his son 
established the first store, comprising a gen- 
eral stock. A saloon came next, and the third 
building was a dwelling, erected by Levi 
Bonenbrake. There are now two general 
stores, a restaurant, a church (Methodist), 
and one physician. Dr. Erastus Mack. The 
Chicago & Eastern Illinois and the Indian- 
apolis, Decatur & Springfield Eailroads cross 
at this point, having a union depot. 

Just across the Little Kaccoon Creek south 
is the hamlet of Alta, where there are a 
blacksmith and a machinist. The two vil- 
lages are regarded as one, and taken together 
they contain a population of 200. 

The mineral resources are good, coal, 
building stone and fire-clay being mined in 
abundance. The fire-clay is of the very liest 
quality, and there is an excellent opening 



ii 



liere for the investment of capital. A mile 
nortli is a fire-brick factory doing a profitable 
business. Coal, wood and M'ater being plen- 
tiful here, a flonring-inill would also do well 
at this point. 

The factory referred to is the Montezuma 
Fire-Brick Works, Iniilt in 1872-'73, by 
Burns, Porter A: Collett. It is now owned 
and run by' Joseph Burns. The main build- 
ing is 70.\90 feet, \vi4;h an addition 30x40 
feet, used as a boiler and machinery room. 
The proprietor uses the Foster A: Kinehart 
crushers, the Martin brick machine and the 
Totten dry-pan. The power is fLirnished by 
the Sinker-Davis fifty-horsc-power' engine. 
Capacity, 10,000 lirick daily. The brick 
made at this factory will not glaze or melt, 
are of the best quality and used in several 
States. The drying rooms are underlaid with 
a series of furnaces, which, when heated, 
transmit the heat through the tile flooring 
upon which the damp l)rick are laid for dry- 
ing. 

JIaJo,' Ami Post, No. 370, G. A. L'., was 
chartered July 13, 1884, with the following 
members: J. A. Souders, L. Xewell, J. Y. 
Whitson. AV. A. James, T. S. King, B. G. 
Senders, W. J. Lake, A. B. Casebeer, J. W. 
Justice, II. Casebeer, Cooper Jackson, J. W. 
.A[iddlebrook, Dr. E. Mack, J. A. Luce, E. 
Short, A. Pearman, F. M. Lake, William 
Pearman and W. A. lioeback, — nineteen in 
all. The first officers were — Cooper Jackson, 
Post Commander; W. A. James, Senior A'ice- 
Commauder; J. A. Luce, Junior Vice-Com- 
mander; A. B. Casebeer, Adjutant; J. F. 
Whitson, Quartermaster; J. A. Senders, Ofli- 
cer of the Day. There are now twenty-one 
members, who meet on the second and fourth 
Saturday evenings of each month, in the 
Hillsdale school-house. The present ofiicers 
..re — W. A. James, Post Commander; A. B. 
Casebeer, Senior Vice-Commander: B. G. 




Senders, Junior Vice-Commander; J. F. 
Wliitson, Adjutant; Samuel Lane, Quarter- 
master; Cooper Jackson, Officer of the Day. 

The Methodist Ejnscojxd Church at Hills- 
dale was organized July 11, 1880, by Eev. 
Thomas Bartlett, with the following mem- 
bers: J. W. Casebeer, class-leader; S. E. 
James, Matilda James, Margaret Owens, Dr. 
E. Mack, Mrs. Mack, Martha Strowbridge, 
Ella Casebeer, Martha Casebeer, A. B. Case- 
beer, C. M. Casebeer, E. M. Casebeer, Sarah 
Wilson, Mary McLaughlin, Jane Williamson, 
Wallace Thompson, Mrs. Thompson, Eliza- 
beth Newell, E. Wilson, Thomas J. William- 
son, Bertie Casebeer, Billy Ponton, Charles 
Bassett and Mrs. Mary Marvin. 

The present church edifice, a fine frame 
34 X 40 feet, and costing $1,650, was built in 
1883-'84, principally with money bequeathed 
by a Sister Bricker. The ground was dona- 
ted by Mrs. Mary Gibson. Trustees — J. W. 
Casebeer, J. T. Ponton, S. E. James, W. 
A. James, E. Mack, A. B. Casebeer and 
Charles Bassett. 

The first pastor was Eev. J. F. McDaniels, 
two years or more; the second, E. R.Johnson, 
two years, or until 1884; tlien Eev. Joy 
was pastor from the fall of 1884 until the 
fall of 1885, J. T. AYoods till March, 1887, 
since which time W. A. Smith has liad charge. 
Preaching every two weeks. Sunday-sclioo! 
is maintained throughout the year. The 
membership of the clinrch is now about 
twenty-five. Class-leader. William TiucheK 



is a hamlet of about 150 inhabitants a mile 
north of Hillsdale. It is one of the oldest 
trading points in the county, having been in 
pioneer days a stage station on the route 
between Terre Haute and La Fayette. For 
many years a postofiice was tliere, but when 
Hillsdale was started it was transferred to the 



EELT TOWNSHIP. 



latter place, and the name correspondingly 
changed. Tlie leading merchant of Highland 
is W. J. Hendrix, who keeps a full line of 
general merchandise, and has a good trade. 
There are also a small grocery and drug store 
here, and a blacksmith shop. 

A " Christian" Church exists at this point, 
organized in early day. The present mem- 
bership is estimated at about thirty; but tliey 
are not strong. Elders — John Pearman and 
Israel Leatherman. Minister — Elder Mar- 
shall, who resides near Eockville, Park 
County. Sunday-school througliout the year. 

SUMMIT GROVE, 

is a hamlet situated on the northwest quarter 
of section 26, and the northeast quarter of 
section 27, township 15 north, i-ange 9 west, 
Holt Township. It was surveyed by A. Fitch, 
March 14, 1871, and tlie plat recorded De- 
cember 23 following. The first house was 
a store I'oom bnilt by A. H. Depuy, in the 
spring of 1872. The second was a residence 
bnilt -by N. T. Leiton, the same year. The 
first blacksmith shop was built by Otho 
Chambers. William Skidmore also built a 
warehouse earl^^ in 1872, which burned down 
in May of the same year. The present ware- 
house was erected by Leiton & Depuy, in the 
fall of that year. Tiiere are now two stores, 
one blacksmitli shop, one harness and shoe 
shop combined, a saw-mill, a warehouse, and 
a postoffice. Population, sixty-four. 

Sale in Methodist Episcopal Church, meet- 
ing a mile north of Summit Grove, is a 
])ioueer institution. The first Methodist 
preaching in the neighborhood was by Pev. 
Mr. Chamberlain in 1821-'22. The next 
preacher was Ilev. Dr. William James, a 
N'irginian, who had lived awhile at Mansfield, 
Ohio, and then in Butler Coun'ty, that State, 
and came to this county in October, 1822, 
when he preached in the log barn of John 



Helt, and later in a small log cabin school- 
house with split-pole seats. He preached 
and practiced medicine until 1826, when he 
started for New Orleans with a boat load of 
corn, and died on the way. The next minis- 
ter was Rev. Warner, from Parke County, 
who organized the class in this neighborhood 
in the spring of 1828, in the log school- 
house on Kelt's Prairie, under the name of 
Kelt's Prairie Class. Samuel Ryerson and 
wife were the leading members. Other 
members were John Kelt and wife, Samuel 
Rush and wife, Mrs. Elizabeth Helt, Mrs. 
Mary Helt, Edmund James and wife, Collon 
James and John James and wife. 

These people worshiped in the school- 
house and in the house of Samuel Rush until 
1846, when they built a frame house at the 
center of section 22, township 15 north, 9 
west. In 1878 this building was sold and a 
commodious brick structure erected on the 
same foundation, about 32 x 60 feet in 
dimensions, at a cost of $2,838.36. The 
present trustees are Robert Davis, A. L. Mack, 
Wright James, N. T. Leiton, Albert Miller 
and D. E. Strain, Jr. There are now over 
100 communicants. Public services and 
class-meeting every two weeks. Pastor — 
Rev. W. A. Smith. Class-leaders— James 
Harrington, James A. Miller, Wright James, 
Martin Harper and Frank Kelt. Sunday- 
school sustained throughout the year and 
superintended by N. T. Leiton. 

OTHEE CnUECHES IN IIELT TOWNSHIP. 

Spring Hill Class, Methodist Ediscojxd., 
was organized in 1834, in the house of Joel 
Blakesley, with Samuel Rush and wife, Joel 
P>lakesley and wife, Zachariah D. James and 
wife, Jane Ford, Sarah Ponton, Stephen Har- 
rington and wife, William Kearns and wife, 
Lydia Jackson, Enoch White and wife, Mar- 
tha Ponton, Betsey Ponton, and Nathaniel 



Biinies and wife. In 1835 they built a liewcd- 
log house, near the center of section 10, 
township 15, range 9, which tliey used sev- 
eral years. The class was then known as 
" Goshen." They next removed to the scliool- 
house a half n^ile north. The present house, 
of worship, a frame 30x40 feet, w-as built in 
1879, at a cost of $1,775. There are now 
about tliirty members. Sunday-scliool all 
the year, with A. Harvey Kearns as superin- 
tendent. Trustees — William A. James and 
Moses Thompson. Pastor — Kev. James 
Smith. The present name of the class, 
" Spring Hill," was adopted at the time of 
tlie building of the present church. 

Ashunj Chapel, Methodist Episcopal. — 
The class meeting here was organized as early as 
1830. One of the iirst ministers was Rev. 
DeLap. Services were held at private resi- 
dences and in school-houses until 1850, wlien 
a frame church, 80 x 40 feet was erected on 
tlie southeast quarter of section 36, township 
16, range 10. The most successful revival 
was held in 1852, under the pastorate of Rev. 
Arthur Badley, who was living in Iowa 
wh.en last heard from. Among the pastors 
who have had charge of this church since the 
building of the present house of worship 
have been Revs. J. W. Parrett, Shaw, 
Thomas I'artlett, Salsbury, Clark Skinner, 
McDaniel, Wood, Barnard, Nebeker, Barnett, 
Morrison and E. R. Johnson. The class has, 
of later years, been considerably reduced in 
number, and they now have no regular 
preacliing. 

The Center Methodist Episcopal Church 
was organized about fifty years ago, at the 
residence of James Wishard, where services 
were held for many years. In 1853 the 
present commodious frame structure was 
erected, 30 x 40 feet in size, at a cost of about 
ftl,400. Present membership, ninety-seven. 
Class-leaders, George Campbell and Alanson 



Church. Stewards, H. P. McCown, B. F. 
Smith and Henry Shaffer. Class-meeting 
every two weeks, and public sevices every 
two weeks. Prayer meeting every Thursday 
evening during the winter. Sunday-school 
all the year, at 9:30 a. m. Rev. J. B. Combs, 
of Clinton, is the present pastor. 

Liberty Class, United Brethren Ch^irch, 
was organized in 1878, by Rev. Henry ]S'o- 
lan, with about sixteen or eighteen members, 
in Liberty school-house, on section 15, town- 
ship 15, range 10. The first pastor was Rev. 
Thomas 0. Baty, who served from the fall of 
1878 to the fall of 1880; W. A. Wainscott, 
1880-'83; James Smith, 1883-'84; Levi Byrd, 
1884-'86; S. S. Sims, 1886 to the present. 
Membership twenty-six, worshipping still in 
Liberty school-house. Class-leader, Frank 
Skidmore. Thomas Skidmore, superintendent 
of the Sunday-school, which is at present 
maintained only during the summer, but 
efforts are made to continue it the year round. 
Public service every three weeks. A prayer- 
meeting is also sustained. 

Midwaij United Brethren Church was 
organized in 1857, by Rev. Joel Cowgill, 
with probably fifteen or twenty members, in 
the Castle school-house, which is still their 
place of worship, though it has been pur- 
chased by them and converted into a church. 
Its size is 22 x 30 feet, and is situated on 
section 13, township 15, range 10. Public 
services were discontinued August 28, 1887, 
with no definite plans for the future. 

United Brethren Chnrcli at Ilancman 
Chapel. — As the nucleus of this society, 
services were first held here over fifty years ago, 
in the house of Christopher Haneman, de- 
ceased, the principal founder. The class was 
organized as early as 1837, with a few mem- 
bers, among whom were Christopher Hane- 
man and wife, Harriet -McDowel, George 
AVellman and wife, Jeremiah Hammond and 



HBLT TOWNSHIP. 



wife, Silas Hollingsworth and wife. Emily 
Bales and Isaac Johnson and wife. The 
present church edifice, a brick structure, was 
begun in 1842, but not completed until 1872, 
thirty years afterward. It stands on section 
6, township 15, range 9. 

Among the many ministers who have 
preached here were Revs. John Shoey, Will- 
iam Eckles, Andrew Wimset, Mr. Conoyer, 
John Miller, Thomas Hamilton, Joseph Nye, 
Mr. Nugen, John A. Mast and Samuel Potts. 
There are now twenty-eight communicants in 
good standing. Class-leader, "William Under- 
wood. Trustees, Jacob Underwood, William 
Underwood and Richard Malone. Sunday- 
school half the year, superintended by Miss 
Delia Boren. Pastor, Rev. S. S. Sims. 
Public services once in three weeks. ■ 

Tennessee Valley Baptist Church was 
organized in September, 1872, in the Staats 
school-house, by Rev.Wil]iamMcMasters,who 
had been preaching here some time previ- 
ously, sustaining the point as a "mission" 
of iliddle's Prairie Baptist Church. The 
first members were Thomas Dugger and wife, 
Benjamin T. Dugger and wife, James G. 
Lewis and wife, Henry J. Howard and wife, 
Rosa J. Pierce (now Underwood), James A. 
Dugger and wife and John F. Dugger, all of 
whom came by letter from the Kiddie's 
Prairie Church. Rev. McMasters was the 
pastor of this new church from the date of 
its organization until his death in 1886. He 
was an industrious, earnest worker, endearing 
himself to all. Rev. John H. Rusraisel suc- 
ceeded him, and is the present minister. 
Public services on the second and fourth 
Sunday's of each month. Sunday-school 
throughout the year, with James G. Lewis 
as superintendent. Trustees, Benjamin T. 
and John F. Dugger and James G.Lewis. 
Deacons, Benjamin T. Dugger, James G. 
Lewis and L. L. Goodwin. Clerk, John F. 



Dugger. Communicants about ninety. The 
present house of worship, a neat frame 30 x 
45 feet in size, was erected in 1875, at a cost 
of $1,600. It is situated on the northeast 
quarter of section 18, township 15, range 9. 

DANA. 

The Indianapolis, Decatur iz Springfield 
Railroad was completed through Vermillion 
County, laterally, and through Helt Township 
longitudinally, in 1873. In April, 1874, the 
railroad company fixed upon a point on their 
road near the head of the Little Raccoon 
Creek and about two and a half miles east of 
the western boundary of the township for a 
" town," naming the place " Dana," after one 
of the stockholders in the road. For a depot 
Samuel Aikman donated a half interest in 
forty acres, John B. Aikman a half interest 
in twenty acres, and Samuel Cofland a half 
interest also in twenty acres. Besides, these 
gentlemen gave $1,500 cash. The land thus 
donated became the town plat. 

The next year W. M. Taylor built the first 
business house in the place, a frame, in which 
he kept a general store and the postofliee. 
The postmasters since Mr. Taylor's period of 
service have been John Bilsland and, since 
April 18, 1885, John W. Redman. 

Dana is the most rapidly growing town in 
Vermillion County, comprising a shrewd and 
enterprising class of business men, and sur- 
rounded by an unusually good agricultural 
district. 

It was incorporated in January, 1886, since 
w'hich time the trustees have been John Linn, 
President, D. W. Finney and W. T. Davis; 
II. Wells, Clerk; J. E. Bilsland, Treasurer; 
and John Malone, Marshal. 

The school trustees are G. O. Newton, 
Charles Hunt and J. O. Rogers, appointed 
by the above town board. The school-house, 
a brick structure 27 x 62 feet . in dimensions 



and two twelve- foot stories high, was built 
hy the towuship in 1879, the contract price 
being $2,200. It is now the property of the 
town corporation. It has three rooms. The 
enrollment of pupils is about 150. Fred 
Rush is the principal. 

(By the way, the historian was referred to 
the stone over the door for the date ot the 
building. Repairing thitlier, he found, in- 
stead of any date, only the legend, " Keep 
out of debt!") 

The Dana News was established in October, 
1885, by M. L. Griffith, from Monticello, 
Illinois, as a Democratic organ. April 15, 
1887, he sold it to the present proprietor, 
J. L. Smith, who immediately enlarged it to 
a six-column quarto, making it the largest 
paper in the county, and during the first ten 
weeks (up to date of this writing) increased 
the subscription list by 250! He has in 
every way improved the paper, still conduct- 
ing it in the interests of the Democracy. In 
connection with the paper Mr. Smith has a 
nice little job office. 

Mr. Smith was born in New England, in 
1860. When he was an infant, his father 
was hilled, in the war of the Rebellion. His 
mother then returned with her three children 
to New York, and placed them for six months 
in an orphans' home on Randall's Island. 
In May, 1867, he and one sister were brought 
to Wiliiamsport, Indiana, where they were 
indentured out. Mr. Smith was in the care 
of various parties, — of Hugh James for eight 
years. Up to the conclusion of this period 
he had had no educational advantages, and 
his noble nature asserted itself in an effort to 
educate himself in spite of his poverty and 
the absence of sympathizing relatives. Ac- 
cordingly, during the school year of 1875-'76 
!ie worked for his board and sent himself to 
school. lie came to Vermillion County in 
1878, whore he worked for one man, on a 



farm, for five years, attending school during 
the winter seasons. In 1881-'82 he attended 
the Terre Haute Normal School, and in the 
fall of 1882 he began teaching, in Helt 
Township, continuing in the profession five 
consecutive years, — up to the time of his 
purchase of the Dana News. He is a mem- 
ber of the Masonic fraternity. 

Mr. Griffith returned to Monticello, Illi- 
nois, where he became foreman of a printing- 
office. 

Dana has a cornet band, organized in 
1885 and led by Carl Temple. 



Dr. Hiram Shepard was born in Newport, 
this county, graduated at the Miami Medical 
College at Cincinnati, and has been practic- 
ing at Dana since 1874. 

Dr. Granville O. Newton M-as liorn in Helt 
Township, this county, graduated at the above 
mentioned college, and, after practicing in 
the country in this township for a time, came 
to Dana, in September, 1885. 

Dr. Thomas C. Hood, also a native of this 
township, graduated at Jefferson Medical 
College at Philadelphia in 1884, located in 
Terre Haute for a short time, and moved to 
Dana in 1885. 

A full sketch of Dr. Otis M. Keyes appears 
in the biographical department of this work. 

Dr. John C. Harrison was born in Craw- 
fordsville, Indiana, was a soldier in the late 
war, graduated in medicine at the Eclectic 
Medical College of Cincinnati, began to 
practice in partnersliip with his brother in 
1868, and located in Dana in 1886. 

Dr. A. H. DePuy, who practiced in licit 
Township 1856-'71, is now a resident of 
Chicago, but sometimes re-visits this point 
as a physician. He is a regular graduate. 

Dr. Frank Foncannon, another native of 
Helt Township, practiced in this township 



ii^ 



-^—71! 



HELT TOWNSHIP. 



Sou 



but a sliort time, and went to Emporia, 
Kansas. 

Dr. Cadle, from Newport, was here during 
tlie season of 1885, and went to Terre Haute. 

SOCIETIES. 

Ashay Lodge, No. 3S0, F. & A. J/"., was 
ori;;inized at Bono in 1865, the charter being 
dated May 24, that year. fSelah (or Sahla) 
Temple was the first master, for two years. 
Tliomas Edmanston (or Edmnntson) was the 
Jirst senior warden and Thomas S. Hood, 
juniur warden. The lodge was instituted by 
Aquilla Nebeker, assisted by others. Some 
years ago the place of meeting was removed 
to Dana. The present membership is about 
thirty, and the officers, George W. Sturm, 
AVorshipful Master; C. N. Hunt, Senior 
Warden; Joel Hollingsworth, Junior War- 
den; W. M. Taylor, Secretary; C. Bales, 
Treasurer; O. M. Keyes, Senior Deacon; 
AVilliam F. Ford, Junior Deacon; William 
P>. Wood, Chaplain; G. W. Allen, Tyler. 

Bana Lodge, No. 581, L. 0. 0. F., was 
instituted February 10, 1881, with eighteen 
members, and Hiram Shepard, Noble Grand; 
Julius C. Groves, Vice Grand; and Fred 
Rush, Secretary. The present membership 
is forty, and officers, Solon Johnson, Noble 
Grand; L. H. Eeed, Vice Grand; H. AVells, 
Secretary; G. H. Fisher, Permanent Secre- 
tary; J. M. Taylor, Treasurer; Samuel Jack- 
son, Inner Guard; T. J. Hutchinson and H. 
Herbin, Supporters. The lodge has a very 
nicely furnished room in the Peer Block. 
Tlie furnishings and regalia cost about §2,000. 

//. D. Washhurn Post, No. 220, G. A. R., 
was organized in 1883, with about eighteen 
members, and the following officers: William 
B. Hood, Post Commander; G. H. Fisher, 
Senior Vice-Commander; O. 13. Lowry, Quar- 
termaster; H. Wells, Adjutant; J. B. Fillinger, 
Officer of the Day. The present member- 



ship is twenty-six, and the officers: J. B. 
Fillinger, Post Commander; G. W. Saxtou, 
Senior Vice-Commander; James Burnett, 
Junior Vice-Commander; J. N. McClure, 
Adjutant; James Knight, Officer of the Day; 
Henry Thomasmeyer, Quarter-master; G. H. 
Fisher, Quarter-master-Sergeant; Daniel Ri- 
land. Officer of the Guard; J. C. Harrison, 
Surgeon ; W. B. Hood, Chaplain. Financially, 
the post is in fair condition. This year they 
are building a hall, being the second story of 
the brick business block to be erected by 
Charles Norris, wliich is to be 22 x 50 feet in 
dimensions. For a sketch of H. D. Wash- 
burn, in honor of whom the post is named, 
see historv of Clinton. 



Methodism in Helt Township has of course 
existed from the earliest pioneer period, and 
has always been strong and influential. The 
Methodist class in Dana was organized in 
1879 by Rev. Daniel Morrison, of the Green- 
castle District, Northwest Indiana Confer- 
ence. The pastors since liis time have been 
Revs. Elijah Johnson, J. C. McDaniels, Mr. 
Woods and William Smith, the present in- 
cumbent, wlio lives west of Terre Haute, al- 
though there is a parsonage at Ilelt's Prairie. 
There were about forty members at the time 
of organization, led by J. O. Rogers. Tlie 
present membership is about sixty, and the 
class-leaders, J. O. Rogers and Andrew Car- 
mack. Sunday-school is maintained through- 
out tlic year, with an attendance of sixty to 
100, superintended by J. O. Rogers. The 
liouse of worship, 30 x 50 feet, was erected in 
1882, at a cost, including grounds, of $1,800. 

The Toronto Presbyterian Church, at 
Bono, was organized many years ago, but the 
members are now changing their places of 
meeting to Dana, wlu^-e they have just com- 
pleted one of the most beautiful frame church 



Bistort of vermillion county. 



edifices in the nation. Its size is 32 x 54 
feet, besides a "rostrum" 8x14 feet; its 
style is of course modern and of fancy finish, 
and the cost about |l2,800, not counting the 
pews and other funiture. It was dedicated 
June 26, 1887, by Rev. T. D. Fyfle, of Eose- 
ville Indiana. The location is in the north- 
ern part of the village, in Samuel Aikman's 
addition. The leading men in building this 
church were "W. M. Taylor, Samuel Aikman 
and Samuel Hall. 

Dana Baptist Church was organized in 
1880, with twelve members, by Rev. G. T. 
Willis, of Hoopeston, Illinois. Pastors, Revs. 
Willis, Cartwright, of Fountain County, In- 
diana, William McMasters of Montezuma, 
Palmer, of Waveland, and Mr. Franklin. At 
present there is a vacancy. The membership 
numbers twenty. Charles Thompson has 
been deacon from the time of organization, 
and G. H. Fisher, at the first clerk, is now 
also deacon, Elizabeth Thomas Meyer, clerk. 
The church, a fancy brick structure, in the 



northern part of the village, is 36 x 60 feet in 
dimensions, and was erected this year (18S7) 
at a cost of about $2,500, not counting the 
pews. 

Dana Christian Church was organized 
temporarily about the first of September, 
1886. A Sunday-school of about sixty pupils 
is superintended by Prof. A. J. Wilson. A 
few zealous Christians, led by Rev. J.W. Jarvis 
and his business partner, John Morris — al- 
though the latter is not a member of the 
church — have just built a tine house of wor- 
ship at Dana, in the northwestern part of the 
town, the first church erected by this people 
in Vermillion County. It is a brick struct- 
ure, 32 X 54 feet in ground area, neatly fin- 
ished and furnished in modern style, and cost 
$2,335.38. It was dedicated April 17, 1887, 
by Elder L. L. Carpenter, of Wabash, Indi- 
ana. The present membership of the church 
is about fifty. Elder J. W. Jarvis is the 
" temporary " pastor. 




VERMILLION TOWNSHIP. 




I VERMILLION TOWNSHIP 




PIONEERS- 




ONCERNING some of 
the earliest dates in tlie 
owing compilation, 
there is, as is always the 
ease in such sketches, 
some doubt, as it is iin- 
pofe'iible for tlie historian to rec- 
oncile contradictory accounts, to 
\erify all the guesses or to fill out 
the blanks desired. 

1819. — Alexander and Elizabeth 
Morehead, natives of Ohio, settled 
in Vermillion Township either this 
year or in 1822 (authorities vai-y). 
They died in 184i and 1849 re- 
spectively. Their son Samuel is now a resi- 
dent of ISTewiJort. Jacob A. Morehead, who 
died many years ago, and Joseph A. More- 
head, still living, were both born in this 
county in 1826. 

1820. — Richard and Susan (Henderson) 
Ilaworth, said also to be the first settlers of 
Vermillion Township, came from Tennessee 
in the fall of 1820. Mr. Haworth died in 
1850, aged fifty- seven years, and his wife died 
in 1854, also at the age of fifty-seven. (See 



biography of George F. Ilaworth.) John 
Hopkins, who died in 1873, at the age of 
sixty-eight years, was a lad of fifteen years 
when in 1820 he became a resident of this 
couhty. His mother is yet living. 

1821. — Joel Dicken came from Prairie 
Creek, Kentucky, settling where Newport 
now stands. His son, Benjamin K., long a 
resident in the vicinity, was born in 1818, 
and died recently in Michigan or AVisconsin. 
Daniel V. Dicken, born in this county in 
1822, find Simeon Dicken, both died in this 
township. M-irtha E., widow of the latter, \ 

was born in North Carolina, September 1, 
1821, brought to this county in 1826 or 
1827, and died December 30, 1881. Another 
Martha Dicken was born in Kentucky in 
1804, and emigrated to this county in 1822, 
and died February 18, 1882. Joseph Eggle- 
ston, father of William the lawyer, came to 
this county in 1821, and died many years 
ago. John L. Eggleston, boru in 1827, is a 
resident of Newport. 

1822.— To this year is credited John Wim- 
sett, from Virginia, who died many years 
ago. Jacob Wimsett, boru January 8, 1827, 



(S 



is still a resident. Jacob Ciistar settled this 
year on the Vermillion about a mile and a 
half above Newport. Philemon Thomas 
came this year and remained a resident until 
his death in 1860. His wife, n4e Catharine 
Custar, came in 1828, and is still living. (See 
sketch of Jacob Thomas.) Nathan Thomas 
was five years old when in 1827 he was 
brought to tliis county. 

1823. — Carter and Catharine Ilollings- 
worth, from North Carolina. Mrs. Ilollings- 
worth died in 1880, aged eighty-eight years. 
Eber IloUingsworth, born in Union County, 
Indiana, in 1822, was brouglit to this county 
the next year. He is a well known farmer 
and stock-trader two miles west of Newport. 
Henry Hollingsworth, born in this State in 
1830, recently died in Newport. 

1824. — Anna, widow of William Hender- 
son, became a resident of this county in 
1824. 

1826. — Adam Zener, born in Kentucky in 
1803, came to Clark County, this State in 
1812, and in 1826 to this county, where he 
remained until his death, March 14, 1877, a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal church. 
Either this year or next came Philip W. Os- 
mon, who was born in Kentucky in 1803. 
His son, Archibald W., born in 1829, is a 
farmer ten miles southwest of Newport, and 
Jabez B., born in 1836, resides at Newport. 
(See sketch.) Jeremiah and Mary (Taylor) 
Highfill, from Maryland: he died about 1867, 
aged eighty-five years, and she in 1852, at 
the age of about sixty years. See sketch of 
their son John, who was born here in 1828. 

1827.— Richard Potts, who was sheriff two 
terms, and died in 1875. His widow died in 
1883, at the old homestead two and a half 
miles south of Newport. Of their two chil- 
di-en, Thomas died a number of years ago, 
and Charles P. survives. 

1828.— Robert Wallace, a native of Vir- 



ginia, became a resident of Vermillion Town- 
ship this year, and died at Newport, May 27, 
1881, at the age of ninety-one years. Hu 
was a man of line physical appearance, and 
was never sick to exceed a week during hi> 
life. William Wallace, who was born in 
Ohio in 1817, and was ten or eleven years of 
age when brought to this county, died several 
years ago. Joshua Nixon, born in Ohio in 
1813, came to Newport this year, and resided 
here until his death. May 23, 1875, a faith- 
ful member of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. James Asbury, born in Virginia in 
1815, is still residing on section 21. (Sec 
sketch.) Aaron Jones, from New Jersey, 
and William Jones, from Union County, In- 
diana, both came this year; the former is 
dead (see sketch), and the latter is still living 
in this township. Samuel Jones, born in 
Ohio, came in 1830, and died about 1881. 
George Brindley, born in Kentucky in 1800, 
died in 1878; and his wife Sarah, born in 
1806, died in 1867. (See sketch of John 
Brindley, a son.) Benjamin Shepherd, born in 
Kentucky in 1808, and David Brown, born 
in Indiana in 1823, are still living in this 
township. 

1829. — Robert Stokes settled in this town- 
ship in 1829, and is still an active man, re- 
siding in Newport. His wife, whose maiden 
name was Rebecca Wallace, was born June 
8, 1809, in Virginia, and died November 25, 
1884. They were married January 31, 1833. 
Of their five children, none are living except 
Finley. Samuel Davis, born in Ohio in 
1811, is also still living in Newport. Eliza- 
beth Frazer, widow of William, who died in 
1873, aged fifty-seven, was born in this State 
in 1822, and is still living. 

1830. — Jacob Sears came from North Car- 
olina, and died in 1859, aged eighty-five. His 
wife, nee Mary Hofstetter, died in 1856, aged 
eighty. (See sketch of Daniel Sears.) E. 



Jackson, Sr., born in Ohio in 1807, lives in 
Dana. Thomas J. Brown, born in Kentucky 
in 1801, died in this township. Iloss Clark, 
born in Ohio in 1797, died in this township 
in the fall of 1878; the farm is still occupied 
by his son, G. W. Jacob and Mary (Harlin) 
Groves, from East Tennessee; he was born 
in 1794, and died in 1843; she died in 1873. 
(See sketch of William C. Groves who was 
born in Tennessee in 1817, and has been a 
resident here since 1830.) William L. 
Tincher,born in Kentucky in 1814, was living 
in Montezuma a short time ago. William 
W. Doss, born in Kentucky in 1817, is living 
in Montezuma; his sou Winchester still 
resides in this township. Eobert S. JSTorris, 
from South Carolina, died in 1877, seventy- 
three years old. See sketch of his son John, 
who was born here in 1834. Other life-long 
residents of this township, who came this 
year when children, are Richard and John 
W. Clearwater, John L. White, James H. 
Hutson, George Weller, etc. 

1831. — William Nichols, born in Virginia 
in 1804, died October 11, 1876. Isaac and 
Henry Nichols, boys when brought here in 
early day, lived here many years and are 
both now deceased. Isaac and Mary Carraack, 
from Tennessee, settled in the Lebanon neigh- 
borhood, he died in 1863. Alfred, a son, 
born in Tennessee January 8, 1814, died May 
18, 1817; and Andrew, another son, lives in 
Dana. Henry Wiltermood, born in this 
State in 1821. Charles Herbert, from Ken- 
tucky; his son, William J., born in 1819, is 
still living here, on eection 27. (See sketch.) 
John Henderson, from Ohio, still living, on 
section 7. (See sketch.) Archibald B. and 
Melissa Edmoiiston; the latter died, a widow, 
at the age of seventy-three, in 1865. Samuel 
Deheaben lives near Newport, Charles S. 
Little is deceased. 



1832.— H. F. Jackson, born in Ohio in 
1798, died in Missouri. John Jackson and 
wife Lydia, from Ohio; the latter died De- 
cember 21, 1880, at the age of seventy-four 
years. Joseph Jackson, from England, de- 
ceased. Ezra Clark, born in Ohio in 1811, 
lives in Highland. John G. Gibbon, born 
in Oliio, 1819, remained here till his decease, 
Julius Bogart, born in Tennessee in 1811, 
still living here. William B. Hall, who died 
here in 1863, aged forty-two; his wife died in 
1872. (See sketch of Samuel J. Hall.) James 
A. Elder, born in Brown County, Ohio; de- 
ceased. James Reniley, born in Ohio in 
1823, who finally committed suicide. 

1833. — Eli Newlin came from North Caro- 
lina to Montezuma, Indiana, in 1828, and to 
this county in 1833, where he died in 1872, 
aged seventy years. His wife, nee Mary 
Edwards, died in 1886, at the age of eighty 
years. (See sketch of Alfred R. Newlin.) 
Alexander Dunlap, born in Maryland in 
1813, is still living in this township. 

1834.— John C. Johnson, born May 16, 
1807, in Belmont County, Ohio, married 
February 24, 1833, Miss Elizabeth Shaver, a 
lady of superior education, and the next year 
located in this county, arriving at the mouth 
of the Little Vermillion, April 8. Here he 
entered a small tract of land, built a cabin 
and began life on what is known as the " first 
bottom." In 1854 he built a new liouse, 
which he occupied until 1880, when he 
moved to Newport, where he died February 
22, 1883, after having brought up an exem- 
plary family of children. In 1834 came also 
Benjamin Davis, who died in 1854, at thj 
age of sixty-four years. His wife, whose 
maiden name was Rusha Sears, died in 1869, 
at the age of sixty-two years. 

1835.— John S. Bush, born in this State in 
1828, still living here, blind. William Huff, 



i 



V'\ 






■■■i«"oi»ia"»"M"«"«« 



HISTORY OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



born in Kentucky in 1812, and Jained Duzan, 
born in the same State six years later, both 
now residing in Newport. 

1836. — David Aldridge, born in North 
Carolina in 1790, and died September 11, 
1877, being at the time about the oldest citi- 
zen in the county. lie was a soldier in the 
war of 1812. 

1837. — Isaac Tropts, long a resident of this 
townsiiip, was nine years old when he came 
to the county in 1837. 

1838. — Hiram Hastey, born in Indiana in 
1818, was a harness-maker at Newport, where 
he died. J. F. Weller, merchant at Newport, 
now at Petersburg, Indiana, was born in 
Kentucky in 1818. 

1839.— T. W. Jackson, born in Ohio in 
1816, still living here. 

1840.— Hugh Dallas, born in Ohio in 1813, 
still living. (See sketch.) 

Mr. Dillow came some time prior to 1810, 
from Virginia. Abel Sexton, still one of the 
most prominent citizens of Newport, was 
born in New York in 1820, and settled in 
tliis county in 1813. (See sketch.) Other 
prominent citizens of Vermillion Township, 
who either settled here or were born here in 
pioneer times, are Alvah Arrasmith, living; 
Tiionias G. Arrasmith, wagon-maker at New- 
port, now in Terre Haute; Samuel and G. W. 
Clark, living; David Fry, living; James 
Kaufman, who now lives in Dana; Leonard 
Sanders, deceased; his sons, Samuel, Daniel 
and William, are living; John Rice, who died 
in 1880, at the age of seventy years; his son, 
William Z., is sketched in the biographical 
department of this work: Daniel E. Jones, 
who became a wealthy citizen of Chicago and 
died there; Major John Gardner, IFenry 
Betson, etc. 

Colonel William Craig was born in New- 
port in 1831, graduated at West Point in 
1853, having for his class-mates Generals 



McPiierson, Philip Sheridan and Schofield; 
crossed the western plains in 1854 as Lieuten- 
ant and Aid-de-Carap on General Garland's 
staff; served in the regular army ten years, 
being one of the best Indian fighters, ami 
greatly admired by Kit Carson and others; 
and finally died in the Southwest, in 1880. 



The above are the initials of one of tlie 
most prominent citizens of Vermillion Coun- 
ty; namely, Oliver P. Davis, and have also 
become the name of the 1,300 acre farm 
which he owns tliree to four miles below 
Newport, and of the railroad station at that 
point, when it is generally spelled Opedee. 

Hon. O. P. Davis was born in New Hamp- 
shire in 1814; learned the art of paper- 
making; came to Indiana in 1838, traveling 
by coach, steamboat, canal and horseback, 
througli the States of New York, Ohio, 
Michigan and the province of Canada. In 
New York he rode behind the first locomo- 
tive built in that State, then running out of 
Albany. At Toronto, Canada, he was em- 
ployed in a book bindery and mill, doing the 
work more rapidly and efiiciently than any of 
the native hands. In Ohio he fell in with a 
jolly dentist, of whom he began to learn the 
art of dentistry, afterward practicing his new 
trade at Fort Wayne. After residing at 
Logansport and Delphi, this State, for a time, 
he went to Greencastle and commenced the 
study of law in the oflice of Edward W. 
McGoughey, read two years, and then in 
1840, moved to this county and began the 
practice of his profession, continuing for five 
years. Since then he has been a tradesman 
and agriculturist. At first he purchased forty 
acres, to which he has since made additions 
until he has 1,300 acres of rich Wabash bot- 
tom, whereon he sometimes raises immense 
crops of corn, occasionally 50,000 bushels or 




more, and sometimes, by flood or frost, he 
also loses immense crops. The sediment de- 
posited by the Wabash floods keeps the soil 
very rich. During the year of the famine in 
Ireland, Mr. Davis took to New Orleans by 
llat-boat 25,000 bushels of corn, some of which 
he bought at 18 cents a bushel, and sold it at 
45 cents to §1 per bushel. He is said to 
have sold in one season §18,000 worth of 
corn raised by his own hands. 

Mr. Davis is familiar with legislation, 
being a member of the Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1850, a member of the General 
Assembly three terms, a delegate to various 
important conventions, etc. In his politics 
he has been a Democrat, Republican, Nation- 
al, etc., and in his religion he is a " free- 
thinker." He is a man of firm principles 
and a high sense of justice. 

MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS. 

One night some years ago, Mr. H. F. Jack- 
son, residing about three and a half miles 
south of Newport, heard his dog making a 
terrible noise. About midnight he arose, 
went out, and discovering the smoke-house 
dour open, concluded it had been inadvert- 
ently left open by the family, closed it, and 
returned to bed, thinking all was safe. But 
by closing the smoke-house door he unawares 
locked up a thief within. Next morning Mr. 
Jackson reconnoitering around to see what he 
could discover, noticed a hole in the ground 
dug out under the wall of the smoke-house. 
The thief had to work his way through a 
large puddle of water in order to get out, 
thinking doubtless that he was lucky to get 
off as well as he did. 

In September, 1873, Mr. and Mrs. Brennan, 
living a mile west of Newport, received a 
visit from their daughter, whom they thought 
they had lost twenty-one years previously, 
when they left her temporarily in the care of 



some one at New Orleans during a fearful 
siege of cholera. She had been found during 
the preceding summer by a relative in Ohio, 
advertising in the Irish Republic, a Boston 
newspaper. She was then a resident of New 
Orleans and the mother of four children. 
Mr. and Mrs. Brennan, on learning their 
daughter was still alive and residing in New 
Orleans, immediately concluded to visit her; 
but before starting they received a letter from 
her stating that she was coming to see them. 
Accordingly she soon arrived at Newport, 
late at night, on her way; and such was her 
an.xiety to see her parents that night, although 
it was dark and raining, that she engaged a 
team and was immediately taken out to the 
desired goal, where a meeting occurred too 
exciting to describe. The daughter remained 
until spring. Her mother died a few weeks 
after the visit. 

Of anecdotes of the chase, perhaps the 
latest is the account of the " fox drive " had 
February 26, 1886, in this township, when 
200 men, women and children succeeded in 
catching one fox. 

A great human curiosity exists in Vermil- 
lion Township. Ludia J. Clark, about three 
and a half miles southwest of Newport, was 
born in March, 1882, and at the age of five 
years weighed 105 pounds, and was apparent- 
ly as mature in her intellect and physical 
development as a girl in her 'teens. At the 
date of writing, July, 1887, she is still 
gaining in weight as rapidly as ever. Her 
parents do not seem to be characterized by 
anything abnormal. 

Quaker Hill, sometimes called Quaker 
Point, is the name of a fine neighborhood in 
a romantic section of country on Jonathan 
Creek near the western boundary of Vermill- 
ion Township. The place takes its name 
from the fact that an unusual proportion of 
the settlement consists of " Quakers." The 




postoffice is at a cross road on low ground 
in the woods, but in a beautiful situation, and 
is called " Quaker Hill." 

Dr. Joseph C. Cooke, of the Willow Brook 
farm near Quaker Hill, was an influential 
physician here for a number of years. He 
was born in Piqua County, Ohio, in 1819, 
emigrated to this county in 1845, died Janu- 
ary 22, 1875, and was buried under the 
honors of the order of Patrons of Husbandry, 
his funeral being attended by probably a 
thousand persons. 

Drs. John Gilniore, Hiram and Lewis 
Shepard and P. H. Swaim are or have been 
practitioners of medicine at Quaker Hill or in 
the vicinity. 



The Hopewell FrleniVs Chiirch was or- 
ganized many years ago, and is of the same 
"monthly meeting" with Friends' Chapel 
and Pilot Grove in Hlinois. The present 
membership here is 230. Ministers, James 
P. Haworth, William F. Henderson and 
Kuth R. Ellis. The minister at Friend's 
Chapel is Noah Dixon, and at Pilot Grove, 
John Folger, and meetings are held at each 
of these places in turn. The overseers at 
Hopewell (or Quaker Hill) are Jonathan E. 
and Kate E. Ellis, and Albert and Jane Hen- 
derson. Dinah T. Henderson is recorder. 
The church building, a frame, was erected in 
1873, at a cost of $1,250. 

The Lehanon Methodist Exjhcopal Church, 
east of Quaker Hill, was organized in pioneer 
days. The present membership is about thirty_ 
Class-leader, Robert Holliday; stewards, R. 
P. Little, J. L. Thomas, Frank Carmack and 
Samuel R. AVhite. Pastor, Rev. R. S. Martin, 
of Newport. The church building, a frame, 
30 X 36 feet in dimensions, was built over 
thirty years ago. Sunday-school is main- 
tained all the year, with an average attendance 



of fifty pupils and superintended by Miss 
Ella Little. 

Vermillioii Chajjel, Methodist Ejpiscoj'il 
Church, three and a half miles south and a 
little west of Newport, has a membership of 
about twenty. Class-leader, W. P. Carmack ; 
steward, Allen Clearwaters; Pastor, Rev. R. 
S. Martin, of Newport. The Sunday-schuil 
was recently organized. The old churcli 
building, erected about forty years ago, has 
recently been sold, to give place to a flue 
brick church, costing $1,500 or $1,800, 

Bethel Church, United Brethren, two 
miles southwest of Newport, was organize! 
many years ago. Present number of mem- 
bers, forty-seven or forty-eight. Class-leadtT, 
Levi Erindley; steward, Thomas White. Nn 
Sunday-school at present. The house c!' 
worship, about 28 x 36 feet in ground arcvi, 
was built twenty-four or twenty-five years ago. 

0_pedee Church, United Brethren, organ- 
ized about 1880, has increased in membership 
from eight to sixteen. No class-leader at 
present. Steward, Miss Ella Wimsett. A 
good Sunday-school has recently been estab- 
lished, of which E.D.Brown is superintendent. 
Meetings are held in a school-house. 

Ira Mater, of Hillsdale, is a local preacher 
of this denomination. 

A few United Brethren are meeting at the 
Eggleston school-house, preparatory to organ- 
ization. They have a Sunday-school, of whii-li 
Mr. Dixon is superintendent. 

Rev. B. F. Dungan, of Newport, is pastur 
of all the United Brethren churches in Ver- 
million Township. 

NEWPORT. 

The location of the county seat of govern- 
ment at this point has already been sketched. 

The first dry-goods store here was opened 
by Daniel E. Jones, with a lot of goods so 
small that it seemed one could carry them all 



VERMILLION TOWNSHIP. 



in an arni-fiiU or two. He obtained his start 
thus: He was shipping some hogs, a part of 
which died. These were rendered into soap, 
which was sold for the goods. Mr. Jones 
afterward became wealthy, and went to 
Chicago, where he became a millionaire and 
finally died. 

The first good residence built at jS^ewport 
was the building nortli of the present Meth- 
odist Episcopal church, recently occupied by 
Mrs. Hiram Hasty and now by Frank Turner- 
Conspicuous in this town are several very 
old, large planted trees. A number of locust 
trees were planted here in 1832, which are 
now over two feet in diameter, and one apple 
tree, near the soTithwest corner of the public 
square, appears to be over three feet in diame- 
ter four feet from the ground, though at this 
point the tree bifurcates and is hollow. Decay 
will soon overtake the growth and bring the 
venerable old tree down. 

The old court-houses and jails are noticed 
in a previous chapter. The present tine 
court-house was built in 1866, at a cost of 
over §30,000. County ofiices below, large 
and neatly kept, court-room above. The old 
log jail was many years ago superseded by a 
brick building on the hill, which is now used 
as a residence. The present jail, and sheriflf's 
residence, built in 1868, is a good, substantial 
brick structure on East Market street. 

Newport was incorporated as a town early 
in the spring of 1870. By the records of 
March 28, that year, we find that the first 
trustees were — AVilliam E. Liven good, Presi- 
dent, Clark Leavitt, Benjamin K. Dicken and 
E. Y. Jackson; J. A. Souders, Clerk. The 
presidents and clerks serving since that time 
have been: Presidents — E. Y. Jackson, 1871; 
James A. Bell, 1872-'73; F. M. Bishop, 
1874; S. H. Dallas, 1875; James A. Foland, 
1876-'78; William P. Henson, 1879; Oliver 
Knight, 1880; James Hasty, 1881-'82; 



Robert Landon. 1883; Calvin Arrasmith, 
1884; Kobert B. Sears, 1885; John W. Cross, 
1886-'87. Mr. Landon died in 1885; all the 
rest are living. The clerks have been — 
Eobert B. Sears, 1871; J. Jump, 1872-'74; 
J. A. Souders, 1875-'78; J. C. Sawyer, 1879; 
John JSr. Hartman, 1880; Oliver H. Knight, 
1881; J. C. SaA\7er, 1882; O. B. Gibson, 
1883-'86; William F.Thornton, 1887. 

Newport is divided into four wards, with 
one trustee from each ward. 

Three attempts have been made to dissolve 
the corporation. The last one was made 
June 21, 1877, when the question was put to 
vote, and a majoi'ity of nineteen was given in 
favor of continuing the corjiorate capacity of 
the town. 

The population of Newport is estimated at 
600 to 700. The village is beautifully situ- 
ated but retired, — rather more so than the 
citizens wish. Its only railroad passes nearly 
a mile distant. 

There was for a long time a good grist- 
mill at Newport, on Market street, named 
the " Eureka Mills," run by steam. It was 
built by James A. Bell, deceased, who sold 
to Curtis &, White; who in turn sold to 
B. J. Abbott; and while it was in the pos- 
session of the latter, January 26, 1882, it was 
burned down, by a careless act of some em- 
ployee, and has never since been rebuilt. The 
loss was $3,500. 

The First National Bank of Newport was 
organized in 1871, by Josephus and John 
Collett, Abel Sexton, Isaac Porter, R. H. 
Nixon and Clark Leavitt, and opened their 
place of business in a fine brick building, 
erected and fitted up for the purpose, at the 
northwest corner of the public square. Its 
" national " character was afterward surren- 
dered, and the bank changed, by the same 
board of directors, into the "Vermillion 
County Bank," with a paid up capital of 



$60,000 and a surplus of over $6,000, con- 
tiiiuiug to do a general banking business. In 
January, 1880, it was again changed, taking 
tiio name of » Collett & Co.'s Bank," and 
comprising Prof. John Collett, of Indianapo- 
lis, Stephen S. Collett, of Newport, Mrs. 
Mary H. Campbell, of Crawfordsville, and 
Joshua Jump of Newport. Since then Mrs. 
Campbell's stock has been transferred to Mrs. 
Lieutenant M. T. May, of Greencastle; and 
now S. S. Collett is general manager, and J. 
D. Collett, cashier. Capital, $27,000. 

THE OLIVE BRANCH. 

The predecessor of the Hoosier State was 
the Olive Branch, the iirst paper printed in 
Newport, and established by A. J. Adams, 
now of Danville, Illinois, and edited by A. D. 
Patten. The number for December 29, 1853, 
which we presume was the first number, 
sliows the motto of the organ to have been, 
" We hold the balance with an equal hand, 
And weigh whatever justice doth demand." 
The paper was AVhiggish in politics, becom- 
ing Kepublican on the organization of that 
party. 

The number above referred to, like all the 
country papers of that day, has but little 
local news or original matter in it, the salu- 
tatory, a column in length, being about all 
the original matter in this number. The 
following gentlemen were advertised as con- 
tributors to the paper: Rev. David Taylor, 
Terre Haute; Eobert Eoss, Principal of the 
Terre Haute graded school; Samuel Taylor, 
Principal of the Newport Seminary; Dr. H. 
H. Patten, Princeton, Indiana; and Dr. J. S. 
Sawyer, Vincennes, Indiana. 

The latest telegraph news in the paper was 
dated December 17, twelve days before the 
date of issue. A long letter from W. S. 
Turner, Bodega, California, dated October 31, 
1853, is published. Charity Moss and Susan- 



nah Dyke give notice that they will apply at 
the next term of the common-pleas court for 
a divorce; "William Utter, the county treasurer^ 
gives notice that he will be at Perrysville the 
5th, Eugene the 6th, Indiana Furnace the 
10th, and Clinton the 11th, days of January. 
1854, for the purpose of collecting taxes due 
for the year 1858; Joseph Eeeder, of Clinton 
Township, advertises an astray mare taken up 
liy him, and appraised at $55 before Esquirt' 
Ben Harrison; Eichard Potts, Sheriff, adver- 
tises a tract of land in Clinton Township for 
sale, belonging to Isaac Van Nest, and in 
favor of Benjamin E. and John Whitcomb. 
At that time James A. Bell was county 
clerk. 

W. A. Henderson was the only merchant 
of Newport who had an advertisement in tlie 
paper. He occupied about one inch of space 
in notifying the people that he kept drugs, 
all kinds of patent medicines, groceries and 
flour. J. M. Hood gives notice that he is a 
notary public, and also keeps the telegraph 
office, on the east side of the public square, 
with ^Y. A. Henderson. Dr. J. E. AVillitts 
flings his card to the breeze as a physician 
and surgeou. T. C. W. Sale, H. D. Wash- 
burn, S. CI. Malone and D. M. Jones have 
cards in this number advertising themselves 
as attorneys at law. 

Most of the advertisements are of Terre 
Haute business. There is an item of news 
stating that the Evansville & Terre Haute 
Eailroad was completed between those two 
points. 

The price of the Olive Branch was placed 
at $1.50 a year if paid in advance, $2 at the 
end of six months and $2.50 at the end of a 
year. 

THE HOOSIER STATE. 

The Olive Branch was changed to the 
Hoosier State in 1855, and published at 




/S./d,^Si>v^ 



■■■■■■■■■■■"■^ 



VERMlLLloi^ TOWNSHIP. 



Clinton for a time, but brought back to New- 
port, where it has since remained. The 
proprietors and editors have been Pratt & 
Adams, James M. Hood, Samuel II. Huston 
(1855, at Clinton), Mr. Campbell, Mitchell, 
Vaul (1858), a company, William E. Liven- 
good, George W. English (1862-'63), Colonel 
II. D. Washburn, S. B. Davis, Joseph B. 
Cheadle and S. B. Davis again. It is almost 
impossible now to give all the above names 
in exact chronological order. 

Pratt returned to Ohio. Hood, who was 
brought up in this county, left here for the 
West. Vaul moved to La Fayette, continu- 
ing in the newspaper business. Washburn 
died in 1871 (see sketch of him in the history 
of Clinton). Cheadle, Congressman elect, is 
now editing the Frankfort Banner. 

The number of the Hoosier for January 
17, 1863, for an example ot the straightness of 
the times, had only four columns to the page, 
was but little larger than a sheet of foolscap, 
and was filled with war news. In the winter 
and spring of 1875, " Buffalo Bill" wrote for 
the Hoosier State a history entitled " Three 
Years in Utah," which was published serially. 
Samuel Brenton Davis, editor and pro- 
prietor of the Hoosier State, was born June 
3, 1842, in Parke County, Indiana, and 
named after a Methodist minister, a favorite 
of his parents. The latter are Robert and 
Melvina (Taylor) Davis, natives of Virginia, 
who reside in Ilelt Township, this county, 
which was also the the home of Samuel 
Brenton from 1856 to 1861. 

Mr. Davis was brought up on the farm, 
educated in the common schools and at 
Bloomingdale Academy. In July, 1861, he 
enlisted in Company C, Eighteenth Indiana 
Volunteer Infantry, participated in the battle 
of Pea Ridge, and the siege of Vicksburg, 
besides a number of skirmishes, and, after a 
service of one and a half years, he sufi'ered 



an attack of the measles, when on a force 
march, and he took cold, whicli settled in his 
right arm and leg, crippling him for life. 
He is obliged to use crutches. After his 
return from the army, he was clerk for a 
time in a store at Clinton. In 1866 he was 
first elected county treasurer, and in 1868 re- 
elected to the office. While he held the 
office the treasury was robbed of about $36,- 
000 (see full account elsewhere), by experts 
who wedged the vault doors open during the 
night; over §21,000 of the money was re- 
covered from the Wabash River, in which 
stream the robbers had dropped it when hard 
chased by citizens. In 1868, Mr. Davis pur- 
chased the office of the Hoosier State. On 
the close of his term as treasurer, October, 
1870, he devoted his whole attention to this 
paper. In 1870, Joe B. Cheadle purchased 
it, but nine months subsequently Mr. Davis 
bought it again, and has ever since been the 
editor and proprietor. He raised the circu- 
lation from 216 on the credit system to 912 
on the cash system. 

As an editor, Davis is enterprising, fearless 
and witty. The file of the Hoosier State, 
exhibits to the historian an extraordinary 
amount of lively local correspondence, and of 
editorial patience and liberality. While Mr. 
Davis has ever been a staunch Republican, he 
can acknowledge a victory gained by the 
opposite party with better grace than any 
other editor known to the writer. Besides 
the office above referred to, Mr. Davis has 
also been chosen trustee of Vermillion Town- 
ship, being elected in April, 1886, by ten 
majority in a Democratic township. Is a 
a member of the order of United Workmen. 

The subject of our sketch married Sarah C. 
Canady, daughter of Lewis and Elizabeth 
Canady, — parents now deceased. She is a 
native of this township. The children of 
Mr. and Mrs. Davis are — Bird II., a well edu- 



VERMILLION COUNTY. 



cated young man; Ora DeLos, a lad exhibiting 
considerable talent as a draftsman and 
mechanic; Fred, Ren M., liobert Enoch, who 
died at the age of one and a half years, and 
Melvina. 

About 1871-'72 an attempt was made to 
start an opposition paper in Newport, Dem- 
ocratic in politics, under the name of the 
VfrmilUon Transcn'j)t, by Harrison Jump, 
who ran it some fifteen months, sinking 
si, 900, an 1 sold the office to other parties, 
who took it away. Mr. Jump returned to 
Ohio, where he entered the grocery business. 

But we are not yet done with the Iloonler 
State. It has been a remarkable paper for 
local correspondence and terse editorials, and 
we cannot refrain from giving two or three 
of the most innocent'but amusing specimens: 

" We learn through the medium of a pot- 
bellied gander from the jungles of Brown town 
that G. "\V. Rodenbaugh intended to demand 
our name for cliarging him witli getting 
drunk and flogging his wife. We never 
made any such charge, and appeal to the 
columns of the Iloosier State to prove it. A 
lew meddlers are trying to make a fool of 
Rodenbaugh by telling him that every per- 
sonal item in the Iloosier is directed at him. 
We will make him 'a present of a pair of 
heavy boots if he will agree to wear them out 
in kicking the — coat-tail of every meddling 
sneak who mentions such things to him in- 
cluding Mr. Brown[town], who will merit 
and receive onr sincere thanks by simply 
minding his own business." 

In December, 1874, an amusing incident 
occurred in Newport, thus wittily reported 
by the Iloosier State: 

"Somnambulism, or One Night in Walter 
Place's Bar Room. A young trump card 
from Clinton, named Jaqnes, came up to 
attend the big dance at tlie hotel Place; and 
after he had exercised nature about all she 



was able to bear, lie concluded to rest his 
weary bones on a bench in the bar-room. In 
a short time he was in the arms of Morpheus, 
and soon afterward he arose, as usual in his 
somnambulistic fits, walked around the room, 
then took a seat on the bench, and, in the 
presence of several persons divested himself 
of most of the clothing, preparatory to lying 
down again, supposing the bench was a bed. 
At this juncture he was aroused from his 
sleep by the deafening roars of laughter by 
those present. On coming to, he looked 
worse than a defeated candidate, and proposed 
to ' set up ' the cigars if the boys would keep 
'mum.' Of course the boys accepted of the 
treat, ' pledging their sacred honor ' never to 
hint it to Bren Davis of the Iloosier State, 
or to any one else! " 

Another extract is given in the history of 
Helt Townshij), on a preceding page. 

KEMARKABLE CASES OF ROBBERY. 

The three following accounts are also from 
the famous Iloosier State: 

On Monday night, April 18, 1870, over 
$35,000 was stolen from the county treasury 
vault, which had been faithfully closed and 
locked. The treasurer was S. B. Davis, then 
and now the editor of the Iloosier State. 
The doors were forced open by steel wedges, 
which were driven by a sledge. Neighbors 
heard the noise but not distinctly enough to 
have their suspicions aroused. 

The next day Orville White, who had just 
learned of the burglary, saw two men carry- 
ing a sachel across the i'arms about three 
miles north of Clinton. Calling two railroad 
hands to his assistance, they gave chase, call- 
ing upon the suspected fugitives to halt. 
They struck for the river, and leaving a por- 
tion of their clothing upon the bank, began 
to swim across. Mr. White an.d his com- 
panions arriving, saw a farmer on the op- 



VERMILLION TOM'KSHIP. 



posite bank whom they knew, and halloed 
to him to kill the rascals as they came oi;t. 
The man approached, but the rascals, getting 
into shallow water, drew their revolvers and 
iired at him. Mr. White then requested his 
assistant to watch the thieves until lie could 
raise a posse to take them. Discovering a 
wallet in the river, Mr. White waded in and 
obtained it, and found it contained $16,354. 
He then went home, mounted a horse and 
started for Clinton to raise a posse; but in 
the meantime the scoundrels reached the op- 
posite shore, about a mile below where they 
entered the stream, soon found two railroad 
hands, and drew their revolvers upon them, 
commanding them to give up their clothing 
in great haste, as they "had got into a row 
and had to swim the river to save their 
lives." Returning to the river they got into 
a skiff and floated down past Clinton under 
the cover of the night, and tlius succeeded 
in getting away. 

The event created a great sensation 
throughout the country. It seems that, from 
the elaborate and systematic execution of the 
burglary, very skillful operators were en- 
gaged in it. 

It turned out the very next day after Mr. 
White's discovery of the fugitive criminals, 
that one of the assistants, whom he hastily 
picked out from a company of railroad hands 
near by, was the receiver of a large amount 
of money at that time, in a mysterious man- 
ner, but was not present at the robbery. 

May 13, §5,210 more of the money was 
found in a sachel lodged on the roots of a 
Cottonwood a mile and a half below, where 
the thieves commenced to swim the river; 
!?15,320 were never recovered. 

During the latter part of the night of Oc- 
tober 12, 1883, a most brutal outrage was 
committed by a band of robbers upon Elias 
Lamb and his family at their residence near 



Newport. In the house were Mr. Lamb and 
wife and a married daughter from Wayne 
County visiting them. Between three and 
four o'clock the dog made considerable noise. 
Mrs. Lamb went to the window to see what 
was the matter, and hist the dog, which 
would only plunge out into the darkness and 
then retreat. Not discovering anything, she 
returned to bed. But the dog kept up a 
howling, and acted as if some one was en- 
croaching upon the premises. In a few min- 
utes Mr. Lamb went out to see whether he 
could discover anything wrong. Returning 
to his room he had scarcely lain down when 
the door to an adjoining room, against which 
stood a large bureau, was burst open, and the 
bureau fell to the floor with a terrible crash, 
breaking everything that was upon it. Be- 
fore the two could get out of bed they were 
seized by two burglars and a demand made 
for their money. Mr. Lamb gave them all 
he had, $25. The demand being repeated to 
his wife she said she had §1.75 up stairs. 
The villiains made her get it without light- 
ing a lamp, at the point of her life. They 
then declared that there was more money in 
the house, and that they would kill them if 
they did not give it up. Mr. Lamb an- 
swei-cd that they might kill them, l)ut could 
not get any more money, for there was no 
more in the house. Then they assaulted him 
and threatened to kill them both if tb.ey did 
not pay over more money. They first pom- 
meled him awhile and then fired two shots, 
one of them grazing Mrs. Lamb's head, split- 
ting open her ear. Mr. Lamb, although 
bodly bruised and one eye closed, managed 
to get out of doors, where he pulled the bell- 
rope, which frightened the burglars away. 

The daughter referred to, who was sleeping 
in another room, crawled under the feather 
bed and thus escaped discovery. Their son 
John, who was sleeping in a house a hundred 



yards distant, upon hearing the bell, ran over 
to his parents' house; and, finding that they 
were suffering for want of medical treatment, 
proposed to go immediately for a physician, 
but they, fearing the rascals might return 
and do further mischief, begged liim to re- 
main with them until daylight. 

During the morning the tracks of the rob- 
bers were traced both ways between their 
residence and town, but no further clew was 
ever obtained for their discovery. 

May 5, 1884, the postoffice was robbed of 
>^350 during the night. The safe was blown 
open. The burglars were frigliteued away by 
the passing of a young man in tlie vicinity 
before they obtained all tliat tliey liad intended 
to. Tiie thieves were never caught. 

ATTORNEYS OF NEWPORT. 

.Daniel M. Jones, a native of this county, 
attended AVabash College, not quite finishing 
the course, was admitted to the bar in 1852 
or ~'o3, a member of the Legislature about 
1861, as a Republican, was an active partisan, 
a natural orator, and a shrewd lawyer, and 
died in the fall of 1865, leaving a widow and 
three children. She is a sister of Stephen S. 
Collett, and resides in Newport. The son, 
Frank,' is studying medicine. Mr. Jones' 
father, Lewis Jones, was a prominent citizen 
of Eugene Township. 

Henry D. Washburn, one of the most 
prominent men of Vermillion County, prac- 
ticed law liere awhile before the war. See 
history of Clinton, on a previous page, for a 
full sketch. 

L. C. Allen, born near Highland, this 
county, studied law under the preceptorship 
of M. G. Rhoads, Esq., of Newport, and was 
admitted to the bar; was justice of the peace 
1868-'72, when he occasionally had a little 
case. He was a man of firm principles, but 
sometimes a little rough. At one time, when 



the attorneys in a suit before him got to 
wrangling and using profane language, ho 
"stood" it as long as he tliought he ought to, 
when he blurted out, " I'll be G — d d — d if 
you don't quit swearing I'll fine you!" Mr. 
Allen left Newport about ten years ago, and 
is now deputy clerk at Covington, Indiana. 
Nathan Harvey was born and raised in 

I Parke County, this State, and educated at the 

I Bloomingdale school, a Quaker institution, 
under the teaching of Barnabas Hobbs, for- 

[ merly State Superintendent of Public In- 
struction. He was a young man of fair mind 

I and scholarship. On coming to Newport, he 
taught school in the seminary during the war, 
a couple of years, and then married a daugh- 
ter of John C. Johnson. In the practice of 
law he became a partner of William Eggles- 
ton, but did not practice more than two or 
three years when he died, during a session of 
court. His widow, with three children, lives 
near Newport. Mr. Harvey was an honorable 
man and would have become a solid prac- 
titioner had he lived. 

Robert A. Parrett, a native of this State, 
was young when his parents settled with him 
in Newport. Ilis father was a traveling 
Methodist minister. Robert was brought up 
here. Commencing a course at the Asbury 
University, he had reached a point in the 
freshman or sophomore year when, on account 
of delicate health, he had to desist. He then 
read law in the office of Judge Jump, was 
admitted to the bar and practiced his profes- 
sion for a time. In the fall of 1875 he was 
admitted as a partner of C E. it M. G. 
Rhoads, in which relation lie remained until 
January, 1880. Since then he has been en- 
gaged in farming, near Newport. He was a 
good office lawyer, a good bookkeeper and 
attentive to business; but, on account of 
delicate health, his father and friends advised 
him to quit the practice of law and adopt 



VERMILLION TOWNSHIP. 



some mode of life requiring more physical 
and less mental activity. 

Professor B. E. Rhoads was born in Penn- 
sylvania, May 1, 1834. In 1836 the family 
came to Richmond, Indiana, in a one-horse 
wagon ; next they came to Hancock County, 
near Indianapolis; in 1837, to Parke County; 
then to Waveland, Montgomery County, 
where the subject attended Waveland Acade- 
my (Presbyterian). Entering Wabash College 
in the junior year, he graduated there in 
1859. Next, he came to Clmton, this county, 
and taught in the Farmers' College part of a 
year. Then he studied law In the office of 
Judge Maxwell, at Rockville, Parke County, 
was admitted to the bar, came to Newport in 
1861, and commenced the practice of his pro- 
fession. Was in partnership with his brother 
M. G., 1865-'79. In 1865-'66, he was a 
member of the Legislature. In 1878 he 
moved to Terre Haute, where he has since 
been a resident; but that year he crossed the 
ocean with his family, and spent thirteen 
months in England and on the continent of 
Europe. 

Early in the spring of 1881 he was ap- 
pointed judge of the Superior Court of Vigo 
Connty, serving until November, 1882. For 
live j-ears he was one of tlie trustees of the 
State University at Bloomington, where he 
was also professor of law for a time. In 
Terre Haute he owns a nice property. In his 
religion he is a Presbyterian, being for a time 
an elder in the Motfatt Street Church, in that 
city. 

In 1876 Professor Rhoads married Miss 
Ida, daughter of Robert D. Moffatt, of Perrys- 
ville. Their children are Sarah, born in 
1877, and Daniel Moffatt, born in 1880. 

John D. Cushman was born and reared in 
Perrysville, this county. His father, Thomas 
Cushman, being elected county auditor in 
the fall of 1872, moved to Newport with his 



family, and here John D. studied law, was 
admitted to the bar, and began practice; was 
in partnership with Joshua Jump for a time; 
was in the office of Messrs. Rhoads, where he 
proved himself a good oflice hand, a fine 
penman, intelligent business man, etc. He 
was also a good public speaker, but he did 
not practice at the bar a great deal. In the 
fall of 1875 he went into the Southern States 
and traveled for six months. Returning, he 
resumed law practice, which he followed, 
sometimes by himself and sometimes in part- 
nership, until his death six or seven years 
ago. lie was a young man of great prom- 
ise. 

Thomas C. W. Sale was a lawyer here many 
years ago, and before the last war went to 
Paris, Illinois, where he received an appoint- 
ment as Indian agent, and he -was in the far 
West for a long period in the fulfillment of- 
the duties of that office. He returned to 
Paris, where he is now living. 

Samuel G. Malone, who also practiced law 
here before the war period, removed to 
Decatur, Illinois, where he accumulated a 
fortime of $75,000 or $100,000, but lost it 
all. He is now a farmer in Helt Township, 
this county. 

AVilliara Eggleston was born in this county, 
in 1833, and educated here, attending the 
common schools and the county seminary at 
Newport, after he was a grown man. He 
was naturally indiistrious and persevering. 
Taking to the study of law, in due time he 
qualified himself for practice and was admitted 
to the bar about 1859. Of course he worked 
up considerable practice, by a hard struggle, 
making many errors, and in the course of 
fifteen years' practice acquired a handsome 
competence. He next entered upon a mer- 
cantile business with his brother, and they 
failed, losing all they had; during this mer- 
cantile experience, however, William pro- 



ceeded with his law practice. lie was a 
successful attorney. 

"While here he wrote and published three 
works: 1., Treatise on County Commission- 
ers; 2., a legal work on Damages; and 3., a 
play entitled "The Broken-hearted Wife," 



( being a story of woman's love and man's 

{ unfaithfulness, and consisting of facts that 

t occurred a few years ago. 

\ Mr. Eggleston moved to Terre llante 

I about 1877. 

i Y. E. Witmer, probably about fifty years 

I ago came from Ohio to Newport, and prac- 

5 ticed here five or six years, and moved to 

I some point toward Logansport about six or 

I seven years ago, where he has since died. He 

! was a man of the "spread-eagle" style, not 

( deeply versed, but executive, working up law- 

j suits whether they should be worked up or not. 

! "William L. Little, a graduate of Asbury 

i University, became a Methodist minister, 

i preached here a year or two ; then followed 

I farming about seven miles southwest of 

I Newport, in which he succeeded well; next 

» he practiced law at Newport, settled a few 

i estates, etc., and then became a merchant, 

( and finally moved to Hutchinson, Kansas, 

{ about 1882. Mr. Little had a fair intellect, 

i and a good degree of information on general 

j subjects, and was a prominent citizen of the 

{ county. About 1862-'72 he acted as county 

i examiner, and then for six or eight years, or 

j more, he was county superintendent of schools. 

) James Blanchard, a native of this county, 

I received a good classical education and was a 

( good penman, on which account he was 

) employed much in the stores, and county 

I offices, as an accountant, copyist, etc. Pick- 

1 ing up a little law in the meantime, he was 

I admitted to the bar, and in the course of his 

i practice he had several partnerships. He was 

i a good assistant in preparing papers, conduct- 

J ing correr^pondence, making collections, etc. 



About three or four years ago he moved to 
Terre Haute to assist his brother Ben, and 
from there he went to South Hutchinson, 
Kansas, where he is now engaged in real- 
estate business. 

Ben Blanchard, though nominally a lawyer, 
never conducted a suit. He is now in Terre 
Haute, in the real-estate and abstract business. 

Joseph B. Cheadle. present Congressman, 
elect from the Ninth District, was born in 
this county, read law in the office of Judge 
Maxwell at Eockville, admitted to the bar here 
about 1868, became deputy collector of inter- 
nal revenue, was a candidate for nomination 
for a number of offices, gradually drifted out 
of the law into editorial work, had charge of 
the Hoosier State nine months in 1870, then 
the Ilockville Rejnihlican and Rockviile 
Tribune, and is now editor of the Frankfort 
Banner, Clinton County. Frank, courteous 
and polite, he is popular; clever and ambitious, 
he is a good business man; is a good story- 
teller, and a genial companion. 

Joshua Jump, born in Ohio in 1843, stud- 
ied law with R. N. Bishop, at Paris, Illinois, 
was admitted to the bar, and came to New- 
port in 1869, where his partnerships were in 
succession with "William Eggleston, Robert 

B. Sears, James Blanchard, John D. Cush- 
man and from March, 1879, to March, 1885, 

C. Vf. "Ward. He was circuit judge from 
March, 1885, to November, 1886. In June, 
1887, he removed to Terre Haute. He is a 
Democrat, and has participated in politics to 
some extent, being a delegate to a number of 
conventions and member of the State Central 
Committee. 

Adam Littlepagc, from "West Virginia, 
was admitted to the bar here February 0' 
1883, formed a partnership with John A. 
"Wiltermood for two or three years, married 
a daughter of Stephen S. Collett, and returned 
to "West Virginia. 






VERMILLION TOWNS EI P. 



213 



John A. Wilterinoocl, Postmaster at New- 
port, was appointed to this position Septein- 
her 5, 1885, succeeding John Kichardson. 
lie was liorii in Vermillion Township, a son 
of Joseph W. AViltermood, and brought up 
at fanning, most of his early life being spent 
ill Eugene Township. He attended the State 
Normal at Indianapolis in 1878-'79, taught 
school three years, studied law in the office 
of Judge Jump, admitted to practice Febru- 
ary 6, 1883, associated professionally with 
II. II. Conley two years, and with Adam 
Littlepage two or three years. 

The present bar at NeM-port comprises M. 
G. Rhoads. B. S. Aikman (Rhoads & Aikman) 
C. AV. Ward, O. B. Gibson (Ward & Gibson), 
II. H. Conley and J. C. Sawyer. Sketches of 
most of tliese will be found in the regular 
biographical department of this volume. 

B. S. Aikman is a young man born in this 
county, a son of Barton Aikman, an early 
settler, graduated at the State Normal School 
at Terre Haute, read law in the office of M. 
G. Rhoads, admitted to the bar in the fall of 
1886, and has been a partner of Mr. Rhoads 
since January 1, 1887. 

In the winter of lS74:-'75 Mest^rs. Jump 
and M. G. Rhoads were attorneys for a fugi- 
tive from Illinois, charged with stealing 
horses, and succeeded in releasing hiin from 
the custody of an officer. This raised con- 
siderable excitement among the citizens of 
Newport, and indignation meetings were 
held here, and also in other parts of the 
county. The officer holding the fugitive had 
not the proper authority. 

PHYSICIANS. 

Of the past, we can mention only these: 
Dr. J. R. Willetts practiced here previous to 
the war period, and moved away. He was 
time in partnersltip witli Dr. Griffin, 
E. T. Collett, son of 



f<ir 

V\hn is deceased. Dr 



Josephus Collett, Sr., was a graduate of the 
Louisville Medical College, practiced here and 
in Eugene Township, and in 1878 committed 
suicide in Kansas, at the age of fifty-eight 
years. Drs. Clark and P. H. Leavitt prac- 
ticed here a number of years, a portion of the 
time in partnership. The former moved to 
Danville, Illinois, in 1875, where he is now 
living, and the other died in Newport. Dr. 
E. Thompson moved to Illinois and died there. 
He left Newport in the fall of 1874. 

The physicians now practicing in Newport 
are Drs. M. L. Hall, Lewis Shepard and 
James Wallace. 

Yermillion County is comparatively a 
poor place for physicians to find much to do. 
As before stated, the country here is remark- 
able for a healthy and long-lived population. 
They have never been visited by epidemics, 
and even that singular disease, milk-sickness, 
which used to prevail here, is now entirely 
absent, the last case occurring ten or twelve 
years ago. 

EDUCATION. 

Newport has .always had a good school. 
According to the provisions of tlie State" law, 
a county seminary was established here in 
pioneer times, and flourished until the later 
free-school system converted it into a o-raded 
school about 1852. The building was of 
brick. To it additions have been made, and 
it is still occupied. The location is on the 
bluff, overlooking the broad and romantic 
valley of the ^Little Vermillion River. The 
new portion, comprising two rooms was 
added by the town of Newport, at a cost ot 
about §1,000, and, the muncipality having 
bought the township's interest in the in- 
stitution, all partnership between the two 
civil divisions was dissolved last year, 1886. 
The building now has four rooms, and corre- 
spondingly a full board of teachers comprises 



a principal and three assistants. Tlie depart- 
ments are the high school, grammar, inter- 
mediate and primary. The enrollment last 
year was 156. The principal for the year 
1887 -'88 is Edward Aikman. The school 
has two literally societies, — the Philadel- 
pliians and the Sapplionians. 

SOCIETIES. 

Ncioport Lodge, No. 209, F. ib A.M., was 
chartered May 25, 1857; and the first officers 
were James A. Bell, Worshipful Master; 
Eldridge M. Groves, Senior Warden; James 
Tarrance, Junior Warden; Andrew J. Adams, 
Treasurer; Joseph B. Cheadle, Secretary; 
Seth Knight, Senior Deacon; William Black- 
stone, Junior Deacon; J. L. Thomas and T. 
J. Arrasmith, Stewards; R. H. Nixon, Tyler. 
The munber of meni1)ers was twenty-three, 
who met in the same hall tliat is still used. 
The present membership is thirty-one, and 
the officers, R. C. Sears, Worsliipful Master; 
R. II. Nixon, Senior Warden ; E. D. Wheeler, 
Junior Warden; Abel Sexton, Senior Deacon; 
J. II. Kerdolff, Junior Deacon; A. R. Hop- 
kins, Secretary; Charles Potts, Treasurer; 
Elias Pritchard and Gr. W. Clark, Stewards; 
and II. S. Cady, Tyler. Financially, the lodge 
is strong. 

Verrnillion Lodge, No 59 i, L 0. 0. F., 
was organized in the room over the furniture 
store of David Hopkins, by Past Grand 
Hiram Shepard, of Dana Lodge, under a 
charter granted May 18, 1882, on the petition 
of Robert E. Stephens, Lewis Shepard, 
Thomas Cushman, F. Y. Wade, Julius 
Groves and J. M. Taylor. Tlie following 
members were elected officers and duly in- 
stalled: Lewis Shepard, Noble Grand; Eobert 
E. Stephens, Vice-Grand; Thomas Cushman, 
Secretary; J. M. Taylor. Treasurer. At the 
time of this organization there were thirteen 
members. There are now thirty-seven mem- 



bers, and the present officers are, M. G. 
Rhoades, Noble Grand; H. A. Conley, Vice- 
Grand; Matthew Ly tie. Recording Secretary; 
Thomas Cushman, Permanent Secretary; W. 
P. Henderson, Treasurer. The society is now 
in a very prosperous condition. The furni- 
ture, equipments and regalia cost about $600, 
and the room is an unusually nice one, 
38 x 50 feet in dimensions, exclusive of the 
vestibules. 

Hope Lodge, No. 268, Daughters of Be- 
hekah, was chartered November 18, 1886, 
and the first officers elected January 22, 1887, 
with ten members. Thomas Cushman, 
Noble Grand; Mrs. D. S. Hopkins, Vice- 
Grand; Mrs. Dessie Johnson, Secretary; Mrs. 
Mary Henson, Treasurer. The membership 
is now (June, 1887) thirteen, who are 
zealous, with a good exchequer. They com- 
prise the best talent in the conununity. 

Shiloh Post, No. Ji.9, Q. A. B., was organ- 
ized March 22, 1882, with R. J. Hasty, Post 
Commander; J. II. Kerdolff, Senior Vice- 
Commander; J. A. Darby, Junior Vice- 
Commander; R. H. Nixon, Surgeon; Z. 
Thornton, Chaplain; A. C. Brokaw, Officer of 
theDay;T. A. McKnight, Officerof the Guard : 
who were duly installed by Mustering Officer 
R. B. Sears. The appointed officers were J. 
W. Harlan, Adjutant; J. C. Bailey, Quarter- 
Tuaster Sergeant; William C. Myers, Ser- 
geant-Major. The officers comprised the 
whole membership. The post has not been 
meeting lately, but the present officers are, 
Edward Brown, Post Commander; R. II. 
White, Junior Vice-Commander; John A. 
Darby, Officer of the Day; John Richard- 
son, Quartermaster; William Bennett, Sur- 
geon; II. II. Conlej', Chaplain; C. S. Davis, 
Adjutant; Vf. P. Henson, Sergeant-JMajor; 
J. C. Dillow, Quarterinaster-Sei-geant. There 
are about thirty members in good standing. 
The time of meeting is every second and 



VERMILLION TOWNSHIP. 



fourth Friday evening of the montli, in Place's 
Hall. 

A company of Sons of Veterans was or- 
ganized March 20, 1884, with Frank Hasty 
for Captain. Commencing with ten mem- 
bers, they reached sixteen, but they soon lost 
their zeal, holding their last meeting Decem- 
ber 19, 1884. They contemplate reorganiz- 
ing. Their last Captain was William F. 
Thornton. 

The A. 0. U. W. organized a lodge at 
Newport March 4, 1879, with a membership 
of sixteen, and Dr. M. L. Hall as Past Mas- 
ter AVorkman; E. B. Sears, Master Work- 
man ; "W. P. Henson, Grand Foreman ; Joseph 
Dillow, Overseer; C. S. Davis, Kecorder; 
George W. Odell, Financier; L.J. Place, Ee- 
ceiver; L. D. Dillow, Gnard; Henry Dil- 
low, Inside .Warden; Lou Coil, Outside 
Warden. The charter was surrendered Feb- 
ruary 24, 1883. At one time they had as 
many as twenty-live or thirty members. 

The Neviport Light Guards were organ- 
ized under the military law of the State, with 
over forty members, and J. A. Souders, Cap- 
tain. They obtained from the State an equip- 
ment of fifty guns and tlie necessary 
accoutrements. But in a year or two they 
got to quarreling over the captaincy, some 
favoring J. A. Souders, Init a majority E. 
H. Nixon, and consequently let their inter- 
est in the drill die. 

The Newport Cornet Band was organized 
a number ot years ago, went down, and reor- 
ganized, or a new organization effected. John 
A. Darby and J. W. Hartman are the only 
present members who were members of the 
iiriginal organization. The present members 
are, John A. Darby and Quincy Myers, E 
flat; Ernest Darby and Albert Wheeler, B 
flat; J. W. Hartman, solo alto; William 
Sharp, second alto; W. C. Arrasmith and 
Joseph Hopkins, B flat tenor; L. M. Wheeler, 



B flat baritone; Fred Duzan, E flat tuba; 
William Brown, snare drum; Henry Garrett, 
base drum. This accommodating band " dis- 
courses sweet music " every Sunday afternoon 
at the court-house. The players are skillful, 
and have often rendered satisfactory service 
on public occasions. 



TEMPERANCE. 



Newport has had the usual fights over the 
temperance question, and the usual temper- 
ance societies. Skipping over the long pe- 
riod l)efore the war, we notice that since the 
war about the first public movement was the 
organization of a lodge of Good Templars, in 
1868, with the following officers: Eev. J. E. 
Wright (Methodist traveling minister here at 
the time), Betsy Griflin, Joseph Hopkins, 
Benjamin Carter, Ivy A. Astor, Sally Can- 
ady, John Wigley, Eebecca Huft" and Joseph 
B. Cheadle. The lodge has long since ceased 
to exist. 

The next movement was the tidal wave of 
the " woman's crusade " in 1874, which struck 
Newport with some violence and persistency. 
Meetings were held at the churches, speeches 
made, and a committee appointed to wait 
upon the^ two saloonists of the place, who 
soon closed their dram shops and signed a 
pledge not to open again in Newport. A 
firm of druggists, however, comprising 
William M. and William L. Triplett (father 
and son), refused to sign the same pledge, 
ofiering one of their own drafting, which 
allowed them to sell liquor for " medical, 
mechanical, chemical and sacramental pur- 
poses." They were publicly charged, in a set 
of formal resolutions, with selling liquor by 
wholesale for drinking purposes, but they de- 
nied having done so for a long time. The 
controversy over their case M-as long and bit- 
ter, but they held their ground. Since then 







Wi 



the senior member of the firm has died, and 
the junior has moved away. 

In December following an enraged woman 
from the country came into town and smashed 
in the windows of a saloon where her hus- 
band was spending too much of his time, 
made a general " scatterment" among thein- 
ma'tes and soon persuaded her loafing husband 
to take a straight line for home. 

In 1877 the Murphy, or blue-ribbon move- 
ment struck Newport like a cyclone. At tlie 
very first meeting 153 signed the pledge, and 
in a few days afterward probably as many 
more. But the red-ribbon movement, inau- 
gurated by Tyler Mason in 1879, proved to 
have more vitality. Of this, Thomas Cush- 
maii, William Gibson and Robert B. Sears 
were in succession presidents. 

A "Woman's Christian Temperance Union 
was organized in Newport, in which the lead- 
ers were Mrs. Zachariah Thornton, Mrs. Ram- 
sey, Mrs. Ervin Lamb, Mrs. Sears and others. 
At one time they had forty or filty members 
or more, but their meetings have been discon- 
tinued. In connection with the Perrysville 
union, they for a time edited a temperance 
column in the Hoosier State. 

Order of Eclampsus Vitus! — Thi sis the 
high-sounding title, apparently Greek or 
Latin, of an imaginary secret society, taking 
its rise at Newport and other points in this 
county probably about fifteen years ago, 
whose entertainment consists in blindfolding 
the candidate for initiation and playing a 
variety of make-believe tricks upon him. 



The Presbyterians organized a church here 
many years ago, ran down and reorganized in 
the spring of 1875, by Rev. Mitchell, of 
Clinton, with only seven members. The 
ruling elders were M. G. Rhoads and I. B. 
Fusselman, now of Danville, Illinois. Mr. 



Rhoads and his wife are the only members 
now, and there is no regular preacliing. The 
church building, a frame about 40x50 feet, 
on Market street a little ea?t of the public 
square, was erected probably about forty 
years ago, soon after the first organizatiosi 
was effected, and is now occupied by the 
United Brethren. There has never been a 
resident pastor at Newport. Among the 
earlier pastors were Rev. J. Hawks, of Ptr- 
rysville, some thirty years ago, who died 
about ten years afterward; Rev. Henry Ba- 
con, now of Toledo, Ohio, then of Covington, 
Indiana; after a vacancy. Rev. Mitchell 
preached once a month for a part of a year, 
1875-'76. 

The Methodists organized a class at New- 
port in primitive days. In time they built a 
church. When this became old, and the con- 
gregation too large for it, it was sold and 
some time afterward torn down. Tlie pres- 
ent large edifice was erected about 1851, ex- 
cept that eighteen feet have since been added. 
The present membership is 175, including a 
few probationers. The class-leaders are Rev. 
John A. Farrett, a local preacher, and Abel 
Sexton. Exhorter, John Henson. Stewards — 
II. H. Conley, C. S. Davis, David Hopkins, 
James Hasty and Joshua N. Davis. Sunday- 
school all the year, with an average attend- 
ance of 125, superintended by Abel Sexton 
for the last twenty years. Rev. Ricliaid S. 
Martin, pastor, occupying the very fine par- 
sonage on East Market street, built in 1882. 
The greatest revivals, or periods of special 
interest, were under the ministrations of 
Revs. Richard Robinson, about 1860, W. A. 
Smith and J. H. Hollingsworth. 

The United Brethren Church at Newport 
was organized in 1870, by Rev. Samuel Gar- 
rigus, who was then a resident of Bellmore, 
Parke County, but is now at Crawfordsville, 
tliis State. The society at first comprised but 



twelve or fourteen members, but it has in- 
creased to ninety, principally under the labors 
of the present pastor, Rev. B. F. Dungan, 
within the last few months. The first class- 
leader was C. M. P.arkes; the present class- 
leader is Eettie R. Smith; assistant 
class-leader, Mrs. Belle Thornton. These 
ladies have a very large field of spiritual 
work, compared with class-leaders generally. 
A lively Sunday-school of about seventy pu- 
pils is maintained throughout the year, super- 
intended by Mrs. Thornton. The steward of 
the church at this point is Z. P. Thornton. 
The society at present worships in the Pres- 
byterian church, on Market street, one block 
east of the public square, but they contem- 
plate building a house of worship this year. 
A pleasant house is rented for a parsonage in 
the west part of the village. 

Eev. B. F. Dungan, minister in charge of 
the United Brethren churches of the Newport 
Circuit, Upper "Wabash Conference, was born 



in Fountain County, Indiana, in 1863. His 
parents, Benjamin T. and Hannah (Camp- 
bell, nee Shoup) Dungan, are both living in 
Parke County. Both the parents are natives 
of Ohio; father of Scotch, German and Irish 
ancestry, and the mother of German. Mr. 
Dungan was brought up on a farm, and has 
always been an industrious, hard-working 
laborer, both with mind and body. Was or- 
dained a local preacher in the church of his 
choice June 28, 1883, and since September, 
1885, ho has been a member of the annual 
conference. Having a strong physical foun- 
dation and a high ambition, he is a '' man of 
destiny " in its noblest sense. June 13, 1883, 
he married Miss Mary Taulby, daughter of 
C. Columbus and Eraeline Taulby, and a na- 
tive of Boone County, Indiana. Both her 
parents are deceased. Since September, 1886, 
Mr. and Mrs. Dungan have been residents of 
Newport. 











SETTLEMENT. 




N this township, more 
than any other in the 
county, where the In- 
dian villages, the In- 
dian battlefields, the 
first trading posts and 
the first settlements. While the 
first settler in the county was 
John Vannest, in Clinton Town- 
in 1816, Eugene Township 
was more rapidly settled at the 
beginning than was Clinton. It 
was in Eugene Township that the 
Groenendykes, Thompsons, Por- 
ters, Armours, Colletts, Hepburns, 
Colemans, Malones, Naylor, 
Slielbys, etc., settled, all on the Big Vermill- 
ion Kiver. Most of these have numerous 
and prominent descendants. Although the 
first mill in the county is claimed for Clinton 
Township, — built by John Beard in 1819 or 
'20, — probably the first large and reliable 
mill in the county was built by John Groenen- 
dyke, about the same time or shortly after, on 




the Big Yerniillion, at the point in the 
nortliern portion of the village of Eugene 
still occupied by the largest and best mill in 
the county. 

The following list of early settlers is not 
designed to be a complete catalogue; it is 
only a chronological classification of some of 
the most impoitant arrivals, from the data 
available. 

1816. — Noah Hubbard, with a wife and a 
large number of children. After residing 
here many years he became a Mormon and 
went to Missouri, to join liis people, then to 
Nauvoo, Illinois, remaining with them until 
they were driven away from there, about 
1847, when he returned to this county and 
began preaching the peculiar doctrine. Ee- 
joining the Mormon colony at Council Bluft's, 
Iowa, he died there. His wife, Catharine, 
then returned to this section of the country, 
and finally died near this county, in Illinois. 
Their daughter, Pamelia, married a man 
named Curtis. 

1818. — Isaac Coleman settled three miles 



iSSSHSSS^ 



EUGENE TOWNSHIP. 



south of Eugene, on the little prairie since 
known by his name. Judge J. M. Coleman 
came to the township a subsequent year, from 
Virginia, settling on section 16, 17 north, 9 
west, and was long intimately associated with 
the Colletts. He had helped [to lay out the 
city of Indianapolis, and also the town of 
Terre Haute, where he also built the old 
coTirt-house. In this county he was one of 
the first grand jurors and associate judges. 
He afterward moved to Iowa City, where he 
built the State house, died and was buried. 

This year came Major James Blair, who 
settled on the northeast quarter of section 16, 
17 north, 9 west; and at his cabin on this 
place was held the first court in the county. 
Mr. Blair had been a sharp-shooter on Lake 
Erie, under Commodore Perry, in the war 
of 1812, when he was detailed to shoot at the 
Indians in the rigging of the British war 
vessels; but at the very first fire of Perry's 
artillery the Indians were so frightened that 
they hastily " scuttled " down into 'the hold, 
and there were no Indians for Mr. Blair to 
do his duty upon. As his vessel sailed past 
the British men-of-war, he could see the 
glittering tin canisters down through the 
muzzles of their guns. For his faithful ser- 
vices, Mr. Blair received a medal from the 
Government. On one occasion, after he 
became a resident of this county, he was a 
candidate for the Legislature, he attended a 
shooting-match, participated, and aimed so 
well that every naan present voted for him at 
the ensuing election! On still another occa- 
sion he played an amusing trick upon the 
simple-minded pioneers and Indians, in the 
settlement of a controversy between them. 
See section on Indians. 

Blair married a daughter of Judge Coleman, 
resided for a time on Coleman's Prairie, and 
then moved up the river and founded Perrys- 
ville, which place he named in honor of his 



brave commander. Commodore O. II. Perry, 
remaining there until his death. 

Both Blair ,and Coleman had an intimate 
acquaintance with the Indians, and lived in 
friendship with them for a number of years. 
It frequently fell to theii- lot to act as peace- 
makers between the Indians and what were 
termed the "border ruffians," who were much 
the worse class of the two. These two pio- 
neers always spoke in the highest terms of 
Se-Seep, the last chief who lived in the 
vicinity, who was said to be 110 years old 
when he was foully murdered by a renegade 
Indian of his own tribe. Like the fading 
autumn leaves, the aborigines of the forest 
died away. The guns and dogs of the white 
man frightened away the game from their 
hunting grounds, or destroyed it, and the 
virtue of a dire necessity called upon them to 
emigrate, to make room for the ax and plow, 
the cabin and the school-house, of the incom- 
ing white man. 

1819. — John Groenendyke came from near 
Ovid, Cayuga County, New York, first to 
Terre Haute in 1818, and the next year to 
this county, settling on the Big Vermillion 
where Eugene now stands. He was the father 
of James — who built the " Big Vermillion," 
the first large grist-mill in the county already 
referred to — and Samuel, and the grandfather 
of Hon. John Groenendyke and his cousin 
Samuel, and also the grandfather of the pres- 
ent Colletts. The name was originally Van 
Groenendycke, which the express agent at Eu- 
gene, Samuel, has abbreviated still further to 
Grondyke — a word of two syllables, the first 
syllable being pronounced groan. The first 
family of this line came to America from 
Holland with the Knickerbockers in 1617, 
settling in New Amsterdam (New York). 

1821. — James Armour settled here soon 
after Mr. Groenendyke, and assisted in build- 
ing the mill; he moved to Illinois over twenty 



HISTORY OF VEIIMILLION COUNTY. 



years ago. Alexander Arrasraitli, born in 
Kentucky, in 1795, emigrated to Sullivan 
County, Indiana, in 1818, and in 1821 (or 
1824 according to one authority) to this 
county. lie died at his residence two and a 
half miles south of Eugene, January 15, 
1875, having been a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal church for forty years. He was 
the father of Richard Arrasmith, born in 
Sullivan County in 1818, and of Thomas Ar- 
rasmith, a wagon-maker at Newport. 

1822.— William Thompson, father of James, 
John and Andrew, and of Mrs. Jane Shelby, 
from Pennsylvania, settling near the big spring 
a mile south of Eugene, since known by his 
name. Their descendants have been economi- 
cal, industrious and fortunate, accumulating 
a large amount ot property. This year also 
came Benjamin Shaw, from Vigo County, 
but originally from Kentucky, and settled 
near Eugene, and afterward on the Little 
Vermillion, about live miles west of New- 
port, where he died nearly half a century 
afterward. The widow, nee Elizabeth Elli- 
ott, who was born in Shelby County, Ken- 
tucky, October 21, 1802, survived until 
November 19, 1884, when she died in Terre 
Haute, a member of the Baptist church. 
After the death of her husband she moved to 
Eugene and lived there until 1879. They 
were the parents of ten children, three of 
whom survived their mother, namely, Mrs. 
Wilson Naylor, Mrs. John Groeneudyke and 
Robert E. Shaw, who was born here in 1829; 
they all reside in Terre Haute. Andrew Tip- 
ton, born in Kentucky in 1800, came here in 
1822, and remained until his death, and J. 
W. Tipton, from Ohio, settled on the Wabash 
River. His daughter Polly married Mr. 
Johnson, and died April 2, 1876, in the 
eighty-second year of her age, a member of 
the Cumberland Presbyterian church. 

1823. — Lewis Jones located here probably 



about 1823, and died many years ago. J. A. 
J ones, born in 1821, was brought here in 
1823. 

1824. — Jones Lindsey, born in Ohio in 
1818, came here this year. The next year 
there arrived Oliver Lindsey, born in the 
same State in 1807. Both are still living in 
this county. Judge Rezin Shelby, who be- 
came very wealthy, died many years ago. 
His wife, nee Jane Thompson, who came twn 
years previously, was born in Pennsylvania in 
1798, and died but a few years ago. Their 
son. Major David Shelby, died in the last 
war. 

1825. — The parents of James Shewanl, 
who was born this year. Ezekiel Sheward 
died fifteen or eighteen years ago. 

1826.— William Fultz, Sr., born in Penn- 
sjdvania in 1805, with his wife Nancy, came 
to Eugene Township either this year or in 
1828, locating on Sand Prairie. They had 
thirteen children, and are not now living. 
The parents of Joseph Holtz, who was born 
in Ohio in 1822, came to the coxmty this 
year. John Holtz, born in the same State 
the same year, settled here in 1834. 

1827. — Samuel W. Malone, born in Ohio 
in 1810, came to Helt Township, this county, 
in 1824, and to Eugene in 1827, where he is 
still living, running a hotel. W. M. New- 
man, born in Virginia in 1811, still living 
here. Mariin Patrick came some time prior 
to 1827. Hiram Patrick, born here in 1829, 
is still here, and William Patrick, born in 
this county in 1831, lived here many years 
and went to Missouri. Thomas Patrick is 
yet another old resident. This year or pre- 
viously came the father of John Ross, who 
was born in Ohio in 1829, and brought here 
the same year. 

1828. — Ignatius Sollars, who died in June, 
1833. Nancy, wife of Truman Sollars, died 
September 15, 1869, aged fifty-seven and a 



EUGENE TOWNSHIP. 



half years. Mrs. Jane Case, widow of Philo 
Case, was born in Pennsylvania in 1809, and 
died here long ago. Matthew Cole, born in 
Ohio in 1824, was brought to this county in 
1828, as was also Jesse Smith, from Tennes- 
see, the year of his birth. The latter died 
long ago. This year came also W. L. Nay- 
lor, and the next year Lewis T. Naylor, who 
is living here. Both were born in Ohio, W. 
L. in 1821, and Lewis T. in 1826. Benja- 
min Naylor, another old resident, was born 
also in 1826. Jacob lies, who died many 
years ago, was the father of James B., born 
in 1829, and Jacob H., born in 1833, both in 
this county. 

1829. — John Hepburn, Sr., who was 
born in Virginia in 1800, died here about 
1880. John Hepburn Jr., was born in this 
county in 1833. William Hepburn was 
born in Ohio in 1823, and was brought here 
in 1829. (The above name is pronounced he- 
burn.) Enoch W. Lane, born in Ohio in 
1798, died over thirty years ago. 

1830. — John Sims, born in Virginia in 
1808, lived a mile and a half south of Eugene 
a number of years ago. "Crate" Sims, his 
son, was born in Virginia the same year. 
Charles S. Little, from Virginia, located near 
Eugene in 1830, aad died in 1852, at the age 
of sixty-three years. His wife, whose maiden 
name was Kachel Moore, died, seven miles 
southwest of Newport, in 1881, aged eighty- 
one years. (See sketcli of Eufus P. Little.) 

Eev. Enoch Kinsbury came from Massa- 
chusetts to Eugene about the year 1830, and 
organized the Presbyterian church which still 
survives at that place. His wife Fanny G. 
taught school there for a time. Their eldest 
son, James G. Kingsbury, one of the editors 
and publishers of the Indiana Farmer at 
Indianapolis, was born at the residence of 
Dr. Asa E. Palmer two miles north of 
Eugene, in 1832. The same year the family 



removed to Danville. Illinois, where Mr. 
Kingsbury organized a church and preached 
for many years. He also acted as a home 
missionary, preaching in neighboring counties 
both in Indiana and Illinois, till the close of 
his life in 1868. 

1831. — Harrison Alderson, who died in 
early day. His wife Elizabeth, born in Vir- 
ginia in 1822, has ^also been long deceased. 

1832.— Philo and Milo Hosford, twins, 
born in New York in 1811. Milo died in 
January, 1880, a man having always been 
noted for equauimity,humility and trustworth- 
iness. Was long in the employ of Samuel 
Grondyke. Joseph Wigley, this year or 
previously; now dead. William was born in 
this county this year. Either this year or 
next came Joseph and Sarah Moore, from 
Ohio; the latter is still residing here. She 
was born in Maryland in 1803. 

1833. — Isaac A. Brown, Sr., born in Tennes- 
see in 1816, settled "Brown Town," and is still 
living. Has weighed in his life-time over 300 
pounds. W. F. Shelato, a resident, was born 
in this county in 1833. 

1834. — John Eheuby, either this year or 
before, from Illinois, where he had settled in 
1826. William , Eheuby was born in this 
county in 1834. J. W. Boyd, who was born 
in Pennsylvania in 1828, died a number of 
years ago. 

1837.— The parents of Edward B. and 
Joseph Johnson; father died many years ago. 
Edward B. was born in Indiana in 1830, and 
Joseph in this county, in 1834. Goldman 
M. Hart, born in Tennessee in 1809, died in 
1886; widow survives. James C.Tutt,born in 
Virginia in 1816, now living in the southern 
part of the county. 

1839. — Barney Vandevander, born in Illi- 
nois in 1827, is a resident of Eugene. 

Other pioneers, whose years of arrival are 
not given, are: Zeno Worth and Shubael 






niSTORT OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



il 



Gardner, from North ^Carolina, who settled 
Walnut Grove: Mr. Worth selected lands 
which have been held by his family to the 
fourth generation. Alexander Eichardson 
and wife Mahala at Eugene, he died in In- 
dianapolis in 1864 (or '74), and she March 3, 
1880, at the age of seventy years. She was 
born in Knox County, Kentucky, and was but 
eight years of age when her parents moved to 
this State, settling at Bloomington. Lewis 
HoUingsworth was born in this county in 
1835. On Coleman's Prairie settled families 
by the name of Wilson, Dicken, Hopkins, etc 
John K. Porter, A. M., circuit judge for 
many years, and an advanced farmer between 
Eugene and Newport, was born in Pittsfield, 
Massachusetts, February 22, 1796, of an 
"old English" family; graduated at Union 
College, Schenectady, New York, in 1815, 
taking the first honors of his class; studied 
law, and in 1818 became a pa-tner of his pre- 
ceptor; about 1820 he came to Paoli, Orange 
County, Indiana, wliere he was county clerk, 
postmaster and circuit judge. Wliile there 
he married Mary Worth. Keceiving from 
the Legislature the appointment as President 
Judge of Western Indiana, he moved to this 
county, settling in Eugene Township. His 
circuit extended from the Ohio River to 
Lake Michigan. His term expired in 1837. 
Here he was elected judge of tlie Court of 
Common Pleas for the counties of Parke and 
Vermillion, which office he held until his 
death, about 1850. He was a prominent 
statesman in early day, in laying the founda- 
tion of Indiana Jurisprudence. Was a close 
reader of Eastern agricultural papers, and 
also of the ancient classics, and foreign quar- 
terly reviews and magazines. His conversa- 
tional powers were accordingly very great, 
and his letters and contribiitions to the press 
were gems of eloquence. He was in cor- 
resjiondence, more or less, with such men as 



General Harrison, Henry Clay, Daniel Web- 
ster, etc., besides many Georgia " colonels." 
Prominent men of Indiana were often his 
guests. He was the leading spirit in all pub- 
lic mass meetings in his neighborhood as- 
sembled for deliberation on measures of public 
welfare. AVas president of the Logansport 
convention, which gave initial direction to 
the construction of the Wabash Valley Eail- 
road. 

As an agriculturist he was scientific and in 
advance of all his neighbors, — so far indeed 
as often to excite their ridicule. He led in 
the rearing of fine-wooled sheep, and in the 
cultivation of Switzer lucerne, ruta-bagas, 
sugar beets, moris multicaulis, Baden coi-n 
and hemp. Although these rare things never 
were remunerative in cash, they paid well in 
pleasure. 

Judge Porter's children were John AV., de- 
ceased, Isaac, Dewey and Abba. Jolin W. 
married Henrietta, daughter of Andrew 
Tipton, a neighbor, and their family con- 
sisted of two sons and four daughters. Tlie 
widow is still living, on the old homestead. 
Isaac is a successful business man of Dan- 
ville, Illinois. Dewey is a farmer on the old 
homestead. Abba married Dr. Davidson, of 
California, who afterward returned to this 
coimty and died on his farm near the old 
homestead. 

MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS. 

;^ugene Township, as will be seen from 
several pages of this work, is noted for an- 
tiquities. Besides those related in the intro- 
ductory chapters of this history, we specify 
two or three more in this connection, for want 
of a better classification. 

In 1869 Prof John Collett discovered in a 
mound near Eugene a small coin upon wliicli 
was an untranslatable inscription, in char- 



■ -■-■ ■ -^ ■ ■g iCT 



'■■■■■■nMaWMgia'aS 






EUGENE TOWNSHIP. 



acters closely resembling Arabic. The mound 
was covered with full-grown forest trees. 

Early settlers near Eugene found an ax 
growing in the heart of an oak witli 125 
rings of growth outside of it, thus indicating 
that the implement was left there as early as 
1712, probably by a French missionary. 
While it is generally understood, and is gen- 
erally true, that a ring of wood growth indi- 
cates a year's time, the question has recently 
been mooted by botanists whether it is always 
exactly true, as some of them seem to have 
evidence that there is variation both ways, — ■ 
that it^, that some unfavorable seasons pro- 
duce no distinct ring, while other and more 
favorable years sometimes produce two rings. 
Different kinds of trees, different stages of 
development and different situations also pro- 
duce variatit)ns. 

In zoology, the following incident illus- 
trates a rare trait of aninral nature: One 
evening about sundown, in April, 18G8, as 
<'Eel" Vickers, who lived about four miles 
northwest of Eugene, was returning home 
from a house-raising, he was suddenly alarmed 
by the scream of a lynx, which he soon dis- 
covered was in pursuit of him. Being un- 
armed, he dared not give battle, and began 
to run homeward with all his might. Of 
course the beast could easily enough have 
overtaken Vickers at a bound or two, when- 
ever it desired, but such is feline nature that 
it occasionally rested a moment and screamed 
most territically. When Vickers approached 
his house the animal jumped around in trout 
of him, to intercept his passage to the house; 
but at this critical moment the dogs arrived 
and chased it away. Its previoiis yelling had 
alarmed them and brought them out just in 
time, but with not a second to lose ! 

November 7, 1874, George Barbour, a 
cooper from Browntowu, went to Eugene, 
with five or six other hands, and he, with two 



or three others, became very drunk. On 
their way home Barbour was murdered, in 
this township, and his body so concealed that 
it was not found until January 18 following, 
when a man named Smith was passing along 
the road and chanced to notice a dog at some 
distance, devouring a suspicious-looking mass! 
The victim was a man about twenty-four years 
of age. In his pockets were found several 
photographs, two or three letters, and a re- 
ceijjt from the Coopers' Union, of Terre 
Haute, for quarterly dues as a member of 
that organization. 

EUGENE. 

This village was laid out by S. S. Collett, 

in 1827, about the "Big Vermillion" mill of 

James Groenendyke, on a most eligible site. 

Samuel W. Malone, the present hotel-keeper, 



who located here in 1827, is the oldest liv 



mg 



resident, and is still an active man. James 
F. Naylor, fatiier of William L., came the 
next year. 

As previously remarked, Eugene is another 
example of those niimerous towns that were 
killed by the railroad passing just at killing 
distance; but it is a beautiful place for a 
quiet residence. The present population is 
estimated at about 500. Two or three con- 
spiciious features strike the stranger who 
visits the place. One is, a most magnificent 
row of sugar-maple shade trees for a distance 
of two squares on the west side of the main 
business street. Each tree, with a perfectly 
symmetrical head, covers an area of forty feet 
in diameter. In the western part of the 
village is the most beautiful, perfect, large 
white elm the writer ever saw. 

The ground upon which Eugene is situated 
is just sandy enough to be good for garden- 
ing, and at the same time prevent being 
muddy in rainy seasons. Wells are sunk 
only eighteen or twenty feet to find the purest 



r 



284 



HISTORY OF VERMILLION COUNT t. 



water, in a bed of gravel. Several large 
springs are in the vicinity. The river here, 
especially below the mill-dam, aft'ords the 
best fishing of all points probably within a 
radius of iifty miles or more. Fish weighing 
sixty pounds or more are sometimes caught, 
and German carp, one of the planted tish, 
weighing eight pounds, are occasionally cap- 
tured. 

The country here is all underlaid with 
coal. There is one vein of nine feet, with 
only a seam of ten or twelve inches di- 
viding it. 

Among the modern enterprises of Eugene 
is the organization of the Joint Stock Fair 
Association, who held their iirst fair last fall, 
beginning September 28, 1886. James Ma- 
lone, President; H. D. Sprague, Vice-Presi- 
dent; John S. Grondyke, Secretary; M. 
G. Ilosford, Assistant Secretary; II. O. 
Peters, Treasurer; J. E. Whij^ple, Assistant 
Treasurer; J. E. Bennett, Superintendent; 
G. L. Watson, Assistant Superintendent. 
Directors — -J. II. lies, Samuel Grondyke, N. 
Vl. Tutt, Eli ]\IcI)aniel, Dr. E. A. Flaugher, 
Fred Iliberly, William Collett, Henry Dicka- 
5on, Milton Wi-ight, John Lane and James 
Arrasmith, — a formidable list of the best 
names in the northern part of the county. 
Their exhibition last fiill was greatly cur- 
tailed by rainy weather. 

On the bank of the river here was erected 
Ijy James Groenendyke, some time previous 
to 1824, a water, saw and grist-mill, which, 
with its successors, has enjoyed the greatest 
notoriety of all in the county. While Mr. 
Coleman owned it many years ago, the dam 
was washed away, and the present mill, 
erected in 1885, is the third building on the 
site, two others having been burned down. 
It is a large roller mill, owned and managed 
l>y Samuel Bowers, recently from Danville, 
Illinois. 



There is no newspaper at Eugene. The 
Eugene News Letter was started by Dr. B. 
M. Waterman at Eugene in 1837, the first 
newspaper in Vermillion County. It lived 
but six months. Eobert B. Dickason, now of 
Perrysi'ille, was a compositor in the office. 
Thus Eugene Township has been the seat ot 
the first and of the last newspapers of tl- 
county. 



or Eugene Station, is the name of the depot 
at the railroad crossing a mile and a quarter 
southeast of Eugene. An ambitious little 
village is springing up about the station. A 
fine grist-mill, several stores, a newspaper, 
etc., are in full blast. The place was at first 
called Osonimon, after an Indian chief of that 
name. 

The "Cayuga Mills" were built in 1885 
by the Cayuga Milling Company, consisting 
of Samuel K. Todd, Monroe G. Ilosford and 
Eli H. McDanieL It is a frame building, 
36 X 42 feet, four stories high, and has the 
full roller process, with a capacity of 100 
barrels a daj'. The engine is the Ide auto- 
matic, sixty-four-horsepower. All the modern 
improved processes for purifying the wheat 
and manufacturing first-class flour are placed 
in the mill, including the recently invented 
Case's automatic wheat weigher. Mr. Todd 
is the experienced miller who runs the works. 
The mill was built in a wheat-field, and was 
the first at the station. 

May 14, 1887, is the date of the first issue 
of the Cayuga Journal, by James E. Whipple. 
It is a six-column folio, "independent in all 
things and neutral in nothing." The pro- 
prietor and editor was born at Vinton, Iowa, 
September 8, 1857, the son of Lucien \\. 
Whipple, who has been a resident of Eugene 
from 1840 to the present, except a few years 
in loM-a. Mr. Whipple was brought up in 



EUGENE TOVtNSUIP. 



Eugene, where lie was bookkeeper for Mr_ 
Peters a few years, and was also insurance 
agent. He has been justice of the peace, and 
is now deputy prosecuting attorney, and 
secretary of the Cayuga Building and Loan 
Association. He married Ellen Thompson, 
daughter of John Thompson, deceased. They 
have one child, named Blaine. 

Among the physicians of Eugene we may 
mention Dr. K. M. Waterman, who came 
here previous to 1837 and lived here until his 
death, aboiit 1867 or '68, except a short time 
at Lodi, Indiana, whence he entered the 
army. Pie was a " regular " physician, from 
lihode Island, and started the iirst newspaper 
in Vermillion County, as elsewhere noticed. 
Dr. James McMeen practiced here many 
years, and in 1886 removed to Danville, 
Illinois. Dr. "William C. Eichelberger is 
another physician of Eugene. 

Previous to 1871 the village of Eugene 
had but three and a half months' school per 
annum, the only fund for maintaining it 
l>eing that which was drawn from the State, 
and the school-house was an incompetent 
frame. In 1872-'73, Anthony Fable, the 
trustee, levied the first tax for the support of 
schools, and also for the erection of a brick 
school-house worthy of the place. He met 
with sonic opposition, a few individuals think- 
ing he transcended his authority. They 
obtained an injunction restraining the collec- 
tion of the tax, but, through the intervention 
(if Messrs. Jump & Eggleston, attorneys at 
Newport, the injunction was dissolved, and 
tlie work went on. The people also were 
generally convinced that if a new school-house 
were not built then it would be many years 
before one would be built. Accordingly the 
structure was completed in 1873, at a cost of 
$f],000. It has four rooms; the school is 
graded, and kept six months in the year; and 
everything now seems to be p: 



smoothly. James Malone is the present 
trustee. Mr. Fable was trustee 1869-'81, 
and for a time sustained school nine months 
to the year. 

SOCIETIES. 

A Masonic lodge was organized at Eugene 
in 1847, with forty-six or forty-seven mem- 
bers. Among the first officers were C. M. 
Comages, Worshipful Master; Harvey Skel- 
ton. Senior Warden; Dr. E. M. Waterman, 
Junior Deacon; George Sears, Secretary; 
Anthony Fable, Treasurer; Mr. Elsley, Tyler. 
Mr. Fable is the only one of the original 
official board who is now living. The mem- 
bership in the course of time reached sixty in 
number, comprising men from almost all 
parts of the county. The lodge, however, 
ran down about thirty years ago, as other 
lodges were organized at neighboring points 
and drew away the membership. Newport, 
Lodi and Perrysville obtained their nuclei 
from the Eugene lodge. Harvey Skelton 
was the last master. 

Setting Sun Lodge, No. 583, I. 0. 0. F., 
was organized April 27, 1881, with seventeen 
members, and the following officers: Will- 
iam II. Hood, Noble Grand; E. B. Johnson, 
Vice Grand; H. O. Peters, Treasurer; D. W. 
Bell, Secretary. The present membership is 
twenty-seven, and the officers are: D. L. Pe- 
ters, Noble Grand; James Thomas, Vice- 
Grand; J. T. Iliggins, Secretary; D. W. 
Bell, Treasurer. 

Eugene Post, No. 2'B, G. A. R., was or- 
ganized in 1876, with about twenty-two 
members, afterward increased to thirty-five, 
but now there are only ten. The first officers 
were: William C. Eichelberger, Post Com- 
mander; E. B. Johnson, Senior Vice-Com- 
mander; Thomas Thompson, Junior Vice- 
Commander; William Johnson, Adjutant; 
L. R. Whipple, Officer of the Day; John C. 



BISTORT OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



Si 



Pierce, Cliaplain, and Yan Bureii Armour, 

. Present officers: R. M. Stnrms, Post 

Commander; E. B. Johnson, Vice-Com- 
mander; L. R. Whipple, Adjutant; William 
J. Ladd, Officer of the Day; William Morris, 
Officer of the Guard ; Homer Lunger, Chap- 
lain; Thomas Patrick, Quartermaster; David 
Cummins, Surgeon. 

The Sons of Veterans once organized here 
and held a few meetings. 

E%i<jene Council, No. J/., Sovereigns of In- 
dustry, was organized in August, 1874, but 
surrendered its charter a few months after- 
ward. It had some thirty-five inembers. 
John Grondyke was President, Joseph Mc- 
Clellan, Vice-President, and Jesse Wallace, 
Secretary. The work of the society was 
mainly of an intellectual and social nature. 

Eugene Lodge, No. 351, I. 0. G. T., was 
organized January 24, 1873, and ran until 
about 1884, since which time meetings have 
been suspended. At one time it had as 
many as seventy members. W. II. Hood 
was the last elected cliief, and II. H. Ilosford, 
lodge deputy. Tiie Good Templars had or- 
ganized once or twice previously, and "ran 
down." 

The "red-ribbon" movement was intro- 
duced here by Tyler Mason, and the "blue- 
ribbon" organization by George McDonald. 
Samuel Chambers, known as "Silvertop," a 
tamous temperance organizer, reorganized the 
blue-ribbon society, and James Dunn, an 
old-time rouser, reorganized it again. In 
February, 1886, a total abstinence society, 
compose'd mainly of reformed drunkards, 
was organized, with Captain W. S. Jewell as 
President; L. R. Whipple, Vice-President; 
J. E. Whipple, Secretary; Ben Lang, Treas- 
urer, and David Iliggins, Sergeant-at-Arms. 
From some cause, but no reason, the society 
was dubbed the "Reformed Roosters." 

The "woman's crusade" never struck Eu- 



gene, but a Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union was established here, of which Mrs. 
AVhitlock was president. The organization 
was effected by Mrs. Dr. Spotswood and 
Mrs. Johnson, of Perrysville, but it was 
suffered to go down. 

There is no living temperance organization 
now in Eugene. 

THE CHURCUKS. 

The Eugene Preshyterian Church was first 
organized in 1826, when the first meetings 
were held at the house of William Thomp- 
son, a log cabin a little west of the depot, on 
the Big Vermillion. The name at first was 
the "River and County Vermillion Ciiurch," 
and comprised, April 29, 1826, Asa Palmer, 
William Thompson, William Wilson, Ann 
Wilson, William Armour, Ruhama Armour, 
Eliza Rodman, Hannah Laughlin, Margaret 
Caldwell, Mary West, Mavy Thompson, Lucy 
Thompson (who afterward became the wife 
of Samuel Grondyke, Sr.), and Susan 
Wilson. 

The first minister was Rev. James Hum- 
mer, and other ministers who have since 
served have been Revs. Baklridge, Kings- 
berry, Cozad, Conklin, C. K. Thompson, 
Venable, Crosby, Henry ]\[. Bacon and W. 
Y. Allen, of Rockville. During Rev. Ba- 
con's time, 1856-'59, the church grew to tlie 
number of forty communicants, but from 
that time to 1866 they were withoTit a regu- 
lar supply. In 1867 Rev. Allen began 
preaching for tliem once a month, and the 
church has sustained services until the pres- 
ent date. The present pastor is Rev. T. D. 
Fyfte, of Roseville, who preaches here every 
four weeks. The ruling elders have been 
Asa Palmer, William T. Kelly, David Wills, 
James Steele, Robert Kelly, A. J. Richard- 
son, R. II. Ellis and Anthony Fable. Mr. 



EUOENE TOWNSHIP. 



Fable is the only incumbent of tliat office at 
present. 

Tlie present ineuibersliip is about tifty. 
Sunday-school is maintained all the year, 
with George L. Watson as superintendent. 

The second place of meeting was a brick 
dwelling, and the third is the present neat 
frame church, 36 x 60 feet, erected in 1859, 
in partnership with the Methodists, at a cost 
of $3,000, and economically built. It is 
located centrally in the village of Eugene. 

The Ifount Olivet Cumherland Preshy- 
tcrian Church is three and a lialf miles 
southwest of Eugene. 

Of the Ilefhodist Episcopal Church at 



Eugene we cannot give so complete a history, 
on account of its more changeful nature, the 
old records not being kept and the old mem- 
bers dead or moved away. Of course the 
Methodists were early organized at this point, 
as they generally are on the frontier. The 
members number about fifty: twenty-seven 
joined last winter. At this writing (June, 
1887), there are no class-leaders: the steward 
is E. McClellan. The society worships in 
the church which it built in union with the 
Presbyterians, just described. 

At Cayuga the Methodists are about 
to build a church, although they are not yet 
organized at that point. 





HISTORY OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 




HIGHLAND TOWNSHIP, i m 



^'^s^g/'' '^'^"^''^"'^^'"'^^^^'^ -^^'S^'^ 




jIIE time of arrival or 
Ijirtli in this comity of 
tlie pioneers is indicated 
by the years at the liead 
of the respective para- 
graplis. 
1822. — G. S. Hansicker, 
born in Virginia in 1792, died 
iboiit ten or twelve years ago. 
son, H. C, was born in 
this county in 1832. George 
Ilicks, a soldier of the " Revo- 
lutionary war" (one says), was 
a pioneer here; but possibly 
lis is a mistake for George 
W. Ilicks, born in Massachusetts in 1795, 
and died in 1878. His wife, nee Mary Cur- 
tis, was born in 1803 and died in 1868. 
Jacob Ilain, born in Pennsylvania in 1799, is 
dead; his wife is still living. 

1823. — David Goif. born in Connecticut 



in 1799, remained a resident here until his 
death, September 7, 1881. His brother Al- 
mond died here about twenty years ago, and 
his brother Brainard moved to La Porto 
County, this State, where he died. His son 
Philander, born in 1834, in this township, is 
still a resident. Lemon Chenowith, who is 
still living near Perrysville. 

1824. — John Chenowith, settling on the 
Waba-h, died in 1857. Lie was the father 
of Lemon, just referred to, and also of Hiram, 
an older son. Thomas Chenowith was a mem- 
ber of the Constitutional Convention of 
1850, and Isaac Chenowith was State Senator 
lS44-'45. Isaac was born in Kentucky, in 
1794, arrived here in March, 1825, and died 
in April, 1856. William Chenowith, born 
in Ohio in 1823, was brought here in 1832, 
and is still a resident here. Solomon M. 
Jones, born in East Tennessee, April 3,1812, 
died March 15, 1887, leaving a family of ten 



atOHLAND TOWNSHIP. 



children. He was a soldier in the Black 
ilawk war. John N. Jones, Sr., was horn 
Septemher 10, 1809, came here in 18 — , was 
a partner of J. F. Smith in milling and mer- 
chandising for many years, and died June 25, 
1874. YV^illiam Skinner, from Ohio, came 
this year or previously, and died a few years 
afterward. His son Norman was born in 
Ohio in 1816, and died about six years ago, 
and his son Henry was born in this county in 
1825, and is still a resident. Thomas "Wright, 
who is said to have brought the first hogs 
into Yermillion County. One of his oxen 
dying, he cailtivated his first crop of corn 
with a single ox. Milton Wright, born here 
in 1832, is living in this township, and 
Stephen Wright is dead. Both these were 
sons of Thomas. 

1825. — John Fnltz, above Perrysville, died 
many years ago. His sons wei-e John, An- 
drew and William V., all deceased. Allen 
Rodgers, from New HamjDshire, died in Iowa 
or Wisconsin many years ago. J. M. Eodg- 
ers, his son, born in New Hampshire in 1815, 
died in the spring of 1887. 

1826. — James Blair, who had settled before 
this in Eugene Township, under which head 
see a sketch of him. He died at Perrysville, 
May 11, 1861, aged seventy-nine years, and 
Sarah C, his wife, October 16, 1872, at the 
age of seventy-three years. Robert I). Mof- 
fatt, born in New Jersey in 1812, for many 
years a merchant at Perrysville, at which 
place he still resides, retired since 1874. 
David Beauchamp, in range 10, had a large 
family, and died about 1870-'75. John W. 
Beauchamp, born in Ohio in 1821; Andrew, 
his brother, born in 1828, in this county, is 
living in Illinois. Hiram Shaw, born in Ohio 
in 1805; E. G. Shaw, born in this county in 
1830, an old resident. 

1827. — Benjamin Whittenmyer, born in 
Pennsylvania in 1799, died in 1879. His 



son Henry is a resident. Parents of Harvey 
Hunt, who was born in this State in 1820 
and is a citizen here still. William Flesh- 
man, deceased: his son Amos, still livino- 
here, was born in Indiana in 1822. 

1828. — Jonas Metzger, a soldier of the 
war of 1812, from Ohio, died February 9, 
1872, aged seventy-eight years. He settled 
first in Eugene Township, and in Highland 
Township in 1833. Constantine Hughs, 
from Virginia, deceased; his son Ehud, born 
in that State in 1817, is still living here, as 
is also Calvin, born in the same State in 
1826. Israel, William and John Hughes 
were pioneers on Coal Branch. 

1829. — AVilliam Nicholas, born in Virginia 
in 1809, still living liere. Moses, Daniel 
and Charles Bowman, from Virginia. Daniel 
remained here until his death, and Charles 
died in the West. J. S. Stutler, born in 
Ohio in 1820, now deceased. Ezekiel San- 
ders, born in Virginia in 1827, died July 10, 
1875. He first settled in Eugene or Ver- 
million Township, it is said. 

1830.— Richard Sliute, father of Daniel, 
John, Epraim, etc. Elisha N. Reynolds, born 
in Maryland in 1804, died some years ago. 
G. H. Reynolds, born in 1835, is a resident 
here. John Tate, born in Ohio in 1807, still 
living here. Thomas J. Mitchell, born in 
Ohio in 1808, living in Perrysville. James 
A. Prather, born in Xentucky in 1814, died 
here within the last two years. Joseph 
Briner, now living in Perrysville. 

1831. — Herbert Ferguson, born in Virginia 
September 15, 1799, died January 26, 1877; 
Elizabeth B., his wife, was born January 17, 
1813, and died May 27, 1884. William T., 
born in 1832, is their son. Ephraim Betzer, 
from Ohio, came previous to 1831. Jacob 
Betzer, born in Ohio in 1805, died four or 
five years ago. Aaron Betzer went West. 

1832. — Captain Andrew Dennis, a boatman, 



born in New Jersey in 1801, died in Danville 
a few years ago. John Hoobler, a United 
Brethren minister, born in Pennsylvania in 
1801, died in Illinois. William Trosper, 
born in Kentncky in 1808, died in this town- 
ship December 9, 1886. Nehemiah Cossey, 
from Maryland, first to Parke County and in 
1832 to this county; died long ago. His son 
Peter, born in that State in 1812, is also 
deceased. Fielding Pabourn, born in Ken- 
tucky in 1815, died here a few years ago. 
"William H. Carithers from Ohio, long since 
deceased, was the father of Jonathan, Frank 
and Henry, all of whom are living. William 
Callihan, a potter by trade, from Ohio, moved 
on to Danville; was father of Emanuel and 
Simeon. M. B. Carter, present county 
recorder, was born in this county in 1832. 

1833.— J. F., Will P., Thomas H., G. H. 
and David Smith, from Virginia, born 1812 
-'20. G. H. died in 1879; the rest are still 
living here. Thomas Gouty, this year or 
previously, died Jane 10, 1863, aged sixty- 
one years. Elias, his son, was born here in 
1833. Henry Gouty may have settled in 
this township a year or two later; he died in 
1864, and his wife Rebecca died in 1874, at 
the age of seven ty-tive years. David Gouty 
is their son. John S. Kirkpatrick, a miller, 
born in Kentucky in 1812, lived at Gessie 
awhile, and moved to Danville, Illinois, where 
he died. Norman Cade, died soon after 
arrival. His son David has left the county, 
and Henry still lives here. Jacob Givens, 
born in Virginia in 1815, died here. James 
Hanson, father of Smith Hanson. 

1834. — Jacob Rudy, born in Switzerland 
in 1818, died M'ithin a few years. Martin 
Rudy, his father, died some years ago. James 
Rndy is still a resident. Peter Switzer, 
deceased. His son Wesley, boi'n in Ohio in 
1821, is living. 

1835.— Thomas Moore, who died in 1843; 



was the father of Joseph and Washington. 
T. H. Harrison, born in Virginia in 1810, 
still living in this township. 

1836.— John R. and George H. McNeill, 
from Maryland, the former born in 1811 and 
the latter in 1818. Lewis and John Butler, 
from Ohio, the former born in 1813 and the 
latter in 1816; Lewis is deceased and John is 
living in Vermillion Township. Elijah 
Roseberry, who died May 25, 1857, aged 
fifty-one and a half years, and Catharine, his 
wife, who died August 5, 1879, at the age of 
sixty-nine and a half years. Thomas Cush- 
man, born in New York in 1814, now a 
resident of Newport. Has been auditor. 

1837. — James J. Lewis, born in Maryland 
in 1805; still living here. His son J. A., 
born in this State in 1835, died several yeais 
ago; Joshua, another son, lives at Cayuga; 
and Meredith resides in this township. Robert 
J. Gessie, born in Cumberland County, Penn- 
sylvania, in 1809, is still a resident here (see 
sketch). Elhanau Stevens, born in Maryland 
in 1816, is a resident. Price Cliezem, long 
since deceased. Charles Chezem, born in 
Indiana in 1827 has been long a resident. 

1838.— Walter B. Moffatt born in this 
State October 4, 1822, died August 14, 1882. 
Horatio Talbert, long since deceased ; his son 
Henry, born in Pennsylvania in 1816, died a 
few years ago. Samuel Harris, born in 
Virginia in 1819, moved to another section 
of the country. 

1839. — John Dunlap, deceased, born in 
Ireland in 1809. Samuel Swingley and 
Samuel Watt, from Ohio. 

The following names we have, without the 
date of settlement being given : 

John N. Jones, long associated with J. F. 
Smith in the milling and mercantile busi- 
ness; Joseph Cheadle, father of Joseph B., 
present member of Congress, was born May 
9, 1789, in one of the Eastern States, and 



HIGHLAND TOWNSHIP. 



died in this township June 19, 1863; William 
B. Palmer, who died eight or ten years ago; 
William Ilutsonpiller, carpenter at Perrys- 
ville who died many years ago; Daniel 
Mossbei-ger, who also died many years ago; 
Joseph and Elizabeth Howard, deceased; 
John McFall; Archibald Billing, who died 
April 16, 1870, at the age of lifty-two 



years; his father died here, previous to 1833. 
Mr. Thomas II. Smith remarks that there 
are but three persons now keeping house in 
Highland Township who were in tliat rela- 
tion in 1833, when he came here, namely, 
Mrs. Chestie Ilain, Adaline V. Jones and 
Mrs. Glover. 







!• 




1 




ERRYSVILLE was laid 
out in 1826, by James 
Blair, on a beautiful 
elevation on the bank of 
the "Wabash Eiver, and 
named by him in hon- 
'"'^ or of his commander 
on Lake Erie during the war of 
1812, Commodore O. H. Perry. 
For a long time it was the most 
populous town in the county, and 
was an entrepot for a large section 
of country to the north, west ajid 
south of it. In commercial im- 
portance it was for a number of 
years far ahead even of Danville, 
Illinois, a supremacy which was held until 
the present system of railroads was projected. 
Since then it has been a dead town, so dead 
that its very quietness is striking. Even the 
voice of children on summer evenings, so 
common in villages elsewhere is scarcely to 
be heard at their rollicking plays, and the 
passing days are " one eternal Sabbath." 
Grass and weeds have overgrown the streets, 



and the lovely shade-trees continue to do 
their sweetest duty. 

Among the early business men here per- 
haps J. F. Smith, T. II. Smith, J. N. Jones 
and Robert D. Moli'att have been the most 
conspicuous. The old warehouses and grist- 
mill still used to some extent on the bank of 
the river, were built and run for many years 
by Smith & Jones, and are yet owned by the 
senior partner, J. F. Smith, Mr. Jones having 
died. The latter also built another grist-mill 
at the wharf, ■which was burnt down. March 
31, 1884, occurred perhaps the gi-eatest fire 
that ever visited Perrysville, which entirely 
consumed the three principal business houses, 
fine brick structures, two stories high besides 
basement, the property of the Smith Brothers. 
The origin of the fire was from the roof of an 
adjoining building. By this tire the Masonic 
hall, with its records and paraphernalia, was 
destroyed. 

The Perrysville Woolen Mill was erected 
in the western part of town a ycai- or two 
after the war, by Riggs, Head & Co., who 
furnished the machinery mainly from Coving- 



H 



PEBRTSVILLE. 



ton, Indiana, where tliey had previously been 
running a similar factory. The Perrysville 
institution was run until 1881, with only 
partial success. During the latter year, after 
the mill had been standing idle a few montlis, 
Jj. O. Carpenter purchased the building and 
power, and converted it into a flonring-mill, 
of two run of buhrs and a capacity of about 
seventy or eighty barrels of flour per day of 
twenty-four hours. 

H. S. Comingore & Son's " Perrysville 
Stove AVorks," in the southern part of the 
village, is a modern, neat establishment, brick, 
erected in June, 1884. It comprises two Ls, 
the foundry being 25 x 110 feet in dimensions 
and the flnishing room 25 x 84. This firm 
started in business in Perrysville in 1858, in 
a small frame building a little to the north- 
west of tb.eir present place; it has recently 
been torn down and removed. 

A young, ambitions little institution is the 
Perrysville Creamery, on the bank of the 
river. Capacity of the works, about 2,000 
pounds of butter per week. E. A. Lacey, 
secretary of the company, is the superinten- 
dent. J. F. Compton is president and 
treasurer. 

Perrysville has been an incorporated town. 
The first municipal election was held January 
15, 1881, when the following were elected 
trustees: First Ward, William Collins; Second 
Ward, Jolm R. McNeill; Third Ward, Samuel 
Shaner. W. M. Benefiel was elected Clerk; 
Rezin Metzger, Assessor; Lewis A. Morgan, 
Treasurer; and Peter S. Moudy, Marshal. 
Mr. Shaner was elected President. J. F. 
Smith was the next president of the board. 
Mr. Morgan resigned his ofiice as treasurer 
and Mr. Benefiel was appointed in his place, 
still retaining the clerkship. The third presi- 
dent was Lewis Morgan, when John T. Lowe 
was elected clerk and treasurer. 

In the fall of 1884 the question whether 



the corporate capacity of the place should be 
continued was submitted to a vote of the 
citizens, and was decided in the negative by 
a small majority. Under the corporate gov- 
ernment the streets were macadamized, the 
poll tax for the village being kept within its 
limits, and an additional tax raised. Also a 
calaboose was built. A town board of educa- 
tion managed the school affairs. 

That fine, large brick school-house in the 
southern part of town was erected in 1862, 
when Thomas Cushman was trustee. In the 
basement are three rooms, on the first floor 
four, besides tlie hall, and on the second floor 
four. The belfry tower contains also a room 
thirty feet square. The school is graded, and 
is taught by six or seven teachers. Enroll- 
ment, about 170; average attendance, about 
130 or 140. G. W. Dealand, who has been 
the popular principal for the last four years, 
was elected county superintendent of scliools 
on the first Monday of June, 1887. 



As before stated, the first newspaperprinted 
in Vermillion County was the News-Letter^ 
at Eugene, in 1837, which continued but six 
months. Mr. K. B. Dickason, of this i)lace, 
woi-ked on the paper. The office was pur- 
chased by J. H. Jones and moved to Perrys- 
ville the same year, where he published the 
Perrysville Banner. About two years after- 
ward Clapp & Eoney had the paper, when it 
was called the Vermillion Register. Nexl 
it was the \^evrys,vi\\e Rej}uhlican, with Aus 
tin Bishop as editor and proprietor. Then 
Mr. Dickason published here the Perrysville 
Eagle, 1852-'55, which he sold to Mr. 
Ro'oinson, and he to Benjamin Snodgrass, 
who finally let it die; and that was the last 
of the newspaper business in Perrysville, 
although several attempts to establish other 
journals have been made. These papers were 



394 



BISTORT OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



generally independent in politics. The Reg- 
ister or Banner was Democratic. The press 
used was the one which was first brought into 
Indiana in 1804, to Yincennes, whereon the 
Western Sun was printed. 

From the number of the Perrysville Ban- 
ner for February 2, 1839, the Iloosier State 
in 1875 copied the following items, all of 
which will gather increasing interest as years 
roll by: 

J. K. Jones was editor and proprietor. 
This is the twenty-fourth number of its issne. 
It contains five columns to the page, and was 
published at §2 per year if paid in advance; 
otherwise §3. The number contains a large 
amount of Congressional and Legislative 
news of this State, and but very little origi- 
nal or local matter. 

Hiram Barnes, of Perrysville, advertises 
for a " professional " man to take charge of 
an ox team. Edmund James, a justice of the 
peace of Helt Township, publishes an attach- 
ment notice on the atiidavit of Silas Rhoades, 
against the chattels of Simon and Martin 
Gilbert. The name of Permelia Smith ap- 
pears as administratrix of the estate of Dan- 
iel Smith. George W. Palmer, J. P., notifies 
the readers that Ephraim Driscol, of Highland 
Township, had taken up an estray steer four 
years old, which was appraised at $12 by 
James Welch and Tom Lowers. James 
Thompson, school commissioner of the 
county, gives fair warning that he will sell 
fifteen tracts of land for taxes if not paid 
before the day of sale. S. & B. Turman no- 
tify the people where they can procure cheap 
dry goods, etc. "William "Whipps gives no- 
tice of his appointment as administrator of the 
estate of Thomas J. Heed, lately deceased. Per- 
rin Kent also gives notice to the efi"ect that he 
has taken out letters of administration on the 
estate of John Taylor, late of Warren County, 
deceased. The widow and heirs of Jacob 



Parke give due notice that they will make 
application to the next court to have com- 
missioners appointed to assign and set ofl" the 
widow's dower in the real estate of said dece- 
dent. Dr. Waterman gives notice that the 
partnership heretofore existing between him- 
self and Dr. Small is dissolved. Crawford 
& Jackson, proprietors of an oil mill, adver- 
tise that they will give the highest price for 
flax and hemp seed, or castor beans. George 
W. Palmer offers a one-horse wagon and 
harness for sale cheap for cash. J. W. 
Downing, J. P., gives notice that an iron- 
gray mare, taken up by James Rush, was 
appraised by William P. Dole and A. M. II. 
Robinson at §45 before him on the 24th day 
of November, 1838. William Bales, sherift', 
advertises the real estate of John Fosdick for 
sale at public auction, to satisfy a judgment 
in favor of Silas Kellough, William Dunning 
and Isaiah Dill. Joshua Skidmore, of Clin- 
ton, gives notice as follows: ""Whereas, my 
wife Mary has left my bed and board without 
just cause or provocation, I do hereby warn 
all persons, body politic or coi'porate and of 
whatsoever name or title, not to credit or 
harbor her on my account, as I am deter- 
mined not to pay any debts of her contract- 
ing after this date, January 1, 1839." The 
names of Durham Hood and Margaret Craft 
appear as administrators of the estate of John 
Craft, late of Eugene. Roseberry & Jewett, 
dry goods merchants of Perrysville, occupy 
about one-third of a column in enumerating 
their large arrival of new goods. William 
J. Nichols and James H. Cory, of Eugene, 
inform the people where to get their saddles 
and cheap harness. Dr. T. S. Davidson ten- 
ders his professional services to the citizens 
of Perrysville and adjoining country. Hall 
& Gessie announce the reception of new 
goods in a two-inch card. Jones & Smith 
call attention in a four-inch card to their 



PERRTSVILLE. 



stock of fall and winter goods. Nathan Reed 
and J. H. McNiitt request that those in- 
debted to them for professional services come 
forward and square up by cash or note imme- 
diately. Jacob Riley informs the readei's 
that he has found a silk handkerchief, sup- 
posed to be worth |1.2o, which theownercan 
have by paying for the advertisement. G. 
W. Palmer, J. P., gives notice that John 
Fultz has taken up two estray heifers, which 
were appraised at §6 each by Samuel Lacy 
and James Crawford, before him, December 
15, 1838. 

John S. Kirkpatrick flin»s the following 
card to the breeze: " Now Look Out. The 
undersigned, having sold his entire stock of 
groceries, a circumstance follows which can- 
not possibly be avoided, — that his accounts 
must be closed; those knowing themselves to 
be indebted will please make arrangements to 
square the ' yards ' by note or ' plank up the 
simon ' immediately." Miller & Seal warn 
their delinquent custon:ers to look out for a 
thunder gust, and say, " Money we must 
have — peaceably if we can and forcibly if we 
must." George W. Palmer, J. P., advertises 
two estray cows taken up by Horatio Talbert, 
of Highland Township, and appraised at $7 
and §9 by Henry Green and Thomas Moore, 
January 5, 1839. 



Dr. Dinwiddle, said to be a surgeon of the 
regular army, was the first physician located 
at Perrysville. He left some time in the 
'40s. 

Dr. Thornton S. Davidson came about 
1839, and died here aboiit 1851-'o2. 

Dr. Reynolds was probably the next, who 
left about 1850. 

Dr. R. M. Waterman, after practicing here 
awhile, moved to Eugene, where he started 
the Neios-Letter, and then to Lodi, Fountain 

20 



County, where the postoiffice was named after 
him, "Waterman ; served in the army, as Cap- 
tain of Company A, Thirty-first (?) Indiana 
Yolnnteer Infantry, and contracted a disease 
from which he soon afterward died. 

Dr. A. 1). Small, not a graduate, was in 
partnership with Waterman and others, 
became feeble with age, and finally died in 
Milwaukee. 

Dr. John Stuart Baxter, from Virginia, 
was a good surgeon, in partnership with Dr. 
Spotswood for a time, and died in Perrysville, 
in 1853. 

Dr. Dexter F. Leland, from some of the 
Eastern States, arrived here about 1850, was 
a partner of Dr. Spotswood, a physician of 
gentlemanly manners, and died in three or 
four years. 

Dr. Lewis Clark came in 1854, was an 
energetic man, practiced here three or four 
years, and died in Kansas. 

Dr. Lewis Frazee, eclectic, was born in 
New Jersey in 1815, came to Perrysville in 
1863, and died here December 20, 1881. 
His first wife and all the nine children by her 
died before him. Their son George M. began 
practice here in 1870, and died in 1878. 

Dr. J. M. Wilkerson arrived here about 
1851 or '52, and left a few years afterward. 
Dr. L. M. Meering came about the same 
time, remaining only a year. 

Dr. John Kemp, botanic, was here a few 
years a long time ago. 

Dr. J. M. Ballard, from Waveland, prac- 
ticed here from 1857 until his death. 

Dr. Joseph H. Olds came before the war, 
and entered the army, whence he did not 
return to this county. He was a physician 
of considerable attainments. 

Dr. Crooks, a young man in p-trtnership 
with Dr. Clark for a period, moved to 
Lebanon, where he died. 

Dr. B. I. Poland, eclectic, from State Line 



(a village), came to tliis place a lew years ago' 
and two or three years afterward moved to 
Dixon, Illinois. He was rather an oculist 
and aurist. "Was a gentleman. 

The present physicians of Perrysville are 
Drs. E. T. Spotswood, James T. Henderson, 
James Webb, J. W. Smith and D. B. John- 
son. Dr. Johnson has been here since 1870. 
Dr. Webb, eclectic, was brought up in Foun- 
tain County. Dr. Smith is a graduate, has 
been a resident of Perrysville a few years as 
a practitioner, bnt is now traveling. For a 
biography of Dr. Spotswood, see the index 
for another page. Specimens of his poetry 
are also given elsewhere in this volume. 

SOCIETIES. 

Unity Lodge, JSTo. lU, F. c6 A. If., at 
Perrysville, was organized about 1850 or 
before, and increased in time to thirty-four 
members. The earliest record extant is 
dated May, 1853, which gives as officers at 
that time: A. Hill, Worshipful Master; J. S. 
Baxter, Senior Warden; W. P. Johnson, 
Junior Warden; E. D. Moifatt, Secretary; 
G. H. McNeil], Treasurer; W. B. Moffatt, 
Senior Deacon; James Starr, Junior Deacon; 
and Andrew Dennis, Treasurer. The other 
members were E. Brydon, A. C. Blue, John 
Leech, James Benefiel, John L. Stoll, Harvey 
Knapp, James Martin and Lewis L. Gebhart. 
The charter was surrendered to Abel Sexton 
in May, 1859. 

Unity Lodge, No 3U, F. & A. M., was 
chartered May 29, 1867, with the following 
officers: W. B. Moffiitt, Worshipful Master; 
James Hemphill, Senior Warden; Jacob S. 
Stephens, Junior Warden; William Jerrauld, 
Secretary; Ilobert E. Townsley, Treasurer; 
H. M. Townsley, Senior Deacon; John Wolf, 
Junior Deacon ; Thomas Scott,Ty]er. The pres- 
ent membership is forty-six, and the officers: 
Daniel Lyons, Worshipful Master; George E. 



Hicks, Senior Warden; John B. McNeil, 
Junior Warden; W. A. Keerns, Secretary; 
W. A. Collins, Treasurer; John S. TileV, 
Senior Deacon; Martin L. Wright, Junior 
Deacon; D. W. Patterson and M. J. Eudy, 
Stewards; W. P. Hargrave, Chaplain; and 
Smith McCormick, Tyler. 

Unity ChiX])teT, No. 50, 0. E. 8., at Ptr- 
rysville, was instituted March 17, 1882, by 
Willis D. Engle, District Deputy, from 
Indianapolis, with fifteen members; and the 
first officers were — Elizabeth Collins, Wor- 
shipful Master; James Howard, Worshipful 
Prelate; Mrs. Sophie Eudy, A. M.; and 
Mrs. Helen B. Johnson, Secretary. Tiie 
present officers are — Mrs. Helen B. John- 
son, AVorshipful Master; Mr. M. J. Eudy, 
Worshipful Prelate; Mrs. James Frazec. 
A. M.; Miss Anna Eobinson, Secretary; 
Mrs. Amanda Henderson, Treasurer; Mis3 
Imo Collins, Conductres; and Mrs. Dora 
Lyons, Assistant Conductresss. The present 
membership is between thirty-five and forty, 
and the chapter 'is in a good financial con- 
dition. It meets the first Friday evening 
after each full moon, in Masonic Hall. 

Charity Lodge, No. 32, I. 0. 0. F., was 
chartered April 20, 1846, by D. D. G. M. 
George Brown. The first officers were Irad 
Abdill, Noble Grand; Charles Boyles, Vice 
Grand; T. S. Davidson, Secretary; Thomas 
Cushman, Treasurer; John Dunlap, Warden; 
C. N. Gray, Conductor; Samuel Watt, Guar- 
dian; John A. Minshall, Eecording Secretary. 
The present officers are — G. W. Dealand, 
Noble Grand; W. G. Chenowlth, Vice Grand ; 
C. W. Ayres, Eecording Secretary; J. T. 
Chisler, Permanent Secretary; W.A.Collins, 
Treasurer. Tliere are nineteen members, who 
own the building in which their neat and 
well equipped lodge room is contained. To- 
tal value of all tlieir property, $1,318.60. 
During the war the lodge was kept alive by 



PERBT8VILLE. 



live or six faithful members. Of the old 
members, John Dnnlap died about two years 
ago; Irad Abdill and William Callihan are 
living in Danville. Of the charter members, 
Thomas Cushman, of Newport, is the only 
one living in the county. 

Uiyhland Encampment, No. 163, was 
instituted December 7, 1885, by D. D. G. P. 
David McBeth, of Clinton. First officers — 
W. M. Beneliel, Chief Priest; J. T. Chisler, 
High Priest; C. W. Ayres, Senior Warden; 
Alexander Yan Sickle, Junior Warden; D. 
W. Patterson, Scribe; W. G. Chenowitli, 
Treasurer. Present officers — J. T. Lowe, 
Chief Priest; William G. Chenowith, High 
Priest; D. W. Patterson, Senior Warden; W. 
T. Conner, Junior Warden; W. M. Benefiel, 
Scribe; W. A. Collins, Treasurer. There 
were nine members at first, and there are nine 
or ten at present. 

Rehekah Lodge, No. 118, Daughters (or 
Degree) of Eehekah, was instituted July 24, 
1882. First officers: M. B. Carter, Noble 
Grand; J. T. Chisler, Vice Grand; Sallie E. 
Carter, Secretary; C. W. Ayres, Treasurer; 
S. Watt, Guardian. The other charter mem- 
bers were W. M. Benefiel, W. II. Benefiel, 
Thomas D. Clarkson, J. H. Benton, W. A. 
Collins, J. T. Lowe, Anna Benefiel, L. Chis- 
ler, M. Benefiel, Susan L. Clarkson and R. E. 
Watt. The present officers are: Imo Collins, 
Noble Grand; Cora Chisler, Vice Grand; 
Mary Ayres, Treasurer; Kittie Chisler, Secre- 
tary; W. M. Benefiel, Warden. Tlje mem- 
bership has been about thirty from the first 
to the present. 

Vermillion Lodge, No. 113, K. of P., 
was organized December 31, 1884, by Dis- 
trict Deputy Talley, of Coal Creek, assisted 
by members from various lodges. There were 
sixteen charter members, and the first officers 
were: Dr. James T. Henderson, Chancellor 
Commander; F. S. Smith, Vice-Chancellor; 



L. A. Morgan, Master of Finance; M. J. 
Eudy, Master of Exchequer; D. H. Cade, 
Keeper of Eecords and Seals; W. A. Collins, 
Prelate; G. R. Hicks, Master at Arms; A. E. 
Marlat, Inner Guard; E. A. Lacey, Outer 
Guard. There are now twenty-six members, 
comprising the best men of the community, 
who are, in their lodge relations, in perfect 
harmony. They have a lodge room of their 
own, and are in fair financial condition. 

The present officers are: J. C. Wright, 
Past Commander; W. M. Collins, Chancellor 
Commander; Ned Spotswood, Vice-Chancel- 
lor; H. F. Eoyce, Prelate; M.J. Eudy, Mas- 
ter of Finance; W. T. Ferguson, Master of 
Exchequer; J. T. Henderson, Keeper of Eec- 
ords and Seals; D. Mossbnrger, Master at 
Arms; J. M. Howard, Inner Guard; Smith 
McCormick, Outer Guard; W. A. Keerns, 
District Deputy. 

Richard E. Spotswood Post, No. 188, 
G. A. R., was organized in January, 1878, 
with the following officers : Major J. S. Stevens, 
Post Commander; B. O. Carpenter, Senior 
Vice-Commander; M. B. Carter, Junior Vice- 
Commander; Dr. E. T. Spotswood, Adjutant. 
The membership has diminished from thirty- 
two to fifteen. Eegular meetings, alternate 
Saturday evenings. B. O. Carpenter is the 
present Commander, and George Watt, Senior 
Vice-Commander. 

The Woman^s Christian Temperance Union 
of Perrysville was organized in December, 
1881, with Mrs. Dr. Spotswood, President; 
Mrs. H. B. Johnson, Vice-President; Mrs. 
Sallie Carter, Secretary; Mrs. J. M. Mills, 
Corresponding Secretary; Mrs. M. J. Eudy, 
Treasurer. Commencing with a membership 
of only ten, they soon increased to forty; but 
now there are only twenty-five. To the pres- 
ent time they have kept up gospel meetings, 
and have exerted a marked influence in giving 
the people a temperance education. For a 



time they edited a column in the Hoosier 
State. The present official board is the same 
as the first, except that Mrs. Lydia Hepbnrn 
is Recording Secretary, vice Mrs. Sallie Car- 
ter, deceased. 

An Equal Suffrage Club was organized at 
Perrysville July 21, 1882, by the election of 
Mrs. Sarah S. Spotswood, President; Rev. J. 
S. White, Vice-President; Lillie Kirkpatrick, 
Recording Secretary; Icabenda Hain, Treas- 
urer; Executive Committee — Anna McClin- 
tick, Honorable J. F. Compton, D. C. Smith, 
Mrs. Lucy Maynard and Mrs. Sarah Smith. 
The club "immediately went down." 

CHURCHES. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church has of 
course an eventful history, extending back to 
pioneer times, which is difficult to trace. At 
present it is a strong and influential society 
of 133 members, besides probationers. Class- 
leaders, B. O. Carpenter and J. F. Compton; 
stewards — David Smith, Mrs. Rebecca K. 
McNeill, Mrs. Mary C. Moftatt, Mrs. Hannah 
B. Johnson, Mrs. Sophia S. Rudy, B. O. 
Carpenter, J. F. Compton and Mrs. Amanda 
M. Ferguson. Rev. J. H. Mills is a local 
preacher. Sunday-school all the year, with 
an average attendance of seventy-five, super- 
intended by B. O. Carpenter. In connection 
with the church here are several auxiliary 
societies, — missionary, social, etc. The house 
of worship, built of brick, was erected in 
1843, and its outside measurements are 
44x52 feet. Value, .^3,000, though that 
money would not build it now. Locality, 
southwest-central part of town. A good 
parsonage exists on the adjoining lot east. 

Rev. W. P. Hargrave, the pastor since the 
fall of 1884, is a son of the late celebrated 
Rev. Richard Hargrave, so well known 
throughout the State of Indiana as the trum- 
pet-voiced Gabriel of the same church, in 



which he was for many years a presiding 
elder. He had the best voice for the pulpit, 
and was probably the most eloquent of all in 
the United States. He published a volume 
of sermons, which passed through several 
editions. He died in 1879, near Attica, this 
State, and his wife, nee Nancy Porter, died in 
1871. The subject of this sketch was born 
in 1832, in Crawfordsville, Indiana; learned 
harness-making; taught school; entered As- 
bury University in 1849, graduating in 1854; 
practiced law until 1880, when he joined the 
Northwest Indiana Conference as a Methodist 
minister. In the practice of law he enjoyed 
great success, and during that time he was a 
resident of Viucennes and Evansville. "While 
at the latter place he was circuit judge for 
six years and a half; was also prosecutor for 
seven years. During the last war he volun- 
teered his services as a soldier; was elected 
Captain of Company G, Ninety-first Indiana 
Volunteer Infantry; was on detached duty 
during most of the time of his services, when 
his official station was generally equivalent to 
the rank of brigadier-general ; and toward the 
close he was chief commissary of musters at 
Knoxville, Tennessee. Mr. Hargrave was 
married September 25, 1860, to Miss Martha 
Erskine, a native of Vanderburgh County, 
Indiana, who died October 18, 1886, in 
Perrysville. 

A Presbyterian Church was once organized 
at Perrysville, and after struggling along 
with a precarious existence for a number of 
years, it became utterly dissolved, when it 
counted about fifteen or sixteen members. 
Their house of worship, which they bought of 
the Universalists, became unsafe, and was 
sold in 1882, for $150, and afterward torn 
away. The trustees were D. C. Smith, John 
E. Robinson and H. S. Collier. Mr. Smith 
was also ruling elder. Pastors or supplies 
were Revs. John Hawks, Mr. Steele, R. 



PERRTSriLLE. 



AVells, William Buffert, etc., and the last one 
serving was Rev. Tarrauce, who was at the 
time (1872-'73) a resident of Covington, 
Indiana. There has been no regnlar preach- 
ing since 1873, when there were twenty-one 
members. There are now probably about 
half a dozen members. 

The United Brethren CJnirch at Perrys- 
ville was organized many years ago. The 
present membership is aboiit eighty. Class- 
leader, John Patterson; stewards, Mrs. Sarah 
Smith and Mrs. Rose Hain. Sunday-school 
is maintained throughout the year, with an 
attendance of sixty to seventy, superintended 
by Rev. J. S. Brown, who has also been the 
pastor of this circuit for the last three years. 
lie is a native of Parke County, this State; 
at the age of sixteen years he came to this 
county and worked on a farm two miles 
southwest of Newport; entered a school in 
Ohio in the fall of 1881, graduating in the 
spring of 1884, since which time he has held 
his present relation, as a member of the 
Upper Wabash Conference. He occupies the 
parsonage at Perrysville, in an extremely 
retired portion of the village, in the north- 
western part, and has three or four appoint- 
ments in his circuit. 

The church edifice at Perrysville, a frame, 

34x48 feet, erected twenty-five or thirty 

years ago, is a neat building, centrally located. 

At Perrysville also resides the presiding 

elder. Rev. II. Ellwell. 

The Cross-EoadsUnited Brethren Church, 
two miles west of Perrysville, was organized 
over forty years ago, and a large frame church 
built also in early day. The membership 
there numbers about seventy-five, of whom 
the leader is Mrs. Sarah Park, and stewards, 
Jacob Brown and Richard Spandau. Sunday- 
school throughout the year, with an average 
attendance of about eighty, superintended by 
John Park. 



Mound Chapel, United Brethren, 30 x 40 
feet, erected ten or eleven years ago, is lo- 
cated three miles and a half north of Perrys- 
ville. The class, now comprising about forty 
members, was organized eleven or twelve 
years ago: leader, Mrs. Jane Mitchell; stew- 
ard, Nathan Jacobs. Sunday-school during 
the summer, of about fifty pupils probably, 
superintended by the class-leader, Mrs. 
Mitchell. 

A " Christian''^ church, with about a half 
dozen members, was organized at Perrysville 
five or six years ago, by Elder Gilbert Lane 
Harney, of Indianapolis, but they kept up 
services only a few weeks. The leading mem- 
bers were C. S. Brummett and wife, John 
Emanuel Sinks, Sarah Bailey, Mrs. Ilettie 
Lacey, and others. 

The Universalist Church at Perrysville 
was organized in 1842, and afterward erected 
a house of worship, a frame about 36 x 50 
feet in size, but, being unable to pay for it, 
they finally, in 1850, sold it to the Presby- 
terians, and subsequently disbanded. They 
numbered as high as fifty or sixty members 
at one time. Among the ministers are promi- 
nently remembered Revs. E. Manford, the 
celebrated editor, a resident of Terre Haute 
at the time, B. F. Foster, of Indianapolis, 
George McClure, of Dayton, Ohio, but an 
itinerant, and Mr. Babcock, of some point 
east of Indianapolis. The minister organiz- 
incr the church was Rev. Marble, of Fountain 
County, who preached once a month for about 
a year. The leading members were Robert 
J. Gessie (trustee and mortgagee!). Dr. 
Thornton S. Davidson, Dr. Porter, Jlessrs. 
Lawless, Watt, etc. They had a fioiirishing 
Sunday-school. 

GESSIE. 

The village of Gessie, on the railroad three 
miles northwest of Perrysville station, was 



(i 



M 



BISTORT OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



\\ 



laid out in 1872 by Eobert J. Gessie and 
named for liini. (See sketch of Mr. Gessie 
elsewhere in this volume.) The population 
of the village is now 140. 

The business men of the place are, J. C. 
Stutler, general store; L. A. McKnight, gen- 
eral store and grain; D. M. Hughes, drugs 
and groceries; John Cade, postmaster, drugs 
and groceries; A. Van Sickle, blacksmith; 
Silas Hughes, wagon and repair shop and 
wood-work; C. L. Eandall, painter and job- 
ber; John Haworth, station agent; David 
Hughes, William Saltsgaver and David Metz- 
ger, stock dealers; H. C. Smith & Co., pro- 
prietors of tile factory. This mill was built 
by Smith, Strausser & Stutler in 1884, who 
made in one year about §6,000 worth of tile. 
In 1885 tlie tirin name became H. C. Smith 
i&Co. 

Dr. William Isaiah Hall, who purchased 
the first lot in Gessie and built the tirst house, 
is still a practicing physician of the place. 
Dr. James Barnes, who was for a time in 
partnership with Dr. Hall, is also practicing 
here. 

The United Brethren Church at Gessie 
was oi'ganized about 1879, by Rev. F. E. 
Penny, of Danville, Illinois, wlio moved to 
tills place the following year. The trustees 
were L. A. McKnight, Charles Hay and Har- 
vey Hughes; and Isaiah Thompson the class- 
leader. There are now seventeen members; 
class-leader, J. C. Stutler; stewards, J. C. 
Stutler and Katie Goudy. The Sunday-school 
is maintained most of the year, with an at- 
tendance of forty pupils; superintendent, 
John Haworth. The pastors have been Eovs. 
J. A. Smith, of Gessie, J. Knowlea, of State 
Line, Kaufman, of Perrysville, S. C. Zook, 
who lived below Newport, J. li. Horner, who 
lived here, and Van Allen, who lived a mile 
south of Caynga. The church building wds 
erected by the Christians, about 1877, a frame 



24x40 feet, at a cost of $1,000, and in 1879 
they sold it to the United Brethren. 

The Union Sunday-school in Gessie is 
maintained independently of denominational 
supervision, and its existence of course 
diminishes the attendance at the United 
Brethren Sunday-school. It has been running 
since January, 1887, and L. A. McKnight is 
superintendent. 

Hoicard Chaj^el., Methodist Einscojpal 
Chxirch., two miles north of Gessie, is a brick 
bnilding 30 x 50 feet or more in dimensions, 
built over thirty years ago. The society has 
been in existence since pioneer days. Tliere 
are now about thirty members, with Joseph 
Nichols as class-leader. Stewards, James J. 
Lewis, Meredith Lewis, Henry Saltsgaver, 
David Bennett and Dr. W. I. Hall. Mr. 
Saltsgaver is also Sunday-school superinten- 
dent. Pastor, Eev. Warren, of State Line, 
where the parsonage is. Among the minis- 
ters of tlie past the most prominent in mem- 
ory are Revs. Cooley Hall (father of Dr. 
Hall), Wilson Beckner, Samuel Beck, White- 
field Hall, etc. 

The chapel is named after Joseph Howard, 
who donated the ground and led the enter- 
prise of building the church, and was after- 
ward trustee, etc. He resided there until 
1866, and moved West, and finally died in 
Nebraska. His wife has since died. Mr. 
Howard was buried in Nebraska, although his 
monument is in the graveyard here. None 
of his people reside at present in this county. 
On coming liere from Ohio, about 1825, he 
settled on the farm now occupied by John 
Fox; was very poor, a cooper and farmer by 
occupation, but by economy he at length 
became wealthy, maintaining all the while an 
unsettled reputation. 

A few years ago a portion of the above 
society organized a small class in Gessie and 
began the erection of a small church; bnt, 



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PERRYSVILLE. 301 



before it was compIeteJ, it was blown down 
and tlie little band returned to Howard 
Chapel. 

Hojiewell Baj^tist C7i2irc/<,iih-ame bnilding 
abont two miles north of Gessie, is the place 
of meeting of a society which was organized 
many years ago by the Rabonrns. Among 
tlie prominent early members were Wesley 
and Keese Rabonrn, Fielden Rabonrn, Mr. 
Blankensliip and others, and of the ministers 
the most prominently remembered are Revs. 
James Smith, John Orr, Mr. Whitlock, Mr. 
Stipp and Samuel Johnson. Mr. Stipp was 
a Freemason, and some of the] members of 
the church, not believing that freemasonry 
was consistent with Christianity, seceded, 
under the leadership of Elder Johnson, so 
that since that time two small societies are 
weakly sustained at the same place of meet- 
ing, called respectively the " Stippites " and 
the " Johnsonites." Elder Stipp is now dead. 



Elder Johnson came from Fountain County 
in 1871, purchasing the old Joseph Howard 
residence. Ehud Hughes, Philander Goff, 
Samuel Johnson and Ephraira Sh\ite are 
official members. 

In 1877 Byron Stevens, a "Christian" 
residing near Lowe Chapel, about three and a 
half miles southwest of Gessie, with the 
assistance of his friends built the church in 
Gessie which two years afterward they sold 
to the United Brethren, as before stated. He 
was a minister, and he and James Prather 
were trustees. They organized a small 
church society at Gessie, which soon ran 
down. Elder Myers preached regularly for 
them for a time. 

Rileysburg, formerly called Riley, is a 
flag station two miles northwest of Gessie, 
where there are a postoflice, a store and a tile- 
mill. 





i««««»-^»»»». 



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'HE surviving old set- 
tlers have from time to 
time held reunions, 
picnics, etc., refreshing 
one another's memories 
of pioneer experiences. 
At the close of the 4th of 
July celebration at Clinton in 
l^Sl, an association, for the 
purposes of nmtnal entertain- 
ment and preservation of his- 
tory, was organized by the 
clectiDU of the following offi- 
cers: James A. White, Sr., 
of Ilelt Township, President; 
Decatur Downing, of Clinton, 
Secretary; W. G. Crabb, of Clinton, Treas- 
urer; A^ico- Presidents, for the respective 
townships — John Hamilton, Clinton; Abel 
Sexton, Vermillion; S. W. Malone, Eugeue; 
and Pi. J. Gessie, Highland; and Executive 
Committee — J. H. Pogart, John Wright and 
P.P. Morey, of Clinton; William Wisliard, 
of Helt; and George II. McNeill, of Perrys- 



ville. This committee was given the author- 
ity to call a meeting of the society, but it is 
said that they never even met, for any pur- 
pose, and thus the association died. 

It happens, however, that the chief poet 
of Vermillion County, Dr. E. T. Spotswood, 
of Perrysville, knows how to celebrate pioneer 
times, in true Hoosier dialect, and we here 
insert two specimens from his happy mind. 

The first was published in a newspaper of 
an adjoining county, over the nom de j^Iwd^^ 
of '• Daniel Dundell." 

THE nOOSIER HOEDOWN, OK BACKWOODS r)A^•CE 
OF THE OLDEN TIME. 

To the Edytur: Sur: These lines is 
most respeckfullee dedykatuted to all uv the 
yung fellers who run around here when the 
Coal Prancli wuz small an' the water wuz 
fust turned into the Wabash, — sich yung 
chaps as John CoUett, Tom Cushman, O. P. 
Davis, Abe Sexton, John W. Parrett, R. J. 
Gessie, K. D. MofFatt, Lem Chenoweth, 
Smith EalJj an' all uv the boys uv that crowd 



303 



who cnin tii this kentry when it wuz new an' 
mostly in a state ov natur, an' likewise peple; 
also thereof before it wuz so improved that 
all natur is druv out uv it. In the good old 
times, when workin wuz more respektable 
than loafin', when steal in wuzent called 
spekilaslmn, when honesty wuz konsidered 
the best policy, when brass didn't count for 
brains, an' cheek for moral principul, when 
inuney wuzent alius the measure uv the man, 
when sham and shoddy wuznt on top, an' 
modest woi'th an' manhood on the under side 
in the fite, but when brains, pluck, honesty 
an" mussel wud win agin the world, — to these 
yuug chaps uv olden time 1 dedykate the 
poem, an' subscribe myself in the Coal Branch 
Hollow, whar they will alius find the latch- 
string out, a smokin' hot corn pone, a bowl 
uv cold buttermilk, a clean gord in sparklin' 
water, a rousin' hickory log fire, an a warm 
wellcum from thar friend, 

Daniel Dundell. 
Coal Branch Hollow, 

A'^orinillion Co., Indianny. 



THE COAL BR.\NCH DANCE. 

Down upon the Coal Branch, in the Indianny State, 
Whar things go movin' slow along at the good old- 
fashioned gait, 
Thar men an' wimmen good belong, an' gals that ar 

the sweetest, 
An' boj's that's hansum, tutf an' strong, an' jes bilt up 

the neatest, — 
Whar the people all ar' sociable, an' thar aint no falls 

pretenses 
Dividin' uv the nabors up with pride an' folly's 

fences, — 
Whar work an' frolic, band in band, goes movia' on 

like friends; 
An' when one gits in trouble all to him their help 

extends; 
An' when a feller gits behind an' lags along the road, 
You'll find 'em all together jined to help him lift his 

load, — 
That is to say, if he's " all squar," an' aint no ornery 

That won't at workin' take his share, but goes from 
bad to wuss,- 



Then every nabor will turn out at any kind uv work. 
An' help the chap, an' not a man among them all will 

shirk. 
They make a frolic uv their work, an' call in every 

nabor. 
An' wind it all up with a dance, to liten up thar labor. 

Late in the fall when craps is ripe, an' the grass 

around is wiltin'. 
The gals they go a-slippin' round a gittin' up a-ciuiltin'. 
An' the boys all round they understand 
Will cum an' lend a helpin' hand. 
In shuckin' corn or clearia' land ; 
Then, when the corn is gathered in, 
An safely stowed up in the bin. 
The fodder piled up in the shock, 
Enough to feed the winter stock, — 
The quilt is tuck from out the frame, a-lookiu' new 

and neat ; 
It's stitched an' tacked an' herad an' sode an' finished 
up complete. 

Then, when the long day's work is dun, 
An' night curas with the settin' sun. 
An' all havo had a glorious treat. 
At supper time, uv things to eat, — 
Uv hog an' hominy, pork an' beans, 
Uv corn an' cabbage an' sich greens, — 
Uv nicnacks sweet which you will find 
The wimmin have been mixin', — 
Besides 'most every other kind 

Uv first-rate chicken fixin', — 
Jes now, when every one about 

Is full uv fun all over. 
Is when the Coal Branch blossoms out, 
An' feels herself in clover. 
From corn-cob pipes the old ones smokes, 
An' chats and laffs an' cracks thar jokes, 
An' smiles an' winks an' slyly pokes 
Thar fun at the younger bashful fokes. 

From bright tin cups their cider sips. 

An' stands with hands upon thar hips, 

A-lookin' pleased between thar nips, 

To see thar sturdy boys an' gals so rapid growin', 

Expectin soon that each thar own row will be hoein', 

An' all the wliile with biznes eyes they are sum items 

takin'. 
Which shortly in the by an' by they'll use in sly match 

makin'. 
Then, when uv jucy punkin pie they all have eat a 

lunchen, 
Each feller hunts his pardner up an' steps out on his 
punchen. 
The gals are standin' round in rows, 
Tricked out in spankin' calicoes. 
All waitin' to be chosen. 



Each feller in his blue-jeans close 
Is lookin' round him as he goes 
A-huntin', as we may suppose 
Fur his own Mary Susan. 

The fiddler cums 'an' with him brings 

His pockets full uv iiddle-striugs, 

An' in he cums a-saunterin' soon. 

An' thrums the strings, — the sly old coon, 

An' gives the notes a twang or two 

Which sets a-pattin' every shoe, 

A-timin' to the tune. 
An' now the dance no longer lingers. 
The fiddle's neck he tickles fast with niml 

fingers. 
An' quick as lightniu' to an' fro. 
With all his might he swings the bow. 

He draws it twice across the strings, 
Which on the floor the dancers brings ; 
He gives the bow another draw, 
When they all call for the " Arkinsaw." 
With a loud voice he yells the call, 
" Honers ter yar pardners, all !" 

An' then the fun gits goin'. 
Thar's steppin' high an' steppin' low 
As round an' round the dancers go, 
Jes like it wuz a circus show 

Whilst the music cums a-flowin'. 

Sometimes they cut the pigin wing. 
An' then they try the Highland Fling, 
They jump an' slide an' skip an' hop, 
A-gittin higher every pop. 

It's a fact which 'taint no use deny in', 

That soon from off that floor the splinters gits a-flyi 
To the fiddle's time they music beat 
With clatteria', patterin' busy feet, 
As in an' out they wind an' wheel 
Thro' old Virginia's lively reel. 
Or, like the flyin' corn they husk. 
They capper in the Money Musk, 
Or Fisher's Hornpipe contra dance 
With springin' steps they danglin' glance. 
With ringin' laflT an' jestin' jeer, * 

An' cheeks aglow with merry cheer. 

The gals they giggle, lafT and smile 
An' wud a very saint beguile. 

Whilst round an' round a-spinnin'. 
The boys ketch up the roarin' fun. 
Each feller thinkin' he's the one, — 

From ear to ear is grinnin'. 
When bang! thar goes a fiddle string, 
Which to an eend this set will bring. 



With hankichers all drippin' wet. 
The gals wipe off the surplus sweat, 
A-fixin' fur another set 

Which soon they'll have a-goin'; 
Whilst the boys, all tuckered out of wind. 

Are a-settin' round a-blowin'. 

If you are fond uv nat'ral ways, — uv old-time country 

dancin'. 
Cum out upon the Coal Branch an' see our gals an' 

boys a-pranciu' ; 
An' I'm sure that if you do 
That you will larn a thing or two; 
For yon will see with your own eyes 
The human hart without disguise, 
An' larn sum lessons if you're wise. 
Which thro' life's journey you will prize; 
That happiness an' sweet content 
Ai'e oft with simplest pleasures blent; 
That graspin' greed an' pride will bring 
To akin' harts the keenest sting; 
Whilst nature's plain an' simple ways 
Will light with joy your sunset days. 

The following was composed for, and read 
at, the Independence celebration and old set- 
tlers' reunion held July 4, 1887, at Newport: 

FOURTH OF JULY POEM. 

BV DR. E. T. SPOTSWOOD, OF PERRVSVILLE, INDIANA. 

Old friends an' neighbors, howdy do 1 1 give'youhearty 

greetin'. 
An' welcome warm to all uv you to this Old Settlers' 

meetin', 
I think 'tis good to meet agin, an' peepin' through our 

glasses. 
Be tellin' how we used to do, when we wuz lads an 

lassies. 
An' since we hev together come, in love which never 

tires. 
With friendship's torch, we'll kindle up the long, long 

smoulderin' flres 
Uv memories that hev long grown dim; an' faded like 

a dream. 
From the shaddowy past we will recall an' make with 

life to gleam. 
Old Time, that cruel, heartless thief, whilst we hev 

bin on duty. 
Each year hez bin a robbin' us uv some bright line 

uv beauty; 
Fur our faces, all so bloomin' once, ar' now dried up 

an' wrinkled. 
An' our hair thet was so bonnie brown is now with 

gray besprinkled ; 



Our eyes tbet once wer' bright ez stars, hev now 

grown dim an' hazy; 
An' the dimples thet wuz on our cheeks hev faded 

like the daisy. 
Our limbs wer' strong an' active once, but now you 

see it is 
Thet they ar' weak an' tottery, an' stiff with rheu- 

matiz; 
But never mind, we ar' young agin, in heart, If not in 

body ; 
An' we'll jest hunt up a shady place wher' the grass 

is green an' soddy. 
An' set right down to spinnin' yarns, an' old stories 

we'll untwine, 
Uv how the old things used to be, in days o' Auld 

Lang Syne. 
Our hopes an' fears, our joys an' tears, an' old loves 

we will recall. 
An' jog each failing memory 'till we clearly bring 

back all. 
An' from the long forgotten past, old treasures we will 

bring 
Uv memories sweet of the " olden time " thet still 

around us cling; 
Frum the hazy mist uv vanished years, the hurried 

past again appears. 
An' the echoes uv long ago will break upon our listen- 
ing ears, 
While visions uv our early days like shadows throng 

around us. 
An' tighten up the loosening cords thet to the past hez 

bound us, 
An' then ouce more the magic spells, thet glided life's 

young mornin'. 
Will gently steal on every heart, an again bring back 

the dawnin'. 
As memory brings frum by-gone years on fancy's fly- 
ing wings. 
The sunny scenes uv the far-off time, frum whence 

our rapture springs. 

We boys an' gals uv other days our lives will now 

live over. 
An' dream agin uv the happy time when we wandered 

through the clover. 
An' over hills, through woodlands green, down shady 

glens we strayed. 
An' waded in the babblin' brook, an' in its waters 

plaj'ed. 

An' gathered flowers on the bank, an' in the grape- 
vine swing. 

We tossed our sweethearts high in the air, an' made 
the grove to ring 

With joyous laughter, free from care, an' spent the 
live long day 



305 



'Till wearied out, with tired feet, we homeward wound 

our way ; 
When our days wer' bright ez the morning light an' 

our futer hed no shadder. 
To cast its darkness on our paths, an make our hearts 

feel sadder ; 
When the hours all blithe an' golden sped quickly in 

ther flight 
An' our hearts wer' filled with bounding hope an' the 

onlook glowed with light; 
When with truth an' dauntless courage our hearts 

would overflow. 
An' hope's bright rainbow spanned the sky an' bid us 

forward go. 

Our schoolmates uv the long ago, who 'neath the oak 

tree's shade 
Around the old log schoolhouse hev often with us 

played, 
Ar' scattered like the autumn leaves frum ocean's 

shore to shore. 
Some hev to fame an' fortune grown, an' in life's battle 

sore 
Some hev failed, while sirugglin' on, but brave their 

part they bore. 
But the many who wer with us then, hev left an' gone 

before. 
Today we'll call all back agin, once more be gals an' 

boys, 
An' try to feel as we did then, when filled with youth- 
ful joys. 
Our long forgotten jokes an' scrapes, we'll now tell on 

each other, 
Uutil the laughing tears run down, an' not a thing 

we'll smother. 
With the sweet old songs we used to sing 
Once more we'll make these old woods ring. 
An' show these .young folks settia' 'round thet the 

music uv that day, 
Wuz better than the German waltz, or furrin trills 

that now they sing an' play. 
The music thet we loved uv old, wuz the spinnin- 

wheels' sweet hummin'; 
The flax-break's thud, as with steady beat all day it 

kep a drummin' ; 
The rattlin' uv the shuttle, to the loom-beam's meas- 
ured thumpin'. 
But on pianies an' organs they now grind music out 

by poundin' an a pumpin'. 
You will perhaps quite easy see, without any kind uv 

trouble, 
Thet the old way did'ent cost so much, hut wuz fur 

more profitable. 

O! ther' hez bin a mighty change; but I think 'twill 
be confessed 



306 



msTonr of vermillion county. 



That it liezent bin in every case, not alius for the best- 
Don't you mind the old log schoolhouse wher' we 

learned so many things, 
As readzw^r, vi\-i\.ing, spelh'w? and other useful ingaf 
All this is changed, an' fur the wuss, fur In ape-in 

arter colleges, 
They don't teach nuthin' very much, except what ends 

in ologies; 
They skip clean over common things an' don't seem 

much inclined 
To lay good, strong foundations for the trainin'.uv the 

mind. 
They try to teach too many things, an' ther teachin's 

kinder scatterin' ; 
An' that's the reason why you see we now hev so 

much smatterin'. 
'Tis true they make a mighty show, an' uv everything 

they prattle ; 
But 'lis not exactly what they need, in fitein' life's 

stern battle. 

An' so it is in other things. Jist see your politics: 
The best men all must stand aside fur the tuflfest kind 

uv bricks. 
In by-gone days the people asked. Is he honest? Is he 

capable? 
But now the only question is, la the candidate available ? 
Which simply means. Can the fellow win? an' if so is 

he saleable? 
We old folks can, I think, complain that among 'the 

ugly things 
Thet now exist, that this great land is run by rotten 

rings ; 

An' moral worth an' brilliant brains hev very little 
chance 



Agin the chap with a bank account, who makes a 
large advance. 

But we cannot mend these matters, — by frettin' ner 

by howlin' , 
An' these young folks say we old folks keep an ever- 

lastin' growlin' ; 
So we'll jist quit an' let them try ; fur we hev had our 

day. 
We've fought our fight, we've made our marks, an' 

we hev sed our say. 
An' the evening shadows round us close, an' we must 

soon away 
An' leave these young folks on ther' guard to find a 

better way. 
It is a fact we ar' growin' old, 'an old Time, who 

never lingers. 
Will soon place on our beating hearts his cold an' icy 

lingers; 
An' then we'll strike our movin' tents, an' soon we'll 

get our orders 
To quickly take our line uv march beyond life's 

changeful borders, 
Where we'll tind another campin' ground, in a place 

beyond the river; 
Where all old settlers' meet agin, an' all shall camp 

together. 
In a camp where all ar' young agin, an' no ties we 

there shall sever. 
But to our names, when roll is called, we'll answer 

Aye forever. 
That meetin' will be comin' soon, an' if we but live 

accordin', 
T'will be the grandest meetin' yet, away beyond the 

Jordin. 








i ', 



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BIOOBAPHICAL SKETCHES. 




BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 




m^ 

m, 



fOIIN COLLETT (second), State Geolo- 
gist, 1879-'84, is a resident of the old 
homestead near Engene, though he spends 
most of his time at Indianapolis. He was 
born at Engene January 6, 1828, the eldest 
Bon of Stephen S. and Sarah (Groenendyke) 
CoUett. (A sketch of his parents is given 
elsewhere in tliis volume). He was only fif- 
teen years old when his father died, and upon 
him devolved much of the care of his father's 
estate of 5,000 acres, and also the interests 
of his younger brothers and sisters, of whom 
there were seven. In the discharge of these 
duties he exhibited extraordinary ability, and 
was also faithful in carrying out the policy 
of his father. The most important feature of 
this policy was good education for all his 
children. The plans for this were success- 
fully executed. Mr. Collett pursued his 
higher studies at Wabash College, where he 
graduated in 1847 with the degree of Bachelor 
of Arts, and where five years later he received 
the degree of Master of Arts. In 1S79 that 
institution conferred upon him the additional 
distinction of Doctor of Philosophy. For a 
number of years after arriving at the age of 



manhood his time was devoted to farming 
and miscellaneous business connected with it; 
and he also frequently had charge of impor- 
tant estates. In these matters he was re- 
markably shrewd, prompt and honest. He 
never permitted his own private affairs to 
interfere witli the responsibilities he had 
undertaken for the interests of others; and 
amid all these cares he also found time for 
scientific studies, and participated in i)ul.)lic 
affairs. His ability and integrity were both 
so conspicuous that his fellow citizens recog- 
nized these qualities in him, and sought op- 
portunities to give testimonials to the fact by 
honoring him with office. Accordingly, in 
1870, he was elected to represent the counties 
of Parke and Vermillion in the State Senate, 
where he served through two regular sessions 
and one called session. While a Senator he 
originated the clause in the Baxter Bill which 
has since become a part of the general law 
of the State, ranking public drunkenness with 
crime. Another of his propositions, which 
has since been generally accepted, was, that 
the owners and not the public, should be held 
responsible for the live stock running at 



I 

t 



HISTORY OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



!! 



ilL 



large. He was prominent in advocating tlie 
law providing for the construction of gravel 
roads, under wliicli State gravel roads have 
been made throughout Indiana; but he was 
most forward in advocating compulsory edu- 
cation, at a time when very few dared to favor 
such a measure. Also, he rendered great 
service to the cause of education by assisting 
Hon. James D. Williams, then a Senator from 
Knox County, and since Governor, to obtain 
the passage of a law requiring that the sur- 
plus bank funds be distributed among the 
counties to be loaned at interest for the bene- 
fit of common schools, instead of leaving it, as 
before that was the case, only in charge of the 
State officers to inure to their benefit ex- 
clusively. Also, he saved from defeat the 
bill providing for county superintendents of 
schools, and he was the first to advocate the 
establishment of a State home for the feeble- 
minded. Mr. Collett was a "Whig in early 
life, and became a Republican upon the or- 
ganization of thatj^arty; but, notwithstanding 
his zeal in the cause of Republicanism, he 
was the choice of Governor Williams in 1879, 
for the Chief of the Bureau of Statistics and 
Geology, then just established. In assuming 
the position, he found himself under the 
necessity of devising the methods for gather- 
ing statistics, and although embarrassed for 
the M^ant of sufficient appropriations of money, 
he succeeded in collecting much valuable in- 
formation on a great variety of important 
subjects. This was compiled in two volumes 
of over 500 pages each, on a plan which has 
not since been materially departed from. 
While serving in this ofiice, his influence led 
the State House Board to institute a series 
of scientific tests, which resulted in perma- 
nently establishing the superiority of Indiana 
building stone over the other kinds that 
before had been in use; and thus was devel- 
oped in his State an industry which every year 



brings great wealth to the people. But Mr. 
Collett's greatest notoriety is as a scientist, 
especially in the departments of Geology and 
Palfeontology. When but eight years old he 
displayed a remarkable aptitude in the collec- 
tion and classification of geological specimens. 
As he grew older his talents in these respect? 
became so marked, that scientific men in all 
parts of the United States opened correspond- 
ence with him, and received great benefit 
from his contributions to science. For the 
last ten or fifteen years no man has been a 
more enthusiastic and successful student of 
the hidden treasures of the earth's crust in 
this region; nor has any one furnished more 
valuable or welcome information to the sci- 
entific world. From 1870 to 1878, as As- 
sistant State Geologist, he contributed nearly 
1,000 condensed pages of matter concerning 
the counties of Sullivan, Dubois, Warren, 
Lawrence, Knox, Gibson, Brown, Vanderburg, 
Owen, Montgomery, Clay, Putnam, Harri- 
son and Crawford. While State Geologist, 
1879-'84:, he compiled four volumes, aver- 
aging over 500 pages each, on the Geology 
and Palffiontology of Indiana, which have 
become standard books of reference in all 
parts of the civilized Avorld. These reports 
embrace a large number of illustrations of 
great value to students of science as Avell as 
to miners. The report of 1883-'84 gave to 
the public the first geological map of Indiana 
ever published. Even when ajjpropriation 
from the State funds fell short, Mr. Collett 
advanced thousands of dollars from his own 
purse to keep his assistants in the field and 
his department steadily running; and for this 
the State is still indebted to him. Since the 
expiration of his term as State Geologist he 
has been engaged in various literary and 
business enterjjrises, which allow him rest and 
quiet, and to make trips in difterent directions 
across the continent. In all the positions he 



BIOORAPIIICAL SKETOHEl- 



luis held he has exhibited a remarkable ca- 
pacity for excessive hard labor and endurance, 
both mental and physical, often doing much 
more than one would suppose was possible 
for any man to do. In religion, Mr. CoUett 
is a believer in Christianity, and his predi- 
lections are in favor of the Presbyterian 
church. In keeping with the instincts of the 
family, he still maintains his residence at the 
old homestead near Eugene, where his chief 
enjoyment consists in agricultural pursuits 
and scientiiic studies. In stature, he is six 
feet two inches high, straight as a plumb- 
line, and of a military bearing; his eyes are a 
piercing gray; complexion fair; hair formerly 
auburn, but both that and his beard are now 
snow white and of patriarchal length ; mouth 
wide, and of an aifable outline; nose indi- 
cating a marked character; in motion, he is 
quick and determined. In the prime of life 
he could outwalk three ordinary men, and 
hence have the advantage in rambling over 
hill and dale in the examination of the earth 
and collection of specimens. In walking, he 
does not, as many do, keep his eyes just before 
his toes, but cast forward at a great distance, 
indicating energy and high ambition. . 



.#.-> 



of Ver- 



^^[LIAS PRITCHARD, auditor 
^M, million County, Indiana, is serving his 
"^^ second term, having been elected in the 
fail of 1880, and again in 1884, his present 
term expiring in 1888. He is a representa- 
tive of one of the pioneer families of Ver- 
million Countj'. His father, Ezekiel 
Pritcliard, was a native of North Carolina, 
removing thence when a yonng man to Penn- 
sylvania, and from there to Ohio, where he 
married Eleanor Watson, a native of Penn- 
sylvania. About 1828 they moved to Indi- 
ana and settled in Clinton Township, 



Vermillion County, where he died July 
12, 1838. He entered 120 acres of land 
on section 5, township 14, range 9, 
which he partially improved, building a 
log house, setting out an orchard and 
erecting necessary farm buildings. He was 
a hard-working, honest and respected citizen, 
and had many friends among the pioneers. 
He left at his death a widow and fourteen 
children, seven sons and seven daughters, all 
of whom grew to maturity, and all but one 
of the deceased left families. Those living 
are — John, of Joliet, Illinois; Mrs. Elizabeth 
Payton and Mrs. Maria Hill, of Clinton 
Township; Mrs. Mary Cottrell, of Terre 
Haute; Johnson, of California; Mrs. Martha 
Curtis, of Edgar County, Illinois, and Elias. 
Elias Pritcliard was born in Clinton Town- 
ship, (Jctober 12, 1838, and has always been 
identified with his native county. He was 
reared a farmer, remaining on the farm until 
twenty-four years of age, when he was em- 
ployed as clerk in a dry goods store, and in 
1870 engaged in business for himself at Bono, 
which he continued until his election in 1880 
to his present position. He is an efticient 
public ofticer, fulfilling his duties conscien- 
tiously and with painstaking care. Mr 
Pritcliard married Miss Mary A. Patrick, of 
Edgar County, Illinois, daughter of Samuel 
and Maria (Nichols) Patrick. They have had 
four children, of whom only one, a son, is 
living— Ordie E., born April 18, 1879. 
Their eldest, Ella M., died at the age of six- 
teen years, and Grace and Blanche aged re- 
spectively six and nine months. In politi 
Mr. Pritcliard is a Republican, being the only 
one of his family who votes that ticket. He 
cast his first Presidential vote for Lincoln in 
1860, and has voted for every Repul)lican 
nominee since, with the exception of 1864, 
when he was absent from the State. He is 
one of the prominent and substantial citizens 



HISTORY OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



of Yermillion Comity, public-spirited and 
influential in promoting all worthy enter- 
prises. 



-^>^ 



«P. POTTS, farmer and stock-raiser, 
section 3, Vermillion Townsliip, is a 
® native of Vermillion County, born 
April 17, 1848, a son of Eicbard and Rebecca 
(Jackson) Potts. His father was from Mon- 
mouth County, New Jersey, and his mother 
from Clermont County, Ohio. They came to 
Veritiillion County in 1845, making this 
their home the remainder of their lives. The 
father died in 1875, aged seventy-four years, 
and the mother in 1885, at about the same 
age. The/ had two sons — Thomas, who is 
now deceased, and our subject. C. P. Potts 
was reared a farmer, an occupation he has 
always followed successfully, and now has 680 
acres of valuable land. In his stock-raising 
he makes a specialty of cattle, and in his 
herd are many valuable lireeds. He is one 
of the enterprising farmers of his township, 
and, although not yet forty years old, is one 
of the substantial and prominent citizens of 
the county. He was married in 1876 to Jo- 
sephine Culley, a native of Vermillion 
County, born in 1852, a daughter of Jolm 
and Martha Culley. Mr. and Mrs. Potts 
have two children — Clara B. and Joseph G. 
Mr. Potts is a member of the Masonic fra- 
ternity. Lodge No. 209. In politics he casts 
his suffrage with the Kejiublican party. 



fAMES RUSH, a pioneer of Helt Town- 
ship, resides on section 24. He was born 
in Pickaway County, Ohio, IMarch 25, 
1817, a son of George Hush, who came to 
Indiana in 1818, and lived in Parke County 



a year, and in 1819 moved to Vermillion 
County, where he settled in the woods among 
Indians and wild animals, and in this county 
James was reared. One summer 500 Indians 
were encamped near their house. They were 
generally peaceable and gave the settlers but 
little trouble. Mr. Push has always been a 
farmer and has done a great deal to advance 
the interests of agriculture in his township. 
He was married February 23, 1854, to Dorcas 
Andrews, daughter of James Andrews, who 
came to Vermillion County from Butler 
County, Ohio, in 1823, and settled on the 
farm where Mr. Hush now lives, and where 
Mrs. Push was born July 30, 1825. Mr. 
and Mrs. Push have had five children; but 
three are living — Fred, Mark and Mary E. 
Mrs. Push is a member of the Presbyterian 
church. 



fOHN P. McNeill, of Perry svi lie, was 
born in AVaterford, Loudoun County, 
Virginia, February 25, 1811, a son of 
John and Hannah (Mayne) McNeill. He 
came to Vermillion County, Indiana, with his 
father's family in 1836 and here he has since 
made his home, a period of fifty-one years. 
He was reared to the avocation of a farmer 
which he made his life work, and in his 
chosen work has met with excellent success. 
Beginning life with no capital but health and 
a determination to succeed he has by his 
persevering energy and habits of industry be- 
come classed among the most prosperous of 
the many successful citizens of Highland 
Township. Mr. McNeill has been twice 
married. January 1, 1840, he married Miss 
Martha Rudy, who was born in Pennsylvania, 
a daughter of Martin Rudy, one of the county's 
early settlers. Mrs. McNeill died May 15, 
1848, leaving two children — Irene, born 



BIOOBAPHIOAL SKETCHES. 



October 23, 1846, uow the wife of The- 
ophilus Holloway, of Yigo County, Indiana, 
id Frank, born February 6, 1848, an artist 
living in the city of New York. Mr. Mc- 
Neill was married a second time to Mrs. 
Elizabeth (liudy) Barger, a sister of his 
first wife, and to this union were born seven 
children, four sons and three daughters — 
Scott, Albert, John B. and Charles G., and 
Josephine, wife of F. A. Walker; Anna 
Laura, wife of Thomas J. Armsrong, and 
Jennie Lind living at home. In his relig- 
ious belief Mr. McNeill inclines toward 
Unitarianism, although he has a greater re- 
spect for good deeds than for creeds. He has 
been a student of religious literature the 
greater part of his life and has found so many 
conflcting theories that he long ago jlecided 
to take reason for his guide. His motto is: 
" Do not unto others that which you would 
not have others do unto you." In politics he 
was in early life a Whig, casting his first 
■presidential vote for Henry Clay. He now 
affiliates with the Eepublican party. Mr. 
McNeill is one of the active and public 
spirited citizens of Yermillion County, and 
is ever ready to aid in the promotion of what- 
ever enterprise he believes is for the best in- 
terests of his fellow men. 



fOHN WRIGHT, a worthy representative 
of one of the earliest pioneer families of 
_ Yermillion County, is a native of New 
York State, born in Ontario County, March 
22, 1818, a son of George and Anna (Handy) 
Wright, the father born in the State of New 
York, and the mother a native of Massachu- 
setts. In 1819 they came to Indiana with 
their family of nine children, the subject of 
this sketch being then a babe. After one 
year's residence in Terre Haute, they, in 1820, 



came to Yermillion County, and in the forest 
of Clinton Township established their future 
home on Lenderman Creek, five miles south- 
west of Clinton. The county at that time 
was a wilderness, containing but few families, 
being inhabited principally by Indians and 
wild animals. George Wright was a poor 
man, able only to secure a tract of 160 acres, 
and most of his children were too young to 
render any assistance in their struggle for a 
livelihood. Labor in the pioneer settlement 
commanded no money. There were no mills 
in the country, and corn when raised had to 
be pounded into meal in huge improvised 
mortars. Gradually the opening in the 
forest grew larger and the circumstances of 
the family improved, and the boys, each year 
added strength to the woi'king force! Two 
children were added to the family in their 
pioneer home. Mrs. Wright did not live to 
see the fruition of her hopes, dying in 1827, 
in her forty-first year. Mr. Wright was 
spared to enjoy the fruits of his years of per- 
severing toil, having a comfortable home. 
He died in 1844 at the age of sixty-si.\ years. 
He was a hard working man, full of energy 
and ambition, and was kind and accommoda- 
ting to all, and lie is still favorably remem- 
bered by many of the old pioneers. Of his 
eleven children, si.x sons and five daughters, 
all have passed away but John, the subject of 
this sketch, and Truman who lives in Edgar 
County, Illinois. John Wright associates 
his earliest recollections of life with events in 
the pioneer days of Yermillion County. His 
educational advantages were limited, but con- 
tact with the world has enabled him to fully 
overcome the deficiencies of his youthful 
days. He was reared to the avocation of a 
farmer, and he has made farming his princi- 
pal occupation through life, though the past 
si.x years he has lived retired from active life, 
I in Clinton, where he owns a good residence, 



HISTORY OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 




and considerable city property, includin 
about a half interest in the Opera House 
block. Mr. Wright was united in marriage 
October 6, 1836, to .Miss Margaret Nickle, 
who was born in Pennsylvania in 1816, and 
was a daughter of James Nickle, one of the 
county's pioneer men. Of the six children 
born to them but three are living — Lucius H., 
of Clinton Township, was a soldier in the 
Eighteenth Indiana Infantry during the war; 
Mrs. Narcissus Payn, of Clinton Township, 
and John O., of Wichita, Kansas. Mr. and Mrs. 
Wright were pioneers of Jackson County, 
Iowa, locating there in 1838. One year later 
they removed to Galena, Illinois, where Mrs. 
Wright kept a boarding house two years, Mr. 
AVright being engaged in smelting and haul- 
ing lead ore. They then returned to Jackson 
County, Iowa, where Mr. Wright followed 
farming six years. Returning to Indiana 
with a little capital, he purchased eighty acres 
of land in Vigo County, and there resided 
thi-ce years, when he removed to Edgar 
County, Illinois, where his wife died. Mr. 
Wright was subsequently married to Miss 
•Mary Chunn, who was born in Clinton Town- 
ship, Vermillion County, in 1827, a daughter 
of John T. Chunn, who was a Major in the 
war of 1812, in the Virginia Volunteers. To 
this union six children were born, all of whom 
are residing in Clinton Township or city. 
They are as follows — David, Mrs. Margaret 
Smith, a widow, Mrs. Naomi Hale, Mrs. 
Maria Van Dyne, Ulysses G. and William C. 
In 1858 Mr. Wright again returned to Ver- 
million County, since which time he has been 
a resident of Clinton Township, and during 
this time he has witnessed the marvelous 
growth and development of the county, in 
which he has done las full share. On settling 
in the county he bought 800 acres of land, 
and by his good management he added to his 
i-eal estate until he had 1,400 acres. He has 



given his children a good start in life, and 
yet owns about 700 acres, and all his proper- 
ty has been acquired by fair and honorable 
means. Mr. Wright is a member of the 
Masonic fraternitj'. In politics he was in 
early days a V/hig, an ardent supporter and 
admirer of Henry Clay, and since the organi- 
zation of the Republican party lias voted that 
ticket. 



■^-*. 



fOHN McKEILL, deceased, formerly a 
resident of Perrysville, was born in Tus- 
carora Valley, Pennsylvania. After liv- 
ing for a time in Loudoun County, Virginia, 
and Frederick County, Maryland, he came, in 
November, 1836, with his family to Perrys- 
ville. While residing in Maryland he was 
regarded as one of the foremost citizens of 
Frederick County, filling many honorable 
positions in society. For many years he was 
justice of the peace, and so clear was his 
head in legal matters, and so impartial his 
judgments, that no appeal was ever taken 
from his docket. He was an intense anti- 
slavery man and an active member of the 
Maryland Colonization Society, the object of 
which organization was to colonize the colored 
people in Liberia, Africa. He was once offered 
the position of Probate Judge of Frederick 
County by the Governor and Council, — a 
life appointment, — but declined it, having 
determined to move West. He was well 
posted in Governmental matters. Was a 
prominent and useful member of the Method- 
ist Episcopal church, well informed as to her 
policy and doctrines. After he came to 
Perrysville he purchased a lot for a churcli 
building, and was one of the leading spirits in 
the enterprise of erecting the church. He 
was united in marriage with Hannah Mayne, 
and they had a large family of children noted 



AlOQBAPmOAL SRBTCBas, 



817 



for their energy and industry. Mr. McNeiil's 
father, John McNeill, emigrated from Scot- 
land previous to the Eevolutionary war, in 
whicli contest he Joined tlie patriot forces and 
remained with tliein to the end. In one 
engagement he was shot twice, and he bore his 
ho!K>raljle scars to the grave. During his term 
III' service he was promoted to the position of 
ehief baggage-mastei". He had married Miss 
-Me\'ey, a lady of Scotch decent, who had 
eliai'ge of the family while he was in the 
ai-iiiy. 



^sON. GEORGE II. McNEILLof Perrys- 
' I \ vilie, Indiana, son of John and Hannah 
%;| (Mayne) McNeill, was born in Middle- 
town Valley, Frederick County, Maryland, 
February 22, 1818. His father was of Scotch 
descent, and his mother of German descent. 
His father was a prominent and highly 
res])ected citizen of Frederick Coirnty, Mary- 
land, and while residing in that county held 
several offices of profit and honor. Born upon 
a farm, the subject of this sketch had only 
such opportunities as were oflTered in the 
country schools, taught principally during 
the winter seasons, and the use of a well 
selected general library, owned by his father, 
through which means he acquired a fair edu- 
cation, and formed a taste for general reading, 
whicli has followed him through life, and 
enabled him to become well posted in many 
branches of science and literature, ranking 
him among the able self-made men of the 
country. In the fall of 1836 he, with his 
fatlier's family, emigrated to the then far west, 
and located at Perrysville, on the Wabash 
River, in Vermillion County, Indiana, where 
his father died in 1843, and his mother in 
1856, and where his only living brother, John 
R. McNeill, now resides, his other brother. 



Judge C. F. McNeill, having recently died. 
To his honored parents, who were old style 
Methodists, and were members of that church 
almost from its first organization, the McNeill 
family are greatly indebted for whatsoever is 
good or honorable that may pertain to them. 
Mr. McNeill has resided in Perrysville ever 
since he came to this county and was always 
actively engage in some business. When 
young he read medicine extensively witii the 
view of entering into its practice, but con- 
cluded to go into the drug business and did 
so in 1845 which he has continued up to the 
present time and made it a decided success. 
He has always kept a complete assortment, 
and of the very best, and managed tiie busi- 
ness witir_ such care, and so tlioroughly 
trained his assistants, that during his forty- 
two years in business, not a single accident 
has occurred from putting out wrong articles. 
In 1845 he married Rebecca Kinno}^ Beers, 
one of a family remarkable for their natural 
abilities, and noted as the best of cooks and 
housekeepers. The result of tiii.s marriage 
was three sons — Milton ]\[., William Kinney 
and George H. Milton M. McNeill reside? 
in tiie city of Danville, Illinois, is farming 
largely, and doing a successful hard-wood 
lumber business. He married Ruliama Rus- 
sell Bell, daughter of Wm. M. Bell. William 
K. McNeill remained with his parents aiding 
in the home business and is now trustee of 
Iligiiland Township. George H. McNeill, 
Jr., died in his infancy. Mrs. McNeill took 
charge of the drug business in 1850 and ran 
it for ten years, managing it with ability, 
training her sons to the business, learning 
them habits of industry, and inculcating 
principles of honor and morality as only a 
mother can do. Her home is a model one 
where hosts of people have been kindly 
entertained. For fortj'-two years past she 
has been an active member of the Methodist 



Episcopal church in Perrysville. Mr. McNeill 
has been county surveyor of Vermillion Coun- 
ty, Indiana, was for a number of years, exam- 
iner of school teachers for the coimty, and 
has been a notary public continuously for 
over a quarter of a century. He, under order 
of court, has been a commissioner to divide 
real estate among the heirs of deceased 
persons often er tliau any person that has ever 
i-esided in the county. He was also enrolling 
officer for Highland Township, and always 
had mucli to do with public affairs and filled 
the various positions with credit and ability. 
In addition to the drug business lie and his 
son William K. McNeill are engaged in 
farming and stock-raising on tlieir farms near 
Perrysville. Mr. McNeill is a Republican 
and has been an active member of that party 
since its organization — is an unwavering be- 
liever in the truths of the Bible and in ortho- 
dox Christianity, as taught in the standard 
authorities of the Methodist Episcopal church. 
He was eminently loyal to the Government 
during the rebellion, and never became dis- 
pondent during its darkest days — expressing 
Ills views as he often did "that the 
Lord of Hosts was not dead and that the 
Devil did not reign — therefore the Government 
would finally triumph and the rebellion be 
put down." Mr. McNeill is outspoken in 
whatever views he may hold — is public 
spirited, charitable, liberal and kindly disposed 
but will not suffer his rights trampled upon. 
At the age of nearly seventy years, does as 
much work and pushes his business as 
energetically as when young. 



fAVID W. BELL, an active and enterpris- 
ing business man, is a native of Ver- 
million County, Indiana, born at Eugene, 
Deccmlier 20, 1856, a son of Tliomas W. 



Bell, of Eugene, who was one of the early 
settlers here. David W. passed his boyhood 
at Eugene, receiving his education in the 
schools of this place. At the age of fourteen 
he went on a farm, where he farmed for 
three years. He went to Terre Haute in tlie 
spring of 1876 and was tliere engaged in tlie 
drug business until 1879, wlien he returned 
to Eugene where lie has since been engaged 
in the drug and general mercantile business. 
He is associated with William W. Hosford, 
and both being live business men, have 
established a good trade which is steadily in- 
creasing. Mr. Bell is the present accommo- 
dating postmaster at Eugene, having been 
appointed to this office in 1885, his commis- 
sion bearing tlie date of April 27, 1885, and 
signed by Grover Cleveland. 

IgENJAMIN HARRISON, one of the 
Wa% old and honored pioneers of Vermillion 
^'" County, dates his birth February S, 
1805, in Rockingham County, Virginia. His 
parents, William and Molly Harrison, were 
also natives of Rockingham County, his 
father being one of the prominent men vl' 
the county. He was also a Captain in tlie 
war of 1812. The subject of this sketcli 
grew to manhood in his native county, where 
he was reared to agricultural pursuits, whieli 
he made the principal avocation of his life. 
His education was limited to a few months 
attendance at the subscription schools of that 
early day. In 1825 he accompanied his 
parents to Ohio, they settling in Gallia 
County, but the following year he returned 
to Virginia, and was married in his native 
county to Miss Jane A. Bright, January 3, 
1827. They were reared in the same neigh- 
borhood, and were playmates in early life. 
Siie was born in Rockingham County, tlie 



iH55MSH5SS 



BIOORAPHICAL 8EBTCBEB. 



date of her birth being January 19, 1806. 
Tliirteen children were born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Harrison, of whom seven are living at the 
l)i-esent time — Mrs. Abbie Davidson, born in 
Virginia; Eobert, also a native of Virginia; 
Mile; Calvin; Charlotte, living with her 
lather; Franklin and Joseph. The remain- 
ing children died in early childhood, with the 
exception of Alexander, who died in 1876 at 
the age of thirty-seven years. Mr. Harrison 
continued to reside in Ilockingham County 
until October, 1832, when he came with his 
family to Vermillion County, and made his 
jiioneer home on Brouillet's Creek, where he 
bought a tract of 320 acres. After clearing 
some fifteen or twenty acres of this land he 
sold it, and in 1837 he removed to his pres- 
ent farm on section 19, Clinton Township, 
where he now owns about 500 acres of land, 
200 acres being bottom land, and imexcelled 
in the county. April 2, 1887, he was bereaved 
by the death of his wife, who had shared 
with him the joys and sorrows of life for 
over sixty years. Mr. Harrison was reared a 
Democrat, but at the time of the Rebellion 
he stood firmly by the administration of 
President Lincoln, and since then has been 
one of the active Republicans of Vermillion 
County. Perhaps no man in Indiana has 
filled successively the office of magistrate as 
long as the subject of this sketch — a period 
of thirty-eight years. In 1842 he was elected 
justice of the peace, holding that office until 
1880, when, on account of his advanced age, 
he refused a re-election. During his term of 
office he proved an efficient officer, and his 
decisions M'ere always wise and just. One 
fact in his official career speaks well for his 
wise judgment, that not two cases decided by 
him were appealed to the higher courts. 
During his long residence in the county he 
has gained the confidence and respect of the 
entire community, and made many warm 



friends. Particularly is he loved and honored 
by his children, who have all settled around 
the old home. 



fECATUR DOAVNING, of Clinton, is 
one of the representative men of Ver- 
million County. He was born in Clin- 
ton, Indiana, January 23, 1836, a son of 
Jonathan Downing, who was born in the State 
of Maryland June 12, 1806, and a grandson 
of William Downing, who settled near 
Columbus, Ohio, moved to Clinton, Indiana, 
in 1818, and died here March 7, 1822, aged 
forty-six years, his widow surviving until 
March 27, 1842. Jonathan Downing passed 
his youth principally in Ohio. In 1820, two 
years before the death of his father, he came 
to Clinton, Indiana, then strong, amljitious 
and of good habits, and sought employment 
among the pioneer farmers, but shortly after 
i-eaching manhood he commenced an active 
business career. In the employment of 
others as clerk he gained experience, and be- 
came the business partner of B. R. Whit- 
comb, in Sullivan County, and later he 
established himself in the grocery trade at 
Clinton. Some years later he was elected 
magistrate, and served efiiciently in that 
capacity, to the entire satisfaction of his con- 
stituents. In 1846 he removed to Newport, 
Vermillion County, where for a short time he 
kept a hotel, and also bought and shipped 
produce to New Orleans and other points. In 
1848 he returned to Clinton, where he died 
in 1849. His widow, Mrs. Eliza (Hiatt) 
Downing, still survives, and makes her home 
with her son Decatur Downing, the subject 
of this sketch. She was born at Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania, September 6, 1815, a daughter 
of Robert Payton, who with his family moved 
to Kentucky when Mrs. Downing was quite 



BISTORT OF VERMILLION COVNTT. 



yonng, and died at Covington not long after- 
ward. Mrs. Payton with her iive children, 
of whom Mrs. Downing was the eldest, in 
1827 moved to YeriTiillion County, where all 
died with the exception of Mrs. Downing and 
Mrs. Margaret Mitcliell, of Clinton. The 
mother was again married to James Booher, 
who died in 1845. She died in February, 
1849, aged fifty-iive years. The two children 
born to her second marriage are deceased. 
Mrs. Downing was first married December 
20, 1829, to Thomas J. Hiatt, who died 
March 3, 1834. She married Jonathan 
Downing December 20, 1884. Jonathan Mas 
twice married, taking for his first wife Miss 
E^e Hammond, who died October 23, 1828. 
She left at her death two children whose 
names are Mrs. Delilah Doty, now living in 
Madison County, and Mrs. Perie Charlton, 
who died at Tuscola, Illinois. Decatur Down- 
ing, whose name heads this sketch, has been 
all his life identified with Vermillion County, 
and has always taken an active interest in 
promoting any enterprise which tends to- 
ward its advancement. His educational ad- 
vantages were limited to the common schools 
of the county, and of these he made good 
use, and in the broadest sense he may be 
called a self-made man. But thirteen years 
old when his father died lie was taken into 
the home of John Payton, his maternal uncle, 
with whom lie remained as an employe in his 
M-arehouse and mercantile establishment, 
until twenty-two years of age, and during 
this time he laid the Ibundation of his suc- 
cessful business career. When twenty-two 
years old he became a partner in his uncle's 
business at Toronto, Vermillion County, 
which business relation existed until 1873. 
Mr. Downing was married October 18, 1860, 
to Miss Matilda Eichardson, who was born 
in Clinton Township, Vermillion County, 
March 7. 1842, a daughter of William A. 



Richardson. She died at Toronto November 
30, 1873. Clearing his business relations 
with his uncle, Mr. Downing with his only 
surviving child, Sarah Eliza, who was born 
August 29, 1861, again established his resi- 
dence in Clinton. He has lost two children: 
Frank, who died October 9, 1865, aged over 
three years, and Blanche, who died July 24, 
1869, aged six months and thirteen days. 
Since returning to Clinton Mr. Downing has 
been one of the active business men of the 
place. In 1875 he became senior member of 
the firm of Downing & Nelson, dealers in 
produce and agricultural implements. In 
1876 the firm was changed to Downing A: 
Hamilton, erecting a large warehouse to ac- 
commodate their increased trade. This firm 
continued until 1887, when Mr, Downing re- 
tired from the business. September 21, 188G, 
he married for his second wife Mrs. Saiah 
Sophia. (J aques) Ilaselett, a daughter of John 
and Mary (Vannest) Jaques, and a grand- 
daughter of John Vannest, the first settler of 
Vermillion County. She was born near the 
pioneer home of her grandfather in Clinton 
Township, March 9, 1844. She was first 
married toAVilliam J. Haselett, who was born 
in Putnam County, Indiana, July 15, 1843, 
and to this union were born four children — 
Mallie B., Edith L., William J. and Emma 
G., the third child, who died aged two years. 
Besides his fine residence and other property 
in Clinton Mr. Downing owns three tarms in 
Clinton Township aggregating 570 acres. In 
politics he was identified witli the Republican 
party from its organization until within the 
past few years. In 1886 he was the candi- 
date on the National Labor Reiorm party and 
endorsed by the Republican party for elec- 
tion to the Indiana General Assembly in his 
district comprising Sullivan, Vigo and Ver- 
million counties, and although having a plu- 
rality of 1,200 votes to overcome was defeated 



SiOOHAPBICAL SKi!TCM'B. 



only by thirty votes, wliicli shows the esteem 
in which he is held among the men whom 
he has lived so long. He has served as com- 
missioner of Vermillion County several years 
with honor to himself and to the satisfaction 
of his constituents. 



irOMAS CUSIIMAN, depntj treasurer 
of Vermillion County, is one of the 
veteran officials of the county. He is 
a pioneer of the county, locating in Perrys- 
ville in January, 1836, where he resided until 
1872, when he was elected auditor of the 
county, and moved to Newport, where he has 
since lived. He was born in Onondaga 
County, New York, October 15, 1814. His 
father, Seth.Cnshman, was born in the State 
of New York and was a direct descendant of 
Robert Cushman who came to America in the 
Mayflower in 1620. He was reared in his 
native State and there married Nancy Eun- 
yau, a native of the same State, of English 
descent, her parents belonging to a prominent 
family in New England who later settled in 
New York. In the spring of 1818 Seth 
Cushman moved with his family to Sullivan 
County, Indiana. Immigrating West seventy 
years ago was a slow and tedious undertaking. 
Several fan)ilies accompanied Mr. Cushman, 
the party going by ox team to Olean, New 
York, when they constructed a flat-boat and 
floated down the Alleghany and Ohio rivers 
to Evans ville. Here they separated, each 
family going its own way. Mr. Cushman, 
bought a team at Evansville and went north 
to Princeton, where he spent the winter. The 
following spring he went to Sullivan County, 
and pre-empted forty acres of land which he 
began to improve. His family at that time 
consisted of eight children, their ages ranging 
from two to twenty years. Mr. Cushman 



did not live long to see his pioneer home 
develop and the country around it become 
improved. From the effect of exposure and 
the malarial character of the country he con- 
tracted disease which resulted in his death in 
the spring of 1821. He was reared a Quaker, 
and possessed that high moral and religious 
nature, characteristic of that sect. Honest 
and upright in all his dealings, he and his wife 
were worthy representatives of that brave 
pioneer element that is fast jmssing away. 
After the death of the father the family 
remained together and the boys continued the 
improvement of the farm and also added to 
it. In 1829, when fifteen years of acre, 
Thomas went to Vincennes and obtained 
employment in the store of Tomlinson & 
Eoss, where he remained five years. He 
then went to Perrysville, and engaged in 
general merchandising with George Uishop 
and E. D. Moff'att. In 1841 Mr. Eishop 
withdrew and the firm of Mofl^att & Cushman 
continued until Mr. Cushman's removal to 
Newport in 1872. Mr. Cushman was married 
in Perrysville, in 1847, to Susan E. Firth, a 
native of Kentucky, where her parents died 
when she was a child and she and a sister 
afterward had a home with Elijah Eoseberry 
and with him came to Vermillion County in 
1844. Mrs. Cushman died in March, 1859, 
leaving five children, only one of whom is 
living — William J., now of Danville, Illinois. 
In 1862 Mr. Cushman married Mary A. 
Baxter, widow of Dr. John S. Baxter. She 
died in July, 1883, leaving a daughter, 
Carrie Glauton, now the wife of AYilliam L. 
Galloway, of Wichita, Kansas. Mr. Cush- 
man began life poor and whatever success he 
has gained has been due to his own cft'orts. 
In early life he was a Whig, but since its 
organization has been allied to the Ecjiublican 
party. His first presidential vote was cast 
for General Harrison in 1840. There never 



HISTORY OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



having been a society of FrienJs formed in 
Newport, Mr. Cuslunan has cast his lot 
with the Methodists. 



fAMES A. ELDER, section 3, Ilelt Town- 
ship, is a native of Brown Countj, Ohio, 
Lorn October 2, 1822, a son of Samuel 
and Marj (McCane) Elder, his father a native 
of Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, and 
his motlier of Ireland. His grandfather, 
Samuel Elder, was a native of Ireland, and 
came to America soon after his marriage. 
Samuel Elder, Jr., left his native State in 
1816, and moved to Brown County, Ohio, 
where he lived until 1832, when he moved 
to Yermillion County, Indiana, and settled 
in Ilelt Township, where his wife died in 
1852. In the summer of 1869 he went to 
New York to visit friends, and died there 
July 6, of that year. James A. Elder was 
reared on a farm in Vermillion County, and 
was educated in the log cabin schools. He 
has always devoted his attention to farming, 
and has been, as a result of economy and 
good management, successful, and now owns 
a ilne farm of 423 acres where he resides, 
and also 143 acres in Edgar County, Illinois. 
He makes a specialty of stock-raising, and 
has some very line graded varieties of both 
cattle and hogs. He takes pride in having 
his farm and stock equal to any in the 
county, and devotes his entire attention to 
improving his property. He takes an inter- 
est in the material welfare of the county, but 
prefers to leave the duties devolving on an 
officeholder to those who have such asjnra- 
tions, his time being taken up with his own 
private business, although he has servfed 
three years on the board of county commis- 
sioners. Mr. Elder was married April 1, 
1852, to Euphamia Slieely, daughter of George 



Sheely. She died the following August, and 
January 18, 1855, Mr. Elder married Mary, 
daughter of James Morgan. To them were 
born two children — George and Harriet. 
George married Mattie Tem])le, and is living 
in Ilelt Township; Harriet is the wife of 
Oscar Gibson, of Newport. IMrs. Elder died 
November 10, 1862. March 26, 1864, ISIr. 
Elder married Mrs. Julia A. Fisher, daughter 
of Eichard Dicken, who died December 13, 
1875, leaving two children — Clara A., wife 
of Fisher McHoberts, and Samuel. February 
1, 1877, Mr. Elder married Susan R., daugh- 
ter of Adna Beach. He and his wife are 
members of the Presbyterian church. 



^^LDRIDGE HARLAN, farmer and stock- 
°\rfli raiser, section 17, Vermillion Township, 
^^ is a native of Vermillion County, born 
November 30, 1840, a son of Cornelius C. 
and Martha (Tate) Harlan, natives of Tenn- 
essee, of English descent. His paternal an- 
cestors came to America in an early day, four 
brothers coming together, two of them set- 
tling in Tennessee, one in North Carolina, 
and one in Kentucky. After his marriage, 
Cornelius Harlan came to Indiana and bought 
200 acres of land in Vermillion County, and 
on this farm our subject was reared and early 
learned the lessons that have been of benefit 
to him since he commenced life for himself. 
When he started for himself he had $180, 
and from this beginning he has kept on until 
he is now one of the prosperous farmers of 
the township. His homestead contains 170 
acres of valuable land, and his residence and 
farm buildings are comfortable and commodi- 
ous. He has made a specialty of dealing in 
and raising stock, and has made a success of 
this enterprise. When his father located on 
his farm it was a tract of wild laml, and the 



improvements have all been made by him, 
and in all his labor he has been ably assisted 
by his estimable wife. Mr. Harlan was mar- 
ried in 1864, to Matilda Merriman, who was 
born in Vermillion Connty in 1838, a daugh- 
ter of Manson P. and Anna (Campbell) Mer- 
riman. Mr. and Mrs. Harlan have fonr 
fhildren — Lanra, Calla, Thomas C. and Josie 
15. Their two eldest daughters have taught 
several terms in this and Vigo counties, and 
are both successful and popular teachers. Tlie 
eldest daughter, Laura, will graduate in the 
State Normal in 1888. Mr. Harlan is a 
member of the Masonic fraternity. Lodge No. 
209. In politics he is a Democrat. 



►^H 



fOIlN BRINDLEY, farmer and stock- 
raiser, section 1), Vermillion Township, 
was born in Harrison County, Indiana, 
January 4, 1825, a son of George and Sarah 
(Blunk) Brindley, natives of Kentucky, of 
German descent, the fether born June 20, 
1800, died in 1878, and the mother born 
in 1806, died March 3, 1867. The parents 
came with their family to Vermillion Coi;nty 
in 1828, and lived here the rest of their 
lives. They had a family of thirteen chil- 
dren, six of whom are living — Margaret, wife 
of Eev. Joshua Rogers, of Decatur; John; 
Andrew, of Perrysville; Eli, George, and 
Susanna, wife of Edward Brown. They were 
members of the United Brethren church, and 
were held in high esteem by all the old set- 
tlers who shared with them the hardships 
and pleasures of pioneer life. John Brindley 
was reared in Vermillion Township, and now 
owns 129 acres of its best land. AVlien he 
started in life for himself he was without 
means but by habits of industry he has ac- 
quired a good property. He was married 
September 3, 1846, to Sarah, daughter of 



John and Julia A.(Breimer) Luellen, natives 
of Pennsylvania, of Welsh and German de- 
scent. Mr. and Mrs. Brindley have had five 
children, three of whom are living — Francis 
L. married Emma J. Eeeder, and has three 
children — Morris A., Eva A. and Lucy B., 
Thomas E. married Charity Ratliff; Alonzo 
married Lucy Merriman, and lives on the 
liome farm. In politics Mr. Brindley is a 
Democrat. 

_ m . ,^ fT ^^ ^ 

r^T jr KLVILLE B. CARTER, a prominent 
'. I, \/.\- '^■'•izen of Newport, was born and 
^|¥i^ reared in Highland Township, Ver- 
million Connty, a son of Absalom and Sid- 
ney (Chenoweth) Carter, who were among the 
pioneers of Vermillion County, coming from 
Ohio, their native State, in an early day. The 
father was a man of much intelligence, and 
became one of the leading men in the early 
history of the county. He taught school at 
Perrysville, this county, for many years, and 
also held the position of justice of the peace, 
for some time. He subsequently removed to 
Baltimore, Warren County, Indiana, where 
he lived a considerable time, but finally re- 
turned to Perrysville, where he died, when 
the subject of the sketch was a boy. His 
wife was a daughter of John Chenoweth, an 
early settler of Highland Township. She 
died in Perrysville in 1881. They were the 
parents of two children — Sylvanus, who was 
a soldier in the war of the Rebellion, a mem- 
ber of Company K, Sixth Indiana Cavalry, 
and died at Knoxville, Tennessee, in 1863; 
and Melville B., the subject of this sketch. 
Melville B. Carter was also a soldier in the 
late war, enlisting in 18G1 in Company B, 
Eleventh Indiana Infantry, and was in active 
service over four years. He was at the bat- 
tle of Fort Donelsnn, and at the battle of 



I — 



BISTORT OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



Shiloh under General Lew Wallace, and also 
took part in the battle of Champion Hills 
and siege of Vicksburg. He was then trans- 
ferred east, and participated in the engage- 
ments at Winchester and Cedar Creek. He 
was mustered out of the service in August, 
1865, having escaped without wounds, but 
returning home with his health somewhat 
impaired. Mr. Carter Avas united in marriage 
to Miss Fanny ]\Ioftalt, a daughter of AYalter 
B. Moffatt, of Perrjsville. She died in 1869, 
leaving at her death a daughter named 
Grace. After the war Mr. Carter engaged in 
farming in Highland Township, which he 
followed successfully until 1886. In the fall 
of that year he was elected, on the llepubli- 
can ticket, recorder of Vermillion County, 
as successor to C. S. Davis, who had tilled 
the oftice about nine year.s. Since assuming 
the duties of the office Mr. Carter has given 
entire satisfaction, making an efficient and 
popular county officer. 



fRANCIS M. BISHOP of Clinton, was 
born in Sturbridge, Massachusetts, De- 
cember 27, 1833, but since boyhood his 
life has been spent in Indiana, and since 
1852 at Clinton. His father, Iliram Bishop, 
was born at Manchester, Connecticut, and 
early in life he was left an orphan. He was 
then adopted by Mr. Uriah Childs, and while 
in his teens was thrown upon his own re- 
sources. He learned the carpenter's trade 
wliicli he followed until M'ithin a few years 
of his death. He was married November 
25, 1830, in Connecticut, to Miss Sabrina 
Chapman, and several children were born to 
them, among whom was Edwin C, who was 
killed at the battle of Cedar Creek, Virginia, 
while bravely carrying the colors of his regi- 
ment, the Eigiiteenth Indiana Volunteers; 



Mrs. Sarah Vanuest, who died at home in 
1868, leaving one son named Edwin; and 
Francis Marion, the subject of this sketch. 
Iliram Bishop came with his family to Clin- 
ton, Vermillion County, in 1852, to construct 
the wagon bridge across the Wabasli, which 
still stands as a monument to the mechanical 
skill of an early day. He purchased prop- 
erty in Clinton, and became a permanent 
citizen. He was an active, enterprising man, 
and did much toward building up the town, 
erecting a number of residences and public 
buildings. He was a member of the Odd 
Fellows order. He was a consistent Christian, 
and a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. He was a man of strong convictions, 
and great moral courage, and was among the 
few who early, fearlessly and openly espoused 
the cause of abolition, and waged war upon 
slavery. He died at his home in Clinton, 
March 12, 1875. His widow, Mrs. Sabrina 
Bishop, was born at Asliford, Connecticut, 
July 1, 1810, inheriting a strong New Eng- 
land constitution which has carried her 
through the many vicissitudes of life for 
seventy-seven years. Slie is still actively en- 
gaged in business at Clinton. She is a mem- 
ber of the Methodist Episcopal church, and 
is highly esteemed by all who know her. 
Francis M. Bishop, whose name heads this 
sketch, after reaching manhood, learned the 
marble cutter's trade at Terre Haute, and 
subsequently established marble works at 
Clinton, which he conducted until 1868, since 
which time he has been engaged in painting 
and decorating. He was married in 1858 to 
Miss Melinda Anderson, of Perrysville, this 
county, who died in February, 1871, leaving 
three children — Lucius O., now editor and 
proprietor of the Sat^brday Anjus&i Clinton; 
Edwin A., engaged in a mercantile establish- 
ment at Frankfort, Indiana, and Ella. Mr. 
Bishop was again united in marriage in Sep- 



ii 



BIOORAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



teinber, 1875, taking for liis second wife Miss 
Jennie Iliglifill, of Newport, Vermillion 
County. Two children liave been born to 
bless this union, their names being Floj^, and 
Ethel. His second wife died at her home in 
Clinton, June 28, 1886. 



fOIIN II. LINN, manager of the " Flour 
Exchange," Dana, Indiana, is a native of 
Ohio, born in Hocking County, October 
9, 1843, a son of Adam Linn, who was born 
in Guernsey '^County, Ohio, his father, Josejjh 
Linn, being a pioneer of that county. John 
11. was raised in his native State on a farm, 
remaining at home until after the breaking 
out of the Rebellion; when, at the age of 
eighteen he enlisted in Company I, Seventy- 
tifth Ohio Infantry. He served three years 
and nearly three months, and participated in 
several active engagements. During the time 
of service he was eighteen months in thecit^- 
of Baltimore, Maryland, on special detail, and 
finally discharged at Jacksonville, Florida. 
After his return from the war, he taught 
school ill Ohio for eight years, then came to 
Montezuma, Indiana, where he was employed 
for six years in the grain business by Col. E. 
M. Benson. While in Montezuma, he was 
assessor of Eeserve Township two years, and 
twice elected clerk of the Town Board. He 
moved to Dana in 1882, where he has since 
lived. He is a staunch Democrat, and noted 
for his unshrinking fidelity to the principles 
of sobriety, integrity, industry and economy. 
He is now president of the Town Board of 
Dana, and enjoys the honor of being its prin- 
cipal incorporator. Mr. Linn was married 
February 25, 1866, to Nancy J. Crawford. 
Four children have been born to them, two 
of whom are living — Carrie A. and Ealph W. 
Their eldest daughter, Alice M., died aged 



sixteen years, and Flora, their youngest 
daughter, at the early age of one year and 
one month. Mr. and Mrs. Linn are both 
members of the Methodist Episcopal church. 



ILO .1. KUDY, of I'errysville, is a 
son of Jacob Rudy, who was a native 
^%^^^ of Switzerland, and came to America 
when a boy with his father, Martin Rudy. 
Jacob was the eldest of four children. Ho was 
reared in Lycoming County, Pennsylvania, 
where he learned the shoemaker's trade, and 
was married to Catherine Lilly. In the fall of 
1833 he moved to Indiana, and the following 
year to Vermillion County, and settled in 
Highland Township, about a mile south of 
Perrysvil-le,' where for several years he worked 
at his trade, and the latter part of his 
life was engaged in farming. About 1812 
he moved to Wisconsin, where his wife died 
soon after, and the family then returned to 
Vermillion County, and here the fatlier died 
in the fall of 1880. He was married the 
second time after his return to this county. 
To his first marriage were born four children, 
three sons and one daughter. Martin, who 
besides on the homestead, and Milo J. being 
the only surviving members of the family. 
Catherine and John died in childhood. Mr. 
Rudy was an industrious man, and although 
he was poor when he came to this county, he 
worked hard at his trade and with the money 
earned invested it in real estate, which ad- 



vanced in value, and made him wealthy, 
enabling him to leave his sons considerable 
property. He possessed in a large degree 
that spirit of economy and energy cliaracter- 
istic of the German people, and was a worthy, 
respected citizen. Milo J. Rudy was born in 
Vermillion County, Indiana, in 1840. He 
was married in 1869 to Miss Sophia S. Seas 



HISTORY OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



who was born in Y\oyd County, Indiana, a 
daughter of Samuel and Harriet Seas. Sam- 
uel Seas was born January 30, 1807, in Cum- 
berland, Alleghany County, Maryland, and in 
1832 moved to Illinois, and two years later 
to Vermillion County, Indiana, where he 
married Harriet English, December 21, 1834. 
Tliey afterward moved to Floyd County, and 
subsecjuently returned to Perrysville, and in 
1868 went to Covington, Indiana, where Mr. 
Seas died in September, 1875. Mrs. Seas died 
January 31, 1880. She was born December 
13, 1818. They had a family of six children, 
Mrs. Ivudy being the only one who lived till 
maturity. Mrs. Seas is a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal church. Mr. Seas is a 
worthy member of the Vermillion Lodge, 
Knights of Pythias, Ko. 113; also a member 
of the Unity Lodge, F. and A. M., No. 314. 



fllOMAS W. EELL, tailor, Eugene, is a 
native of Pennsylvania, born March 
31, 1825, his father, Thomas Bell, 
being a native of Ireland. The latter came 
to the United States with his widowed mother 
during the Eevolutionary war, his brother, 
John Bell, having served seven years in that 
memorable struggle. Thomas W., our sub- 
ject, learned the tailor's trade at his birth- 
])lace, and worked at it in various places in 
Pennsylvania. He went to Kew Middletown, 
Ohio, in 1849, but shortly after went to Dar- 
lington, thence to Beaver, Pennsylvania. 
From Beaver he removed to Vernon, Indiana, 
remaining there si.x months. He lived in 
ditlerent places in Indiana until September, 
1850, since which time he has been a resident 
of Eugene. He was married in April, 1853, 
to Miss Melinda Bennett, a daughter of Cray- 
tun Bennett, and tlieir two sons, William and 
David \V., arc numbered among the entei-- 



prising young business men of Eugene. Mr. 
Bell was a soldier in the war of the Kebell- 
ion, serving eight months in Company E, 
One Hundred and Forty-ninth Indiana In- 
fantry. 



fOHN H. BOGART, M. D., of Clinton, 
and the oldest resident physician of Ver- 
million County, is a native of this county, 
born in Helt Township June 27, 1845, a son 
of Henry and Sarah I. (AYishard) Bogart, 
both of whom came to tlie coimty when 
young. The father of our subject died when 
the latter was six months old. The mother is 
now living in Clinton, where she has resided 
since 1850. She is now the widow of Benja- 
min F. Morey, whom she married about 
1852. Dr. Bogart, our subject, is the only 
living child of his father. He commenced 
the study of medicine under Dr. I. B. Hedges 
in 1866 at Clinton, and in 1867-'68 he at- 
tended lectures at the Michigan State Uni\er- 
sity at Ann Arbor, graduating from that 
institution in 1869, and the same year began 
the practice of medicine at Clinton, where he 
has gained a large and lucrative practice. 
Dr. Bogart M-as married May 14, 1872, to 
Miss Melissa A. Nebeker, who was also born 
in Helt Township, Vermillion County, in 
1852, a daughter of Aquilla Kebeker. Both 
of her parents are deceased. They are the 
parents of two children — Paul and Zona. 
The doctor owns quite large interests in city 
property, besides two well improved farms, 
one beiiig the old Kebeker homestead in Helt 
Tovvnsliip. Dr. Bogart enlisted in the war 
of the Rebellion in November, 18G3, in Com- 
pany C, One Hundred and Twenty-third In- 
diana Infantry, his regiment being assigned 
to tlie Twenty-third Army Corps under C4en- 
eral Scholield. He subsequently joined Sher- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 




man's army and was in the campaign against 
Atlanta. During the last year he was a hos- 
pital steward. In politics he is a ivepnbli- 
can, and from 1876 nntil 1880 he held the 
office of treasurer of Vermillion County, lie 
is a member of the Masonic fraternity, be- 
longing to Jerusalem Lodge, No. 99, of 
Tcrre Haute Chapter, No. 11, and Comman- 
dery No. 16. 



fOIlN O. IIOGEIIS, one of the enterpris- 
inw farmers of Kelt Township, was born 
^,^i in Vermillion Township, January 8, 
1827, and has always lived within three miles 
of his birthplace. He was a son of John 
Rogers, who was a native of Ireland, and in 
1789 accompanied his father, James Rogers, 
to the United States and located in Kentucky, 
and from there moved to Chillicothe, Ohio, 
where James Rogers built one of the first 
houses in the place. An uncle of our sub- 
ject, Samuel Rogers, was captured by the In- 
dians daring the Indian war in Kentucky, 
but escaped and took with him an Indian 
gun and shot-pouch and strap of an Ameri- 
can officer which the Indians had taken from 
a soldiei'. The strap is now in the possession 
of our subject, who values it as an inter- 
esting heirloom. In 1821 John Rogers came 
to Vermillion County and settled on Kelt's 
Prairie, then a wild, nninhabited tract. John 
O. was born on the prairie, three miles north- 
east of Dana, and here he has spent his life. 
He was reared a farmer, and has made agri- 
culture the vocation of his life. He now 
owns 400 acres of fine land, divided into 
three farms, the greater part of the land 
under cultivation. Mr. Rogers was married 
December 8, 1870, to Ruth Kerns, a daughter 
of William Kerns. She died in 1876 leaving 
two children — William and Irvin. In Au- 



gust, 1877, Mr. Rogers married Rebecca 
Ilutson, daughter of David Hutson. They 
have one daughter — Sarah. Mr. and Mrs. 
Rogers are members of the Methodist Epis- 



copal church. Mr. Rogers has ser 
tice of the peace sixteen years. 



•ed 



as jus- 



fMiWl ^^' ^^^I^-^^S, a prominent attorney 
-flfmll^ of Vermillion, and the oldest legal 



yitj\''l:v\f oi V ermuiion, auu me Oldest lega 
■^4*1?=® practitioner at Newport, is a native 
of Indiana, born in Hancock County, Septem- 
ber 28, 1836. His father, George Rlioads, 
was born in the State of Pennsylvania, of 
German descent. He was married to Miss 
Sarah Geiger, and to them were born six 
children, all of wdiom are still living — Mrs. 
Eliza Young, a resident of. Putnam County, 
Indiana; Henry E. and William F., living at 
Waveland; George, a practicing physician at 
Shelby ville, Illinois; Baskin E., a prominent 
attorney at Terre Haute, and formerly judge 
of the Superior Court, and Martin G., the 
subject of this sketch. In the fall of 1835 
the father came with his family, then con- 
sisting of wife and five children, to Indiana, 
making the journey in a one-horse wagon. 
The father then entered eighty acres of land 
in Hancock County, but soon after disposed 
of this purchase and removed to Parke County, 
where he remained about two years. He 
then settled at Waveland, Montgomery Coun- 
ty, where he died June 20, 1875, at the age 
of seventy-six years. His widow, the mother 
of our subject, was born in 1797, and is now 
living with her son at Waveland. Martin G. 
Rhoads was educated at the academy at 
Waveland preparing for the junior class of 
the college, but owing to an affliction of his 
eyes he was prevented from taking the college 
course. For a considerable time he followed 
the teacher's profession, becoming a jjopular 



IHSrORT OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



and very successful instructor. He began the 
study of law during the war of theliebellion, 
and was admitted to tlie bar at Newport, 
Indiana, in August, 1865, and since that 
time has been constantly engaged iu practice, 
and his career as a lawyer has been a success- 
ful one. lie began the practice of law with 
his brother, Judge Rlioads, with whom he 
was associated until about 1877. He is now 
a member of the firm of Rhoads & Aikman, 
this firm having been formed but recently. 
Mr. Ehoads was united iu marriage to Miss 
Fannie Mofi'att, a daughter of Robert D. 
Moffatt, of Perrysville, and they are the 
parents of two children — Paul Moifatt and 
Helen. Mr. Rhoads -was surveyor of Ver- 
million County for a term of two years. In 
politics he is a Republican and is a strong- 
adherent and an able exponent of the princi- 
ples of the party of his choice. 



mOBERT BALLENTINE STOKES, a 
'^W^ worthy representative of one of the old 
'''^^ pioneer families of Vermillion Count}', 
was born in Franklin County, Ohio, the date 
of his birth being September 15, 1810. He 
is tlie only surviving sou of Matthew and 
llarminah Stokes, the father born June 27, 
1774. Nathaniel Stokes, the grandfather of 
our subject, was a native of North Carolina, 
from which State he removed to Kentucky. 
Later he settled Avith his familj' at Columbia, 
near Cincinnati, Ohio, and during his resi- 
dence at that place he and his son Matthew- 
worked at Cincinnati. In 1791 when St. 
Clair was defeated l)y Indians at Fort Recov- 
ery, Ohio, Matthew Stokes assisted in bury- 
ing the dead slain by the Indians. He was 
married in Ohio to llarminah Skidniore, a 
descendant of a proinineiit Kentucky family. 
They had a family of nine children, eight of 



whom grew to maturity and liad families of 
their own. Their daughter, Mrs. Mary Skid- 
more Winsett, of Edgar County, Illinois, who 
was born February 14, 1822, and Robert B., 
the subject 'of this sketch, are the only sur- 
vivors of the family at the present writing. 
Soon after his marriage Matthew Stokes 
settled near Columbus in Franklin County, 
wliere he lived until 1820, when he started 
with his family for the Wabash. They went 
down the Scioto River to the Ohio, tiieuce to 
the mouth of the "Wabash and up the Wabash 
to Clinton. After living four years on Ilelt's 
Prairie the family settled two miles south of 
Newport, where the father made his home 
until liis death December 16, 1840. Hi,- 
wife was born January 1, 1779, and died in 
the year 1835. Robert Ballentine Stokes, 
whose name heads this sketch, was a lad of 
ten years when he came with his father's 
family to Vermillion County, where lie has 
since lived, a period of sixty-seven years. 
He was married January 31, 1833, to Miss 
Reljecca Wallace, a native of Virginia, and a 
daughter of William Wallace, one of tlu' 
early pioneers of Vermillion County, settling 
here in 1829. He was bereaved by the death 
of his wife November 25, 1874, after journey- 
ing down life's pathway together for fifty 
years. She was a consistent Christian, a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal cliurch, 
and was beloved by all who knew her. Of 
the six children born to them, one son, 
Robert Finley, is the only one living. He 
was born in Vermillion County, February 14, 
1843, and is living on the old Iiomestead of 
his father. Isabella, vrife of John Stakley, 
died February 22, 1870; James W. was born 
January 1, 1841, and died February 10, 
1867; and three died in infancy. Mr. Stokes 
entered a tract of eightj' acres in Vermillion 
Township, in 1832, and has succeeded well 
in his agricultural pursuits, and is now 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



enjoying the fruits of his years of toil, sur- 
rounded with all the necessary comforts of 
life. During his residence here he has taken 
a deep interest in the welfare of his township, 
and no one in this section of the country is 
more highly respected than he. Although a 
member of no church, he has a great respect 
for religion. He has always been a great 
Bible reader and tries to live according to its 
precepts. 



ffg^EZIN METZGER, of PerrysviUe, is a 
iWt representative of one of tlie early pio- 
^"^^ neer families of Yermillion County, his 
father, Jonas Metzger, having settled here 
with his family as early as 1828. The father 
was a native" of Pennsylvania, born December 
7, 1793. AVhen a young man he went to 
Ohio, and was married in that State Decem- 
ber 24, 1818, to Miss Mary Craig, who was 
born in Ohio, June 4, 1803. They reared a 
family of twelve children, six sons and six 
daughters, to maturity, of whom six are still 
living — David H., the eldest son, now living 
in Kansas, was born OctoTier 13, 1819, was a 
soldier in the war of the Rebellion, serving 
three years in Company B, One Hundred and 
Thirteenth Illinois Infantry; Rezin, the sub- 
ject of this sketch; Mrs. Sarah Ann Simpson, 
living in Dakota; Mrs. Indiann Glover, re- 
siding in Greene County, Missouri; Mrs. Ann 
Maria Runyon, of Vermillion County, Illi- 
nois, and Mrs, Martha Ann McKiljl)en, living 
in Florida. On coming to Vermillion County, 
Indiana, the family settled on the Big Ver- 
million River in Eugene Township, living on 
what is now known as the Shelby farm some 
live years. The father then bought a farm 
in Highland Township, about three miles 
north of Perrysville, where he lived with his 
family until 1865, when the infirmities of 



age compelled him to retire from active 
labor, and he purchased a home in Perrys- 
ville, where he lived until his death, which 
occurred February 29, 1872. He was a 
soldier in the war of 1812, serving under 
Captain Shelby, of Kentucky. He was reared 
to the avocation of a farmer, which he fol- 
loM-ed until he retired from active life. He 
was a man of strict integrity, esteemed by 
all for his honest, upright character, and left 
as an inheritance to his children a name of 
which they may well be proud. He was a 
man of strong religious principles, striving 
to do right at all times. In politics he was 
a "Whig in early life, but was identified with 
the Republican party from its organization. 
His widow still survives, and is living with 
her son, Eezin, at the advanced age of eighty- 
four years. Rezin Metzger, whose name 
heads this sketch, is a native of Vermillion 
County, Indiana, born in Highland Town- 
ship, August 23, 1837, and has always made 
his home in his native county. He lived 
with his parents until his marriage, after 
which they made their home with him, and 
his mother, who is now rendered helpless by 
the infirmities of age, is his especial care, and 
he is happy in surrounding her with all the 
necessary comforts of life. In July, 1862, 
Mr. Metzger enlisted in the Seventy-first In- 
diana Infantry, and August 80, 1862, only 
about a month after he entered the service, 
he received a severe gun-shot wound in the 
right hip at the battle of Richmond, Ken- 
tucky. His injury rendered him unfit for 
further duty in the army, and he has never 
fully recovered from the effects of this wound. 
He was married December 31, 1868, to Miss 
Roxy F. Jones, a native of Crawfordsville, 
Indiana, and daughter of A. T. Jones, and 
to them have been born four children, named 
William, Grace, Daisy and Jonas. J\Ir. 
Metzger ever endeavors to follow the pre- 



VERMILLION COUNTY. 



cepts and example of liis father, who instilled 
into the minds of his children the principles 
of well doing. Politically Mr. Metzger is a 
Eepuhlican, casting his first Presidential vote 
in 1860 for Abraham Lincoln. 



tLEXANDER KINDERMANN, 
a prominent and skillful physician and 
surgeon, residing at Eugene, was born 
December 5, 1858, in Eugene Township, this 
county, where the town of Ca^'uga now 
stands. His father, Gottfiied Kindermann, 
being a farmer, he was reared to the same 
avocation, and received his education in the 
common schools of Eugene. He read medi- 
cine under the preceptorship of Dr. W. C. 
Eichelberger, now of Terre Haute, Indiana, 
and February 21, 1883, he graduated from 
Rush Medical College, of Chicago, Illinois, 
standing at the head of his class. He took 
special courses in eye and ear, dental surgery 
and dermatology, and Avhile in college, and 
also after his graduation he practiced surgery 
with eminent success. He engaged in the 
practice of medicine in Eugene, March 14, 
1883, and being well versed in the knoM'ledge 
of his chosen profession, he has succeeded in 
estaljlishing a large and lucrative practice. 
He is a member of the Alumni of Chicago. 
Gottfried Kindermann, the father of our sub- 
ject, resides on section 18, Eugene Township, 
where he is engaged in farming and stock- 
raising. He is a native of Prussia, Germany, 
born March 26, 1826, a son of Hohan Her- 
man Kindermann. He was a soldier in the 
Prussian army three years and four months, 
serving through the French Revolution and 
the Danish war, and during that time sent 
the money he earned to his mother. He was 
married in his native country in 1855, to 
Miss Fredricka Heidbreider, and to them 



v/ere born six children, three still living — 
Hohan F., of Vermillion Township, married 
Lena Hahn; Alexander, our subject, and 
Samuel, married Sally Hahn and has one son 
named Gottfried. The father came to Amer- 
ica in 1856, landing at ]^ew York City with 
but little means, and this was soon used for 
hotel and railroad accommodations. lie soon 
came to Vermillion County, Indiana, and 
settled in Eugene Township, where he has 
since made his home. When he landed in 
Eugene he was in debt to the amount of $54, 
and to-day he is the owner of a fine farm of 
240 acres, which he has acquired by his own 
untiring industry and perseverance, and is 
classed among the successful and most re- 
spected citizens of his township. Roth he 
and his wife are members of the Lutheran 
church. 



?i~|' M. DAVIS, a prominent; agriculturist 
JjT'L of Vermillion County, engaged in 
-^''^ farming, and raising and dealing in 
stock in Vermillion Township, is a represent- 
ative of one of the old pioneer families of 
the county. He is a son ^of Benjamin and 
Ruth (Sears) Davis, his parents being of 
Scotch and German descent. They came to 
Vermillion County in 1834, where they made 
their home until death, the father dying in 
1854 at the age of sixty-four years, and the 
mother in 1869, aged sixty-two years. They 
were the parents of twelve children, of whom 
only two are living — F. M. and Daniel. F. 
M. Davis is a native of Vermillion County, 
the date of his birth being February 10,1838. 
He was reared to the avocation of a farmer 
which he has made his life work. His edu- 
cational advantages were very limited, but by 
close observation he acquired a good business 
education. He being the eldest son, the care 




Pr 




Y ^>%- 



Mr.A.a^^ 



'/. 



^Clt/l'y>ta//'i'yL 




and responsibility of his mother and her 
eleven children rested on him after his father's 
deatl), and for eighteen years he was the 
mainstay of the family. He was married in 
Vermillion County in 1871, to Miss Sarah 
E. Bennett, who was born on tlie farm where 
she now resides, October 9, 1851. Of the 
eight children born to this union only three 
are living — Martha, Ida and Noah. Five died 
in infancy. Mr. Davis commenced life a 
poor boy, entirely without capital, and his 
success has been due to his own efforts, and 
to-day he is classed among the prosperous 
men of his township. lie is now the owner 
of a line farm on section 9, Vermillion Town- 
ship, containing 152 acres, beside which he 
owns 100 acres of land in another part of the 
county. Quiet in manners, and of industri- 
ous habits, upright and honorable in all his 
dealings he has gained the conildence and es- 
teem of all who know him. In politics he 
afhliates with the Democratic party. He is a 
member of the United Brethren church. 



^AMES S. liOGERS, an old settler of 
J'jj: A'crmillion County, was born in Frank- 
W" lin County, Ohio, July 26, 1813, a son 
of John Rogers, who was Ijorn in County 
Monaghan, Ireland, who came to America in 
1789. In 1824 James S. came with his 
parents to Vermillion County, Indiana, and 
settled on lielt's Prairie, where he grew to 
manhood, his youth being spent in assisting 
his father improve a frontier farm. He 
learned the wagon-maker's trade when ayoitng 
man, at which he worked about eighteen 
years. In 1877 he moved to Dana,' where 
for ten years he has been an honored citizen. 
Fcbniarj5, 1835, he was married to Margaret 
Widlace, daughter of William Wallace, an 
early settler of Vermillion Township. Their 



only son, JohuW., is deceased. He married 
Sarah J. Carmack, daughter of Andrew Car- 
mack, of Vermillion Township. Mrs. Rogers 
died in 1878. Mr. Rogers is a member of 
the Methodist Episcopal churcli. 



fACOB ILES, one of the old and respected 
pioneers of Vermillion County, who is 
now deceased, was born in Rockingham 
County, Virginia, May 10, 1791, a son of 
Henry lies, who was a native of Germany. 
His father was a soldier in the United States 
service during the war of the Revolution. 
Jacob lies was a tailor by trade. He left 
his native State for Ohio, when a young man, 
and in the winter of 1820-'21, he located at 
Terre Haute, Indiana. He was married Jan- 
uary 1, 1822, to Miss Hannah Stevenson, 
and to them were born six children, three of 
whom died in childhood. Those yet living 
are — Mrs. Martha J. Naylor, James B. and 
Jacob H. Mr. lies entered land in Ver- 
million County, Indiana, one mile north of 
Eugene at the first Government land sale 
here, and later he entered much land in Illi- 
nois. He removed with hisfamily to hisland 
near Eugene iu 1829, when Indians and wild 
animals were numerous, and here they ex- 
perienced many of the vicissitudes of pioneer 
life. Mr. lies died July 29, 1863, his widow 
surviving until March 23, 1886. They were 
honored and respected people and beloved by 
all who knew them. 



,ATTIIEW W. SCOTT, retired farmer, 
and now Residing in the city of 
^ Clinton, Vermillion County, Indiana, 
has been identified with the interests of the 
county siuce October 12, 18'47, when he es- 



niSTORT OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



tablished liis residence on sectfon 15, Clinton 
Township. He bought 160 acres of land 
wliich was covered with a heavy growth of 
timber and with his limited means the work 
of clearing and improving it depended upon 
his determination to succeed in spite of all 
obstacles, as time went he invested his earn- 
ings in land until he was the owner of 810 
acres, nearly all of which is in one tract, and 
the most of it in cultivated fields or in pas- 
ture land, only about sixty acres being re- 
served for timber. A portion has been given 
to his children, but he still retains 485 acres, 
divided into three farms which are leased. 
He also has several residence lots in Clinton, 
three of which are improved and occupied by 
tenants. January 5, 1882, Mr. Scott moved 
to Clinton, and is now living on West street 
where he has a fine residence, and has settled 
down to enjoy the fruits of his many years 
of toil and hardship. Mr. Scott was born in 
Jefferson County, Indiana, February 17, 
1823, a son of Joseph and Rebecca (Cruson) 
Scott, his father a native of Fleming County, 
Kentucky, born September 30, 1797, and his 
mother born near Manchester, Ohio. They 
wei-e married in Oliio, where the father had 
lived from the age of eleven years. The 
mother died at the age of forty-six years, the 
father surviving her many years and dying 
at the age of seventy-five years. To them 
were born nine children who lived till ma- 
turity, but five of whom are living — John, 
Joseph, Matthew W., Mary A. and Asenath. 
Matthew was the fifth of the family. He 
was reared to the vocation of a farmer, which 
he has followed through life, and by his in- 



dustrious habits and 



persevermg energy 



met with good success. He has shipped con- 
siderable stock to Chicago, and also shipped 
some to Cincinnati and Indianapolis. He 
made two trips on the Mississippi River in 
the years of 1842-'43; and on October 11 




and 12, 1846, he was in Chicago with horses 
for sale. He then walked from Chicago to 
Greeucastle, in three days. He remained 
at home until twenty years of age, when he 
went to Putnam County, Indiana, and re- 
mained three and a half years, when he moved 
to Vermillion County. Mr. Scott was mar- 
ried in Putnam County, March 10, 1847, to 
Miss Mary Mann, a native of that county, 
born July 9, 1829, a daughter of Levi Mann. 
To Mr. and Mrs. Scott have been born eight 
children, three sons and five daughters — Mrs. 
Elizabeth Mann, of Clinton; Mrs. Arabelle 
McClain, of Lawrence County, Missouri; 
Leonard D., of Vigo County, Indiana; Levi 
S., who lives on the old homestead on section 
15, Clinton Township; Mrs. Hannah Moss, 
of Greene County, Indiana; Dollie; Matthew 
M., junior member of the firm Edwards & 
Scott, dealers in boots and shoes, Clinton, 
and deputy postmaster, and Gertrude, who is 
the youngest. Mr. Scott is a public-spirited 
man and takes an especial interest in the 
cause of education, giving his children the 
advantages of the best schools. In politics 
he afiiliates with the Democratic party. Ho 
and his wife are niembers of the Presbyterian 
church. 



^TyREDERICK WALTER, a prominent 
^ri and enterprising farmer of Clinton 
''\^ Township, residing on section 17, was 
born near Worth, in Alsace, France, now a 
province of Germany, the date of his birth 
being November 13, 1834. His parents, 
Michael and Louisa Walter, were natives of 
Germany. When the subject of this sketch 
was a child of three years, they came to the 
United States, and made their home in Erie 
County, New York, ten miles eastof Buffalo, 
where they spent the rest of their lives, the 



ntOGRAPHlCAL SKETOHES. 



335 



1 



father dying in his forty-ninth year in Jnly, 
1844, and the mother dying in 1855, aged 
fifty-five years. Four of their children lived 
to maturity — Mrs. Magdalena Clonse, now 
residing in Kansas; Frederick, whose name 
heads this sketch; Jacob, who died at the 
home of our subject, in 1859, and Mrs. 
Louisa Taylor, living in Clinton Township. 
Frederick Walter was reared to agricultural 
pursuits, and has always followed the avoca- 
tion of a fanner. He was married in Erie 
County, New York, in September, 1854, to 
Miss Sarah Kinsley, who was born in Ger- 
many September 15, 1836, but reared from 
childhood in the State of New York. Her 
parents embarked with their family for 
America in the year 1844, her mother dying 
on the voyage, and was buried in the ocean. 
Her father settled in New York State where 
he was again married. He died in Erie 
County, that State, in 1860, leaving his chil- 
dren to the care of their step-mother. Of the 
ten children born to Mr. and Mrs. Walter 
seven are living — Mrs. Louisa S. Foltz, 
Charles F., John F., George W., EfRe E., 
Julia and Richard. The younger children 
aic at home with their parents, and none live 
far from the parental roof. The children 
deceased are William, who died aged one 
year and ten months; Cora, aged nine years, 
and a daughter who died in infancy. John 
F. has been blind since seven years of age, 
and is now a vigorous man. He is success- 
fully engaged in the manufacture of brooms, 
and has his workshop near his father's house, 
and few men are more skilled in their work or 
better able to go about the country, buying 
material or selling their wares. Mr. Walter 
came with his family to Vermillion County, 
Indiana, in the spring of 1857, and April 14 
of the same year settled on the land which 
they now occupy, the jjlace being one of tlie 
early pioneer homes of the county, formerly 



owned and occupied by Judge Cliarles Por- 
ter. Mr. Walter also brought with him to 
the county his youngest brother and sister, 
for whom he cared after their mother's 
death until they reached maturity. When 
Mr. Walter settled on his homestead, tlie 
property having been so long neglected and 
unoccupied, was almost in a state of its 
natural wildness. His capital then consisted 
of $350, with which he purchased forty acres 
of his land, which he at once began to clear 
and improve, having no stock or team to as- 
sist him in the work. With the aid of his 
excellent wife, and by his own industry and 
energy, combined with habits of economy, he 
has acquired a good property, his homestead 
of 130 acres being now one of the finest and 
best cared for farms in this part of Clinton 
Township. Both himself and wife are mem- 
bers of the Methodist church, and among the 
res])ected citizens of Clinton Township. In 
politics he is an ardent Kepublican. 



fAMES C. SAWYER, one of the leading 
lawyers of Vermillion County, and a 
member of the law firm of Conley & 
Sawyer, of Newport, is a native of Indiana, 
born in Hendricks County, Sejitember 8, 
1848. When he was quite young his father, 
John Sawyer, died, and at the age of sixteen 
years he began life for himself, working on a 
farm during the summer months, and in the 
winters attending school. Being thrown upon 
his own resources at an early age, and desir- 
ous of obtaining an education with but little 
opportunity for instruction, he early acquired 
habits of industry and persevering energy. 
At the age of eighteen years, by studiously 
improving such opportunities as were attain- 
able, he had qualified himself to teacii a 
country school, and for some time folhiwed 



ESmSmS^'II 



HISTORY OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



tlie vocation of a teaclier, studying as oppor- 
tunity afforded. He studied law principally 
without a preceptor, and whatever success 
he lias attained has been due to his own 
efforts. lie was admitted to the bar of Ver- 
million County at Newport, in 1876, and im- 
mediately entered upon his legal career. He 
practiced alone about one year, and was then 
associated with C. Ward for two years. He 
then practiced alone for several years when 
tiie firm of Sawyer & Gibson was formed 
which continued about two and a half years. 
Tlie tirm of Conley & Sawyer was formed in 
November, 1886. Mr. Sawyer was united in 
marriage to Miss Amanda Duncan, a native 
of Hendricks County, Indiana, who came to 
Vermillion County in 1877. Their only son, 
Herbert, was born in Newport. In politics 
Mr. Sawyer affiliates with the Democratic 
party. 



l^OP.ERT J. GESSIE, one of the repre- 
^|rV; sentative citizens of Vermillion County, 
^^\\ was born in Cumberland County, Penn- 
sylvania, November 5, 1809. His father. 
Christian Gessie, was also a native of Cuiii- 
berland County, born January 17, 1788, and 
for some time was a merchant in the town of 
Newville, that county. He died March 12, 
1816, at the age of twenty-eight years. After 
the death of his father, Robert J. went to the 
home of an uncle where he lived until 
reaching the age of seventeen years. He 
then started in life on his own account, leav- 
ing his uncle's house on foot with knapsack 
on iiis l)ack, and walked to Trenton, New 
Jersey, where he was first engaged as clerk 
in a hotel, remaining in this position about a 
year. He then clerked in a store for a time 
when he secured a position as clerk in the 
chancellor's office. He was married at J\lur- 



risville, opposite Trenton, in November, 
1829, to Miss Sarah Yard, who was born in 
New Jersey, and immediately after his mar- 
riage he took his first trip west accompanied 
by his wife, going to Philadelphia by boat, 
thence by stage to Pittsburgh, and from there 
by boat down the Ohio River to New Albanj-, 
Indiana. After remaining in Indiana about 
a year lie returned to New Jersey in the fall 
of 1830, passing the following winter at the 
home of his fatiier-in-law at Morrisville. He 
then turned his attention to teaching, and 
taught his first school at Pennsylvania Manor, 
on the banks of the Delaware, and in the 
spring of 1832 he taught at liatboro, north 
of Philadelphia. In the spring of 1833 Mr. 
and Mrs. Gessie again started westward, stop- 
ping at Columbus, Ohio, where he began 
teaching school, but soon after accepted a 
position as clerk in a store in that town. In 
the spring of 1835 he went to Chicago, Illi- 
nois, where he found employment as a clerk, 
and remained there until 1837. That year 
he came to Vermillion County, Indiana, and 
engaged in the mercantile business at Perrys- 
ville, and in the spring of 1838 he formed a 
partnership with Asaph Hill, which lasted 
several years. During this time he purchased 
the farm in Highland Township on which he 
now resides. After the dissolution of the 
partnership above referred to Mr. Gessie 
spent some time in settling up his business, 
and also carried on a general agency for a 
number of years. In 1848 he was elected 
to the Indiana State Legislature, serving two 
terms. In the spring of 1853 he went to 
Cincinnati, Ohio, for the purpose of selling 
goods for the firm of Blachly, Simpson & 
Co., and being a successful merchant he ren- 
dered valuable service to tiie company. In 
1862 the firm of Blachly, Simpson & (Jo. 
went into liqui<1ation, and Mr. Gessie re- 
mained to assist in settling the business, 



which occupied about two years. Mrs. Gessie 
died in March, 1864, leaving two sons-William 
and Charles. Mr. Gessie was married a sec- 
ond time, to Miss Mary Ann Morse, a rela- 
tive of the famous electrician Professor 
Morse. Since 1864 Mr. Gessie has lived 
somewhat retired from active life, residing on 
his beautiful farm near the village of Gessie, 
this town being laid out on his land and 
named in honor of him. In politics Mr. 
Gessie was originally a Whig, but has been a 
staunch llepublican since the organization of 
that party. Keligiously he is a strong be- 
liever in the principle of universal salvation. 
Mr. Gessie has always taken an active inter- 
est in the advancement of the cause of edu- 
cation. No man has been more prominently 
connected with the histor}' of Vermillion 
County, and none are better known or more 
highly respected than Eobert J. Gessie, the 
subject of this sketch. 



t^ ,ARON ir. WADE, deceased, was born 
jsV in Butler County, Ohio, in 1819, a son 
^ of Aaron and Julia (Ward) Wade, of 
English descent. When he was five years of 
age his parents moved to Parke County, 
Indiana, where he grew to manhood and 
lived until 1857, when he moved to Vermill- 
ion County, making this his home until his 
death, which occurred March 22, 1886. In 
earl 3' life he worked at the carpenter's trade 
and later devoted his attention to I'arming, at 
which he was successful and at his death left 
a good farm of 260 acres, where his widow 
and her family now live. Mr. Wade was an 
upright, honorable Christian gentleman, a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
and was respected by all who knew him. He 
was married in 1849 to Laura Vanlaudingham, 
a native of Greene County, Indiana, born in 



1827, a daughter of Thomas and Mary Van- 
laudingham. Iler grandfatlier Hamilton 
was a cousin of the distinguished Alexander 
Hamilton, and her grandmother was a cousin 
of Commodore Thomas McDonough, of the 
United States Navy. To Mr. and Mrs. Wade 
were born seven children, six of whom are 
living — Belle, wife of John T. Harris, of 
Indianapolis; Thomas V., James D., Laura, 
wife of Julius Groves; Emma and John A. 
Samuel is deceased. Mrs. Wade is a member 
of the Methodist Episcopal church and one of 
its active workers. She is a prominent citi- 
zen of the townshi]) and has many friends, 
who honor her for her man}' womanly 
qualities. 

— ^.^-s«:->|»--- — 



,|J|.ELSON C. ANDERSON, one of Ver- 
iMfJ million County's most active and enter- 
'^4k prising business men, was born in 
Wood County, West Virginia, the date of 
his birth being August 13, 1837. He is the 
ninth in a family of ten children of Edward 
and Elizabeth (Statts) Anderson, both of his 
parents being natives of Wood County, AVest 
Virginia. They came with their five young- 
est children to Vermillion County, Indiana, 
and made their home near Clinton in 1853, 
where the father bought a tract of 160 acres. 
He did not live long in his new home, his 
death occurring in September, 1855, at the 
age of sixty-seven years, his widow surviving 
him until 1859. Their children are as fol- 
lows: Michael, still living in Wood County, 
Virginia, being seventy-six years old July 
10, 1887; John came to Vermillion County a 
few years after his parents had settled here, 
and is now living in Helt Township; Samuel 
and Peter died in West Virginia; Mrs. Sarah 
Smith died in Vermillion County; Mrs. Eliza 
Hupp, Mrs. Rebecca Sparks and Elijah also 



BISTORT OP VERMILLION COUNTT. 



died in this county; Nelson C, the subject of 
this sketch, and Mrs. Margaret Payton, living 
in Ilelt Township. Nelson C. Anderson 
commenced his business career in 1856 as 
clerk in the mercantile establishment of John 
"Whitcomb, with whom he remained a few 
years. In 1860 he was married to Miss Ann 
M. Fisher, of Clinton, and the year following 
Iiis marriage he engaged in farming. He 
subsequently re-entered the employ of Mr. 
Whitcomb, becoming his partner in 1866, 
\\lien the business was conducted under the 
linn name of Whitcomb, Anderson & Co., 
tiie late A. L. Whitcomb being the silent 
partner. Mr. Anderson finally sold out his 
interest in the business, and in company with 
tiie late General 11. D. Washburn who had 
been appointed Survey-General for Montana, 
and others, started for Fort Benton. On 
account of the low water the company spent 
three months on the Missouri Kiver, when 
failing to go farther by river Mr. Anderson 
returned to Vermillion County, reaching his 
home in July. He then bought back his 
interest in the mercantile basiness,''and after 
several years of successful trade the partner- 
ship was dissolved, Mi-. Anderson retaining 
the grocery stock and trade. Tliis biisiness 
he has largely increased and it now aggregates 
over $40,000 per year. As a member of the 
firm of Shirkie & Co. Mr. Anderson is 
developing a coal mine a half mile west of 
Clinton. He is also a member of the firm of 
Hamilton & Anderson, the leading grain 
operators in tiie county, and also dealers in 
agricultural implements. Besides the busi- 
ness above mentioned he has large interests 
in improved city property in Clinton, and is 
classed among the prosperous men of the 
county. He has been the architect of liis 
own fortune, having acquired all he has by 
persevering energy and good business man- 
agement, and he well knows how to use liis 



capital. Mr. Anderson lost liis wife by death 
in 1861, and in November, 1865, he married 
Miss Thurza Nebeker, who is a sister of Sey- 
mour and Dr. Henry Nebeker. They are the 
parents of one child — Shelden S., born June 
23, 1870. In politics Mr. Anderson has 
always affiliated with the Republican party. 
Vermillion County has no more active, public 
spirited man than N. C. Anderson, the suIj- 
ject of this sketch, and none are more highly 
respected. 



l^ROF. FFtED RUSH, principal of tlie 
''iW ^^"^^ schools and surveyor of Vermillion 
^ County, was born in Clinton, March 20, 
1858, a son of James Rush, of Ilelt Town- 
ship, a pioneer of Vermillion County. He 
was reared a farmer but was given a good 
education, completing his studies at the 
National Normal School, at Lebanon, Oiiio. 
He has been engaged in teaching about ten 
years and is one of the most successful teacli- 
ers in the county. In the fall of 1884 he 
moved to Dana and took charge of the public 
schools and the same fall was elected county 
surveyor and was re-elected in 1886. Sep- 
tember 13, 1882, Mr. Rush was mai-ried to 
Anna M., daughter of Jackson Ilinkle of 
Farmersburg, Indiana. They have had three 
children, two of whom are living — Philip S. 
and Donald C. Mrs. Rush is a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal church. Mr. Rush is a 
member of the Odd Fellows order. 



fllARLES W. WARD, of Newport, is 
one of the well-known members of the 
"^l bar of Vermillion County. He was 
admitted at Newport about 1869, but prac- 
ticed little at tills place until 1875, when he 



hlOQBAPIIICAL SKETGIiBS. 



formed a partnership with Eobert B. Sears, 
wliich terminated a year or two later. lie 
then became associated with J. C. Sawyer in 
the practice of law, and still later with Jndge 
Joshua Jnmp, and following Joshua Jump 
came Josephus C. Davis. The present firm 
of Ward & Gibson was formed in November, 
ls86, and both members of the firm being 
prominent in the legal profession, they have 
succeeded in building xip a large and success- 
ful practice. Mr. Ward dates his birth in 
Bradford, New Hampshire, March 10, 1848, 
a son of Sylvester Ward, who died when our 
subject was a child of three or four years. 
In 1857 Mr. Ward came to Indiana to make 
liis home with the family of his nncle, Sena- 
tor O. P. Davis. He attended school for 
some time at Bloom ingdale, Parke County, 
and in 1868 he entered the high school at 
Perrysville, Vermillion County. In 1864: he 
returned to New Hampshire and spent two 
years at the New London Academy, return- 
ing to Indiana in 1866, and continued to re- 
side in tlie family of Mr. Davis until he 
began the study of law. Mr. Ward was 
united in marriage January 12,1870, to Miss 
Florence Montgomery, a daughter of Dr. 
AVilliam G. Montgomery, of Warren County, 
Indiana, and a granddaughter of Stephen S. 
Cdllett, one of the old and honored pioneers 
of Vermillion County. 



^ANIEL SIIUTE, a representative citi- 
zen of Highland Township, residing on 
section 20, is a son of Richard Shute, 
who came to Vermillion County among the 
early pioneers, locating near the present site 
of the Howard Chapel in Highland Town- 
sliip, in October, 1829. Eichard Shute was 
a native of England, coming to America 
wlieu a lad of ten years, his family settling 



in Ohio in an early day. He wa8 married in 
Lawrence County, Ohio, to Hannah McCart- 
ney, and to them were born nine children, 
five of whom were born in Vermillion County. 
Of the children yet living four sons, Daniel, 
John, Ephraim and Jehu, are residents of 
Highland Township, this county. Richard 
Shute died January 12, 1853, his widow sur- 
viving almost twenty years, her death occur- 
ring August 26, 1872. Daniel Shute, whose 
name heads this sketch, is ^ native of Ohio, 
born in 1820, being about nine years of age 
when his parents immigrated to Vermillion 
County. He distinctly remembers the ap- 
pearance of the country sixty years ago, and 
lias witnessed the many wonderful changes 
which have caused the wilderness to be trans- 
formed into well cultivated farms and thriving 
towns and villages. His wife was formerly 
Miss Jane Gouty, a daughter of Henry Gouty, 
one of the old pioneers of the county. Mr. 
and Mrs. Shute are the parents of seven 
children — Henry, married to Mary Rodgers; 
David, married to Mariah Foster; Elizabeth 
E., wife of Samuel Rodgers; Mel vina, Mary, 
wife of Scott Virgin; Joseph M., married to 
Ella Ricliardson, and Sarah, wife of Lewis 
Johnson. In politics Mr. Shute affiliates 
witli the Republican ticket. 



fAMES B. ILES, an active and prosper- 
ous farmer and stogk-raiser of Eugene 
Township, is a worthy representative of 
one of the old pioneer families of Vermillion 
Count}', his father having settled on the farm 
now occupied by our subject in the year 1828. 
James B. was born on this farm in a log 
cabin near the site of his present residence, 
June 4, 1829, a son of Jacob and Hannah 
(Stephenson) lies, his father born in Rock- 
ingham County, Virginia, May 10, 1791, and 



HISTORY OF VERMILLION COUNT f. 



his niotlier a native of Tennessee, born No- 
vember 1, 1796. His father was taken to 
Fairlield County, Ohio, by his parents when 
a boy, where he spent liis yoiith in clearing a 
farm. He learned the tailor's trade in that 
county. In 1820 he went to Terre Haute, 
Indiana, where lie worked at his trade some 
time. After coming to Eugene Township he 
made farming his principal avocation, in 
whicli he was eminently successful, accumu- 
lating much property. He made his home 
in Eugene Township until his death, July 
29, 1863. His widow died March 23, 1886, 
in her eighty-ninth year. They were the 
parents of six children, three still living — 
Mrs. Martha J. Nailer, James B., the subject 
of this sketch, and Jacob. James B. lies 
was reared on the old homestead, receiving 
such education as the rude log cabin schools 
of those early days afforded. He] was married 
March 14, 1857, to Miss Elizabetli Tever- 
baugh, a daugliter of John Teverbaugh, and 
they are the parents of six children — Nora, 
William, Mary, Etiie, Hannah and Martha. 
Nora is the wife of Henry Peters, of Brim- 
field, Illinois, who has been prominently 
identified with the interests of Eugene, and 
for four years was treasurer of Vermillion 
County. Mr. and Mrs. Peters had one daugh- 
ter, Josie, who died at the age of eight years. 
Mr. lies owns over 1,200 acres of land, and 
is classed among the substantial citizens of 
the county, where he is esteemed by all who 
know him. lie was a member of the Ma- 
sonic lodge at Eugene until it disbanded. 



fOIIN HENDERSON, farmer and stock- 
raiser, resides on section 7, "Vermillion 
Township, where .he owns 250 acres of 
choice land under a high state of cultivation. 
He was born in Vermillion County, Indiana, 



near his present homestead, August 20, 1831, 
a son of William and Anna (Haworth) Hen- 
derson. His father was a native of Ohio, of 
English descent, and the mother of Tennessee, 
of English and Irish descent. In 1822 his 
parents came to this county and settled in 
Vermillion Township, where his father died 
March 14, 1857, aged forty-nine years. His 
mother is still living, making her home with 
her son William. Of their six cliildren but 
two are living — John and William F. John 
Henderson was married in Parke County, 
Indiana, in 1870, to Dinah Towell, a native 
of Parke County, born January 7, 1837, 
daughter of George and Mary (Lindley) 
Towell. Mr. Henderson has served two 
terms as county surveyor. His educational 
advantages were somewhat limited, being 
confined to the common schools, with the ex- 
ception of six months spent at Bloomingdale 
Academy. Mr. and Mrs. Henderson are 
birthright members of the society of Friends. 
He is a firm adherent to the principles of 
prohibition, and always gives his support to 
any enterprise that tends to the elevation of 
society or the material lienefit of the town- 
ship or county. He is an active worker in 
the church, taking an especial interest in tlir 
Sunday-school and its interests. 



fANIEL W. FINNEY, dealer in hard- 
ware, farm implements and building 
naaterial, successor to Lowrey & Fisher, 
Dana, Indiana, is a native of the Iloosier 
State, born in Parke County, October 8,1837. 
a son of Robert Finney, who was born in 
North Carolina, of Irish descent, and came 
to Indiana M'ith his parents when a boy, and 
was here married to Malinda linnt, who was 
of Scotch descent. The grandfather of our 
subject, Joseph Finney, was a soldier in the 



BIOGRAPHICAL SSEtCllMS. 



341 



war 01 1812. Daniel W. Finney was reared 
on a farm in liis native county. lie was 
given good educational advantages, and for 
a time attended Clooiningdale Academy. He 
came to Vermillion County in March, 1862, 
and located on a farm one mile northeast of 
Dana. In 1870 lie hegan dealing in grain in 
Dana, which he continued until 1887, when 
he hought the stock of Lowrey & Fisher, 
lie carries a capital stock of about $5,000, 
and has a large trade which is constantly in- 
creasing. He is one of the prominent busi- 
ness men of Dana, where he has lived for a 
(piarter of a century, and has a large circle of 
friends among the business men of the county. 
He was married December 15, 1859, to Gilla 
Huffman, daughter of Lawson Huifnian, of 
Parke County, Indiana. To them have been 
lioru seven <;hildren, five of whom are living 
— Cora E., Alice M., Annis, William P. and 
Maude. One son, Edgar F., died at the age 
of four years. Mr. Finney is a member of 
the Masonic fraternity. Although he takes 
an active interest in the affairs of his town 
and county, he never seeks official honors, the 
cares of his business demanding his attention 
to such an extent that he has no time to 
devote to the duties devolving on a public 
officer. 



fOIIN Q. WASHBURN, general mer- 
cliant, Clinton, Indiana, was born in 
AVayne County, Ohio, October 13, 1833, 
a son of James A. and Mary A. (Kane) 
Washburn. His parents moved to Vermill- 
ion County, and located in Newport in 1850 
His father was a man of prominence in public 
affairs and was appointed postmaster at New- 
port under the administration of President 
Fillmore, and was holding that office at the 
time oF his death. His widow survived him 



several years. Hon. Henry D. Washburn, an 
older brother of John Q., was one of Indiana's 
prominent statesman. He was one of the 
bravest of the volunteer officers from Indiana 
during the war of tlie Rebellion, raising 
Company C, Eighteenth Indiana Infantry, 
and was afterward made Lieutenant-Colonel 
of the regiment. He was subsequently 
promoted to Brigadier-General and brevet 
Major General. In 1815 he made tlie run 
for Congress in this district against Dan 
Voorhees, the sitting jneinbei', and defeated 
him, and in 1867 was re-elected, running 
against Hon. Solomon Claypool. In 1869 he 
was appointed Survey-General of Montana 
Territory, and was holding that office at the 
time of his death, in January, 1871, at the 
early age of thirty-nine years. John Q. 
Washburn came to Vermillion County, in 
1852, two years after his parents and joined 
them at Newport, where he lived until after 
the breaking out of the Rebellion, engaged 
in the mercantile business. In September, 
1861, he responded to the call of duty and 
enlisted in defense of his country, serving 
faithfully fifteen months when he was dis- 
charged on account of sickness. Regaining 
his health he again, in the spring of 1864, 
went to the front as Captain of Company K, 
One Hundred and Twenty-ninth Indiana 
Infantry, joining the grand ai-my of General 
Sherman at Resaca, as a part of General 
Schofield's corps, the'gallant Twenty-third, and 
participated in the hard-fought Atlanta cam- 
paign and later in the historic battles at 
Franklin and Nashville, where Hood's army 
was practically destroyed. Later, still as a 
part of the Twenty- tliird Corps, the One 
Hundred and Twenty-ninth joined Sherman 
at Goldsboro, North Carolina, and was present 
at the sun'ender of General Johnston's arm}', 
the closing drama of the war. Captain 
AVashbnrn in all this campaign did well and 



manfully a soldier's part. Since his return to 
civil life his career has been no less honorable 
than that as a soldier. He has made mer- 
chandising the chief occupation of his life 
and there are none who are more popnlar as a 
merchant than he. Genial and courteous he 
has hosts of friends and has been a successful 
tradesman. lie has lived in Clinton since 
1875, and has one of the most complete and 
well stocked stores in the city. Pie was 
married in October, 1866, to Laura N. 
Nebeker, a native of Halt Township, born 
April 23, 1843, a daughter of Hon. Aquila 
Nebeker. They have two children — Annie 
and Dana. In politics Mr. Washburn is a 
stannch supporter of the principles of the 
Republican party. 



tILLIAM L. POETER, county treas- 
urer of Vermillion County, is a 
worthy representative of one of the 
pioneer families of the connty,his grandfather, 
John Porter, having settled in Clinton Town- 
ship as early as 1821. lie was a native of 
the State of New York, where he was reared 
and married, coming directly from that State 
to Vermillion County, and in an early day 
was an associate judge of the county. Charles 
Porter, the father of our subject, was but 
four years old when brought by his jjarents to 
Vermillion County. lie grew to manhood 
in Clinton Township, and was married to Miss 
Annie Morris, her father, Samuel Morris, 
being one of the pioneers of the county. 
They were the parents of ten children, four 
sons and six daughters, all living but one 
daughter, and are residents of Vermillitm 
County. Charles Porter died in 1878, his 
wife having died four years previous. Will- 
iam L. Porter, the subject of this sketch, is a 
native of Vermillion County, born in Clinton 



Township, in the year 1848. His father 
being a farmer he was reared on the farm, but 
subsequently learned the trade of a carpenter, 
and his general occupation has been that of a 
carpenter and bridge builder. He has met 
with success in all his undertakings, and is 
now the owner of a fine farm in Clinton 
Township. For his wife he married Miss 
Susan E. Clark, who was born in Clinton 
Township, Vermillion County, a daughter of 
James Clark. Mrs. Porter died March 15, 
1886, leaving three children — John W., Essie 
E. and Byron E. In his political views Mr. 
Porter affiliates with the Republican party, 
casting his first presidential vote for U. S. 
Grant in 1872. In the fall of 1884 he was 
elected to the office of county treasurer as 
successor to Henry Peters, and in the fall of 
1886 he was re-elected, and has proved him- 
self to be an efficient and trustworthy official 
in all respects, and by his honorable dealings 
he has gained the confidence and respect of 
the entire community. 



UCIEN R. WHIPPLE, patent right 
jnt, Eugene, was boi'n in Licking 
•'^'' County, Ohio, February 6, 1834, a son 
of Enoch Whipple who was a native of Ver- 
mont, and a son of Amiali Whipple. The 
latter was a soldier in the Revolutionary war, 
and a brother of William and Abraham 
Whipple, the former a signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, and the latter a soldier 
in the war of the Revolution. Lucien R. 
Whipple, t::e subject of this sketch, was 
brought by his parents to Logansport, Indi- 
ana, in 1839, and to this county in 1840, in 
which year they settled in Eugene. In 1856 
he went to Vinton, Iowa, returning to this 
county in 18G0. He enlisted in the late civil 
war in Compau}' K, Seventy-first Indiana 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKELGHES. 



343 t 



Iiiftintry, afterward known as -the Sixth Cav- 
ali-y, and while in the service participated in 
twenty-nine engagements, including the bat- 
tles of Richmond, Nashville, Stoneman Eaid, 
Murfreesboi'o, Buzzard lloost, Resaca and 
Allatoona Pass. He was captured by Mor- 
gan's men, but soon after paroled and ex- 
changed. Mr. Whipple was married October 
26, 1856, to Miss Sarah Sheward, a daughter 
of Ezekiel Shewai-d, and to them were born 
six children, four of whom are yet living — 
James E., Edward G., Frank M. and Mrs. 
Anna M. Fultz. In politics Mr. Whipple 
affiliates with the Republican party. Mrs. 
Whijjple is a member of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church. 



fHARLES B. KNOWLES, one of the 
substantial citizens of Clinton, has been 
actively identified with the interests of 
that city since 1860, in which year he and 
his brother, James E. Knowles, established 
their residence there. Each own and occupy 
a very fine residence in the same neighbor- 
hood, and together are owners of valuable 
city property and real estate, beside 320 acres 
outside the city. Charles B. Knowles was 
born in Vanderburg County, Indiana, on the 
parental homestead, eight miles north of 
Evansville, January 11, 1827, the eldest son 
of Charles and Mary Ann (Maidlow) Knowles, 
who were of English birth, the father born in 
Kent, England, December 14, 1801, and the 
mother born in Hampshire. The ancestors 
of the Knowles family came from Normandy 
with William the Conqueror, and fought at 
the battle of Hastings. Charles Knowles, 
the grandfather of our subject, came from 
England, and settled with his family in Van- 
derburg County, Indiana, in 1817. He died 
in 1835. His widow survived him several 



years, and died in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 
at the home of her daughter Mrs. Joseph 
Woodwell. The maternal grandfather of our 
subject, James Maidlow, left England with 
his family, and settled in Vanderburg County 
shortly after the war of 1812, where he died 
in March, 1852, in his eigiity-eighth year. 
Charles Knowles and Mary Ann Maidlow 
M-ere married in Vanderburg County, where 
tiiey passed the remainder of their life, and 
there reared to maturity a family of eigiit 
children. The first death in the family was 
that of their son, Edmund M. He was born 
April 29, 1837, and during the war of the 
Rebellion, he was a Lieutenant in the Forty- 
second Indiana Infantry, and engaged under 
General Granger at the battle of Chickainan- 
ga. He was taken prisoner and confined in 
Libby Prison, later under fire at Charleston, 
and still later at Columbia, South Carolina, 
where he made his escape. He was recap- 
tured, stripped of his uniform, taken out of 
prison, and shot to death. The parents of 
our subject began life in Vanderburg County 
in limited circumstances, but by industry and 
good management they acquired a good prop- 
erty, and by fair and honorable dealings 
gained the confidence and respect of all who 
knew them. The father was liberal in his 
religious views, but the mother was a member 
of the Episcopal church. Charles B. Knowles, 
the subject of this sketch, was reared to man- 
hood on his father's farm, and the habits of 
industry and economy learned in his youth 
have guided him in later years. Leaving the 
old home at the age of twenty-one years he 
went south, and mastered the art of printing, 
commencing at Carrolton, Mississippi, as 
compositor. He spent eight years in south- 
ern cities and towns, finding employment in 
New Orleans, Natchez, Little Rock, and other 
places. In 1858 he published a paper at 
Arkadelphia, Arkansas. His last work at his 



HISrOBT OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



trade was ou the Mempliis AjJpeal. He re- 
turned to Indiana late in the year 1854, and 
the following year became associated with his 
brother, James E., and Lnke Grant, in milling 
and tlic dry goods business in Warrick Coun- 
ty. Their mill, which cost $10,000, was 
destroyed by tire in 1859, thus breaking up 
the company. September 25, 1859, Mr. 
Knowles was united in marriage in Warrick 
County, to Miss Emily E. Ashle^', who was 
born near Booneville, that county, October 4, 
1842, a daughter of AVilliam G. and Sophia 
(Bosley) Ashley. Tlieir only child, Anna, 
was born June 28, 1860. She is now the 
wife of Charles E. Pittman, a dental surgeon 
of Evansville, Indiana. In 1860 the Knowles 
brothers, in company with Arthur M. John- 
son, built a flat-boat, and loading it with corn, 
started in February, 1861, for the lower Mis- 
sissippi markets. James E. Knowles and Mr. 
Johnson returned by the last boat, leaving 
for Louisville before the blockade of the river. 
Charles B^ remained behind to finally close 
up their business, and was detained nearly 
two weeks, returning by railroad, by the way 
of Nashville & Louisville from Memphis, this 
then being the only route open. Politically 
Mr. Knowles is of Democratic antecedents, 
and he himself is classed as Independent. A 
natural student, he keeps well posted on all 
matters of public interest. In his religious 
views he is liberal. 



f|LISHA A. LACEY is a representative 
L of one of the pioneer tamilies of Ver- 
"^ million County, Indiaiia. His father, 
James Madison Lacey, came here with his 
father, James Lacey, who settled with his 
family in Vermillion County in the year 
1837. James Lacey, the paternal grand- 
father of the subject of this sketch, was of 



English ancestry, the eighth son of Eichard 
Lacey, and was born in the State of New 
Jersey, July 6, 1778. He married Mary 
Biglow, who was born February 14, 1785, a 
daughter of Nicholas Biglow, a soldier in 
the war of the Eevolution. She died in Ver- 
million County the 29th day of September, 
1848, aged sixty-three years. In 1801 Mr. 
Lacey and his wife emigrated from New Jer- 
sey to the State of New York, where they 
resided a number of years, and reared a fam- 
ily of five children. From New York he 
moved to Indiana, and settled on a farm in 
Vermillion County, Highland Township, and 
about two miles north of Perrysville. This 
was his home until the time of his death, 
which occurred while temporarily residing 
with his daughter in Warren County, this 
State, on the 8th day of October, 1855. He 
was a man of intelligence, courageous, and 
fond of adventure, and the deep forests of 
central New Y'ork, abounding with wild ani- 
mals, aftbrded ample opportunity for the 
young and athletic pioneer to gratify his 
fondness for the chase. Some of the tales of 
his early adventures would adorn a page in a 
history of pioneer life in the State of New 
York. He and his brother, while prospect- 
ing for salt, discovered the mineral springs 
of Dryden, New York, known as the "Dry- 
den Springs," that have since become quite a 
place of resort for invalids, a large sanita- 
rium having been erected there. Of his five 
children who came with him to Indiana, Mar- 
garet, the oldest, married Syra Aldrich, and 
died in July, 1855; Esther died in Septem- 
ber, 1839; Susan married Jacob Dolsen, and 
died in March, 1876; James Madison, whose 
history will be briefly given, and Benjamin, 
the youngest, who studied medicine, became 
a physician, practicing in Dallas, Edgar 
County, Illinois, where he died in 1867. 
James Madison Lacey was born in Toinp- 



BIOGRAPHIGAL SKETCHES 



kins Comity, New York, November 28, 
1814. In tlie year 1837 lie accompanied 
liis father to Vermillion County, Indiana, 
and engaged in teaching school, having re- 
ceived an academic education at Cazenovia, 
New York. In 1839 he returned to New 
York, and was married March 24, 1841, to 
Anna Maria Albright, who was born in the 
town of Dryden, New York, February 3, 
1821, a daughter of Elisha Albright. Soon 
after his marriage he returned to Indiana 
and resumed teaching, lieing one of the early 
and successful teachers of the towns of Per- 
rysville and Eugene. After teaching a num- 
ber of years, he settled on a j^art of the land 
purchased by his fatiier, where he lived until 
his death, wliich occurred March 21,18(51. 
lie was one of the representative citizens dt' 
VermillioiT County; he was a close reader 
and well informed on all of the general topics 
of the day. He was quiet and unassuming 
in his manners, was a fine conversationalist 
and a good speaker, expressing his views 
easily and clearly, and was a valuable and in- 
structive associate. In politics he was a 
Democrat of a pronounced type, and was an 
able advocate of tlie principles of that party. 
In religious faith lie was a Universalist. Ilis 
only cliiid, Elisha A. Lacey, is the ouly de- 
scendant of this pioneer family who bears the 
name of Lacey in Vermillion County. He 
was born in Dryden, Tompkins County, New 
York, February 16, 1842, his parents having 
returned to their native State for a brief 
j)eriod. In his infancy lie was brought to 
Vermillion County, where he has spent most 
of his life. In 1857 he was sent back to 
Dryden, and attended the high school of that 
place, graduating in 1859. On his return he 
engaged in teaching for a few years, and 
since tlien lias given his attention to agricul- 
ture. He resides two and oiie-lialf miles 
nortli of Perrysville. on a fine farm of 370 



acres. He was married November 2, 1863, 
to Martha Ellen Wright, who was born Octo- 
ber 3, 1844, a daughter of Thomas Wright, a 
pioneer of this county. They have five daugh- 
ters — Lizzie, Cora, Minnie, Bertha and Grace. 
In politics, Mr. Lacey, like his father, is a 
Democrat, and in 1882 was the candidate of 
his party for the office of liepresentative to 
the State Legislature. He is a man of abil- 
ity and of good address. Ilis history will be 
finished by the future historian of Vermillion 
County. 



,vmLFKED E. NEWLIN, one of the self- 
.(^\ iiiaile men of Vermillion County, cn- 
~:~ -aged in tkrming and stock-raising on 
section 4, Vermillion Township, is a native 
of Indiana, born in Parke County, March 30, 
1832. His parents, Eli and Mary (Edwards) 
Newlin, were natives of North Carolina, and 
among the early settlers of Indiana, locating 
in Parke County in 1828. In 1833 they 
came with their family to Vermillion County 
and settled in Vermillion Township, where 
they passed the remainder of their life. The 
father became a prominent man in the county, 
and for two terms held the office of sheriff. 
He also served as justice of the peace a num- 
ber of years. He started in life poor, but by 
his persevering energy and industrious hab- 
its combined with good management he suc- 
ceeded well in life, and at his death left an 
estate of 300 acres. He often went security 
for a friend, and in almost ever}' instance was 
obliged to pay the amount himself. He was 
a man of sterling worth, honest and upright 
in all his dealings, and was universally re- 
spected. He died in 1872, aged seventy 
years. His widow survived until 1886, dying 
at the ad\anced age of eighty years. They 
reared two children — V. Ii-eua, wlio is now 



L^. 



msTonr of vermillion countt. 



L 



deceased, and Alfred R., the subject of this 
sketch. Alfred R. Newlin has always fol- 
lowed the avocation of a farmer, and from a 
small beginning he has become one of the 
prosperous citizens of his township. He is 
now the owner of a tine farm containing 600 
acres, his land being well improved and well 
cultivated. Mr. Newlin was married in Ver- 
million County in 1852 to Miss Elvira Hud- 
son, a native of Ohio, born in 1831, and a 
daughter of David and Margaret Hudson. 
They have had ten children born to them, of 
whom eight are yet living — Elvira and Al- 
raira (twins), the former married to Willis 
Asbury, and has seven children, and the lat- 
ter the wife of George Carnack, and has 
three children ; Achsah, wife of Frank Car- 
nack; Finetta, wife of AVilliam Dehaven; 
Joseph, Lewis, Robert and Clendore, living 
at home with their parents. Eli and Mary 
F. are the names of those deceased. Mr. 
Newlin is an active and public-spirited citi- 
zen, and in every movement calculated to 
beneiit his toM'nship or county he always 
manifests a deep interest. Quiet, unassum- 
ing in his manners, and strictly honorable, 
he has gained the respect of all who know 
him. 



ONROE G. HOSFORD, a member 
cif the Eugene Milling Company at 
~: ^ Cayuga, is a native of Vermillion 
County, Indiana, born in Eugene, February 
4, 1845, a son of Philo Ilosford, of Eugene, 
who was one of the early settlers of the 
county. The subject of this sketch was 
reared and educated in Eugene, and in 1863 
he began clerking in a mercantile establish- 
ment. In 1877 he engaged in mercantile 
pursuits on his own account, which he con- 
tinued until 1882, when he began operating 



the old mill at Eugene. In 1884 he, in com- 
pany with Samuel K. Todd and Eli H. Mc- 
Daniel, built a large flouring-mill at the 
present site of Cayuga, where tliey have es- 
tablished an extensive business which is 
steadily increasing. Mr. Hosford was united 
in marriage to Miss Sarah C. Simpson, a 
daughter of Nicholas Simpson who is now 
deceased, and they are the parents of three 
children, named — Charles, Daisy and Lenore. 
Mr. Ilosford is an active and public-spir- 
ited citizen, and is always interested in an^^ 
enterprise which has for its oltject tlic ad- 
vancement of his township or county. He 
has served as township trustee one term, and 
for [several years was notary public. Mrs. 
Hosford is a member of the Presbyterian 
church of Eugene. 



fOHN GORDON CAMPRELL, a promi. 
nent citizen of Clinton, with whose in. 
terests he has been identified for many 
years, is a native of Ireland, born near Pel- 
fast, December 25, 1825, a son of John and 
Lillie (Gordon) Campbell, both of whom were 
natives of Scotland and descendants of the 
old Covenanters. The Gordon's through 
many generations, were the devoted adherents 
and followers of the Dukes of Argyle, and of 
Presbyterian faith. The parents of our sub- 
ject had a family of eight children, all of 
whom are living — John Gordon, the eldest, 
is the subject of this sketch; William came 
to America in 1848, and since 1855 has been 
a resident of Clinton, this county; Andrew 
lives on the home farm in Ireland, the farm 
being named Bradkeel ; Mrs. Anna McLaugh- 
lin and Mrs. Isabella McMillan live near the 
old home; James is at the old homestead; 
Sarah Ann, unmarried, and Mrs. Margaret 
Baxter. The first death in the family was 




i — 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



347 



tliat of the father, which occurred in 1844, at 
the age of forty-five years. The mother still 
survives, and is living at the homestead in 
Ireland at the advanced age of eighty-two 
years. John G. Campbell, when twenty-one 
years of age, came to the United States to 
visit his uncle John Gordon, at Lancaster, 
Pennsylvania, his uncle having died in 1882, 
in Champaign County, Ohio. After visiting 
a few months he thought it was better for 
him to remain in America. Even the return 
voyage was enough to deter him, having 
spent six weeks and five days in the passage 
over. Going to Philadelphia, where he had 
relatives, he engaged as clerk, where he re- 
mained as such for some time. lie then went 
to Baltimore, Maryland, where he was em- 
ployed in the same capacity. He was mar- 
ried at Baltimore, March 2, 1852, to Miss 
Matilda Elison, who was born in the same 
district in Ireland as her husband, in the year 
1827. They have had six children born to 
them — Isabella, born December 9, 1852, liv- 
ing at Terre Haute, Indiana; William G., 
born July 16, 1854, died November 8, 1859; 
Mrs. Sarah Jane Reynolds, born July 2, 1858; 
resides at Plainfield, Indiana; Matilda, born 
November 28, 1860; John G., born May 11, 
1862, is proprietor of the Nachusa Hotel at 
Dixon, Illinois, and Ruth, who died in infan- 
cy. Mr. and Mrs. Campbell resided in Bal- 
timore until coming to Clinton in 1855. His 
brother had preceded him here a short time, 
and opened a drug store, which he entered as 
a clerk, and finally established himself in the 
same business, which he continued for a period 
of twenty years. In 1861 he was appointed 
postmaster of Clinton by President Lincoln, 
he being the first Republican postmaster in 
Vermillion County. He was reappointed to 
the same ofiice in 1865, serving in that ca- 
pacity eight years. Mr. Campbell has voted 
the Republican ticket since the days of John 



C. Fremont. Both he and his wife are con- 
sistent Presbyterians in their religious belief, 
adhering to the faith of their ancestors. 



fOIIN E. BILSLAND, dealer in groceries 
and provisions, Dana, Indiana, was born 
in Covington, Indiana, May 27, 1853, a 
son of John Bilsland, a resident of Ilelt 
Township, who came to Vermillion County 
in 1856. and settled on the old Daniel Whiza- 
ker farm. John E. was reared on this farm, 
remaining with his parents until twenty-two 
years old. He was given good edncational 
advantages, attending the common schools 
and Clinton Institute. In 1875 he came to 
Dana, and in 1876 embarked in business on 
his own account. He carries a stock valued 
at Irom $1,500 to $2,000, doing an annual 
business of about $10,000, and controlling 
the greater part of the trade of the town in 
his line. Mr. Bilsland was mai-ried October 
30, 1877, to Alice Stivers. Mr. Bilsland is 
treasurer of the town of Dana, and is one of 
its most prominent citizens. 



-i->^J*|- 



Ig^UGH H. CONLEY, one of the leading 
lffl| members of the bar of Vermillion Coun- 
TfsJd ty, and a prominent and influential 
citizen of Newport, dates his birth in this 
county, January 14, 1843, being a represent- 
ative of one of the early families. His 
father, Elijah M. Conley, died when he was 
an infant. His mother, Nancy (Downing) 
Conley, was born in the State of Delaware, 
in 1798, being the only daughter of William 
Downing, one of the old and honored pioneers 
of Vermillion County. She is still living, 
being one of the oldest persons in the county. 
Elijah M, Conley and wife were thfc parents 



HI8T0MT OF VERMILLION GOV NTT. 



of seven children, of whom one son, Jonathan, 
(lied in childhood. Of the six who grew to 
maturity, five are yet living — Mary, Phosbe, 
AVilliam W., Elijah P. and Hugh 11., all with 
the exception of Elijah P. who lives in Owen 
County, being residents of Vermillion Coun- 
ty. Hugh H. Conley was reared to the 
vocation of a faruier. He was a soldier in 
the war of the' Kebollion, enlisting September 
9, 18G2, in the Eighteenth Indiana Infantry, 
and during his term of service participated 
in some of the most important events of the 
war. He was in the siege of Yicksburg, 
after which he took part with his regiment in 
Banks's Texas expedition. He re-enlisted 
with his regiment, January 1, 1864, at In- 
dianola, Texas, and came home on a fur- 
lough. At this time a part of the Nineteenth 
Corps, to which his regiment belonged, had 
been transferred to the eastern army, and at 
the expiration of their furlough the members 
of the regiment joined General Sheridan, and 
took part in the famous Shenandoah cam- 
paign, participating in the battles of Win- 
chester, Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek, where 
Sheridan made his famous ride. At the last 
mentioned battle Mr. Conley received a severe 
gunshot wound in the left leg which resulted 
in his being sent to McClellan hospital near 
Philadelphia, and from there transferred to 
the hospital at Indianapolis, where, after 
undergoing a siege of small-pox, together 
with the sufferings occasioned by his wound, 
he wai discharged May 24, 1865, for disa- 
bility, after the war had closed, but before the 
final discharge of his regiment. After the 
war Mr. Conley attended school for some time, 
first at Bloomingdale academy, and later at 
the State Normal at Terre Haute. After 
leaving school he engaged in teaching, pur- 
suing at the same time tliestndy of law. He 
continued to teach school until he engaged in 
the practice of law in 1877, in which year he 



was admitted to the bar at Newport. J. C. 
Sawyer has been associated with him in the 
practice of his profession since November, 
1886, under the firm name of Conley & Saw- 
yer, and like his pirtner Mr. Conley, is a self- 
made man. Mr. Conley married Mi&s Mary 
A. Saunders, a daughter of Doctor Edward 
a'-.d Mary Saunders, both of whom are de- 
ceased, the latter dying shortly after her 
daughter's birth, and the former when she 
was a mere child. Five children have been 
born to Mr. and Mrs. Conley, of whom their 
eldest, Lulu M., died in infancy. Those liv- 
ing are— Paul H., Carl H., William B. and 
Edith A. In politics Mr. Conley is a Repub- 
lican. He held the office of superintendent 
of schools of Vermillion County for three 
years, at the end of which time he resigned 
that position to take the office of prosecuting 
attorney, a position he creditably tilled for 
four years. Mr. Conley is a member of the 
Odd Fellows order, and is a comrade of Shiloh 
Post, G. A. R, at Newport. 



fAxMES E. KNOWLES, a prominent and 
enterprisingcitizenofClinton,Vermil]ion 
County, was born at the family home- 
stead in Scott Township, Vanderburg County, 
Indiana, December 28, 1830. His parents, 
Charles and Mary Ann (Maidlow) Knowles, 
were natives of England, and when young 
were brought to America by their respective 
parents, who settled in Vanderburg County 
in its pioneer days. Tlie subject was reared 
to a farm life, and was early inured to hard 
work, but the lessons of persevering industry 
learned in those days, have been of lasting 
benefit to him. Being of an adventurous 
spirit, Mr. Knowles, in company with others, 
chartered a steamer in 1852, and loading the 
same with os, teams and provisions embarked 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



349 



tor St. Josepli, Missouri, and from tliere 
went overland to California, leaving the 
Missouri River May 27, and reaching their 
destination August 25. They immediately 
engaged in placer mining, which they 
followed successfully nearly three years. Mr. 
Knowles returned via the Nicaraugua route, 
reaching home July 3, 1855. In 1856 he in 
company with his brother, Charles B., and 
Luhc Grant, engaged in the milling and dry 
goods business in Warrick County, and 
erected a mill at a cost of $10,000. In the 
spring of 1859 the mill was destroyed by fire 
and tiie company was pi-actically bankrupted. 
In the fall of 1860 the brothers in company 
with Arthur McJohnson, raised means from 
their friends, and built a flat-boat which they 
loaded with 5,600 bushels of corn, and in 
February," 1861, started for the Lower Missis- 
sippi River markets. They reached Memphis 
the day after the inaugural message of Presi- 
dent Lincoln was received, and there found 
the excitement intense. They disposed of 
tlieir cargo, and received in settlement checks 
on New Orleans banks. They were so 
fortunate as to sell all their corn and even 
the boat, and to get their checks cashed only 
the day before the banks of New Orleans 
suspended payment. Mr. Knowles made the 
return trip to Louisville, Kentucky, on the 
steamer Autocrat, the last boat passing 
between those points until the opening of the 
Mississippi River after the war, permitting 
it again in the language of President Lincoln 
to " pass unvexed to the sea." The same 
season, 1861, Mr. Knowles and his brother 
established a grocery at Clinton. In 1862 
they raised at a great profit, twenty acres of 
tobacco on rented land, and the next year 
they raised a still larger crop. In the spring 
of 1861 they bouglit eighty acres of land at 
$25 per acre, adjoining the city plat, and by 
platting an addition, and selling lots they 



have realized a large profit. They also 
bought 174 acres across the Wabash River at 
$10 per acre, which has proved a profitable 
investment. The brothers each own a very 
fine residence, and are near neighbors. Mr. 
James was first married in Vanderburgh 
County, Indiana, December 15, 1859, to Miss 
Pluma Wilcox, of Evansville. She was born 
near Wellington, Ohio, in 1835, and being 
left an orphan at an early age, slie was 
reared by Doctor Wilcox, of Evansville. Her 
only living child, Morton E., was born A[)ril 
24, 1862. He is a graduate of the American 
Veterinary Institute of New York City, and 
has now a lucrative and increasing practice at 
Terre Haute. September 25, 1884, Mr. 
Knowles married Miss Delia Elliot, a native 
of Indiana, born in Knox Township, Septem- 
ber 25, 1848, a daughter of Virgil Homer 
and Caroline (Marks) Elliott. Both of her 
parents are deceased, her father dying Octo- 
ber 8, 1880, aged sixty-eight, and her mother 
October 9, 1885, aged sixty-one years. In 
politics Mr. Knowles is an Independent, 
though of Republican antecedents. 



l.^w^. 



I^ENRY STURN, an active and enterpris- 
1K) ^"S agriculturist, engaged in farming 
"ifSli on section 26, Helt Townshiji, was born 
in Wurtemberg, Germany, the date of his birth 
being September 4, 1835. He was reared in 
his native country, and in the spring of 1854 
he came to America. He first settled in 
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, where he 
spent two years. He then spent one year in 
Butler County, Ohio, and in 1857 came to 
Vermillion County, where he worked as a 
hired hand for one year. He then rented 
land and by industry and good management 
he was successful in his farming pursuits, and 
by tlie assistance of his noble iind excellent 



liL'lpmeet he has become the owner of his 
present fine farm containing 160 acres of 
choice land. He was married December 12, 
1859, to Miss Margaret "VV. Parsons, a daugh- 
ter of William Parsons, who is now deceased, 
she being a native of Illinois, born in Edgar 
County, October 20, 1840. They are the 
parents of eight children — George W., Mary 
I., John U., Harry C, Hattie 11., Edgar W., 
Frederick and Charles. Mr. Sturn is a 
member of the Masonic order, in which he 
takes an active interest. Two of his sons, 
George and John, are also members of Dana 
Lodge, A. F. & A. M., of which George is 
Master. The father of our subject, John 
George Sturn, came to the United States in 
1872, and died in AVashington Territory in 
1877. 



fANIEL EUNYON, residing two miles 
north of Perrysville, is one of the old- 
est men in Highland Township, and 
among the most respected citizens of Yer- 
million County. He is a native of Kentucky, 
born in Mason County, July 31, 1802, being 
reared to manhood in his native county. His 
father, David L. Eiinyon, was born in New 
Jersey, emigrating from that State to Ken- 
tucky, where he lived until his death. He 
was the father of five sons and six daughters, 
of whom two sons and three daughters are 
living at the present time — Daniel, our sub- 
ject; David, who lives in Fleming County, 
Kentucky, on the old homestead, and the 
daughters are also residents of Kentucky. 
Daniel Kunyon, whose name heads this 
sketch, came to Indiana in 1858, and located 
at West Lebanon, where he kept a hotel one 
year. He was then engaged in the same 
business about a year at . Attica, and from 
there removed to Williamsport, where he 



lived two years. He then came to Yermill- 
ion County, and kept hotel at Perrysville 
one year, when he removed to Mound Prairie, 
Warren County, where he followed agricul- 
tural pursuits for eight years. In 18G5 he 
returned to Yermillion County, and settled 
on the place where he has since made his 
hom'e. His wife, whose maiden name was 
Jane Marshall, died March 27, 1876. Of the 
eleven children born to Mr. and Mrs. Run- 
3'ou only four are living — John, Daniel, 
James, born August 27, 1844, now living on 
thfe old homestead with his father, and Mary, 
also living at home. Seven children are de- 
ceased — LeRoy died in his twenty-second 
year; William died aged about twenty years; 
Doll}', deceased wife of Fi'ancis Florida, and 
Martha, deceased wife of Elijah Lowe, and 
three who died in childhood. Martha, the 
infant daughter of his daughter Martha, was 
reared in the home of Mr. Runyon. ISIr. 
Runyon, as was his wife, is a consistent mem- 
ber of the Baptist church. 



ILLIAM NICHOLS, deceased, was 
born in Yermillion County, Indiana, 
May 3, 1885, a son of William and 
Rhoda (Martin) Nichols, natives of Yirginia 
and North Carolina, respectively, and early 
settlers of Yermillion County, where they 
spent the last years of their lives. They had 
a family of thirteen children, but four of 
whom are living. William Nichols was reared 
a farmer and followed that vocation all his 
life. Although poor when he started for 
himself, he was successful and at his death 
left a good farm of 115 acres. He was mar- 
ried November 30, 1856, to Jane, daughter 
of Payton and Anna (Campbell) Merriinan. 
To them were born four children — Brenton, 
Elma, Oscar and Edgar. Brenton married 



BIOORAPHIGAL SKETCHES. 



Laura Zeller, and lias two children — Clara A. 
and Geneva, and Oscar married Amanda Cur- 
tis. Mr. Nichols died in 1875. He was a 
member of the United Brethren church, and 
an honored citizen of the township. His 
widow resides on the old homestead. She is 
also a memher of the United Brethren church. 



:iLLIAM L. MOBEY, of the " Morey 
Company," dealers in drugs, grocer- 
ies and notions, Clinton, Indiana, 
was born in that city September 20, 1854, a 
son of Benjamin F. and Sarah (Wishard) 
Morey. Benjamin F. Morey was one of the 
prominent and influential citizens of Clinton, 
where all his manhood life was spent, and 
who for thirty-four years was identiiied with 
its material and social interests. He was 
born in Preble County, Ohio, in 1828, and in 
1848 located in Clinton, where for about 
twenty-iive years he worked at the black- 
smith's trade. In 1S73 he embarked in the 
grocery business, building up a large trade. 
In June, 187G, he sold out his stock of 
groceries, taking a two months vacation, 
when, in August, he purchased a drug store, 
admitting his son William L. as a partner. 
They added jewelry, books and notions to the 
drug stock, and in 1884 also added a stock of 
groceries. He was married in 1852 to Mrs. 
Sarah I. (Wishard) Bogart, the M'idow of 
Henry Bogart, who died in 1846, leaving one 
child, John II., who is now a prominent 
physician of Clinton. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Morey were borji two children — William L. 
and Frank, wife of Dr. Charles M. White, of 
Clinton. B. F. Morey died October 10, 1885, 
from a stroke of appoplexy. He was a mem- 
ber of the Methodist Episcopal church. He 
was a prominent Mason, a member of Jerusa- 
lem Lodge, at Clinton and Terre Haute 



Chapter, and also of Amant Lodge, I. O. O. F. 
In politics he was a staunch supporter of the 
Bepublican party. He was a public-spirited, 
upright man and left an honorable name as 
the inheritance of his children. He was a 
careful business man and accumulated a com- 
fortable property. William L. Morey has 
spent his life in Clinton, where his primary 
education was received, but later attended 
Wabash College, from which he graduated in 
1876. Immediately after his leaving school 
he entered into partnership with his father, 
the firm name then becoming B. F. Morey & 
Son, which has been changed since his father's 
death to The Morey Company. He has a 
good business, his annual sales amounting to 
about $20,000, and is numbered among the 
prosperous young merchants of the county. 
He is one of the prominent Republicans of 
the younger class, and in the campaign of 
1880 was chairman of the Clinton Township 
Committee. He is serving his second term 
as mayor of Clinton, as chairman of the 
Board of Trustees' by courtesy is called. He 
was married October 25, 1882, to Miss Clara 
Swinehart, a native of Terre Haute, Indiana, 
born September 8, 1860, a daughter of B. H. 
and Ann (Palmer) Swinehart. They have 
two children — Lois and Benjamin F. 



fOSIAII C. JACKSON, one of the lead- 
ing business men of Hillsdale, was born 
in Helt Township, Yermillion County, 
Indiana, November 30, 1843, a son of John 
and Lydia (Short) Jackson, the father being 
a native of Kentucky. He was one of the 
early pioneers of this county, settling right 
in the woods of Helt Township in 1832, 
v.-liere he built a small log cabin in which he 
lived many years. He died on the land on 
which he first settled, April 3, 1853. He 




was the father of seventeen children, nine of 
whom grew to maturity. Josiah C. Jackson, 
whose name heads this sketcli, was reai-ed on 
the home farm, and received such educational 
advantages as the subscription schools of that 
early day aflbrded, attending schools taught 
in log cabins with puncheon floors, clapboard 
roofs and slab seats. During the late war he 
enlisted in Company D, Eighty-fifth Indiana 
Infantry, remaining in the service of his 
country almost three years. Among the en- 
gagements in which lie participated may be 
mentioned the battles of Resaca, Lost Moun- 
tain, Kenesaw Mountain and Peach Tree 
Creek. lie was taken sick after the last 
mentioned battle, which was the last engage- 
ment in which he took part. He returned to 
his home in Vermillion County and engaged 
in farming. November 6, 1867, he was 
married to Miss Priscilla C. Shane, daughter 
of James D. Shane, of Effingham County, 
Illinois. They are the parents of eight chil- 
dren — James C, Lela, Ida B., Ira E., Cyrus, 
Bertha, Adaline and Ethel C. Mr. Jackson 
engaged in his general mercantile business 
in 1883, and now carries a capital stock of 
$3,000, doing an annual business of §5,000, 
and also deals extensively in stock and grain. 
He still lives on his farm, where he is en- 
gaged in farming and stock-raising. His 
farm contains 120 acres of fine land, and is 
located on section 4, Helt Township. In 
politics Mr. Jackson is a staunch Itepublican, 
but never seeks official honors. He is a 
member of the .Grand Army of the Eepublic, 
and takes an active interest iu that organiza- 
tion. 



tOBEET B. SEARS, one of the leading 
citizens of Vermillion, is the present 
State Senator of the district comprising 
Parke and Vermillion counties, being elected 



on the Republican ticket in the fall of 1886, 
receiving a majority of 623 votes over his 
opponent, Joseph L. Boyd. He is a son of 
George H. Sears, who was born in Harrison 
County, Indiana, in August, 1818, coming 
to Vermillion County with his father, Jacob 
Sears, when a boy. Jacob Sears was a native 
of North Carolina, removing thence to Ken- 
tucky, and from there to Harrison County, 
Indiana. On coming to Vermillion County 
he settled in Vermillion Township, three 
miles southwest of Newport, where he cleared 
and improved a farm, on which he resided 
until his deatli. George Sears was one of 
the representative citizens of Vermillion 
County, and long one of the prominent mer- 
chants of Eugene. In 1854 he was elected 
treasurer of the county, but died before his 
first term expired, although not before he 
had received the nomination for a second 
term, the date of his death being July 30, 
1856. He left at his death a widow and 
three sons, all living at the present time but 
his youngest son, George 0., who died at the 
age of eighteen years. Robert B. Sears, 
whose name heads this sketch, was the eldest 
sou in his father's family, and wa; born in 
Eugene, Vermillion County, January 6, 1844. 
He was about twelve years old when his 
father died, and alter his death the family re- 
turned to the homestead farm. At the age 
of eighteen years our subject enlisted in 
Company I, Forty-third Indiana Infantry, 
and after serving in the ranks about a year 
and a half he was promoted to Orderly Ser- 
geant, and soon after to First Lieutenant, and 
June 24, 1865, he was mustered out as Cap- 
tain of his company. He was constantly in 
active service, and participated in all the en- 
gagements in which the Forty-third took 
part, and during the last twenty months of 
his service he commanded his company. 
After the war he was engaged as clerk iu a 



iagBftW»M , M « IB a.W,W » M « M « M _M«W_ g _W» »E»SMan»5iWS 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



wholesale clotliiiig store. In 18G8 he re- 
turned to Veniiillioii County, and hegan the 
study of law with the law tirm of Eggleston 
& Harvey, and in 1870 was admitted to the 
bar at Newport. In 1872 he was elected 
prosecuting attorney for the counties of Parke, 
Yerinillion, Vigo and Sullivan, serving as 
such two years. In 1881 he was elected 
assistant secretary of the State Senate, and in 
January, 1883, received an appointment as 
clerk in the Treasury department at Washing- 
ton, D. C, but on reaching that city he was 
transferred to the Pension and Interior de- 
partment, lie resigned this position six 
months later, and returned to his home in 
Newport and resumed his law practice. In 
1884 he was elected to the lower branch of 
the Genera] Assembly of Indiana, and, as 
above stated, became State Senator in 1886, 
in wliich position he is serving with credit 
to himself and satisfaction to his constituents. 
Mr. Sears was united in marriage, March 20, 
1870, to Miss Ivy Aston, a daughter of lire 
Aston, who was a prominent merchant in the 
early history of Newport. He died in 1863. 
Four children have been born to Mr. and 
Mrs. Sears, of whom three died in early in- 
fancy. Claud, their only surviving child, 
was born February 29, 1873. 



flllLO HOSFORD, one of the early 
pioneers of Eugene Township, is a 
.'^, native of Ontario County, New York, 
born September 18, 1811, a sou of Ambrose 
llosford, a native of Connecticut. The father 
removed to Dearborn County, Indiana, with 
his family in 1821, settling in Lawrenceburg, 
and died near there in 1824. Philo llosford 
came with his twin brothei-, Milo, to Craw- 
fordsville in 1832, and in the spring of 1833 
to Euaene, wiiere he has since made his 



home. He was married November 4, 1841, 
to Miss Evaline Wigley, a daughter of Joseph 
Wigley, and of the six cliildren born to this 
union three are yet living — Monroe C, llich- 
ard AV". and Eliza. One son, Charles C, and 
a daughter, Naomi, died after reaching ma- 
turity. Mrs. llosford died June 18, 1883. 
She was a member of the Presbyterian church. 
Milo llosford, twin brother of our subject, 
was married the November following his ar- 
rival in the county, to Miss Maria Holtz, and 
to them were born two children — Henry H., 
and Lucy, now the wife of Prof. David 
Meade, of Danville, Illinois. Mr. Milo llos- 
ford lived at Eugene until his death, which 
occurred January 22, 1880. He was a mem- 
ber of the Methodist Episcopal church, and 
one of the most respected men of Vermillion 
County. 



mOMER LUSADDER, residing on section 
fml 22, Highland Township, is one of the 
=^(1 representative citizens of Vermillion 
County. His father, John Lusadder, settled on 
the i)lace now occupied by the subject of this 
sketch, in 1856. He was born in Ohio, 
December 18, 1819. He resided many years 
in Fountain County, Indiana, before settling 
in Vermillion County, and was married while 
a resident of the former county, to Mrs. Sarah 
Ann (Beers) Prevost, who was born April 1, 
1817, and died July 13, 1867. To them 
were born six children, two of whom are 
deceased. The names of those yet living are 
— Snowdon, Homer, John and Franklin. 
John Lusadder married for his second wife. 
Miss Mary J. Nal)ors, and to this union a 
daughter, named Lura, was born. He died 
April 4, 1872, in his iifty-third year. His 
widow still survives. Homer Lusadder, whose 
name heads this sketch, is a native of Foun- 



I 



'1 

ii 



^5! 

Ii 



I 



r 



BISTORT OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



tail! County, Indiana, the date of his birth 
being March 17, 1853. He was about three 
years of age wlien bronglit by his parents to 
this county, where he lias since lived. His 
father being a farmer, he was reared to the 
same occupation, becoming a thorough, prac- 
tical agriciilturist. He now owns and occupies 
the homestead farm which contains 150 acres 
of well improved and highly cultivated land. 



-^ • 2 <' IV 



tUGH DALLAS, deceased, was one of 
the well known pioneers of Yermillion 
County. He was born in Knox County 
Ohio, in 1813, a son of Alexander and Sarah 
Dallas. He commenced life in moderate 
circumstances. He came to Vermillion 
County in 1840, and bought a large amount 
of land which increased in value and at the 
time of his death he was one of the wealthies 
men in Yermillion Township. He was an 
honorable, upright business man and gained 
the confidence and esteem of all with whom 
he had any deal. He died September 17, 
1875, leaving a large number of friends to 
mourn his loss and his memory is revered by 
all who knew him, especially the old settlers 
who remember his many kindly acts and 
hearty assistance in their times of need. Mr. 
Dallas was married inOhio County, Yirginia, 
in the year 1834, to Miss Sarah Hardesty, 
who was bom in Knox County, Ohio, in 
1815. To them were born nine children, 
eight of whom lived till maturity, and five 
are now living. The children in order of 
their birth are as follows — Mary C. T., 
deceased; Spencer H., Hugh A., deceased; 
iam Henry Harrison, Sarah E., Mrs. 



W 



Yirginia C. Hain, deceased; Martha J., wife 
of James Chips; Euth A. and an infant son, 
deceased. James Chips and wife have had 
born to them seven children — Mary, Lura, 



William Spencer, Samuel, and three who 
died in infancy. They reside in Newport. 



fOSHUA LEWIS, general merchant, 
Cayuga, is a native of Yermillion Coun- 
ty, Indiana, born in Highland Township, 
January 1, 1843, a son of James J. Lewis, a 
native of Maryland, who settled in Highland 
Township in 1837, where he still resides. 
Our subjeet was reared to the avocation of a 
farmer, and his education was received prin- 
ci])ally in the Perrysville graded school. He 
subsequently engaged in teaching school, 
which he followed for fifteen years, teaching 
seven years in Ciierokee County, Kansas. He 
served two years in the late war in Company 
II, Twentieth Indiana Infantry, and during 
his term of service participated in the battle 
of Fort Hatteras, the seven days in front of 
Eichmond, and other engagements. He also 
witnessed the fight between the Monitor and 
the Merrimac. March 30, 1865, he was 
married to Miss Marinda Harrison, a daugh- 
ter of Thomas II. Harrison, one of the old 
pioneers of this county, who made his way up 
the Wabash from Yincennes l)y poling a flat- 
Ijoat. Mr. and Mrs. Lewis are the parents of 
five children — Frank E., Cassie, Henry W., 
Marinda E. and William J. Mr. Lewis 
engaged in the mercantile business at Gessie, 
this county, in 1881. He established his 
present business at Cayuga in 1886, removing 
his family to this place in June, 1887. He 
is now associated in business with his son 
Frank who is also assistant postmaster. They 
carry a full line of dry-goods, groceries, pro- 
visions, glass and queeusware, their capital 
stock being valued at $3,500, and their annu- 
al sales amounting to about $8,000. While 
living in Kansas Mr. Lewis lacked but two 
votes of being elected Probate J udge on the 



-?"?""""* " T«''*'' " ''"''«* ° *« " «' ""'''«"« "-" " * " "-'*»"»"«'^ ■= ■■•■ ■ '■-*'«'°'^ °^^ ^*'"^ 



BtOORAPHtCAL SKMTCHES. 



355 



fiepublican ticket, and at the same election 
tlie county went 300 majority for Greeley for 
President. In politics he still affiliates with 
the Republican party. He is a member of 
the Grand Anny of the Eepublic. Both he 
and his wife are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, and respected members of 
society. 



ftLlVER P. M. PONTON, engaged in 
j| farming on section 2, Helt Township, 
> is a worthy representative of an old and 
honored pioneer family who settled in Ver- 
million County in the early days of the 
county. He was born on the family home- 
stead in Helt Township, one-half mile from 
his present residence, the date of his birth be- 
ing December 23, 1861, and is a son of the 
late John Ponton, who was born near Chilli- 
cothe, Ohio, being brought to this county 
when but four years of age. The father be- 
ing a farmer, our subject M-as reared to the 
same avocation, which he has made his life 
work. He received his education in the 
common schools of the county. He was 
united in marriage September 30, 1885, to 
Miss Mary A. Amos, a daughter of William 
H. Amos, a resident of Montezuma, Indiana, 
and to this union one child has been born, 
named John W., who died at the age of six 
months. Mrs. Ponton is a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal church at Montezuma. 



4EWIS 11. BECK MAN, engaged in the 
llt/F S'''^c®ry business at Clinton, and one of 
""„-- the active and enterprising businessmen 
of the town, is a native of Vermillion County, 
Indiana, born November 16, 1841. His par- 
ents, Henry and Mary Beckinan, were born. 



reared and married in Germany, coming to 
the United States soon after their marriage. 
They landed at New Orleans, where they 
formed the acquaintance of James Davis, 
whose home was near Newport, Vermillion 
County. The father was a blacksmith by 
trade, and being induced to come to this 
county, he followed that avocation in Ver- 
million Township until a short time before 
his death, which occurred in 1844. His wife 
had died the year before. Lewis H. Beck- 
man, whose name heads this sketch, believes 
himself to be the only living representative 
of his branch of the family in America. His 
brother, John, who was born while his par- 
ents were at New Orleans, shortly after their 
arrival in America, died at the age of twelve 
years. After the death of his parents, the 
subject of this sketch found a good home 
with the family of James L. "Wishard, of 
Helt Township. He received such educa- 
tional advantages as the district schools of 
that early day aiforded. In June, 1862, 
while in his twenty-first year, he volunteered 
in defense of the Union, enlisting in Company 
A, Seventy-first Indiana Infantry. August 
31 his regiment was in battle at Ilichmond,' 
Kentucky, and in that engagement Mr. Beck- 
man was shot through the left leg. Many of 
the unhurt of his regiment were captured and 
paroled, and all of the wounded, Mr. Beck- 
man with those paroled, being sent North, 
and soon after recovered from the effects of 
his wound. The regiment was exchanged, 
and was again in the field before the close of 
the year 1862, and several months following 
was engaged in guarding rebel prisoners at 
Indianapolis. In the summer of 1863 tlie 
regiment was recruited and reorganized, and 
became known as the Si.xth Indiana Cavalry. 
During the operations at and around Knox- 
ville in the winter of 1863-'64 the regiment 
made part of General Burnside's force. At 



the opening of General Sherman's campaign 
against General Johnston's rehel army which 
culminated in the capture of Atlanta, the 
Sixth Indiana Cavalry joined the former at 
Buzzards' Eoost, Georgia, and did hard work 
and gallant service during that campaign. 
The regiment also took part in the ill-starred 
raid of General Stoneman at Sun Shine 
Church, south of Atlanta, where many were 
killed, wounded and taken prisoners. Among 
the latter was Mr. Beckman, who was shot 
through the left thigh, and his sufferings from 
this serious wound were rendered more than 
ordinarily severe by lack of proper care. For 
four weeks he was confined in Macon, Geor- 
gia, over one month at Andersonville, and at 
Charleston and Florence four and a half 
months. He was finally paroled and returned 
to his home. After being exchanged, April 
19,1865, he rejoined his regiment at Pulaski, 
Tennessee, and in June, 1865, he received an 
honorable discharge from the army, after 
which he returned to A^ermillion County and 
engaged in agricultural pursuits. September 
10, 1868, he was united in marriage to Miss 
Laura E. Crane, a native of Vermillion 
County, born in Helt Township, April 26, 
1853, a daughter of Carlton Crane. Mr. and 
Mrs. Beckman made their home in Helt 
Township until he was elected to the office 
of county sheriff' in October, 1872, when he 
moved to Newport. He was re-elected to the 
same office, serving in that capacity four years, 
and in 1876 returned to his farm in Helt 
Township. He remained on his farm until 
the spring of 1884, when he removed to 
Clinton. In January, 1885, he established 
his present grocery business, and by his 
genial and accommodating manners, and 
strict attention to the wants of his customers 
he has built up a good trade, his sales amount- 
ing to over $13,000 per annum. In politics 
Mr. Beckman is a Republican, and is promi- 



nent in the councils of his parly. He is a 
member of the Masonic fraternity. He is a 
member also of Owen Post, No. 329, G. A. 
R., and in 1887 he was elected commander 
of the post. Both he and his wife are mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal church. 
Four children have been born to them, of 
whom three are living, named Alice, Charles 
and Bay. Their third child, Lena Belle, died 
at the age of nine months. 



fOIIN W. BARRETT, of Newport, is a 
representative of one of the pioneer fami- 
lies of Indiana. His father. Rev. Robert 
Parrett, was born in England, February 1-4, 
1791, and was married in 1814 to Martha 
Mason. In 1816 they sailed from Hull, 
England, and after a voyage of ninety days 
landed in New York. They spent a few 
weeks in New Jersey, then came west and 
located near Lawrenceburg, Indiana, and two 
years later removed to Vincennes, where they 
lived about a year. In the meantime he 
entered eighty acres of land in Posey County, 
to which he removed, and built a log cabin, 
making his home there six years. In De- 
cember, 1824, he moved to Evansville and 
bought forty-five acres near that city, and 
several years later, bought 160 acres adjoin- 
ing, and of this made a homestead, living on 
it until his death in 1859. His wife survived 
him about ten years. A part of his land is 
now included in the site of Evansville, and is 
known as Parrett's addition. Mr. Parrett 
was a Christian gentleman, and the founder 
of Methodism in Evansville, and a memorial 
window has been placed in Trinity church, 
that city, in his honor. He was a successful 
business man, acquiring considerable wealth, 
which he used freely in the support of tlie 
Gospel and all worth}' enterprises. He was 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



one of the founders of the old State Bank of 
Indiana, which atterward became the Evaus- 
ville National Bank, and was one of its direc- 
tors for many years. At his death lie left a 
record of which his descendants may well be 
])roud. He was not a man of liberal ediica- 
tion, bnt of great natural ability, and was 
always greatly interested in the canse of 
edncation, and was one of ten who gave $1,000 
each toward the founding of Asbury College 
at Greencastle, Indiana. He and his wife 
were the parents of ten children who grew to 
maturity, all of whom became worthy and 
influential citizens. Three sons and two 
daughters are yet living, Jolm W. being the 
eldest of this number. The second son. Rev. 
Richard M. Parrett, is a citizen of Patoka, 
Indiana, and William F. is judge of the First 
Judicial Cfrcuit, his residence being at 
Evansville. Jane is the wife of Hon. Alvah 
Johnson, of Evansville, and Eva M. is the wife 
of Hon. Union Bethel, of Newburg, Warren 
County, Indiana. The eldest of the family, 
Mary A., was born on the ocean while the 
parents were en route for America. She 
became the wife of Hon. John S. Hopkins, 
and died at their homestead in Evansville 
in 1885. The third son, Robert, was a 
siiccessiul attorney, a graduate of Asbury 
College, and at one time a member of tlve 
State Legislature. He was Major of the One 
Hundredth Indiana Infantry, and was killed 
at Yicksburg in 18G3. The youngest son, 
Joseph B., died at the age of thirty years, 
and Mrs. Martha Roberts and Mi-s. Sarah 
Reed, died several years ago. John W. Par- 
rett, whose name heads this sketch, was born 
at Lawrenceburg, Indiana, August 10, 1818, 
and was reared at Evansville from his sixth 
year. He joined the Methodist church when 
twenty years of age, and in 1842 entered the 
work of the ministry, and for nineteen years 
was a member of the Indiana Conference. 



He was then granted a location and settled on 
a farm in Yermillion County which he had 
bought in 1850. Although not in the regular 
work of the ministry he is always ]-eady to 
aid the cause of Christianity, and has many 
calls which he is glad to answer, to fill neigh- 
boring pulpits and perform other duties de- 
volving on a Christian minister. From the 
De Pauw Advocate we learn that he was 
present at a meeting of the Northwest Con- 
ference held at Greencastle, Indiana, when 
tlie report of the committee on education 
showed a lack of about $5,500 on the amount 
assumed by the Conference on the De Pauw 
fund. The first meeting of the lay and cleri- 
cal conterences failed to raise the amount by 
$1,500. Colonel Ray delivered a long speech, 
followed by Doctor John in a short, compact 
speech, and then came the prince of beggars. 
Bishop Bowman, but the Bishop seemed to 
have lost his grip or the contract was too 
much for him. Things were dragging and 
failure seemed inevitable when Rev. John AY. 
Parrett, then a local preacher from Newport, 
arose in the back part of the room, and strode 
forward in an awkward way, and began as 
nobody else could, to talk, taking the manage- 
ment of the meeting abruptly out of the hands 
of the Bishop, and by volleys of wit and 
wisdom, of anecdote, and sayings, wise and 
otherwise, now eloquent, now pathetic, and at 
times ludicrous beyond description, he man- 
aged to raise the last $1,500. Mr. Parrett 
was first married to Miss Elizabeth W. Mick, 
a daughter of Judge John Mick, and to them 
were born three children — Richard W., Ed- 
mund J., w-ho died at the age of nineteen 
years, and John W., who died aged seventeen 
years. Mrs. Parrett died in December, 18-43, 
and in March, 1850, Mr. Parrett was again 
married to Miss Lydia Zener, a daughter of 
Adam Zener, one of the substantial men of 
Newport, and founder of the Methodist church 



BISTORT OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



of tliis town. To this union two children 
have been born, named Eobert A. and Martha 
E. In politics Mr. Parrett is a pronounced 

Republican. 



1 



fHOMAS KIBBY has been a resident of 
Clinton Township since 1830, and for 
many years one of its active and ener- 
getic citizens. He was born in Clarke Coun- 
ty, Indiana, February 8, 1810, a son of Lucius 
Kibby, a New Englander by birth. AVhen 
young the father visited Canada, where he 
was seized and pressed into the British army, 
and was compelled to serve a short time be- 
fore he found an opportunity to escape and 
return to his home in New England. He 
was a son of Amariah Kibby, a ship carpen- 
ter by trade, which he also learned in early 
life and became proficient in all kinds of 
wood- work. He worked for a time at Fort 
Pitt, now Pittsburgh, and there built a fiat- 
boat for himself, and with his family passed 
down the river to Fort Washington, now Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, thence to the Falls of the Ohio, 
in Clarke Comity, where Thomas Kibby was 
born. Being of an adventurons spirit, he 
volunteered and fought under General Harri- 
son at the battle of Tippecanoe, November 5, 
1811. During his residence in Clarke Coun- 
ty the Indians were hostile, and many an ad- 
venture and narrow escape he and his family 
had with them. In 1814 he moved his fam- 
ily to the vicinity of Nashville, Tennessee, 
where he was engaged as a builder three 
years, and was defrauded of nearly $3,000 
due on contract work, by his employer. In 
1817 he left Tennessee, coming to Indiana, 
when he settled with his family near Terre 
Haute, in the AVabash Valley. He erected, 
under contract, the first frame buildincf at 
Teric Haute. In 1818 he removed to Parke 



County, Indiana, where he cleared a farm 
from the forest, remaining there a few years, 
when he went to Clark County, Illinois, and 
from there to Dubuque County, Iowa, where 
he lived until his death, at the advanced agf 
of eighty-five years. Thomas Kibby, whose 
name heads this sketch, was the youngest of 
his four children, and is the only one now 
living. When he was quite young his mother 
died, and although his father mai-ried again, 
he hardly had a home. His schooling was 
very limited, and the care and advantages so 
common to the boys of to-day were denied 
him. At the age of thirteen years he left his 
father's home and began the battle of life for 
himself, and his lessons were well learned in 
the school of experience. He early in life 
became a self-reliant man, strong both men- 
tally and physically. Like many of the ad- 
venturous yonth of those years, he became a 
boatman, making his first trip to New Or- 
leans at the age of eighteen years. In 1831 
he became a pilot, and began with increased 
wages to save money. He has made over 
sixty trips to New Orleans. August 4, 1833, 
he was married to Miss Jane Yannest, who 
was born in Ohio, August 6, 1812, and who 
died March 20, 1880. Her lather, John Van- 
nest, was the first settler of Vermillion Coun- 
ty, having settled on section 9, Clinton 
Township, as early as 1816. To Mr. and 
Mrs. Kibby were born eight children, as fol- 
lows — John and Martin died in infancy; 
Isaac, living near his father; Sarah Jane died 
aged ten years; Elizabeth died aged twelve 
years; Stuart died in infancy; Thomas A., 
residing with his father, and Susan W., wlio 
was a school-teacher, died aged twenty-three 
years. Thomas A. was a soldier in the war 
of the Eebellion, enlisting October 9, 1861, 
and was in the service of his country for 
three years. March 12, 1882, he was united 
in marriage to Miss Josie Lyday, a native of 



- I (, 



BIOOBAPHIGAL SKETCHES. 



Vermillion County, born December 16, 1858, 
and they are tlie parents of two children — 
John Vannest and Jane. Since he aban- 
doned flat-boating, Mr. Kibby has devoted 
his attention to agricultural pursuits. He 
has occupied his present farm on section 9, 
Clinton Township, since 1862. The home- 
stead is located one mile north of Clinton, 
and contains ninety acres of choice land, and 
is part of the estate of his father-in-law, John 
Vainiest. Besides this farm Mr. Kibby owns 
a good farm of 220 acres, located on sections 
7 and 8 of Clinton Township. 



fOlIN T. PONTON, deceased, was born 
in Ohio, January 30, 1830, a son of Obe- 
diah Ponton, who was a Virginian by 
birth. He was brought to Vermillion Coun- 
ty, Indiana, in the fall of 1833, by his widowed 
mother, she locating on section 3, Helt Town- 
ship, on the land now occupied by the widow 
of our subject. Here he was reared amid the 
scenes and incidents of pioneer life, attend- 
ing school in the primitive log cabins with 
their puncheon Hoor and clapboard roof, 
where he received but a limited education. 
He was married August 5, 1860, to Miss 
Polly Kearns, a daughter of William Kearns, 
and a native of Helt Township, born in 1835. 
Mr. Kearns settled in Helt Township in 1831. 
He spent the last six years of his life in 
Montezuma, Indiana, wliere he died Septem- 
ber 9, 1884. To Mr. and Mrs. Ponton were 
born three children, of whom two are living, 
Oliver P. M. and William S., the latter living 
on the old homestead with his mother. Mr. 
Ponton died August 8, 1886, his death 
causing universal regret throughout the com- 
munity where he had lived for so many years. 
He was a kind and affectionate husband and 
father, being strongly attached to his home 



and family. He was a consistent Christian, 
and a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
church for thirty-five years. 



fAMES ROBERTS, one of the prominent 
men of Vermillion County, at present 
engaged in mercantile pursuits at Clin- 
ton, is a native of Edgar County, Illinois, 
born February 13, 1844. His father was a 
native of Ireland, coming to the United States 
when twenty-six years of age. The mother 
of our subject, whose maiden name was 
Elizabeth Beers, was born at Bridgeport, 
Connecticut, in 1799. She was first married 
in Onondaga County, New York, to Isaac 
Carman, and in 1836 came with her husband 
to Clinton. Mr. Carman died a few years 
later, leaving his widow with four children — 
Jotham, the eldest, went to the Mexican war 
I and has never since been heard from ; Mrs. 
Emeline Bradshaw, the second child, lives in 
Clinton; Mrs. Mary Freeman lives in Coles 
County, Illinois, and Jonathan resides at 
Eugene Cit}', Oregon. Mrs. Carman and 
John Roberts were married in Edgar County, 
Illinois, in 1842. Pie died in 1856. She 
retained her mental and physical vigor to a 
remarkable degree until her death which 
occurred October 31, 1887, aged eighty-eight 
years. She made her home with the subject 
of this sketch, who is the only child of her 
second marriage. James Roberts was reared 
to a farm life, and in his youth received a 
good common-school education. February 3, 
1864, he enlisted in Company K, One Hundred 
and Twenty-ninth Indiana Infantry, and par- 
ticipated in General Schofield's corps in the 
Atlanta Campaign in which his regiment did 
gallant service, taking part in the battles of 
Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain, Peach Tree 
Creek, ChattaUoochie River, and the battles 






in frontof Atlanta, in all of which Mr. Eoberts 
manfnlly acted a soldier's part. After the 
fall of Atlanta the regiment as part of the 
Twenty-third Corps, turned north, and fonglit 
in the heroic battles of Franklin and Nash- 
ville, Tennessee, where General Hood's army 
was practically destroyed. Mr. Roberts re- 
ceived an honorable discharge September 13, 
1865, when he returned to his home in Yer- 
million County. Since November 21, ISTd, 
when he entered tiie mercantile establishment 
of Whitcomb, Anderson & Co., as clerk, he 
has been engaged in mercantile pursuits, 
with the exception of fonr years when he was 
serving as clerk of Vermillion County, having 
been elected to that office in 1878. In 1882 
he became a partner in the mercantile lirm of 
A. L. Whitcomb & Co., at Clinton. January 
1, 1885, he sold out his interest in the busi- 
ness to Mr. Whitcomb, and bought a farm in 
Clinton Township. Later he opened a grocery 
at Clinton which he continued but a short 
time, when closing out he engaged in general 
merchandising with B. H. Morgan and John 
Q. Washburn under the firm name of Roberts 
& Co. P^'ebruary 1, 1887, they divided their 
stock and Mr. Roberts became associated in 
business with B. H. Moi'gan, at the old stand 
formerly occupied by A. L. Whitcomb & Co. 
Besides his business interests in Clinton Mr. 
Roberts owns a fine farm of 145 acres located 
on sections 12 and 14, Clinton Township. 
Mr. Roberts was united in marriage February 
20, 1876, to Miss Laura Hagar, a daughter of 
J. M. and Jane Hagar, her father being 
deceased. Her mother is still a resident of 
Clinton. The only child of Mr. and Mrs. 
Roberts, a son named Arthur, was born 
November 7, 1876. Mr. Roberts is one of 
the leading members of the Masonic fraternity 
in Vermillion County, and in 1887 was 
appointed Master of Jerusalem Lodge, No- 
99, a,t Cliuton, He is also a, member pf Owen 



Post, No. 329, G. A. R., of which he is 
Adjutant. In politics he is a Democrat. He 
is now serving his fourth term as township 
treasurer, which shows the confidence and 
esteem in which he is held. 



H-^- 







KORGE H. REYNOLDS, of Highland 
Township, is a son of Elias Nelson Rey- 
iinlds, a pioneer of Vermillion County. 
Elias N. Reynolds was born in Maryland 
September 2, 1804. He was left an orphan 
at an early age, and learned the trades of 
wheelwright and chairmaker, serving an ap- 
prenticeship of fiveyears, completing it when 
he was twenty-one years old. He then went 
to Zanesviile, Ohio, where he taught school 
for a time, and in the fall of 1830 came to 
Vermillion County, Indiana, and settled 
about four miles northwest of Perrysville. 
Here he entered 100 acres of land, which he 
partially improved, living on it about si.\ 
years, and also in the meantime taught sev- 
eral terms of school. About 1838 he moved 
to a farm about three and a half miles north- 
west of Perrysville, near the present site of 
Gessie, where he lived until his death, which 
occurred August 26, 1877, being at that time 
within a few days of his seventy-third birth- 
day. He was one of the highly respected 
men of the county, and was one of its pub- 
lic-spirited citizens. He was well educated 
for his day, and always took an interest in the 
cause of education. In politics he was a 
Democrat, but during the war was a strong 
supporter of the Government. He was mar- 
ried May 8, 1828, near Circleville, Ohio, to 
Rebecca Craig, a daughter of David Craig, a 
native of Kentucky, who moved to Ohio in 
an early day and built the first cabin on the 
present site of the city of Chillicothe. Mr. 
and Mrs. Reynolds had three sons, but one of 



\L 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETGUES. 



whom, George H., survives. David J. M-as 
born April 12, 1829, and died January 14, 
1850; William W., born September 15, 1831, 
died January 16, 1874. George IT. lleynolds 
was born on the farm where he now lives in 
Highland Township, July 28, 1835. He 
was married December 31, 1857, to Marinda 
Bainbridge, a daughter of Stephen Bain- 
bridge, an early settler of Iligldand Towu- 
siiip. They have si.x children living — James 
B., born July 25, 1859; Flora Belle, born 
January 15, 1861; Mary C, born December 
22, 1868; William M., born November 19, 
1871; Elias Nelson, born February 2, 1874, 
and Callie, born June 5, 1881. Their third 
child, Lanny J., was born May 9, 1864, and 
died September 15, 1866. Mr. Reynold's 
mother makes her home with him and is act- 
ive and in -good health for one of her years. 
Mr. Reynolds owns about 300 acres of land 
in Highland Township. 



tMOS J. BETSON, one of tlie prosperous 
agriculturists of Vermillion County, 
engaged in farming and stock-raising on 
section 7, Vermillion Township, was born in 
Oneida, Now York, in the year 1845. His 
parents, Henry and Mary A. (Johnson) Bet- 
son, were natives of New York State, and of 
English descent. They came to Vermillion 
County, Indiana, with their family in 1847, 
remaining here till 1875. They then removed 
to Chrisman, Illinois, M'here the father died 
in 1875. The mother still resides in Chris- 
man. Amos J. Betson, the subject of this 
sketch, was reared to the avocation of a 
farmer, which he has followed through life, 
and in his youth received but a limited edu- 
cation in the schools of his day. He was 
married in Parke County, Indiana, in 1874, 
to Miss Louisa Rubottora, who wa§ bora in i 



that county in 1853, a daughter of Milton 
and Lula Rubottom. Tiiey are the parents 
of seven children named — Maude, Rosa, Lula, 
Roy, Garnet J., Bernicc and ReMe C. Mr. 
Betson commenced life for himself M'ithout 
capital, at first renting land, but by his per- 
severing industry and good business manage- 
ment he has succeeded well, having by his 
own eflbrts accumulated liis present fine 
property. He owns 327 acres of land where 
he resides, besides forty-nine acres in another 
section. He has a fine brick residence, 
erected by himself, and his entire surround- 
ings show care and thrift. He raises a variety 
of crops, most of whicli he feeds to his stock. 
In politics he affiliates with the Democratic 
party. Post office, Newport, Indiana. 



1 



ACHARIAH D. JAMES, late of Ver- 
W f million Count}', but now a resident of 
■1-v ' Montezuma, Parke County, was born in 
Virginia, August 30, 1811, a son of Dr. 
William 13. and Elizabeth James. In the fall 
of 1811, when our subject was an infant, his 
parents removed from Virginia to Jefferson 
County, Ohio, making the entire trip on 
horseback, his mother carr3'ing him all the 
way. In 1816 the family settled in Mans- 
field, Ohio, among the early settlers, the 
father preaching the first sermon preached in 
that place, and superintended the building of 
the first church there. He immigrated to 
Vermillion County, Indiana, in 1822, where 
he practiced medicine and preached the gos- 
pel until 1826. In that year he took a load 
of corn to New Orleans on a flatboat, and on 
the return trip died at Vicksburg, Missis- 
sippi. Our subject was about eleven years of 
age when his father settled in this county, 
and here he was reared to manhood amid the 
wild surroundings of pioneer life. He helped 



HISTORY OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



!i 



cut the first wheat, and gather the first corn 
raised on the Swayze farm on Kelt's Prairie. 
He was united in marriage Kovember 4, 
1830, to Miss Jane Sividmore, the eldest of 
eight children of Joshna Skidmore, and to 
this union five children were born, of whom 
. three are yet living, naniedAVilliain A., a 
resident of Ilelt Township; John S., engaged 
in the grocery trade in Danville, Illinois, and 
Henry H., a practicing physician of St. Ber- 
nice, this county. Mr. James followed farm- 
ing until 1852, when he removed to 
Montezuma, where he was engaged in the 
mercantile business some sixteen years. He 
then dealt extensively ingrain and stock for 
a time, and is now living retired from act- 
ive business life, enjoying the fruits of his 
years of toil and industry. Mrs. James died 
January 23, 1873, and Mr. James was a 
second time married November 20, 1873, 
to Mrs. Anna R. Elder, a native of Clinton 
County, New York, widow of Samuel Elder 
and daughter of Mason Meade. Mr. James 
has been a member of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church since 1828, his wife having also 
been a member of the same church many 
years. In his political views he affiliates 
with the Eepublican party. 



fEORGE A. CRA13B, one of the leading 
business men of Clinton, engaged in 
dealing in groceries, was born at Clinton 
Locks, in Parke County, Indiana, January 22, 
1859, a son of Walter G. and Eliza (Tiiayer) 
Crabb. His father was born in Ohio, August 
2, 1816, a son of John W. Crabb, who was 
one of the pioneers of the Wabash Valley, 
and who made his home on Walker's Bluffin 
Parke County, this State, in 1821. Walter 
G. Crabb, when a young man, by th- death 
ot his father, had the care of the family 



thrown upon him, his elder brothers having 
married and left home. A few years later he 
married a Miss Hanson, and to them were 
born eleven children, of whom only three are 
now living — Azro P., of Idaho Territory; 
Mrs. Elizabeth White, of Helt Township, 
Yermillion County, and Winfield S., residing 
in Iowa. The mother and the remaining 
eight children are buried at Clinton Locks. 
The second wife of Walter G. Crabb was a 
Miss Laney, who died shortly after her mar- 
riage. He was again married to Miss Eliza 
Thayer, a native of New York, and to this 
union five children were born, of whom 
George A., the subject of this sketch, is the 
eldest, and excepting his sister, Mary E., of 
Clinton, is the only one living. Three of the 
children died in infancy. Walter G. Crabb 
led an active biisiness life, and was among the 
first traders at Clinton Locks, a place of im- 
portance during the days of the operation of 
the Wabash and Erie Canal. He erected a 
warehouse which is still standing there, and 
was a contr-actor in the construction of the 
canal. He carried on a ferry there for eleven 
years, crossing the Wabash at Clinton. In 
1862 hq, became identified with this place, 
and until the spring of 1865 he owned and 
operated a steam grist-mill one and a half 
miles west of Clinton. In 1865 he erected 
the brick grist and merchant mill at Clinton, 
which he operated until his death, and which 
is now a part of his estate. He died August 
22, 1884. His wife died November 12, 1877, 
aged forty-five years. All the brothers and 
sisters of Walter G. Crabb are deceased, with 
the exception of Mrs. Mary Welton, who 
resides in Edgar County, Illinois. The edur 
cation of Mr. Crabb was limited to a few 
montlis attendance in the subscription schools. 
He became a thorough, practical business 
man, and in all respects was a self-made man. 
His father, once w^U-to-do in this world's 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



303 



goods, became a poor man through tlie failure 
of others, and left his family in limited cir- 
cumstances, and every dollar owned by Wal- 
ter Ct. C'rabb was earned by himself, and at his 
death he left a fair estate. In politics he was 
first a Whig, but affiliated with the Republi- 
can party from its organization. While not 
a professing Christian he gave freely of his 
means toward the building of churches, and 
also purchased books for a Sixnday-school at 
Clinton Locks, of which he was superintend- 
ent. He was a member of the Masonic fra- 
ternity, and was buried with Masonic honors. 
George A. Crabb, whose name heads this 
sketch, was reared from the age of three years 
in Clinton, and his education was obtained in 
the schools of Clinton. At the age of fifteen 
years he took charge of his father's books, 
aiid assisted his father in his mill nntil es- 
tablishing himself in his present business, 
March li, 1883. October 16, 1881, he was 
married to Miss Metta V. Davidson, who was 
born at Clinton, September 8, 1860, a daugh- 
ter of John and Jane Davidson, both of whom 
are deceased. Their only child, Metta Amelia, 
was born December 22, 1885. In politics 
Mr. Crabb casts his suffrage with the Ilepub- 
lican party. 

^^DWARD A. FLAUGIIEIt, M. D., 
rj. a prominent physician and surgeon of 
'b^' Cayuga, was born in Vermillion Coun- 
ty, Illinois, September 7, 1846, a son of 
Zachariah Flaugher. His father was born in 
Brown Connty, Ohio, February 22, 1811, and 
died in Vermillion County, Illinois, Decem- 
ber 3, 1865. He being a farmer, our subject 
was reared to the same avocation, and his 
education was received priiicipally in the 
Industrial Universily of Champaign, Illinois, 
from which institution he graduated in June, 

24 - 



1868. He then began reading medicine with 
Dr. W. T. Summers, of Urbana, Illinois, and 
later read under the preceptorship of Dr. 
Balch, of Georgetown. During the year 
1871 he attended the St. Louis Medical 
College one term, and in 1881 he spent one 
term at the Ohio Medical College of Cincin- 
nati, and two terms at the Indiana Medical 
College at Indianapolis, graduating from the 
latter college in March, 1883. Dr. Flaugher 
commenced the practice of his profession in 
1870, which he has since followed M'ith the 
exception of the time spent at college. He 
makes a specialty of diseases ot the eye in 
which he is very successful, and has become 
identified with the prominent medical men 
of this part of the county. He located at 
Eugene in August, 1870, and in 1876 went 
to Williamsport, Warren County, returning 
to Eugene, in January, 1880. He removed 
his office to Cayuga in October, 1884, being 
the first settler at this place. He estab- 
lished a drug and grocery store at Cayuga, 
the pioneer store, which he carried on in 
connection with his medical practice until 
March 17, 1885, when he disposed of his 
business to Nathan Tutt. He was appointed 
postmaster at Cayuga in March, 1886, and 
still holds that position. He has now a 
good practice at this place. Dr. Flaugher 
was married August 28, 1874, to Miss Mary 
J. Greer, whose father was George W. Greer, 
an early settler of Eugene Township. Of 
the two children born to this union but one is 
living, a daughter named Mary E. 



fHOMAS HENRY HARRISON, one 
of the old and honored pioneers of 
J Highland Township, residing on sec- 
tion 31, about five miles west of Perrysville, 
was born in Oliio County, "W'l'st Vii'ginia, 




UISTORT OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



January 1, 1810. His father, John Harri- 
son, removed from Baltimore, Maryland, to 
West Virginia, and later settled with his 
family in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where he 
died when the subject of this sketch was a 
child. He was a nailer by trade, and was 
engaged in the manufacture of nails at Pitts- 
burgh. After his death the family returned 
to West Virginia, remaining there until 1819, 
then moved to Monroe County, Ohio. Tiie 
mother was a second time married, to William 
Harris, who died in the United States army, 
and to this union two sons were born, named 
Charles and Samuel. In 1834 the mother 
immigrated with her family to Vermillion 
County, Indiana, M'here she died April 9, 
1861, at the advanced age of eighty-six years. 
Thomas Henry Harrison, whose name heads 
this sketch, arrived in Perrysville for the first 
time December 20, 1834. January 29, 1835, 
he was united in marriage to Miss Marinda 
Henthorn, a daughter of William D. Hen- 
thorn, who came to Vermillion County at the 
same time as the Harrison family. He then 
settled on the land now occupied by our sub- 
ject, where he lived until his death, his wife 
also dying at the homestead some time be- 
fore. Of the children born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Henthorn only four daughters are living at 
the present^time. Eleven children have been 
born to Mr. and Mrs. Harrison, of whom 
seven are yet living — Virginia, Richard, 
Susan, Marinda, Mary C, Charles and Mar- 
garet M. Their eldest son, William M., was 
a member of Company K, One Hundred and 
Twenty-fifth Illinois Infantry, in the war of 
the Pebcllion. He was wounded at tlie bat- 
tle of Perryville, Kentucky, but died of pneu- 
monia at Gallatin, Tennessee, January 13, 
1863, in his twenty-sixth yeai-. The remain- 
ing children who are deceased are — John, 
who died August 18, 1846, aged six years; 
Thomas B., died in his thirty-second year, 



July 4, 1883, at Jonesboro, Arkansas, and 
one who died in infancy, unnamed. In April, 
1835, shortly after his marriage, Mr. Harri- 
son went to Porter County, Indiana, return- 
ing to Perrysville, Vermillion County, in 
October of the same year. In August, 1838, 
he settled on the place where he has since 
resided, with the exception of one year. As 
will be seen Mr. Harrison has been a resident 
of Highland Township about fifty-four years, 
and is now the only representative of his 
father's family living in Indiana. He has 
always been an active and public spirited 
citizen, being interested in all enterprises 
which tend toward the advancement of his 
township or county. In politics he was in 
early life a Whig, but in later years a Re- 
publican. 



fRANCIS M. RILEY, of Rileysburg, 
was born on the homestead which he 
now owns and occupies, April 14, 1844, 
and is one of the representative citizens of 
Vermillion County. Jacob Riley, the father 
of our subject, was one of the early pioneers 
of the county, settling on the farm now occu- 
pied by his son in 1842. He was born in 
Hardin County, Kentucky, in 1803, where he 
was reared, and received a fair education con- 
sidering the lack of educational advantages 
in that early day. He came to Perrysville, 
Vermillion County, in 1827, and engaged in 
teaching school, in which he had considerable 
experience. He was married at Perrysville 
in 1831, to Elizabeth Nichols, sister of Will- 
iam Nichols, of Highland Township, and to 
this union were born four sons and one 
daughter. Three of the sons yet survive — 
Geoi-ge Harding, Frank M. and Jacob. Will- 
iam, the eldest son, died in Green County, 
Wisconsin, March 3, 1865, and the daughter, 




IT-- r 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCEES. 



Naucy, died February 19, 1861. She was the 
wife of Isaac Rouse, and left at her death 
three children. The father established the 
first harness shop in Perrysville, where he 
carried on the business until 1842. He then 
sold out and purchased 100 acres of the Riley 
homestead, on which he located. He added 
largely to his original purcliase until he 
owned about 600 acres, becoming one of the 
wealthy and influential men of Highland 
Township. He died at the homestead, No- 
vember 1, 1880. The mother of our subject 
died May 4, 1868, and after her death the 
father married again. His widow still sur- 
vives and is making her home in Danville. 
Francis M. Riley is one of the leading farm- 
ers and stock-raisers in Yermillion County. 
He was the first to introduce the Poll-Angus 
breed of cattle into the county, and is making 
a success in the raising of this valuable 
breed. He is also engaged in tlie manufac- 
ture of tile, this enterprise being carried on 
under the firm name of Riley & Shute. The 
works of this firm are at Rileysburg, where a 
superior quality of tile is produced. Mr. 
Riley served four months in the war of the 
Rebellion, being a member of the Seventy- 
first Illinois Infantry. He was married May 
8, 1877, to Miss Martha W. Rodgers, who 
was born in AVarren County, Indiana, March 
25, 1860, her father, Elislia Rodgers, being 
still a resident of that county. Politically 
Mr. Riley affiliates with the Republican 
party. He is at present one of tlie commis- 
sioners of Vermillion County, having been 
elected to that office in the fall of 1884, and 
re-elected in the fall of 1888. He has a 
beautiful farm of 327 acres of land, 160 of 
which belonged to the original homestead, 
and its entire surroundings ai-e indicative of 
the enterprise and industry of the owner. 
On the building of the Chicago & Eastern 
Illinois Railroad, a station wns gecured at 



Rileysburg, through the influence of Mr. 
Riley. The name was originally Riley, but 
there being another station on the railroad 
bearing that name, the name of this station 
was changed to Rileysbui-g in the spring of 
1885. The place was formerly but a flag 
station, but is now a regular station, ami 
is a place of some importance, where con- 
siderable shipping is carried on. Mr. Riley 
takes a deep interest in the welfare of the 
town, and every movement calculated to aid 
in building up the place has his encourage- 
ment and assistance. 



fTEPHEN STEVENSON COLLETT, 
deceased, was a resident near Eugene. 
He was a son of John and Elizabeth 
Collett, a sketch of whom we give elsewhere. 
Born in Pennsylvania in 1792, he was nine 
years old when the family came West with 
him, traveling by flat boat down the Ohio 
River to Lime Rock, Kentucky, in 1800. He 
came to this State in 1818, in company with 
his brother, Josephus, tlieir father having been 
appointed deputy United States Surveyor in 
the Maumee Valley. Stephen himself, as 
deputy United States Surveyor for a part of 
Indiana Territory, made the first surveys of 
the counties of Owen, Putnam, Montgomery 
and Tippecanoe. He was subsequently en- 
gaged in mercantile pursuits at Teire Haute, 
where the firms of Linton & Collett, and 
Rose & Collett, had extensive business 
relations in the fur trade with John Jacob 
Astor, with headquarters at Mackinac. In 
1827 he removed to Eugene, Vermillion 
County, of which village plat he was the first 
proprietor, and where he engaged in the 
shipping of farm products and general mer- 
chandise by flat-boats to New Orleans. He 
was chosen as a Whig of the Ifenry Chiy 



BISTORT OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



school to represent Vermillion County in the 
House of Eepresentatives for the sessions of 
1833-'35 ; then was senator from Parke, Yer- 
million and Warren connties in 1835-'36 and 
from Parke and Yermillion in 1842-'44. 
During all his legislative career he served 
with marked ahility; was a member of the 
standing committees on Finance, Education 
and Agriculture; and was one of the nine 
members, including Governor AVhitcomb and 
Calvin Fletcher, who voted against the 
internal improvement scheme, which after- 
ward proved so disastrous. Although he 
had had but little opportunity for school 
education, he acquired studious habits, be- 
came posted in history and general literature. 
Although not a member of any church, he 
maintained a steadfast faith in the general 
principles of Christianity, especially the 
Golden Paile. He died December 28, 1843, 
at Browning's Hotel, Indianapolis, while 
serving as State Senator, and the Legislature 
passed resolutions of sincere respect concern- 
ing him, and many members delivered 
eloquent eulogies. Senator Bradley, for ex- 
ample, said: "By his energy, sagacity of in- 
tellect and integrity, which was never soiled 
by a stain nor darkened by a cloud of suspicion, 
he deservedly attained a high place in public 
estimation." Representative Thomas Dowl- 
ing, of Vigo Coimty, said: " As a merchant 
he was upright, scrupulously honest, direct 
and plain in his dealings; as a farmer he was 
distinguished for his good taste and industry; 
as a neighbor he was kind and obliging; as ;'. 
friend, tirm and steadfast; as a legislator, 
conscientious, prudent and upright; as a 
politician, devotedly attached to the great 
principle of constitutional liberty." On his 
farm he was a pioneer in the introduction of 
fine stock, and improved varieties of grain 
and other farm products. His clover field in 
1832 was a curiosity, as it was one of the earliest 



in the State; and even at that early day he 
secured short-horn Durhams from the herd 
of Heniy Clay. In 1835 he owned and bred 
Ilaserac, the fsistest, thoroughbred English 
race-horse in the West. In 1838--39 he had 
herds of fine wooled sheep, Berkshire hogs, 
etc. Neighbors for a hundred miles around 
obtained of him improved varieties of live- 
stock and of grain. In 1822 Mr. Collett 
married Sarah Groenendyke, of Terre Haute, 
and their family comprised three sons and 
five daughters, all of whom are living except 
two of the daugliters. The sons are — Hon. 
John Collett, State Geologist, 1879-'84; 
Stephen S., a successful farmer, and manager 
of the bank of Collett & Company at New- 
port, this State; and Josephus, a farmer, 
merchant, banker, railroad manager, etc., 
now residing at Terre Haute. (See sketch of 
these elsewhere in this volume). The daugh- 
ter, Emily, married Dr. W. G. Montgomery, for 
several years Senator from Warren County. 
Mary married J. P. Campbell, deceased, who 
was a successful merchant and active Repub- 
lican politician of Crawfordsville; Ellen mar- 
ried D. M. Jones, a Newport (Indiana) 
attorney, and Representative from Vermillion 
County of the Legislature during the war; 
Jennie married James II. Turner, of Terre 
Haute; and Clara married Crawford Fair- 
banks, also Terre Haute. 



•i^^ 



T^. A^'ID McBETH, manufacturer of har- 
I ,) iK'ss, saddles, etc., and dealer in buggies 
■i0^ and wagons, Clinton, was born in Logan 
County, Ohio, August 1, 1845, a sou of 
Robert and Maria (Gunn) McBeth, both of 
whom were natives of Ohio, and of Scotch 
and Irish parentage. Robert Gunn, the ma- 
ternal grandiather of our subject, was Indian 
agent in Ohio, in its pioneej- days, and built 



the first liouse at Bellefontaine, that State. 
The parents of our subject are deceased, the 
father dying of cholera at St. Louis, Missouri, 
in 1850, aged thirty-nine years, and the mother 
at Springfield, Ohio, at the home of her 
daughter, Mrs. I. A. Hazel, in 1872, in her 
sixty-third year. Tliey were the parents of 
six children, of whom David is the youngest. 
His two brothers are deceased. His sisters 
are — Mrs. Maria Bane, of Battle Creek, Mich- 
igan; Minerva Goodale, also living in Battle 
Creek, Michigan, and Mrs. Hazel, living in 
Denver, Colorado. David spent his youth 
in Hichland, a small town in Logan County. 
Li July, 1861, he went to Columbus, Ohio, 
to learn the harness trade. In February, 
1861, he enlisted in Company K, Third Uni- 
ted States Cavalry, serving a term of three 
years. The regiment first had headquarters 
at Little Rock, Arkansas, and later while Mr. 
McBeth was with it at Fort Sheldon, New 
Mexico. In February, 1867, he was dis- 
charged from the service of the United States, 
and resumed work at his trade, saddle and 
harness making, at Columbus, Ohio, at which 
he had previously served an apprenticeship, 
commencing when sixteen years old. In 
March, 1869, he came to Clinton, establishing 
his present business at this place. In 1870 
he returned to Ohio for his bride. Miss Jennie 
Ilarsha, whom he married at Bellefontaine, 
October 5, 1870. She is a native of Pennsyl- 
vania, born April 6, 1846. Her father died 
many years ago, and her mother, Mrs. Mary 
P. Harsha, now Mrs. Burns, is living at 
Charlevoix, Michigan. Five children have 
been born to Mr. and Mrs. McBeth, of whom 
only two are living, named Mabel and Mary. 
Both Mr. McBeth and wife are meml)ers of 
tlie Presbyterian church. In politics he has 
always voted the Republican ticket. Mr. 
McBeth is a man of splendid business quali- 
fications, and by his strict attention to his 



ti-ade he has established a large business, and 
by his fair and honorable dealings has gained 
the confidence and esteem of all wlio know 
him. 



fOIIN WESLEY CASEBEER, retired 
farmer and merchant, Hillsdale, was born 
in Mansfield, Ohio, January 22, 1831, a 
son of John Casebeer, who was a blacksmith 
by trade. The subject of this sketch was 
educated in the Mansfield public schools. 
He came to Vermillion County, Indiana, in 
November, 1849, in his nineteenth year, 
crossing the Wabash River at Raccoon Ferry. 
He remained in tlie county but a few days, 
when he went to Coles (now Douglas) Coun- 
ty, Illinois, five miles below Newman, where 
his cousin, Jolm Casebeer, now resides. He 
returned to Mansfield in the fall of 1851, 
making the trip on horseback. In 1853 he 
came again to this county and settled in Helt 
Township, where he has since made his liomc. 
He was married August 27, 1855, to Martha 
Rush, a daughter of Samuel Rush, who was 
one of the early settlers of the county, and 
one of the first school-teachers of Helt Town- 
ship. Six children have been born to this 
union, of whom four are yet living — Alvin 
B., married Miss Annie Fultz, and lives near 
Eugene, this county; John W., Jr., married 
Miss Jennie McDole, and lives on the old 
homestead near Hillsdale; Ithimer M. entered 
De Pauw University, September 14, 1887; 
Mary A. married George James, of Hills- 
dale, and they are the parents of one cliild 
named Mervin E. When the Evansville, 
Terre Haute & Chicago (now the Chicago & 
Eastern Illinois) Railroad was being built, 
Mr. Casebeer was a contractor on the road, 
building one mile of the grade. He engaged 
in the saw-mill business in Hillsdale in 1870, 



372 



BSW .i M »M- 1 » » a " «1»M-W-l"« «» -M« * «"-| lg M g - " -W-1i M i a Ui W B «i »M« W - « Bi a(li 



niSTORr OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



wliich he followed some two or three years. 
In the spring of 1881 he established his mer- 
cantile business, which he carried on snccess- 
fnlly until late in the year 1885, when he 
sold his stock of goods to Joseph Flinii, 
although he still owns the store bnilding. 
He is also the owner of eighty acres of choice 
land in Ilelt Township, besides town property 
in Alto and Hillsdale. He has been a promi- 
nent member of the Methodist Episcopal 
church for thirty years, and is a liberal sup- 
porter toward all benevolent institutions. 
Mrs. Casebeer is also an active member of 
the same church, is president of the Woman's 
Foreign Missionary Society of the Salem 
Methodist Episcopal church, and is an ardent 
temperance and Sabbath-school worker. Few 
men in the county are more widely knowu or 
more generally respected than the subject of 
this sketch. Genial in temperament, chari- 
table toward the unfortunate, active in the 
support of every movement calculated to pro- 
mote the piiblic welfare, he takes a prominent 
position in the community, and has gained 
the confidence of all who know him. 



tEASON H. SWINEHART, hardware 
merchant, Clinton, established his resi- 
dence and business at this place in 
April, 1871. He was born in Holmes County, 
Ohio, February 22, 1822, a son of Daniel and 
Yesta (Hogland) Swinehart,his father a native 
of Pennsylvania, of German descent, and his 
mother a native of Ohio. In 1841 the family 
moved to Terre Haute, Indiana, where the 
parents lived until their death, the mother 
dying in 1848, aged fifty years, and the 
father dying in 1872, at the age of seventy-six 
years. Reason H. Swinehart was married at 
Terre Haute, April 12, 1857, to Miss Ann 
Palmer, and to them have been born six 



children as follows — Emma died in infancy; 
Clara, born September 8, 1860, is the wife of 
W. L. Morey, of Clinton; Harry, born July 
20, 1863; Frank, born January 15, 1866; 
Daniel, died in infancy, and Elizabeth, born 
at Clinton, August 15, 1871. Soon after 
locating in Terre Haute Mr. Swinehart com- 
menced work at the tinner's trade which he 
followed until establishing his hardware busi- 
ness in Clinton. His sons, Harry and Frank, 
both of whom are young men of fine business 
qualifications, assist him in his business. 
Both are members of the Odd Fellows order, 
and Harry is at present Junior Warden of 
Clinton Encampment, No. 143. The father 
and sons are members of Amant Lodge, No. 
356, I. O. O. F., and have passed all the 
chairs of the lodge. In politics Mr. Swine- 
hart is independent, but of Democratic 
antecedents. 



l^^ILLIAM A. JAMES, section 11, Helt 
• 1/ \/' Township, was born in Yermilliou 

.^.^"j County, Indiana, September 16, 
1831, a son of Zachariah D. and Jane (Skid- 
more) James. His father M-as born in Vir- 
ginia in 1811, and in 1822 came with his 
parents to Vermillion County, where he was 
reared and married. Of a family of five 
childx-en, but three are living — William A., 
John S., a grocer of Danville, Illinois, and 
Dr. Harry H., of St. Berniee. William A. 
James was reared on a farm in Helt Town- 
ship. He was given good educational 
advantages, attending school in Paris and 
Blooniington, Illinois, and after leaving 
school taught a short time. In 1862 ho 
enlisted in defense of his country and M-as 
assigned to Company B, Eighty-fifth Indiana 
Infixntry, and served six months. After his 
return home he clerked in his father's store 



BIOQRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



ill Montezuma, and in 1867 returued to Ver- 
million County. In 1869 he settled on the 
farm where he now lives, which contains 128 
acres of valuable land, all well improved and 
under a good state of cultivation, and his 
residence and farm buildings are commodious 
and convenient. Mr. James was married 
February 5, 1856, to Frances Iloughland, 
daughter of AVilliam Houghland. They have 
had seven children, but two of whom are 
living — Charles W. and Harry E. The 
latter married Ida B. Rose, and is now a 
telegraph operator of Lincoln, Nebraska. Mr. 
James is a member of the Gi-and Army of the 
Republic, the Ancient Order of the United 
AVorkman and the Patrons Mutual Aid So- 
ciety of Yermillion County. He and his 
wife are niembers of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. Politically Mr. James is a Republi- 
can. He is one of the prominent and pros- 
perous citizens of the township where he has 
spent his life. 



fESSE HOUCHIN was born in Pike 
County, Ohio, November 10, 1825. He 
is of Scotch and Welsh ancestry, but for 
three generations preceding him his paternal 
ancestors were natives of Virginia. His 
father, Jesse Houchin, was born in Amherst 
County, Virginia, June 10, 1770. His grand- 
father, William Houchin, was born in Buck- 
ingham County, as was also his great-grand- 
father, John Houchin. His mother was Mary 
Allison, daughter of Thomas Allison, of New 
York State. Five of his uncles were soldiers 
ill the war of 1812, Moses and Charles 
Houchin, and Jesse, James and Daniel Alli- 
son. His parents, soon after their marriage 
moved to Greenbrier County, West Virginia, 
and in 1820 to Pike County, Ohio, and from 
there in 1830 to Vermillion C'ounty, Indiana, 



settling first in Highland Township, Initsoon 
after moved to Warren County, where they 
lived twenty years. Jesse Houchin remained 
M-ith his parents until manhood, and in his 
youth, when not employed in the work of the 
farm, attended the subscription schools. In 
February, 1851, lie moved to a farm in Helt 
Township, Vermillion County, and there im- 
proved a farm on which he lived until No- 
vember 10, 1886, when he moved to 
Montezuma, but keeps his farm of 320 acres 
well stocked with horses, cattle, hogs and 
sheep as heretofore; and raising crops of 
grain and grass. Mr. Houchin was married 
April 9, 1846, to Elizabeth Jackson, daughter 
of John Jackson. They have had eight 
children — Martha S., John S., Mary M., 
Jessie E., Alice C, Daniel V., William E. and 
Lawrence Bruce. Daniel and William are 
deceased. Martha married William Malone, 
of Helt Township, and has nine children; 
John married Eudora Johnson; Mary is the 
wife of Silas Davis, and has eleven children; 
Jessie is the wife of James M. Morgan ; Alice 
is the wife of Frank P. Thorn, and has one 
child; Daniel married Alice S. Earles, and 
at his death left one child. Mr. Houchin has 
been a prominent citizen of Vermillion 
County for thirty-five years. He is in no 
sense a politician, but is interested in pro- 
moting the material welfare of his township 
and county, and is always ready to assist any 
enterprise worthy of his support. 

^-^^wf^«~ 



fAVID A. REED, a representative of 
one of the old and respected pioneer 
families of Vermillion County, was born 
in Stokes County, North Carolina, Septem- 
ber 28, 1824. His father, Jacob Reed, was 
also a native of Stokes County, his father be- 
ing a native of Germany, and coming to 



HISTORY OF VEmtlLLION COUNTY. 



North Carolina wlien sixteen years of age. 
The parents of our suT)jeet came to Yermill- 
ion County in 1831 and settled on the same 
section where he now resides, the land at the 
time of their settlement being in a state of 
nature. David A. Keed was reared on this 
farm, and in his youth attended the rude log 
cabin subscription schools, receiving such 
education as could be obtained therein. He 
was inarried December 11, 1849, to Nancy 
M. Wishard, a daughter of John O.Wishard, 
who settled in Vermillion County as early as 
December, 1829. Eleven children were born 
to this union, of whom seven ai-e living — 
Jane, John J., Margaret E., Mary E., Sarah 
A., Barbara A. and Laura B., all married with 
the exception of Laura. Mr. aud Mrs. Eeed 
have now fifteen grandchildren. Mr. Eeed 
has made farming the principal occupation of 
hi.s life, and by his own persevering industry 
and economy he has accumulated his present 
tine property, he having commenced life for 
himself entirely without means. He is now 
the owner of 249 acres of choice land, and 
resides on section 28, Helt Township. In 
connection with his general farming he de- 
votes considerable attention to stock-raising, 
making a specialty of graded stock. Mr. 
Reed has been a member cf the Methodist 
Protestant church from the age of sixteen 
years, and has always given liberally of his 
means toward the support of the gospel. He 
is an active Sabbath-school worker, and has 
served as superintendent or teacher for more 
than forty years. In his political views he 
affiliates with the Eepublican party. His 
son, John J. Reed, is one of the rising young 
agriculturists of Helt Township, and is the 
owner of a good farm of lOlJ acres on sec- 
tion 28 of the same township. He was born 
in Helt Township, Yermillion County, July 
17, 1852, where he was reared a farmer, and 
educated in the common schools. He was 



united in marriage March 2'J, 1881, to Ros- 
etta Heidle, whose father, John M. Heidle, 
was one of the pioneers of Helt Township. 
They are the parents of three children — 
Jesse A., Margaret E. and an infant son yet 
unnamed. 



fAMES F. CARMACK, farmer and stock- 
raiser, resides on his father's farm on 
section 7, Vermillion Township. He is 
the owner of a good farm of fifty acres, all 
well improved, located elsewhere in the co\in- 
ty. He was born on the farm where he now 
lives, in 1854, a son of Andrew and Rachel 
Carmack. His mother is deceased and his 
father now lives in Dana. He was reared a 
farmer, and since starting in life for himself 
has been successful, and is now numbered 
among the representative citizens of his town- 
shij). He was married in 1883 to Margaret 
A., daughter of A. R. and Alvira Newlin, 
pioneers of Vermillion County. In polities 
Mr. Carmack is a Democrat. He and his 
wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. 



##fT:ILLIAM SLxVTER, of Dana, was 
'■1/V/- 1'"i"ii ill Vermillion Township, Ver- 

.~ J inillion County, Indiana, July 3, 
isiy, a son of James aud Melissa (Hifill) Sla- 
ter. His father was born in the State of Ohio, 
coming to this county when a young man, 
where he lived until his death. His mother 
is still living, and makes her home with her 
son-in-law, William Reed, about three and a 
half miles from Dana. He was reared to the 
avocation of a farmer, and his education was 
obtained in the common schools of the county. 
When twenty-one years of age he learned the 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



blacksmith's trade, which he followed until 
May, 1886. In 1870 he went to Iowa, where 
he spent over nine years, working at his trade 
in Mount Pleasant and Ottumwa. In 1880 he 
went from Iowa to Colorado, and in 1886 
left La Junta, Bent County, tha^t State, for 
Yermillion County, and has since been a 
resident of Dana. Mr. Slater was united in 
marriage April 10, 1875, to Miss Jennie 
Moore, who was born in Henry County, Iowa, 
October 6, 1861, a daughter ot Peter and 
Caroline (Gallagher) Moore, her father de- 
ceased, and her mother living in Trenton, 
Iowa. Two children have l»een born to Mr. 
and Mrs. Slater, named Pearl and Mont'. 



IIOMAS THOMPSON, the genial pro- 
•^;||j V prietor of the Cayuga House, is a native 
^J of Indiana, born in Putnam County, 
June 14, 1839, his father, Gari'ison Thompson, 
who is now deceased, being one of the pioneers 
of that county. Our subject was reared in his 
native county, receiving his education in the 
common schools of his neighborhood. He 
was married April 1, 1861, to Miss Sarah 
Smith, a daughter of James H. Smith, of 
Iniinbridge, Indiana, and to them have been 
born five children — Gertrude, Cora, Frank, 
Fred and Maude. Gertrude married John 
Owens, of Putnam County, and they are the 
the parents of three children, na;med Glen, 
Ethel and Georgeann. Mr. Thompson was a 
member of Company B, Forty-third Indiana 
Infantry, in the war of the Rebellion, and 
participated in the battles of New Madrid, 
Island No. 10, Helena, Little Eock, Mem- 
phis, Fort Pillow, Cameron and Marks Mill, 
being taken prisoner at the last mentioned 
place. He was then sent to Tyler, Texas, 
where he was imprisoned ten months. He 
remained in the service of liis country almost 



four years, when he returned to his home. 
He came to Eugene in 1885, and in January, 
1887, came to Cayuga and took charge of the 
Junction Hotel until his present commodious 
hotel was erected. He has served during the 
past two years as justice of the peace, in 
which office he is serving witli credit to him- 
self and satisfaction to his constituents. He 
is a comrade of the Grand Army of the Re- 
pixblic. His wife is a member of the Method- 
ist Episcopal church. 



fOSEPII A. CLOVER, section 11, Clin- 
ton Township, is a representative of one 
of the earliest families of the neighbor- 
hood. He was born near Cincinnati, Ohio, 
August 6, 1818, a son of James and Eliza 
(Aspril) Clover, his father a native of the 
Allegheny Mountain district of Pennsylva- 
nia, and his mother of Delaware. The par- 
ents were married in Pennsylvania, but about 
1817 moved to Ohio, locating near Cincinnati, 
and thence in 1822 to Vermillion County, 
Indiana. They settled on section 11, Clinton 
Township, on what is now the homestead of 
our subject. The country was then a wilder- 
ness, their nearest neighbor being Truman 
Ford, who lived three miles southeast. The 
father was in limited circumstances, but had 
enough to pay for eighty acres of land, and 
help maintain his family until he could clear 
a few acres and raise food. The nearest mill 
was at Eugene, twenty-iive miles distant. 
He was [a great lover of the chase, and 
generally furnished his neighbors with veni- 
son. He killed the only bear ever killed in 
his neighborhood. His house was surmounted 
with selected antlers, and was known far and 
near as the "Buck Horn House." James 
Clover died in the prime of life, February 26, 
1836, aged forty-live years, his widow follow- 



iiig liiin in May of the following year. They 
had a family of eight children — one born in 
Pennsylvania, two in Ohio, and five in Ver- 
million County. Jane is now the wife of 
James Martin, of Grundj- County, Illinois^ 
Malinda is the widow of Solomon Stults, of 
Clinton Township; Delilah, deceased, was 
tlie wife of Joseph Ileeder; Letitia, deceased, 
was the wife of Wesley Fatton; John D. 
lives in Texas; Samuel F., and Margaret 
wife of William Kirkendall, live in Livingston 
County, Illinois. Joseph A. was the second 
child and eldest son, and after the death of 
liis parents he kept the family together, until 
after his sisters were married. He then, 
April 2, 1848, married Drnsilla Eeeder, who 
was born in Yerniillion Township, October 9, 
1821, a daughter of Amos Eeeder, one of the 
earliest pioneers of the county. Her mother 
died when she was a child, and her father 
February 24, 1836. Mr. and Mrs. Clover 
liave had five children — Jane ^(deceased, wife 
of Garrett Ames); Isabell, Amos (deceased), 
AVilliam E., and James, of Clinton Township. 
Mr. Clover has a good property of 156 acres, 
which was formerly the home of liis father, 
around whicli cling many fond memories. 
He abounds in reminiscences and anecdotes 
of pioneer life, and if anytliing of importance 
lias been by him forgotten, his friends cannot 
be made to believe it. A practical joker, 
many are the pranks played by him, but none 
are ever wounded to the heart, and a visit to 
him is one long to be remembered. Wlien 
foin-teen years of age he killed a huge buck, 
and was afterward called the champion boy 
hunter. The chase was his delight, but when 
eighteen years old he sliot his last deer. 
While hunting he had wasted his last shot 
on a very large buck, but succeeded in only 
wounding him. The deer could not run 
away, and the determined young hunter 
would not, but closing in upon him with his 



knife, fought it to the death, leaving the 
scene half naked, and wounded and torn in a 
way frightful to see. The deer was dead and 
beheaded, but com^jlete recovery for the 
reserved best in the fight was a work of con- 
siderable time. 4 When cured of his wounds 
he was cured of deer-liunting. The buck as 
it roamed at will, and the doe witli the grace- 
ful fawn, were never more disturbed by him. 
In politics he is a Democrat. During the 
war he advocated the war measures, but since 
its close has been a man of peace. 



jP^iON. WILLIAM SKIDMOEE, who was 
Wm\j prominently identified with the growth 
"iS'd and development of Vermillion County, 
Indiana, during his life, was the first white 
child born in the county, a son of John Skid- 
more, the date of his birth being February lU, 
1819. He was born with but onehand, his left 
hand,andone-thirdofthat arm being gone. Yet 
in spite of this he was able to chop trees, and 
do other work required in the clearing and 
making of a farm, seemingly as well as any 
one. He was reared amid the wild surround- 
ings of pioneer life, and during his early life 
he frequently hauled corn to the Wabash 
Eiver, which he sold for ten cents a busliel, 
and has often taken apples to Chicago, Illi- 
nois. He was a self-made man in every sense 
of the word, and became one of the most 
proininent men in the county where lie has 
always lived. He was twice married, taking- 
for his first wife Elizabeth Pearman, and of 
the three children born to tliem two are yet 
living — Thomas J. and Mrs. Sarali J. Free- 
man. Mr. Skidmore was married a second 
time to a widow named Mrs. Amelia Ilelt, 
and to this union five children were born — 
William Henry, George F., Mary E., Jasper 
F. and Caroline F. By her first marriage 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



377 



Mrs. Skidinore has two children — Mrs. Serena 
Depny, and Mrs. Clarinda Garner. Mr. 
Skidmore filled many of the official trusts of 
his township and county, and twice repre- 
sented the county in the State Legislature, in 
the years from 18G6 to 1870. In the early 
history of the county he served as constable 
and justice of the peace. While holding the 
former office he was called one time hy the 
citizens to assist in arresting a man whom 
tliey had chased into Mr. Swazey's cellar. 
Mr. Skidmore went into the cellar when he 
was shot by the man in the right arm below 
the ell)ow. Never heeding this he sncceeded 
in arresting his man before he had time to 
do more harm, wresting from his grasp a 
second freshly-loaded pistol and holding until 
the citizens came to his help and bound their 
prisoner. " lie carried the bullet received 
there in his arm to his grave. He was a 
consistent Christian and an active worker in 
the Methodist church for many years. Even 
when a boy he would walk over the settlement 
and tell the people of the near approach of 
some religious meeting. He died in May, 
1881, in the triumphant hope of a blessed 
immortality. 



^^;rEPIIEN S. COLLETT, of Newport, 
Ivs^l is a representative of one of the earliest 
^^^ pioneer families of Vermillion County. 
He was born in Eugene in December, 1829, 
and Yermillion County has always been his 
home. In his youth he received good edu- 
cational advantages, attending Wabash Col- 
lege three years. He has been an active 
business man, and for many years was one of 
the prominent merchants of Newport. He 
assisted in organizing the First National 
Bank of Newport, serving as its cashier some 
time. Since that time he has been connected 



w'ith the banking interests of Newport, at 
present being general manager of CoUctt ik 
Co.'s Bank. Mr. Collett married Miss Jennie 
Dunlap, a daughter of Alexander Dunlap, 
and they have four children, three sons and 
one daughter — John, cashier in Collett & 
Co.'s Bank; Samuel D., Fred D. and Eva, 
wife of Adam B. Littlepage, of Charleston, 
West Virginia. In politics the Colletts were 
old line Whigs in the days of that party, and 
later liave affiliated w'ith the llepublican 
party. In religion they are liberal in their 
views. 

fAMES J. LEWIS, one of the old and 
highly esteemed pioneers of Highland 
Township, is a native of Maryland, born in 
Worcester County, January 1, 1805, a son of 
James and Sarah Lewis. He was early in 
life left an orphan, liaving no remembrance 
of his parents. After their death he was 
taken to the home of his grandfather Lewis, 
the grandfather dying when our subject was 
ten years of age. Two years later, when he 
was about twelve years of age, he accompanied 
his grandmother and uncle to Pickaway 
County, Ohio, and here he had his first 
experience of frontier life. He grew to man- 
hood in Pickaway County, and was there 
married to Miss Margaret King, a native of 
Ohio, whose parents removed to that State 
from Maryland in an early day. In October, 
1830, accompanied by his father-in-law, Isaac 
King, he immigrated to Indiana, settling in 
Rush County, and two years later removed to 
Hancock County, where Mr. King continued 
to reside until his death. In November, 
1837, Mr. Lewis came with his family to 
Vermillion County, and has since that date 
been a resident of Highland Township, and 
since March, 1851, he has resided on section 



\\\ 



8, about six miles east of Danville, Illinois. 
Mrs. Lewis died April 3, 1857, and April 10, 
1859, Mr. Lewis was again married to Mrs. 
Mary (Vandine) Craviston, widow of Samuel 
Craviston. Bj his first marriage Mr. Lewis 
had fourteen children, eleven of whom reached 
maturity. Six are living at the present time 
whose names are — Isaac, Eleanor, Sarah, 
Nancy, Joshua and Meredith. Those who 
died after reaching maturity are — John W., 
James A., Samuel C, Elizabeth and Mary. 
Though now in his eighty-third year Mr. 
Lewis is still active, and in good health, and 
is surrounded with all the necessary comforts 
of life. He has been a faithful and consistent 
member of the Methodist Episcopal church 
for fifty-nine years. 



fOSIAII SKIDMORE, farmer and stock- 
raiser, section 22, Helt Township, was 
born in the neighborhood of his present 
home March 13, 1831, a son of Jolm Skid- 
more, who was a native of Pennsylvania, of 
English descent. John Skidmore came to 
Yermillion County in 1818, and entered 160 
acres of land in Ilelt Township, and in the 
fall of the same year moved his family to 
their new home. February 19, 1819, his 
son William was born, and had the honor of 
being tlie first white child born in the county. 
lie died in 1881, aged sixty-two years. At 
the time of Mr. Skidmore's settlement in tlie 
county he had few neighbors except Indians, 
and there was not a house between his place 
and Fort Dearborn, the present site of Chicago, 
Illinois, on the west, the Wabash River on 
the east and Fort AVayne on the north. His 
first home was a log cabin and his furniture 
was of the most primitive description. He 
cleared and improved Ins land until it was 
one of the best in the township, and made it 



his home until his death. Josiah Skidmore 
was reared in his native township, and is a 
prominent and influential citizen in the 
county. He was married February 25, 1855, 
to Phoebe A. White, daughter of Enoch 
White, a pioneer of the county. Mr. and 
Mrs. White are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal church. 



tUFUS P. LITTLE, farmer and stock, 
raiser, resides on section 16, Vermillion 
Township, where he owns a good farm 
of 119 acres, and in addition to this he owns 
ninety-three acres on another section. His 
homestead is well improved, his buildings 
being commodious and convenient and his 
land being well drained and under good cul- 
tivation. He is a native of Vermillion 
County, born April 16, 1837, a son of Charles 
and Rachel (Moore) Little, his father a native 
of Virginia of Irish descent and his mother 
of Ohio, of Irish and Welsh descent. His 
parents came to Vermillion County in 1830, 
and settled near Eugene, where they lived 
seven years and then moved to the farm where 
our subject now lives, where the father died 
in 1854, aged fifty-seven years. The mother 
died November 27, 1881, on her eighty-first 
anniversary. They had a family of nine 
children, seven of whom are living — Theo- 
dore and William, of Kansas; Rufus P.; Lu- 
cretia, wife of Joseph James; Rowena, wife 
of Francis Walthall; Charles, and Eliza J. 
At tiie time of his father's death Rufus I', 
was the oldest child at home, and the respon- 
sibility of managing the farm fell on him, 
and although he was only seventeen years 
old, he assumed the work of a man and was 
the main dependence of his mother and the 
younger children. He was married in 1803 
to Sarah J. McNeely, who was born in Ver- 



BIOGBAPHIGAL SKETCHES. 



million County in 1846, and died in 1868, 
leaving two children — Ella and Ennice. In 
1869 he married Anna Noyes, a native of 
Indiana, born in 1836. They have three 
children — Fred CI., Grace and Clifford R. 
Mr. Little is a Republican in politics. He 
and his wife are members of the Methodist 
Ejiiscopal church. 



/^^APTAIN JOHN LINDSEY, residing 
°j\y. in the neighborhood of the old Indiana 
'4--'^ Furnace, Clinton Township, came to 
Vermillion County, November 4, 1839, and 
the day following his arrival he entered the 
employ of the Furnace company. Soon after 
he became superintendent of the furnace, and 
had charge of its working force until he en- 
tered the army. He was born at Portsmouth, 
Scioto County, Ohio, November 4, 1814, a 
son of William D. and Rhoda (Wilson) Lind- 
sey, the former a native of Pennsylvania, and 
the mother of New Jersey. Tlie father was 
a soldier in the war of 1812, serving in a 
company commanded by his brother, John 
Lindsey, wlio died at Eugene, Vermillion 
County, Indiana, lifty years ago. The par- 
ents of our subject were married in Scioto 
County, Ohio, June 21, 1813, and of the nine 
children born to them, he was the eldest. 
The remaining children are as follows— John- 
son, still residing in Scioto County, Ohio; 
James in Vigo County, Indiana; AVilson in 
Franklin County, Missouri; Sely, who is blind, 
lives with his brother James; Martha Jane, 
deceased wife of John V. Bly; William D. 
lives in Crawford County, Illinois; Harriet 
Ann, widow of Edward Walton, lives in 
Iowa, and Angeline died aged thirteen years. 
Captain John Lindsey, the subject of this 
sketch, is a self-made and self-educated man, 
his entire attendance at school being but three 



months in the subscription schools of his day. 
As soon as old enough he began work in iron 
production and became a molder. His father 
was a boatman on the Scioto Rivev until 
coming to Vermillion County. All the fam- 
ily came to this county togetlier, with the 
exception of Johnson, the second son, who 
remained in Ohio. The father entered the 
employ of the Furnace company, but not long 
afterward he settled on a tract of 160 acres, 
bought by our subject, where he died March 
5, 1872, at the advanced age of eighty-two 
years. His widow survived until Noveml'er 
4, 1875, dying at the age of seventy-seven 
years, cared for until her death by her son 
John. Our subject was united in marriage 
March 30, 1845, to Miss Mahala Boyce, a 
native of New Hampshire, born in 1819, 
coming in 1839 to Vermillion County, with 
herfather. He wasan emjjoye of the Furnace 
company in Clinton Township. To Mr. and 
Mrs. Lindsey a daughter was born Deceu^ber 
16, 1846, who died the day of her birth, Mrs. 
Lindsey dying four days later. Her father 
died the same year he came to this county, 
her mother surviving until 1874. Three of 
her sisters and one brother are living, named 
Polly, Roxanna, Diana and Edwin, all with 
Captain Lindsey, members of the same house- 
hold. No man in Vermillion County is more 
widely known or more warmly greeted wher- 
ever he goes than Captain Lindsey. He 
recruited almost all of Company I, Fourteenth 
Indiana Infantry, sixty of the men in its 
ranks being employes under liim from one 
to ten years. The Fourteenth was the first 
three years regiment from Indiana to reach 
the front, and participated in McClellan's 
first battle at Rich Mountain, West Virginia. 
July 12, 1861, and at Winchester, Virginia, 
in Shields' battle with General Stonewall 
Jackson, March 23, 18G2. At Winchester 
Captain Lindsey was shot through the right 






HISTORY OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



thigh, necessitating a surgical operation which 
shortened his limb three and a half inches. 
For gallantry there he was oflFered a Major's 
commission, but lie determined to remain 
with his own company, who regarded him as 
a father rather than an officer. lie also de- 
termined if he could to remain by his men in 
the field at the battle of Antietam, and went 
in using a crutch and cane, but under the 
excitement of that day he was soon able to 
do duty witliout either. But his active ser- 
vice ended there. As Assistant Provost- 
Marshal in charge of Camp Lindsey, at Terre 
Haute, under Colonel K. W. Thompson, Pro- 
vost-Marshal, he placed over 1,400 men in 
the field. His own personal popularity did 
much toward saving Clinton Township for 
any draft. As Assistant Provost-Marshal 
his services only ended with the end of the 
war, covering four years and six months. He 
now receives a pension of 824 a month. His 
wife's brothers, Edwin P. and Danvers C. 
Boyce, were soldiers in tlie Eighty-fifth Indi- 
ana Infantry, and his brother William Lindsey 
served in his company, and was detailed to 
care for him when wounded. Captain Lind- 
sey, when the war commenced was a radical 
Democrat, and from that time was as strong a 
Pepublican. He is a comrade of Owen Post, 
No. 329, G. A. E., and a member of Sanford 
Lodge, No. 330, A. F. & A. M. 



fOIIN F. LANGSTON, one of the most 
active and enterprising citizens of Sum- 
mit Grove, was born in Helt Townsliip, 
Yermillion County, Indiana, near Dana, 
February 18, 1849, a son of John M. and 
Mary (Skidmore) Langston, who were among 
the early pioneers of the county. In his 
yuntli he received a fair common school edu- 
cation. He was roared a tarraer, and made 



that his principal vocation until 1882, wh-.n 
in September of that year he came to Summit 
Grove and engaged in the mercantile business, 
and has since established a good trade, carry- 
ing a full line of general stock, and also sells 
champion harvesters, and other agricultural 
implements. lie also deals in grain, poultry 
and general country produce, and in addition 
to his business he is express and railroad agent 
at Summit Grove as well as assistant post- 
master. Mr. Langston was married April 
14, 1874, to Miss Eliza Jackson by whom he 
liad two children, both of whom are deceased. 
Mrs. Langston died February 2, 1877, and 
Mr. Langston was again married Marcli 15, 
1885, to Mrs. Sarah V. Shannon, widow of 
the late Frank Shannon, and a daughter of 
John Taylor, of Vermillion County. Tiicy 
are the parents of one cliild, a daughter named 
Jennie Mabel. Mr. Langston never seeks 
official honors. He is a man of strict integ- 
rity, honorable in all his dealings, and dur- 
ing his residence at Summit Grove has gained 
the respect and confidence of all who know him. 



W( )KTII W. POETEPt, a worthy repre- 
i^ciitative of one of Vermillion Coun- 
l=B^5r-i ty's old pioneer families, is a native 
of this county, born in Eugene Township, 
June 11, 1857. His father, John W. Porter, 
who is now deceased, was also a native of 
Vermillion County, a son of the noted Judge 
John E. Porter, who was one of the most 
prominent of the early settlers. John W. 
Porter was a farmer and a stock-raiser, 
vocation he followed until his death which 
occurred June 15, 1873. The maiden name 
of his wife was llettie Tipton, and they were 
the parents of nine children, seven of whom 
yet survive — Mary, Abbie, Jennie, Minnie, 
John, Zoe and Worth W., the subject of this 



sketch. One daughter, named Lizzie, died 
after her marriage, leaving a family of three 
children. Worth W. Porter was reared to 
agricultnral pursuits on the home farm in 
Eugene Township, and in his youth received 
a fair common-school education. lie was 
married November 29, 1879, to Miss Louisa 
Campbell, a daughter of Hogan Campbell, of 
Eugene Township. This union has been 
blessed with three childreTi, named Jessie, 
Jennie and Clarence. Mr. Porter resides on 
section 9, Eugene Township, where he owns 
sixty-three acres of choice land, and in con- 
nection with his general farming is engaged 
in dealing in stock. Both he [and his wife 
are members of tlie Cumberland Presbyterian 
church, and among the most respected citizens 
of Eugene To^vnship. 



tOBERT H. NIXON, one of the leading 
business men of Newport, succeeded 
James F. Weller in the drug business 
February 11, 1863, the business having been 
established by John Q. Washburn in the 
early history of the town. Mr. Nixon has 
been longer in business than any of the busi- 
ness men of Newport, and by his accommo- 
dating manners, reasonable prices and strict 
attention to the wants of his customers, lie 
has met with excellent success. lie began 
life a poor boy, and by his good man- 
agement lias acquired a competence. He 
was born in Newport, Vermillion County, 
May 24, 18-42, and here he grew to manhood. 
In Jul}', 1861, he enlisted in Company C, 
Eighteenth Indiana Infantry, and served in 
Missouri under General Fremont. After 
being in the service a year he was discliarged 
for disability, a bronchial affection brought 
on by c.Npcsiire. He was united in marriage 
to Miss Maria Hefflemau, a i;ative of Vermill- 



ion County, born May 4, 1844, her parents, 
Elias and Phoebe Ileffleman, coming from 
Ohio to this county in an early day. Mr. 
and Mrs. Nixon are the parents of seven 
children, two sons and five daughters. In 
politics Mr. Nixon is a Eepublican, castin<>- 
his first presidential vote for Abraham Lin- 
coln in 1864. Mr. Nixon is the only son of 
Joshua and Margaret Ni.xon. Tlie fiither was 
born in Adams County, Ohio, where he was 
reared to the avocation of a farmer. He 
was of Irish descent, his parents being natives 
of the Emerald Isle. After coming to New- 
port, Vermillion County, he engaged in 
building and running flat-boats down to New 
Orleans by way of the Wabash, Ohio and 
Mississippi rivers. He was married in Ohio 
after locating in Newport, to Miss Margaret 
Lovejoy, a daughter of Joseph Lovejoy, a 
descendant of the family of which Owen 
Lovejoy was a member. She is now deceased. 
In 1847 the father of our subject engaged in 
the business of cabinet making and under- 
taking at Newport wliich he followed until 
his death. He was an honest, industrious 
citizen, and was respected by all who knew 
him. His brother, Robert Nixon, came to 
Newport as early as 1836. He was a car- 
penter by trade, and Avas also engaged for a 
time in flat-boating with his brother. He 
removed to Kansas in 1872, where he is now 
living at the advanced age of eighty-three 
years. 



MAMES B. RICHARDSON, residing on 
'Mi section 6, Highland Township, is a native 
'^ of Vermillion County, Indiana, born in 
Eugene Township, October 27, 1830, a son of 
Alexander and Mahala (Cox) Richardson, tlie 
former born in Bedford County, rennsylva- 
nia, in 1799, and the latter a native of Ken- 




UIHTORY OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



i 



tucky, boru in Knox County in 1810. The 
father of our subject came to Yermillion 
County in 1826, having lived a short time 
previous in Bloomington, Indiana. lie made 
his home iu Eugene Township until about 
1832, wlien he removed to rerrysville. In 
early life he learned the art of distilling, and 
later he engaged in the manufacture of 
pumps, which he followed man)' years, sup- 
plying the early settlers. Later in life he 
followed the occupation of farming. At the 
breaking out of the war of the Eebellion he 
resolved, although then sixty-three years of 
age, to offer his services to the Government, 
which were accepted, and he became a mem- 
ber of the Thirteentli Missouri Infantry. He 
entered the army through motives of pure 
patriotism, and gave his life for his country, 
lie fought with his regiment at Fort Donel- 
son, wliere he became disabled from the 
effects of the exposure he had undergone, and 
■was soon after transferred to the Invalid 
Corps. He died at Indianapolis, March 28, 
1861. The mother of our subject died at the 
home of her son, James B. Richardson, March 
3, 1880, aged seventy years and three days. 
She was a daughter of Amos Cox, a native of 
jSIorth Carolina, who settled iu Kentucky 
when twenty-five years old. He subsequently 
came to Indiana, and settled near Blooming- 
ton in an early day. Four of the sons of 
Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Richardson were 
soldiers in the late war. Edward was a mem- 
ber of Company C, Twelfth Illinois Infantry; 
was -wounded in the left arm at the battle of 
Shiloh, from the effects of which he died a 
few months later. Alexander enlisted with 
his father in the same regiment, and served 
until the close of the war. His regiment, the 
Thirteenth Missouri, after a time was con- 
solidated with the Twenty-second Ohio, and 
was afterward known as the Twenty-second 
Oliio, Henry G., the youngest son, was too 



young to enter the service at the beginning 
of the war, but later served as a member of 
Company D, Fifty-seventh Indiana Infantry. 
James B. Richardson, tbe subject of this 
sketch, enlisted first in the Twelfth Illinois 
Infantry for ninety days, and later became a 
member of the Sixth Indiana Cavalry, in 
which he served during the last two years of 
the war, being on duty in Kentucky, Tennes- 
see, Alabama and' Georgia, and was actively 
engaged during his whole term of service. 
The remaining children born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Richardson are as follows — Horace, the eldest 
son, resides in Vernon County, Missouri; 
Homer died in 1853, aged about twenty 
years; Elizabeth is the wife of Esau McFall, 
of Danville, Illinois; Mary is the wife of 
Peter Olipliant, also living in Danville, Illi- 
nois. James B. Richardson was reared in 
Vermillion County, to the avocation of a 
farmer, and is still engaged in agricultur;il 
pursuits. He has resided on his present 
homestead since 18i4, with the exception of 
the time spent in the war, and is classed 
among the most respected and intelligent 
men in Highland Township. In politics he 
is a strong adherent to the principles of the 
Republican party, and has served his town- 
ship as assessor several times. Mrs. Rich- 
ardson was formerly Miss Corintha JS^ichols, 
and is a daughter of AVilliam Nichols, of 
Highland Township. Five children have been 
born to Mr. and Mrs. Richardson, whose 
names are — Homer, Snsan A., Ettie, Emma 
and James J. 



fOIlN PEER, farmer, section 3, Helt 
Township, Yermillion County, was born 
in the same township, August 12, 1833, 
a son of John Peer, who was born in Frank- 
lin County, Ohio, nejir ColnuiLius. He came 



niOGRAPHICA L SKETCHES. 



to Veriiiillion County, Indiana, when a boy, 
Avliere he hired out as a farm hand. He sub- 
sequently settled near Newport, and in 1831 
moved to Ilelt Township, where he made his 
home until his death. The subject of this 
sketch was reared on his father's farm, to 
agricultural pursuits, and his education was 
obtained in the rude log cabin subscription 
schools of pioneer days, with their slab seats 
and puncheon floor. He was married in 
Scptemlter, 1857, to Miss Mahala Crusour, a 
(laughter of Moses Crusour, deceased. Ten 
children were born to them, of whom nine 
are still living—William F., Mary C, David 
]\1., Martha J., Emma, James O., Pi-ior, Lydia 
A. and Rlioda E. Mrs. Peer died July 7, 
1879, and December 14, 1884, Mr. Peer mar- 
ried Mrs. Lucy E. Dicken, a daughter of 
Joseph Fisher, and widow of Joel Dicken. 
P)y her first marriage she had Ave children, 
two of whom are deceased — Henry F., who 
died at the age of eighteen years, and Mar- 
tha A., died in her seventh year. The names 
of her living children are — Allen P., Flora 
P. and William A. Mr. Peer has always fol- 
lowed farming, in which he has been very' 
successful, and is now the owner of 140 acres 
of choice land. In connection with his gen- 
eral farming he is engaged in stock-raising. 
He is a member of the Odd Fellows order. 
He and his wife and his three eldest daugh- 
ters are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. 



fiCllOLAS T. LEITOiV, farmer, section 
26, Helt Township, was born in Ross 
County, Ohio, August 25, 1834, a sou 
of Thomas Leiton, a native of Virginia, and 
an early settler of Ohio. In 1836 the family 
came to Vei'million County, Indiana, and 
settled in Ilelt Township where in connection 



with working at his trade, blacksmith, the 
father engaged in farming. Nicholas T. was 
reared a farmer and has always devoted his 
attention to agriculture, a vocation he has 
follo\v(,'d with protit. He now owsis a 
tine farm of 140 acres, all well improved, and 
his residence and farm buildings are models 
of comfort and convenience. Mr. Leiton was 
given good educational advantages attending 
in his childhood the common school and later 
the Farmer's Institute, at Clinton, and the 
Newport graded schools, and after leaving 
school he taught live or six winter terms. 
He is a man of intelligence and well informed 
on all the general topics of the day, and is 
one of the most respected citizens of his 
township. He was married March 2, 1862, 
to Mary White, daughter of Enoch White, 
an early settler of Helt Township. Their 
only child died in infancy. Mr. and Mrs. 
Leiton are members of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church, of which he is Sunday-school 
superintendent. In politics he is a Repub- 
lican. 



M 



i;s. SARAH (VANNEST) MA 
LONE is the oldest resident now 
living in Yermillion (bounty, and is a 
daughter of John and Mary (Taylor) Van- 
nest, the pioneer family of the county. Poth 
of her parents were born in Pennsylvania, but 
married in the State of Ohio. Her father 
visited Vermillion County early in the year 
1816, and selected lands on section 9, Clinton 
Township, a mile above the present site of 
Clinton, which he purchased a tthe Vincennes 
land sales, and immediately moved his 
family, then consisting of wife and four 
children, to their future home. They settled 
in a hastily erected log cabin in the south- 
west quarter of the section, and soon after began 



rSSSSM^SSSB 



HISTORY OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



I 



to be troubled by tlieir ludiau neighbors. 
It is said that not long before their arrival, 
in a quarrel between two soldiers, a gun 
discharged by one of them, missed the other 
and killed a squaw, and for this the Indians 
vowed that the first white woman who 
crossed the Wabash should be killed. Mrs. 
Vannest therefore became the object of their 
retaliating vengeance, and two attempts to 
murder her were frustrated, once by a 
friendly Indian who had become attached to 
the family, and another time by the interfer- 
ence of her brother. Mr. Vannest then re- 
moved his family for safety to Fort Harrison, 
but returned himself and pi-osecuted the work 
of clearing and preparing his land for crops. 
Not long after this the trouble with the Indians 
ceased, and the family returning to their pio- 
neer home lived ever afterward in peace. 
Mr. Tannest was possessed of considerable 
means, and carried on the work of improve- 
ment with characteristic energy, and soon 
became the owner of the entire section, 
nearly all of which is still in possession of 
his descendants. It is claimed that from this 
section over forty men entered the service of 
the Government during the war of the Re- 
bellion. The Yannest home was the abode 
of hospitality'. Mr. Yannest never turned 
any one from his door, especially a man in 
need, and never failed to helji the needy if 
called upon. He was a man who feared 
nothing, and his true courage was often 
tested in the early days of the county. Active 
and energetic he rapidly acquired a good prop- 
erty. In 1835 he Imilt a brick house, two 
stories in height, where Mrs. Malone now 
lives, which in those years was considered 
one of the best residences in Clinton Town- 
ship. He lived in this house until his 
death, which occurred September 28,1842, at 
the age of sixty-two years, leaving an estate 
consisting of section 9 (610 acres), besides a 



farm of 160 acres, also in Clinton Township, 
and lands in Parke County. Mrs Mary 
Yannest died August 29, 1824, aged forty 
years. The four eldest children of Mr. and 
Mrs. Yannest are — Leah, deceased, wife cif 
Carr Malone; Samuel, deceased; Mrs. Sarah 
Malone and Jane (twins), the latter deceased, 
wdfe of Thomas Kibby. The children born to 
Mr. and Mrs. Yannest after coming to Air- 
million County are — John, who was tlie firtl 
M-hite child born in the county; Betsey, de- 
ceased, wife of Isaac S.^Palmer; Mary married 
John Jacques, and died in March, 1848 ; Isaac, 
living in Helt Township. Mrs. Sarah Malonr, 
whose name heads this sketch, was marriid 
January 12, 1834, to Scott Malone, who wa^ 
born in Butler County, Ohio, June 15, ISdS. 
a son of Hartley Malone. He was reared in 
his native State, and early in life learned the 
cooper's trade. He was among the pioneers 
of Yeruiillion County, settling in Helt Town- 
ship in an early day. He became a flat-boat- 
man and a competent river pilot, and fol- 
lowed the rivers many years before and aftti' 
marriage. He then settled down on the 
Yannest homestead, and many years aftei'- 
ward rebuilt the old brick house, the founda- 
tion of which was becoming unsafe. Mr. 
Malone died March 30, 1860, and at the time 
of his death was a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal church. In politics he was first 
a "Whig, but atfiliated with the Republican 
party from its organization. Mr. and Mrs. 
Malone were the parents of the following 
children — Johnson, now a resident of Clinton ; 
Stuart, who died aged five years; Mary M., 
died in infancy; Martha J., wife of Henry A. 
White, died February 6, 1887, leaving four 
children; Walter S. died December 28, 1886, 
j at the home of his mother aged forty - 
I four years; Ruam died in her twenty- 
third year in 1867: Morton died in 18S3. at 
the home of his mother, aged thirty-six years; 



niOG IIA Pine A L s KE TCIIKS. 



Fanny nian-ied Alouzo Ilostetter, and died at 
(Jlinton ill 1875, aged twenty-live years; John, 
the youngest, is living on tlie homestead 
with his mother. He was born January 3, 
1853, and April 5, 1875, was married to Miss 
Rose Aldrich, a daughter of Montorville 
Aldrieli. This union has been blessed with 
live children, wliose names are Fannie, Scott, 
George, Clyde and Ralph. 



fOJIN NORRIS, farmer and stock-raiser, 
resides on section 22, Vermillion Town- 
ship, where he owns 218 acres of choice 
land. He is a native of Vermillion County, 
born November 7, 1834, a son of Robert S. 
and Martha (Nichols) Nori'is, natives of South 
Carolina. The parents came to Indiana in 
1!S30, and settled on the farm now owned by 
our subject, which at that time was an uncul- 
tivated tract of land. On this farm they 
passed the remainder of their lives, the father 
dying in 1877, aged seventy-three years. 
They had a family of seven children, four of 
whom are living — Elizabeth, Caroline, John 
and Lewis. When they came to Indiana they 
were poor, but they went bravely to work and 
by economy and good management accumu- 
lated a good property, owning at one time 800 
acres of valuable land. John Norris vv'as 
reared a farmer, and has made agriculture his 
lifework. He was married in 185S to Martha 
Merriman, a native of Tennessee, born in 
1837. They had four children— Clara and 
Clarissa (twins), the latter being the wife of 
'Benjamin Nicholas; William A. and an in- 
fant unnamed. Mrs. Norris died and in 1866 
]V[r. Norris married Sarah E. French, who 
was born in Parke County, Indiana, in 1838, a 
daughter of Philip and Sarah French. They 
have three children — Rohert S., George and 
Philip. Mr. Norris is a member of the Ma- 



sonic fraternity. Lodge No. 320, which he 
has served as treasurer. In politics he affili- 
ates with the Democratic party. 



•T^OAII HEDGES, a representative of one 
■'I j of the old and honored pioneer families 
^. L of Vermillion County, Indiana, was 
born in Clinton Township, April 19, 1836. 
His father, William Hedges, was born in 
Otsego County, New York, October 24, 
1801, and in 1819, when eighteen years 
old, was in Vermillion County on Govern- 
ment survey. In 1823 he married Pamelia 
Alden, and directly after his marriage he 
came to this county and established his resi- 
dence in Clinton Townshijj, being one of the 
first settlers, making a permanent home not 
long afterward on section 25. Here he lived 
until shortly before his death, which occurred 
in the city of Clinton, October 24, 1873, on 
the seventy-second anniversary of his birth. 
He came to the county in limited circum- 
stances, having not over $200 capital, but be- 
ing an active, energetic man he soon stood 
well to the front. He was a carpenter by 
trade, and often worked at this occupation 
for 50 cents a day. He became the owner 
of about 700 acres of land, and after giving 
his children a good start in life, he left a good 
estate. He was a man of pul)lic spirit, and 
did much towai-d developing the resources of 
the county. In 1844 he erected a saw-mill 
on Brouillet's Creek, and some timelater added 
to it a grist-mill. Some twenty years after- 
ward he moved his mill to Clinton, and there 
operated it until his death. During his 
later years he was a member of the L'^nited 
Brethren church. His widow still survives 
and is living with her married daughter, Mrs. 
Alma Shew, near her pioneer home, lieing 
now eighty-four years of age. Eleven cliil 



BISTORT OF VERMILLION COUNTY. 



dreu were born to Mr. and Mrs. William 
Hedges — Mrs. Irene Shew, of Clinton Town- 
ship; Mrs. Mary A. Shew, also of Clinton 
Township; Samuel, who died January 1, 
1873; Milton, a resident of Terre Haute, In- 
diana; Noah, whose name heads this sketch; 
Columbus C, of Clinton Township; Mrs. 
Alma Shew; AVilliam was a member of the 
Fourteenth Indiana Infantry, and was killed 
at the battle of Chancellorville, Virginia, in 
1863; Mrs. Catherine Hall resides on part of 
the old homestead in Clinton Township, 
and two children who died in early life. Noah 
Hedges has spent all of his life in Vermill- 
ion County, and now lives on section 25, 
Clinton Township, not eighty rods from his 
birth-place. He has been twice married, and 
a daughter of his first wife became the wife 
of Charles E. Welker. She died in CUnton 
Township February 24, 1883, in her twenty- 
third year, after about one year of married 
life. Mr. Hedges married his present wife, 
formerly Miss Hannah Tennis, *March 17, 
1872. She is a native of Ohio, born Janu- 
ary 12, 1848, a daughter of Allen and Mary 
Tennis. The father died in Clinton Town- 
ship during the war of the Kebellion. Her 
mother is yet living. Mr. and Mrs. Hedgts 
have tive children living — Baraba I., May- 
nard A'., Ernest V., Maud II., Esta JE. 
Their fifth child, a son named Charles E., 
died in infancy. Mr. Hedges is a thorough, 
practical farmer, which is well indicated by 
his farm of 120 acres of finely cultivated 
laud. He is a member of the United Breth- 
ren church. Mrs. Hedges belongs to the 
Baptist church. 

fLIAS LAMB, of Newport, was born in 
Kandolph County, North Carolina. 
'^^*' about sixteen miles north of Ashland, 



the date of his birth being September 24, 
1814. In April, 1829, his parents, Joseph 
and Lydia (Adamson) Lamb, left North Caro- 
lina for Indiana, bringing their family to 
Wayne County. There the parents lived on 
a farm until tlieir death, the mother dying 
in 1844, and the father in 1855. They were 
members of the Society of Friends. Of the 
nine children born to them seven grew to 
maturity, of whom five are living at the pres- 
ent writing as follows — Esther, Elias, Mur- 
nen, Joseph and Ithamer. Of the above, all 
with the exception of one son is living in 
Indiana. Elias Lamb, the subject of this 
sketch, was reared on his father's farm to 
agricultural pursuits. March 23, 1837, he 
married Miss Susannah Bish, a native of 
Fairfield County, Ohio, born November 17, 
1818, a daughter of John and Ann Elizabeth 
Bish, with whom she came to Wayne County, 
Indiana, in 1836. Her 2:)arents lived in 
Wayne County many years, and subsequently 
removed to Miami County, where the mother 
died. Later the father returned to Wayne 
County and died on the old homestead. j\[r. 
and Mrs. Bish reared a family of ten children 
to maturity, of whom two sons and four 
daughters yet survive. After their marriage 
Mr. and Mrs. Lamb settled in Wayne County, 
living there many years. Mr. Lamb learned 
the carpenter's trade at which he worked in 
connection with farming. In 1870 he came 
to Vermillion County, locating on a farm 
near Perrysville. In March, 1873, he bought ' 
and removed to a farm in Vermillion To^\Il 
ship, where he lived until March 3, ISST, 
when he purchased the pleasant home in 
Newport where he now resides, enjoying thr 
fruits of a well spent life. Mr. and IMre. 
Lamb celebrated their golden wedding Manh 
23, 1887, at which there was a large attend- 
ance of the old settlers, and nearly all of their 
children and grandchildren were also present. 



BIOORAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



Thej liave Lad ten cliildren born to them — 
Azel E., Irvin R., Elizabeth J., John V., 
Leanna, Carrie, Merritt C, Eluiira C, and 
L^'dia F., living, and Lewis K., their fourth 
child, died aged one and a half years. They 
have in 1887, twenty living grandchildren 
and eight great-grand children. October 12, 
1883, Mr. and Mrs. Lamb were attacked by 
burglars at their home, Mr. Lamb being 
severely injured, and has never fully recovered 
from the etfects. In 1841 he and his wife 
united by letter M'ith the, United Brethren 
church in Wayne County, and recently trans- 
ferred their letters to the same church in 
Nevvjxirt. Politically Mr. Lamb was a Free- 
Soiler until 1856, since which he lias affiliated 
with the liepublican party. They are among 
the most respected citizens in Vermillion 
County, and are ever foremost in deeds of 
Christian cliarity and benevolence. 



— V-^-f*!^-— 

tlENZI M. WHITE, one of the active 
and enterprising agricultui-ists of Ilelt 
Township, residing on section 27, was 
born in the same township, near his present 
home, January' 31, 1841, a son of James A. 
White, one of the old and respected pioneers 
of Vermillion County. lie was reared to 
the avocation of a farmer, which he has made 
his life work, and was educated in the com- 
mon schools of his neighl)orhood, and at the 
I'armer's Home Institute at Clinton, Indiana. 
lie enlisted as a private in the war of the 
Rebellion, and was assigned to Company D, 
Eighty-tifth Indiana Infantry, and partici- 
pated in a number of important engagements, 
including the battles of Resaca, Buzzard's 
Roost, Dallas Woods, Kenesaw Mountains, 
Cassville, Peach Tree Creek, siege of At- 
lanta, Averysboro and Bentonville. He -was 
with Sherman on his march to the sea, thence 



to Washington, where he participated in the 
grand review. He was in the service three 
years, and was discharged as Orderly-Ser- 
geant at the close of the war. May 19, 1867, 
he was married to Miss Mary J. Davis, a na- 
tive of Montgomery County, Indiana, and 
daughter of Robert Davis, now a resident of 
Helt Township. Mr. White has a fine farm 
of eighty acres, where in connection with 
his general farming he is engaged in stock- 
raising, making a specialty of graded Hol- 
stein cattle. He is a mem