Skip to main content

Full text of "Biographical Memoir of Elliott Coues 1842-1899"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 









Rbad Bbpore thb National Acad em v op Scibkces 



June, 1909 



y _^ . I ^ri- MW/An COtlESE tlBHir 



TtM. 2t, IS34 


Of the biographical memoirs which are to be included io 
Volume VI, the f olloring have already been issued : 

1- 24 1 JobD strong Newberry Cbarlea A. White 

25- 55: Clarence King S. F. Emmons 

57- TO: Cbarlee Emerson Beectaer Wm. H. Dal) 

71- 80: George Perkins Marsb W. U. Davis 

81- B2: Jobn Rodgers Asaph Hall 

93-107: Falrman -Rogers E. F. Smith 

I09ullT: William A. Rogers. Artbor Searle 

119-146 : Samuel Lewis Penfleia H. L. Wells 

147-218: Joseph Le Conte ^ B. W. Hilgard 

21&-239 : Lewis Henrj Morgan W. H. Holmes 

241-30B: Asaph Hall O. W. Hill 

311-325: Alpbeus Hyatt W. K. Brooks 

327-344: Joseph Loverlng B. Osgood Pelrce ' 

345-361 : William More Gnbb Wm. H. Dall 

363-372: Alexis Caswell Joseph Loverlng (a reprint) 

373-393: Joslab Wlllard Gibbs Charles S. Hastings 






Elliott Coueb* was bom in the town of I'ortsmouth, New 
Hampshire, September 9, 1842, and died in the Johna Hopkins 
Hospital, in Baltimore, Maryland, December 25, 1899, at the age 
of 57 years, the immediate cause of death being a grave surgical 
operation for an affection of the throat. He was a son of Samuel 
Elliott and Charlotte (Haven) Couea. 

Dr. Couesf came of excellent New England ancestry. The 
first of the Coues line to settle in America was Peter Coues, 
great-grandfather of Elliott Coues, who waa bom in the Parish 
of Saint Peters, Island of Jersey, Channel Islands, and came io 
Portsmouth, New Hampshire, about 1735, where he was married 
November 4 of the same year, and where he died at an advanced 
age, about 1783. His son, grandfather of the subject of this 
memoir, was Captain Peter Coues, bom in Portsmouth, New 
Hampshire, July 30, 1736, where he died November 29, 1818, 
at the age of eighty-two years. In early life he was a sea captain, 
and for a time an officer in the British Navy, but he returned 'o 
Portsmouth some time before the beginning of the American 
Eevolution, Here he spent the remainder of his life, becoming 
a prominent citizen and one of the founders of the TJniversaliat 
Church of Portsmouth. It is a family tradition that he was at 
one time sailing master of the famous Royal Oeorge, which cap- 
sized and sank in the roadstead at Spithead, England, in August, 
1782. A number of Captain Coues's relatives were also officers 
in the British Navy. 

Dr. Coues's father, Samuel Elliott Coues, was bom in Ports- 
mouth, New Hampshire, June 13, 1797, and died there July 3, 
1867. In early life he was a merchant, but later, for many 

• Pronounced Koun. CC. the Century Cyclopedia of Names. 1894, 
p. 285. 

1 1 am greatly indebted to Mr, Josepb Foster, of Portsmouth. N. H., 
for a very Cnll genealogical history of Oouob'b anceatry, on whlcti tbe 
following brief Bummaiy Is wholly based. 



years, held an appointmeiit in the Patent Office at Washittgton, 
where he resided from 1853 to 1866. He was a man of literary 
tastes, active in humatiitarian movements, and for several years 
was president of the American Peace Society. He was the 
author of "Mechanical Philosophy" (Boston, 1851) and "Studies 
of the Earth," etc. (Washington, 1860), It ia said of him that 
he had "a keen perception of the beauties and mysteries of nature 
and an ever-pervading feeling of philanthropy." 

Dr. Coues's ancestry on his mother's side is traced back, on 
different lines, to John Mason (d. 1635), the original grantee of 
New Hampshire, to the Appletons and Havena of Massachusetts, 
and to other distinguished New England families (among them 
to Governor Thomas Dudley). Charlotte Haven (Ladd) Coues, 
Dr. Coues's mother, was a direct descendant from Daniel Ladd, 
who came to New England in 1633-1634, and, after short resi- 
dences at Ipswich and Salisbury, became one of the original set- 
tlers of Haverhill, Massachusetts, where he died in 1693. Coues's 
mother survived him by a few months, dying at Brookline, 
Massachusetts, July 4, 1900, 

Coues's grandmother, wife of Captain Peter Coues, was Ee- 
becca Elliott, a daughter of Samuel Elliott, who came from 
Topsham, Devonshire, England, and was married at Portsmouth, 
New Hampshire, May 6, 1761. This connection is the source 
of the baptismal name Elliott in the later generations of the 
Coues family. 

It thus appears that Dr. Coues's ancestry was partly FrencJi 
and partly English. Hia forebears on the English side in Amer- 
ica were among the earliest settlers of New England, and be- 
longed to families of distinction, there being among them a 
former president (Haven, 1749-1806) of Harvard College. It 
also appears that his immediate predecessors for several genera- 
tions were all residents of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. 

As already noted. Dr. Coues's father removed with his family 
from Portsmouth to Washington in 1853, when Elliott was 
eleven years old, and this city became the future residence of the 
younger Coues tmtil his death, except when away on official 
duties during his nearly twenty years' service in the medical 
corps of the United States Army. He prepared for college at 
Qonzaga Seminary, a Jesuit school in Washington, and later 



entered Columbian College of that city {afterwards called Co- 
lumbian University and now known as George Waahington 
Univeraity) , from which he received the degree of A. B. in 1861 
and M. D. from its medical department in 1863. From the same 
institution he received the honorary degree of A. M. in 1863 and 
that of Ph. D. in 1869. Here for ten years— 1877-1886— he 
acceptably filled the chair of anatomy. 

In 1869 he was chosen to the chair of zoology and comparative 
anatomy at Norwich University, Vermont, which position, how- 
ever, he was unable to accept. 

His military career began in 1862, when he enlisted in the 
United States Army as a medical cadet; he was promoted to 
acting assistant surgeon in 1863, and to assistant surgeon in 
1864, serving in this capacity till 1881, when he resigned from 
the army to devote his entire time to scientific and literary pur- 
suits. He was assigned to his first military post at Port Whip- 
ple, Arizona, in March, 1864,* where he remained for sixteen 
months, making the journey from Port Leavenworth to Santa 
P^, New Mexico, by mail coach, and thence to Fort Whipple on 
horseback, traveling with the military command to which he was 
officially attached. During his assignment to Port Whipple he 
made a military journey from Port Whipple to San Pedro, on 
the coast of southern California, via Port Mojave and Port 
Yuma.f Later his travels in the service of the Government 
gave him an opportunity to become personally familiar with the 
physical features of other portions of the West while it was still 
unchanged by the inroads of civilization. On his return from 
Port Whipple he was assigned to Fort Macon, North Carolina, 

• For an iotereattng sketch, with portrait, ot Dr. Goues at thla en- 
thusiastic stage of bis ornithological career, see a paper by Captain 
C. A. Curtis, IT. S. A. (retired), entitled "Couea at his first Army 
Post," published In "Bird-Lore" In 1902 (Vol. IV, pp. 5-7), together 
witU an extract from Couee's Journal, referring to a day's march in 
New Mexico (reprinted from the "American Naturalist," Vol. V, June, 
1871, pp. 199. 200). 

tThe ornithological results of hla Journey from Fort Leavenworth 
to Fort Whipple and from Fort Whipple to the Pacific coast are 
given In two papers published In 'The IWs," entitled respectively 
"Omlthol<^y of a Prairie Journey" (Ibis, April, 1865, pp. 157-16B) 
and "From Arizona to the Pacific" (Ibis, July, 1866, pp. 2S9-26&). 



and afterwards to Fort McHenry, Baltimore^ Maryland. In 
1873 he was ordered to Fort Handall, Dakota, and thence as- 
signed (1873-1876) as surgeon and naturalist to the United 
States Northern Boundary Commission. From 1876 to 1880 he 
was detailed as secretary and naturalist to the United States 
Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, under the 
late Dr. F. V. Hayden. In 1880 he was again ordered to Ari- 
zona, but the surroundings of a post surgeon on the frontier 
were ao incompatible with the prosecution of the scientific work 
he had then in hand that, failing to receive a more favorable 
assigmnent, he resigned his commission and returned to Wash- 

Dr. Couea early showed a strong liking for natural history 
pursuits, and especially for ornithology, to which he later became 
passionately devoted. His residence in Washington, with free 
access to the collections of the Smithsonian Institution and inti- 
mate association with the late Professor Baird and other leading 
naturalists connected with this great institution, afforded hiin 
the incentive and opportunities for research which he early and 
enthusiastically embraced. His first technical paper was "A 
Monograph of the TringCK of North America," published in 
the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia in July, 1861 (pp. 170-805), when ho waa only nineteen 
years old. This paper waa notable for the care and completeness 
with which the subject was treated, and would have been credit- 
able to an author of much greater experience. It fully fore- 
shadowed the high character of his subsequent work in systematic 

This paper was followed in the aame year by his "Notes on the 
Ornithology of Labrador,"* based on field observations and col- 
lections made by him on a visit to that country in 1860. This 
waa succeeded the same year by "A Monograph of the Oenus 
.^giothus, with Descriptions of new Species,"! and the following 
year by a fauniatie paper (with D. Webster Prentisa) on the 
birds of the District of Columbia,! and the beginning of a series 

• Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1861, pp. 215-257. 
t Ibid., pp. 373-390. 

tSlsteenth Ann. Rept. Smithsonian Inatttatlon for 1861 (1862), 
pp. 399-*21. 




of moDographs (1862-1868) on variotia groups of water birds, as 
follows : "Synopsis of the North American PormB of the Colym- 
bidie and Podicipidse" ;* "Revision of the QuUa of North Amer- 
ica";! "A Renew of the Terns of Worth America";! "Critical 
Review of the Family Procellariid£E,"§ and "A Monograph of 
the Alcidffl."! Here may also he mentioned his "ClasBification 
of Water Birds" ;1[ his "Studies of the Tyrannidie, Part 1. Re- 
vision of the Species of Myiarchus";** and hia "Material for a 
Monograph of the Sphenieidffi/'ft During this same decade he 
also published several papers on the anatomy of birds. Jt 

Dr. Coues's writings cover the whole field of ornithology, and, 
including reviews and short notes on special subjects, number 
probably more than five hundred titles, but, with the exception 
of a few revisionarj, monographic, and bibliographical papers, 
deal almost exclusively with the birds of North America north of 
Mexico. His greatest service to ornithology is, beyond question, 
his "Key to North American Birds," the fiirst edition of which 
appeared in 1873 and the fifth and last in 1903, four years after 
the author's death. This edition was in reality, as respects the 
general text, the third revised edition, the third and fourth edi- 
tions being reprints of the second, with the addition of important 

The "Key" was designed as a popular handbook of North 

• Proc. Aca»L Nat Scl. Philadelphia, Vol. XIV, 1862. pp. 226-233. 

t IMd., pp. 291-312— an abstract of a monograpb published In full 
twelve years later In "Birds ot the Northwest," 1874, pp. 589-717. 

t Ibid., pp. 535.5B9. 

i Hid., Vol. XVI, 1864. pp. 72-91, 116-144 ; Vol. XVIII, 1866, pp. 
25-33. 134-197. , • 

II Ibid., Vol. XX, 1868, pp. 2-81, figs. 1-16. 

T Ihid., Vol. XXI. 1869, pp. 19a-21& 

•• Ibid., Vol. XXIV, 1872, pp. 66-81. 

tt Ibid., pp. 170-212, pla. Iv. v. 

M"The Osteology of the Colvmbus torguatvs; with Notes on Its 
Myology." Mem. Boston Soc. Nat Hist., Vol. I, pt 11, 1866, pp. 131- 
17^ pi. v. and 2 text flguree. 

BIrd'B-Eye Views [on the structure of the eye In birds]. Amer- 
ican Naturalist, Vol. II, 1868-69, pp. 505-513, 571-583, with Illustra- 

Mechanism of Flexion and B^enslon In Birds' Wings. Proc. 
American Assoa Adv. Scl., Vol. XX, 1871 (1872), pp. 278-284, with 




American birds, and was one of the Siet works to introduce the 
'fkey" method of botanical manuals into zoology. It was at the 
same time a taxonomic revision of North American birds from 
the standpoint of a competent authority. 

The first edition of the "Key" contained an 'Introduction" of 
some siaty pages, giving a general account of the external char- 
acters of birds, an explaoation of the technical terms used in 
omithol<^y, a concise exposition of the principles of classification 
and nomenclature, an artificial key to the genera, and much 
other information useful to the amateur. A systematic synopsis 
of North American birds followed, with brief descriptions of the 
species, indications of their geographical distribution, and refer- 
ences to leading authorities. By skillful use of language and 
several hundred illustrations, the amount of text was reduced to 
small compass without seriouB aacrifiee of clearness. ' The higher 
groups were quite fully characterized, and a synopsis of fossil 
North American birds was added. Many changes in claasifica- 
tioQ were introduced, and many "species" were reduced to "varie- 
ties," this being before the days of trinomial nomenclature. 
- The second edition (1884) was prepared on essentially the 
same lines, but it waa entirely rewritten and greatly augmented, 
containing twice the number of pages and, through use of 
amaller type, nearly four times the amount of matter, and a lai^e 
increase in the number of illustrations. 

The "Key" now comprised four "Parts," namely: Part I, 
"Field Ornithology," a reprint, with slight modifications, of a 
separate work issued by th*e author under this title .in 1874. 
Part IT, "General Ornithology," consisting- of the introductory 
matter of the first edition, greatly amplified, with the further 
addition of nearly one hundred pages of new matter on the 
anatomy of birds. Part III, "Systematic Synopsis of North 
American Birds," is the "Systematic Synopsis" of the first edi- 
tion, greatly extended by fuller diagnoses and the addition of 
concise biographies of the species. Part IV, is the "Systematic 
Synopsis of the fossil Birds" brought down to date and the siib- 
ject more fully presented. The nomenclature is materially 
changed throughout, some twenty or more groups previously 
rated by him as subgenera being here given full generic rant, en- 
tailing corresponding changes in the names of species. ■ 



The four parte are preceded by an "Historical Preface" of 
twenty pages of wholly new matter, whieli is a concise history of 
North American ornithology, from, its earliest beginnings in 
1612 to the year 1860, The history is divided into epochs and 
periods, and the work and impress of each prominent author is 
briefly and judicially weighed, with the author's usual felicity of 

The third edition (1887) is the same as the second, with the 
addition of an appendix of -thirty pages, "exhibiting the nomen- 
clature of the American Ornithologists' Union Check-List 'in 
comparison with that of the Key and including descriptions of 
additional species, etc.," the American Ornithologists' Union 
Check-list of North American Birds having appeared during 
the interval between the second and third editions of the "Key." 
The names employed in the two systems are arranged iu parallel 
columns, with the interpolation of descriptions .of some sixty 
species and subspecies not previously included in the "Key." 

The fourth edition (1890) is the same as the third, with the 
addition of a second appendix, to include a number of further 
additions of specie and subspecies. 

The fifth edition (1903), issued in two volumes instead of 
one, is again largely a new work, the synoptic portion having 
been wholly rewritten and greatly enlarged, the classification and 
arrangement considerably altered, and the nomenclature revohi- 
tionized. This being the first revised edition of the "Key" since 
the appearance of the American Ornithologists' Union Check- 
List in 1S85, we have here the nomenclature of this list, which 
Dr. Coues did so much to shape, for the first time adopted in the 
"Key," the author often waiving his own opinions and prefer- 
ences for the sake of conformity with the Check-List. Many of 
the old illustrations were discarded and hundreds of new ones 
added, made e-xpressly for the work. The "Historical Preface," 
the "Field Ornithology," and the "General Ornithology" are the 
same as in former editions, except that in the latter, besides 
slight verbal changes in the text, much new matter is added. 
The changes in Part III, besides those of nomenclature and ar- 
rangement, consist in the amplification of many of the diagnoses, 
a revision of the ranges of the species and subspecies, the addi- 
tion of bibliographical references, many vernacular synonyms, 



and much critical and historical comment on questions of nomen- 
clature (ahnost wholly excluded in former editions) ; also the 
characterizations of the higher groups are more elaborate and 
extended, their composition and relations being stated with nuH- 
teriy clearness and comprehensiveness. As stated by the present 
writer in a review of the "New Key," it ia a "masterpiece of 
mature ornithological work, which alone would long keep green 
the memory of its gifted author." , The "Key" is a "well-known 
and old favorite, whose thirty yeara of practical usefulness have 
won for it unstinted and well-merited praise, and in its new 
form will prove for many years to come a boon alike to the ama- 
teur and the professional student of North American birds. 
The 'Key" of 1873 was an innovation and an experiment in 
ornithological literature; its practicability was evident from the 
outset, and it proved to be the forerunner of almost numberless 
successors of 'key" manuals in various departments of zoologj', 
The author's final revision of this greatest of his many contriha- 
tions to ornithological literature will make a new generation of 
bird students his debtors and admirers."* It was his last piew 
of literary work, and could he have lived to cany it through the 
press its publication would have been not only less delayed, but 
the work would have had the benefit of his final toucbes- 

The "Key" was recognized, abroad as well as at home, as a 
work of the highest excellence. In a review of the second edition 
in "The Ibis" (1885, pp. 100, 101), ajoumal not noted for its 
use of superlatives in its notices of current literature, the follow- 
ing high praise ia accorded the "Key" : 

"It is, however, to Part II of the present volume that we must 
specially direct the reader's attention. In this Part there is 
condensed into some 180 pages a more complete account of the 
structure and classification of birds, brought up to the present 
standard of our knowledge, than any other with which we are 
acquainted. * * • So much information that cannot be got 
at elsewhere is brought together in this comprehensive treatise, 
that it ought to be in the hands of every ornithologist, whether 
he ia a special student of the American avifauna or not. It is, in 
■ fact, our deliberate opinion that Coues's new 'Key' is, as one of 
the veteran ornithologists of the continent has tersely put it, in 
a private letter, 'one of the best and most useful bird books ever 
written;' and we commend it to our readers accordingly." 
"""• Ank. Vol. XXI, 1904, p. 296. 



Closely conjoined with the "Key to North American Birds" 
are three other publicatioikB by Dr. CoueB, namely, a "Check- 
List of North American BircU," his "Field Ornithology," and a 
second edition of his Check-List, entitled "The Cones Cheek- 
Liat of North American Birds, Second Edition." 

The first edition of the Check-List was published in December, 
1873, forming a brochure of 137 pages, and a bare catalogue of 
scientific and vernacular names, printed in thick type on one 
side of the paper, with critical comment in footnotes and in a 
15-page appendix. It was reissued Jn January, 1874, with the 
"Field Ornithology," The Check-List was "prepared in strict 
accordance with the Key" and "reflects exactly whatever of truth 
or error that work represents." As said by the author, the need 
of a new check-Kat was urgent, the first and only previous check- 
Kst of North American birds being that of Baird, published in 
1858. In the meantime great changes had been made, through 
the addition of some fifty species, the removal of many as extra- 
limital or invalid, and the reduction of a large number of others 
to the rank of "varieties." In the introduction to the combined 
"Manual of Instruction and Check-List of North American 
Birds," the author says: 

"In the present state of our knowledge, and under a system of 
nomenclature that is proven inadequate and may before long be- 
come obsolete, recognition of numerous 'varieties' — resultant 
modifications of species by physical conditions of environment — 
is imperative ; and what are these varieties but the rills that fiow 
into and help swell the mighty stream of descent with modifica- 

Here was reflected the tendency, already prevailing among the 
leading American ornithologists of that time, to reduce the status 
of local forms from species to "varieties" (later called "sub- 
species"), such a reduction being for the first time consistently 
made for the whole ornia in the first edition of the "Key." 

The "Field Ornithology" and "Check-List" were intended 
originally to form part of the first edition of the "Key," with 
which the "Field Ornithology" was combined in all of the later 
editions of that work. The scope and purpose of the "Field 
Ornithology" is well indicated by the subtitle, "A Manual of In- 
struction for procuring, preparing, and preserving Birds." It 



w«B divided into eight chapters, covering aueh subjects as col- 
lecting implements and their ose, directions and suggestionfl for 
field work, the registration and labeling of specimens, the prepa- 
ration of birdskins, determination of sex, etc., and the care of 

The instructions here offered were based on the author's many 
years of field experience, and were not only detailed and judi- 
cious, but were presented with a familiarity and charm of style 
that made even such dry deteils attractive. It is thus, without 
doubt, one of the most useful and popular manuals of ornitho- 
logical field work ever put forth. 

The second edition of the "Coues Check-List" appeared in 
1883, a royal octavo of 165 pages, containing as an appendix a 
"Catalogue of the Author's Ornithological Publications, 1861- 
1881," numbering 300 titles. The second edition is a very dif- 
ferent work from the first, inasmuch as it is philological as well 
as ornithological. In nomenclature and classification the second 
Cheek-List is a faithful reflection of the second edition of the 
"Key," and holds to it the same relation that the first Cheek- 
List held to the first edition of the "Key," Furthermore, it 
was the nomenclature followed in all subsequent editions of the 
"Key" down to and including the fourth, published in 1887, 
with a few additions and slight changes in the appendices to the 
third and fourth editions. 

Baird'a Check-List, published in 1858, included 723 species 
and subspecies (excluding 22 recognized by Baird himself as 
extrahmital) ; the first Coues Check-List (1872) included (with 
the 28 given in the appendix) 778, an increase of 66 over the 
Baird list; the second Coues Check-List (188S) included 888, 
an increase of 100 over the Ooucs list of 1873. 

A Check-List of North American birds was also published by 
Eidgway in 1880,* This comprised 9S4 species and subspecies, 
of which 37 were admitted by the author to be extralimital, leav- 
ing as "North American" 887, or one less than the number recog- 
nized by Coues, The two lists are, however, very unlike, not 

, • "A Catalogue of the Birds of North America." By Robert Ridg- 
way, Proc. D. S, Nat. Mus., Vol. Ill, 1880, pp. 163-246. Also separate, 
as ; "Nomenclature ot North American Birds," forming "Bulletin of 
the United States National Museum, No. 21," pp. 1-94, 1881. 



only as regards nomenclature, but in the speciea and auhspeciea 
(especially the latter) admitted or excluded by the two authors. 
Thia comparison of check-lista connotes in a general way the ad- 
vance of knowledge of the forms of the North American omis 
for the twenty-four years between 1858 and 1882, which may be 
taken also as an indication of the general advance made in oar 
knowledge of tlie geographical distribution and life histories of 
the birds of North America north of Mexico. 

To revert now to the second Couea Check-List : According to 
the author, the changes in nomenclature from his iirst Hat are 
numerous and in many instances radical, affecting not less than 
150 cases, while the changes in ornithological status are "proba- 
bly not more than 30." Respecting this edition of the Check- 
List he says: 

"In revising the list for the main purpose of determining the 
ornithological status of every North American bird, the most 
scrupulous attention has been paid to the matter of nomencla- 
ture, not only as a part of scientific classification, determining 
the technical relations of genera, species, and varieties to each 
other, hut also involved in writing and speaking the names of 
birds correctly. The more this matter was scrutinized, the more 
evidences of inconsistency, negligence, or ignorance was discov- 
ered in our habitual use of names. It was therefore determined 
to submit the current catalogue of North American birds to a 
rigid examination, with reference to the spelling, pronunciation, 
and derivation of every name — in short, to revise the list from a 
philological as well as an ornithological standpoint." 

Accordingly some twelve pages are devoted to the philological 
phase of the subject, which is discussed under the several heads 
of etymology, orthography, and orthoepy. After explanations 
of the English, Continental, and Soman methods of pronuncia- 
tion, he adopts the latter to the extent of insisting upon "the 
Boman sounds of the vowels and diphthong, but yields the point 
in the disputed cases of certain consonants." 

More than half of the space of the Check-List is occupied by 
the etymology, pronunciation, and definition of the technical 
names — an instmctive and important feature, almost unique in 
such a connection; but neither his emendations of names, nor his 
prescribed Roman pronunciations made much impress upon the 
users of the Check-List. Indeed, in less than four short years 



the American Ornithologists' TTnion, through a committee of 
which he was chairman, adopted and published, in the interest 
of stability in n(Huenclature, a rnle that "the original orthogra- 
phy of a name is to be rigidly preserved, unless a typographical 
error is evident," and a cheek-list of North American birds in 
which this rule was strictly enforced. Yet Dr. Coues, in all the 
subsequent editions of his "Key" and in hia other works, con- 
tinued to employ his own "corrected" names ; but he did not use 
in private conversation nor in scientific discussion the Roman 
method of pronunciation, nor did he introduce it into any edi- 
tion of the "Key," 

Although he was loyal (except in the spelling of names) to the 
American Omitbologifits' Union "Code of Nomenclature" and 
to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-List, which on its 
appearance in 1886 immediately supplanted all previous check- 
lists of North American birds, he properly reserved the right of 
individual judgment in all questions of ornithological science. 
Thus, in the preface to the third edition of the "Key" (1887) 
he says : 

"Uniformity of nomenclature is so obvious and decided a prac- 
tical convenience that even at the risk of seeming to laud work 
in which he had a hand, the author cannot too strongly urge 
compliance with the Union's code, and adherence to the set of 
names the Union has adopted. These may not be the best pos- 
sible, but they are the best we have." 

In the "Appendix" to this edition of the "Key," as already 
noted, he gave the nomenclature of the "Key" and the American 
OmithologiHts' Union Cheek-Liat in parallel columns, which 
made the oecaaion for any display of dissent or criticism of that 
work he may have felt, yet this "consists chiefly in declining to 
admit to the 'Key* some forms that the American Ornithologists' 
Union committee have deemed worthy of recognition by name,** 
The number of forms be saw fit at this time to exclude is not 
large, and nearly all were admitted by him in his later (fifth) 
edition of the "Key." Yet hia adhesion to purisoi in the con- 
struction of names, despite the American Ornithologists' Union 
and other codes of nomenclature to the contrary, continued to 
the end and proved in later years the cause of estrangement be- 



tween himself and some of his (otherwise and formerly) most 
esteemed coUeagues. 

In hia first check-list, Coaes protested against the use of "so 
many needless and burdensome generic names, * * * adopted 
la Baird's great work," which he discarded in the first edition 
of the "Key," but gradually adopted in the later editions, with 
others proposed in the meantime by himself and others, in ac- 
cordance with the prevailing custom of recent authorities. 

Other important ornithological works by Dr. Coues are his 
"Birds of the Northwest," published in 1874, and hw "Birds of 
the Colorado Valley," published in 1878, both in the "Miscella- 
neous Publications" series of the Hayden Geological Survey- 
The first of these, the "Birds of the Northweat : A Hand-boek 
of the Ornithology of the Region drained by the Missouri River 
and its Tributaries" (8vo, pp. iii+791) treats primarily of the 
birds of the Missouri region {about 450 species), with reference 
to their geographical distribution, habits, and synonymy, and the 
specimens taken on various expeditions under the late Dr. F. V. 
Hayden; the North American species of the families Laridffi, 
Colymbidffi (= Gaviidae) , and Podicipidse (= Colymbidfe) , 
however, being, in addition, treated monographically, abstracts of 
which monographs were published in 1862-1863. Two new gen- 
era and one new species are here described, and there are various 
rectifications of nomenclature. The work is an important sum- 
mary of the ornithology of the region treated, as then known, 
and will ever remain a standard work of reference. 

Here may also be mentioned a fourth important ctmtributioD 
to the ornithology of a portion of this general region, namely, 
his "Field Notes on Birds observed in Dakota and Montana 
along the Forty-ninth Parallel during the seasons of 1873 and 
1874,"* embodying the results of hia ornithological field work as 
naturalist to the TTnited States Northern Boundary Commission. 
The line surveyed extended from the Red River of the North to 
the Hock Mountains, a distance of about 850 miles. The faunal 
characteristics of different portions of the route are compared, 
followed by a systematic list of the species observed, with the 

• Bull. U. 8. Geol. and Gteogr. Surv. Terr., Vol IV. No. 8, July 29, 
1878. pp. 646-661. 



localities, dates, and measurements of the specimena taken, and 
extended biographical notes on many of the species, some of 
which were previously little known, resalting altogether in a 
large amoimt of wholly new information ahoiit the birds of this 

The publication of the "Birds of the Colorado Vall^' (8vo, 
pp. xvi+807, figs. 70), in 1878, was a marked event in the litera- 
ture of North American ornithology and added immensely to 
the reputation of this already well-known and extremely popnlar 
author. The subtitle of the work, "A Repository of Scientific 
Information concerning North American Ornithology," is fully 
justified by its contents, and it has ever been sincerely regretted, 
by ornithological amateurs and experts alike, that the "Part 
First, Passeres to Laniidffi," with the "Bibliographical Appen- 
dix," is the only portion of the work ever published. It is not 
too much to say that this volume will ever remain a classic in 
ornithological literature. The biographical portions display to 
the fullest Coues's wonderful command of the English language, 
and prove, as claimed in the "Prefatory Note" (p. vi) : 

"It is possible to make natural history entertaining and at- 
tractive as well as instructive, with no loss in scientific precision, 
but with great gain in stimulating, strengthening, and confirm- 
ing the wholesome influence which the study of the natural sci- 
ences may exert upon the higher grades of mental culture; nor 
is it a matter of little moment to so shape the knowledge which 
results from the naturalist's labors that its increase may be sus- 
ceptible of the widest possible diffusion." 

At the same time, the technical portions of the work measure 
up to the. highest standards, and the bibliographical appendix 
established a grade of efficiency never before attained, and set a 
model for the emulation of all future natural history bibliogra- 

This work is a systematic treatise on the birds of the region 
drained by the Colorado Eiver (embracing all of Arizona, much 
of New Mexico, Utah and Nevada, and portions of Colorado and 
southern Califomia)> with the synonymy and bibliography 
(mostly in footnotes) of the eztralimital North American species 
of the famiUea treated. The higher groups are fully characterized, 
and their relationships elaborately discussed, as nearly as possible 



in non-technical phraeeology ; full descriptions are given of the 
external charactera of the species, with exhaustive tables of syn- 
onymy and bibliographic references, a brief Btatement of the 
ranges of the speciea and "varietiea," and usually extended 
biographies, some of them remarkable for their literary excel- 
lence, the common-place facte of bird-dom being often infused 
with a flaToriog of poetic imagery. Chapter XIV, on the Sval- 
lows (Himndinidse), is ideal in its combination of technical 
details with general information, arranged under sectioua enti- 
tled: "Names of Swallows," "General Distribution of Swallows," 
"Migration of Swallows," "Architecture of Swallows," "Abnor- 
mal coloration of Swallows," and "General Habits and Traits of 
Swallows," followed by detailed treatment of the genera and 
species of this family found in North America, including very 
full biographies, presented with the felicity of touch character- 
istic of the author at his best. Under "Migration of Swallows" 
is a long dissertation on the queatiftn. Do swallows hibernate? 
which includes, beside a summary of the alleged evidence, an 
exhaustive annotated bibliography of special articles on the sub- 
ject, occupying a dozen pages and numbering nearly two hundred 
titles. He says, in commenting on the evidence: 

"I have never seen anything of the sort, nor have I ever known 
one who had seen it; consequently, I know nothing of the case 
hut what I have read about it. But I have no means of refuting 
the evidence, and consequently cannot refuse to recognize its 
validity. Nor have I aught to urge against it, beyond the degree 
of incredibility that attaches to highly exceptional and improb- 
able allegations in general, and in particular the difficulty of 
understanding the alleged abruptness of the transition from 
activity to torpor. I cannot consider the evidence as inadmissi- 
ble, and must admit that the alleged facts are as well attested, 
according to ordinary rules of evidence, aa any in ornithology. 
It is useless as well as unscientific to pooh-pooh the notion. The 
asserted facts are nearly identical with the known cases of many 
reptiles and batrachiana. They are strikingly like the 'known 
cases of many bats. They accord in general with the recognized 
conditions of hibernation in many mammals." 

There are alao special bibliographies* on the "Architecture of 

• The titles here given In the body of the work are, unfortunately 
for the convenience oZ subsequent authors, not repeated In Goues's 
later published bibliographies. 

(41) 411 



SwalloW and on "Abnormal Coloration of Swallows"; and 
there is another special bibliography (117 titles) on the genua 
"Ampelis" {^^=Bomby cilia), of the family "Ampelidte" {= 

The last 217 pages of the main text of the "Birds of the Colo- 
rado Valley" form a "Bibliographical Appendix," entitled "A 
List of Faunal Publications relating to North American Orni- 
thology." The Hat is made up mainly of titles of " 'local lists* 
and allied kinds of aiticlee,' all general treatises including larger 
geographical areas than North America, although North America 
may be included, being excluded, as are also all systematic papers 
treating of genera or higher groups, even when consisting wholly 
of North American species, these latter, under the author's plan 
of a 'TJniveraal Bibliography of Ornithology," falling under the 
section "Systematic Ornithology," The geographical limits are 
North America from the southern boundary of Mexico north- 
ward, including Greenland, hnd also the Bahamas and Bermudas, 
but not the West Indies nor any part of America south of 
Mexico. The author says : "There is little to be said of the way 
in which the work has been done; for if it cannot speak for itself, 
the less said the better," He adds, however, that "the compiler 
has habitually regarded The Title as a thing no more to be 
mutilated than a man's name; and that he has taken the utmost 
pains to secure transcription of titles verbatim, literatim ei 
punctuatim" ; and further states that "no title * • • ftag 
been taken at second-hand," unless so specified. The list begins 
with John Smith's description of Virginia, published in 1612, 
and ends with papers and works that appeared during the first 
half of the year 1878. The list is followed by an index, arranged 
in two sections, the first of authors, the second of localities, the 
great utility of which is obvious. 

Aside from the complete and exact transcription of titles, 
whether of independent works or of papers published in journals 
or in the proceedings of societies and academies, the extent and 
character of the information given in relation to North American 
ornithology is indicated by descriptive comment or concise anno- 
tations, as may be required, which add immensely to the useful- 
ness of the citatioi^ As said by the author: 



"Bibliography is never finished, and always more or less de- 
fective, even on ground long gone over. ♦ * * In fact, one 
object in printing the present batch of titles is to invite criticism, 
to the end that the final bibliography may be bettered. The 
writer would be accurate; yet he feels the weight of Stevens's 
satire : 'If you are troubled with a pride of accuracy, and would 
have it completely taken out of you, print a catalogue.' " 

Coues's several instalments of his ornithological bibliography 
certainly do "speak for themselvee." That there are omissions 
goes without saying, but they are surprisingly few; the accuracy 
and completeness of citation are beyond criticism, while the con- 
cise descriptions supply information of the utmost convenience. 

The "Bibliographical Appendix" to the "Birds of the Colorado 
Valley" forms the first instalment of a proposed "Universal 
Bibliography of Ornithology," to which Dr. Coues devoted a 
large part of several of the moet active years of his life, the 
greater part of which still remains in manuscript, greatly to the 
regret and distinct loss of ornithologists the world over. Fortu- 
nately, however, that relating to American ornithology was prac- 
tically completed up to the time of its publication, 1878-1880, 
The second instalment* was published in 1879, and includes the 
faunal works and papers relating to South America, Central 
America, and the West Indies, and contains about 700 titles. 
It is constructed on the same lines and with the same care as that 
relating to North America, already described. 

The third instalmentf, published in 1880, also relates to 
America, and consists of titles referring to systematic orni- 
thology, or to "publications treating of particular species, genera 
or families." This portion makes nearly five hundred and fifty 
pages, and completes the Bibliography so far as America is con- 

Only one instalment relating to birds of other parts of the 
world was ever published, namely, "Fourth Instalment of 

• "Second Instalment of American Ornithological Bibliography." 
Bull. U, S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. Terr., Vol. V, No. 2, September 6, 

1879, pp. 239-330. 

t "Tbird Instalment ot Amerlcaa Ornithological Blbllograpbj." 
Bull. U. S. Geol, and Geogr, Surv. Terr,, Vol. V, No, 4, September 30, 

1880, pp. S21-1066. 




Ornithological Bibliography: being a List of Faunal Publica^ 
tiona relating to British Birds."* This consists of "the titles 
of all publications treating of British birds aa such, exclusively, 
and indiscriminately or collectively," as further fully defined in 
the introductory eiplanations. 

It is only fair to give here the author's own point of view 
respecting these several instalments of his proposed "Universal 
Bibliography of Ornithology." He says : 

"This infitaUnent, Jifce those that have preceded it, is to be 
considered only in the light of published proof-sheets, to he can- 
celed on the final appearance of the whole work. They are thus 
published in. advance for several reasons — among others, both to 
render available certain departments of the Bibliography which 
approach completion, and are therefore useful as far as they go, 
and to invite suggestions and criticism for the bettering of vie 

Of this instalment he further says : "I do not think it contains 
more than one-half as many titles as belong to this department 
of the Bibliography" ; and he goes on to indicate certain sources 
of its weakness through his inability to lay hands on various 
desired serial and other publications. ' 

In the introduction to the "Third Instalment" (which was 
published several months later than the fourth) he says: 

"The portions of the Bibliography now before the public suffice 
for an estimate of its plan and purpose; but I may add that 
nothing has yet appeared of several other important departments, 
such as those of 'General and Miscellaneous' publications, of 
publications in 'Anatomy and Physiology,' of publications relat- 
ing to 'Birds in Domestication and Captivity,' etc. It' is not 
my intention, however, to print any more of the work at present, 
the American departments being the only ones sufficiently per- 
fected to warrant their leaving my hands. But meanwhile I am 
making manuscript for the rest as rapidly and as continuously 
as possible." 

Alas that this vast amount of expert labor should still remain 
unavailable to the ornithological world!} 

• Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. II, May 31, 1880. pp. S59-482. 
t His latest public reference to this phase of his literary work ap- 
peared In "The Osprey" (Or November, 1897 <II, pp. 39, 40), from 



Dr. Coues was joint author or editor and annotator of various 
ornithological papers and special works, as papers on the orni- 
thology of Texas by Lieut. C. A. H. MeCauley (1877) and 
George B. Sennett (1877 and 1879), and on the ornithology of 
Kerguelen Island (with Dr. J. H. Kidder). Stearns's "New 
England Bird Life, a Manual of New England Ornithology," 
"edited from the manuscripts of Winfrid A. Steams" {two vol- 
umes, 1881) was, as ie well known, practically written by Coues. 
He also collaborated with Mrs. Mabel Osgood Wright in the 
preparation of "Citizen Bird" (1897). He was also one of the 
associate editors of the "Bulletin" of the Nuttall Ornithological 
Club (1876-1883) and of the earlier volumes of "The Auk" 

wblcb I transcribe the rollowlng extract, lot the Information It con- 
veys, and as an excellent Illustration of Couesian rhetoric: 

"The bibliography of ornithology la a subject which occupied me for 
several years, lu the seventies, and ujran which I expended an enor- 
mous amount of lalmr, mainly with my own pen, with comparatively 
little ostensible result. In 1680 I had published four instalments of 
'my Intended 'Universal Bibliography of Ornithology,' these being a 
few thousand titles relating to the birds of North and South America 
and Qreat Britain. In that year my machinery for doing the work 
broke down, and I found myself amidst the debris of the great plan I 
had projected or partially accomplished, with many thousand manu- 
script titles on hand and no prospect of their ever seeing the light 
• • * I think I never did anything else in my life which brought 
me such hearty praise 'in mouths of wisest censure'— Immediate aad 
almost nniversal recognition, at home aniJ abroad, from omitboio- 
fists who knew that bibliography was a necessary nuisance and a 
horrible drudgery that no mere drudge could perform. It takes a 
sort of an inspired idiot to be a good blbliogrBpher. and his Inspira- 
tion Is as dangerous a gift as the appetite of the gambler or dipso- 
maniac — it grows with what It feeds upon, and finally possesses Its 
victim like any other Invincible vice. Perhaps it is lucky for me 
that I was forcibly divorced from my bibliographical mania ; at any 
rate, years have cured me of the habit, and I shall never again be 
spellbonnd in that way. • • • This raises another question, which 
may be put In this way : Where Is the man who will undertake to 
brii^ my North American Bibliography up-to-date? • • • Among 
the requisite qnallflcations may be reckoned more zeal than discre- 
tion, youth, health, strength, staying power, unlimited time at com- 
mand, and access to the foci of ornithological literature In some large 
eastern city. All my material, both published and unpublished, sholl 
be at the service of any such individual, with snch opportunities, and 
any such appetite for blbilograpbical Immortality ; I will even throw 
my blessing Into the bargain. What do I hear In answer to this ad- 
vertisement: Wanted — A competent bibliographer of North American 




Coues's contributions to North American manunalogy, while 
somewhat voluminous, were far less important than hia ornitho- 
logical writings, and relate to a field with which he was far less 
familiar. Hia activities in this field were also limited to the 
decade between 1868 and 1877. Hia first papers on mammals 
appeared in 1867, and were based on his field notes and collec- 
tions made in Arizona.* These were followed during the next 
ten years by notes and short articles on different North American 
species, by several anatomical papers,! by a faunal list of the 
mammals of Fort Macon, North Carolina!, and by a number of 
systematic papers and monographs on various genera and fami- 
lies, chiefly during the years 1874 to 1877. The first was entitled 
"On the Muridse of the Northern Boundary Survey, with critical 
revision of the North American Genera and SpecJes,"§ an ab- 
stract of his monograph of the family published two years later. 
A new "subgenus" (Vesperirmis^^ genus Peromyscus Gloger, 
1841), two new genera {Ochetodon = Reitlirodontomys Qiglioli, 
IS'i'S, and Evotomys), and two new species were here character- 
ized, and are still recognized, although earlier names have since- 
been fotmd for two of the genera. 

During the following year he published additional taxonomic 
papers, including one entitled "On the Cranial and Dental Char- 
acters of Mephitinffi, with description of Mephitis frontata n. sp. 

♦ "Notes on a Collection o( Mammals from Arizona" (Proe. Aead. 
Nat. Scl. PblLadelphia, 1867, pp. 133-136), and "The Quadrupeds of 
Arizona" (American Naturalist, I. 1867, pp. 281-292, 351-363, 393-400. 

t "Antero-posterlor Symmetry, with special reference to the Mus- 
cles of the Limbs" (Medical Becord, Jnae-September, 1870, In eight 
Instalments) ; "On the Myology of Omithorhynchus" (Comm. Essex 
Inst., VI, 1871, pp. 128-173) ; "The Osteology and Myology of Didel- 
pkis virginiana" (Mem. Boston Soc. Nat Hist., Vol. II, 1873, pp. 41- 
164), and "Notice of a Cyclopean Pig" (Proc. Acad. Nat Sci. Phila- 
delphia, 1869. pp. 93-101). 

t "Notes on the Natural History of Fort Macon. N. C, and vicin- 
ity" (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1871, pp. 12-49— mammals, 
pp. 12-18). 

8 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1874, pp. 173-196. Relasuea 
as a repaged separate, with additions, 1874, pp. 1-28, retltled "U. 8. 
Northern Boundary Commission • • * Natural Historr, No. L 
On the Murldte." 




foss."" The new specieB was based on a skull from the bone 
caves of Pennsylvania, This paper gave a review of the charac- 
ters of the genera Mephitis, Sptlogale and Conepatus, of which 
only a single North American species of each was here recog- 
nized. This was shortly followed by "Some Account, critical, 
descriptive, and historical, of Zapus hudsonius/'f in which the 
jumping mice of North America were first separated from the 
Jerboas of the Old World under the new generic name, Zapus, 
and as a new family, Zapodidse. This paper, like others pub- 
lished at about this time, was preliminary to his monographic 
treatment of various families of North American rodents, pub- 
lished in 1877, in volume XI of the final reports of the Hayden 
Survey, entitled "Monographs of North American Eodentia." 
These include his "Critical Review of the North American 
SaecomyidEG,"! and several papers on the family Geomyidfe,§ 
the one last cited in the accompanying footnote, however, being 
the full monograph of the family, reprinted in abstract only in 
"Monographs of North American Eodentia." 

In 1875 he also published {with Dr. H. C. Yarrow) a report 
on the mammalfl collected on the Surveys West of the One Hun- 
dredth Meridian, under Lieut, George M. Wheeler, the report on 
the collections by the joint authors occupying pages 35-129 of 
volume V of the final "Eeport" of the Surveys. || The text 
relates mainly to the habits and geographical distribution of the 
mammals of the southwestern portions of the United States, 
with extensive tables of synonymy and bibliographic references. 
While now of course obsolete as regards the nomenclature, it is 
still the original source of much important information. 

* Bull. U. 8. Geo), and Ge(«r. Surv, Terr., 2d ser., No. 1, 1875, pp, 
T-15. with 1 text-flgure. 

t Bull. U. 8. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. Terr., 2d ser., No. 6, January 8, 
t Proc. Acad. Nat, 8el. Philadelphia, 1875, pp. 227-327. 
i "The Cranial and Deatal Characters of Geomyidfe," Bull. TJ. S. 
Geogr. and Geol. Surv. Terr., 2d ser.. No, 2. May 11, 1875, pp. 83-90. 

"Synopsis of the Geomyldfe." Proc Acad. Nat Sci. Philadelphia, 
187B, pp. 130-138. 

"Abstract of Results of a Study of the Genera Oeomya and 
Thomomy»." Bxpl. of the Colorado River of the West, I87B, pp. 215- 
285, flgs. 1-80. 
II The volume as a whole was not issued till September, 1876. 



He appears to have published nothing on mammals during the 
year 1876 that requires notice in the present connection, but in 
1877 his output in this iield was notable, eonsisting largely of 
matter prepared during the preceding ye&i. This includes his 
"Precursory Notes on American Insectivorous Mammals, with 
description of a new Species,"* in which the genera and species 
were critically considered, and three new subgenera and five new 
species were characterized. This paper remained for many years 
the authoritative paper on the group. The other publications of 
this year, to be here noted, are Coues's well-known monograph, 
"Fur-bearing Animals of North America," and his several final 
monographs of various families of North American rodents. 

The "Fur-bearing Animals" was issued as a special volume of 
the "Miscellaneous Publications" of the Hayden Survey, and was 
put forth "as a specimen fasciculus of a systematic History of 
North American Mammals," in which, aa stated in the "Prefa- 
tory Note," it was "proposed to treat the mammals of North 
America, living and extinct, in the same comprehensive and 
thorough maimer in which the single family of the Mustelidte 
has [herej been elaborated." The form and character of the 
proposed final work is here outlined, namely, a concise treatment 
of the technical and critical portions of the subject, while those 
aspects of more general interest, such as the life histories and 
economic and other practical relations of the species to man, will 
be given in ample detail. Unfortunately, this scheme was never 
carried out, and until this day we have had no general work on 
the mammals of North America, considered from both the tech- 
nical and popular standpoint, since the completion of Audubon 
and Bachman's "Quadruped of North America," issued in three 
volumes, royal octavo, in 1846-1854. Coues had at this time 
"been long engaged" upon such a work, and continued gathering 
material ior it for several years more, -when in 1880, when the 
work was far advanced toward completion, he was ordered to 
duty at Fort Whipple, and the several Government geological 
surveys were reorganized, and their scope so restricted as to 
exclude the proposed great work on North American mammals 
and other similar enterprises, which at this time had become a 

• Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. Terr.. Vol. Ill, 1877, pp. 831- 



marked feature of the Hayden and other surveys. Had the work 
been complef«d and published, its taxonomy would have been 
soon obsolete, but the work ae a whole would have formed a 
repository of general information on the mam mala of North 
America, drawn from all then available sources, that would have 
been of great convenience and usefulness. 

The comprehensive plan of the monograph of the Mustelids 
includes a consideration of their systematic position, their sub- 
family and generic subdivisions, with full diagnoses of these 
divisions and of the species, the derivation and signification of 
the names applied to them, both vernacular (in various lan- 
guages) and technical, their geographical ranges, habits, eco- 
nomic products, and much interpolated matter relating to the 
allied foreign species, and much original information respecting 
special features of their anatomy. In short, it ia an elaborate 
CMnpendium of all that relates to the North American repre- 
sentatives of this especially important and interesting family of 
mammals, as then known. 

The thick quarto volume of the Hayden Survey entitled 
"Monographs of North American Eodentia," comprised eleven 
monographs, of which the following five were by Dr. Coues: 
I, Muridas (pp. i-iv+264) ; VII, Zapodidse (pp. 455-479) ; VIII, 
Saccomyidffi (pp. 481-543) ; IX, Haplodontidae (pp. 543-599) ; 
X, Qeomyidffl (pp. 601-639). They were written, as well aa the 
"Fur-bearing Animals," at the height of the wave of conservatism 
that engulfed American mammalogists and ornithologists alike 
between the years 1872 and 1883, in respect to the "species ques- 

But the results were far more disastrous in respect to the work 
of that period in the mammalogical field than in ornithology. It 
was unfortunately based on the assumption that the mammals 
and birds of North America were at that time well known, and 
that the then available material was suiHcieut for their critical, 
and perhaps final, revision ; and not only this, that not only had 
all the species been described, but that far too many, especially 
in the case of mammals, had been recognized. Hence many of 
the then currently recognized species were properly reduced to 
"varieties" or subspecies, but many others, through lack of suffi- 
cient or properly prepared material and the wrong interpretation 



of Blight differences, and not infrequently the oversight of im- 
portant characters in skulls that had not been taken out of the 
BkinB, were reduced to synonymy. More recent work in North 
American mammalogy, baaed on later-acquired and better-pre- 
pared material, from a multitude of new localities and many 
times greater in quantity, have shown how erroneous were the 
conclusions of 1877. New methods of field work, introduced by 
Merriam some years later, led to the discovery of not only a 
large number of new and markedly distinct specific types, but a 
considerable number of new genera and an endless list of new 
local forms or subspecies,* Whether or not the pendulum has 
not swung too far in the direction of ultra subdivision only time 
can disclose. But it still may be said of these monographs that 
the work was performed with the utmost conscientiousness and 
in accordance with the prevailing tendencies of the time, and 
under the handicap of extremely limited and wretchedly pre- 
pared material. The rejuvenation of mammalogy, both in this 
country and abroad, during the last twenty years, is due almost 
wholly— at least primarily — to the new methods of field work 
which originated in this country during the eighties and have 
since extended throughout the world. Yet the "Monographs of 
North American Eodentia" contain much of permanent value, 
especially in relation to the historical and bibliographical phases 
of the subject, and as a summary of previous knowledge of the 
groups treated. 

About 1885 Dr, Coues's hitherto incessant intellectual activi- 
ties in ornithology and mammalogy became diverted to other 
fields, and, with the exception of the preparation of the fifth 
edition of the "Key," which work, as already detailed, was then 
again rewritten, he ceased to impress, to any considerable extent, 
his personality upon either of these two branches of investiga- 
tion.! Even his contributions to "The Auk" were few after 
1888 (none in 1893 and 1894), and consisted mainly of reviews, 

■ For a fuller presentation of tbis pbase of North American mam- 
malogy, see my papers entitled "Reeent Work In North American 
Mammalogy" (Trans. New York Acad. Set., Vol. X, 1891, pp. 71-85) 
and "Hecent Progress in the Study of fJorth American Mammals" 
(Abstr, Proo. Linn. Soc. New York, No. 6, 1894, pp. 17,45). 

t He wrote little on mammals after 1877. 




short aoteB on questions of nomeoclatiire, or historical references 
to early descriptions of American birds. The volume for 1897 is 
an exception, he having contributed to this some thirty or more 
short papers or notes, all of interest and a number of them, on 
questions of nomenclature, of Gonsiderable importance, some of 
them leading to nomenclatural changes in the American Orni- 
thologists' Union Check-List. 

For seven years (1884-1891) his energies and attention were 
absorbed by work on the "Century Dictionary" (6 volumes, 1889- 
1893), of which Dr. Cones was one of the collaborators, having 
charge of the departments of General Zoology, Biology, and 
Comparative Anatomy, and for which he furnished some 40,000 
deiinitions and hundreds of illuBtrations, largely original, drawn 
under his supervision by Mr. E. T. Seton, In a review of this 
great work from the ornithological standpoint, the present writer 
stated, in 1891,* "The ornithological matter, both as regards 
text and cuts, forma a conspicuous feature of the work, which 
is practically an encyclopedia of ornithology. For those who 
know Dr. Coues's ability at giving the gist of a bird's history in 
a few happily worded sentences, it is unnecessary to say that a 
vast amount of information is compressed into the space of a 
few lines." 

In March, 1897, Dr. Coues became associated with Mr. Walter 
A. Johnson in the editorship of an illustrated monthly magazine 
of ornithology, "The Osprey," published at Galesburg, Illinois, 
and later in New York city, to which journal he furnished a few 
reviews and short notes, beginning with volume I, No, 7, March, 
1897. With the second number of volume III (October, 1898), 
the magazine changed ownership and the office of publication waa 
transferred to Washington, where the magazine waa continued 
under the editorship of Elliott Coues and Theodore Gill. This 
joint editorship, however, continued for only six numbers of 
volume III, when Dr. Coues's connection with the magazine 
wholly -ceased. A glance at Dr. Coues's editorial and other con- 
tributions to these numbers seems to afford an explanation of his 
early retirement from the editorial sanctum. 

Immediately following the completion of his work on the 
"Century Dictionary" Dr. Coues turned his attention to other 

* Auk, VIII, pp. 222-224. 




work in which for a long time he had had a deep interest — the 
early esplorations west of the Mississippi River. As early as 
1876 he published "An Account of the various Publications ret 
lating to the Travels of Lewis and Clark, with a Commentary 
on the Zoological Results of their Eipedition,"* and in 1893 
appeared his "Hietory of the Expedition of Lewis and Clark," 
in four octavo volumes, continuously paged, with commentary on 
the geography, ethnology, and natural history of the route. His 
principal annotations on the natural history occur in chapter 
XXV (Vol. Ill), pp. 821-900. This was followed in 1895 by 
his "Expeditiona of Zebulon Montgomery Pike" {3 vols,, 8vo) ; 
in 1897, by the "Journals of Alexander Henry and David 
Thompson," for many years (l'!'99-1814) ofRcers of the North- 
west Company (3 vols., roy. 8vo) ; in 1898, by the "Journal of 
Major Jacob Fowler" (1 vol., 8vo), and the "Personal Narrative 
of Charles Lapenteur," for forty years a fur trader on the upper 
Missouri {3 vols., 8vo) ; and in 1900, by the "Diary of Francisco 
Garces," who traveled through the Indian Territory, Kansas, 
Colorado, and New Mexico in 1775-76 (B vols., 8vo), the revision 
of the proof -sheets of which last was made in part during his last 

These works,t forming fifteen volumes, consist entirely, except 
in the case of the expeditions of Lewis and Clark and Pike, 
of previously unpublished material and form a mass of new 
and original information on early explorations in the West 
of the highest interest and importance. They are all copiously 
annotated in reference to the geography, ethnography, and gen- 
eral natural history of the regions traversed by these various 
explorers, with the usual care and accuracy characteristic of 
Coues's scientific and bibliographic writings. In order to secure 
geographical correctness as to localities and the precise routes 
traversed by several of these explorers, he traveled many thou- 
sands of miles over the same routes, these journeys including a 
personal examination of tlie route of Lewis and Clark, a canoe 
Irip up the Mississippi to determine Pike's route to the head- 

♦ Bull. U. S. Geol. and Qeogr. Surv. Terr., No. 3, February^ 1876, 
pp. 7-20. 

t Tbe titles are given In full In the "List of WorkdT' etc,, appended 
to this biography. 



watera of that liver, and an effort to locate the trail of Garefe. 
His admirable equipment for this kind of editorial work is bfr- 
yond question, and these volumes will ever remain a monument 
to his industry and intimate knowledge of early eonditiona in 
the West, while the information thus made available provides a 
mine of wealth for future historianB. 

For a time Dr. Coues was deeply interested in spiritualistic 
and theoaophieal questions — a side of his nature little known 
to even hia intimate scientific asaociates. He was president for 
a time (1885-1886) of the American Board of Control of the 
Theosophical Society of India and of the Psychical Science Con- 
gress of the World's Congress Auxiliary at Chicago in 1893. 
Despite his activities in_ other fields, he found time to prepare ■ 
and publish various brochures along these lines, among which 
are: "Biogen, a Speculation on the Origin and Nature of Life" 
(1884) ; "The Damon of Darwin" (1884) ; "Buddhiat Cate- 
chiam" (1885); "Kuthumi" (1886); "Can Matter Think?" 
(1886); "A Woman in the Case" (1887); "Neuro-Myology" 
(with Shute, 1887) ; "Signs of the Times" (1888). His connec- 
tion with the Theosophical Society was sundered in 1889 by his 
expulsion from the Society, which would seem to indicate that he 
had ceased to be in sympathy with its doctrines and claims. 

Dr. Coues wae intimately associated with the American Orni- 
thologists' Union, he having been one of the three signers of the 
call for a meeting of American ornithologists in New York city 
in September, 1883, which resulted in the founding of the Union. 
He was its first vice-preaident for ten years, presiding, in the 
absence of the president, at its first meeting, it thus falling to 
his lot to appoint the six committees then established to take in 
hand as many different lines of special investigation. 

Later (1893-1895) he held the office of president for three 
years, and was always a valued and efficient member of its coun- 
cil and for many years was chairman of one of its most important 
committees — that on the Nomenclature and Classification of 
North American Birds. He had also an important share in the 
work of drafting and perfecting its "Code of Nomenclature," 
published in 1886. Dr. Coues held honorary membership in a 
large number of scientific societies and academies, foreign as well 



aa American. His election to the National Academy of Sciences 
occurred in 1877, -when he was thirty-four years old. 

Dr. Cones was a man of iine- physique and rare mental endow- 
ments. With an attractive personality, he had unusual gifts of 
expressiop, which rendered him a ready and effective public 
speaker, genial and vivacious in conversation, and a writer of 
marked originality and force. As a reviewer he was kind and 
considerate; his friendships often assumed the ardor of affection, 
and the kindness of his nature led him on many occasions to 
tender a helping hand to younger ornithological aspirants. As 
an antagonist he was sometimes bitter and unforgiving.* He 
detested shams and exposed them ruthlessly. Discovery of truth 
was the marked incentive of his labors, and he freely and frankly 
retracted his opinions when convinced that they were wrong. 
He was naturally conservative, yet was a leader in his special 
lines of research. He was impulsive and sometimes indiscreet, 
having some of the failings that usually accompany genius. 

Dr. Coues's capacity for work was enormous— indeed, phenom- 
enal if we consider his sedentary habits and disregard of the 
ordinary precautions of health — and the wonder is that he for so 
many years maintained a condition of such vigor. In addition 
to his regular daily literary output, he maintained a voluminous 
correspondence, writing with his own hand many letters of great 
length, in a style peculiarly brilliant and spicy — in short, Coue- 
sian. With all his apparent energy and ceaseless activities, his 
health at last gave way, and for some years before his death he 
was a sufferer from a complication of diseases. During the 
summer preceding his death he made a journey to New Mexico 
and Arizona to refresh his memory of the country described in 
the diary of Francisco Garc^s, which he was editing for publica- 
tion; this proved too arduous for his reduced powers of endur- 
ance, "and he was brought to Santa F6 in a rather critical condi- 
tion, where for a month he was very ill, but in September came 

• An unfortunate illustration Is hla controversy with the ]at« Dr. 
T. M. Brewer, of which Dr. Coaes himself said, twenty years after 
the death of bis opponent: "The controversy [In the 'Sparrow War'] 
had become [In 1874] between Dr. Brewer and myself a ifersonnl 
feud, with the usual accompaniments in the way of sweetnees and 
light" lOiprej/, I, 1887, p. 124). 




to Chicago,"* and later to Washington. His condition was 
already critical, and early in December he was taken to Johna 
Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, where he "had to undergo two 
surgical operations for distinct disorders within a month of each 
other. He succumbed from exhaustion the second day after the 
later operation, and died on Christmas day," 1899. f Throughout 
his last illnees he maintained a courageous spirit, bearing exces- 
sive pain without complaint, and wrote occasional letters to sev- 
eral of his intimate scientific friends up to almost the day of 
the final operation, expressing doubt aa to the outcome; they 
proved to be his final letters of farewell. 

Thus ended the life of one who had attained high eminence 
in several literary fields as well as in ornithology; one whose 
beneficial influence on the progress of North American orni- 
thology, both technical and popular, has never been excelled, and 
whose work in other lines of research was varied, thorough, and 
conscientious, and will be of lasting influence. 

Dr. Coues's near surviving relatives are his half-brother. Medi- 
cal Director Samuel P. Coues, TJ. S. Navy (retired), of Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts; hia sister, Grace Darling (Coues) Estes 
(Mrs. Dana Estes), of Brookline, Massachusetts, and two sons 
and a daughter. 

Dr. Coues married, first. May 3, 1867, in Columbia, South 
Carolina, Jane Augusta McKenney, daughter of Owen McKen- 
ney, of Bushford, New York, aitd, second, October 25, 1887, in 
Boston, Massachusetts, Mrs. Mary Emily Bates, who survived 
him, but died in 1906. Dr. Coues had five children, all by his 
first wife, two of whom died in infancy. The other three are: 
(1) Edith Louise (Coues) O'Shaughenessy, bom January 31, 
1868, in Colombia, South Carolina, wife of Mr, O'Shaughe- 
nessy of the American Embassy at Vienna; (3) Elliott Baird 
Coues, bom January 19, 1872, at Baltimore, Maryland, who was 
graduated with the degree of M. D. at the Bellevue Medical 
College, New York, and is now residing in Europe' (unmarried) ; 
(3) Beverly Drinkard Coues, horn in November, 1878, in Wash- 
ington, and now in Europe (unmarried). 

• D. G. Elliot, In The Ank, Vol. XVIII, 1903. p. 9. 
t Osprey, IV, January, 1900, p. 80. 


NATIONAI, academy biographical memoirs — ^VOL-Vl 


From this list are omitted himdreda of reviews contributed by 
Dr. Couea to the "American Naturalist," "Bulletin of the Nuttal] 
Ornithological Club," "The Auk," "Science," "The Oaprey,'' 
the New York "Nation," Chicago "Field," "Forest and Stream," 
"The Oologist," and other scientific and literary journals, and 
also hundreds of short notes and semi-popular articles on natural 
history subjects, published in the above-mentioned and in other 
journals and magazines. 

The most important works and papers of this list have been 
noticed in the foregoing pages. The annotations following some 
of the titles are briefly explanatory or give simply the names of 
the new genera, new species and subspecies, etc., described in the 
works and papers to which they relate. 


1. A MonOEraph of the Trlngeie of Nortb America. Froc. Acad. Nat 

Sd. Philadelphia. Vol. XIII, July, 1861, pp. 170-205. 
Actodromag bairdi (p. 194), ep. nov. 

2. Notes on the Ornithology of Labrador. Proe. Acad. Nat Scl. 

Philadelphia, Vol. XIII, August, 1801. pp. 216-257. 
Mgiothus fascescena (p. 222). Bp. nov. 

3. A Monograph of the Genus ^giothua, with descriptions of new 

Species. Proc. Acad. Nat Scl. Philadelphia. Vol. XIII, No- 
vember, 1801, pp. 373-390. 

^giothus rostratm (p. 378), ^. exitipea (p. 385), spp. 


4. list of Birds ascertained to inhabit the District of Columbia, with 

the times of Arrival and Departure of such as. are non- 
residents, and brief notices of Habits, etc. By Elliott Cones 
and D. Webster Prentiss. Sixteenth Ann. Rep. Smithsonian 
Institution, for 1861 (1862), pp. 399-421. 
B. Synopsis of the North American Forma of the Colymbidffi and 
Podlclplda. Proc. Acad. Nat Scl. Philadelphia. Vol. XIV. 
April. 1862, pp. 226-233, 404. 

^chmophorus (p. 229), g^. nov. 




6. Revision of the Gulls [LarlnK] of Nortb America; based upon 

specimens In tbe Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Fbiladelpbia, Vol. XIV, June, 1862, 
pp. 291-S12. 

Larug amithsonianita (p. 296), sp. nov. 

Abstract of a monograph revised and published In 
the "Birds of tbe Northwest." 1874, pp. 589-662. 

7. A Review of the Terns [Sternioffi] of North America. Proc. Acad. 

Nat Sci. Philadelphia, Vol. XIV, December, 1862, pp. 535-559. 
Republished, with additions. In "Birds of tbe North- 
west," 1874, pp. 662-717. 

8. Additional Remarks on the North American ^giothi, Proc. Acad. 

Nat Scl. Philadelphia, Vol. XV, February, 1863, pp. 40, 41. 

9. On the Legtri» richariUom of Swalnson ; with a Critical Review 

of the Subfamily Lestrldlme, Proc Aead. Nat. Scl. Phila- 
delphia, Vol XV, May, 1863, pp. 121-138. 

10. The Crania of Colytnbus torguatus and C. adamsli compared. 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Scl. Philadelphia, Vol. XVI, Febmary, 1864, 
pp. 21. 22. 

11. A Critical Review of the Family Procellartldie : Part I, embracing- 

the Procellarleffi, or Stormy Petrels. Proc. Acad. Nat Sci. 
Philadelphia, Vol. XVI, March, 1864, pp. 72-91. 

Cymoekorea (p. 75), Halocyptena (p. 78), genn. nov. ; 
C. homochroa (p. 77), H. microsoma (p. 79), spp. nov. 

12. A Critical Review of the Family Procellarildce : Part II, embrac- 

ing the Puffineffi. Proe. Acad. Nat. Scl. Philadelphia, Vol. 
XVI, 1864, pp. 116-144. 

Sectrli amauroaoma (p. 124), Puffinus creatopus (p. 
131), P. opUthomelag (p. 139), spp. nov, 

13. Notes on certain Central American Laridce. collected by Mr. Os- 

bert Salvln and Mr. F. Godman. Ibis, July, 1864, pp. 387-393. 


14. Ornithology of a Prairie- Journey, and Notes on the Birds of 

Arizona. Ibis. April, 1865, pp. 157-165. 

15. [Notes on Birds observed at Fort Whipple, Arizona]. Ibis, Octo- 

ber. 1865, pp. 536-538. 

Estracta from a letter to the Editors. Empidonatc pyg- 
mwv* (p. 637), sp. nov. 




16. List of the Birds of Fort Whipple, Arizona : witb wblcb ere In- 

corporated all ottier species ascertained to iubabit the Terri- 
tory ; wltb brief critical and Held notes, descriptions of new 
species, etc. Proe. Acnd. Nat Sci. Fblladelpbla, Vol. XVIII, 
March, 1866, pp. 39-100. 

Fifty copies reissued, wltb new pagination and title page, 
as : "Prodrome of a Worlc on the Omithologf of Ari- 
zona Territory," pp. 1-04. 
Micrathene (p. 51), Asyndesmiu (p. SS), Podatocya 
(p. 96), genu. nov. ; Mitrephonta pallescent (p. 63 
^ EmpiilonaiB pygnueus Ooues, ises), Vireo plum- 
belts (p. 74), F. vicinior (p. TS), V. puaiUut (p. 
76), spp. nov.. Chrj/somitrit mewiconut var. art- 
xotue (p. 82), var. nov. 

17. A Critical Review of the Family Procellarlidie : Part III, embrac- 

ing tbe Fulmarefe. Proc. Acad. Nat. Scl. Philadelphia, Vol. 
XVIII, March, 1866, pp. 25-33. 

18. Critical Review of the Family Procellarlidie: Part IV, embracing 

the ^Btrelateffi and Prioneae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sd. Philadel- 
phia. Vol. XVIII, May, 1866, pp. 134-172. 
Psevdoprion (p. 164), gen. nov. 

19. Critical Review of the Family Procellarlidie: Part V, embracing 

tbe DIomedelnie and the Halodromins!. With a General Sup- 
plement Proc. Acafl. Nat Scl. Philadelphia, Vol. XVIII. 
May, 1866. pp. 172-197. 

Diomedea gilliana (p. 181). sp. nov. 

20. The Osteology of the ColymJtus torquatus; with notes on Its My- 

ology. Mem. Boston Soc. Nat Hist. Vol. I, pt 11, November, 
1866. pp. 131-172. 


21. A Monograph of the Alcldfe. Proc. Acad. Nat Scl. Fhllaaelphia, 

Vol. XX, January, 3868. pp. 2-81. flgg. 1-16. 
Sitnorhynchus cassini (p. 45), sp. nov. 

22. List of Birds collected in Southern Arizona by Dr. E. Palmer; 

with remarks. Proc. Acad. Nat Scl. Philadelphia, Vol. XX, 
January, 1868, pp. 81-85. 

23. Synopsis of the Birds of South Carolina. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat 

Hist., Vol. XII, October, 18G8, pp. 104-127. 

24. Catalogue of the Birds of North America contained in tbe Museum 

of the Esses Institute; with which la Incorporated a List of 
the Birds of New England With Brief Critical and Field 
Notes. Proc. Essex Inst., VoL V. 1868, pp. 240-314, 

25. Blrd's-Eye VlewB. American Naturalist, Vol, II, December, 1868, 

pp. 505-513 ; Vol. II. January, 1869. pp. 571-583, flgg. 
On the structure of the eye in birds. 



26. Seaside Homes. American Naturalist, Vol. Ill, September, 1860, 

pp. 337-34B. 

Breeding habits of Sterna anWlarum and ^flalites 

27. On TBFlatlon In the Qenus ^giothua, Proc. Acad. Nat. 8cl. 

Philadelphia. Vol. XXI, October, 1868, pp. 180-189. 
Supplementaiy to No. 3, above. 

28. On the ClaMlflcatlon o( Water Birds. Proc, Acad, Nat Sd. 

Philadelphia, VoL XXI, uecember, 186d, pp, 103-218. 


29. The Clapper Rail IRallus crepitans], American Naturalist, Vol. 

HI, January. 1870, pp. 600-607, 

30. The Great Auk lAica impmnU]. American Naturalist, Vol, IV, 

March, 1870, p, ST. 
SI. The Natural History ol QuUcaliu major. Ibis, July, 1870, pp, 


32. Notes on the Natural History of Fort Macon. N, C, and Vicinity, 

No. I, Vertebrates. Proc. Acad, Nat Sd. Philadelphia, Vol, 

XXIII, May, 1871, pp. 1249. (Birds, pp. 1&4T,) 

88. Progress of American Ornithology. American Naturalist, Vol. V, 

August 1871. pp. 364-373, 

A review of J. A. Allen's "On the Mammals and Winter 
Birds of East Florida" (Bull. Mus. Comp. ZoBl., Vol. 
II, No. 3, pp. 161-491, pll. iT'Vlli, April, 1871), with 
dIscusBloq of positions taken by this author. The 
main points here contested were soon after conceded 
and made the basis of his revisions of species in the 
first edition of the "Key," In 1872. The correspond- 
ence between the two authors during this period, 
would turow much light on the "new departure" that 
marked this period In American ornithology. 
PipUo allenl (footnote, p. 366), sp. nov. 

34, The Yellow-headed Blackbird [Xanthocephalus icterocephalus). 

American Naturalist, Vol, V, June, 1871, pp. 195-200 and Bg. 
Zibit. Bullock's Oriole [Ictents bullocki'], American Naturalist, No- 
vember, 1871. pp, 678-682 and fig. 

35, The Long-created Jay [Cyanura maorolopha]. American Natu- 

ralist Vol. V. December, 1871, pp. 770-775. 


36, Mechanism of Flexion and Extension In Birds' Wings. Proc. 

American Aesoc, Adv, Sd., Vol, XX, for 1871 (1872), pp. 
278-284, flgg. 



37. Observa.tlonB on Ptoicorvitg colttmbianus. Ibis, January, 1872, 
■- pp. B2-59. 

38. Contribution to the History of tLe Blue Crow lOymnokitta cj/ano- 

cephala] of America. Ibis, April, 1872, pp. I52-1IS8. 

39. The Nest, Eggs, and Breeding Habits of Harporhvnohua crUsatU. 

American Naturaiiet. Vol. VI, June, 1872, pp. 370, 371. 

40. A New Bird IGlaucidiam termgineum] to the United States. 

American Naturalist. Vol. VI, June, 1872, p. 370. 

41. Studies of tbe 'l^yrannldte. Fart I: Revision of tbe Species of 

Myiarchtti. Proc. Acad. Nat. Scl. Philadelphia, Vol. XXIV, 
1872, pp. 6&«1. 

42. Material for a Monograph of the SpbenlBdde. Proc. Acad. Nat 

Scl. Philadelphia, Vol. XXIV, September, 1872, pp. 17I>-2J2, 
pll. iv. V. 

43. Key to North American Birds, containing a concise account of 

every species of Living and Fossil Bird at present known 
from tbe Continent north of the Mexican and United States 
Boundary. IlluBtrated by 6 steel plates and upwards of 250 
woodcuts. By Elliott Couea, Assistant Surgeon, United States 
Army. Salem: Naturalists' Agency. New Xorii: Dodd and 
Mead. Boston : Estes and Laurtat. 1872. 1 vol., imp. 8vo, 
4 preL 11., pp. 1-361, 1 I., pll. l-vl, flgg. 1-238. (Pub. October, 

Spleetla iocialis var. ariztnue (p. 143), Ortyx virginianus 
var. fioridanus (p. 237), varr. nov. 


44. Some United States Birds, New to Science, and otber Things 

Omitbologlcat. American Naturalist, Vol. VII, June, 1873, 
pp. 321-331, flgg. 65--fO. 

Peucma carpalU (p. 322), Barporhyiwhue bendirei (p. 
330), spp. nov. 
46. New ATlan Subclass [Odontomltbes]. American Naturalist, Vol. 
VII, June, 1873, p. 364. 

46. Color- variation in Birds Dependent upon Climatic Influences. 

American Naturalist, Vol. VII, July, 1873, pp. 41Q418. 

47. Notice of a Rare Bird [Gotitmiculug lecontei]. American Nata- 

rnllst. Vol. VII, December, 1873, pp. 748, 749. 

48. Notes on Two little-known Birds of the United States [Oentrrmyic 

bairdi, Antkug spraguH'\. American Naturalist, Vol. VII, 
November, 1873, pp. 695-607. 

49. Report on the Prybllov Group, or Seat Islands, of Alaska. By 

Henry W. Elliott, Assistant, Treasury Department. Wash- 
ington : Government Printing ODice. 1873. 1 vol.. oblong 
4to. (Appendix: Ornithology of tbe Prybilov Islands. By 
Dr. Elliott Cones, U. S. A.) , 




Tbls Is tbe orlglDal edition. Other editions appeared In 
1876. Not paged. 
Tringa ptilocnemis, sp. nov. 

50. A Cbeck List of Nortb American Blrda. By Elliott Ooues. 

Salem. Naturalists' Agency. 1S73, 8to, 2 prel. IL, pp. 1-137, 
2 It. 

Tills Is tbe original edition, separately publlsbed, De- 
cember. 1873 ; also reissued wltb "Field Ornitbology," 
1874. (See No. SI.) 


51. Field Omltbology. Comprising a Mannol oF [nstructlon for pro- 

curing, preparing, and preservirig Birds, and a Clieck List of 
North American Birds. By Dr. Elliott Coues, U. S. A. 
Salem : Naturaiists' Agency. Boston : Estea & I^auriat. New 
York: Dodd & Mead. January, 1874. 1 vol., 8vo, pp. I-iv., 
1-116, 1-137. (See No. 60.) 

52. [On the Clasalflcatlon of Birds, with Characters/ of the Higher 

Groups, and Analytical Tables of North American Famiiles.1 
Baird. Brewer, and Ridgway's RIet. Nortb American Birds, 
Vol, I, 1874. pp. xtv-xxTill. 
63. (Glossary pf Technical Terms used in Descrlptlre Ornlthol<^y. 
Including a number of prominent Anatomical and Physio- 
logical Terms]. Balrd, Brewer, and Ridgway's Hist. North 
American Birds, Vol. Ill, 1874, pp. 535-560. 

54. Habits and Characteristics of Swalnson's Buzzard [Buteo sicafn- 

«oni]. American Naturalist, Vol. VIII, May, 1874, pp. 282- 

55. [A Recently] New Species of North American Bird [TrinffO 

ptilocnemis]. American Naturalist, Vol. VII, August, 1874, 
pp. 500, 501. 

Republication of the original description. (See above. 
No. 49.) 

56. New Variety of tbo Blue Grosbeak IGuiraea ciprulea eurhyncha]. 

American Naturalist. Vol. VII, September, 1874, p. 563. 

57. On the Nesting of Certain Hawks, etc. American Naturalist, 

Vol. VII, October, 1874, pp. 596-603. 

Falco communis, Buteo swainsoni, Archibuteo ferru- 
glneus, and other birds of Montana. 

58. Birds of the Northwest: A Hand-book of the Ornithology of the 

R^lon drained by the Mississippi River and its Tributaries. 
By Elliott Cones, Captain and Assistant Surgeon, U. S. Army. 
D. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. Terr., Mlsceli. Publ. No. 3. 
1874. 1 vol., 8vo, pp. 1-ili, 1-791. 

Eremophtla alpestris b. leucoli^ma (p. 38), var. nov. 



59. Fasti Omlthoioglffi EedWlvl. No. 1. Bartram's "Travels." Proc. 
Acad. Nat Sci. Phlladelpbla, Vol. XXVII, 1875, pp. 338-358. 
Claims tenabtllty for twenty oC Bortram'a names of 
Nortb American Birds. (See also No. 66.) 
30. On the Breeding ot Certain Birds [In Montana]. American 
Nataralist, Vol. IX, February, 1875, pp. 75-78. 


61. On the Breedlng-hablts, Nest, and Eggs, of the White-tailed 
Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurua). Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. 
Surv. Terr., 2d ser.. No. 5, Jaanary, 1876, pp. 263-266. 

02. An Account of the various Publications relating to the Travels of 
Lewis and Clarke, with a Commentary on the Zodloglcal 
Results of their Expedition. Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. 
Surv. Terr., 2d ser., No. 6, February, 1876, pp. 417-444. 

63. Contributions to the Natural History of Kerguien Island, etc.. 

Oology, etc. By J. H, Kidder and Elliott Cones. Bull. D. 8. 
Nat Mus.. No. 3, February, 18T6, pp. 7-20. 

64. A study of Chionis minor with reference to Its Structure and 

Systematic Position. By J, H. Kidder, U. S. N.. and Elliott 
Coues, U. S. A. Bull U. 8. Nat. Mua., No. 3, February, 1870. 
pp. 85-116. 

65. Reply to Mr. J. A. Allen's "Avaiiablllty of certain Bartramian 

Names in Ornithology." American Naturalist, Vol. X, Feb- 
ruary, 1876. pp. 98-102. (See No. 59.) 

66. The Labrador Duck lOamptolamus labraOoriua]. American 

Naturalist, Vol. X, May, 1876. p. 303. 
G7. Notable Change of Habit of the Bank Swallow [Stelgidopterym 
serripennisi. American Naturalist. Vol. X, June, 1876, pp. 
372, 373. 

68. Tarsal Envelope In Campylorhynchm and allied Genera. Bull. 

Nutt Om. Club, Vol. I, July. 1876, pp. 50, 51. 

69. On the Number of Primaries In Oscines. Bull. Nutt Om. Club, 

Vol. I, S^tember, 1876. pp. 60-63. 


70. Corrections of Nomenclature In the Qenus Stttnts. Bull. Nutt 

Orn. Club, Vol. II, April. 1877, pp. 29-33. 

71. Notes on the Ornithology of the Heglon about the Source of the 

Red River of Texas, from Observations made during the 
Explorations conducted by Lieut. E. H. Ruffner, Corps of 
Engineers, U. S. A. By C. A. H. MeCauley, Lieut Third 
United States Artillery. Annotated by Dr. Elliott Coues, 
U. S. A. Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. Terr., Vol. II, 
May, 1877, pp. 655-695. 



72. LeptoptUa alblfrons, a Pigeon new to the United States Fauna. 

Bull. Natt Om. Club, Vol. 11, J877, pp. 82, 83. 


73. Notes on the Natural History of Fort Macon, N. C, and Vicinity. 

No. 4. By Dre. Elliott Coues and H. C. Yarrow. Proc. Acad. 
Nat Sci. Philadelphia, Vol. XXX, 1878, pp. 21-28. (Birds, 
pp. 22-24.) 

74. Note on Pasgercitlua bairdi and P. princepg. Bull. Nutt. Om. 

Club, Vol. Ill, January, 1878, pp. 1-3, pi, eol'd. 

75. Notes on the Ornithology of the Ixiwer Rio Grande of Texas, from 

Observations made during the season of 1877. By George B. 
Sennett Edited, with Annotations, by Dr. Elliott Coues, 
U. S. A. Bail. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv: Terr., Vol. IV, 
February, 1878, pp. 1-66. 

Parula nJffHIoro (p. 11), sp. nov. 
7G. On the Moult of the Bill and Palpebral Omaments in Fratercula 
arotica. Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, Vol. Ill, April, 1878, pp. 87-91. 

77. The Eave, Cliff, or Crescent Swallow (Petrochelidon lunifrom). 

Bull. Nutt Orn. Club, Vol. III. July, 1878, pp. 105-112. 

78. Field-Notes on Birds observed in Dakota and Montana along tlie 

Forty-ninth Parallel during the seasons of 1873 and 1874. 
Bull. U. S. Geol. and Ge(«r. Surv. Terr., Vol. IV, July, 1878. 
pp. 545-662. 

79. Birds of the Colorado Valley: A RepOBitory of Scientific and 

Popular Information concerning North American Ornithol- 
ogy. Part I, Passeres to Lanlidre. B I bll (graphical Appen- 
dix. Miscellaneous Publ. No. 8, U. S. Oeol. and Geogr. Surv. 
Terr., 1878, 8vo, pp. i-rvi, 1-807, flgg. 1-70. 

Bibliographical Appendix also separate, pp. 1-218. 


80. Private Letters of Wilson, Ord and Bonaparte. Penn Monthly, 

Vol. X. June, 1879, pp. 443-455. 

Alexander Wilson to A Lawson ; G. Ord to A. Wilson ; 
C. L. Bonaparte to A. Lawson. 

81. History of the Evening Grosbeak [Hesperiphona vesperttna]. 

Bull. Nutt Om. Club. Vol. IV. April, 1879, pp. 65-75. 

82. On the Present Status of Passer domeatlGua In America, with 

Special Reference to the Western States and Territories. 
Bull. O. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. Terr., Vol. V, No. 2, 
September, 1879, pp. 175-193. 

83. Second Instalment of American Ornithological Bibliography. 

Bull. U. 8. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. Terr., Vol. V, September, 
1879, pp. 239-330. 

Relates to the ornithology of Central and Sooth America. 



84. Note on the Black-capped Greealet, Vireo atricapiUus of Wood- 

bouse. Bull. Nutt Oni. Club, Vol. IV. July, 1879, pp. 193. 
194, pi. I (colored). 

85. Note on Alle nigricans Link. Bull. NutL Orn. Club, Vol. IV. 

October, 1879, p. 244. 

Alle Link (1806) antedates Mergulit* VielUot (1816) for 
J lea alie Linn. 

86. Further Notes on tbe Omitliology of tbe Lower Rio Grande of 

Texas, from Observations made during the Sprlug of 1878. 
Bf Geoi^ B. Sennett Edited with Annotations, by Dr. 
Elliott Cooes, U. S. A. Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. 
Terr.. Vol. V, November, 1879, pp. 371-440. 


87. Sketch of North American Ornithology In 1879. Amerlean Nat- 

uralist, Vol. XIV. January, 1880, pp. 20-25. 

88. On the Nesting In Missouri of Empidonax acadicui and Empi- 

donax trailli. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, Vol. V, January. 1880, 
pp. 20-25. 

89. Notes and Queries concerning the Nomenclature .of North Ameri- 

can Birds. Bull. Nutt Orn. Club. Vol. V. April. 1880, pp. 

90. Further Light on the Moult of the Bill In certain Mormonldte. 

Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, Vol. V. April. 1880, pp. 127. 128. 

91. Fourth instalment of Ornithological Bibliography: being a List 

of Faunal Publications relating to British Birds. Proc. U. S. 
Nat Mus., Vol. II, May, 1880, pp. 359-482. 

This instalment antedates the Third (see below, No. 93). 

92. Note on (Jru« fratcfvulits of Cassln. Bull. Nutt Orn. Club, V-tl. 

V, July, 1880, p. 18a 

93. Third Instalment of American Ornithological Bibliography. Bull. 

U. S. Qeol. and Geogr. Surv. Terr., Vol. V, No. 4, September, 
1880, pp. 521-1066. 

Systematic Omltholt^y ; not published till after ihe 
Fourth Instalment (see above. No. 91). 

94. New England Bird Life, being a Manual of New England Orni- 
thology, revised and edited from the Manuscript of Wlnfrld 
A. Steams, Member of the Nuttal! Omitbologlcal Club, etc. 
By Dr. Elliott Coues, U. 8. A., Member of the Academy, etc. 
Part I, Osclnes. Boston : Lee and Shepard, Publishers; New 
Tork: Charles T. Dillingham. 1881, 1 vol. 8vo. Title and 
pp. 1-324, text figg. 1-56. Part II, Non-Osclnlne Passeres, 
Birds of Prey, Game and Water Birds. 1 vol. 8vo, 1883, 
pp. 1.409, text Sgg. 1-8S. 




95. Note on Mitrepahnes, a new Generic Name. Bull. Nutt, Om, 
Club, Vol. VII, 1882, p. 55. 

To replace Mitrephorus Sclater, preoccupied. 

96. Generic and Specific Appellations of Nortb American Birds. Bull. 

Nutt. Orn. Club, Vol. VII. 1883, pp. 178, 179. 

97. Note on Faesercitlus caboti. Bull. Nutt, Om. Club, Vol. VIII, 

1883. p. 58. 

Young of Melospina pctiuatris. 

98. Nest and Eggs o( Myiadcates townsendi. Bull. Nutt Orn. Club, 

Vol. VIII, 1883, p. 239. 

99. A Hearing of Birds' Bars. Science. Vol. II, 1883, pp. 422-424, 

552-554. 586-589, 9 test flgg. 

Tlie structure of the ear In birds. 

100. On the Application oC Trinomial Nomenclature to Zodlogy. Zodl' 

ogist, 3d ser., Vol. VIII, July. 1883, pp. 241-247. 

101. Avifauna Columbiana ; being a I.lst of Birds ascertained to In- 

habit tbe District of Columbia, with the times of arrival and 
departure of such as are non-residents, and brief notices of 
habits, etc. The Second edition, revised to date, and entirely 
rewritten. By Elliott Couea, M. D., Vb. D.. Professor of 
Anatomy In the National Medical College, etc., and D. Web- 
ster Prentiss, A. M., M. 0,, Professor of Materia Medlca and 
Therapeutics in the National Medical College, etc. Bull. 
U. S. Nat. MuB., No. 26, 1883, 8vo, pp. 1-133, frontispiece, 
100 text flgg. and 4 maps. 

102. Omithophilologicalitles. Auk, Vol, I, 1884, pp. 49^8, 140-144. 

Reply to a critique by Augustus C. Merriam on the 
philological portion of the "Coues Ghecli List and 
Lexicon of North American Birds" (ibid., pp. 36-49). 

103. Trinomials are Necessary. Ault, Vol. I, 1884, pp. 197, 198. 

104. On some new Terms recommended for use in Zoological Nomen- 

clatnre. Auk, Vol. I, 1884, pp. 320-322. 

105. Strlcltland as an Advocate of "Linnseus at '58." Auli, Vol. I, 

1884, p. 400. 
108. Key to North American Birds. Containing a concise account of 
every species of living and fossil bird at present known 
from the Continent north of the Mexican and United States 
Boundary. Inclusive of Greenland. Second Edition, revised 
to date, and entirely rewritten : with which are Incorporated 
General Ornithology : an outline of the structure and ctassi- 



Scadoa of birds, and Field Omitboloer i a Manual ot «l^ 
lecting. (wepariDg. and preserring birds. Protastiy illus- 
trated. BiMtoii: Estes and Lanriat 1S84. Boral 8to, i^ 
f-xxx, 1-8)13, colored frcntispiece (anatomr of fdgeoii), and 
963 text egg. 

107. Key to Xorth American Birds. Coataining a cwicdse >c«iaat of 
erery qiecies of llring and fossil bird at presmt known 
from the Continait nortb of tlte Mexican and United States 
Batmdar}r, int^lnslre of Greenland and Ij>werCaliromla, witb 
wfaid) are Inoarporaled General Omlltiolog}- : an ontllne of 
tbe structure and clast<i Scat ion of birds; and Field Oml- 
tboloKT. a Manual of collecting, preparing, and preeerrlng 
birds. Tbe Third Edition, extiiblting tbe Nomcmclatiire of 
tbe American Omitbolosi^ts' Union, and indndlng descrip- 
tions of additional epei-les. etc. Profnsel; lllnstrated. Bos- 
ton: Estes and LanrlaL 1887. Hot. Sto, pp. i-E, 1-xxx. 1-896, 
colored frontispiece (anatomy of pigeoD). and 561 text flgg. 
Main text same as 18»1 ed.. wltb nev title-page, and new 
matter In an aiqtendlx (pp. 865-800). 

108. New Forme of Nortb American Gkordile». Aok. VoL T, ISSS, 

p. 37. 

C. tenaelti and C. chapmani sppi hot. 

109. Note on RostratollMe [enbfam. dot.]. Ank, ToL V, 1888, p. 204. 

110. CorTdomorphie [soperfam. nor.]. Ank, Vol. V, 1888, p. 207. 

111. Notes Ml tbe Nomenclature of tbe Husclea of Tolation in Birds' 

Wings. Ank, Vol V, 1888, W>- 435-437- 


112. A new Generic Name for tbe Elf Owl [WfcropaHaa, nom, nov.J. 

Aok, Vol. VI, 1839, p. 71. 

To replace Uicralhene Cones, 1866, preoccupied. 


113. Key to North American Birds. Fourth Edition, 1S90. Same as 

third edition, with the addition of a "Second Appaidix," pp. 
897-907, giving additional epecles and subspecies, and "notes 
every further cbange reported by the [American Omitholo- 
gists'] Union's Committee from 1887 to January [1890] In- 


114. Scenopteetes densirostrU [nom. gen. nor.]. Ank, Vol. Vltl, 1891, 



115. Otltke's "Heligoland." Auk, Vol. XII, 189S, pp. 322-346. 

Review of tbe work, with an extended list of birds ob- 
Berred by Oatke at Heligoland. 

lia Merrem'B Work. Auk, Vol. XIII, 1S96, pp. 2es, 286. 

Collation, and Hat of the birds described and flgured 
In It 


117. Zamelodia against Babia. Aiik, Vol. XIV, 1887, pp. 39.42. " 
lia Atarcia splnoaa. Aok, Vol, XIV, 1897, p. 88. 

Fulica splnoaa r.inn. 1758 ^ Parra variabilis Linn. 1766. 

119. Cuenlldw of the A. O. U. List Auk, Vol. XIV, 1897, pp. 90, 91. 

Three subfamilies are recognized. 

120. Anthori^ for the Name Myiarchm mexicunua. Auk, VoL XIV, 

1897, p. 92. 

M. mexicOfnue Baled a synonym of M. cinerascens Lawr. 

121. Ammodramua (Passerculua) sattctorum Cones.' Auk, Vol. XIV, 

1897. p. 92. 

The validity of the species affirmed, and Ammodramas 
{Fasgercului) sanitcichensis wilsonianug proposed as 
a new name tor A. ». savanna (Wlls.). 

122. Rectlfloatlons of Synonymy In the Graius Junco. Auk, Vol. XIV, 

1897, pp. 94, 95. 

J. Aanbyi Cones, young of J. aikeni; J. k. shufeMti 
Coale ^ J. ft. connectens Coues. 

123. Characters of Dettaroica aerulescens oaimsi Coues. Auk, VoL 

XIV, 1897, pp, 96, 97. 

D. c. caimai redescribed. 

124. Note on the Genus Lucar bartram. Auk, Vol. XIV, 1897, p. 97. 

Lucar, It la claimed. Should replace Oaleascoptes as the 
tenable generic name for the Catbird. 

125. Vria lomvla In South Carolina. Auk, Vol. XIV. 1897, pp. 202, 203. 

Believed to be the.flret record of the species for South 

126. Type locality of Fuligula eoUaria. Au^, Vol. XIV, 1897, pp. 

206, 207. 

Based on a British killed specimen. 

127. Dafllula, a new Subgenus [for Querquedula eatonl Sbarpe]. 

Auk, Vol. XIV. 1897, p. 207. 

128. Branta bemicla glaucogastra. Auk, Vol. XIV, 1897, pp. 207, 208. 

Replaces typical B. T>emicla In North America. 
128. A North American Snipe [Oallinago major] New to the A. O. U. 
List Auk. Vol. XIV, 1897, p. 209. 



130. Status of Helodromas ochroput Id the A. O. U. List, Auk, Vol. 

XIV. 1897, pp. 210, 211. 

Recalls an early overlooked record. 

131. Status of tlie Redsbank [Totanus tofonus (Llnu.)] as a North 

American Bird. Auk, Vol. SIV, 1897, pp. 211, 212. 

Attention called to an earl; record In "Fauna Boreall- 
Amerlcana," Vol. II, 1831, p. 391. 
182. Validity of the Genus Lophortyx. Auk, Vol. XIV. 1897, p. 215. 
Considered to he n well characterized genus. 

133. Notes on the Meslean Ground Dove. Auk. Vol. XIV. 1897, p. 215. 

ColttmHgallina passerina palleacens (Baird) maintained 
• as a good subspecies ; also Important comment on the 

generic name Columbigallma. 

134. Note on Elanus glauGus IBarton]. Auk. Vol. XIV, 1897, p. 216. 

135. Untenablllty of the Genus Sylvania Nutt. Auk, Vol. XIV, 1897, 

pp. 223. 224 

To i>e replaced by WiUonia Bonap, 

136. The most General Fault of the A. O. U. Check-List. Auk, Vol. 

XIV, 1897, pp. 229-231. 

Respecting the sequence of genera and subfamilies 
wltblu their respective families. 

137. The Turkey Question. Auk, Vol. XIV. 1897, pp. 272-275. 

Meleagris gaUopavo Linn, restricted to the Meslean form. 

138. Note on Pagophila olba. Auk, Vol. XIV, 1897, p. 313. 

Pagophila Kaup ui^ed as the proper generic name of the 
species, in place of Oavia Bole, untenable in this con- 

139. OnycUoprion, not Raliplana. Auk, Vol. XIV, 1897, p. 314. 

Both names based on the same species, the former hav- 
ing priority. 

140. Remarks on certain Procellarildte. Auk, Vol. XIV, 1897, pp. 

314, 315. 

On the number and sequence of the subfamilies, and on 
the status of some of the genera and species. 

141. Bibliographical Note. Auk, Vol. XIV, 1897, pp. 327-329. 

On the dates of Major Bendlre's early Indirect contribu- 
tions to ornithological ■ literature. 

142, William Swainson to John James Audubon. Auk, Vol. XV, 1898, 

pp. 11-13. 

A hitherto unpublished letter of Swalnson's to Audubon, 
in reference to his proposed collatwratlon with Audu- 
bon In the preparation of the "Ornithological Blog- 

143. Notes on the Generic Names of certain Swallows. Auk, Vol. XV, 

1898, pp. 271, 272. 



144. Note on Meleagris gallopavo feia. Auk, Vol. XVI, 1899, p. 77. 

Addendum to No. 137, above, q. v. 

145. The Finishing Stroke to Bartram. Auk, Vol. XVI, 1899, pp. 

83. 84. 

Comment on, and re]e<;tlon of, current Bartrauilan 
namea. Oatharlsta atrata (Bartram) Renamed C. 
vrvbu (Vlelll.); Aphelocotna floridana (Bartram) re- 
named A. oyanea (Vlelll.); Comus americanus fiori- 
danun Balrd renamed G. a. pagcuus (uom. nov.). 

146. On Certain Generic and Subgenerio Names In the A, O. V. Check- 

List. Osprey, Vol. Ill, 1899, p. 144. 

Believes that a large number of the sul^enera should be 
given full generic rank, and that several additional 
But^enera should I* recognized. 
Palla^icarbo and Peiloscopa, subgenn. nov. 


147. Pipile V8. Fipilo. Auk, Vol. XVII, 1900, p. 65. 

Pipile replaced by Oumana, nom. gen. nov. 

148. Strix v». Alwso. Auk, Vol. XVII, 1900, pp. 65, 66. 

The two names should be transposed, as also the names 
of tbe two families to wbicb they respectively belong; 
a transposition officially adopted by the A. O. U. Com- 
mittee In 1908 {cf. Auk. Vol. XXV. 1908, pp. 288-291, 


149. Audubonlans, and Other Matters of Present Interest. Blrd-I>>re, 

Vol. Ill, 1901, pp. 9-13. 

An address delivered before tbe American Ornithologists' 
Union, at the annual meeting held in New York City, 
November 10, 1897 ; only the part relating to Audubon 
bere reproduced from a stenographic report, with por- 
trait of Coues. 

150. Key to North American Birds. Containing a concise account of 
every species of Living and Fosail Bird at present known 
from the Continent north of the Mexican and United States 
Boundary, Inclusive of Greenland and Lower California. 
With which are incorporated General Ornithology : an out- 
line of the Structure aud Classification of Birds ; and Field 
Ornithology, a Manual of collecting, preparing, and preserv- 
ing Birds. The Fifth Edition (entirely revised), exhibiting 
the Nomenclature of the American OmithologlBts' Union, and 



Including descriptions of additional Hpecles. In Two Vol- 
umes. By Elliott Coues, A. M., M. D., Ph. D., Late CapUln 
and Assistant Sui^eou U. S. Army and Secretary U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey; Vice-President of the American Omltliolo- 
glBts' Union, and Chairman of the Committee on the 
CltiBBlQcatlon and Nomenclature of North American Birds; 
Foreign Member of the British Ornithologists' Union; Corre- 
sponding Member of the Zo{}loglcal Society of London ; Mem- 
ber of the National Academy of Sciences, of the Faculty of 
the National Medical Collie, of the Philosophical and Bio- 
Ic^lcal Societies of Washington. Profusely llluBtrat«d. Boa- 
ton : Dana Elstes and Company. 1903. 2 vols. roy. 8to, Vol. 
I, pp. 1-xll, 1-IS3S, col. frontispiece (portrait of Author), and 
text Bgg. 1-353; Vol. II, pp. 1-vl, S37-1162, coL frontispiece, 
and text flgg. 8fi4-747. 

Stellerocitta, BieberocUta, DttophoUeua, Tlguacarbo, sub- 
genn. nov. 


151. The Quadrupeds of Arizona. American Naturalist, Vol. I, 1807, 

pp. 281-292. 351-363, 3»3-400, 531-S41. 

Extended notes on habits and distribution. Sciurui ari- 
zonensis (p. 537), ep. nov. 

152. Notes on a Collection of Mammals from Arizona. Proc. Acad. 
• Nat 8d. Philadelphia, Vol. XIX, 1867, pp. 133-136. 

Brief field notes on 28 species. 


153. Observatlona on the Harsh Bare. Proc. Boston Soc Nat. Hist, 

Vol. XIII, 1869, pp. 86-95. 

Habits, external and cranial characters of Lepus palus- 
trU Bachm. 

154. Notice of a Cyclopean Pig. Proc, Boston Soc. Nat Hist, Vol. 

XIII, 1869, pp. 93-100, with flg. of sbull. 


155. Antero-posterior Symmetry, with especial reference to the Mus- 

cles of the Limbs. N. Y. Med. Record, June- September, 1870. 
pp. 149-152, 193,195, 222-224, 273, 274, 297-299, 870-372, 390, 
391, 438-440. 


156. Notes on the Natural History of Fort Macon, N. C, and Vicinity. 

Proc. Acad. Nat Scl. Philadelphia, Vol. XXIII, 1871, pp. 
12-49. (Mammals, pp. 12-ia) 



157. Former Eastward Rai^ce of tbe BufFftlo [Bison bison (Linn.)]. 
American Naturalist Vol. V. 1871, pp. 719. 720. 

Former occurrence In West Virginia, as late as 17D3- 
168. Od the Myology of the Ornithorynchns. Comm. Essex Inst, Vol. 
VI, 1871, pp. 128-173. 


16fl. The Osteology and Myology of Dtdelphya virj/iniona. With an 
Appraidlx on tbe Brain, by Jeffries Wyman. Uem. Boston 
Soc. Nat Hist, Vol. II, 1872. pp. 41-151. 

160. Get^aphlcal Distribution of Basaaris astuta. American Natu- 

ralist Vol. VI. 1872, p. 364. 


161. The Prairie Wolf, or Coyote (Oanis latrant). American Natu- 

ralist Vol. VII. 1873. pp. 385-389. 
Relationships with domestic dog. 

162. VariaUon in Dentition. American Naturalist. Vol. VII, 1873, 

pp. 496, 497. 

Supernumerary tooth in lower Jaw of "CanU lupus L., 
race Occident mis BIch., strain t/riseoalbus Bd." 


163. Synopsis of the Muridce of North America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Scl. 

Philadelphia. Vol. XXV. 1874, pp. 173-196. 

Belssned <repaged) under the title "U. S. Northern 

Boundary Commission. • • • Natural History. No. 

I, On the Murlds." pp. 1-28. 

Ochetodon (p. 184), Evotomya (p. 186), genu, nov.; 

Vesperimvi (p. 178), Euneomys (p. 185), snbgenn. 

nov. ; Hesperomvs (Yesperimua) melanophrys (p. 

181), H. (Onychomys) torridus (p. 183), spp.noT. 


104. The Cranial and Dental Characters of Oeomyldte. Ball. U. S. 
Geol. and Geogr. Survey. Terr., 2d ser.. No. 2, May, 1875, 
pp. 83-90. 
Reprinted, with some modification, in "MonographK of 
North American Rodentla," In 1877. 

165. A Critical Review of the North American Saccomyldffi. Proc. 

Acad. Nat Scl. Philadelphia, Vol. XXvr, 1875, pp. 272-327, 
3 figures of ears of three species of Perognathits. 

166. SynopaiH of the Geomyidse. Proc. Acad. Nat Scl. Philadelphia, 

Vol. XXVI, 1875, pp. 130-138. 



Thomomvs cluHua (pp. 135, 138), Bp. dov. 

Abstract of the memoir publlBlMd in full In "Nortb 
American Bodentifl" in 1877. 
iGi. Abstract of Besulte of a Study of the Genera Oeomvs and Tho- 
momyg. Expl. of Colorado River of the West, 1869-1872 
(Powell). 1875, pp. 217-285, fig. 80. 

Addendum A; "The cranial and dental characters of 
Geomylflffi," pp. 267-279, reprinted from Boll. V. S. 
Geol. and Ge<«r. Surr. Terr., 2d ser., No. 2, pp. 88-9ft, 
May 11, 1875. (See No. 164.) 
Addendum B: Notes on the "Salamander of Florida 
(Qeomyg (tizo)," by G. Brown Goode, pp. 281-285. 

168. Report upon the collections of Mammals made In portions of 

Nevada, Utah, California, Colorado. New Mexico, and Arl- 
Tona dnring the years 1871. 1872, 1873, and 1874, by Ur. 
Elliott Coues and Dr. H. C. Tarrow. Rep. Expl. and Snrv. 
West of the One Hundredth Meridian, Vol. V. 1875, pp. :«- 

Notes on habits and geographical distribution, with ex- 
tensive tables of synonymy and bibllograpbleal cita- 
tions for many of the species. 
"Cervng virginianus var, coucsi, Bothrock, MSS.," p. 12, 
a provisional name, but the authors (p. 75) say th«^ 
are "at present • • • indisposed to formally 
recognize tbis designation." 
"Genus Zapua Coues MSS.," p. 99- 

169. Some Account, Critical, descriptive, and historit^al. of Zapui 

hudsonius. Bull, U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Snrv. Terr., 2d ser.. 
No. 5. 1875, pp. 253-262. 

ZapuB, gen. nov. ; Zapodidte. fam. nov. 
ITO. The Cranial and Dental Characters of Mephitinw, with descrip- 
tion of ilephitU frontato, n. sp. foss. Bull. U. 8. Geol. and 
Geogr. Surv. Terr., 2d ser., No. 1. 1875. pp. 7-15. 

171. The Prairie Gopher [Spermophilua richardfoni]. American Nat- 

uralist, Tol. IX, 1875, pp. 430-436. 

172. Synonymy, Description, History, Distribution and Habits of the 

Prairie Hare [Lepu» campes(ri»). Bull. Essex Inst, Vol. 
VII, 1875, pp. 73-85. 

173. Chips from the Buffalo's Workshop. Forest and Stream, April 

1, 1875. 
. A humorous skit, with much Interesting Informatjon. 


174. Precursory Notes on American Insectivorous Mammals. Bull. 

U. S. Geol. and Gec^r, Snrv. Terr., Vol. HI, 1877, pp. 631- 



Microsorex (ex Baird, MSS.). Notiosorea; (ex Balrd, 
MSS.), SwfciscMS, Bnbgenn. nov, ; Borese paciftous (e« 
Balrd, MSS.). S. »phagnieola, 8. {Notlosorew) orain- 
fordi (ex Baird MSS.). S. (N.) evotU, BlaHna meH- 
oana (Baird M8S.), spp. noT. 

175. Fur-bearing AniraalB : A Monograph of Nortb American Mus- 

teilds. TJ, S. Geol. ahd Geogr. Surv. Terr. (Hayden), 
Miaeel. Pnbl., No. 8. 1877, 8vo, pp. i-ilv, 1-348, pll, l-JOt. . 

176. Monographs of North American Rodentla. By Elliott Cooes and 

Joel Asaph Allen. Bep. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. Terr. 
(Hayden), Vol. XI, 1877, pp. I-xH, l-i. 1-1091, pU. 1-viI. 

Dr. Coues'8 portion Includes: I, Murldffi, pp. \-x, 1-264, 
pll. 1-t; Vir, Zapodldfe, pp. 455-480; VIII, Saccomyldie, 
pp. 481-542; IX, Haplodontlda;. pp. 543-600, pi. vl; X. 
Geomyldie. pp. 601-630, pi. vU; also, Appendix II. 
Materia] for a Bibliography of North American Mam- 
mals, by Theodore 0111 and Elliott Cones, pp. 951- 
Arvicola (Pttj/mys) gvasiater (p. 226), ep. nov. 
In the ceae of the Haplodontldie. tn addition to the usual 
systematic treatment, the skeletal and vlseral anat- 
omy of the single species then known are described at 


177. Notes on the Mammals of Port Slsseton, Dakota. By C. B. Mc- 

Cliesney, M. D., Acting Assistant Surgeon, U. S. A. Anno- 
tated by Dr. Elliott Coues, D. S. A, Bull. U. S. Geol. and 
Geogr. Surv. Terr., Vol. IV, No. 1, February, 1878, pp. 201- 

178. On Consolidation ot the Hoofs In the Vli^lnlan Deer. Bull. 

U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. Terr., Vol. IV, 1878, pp. 293. 294. 

179. On a Breed of Solid-hoofed Pigs apparently established In Texas. 

Bull. Geol. and Geogt. Surv. Terr., Vol. IV, 1878, pp. 295-297. 

1 text flg. 


180. The Outer Bar of Blarina l^-evicauda. Amer. Joum. Otology, 

Vol. I, July, 1S79, pp. — ? (also as a repaged separate of 

2 pp.). 

180ffl, Notice of Mrs. [M. A.1 Maxwell's Exhibit of Colorado Mammals. 
In: "On the Plains, and Among the Peaks; or, How Mrs. 
Maxwell made her Natural History Collection." By Mary 
Dartt. Philadelphia, 1879. Mammals, pp, 217-225. 

An annotated list of the mammals (about CO species) 
shown In the Colorado Exposition Collection at the 
Centennial Exposition held In Pblladelpbla tn 1876, 
and exhibited later In Washington, D. C, during the 
winter of 1876-7. 
'i (43) 448 




181. Notea on tbe Natural History of Fort Macon, N. C, and Vicinity, 
No. I. I'roc. Acad. Nat. Scl. Phlladelplila, pp. 12-49. 
Reptiles, pp. 47.49 — an annotated list of 11 species. 


162. Synopsis of tbe Reptiles and Ratrachlans of Arizona ; wltb criti- 
cal and Beld notes, and an extensive synonymy, by Dr. Elliott 
Coues, U. S. A. Rep. Expl, and Surv. West of the One 
Huiidredtb Meridian, Vol. V, 1S75, pp. 585-633, pll. svl-xxv. 
Volume not issued till 1870. A note by the author on 
p. 588 bears date "November 15, 1875." 


183. Notes on the Herpetology of Dakota and Montana. By Drs. 
Elliott Coues and H. C. Yarrow. Bull. U. 8. Geol. and Geogr. 
Surv. Terr., Vol. IV, No. 1, February, 1878, pp. 259-291. 
Eutamia radix twiningi (p. 279), subsp. nov. 


184. TLe Century Dictionary, an Encyclopedic Lexicon of the English 
Language. Prepared under the superintendence of William 
Dwlght Whitney, Ph. D., LL.D., Professor of Comparative 
Philology and Sanskrit In Yale University. 8 vols.,* fol. New 
York : The Century Company. 188!>-1893. 

"The definitions of that part of general biological science 
which In any way relates to animal life or structure, includ- 
ing systematic zoSlogy, have been written by Dr. Elliott 
Coues, who has been assisted in iclitbyology and concbology 
by Prof. Theodore N. Gill, In entomology by Mr. Leiand O, 
Howai'd and Mr. Hert>ei't L. Smith, and in human anatomy 
by Prof. James K. Thacher. Siiecial aid has also been re- 
ceived from other naturalists, particularly from Prof. Charles 
V. Riley. • • • — Preface, p. xlil. 

Dr. Coues had sijecial charge of "General Zoology, Biology. 
and Comparative Anatomy," to which subjects he contributed, 
it has been stated, some 40,000 definitions. This labor occu- 
pied nearly his entire time for seven years — 1884rl891. 

•Excluding Vol. IX, Cyclopedia of Names, and Vol. X, Atlas. 




185. Descriptions of the Original Manuscript Joumals and Field 

Noteboots of Lewis and Clart, on which was baaed Riddle's 
History of tlie Expedition of 1804^0, and which are now In 
tbe possession of the American Philosophical Society in 
Plilladelpbla. Proc. Amer. Phiios. Soc, Vol. XXXI, 1893, 
pp. 17-33. 

186. History of the Expedition under the command of Lewis and 

Clark, to the sources of the Mississippi River, thence across 
the Eoclcy Mountains and down the Columbia River to the 
Pacific Ocean, performed during the years 1804-5-6, by order 
of the Government of the United States. A new edition 
faithfully reprinted from the only authorized edition of 1814. 
wltU copious critical commentary, prepared upon examina- 
tion ot unpublished offlciai archives and many other sources 
of information, including a diligent study of the original 
manuscript Journals and Field Notet)00ks of tile Explorers, 
together with a new Biographical and Bibliographical Intro- 
duction, new Maps, and other illustrations, and a complete 
Index. By Elliott Cones. • • • Member of the National 
Academy of Sciences, etc. Four volumes, 8vo. New York: 
Francis P. Harper, 18D3. Vol. I. pp. i-cxsili, 1-352, frontis- 
piece (portrait of Meriwether Lewis) ; Vol. II, pp. l-vl, 3D3- 
820, frontispiece (portrait of William Clark) ; Vol. III. pp. 
i-vl. 821-1298; Vol. IV, pp. 1-v, 1299-1364, 6 small- maps, re- 
produced in facsimile from the Philadelphia edition of 1814, 
2 large folding maps (In- pocket of cover), and 2 genealogical 
tables (folded Inserts) of tbe descendants and living issue 
of William Clark. 

187. The Expeditions of Zebutou Montgomery Pike,' to the Headwaters 
of tbe Mississippi River, through Louisiana Territory, and 
New Spain, during the'years 1805-6-7. A new edition, now 
first reprinted In full from tbe original of 1810, with copious 
critical commentary, new memoir of Pike, new map and other 
Illustrations, and complete index, by Elliott Cones. • • • 
Three volumes, 8vo. New York ; Francis P. Harper, 1895. 
Vol. I, Memoir of the Author— Mississippi Voyage : pp. I-xvlU,* 
xlx-cxiv, 1-356, frontispiece (portrait of Pike) ; Vol. 11, 
Arkansaw Journey— Mexican Tour : pp. l-vl, 357-855 ; Vol. 
Ill, Index — Maps : 4 II., pp. 857-955. 7 maps In pocket. 




i. New Light on the Early Hlstoi? of the Greater Northwest The 
Manuscript Journals of Alexander Heniy, Fur Trader of the 
Northwest Company, and of David Thompson, Official Geog- 
rapher and Explorer of the same Company, 1799-1814. Ex- 
ploration and Adventure among the Indians on the Red, 
Saskatchewan, Missouri, aud Columbia Rivers. Edited with 
copious critical commentary by Elliott Cones, Editor of 
"Lewis and Clark," of "Pilce," eta, etc. Three volumes, 8vo. 
New Yorli: E'rancis P. Harper. 1897. Vol. I, the Red River 
of the North, pp. 1-xxvlii, l-«6, portrait of the Editor; Vol. 
II, The Saskatchewan and Columbia Rivers, pp. i-vi, 447-016 ; 
Vol. Iir, Index and Maps, 3 11., pp. 917-1027, map (in 3 
sections) In [K>cket 

189. The Journal of Major Jacob Fowler, narrating an Adventure 

from Arlfunsas through the Indian Territory, Oklahoma, 
Kansas, Colorado, and New Mexico to the sources of Rio 
Grande del Norte, 1821-22. Edited, with notes, by Elliott 
OoueB. New York : Francis P. Harper. 1898. 8vo, pp. i-iiiv, 

190. Forty Tears a Fur Trader on the Upper Missouri. The Personal 

Narrative of Charles Larpenteur, 1833-1872. Edited, with 
many critical notes, by Elliott Couea. Maps, views, aud 
portraits. Two volumes, 8vo. New York : Francis P. Harper. 
1898. Vol. I, pp. i-xxvil, 1-236, portraits of Charles Larpen- 
teur and Pierre Garreau, and 5 views; Vol. II, pp. l-ix, 237- 
472, 5 portraits, 5 maps, and view of old Fort Pembina. 


191. On the Trail of a Spanish Pioneer. The Diary and Itinerary of 

Francisco Garcfis (Missionary Priest) In bis Journey through 
Sonora, Arizona, and California, 1775-76. Translated from 
an official contemporaneous copy of the original Spanish 
Manuscript, and edited, with copious critical notes, by Elliott 
Coues, Editor, * « * etc. Eighteen maps, views, and fac- 
similes. Two volumes, 8¥0. New York : Francis P. Harper. 
1900. Vol. I, pp. i-siK, 1-312, 2 maps, 2 facsimiles, and 4 
views; Vol. II, pp. i-vii, 313-608, frontispiece, 8 views, and 
1 map.