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Nineteenth Congressional District 






Author of Histories oS Niagara and Washitigton Counties^ New York; Preston 
and Monongalia Counties^ West Virginia; Somerset, Middlesex and Mon- 
mouth Counties, New Jersey; Pensacola City, Florida; and Fay- 
ette^ Westmoreland, Blair, Indiana, Armstrong, Schuyl- 
kill, Chester, Delaware and Montgomery Counties, 

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HISTORY and biography — the life of the nation and the story of the indi- 
vidual — are inseparably connected, for history is the synthesis of biog- 
raphy and biography is the analysis of history. That department of his- 
tory to which is accredited most value for the intelligent study of national life is 
biography, because it affords the most potent means of historical generalization. 

Biographical history is now popular because important. It secured national 
recognition in the Centennial year of the American Republic, when Congress recom- 
mended to every city, town and county of the United States the necessity and duty 
of securing for preservation and future use their local history and the biographies of 
their prominent and worthy citizens. Biography teaches the highest good by pre- 
senting worthy examples, has become an indispensable element of all branches of 
history and largely aids in the study of social philosophy. In its earlier stages of 
growth, biography was only the story of the lives of heroes and great men often but 
partly and partially told, but in its later development it is the more impartial and 
satisfactory record of the influential, the deserving and the useful men and women 
in every walk of life. It also preserves the names of thousands remarkable foj- 
wisdom, virtue, intelligence and ability, who only lacked opportunity to have won 
something of fame and distinction. 

History and biography have ceased to be ponderous and pompous; have ceased 
to be the story of monarchy and the record of kings, and are now the life of the 
nation through the chronicle of individual effort. The old idea that the history of 
a country is contained in the records of its kings and conquests is being supplanted ; 
the real history of a country or a State or a community is a history of its people, 
their fortunes, enterprises, conditions and customs. To the last quarter of a century 
we are indebted for the introduction of the admirable system of local biography, 
through the medium of which the present generation is enabled to leave a record 
that will be perpetuated while books last and men read. Surely and rapidly our 
common progenitors are passing to their graves. The number remaining who can 
relate the incidents of the first days of settlement is becoming small indeed, so that 
an actual necessity exists for the collection and preservation of personal records 

4 Preface. 

without delay. It is imperative that we perpetuate the names of these pioneers — 
their struggles, their obstacles, their fortunes and the story of their progress. No 
less important is a chronicle of the lives of those persons who have impressed them- 
selves upon their respective communities, whether through philanthropic, profes- 
sional, industrial, political or civic relations. The civilization of our day, the 
enlightenment of the age, and the duty that men of the present time owe to their 
ancestors, to themselves and to their posterity, demand that such a record be made. 

The foregoing principles and sentiments form the principal justification for the 
following pages. Whatever of merit they contain is due to the plan and purpose of 
the work satisfactorily consummated ; whatever of failure to meet our fullest ex- 
pectations, is due to the lack of intelligent cooperation which must in every instance 
be accorded in order to produce the highest results. 

The Nineteenth Congressional District occupies an important and honorable 
position in the Keystone State and demands the best work upon the part of historian, 
biographer and publisher. Neither time, labor nor expense have been spared in the 
preparation of this volume, and it is placed before the public with the belief that it 
will be found equal to any work of similar character published in the State. No 
originality is claimed either in plan, method or material, but a judicious re-arrange- 
ment of much valuable historical and biographical data it is hoped will meet with a 
fair, if not hearty, commendation. 

The geology and mineralogy given is taken largely from the volumes of the 
Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania ; for the historical chapters as well as for 
a number of historical biographies the excellent histories of York county, edited re- 
spectively by Hon. John Gibson and Hon. Adam J. Glossbrenner have been freely 
consulted ; the recent histories of Cumberland and Adams Counties have likewise 
contributed their share. For special contributions the publishers are indebted to 
Prof Charles F. Himes, Ph. D., John A. Hoober, Esq., Prof. E. S. Breidenbaugh^ 
Sc. D., Bennett Bellman, Esq., and Dr. J. C. Davis. 

Produced by a vast amount of careful and diligent labor, the Cyclopedia sup- 
plies a general and permanent want, and contains no information that will become 
obsolete through the advance of knowledge. It seeks to preserve all of value in the 
past and yet includes the contemporary actors who are performing the work and 
moulding the present thought of their respective communities in the various lines 
of progress and development. 




Nineteenth Congressional District, 

F»E; N N S Y I^ V J^rsl I .A. . 


Geography Topography — Geology — Mineralogy — Botany — Zoology — Political 

Divisions — Natural Resources. 

Geography. The present Nineteenth 
Congressional district of Pennsylvania, 
consisting of the counties of Cumberland, 
Adams, and York, is situated in the south- 
ern part of the State, and lies betvv'een the 
thirty-ninth and forty-first parallels of 
north latitude, and the seventy-sixth and 
seventy-eighth meridians of west longitude 
from Greenwich, England, or the first mer- 
idians of east and west longitude from 
Washington city As the nineteenth of 
the twenty-eight Congressional divisions 
of Pennsylvania, this district is bounded 
on the north by Perry and Dauphin coun- 
ties of the Fourteenth district; on the east 
by Lancaster county constituting the 
Tenth district; on the south by Harford, 
Baltimore, Carroll and Frederick counties, 
Maryland; and on the west by Franklin 
county of the Eighteenth Congressional 
district. The Nineteenth Congressional 
contains two thousand six (2006) square 
miles of area, while its geographical center 

is south of York Springs in Adams and 
its center of population near York in York 
county. It comprises the Twenty-eighth 
and Thirty-second senatorial, and the 
Ninth, Nineteenth and Forty-second judi- 
cial districts, and is entitled to eight repre- 
sentatives; two from Cumberland, two 
from Adams and four from York county. 
It is a part of the Second and Seventh 
State normal school districts, York county 
being in the former and Cumberland and 
Adams in the latter district. 

Topography. The Ninteenth district 
lies in the western part of the great 
Atlantic plain and stretching fifty miles 
westward from the Susquehanna to the 
Blue or Kittatinny mountains, is divided 
by the South Mountain of the Blue Ridge 
chain into a northern part embraced in the 
far-famed Cumberland valley and a larger 
southern part consisting of alternate hills 
and valleys. The northern part consti- 
tutes the county of Cumberland, while the 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

southern part is divided into the counties 
of York and Adams. 

Cumberland county Hes between the 
North and South mountains and in the 
Cumberland valley which is a part of the 
great limestone valley extending from 
Canada through New England, New York, 
Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia and Ten- 
nessee to Alabama. The north or Kitta- 
tinny mountain, whose Indian name of 
Kautatinchunk signifies "endless moun- 
tains," like a vast wall of regular height 
makes the northern boundary of the county 
and extends from northeast to southwest 
with a few gaps through which highways 
have been constructed to northward coun- 
ties. The South Mountain, the northern 
terminus of the Blue Ridge of Virginia, 
bounds the county on the southeast. 
Between these mountain boundaries lies 
the valley which comprises the larger part 
of the county and whose surface is gener- 
ally undulating except along some of the 
streams where it is more or less broken. 

York county the eastern and larger divi- 
sion of the southern part, has a hilly but 
not mountainous surface. From the South 
Mountain range, a spur is thrown ofif 
across the northern part of the county and 
southeast along the Susquehanna, where it 
is known as Priest's Hills or Haldeman's 
Mountains, and having the Hellam River 
Hills south of it. Further southward are 
several outlying or isolated ridges, the 
principal of which are the Conewago Hills 
extending toward York Haven, and the 
Pidgeon Hills terminating within eight 
miles of York. In the southeastern part 
are several slate ridges, one of which, the 
Martic Ridge, crosses the Susquehanna 
river from Lancaster county, and extends 
westward to Jefifersonville. Numerous 
beautiful and fertile valleys lie between 
these ridges and along most of the creeks 
and runs. 

Adams county, the western and smaller 
division of the southern part of the Nine- 
teenth Congressional district, is moun- 
tainous in the extreme western and north- 
ern parts, but rolling and level in the re- 
mainder of the county. Southward from 
the South Mountains are the Conewago 
Hills in the extreme east, and the Pidgeon 
Hills in the southeastern part. 

The drainage of the district with the ex- 
ception of the southern part of Adams 
county, is to the east and into the Susque- 
hanna by means of five arteries: Conedo- 
guinet, Yellow Breeches, Conewago, Co- 
dorus and Muddy creeks. The southern 
part of Adams is drained by Marsh Creek, 
and Cumberland county has its drainage 
to the northeast by Conedoguinet in the 
northern part and Yellow Breeches in the 
southern part, vv'hile York county is drained 
in the northern part by Yellow Breeches 
creek, and contains three entire drainage 
or water basins within its boundaries — Con- 
ewago and Codorus creek basins depressed 
to the northeast and Muddy creek basin to 
the southeast. 

The soil of the district consists princi- 
pally of limestone, red sandstone and slate 
varieties. The limestone lands extend 
through the central parts of Cumberland 
and York coimties and the eastern part of 
Adams county; the red lands comprise the 
northern part of York and the northern 
and central parts of Adams counties, and 
the slate lands constitute the northern part 
of Cumberland, and the southern parts of 
York and Adams counties. 

From dififerent parts of the North and 
South Mountains beautiful and extensive 
views can be obtained. From the crest 
of the historic Cemetery Hill at Gettysburg 
a grand natural panoram.a spreads out be- 
fore the spectator over the Marsh Creek 
valley horizon bound to the west by the 
South Mountain wall. Another beautiful 


view is obtained in Adams county from a 
mountain near Caledonia Springs. In 
York county, Round Top, rises one thous- 
and one hundred and ten feet above sea 
level and from its summit the visitor can 
gaze into several counties of the State of 
Pennsylvania and Maryland. Limestone 
regions contain many caves, some of which 
are noted for size, depth or beauty. The 
most extensive caves so far discovered in 
the Nineteenth district are two on the 
banks of the Conedoguinet creek in Cum- 
berland county, the one, a mile north of 
Carlisle, has been explored for some five 
hundred feet, and the other, two miles 
north of Greason, consists of several 
rooms over fifteen feet in height and 
abounds in stalactites. 

The average elevation of the Nine- 
teenth district above ocean level is placed 
approximately at 500 feet. In the northern- 
district, or Cumberland county, we have 
the elevations of the following places along 
the Cumberland Valley railroad furnished 
by J. B. Dougherty, of Chambersburg: 
Mechanicsburg, 436 feet; Dillsburg Junc- 
tion, 427; South Mountain Junction, 533; 
Carlisle, 477; Newville, 533; and Shippens- 
burg, 654. In the southern part of the 
district some of the Adams county levels 
are: Conewago bridge, 546; Littlestown, 
619; Bridge, 623; State Line, 540; above 
mean tide at Baltimore and Gettysburg, 535 
feet; Cashtown, 800; Rock Top, 1012; 
Newman's, 1355; Hilltown, 780; GraefTen- 
burg, 1020; Caledonia Springs, 1450; and 
highest point on South Mountain, near 
Caledonia Springs, 21 10; while of the num- 
erous elevations of York county above 
mean tide at Philadlephia, the following are 
given: York, 385 feet; Hanover, 601, 
Emig's Mills, 550; Dillsburg, 540; Lewis- 
berry, 601 ; Logansville, 734; Jefferson, 600; 
Franklintown, 580: Wellsville, 489; Longs- 
town, 637; Innersville, 680; Rossville, 501; 

Mount Royal, 547; Dover, 431; Wrights- 
ville, 257; Hellam, 348; Spring F"orge, 455; 
Glennville, 701; Delta, 435; Muddy Creek 
Forks, 366; Red Lion, 900; Dallastown, 
657; Spring Garden, 431; Brogueville, 478; 
York Haven, 291; Goldsboro, 304; Mount 
Wolf, 376; New Freedom, 827; Hanover 
Junction, 422; Conewago Hills, highest 
point, 800; and Round Top, mo. 

Geology. Not alone of interest to the 
student is the physical history and growth 
of the earth, for it is a subject of great 
importance alike to the farmer, the miner 
and the manufacturer. ,Although the geolo- 
gist in his line of work has need of aid 
from the botanist, the zoologist, the chemist 
the mineralogist and the mathematician, yet 
he requires no special preparation and has 
no use for expensive apparatus Although 
the subject of geology looks difficult to the 
general reader, yet it needs but common 
sense, observation and the common names 
of its Greek and Latin nomenclature, to 
render the greater part of the science plain 
and useful. A practical everyday knowl- 
edge of geology would save many a farmer 
expensive experiments for enriching the 
soil; would prevent the manufacturer from 
erecting a costly plant near mineral beds 
in formations that never carried them to 
any extent; and would save the miner from 
sinking a mineral shaft in a class of rocks 
which never yield paying minerals. 

Geology like all other sciences has been 
progressive, and the early classification of 
Primary, Secondary and Tertiary groups ot 
rocks, was found to be defective. Succes- 
sive attempted classifications of the age of 
the rocks by their order of superposition 
and their mineral characters failed, and 
then came the present division of the rocks 
according to the fossils or the types of life 
they exhibit as compared with our present 
orders of life. The classification most gen- 
erally accepted now is as follows : 

Biographical akd Portrait Cyclopedia. 



TTf iMa„,„;.. / Quarternary, Age of Man. 

IV. Neozoic, jfertiary, Afe of Mammals. 

r Cretaceous, '\ 

III. Mesozoic, -; Jurassic, V Age of Reptiles. 

(Triassic. j 

Age of Trilobites. 

T Art^h^an JHurOniaU. 

1. Archajan, | i,aurentian. 

Professor Frazer calls the first group, 
Eozoic, and fourth, Cainozoic, while 
Professor Rogers, gave the ages of the 
Mesozoic as Primal, Auroral, Matinal, Sur- 
gent, Cadent, Umbral, and Vesper, and the 
New York geologists, some years ago, gave 
to each formation a geographical name or 
a lithological definition. 

The great floor rocks of Pennsylvania 
were originally sandstone and limestone, 
but have been changed by heat pressure 
and chemical action into granite, gneiss, 
mica, slate and marble, and are the founda- 
tions upon which rest from one to twenty 
thousand feet of later formations. 

The northern part of the Nineteenth 
Congressional district comprising Cumber- 
land county, is geologically of great age. 
Commencing on the southern border we 
find a bed of Primary or Achean rocks in 
the South Mountains, overlaid by a silicious 
white sandstone. From the base of the 
South Mountain a great belt of limestone 
occupies the lower half of the valley and 
extends clear across the county, while the 
upper part of the valley lies in a slate belt, 
and the North Mountain region rocks -.are 
grey and reddish sandstone. A small de- 
tached area of limestone is in Penn town- 
ship, and a dyke of trap rock or greenstone 
extends north and south through the east- 
ern part of the county. 

In the southern part of the district we 
notice first, York county whose geology 
is given fully by Prof. Persifor Frazer in 
the "Historv of York Countv." The "Bar- 

rens" or slate lands commence in the 
southeast with a small area of chlorite 
schists crossed by the narrow belt of Peach 
Bottom roofing slates, and extending 
northward embraces a large area of Azoic 
slate, a long belt of chlorite schist, and a 
somewhat wider belt of hydro-mica 
schists. The Siluro-Cambrian limestone 
extends across the central part of the coun- 
ty in the valley of Codorus creek, enclosing 
a considerable area of quartzite or Pots- 
dam sandstone, between York and the Sus- 
quehanna river. The northern part of the 
county or the "Red Lands" is in the new 
red sandstone formation, which in that sec- 
tion encloses numerous narrow belts and 
several considerable areas of trap rock. In 
the extreme northern part is a small area 
of marl and two larger areas of Siluro-Cam- 
brian limestone, while a trap dyke crosses 
the limestone belt, another passes across 
the Azoic slate belt and a short one is in 
the southeastern part of the county. A 
considerable calcareous area is enclosed in 
the southwestern part of the limestone belt. 
Professor Frazer says that York county is 
a partial imitation of the United States geo- 
logically, having Archean rocks on the 
north and the south, and its intermediate 
portions made up of fossiliferous and newer 
formations, while portions of its valleys 
have successively formed the ocean bottom 
of four or five dift'erent geological epochs. 
He states that the Ezoic (Azoic) slates be- 
long to the Huronian age and the York 
county area of those rocks form an arch or 
anticlinal and is a part of a broad belt 
reaching in all probability from New Eng- 
land to Alabama. He calls the chlorite 
schists as Upper Ezoic, speaks at length 
of difficulties of placing properly Hellam 
quartzite (Potsdam sandstone) and the 
hydro-mica schists, which are the real iron- 
bearing formation of the county, and gives 
4,400 feet as the thickness of the Siluro- 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 

Cambrian limestone including the schists 
down to the quartzite, from measurements 
made on Kreutz creek. Professor Frazer 
discusses some of the puzzling questions 
arising from the study of the new red 
sandstone formation of the Mesozoic rocks, 
and states that its coal, copper and other 
valuable metals are not in paying quanti- 
ties. He says the trap rock is not as old 
as the Triassic, but appeared at no great 
length of time after the formation of the 
latter. Of the Cainozoic, (Neozoic) he 
gives as the sole representatives, the marl 
bed north of Dillsburg and the gravels, 
fluviatile deposits on the banks and islands 
of the Susquehanna river. Professor Frazer 
does not agree with some of the opinions 
of the chief geologist of the second survey. 

Adams county, the western part of the 
southern half of the district, consists largely 
of Mesozoic soft sandstone, of sedimentary 
formation, and belongs to the Reptilian age 
of Zoology. The chlorite schist of York 
county passes through the southeastern 
extremity of the county and borders the 
hydro-mica schist belt which extends west 
to the south Mountain foot hills, and forms 
the southern boundary line of the Siluro- 
Cambrian limestone that spreads over Con- 
ewago township and parts of Oxford and 
Union townships. An area of Potsdam 
sandstone is in Berwick township and the 
mountain ridges north of the Chambers- 
burg turnpike in Franklin and Menallen 
townships are largely of that formation. The 
South Mountain is in the Laurentian age 
of the Archaean or Azoic group, and con- 
sists chiefly of a gneiss sandstone forma- 

It is said that each system has its lime- 
stone, its sandstone or arenaceous rocks, 
and its clay bed or argillaceous rocks, and 
limestone, sandstone and clay are all found 
in different parts of the district. 

The paleontology of the district seems to 

have been a subject in the past that awak- 
ened but little interest, and received but lit- 
tle attention. The fossils of the district in- 
cluding petrifactions, casts, and impressions 
are abundant, yet the names of but few of 
them are to be met with in print. Pro- 
fessor Haldeman first recognized the Sco- 
lithus linearis, one of the few widely dis- 
tributed fossils of the Potsdam sandstone, 
but beyond this sea boring worm we find 
no record of any other important fossil. 

The geologic record of the district is one 
that goes back into the very dawn of the 
creation of the world, and its rock-written 
chapters when properly interpreted will 
constiute a history of startling and won- 
derful past changes. 

Mineralogy .The science of mineralogy is 
of practical value to civilized man teaching 
him how and where to find in the different 
classes of rock those mineral products nec- 
essary to his welfare and the development 
of his agricultural and manufacturing in- 
dustries. Without classifying the minerals 
of the Nineteenth Congressional district as 
to native elements or compounds, or record- 
ing their relative hardness by Mohl's scale, 
we shall state the main mineral products 
found in the rock groups in the district and 
present the names of the minerals given by 
the different historians and scientists who 
have written of its territory or mineral 
wealth. Commencing with the Azoic 
rocks we have slates and traces of marble; 
in the Palaeozoic systems are found sand- 
stones, limestones, slates, copper, iron ore 
and traces of gold and silver; while the 
Neozoic rocks furnish gravels, clay, sand 
and traces of bituminous coal. Cumber- 
land county is credited with magnetic and 
brown hematite iron ores, sulphuret of cop- 
per, red and yellow ochre, alum, copperas, 
Epsom salts, manganese, marl, marble, 
limestone, fireclay sand, marl and porcelain 
and stoneware clay. To York county is 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

given limestone, copper, magnetic, limonite 
and micaceous iron ores, sandstone, clay, 
roofing slate, pyrite, chalcopyrite, damour- 
ite, ripidolite, quartzite, magnetite, calcite, 
chert, hornblende, prasilite, and dolerite. 
Adams county is assigned the same iron 
ores and sandstones as York county; also 
is given copper, roofing slate and brick 
clays, besides sand, orthofeldsite, calcite, 
asbestos, dolerite, malachite, mica, gravel 
and trap. 

Botany. No classification of the plants 
of the district or any of its counties, has 
been made by any author or botanist. In 
the geographical distribution of plants the 
Nineteenth Congressional district lies in 
the warm temperate or the fourth of the 
eight plant zones of the world whose boun- 
daries are not parallels of latitude, but is- 
othermal lines. The flora of the district 
is one of importance, as well as of extent. 
It is characterized by forests of deciduous 
trees, including some evergreens, while 
the peach and other fruit trees are abund- 
ant, and the cereals, the potato, and various 
grasses, as well as dye and medicinal plants 
are found in each of the counties. 

In the Cumberland Valley, when the first 
white man came "the grass was rich and 
luxuriant, wild fruits were abundant, and 
there was a great variety of trees in places, 
including numerous species of oak, walnut, 
butternut, hickory, maple, cherry, locust, 
sassafras, chestnut, ash, elm, linden, beech 
and white pine. There was also a shrub 
growth of laurel, plum, juniper, persim- 
mon, hazel, wild currant, gooseberry, 
blackberry, raspberry, spice bush and 
sumach, while in the open country the 
strawberry, dewberry and winter green 
made a luscious carpeting and furnished to 
the Indians in their season a tempting and 
welcome partial supply of food." 

In Adams county most of these trees 
and shrubs grow, and in addition may be 

mentioned the gum, poplar, sycamore, 
birch, tulip, dogwood, and hemlock among 
trees, while of shrubs is the rhododendron. 

York county in early days contained 
nearly all the trees and shrubs common to 
Cumberland and Adams counties, although 
Prowell says that "A large forest of primi- 
tive trees is now (1886) almost a curiosity 
to the prosperous York county farmer." 
And while speaking of the useful plants, 
another class — the weeds — must not be 
overlooked, especially such pests as the 
daisy and the thistle. 

Zoology. The fauna of the Nineteenth 
district has been but partly secured by past 
writers. In the geographical distribution 
of animals the district falls in the North 
Temperate or second of the eight faunal 
realms into which the world is divided. 
This realm lies between the isotherms of 
32 degrees and 68 degrees, and is partly the 
home of the fur bearing animals. 

No classification of animals of Cumber- 
land county has ever been made, and 
Adams county only has its ornithology 
given by Professor Sheeley, who gives 3 
varieties of eagle, six of hawks, six of owls, 
two of rail, two of sapsuckers, wild turkey, 
turkey buzzard, turkey crow, pheasant, par- 
tridge, woodcock, English snipe, 3 varieties 
of plover, reed bird, wild pigeon, turtle 
dove, large blue crane, heron, willet, yellow 
shanks, American bittern, sand piper, king- 
fisher, wild goose, red head duck. Mallard 
duck, blue wing teal, spoonbill, sprigtail, 
wood duck, summer duck, loon, wren, chip- 
pen, tomtit, English sparrow, indigo, pee- 
weet, martin, bee martin, blue bird, 3 varie- 
ties of swallows, cow black bird, crow black 
bird, bell bird, rain bird, mocking bird, cat 
bird, thrush, robin, meadow lark, gold- 
finch, Baltimore oriole, bull finch, cardinal 
beak, yellow bird, whippoorwill, bull bat, 
common bat, woodpecker and yellow ham- 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 

In York county history a few names of 
its wild mammals have been preserved — the 
bear, wolf and deer. 

An ideal fauna and flora of the Mesozoic 
era would show the territory of the Nine- 
teenth district to have been covered with 
cone bearing and fern like plants, among 
which reptiles, roamed in large numbers as 
the representative animals. They were of 
great size, some walking, some swimming 
and some flying. It is likely the plant- 
eating Atlanto-saurus, a hundred feet long 
and thirty feet high was there with the 
Ichthyosaurus (fish lizard) and Pterodactyl 
(winged finger) and a hundred other mons- 
ter animal forms. 

Political Divisions. The Nineteenth 
Congressional district was formed in 1874 
of the counties of Cumberland, Adams and 

Cumberland county was formed from 
Lancaster, on January 27, 1750, being the 
sixth in order of age of the present sixty- 
seven counties of Pennsylvania, and has an 
area of 5,540 square miles. Its townships 
are Pennsborough and Hopewell formed in 
1735; East and West Pennsborough, 1745; 
Middleton, about 1750; Allen, 1766; New- 
ton, 1767; Southampton, 1783; Shippens- 
burg, 1784; Dickinson, 1785; Silvers' 
Spring, 1787; Franklin, 1795; Mifflin, 1797: 
North and South Middleton, 1810; Monroe 
1825; Newville, 1828; Hampden, 1845; 
Upper and Lower Allen, 1849; Middlesex, 
1859; Penn, 1859; Cook, 1872. The bor- 
ough organizations have been as follows: 
CarHsle, 1782; Newville, 1817; :Dmppens- 
burg, 1819; Mechanicsburg, 1828; New 
Cumberland, 1831 ; Newburg, 1861 ; Mt. 
Holly Springs, 1873; Shiremanstown, 1874; 
Camp Hill, 1885. 

Adams county was formed from York in 
1800, and has an area of 531 square miles, 
with Gettysburg as its seat of justice. Its 
townships are Berwick, formed in 1800; 

Conewago, i8oi; Hamilton, 1810; Free- 
dom, 1838; Union, 1841 ; Oxford, 1847; 
Butler, 1849; and Cumberland, Franklin, 
Germany, Hamiltonban, Highland, Hunt- 
ingdon, Latimore, Liberty, Menallen, 
Mount Joy, Mount Pleasant, Reading, 
Straban and Tyrone. Its boroughs are: 
Gettysburg, incorporated in 1806; Abbots- 
ford, 1835; Littlestown, 1864; York 
Springs, 1868; New Oxford, 1874; East 

Berlin, 1879; Fairfield, ; and McSher- 

rytown, 1882. 

York county was formed from Lancas- 
ter county, August 19, 1749, being the 
fifth county created in the province of 
Pennsylvania, and now has an area of 921 
square miles. Its 31 townships are Hallam 
or Hellam, formed in 1739; Chanceford, 
Fawn, Shrewsbury, Newberry, Dover, 
Codorus, Manchester, Warrington, Mona- 
ghan, Paradise and Manheim between 1740 
and 1744: Heidelberg, 1750; York, 1753; 
Windsor, 1758; Hopewell, 1767; West 
Manchester, 1799; Fairview, 1802; Wash- 
ington, 1803; Lower Chanceford, 1805 
Franklin, 1809; Peach Bottom, 181 5 
Spring Garden, 1822; Carroll, 1831 
Springfield, 1834; Lower Windsor, 1838 
North Codorus, 1840; Jackson, 1857; and 
West Manheim, 1858. Its 21 incorporated 
boroughs are: York incorporated 1787; 
Hanover, 1815; Lewisburg, 1832; Dills- 
burg, 1833; Wrightsville, and Shrewsbury, 
1834; Stewartstown and Fawn Grove, 1851 ; 
Logansville, 1852; Glen Rock, i860; Dover 
1864; Jefiferson, 1866; Dallastown, 1867; 

Manchester, 1869; Winterstown, ; 

Railroad, 1871: East Prospect, 1874; New 
Freedom, 1879; Red Lion and Delta, 1880; 
Spring Grove, ; and Goldsboro, Hel- 
lam, New Salem, Peach Bottom and 
Menges Station since 1885. 

Natural Resources. The Nineteenth 
Congressional district owes its military im- 
portance in time of war to its geographical 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

position, but its commercial supremacy and 
true greatness depend upon the form of its 
government, the spirit of its people, and the 
richness of its natural resources, whose 
complete development will be attained in 
the decades of the twentieth century. The 
natural resources of the district embraces 
its useful and precious metals; its lime, 
slate and building rock; and its incompara- 
ble wealth of pure water, copious rainfall 
and a health-giving climate, which, com- 
bined with fertility of soil and nearness to 
market, gives an assurance of good grain, 
tobacco and fruit crops and their ready sale 
at remunerative prices in prosperous times. 
In the great South Mountain are im- 
mense beds of magnetic and hematite iron 
ores sufficient to supply the larger part of 
the iron needed in all the manufactures of 
the United States, and deep beneath these 
beds are others of vast dimensions, which 
will likely not be utilized for a century to 
come. Copper ore exists in different parts 
of the district, but has never yet been found 
in paying quantities, while traces of silver 
and gold are reported. The siluro-Cam- 
brian limestone is found in almost inex- 
haustible beds in every county of the dis- 
trict, and the great belt of the celebrated 

Peach Bottom roofing slate passes through 
the southeastern part of York county, 
while massive ledges and large beds of 
granite are in Adams county, besides sand- 
stone and other building rock found also 
in York and Cumberland. Small areas of 
brick, fire, porcelain and pipe clays are to 
be found while building sand is plenty. 
Pure water is everywhere abundant and for 
domestics purposes Adams county is one 
of the best watered spots on the globe. 
Clear, pure, sweet, cold granite water in 
great abundance and at Gettysburg the drill 
has been sunk through 70 feet of a granite 
roof into a great subterranean lake of pure 
water. The rainfall of the district averages 
from twenty-seven to thirty-eight inches 
yearly and this in connection with a fertile 
soil has always given large cereal crops, 
fine fruit and an abundant yield of tobacco, 
in which latter product York county is one 
of the three leading counties of the Middle 
Atlantic States. The natural resources of 
the Nineteenth Congressional district — its 
iron ore, limestone, granite and fertile soil 
— make it one of the rich mining and agri- 
cultural regions of the "Keystone State," 
whose present wealth and growth give 
promise of a brilliant and successful future. 


Aborigines — Aboriginal Titles — Early Settlesients — Border Difficulties- 
Boundary Line — Manors of Springetsbury, Louther and Maske — 
Pioneer Races — Development Periods — Cities and Villages. 

THE Indian empire of the New 
World was magnificent in extent, 
and while scant in population 
and low in civilization, yet possessed won- 
derful natural resources and north of the 
equatorial line commanded unrivaled facili- 
ties for commercial supremacy by means of 
geographical conformation. 

In accurate ethnographical classification 
the American or so called Red race is a 
branch of the Yellow Type of mankind 
formerly called the Mongolian. The In- 
dian in complexion varies from a ruddy to 
a pale olive and Naidaillac in his Pre-his- 
toric America states the term Red arose 
from Columbus mistaking the color of the 
Antillian Caribs, who kept themselves well 
painted with red ochre. Indian life in its 
lowest type was found in the more or less 
nomadic tribes of Patagonia and the Rocky 
Mountains, while its highest civilization 
was reached in the lands of the Montezu- 
mas and the Incas of Peru, where cloth 
was woven, cities built, roads constructed, 
picture-writing introduced and a calendar 
used which was more accurate than that of 
the Greeks and Romans. The Indians 
although divided into numerous families, 
all came from one parent stock, and 
there was no tribe so degraded, but believed 
in a future state and had an idea of a Mas- 
ter of Life and an Evil Spirit, which held 
divided empire over nature. The numer- 
ous Indian languages are all pervaded by 

a remarkable analogy of structure and 
Humbolt says, "From the county of the 
Esquimaux to the straits of Magellan 
mother tongues entirely different in their 
roots, have, if we may use the expression, 
the same physiognomy." The Indian lan- 
guages have a wonderful capacity for ex- 
pressing several ideas and modifications of 
ideas in one word; and their idioms while 
regular and complicated in structure 
are rich in words. This language capacity 
of expressing several ideas in one word is 
illustrated in some of S. G. Boyd's Indian 
Local Names quoted elsewhere, in this 

The aboriginal history of the territory of 
Pennsylvania would be interesting if it 
could be presented. But Indian traditions 
are too dim, as well as to fanciful to give 
their own origin or the fate of their 
predecessor, the Mound Builder, whose 
seat of empire was in the Mississippi and 
Ohio valleys, where his temple, altar, 
effigy and tomb mounds, and forts and fort- 
ifications vi'ere numerous. The Indians 
were in all probability the aboriginal inhab- 
itants of the Nineteenth Congressional dis- 
trict as no ruins of mound or temple has 
ever been found within its territorial limits 
to speak of permanent occupation by the 
Mound-builder or great lost race of the 
American continent. 

The great Algonquin Indian family in 
1492 occupied the eastern part of the Uni- 


Biographical ant? Portrait Cyclopedia. 

ted States from the sea-board to the Appa- 
lachian mountains and encircled the Huron 
Iriquois family in New York and western 
Canada. Of the Huron-Iriquois the fierc- 
est and bravest tribes were the Mohawks, 
Oneidas, Cayugas, Onondagas and Senecas 
which constituted the Five Nations until 
1713, when they admitted the Tuscaroras 
from South Carolina and became the cele- 
brated Six Nations of Colonial and Revolu- 
tionary history. 

The Five Nations were the "Indians of 
Indians" and the "Romans of the West," 
and their wonderful confederacy was the re- 
sult of the "Tribal League of the Hodenos- 
aunee or People of the Long House." In 
each of the Five Nations were eight tribes 
arranged in two divisions and named as fol- 
lows: Wolf, Bear, Beaver, Turtle, Deer, 
Snipe, Heron, Hawk. 

Each tribe was then divided into five 
parts, and a part placed in each of the Five 
Nations. Thus the Cayuga of the Wolf 
tribe recognized the Mohawk of the Wolf 
tribe as his brother. This league, the 
highest effort of Indian legislation, forms a 
splendid and enduring monument to the 
haughty and powerful confederacy that was 
reared under it, and that spread the terror 
of its name among every Indian tribe from 
the Great Lakes to the everglades of 
Florida. The Five Nations utterly de- 
stroyed the Eries and swept away the 
Hurons of their own family, and sweeping 
down over the Catawba Warpath into the 
Carolinas spread death and ruin among 
the southern tribes. 

From a hundred successful fields of bat- 
tle, the Five Nations turned to contest with 
the Delaware nation of the Algonquin 
family for the ownership of the present ter- 
ritory of Pennsylvania. The Delawares 
were divided into three branches — the 
Turkey, Turtle and Monsey or Wolf tribes. 
This great contest between the Five Na- 

tions and the Delawares, resulted in the 
defeat of the latter, who then became ten- 
ants at will in Pennsylvania of the former. 
The Five Nations reduced the Delawares 
to the menial state of their women, and the 
Delawares afterwards by an ingeniously 
constructed story attempted to explain to 
the Whites their disarmament by strategem 
and their acceptance of the position of 
women from choice and not by force. 

The Delawares called themselves the 
Lenn, Lenape or Original People and 
claimed to have come from beyond the Mis- 
sissippi river to Pennsylvania, through the 
Ohio valley where they stopped long 
enough to destroy the Mound-builders. 
The Monsey or Wolf branch of the Dela- 
wares occupied the territory of the Nine- 
teenth Congressional district, but neither in 
record or through tradition do we get the 
names of the tribes that roamed from the 
Susquehanna to the North Mountain, 
spending the fishing season in river camps, 
and the hunting season in the mountain 
and valley villages where the women raised 
their small stock of maize The Delaware 
tribes in the district were joined by the 
Tuteloes and Nanticokes, from Maryland 
and in 1698, by the war-like Shawanes from 
the Carolina, while they all seemed partly 
under the dominion of the Conestogoe In- 
dians of Lancaster county, in whose vil- 
lages all the grand councils were held. 
There were also in the district the Manti- 
cokes, Mingoes and Susquehannas. 

Of their villages or towns there is but 
little record. The Conestogoe Indians had 
a town on the Susquehanna, in York coun- 
ty, called Conedoughela, and the Showanes 
had a village at the mouth of Yellow 
Breeches creek and another on the Cono- 
doquinet, while the Mingoes had a town 
on Letort run and near the site of Carlisle, 
and tradition credits an Indian village as 
near the site of Gettysburg. 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


Of the Indian trails of the district but 
Httle has been preserved A main north 
and south trail seems to have passed along 
the west bank of the Susquehanna, and 
was joined and also intersected by paths or 
trails running westward into the mountains 
and southwestward into Maryland and Vir- 
ginia. Some of these trails became traders' 
and missionary routes, and one was event- 
ually laid out into the old-time Monocacy 
road which ran from the site of Wrights- 
ville, past the sites of York and Hanover 
through York county and southwest in 
Adams county to the Provincial line. Many 
minor trails led to favorite hunting grounds 
and fishing points and were in use by the 
Indians until they commenced to remove to 
Ohio, upon the settlement of the white 
man. The Shawanees removed in 1725 
and by 1765 the remainder of the Indians 
in the district had taken up their westward 
journey toward the lands of the setting- 

Aboriginal Titles. The European title 
of the EngHsh to the territory of Pennsyl- 
vania was by right of Cabot's discovery of 
North America in 1497 and his voyage 
along the Atlantic coast in the ensuing 
year. After Penn acknowledged Indian 
ownership of the land of his province we 
find that the first deed in the chain of In- 
dian title for the soil of the Nineteenth Dis- 
trict, is dated January 3, 1692, and made by 
Ex-Gov. Dongan, of New York, to Penn 
for the land -on both sides of the Susque- 
hanna river which the former had boughv 
from the Five Nations. The Susquehanna 
and other Delaware Indians did not ac- 
knowledge the right of the Five Nations 
to sell these lands upon which they resided, 
treaties were made with these Delav.are 
tribes on September 30, 1700, and April 23, 
1701, by which they ratified the sale. The 
language of all the deeds and treaties was 
so vague as to how much territory was in- 

cluded in the transfer that Penn concluded 
to effect another purchase with more defi- 
nite limits before permitting settlements to 
be made west of the Susquehanna. In or- 
der to complete his title his heirs held a 
treaty with the Six Nations on October 1 1 , 
1736, and received a deed signed by the 
Sachems of five of Six Nations. Fourteen 
days later the Penns received a release 
signed by the sachems of all of the Si x Na- 
tions and the Indian title to the territory of 
the Nineteenth District was completed. 

Early Settlements. The first white 
men to come into the district were but tem- 
porary residents. There were French 
traders as early as 1707 in the Cumberland 
Valley where James Letort built his first 
cabin in 1720 and was the first white mm 
to have a temporary residence in Cumber- 
land county. At some time between 1720 
and 1725 Michael Tanner, Edward Parnell, 
Paul Williams, Jeflerey Sumerford and a 
few others became temporary residents 
on Kreutz Creek, near the site of Wrights- 
ville, in York county. They came under 
Maryland titles, were regarded as squatters 
and were driven away in 1728 by the Penn- 
sylvania authorities. A third class of tem- 
porary residents came into the western p.iri 
of the district with the Jesuit fathers from 
Maryland who were led by Josiah Gravton, 
S. J., frequently called Father Creighton. 
He came about 1720 and conducted reli- 
gious services in the wigwams of the 
Caughnawaga Indians, an Algonquin tribe 
from Canada, that were residents for some 
length of time in what is now Conewago 
township, Adams county. Father Gravton 
was followed by different priests and a 
cabin was built for church services. 

As temporary residents, about 1720, were 
in each of the three counties of the ]Hesent 
Nineteenth Congressional District, so per- 
manent settlers came about the same time 
in each of the counties and also settled at 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

the same places selected by the trader, 
squatters and missionaries. These early 
permanent settlements were made from 
1726 or 28 up to 1740, and were planted 
some years earlier than the Penns intended 
on account of the Marylanders commenc- 
ing to settle in the southern part of York 
and Adams county. The Penns purposed 
granting no lands in the district until the 
Indian title was extinguished, but alarmed 
by the Maryland attempt to settle they con- 
ferred with the Indians and gave Samuel 
Blunston authority to issue licenses to 
Penns3'lvania settlers for lands to be af- 
terwards granted to the holders when the 
Indian title was extinguished. 

In Cumberland county Letort most pro- 
bably took out one of these licenses. An- 
drew Ralston settled in 1728, west of the 
site of Carlisle, on a Blunston license. In 
1730, James Chambers settled near New- 
ville, and Robert Chambers, close to Ship- 
pensburg, where in the same year came 
Alex. Steen, John McCall, Richard and 
Gavin Morrow, John Culbertson, Hugh 
and John Rippey, John Strain, Alex. 
Askey, John McAlister, David Magaw and 
John Johnston. Among other early settlers 
were the celebrated Butler and Brady fam- 
ilies of Revolutionary and frontier fame, 
Robert Mickey, William Thompson and 
Andrew McElwain, of Newton, and Mif- 
flin township, and brothers-in-law ; Michael 
Edge, and the Houcks and Weakleys, of 
Dickinson township; Richard Parker, of 
North Middleton, who is said to have set- 
tled in 1725; and the Acheson family of 
West Pennsborough township; these set- 
tlers were principally Scotch-Irish, though 
often called Irish by the provincial authori- 
ties, and by 1736 a line of settlements had 
been made from the Susquehanna along the 
Yellow Breeches and Conedoguinet creeks 
through the Cumberland valley to the head 
waters of the Conochocheaque and the 

southwestern boundary line of the county. 

In York county John and James Hend- 
ricks settled on Kreutz Creek, in 1729, and 
while O'Day says they were English, 
Fisher thinks they were German. They 
were the first authorized settlers by the 
Penns, yet a township writer claims that 
John Grist, John Powell and other English 
settlers came about 1721. The English set- 
tled about the Pigeon Hills, while the Ger- 
mans spread along Kreutz Creek where 
only one English family, that of William 
Morgan remained in 1734. The next two 
settlement waves were between 1734 and 
1736, one being Scotch-Irish, settling in 
the southeast in the "York Barrens," while 
the other was English-Quaker and made 
their homes in the north and northwest in 
the "Red Lands." These English Quakers 
were from Chester county, and their loca- 
tion was selected by Thomas Hull, John 
McFesson, Joseph Bennet, John Rankin, 
and Ellis Lewis, who were prominent 
Friends in the new settlement and also in 
the county. We also have account of 
Martin Fry settling near the site of York in 
1734, and in the same year John Wright, 
Jr., was at Wrightsville, while German set- 
tlers are said to have been at or near Han- 
over as early as 1731. The first shoemaker 
was Samuel Landys; the first tailor, Valen- 
tine Heyer; and the first blacksmith, Peter 
Gardner, while the first schoolmaster was 
called "Der Dicke Schulmeister." John 
and Martin Schultz built the first stone 
dwelling houses, about 1735, and John Day 
built the first grist mill before 1740. 

In Adams county the first permanent 
settlers were the founders of the Little Con- 
ewago and Marsh Creek settlements. An- 
drew Shriver is credited with being the 
first permanent settler, and having settled 
in 1734 about 3 miles north of the site of 
Litt'estown, but the historian of Conewago 
township states that Samuel Lilly and 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 

Robert Owings settled in that locality in 
1730, and later came the McSherrys, Mc- 
Crearys, Marshalls, Sanderses and Reillys 
from Ireland, and the Sneeringers, Shrivers 
and others from Holland. These Cone- 
wago settlers were mainly Catholics, and 
the latter founded Conewago chapel. Fie- 
tween 1735 and 1741 the Scotch-Irish came 
to the head waters of Marsh creek, and 
north of the site of Gettysburg and among 
the leading families in this emigration were 
the Hamiltons, Sweenys, Eddies, Blocks, 
McClains, McClures, Wilsons, Agnews and 
Darbys. Bradsby in speaking of Shriver 
as the first permanent settler says "Here 
then was the first little fringe of civilization 
planted deep in the dark old forests of 
Adams county; sheltered under the wagon 
cover of Shriver's and Young's wagon, the 
"avant couriers" of the increasing sweep of 
that grand race of men who created the 
grandest empire in the tide of time; ferti- 
lizing its seed with the spirit of liberty and 
independence that was to leven the human 
race all over the world and yield the rich 
blessings of mental and physical freedom 
that we now enjoy. Shriver was a typical 
representative of the American pioneer, the 
most admirable, the greatest race of men 
and women that have appeared upon the 
earth in nineteen hundred years." 

Border Difficulties. The southern part 
of York and Adams county was a border 
land over whose possession Pennsylvania 
and Maryland were rival disputants for 
many years. These border difficulties arose 
from the dispute of Penn and Lord Balti- 
more over the boundary line between their 
provinces, as each claimed this territory to 
be within his chartered limits. Lord Balti- 
more as early as 1721 contemplated e.xtend- 
ing his northern boundary line west side 
of the Susquehanna up to the meridian of 
40 degrees north latitude, and in 1730 Col. 
Thomas Cresap and some others under 

Maryland authority settled at Blue Rock 
ferry 3^ miles south of Wrightsville. Bal- 
timore never recognized any Indian title 
and Cresap drove the Indians away which 
soon led to an angry controversy between 
the Pennsylvania and Maryland governors 
The Lancaster authorities soon warned 
Cresap, Carroll, and other Marylanders off 
the disputed territory, and John Wright, 
Jr., called the Marylanders "homing gen- 
cry," a term at which the followers of Bal- 
timore took ofifense. In 1734 an unsuc- 
cessful attempt was made to capture 
Cresap in which he mortally wounded 
Knowles Daunt, one of the Pennsylvania 
posse. The Marylanders made prisoners of 
John Hendricks and Joshua Minshall and 
put them in jail at Annapolis, where An- 
drew Hamilton and John Georges, Penn- 
sylvania commissioners, appeared in vain 
to secure their release or obtain a hearing 
of Penn's claims to the disputed territory. 
In 1736 a number of Germans, who had 
settled under Maryland authority, revolted 
and transferred their allegiance to Penn- 
sylvania, and later in that year, Colonel 
Hall, of Baltimore county, came into the 
disputed territory with an armed force of 
nearly three hundred men, but left in a 
short time. During their stay the sherifiE 
of Lancaster county assembled one hund- 
red and fifty men at John Wright, Jr.'s, but 
no hostilities occurred. Cresap cursed the 
Maryland militia for cowards, and was soon 
joined by Charles Higginbotham, who 
had plotted in Chester county with forty- 
nine others to obtain the revolted Ger- 
mans' land from the Governor of Maryland 
and upon the discovery of his plot fled to 
avoid arrest. Cresap was arrested on Sep- 
tember 25, 1736, and held as a prisoner for 
some time, and three years later in 1739, a 
temporary line was run by order of the 
Royal Council in England and ended the 
border difficulties by giving Pennsylvania 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

control of the disputed territory. 

Boundary Line. The great controversy 
over the boundary Hne between Maryland 
and Pennsylvania arose from ambiguity in 
royal grants and the ignorance of the geo- 
graphy of the section under consideration 
by the royal secretaries. While terms of 
Penn's charter were distinct as to his south- 
ern boundary line as being the beginning of 
the fortieth degree, yet the geography of 
the secretaries must have been at fault as 
the King did not certainly contemplate giv- 
ing Penn two-thirds of Maryland, includ- 
ing Baltimore. On the other hand Lord 
Baltimore's charter was the oldest yet its 
language was ambiguous as to his northern 
boundary as it did not state whether it was 
the beginning or the ending of the fortieth 
degree and the King surely did npt intend 
to give Baltimore the Chester county settle- 
ments and the site of Philadelphia. Penn 
naturally wanted his three charter degrees 
of width, and Baltimore likewise fought to 
save nearly all of his settlements and two- 
thirds of his province and but justly asked 
Markham "if this line, 'Penn's,' be allowed 
where is my province." Penn offered to 
buy the disputed territory of Baltimore but 
the latter refused to sell and appealed to 
the royal council which found that it could 
not rightfully allow either claim and re- 
sorted to compromise. The compromise 
line 39 degrees, fifteen miles south of Phil- 
adelphia, is by some supposed to be about 
where the royal secretaries supposed the 
one hundred and thirty-ninth parallel of lat- 
itude to be. This plan of settlement was 
agreed to, on May lo, 1732, by Thomas 
and Richard Penn and Charles, Lord Balti- 
more, the latter of whom prevented the 
actual marking of the provisional line 
by a suit in equity until a decree in royal 
coimcil in 1738, made it peremptory and 
ended the border difficulties referred to 
on a previous page. A temporary line 

was run in 1739 to the top of the Kitta- 
tinny mountains, and an effort in 1751 
to continue it was frustrated by Mary- 
land. Finally the proprietors, Thomas 
and Richard Penn and Frederick, Lord 
Baltimore, in 1 760, agreed to execute the 
survey of 1732 which had been held back 
by proceedings in chancery until May 17, 
1760, when the Lord Chancellor ordered 
the agreement of 1732 to be carried into 
specific execution. John Lukens and 
Archibald McLean on the part of the Penns 
and Thomas Garnett on the part of Lord 
Baltimore were chosen as surveyors, and 
commenced their work in November by 
agreeing on a center in Newcastle from 
whence the 12 mile radii were to proceed in 
determining the northern boundary of the 
present state of Delaware. The Baltimore 
surveyors wanted superficial miles while 
the other surveyors insisted on geometrical 
and astronomical mensuration. For three 
years the commissioners labored to trace 
out the twelve mile radius and the tangent 
line from the middle point of the west line 
across the peninsula, and were closely ap- 
proximating the true tangent, when they 
were notified that Charles Mason and Jere- 
miah Dixon, two eminent surveyors and 
mathematicians of London had been em- 
ployed by the proprietors to complete the 
work. Mason and Dixon arrived in No- 
vember, 1763, and from the tangent point of 
the Newcastle semi-circular line reached at 
15 miles south of Philadelphia, on latitude 
39 degrees, started the great west line 
which ran between Maryland and Pennsyl- 
vania and continued westward as the south- 
ern Pennsylvania line until 1767, when the 
Indians stopped them on the second cross- 
ing of Little Dunkard creek. 

Manors of Springetsbury, Louther and 
Maske. The grant to William Penn in 
1 68 1 contained special powers to erect 
manors which were confined to 10,000 acres 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


in every 100,000 acres and were to lie in 
one place. In a half a century these manors 
were construed in law not to mean such 
in a legal sense with its train of feudal ap- 
pendages, but a portion of country or pro- 
prietary tenths for private and individual 
uses or to be sold by special contract and 
not by stated prices. 

Springetsbury manor was the first of 
these manors to be laid out in the Nine- 
teenth District. It was named after 
Spiinget Penn, the grandson and one time 
the supposed heir of William Penn to the 
province of Pennsylvania. Springetsbury 
manor was first surveyed in 1722 by Gover- 
nor Keith, and resurveyed in 1768 when 
the plot was returned to the land office. 
The manor was eight miles wide and ex- 
tended back 15 miles from the Susque- 
hanna river in York county, including the 
town of York and 64,250 acres out of a 
proposed tract of 70,000 acres. The legal 
history of this manor in which Henry Clay, 
Daniel Webster and William Wirt figured 
is interesting but want of space prevents 
it's presentation 

Louther manor in Cumberland county 
contained 7,551 acres, was situated between 
the Yellow Breeches and Conedoguinet 
creeks extending back some distance from 
the Susquehanna river, and received its 
name in honor of a nobleman by the name 
oi Louther, who had married a sister of 
William Penn. This manor was first sur- 
veyed in 1732 as Paxtang or Paxton manor 
being set aside for the Shawanee Indians 
who afterwards refused to return on it. As 
Louther manor it was surveyed in 1765 and 
resurveyed in 1767. 

The third and last manor laid out in the 
district was the manor of Maske in what is 
now Adams county. This manor received 
its name from the title of an old English 
estate belonging to some of Thomas Penn's 
distant relations. The order of survey was 

issued in 1741 but the surveyors were 
driven off in that year by Scotch-Irish set- 
tlers on its soil, who had previously taken 
their lands by warrant and license. The 
survey was made in 1766, after a compro- 
mise with the Scotch-Irish, and its bound- 
aries included 43.500 acres instead of 30,- 
000 acres as originally ordered. The 
manor of Maske was nearly six miles wide 
and 12 miles long and included the sites of 
Gettysburg, Mumasburg, Seven Stars and 
McKnightstown. Its southern boundary 
was one half mile north of Mason and 
Dixon's line, and Gettysburg was in the 
eastern edge of the manor, 7^ miles north 
of the south boundary line. On the soil of 
this manor was fought the great battle of 
Gettysburg near the place where the 
Scotch-Irish drove away the surveyor and 
it is significant that while the Scotch-Irish 
won the right to their own labor, Gettys- 
burg gave the ownership of their own labor 
to 4,000,000 of negro slaves. 

West of the manor of Maske was Car- 
roll's Delight and east of it, Digges' Choice, 
two large tracts of land surveyed and set- 
tled under Maryland warrants. Carroll's 
Delight was a short distance west and con- 
tained 5,000 acres of land which was pat- 
ented by Lord Baltimore in 1735 to 
Charles, Mary and Eleanor Carroll, as be- 
ing in Frederick county, Maryland. The 
Carrolls had it surveyed in 1732 and sold 
numerous tracts to early settlers. Digges' 
Choice comprised the present township of 
Conewago, Union and Germany in Adams 
county and Heidelberg in York. The ori- 
ginal warrant granted to John Digges, a 
petty nobleman, of Prince George's county, 
Maryland, 1727, called for a tract of 10,000 
acres, of which 6,822 was surveyed in 1732 
under the name of Digges' Choice and com- 
prised the townships heretofore mentioned. 
Digges not only sold land within his patent 
bounds but also outside to some Germans 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

and soon conflicting claims between Penn- 
sylvania and Maryland settlers led to the 
commencement of the border troubles. A 
pait Oi the Germans outside of Digges' 
tract lines resisted his clai'.ns made on tlien!, 
and one of their nimiber, Jacob Kitzmiller, 
shot his son, Dudley Digges, and routed 
the Maryland sheriff when attempting to 
eject these German settlers. Kitzmiller was 
demanded by Maryland but held by Penn- 
sylvania and acquitted upon being tried, 
and M. A. Leeson writing of this event 
says: "This act and acquittal of the pea- 
sant shed new light on the land question 
and possibly was the second paving stone 
in the street which is leading to ownership 
of land by the cultivator of the land." 

Pioneer Races. To escape religious 
persecution three races speaking two dif- 
ferent languages and following the stand- 
ards of different churches, came almost 
contemporaneously as the pioneers of the 
Nineteenth Congressional District, where 
to differences of blood, language and re- 
ligion, they added difference of choice in lo- 
cating homes and settlements in different 
sections, distinguished from each other by 
possessing different kinds of soil. These 
pioneei races in order of age were: 

1. English Quakers on the Red Lands 
of York and Adams. 

2. German Protestants in the limestone 
valleys of York and Adams. 

3. Scotch-Irish Presb3'terians on the 
Slate Lands of York and Adams and the 
limestone and slate lands of Cumberland. 

One of the later and most powerful of 
the races of the human family is the Eng- 
lish ; and the making of the Englishman 
can be traced from the cradle and the nur- 
sery of the human race in Central Asia, 
away into five great climatic zones, around 
Vvhose settlement centers grew race masses. 
Three were in Asia, one along the Nile, and 
the other on the shores of the i'lediterran- 

ean, where civilization had its birth and the 
two great groups of modern nations, the 
Latin and the Greek, had their rise. Of 
the fierce northland German peoples, that 
swept from the Mediterranean to the Baltic, 
one was Teutonic, whose unconquerable 
t.nbes settled largely along the northward 
waterways from the heart of the great Ger- 
man forest to the North sea. Three of 
these tribes, the Angles, Jutes and Saxons, 
stretched westward along the North sea 
coast from the mouth of the Elbe river to 
that of the Weser. Their life was fierce 
and the land was wild, but both were 
needed, the one to fashion the earliest char- 
acter elements of the parent stock of the 
■\vondrous Englishman, and the other to 
render a birthland so uninviting as to drive 
its children forth to their destiny of an is- 
land home and a world-wide dominion. The 
Britons' appeal for aid against the Pictish 
invader of Scotland was answered by the 
grating of Anglican, Saxon and Jutish 
boats upon the British shore; but the in- 
vited defenders, when the Pict was driven 
back, became the self-appointed conquerors 
and the German nursery was exchanged for 
the island school grounds of the oncoming 
Englishman. The Angles gave their 
name to the country, the Saxons theirs to 
the language, while the Jutes were so few 
in numbers as to stamp their name in no 
prominent way and were even denied men- 
tion in the name of the new race, which 
at the time of their conquest by the Nor- 
mans was called Anglo-Saxon. The Anglo- 
Saxon had driven the Briton from the land, 
but when in turn they were conquered by 
the Dane and the Norman they remained, 
and in one hundred and fifty years had so 
largely absorbed their conquerers that they 
were an Anglo-Saxon and Norman-Dane 
people that became known as English 
when they aided the Barons, June 16, 1512, 
to compel King John to sign the Magna 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 

Charta, which secured some liberties for 
all the people of England, which had form- 
erly been called Angleland. From the 
granting of the Great Charter the English- 
man rapidly developed those magnificent 
and powerful traits of character for which 
he is noted all over the world. He warred 
with Wales and Scotland and France from 
1282 to 1450, and in the next hundred 
years had planted great colonies in the new 
world. In the meantime the strength of 
the English people was increasing in the 
growth of the House of Commons, whose 
power was instrumental in the destruction 
of the Feudal nobility in the War of the 
Roses, but was not powerful enough to 
restrain the Crown until the days of the 
Stuarts. Then the great struggle was 
fought out and Absolute monarchy went 
down in the great Revolution of 1688, 
when Constitutional government and a 
limited monarchy were established. One 
year later the Bill of Rights was passed, 
the Commons was in the ascendancy, and 
the making of the Englishman was com- 
pleted. His character was then fully formed. 
He was as tmbending as oak, possessed of 
great fortitude, and had a high sense of 
honor, and a strong love of home and 
country. Intelligence, genius and deci- 
sion are his in bountiful measure and 
though sometimes wrong, yet the English 
have swept forward in a career of great- 
ness among the nations of the earth that has 
only been equaled by the German empire 
in the old world, and only can be surpassed 
in the new world by the United States, the 
mightiest of England's m.any planted colo- 
nies in the different parts of the globe. The 
Society of Friends or Quakers arose in 
religious belief which was in opposition to 
England about 1650, and its members wer-- 
fined and imprisoned on account of their 
religious belief which was in opposition to 
all wars, oaths and a paid ministry. When 

Penn founded his colony as a home for re- 
ligious liberty his Quaker brethren came 
over in large numbers from England and 
controled the political policy of the province 
of Pennsylvania from 1682 until 1752, in 
which year several Friends withdrew from 
the legislature that their places might be 
filled by those in favor of prosecuting an 
Indian war provoked by unjust treatment 
of the savages. The pioneer English were 
all Friends or Quaker except a few who 
were members of the Established Church 
of England. Day credits John and James 
Hendricks as being the first English set- 
tlers in York county, in 1729, while Fisher 
seems to think that they were of German 
lineage. The Hendricks settled near the 
site of Wrightsville, and three years later 
Ellis Lewis and other Quakers from Ches- 
ter county came into what is now New- 
berry township, and were rapidly followed 
by their brethren from Chester county, 
Philadelphia and New Castle, Delaware, 
who settled the county between the Cone- 
wago and the Yellow Breeches creeks, or 
the northern part of York county, com- 
prising the present townships of Newberry, 
Warrington, Washington, Fair View, 
Monaghan, Carroll and Franklin. The 
Friends also spread westward along the 
Conewago into Latimore, Reading, 
Huntingdon and other townships of 
Adams county. Ellis Lewis and other 
Quakers who came to what is now New- 
berry township in 1732 gave the name of 
"Red Lands" to the county on account of 
the redness of the soil and rock. 

The second pioneer race was the Ger- 
man Protestants from the Palatinate of 
Germany who settled in the limestone val- 
leys of the Codorus and Conewago creeks 
of York and Adams counties. They were 
Lutherans, German Reformed, Moravians, 
German Baptists or Dunkards and Menno- 
nites in religious belief, and they spoke the 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

Allemannisch, Pfalzisch Schwabisch dia- 
lects with an admixture of South German. 
In due time a considerable number of Eng- 
lish words were incorporated and the re- 
sulting dialect is now known as Pennsyl- 
vania German, which name is also applied 
to the descendants of these Palatinate Ger- 
mans, with whom a few Swiss came and 
settled. These German Protestants were 
principally natives of the beautiful Rhine- 
land province of the Palatinate in Germany 
and the neighboring Rhenish Bavarian 
cities of Mannheim and Heidelberg, whose 
names they gave to two townships in which 
they settled in York county. Their trans- 
Atlantic homes were in a land of beauty, 
where sunny skies bent over vineclad hills, 
rich valleys and mountains covered with 
noble old ruins of Feudal times. It was 
also a land of song and story, being near 
"Bingen on Rhine," the wicked Bishop 
Hatto's rat haunted palace and the spot of 
the mythical sunken treasures of King 
Nibelung, after whom is named the Nibe- 
lungen Lied, that collection of famous epic 
poems which is often called the German 
Iliad. Byron in his tribute to this Rhine- 
land country of the Palatinates says, 
"The river nobly foams and flows, — 

The charm of this enchanted ground; 
And all its thousand turns disclose 
Some fresher beauty varying round." 
Religious and political wars and perse- 
cutions during the first half of the eight- 
eenth century marked the Palatinate and 
Bavarian territory with a wide swath of 
flame and a dark trail of blood, and sent 
thousands from those provinces to the new 
world in quest of peace and religious lib- 
erty. An able and interesting account ot 
the Pennsylvania Germans has been writ- 
ten by H. L. Fisher, who shows himself to 
be well acquainted with their ancestry. 
character, manners, customs and dialect. 
He speaks at length of their industry, thrift. 

patriotism and intelligence, and gives long 
lists of Pennsylvania Germans who have 
served with credit and distinction in na- 
tional, state and county affairs as senators, 
congressmen, governors, assemblymen and 
judges, and who have been prominent as 
artists,' soldiers, agriculturists, educators 
and divines. He makes an able defense 
of the Pennsylvania German dialect as not 
being a mongrel dialect as charged by 
many High German scholars whose lan- 
guage might be compared to Pennsylvania 
German as the regular army to the militia. 
Mr. Fisher says of the Pennsylvania Ger- 
mans "that as a body they are among the 
best, trustworthy class of people in this or 
any other country. Their ambition is, 
ever has been, and may it ever continue to 
be good rather than great, solid rather 
than brilliant, honest rather than rich. As 
practical farmers, they are unsurpassed; as 
mechanics, they are skillful, reliable and 
respectable; as merchants and financiers, 
they have shown equally with others that 
truth, candor, honesty and fair dealing are 
the very handmaids of success in business. 
As soldiers and civilians, as clergymen and 
laymen, and indeed in all the various rela- 
tions of life, we have seen them, on the 
average, equal to emergencies as they 
chanced to arise, and fully abreast of the 
times with their fellow-citizens of other na- 
tionalities. As colonists and pioneers in 
the great work of civilization they were 
behind none of them." Scharf says, "It is 
almost agreed by historians and philoso- 
phers that the capacity of a race of people 
to adjust itself to new environments is the 
proper test of the race's vitality. * * * 
Judged by this test, the Germans have a 
greater vitality than any other race, for 
they have been the emigrating race par ex- 
cellence, ever since the authentic history 
of man began." Hegel in commenting 
on the German spirit as the spirit of the 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


new world, says: "The Greeks and Romans 
had reached maturity within, ere they di- 
rected their energies outward. The Ger- 
mans on the contrary, began with self-dif- 
fusion, dehiging the world and over pow- 
ering in their course the inwardly rotten, 
hollow fabrics of the civilized nations 
Only then did their development begin by 
a foreign culture, a foreign religion, polity 
and legislation. This receptivity of the 
German races made them the best immi- 
grants in the world. Wherever they went 
they conquered the people, but adopted 
and assimilated their institutions. They 
became Gauls in Gaul, Britons in Britain, 
and they learned how to become Americans 
in the United States." The Palatinate and 
Bavarian Germans between 1729 or 1730 
and 1734 spread as the second settlement 
wave from fhe Susquehanna southwestward 
through the limestone valleys of York and 
Adams county and Kreutz Creek and Lit- 
tle Conewago were among the earliest set- 
tlements west of the Susquehanna. A por- 
tion of the Germans in the Conewago set- 
tlement were Catholics, and a few Swiss 
and French were among the German immi- 

The third and last great pioneer race 
was the Scotch-Irish Presbyterians, who 
came from the province of Ulster, in the 
north of Ireland and settled in the York 
Barrens, on the waters of Marsh creek and 
throughout the Cumberland Valley. The 
wonderful Scotch-Irish race, in its career 
among the nations of the earth, has been 
compared to the Gulf Stream in its course 
through the waters of the ocean. To trace 
the making of the Scotch-Irishman we 
must go back to the centuries before the 
Christian era, during one of which a branch 
of the Gallic or Celtic race from the wild 
interior of Asia settled in Asia Minor, 
which it named Galatia. This restless 
Gallic people soon left Asia, and passed 

through Italy, Spain and Southern France, 
to which latter it gave the name of Gaul, 
and settled in Great Britain, where it be- 
came the Celtic race of the British Isles. 
The branches that settled in Ireland and 
Scotland soon came to be known as Scots. 
In 430 the famous St. Patrick, a Scotch- 
man of patrician birth, made Ireland the 
field of his wonderful religious labors, and 
one hundred and twenty years later St. Co- 
lumba, an Irishman of Scot blood, and of 
the royal lineage of the house of Ulster, 
founded in the Scottish island of lona, on 
the ruins of an old Druid institution, the 
collej^e of Icolmkill, which shed its rays of 
light all over Europe during the darkness 
of the Middle Ages. Three centuries after 
the founding of this great college came the 
occupation of the seed bed of the Scotch; 
Irish race, which lies in the watergirt re- 
gion embracing the southern part of the 
lowlands of Scotland, then known as 
Stathclyde; and the river-encircled plain of 
northern England, which at that time bore 
the name of Northumbria. Into this pe- 
culiar region came the Dalriadaian Scot 
from" the north of Ireland in large numbers 
to absorb its few' Celtic inhabitants who 
were descendants of the ancient Britons of 
King Arthur's days. The boldest of the 
Vikings and Sea Kings sailed up the rivers 
of this land and left many of their bravest 
followers to become a part of a new form- 
ing race by infusing into it the best blood 
of the Norseman, the Dane and the Saxon. 
This people was known as the Lowland 
Scot, and from 1047 to 1605 passed slowly 
through a fixing period in which they as- 
sumed a new character under the preach- 
ing of John Knox, and made their name 
famous throughout Europe as the fighting 
grandsons of the "old raiders of the North." 
In 1605 the Lowland Scot was ready for 
transplanting by the Divine Husbandman, 
and in April 16, 1605, the English court 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

signed the charter to colonize Ulster or the 
North of Ireland with the Bible-reading 
Lowland Scot and the choicest blood of 
England in Northumbria. The Lowland 
Scot stock in Ulster was modified through 
immigration by the choicest elements of 
the Puritan, the Huguenot and the Hol- 
lander, and thus became the Ulsterman, 
noted for thrift, prudence and prosperity. 
He made a war-worn desert a fertile land, 
and then finding himself persecuted by the 
English government, he changed from the 
contented colonist to the exasperated 
Scotch-Irish emigrant. By persecution 
the LUsterman was made ready for his mis- 
sion in the new world, where settling on the 
western frontier of the Thirteen Colonies, 
he became the Scotch-Irishman of history, 
so named from the dominating strain of his 
blood and the land from which he had 
come. The Scotch-Irishman protected 
the settlements from the Indians, was 
prominent in the Revolution and mainly 
instrumental in winning the Northwest 
Teniiory. The characteristics of this race 
are: independence, education and Script- 
ural faith; and being "first to start and last 
to quit," can claim that his past is his 
pledge to the future. A clear and elo- 
quent description of the Scotch-Irish by R. 
C. Bair, says, "injected as they were 
by force among the sects and races, their 
short career of distinct provincialism was 
full of momentous possibilities. The 
Scotch-Irish are no longer an individual 
people; they are a lost and scattered clan. 
The world has absorbed them; they are 
part of the leaven of its mighty develop- 
ment." Craig analyzes finely the character 
of James I, of England, tells truthfully and 
eloquently the history of the Scotch-Irish, 
and thinks that Barrens of York county, 
where a number of them settled, were not 
rendered treeless by the Indians burning 
the timber for hunting purposes. Between 

1734 and 1736 the Scotch-Irish settled in 
the Barrens or southeastern part of York 
county; on Marsh creek around the site of 
Gettysburg in Adams county and in a long 
line of settlements through the Cumber- 
land valley from the Susquehanna to the 

A century later than the early settlements 
of the Scotch-Irish, came a fourth race — 
the Welsh — emigrant by choice and not 
pioneer by religious persecution. The 
Welsh came from about 1836 to 1850 and 
settled in Peach Bottom township, York 
county, where they founded the village of 
West Bangor and number over 700 of a 
population. They came from the slate 
region of the North of Wales, are an in- 
telligent, industrious and remarkably relig- 
ious people and have become very pros- 
perous in operating the Peach Bottom 
slate quarries and mines. 

In speaking of the place each of these 
pioneer races occupied and the influence it 
exercised in building up the state and the 
nation we find a brilliant summary made by 
Bair who says: "If you were to ask what 
in it (the past) were the mightiest forces 
employed in laying the foundations of our 
republic, of vitalizing its genius, of sur- 
mounting its imposing structure with the 
glory of American ideas, I would answer 
there were four. These were the four: 
The Puritan, which was pure; the Hugue- 
not, and Waldensee, which was sturdy; the 
Quaker, which was passive, devout; the 
Scotch-Irish, which was belligerent and 
God-fearing. '•' * while the German lived 
in fertile valleys, growing rich, the Scotch- 
Irishman dwelt upon the poorest hills, pro- 
ducing brains. While the Quaker loved 
freedom he hated strife. * * These four 
are the bed rock of American society. 
They all came with their Bibles and here 
is the genius of our strength. The one be- 
lieved in prudence and preaching; anotl;er 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


in perserverance and plowing; another in 
peace and persuasion; tlie Scotch-Irisli in 
pluck and power. They all believed in 
prayer and Providence." 

Development Periods. From the time 
when this territory was yet a wilderness 
down to the present day the counties of 
the Nineteenth Congressional district have 
made their history one of progress and de- 
velopment. The history of the district 
may be divided into the following twelve 
periods, of which nine are development 
and three are war periods ; 

1. Pioneer Period 1720-1736 

2. Early Settlement Period. ... 1736-1754 

3. French and Indian War Period 

1 754- 1 763 

4. Backwood's Period 1763-1775 

5. Revolutionary War Period. . 1775- 1783 

6. Iron Manufacturing Period. 1783- 1809 

7. Pike Period 1809-1831 

8. Canal Period 1831-1840 

9. Early Railroad Period 1840-1861 

10. Civil War Period 1861-1865 

11. Improvment Period 1865- 1876 

12. Progressive Period 1876 

The pioneer Period, although but six- 
teen years in duration, was one of priva- 
tion, danger and suffering. There were 
no roads or mills and but few wagons or 
bridges west of the Susquehanna. In- 
dians and wild beasts were numerous and 
coimnunication with Lancaster was main- 
tained chiefly b}' pack horse travel over 
paths blazed through the woods. There 
were no physicians but two or three 
preachers, and neither meeting nor school 
houses. The single story log cabin, and 
the small clearing were the prominent land 
marks of the period. The Indians ob- 
jected to settlements being made and the 
Maryland authorities threatened to drive 
the settlers away. Toward the close of 
the period stone houses were built, pedlars 
came out with their packs and John Day 

built his grist mill twelve miles north of 
the site of York. These pioneers, Eng- 
lish, German and Scotch-Irish, were the 
advance guard of civilization west of the 
Susquehanna, and their clearings consti- 
tuted the most of the settlement centers 
between the river and the North and South 

Following the pioneer came the early 
settler, and the Early Settlement Period 
extended from 1736 to 1754 when all pro- 
gress was checked by war with the French 
and Indians. The period commenced 
most auspiciously as the Indians sold their 
claim to the land and Maryland agreed to 
refrain from further invasion. Hundreds 
of immigrants came with each year; farms 
were increasing in number and size; better 
houses, and a few churches and school 
houses were built, and the different com- 
munities became connected by dirt roads, 
the first of which was surveyed and laid 
out in 1735 from Harris' Ferry to Ship- 
pensburg, while the first road in York 
county was the Monocacy road laid out in 
1739 over a trader's route from Wrights- 
ville past the sites of York and Hanover to 
the Maryland line and the earliest road in 
Adams county was laid out in 1742 from 
the site of Gettysburg to York. The main 
events of this period were the opening of 
dirt roads; the erection of York (1749). 
and Cumberland (1750) counties; and the 
founding of York (1741), Shippensburg 
(1749) and Carlisle (1751); and the stop- 
ping of Penn's survey in the Marsh Creek 
settlement by the Scotch-Irish settlers 
there. The settlement centres of the 
Pioneer Period — often marked by a mill, 
church or fort, were beginning to be suc- 
ceeded by the town germs of the Early 
Settlement Period. In the great Kittoch- 
tinny. North or Cumberland valley and the 
Conococheague, Letort, Conedoguinet, 
Big Spring, Yellow Breeches and Ship- 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

pensbiirg settlements had grown so fast as 
to found the towns of Carlisle and Ship- 
pensburg; while the Kreutz Creek, Cone- 
wago, Newberry, Codorus, Lewis, Wright's 
Ferry and York Barrens settlements, only 
had one town germ — York; and the 
Marsh Creek and Little Conewago settle- 
ments were represented by Woodstock 
now Hunterstown. 

The French and Indian war came in 1754 
and interrupted all settlement and progress 
during the nine years of its continuance, 
except the founding of Abbottstown in 
1755. This period was principally dis- 
tinguished for frontier fort building, the 
origin of the Associator companies and the 
erection of Dick's bloomary (1756) in York 
county, while it is marked by numerous 
Indian incursions whose sorrowful memo- 
ries of inhuman murders will be handed 
down unto the latest generation. 

Succeeding the French and Indian war 
came a Backwood's Period of twelve years, 
stretching from the last colonial war to the 
great Revolutionary struggle. The Back- 
wood's Period was noted for town growth. 
York, Carlisle and Shippensburg increased 
rapidly in size and population, and became 
such important places on the great high- 
ways of travel from Philadelphia to Balti- 
more and the west that York contained 
eighteen licensed taverns in 1765, while 
Carlisle and Shippensburg each had sev- 
eral taverns. New towns were also 
founded. Hanover and Dover were laid 
out respectively in 1763 and 1764; McSher- 
rytown in 1763, and Lisburn in 1766, while 
a few other towns would likely date back 
about 1765 if their history had been written 
a few years ago. The peddler of the Pio- 
neer Period with his packhorse, and the 
small cross roads store room were largely 
superseded by the town store of respectable 
dimensions for that day. Settlements were 
widening out, frame, stone and brick 

houses were being built and saw and grist 
mills were going up at dififerent points, 
while churches and school houses were in- 
creasing rapidly, and permanent phvsicians 
came into the district. The "Conestoga" 
wagon was introduced about 1770, and the 
horse travel for the west from Carlisle and 
Shippensburg called for horses by the 
hundred. The fires of the first forges and 
furnaces in the district were lighted up be- 
tween 1763 and 1770, and immigration 
poured into every county, adding to old 
and forming new settlements; but growth 
and prosperity were a second time arrested 
by the ruthless hand of war, when the news 
of Lexington swept like a flame of fire 
over hill and dale, and awoke a spirit of 
independence in every breast. 

The Revolutionary war lasted eight 
years and while it checked settlement, 
stopped immigration and stayed pursuit 
and industry, yet it gave political indepen- 
dence and the soldier life of the hundreds 
who went from the district into the Conti- 
nental armies broke down the clannish 
spirit of the Scotch-Irishman and the Ger- 
man alike, leading to more homogeneous 
relations between those antagonistic races. 

The Revolution was succeeded by the 
Iron Manufacturing Period of thirty-six 
years, during which forge, furnace and 
rolling mills were actively operated in 
Cumberland and York counties, and con- 
stituted the predominant interest of the 
district. Distilling, wool carding, fishing 
and lumbering were active industries, while 
agricultural interests were greatly advanced 
by the introduction of clover in 1800 in the 
northern part of York county. Between 
1790 and 1800 Gettysburg and several 
other towns were founded, and in 1800 
Adams county was formed from York, 
while in the next nine years town-founding 
and town-building were still prominent 
features. Between 1800 and 1809 there 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


was a considerable stream of emigration 
from the district to Kentucky and Ohio. 
In 1785 the first college — Dickinson — and 
the first newspaper — the Carlisle Gazette — 
were established. In 1789 Wright's 
Ferry came very near being selected as the 
site of the national capital. Postoffices 
were established at York, Carlisle and 
Shippensburg about 1790, the Conewago 
canal, the first canal in the United States, 
was built around the Conewago Falls, be- 
tween 1792 and 1796, and the old Columbia 
bridge was erected in 1809. 

As manufactures and farm products in- 
creased there was a demand for good roads 
for transportation and travel, and the Pike 
Period came in the history of the district 
where it held place for twenty-two years. 
In 1809 the Susquehanna and York Bor- 
ough, the Hanover and Maryland Line, 
turnpikes were commenced. The next 
year the State Road from Harrisburg to 
Gettysburg was surveyed. The Hanover 
and Carlisle road was commenced ini8i2; 
the York and Maryland Line, in 1814; the 
Harrisburg and Chambersburg, in 1816; 
the Berlin and Hanover in 1818; and the 
York and Gettysburg in 1819. Over these 
roads passed great numbers of carriages 
and stages and long lines of wagons. Dur- 
ing the Pike Period, Free Masonry was 
introduced by the institution of St. John's 
Lodge at York in 1810, and Gettysburg 
Theological Seminary was established in 
1826, but the great event of the period was 
the war of 1812 which did not however 
airest public enterprise or private effort 
although the district was threatened by in- 
vasion when the British attacked Balti- 
more. Some paper towns were laid out on 
expected results of the Susquehanna lum- 
bering and fishing industries. 

The Canal Period opened in 1831 when 
the public demanded a trial of canals as 
cheaper routes to city markets than were 

afforded by turnpikes. The Conewago 
canal allowed lumber and boats to pass the 
Conewago falls on the Susquehanna river, 
which was the great water-front of the dis- 
trict, and the Codorus canal of three miles 
with eight miles of slack water connected 
York with the river, but no canal route to 
the cities was offered until 1831 when the 
great Pennsylvania canal was constructed 
past the eastern part of the district offering 
a water route from Philadelphia to Pitts- 
burg. The packet boat supplanted the 
stage coach but this route was too long, 
and a demand was made in 1836 for the 
building of a canal from Columbia down 
the Susquehanna and tide water canal. 
This canal was built at a cost of $4,000,000 
and opened to the public in 1840. The 
opening of the Pike Period was marked by 
the founding of Pennsylvania College and 
its closing year witnessed the introduction 
of the reaper. 

Boundary lines are hard to draw be- 
tween the Pike and Canal Periods and the 
terminal limit of the latter is closely blended 
with the initial line of its successor. The 
Early Railroad Period which seems to 
stretch from 1840 to 1861 is a distinctive 
part of the history of the district. Although 
the Northern Central, the York and Mary- 
land Line and Cumberland Valley railroads 
were built by 1838 yet they did not gener- 
ally effect the canal trade until two years 
later. The York and Wrightsville road 
was completed in 1840. the York and Cum- 
berland, in 1850, and the Hanover and 
Littlestown in 1858. During this period 
Odd Fellowship was introduced into the 

district in 1843 when Lodge was 

instituted at Shippensburg, the Cumber- 
land Agricultural Society was formed in 
1854, and the Shippensburg State Normal 
school organized in 1857. All progress 
was arrested by the late Civil War in thf 
gloomy spring days of 1861. 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

Following the late Civil War came an 
Improved Period reaching form 1865 to 
the Centennial Exhibition, during which 
every industry was quickened into new life 
and increased production, the old and some 
new railways were important factors of de- 
velopment in this period which was distin- 
guished by improvements in every field of 
human industry where comfort, conven- 
ience or usefulness were matters of consid- 
eration. Improved conditions of life seem- 
ed to be among the predominant ideas of 
this period of 1 1 years, which recorded the 
recovery of this nation from the depressing 
effects of the greatest war of modern times. 

The Centennial year was alike a century 
and a period mark, ushering into existence 
an era unequaled in the world's advance- 
ment and opening the twelfth historical or 
the ninth development period of the Nine- 
teenth Congressional District. The visit 
of hundreds from the district to the Cen- 
tennial at Philadelphia had much to do 
with calling into existence the present Pro- 
gressive Period. Viewing the exhibits of 
every land in ever}' department of industry 
and education they came back with broad 
views and new ideas of mental and material 
progress whose consummation became 

their life-work. Thus the wonderful re- 
sults of industry and invention were 
brought prominently before the people 
whose taste was farther educated by the 
Columbian Exposition, the latest and 
greatest of internation exhibits. The im- 
proved service of railway and telegraph, 
the introduction of the telephone, phono- 
graph and electric light and motor power, 
and of labor-saving machinery in mine, 
shop and factory and on field and highway 
has rendered splendid the record of mater- 
ial progress in the celebrated old counties 
of the Nineteenth District. 

Cities and Villages The only city so 
far in the district is York, an important 
railroad, manufacturing and educational 
center in York county. The most popu- 
lous and important boroughs are men- 
tioned in the preceding chapter, while the 
numerous pleasant and prosperous villages 
will be described in Chapter X. These 
boroughs and villages nestle beneath the 
mountains, sleep in the green valleys or 
stand upon the highways of travel and 
commerce in the Nineteenth Congressional 
District which holds high and worthy 
place in the great Commonwealth. 


French and Indian War — The Revolution — Continental Congress — Frontier 

Defense — National Capital Site — Whiskey Insurrection — War of 1812 

Mexican War — War of the Rebellion — Subsequent Military History. 

THE MILITARY history of the 
Nineteenth District is one of in- 
terest and event, and attained to 
national importance in the Revolutionary 
struggle and the war for the preservation 
of the Union. Soldiers of the district have 
served in six wars of the Republic against 
foreign foes, savage Indians and domestic 

French and Indian War. Unjust 
treatment of the Indians by the Whites 
roused the savages to resistance and led to 
invasions and cruel murders along the 
western frontier from the Hudson to the 
Delaware. The just and peaceful policy 
of the Quakers preserved peace on the 
western frontiers of Pennsylvania for 
nearly seventy years, and then their power 
was not sufficient to control their own or 
influence the legislation of adjoining pro- 

There was an Indian alarm on the west- 
ern border of Cumberland and Adams 
county in 1745 and another in 1748, when 
an associated regiment of ten companies 
was raised in the Cumberland valley, but 
no Indian depredations were committed. 
The first measure of protection taken for 
the benefit of the expose"d settlements was 
the building of frontier forts, which were 
mostly stockades. This fort building con- 
tinued pretty actively from 1753 to 1764, 
and of these forts in Cumberland county 
we have account of the following: Letort 

and Louther forts built in 1753; Fort Crog- 
han, in 1755; Forts Franklin and Morris, 
at Shippensburg, in 1755; and Forts Fer- 
guson and McAllister, in 1764. After 
Braddock's defeat in 1755 the Cumberland 
valley and part of Adams county was al- 
most deserted by the settlers, and the In- 
dians threatening from the north four forts 
of some size were built above the North 
Mountain in the Susquehanna valley. In 
the ensuing spring Shingis and Captain 
Jacobs led large bands of Delawares into 
the Cumberland valley and in one in- 
stance at the Great Cove killed and cap- 
tured 50 whites. Settlers were killed and 
captured almost in sight of Carlisle and 
Shippensburg, the two main fortified posts 
along the North Mountain. Captain Cul- 
bertson followed the Great Cove raiders 
and was killed with 11 of his men in a 
fight west of Sideling Hill, and Captain 
Hance Hamilton who followed an other 
war party lost seven men in a fight with 
them. Col. John Armstrong led an expe- 
dition in 1757 against the Indian town and 
headquarters at Kittanning, on the Alle- 
gheny river which he destroyed, and thus 
gave rest to the Cumberland Valley from 
Indian raids for a couple of years. Then 
in 1759 followed a few raids, one of which 
penetrated York county and killed two 
men, while several were killed in Adams 
and a number killed and captured in Cum- 
beiland, but the next four years passed 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

with but few Indian depredations. The 
French who had urged on the Indians to 
these raids were dispossessed of Canada 
and 1763 when Indian troubles were sup- 
posed to be nearly over the mighty war- 
chief Pontiac commenced his daring war of 
extermination against the English forts 
and settlements and the Delawares and 
Shawnees from Ohio burst like a whirlwind 
on the Cumberland valley. The settlers 
again fled by hundreds to the forts and to 
points east of the Susquehanna river and 
the Cumberland valley and the western 
part of Adams were in a manner deserted 
until Boquet's victory at Bushy Run broke 
the power of the Indians east of the Ohio 
river and restored some confidence, but as- 
sociate companies were kept under arms as 
late as 1765. Col. John Armstrong, Capt. 
Hance Hamilton, the Bradys and Butlers 
and the mysterious hunter scout and In- 
dian slayer Captain Jack were the leaders 
of the settlers, and while numbers of the 
savages were killed yet many whites were 
murdered and taken prisoner and different 
settlements almost ruined. 

The Revolution. The French and In- 
dian war was the special training school in 
which the thirteen colonies prepared them- 
selves for their oncoming and successful 
struggle for independence from England. 
From weight of numbers and aggressiveness 
of character, three elements of American 
population — the Puritan, the Cavalier and 
the Scotch-Irish, were predominant factors 
in opposing parliamentary usurpations and 
carrying on the Revolutionary struggle to 
a successful termination. The Dutch of 
New York, the Germans of Pennsylvania, 
the Catholics of Maryland and the French 
Huguenots of Georgia and the Carolinas, 
in proportion to their numbers, bore well 
their parts in the great struggle. The Puri- 
tan of New England received the first 
shock of the contest that was carried south- 

ward to its termination in the land of the 
Cavalier. The Cavalier like the Puritan 
fought mainly in his own territory, but the 
Scotch-Irish from their center in western 
North Carolina spread both northward and 
southward along the Allegheny mountains 
and fought from Bennington to King's 
Mountain, at which places they turned the 
tides of war that led to the surrender of 
Burgoyne and Cornwallis. 

Resistance to Parliamentary oppressions 
was roused west of the Susquehanna, 
nearly a year before Lexington and Con- 
cord called the colonies to arms. On June 
12, 1774, the citizens of York county were 
called to meet at Yorktown, where on that 
day resolutions in favor of Boston's resist- 
ance to commercial restrictions were passed 
and a committee of thirteen members ap- 
pointed as a committee of correspondence. 
A call was also issued in the Cumberland 
valley, and on July 12th, a meeting was 
held at Carlisle and a committee of corres- 
pondence appointed of thirteen members in- 
cluding Cols. John Armstrong and Eph- 
raim Blaine, the latter being popular on ac- 
count of his brave defense of Fort Ligonier 
during Pontiac's war. In 1775 aid was 
raised for Boston in Cumberland and York 
counties, the latter of which contributed, 
£246 8s. lod. 

When the news of Lexington came and 
Congress called for troops the committee 
of Cumberland county acted so promptly 
and so efficiently that by May 6th 3000 men 
were formed into associator companies, 
having but 1,500 arms and 500 men were 
ordered to march when needed. The 
county was assessed 27,000 pounds for mil- 
itary purposes, and the First Rifle regi- 
ment of Pennsylvania was raised within its 
boundaries. This regiment was formed 
within ten days after the battle of Bunker 
Hill and its officers were: William Thomp- 
son, colonel; Edward Hand, lieutenant-col- 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


onel; Robert Magaw, major; and James 
Chambers, Robert Cluggage, Michael 
Doudel, WilHam Hendricks, John Loudon, 
James Ross, Matthew Smith, and George 
Nagle, captains; Dr. WiUiam Magaw was 
surgeon, and Rev. Samuel Blair served as 
chaplain. The regiment numbered 798 
men all told, was raised for one year and 
then re-enlisted for the war. The First 
Rifle regiment was composed of men of 
splendid physique and unerring marksmen- 
ship, who were dressed in white rifle shirts 
and round hats, and its record was one of 
hardship and bravery from Boston to 
Yorktown. Smith and Hendricks com- 
panies were under Arnold at Quebec, and 
part of the regiment was captured in Cana- 
da. The regiment afterwards fought in 
every battle under Washington from Long 
Island to Yorktown, and then went with 
Wayne to the south where it was in the 
last battle of the Revolution at Sharon, 
Georgia. Of its commanders Thompson 
and Hand became brigadier generals, and 
Captain Chambers was promoted to col- 
onel, while Captain Wilson became major. 
Some men from Cumberland county were 
in the Second, Third and Fourth battalions. 
The Fifth battalion was raised chiefly in 
the county and left in March, 1776, under 
command of Col. Robert Magaw, formerly 
major in the First Rifles. The Fifth was in 
the retreat from Long Island and then vvitii 
other troops were placed to garrison Ft. 
Washington which was so gallantly de- 
fended by Colonel Magaw, who was finally 
compelled to surrender, when the soldiers 
of the Fifth were made prisoners and held 
until the close of the Revolution. The 
Third regiment organized in Cumberland 
county was the Sixth Pennsylvania, whose 
officers were: William Irvine, colonel; 
Thomas Hartley, lieutenant-colonel ; 
James Dunlap, major; and Samuel Hay, 
Robert Adams, Abraham Smith, William 

Rippey, James A. Wilson, David Grier, 
Moses McLean, and Jeremiah Talbott, 
captains. A portion of the Sixth was cap- 
tured in Canada June 6, 1776, and in 1777 
the broken Sixth and Seventh were con- 
solidated in one command which servea 
until the close of the war. Of the officers 
of the Sixth, Colonel Irvine was promoted 
brigadier-general, and Captain Grier to 
colonel. Colonels Frederick Watts and 
John Montgomery commanded regiments 
taken at Ft. Washington, which were sup- 
posed to have been largely recruited in the 
Cumberland valley, and Capt. Jonathan 
Robinson commanded a company which 
fought at Princeton. In 1777 under a new 
militia organization the battalions were 
numbered in each county. The First bat- 
talion of Cumberland was successively com- 
manded by Col. Ephraim Blaine and Col. 
James Dunlap. The Second battalion was 
commanded successively by Cols. John 
Allison, James Murray and John Davis. 
The Fourth battalion was under Col. Sam- 
uel, and the Fifth was commanded by Col. 
Joseph Armstrong, while the Sixth had for 
its commander, Col. Culbertson. The 
Seventh battalion of Cumberland couniv 
county was under Col. William Irvine, and 
the Eighth was commanded by Col. Abra- 
ham Smith. Many of the enlistments were 
for six months and often a soldier served 
in several commands during the war. The 
county furnished 334 men to the Flying 
Camp in 1776, and in that year Capt. Wil- 
liam Peebles commanded a company of 81 
riflemen which fought on Long Island and 
at Princeton. Some of the companies 
raised were from what is now Franklin 
county and it is impossible to give a full 
list of the officers and men who served from 
Cumberland county. Col. James Smith, 
Capt. Samuel Brady, Col. Patrick Jack, 
often called Captain Jack, the wild hunter 
of the Juniata, and the five fighting But- 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

lers were among the officers of the county 
who distinguished themselves in the Revo- 
Uition and afterwards on the frontier. Col. 
James Smith offered to raise a battalion of 
riflemen accustomed to the Indian method 
of fighting but Washington declined to in- 
troduce such an irregular element into the 
army. In 1777 a Tory plot was discovered 
to destroy public stores at Carlisle, York 
and other places, and the estates of several 
persons implicated were sold by the com- 
mittee on forfeited estates and the money 
used for the purchase of arms and provis- 
ions. From 1777 to 1780 wagon masters 
were appointed for the county which fur- 
nished at one time as high as 800 four- 
horse wagons to transport stores and sup- 
plies. The owners of the wagons were 
paid for them and the number of horses 
furnished. Armories were kept up at Car- 
lisle and Shippensburg and William Den- 
ning succeeded in making two cannon of 
wrought iron, one of which was taken by 
the British at Brandywine and is said now 
to be in the tower of London. Col. Ephraim 
Blaine served as assistant quartermaster- 
general of Washington's army, and his 
extensive fortune was ever at the disposal 
of his county. Others were equally pa- 
triotic with Col. Blaine, and pastors Hke 
Craighead, Steel, King, and Cooper not 
onlv preached in favor of war but enlisted 
and served under Washington; and the pa- 
triotism of the people was such that on May 
23, 1 776, they sent a memorial to the assem- 
bly in which they boldly advocated separa- 
tion from Great Britain if necessary for the 
freedom and happiness of the colonies. The 
assembly acted favorably on the petition 
and when Congress took final action on the 
motion for Independence, Pennsylvania 
was carried in its favor by the casting vote 
of James Wilson, of Cumberland county. 
York county was as active in the cause of 
independence as Cumberland, and her com- 

mittee of correspondence was appointed at 
a meeting held in York, June 24, 1774, 
when aid was promised to Boston in resist- 
ing parliamentary measures of injustice. On 
the 28th and 29th of July, 1775, the county 
was divided into five battalion districts. The 
companies of Yorktown, Manchester, 
Windsor, Codorus, York and Hellam town- 
ships comprised the First battalion com- 
manded by Col. James Smith. The com- 
panies of Cumberland, Hamiltonban, 
Straban, Menallen, Mt. Joy and Tyrone 
townships formed the Second battalion 
commanded by Col. Robert McPherson. 
The companies of Heidelberg, Berwick, 
Paradise, Mt. Pleasant, Germany and Man- 
heim townships constituted the Third bat- 
talion under command of Col. Richard 
McAllister. The companies of Chanceford, 
Shrewsbury, Fawn and Hopewell town- 
ships formed the Fourth battalion, under 
command of Col. William Smith. The 
companies of Dover, Newberry, Monaghan, 
Warrington, Huntingdon and Reading 
townships constituted the Fifth battalion 
commanded by Col. William Rankin. 
From each of these battalions a company 
of minute men was to be organized to form 
a battalion whose officers were Richard 
McAllister, colonel; Thomas Hartley, lieu- 
tenant-colonel; and David Grier, major. In 
September, 1775, there were reported the 
names of 3,349 officers and men in militia 
or associator companies. In 1776, David 
Grier, Moses McLean, Archibald M'Allis- 
ter and other captains raised companies 
which served in the celebrated First Rifle 
or nth regiment of the Pennsylvania Line 
which has been described in a preceding 
paragraph. In May, 1776, Capt. William 
McPherson recruited a rifle company which 
was attached to Colonel Miles command at 
Philadelphia, and in July, five battalions of 
militia marched from York county to New 
Jersey, where two battalions were formed 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


from them to become a part of the Flying 
Cainp and the remainder sent home. The 
Flying Camp numbered 10,000 men organ- 
ized in three brigades, the first of which was 
commanded by Gen. James Ewing, of York 
county. The First battalion of York coun- 
ty comprised eight companies in numerical 
order commanded by Capts. Michael Smei- 
ser, Gerhart Graefif, Jacob Dritt, Christian 
Stake, John McDonald, John Ewing, Wil- 
liam Nelson and Williams. The 

Second battalion had six York and Bucks 
county companies. The York companies 
■were: Bittenger's, McCarter's, McCon- 
key's. Laird's, Wilson's and Paxton's. 
These battalions suffered terribly on Long 
L<lan(l ,ind at Fort Washington where 
nearly all of the First battalion were taken 
prisoners. In 1777 two calls were made 
on the York county militia and in April, 
1778, the county had 4,621 militia divided 
into eight battalions of eight companies 
each numbered from first to eighth. 
The First battaHon was under Col. James 
Thompson and the companies in numeri- 
cal order were commanded by Capts. 
William Dodd, Daniel Williams, John 
Shover, Daniel May, James Parkinson, 
Benjamin Heable, Francis Boner, and 
John O'Blainess, with 873 men. The 
Second battalion, Col. William Ranlcin, 
with Capts. William Ashton, John Ran- 
kin, Simon Copenhaver, Jacob Hiar, 
Emanuel Harman, John Mansberger, Wil- 
liam Walls and Yost Harbaugh, and 514 
men. The Third battalion. Col. David 
Jameson, with Capt. David Beaver, Got- 
fried Fry, Peter Frote, Christ Lauman, 
Alex. Ligget, George Long, and Michael 
Halm, and 521 men. The Fourth battal- 
ion, Col. John Andrew with Capts. , 

John King, William Gilliland, Samuel Mor- 
rison, John AIcElvain, John Stockton, Sam- 
uel Erwin, and Thomas Stockton, and 529 

men. The Fifth battalion. Col. Joseph Jef- 
fries, with Capts. John Maye, Adam Black, 
William McCleary, David Wilson, Joseph 
Morrison, WiUiam Miller, Thomas Orbison 
and John Paxton, and nearly 500 men. 
The Sixth battahon. Col. William Ross, 

with Capts. Laird, Casper Reineka, 

, Frederick Hurtz, Peter Ickes, 

Leonard Zenew and Abraham Sell, and 630 
men. The Seventh battalion, Col. David 
Kennedy, with Capts. Thomas Latta, 
Thomas White, John Miller, Peter Aldin- 
ger, John Arman, George Geiselman, Jacob 
Ament and John Sherer and 489 men. The 
Eighth battalion, Col. Henry Slagle, with 
Capts. Nicholas Gelwix, John Reed, Wil- 
liam Gray, , John Reppey, Jos- 
eph Reed, and Thomas McNery, and 487 
men. Cols. David Jameson, and Thomas 
Hartley, Gens. Henry Miller, and Jacob 
Dritt, Col. Martin Dill.Maj. Joseph Prowell 
and Ensign Jacob Barnitz were among the 
prominent militar}' men of York county in 
the Revolution, but of the many brave sol- 
diers and officers from the county who 
fought for independence, only a scant rec- 
ord can be found. 

The territory of Adams county then a 
part of York, sent many of Scotch— Irish 
and German sons to fight on the battlefield 
of the Revolution. Quite a number of 
York county companies were raised on 
Adams county territory, and bore well their 
part on march and in battle. The promi- 
nent military leaders were Cols. Robert Mc- 
Pherson, Fiance Hamilton and Richard 
McAllister. Men from Adams as a part of 
York were in many of the York companies 
which served in the First, Fourth, Fifth, 
Sixth, Seventh, Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh and 
Thirteenth Pennsylvania regiments of the 
Continental Line, Pennsylvania State regi- 
ment of artillery and Armand's and Pulas- 
ki's legion. 

From the scant evidence obtainable it 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

would appear that over 8,000 men from the 
present territory of the Nineteenth Con- 
gressional district served in the Revolution- 
ary army, while at least 10,000 were en- 
rolled in regular militia organizations. 

No invasions of the district were ever 
made by British forces, but in 1776 the 
British prisoners at Lancaster were re- 
moved to Carlisle and York, and Lieuten- 
ant, afterwards Major, Andre was of the 
number sent to the former place. The 
Hessians captured at Trenton were sent to 
York and Carlisle and at the latter place 
built the barracks used for years as a cav- 
alry training school and which stood on the 
site of the present Indian school. From 
time to time during the war British prison- 
ers, principally Hessians, were sent to York 
where they were given many liberties and a 
number were induced to leave the English 
service. In 1781 the convention prisoners, 
(Burgoyne's men) were sent from Virginia 
and Maryland to York in order to prevent 
their rescue by Cornwallis. These prison- 
ers were placed 4^ miles east of York and 
in Windsor township, where they cleared 20 
acres of woodland and surrounded it by 
picket fence 15 feet high. Within they 
built their huts and remained there guarded 
by American troops until the war closed. 

The story of the Revolution as often told 
in the past needs not repetition on these 
pages, yet it might be well to correct two 
once prevalent errors in connection with 
that great struggle. The German troops 
in America were not all Hessians, and the 
latter were neither ferocious nor blood- 
thirsty ; and that the ablest statesmen and 
the intelligent mass of the people of Great 
Britain did not sanction the measures of 
the Parliamentary party in power that car- 
ried on the Revolutionary war. 

In history the Revolution is recorded as 
a gigantic struggle for the rights of man, 
when a nation was born in a day, and the 

dial hand on the clock of human progress 
moved forward in a greater advance than it 
hitherto had marked in five centuries. 

Continental Congress. Upon the near 
approach of Howe's army to Philadelphia, 
Congress took steps to remove from the 
city and on September 14, 1777, resolved 
to meet on the 27th at Lancaster. Recon- 
vening at Lancaster on the 27th, it did not 
deem itself safe east of the Susquehanna 
river, and adjourned the same day to meet 
at York, where it continued in session from 
September 30, 1777, till June 27, 1778. 
Congress held its sessions during this per- 
iod in the court house in Centre Square, 
where it sat daily with closed doors and 
considered some of the momentous issues 
of the Revolution one of which was the re- 
moval of Washington from the chief com- 
mand of the American armies. During 
the nine months that Congress was in ses- 
sion at York that place was really the capi- 
tal of the nation. At York, Gates was wel- 
comed, Steuben came and Lafayette repor- 
ted. There the Conway cabal was formed 
and Congress remained during the darkest 
hours of the Revolutionary war that ex- 
tended from Valley Forge to Monmouth. 

Frontier Defense. After Pontiac's de- 
feat in 1763 the frontier line of defense was 
west of the Alleghenies, but as late as 1794 
Indian depredations along the Mononga- 
hela and Allegheny rivers and in Ohio were 
so bad that the President called upon Penn- 
sylvania for nearly 11,000 militia, of which 
Cumberland and York counties raised their 
respective quotas, the latter furnishing 822 
men. Wayne's victory at the Fallen Tim- 
bers broke forever the Indian power on the 
western frontier of Pennsylvania. 

National Capital Site. In 1789 and 
1790 Congress took up the consideration of 
a site for the national capital. New York, 
Philadelphia, Germantown, Harrisburg and 
Wright's Ferry were named. The house se- 



lected Wright's Ferry, but the Senate sent 
back the bill with Germantown inserted in 
place of Wright's Ferry, which change the 
house refused to accept, and Congress ad- 
journed without making any selection. At 
the next session the south urged the Po- 
tomac river but was ovitvoted and finally 
the northern and southern leaders compro- 
mised on Philadelphia as the seat of gov- 
ernment for ten years and then the build- 
ing of a capital city, near Georgetown on 
the Potomac. 

Whiskey Insurrection. The much dis- 
cussed but little understood whiskey insur- 
rection, was the first rebellion against the 
United States government and required a 
large army under the command of Wash- 
ington and some of his ablest generals to 
crush it. The Whiskey Insurrection ex- 
tended over southwestern Pennsylvania 
and northwestern part of Virginia now the 
northern part of West Virginia. The cause 
of the insurrection was a law of Congress 
passed in 1791, which laid an excise of four 
pence per gallon on all distilled spirits. The 
insurgents were largely farmers, who lived 
so far from market that it was impossible to 
transport their grain for sale, but manufac- 
tured into whiskey it could be carried to 
the cities and sold at a profit. Grain was 
their only production and in form of whis- 
key was their only source of revenue and 
means of paying taxes and buying land. 
The officers sent out to collect the excise 
west of the Alleghenies were tarred and 
feathered and driven out of the country by 
"Tom. the Tinker's men" who then erected 
"Liberty Poles" and organized in armed 
resistance which compelled the government 
to resort to force for its suppression. The 
insurgents numbered nearly twenty-thous- 
and, many of whom were Revolutionary 
soldiers and splendid marksmen, and hav- 
ing the Alleghenies for a natural fortifica- 
tion would have made stubborn resistance, 

but they were without leaders of military 
ability and experience. Washington fully 
tmderstood the nature and extent of the in- 
surrection and its danger to the new formed 
government whose powers were but barely 
recognized and not yet fully understood and 
in 1794 ordered out 15,000 men, the largest 
army which he ever commanded. The in- 
surgents realizing their want of military 
leaders and learning of the large army 
marching upon them disbanded; and when 
the United States troops arrived west of the 
Alleghenies order was restored and national 
authority recognized. Washington's army 
was raised in the Middle Atlantic States, 
and the quota of Pennsylvania was 5,200 
men of which York county furnished 572, 
and Cumberland 363. The insurgents in 
Cumberland county on September 8, 1794, 
erected a liberty pole in Carlisle which 
they held by force of arms for a few hours. 
They however disbanded and scattered 
upon the approach of troops, ordered out 
by the State authorities. Washington on 
his way out with the army stopped at Car- 
lisle and Shippensburg and on his return 
to Philadelphia passed through York 
county, crossing the Susquehanna at a 
ferry below New Cumberland. 

War of 1812. When President Madi- 
son declared war against Great Britain in 
1812 he was nobly sustained by Governor 
Snyder, of Pennsylvania, and the 14,000 
men called for from the Keystone State 
could have been trebled so great was the 
enthusiasm of the people. 

Cumberland county raised four full com- 
panies of six months' men, ready to march 
whenever ordered. Two small rifle com- 
panies—one from Carlisle and the other 
from Mechanicsburg — were united under 
command of Capt. George Kendall and 
won imperishable honor for themselves at 
Chippewa. Men from the county fought 
bravely on the Niagara border under Lt. 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

Col. George McFeely and W. D. Foiilke. 
Several companies including the Patriotic 
Blues commanded by Capt. Jacob Squier, 
took an important part in the defense of 
Baltimore, while the Carlisle Guards, under 
Capt. Joseph Halbert, went to Philadelphia 
to aid in its protection in September, 1814. 

In Adams county was a strong peace 
party who denounced the War of 181 2, but 
militia companies were organized subject 
to marching orders, and in 1814 Adams 
and York constituted the Fifth of the fif- 
teen military districts of the State, and were 
required to form two brigades, the first 
from York and the second from Adams. 
Antagonistic to the peace party was a war 
following, and Adams county men fought 
at Baltimore and also served under Scott, 
who complimented them as being good 

York county responded promptly to the 
call of Governor Snyder for troops and 
placed her militia on marching orders, but 
they were only called for in 1814 to help in 
the defense of Baltimore. Capts. Freder- 
ick Metzgar and John Bair, with two com- 
panies of York county men, were attached 
to a Mar3dand regiment at the battle of 
North Point, where the "York Volunteers" 
a company commanded by Capt. (after- 
wards Colonel) Michael Spangler fought 
with the steadiness and bravery of veterans. 

Mexican War. During the war with 
Mexico, Pennsylvania furnished two regi- 
ments and ofifered additional regiments 
which were refused. 

Cumberland county furnished many re- 
cruits to the Fourth United States artillery 
which was stationed at the Carlisle bar- 
racks in 1846. This artillery did valiant 
service at Buena Vista. Capt. John F. 
Hunter raised at Carlisle Co. G, nth in- 
fantry, which lost nearly half of its members 
in Mexico. Besides these two companies 

there were other companies in which Cum- 
berland county men enlisted. 

Although no company was called from 
Adams county, yet natives and residents 
of the count)' enlisted and served through 
the war. 

With her usual zeal in military matters 
York county responded to the call for 
troops for Mexico, but no company could 
be accepted from the county and her sons 
enlisted in other companies that had been 
accepted. Nine men from York borough 
enlisted in Co. C, First Pennsylvania A^ol- 
unteers and others were in the Fourth 
Ohio, and Eleventh Pennsylvania, while in 
the regular army were Maj. Granville O. 
Flaller, Lieut (afterwards Maj.-Gen.) W. 
B. Franklin, and Lieut. H. B. Gibson, na- 
tives of the county. Of the naval officers 
in service in Mexican waters were: George 
P. Welsh, Samuel R. Franklin and William 
Gibson, who were from York county. 

War of the Rebellion. In the dark 
April days of 1861 the country was rudely 
wakened from a peace dream of half a cen- 
tury to meet the shock of civil war. When 
Beauregard's circling batteries opened fire 
on Fort Sumter the country realized the 
fact that a terrible war was at hand, and 
when Lincoln called for troops to main- 
tain national authority and protect the na- 
tional capital, no counties in the union were 
more loyal or enthusiastic in responding 
with men than those which now constitute 
the Nineteenth Congressional district. 

In commencing the record of this dis- 
trict's honorable and distinguished part in 
the greatest war of modern times, attention 
is directly called to the Cumberland Val- 
ley, the natural route for southern armies 
of invasion. Cumberland county was 
roused by the fall of Ft. Sumter, as it had 
been by the news of Lexington, and three 
companies profifered their services in a 
week after Lincoln's first call for troops. 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


One of these companies left on April 13, 
1861, and was mustered into the service at 
Harrisburg, April 23rd. The first com- 
pany, the Sumner Rifles, Capt. Christian 
Kuhns, became Co. C of the Ninth Penn- 
sylvania, and the second company, Capt. 
Jacob Dorsheimer, was raised at Mechan- 
icsburg, and became Co. C of the Sixteenth 
Pennsylvania. Both of these companies 
served in Virginia and the second one was 
the first company to reenlist from this 
State. The Carlisle Light infantry, which 
had been in existence since 1784, was mus- 
tered mto the First reserves or 30th Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers, as Company H, under 
command of Capt. Robert McCartney, and 
the Carlisle Guards, under Capt. Lemuel 
Todd, became Co. I of the same regiment, 
whose record is one of magnificent fight- 
ing in the Army of the Potomac from 
Fredericksburg to Bethesda Church and 
especially at Gettysburg, where it made 
two brilliant and successful charges. Com- 
panies A and H, of. the Thirty-sixth rfgi- 
ment of Seventh Reserve, were raised re- 
spectively by Capt. R. M. Henderson and 
Capt. Joseph Totten. Co. A was the 
Carlisle Fencibles, receiving a beautiful 
flag from Mrs. Samuel Alexander, the 
granddaughter of Col. Ephraim Biaine, 
and Company H was recruited at Mechan- 
icsburg. The Seventh fought bravely 
through the Peninsula campaign, at An- 
tietam and Fredericksburg and was drawn 
into an ambuscade at Chancellorsville and 
272 of its men and officers captured and 
sent to Rebel prisons, where many of them 
starved to death before Sherman's ''march 
to the sea" gave them release. The es- 
caping remnant of the regiment took part 
in the desperate fighting of Grant's Rich- 
mond campaign until its time expired. 
Edward B. Rheem, Jacob Maloy and 
Henry Hyte, of Company A, each captured 
a Rebel captain's sword at Fredericksburg, 

where Corporal Jacob Cart, of the same 
company captured the battle flag of the 
Nineteenth Georgia, the only Union trophy 
of the battle of Fredericksburg. Cumber- 
land county furnished two companies of 
cavalry at a time when that branch of the 
service was of great value, besides furnish- 
ing a number of men to the Anderson 
troop and Independent company of cav- 
alry recruited at the Carlisle barracks in 
the latter part of 1861. The first com- 
pany commanded by Capt. S. Woodburn, 
had been known as the Big Spring Adam- 
antine Guards for over 50 years. It be- 
came a part of the Third cavalry which 
served with the Army of the Potomac un- 
til its time expired and then from it was 
formed the veteran battalion which ren- 
dered such splendid service at Gettysburg. 
The second company commanded by Capt 
D. T. May, joined the Seventh Cavalry 
which fought at Chicamauga and in other 
western battles. The third and fourtli 
companies were recruited respectively by 
Capts. D. H. Kimmel and H. W. McCul- 
lough and became H and I of the Ninth 
Cavalry which was known as the "Lochiel 
Cavalry" and served two years in the west 
and under Sherman in his "march to the 
sea." The One hundred and thirtieth regi- 
ment of nine months' men raised in 1862 
contained 5 companies and a part of an 
other company from Cumberland county. 
These companies their places of recruit- 
ment and their first captains were as fol- 
lows: A, Carlisle, William R. Porter. D, 
Shippensburg, James Kelso. E, Newville, 
William Laughlin. F, Mechanicsburg, H. 

I. Zinn. G, Carlisle, John Lee. H, , 

J. C. Hofifaker. This regiment fought its 
first battle at Antietam, where it lost 40 
killed and 256 wounded which attests its 
bravery. It afterwards fought at Freder- 
icksburg and Chancellorsville in each of 
which battles it lost heavily, and was mus- 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

tered out of the service on May 21, 1863. 
Captain Kuhn's company of three months' 
men reenUsted and became Company A, 
of the Eleventh regiment which served in 
the Army of the Potomac until the close of 
the war. Captain Dorsheimer's three 
months' company reenlisted and was Com- 
pany A, of the One hundred and seventh 
regiment, serving till Lee surrendered. A 
number of men were in Co. A, One hun- 
dred and first regiment that served in North 
Carolina, and a part of Co. G, of the 84th 
was raised in the county. When Lee in- 
vaded Maryland, in 1862, Pennsylvania 
called out 50,000 militia of which 25,000 
reached Hagerstown before the Confeder- 
ates were defeated. One of the militia regi- 
ments was raised in Cumberland county by 
Col. Henry McCormick and marched so 
rapidly to the scene of action as to receive 
praise from General McClellan and the 
Governor of Maryland. In 1863 Capt. M. 
G. Hall raised Co. F, One hundred and fif- 
ty-eighth for the nine months' service and 
Capt. Charles Lee recruited Co. F, One 
hundred and sixty-second regiment for 
three years, while Company B.One hundred 
and sixty-fifth regiment drafted militia was 
formed with A. J. Rupp as captain. When 
Lee invaded Pennsylvania in 1863, Ewell's 
corps reached Shippensburg on June 25th, 
and Capts. Kuhn, Lowe, Sharpe, Black and 
Smiley organized companies of civilians 
and with 200 men of the First New York 
cavalry did picket duty at Carlisle until 
Saturday, 27th, when they fell back before 
Jenkin's advance. General Ewell arrived 
the same day at Carlisle where his head- 
quarters were in the barracks which he did 
not burn but left intact on account of old 
acquaintanceship, having been stationed 
there in former years. Early demanded 
1,500 barrels of flour and other supplies of 
which only a part could be supplied by the 
town, and on Tuesday withdrew his forces. 

On Wednesday Gen. W. F. (Baldy) Smith 
with a small Union force occupied Carlisle 
and in the evening was surrounded by Gen. 
Fitzhugh Lee with 3,000 cavalry. Lee 
asked Smith to surrender or Carlisle would 
be shelled, and the latter replied "shell 
away." The town was shelled, and during 
the night a second demand for surrender 
received a very discourteous reply. Before 
daylight Lee received orders to march for 
Gettysburg and left for that great battle- 
field. The farthest northern point that 
Lee's army reached was Oyster's Point in 
Cumberland county and three miles west 
of Harrisburg when Jenkin's force was held 
at bay on Sunday, June 28th. Companies 
G, H and part of D, of the One hundred 
and second regiment commanded respect- 
ively by Capts. David Gochenauer, J. P. 
Wagner and S. C. Powell were raised in 
1864 and guarded the Manassas Gap rail- 
road to keep it open for carrying army sup- 
plies. A part of the 200th regiment, and 
Co. K, Capt. A. C. Landis, were also raised 
in the county. Company A being recruited 
at Shippensburg. Companies A and F of 
the 209th regiment was raised by Capts. J. 
B. Landis and Henry Lee in the autumn of 
1864 and served in the Army of the Po- 

Cumberland county was represented in 
the regular army as well as in volunteer 
forces; Brigadier Generals, Samuel Sturgis 
and Washington L. Elliott served in the 
Mexican war and won distinction and pro- 
motion in the War of the Rebellion. Capt. 
John R. Smead, who commanded a bat- 
tery in the Fifth United States Artillery, 
was a brave and efficient officer and was 
killed at the second battle of Bull Run. 
Another efficient West Point graduate was 
Capt. Alex. Piper who served with Capt. 
Smead until the death of the latter. 

Cumberland county after the war erected 
a $5,000 monument in the public spuare of 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


Carlisle in honor of her sons who fell in 
defense of the Union. On the beautiful 
marble shaft are inscribed on several tablets 
the names of these fallen heroes: 7 officers 
and 324 soldiers, and the names of the 49 
regiments in which they served. 

Adams county was as patriotic as Cum- 
berland in 1861. "Adams county stands 
proudly in the front rank of counties in the 
number of and quality of heroes that she 
sent to war. Upon every battlefield they 
contributed their full share of stalwart he- 
roes, ready to do and die for their country. 
With a population of not much over 23,000, 
she sent over 3,000 soldiers to the different 
services and commands during the war." 
Company E commanded by Capt. Charles 
H. Buehler and numbering 78 men was the 
first company to leave the county being 
mustered in as part of the Second Pennsyl- 
vania three months' men. Company K, 
First Pennsylvania Reserves, under Capt. 
Edward McPherson and numbering 112 
men was the second company to leave 
from that county. Then a company 
of 68 men under Captain John 
Horner, joined Cole's Independent Mary- 
land cavalry battalion and succeeding was 
20 men in the Forty-ninth, 40 men in Co. 
G, Seventy-fourth and 12 men in Co. O, 
Seventy-sixth regiment. In the Eighty- 
seventh regiment were Company F, Capt. 
C. H. Buehler, 112 men, and Company I, 
Capt. T. S. Pfeififer, 99 men. In the Nine- 
ty-first were 32 men from Adams county; 
and in One hundred and first were 55 men 
under Capt. H. K. Critzman and Company 
G, Capt. T. C. Morris, 99 men. 85 men 
were in Company A, 103d regiment, and in 
the One hundred and twenty-seventh was 
Company I, Capt. I. R. Shipley, 84 men. 
The One hundred and thirty-eighth regi- 
ment had two Adams county companies; 
Company B, Capt. J. F. McCreary, 116 
men and Company G, Capt. J. H. Walter 

86 men. Capt. J. B. King and 30 men 
were in the One hundred and fifty-second; 
and in the One hundred and sixtieth regi- 
ment Capt. James Lashell and 40 men 
from Adams county. The 165th regiment 
of drafted nine months' men was partly 
from Adams county. It was commanded 
by Col. Charles H. Buehler and numbered 
800 men. Its companies and captains 
from Adams were: C, Ebenezer McGin- 
ley; D, J. H. Plank; E, George W. Shull; 
G, Jacob E. Miller; H, W. H. Brogunnier; 
I, Nash G. Camp; and K, W. H. Webb. 
In the One hundred and eighty-second 
regiment were 40 men in different compan- 
ies and Company B, Capt. Robert Bell 
which went out 80 strong and reenlisted 
numbering 131 by new recruits. Company 
I, of the One hundred and eighty-fourth 
commanded by Capt. W. H. Adams, was 
from Adams and numbered 82 men; and in 
the Two hundred and second was Com- 
pany C, Capt. J. O. Pfeififer, 102 men. The 
Two hundred and fifth regiment had in 
Company I, Capt. I. R. Shipley and 50 
men from Adams county; while in Two 
hundred and ninth, as Company G, Capt. 
G. W. Frederick, 100 men; and in the Two 
hundred and tenth, Capt. P. J. Tate and 40 
men of Company I, came from Adams. 
There were 25 Adams county men in In- 
dependent Battery B; 15, in the signal ser- 
vice and 50 colored men were attached to 
different regiments. 

Adams county furnished four companies 
of emergency men to repel invasion; Capt. 
E. M. Warren's Cavalry Company, 100 
men; Company A, Twenty-sixth regiment 
of militia, Capt. Frederick Kleinfelter, 90 
men; Company I, Twenty-sixth militia, 
Capt. John S. Forest, 50 men; and Capt. A. 
H. Creary Company, 60 men. 

Battle of Gettysburg. The most im- 
portant event in the history of Adams 
county, and one that will give it place for- 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

ever in the story of the nation, is tlie field 
of Gettysbury where the fate of the Union 
trembled in the balance of battle. 

Lee's legions ragged, tired and hungry 
entered Adams county during the last week 
of June, 1863, and on the 26th Early with 
5,000 infantry marched into Gettysburg, 
which was unable to comply with his re- 
quisition for provisions and clothing but re- 
ceived no damage at his hands. The next 
day Early moved eastward but was recall- 
ed, and five days later Lee and Meade com- 
menced at Gettysburg, the great battle 
which broke forever the ofifensive power of 
the Northern army of Virginia. In the early 
days of June, 1863, Lee swept northward 
into the Cumberland Valley with the most 
magnificent army that the Southern Con- 
federacy ever raised, and having Harris- 
burg as an objective point from which to 
threaten Philadelphia, New York, Balti- 
more or Washington as circumstances 
might dictate. Stuart's cavalry had been 
left in Virginia to prevent or delay Hooker 
in crossing the Potomac into Maryland 
until Lee's army could reach Harrisburg 
but failed and sought by a detour through 
Maryland to rejoin Lee in his march to 
Harrisburg. Hooker crossed the Poto- 
mac, and his cavalry first baffled Stuart at 
Westminster and then drove him out of 
Hanover, causing him to march all night 
to reach Carlisle which he found Lee had 
abandoned summarily and was massing his 
troops for battle near Gettysburg. Lee had 
sent Early over the South Mountain and 
through the west Susquehanna valley to- 
wards Harrisburg, and Hill and Long- 
street's corps were concentrated at Hagers- 
town to march through the Cumberland 
Valley, when Lee received word that 
Hooker had crossed the Potomac and had 
his army well in hand between Harper's 
Ferry and Frederick. Hooker had crossed 
the Potomac and reached Frederick one 

day too soon for Lee's plan to reach Har- 
risburg free of attack, and he was compelled 
to concentrate his scattered army or be at- 
tacked and destroyed. Leaving the Cum- 
berland Valley — narrow enough for a trap 
and not broad enough for a successful Con- 
federate battlefield — Lee commenced the 
concentration of his army in the vicinity of 
Gettysburg, and on the evening of June 
30th the Confederates stretched from eight 
miles west of Gettysburg to Chambersburg 
twenty-five miles distant. 

In the meantime, on June 27th, General 
Plooker resigned because Halleck would 
not allow him the use of 10,000 troops and 
Harper's Ferry, and General Meade assvmi- 
ing command of the Union army the next 
morning moved his headquarters from 
Frederick to Taneytown near the Pipe 
Creek Heights which his engineers repor- 
ted as a proper place for a general battle. 
On the night of June 30th Meade's line of 
troops, comprising the ist, 3d, nth, 5th and 
1 2th corps and Kilpatrick's cavalry, 
stretched from Hanover to Emmitsburg 
and thence 10 miles north to Gettysburg, 
while in the rear of this line was the 2d 
corps at Uniontown, 20 miles south of Get- 
tysburg, the 6th at Manchester 34 miles 
southeast, Gregg's cavalry at Westminster 
24 miles southeast and Merritt's brigade 
(regulars) at Mechanicstown, 18 miles south 
forming a second line it might be said with 
the Pipe Creek Heights between both lines. 

Thus lay the two mighty armies on the 
eve of a great battle. The moment for fu- 
ture supremacy had arrived, and "the un- 
born generations of a hundred centuries 
would turn with breathless interest to the 
history their success or failure would here 
make." Two hundred thousand men were 
spread over an area of twenty-five square 
miles eager for the opening struggle of the 
coming day. Lee lacked his cavalry, and 
Meade had his corps too far apart, in order 



to protect Washington, while an accidental 
battlefield was forced on both by the force 
of circumstances. The last June sun of 
1863 sank behind the South Mountain, the 
gates of light were barred and the stars 
looked down on the valley beneath where 
orchard and meadow, and ripening fields of 
grain stretched around the college town of 
Gettysburg with its near b}' seminary and 
its not far distant city of the dead, but the 
succeeding day was to usher in a storm of 
war beneath which the very earth was to 
tremble and whose result would largely 
shape the future destinies of the mightiest 
republic of modern times. 

With the first rays of the morning sun 
Buford's dismounted cavalrj' were in line 
along Willoughby's run, and made so deter- 
mined a resistance against the advancing 
Confederate column that they halted to 
bring up their batteries. Reynolds then 
arrived, and after sending an aid to Meade 
to state that the heights of Cemetery Ridge 
was the place for the coming battlefield, so 
placed arriving reinforcements as to con- 
tinue a stubborn resistance to the increas- 
ing Confederate forces until he fell by a 
rifle ball. Doubleday assumed command 
and held Seminary Ridge against great 
odds until Howard arrived, who was finally 
driven back with heavy loss by overwhelm- 
ing numbers to Cemetery Ridge where 
Hancock had arrived to take command. He 
approved Reynold's selection and Howard's 
fortification of Cemetery Ridge for the 
coming battle and so reported to Meade 
who accepted it and ordered his Avhole army 
to concentrate as rapidly as possible at 
Gettysburg. The Confederates were rap- 
idly concentrating along and fortifying 
Seminary Ridge, and m.ade an unsuccess- 
ful attack on Hancock's line which he was 
extending southward along Cemetery 
Ridge. The first day's fight ended with 
the Confederates successful, but left the un- 

ion forces holding a stronger line of de- 
fense than the one from which they were 
driven, and this struggle of the vanguards 
made Gettysburg and not Pipe Creek the 

At half-past twelve o'clock on the second 
day Meade, who had arrived in the night, 
had his line of battle formed in shape sim- 
ilar to a fish hook ; Cemetery Ridge, the 
shank. Cemetery Hill, the curve — and 
Gulp's Hill the end of the hook. The Un- 
ion line was about 4J miles in length and 
the Confederate line in similar shape over- 
lapping each wing extended about six miles 
while between these lines, lay a valley from 
a mile to a mile and a half in width, enclos- 
ing the afterwards famous Wheat Field, 
Peach Orchard and Devil's Den. During 
the afternoon of the second day Sickles 
moved forward of his connecting position 
and was driven back with heavy loss, to his 
original position which was held by aid of 
reinforcements while Little Round Top 
was overlooked and nearly captured by the 
Confederates. On the center the Louisi- 
ana Tigers 1,700 strong, charged and 
gained Cemetery Hill, but being unsup- 
ported only 300 returned to the Confed- 
erate lines. On the right the Confederates 
won a part of the intrenchments whose oc- 
cupants had been sent to reinforce Sickles' 
line, but failed to advance on the unpro- 
tected rear and capture the reserve artil- 
lery and hold the only road by which 
Meade could have retreated in case of de- 
feat. The second day closed in favor of 
Lee who had driven back the extreme of 
both the Union wings although defeated in 
advantage on the Union right. 

Elated with his advantages and having 
been joined by Pickett's veterans and Stu- 
art's cavalry, Lee against the view of Long- 
street determined to make one great effort 
to break the Union left center and annihi- 
late the Army of the Potomac. On the 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

morning of the 3d of July Geary returned 
with his troops to the right and by II 
o'clock had driven the Confederates out of 
his entrenchments. In the meantime Lee 
was perfecting his plan of battle. A terri- 
ble cannonade of the Union left center was 
to be followed by heavy storming columns 
of infantry, and Stuart's cavalry after 
sweeping round the Union right flank was 
to attack in the rear. At i o'clock 150 
cannon opened on the Union left center 
and was replied to by 71 Union guns. The 
earth shook for two hours beneath the ter- 
rific storm of shot and shell and then the 
Union fire slackened so heated cannon 
could cool, disabled batteries be replaced 
and ammunition husbanded to meet an ex- 
pected attack. Lee was deceived by this 
and thinking he had silenced his enemy's 
guns ordered the charge of Picketts' divis- 
ion, the flower of his army. Sweeping in- 
to view in splendid array and under perfect 
discipline the storming column of 18,000 
men won the admiration of the Union 
army. The fire of 71 cannon ploughed 
through but they closed up each gap and 
swept across the valley with unbroken front 
until a rain of lead from the infantry 
greeted them and blinded the two support- 
ing columns, yet through it all the charging 
column made its way and broke the Union 
line only to be broken to pieces in a hand 
to hand fight within the Union lines, at 
the Bloody Angle or the high water mark 
of the rebellion. On the left the Union 
cavalry attacked Longstreet and preven- 
ted two brigades from assisting Pickett, 
while Stuart in trying to pass the Union 
right was stopped by Gregg's cavalry, and 
the greatest cavalry battle of the war took 
place with the result that Stuart was de- 
feated and Lee's cavalry attack in the Un- 
ion rear was foiled. Defeated at every 
point on the third day, Lee sullenly with- 
drew his shattered forces to their entrench- 

ments and commenced his preparations for 

Gettysburg was the decisive battle of the 
war and crushed all further Southern hopes 
of Northern invasion, while it placed Euro- 
pean recognition of the Confederacy be- 
yond all possibility, yet if Lee had made his 
grand charge on the first or second day 
before the 2nd, 5th and 6th corps had ar- 
rived or if Stuart's cavalry had gained the 
Union rear on the third day Meade would 
have in all probability lost the battle and 
likely a large part of his army. 

Over 30,000 killed and wounded covered 
the gory field of Gettysburg where slavery 
and secession received their death-blow, 
and Lee's broken, crushed and bleeding 
columns reeled back to their entrench- 
ments; but they were not disorganized and 
there lay fully 20 or 25 thousand men who 
had taken no part in the third days battle. 
Meade showed wisdom in not attacking 
Lee on Seminary Ridge on the 4th, for the 
Confederates would have fought with des- 
peration and behind entrenchments, and 
the Union army badly battered and 
needing rest might have met a second 

The immortal Union Hue that stood 
against Pickett's charge was "a human 
breakwater against which the great tidal 
wave of rebellion was to dash in vain, and 
be thrown back in bloody spray and broken 

Gettysburg was the Saratoga of the late 
Civil war. Burgoyne failed to reach New 
York and so did Lee. Arnold and Morgan 
were the rocks in the former's way and 
Reynold's and Hancock were the walls 
that stayed the latter. 

York county responded promptly to the 
President and Governor's call for troops in 
1861. The Worth Infantry, Capt. Thomas 
A.Ziegle,and the York Rifles, Capt. George 
Hay, reported for marching orders by April 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


i8th. The citizens of York at a public meet- 
ing subscribed $2,000 in aid of the fam- 
ines of those who volunteered. To this fund 
the borough added $1,000 and the commis- 
sioners of the county at the request of the 
grand jury appropriated $10,000 which lat- 
ter amount the legislature afterwards reim- 
bursed. Judge Fisher had recommended 
to the grand jury the propriety and neces- 
sity of calling on the commissioners for aid, 
and Hanover and Wrightsville gave $2,000 
to the fund which was expended judicious!)'. 
In April, Camp Scott was established at 
York, where some six thousand men were 
gathered, and the Sixteenth regiment con- 
taining 4 York county companies and the 
Second with one York company, were or- 
ganized. The camp was broken up in 
June, and the Second and Sixteenth served 
for three months with credit under Patter- 
son. At Williamsport Albertus Welsh, one 
of the nine York soldiers in the Mexican 
war died, being the first man, the county 
lost in the rebellion. Battery E, of the 
First Artillery, was raised in York county 
and served with distinction in the Army of 
the Potomac, being the first battery to en- 
ter Richmond where it drove out the guard 
left to fire the city. One company entered 
the Thirtieth and another the Forty-first 
regiments, and their record is the record 
of the Reserves whose many battles would 
largely make up the history of the Army 
of the Potomac, two companies went into 
the Seventy-sixth and were in the assault 
on Ft. Wagner, the battles of Grant before 
Richmond and Petersburg and the capture 
of Ft. Fisher. Eight companies from York 
with two from Adams county formed the 
Eighty-seventh which served as a railroad 
guard, did duty in West Virginia and 
fought gallantly under Sheridan and Grant. 
Two companies were raised in the county 
for the One hundred and third, one com- 
pany each for the One hundred and seventh 

and One hundred and eighth and four 
companies for One hundred and thirtieth 
regiment. The One hundred and seventh 
and One hundred and thirtieth regiments 
fought bravely in the Army of the Po- 
tomac. The One hundred and sixty-sixth 
regiment consisting of 10 companies and 
eight hundred men was formed of men 
drafted in York county, and did good ser- 
vice in North Carolina, where nine were 
killed and 25 died of wounds and disease. 
One company of the One hundred and 
eighth and one company of the One hun- 
dred and eighty-second, both cavalry regi- 
ments were recruited principally in York 
county as well as one company of the One 
hundred and eighty-seventh, and all served 
in the Army of the Potomac. Four com- 
panies of the Two hundredth, one of the 
Two hundred and seventh and two of the 
two hundred and ninth regiment came from 
York county and served in the armies of 
the James and Potomac with the usual 
bravery that distinguished all the compan- 
ies from the county. Among the distin- 
guished West Point graduates from the 
county that fought in defense of the Union 
were: Maj. Gen. William B. Franklin; and 
Brevet Brig. Gens., H. G. Gibson, Edmund 
Shriver and M. P. Small. The county also 
furnished commanders C. H. Wells, S. R. 
Franklin and William Gibson, who were 
naval academy graduates and served with 
distinction on the iron clads in blockade ser- 
vices and in bombardments and battles in 
Charleston harbor and on the Mississippi 
and James rivers. 

The following list gives the names of the 
companies raised in York county, togecher 
with their captains and the number of the 
regiments of which they were a part: 
No. of Reg. Company. Captain. 

2d K George Hay. 

i6th A John Hays. 

F Horatio G. Myers. 


Biographical anT) Portrait Cyclopedia. 

No. of Reg. Company. Captain. 

i6th, G Cyrus Diller. 

H T. D. Cochran. 

30th D George W. Hess. 

41st G C. W. Diven. 

76th D Cyrus Diller. 

I H. C. Mclntyre. 

87th A J. A. Stable. 

B Jacob Detwiler. 

C A. C. Fulton. 

D N. G. Ruhl. 

E Solomon Myers. 

G V. G. S. Eckert. 

H Ross L. Harman. 

K J. W. Schall. 

103d C George Shipp. 

D Emanuel Herman. 

107th A Jacob Dorsheimer. 

io8th I Daniel Herr. 

130th B H. A. Glessner. 

C J. S. Jenkins. 

I Lewis Small. 

K Levi Maish. 

i66th A A. L. Ettinger. 

B R. J. Winterode. 

C P. Z. Kessler. 

D G. W. Branyan. 

E S. E. Miller. 

F J. A. Renaut. 

G G. W. Reisinger. 

H T. G. Gauss. 

I Michael M'Fatridge. 

K D. L. Stoud. 

i82d A John A. Bell. 

187th B D. Z. Seipe. 

200th A Adam Reisinger. 

D W. H. Duhling. 

H Jacob Wiest. 

K H. A. Glessner. 

207th E Lewis Small. 

209th B H. W. Spangler. 

I John Klugh. 
Some York county men served in Com- 
pany B, Second regiment, and Company E, 
Ninth Cavalry, and Battery E, Eirst Artil- 

lery was raised in the county. When Lee 
invaded Maryland in 1862, independent 
companies were raised in York county by 
Capts. Jacob Wiest, Jacob Hay, D. Wagner 
Barnitz, W. H. Albright, John Hays and 
Charles M. Nes. A year later when Lee 
came into Pennsylvania, one emergency 
company was raised by Capt. John S. Fos- 

Not only did York county furnish hund- 
reds of men for the Union army, but she felt 
all the horrors of war in 1863 when Lee's 
army invaded Pennsylvania. On June 28th, 
General Early occupied York and vicinity 
with four Confederate brigades, and de- 
manded $100,000 and a large amount of 
provisions only a part of which could be 
furnished. Early sent a brigade in pursuit 
of Major Haller, who had retired with 350 
soldier and militia from York. Haller es- 
caped across the Susquehanna at Wrights- 
ville and burned the bridge before the reb- 
els came in sight of his force. Early spared 
the public buildings when appealed to and 
suddenly withdrew on June 30th to join 
Lee at Gettysburg. 

In the meantime Stuart had entered 
Pennsylvania, and his advance had passed 
through Hanover on the 27th. Gen. Kil- 
patrick on the 30th passed through Han- 
over where his rear guard was attacked by 
the main portion of Stuart's command. 
This brought Kilpatrick back and the two 
great cavalry chieftain's contested the pos- 
session of the place from 10 a. m. till 
noon when Stuart withdrew and commen- 
ced his detour through York county, tak- 
ing Jefiferson, Salem, Dover, and Dillsburg 
in his way to Carlisle, which was the open- 
ing really of the battle of Gettysburg. Kil- 
patrick lost 1 1 killed and 42 wounded while 
Stuart's loss was about the same. Early 
and Ewell respected private property, and 
their hungry brigades were well trained 
and orderly, but some of their subordinate 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


commanders and a part of Stuart's force 
were not so mindful of the propert)' of non- 
combatants and pillaged the settlements 
through which they passed. 

In 1 86 1 the ladies of York opened a tem- 
porary hospital in a building on the fair 
ground to accommodate the sick of Camp 
Scott. Next the Duke street school build- 
ing was used for hospital purposes, and in 
June, 1862, the barracks on the public 
commons was fitted up and the York gen- 
eral hospital established in them. From 
1862 until 1865 hundreds of wounded were 
cared for in this hospital which often had 
as high as 1500 patients at a time. 

Subsequent Military History. Since 

Lee surrendered to the "Silent Man of Ga- 
lena" there has been but little of military 
event or importance in the Nineteenth 
Congressional district to record. The or- 
ganization of Grand Army Posts and com- 
panies of the National Guard are worthy 
of record and the formation of the latter 
are evidences of the continued patriotism of 
a generation whose fathers upheld the flag 
on a hundred battlefields of the Great Re- 
bellion, and whose forefathers were with 
Washington from Valley Forge to York- 


Agriculture — Turnpikes and Highways — Milling and Merchandizing- 
Manufactures — Banks — Railroads — Minor Industries. 

IT IS a matter of gratification that the 
enterprising farmers of the Nine- 
teenth Congressional district have 
been fully in sympathy with the progressive 
agricultural spirit of the age for over three 
quarters of a century and that their efforts 
have won for them a most successful and 
very flattering record as agriculturalists. 
It is also worthy of record and comment 
that the increase of the principal agricult- 
ural products of the district has been 
in the same ratio as the increase of 
its population, while every indication 
warrants a large supply for all future 
contingencies. The promptness of the peo- 
ple of the district to employ labor-saving 
machinery and their tendency to increase 
instead of diminishing their grain produc- 
ing areas, have developed agriculture to 
such an extent that it is not only a leading 
element of present prosperity, but rises into 
prominence as a potent factor in the future 
wealth and progress of the district. 

In comparing the past with the present 
of agriculture in Cumberland county an 
eloquent writer says "The advancement of 
science as been seen in the improvements 
which characterize the cultivation of the 
soil, and the progress that has marked the 
introduction of agricultural implements" 
and that the intelligent modern farmer 
"rises above the narrow selfishness that too 
often characterizes his fellow-laborers, and 
becomes a philanthropic scientist whom 
the future will rise up and call blessed." 

Cumberland county farmers during the Co- 
lonial period of farming tilled their fields 
by the hardest of manual labor and with 
the clumsiest of tools, and in the next or 
awakening period had introduced clover 
and learned something of the use of lime, 
The introduction of the iron plow about 
1825 was the commencement of a third 
peiiod terminating in 1840, when the grain 
reaper was brought into the county by 
Judge Frederick Watts, of Carlisle. Judge 
Watts the preceding year procured from 
Lt. William Inman some Mediterranean 
wheat which was thus not only introduced 
into Cumberland county, but into the Uni- 
ted States. When Judge Watts, in 1840, 
set up in his harvest field the first McCor- 
mick reaper ever used in Pennsylvania, 
nearly a thousand persons were present to 
see "Watt's folly," and when the man who 
was raking was unable to keep the grain 
raked as fast as it was cut, a well-dressed 
stranger, took the rake and showed that it 
could be raked by one man without calling 
for any stoppage of the team. This 
stranger prove'd to be Cyrus H. McCor- 
mick and agriculture went forward rapidly 
from that day. In 1854 Judge Watts suc- 
ceeded in founding the Cumberland County 
Agricultural Society, of which he served 
two terms as president. The society, in 
1855, purchased a six acre tract and im- 
proved it so that it became a first class 
fair ground in a short time. In 1873, R. 
H. Thomas was instrumental in an agita- 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


tion that resulted in the founding of the 
Grangers Inter-State picnic institution in 
WilHams' Grove on an island, in Yellow 
Breeches creek, thirteen miles southwest 
from Harrisburg. This picnic now is of 
national reputation and there the farmers 
and manufacturer bring together their pro- 
ducts for inspection by as high as 150,000 
people for which ample accommodations 
are provided on a forty acre tract of land 
and who are charged no admittance fee 
The developing period commencing in 
1840 closed in 1876, when the Centennial 
exhibition ushered in a period of agricul- 
tural progression marked by a practical 
labor-saving machinery, improved elevator 
storage, perfected systems of grain trans- 
portation and speciaHzation of productions. 

The history of agricultural growth in 
Adams has been similar to that of Cumber- 
land county, and its representative farmers 
are fully abreast of the times in all that per- 
tains to their useful and honorable occupa- 
tion. The Adams County Agricultural 
Society has been in operation for many 

But little different in soil and climate 
from her surrounding counties, York like 
them grew slowly in agriculture during the 
pioneer and early settlement days. The 
sickle and the ilail prepared the wheat and 
rye and barley for the "pioneer mill," a 
hollowed stump and pestle, where corn was 
also ground. Hemp and flax were also 
raised. Long-wooled sheep and long- 
horned cattle were first brought into the 
county. Merino sheep were introduced 
about 1800; short-horned cattle about 1830 
with Devons much later and Jerseys be- 
tween 1861 and 1865. Artificial seeding 
to grass came in use about 1800 when red 
clover and timothy grasses were introduced 
into the county. Spelt-wheat and barley 
were prevalent until 1828 when red wheat 
and blue-stem wheat took their places. The 

German heavy scythe and the sickle gave 
way to the English scythe and the grain 
cradle and they in turn were supplanted by 
mower, and the Hussey and McCormick 
reapers in 1853. The flail was succeeded 
by the horse power threshing machine and 
it has been largely displaced by the steam 
thresher. The hand rake gave way in 1838 
to the turning rake, which was succeeded 
by the modern sulky rake in i860. Hand- 
sowing of wheat, oats and rye continued up 
to 1838, when the grain drill was intro- 
duced. Lime as a fertilizer was experi- 
mented with in 1817, and generally intro- 
duced in 1830, when the rotation of crops 
began. Sorghum was introduced about 
1862, and the soil of the county is well 
adapted to the production of the sugar beet. 
The most important event in the agri- 
cultural history of York county is the in- 
troduction of an improved tobacco culture 
into its townships, in 1837 by Benjamin 
Thomas. In place of the old "shoe-string" 
Kentucky seed Mr. Thomas brought in 
Havana seed and thus really commenced 
the better seed-leaf tobacco raising in Penn- 
sylvania. His small Havana leaf changed 
into the larger Pennsylvania leaf and until 
1853 he handled all the tobacco raised in 
the county. In the year last named P. A. 
and S. Small joined Mr. Thomas and his 
son in handling tobacco and introduced the 
Connecticut seed leaf, which is now exten- 
sively planted. As early as 1840, York 
county produced 162,748 pounds of to- 
bacco, and in 1880 from 4,667 acres raised 
5,753,766 pounds. In speaking of the 
present products of tobacco in York county 
George W. Heiges, Esq., says "The Ninth 
Internal Revenue district of Pennsylvania 
of which York county forms a part, re- 
turned a greater income to the Government 
the last fiscal year, from the sale of revenue 
stamps for cigars, than any other in the 
United States, and the sub-ofHce at York 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

ranks high among the few of the first class 
in the whole couiitr)', in the annual sale of 
stamps, the revenue to the Government last 
year, from this source realized at the York 
sub-office exceeding three quarters of a 
million dollars. In the 925 square miles of 
territory in York county including the city 
of York, there are more than 1,500 cigar 
factories in which are manufactured all 
grades of cigars from the cheapest to those 
sold at $90 per thousand. In some of the 
York city factories there are employed 300 
to 400 hands, in many from 50 to 100. 
There were sold last year at the York office 
stamps for exceeding 250,000,000 cigars. 
Now, flourishing hamlets of no inconsider- 
able size have, within recent years, sprung 
up in all parts of the county, the result of 
generous incomes from tobacco culture and 
the consequent extensive cigar industry." 

York county has not been behind the ad- 
joining counties in organized efTort for the 
improvement of her agricultural classes. 
The York County Agricultural Society was 
founded in 1852, and the Hanover Agri- 
cultural Society in 1885. Each society 
owns a valuable tract of land, holds a fair, 
and the York society was formed "to foster 
and improve agriculture, horticulture and 
the domestic and household arts." John 
Evans was the first president of the York 
society, and served as such for twenty-five 
years during which he was a large and suc- 
cessful exhibitor, but never accepted any 
of the numerous premiums awarded him. 
The first president of the Hanover Society 
was Stephen Keefer, and a specialty of its 
early fairs were the purchase and sale of 
large numbers of fine horses. 

In summing up the results of agricultural 
growth in York we can express them best 
by quoting George R. Prowell, who says: 
"the typical York county farmer of to-day, 
is conservative, industrious and in general, 
prosperous. He labors hard from sun-up 

to sun-down, during the summer months; 
strives to constantly improve his land and 
make his farm and farm buildings more 
attractive every year." 

Each of the three county agricultural so- 
cieties of the district elects a member of 
the Pennsylvania State Board of Agricul- 
ture, and in 1880, the district contained 13,- 
924 farms aggregating nearly 900,000 acres 
of improved land on which were nearly 
6,000,000 dollars worth of Hve stock. These 
farming lands were then valued at over 
65,000,000 dollars, and on them had been 
expended in 1879 nearly $700,000 in ferti- 

Farm life in the Nineteenth District will 
compare favorably with farm life in any 
section of the Union, and in speaking of 
the present character of such life Dr. W. S. 
Roland, of York, most truthfully says: 

"Poets have sung^ orators declaimed, 
editors written in eulogy of agricultural 
life; its usefulness, its independence, its no- 
bility, its happiness, and the prosperous suc- 
cess which usually attends its people in 
their various enterprises, pursuits and occu- 
pations — as to convince the most skeptical 
that there is a charm surrounding home life 
on the farm, pleasant and beautiful to con- 
template; and yet in these latter years, both 
observation and experience show a grow- 
ing reluctance among our young men and 
maidens — born and brought up on the farm 
— to engage in agricultural pursuits. Time 
was when the farmer's son found his high- 
est ambition gratified in the possession and 
management of a farm equal to his father's ; 
when the daughter sought no better and 
happier lot than her mother's to preside 
over a neat dairy, or well- appointed and 
managed farm house, amid the charms of 
country life. All that has strangely 
changed. The country boy will not endure 
the idea of farm life, but flies off to town at 
the moment of emancipation from parental 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


control, and engages often in harder labor, 
and at less remuneration, than would have 
been his lot on the farm. The daughter 
engages in school teaching or sewing, or 
some other more exacting labor in prefer- 
ence to the household avocations of a farm- 
er's wife and daughter; and yet it is a 
strange paradox that the town tradesman, 
whose life has been spent amid the cares 
and worries and turmoil of city life, earnest- 
ly longs for, and strives for a country home 
and rural surroundings for his old days re- 
tirement and his children's education. Now 
why do the country boy and girl turn with 
aversion amounting to disgust from the 
paternal home and employment? It is un- 
doubtedly due partly to the prevailing idea 
that other avocations and employments 
merely afford a surer and speedier road to 
the acquisition of wealth and distinction. 
This is surel}' a great mistake. The spirit of 
improvement in agriculture has advanced 
so rapidly that education has become 
a pressing necessity. That to keep up with 
the times brains are just as essential as 
muscle, and agricultural societies, State 
boards of agriculture, farmers" institutes 
and home agricultural publications, are all 
busy sowing the seeds of social culture and 
intellectual training. These associations, 
opportunities and advantages are well cal- 
culated to stimulate and nerve the farmer 
to care for his family, his home and his 
farm; and it is but fair to say, that the time 
is now here, when the ambitious, desiring 
to succeed in social attainments, and take 
honorable position in society, are not com- 
pelled to leave the farm for other profes- 
sions and occupations, already more than 
full, for the quality and standing of any hon- 
orable calling can only be measured by the 
character of the men and women engaged 
in it; and no sy.stem can so well bring boys 
and girls up to the required standard, as 
for them to stay at home and improve their 

minds in moral, social and intellectual cul- 
ture, for under such training they can only 
become the equals in intelligence with any 
other known class of respectable scientists 
in the country. "The noblest mind, the 
best contentment has." The place called 
home should be adorned and attractive in 
al! its surroundings — for he only, who has 
a home to love and a home to defend — can 
best do his duty to himself, his family and 
his country." 

Turnpikes and Highways. Indian trails 
were the first highways of the pioneer set- 
tlers, and some of them were partly used in 
the routes laid out for subsequent roads. 

The first public road in Cumberland 
county was laid out in 1735, by order of the 
court of Lancaster county, and ran from 
Harris' ferry on the Susquehanna to Wil- 
liams" ferry on the Potomac. It was fin- 
ished as far as Shippensburg by 1755, but 
in the meantime packsaddle roads had been 
made from settlement to settlement, and by 
1790 numerous public roads had been laid 
out and built in different parts of the 
county. The first turnpike was the Han- 
over and Carlisle which was put under con- 
struction in 1812, and in a short time the 
Harrisburg and York turnpike was built 
along the west side of the Susquehanna, 
while in 1816, the Harrisburg and Cham- 
bersburg was put under contract and passed 
through Hogestown, Kingston, jMiddlesex, 
Carlisle and Shippensburg. 

In Adams county the first public road 
was opened, in 1742, from the Marsh Creek 
settlement to York and other roads were 
surveyed and made as the settlements in- 
creased. Turnpikes were agitated in 1807, 
and the next year the Gettysburg and Pet- 
ersburg turnpike was put under construc- 
tion. The turnpike from Galluchas' saw 
mill to Chambersburg was chartered in 
1809, and two years later the Gettysburg 
and Black Tavern and the Gettysburg and 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

York turnpikes were put under contract, 
while today the county is well supplied with 
public roads and pikes. 

The traders' and missionary routes in 
York county followed the Indian trails and 
were changed into packhorse roads, which 
were the only thoroughfares of that day 
until 1739 when the Lancaster county court 
ordered the location and construction of the 
Monocacy road from Wrights Ferry past 
the sites of York and Hanover to the 
Maryland line, although three years earlier 
the Hanover and Baltimore road had been 
laid out and worked. Succeeding these 
roads came the Smith and York road, 1742; 
Walnut Bottom and Hussey Ferry, 1742. 
Hussey and Wilkins, York and Lancaster, 
Newbury and York, 1745; Rutledge Mill 
and York, 1747; Anderson and Wright, 
1749; Nelson and York, 1749; Lancaster, 
Lowe's Ferry and Shippensburg, 1750; 
Peach Bottom and York, 1752; York and 
Maryland, 1754; McGrew Mill and New- 
bury, 1769; Canal, 1769; and York-Hellam 
Ironworks road opened in 1770. Since 
then other roads have been laid out and 
built wherever needed in the different sec- 
tions of the count}'. 

The first turnpike in York county was 
the Susquehanna and York Borough built 
in 1808. Succeeding it we find the Han- 
over and Maryland Line, 1808; York and 
Gettysburg, 1818; York and Maryland 
Line; York and Conewago, Berlin and 
Hanover; and York and Chanceford, 1877. 
Over these roads is quite a volume of travel 
notwithstanding an increase of railways. 

Milling and Merchandizing. Surpass- 
ing all branches of manufacture that have 
an intimate relation to agriculture is the 
manufacture of meal and flour. In 1880 
Adams county had 52 flouring and grist 
mills; Cumberland, 55; and York, 156, 
whose combined product was worth over 
2I million dollars. 

The "pioneer mill" was a hollowed stump 
and a pestle, which was succeeded about 
1740 by the small log grist mill. In that 
year or a little later John Day erected such 
a mill 12 miles north of York, and William 
Leeper built another south of Shippens- 
burg, while tradition accredits one or two 
log mills to the southern part of Adams 
county but the local and county historians 
of the district give but little account of the 
early mills. After the Revolution the log 
mill was succeeded by frame and stone 
mills operated by water power, until about 
1850, when steam was introduced for mill- 
ing power, and to-day the burr mill is being 
largely supplanted bj' the roller process 
mill of extensive proportions and immense 
output made possible by railway transpor- 
tation which gives foreign market in addi- 
tion to home demand. 

The pedlar with his pack was the first 
merchant and as the settler's clearings in- 
creased he came with a pack horse and 
then a wagon, and in many cases served as 
a postoffice for the transmission of news be- 
tween the pioneers and their friends and 
relatives in Lancaster county and Philadel- 
phia. As the ambition of the "Cross 
Roads" owner aspired to the foundership of 
a town, he opened a small store which was 
the wonder of the country around. These 
stores grew in size with the building of the 
towns and yet were principally general mer- 
cantile stores until after the late war since 
which a large number of them have been 
conducted in individual lines of merchan- 
dise. Wholesale houses as well as retail 
establishments are now to be found in the 
one city and the several larger towns which 
for size, stock and trade compare favorably 
with many of the mercantile houses of the 
larger cities. There is some record of the 
prominent merchants of to-day, but of the 
pedlar, the county store-keeper and even 
the town merchant of fifty years ago, in 

Nin:eteenth Congressional District. 


the district we have found no account, al- 
though the names of some of the latter class 
might be found as advertisers in early news- 
papers that have been preserved. 

Manufactures. This great branch of 
national industry has grown into immense 
proportions from small beginnings. "The 
dry and repulsive skeleton of mere facts 
and figures, presented in the official tables, 
gradually take on form, substance and 
habiliments, and becomes animated with 
something of the life, activity and beauty 
of a living economy. The statistics of 
looms, spindles and factories, of furnaces 
and forges, of steam engines and sewing 
machines, and of a thousand other instru- 
ments of creative industry, become the rep- 
resentatives of almost every form of na- 
tional and individual happiness, exertion, 
aspiration and power." 

The earliest manufacturing industry of 
the Nineteenth district was milling, which 
has been noticed. Cotemporaneous with 
milling, was the home manufacturing 
of clothing, leather and crude agricultural 
implements; also distilling and lumbering, 
and then came the manufacture of iron, 
which constituted a period of the history 
of the district. 

A forge was built at Lisburn, on Yellow 
Breeches Creek in Cumberland county, in 
1783, and was succeeded in 1790 by Lib- 
erty forge two years later. Stephen Foulk 
and William Cox, Jr., built Holly furnace, 
which was torn down in 1855, to give place 
to a paper mill. Michael Ege, in 1794, 
built Cumberland furnace which was ten 
miles southwest of Carlisle and ran until 
1854; and in 1806, Jacob M. Haldeman 
purchased at New Cumberland, a forge 
built previously and added a rolling and 
slitting mill, which went down in 1826. 
Near Shippensburg three furnaces were 
built — Augusta in 1824; Mary Ann, 1826; 
and Big Pond in 1836, of which the latter 

was burned in 1880, and the former two 
were abandoned prior to 1885. Fairview 
rolling mill near the mouth of Conedogui- 
net creek, was built, in 1833, by Gabriel 
Heister and Norman Callender, and ran un- 
til 1836, when Jared Pratt, of Massachus- 
etts, leased it and added a nail factory. The 
pre-Revolutionary iron works of Cumber- 
land county were a forge built about 1760, 
at Boiling Springs, where a blast furnace, 
a rolling and slitting mill and a steel fur- 
nace were afterward added and constituted 
the Carlisle iron-works. A forge was 
built at Mt. Holly in 1765 and Robert 
Thornburg & Co. built a forge in 1767 at 
some point in the county, while Thornburg 
and Arthur, about 1770, erected Pine Grove 
furnace and Laurel forge. Of all the iron- 
masters mentioned Michael Ege was the 
most prominent. He was in the iron busi- 
ness for fifty years, came from Holland, 
and shortly before his death, August 31, 
1815, owned the Carlisle iron works and 
Pine Grove furnaces. In 1840 there were 
six furnaces and five forges and rolling 
mills in Cumberland county, and forty 
years later but six iron and steel manufac- 
turing establishment were in operation, yet 
they employed nearly 700 hands in 1880. 

Iron manufacturing was developed in 
Adams county at a late date, but its leading 
iron master was the "Great Commoner," 
Thaddeus Stevens, who with a Mr. Paxton, 
built Maria furnace in Hamiltonban town- 
ship in 1830. Chestnut Grove furnace was 
built at Whitestown also in 1830, and both 
are now abandoned, the former going 
down in 1837 and the latter blown out 
since 1880. 

The earliest iron made west of the Sus- 
quehanna was in York county where Peter 
Dicks erected a bloomary in 1756, obtain- 
ing his ore from the Pigeon Hills. On the 
site of the bloomary, in 1770, Spring Grove 
forge was built, which was afterwards pur- 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

chased by Robert Coleman and ran until 
1850. Mary Ann furnace was built by 
George Ross and Mark Bird in 1762 
and continued in operation up to 1800, 
and in 1765, William Bennett erected 
the Hellam iron works or Codorus forge 
which went down after 1850. Palmyra 
or Castle Fin forge was started in 18 10. 
In 1820, Davis and Gardner built the 
York foundry, furnace and forge, and 
the Slaymakers erected Margaretta furnace 
in 1823 and Woodstock forge in 1828, but 
both furnace and forge were abandoned 
about 1850. Sarah Ann or Manor furnace 
was built in 1830 by William G. Cornwell 
but went down, while York furnace started 
in the same year by James Hopkins, was 
quite active in 1880, when York county had 
three iron and steel establishments employ- 
ing thirty-five hands. Prominent among 
the iron masters of York county are Rob- 
ert Coleman, James Smith, a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence, Phineas Da- 
vis, Henry Y. Slaymaker and James Hop- 
kins, with whom James Buchanan read 
law, yet so far Mr. Coleman has been the 
most noted iron manufacturer of the 
county. Robert Coleman was born near 
Castle Fin, Ireland, November 4, 1748, 
married Ann Old, in 1773, and died in 
Lancaster in 1825. He owned a number 
of forges, forges and iron works in Lan- 
caster county and Spring Grove furnace in 
York, where Castle Fin forge was built by 
his sons and named in honor of his birth- 
place in Ireland. 

Shortly after the first forges and furnaces 
were started, the lumber industry received 
an impetus along the Susquehanna and for 
a time promised to take a front rank in the 
industries of the district, and place a line of 
prosperous towns on the river, but the in- 
troduction of steam saw mills and the open- 
ing of the Central railroad was death to the 
visionary schemes of wealth and town 

growth. Changing from water to steam 
saw mills affected the river towns but did 
not lessen the volume of lumber sawed and 
for nearly half a century lumbering has 
held its place as an important industry in 
Cumberland, Adams and York counties. 
In 1880, these counties had 96 saw and 
planing mills which gave employment to 
297 hands. 

The manufacture of cotton and woolen 
goods has been carried on in York coun- 
ty for a number of years and nearly 20 
years ago there were 7 factories which then 
employed over 100 hands. 

To York county is also confined the 
manufacture of liquors, once prevalent 
throughout the district, when there was a 
distillery on every farm. In 1880 there 
were 14 distilleries and breweries which 
employed many hands. 

Likewise York county manufactures lime 
for sale in several establishments, although 
lime is heavily used in the other countries, 
where the farmers burn their own lime- 

The manufacture of agricultural imple- 
ments dates back in Cumberland and York 
counties to about the year 1850, and 30 
years later there were 14 factories in which 
over 400 hands were employed, while fer- 
tilizers were not made in York county un- 
til some years later and in 1880 came from 
two factories. 

Paper has been manufactured for nearly 
three quarters of a century in Cumberland 
and York counties. The Spring Forge 
paper mills in York county were started in 
1850, and in 1880 arrangements were made 
to enlarge them into a half a million dollar 
plant with a capacity of 30,000 pounds per 
day. The York Flaven paper mills were 
started in 1885, and four paper mills in 
Cumberland county in 1880, afforded em- 
ployment for over two hundred hands. 

The manufacture of boots and shoes, 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


men's clothing, and wagons and carriages 
is carried on to a considerable extent in 
Cumberland and York counties, while cigar 
boxes, marble and stone work and whips 
are turned out in large quantities in York 
county, whose Peach Bottom roofing slate 
is used in many of the leading cities of the 
United States. 

In Adams and York counties the manu- 
facture of tobacco, cigars and cigarettes has 
grown to immense proportions, and nearly 
twenty years ago required ii factories in 
Adams and 153 in York county with a total 
of over 700 hands. 

Among the later industries of the dis- 
trict are the manufactures of confectionery, 
ice machinery, wall paper, bank safes and 
locks and steam engines and boilers, and 
the cit)' of York alone employs two himd- 
red and fifty salesmen to canvass the mar- 
ket in the interests of her manufactories. 
At York is situated the Pennsylvania Agri- 
cultural Works, the largest of the kind in 
the world; the Weaver Organ and Piano 
Company, whose instruments are in de- 
mand all over the United States; and sev- 
eral confectionery factories, whose goods 
are sold in several States; and a branch 
factory of the Singer Sewing Machine 
Company which supplies eight counties of 
this State with the Singer machine. 

The growth of manufactures for 20 3'ears 
after the late war in the Nineteenth Con- 
gressional district was as follows: In 1870 
there were 502 establishments in Adams; 
449, in Cumberland; and 1,1 11 in York, 
with a total product of several millions of 
dollars; while in 1880, Adams had 276 es- 
tablishments; Cumberland 308; and York. 
859, with a product of over 9 millions of 

Banks. The establishment and the mul- 
tiplication of sound banks are significant 
evidences of prosperity and material prog- 
ress, and business expansion always call 

for an extension of banking facilities. 
There is not sufficient data obtainable 7rom 
which to venture any calculation as to the 
amount of money in the district or to the 
location of its financial center. 

In tracing the banking institutions of 
Cumberland county we find in Carlisle the 
following named banks and data relative 

Carlisle Deposit Bank. — Chartered 
1 846; Renewed, 1866; Renewed, 1886; Capi- 
tal Stock, $100,000; Surplus, $50,000. 

President, Hon. R. M. Henderson; Adam 
Keller, Cashier; Vice President, Wm. R. 
Line; Directors, Hon. R. M. Henderson, 
Wm. R. Line, J. Herman Bosler, Lewis F. 
Lyne, Joseph Bosler, John Sellumo, R. P. 
Henderson, James A. Davidson, George D. 

Farmers' Bank. — Chartered, 1871; Re- 
newed, 1891; Capital, $50,000; Surplus, 

President, WilUam Barnitz; Cashier, 
Walter Stuart; Directors, William Barnitz, 
S. R. Brenneman, Walter Beall, J. W. 
Craighead, W. A. Coffey, Albert A. Line, 
David Strohm. 

Merchants' National Bank. — Char- 
tered, Oct. 14, 1890; Opened, Nov. 5, 1890; 
Capital, $100,000; Surplus and Profits, $32,- 

President, Jno. W. Wetzel; Vice Presi- 
dent, J. H. Wolf; Cashier, J. T. Parmley; 
Directors, J. W. Wetzel, J. H. Wolf, Jno. 
W. Plank, Jas. W. Eckles, J. W. Hand- 
shew, J. H. Gardner, Dr. J. G. Fickel, W. 
F. Glatfeher, W. Scott Coyle. 

The First National Bank, of Carlisle, 
ceased to exist a number of years ago. 

The Newville Saving Fund Society did a 
banking business from 1850 to 1858, and 
Rhea, Gracey and Co. were private bankers 
from 1853 to 1863, when their institution 
was reorganized as the First National 
Bank of Newville with a capital of $100,- 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

000. In 1859 Merkle, Muma & Co. com- 
menced banking at Mechanicsburg and two 
years later had their institution chartered 
as the Mechanicsburg bank which was 
changed in 1864 into the First National 
Bank of Mechanicsburg with a capital of 
$100,000. The Second National Bank, of 
Mechanicsburg, was organized in 1863, 
with a capital of $50,000, and the First Na- 
tional Bank of Shippensburg came into ex- 
istence in 1866. 

Adams count)' as early as 181 3 moved in 
the direction of securing banking facilities 
within her own territory, and in that year 
a bank was opened at Gettysburg which is 
still in operation. A second bank was es- 
tablished, in 1864, when the First National 
Bank of Gettysburg was organized with a 
capital of $100,000. 

The York National Bank. — The first 
meeting of the Directors of the oldest fi- 
nancial institution in the City of York was 
held at the public house of Samuel Spang- 
ler, on January 31, 1810. The minutes of 
that meeting record the election of David 
Cassat, President, and William Barber, 
Cashier, pro tempore. The Directors were 
Henry Irwin, John Spangler, Godfrey Len- 
hart, William Nes, John Myers, Jacob Hay, 
Jacob Barnitz, Philip King, John Jessop, 
Jacob Brillinger. The Directors were all 
men of prominence in the community and 
some among them were veterans of the war 
of 1776. A call was made for subscription 
to the capital stock and Tuesday of each 
week was established as discount days, when 
the Board of Directors sat at the tavern of 
Samuel Spangler. The minutes are silent 
in regard to the operation of the bank until 
Sept. 13, 1813. Probably during the War 
of 1812 the business was suspended. At 
this meeting it was decided to "be expedi- 
ent to resume the operations of the York 
Bank." In the autumn of 1813 the lot of 
ground upon which the present banking 

house now stands was purchased, and on 
March i, 1814, the bank was in readiness 
to transact business, notes to the amount 
of one hundred thousand dollars being is- 
sued. The statement of March 9, 1814, 
shows capital stock $45,000, deposits $790. 
That York was a prosperous town is evi- 
denced by the growth of the deposits of the 
bank, which had increased in six months to 
$80,000. The first cashier was Thomas 
Woodyear, of Baltimore. Upon his resig- 
nation in 1817 John Schmidt began his long 
term as cashier of the bank. No history 
of the bank would be complete that did not 
recognize the high intellectual attainment 
and sound business sagacity of Mr. Schmidt, 
who for nearly twenty years was active in 
the management of the bank. No tribute 
to his memory could be more lasting than 
the resolution of the Board of Directors, 
"That a suitable tombstone be erected over 
our late Cashier, John Schmidt, at the ex- 
pense of the bank." 

Following is a list of Presidents and 
Cashiers with their terms of service: 

Presidents — David Cassat, 1810-1824; 
Jacob Hay, 1824- 1826; Chas. A. Barnitz, 
1826-1842; James Lewis, 1842-1845; Mich- 
ael Doudle, 1845-1858; Henry Welsh, 1858- 
1867; Dr. Jacob Hay, 1867- 1874; Henry 
Welsh, 1874-1879; G. Edw. Hersh, 1879 
1895; Grier Hersh, 1895-. 

Cashiers — William Barber, pro. tem., 
1810-1813; Thomas Woodyear, 1813-1817; 
John Schmidt, 1817-1835; Samuel Wagner, 
1835-1862; Geo. H. Sprigg, 1862-1889; W. 
H. Griffith, 1889-1896; John J. Frick 1896-. 

On Nov. 26, 1864, the York Bank accep- 
ted the provisions of the National Bank 
Act and became the York National Bank. 
The capital stock of the bank beginning in 
1810 with $45,000 has been increased from 
time to time both by stock dividends from 
its earnings and from new subscripfions 
until it has reached $500,000 with surplus 



of $100,000. The total net earnings of the 
bank from its organization until the pres- 
ent year amount to $2,654,140.24. 

Few communities can point to a financial 
institution which has continued for eighty- 
seven years. An institution that has weath- 
ered the storms of two wars, and the num- 
erous panics of the past century must stand 
as a monument to the business capability 
and sagacity of its originators and mana- 
gers. The people of York may be proud to 
remember that their ancestors were active 
in its management. 

The York County National Bank was 
organized at York prior to 1846 as the 
York County Savings Institution: the First 
National Bank, of York, came into exist- 
ence in 1863; the Western National Bank, 
of York, was organized in 1875; the Far- 
mers National Bank, at York was chartered 
in 1875; and the Drovers and Mechanics 
National Bank, of York, was organized in 
1883. Besides these national banks the 
city of York has had the banking house of 
Weiser, Son &. Carl, which was established 
in 1856. York today is one of the leading 
and strong banking centers of the State, 
and this exerts a beneficial influence 
on the business inferests of Southern Penn- 
sylvania. The city has ten banking insti- 
tutions whose standing by their annual 
statement in 1895 was as follows: 

Capital. Surplus. 
York National Bank. . . .$500,000 $100,000 
First National Bank.... 300,000 100,000 
York Co. Na'n'al Bank . . 300,000 100,000 
The Farmers' National 

Bank 200,000 100,000 

Drovers' & Mechanics' 

National Bank 100,000 30,000 

Western National Bank. 150,000 30,000 

City Bank 100,000 50,000 

Security Title and Trust 

Company 1 50,000 

The York Trust Real 

Estate & Deposit Co . . 1 50,000 

J. H. Baer's Sons Bank. 

The first banking institution of Hanover 
was the Hanover Saving Fund Society, 
which was chartered in 1835, and the next, 
the First National Bank of Hanover was 
organized in 1863 with a capital stock of 
$50,000 which by increases amounted to 
$300,000 in 1877. 

When the first bank at York was estab- 
lished, in 1814, over forty banks were or- 
ganized in the State, some of which proved 
unsound and so depressed business that 
many projected towns never passed the 
paper stage. Some of these paper towns 
were in York county. 

Railroads. The early railroads of the 
Nineteenth Congressional district bore no 
important relation to the internal commerce 
of the countr}^ but its later roads were 
built as links in the great systems which 
now cover the United States like a vast 
web and furnish means of locomotion and 
a market to every one almost at his own 

The Cumberland Valley railroad was 
chartered in 1 831 to run from Harrisburg 
to Carlisle and opened between those places 
in 1837, and was extended by 1856 to 
Chambersburg, Franklin county, from 
which a railroad was in operation to 
Hagerstown, Maryland. These two roads 
were consolidated in 1864, and an extension 
built to Martinsburg, West Virginia, which 
made the Cumberland one of the most im- 
portant railroads of Pennsylvania. In 1872 
a branch was built from Dillsburg to Me- 
chanicsburg and named after those towns. 
The Harrisburg and Potomac railroad was 
chartered in 1870 by the Merriman Iron 
and Railroad Company and built by Daniel 
V. and Peter A. Ahl, of Newville. The 
company becoming involved the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad Company secured and has 
operated it since. This road enters Cum- 
berland county at Shippensburg and ex- 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

tends through the southern townships to 
Harrisburg, having a branch from Wil- 
liams' mill to Dillsburg, on the Cumberland 
Valley. Besides these two great railroads 
running east and west, the Northern Cen- 
tral crosses the narrow eastern end of the 
county, running along the Susquehanna. 
Another northward running road was built 
in 1869 from Pine Grove furnace to Car- 
lisle and in 1884 was tapped at Hunter's 
Run by a road from Gettysburg. The Pine 
Grove and Carlisle road is known as the 
South Mountain, and the road striking it 
is the Gettysburg and Harrisburg Railroad. 

And passing from Cumberland to Adams 
county we find there a railroad history of 
interest. The first road projected in the 
county was the old "Tape Worm" line to 
run from Gett)'sburg through Franklin 
county past Thaddeus Steven's furnace to 
some point on the Baltimore and Ohio 
railroad. Work was commenced on it in 
1835, but the State afterwards stopped pub- 
lic appropriation for it and it lay partly 
constructed until 1884 when the Hanover 
Railroad completed it eight miles west of 
Gettysburg to Ortanna Station and after- 
wards to a point on the Western Maryland 
railroad of which it is now a part. The 
Hanover and Littlestown railroad was con- 
structed in 1859, ^'''cl now forms a part of 
the important railroads of Pennsylvania. 
Next was built the Hanover and Gettys- 
burg railroad, now called the Han- 
over Junction and Gettysburg, and one of 
the important railroads of Pennsylvania. 
Succeeding this last road came the Gettys- 
burg and Harrisburg railroad, built in 1884 
and passing through Carlisle after its junc- 
tion with the South Mountain road. 

Railroad building commenced in York as 
early as in her sister counties. The North- 
ern Central railway, the only road passing 
across the entire breadth of the State and 
running from Baltimore to Canandaigua, 

New York, was built through York county 
by different companies. The first company 
the Baltimore and Susquehanna built to the 
York county line in 1832, the York and 
Maryland Line Company completed the 
road to York in 1838, the Wrightsville, 
York and Gettysburg Company carried it 
to Wrightsville in 1840, the York and Cum-, 
berland Company extended it to Bridge- 
port in 1850, and the Susquehanna Com- 
pany then completed it to the New York 
State line. The Maryland and Pennsyl- 
vania Legislatures in 1854 consolidated all 
these companies under the name of the 
Northern Central Railroad Company. The 
Hanover and York railroad was com- 
menced in 1873 and now forms a part of 
the Frederick division of the Northern 
Central, which also includes the Littlestown 
road and the Hanover Branch which was 
completed in 1852 from Hanover to Han- 
over Junction. The Bachman railroad 
from Valley Junction on the Hanover 
Branch across Manheim township to Ebb- 
vale, Maryland, was completed in 1872, and 
the Berlin Branch from Hanover to East 
Berlin was opened in 1877. The Balti- 
more and Hanover road built in 1877 was 
from Emory Grove to Black Rock Station, 
connecting the Western Maryland with the 
Bachman A^alley road; and the Stewarts- 
town railroad from Stewartstown to New 
Freedom on the Northern Central was con- 
structed in 1885. 

The last road of the county, the York 
Southern, has had an interesting history. 
It was chartered in 1874 under the name 
of the Peach Bottom railroad and was to 
run from East Berlin through York and 
Peach Bottom to Oxford in Lancaster 
county, but the middle division from York 
to Peach Bottom is all of the road that has 
been built in York county. The road was 
built from York to Muddy Creek Forks in 
1874 and the next year carried to Delta. 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


The road was sold in 1882, became the 
York and Peach Bottom and was extended 
to Peach Bottom. Another sale in 1888 
made it a part of the Maryland Central, 
and in 1894 by still one more sale it was 
made the York Southern. 

Minor Industries. Among the earliest 
of the present minor industries of the dis- 
trict is shad fishing on the Susquehanna, 
which in early days was a large business, 
from 181 5 to 1840 profitable fisheries were 
conducted along the whole river front of 
Manchester and Lower Chanceford town- 
ships in York county and near the small 
islands in the Susquehanna. The canal dam 
at Columbia now prevents the shad from 
going higher up the river and they are 
scarce below that place on account of in- 
judicious management. 

One of the most prominent of these 
minor industries is the manufacture of 
Peach Bottom roofing slate from the slate 
quarries of Peach Bottom township, some 
of which were opened during the latter 
part of the last century. This slate is un- 
excelled for durability, and has been exten- 
sively used by the United States and sev- 
eral State Governments, two great railroad 
companies, many large manufacturing- 
firms, and on the roof of the palatial Van- 
derbilt mansion, at Ashville, North Caro- 
lina, which is the most elegant and expen- 
sive private residence in the world. The 
Peach Bottom slate vein commences at the 
Susquehanna two miles above the Mary- 
land State line and runs southwest for five 
miles through Peach Bottom township and 
then for three miles into Harford county, 
Maryland, where it is broken by Broad 
creek. It is 250 feet wide at the eastern 
end and one mile at the western extremity, 
and pits have been sunk in it for 200 feet. 
The Peach Bottom slate belongs to the 
Cambrian age and has better qualities for 

strength and weathering than the Silurian 
slates. Prof. Louis Reber gives the 
strength of this slate per square inch as 
5,360 pounds when the pressure is apphed 
to the cleavage and 10,530 pounds when 
applied perpendicularly to the cleavage. 
His analysis of Peach Bottom slate is: 

Silica 58,370 

Protoxide of Iron ' . . . . 10,661 

Alumina 21,085 

Lime 0,300 

Water 4.030 

Alkali 1,933 

Carbon 0,930 

Magnesia i ,203 

Sulphur 1 .203 

Titanic Acid Traces 

Oxide of Magnesia Traces 

Carbonic Acid 0,390 

The valuable constituents in this slate are 
the silicates of iron and alumina, and the 
injurious ones are sulphur and the Carbon- 
ates of lime and magnesia. The Peach Bot- 
tom C(uarries were worked principally by 
Welsh companies from 1850 to 1885, and 
now they are operated chiefly by six strong 
and reliable companies which have their 
ofifices at Delta. 

The minor industries of sheep and cattle 
raising, fruit growing, dairying, and water 
wheel manufacturing are well represented 
and flourishing in the district, while market 
gardening, fruit and vegetable canning, 
brick-making, lime burning, cigar box mak- 
ing and car building are carried on success- 
fully on a small scale in dififerent sections. 

The Nineteenth District is a rich agricul- 
tural, mining and manufacturing region 
with excellent financial accommodations 
and great transportations facilities which 
gives promise of future wealth and pros- 
perity as among the elements of a progres- 
sive civilization wrought out by educational, 
moral and religious forces. 


Early Schools — Act of 1834 — The Public Schools — County Institutes — Aca- 
demic Schools — Colleges — Professional Schools — Parochial Schools 
— Carlisle Indian Industrial School. 

IT IS gratifying to know that tlie public 
and private schools and the higher 
institutions of learning in the Nine- 
teenth Congressional district in number 
and building equipment and in the profes- 
sional knowledge and practical efficiency of 
their teachers have kept pace with the 
growth of their respective counties in pop- 
ulation and wealth; and that they compare 
favorably with the educational institutions 
of any unurban district in the Keystone 

Early Schools. Penn when he founded 
his city and colony provided that schools 
should be opened for the education of the 
young in which pupils were to pay a small 
tuition. Enoch Flower was the first school 
master in the province of Pennsylvania. 
The Quakers soon established schools in 
which the rich paid tuition and the poor 
were to be taught gratis. The Germans 
objected to these schools, on the grounds 
that the work would not be done well. 
All religious denominations that came to 
Pennsylvania brought their school teachers 
as well as their preachers and side by side 
were built the log church and the log school 
house, as they feared State supervision in 
education and sought to have free schools 
under church patronage. So the early 
schools west of the Susquehanna were 
either church schools or private schools, 
the latter being known as subscription 
schools, yet classical schools and a college 

had been established by the close of the 
Revolutionary war. The minister was often 
the teacher, and while scant record of the 
early churches and their pastors has been 
preserved yet the names of the early schools 
and teachers have passed away. The early 
schools were of two classes, the church 
school and the subscription school often 
both existing at the same time in the com- 
munity and in some cases the latter sup- 
planting the former. The pioneers were so 
crowded with work that their children could 
be spared but about two months in the win- 
ter to attend school in log cabins and log 
houses built by common efifort, and often at 
a distance of from three to five miles. The 
teachers in the subscription schools were 
often intemperate and profane men of lim- 
ited education whose profanity was their 
certificate in securing a school. 

''Der Dicke Schulmeister" was on Kreutz 
creek between 1725 and 1730, and three 
years later a Lutheran church or parochial 
school was established there. In 1747 
Rev. Michael Schlatter, a German Re- 
formed minister, established several paroch- 
ial schools in York and Adams counties, 
while about the same time the Quakers in 
the northern part of York county and the 
Scotch-Irish in the southern part estab- 
lished schools. In Cumberland county 
schools were taught as early as 1745, and 
about 1773 Rev. John Andrews taught 
Greek and Latin at York, and Rev. Alex- 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


ander Dobbins was engaged in the same 
line of work in Gettysburg. 

Act of 1834. After the Revolutionary war 
the private or subscription school gained 
on the church or parochial school till half a 
century later the common school took the 
place of both for put lie education. In 1776 
the legislature passed the first school law 
giving aid to the subscription schools, but 
little was accomphshed, and in many in- 
stances, as in Carlisle in 1788, personal aid 
was given to sustain schools for the poor 
and ignorant. The constitution of 1790 
provided that the poor might be taught 
gratis, and the school law of 1809 directed 
the assessor to list the children between five 
and twelve years of age of those to pay for 
their schooling and they were to be taught 
by the teachers who were to draw pay for 
them from the county commissioners. This 
system of distinction between rich and poor 
was called the "pauper system" by the op- 
ponents of the law, and in 1833 there was 
only an attendance of 17,467 such children 
whose tuition cost the state for that year 
but little over $48,000. 

The pride of the poor prevented their 
general acceptance of "gratis" education by 
common schools. Complex and cumber- 
some in many ways, yet its defense at the 
next session made Thaddeus Stevens im- 
mortal as the "Great Commoner." In 
1836, Dr. George Smith, prepared a new 
bill, remedying the defects of the Act of 
1834, and its passage secured the great 
boon of public education to the people of 
the State irrespective of wealth or povertv. 
The common schools led to the county sup- 
erintendency and the latter was the first 
successful step toward the teachers' insti- 
tute and the State normal school. In due 
course of time the common school became 
the present public school with its free text 
books and compulsory attendance. The 
common or free school system for a time 

met with opposition from ignorance, prej- 
udice and selfishness but eventually tri- 
umphed over every foe and marks an era 
in the history of Pennsylvania. 

This act of 1834, was anticipated in Cum- 
berland county in 183 1 in which year un- 
der ex-county superintendent, D. E. Kast, 
a public meeting was held at Carlisle and 
passed two resolutions one of which de- 
manded that a well digested system of free 
schools be established and supported at 
State expense, and the other condemned 
any primary system of education which did 
not provide the same instruction free to 
every child without distinction as to wealth 
or poverty. That meeting also circulated 
a petition asking the legislature to pass a 
free school law. 

The Public Schools. Under the Act of 
1834 sixteen districts of Cumberland county 
accepted the common school system in 
1834, and all of them were accepting in 
1836, when the convention voted $10,000 
in support of the system in the county. 
The first district superintendent was Dan- 
iel Shelley (1854-1860) succeeded by D. K. 
Noel, who resigned on account of his 
health, and was followed by Joseph Mifflin 
(1860-1863). Then George Swartz served 
until 1869, succeeded by W. A. Lindsey, 
who was followed by D. E. Kast, whose 
successor S. B. Shearer came into office in 

The common schools met with greater 
opposition in Adams than in Cumberland 
county. Prof. Aaron Sheely says that in 
1834, seven of the seventeen districts of 
Adams county accepted the free school sys- 
tem, that the next year another district 
came over and the third year eleven districts 
were in line, leaving five all whom became 
accepting by 1843. The early county sup- 
erintendents of Adams county were; David 
Wills (1854), Rev. Reuben Hill (1856), W. 
L. Campbell (1858), John C. Ellis (1859), 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

Aaron Sheely (1863), J. H. West (1869), P. 
D. W. Hankey (1871), and Aaron Sheely 

The most formidable opposition to the 
free school system in the 19th district, was 
in York county, where but 7 of the 29 dis- 
tricts accepted the system. The next year 
nine districts were for free schools and in 
1836, seventeen accepted. The remaining 
districts did not accept until after 1848, and 
of them Heidelberg came in 1857, West 
Alanheim in 1858, and Manheim in 1870. 
The opposition came principally from die 
Pennsylvania Germans whom ex-Supt. W. 
H. Kain says were not opposed to educa- 
tion but feared danger to their church from 
these free schools which would supplant 
their parochial schools. Of the earlier 
school superintendents of York county 
were: Jacob Kirk (1854), G. C. Stair 
(1855), Dr. A. R. Blair (1856), D. M. Et- 
tinger (1862), S. B. Heiges (1863), S. G. 
Boyd (1869), W. H. Kain (1872), D. G. 
Williams (1878). 

After some years the name of connnon 
schools was changed to the present one of 
public schools. These schools are now in 
active and successful operation in every 
community in the Nineteenth district. 

County Institutes. The earliest men- 
tion we find of a teachers meeting in the 
line of institute work is in 1834, when the 
Teachers' Association of Adams county 
met at Gettysburg, November 20th of that 
year. This association was probably 
formed in 1833, and missed holding ses- 
sions in 1857, 1858, i860 and 1861. Since 
1865 the Adams county Teachers' Institute 
has met yearly at Gettysburg where the 
Pennsylvania State Teachers' Association 
held a three days' session in 1866. 

A year later than the Gettysburg edu- 
cational meeting there was a convention 
of teachers and other friends of education 
at Carlisle on December 19, 1835, to organ- 

ize an association but it is probable that 
it went down. The Cumberland county 
Teachers' Institute was permanently organ- 
ized December 21, 1854, and has held its 
annual sessions ever since. 

Of any educational association in York 
county earlier than 1854 we have no ac- 
count. On December 23, 1854, the York 
county Teachers' Institute was organized 
and like the similar institutes of Adams and 
Cumberland counties has met regularly 
ever since. 

Academic Schools. The first classical 
or academic school in the district of which 
we have definite information was Rev. 
Alexander Dobbins' classical and boarding 
school at Gettysburg, which was in exist- 
ence from 1773 to 1801. A number of so- 
called academies were started in Adams 
county but were remarkably short-lived, 
and the true succession of Dobbins' aca- 
demic school was the Gettysburg academy 
founded about 1810 or 1811, and existing 
with var)'ing fortunes until 1829, when not- 
withstanding the State aid that it had re- 
ceived, its building was sold for debt, and 
successively used as the home of the Get- 
tysburg gymnasiimi and the Gettysburg 
Female institute. The Gettysburg Female 
academy was in operation from 1830 to 
1875; Haupts' classical school ran from 
1840 to about 1850, and the Huntertown 
English and Classical academy was founded 
in 1852. 

Classical schools were established in the 
Cumberland Valley at an early day and 
such a school was at Carlisle in 1776, when 
its principal and most of its students entered 
the Continental army. Mention in 1 78 1 
is made of a classical school at Carlisle and 
in 1786 of one at Shippensburg. Hopewell 
academy was in existence from 1810 to 
1832; the Newville classical school started in 
1835 continued for several years, and the 
Carlisle institute founded in 1831 existed 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


for a number of years while Kingston 
school ran from 1848 to 1850. Hall acad- 
emy organized in 1851 became a Soldiers' 
Orphan school in 1867; Mechanicsburg se- 
lect school started about 1851, became in 
1853, the present Cumberland Valley insti- 
tute; and Sunnyside Female seminary of 
Newburg existed from 1858 to 1868; while 
Mary institute of Carlisle founded in i860 
went down about 1870. Shippensburg 
academy was opened in 1861 and closed 
some years later, while Mezger female in- 
stitute was organized about 1880. Other 
academies have been established in Cum- 
berland county of which no definite ac- 
count can be secured. 

York county reaches back in her aca- 
demical history to Revolutionary days. 
Rev. John Andrews not earlier than 177c 
and not later than 1773 opened a classical 
school at York which he conducted for sev- 
eral years. The old York county academy 
was opened in 1787, and is still in existence. 
The Stewartstown English and Classical 
institute was founded in 185 1, and Cottage 
Hill seminary at York about the same time, 
but the latter institution in a few years was 
succeeded by the Young Ladies' seminary of 
York. The York Collegiate institute was 
opened in 1873 and is one of the leading 
academical schools in the State. 

Before passing from the field of second- 
ary instruction it is necessary to speak of 
State Normal and public high schools and 
notice the modern business colleges. The 
State normal schools having besides their 
normal courses, elementary, scientific 
and classical, are prominent and useful 
factors in the educational fabric of the State 
and nation commencing with the public 
school and culminating in the university. 
Of these normal schools, the Cumberland 
Valley or Shippensburg State Normal 
school of the seventh State normal district, 
is entitled to honorable mention. The 

movement that led to its establishment 
commenced in 1850 and first took definite 
form in a county normal school at New- 
ville, but finally resulted, in 1870, in the 
State normal school for the seventh dis- 
trict. The charter was obtained in 1870, 
the necessary buildings erected during 187 1 
and 1872, and the property accepted as a 
State institution in 1873. The institution 
is well equipped for its work, has furnished 
many excellent teachers, and from 1873 to 
1894 enrolled 5,269 students. The York 
high school was opened in 1870 and is 
highly commended, while the Hanover and 
Wrightsville high schools have been estab- 
lished since 1885. The only business col- 
lege in the district of which we have ac- 
count is Patrick's Business College of 

And also deserving mention is the White 
Hall Soldiers' Orphan school of Cumber- 
land county, which was established in 1869; 
the Childrens' Home of York, founded in 
1865 for soldiers' orphans; Eichelberg Aca- 
demy, at Hanover, and Irving Female Col- 
lege, at Mechanicsburg, all well managed 
and meritorious institutions. 

Colleges. Dickinson is the tenth oldest 
college in the United States, being founded 
on September 8, 1783. The colonies had 
just finished a long and arduous struggle for 
liberty; they were impoverished and with- 
out any assurance that permanent govern- 
ment could be established. The town of 
Carlisle was very far "West" in those days, 
and could be reached only by stage coach 
from Philadelphia and Baltimore. Chief 
Justice Taney devotes some space of his 
Memoir to the recital of his very exciting 
journey from Baltimore to the town. And 
yet many leading men urged the Legisla- 
ture of Pennsylvania to grant a charter for 
"the erection of a college in the Borough 
of Carlisle * * * for the education of 
youth in the learned and foreign languages. 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

the useful arts, science and literature." 

The establishment of a college west of 
the Susquehanna was not a new idea. 
Many prominent men had agitated the mat- 
ter before the Revolutionary War, plans 
had been made and some steps taken. 
These were necessarily interrupted during 
the period of struggle, when all energies 
were bent toward obtaining freedom and 
many educational institutions closed their 
doors. Naturally, at the close of the war 
the matter was again taken up and the col- 
lege founded. The college owes its origin 
in large part to Dr. Benjamin Rush, one of 
the signers of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence; and to Hon. John Dickinson, one of 
the most distinguished and respected 
Americans of his time, from whom it de- 
rived its name. The gifts of the latter 
made possible the starting of the college, 
and it was thought his name would "give 
character to the young institution." Dr. 
Rush, however, was more intimately con- 
nected with the college during its first 
years. He was continually active in its in- 
terest, at one time urging care that a suffi- 
ciently healthful location be selected, sug- 
gesting the kind of apparatus that should 
be secured for the various departments; at 
another time recommending men for the 
different professorships whom he thought 
would take a lively interest in the college, 
and who would do good service. 

While these two men, Dickinson and 
Rush, were most directly interested in the 
establishment of the college all the public 
men and educators of the time had a deep 
concern for the success of the project. 
Among those who contributed funds were 
Hamilton and Jefiferson, the French Am- 
bassador to this government, Comte de la 
Luzere,, and seventeen members of Con- 
gress. Even from England contributions 
were received. Being founded at the same 
time as the establishment of the national 

government, it was thought to make it in a 
peculiar manner the guardian of our liber- 
ties. In the seals of Brown and Harvard 
is seen that education was regarded as the 
supporter of religion; in the seal of Dick- 
inson is first seen what we now regard as 
the fundamental principle of our existence as 
a nation, that the safety of liberty depends 
upon the intelligence and education of the 
people. The seal of the college is an open 
Bible, a Telescope, and a Liberty Cap, thus 
typifying the connection between religion, 
culture, and liberty. We have the same 
sentiment expressed in the motto, "Pietate 
et Doctrina Tuta Libertas." 

The first president of the cohege was 
Rev. Charles Nesbit, D. D., of Montrose, 
Scotland. He had been an earnest sympa- 
thizer with the colonies in their struggle, 
and when approached with the offer of the 
principalship of an institution of learning 
in the new country, he was willing to accept, 
thinking that his work, in a country where 
the "minds of its citizens free from the 
shackles of authority yield more easily to 
reason," might do much for them. It was 
a great sacrifice to accept the position, — it 
meant that he must separate himself from 
his friends, by whom he was highly es- 
teemed and take up his home in a foreign 
country and among strangers. In Europe 
he was regarded as a very able Greek 
scholar, and indeed, his attainments in all 
intellectual lines were very distinguished. 

On July 4, 1785, Dr. Nesbit arrived in 
Carlisle. Five miles from town he was 
met by a company of citizens and con- 
ducted to the barracks, which were for 
some time used for the purposes of the col- 
lege. He at once entered upon his work 
and continued as president until his death 
in 1804. 

For the first nineteen years of Dickin- 
son's life this man was associated with her 
as president. He taught Moral Science 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


and Systematic Theology, and was in close 
personal contact with the students. With 
him in the faculty were James Ross, pro- 
fessor of Greek and Latin, Robert David- 
son, professor of History and Geography, 
and Mr. Tate, instructor in English. Soon 
after his arrival. Dr. Nesbit was taken sick 
with a fever. During this illness he was 
very much discouraged and regretted that 
he had ever left Scotland for such a "fever- 
stricken country." He resigned his posi- 
tion and thought of returning to the "old 
country." However, he regained his health 
and was persuaded to again take up his 
work as the head of the college. During 
his term as president he had to meet many 
discouragements; the professors who were 
associated with him at the start one by one 
resigned their positions and new men took 
their places; money was hard to get, and it 
was very difficult to keep the college run- 
ning. Dr. Nesbit remained firm and fully 
justified the opinion of those who had 
placed him at the head of the new enter- 

In 1787, the first class was graduated 
from the college, the degree of Bachelor of 
Arts being conferred on nine young men. 
About this time an appropriation for the 
college was made b}- the State, and the erec- 
tion of a building was begun on the lot 
which is now the beautiful campus of the 
college. This land was purchased direct 
from the Penn family. The hopes of the 
college began to rise. It was now the ob- 
ject of care of the great State of Pennsyl- 
vania, and began to take a prominent place 
among the institutions of learning of the 
country. But after Dr. Nesbit's death the 
college began to experience trouble. The 
faculty and trustees were joint administra- 
tors of discipline, and they did not always 
agree. In 1832 the authorities began to 
think of suspending operations. During 
this time, however, several distinguished 

men filled positions as professors in the col- 
lege. Dr. Atwaler, president of Middle- 
bury College, Vermont, resigned his posi- 
tion to take the presidency of Dickinson. 
Dr. Thomas Cooper, one of the most dis- 
tinguished men of the early part of this 
century, who had been an able presiding 
judge for eight years, when he was im- 
peached and removed from office, was 
elected to the chair of Mineralogy and 
Chemistry. He was born in England, 
graduated at Oxford, and was on intimate 
terms with Pitt and Burke. His opinion 
on legal questions was regarded as author- 
ity by Madison and other Americans of 
that day. Among his legal writings is a 
translation of the Institutus of Justinian 
with notes. As a scientist, he was the friend 
of Priestly and had the use of his laboratory 
in Northumberland. There was much op- 
position to his election to a professorship 
in the college on account of the strong 
public sentiment against him. His first 
lecture was attended by the Board of Trus- 
tees in a body. It was ordered to be printed 
by the board and with the notes filled an 
octavo volume of 236 pages. He revived 
and for a number of years edited the Em- 
porium of Arts and Sciences, a bi-monthly 
magazine which had a subscription price of 
seven dollars per year. He also edited an 
American edition of Accum's Chemistry in 
two volumes, and of Thompson's Chemis- 
try, both of which were enriched by copi- 
ous notes of his own. He attracted many 
students to the college. 

In June, 181 5, President Atwaler, Dr. 
Cooper and Professor Shaw resigned, be- 
cause of what they considered unjust inter- 
ference on the part of the Trustees. 

John B. Mason, D. D., of New York, 
was elected president and accepted. He 
was a graduate of Columbia College, New 
York, and had been provost of that insti- 
tution. For the first few years after Dr. 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

Mason's taking office, the college pros- 
pered, but then, owing largely to his de- 
clining health and the jealousy between the 
Faculty and Trustees, it began to lose 
ground. In 1824, Dr. Mason resigned. 
Between this time and 1832, when the col- 
lege came into the hands of the Metho- 
dists, there were three presidents and two 
complete changes in the faculty, all the pro- 
fessors resigning in each case. 

In 1832, committees of the Baltimore and 
Philadelphia conferences of the Methodist 
Church entered upon negotiations by which 
the control of the college came into their 
hands. Up to this time Dickinson had not 
been strictly a denominational school, 
though it was largely under Presbyterian 
influence. It was especially stipulated in 
the charter that at no time should two- 
thirds of the Trustees be of any one de- 
nomination. The State had made appro- 
priations from time to time amounting to 
over $40,000, and when it was supposed 
that the college was being controlled by 
the Presbyterians, it was made the subject 
of legislative investigation. So Dickinson 
begins her history as a church college in 
1833^ when the Methodists secured control. 

Dr. John Price Durbin was elected pres- 
ident and had a most successful administra- 
tion. He surrounded himself with an able 
faculty, composed of distinguished men. 
Among them may be mentioned Caldwell, 
professor of Science; Rev. Robert Emory, 
professor of Ancient Languages, and Rev. 
John McClintock, professor of Mathemat- 
ics. An endowment fund was raised and 
the number of students began to increase. 
Strong discipline was enforced, the charter 
having been changed, placing this matter 
entirely in the hands of the Faculty. The 
administration of Dr. Durbin was the 
most successful the college had yet seen. 
The number of students was larger than 
at any previous time in its history, and 

reached in 1849 two hundred and fifty-four. 
The character of the work done in the col- 
lege was high, and many of the graduates 
of those days have since become distin- 
guished. The history of colleges repeats 
itself, as well as the history of nations, and 
the story of Dickinson from the time of 
Durbin to Reed contains the usual periods 
of success, financial embarrassment and lack 
of students which are common to institu- 
tions of learning. Perhaps the most dis- 
couraging period was that of the Civil War, 
but all other colleges experienced the same 
troubles, as did Dickinson. Since the war, 
Dickinson has been constantly growing and 
improving. A scientific building, the gift 
of Jacob Trone, now accomodates the scien- 
tific departments, which were but illy pro- 
vided for in former days. Bosler Hall, the 
gift of the widow of the late James W. 
Bosler, now affords room for the libraries 
of the college and literary societies, and has 
also a large chapel. Some years ago ladies 
were admitted to the college, and within 
the past two years a hall has been secured 
for them. The last addition in the way of 
buildings is Denny Hall, given up entirely 
to recitation purposes and the accommoda- 
tion of the literary societies. The material 
equipment of the college is thus complete. 
Within a few years, several of the chairs 
have been endowed, so the college seems 
to be at the beginning of a prosperous 

The Law School has had a long and hon- 
ored life. 

The Collegiate Preparatory school of the 
college is coeval in history with the college 
itself and has been a very important factor 
in the life of the institution. More than 
100 students have been in attendance dur- 
ing the final year, 1896-7, and there will be 
a necessity of enlargement of its accommo- 
dations in the immediate future. The 
school does only college preparatory work 



and in its line has few superiors. 

In the earlier part of the century a 
law department was established in con- 
nection with the college, which for many 
years was under the efficient supervis- 
ion of Judge Reed, in his day one of 
the most noted jurists of Pennsylvania, 
who in turn was followed by Judge Gra- 
ham, of the Cumberland county bar. 
Under the administration of these efficient 
gentlemen were trained many young men 
afterward famous as lawyers, jurists and 
statesmen, notably Hon. A. G. Curtin, the 
famous war governor of Pennsylvania; the 
Hon. Nathaniel B. Smithers, of Delaware; 
Justice Gibson, of the Supreme Court of 
Pennsylvania; Chief Justice Chas. B. Lore, 
of Delaware, and many other of similar dis- 
tinction. Just prior to the war the school 
was discontinued after a long and most 
successful career. 

In 1890 under the administration of 
President Reed, who associated with him- 
self William Trickett, LL. D., and Hon. 
Wilbur F. Sadler, President Judge of the 
district, the school was re-established, no 
longer, however, as a department of the 
college proper, but as an associate institu- 
tion, being known as the Dickinson School 
of Law, of which the president of Dickin- 
son college is ex-officio president. Wm. 
L. Trickett is dean and the following gen- 
tlemen instructors: Hon. Wilbur F. Sadler, 
A. M., professor of Criminal Law; Hon. J. 
M. Weakley, professor of the Law of Plead- 
ing; H. Silas Stuart, A. M., professor of the 
Law of Partnership; George Edward Mills, 
Esq., A. B., LL. B., professor of Law of 
Torts; M. W. Jacobs, Esq., A. M., profes- 
sor of Equity; Albert H. Bolles, Ph. D., 
professor of Law of Contracts. 

Among the fifty incorporators are a ma- 
jority of the president judges of the State 
and men eminent in professional life in ad- 
jacent States. Since its re-organization 

the school has been attended with almost 
unprecedented prosperity. Beginning with 
II students, in the year 1897, 93 were en- 
rolled and a class of 30 men graduated. It 
has for its accommodation a commodious 
building with a fine library, the latter being 
one of the best in the State. 

During the past four years great efforts 
have been made to reform the department 
of the college curriculum and to bring the 
institution, with respect to requirements for 
admission and extent of courses of study 
fully abreast of the leading colleges of the 

During the administration of President 
Reed the number of students in attendance 
at the institution has increased from 160 in 
1889 to 410 in 1897, with every prospect 
that the remarkable growth of the past 
eight years will be surpassed by that of the 

As indicative of the value of the work 
accomplished by the so-called "small col- 
leges" — small only as compared with the 
numbers of a few great institutions, the 
records of the Alumni of Dickinson Col- 
lege since its establishment in 1783, is 
highly suggestive and would seem to show 
conclusively that the day of the small col- 
lege has by no means passed away in the 
United States. 


Alumni of Dickinson College. 

Whole number, about 3.700 
Entered professional life, so far as 

known, i,559 

Entered the ministry, 560 

Entered the legal profession, 530 

College presidents, 30 

Presidents of professional schools, 30 

Professors of colleges, 80 

Principals of seminaries, 83 

Army officers, 70 

Members of the State legislatures, 61 

State Senators, 8 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

Journalists, 5° 

Chief Justice of the United States, i 

Associate Justice of the United States, i 
Chief Justices of States, 12 

Judges of lower courts, 43 

Cabinet officers, 7 

Governors of States, 2 

Bishops of M. E. Church, 2 

Bishops of P. E. Church, 2 

Bishops of Reformed Episcopal Church, i 
President of the United States, i 

Competent judges have declared that the 
record of the Dickinson Alumni, considered 
relatively to the number of men graduated 
from her halls, cannot be surpassed by that 
of any other college in the land. 

Crowned with the laurels of one hun- 
dred and fourteen years of successful his- 
tory, full of hopefulness and progressive 
spirit and with an accomplished corps of 
instructors, there is every reason to pre- 
dict that the college will enjoy a career of 
unprecedented prosperity in the future 
years that are opening up before it. 

Pennsylvania College. This institu- 
tion of higher education was chartered 
April 7th, 1832. The class work began in 
September of the same year. The first class 
graduated in 1834. 

The origin of the college was the neces- 
sity of college training for ministers of the 
Lutheran Church. The beginnings of the 
college were very moderate, the small plain 
building on the southeast corner of Wash- 
ington and High street; no endowment 
and few teachers, but a large faith in the 
support of the Lutheran Church. This 
faith has been justified and the college has 
been true to the church. No other instru- 
ment has been so potent for the advance- 
ment of the English Lutheran Church in 
the United States. 

The establishing of the college was 
specially the work of S. S. Schmucker, D. 

D., the professor of Theology in the, at that 
time, recently established Theological Semi- 
nary at Gettysburg. Dr. Schmucker and 
his co-laborers had been interested for some 
years in the Gettysburg Gymnasium, out of 
which they developed the college. 

The location of the college was deter- 
mined by the presence at Gettysburg of 
the Theological Seminary of the General 
Synod of the Lutheran Church, and by the 
accessibility of the town by the modes of 
conveyance then in vogue, the stage coach 
of the early third of the century. Some 
years after the general construction of rail- 
roads, Gettysburg was out of the ordi- 
nary lines of travel, but in recent years it 
is again easy of access from all directions. 

The control of the college is in the hands 
of thirty-six trustees, who elect their own 
successors, except that the Alumni associa- 
tion selects six of the members. The trus- 
tees have been most faithful to their trust 
and have carefully done all that has been 
possible to increase the efficiency of the in- 
stitution. The college campus has gradu- 
ally grown from six acres, in 1835, to forty- 
three acres. The larger portion of the 
grounds are in fair condition, the other por- 
tion being held for future improvement. 
The buildings consist of the Dormitory 
Building erected in 1835-8. This was orig- 
inally used for all purposes and has gradu- 
ally been restricted to its present use. The 
Gymnasium, originally the Linnaean Hall, 
erected in 1847, for museum purposes and 
class rooms for the preparatory depart- 
ment, was in 1890 considerably enlarged 
and fully equipped for its present uses. The 
Recitation Hall, erected in 1888-9, is a mon- 
ument of the devoted good will of the friends 
of the college. This building is used for 
lecture rooms, class rooms, library and mu- 
seum purposes, besides containing the 
handsome halls of the literary societies. 

Brua Chapel, erected in 1889-90, is the 



gift of the late Col. John P. Brua, Col. U. 
S. A., as a memorial to his parents. 

The chemical laboratory is a well equip- 
ped building for the uses of that depart- 
ment, and was arranged for its present uses 
in 1890. 

The astronomical observatory was erected 
in 1874, and is equipped for instruction and 
investigation. Besides these buildings 
there are the President's house, two pro- 
fessor's houses, the boiler house, furnishing 
steam heat to the various buildings, and 
three Greek letter society houses. At this 
writing arrangements are being made for 
the building of additional dormitory ac- 
commodations. The various buildings 
aggregate a value of about $250,000. 

The curriculum of the institution has 
been the great care of those entrusted with 
the management of the aiifairs of the col- 
lege. The ends aimed at have been men- 
tal training and the acquisition of valuable 
knowledge, with the great purpose of train- 
ing students for manly labor in God's work 
in the various activities of life. With these 
purposes in view the courses of study have 
been frequently advanced that the institu- 
tion might manfully co-operate with other 
colleges in the field of higher education. 
The two principal changes in the curricu- 
lum have been: the establishing in 1888 of 
a course of study leading to the B. S. de- 
gree and the introduction in 1891 of a lim- 
ited number of elective studies. 

The college possesses a large mineralog- 
ical collection an extensive herbarium, a 
fair lithological collection and smaller col- 
lections illustrating other departments of 
instruction. The libraries number in the 
aggregate nearly twenty-four thousand vol- 

The Literary societies of the college have 
had a history of great usefulness, beginning 
with the ception of the college The 

Young Men's Christian Association has 
been for a number of years an important 
factor in the religious work of the college. 
Young men have, and must largely have, 
a very great influence in moulding the 
character of their associates. Conscious of 
this fact many students during their college 
life begin to be, what they should be, influ- 
ential for good among their fellows. Believ- 
ing that the body must be wisely cared for, 
athletics have been fostered by the authori- 
ties of the college. The purpose has been 
to make the training of the body not sub- 
sidiary to but correlative with mental dis- 
cipline and thus better fit men for a true life 
of usefulness. 

The finances of the college have been 
carefully husbanded by the Trustees; at 
present the endowment is about $210,- 
000. Much must yet be done. New fa- 
cilities must be had in training force, appli- 
ances and those matters which can be ob- 
tained from enlarged endowment. The 
confidence which is placed in the college by 
the graduates and by the church to which 
the college belongs has been a source of 
direct and of moral strength which has in a 
large measure been the reason for the suc- 
cess attained. 

The graduates of the college now num- 
ber 1,043, of whom 806 are living. Among 
these are numbered many who have been 
potential for good in their own day and for 
many other days in their work in directing 
(he thoughts and labors of the many who 
have been under their influence. 

Among the principal benefactors of the 
college have been: Mr. J. E. Graeff, who 
beside establishing the chair of English Lit- 
erature has given largely in many other di- 
rections; the Ockershausen Brothers who 
gave the fund on which in parts depends 
the Ockershausen Professorship; the 
GrafT family, who have established the 
chair of Physical Culture and Hygiene in 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

memory of the son and brother, Charles H. 
Graff, M. D.; Mr. James Strong who has 
founded in honor of his wife the Amanda 
Rupert Strong Professorship of Enghsh 
Bible and the Chaplaincy; Mr. Wm. Bitten- 
ger who bequeathed funds to maintain the 
Professorship of Intellectual and Moral Sci- 
ence; and the Pearson family who have 
given the funds for the Latin Professorship. 
Among others who have given largely we 
mention several from the territory included 
in this volume: the late C. A. Mor.ris and 
Mr. P. H. Glatfelter, of Spring Forge, both 
of whom have given largely in money 
time and thought to the affairs of the col- 

There may be distinguished three periods 
in the history of Pennsylvania College: the 
establishing and foundation of the college 
under the direction of Dr. Schmucker, act- 
ing President for two years and the Presi- 
dency of Charles P. Krauth, D. D. ; the 
development of the institution under the 
Presidency of H. L. Baugher, D. D., and 
M.Valentine, D. D.; and the epoch of a new 
departure during the Presidency of H. W. 
McKnight, D. D. Each of these periods 
has been marked by its own elements of 
usefulness, each was the outgrowth of con- 
ditions existing in the preceding period and 
each was necessary to the succeeding per- 
iod. The college has been served by men 
devoted to her interests and using the op- 
portunities which from time have occurred 
to further the growth of the college and to 
enlarge her field of usefulness. From the 
beginning there has been aljied with the col- 
lege, a preparing school; this department 
has been of great importance to the advan- 
ced department. In earlier years nearly all 
the students of the college classes were 
from this preparatory school; of late years 
a large portion of the students enter Fresh- 
men from various High Schools and Acad- 
amies. This preparatory school has occu- 

pied since 1868 the building specially erec- 
ted for its use on Carlisle street, while un- 
der the same Board of Trustees and in a 
general way under control of the faculty of 
the college. It has its own system of gov- 
ernment and is in arrangement of work 
adapted to those in a less advanced course 
of work. 

The Faculty of Pennsylvania College for 
the year 1896-7 consists of: 

Harvey W. McKnight, D. D. LL. D., 
president, and William Bittinger professor 
of Intellectual and Moral Science. Adam 
Martin, D. D., professor of the German 
Language and Literature, and instructor in 
French. John A. Himes, A. M., Graeff 
professor of English Literature and Polit- 
ical Science, and Librarian. Rev. Philip 
M. Bikle, Ph. D., dean, and Pearson profes- 
sor of the Latin Language and Literature. 
Edward S. Breidenbaugh, Sc. D., Ocker- 
shausen professor of Chemistry and Min- 
eralogy, and Curator of the Museum. 
George D. Stahley, A. M., M. D., Dr. 
Charles H. Graff, professor of Physical 
Culture and Hygiene, and secretary of the 
Faculty. Henry B. Nixon, Ph. D., 
professor of Mathematics and Astronomy. 
Eli Huber, D. D., Amanda Rupert Strong 
professor of English Bible, and chaplain. 
Rev. Oscar G. Klinger, A. M., Franklin 
professor of the Greek Language and Lit- 
erature. Hon. John Stewart, A. M., lec- 
turer on Jurisprudence. Rev. Charles H. 
Huber, A. M., principal of the Preparatory 
Department, and professor of Latin and 
English. Clyde B. Stover, A. B., assistant 
in Chemistry. Abraham B. Bunn Van Or- 
mer. Ph. D., tutor in Greek and History. 
Luther P. Eisenhart, A. B., tutor in Math- 
ematics and Natural Science. WilHam E. 
Wheeler, Physical instructor. Thomas J. 
Reisch, instructor in Penmanship. George 
F. Abel, proctor. Henry C. Picking, A. B., 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


treasurer. Miss Sallie P. Krauth, assistant 

The enrollment for the current year has 
been: Graduate students 14, Seniors 26, 
Juniors 34, Sophomores 39, Freshmen 62 
and Preparatorians 97. A total of 272. 

Theological Seminary of the Gen- 
eral Synod of the Lutheran Church. 
This institution was established by the 
General Synod in 1826. Its organization 
formed an epoch in the life and develop- 
ment of the Lutheran Church in this 
country. Before that time almost the 
only source of supply of ministers 
was immigration from the mother coun- 
try and the private training of can- 
didates by individual pastors. The 
want was sorely felt, as making the proper 
care of the congregations and growth of 
the Church impossible. The provision for 
an adequate educated ministry was one of 
the first great acts of the wisdom and 
energy of the General Synod. The decisive 
action was taken at its meeting in Freder- 
ick, Md., in 1825, when it resolved: 

"That the General Synod will forthwith 
commence, in the name of the Triune God, 
and in humble reliance on His aid, the 
establishment of a Theological Seminary 
which shall be exclusively devoted to the 
glory of our divine Redeemer, Jesus Christ, 
who is God over all, blessed forever. And 
that in the Seminary shall be taught, in the 
German and English languages, the funda- 
mental doctrines of the sacred Scriptures, 
as contained in the Augsburg Confession." 
The General Synod itself appointed the 
first professor, Dr. S. S. Schmucker, and 
also the first Board of Directors, but or- 
dained that thereafter the district Synods 
contributing to the institution should elect 
the Directors and the Board should elect 
the professors. 

The establishment of the Seminary led 

to the founding of Pennsylvania College 
in 1832, and the general development of 
the educational work of the Lutheran 
Church in the United States. For from 
the start thus given and the Church enter- 
prise thus awakened, other institutions 
have come into existence with their still 
widening power. The Seminary educated 
presidents for Wittenberg, Roanoke, North 
Carolina, Newberry and Muhlenberg Col- 
leges, and a large number of their profes- 
sors; and professors of theology in Hart- 
wick, Philadelphia, Wittenberg and Selin's 
Grove Theological Seminaries. Its alumni 
have carried on largely the work of female 
education at Hagerstown, Lutherville, 
Staunton, Marion, Walhalla and elsewhere. 

The roll of students since the organiza- 
tion numbers over 800. For over half a 
century they have been going forth into 
the pulpits and various church work all 
over the United States, carrying larger 
new life and prosperity from shore to shore 
of our land and to the missionary service 
in foreign lands. 

Besides Dr. Schmucker, the following 
have been regular professors in the past, 
viz: Rev. Ernest Hazelius, D. D., 1830- 
1833; Rev. Henry I. Smith, D. D., 1839- 
1843; Rev. Charles A. Hay, 1844-1848 
Rev. Charles P. Krauth, D. D., 1850-1867 
Rev. Chas. F. Schaefifer, D. D., 1855-1864 
Rev. Jas. A. Brown, D. D., LL. D., 1864- 
1881 ; Rev. Milton Valentine, D. D., 1866- 
1868; Rev. Chas. A. Stork, D. D., 1881- 

The fruits of the grand service accom- 
plished by this institution were, until re- 
cently, manifest more in the immense de- 
velopment of almost every other interest of 
the Church than in any strengthening and 
enlargement of the institution itself. It had 
to do its work with comparatively poor 
equipment of accommodations and small 
faculty. Lately, however, the Board has 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

entered upon the work of developing the 
institution itself, in order to make its 
equipment and strength correspond to the 
present strength of the Church and the en- 
larged demands which the times make 
upon it. A new building, with lec- 
ture halls, chapel and library, has been 
erected. The old edifice has been repaired 
and improved. A steam plant has been 
built for heating both the buildings. The 
modern conveniences of hot and cold 
water, bath rooms, gymnasium, etc., are 
supplied. Professor's houses have been 
added and the old ones improved. The 
additions and changes have cost about 
$88,000. A legacy of $22,000 by Mr. Mat- 
thew Eichelberger, of Gettysburg, has re- 
cently been received. 

Metzger College for Young Ladies. 
Among the many institutions of learning 
which have contributed in a marked de- 
gree, to make the Cumberland Valley fam- 
ous for its educational facilities and advan- 
tages, conspicuous recognition must be ac- 
corded to Metzger College for young ladies 
located at Carlisle. 

This institution owes its existence to the 
generosity of its founder, the Hon. George 
Metzger, of Carlisle, Pa., who devised the 
ground for its location, the buildings and 
the endowment, besides books, furniture, 
apparatus and other equipments. 

It was opened in the fall of 1881 and in- 
corporated in 1882 as Metzger Institute. 
The name was changed in 1894 to its pres- 
ent corporate name, Metzger College and 
under its new charter, with its new and en- 
larged curriculum and added facilities it is 
even better prepared to carry out the pur- 
pose of its founder. By the provisions of 
his will, it was to be a college for ladies 
where "branches useful and ornamental" 
should be taught. Besides the usual colle- 
giate studies, therefore, music and art have 
always had a prominent place in the work 

of the institution and special advantages 
have been offered in these departments. 
Courses of study are offered in piano, voice 
and art at the completion of which a di- 
ploma is granted. 

With the present graduating class, fifty 
ladies will have graduated from the colle- 
giate department and one from the music 

Miss Harriet L. Dexter was the president 
of the institution, serving from 1881 to 
1895, when she resigned on account of ill 
health. She was a lady of rare culture and 
did much to promote the cause of higher 
education of girls. 

In 1895, the presidency of the institution 
was tendered to Professor Wallace Peter 
Dick, M. A., then Professor of Languages 
at the State Normal School, West Chester, 
Pa., and was accepted. Prof. Dick is a 
graduate of Brown University, Providence, 
R. I., and is a well known educator, having 
devoted his entire time since his graduation, 
in 1879, to the work of education, and under 
him Metzger College is taking high rank 
as its advantages are becoming better 

Carlisle, the site of the college, is well 
known all over the United States as an 
educational centre and is noted for its 
healthfulness, historic associations, fine 
scenery and the intellectual and social re- 
finement of its inhabitants. 

The Metzger College buildings include 
the main building and the Metzger cottage. 
They are in a most delightful spot in the 
suburbs, about three blocks from the cen- 
tre of the town. The main building is an 
imposing structure of brick with brown 
stone trimmings in the centre of a beauti- 
ful campus covering two acres, having the 
Metzger cottage at one end, and the grove, 
tennis court and croquet lawn at the other. 
The students' rooms are large, completely 
furnished, lighted by gas and heated by 



steam. Bathrooms are found on all the 
floors. These are supplied with hot and 
cold water and furnished with modern con- 
veniences of the most approved type. The 
other rooms — the reception room, dining- 
room, chapel, office, recitation rooms — are 
light, commodious and well adapted to 
their purpose. 

The records show that at various times 
Metzger College has enrolled students 
from Pennsylvania, Maryland, Minnesota, 
Massachusetts, Indiana, Delaware, Misso- 
uri, Arkansas, Michigan, Illinois, New Jer- 
sey, Wisconsin, New York, West Virginia, 
South Dakota, Wyoming, Indian Territory 
and the District of Columbia, including 
such cities as Washington, Philadelphia, 
Indianapolis, Hoboken, Harrisburg, Troy, 
Lancaster, Newark, Milwaukee, Chicago, 
Brooklyn, New York and Pittsburg. It has 
always enjoyed a large day patronage from 
Carlisle and the surrounding towns. 

It supports a literary society, a Y. W. C. 
A., and each year offers to the public a su- 
perior lecture course. 

The College Preparatory Department 
prepares for entrance to, or advanced 
standing in, Bryn Mawr, Vassar, Wellesley, 
Smith or similar colleges and the Metzger 
Collegiate Department offers three courses, 
— the Classical, the Modern Language and 
the English—to those who wish to graduate 
from the institution and receive its diploma. 

A flourishing juvenile department, ad- 
mitting, for the time being, boys under 
twelve years as well as girls, is under the 
immediate control of the college. 

The Metzger College Faculty is at pres- 
ent constituted as follows: Wallace Peter 
Dick, M. A., President, German, Biblical 
Literature and Philosophy. Miss Sarah 
Kate Ege, Librarian, Mathematics. Miss 
Laura Jackson, B. S., Natural Sciences 
and French. Miss NelHe Higman, A. B., 
Higher Mathematics and Higher Eng- 

lish. Miss Bertha Eliza Smith, A. M., 
Latin and Greek. Miss Martha Elizabeth 
Barbour, Elocution and Physical Training. 
Fraulein Marie Heling, Piano and Har- 
mony. Mrs. William Weidman Landis, 
Vocal Music. Miss Arria Evelyn Wheeler, 
Violin. Prof. Frank S. Morrow, Banjo, 
Guitar and Mandolin. Miss Elizabeth E. 
Forster, Art. Mr. John M. Rhey, LL. B., 
Stenography and Typewriting. Miss Win- 
nefred Sterrett Woods, Assistant in art. 

Miss Louise Ege Woodburn, Assistant 
in Piano. Miss Elizabeth Neill Rose, Juve- 
nile Department. Miss Anne Harriet 
Gardner, Kintergarten. 

York Collegiate Institute. York Col- 
legiate Institute, was founded and endowed 
by Mr. Samuel Small April 14th, 1873. 
While visiting in New England he became 
acquainted with the design and methods of 
Norwich (Conn.) Free Academy. He had 
been planning to found an institution of 
learning for the benefit of his city, and this 
excellent school gave definiteness to his 
ideas. He returned home, selected the site 
and the corner stone of the first building 
was laid in 1871. The building was nearly 
completed when he invited a number of 
gentlemen including his pastor and fellow 
elders in the First Presbyterian church, 
with his nephews, Mr. Latimer and Samuel 
Small, Jr., and a few others to act with him 
as a Board of Trustees. On September 
15th, 1873, the school was opened for stud- 
ents with the Rev. James McDougall, Ph. 
D., as president, and on November 3rd, the 
new building was dedicated. On July 
14th, 1885, Mr. Small, who had acted as 
President of the Board of Trustees, and 
had been a generous patron and intelligent 
helper of the Institute, died. His widow, 
Mrs. Isabel Cassat Small added to the en- 
dowment and appliances of the school by 
gift and will. The Cassat Library is named 
in her honor. On Dec. 7th, 1885, the 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

building was consumed by fire. His neph- 
ews, Messrs. W. Latimer, George and Sam- 
uel Small put up a new building, larger, 
more elaborate and better in every way 
than the old one. It stands yet a monu- 
ment to their generosity and afifection for 
their imcle 

After the death of Mr. Samuel Small, his 
nephew, Samuel Small, Jr., was elected 
President of the Board of Trustees, and 
after the death of Dr. McDougall in 1892 
Rev. E. T. Jefifers, D. D., was elected Presi- 
dent and on May i, '93, entered on his du- 
ties as president of the Faculty. In addi- 
tion to these, twenty-seven different teach- 
ers have given instruction in the school 
since its beginning, most of them for short 
terms of service. Three, Prof. A. B. Gar- 
ner and the Misses Allen and Bixby, have 
been on the faculty for twenty years, and 
Ghas. H. Ehrenfeld, Ph. D., for ten years. 

The school is designed to give a fair clas- 
sical, scientific and literary education to 
those who can go no farther in their educa- 
tion, and to fit both young men and wo- 
men for the Freshman class in the most 
thorough colleges of this country. Over 
two hundred have been graduated and over 
a thousand have been enrolled as students. 
Those who have been thus fitted for ad- 
vanced studies are now in Johns Hopkins, 
Bryn Mawr, Princeton, University of Penn- 
sylvania, Wesleyan (Conn)., Yale, Gettys- 
burg, Franklin and Marshall, Lafayette and 
Pennsylvania State College. 

Parochial Schools. The early schools 
were largely parochial, the Luther- 
ans, Reformed, Catholics and Presbyterians 
generally establishing a parochial school by 
the side of each of their churches. The 
subscription and classical schools reduced 
them in number and the free schools swept 
away nearly all the remaining ones, except 
the Catholic. Among the remaining Cath- 
olic parochial schools are those at McSher- 

rystown, Mt. Rock, New Oxford, Irish- 
town, Littlestown, Bonneauville and Get- 
tysburg, in Adams county; and York and 
some other points in York and Cumber- 
land counties. St. Joseph's parochial 
school at McSherrystown has been in ex- 
istence since 1800. 

In 1894 we find the following county sta- 
tistics of the schools of the Nineteenth dis- 
trict. Cumberland county, 254 public 
schools of which 116 were graded, 3 col- 
leges and 6 academies and seminaries, with 
9,859 children enrolled in the public schools 
costing $140,252.42 for that year. Adams 
county had 132 schools of which 23 were 
graded in all of which were enrolled 7,170 
pupils who cost $72,676.11, with I college 
and 9 academies and seminaries. York 
county enrolled 23,465 pupils in her 455 
public schools of which 100 were graded 
and all costing $268,142.13, while she had 
no college and but two academic schools. 

Carlisle Indian Industrial School. In- 
dian education and employment at Carlisle 
under the Pratt system is a possible solu- 
tion of the great Indian problem. Wash- 
ington's plan of Indian treatment was as- 
sociation and civihzation, but it was never 
fairly tried, being supplanted by Jefferson's 
reservation plan which has been carried on 
ever since by the government whose policy 
has alternated between "pauperizing and 
extermination." The Carlisle school and 
the Pratt system had their origin in con- 
victions that grew out of Capt. R. H. 
Pratt's eight year's cavalry service against 
the Indians in the Indian territory. Cap- 
tain Pratt had formerly commanded a com- 
pany of colored cavalry in the loth United 
States and in the historical sketch 
of the Carlisle school which he fur- 
nished by government request, in 1890, 
he says: "I often commanded Indian 
scouts, took charge of Indian prisoners and 
performed other Indian duty which led me 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


to consider the relative conditions of the 
two races. The negro, I argued, is from 
as low a state of savagery as the Indian, and 
in 200 years' association with Anglo-Sax- 
ons he has lost his language and gained 
theirs; has laid aside the characteristics of 
his former savage life, and, to a great ex- 
tent, adopted those of the most advanced 
and highest civilized nation in the world, 
and has thus become fitted and accepted as 
a fellow citizen among them. This miracle 
of change came from association with the 
higher civilization. Then, I argued, it is 
not fair to denounce the Indian as an in- 
corrigible savage until he has had at least 
equal privilege of association. If millions 
of black savages can become so trans- 
formed and assimilated, and if, annually, 
hundreds of thousands of foreign emigrants 
from all lands can also become Anglicised, 
Americanized, assimilated and absorbed 
through association, there is but one plain 
duty resting upon us with regard to the In- 
dians, and that is to relieve them of their 
savagery and other alien qualities by the 
same methods used to relieve the others. 
Assist them, too, to die as helpless tribes, 
and to rise up among us as strong and cap- 
able individual men and American citi- 

Capt. Pratt had also some experience 
with Indian prisoners in Florida and in sup- 
ervising the education of negroes and In- 
dians at Hampton, Virginia. Disapproving 
of educating two races together he sug- 
gested to the government authorities his 
idea of an Indian school at Carlisle bar- 
racks which were appropriated for the 
school in 1879 and Captain Pratt placed in 
charge. Each boy and girl was required to 
study one-half and work one-half of each 
day and the results of 17 years of such a 
course of study and labor under Capt. Pratt 
has made the school a success and drawn 
visitors even from the old world to study the 

Indian problem under the workings of the 
Pratt system. Super says "the establish- 
ment of the Indian industrial school at Car- 
lisle marks an epoch in the history of our 
treatment of the red man." Three hun- 
dred and twenty-two of these Indian 
boys and girls attended the Columbian 
quadri-centennial at New York in 1892, and 
305 of them were in the opening ceremonies 
of the World's Columbian fair at Chicago, 
being led at each city by their band of 30 
pieces and marching so splendidly as to 
win encomiums from nearly all the leading 
newspapers of the United States. 450 of 
them earned enough ($7,000) by their sum- 
mer outing to spend a week at the World's 
Fair where they were closely studied and 
highly praised by thousands of visitors. In 
concluding this account of the Carlisle In- 
dian school which has trained over 2,500 In- 
dian boys and girls from over 60 different 
tribes we quote from Capt. Pratt's seven- 
teenth annual report: "Our population dur- 
ing the year (1896) came from 61 different 
tribes ; that the whole number of pupils un- 
der care for some portion of the year was 
898, and that the average attendance was 
722.93. This made our per capita cost to 
the Government a trifle more than $141.00 
which includes the cost of transporting 
children to and from their homes, new 
buildings, repairs and improvements of all 
kinds. In any just comparison with the 
expenses of other schools these facts should 
be taken into account. This economy re- 
sulted largely from the use of our outing 
system. 155 of our students attended pub- 
lic schools during the winter and had the 
continuous benefits of family life. During 
the vacation months of July and August 
we had 506 out at work at one time with 
farmers and others. The total earnings 
from this outing amounted to $19,238.62 of 
which the girls earned $6,480.60 and the 
boys $12,758.02. Of these sums the boys 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

saved $5,561.19 and the girls $3,037.29, a 
total of $8,598.48. The expenditures were 
mostly for clothing. Their total savings 
from past years and for the year of this re- 
port, on hand at the end of June were $15,- 
294.96, the larger part of which the stud- 
ents have on interest at 6 per cent, in safely 
secured bonds. 

I trust that these facts may have some 
slight influence in favor of enlarged oppor- 
tunities for Indians along these lines and 
to encourage the liberating of them from 

tribal and reservation idleness and the mak- 
ing use of them as factors in our civilized 
industrial life." 

The educational outlook of the Nine- 
teenth Congressional district is bright and 
full of promise. The present is doing well 
its work, and it remains for those who come 
after us "so to nourish and foster every ed- 
ucational plant that in a future, so bright 
with promise, there shall ever be the bloom 
and beauty of cultured minds and noble 


The Judiciary and the Bar. 

York County. Liberty and law, in a re- 
public, are co-extensive and co-existent. 
They are reciprocal standards of measure- 
ment, and in their productivity for good 
there is a mutual dependence. 

The earliest settlers in the Province of 
Pennsylvania were taught true notions of 
liberty and law by Penn. As to liberty, by 
the language of the proprietaries: "We 
lay a foundation for after ages to under- 
stand their liberty as Christians and as 
men," liberty of mind, as evidenced by the 
first law passed by the General Assembly 
of the Province, "The Law Concerning 
Liberty of Conscience;" and as to political 
freedom, by at least the implied promises of 
immunity from the wrongs they then en- 
dured to those fleeing from the Palatinate 
upon the Rhine. 

As to law, Penn's innate sense of justice 
was a forceful, moulding influence in the 
colony days. "His religious principles did 
not permit him to wrest the soil of Penn- 
sylvania by force from the people to whom 
God and nature gave it, nor to establish his 
title in blood— he was influenced by a purer 
morality and sounder policy than that pre- 
vailing principle which actuated the more 
sordid; and under the shade of the lofty 
trees of the forest, his right was fixed by 
treaties with the Indians and sanctified as it 
were, by smoking from the calumet of 
peace." (2 Smith's Law of Pa., page 105.) 

By virtue of character, as well as in con- 
formity with a principle obtaining in Eu- 
rope at the time, Penn had an undoubted 

title to the soil granted him by Charles II 
of England, under date of March 4, 1681. 
Nevertheless, in consonance with his typi- 
fying virtues he instructed the deputy-Gov- 
ernor to hold treaties with the Indians and 
to procure the lands peaceably. Before his 
return to England in 1684 he adopted mea- 
sures "to purchase the lands on the Sus- 
quehanna from the Five Nations who pre- 
tended a right to them," conveyance being 
made January 13, 1696. (2 Smith's Laws 
of Pa., page iii). 

The Indians of the Five Nations, despite 
the various sales and transfers continued to 
claim a right to the river and the adjoining 
lands, and it was not until October 11, 1736, 
that a deed, with twenty-five Indian chiefs 
as signatories, was delivered whereby the 
lands of this part of the Province were fin- 
ally relinquished to the proprietaries. 

The fairness was not an out-cropping of 
individuality alone but "so determined was 
the Government that none should intrude 
to the annoyance of the Indians that the 
Commissioners of Property on complaint 
to them of any intruders by the Indians 
caused them to be arrested and imprisoned. 
(Rupp's History of York county, page 

At the conclusion of the Indian treaty of 
1736 the limit of Lancaster county was ex- 
tended indefinitely westward and included 
all of the present counties of York, Cum- 
berland, Adams and Dauphin and a large 
portion of Berks and Northumberland. The 
Indians, under Penn's policy, were con- 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

tented and peaceful, and settlers soon oc- 
cupied the lands west of the Susquehanna, 
and it was not long before petitions were 
presented to the Provincial Council asking 
for the erection of a new county west of the 
Susquehanna. These early petitions set 
forth the need of the formation of a new 
county from the distance to the county 
town where the courts were held, that the 
river intervening was impassable at times 
for days, that prosecutions were discour- 
aged because of the expense and loss of 
time, that the tract of land on the west 
side of the Susquehanna and between the 
South Mountain and Maryland was well 
inhabited and of sufficient extent for a coun- 
ty and the people able and willing to bear 
the charge, and "how difficult it was to se- 
cure inhabitants against theft and abuses, 
frequently committed among them by dis- 
solute and idle persons who resort to the 
remote parts of the province and by reason 
of the great distance from the court or 
prison frequently found means of making 
their escape." 

The first petition, presented in 1747, was 
unheard. In 1748 a united request was 
made, and on August 19, 1749, the act was 
passed with the official sanction of Deput)'- 
Governor Hamilton "That all and singular 
the lands lying within the Province of 
Pennsylvania to the westward of the river 
Susquehanna and southward and eastward 
of the South Mountain be erected into a 
county, named York — bounded Northward 
and westward by a line to be run from the 
river Susquehanna along the ridge of the 
said South Mountain until it shall intersect 
the Maryland line, southward by the said 
Maryland line, and eastward by the said 
river Susquehanna;" the northern boun- 
dary line not being definitely established 
until after the erection of Cumberland 

A commission was named by the same 

act, composed of Thomas Cox, of Warring- 
ton township; Nathan Hussey, of York; 
and Michael Tanner who lived near York, 
authorizing them or any three of them to 
purchase a plot of ground situate in a con- 
venient place in the county to be approved 
by the Governor, to be held in trust for the 
use of the inhabitants of the county, and to 
erect thereon a court house and prison for 
the service of the county, and Centre 
Square in York was selected as the site. 

The sessions of the courts from 1749 to 
1756 were probably held in private houses 
or the homes of the court justices. In April 
1754, the commissioners entered into con- 
tract with William Willis, a Quaker brick- 
layer, of Manchester township, to erect the 
walls of the building. Henry Clark, also 
a Quaker, and the owner of a saw mill near 
the mouth of Beaver Creek, engaged to saw 
and deliver scantling for the building, John 
Meem and Jacob Klein, Germans, were em- 
ployed to do the carpentry. Robert Jones, 
a Quaker, resident in Manchester township, 
was engaged to haul seven thousand shin- 
gles from Philadelphia. Two years after 
commencing, the work was completed. 

The act erecting the county and provid- 
ing for the building of the court house by 
the appointive commission, enacted also 
that a competent number of court justices 
be nominated by the Governor which said 
justices or any three of them were author- 
ized to hold Courts of General Quarter Ses- 
sions of the Peace and Gaol Delivery, 
County Courts of Common Pleas and Or- 
phans courts with the same powers, rights, 
jurisdictions and authorities as the justices 
in the other counties of the Province. An 
appeal lay to the Supreme Court from the 
decisions of the justices. A Register's 
Court for the work of settling and distrib- 
uting decedent's estates was composed of 
the Register of Wills and two justices. The 
county offices of Prothonotary, Recorder of 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


Deeds, Register of Wills, Clerk of the Or- 
phan's Court and Clerk of the Court of 
Quarter Sessions were established in 1749 
and were filled by appointment by the Gov- 
ernor of the Province before and under the 
Constitution of 1776 while under the Con- 
stitution of 1790 appointments were made 
by the Supreme Executive Council or the 
Governor of the Commonwealth. The 
Constitution of 1838 again changed the 
plan to an election by the people. 

The court house stood from 1756 to 
1840, its most historic period being com- 
prised within the nine months next preced- 
ing June, 1778, during which period of na- 
tional gloom the Continental Congress held 
sittings within its walls and passed the Ar- 
ticles of Confederation. The walls around 
the three enclosed sides of the Court house 
yard as it is today are built of the bricks 
of the old court house walls. 

The site of the present court house was 
selected by the County Commissioners af- 
ter a prolonged controversy, and the build- 
ing completed in 1840 although the cupola 
and bell were not added until 1847. In its 
erection Jacob Dietz was master carpenter 
and Henry Small assistant, and Charles Ep- 
pley master mason with George Odenwall 
assistant. The bricks and wood were ob- 
tained from the county, the granite mainly 
from Baltimore county, Maryland, from 
which point it was hauled to its destination 
in wagons while the granite pillars dignify- 
ing the magnificent front were Brought 
from Maryland over the newly-constructed 
railroad. The cost of nearly One Hundred 
Thousand Dollars was met by the issuance 
of county notes of the denomination of 
Three Dollars and of county bonds. 

During the second year after the estab- 
lishing of county courts several convicts 
were sentenced to the county jail but in 
1768 at the July session of court the County 
Commissioners requested that "the county 

prison be enlarged as it was too small for a 
work-house and prison and the walls are 
not safe," whereupon they were ordered by 
the court to erect a new building. The ar- 
chitect, designed a building of blue lime- 
stone from quarries near York, which 
building stood on the northeast corner of 
King and George streets until 1855 when 
the present jail was erected with Edward 
Haviland as architect. 

The first Court of General Quarter Ses- 
sions of the Peace in York county after its 
formation from Lancaster county was held 
at York before John Day, Esq., an English 
Quaker, and his associates, commencing 
Oct. 31, 1749. The panel of grand jurors 
returned for this court by Hance Hamil- 
ton, the first Sheriff of the county, and this 
the day of his oath of office, embraced the 
following seventeen: Michael McCleary, 
William McClelland, James Agnew, Hugh 
Bingham, James Hall, William Proctor, 
William Beatty, John Pope, Nathan Dicks, 
Thomas Hosack, Thomas Sillick, Samuel 
Moore, James Smith, Richard Brown, 
Thomas Niely, Jeremiah Louchbridge and 
Richard Proctor — only the last named with 
Nathan Dicks and John Pope qualifying by 

The first court made appointment of con- 
stables for the townships as follows: For 
Newberry, Peter Hughs; Warrington, Rob- 
ert Vale; Manchester, Christian Lowe; Hel- 
1am, John Bishop; Chanceford, George 
Farr; Fawn, James Edger; Dover, Caleb 
Hendricks; York, George Crepill; Man- 
heim, Valentine Herr; Monaghan, William 
Langley; Paradise, John Frankleberry ; 
Shrewsbury, Hugh Low; and Codorus, 
George Ziegler. 

Although taverns had been opened in the 
county under the authority of the Lancas- 
ter county courts a few years prior, the first 
recommendations to the Governor for the 
keeping of public houses in the county were 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

made at this session of court and Michael 
Swope, George Mendenhall, John Edwards, 
Michael Bardt, George Hoake, Jacob Fak- 
ler, Samuel Hoake and William Sinkler 
were recommended as proper persons. 

The courts had their full complement of 
officers now — Hance Hamilton Sheriff; 
John Day, Thomas Cox, John Wright, Jr., 
George Schwaabe, Matthew Diel, Hance 
Hamilton, Patrick Watson and George 
Stevenson, justices. The latter was a fac- 
tor in the early days of office-holding, fill- 
ing the positions of Prothonotary, Clerk of 
the several courts,and Register and Recorder 
from 1749 until Oct. 30, 1764, when he ten- 
dered his resignation. At this court, Wil- 
liam Peters, John Lawrence, George Ross, 
David Stout, and John Renshaw are named 
as the practicing lawyers. 

The first indictment in the Quarter Ses- 
sions charged two overseers with neglect- 
ing their duties to the highways. The de- 
fendants were discharged upon payment of 
costs. The second case charged James 
King with assault but the case was settled. 
This exhausted the list of the first court. 
The next day Thomas Cox, John Day and 
Patrick Watson convened the first Orphans 
Court, and the court's first act was to bind 
out an orphan boy, two years old, named 
George McSweeney to John Witherow of 
Hamilton's Band, till he comes of age. 
Witherow covenanting in behalf of the ap- 
prentice to furnish "sufficient meat, drink, 
apparel, washing and lodging during the 
said term, and to teach or cause him to be 
taught to read and write; and arithmetic 
as far as the rule of three direct; and at the 
expiration of the said term to give him two 
suits of apparel, one whereof shall be new." 
The first suit in the court of Common Pleas 
was brought to the January Term, 1750. 

The cases in Quarter Sessions at this time 
are readable more from the character of 
the punishment inflicted than from the va- 

riety or character of the offenses. At the 
second court of General Quarter Sessions 
John Proby, from the frequency of whose 
name in court annals one infers he con- 
tributed materially to keep the court open, 
plead guilty to selling liquor by small mea- 
sure without proper license and was .sen- 
tenced to pay a fine of five pounds English 
currency, which the Clerk of the Courts 
was ordered to receive and pay to the Sec- 
retary of the Province. At the same court 
one convicted of the larceny of "one linen 
shirt and one pair of stockings" was sen- 
tenced "to immediately receive on his bare 
back at the public whipping post fifteen 
lashes and to go to the county gaol twelve 
days for the cost of prosecution, being un- 
able to pay them." Margaret Wilmoth 
pleading guilty at the April Sessions, 1750, 
to the larceny of a silk handkerchief, was 
sentenced to immediately receive fifteen 
lashes on the back, and at the same court 
two grand jurors who refused to be quali- 
fied according to the court's requirements 
were fined and discharged from duty. 
Two years later a grand juror named Chas. 
Grim was fined twenty shillings "for break- 
ing the peace and casting a glass of wine 
in another juror's face." At this court a 
defendant convicted of an assault with in- 
tent to rape was sentenced to pay a fine of 
five pounds, be pubHcly whipped with 
twenty-one lashes on the bare back and 
then placed for one hour in the pillory. 

The sale of a "redemptioner" is decreed 
in 1758, where the keeper of the jail peti- 
tions the court that Francis Whistle, a pris- 
oner in the jail, had no money to pay the 
prison fees and other damages, and pray- 
ing that he might be adjudged to serve a 
reasonable time in satisfaction of the costs 
of support and maintenance in jail where- 
upon the court decreed his sale to a proper 
person for one year, the purchaser to fur- 
nish him sufficient meat, drink, apparel 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


and lodging during said term. The coin 
was protected by punishing severely the 
crime of counterfeiting. In October, 1768, 
James Pitt, convicted of this offense, re- 
ceived the following sentence: "That the 
defendant stand in the pillory in York on 
the 29th day of November of the year 1768, 
between the hours of 10 and 12 in the fore- 
noon, for one hour. That then he shall 
have both ears cut off, and that they be 
nailed to the said pillory. That the said 
defendant shall then be whipped at the 
publick whipping-post in York with thirty- 
nine lashes on the bare back well laid on, 
and then pay a fine of 100 pounds lawful 
money, the one-half to the Governor of this 
province for support of the government 
and the one-half to the discoverer; that the 
defendant pay the cost of the prosecution, 
and as he has no lands or tenement, goods 
or chatels to pay said fine he is hereby ad- 
judged to be sold for the term of four years 
to make satisfaction for the said fine of 100 

The General Assembly of the Province 
acting on the assumption that the keepers 
of public houses were charging excessive 
rates enacted a law on the 31st day of May, 
1718, by which the justices of each county 
could establish rates and prices for food, 
drink and provender. The York county 
justices, acting under this power, on the 
28th day of January, 1752, fixed the maxi- 
mum for York county. The court crier, 
for some years, making proclamation of 
these rates in open Quarter Session court. 
Among these were the following: "A bowl 
of punch made with one quart water with 
loaf sugar and good Jamaica spirits, i shill- 
ing and 3 pence; one pint of good Madeira 
wine I shilling and 3 pence; one quart of 
Nimbo, made with West India rum and 
loaf sugar, 10 shillings; a quart of Nimbo 
made with New England rum and loaf 
sugar 9 pence; a gill of good West India 

rum 4 pence; a gill of good New England 
rum 3 pence; a gill of good whiskey 2 
pence; a quart of good beer 6 pence; a 
man's dinner 8 pence; a man's supper 6 
pence; a horse at hay 24 hours 10 pence; 
a horse at hay one night 8 pence; half a 
gallon of good oats 3 pence." 

The two sources of greatest annoyance 
to which the settlers of York county were 
subjected were probably the "Border Trou- 
bles" and the questions arising from the 
title to land. 

The "Border Troubles" early caused dis- 
turbance among the Indians. Sir William 
Keith, Deputy Governor of the Province 
of Pennsylvania, by treaty made June 15 
and 16, 1722, with the Indians, agreed that 
the lands on the west side of the Susque- 
hanna round and north of Conestoga 
should be for their hunting and planting 
exclusively, but the boundary line be- 
tween the Province of Pennsylvania and 
Maryland being unsettled and undefined 
the territory held to the use of the Indians 
was being encroached upon and to coun- 
teract these encroachments it was the 
policy of the proprietary agents to encour- 
age border settlements. This uncertainty 
respecting the boundary lines soon led to 
disputes between William Penn and Lord 
Baltimore, the former contending that 
Maryland was encroaching upon Pennsyl- 
vania soil and the latter claiming the terri- 
tory on the west of the Susquehanna to the 
fortieth parallel of latitude, to which point 
he was authorizing settlements to be made. 
These adverse claims to the same soil gave 
unlimited inconvenience to the settlers, but 
as early as February 17, 1724, an agree- 
ment was made between Lord Baltimore, 
proprietor of Maryland, and Hannah Penn, 
widow and executrix of William Penn, late 
proprietor of Pennsylvania, and other in- 
terested parties, whereby it was determined 
that since "both parties are at this time 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

sincerel}' inclined to enter into a treaty in 
order to take such methods as may be ad- 
visable for the final determining of the said 
controversy, by agreeing upon such lines 
or other marks of distinction to be settled 
as may remain for a perpetual boundary 
between the tvi^o provinces; it is therefore 
mutually agreed that, avoiding all manner 
of contentions or differences between the 
inhabitants of the said provinces, no per- 
son or persons shall be disturbed or mo- 
lested in their possessions on either side, 
nor any lands be surveyed, taken up or 
granted in either of the said provinces near 
the boundaries which have been claimed 
or pretended to on either side; this agree- 
ment to continue for the space of eighteen 
months from the date hereof, in which it is 
hoped the boundaries will be determined 
and settled." 

A contest arising as to the proprietorship 
of Pennsylvania a compromise was efifected 
by the Penn family and the Government of 
the province fell to John Thomas and 
Richard Penn, surviving sons of the second 
wife, and in 1732 Thomas Penn arrived in 
this country and took possession of the 
province for himself and brothers. On the 
loth of May, 1732, a new agreement was 
entered into by Lord Baltimore and John 
Thomas and Richard Penn, proprietaries 
providing, "that in two calendar months 
from that date each party shall appoint 
commissioners. ... to act or mark out the 
boundaries aforesaid, to begin, at the furth- 
est, sometime in October, 1732, and to be 
completed on or before December 25, 
I733-" Two days later commissioners were 
signed by the proprietors of the two prov- 
inces fully empowering the commissioners 
to run, mark and lay out the botmdary 
lines of the two provinces. The commis- 
sioners appeared at the time and place, but 
the boundaries were not made in the time 
limited due to a contention on the part of 

Lord Baltimore himself. As the time for 
establishing the boundary had passed Lord 
Baltimore petitioned for relief, August 9, 
1734, being met by a counter petition from 
the Penns, December 9, 1734. On the i6th 
of may, 1735, further consideration was ad- 
journed to allow the counter petitioners to 
proceed in equity. The bill was presented 
to the court of chancery in Great Britain, 
June 21, 1735, praying the specific per- 
formance of the articles by Lord Baltimore 
and for a decree clearing any doubt, but 
the prayer of the bill was not granted until 
May 15, 1750. Lord Hardwicke, deliver- 
ing the opinion of the court said: "I di- 
rected this cause to stand over for judg- 
ment not so much from any doubt of what 
was the justice of the case as by reason of 
the nature of it. The great consequence 
and importance being for the deter- 
mination of the right and boundaries of 
two great provincial governments and 
three counties," and the decree was entered 
"that before the end of three calendar 
months, from May 15th, two several proper 
instruments for appointing commissioners 
. . . .may run and mark the boundaries, to 
begin sometime in November next, and to 
be completed on or before the last day of 
May, 1752." 

About the time of filing the bill in equity 
a revolt of the German settlers took place. 
It happened that while the commissioners 
to fix the boundary between the province 
of Pennsylvania and of Maryland were ne- 
gotiating, one Thomas Cressap prominent 
in his efforts in behalf of Maryland to keep 
possession of the land squatted upon "by 
fair promises of grants from the Maryland 
government, exemption from taxes and by 
force and threatenings to turn the German 
settlers out of their settlements and ruin 
them, prevailed on some to refuse to pay 
taxes or rates to Pennsylvania, and to de- 
clare themselves under the jurisdiction and 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 

protection of Maryland. Upon learning of 
Cressap's deception a number memorial- 
ized Governor Ogle, of Maryland, that 
"they had been seduced and made use of 
first by promises and then by threat and 
punishment to answer purposes which were 
unjustifiable and would end in their ruin, 
wherefore they with many of their neigh- 
bors did resolve to return to their duty and 
live under the laws and government of 
Pennsylvania." (Rupp's History of York 
County, page 554). Cressap's scheme 
failing a new one was conceived — to pick 
up new comers who as yet had no lands of 
their own and to promise them, if they 
would lend assistance in driving out the 
Germans the cleared lands and the build- 
ings of the latter should be the reward for 
their services. This policy caused out- 
breaks bet-ween he Germans and the Irish, 
the latter forming the opposition in the 
main, until the proprietors to prevent such 
disturbances gave orders that no lands 
should be sold to the Irish in York or Lan- 
caster counties, but held out strong induce- 
ments to them to settle in Cumberland 
county, which oiifers, being liberal, were 
freely excepted. (Rupp's History of York 
County, page 576). 

One result of the dispute concerning the 
boundary line between the two provinces 
was that the laws of neither province were 
enforced against delinquents. Hanover for 
some years prior to 1776 was known as 
"Rogue's Resort" — refugees from justice 
flocking there. "If the sherifif of York 
county could catch the delinquent one-half 
mile out of town (Hanover) in a northwest- 
ern direction then he might legally make 
him his prisoner under the authority of the 
courts of this county; but in town not 
nearer than that had he any ministerial 
power." It is recorded that robbers hav- 
ing broken into the store of Mr. McAllister 
in Hanover he seized them and conveyed 

them to York for safe keeping; but the 
sherifif refused to receive them, remarking 
"You of Hanover wish to be independent, 
therefore punish your villians yourselves." 

While the troubles continued and no defi- 
nite boundary settlement was in sight, the 
Maryland authorities rejecting a proposi- 
tion to run a provisional line, mutual ap- 
peals for interposition by the King were 
made by the litigant, and the matter was 
referred to the Lords of Committee of 
Council on Plantation Affairs, before whom 
in 1738 the proprietors entered into an 
agreement for the preservation of peace and 
tranquillity on the borders. On the termi- 
nation of the proceedings in chancery in 
1750 whereby specific performances was 
decreed against Lord Baltimore, both par- 
ties appointed commissioners. These met 
November 13, 1750, but a dispute concern- 
ing the mensuration soon stopped the pro- 
ceedings, and the matter having been re- 
opened in court a final agreement between 
the proprietaries was not executed until 
July 4, 1760. The commissioners ap- 
pointed under this final agreement assem- 
bled at New Castle November 19, 1760, and 
began their work. They continued until 
1763, when Charles Mason and Jeremiah 
Dixon succeeded the former surveyors, 
concluding their work December 26, 1767. 
The proceedings to determine the bound- 
ary line were ratified by the King's order 
in council, January 11, 1769, and a procla- 
mation to quiet the settlers on the part of 
Pennsylvania is dated September 15, 1774. 
This closed a controversy which for vigor 
and duration was the most tenacious of the 
early trials of the settlers. 

The other prolonged source of annoy- 
ance and controversy to the countians was 
the question of title to land. The settling 
of "Digges' Choice," one of the earliest lo- 
cated tracts of land north of the Temporary 
Line under a Maryland warrant and sur- 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

vey, probably occasioning the first ques- 
tion under the provisions of the Royal Or- 
der. John Digges obtained a grant of ten 
thousand acres of land on the 14th of Oc- 
tober, 1727, from the proprietor of Mary- 
land, with the right of election of 
location, on the proprietor's unim- 
proved lands. By virtue of the grant 
Digges took up six thousand and 
eight hundred and twenty-two acres con- 
tained in the present limits of Heidelberg 
township, York county, and Conewago and 
Germany townships, Adams county. A 
patent was issued October 11, 1735. The 
tract fell four miles north of the Temporary 
Line. On July 15, 1745, Digges petitioned 
the land office at Annapolis for a warrant 
to correct errors in the original survey and 
to add any vacant contiguous land, in 
answer to which petition three thousand 
six hundred and seventy-nine acres were 
patented to him October 18, 1745. Two 
years previous he had applied for a warrant 
to the Pennsylvania land office and it ap- 
pears that the Germans who had settled 
around the Conewago creek on lands 
claimed by him had ascertained that his 
claim was greater than his patent and that 
he had sold land beyond that granted to 
him. In 1745, however, the resurvey un- 
der the Maryland warrant included the land 
omitted in the original survey, as well as 
several tracts for which Pennsylvania war- 
rants had been granted and some patented, 
Mr. Digges justifying the resurvey by con- 
tending that the errors of the surveyors 
did not prejudice his original right of claim 
under warrant. The question came up for 
adjudication before Justices Shippen and 
Yeates in the case of Thomas Lilly vs. 
George Kitzmiller (i Yeates, page 28). The 
court holding that all the land would have 
been secured to Digges under the Penn- 
sylvania system of making proprietary sur- 
veys, but that the Maryland surveys "were 

merely ideal, precisely fixed on paper 
alone," and "that any circumstances shown 
could not establish a title to lands without 
the limits of the original survey as re- 
turned." The judges took pains to make 
clear that "persons who have bought lands 
from Messrs. Digges even within the re- 
survey may have acquired titles by their 
possessions and improvements," although 
the resurvey was thus held ineffectual as 
against the Pennsylvania settlers. The cli- 
max in this trouble was not reached until 
the killing of Dudley Digges on the 26th 
of February, 1752, by Jacob Kitzmiller. 
The question of jurisdiction was raised by 
the Maryland authorities, the defendant 
having been indicted in York county, the 
former contending that the scene of the 
murder was a place surveyed under a 
Maryland warrant prior to the date of the 
Royal Order of 1738, and that no attone- 
ment or other defense of any person sub- 
sequent to the date of said Order could 
prevent or take away the right of the pro- 
prietor of Maryland. Exemplified copies 
of the warrant, surveys and patents granted 
to John Digges proved the scene of the 
murder to be in a tract of vacant land to 
the north of the Ternporary Line, granted 
to Digges in express violation of the Royal 
Order and therefore the act having been 
committed without his grant, was cogniz- 
able in the Pennsylvania court. 

The next question of title was taken, ul- 
timately, to the Supreme Court of the Uni- 
ted States, and arose in brief, under the 
following facts: The grant to Penn dated 
March 4, 1681, provided for the erection of 
manors, that out of every one hundred 
thousand acres ten thousand acres were 
reserved for the proprietary, vesting in him, 
his heirs and alienees the power to grant 
the lands of such manors to any person in 
fee simple. Penn empowered the com- 
missioners of property to erect manors, 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


but the latter declined to exercise the 
power. In pursuance of the original 
power Penn had issued a warrant dated 
September i, 1700, to the Surveyor Gen- 
eral to set apart for him five hundred acres 
of every township of five thousand acres. 
Successive warrants were issued, but the 
tracts surveyed were short of the full rights 
of the proprietary and there was therefore 
surveyed for his use June 19 and 20, 1722, 
the manor of Springetsbury, in York 
county, containing about seventy thousand 
acres. By leave of the proprietor settlers 
seated themselves on parts of this manor, 
but as the Indians had not released their 
claims to the land no absolute title could 
be given, but licenses were issued promis- 
ing patents when the purchases should be 
made from the Indians. The latter exe- 
cuted a release of claims on the nth of Oc- 
tober, 1736, and on the 30th of the same 
month licenses were issued by Samuel 
Blumston, under the authority of Thomas 
Penn, for about twelve thousand acres of 
land, patents to issue after survey was made. 
The survey of 1722 was never returned to 
the land office and Governor Hamilton, of 
Pennsylvania, on the 21st of May, 1762, 
issued a warrant for a resurvey of the 
manor "in order that the bounds and lines 
thereof may be certainly known and ascer- 
tained." The survey was made in June, 
1768, and returned to the land office July 
12, 1768. 

A number of ejectments were brought 
for lands within the Manor of Springets- 
bury. The general question in these pro- 
ceedings was whether the land was in- 
cluded in a tract called and known by the 
name of a proprietary manor duly surveyed 
and returned into the land office on or be- 
fore July 4, 1776? One of these cases can 
be taken as an example. In Penn's Lessee 
vs. Klyne, 4 Dallas, page 401, the title of 
the lessor of the plaintifif to the premises 

was regularly deduced from the charter of 
Charles II to William Penn, provided there 
was a manor called and known by the name 
of Springetsbury, duly surveyed and re- 
turned according to the terms and mean- 
ing of the Act of November, 1779. The 
position taken by plaintifif 's counsel was: 
"i. That the land mentioned is a part of a 
tract called or known by the name of a Pro- 
prietary Manor. 2. That it was a proprie- 
tary manor duly surveyed. 3. That the 
survey was duly made and returned before 
the 4th of July, 1776." The defendant's 
counsel contended: "i. That William 
Kieth's warrant being issued in 1722 with- 
out authority, all proceedings on it were 
absolutely void, and that neither the war- 
rant nor survey had ever been returned 
into the land office. 2. That Governor 
Hamilton's warrant was issued in 1762 to 
re-survey a manor which had never been 
legally surveyed, and was in that respect 
to be regarded as a superstructure without 
a foundation. 3. That the recitals of Gov- 
ernor Hamilton's warrant are not founded 
in fact, and that considering the survey, in 
pursuance of it, as an original survey, it 
was void as against campact, law and jus- 
tice; that the proprietor should assume, for 
a manor, land settled by individuals." The 
court finally adjudged the question by 
holding that the Penn family as sole pro- 
prietors of the soil of Pennsylvania, prior 
to 1779, had a legal right to withdraw from 
the general body of land any not appro- 
priated to other persons and to set the same 
apart to their individual use; that the 
claimant of proprietary tenth or manor 
must make title under the divesting act of 
1779, and show that it was known by the 
name of such manor and duly surveyed and 
returned into the land office before July 4, 
1776; that a warrant to survey, if the con- 
sideration be paid, is a legal title against 
the proprietary and a survey, under a war- 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

rant of re-survey, is good as an original 
survey, though it recite another which is 
invalid. The question was handled with 
care in the case of Kirk and others vs. 
Smith, ex-demise of Penn, and reported in 
9 Wheaton, page 241, Henry Clay and 
Daniel Webster appearing for the plain- 
tiffs in error and Attorney-General William 
Wirt and John Sergeant for the defendants 
in error; Chief Justice Marshall delivering 
an exhaustive opinion confirming the hold- 
ing of the Circuit Court. 

In 1779 the Legislature passed an act 
vesting the estates of the late proprietaries 
of Pennsylvania, in the Commonwealth of 
Pennsylvania, since "to have suffered the 
Penn family to retain those rights which 
they held strictly in their proprietary char- 
acter would have been inconsistent with 
the complete political independence of the 
State. The province was a fief held imme- 
diately from the Crown and the Revolu- 
tion would have operated very inefficiently 
toward complete emancipation, if the feu- 
dal relation had been suffered to remain. 
It was therefore necessary to extinguish all 
foreign interest in the soil, as well as for- 
eign jurisdiction in the matter of govern- 
ment. We are then to regard the Revolu- 
tion and these Acts of Assembly as eman- 
cipating every acre of soil in Pennsyl- 
sylvania from the ground characteristic of 
the feudal system. Even as to the lands 
held by the proprietaries themselves, they 
held them as other citizens held under the 
Commonwealth and that by a title purely 
allodial. . . . The State became the proprie- 
tor of all lands, but instead of giving them 
like a feudal lord to an enslaved tenantry 
she has sold them for the best price she 
could get, and conferred on the purchaser 
the same absolute estate she held herself." 
(7 Sergeant and Rawle, page 188; 8 Wright 
page 501). While the title of the proprie- 
taries to all other lands was divested by 

this Act, it did not afifect the proprietary 
manors. The courts holding that the lands 
within the survey of the manor were 
excepted out of the general operation of 
the Act, and were not vested in the Com- 
monwealth (Wallace vs. Harmstead, 8 
Wright, 492). 

These decisions placed a quietus on land 
title troubles. 

Early dates concerning the local bench 
and bar are not easily fixed. The judiciary 
commences with the induction into office of 
the justices of the peace, and the records 
show five lawyers to have practiced in 1749, 
the year of the organization of the courts. 
To what extent in the bench and bar his- 
tory these were inceptive or formative in- 
fluences cannot be determined by sharp 
lines of clearage. 

After the organization of Courts there 
was no interruption except during the War 
of the Revolution, when court work sus- 
pended for more than a year, until the con- 
vention to frame the first Constitution for 
Pennsylvania met in Philadelphia, July 15, 
1776, the transition from the Colonial to 
State government being not unmixed with 
inconvenience and dissatisfaction. The 
test oath required of magistrates and offi- 
cers probably was a strong force in pre- 
venting the convening of courts. This 
convention on the 3rd of September en- 
acted an ordinance nominating and ap- 
pointing' Michael Swoope, of York county, 
as a justice of the peace for the State at 
Large, and the following as justices for 
York county: Robert McPherson, Martin 
Eichelberger, Samuel Edie, David Mc- 
Conaughty, Richard McAllister, Henry 
Slagle, Matthew Dill, William Rankin, 
William Lees, William Bailey, William 
Scott, William Smith, William McClaskey, 
Josias Scott, Thomas Latta, William Mc- 
Clean and John Nickle, the younger. Jus- 
tice McClean made repeated efYorts to con- 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


vene courts, but the first indictment pre- 
sented to the grand jury in the name of the 
Commonwealth was as late as the January 
Term, 1778, an Orphans' Court having 
convened the 3rd of December preceding. 

The Act of Assembly of January 28, 1777 
providing for the appointment of one of 
the justices of each county to preside in 
the respective courts was complied with 
November 18, 1780, by the commissioning 
of Richard McAllister for York county. 
Two days later Hon. James Smith was ap- 
pointed one of the judges of the Court of 
Errors and Appeals. This court was insti- 
tuted by Act of Assembly of February 28, 
preceding, sitting once a year in Philadel- 
phia on errors assigned to judgments of the 
Supreme Court, but was abolished Febru- 
ary 24, 1806. 

The earlier justices of the peace were 
eligible through good character, but under 
the Constitution framed by the Convention 
of 1789-90 those "of knowledge and integ- 
rity, skilled in the laws" only were appoint- 
able to president judgeships, while by the 
same act a number of other proper persons 
not fewer than three and not more than 
four were to be appointed to associate 
judgeships. The president judge and asso- 
ciates or any two of them and the Register 
of Wills had the power of holding a Reg- 
ister's Court, while the associate judges 
could hold any of the courts in the absence 
of the president judge except Oyer and 

The first Quarter Sessions Court under 
the new constitution was held before Hon. 
William Augustus Atlee, October 24, 1791, 
with Hon. Henry Schlegel, Hon. Samuel 
Edie, Hon. William Scott and Hon. Jacob 
Rudisill as associate judges. The first 
Common Pleas Court was held the follow- 
ing day. Judge Atlee continued in office 
until his death, April 9, 1793. Hon. John 
Joseph Henry filHng the vacancy. Adams 

county was created out of York county 
January 22, 1800, and as associate judges 
Schlegel, Edie and Scott lived within its 
limits others had to be appointed. Hon. 
John Stewart and Hon. Hugh Glasgow re- 
ceived the commissions. Judge Rudisill 
died on the 6th of December, but no suc- 
cessor was appointed and from this time 
forward the number of associate judges was 
two. Hon. Jacob Hostetter was the next 
commissioned judge, succeeding Judge 
Stewart, who received an election to Con- 
gress. In January, 1811, Judge Henry re- 
signed and was succeeded by Hon. Walter 
Franklin on the i8th of the same month. 
Hon. George Barnitz received a judge's 
commission on the 29th of March, 1813, to 
succeed Judge Glasgow, who was also sent 
to Congress. On the loth of December 
Hon. John L. Hinkle was commissioned to 
succeed Judge Hostetter, who "met the 
same fate as his predecessors, that is, was 
sent to Congress." Changes in the judi- 
cial district had taken place in the mean- 
time. Chester county was taken from the 
Second district in 1806, leaving Lancaster, 
York and Dauphin counties, while in 181 5 
Dauphin was annexed to the Twelfth Dis- 
trict. A district court for York county was 
organized under the Act passed April 10, 
1826, giving concurrent jurisdiction with 
the courts of Common Pleas. The court 
consisted of a President and an associate 
judge, both learned in the law. By Act 
passed April 8, 1833, York and Lancaster 
counties were formed into separate dis- 
tricts and Hon. Daniel Durkee was ap- 
pointed the first judge of the York Dis- 
trict, the act providing for one judge for 
each district. These courts ceased to ex- 
ist, by the Act of 1833, on the first of May, 

On the 14th of May, 1835, York and 
Adams counties became the nineteenth ju- 
dicial district. Hon. Daniel Durkee judge 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

of the District Court, was commissioned 
president judge of the Common Pleas of 
this district. In 1838 the Constitutional 
Convention limited the term of the presi- 
dent judge to ten years and that of the as- 
sociate judges to five years. This conven- 
tion also ordained that the associate judges 
should be divided into four classes accord- 
ing to seniority of commission, the terms of 
those in the first class to expire February 
27, 1840, and of those in the remaining 
classes, one, two and three years later, re- 
spectively. Judge Barnitz was in the first 
class and was succeeded by Hon. Samuel 
C. Bonham, March 26, 1840; Judge Hinkle 
who was in the second class, was succeeded 
by Hon. George Dare, April 3, 1841 ; Judge 
Durkee resigned shortly before his term 
expired and Hon. William N. Irvine was 
appointed February 10, 1846, as his suc- 
cessor, serving until 1849, when he re- 
signed and Judge Durkee was re-appointed 
on the 6th of April. Judge Dare was suc- 
ceeded by Hon. George Hammond on the 
28th of March, 1746, and Judge Bonham 
was succeeded by Hon. Jacob Kirk in 1850. 
In 185 1 a Constitutional amendment 
made the judgeship elective, the number 
remained unchanged. At the first elec- 
tion under the new law, held on the second 
Tuesday of October, 1851, Hon. Robert J. 
Fisher was elected President Judge and 
Hon. Isaac Roller and Hon. Miles Hays 
associate judges. Judge Koller served 
until his death in 1854, when Hon. John 
Rieman was appointed by the Governor 
in whom vested the right of appointment 
to a vacancy created by death. Judge 
Rieman was elected to the office in 1855 
and re-elected in i860. In 1856 Hon. 
Adam Ebaugh succeeded Judge Hays. In 
1 86 1 Judge Fisher received a re-election as 
president judge and Judge Ebaugh as as- 
sociate judge. The death of Judge Rie- 
man occurred in 1862 and Hon. David 

Fahs was appointed to fill the vacancy on 
the 5th of November, 1862, holding the of- 
fice until the election of Hon. Peter Mcln- 
tyre a year later. Judge Ebaugh was suc- 
ceeded by Hon. David Newcomer in 1866. 
Judge Mclntyre was re-elected in 1868 but 
tion in 1871, Hon. John Moore at the 
ing appointed to fill the vacancy. Hon. 
Peter Ahl was elected to the position in 
1870. Judge Fahs received a second elec- 
tion in 1871. Hon. John Moore at the 
same time succeeding Judge Newcomer. 
Judge Ahl died in 1873 and Hon. J. C. E. 
Moore held the position for six months 
when Hon. Valentine Trout was elected in 
October. Underthe constitution of i873the 
office of associate judge not learned in the 
law was abolished in counties forming sep- 
arate judicial districts, York county be- 
coming by reason of its increase in popu- 
lation, the Nineteenth, and Adams county 
the Forty-second district. Judge Moore's 
term expired in 1875. Judge Trout's three 
years later, the latter being the last of the 
associate judges. By the act of April 12, 
1875, York county was given an additional 
law judge. Hon. Pere L. Wickes receiv- 
ing the election. In 1881 Hon. John Gib- 
son succeeded Judge Fisher who had 
served thirty consecutive years. Hon. 
James W. Latimer succeeded Judge Wickes 
in 1885. The death of Judge Gibson oc- 
curred during his term in 1890. Hon. 
John W. Bittenger being elected his suc- 
cessor and assumed the duties of office in 
1891. The term of Judge Latimer con- 
cluding in 1895, Hon W. F. Bay Stewart 
was elected his successor. 

The number of attorneys admitted to 
practice in the courts of York County since 
1749 reaches nearly five hundred, many of 
whom, however, were admitted for the trial 
of a special case only, and never practiced 
regularly. The early names on the roster 
of practitioners show a wide lapse of time 



between admissions. The present enroll- 
ment of nearly sixty members being indi- 
cative of the growth and advancement of 
the county. This fact being doubly patent 
when it is known that the work of the 
counselor is rapidly displacing the sphere 
of the advocate. 

The members of the bar are men of pro- 
bity, leaders in various ranges of mind and 
action in their communities, and whose con- 
scientious efforts for their clientele unitedly 
make a faithful and efficient public service. 

Adams County. The first court held 
in the county was in June 1800, 
when there were no resident lawyers 
at Gettysburg, and the first bar con- 
sisted of ten visiting or traveling law- 
yers who were a part of the number called 
■'circuit riders" who followed the courts in 
the frontier and western counties. The first 
resident attorney was Jonathan F. Haight, 
who was admitted in November 1800, but 
left in 1803. Each year new members were 
admitted and soon there were resident law- 
yers enough to constitute a fair bar. Fran- 
cis S. Key, the author of "The Star 
Spangled Banner;" Thaddeus Stevens, the 
"Great Commoner," James Buchanan, the 
Bachelor President, and other distinguished 
lawyers practiced in the courts of x\dams 
county. Moses McClean admitted in 1826 
afterwards became distinguished in politi- 
cal life serving in the State Legislature and 
in Congress. Admitted with McClean was 
Andrew G. Miller, afterwards a United 
States judge in Wisconsin. Another early 
lawyer of distinction was Daniel M. 
Smyser, who was admitted in 1831, and af- 
terwards served in the legislature and as 
president judge of Bucks and Montgomery 
counties from 1851 to 1861. Following 
Smyser came James Cooper, whose admis- 
sion was in 1834, and who was an able 
lawyer and a State Legislator, a member of 
Congress and finally winning a seat in the 

United States Senate. In 1835, Robert J. 
Fisher, who afterwards came to the bench, 
was admitted, and the next year among 
members admitted were Gottleib S. Orth 
and Conrad Baker, both of whom went to 
Indiana which sent them to Congress and 
made Baker governor. Among those of 
distinction who followed Orth and Baker 
was William McSherry, and David Wills, 
the former prominent as a member of both 
houses of the Pennsylvania Legislature, 
and the latter served as president judge of 
the district in 1873-74, yet is best known 
as the originator of the movement that se- 
cured the National Cemetery at Gettysburg. 

Adams county with Cumberland formed 
a judicial district until 1835, when Adams 
and York became a judicial district, and in 
1832, Adams was placed with Fulton 
county to make the forty-second district. 
The president judges have been: John T. 
Henry, 1800; James Hamilton, 1805; 
Charles Smith, 1809; John Reed, 1820; 
Daniel Durkee, 1835; William N. Irvine, 
1846; William N. Durkee, 1849; Robert J. 
Fisher, 1851; David Wills, 1873; William 
M. McClean, 1874; S. M'Curdy Swope, 

Of these judges only Wills and McClean 
are Adams county men and receive men- 
tion elsewhere in this volume. 

The associate judges have been: William 
Gilliland, John Agnew, William Scott, Wil- 
liam Crawford, Daniel Sheffer, William 
McClean, George Wills, George Smyser, 
James McDevitt, and John McGinley and 
S. R. Russel, 185 1 ; David Zeigler and Dr. 
David Horner, 1861 ; Isaac Weirman, 1863 
Isaac Robinson, 1866; J. J. Kuhn, 1868 
Robert McCurdy, 1869; J. J. Kuhn, 1873 
A. F. White and William Gulden, 1880 
John L. Jenkins, David G. Donohue. 

Cumberland County. About six hun- 
dred members have been admitted to 
this bar up to the present time, most 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

of whom have been forgotten. But 
when we glance over the long list of those 
who have practiced at out courts within the 
period of a century and a half, we have just 
reason to be proud. Many, whose names 
will long be remembered, were, upon the 
bench or at the bar, of great judicial learn- 
ing, and others were orators of peerless 
eloquence. Many of these men were men 
of strong personality, of sterling integrity, 
patriots in short, as well as lawyers, who 
fought in the field as well as legislated in 
the forum to lay firm and fast the founda- 
tions of this commonwealth which we en- 
joy. In the past, therefore, the bar of this 
county undoubtedly ranks amongst the 
foremost of our State, and like a Douglass 
can stand "bonnetted before a King" and 
bow down to none. 

The Bar of Cumberland county had its 
birth in the Colonial period of our history, 
in the days when Pennsylvania was a Pro- 
vince, and when George II was the reign- 
ing king. His imbecile successor, George 
III, whose stubborn policy provoked the 
colonies to assert their rights, had not yet 
ascended the throne of England, and the 
Revolution was as yet far distant. 

The increasing population of this por- 
tion of the Province made courts necessary 
in this section, which had been a part of 

The county was therefore formed and 
the courts of justice established by the 
Royal authority under the seat of the Pro- 
prietaries, first at Shippensburg (four 
terms dating from 24 of July, 1750, to and 
including April Term 1750) but on the 
choice of the county seat were removed to 
Carlisle in the succeeding year. 

Let us look into this first court held at 
Shippensburg. Samuel Smith, of whom 
we know little, except that he had already 
been a member of the Colonial Assembly, 
with his associates, presided. 

John Potter was Sheriff. Hermanns 
Alricks, of Carlisle, who came from Hol- 
land in 1682 with dispatches to the Dutch 
on the Delaware, and who was, himself, at 
this time (1749-50) the first representative 
of Cumberland county in the Assembly, 
was clerk. George Ross, who had just 
studied law under Samuel Johnson, of 
York, and who was afterwards a signer of 
the Declaration of Independence, appears 
as the first "Prosecutor for the Crown." 

The lawyers of that day traveled "upon 
the circuit." Those of older York and 
Lancaster practiced, during the whole of 
this anti-Revolutionary period, in the 
courts at Carlisle, even as the resident law- 
yers of the infant town of Carlisle practiced 
in the courts of York and Lancaster. 
Among the number were those who be- 
came eminent as soldiers during the Indian 
War and the Revolution, and three of those 
who practiced at our bar (the greatest of 
whom, by far, was a resident practitioner) 
Smith, Ross and Wilson, were subsequently 
signers of the Declaration of Independence. 

The courts of that day were presided 
over by the justices of the respective coun- 
ties, all of whom were ex-ofificio judges of 
the Courts of Common Pleas and Quarter 
Sessions. They knew little, frequently, of 
technical law, and were generally selected 
because of their well-known integrity of 
character, extended business experience 
and sound common sense, but by close ob- 
servation and long experience they became 
well acquainted with the duties of their po- 
sitions and fitted to adjudicate the import- 
ant interests submitted to their charge. Nor 
was the Bar inferior. Gentlemen eminent 
for their legal abilities and oratorical pow- 
ers practiced before them, and by the 
gravity of their demeanor and respectful 
behavior shed lustre upon the proceedings 
and gave weight and influence to the de- 
cisions rendered. 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 

The first court held at CarHsle was in 
the year immediately succeeding the for- 
mation of the county, and was "a court of 
general Quarter Sessions, held at Carlisle, 
for the County of Cumberland, the twenty- 
third day of July, A. D., 1751, and in the 
twenty-fifth year of our Sovereign Lord, 
King George II, over Great Britain, &c. 
Before Samuel Smith, Esq., and his asso- 
ciate justices." 

These justices who presided were com- 
missioned, through the Governor of the 
Province, by the King. Their number 
seems to have varied from time to time, 
and, in presiding in the courts, they seem 
to have rotated without any discoverable 
rule of regularity. In the criminal courts, 
for the lighter offenses there were fines and 
imprisonments and for felonies the ignomi- 
nious punishment of the whipping post and 

In the beginning of our history the pub- 
lic prosecutor was the Crown and all crim- 
inal cases were entered accordingly in the 
name of the King. George Ross was the 
Public Prosecutor for the Crown from 1751 
to 1764; Robert Magaw followed in 1765- 
66, and Jasper Yeates in 1770. The 
wealthy and aristocratic Benjamin Chew, 
who was a member of the Provincial Coun- 
cil, and afterwards, during the Revolution, 
a Loyalist, was, at this time (1759-68) At- 
torney General, and prosecuted many of 
the more important criminal cases, from 
1759 to 1769, in our courts. He was, in 
1777, with some others, received by the 
Sheriff of this county, and held at Staun- 
ton, Va., till the conclusion of the war. 

The first admission to the Bar of Cum- 
berland county, of which there is any rec- 
ord, was that of William McClay, in Octo- 
ber term, 1760. He was of a prominent 
family near Shippensburg. Pie does not 
seem to have practiced. In 1781 he was 
elected to the Assembly. He was a mem- 

ber of the Supreme Executive Council, and 
in 1788, was elected as our first repre- 
sentative to the United States Senate. He 
was a personal friend of Washington, but 
was always in unison with the administra- 
tion. He seems to have been a thoroughly 
honest Scotch Presbyterian, a sort of bu- 
colic critic upon the administration, as his 
recently published diary proves. He went 
with Washington to the theatre, sat with 
him in the same box, but his reflections 
upon the play as not sufficiently tending to 
inculcate a moral purpose would have fitted 
a Puritan of Cromwell's time. He married 
Mary, a daughter of John Harris, the 
founder of Harrisburg. He died April 16, 

The earliest practitioners at our bar, 
from 1760 to 1770, were James Smith, of 
York, James Campbell, Samuel Johnston, 
Jasper Yeates, Robert Magaw, George 
Stevenson, James Wilson, James Hamilton 
(afterwards Judge), David Sample and 
David Grier, while, in the first year of our 
independence, (1776) we find the additional 
names of John Steel, Edward Burd, Robt. 
Galbraith and Col. Thomas Hartley. 

Who were these men? George Ross was 
the son of an Episcopal clergyman ; born at 
New Castle, Del., (but then part of Penn- 
sylvania) in 1730. He began the practice of 
law in Lancaster and in our courts in 1751 
and his name is found as a practitioner in 
our courts as late as 1772. He was a mem- 
ber of the Colonial Assembly (1768 to 1776) 
and of the Continental Congress (1774 to 
1777). He was a signer of the Declaration 
of Independence. He died at Lancaster in 
July, 1778- He was a handsome man, with 
high forehead, oval face, regular features, 
and long hair worn in the fashion of the 

Col. James Smith, of York, was an Irish- 
man and a wit, a jovial soul of the lawyer 
on the circuit. From Graydon's Memor- 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

ies we learn that, after he had been ad- 
mitted as a member of the bar, he settled 
in the vicinity of Shippensburg, but after- 
wards removed to York, where he contin- 
ued to reside until his death, July ii, 1806, 
aged about ninety-three years. He was a 
member of Congress from 1775 to 1778. He 
was a signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, and was a colonel in the Revolu- 
tion. He retired from the practice of law 
in about 1800. 

The name of James Wilson, LL. D., ap- 
pears upon the records of our court as 
early as 1763. Born in Scotland, in 1742, 
he received a finished education at the 
Universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, and 
under such instructors as Dr. Blair in Rhe- 
toric and Dr. Watts in logic. He came to 
Philadelphia in 1766, read law with John 
Dickinson, the colonial governor and 
founder of Dickinson College, and when 
admitted, took up his residence in Carlisle. 
In an important land case (between the 
Proprietaries and Samuel Wallace) he had 
gained the admiration of the most eminent 
lawyers of the Province, and had at once 
taken rank second to none at the Pennsyl- 
vania Bar. But his life was to have a wider 
sphere. At the meeting in Carlisle, in July 
1774, which protested against the action of 
Great Britain against the colonies, he with 
Irvine and Magaw, was appointed a dele- 
gate to meet those of other counties of the 
State as the initiary step to a general con- 
vention of delegates from the different col- 
onies. He was subsequently a signer of 
the Declaration of Independence, and when 
that motion was finally acted upon in Con- 
gress, the vote of Pennsylvania was carried 
in its favor by the deciding vote of James 
Wilson, of Cumberland county. "He had," 
says Bancroft, "at an early day seen inde- 
pendence as the probable, though not the 
intended result of the contest," and al- 
though he was not, at first, avowedly in 

favor of a severance from the mother coun- 
try, he desired it when he received definite 
instructions from his constituents. In 1776 
he was a colonel in the Revolution. From 
1779 to 1784 he held the position of Advo- 
cate General for the French nation, to draw 
plans for the regulation of the intercourse 
of that country with the United States. He 
was, at this time, director of the Bank of 
North America. 

He was one of the formost members of 
the Convention of 1787, which formed the 
Constitution of the United States. "Of the 
fifty-five delegates," says Prof. McMaster 
in his History of the People of the United 
States, "he was undoubtedly the best pre- 
pared by deep and systematic study of the 
science of government for the work which 
lay before him." The Marquis de Chas- 
tellux, himself no mean student, had been 
struck with the wide range of his erudition, 
and had spoken in high terms of his li- 
brary. "There," said he, "are all our best 
writers on law and jurisprudence. The 
works of President Montesquieu and Chan- 
cellor D'Aguesseau hold the first rank 
among them, and he makes them his daily 
study" (Travels of the Marquis de Chas- 
tellux in North America). This learning 
Wilson had, in times past, turned to excel- 
lent use, and he now became one of the 
most active members of the convention. 
"None, with the exception of Gouverneur 
Morris," says McMaster, "was so often on 
his feet 'during the debates or spoke more 
to the purpose." By this time Wilson had 
removed from Carlisle and lived in Phila- 
delphia, where he became the acknowledged 
leader of that bar. He was appointed, un- 
der the Federal Constitution, one of the 
first judges of the Supreme Court of the 
United States by President Washington, 
holding that position until death. He was 
professor of law in the legal college of the 
University of Philadelphia, received the de- 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


gree of LL. D., and delivered a course of 
lectures on jurisprudence which were pub- 
lished. He died August 26, 1798, aged 

Col. Robert Magaw was another practi- 
tioner at our bar at he outbreak of the 
Revolution. He was an Irishman by birth 
and resided in Carlisle. In 1774 he was 
one of the delegates from this county to the 
Provincial Convention at Philadelphia, 
which met for the purpose of concerting 
measures to call a general congress of dele- 
gates from all the colonies. He served in 
the Revolution as colonel of the Fifth Penn- 
sylvania Battalion. He was in command at 
Fort Washington (]\Ianhattan Island), and 
when threatened by General Howe with 
extremities if the fort should have to be 
carried by assault, replied that such threats 
were unworthy of a British officer and that 
he (Magaw) would defend it to the last ex- 
tremity. After a gallant defense, which 
drew forth the admiration of General 
Washington, who witnessed a part of it 
from the opposite side of the Hudson, he 
was compelled to surrender to superior 
forces, (Nov. 16, 1776) was taken prisoner 
and held for four years. He was released 
in October, 1780, when, with two others, 
he was exchanged for Major Gen. De 
Reidesel. He had a large practice prior to 
the Revolution, and was a member of the 
Assembly in 1781-2. He died in Carlisle 
January 7th, 1790. 

The name of Jasper Yeates appears upon 
our records as early as 1763, and for a per- 
iod of twenty-one years (to 1784) he was a 
practitioner at our bar. He resided in Lan- 
caster. He was an excellent lawyer, a fine 
classical scholar, and practiced over a large 
territory in the eastern counties of the 
State, until his appointment (in 1791) by 
Governor Mifflin as one of the associate 
justices of the Supreme Court, which posi- 
tion he held until his death in 1817. In 

appearance he was tall, portly, with a hand- 
some countenance, florid complexion and 
blue eyes. He was the compiler of the 
early Pennsylvania reports which bear his 

George Stevenson (LL. D.) was another 
prominent practitioner at the bar in 1776. 
He was born in Dublin, Ireland, in 1718, 
educated at Trinity College, and emigrated 
to America about the middle of the cen- 
tury. He was appointed Deputy Surveyor 
General under Nicholas Scull for the 
three lower counties on the Delaware, then 
known as the territories of Pennsylvania, 
which William Penn obtained from the 
Duke of York in 1682. He afterwards re- 
moved to York and was appointed a justice 
under George II, in 1755. In 1769 he 
moved to Carlisle and at once became a 
leading member of the bar. He married 
the widow of Thomas Cookson, a distin- 
guished lawyer of Lancaster, who, in con- 
nection with Nicholas Scull laid out the 
town of Carlisle in 1751. Mr. Stevenson 
died in Carlisle in 1783. 

Capt. John Steel was a prominent mem- 
ber of our bar in 1776. Admitted, on mo- 
tion of Robt. Magaw, only three years pre- 
viously, he had already attained to a large 
practice, (April 1773). We find him having 
a large practice again from 1782 to 1785, 
shortly after which his name disappears 
from the records. He was the son of Rev. 
John Steel, known as the "Fighting Parson," 
(from his participation in the French — In- 
dian War,) and was born at Carlisle, July 
iSth, 1774. John Steel led a company of 
men from Carlisle and joined Washington 
after he had crossed the Delaware. He 
married Agnes Moore, a daughter of James 
Moore, the Elder, of Cumberland county, 
a great-great-grandfather, upon the ma- 
teria! side, of the writer. 

Col. Thomas Hartley read law in York 
under Samuel Johnston and commenced to 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

practice in 1769. He appears as a practi- 
tioner at our bar from April 1771 to 1797. 
In 1774 he was elected to the Provincial 
meeting of deputies at Philadelphia. In the 
succeeding year he was a member of the 
Provincial Convention. In the beginning 
of the war he became a colonel in the Revo- 
lution. He served in 1778 in the Indian 
war on the West Branch of the Susque- 
hanna and in the same year was elected a 
member of the Legislature from York 
county. In 1787 he was a member of the 
State Convention which adopted the Fed- 
eral Constitution. In 1788 he was elected 
to Congress and served for a period of 
twelve years. He was an excellent lawyer, 
a pleasant speaker, and had a large practice. 
He died in York, December 21st, 1800, 
aged 52 years. 

These were some of the men who prac- 
ticed at our bar in the memorable year 1776, 
men who by their services in the field and 
in the courts and the halls of Legislation 
helped to lay firm and deep the foundations 
of the government which we enjoy. 

From the period of the Revolution to the 
adoption of the State Constitution, in 1790, 
the courts were presided over by justices 
who were appointed by the Supreme Exe- 
crtive Council. Owing to the adoption of 
the Declaration and the necessity of tak- 
ing a new the oath, most of the attorneys 
were re-admitted in 1778. Among these 
were Jasper Yeates, James Smith, James 
Wilson, Edward Burd and David Grier. 
Thomas Hartley was re-admited in July of 
the succeeding year. James Hamilton, 
who afterwards became the fourth Presi- 
dent Judge under the constitution, was ad- 
mitted to practice upon the motion of Col. 
Thomas Hartley in April, 1781. 

Among the names of those who prac- 
ticed during this period between the Revo- 
lution and the adoption of the constitution 
of 1790, are the following: 

Hon. Edward Shippen was admitted to 
our bar in Oct., 1778. He was the son of 
Edward Shippen, the Elder, the founder of 
Shippensburg, and was born Feb. 16, 1729. 
In 1748 he was sent to England to be edu- 
cated at the Inns of Court. In 1771 he was 
a member of the "Proprietary and Gover- 
nor's Council." He afterwards rose rap- 
idly and become Chief Justice of Pennsyl- 
vania. He was the father of the wife of 
General Benedict Arnold. During the 
Revolution his sympathies were with Eng- 
land, but owing to the purity of his charac- 
ter and the impartiality with which he dis- 
charged his official duties, the government 
restored him to the bench. His name ap- 
pears upon our records as late as 1800. 

Hon. Thomas Dimcan, LL. D., was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1781, when he was 
twenty-one years of age. He was of Scotch- 
Irish ancestry, born in Carlisle in 1760, ed- 
ucated under Dr. Ramsey, the historian, 
and studied law under Hon. Jasper Yeates, 
then one of the Judges of the Supreme 
Court of Pennsylvania. On his admission 
to the bar he returned to his native place 
and began the practice of law. His rise 
was rapid, and in less than ten years he was 
the acknowledged leader of his profession 
in the midland counties of the State, and 
for nearly thirty years he continued to hold 
this eminent position. He had, during this 
period, perhaps the largest practice of any 
lawyer in Pennsylvania outside of Philadel- 
phia. In 1817 he was appointed by Gover- 
nor Snyder to the bench of the Supreme 
Court, in place of his instructor, Judge 
Yeates, deceased. He shortly after re- 
moved to Philadelphia, where he continued 
to reside until his death, Nov. i6th, 1827. 

During the ten years he sat upon the 
bench, associated with Gibson and Tilgh- 
man, he contributed largely to our stock of 
judicial opinions, and the reports contain 
abundant memorials of his industry and 



third Vol. of "Sergeant & Rawle" and end 
with the seventeenth volume of the same 

For years before the beginning of the 
present century and under five of the judges 
after the adoption of the first Constitution, 
namely. Smith, Riddle, Henry, Hamilton 
and Charles Smith, Thomas Duncan prac- 
ticed at the bar of Cumberland county. At 
the bar he was distinguished by acuteness 
of discernment, promptness of decision, an 
accurate knowledge of character and a 
read}" recourse to the rich stores of his own 
mind and memory. He was an excellent 
land and criminal law lawyer, and was par- 
ticularly strong in the technicalities of spe- 
cial pleading.* He was enthusiastically de- 
voted to his profession, indefatigable and 
zealous, and practiced over a large portion 
of the State. In appearance he was about 
five feet six inches high, of small, delicate 
frame, rather reserved in manners, had 
rather a shrill voice, wore powder in his 
hair, knee breeches and buckles, and was 
very neat and particular in his dress. Upon 
his monument in the old grave-yard in Car- 
lisle there is an eloquent panegyric, which, 
we have been informed, was from the pen 
of Judge Gibson. 

James Armstrong Wilson, whose name 
appears after the Revolution as a practi- 
tioner at our bar was the son of Thomas 
Wilson, of Carlisle, one of the earlier pro- 
vincial justices. James A. Wilson was edu- 
cated at Princeton and was graduated about 
1771- He studied law with Richard Stock- 
ton and was admitted to the bar at Easton. 
He was admitted to our bar on motion of 
James Wilson in April 1774 and practiced 
for ten years. He was a m.ajor in the Revo- 
lution. He died in Carlisle March 17, 1788, 
aged 36 years. "In him," says an obituary 
notice in Kline's Carlisle Gazette, "the 

* See Col. Porter's remarks in Essay on Gibson. 

country has lost a distinguished and inflex- 
ible patriot." 

Among others who practiced at this time 
was Stephen Chambers (from about 1783) 
who was from Lancaster and a brother-in- 
law of John Joseph Henry, who was after- 
wards appointed Judge of our judicial dis- 
trict in 1800. There was also John Clark, 
from York, (1784 and after) who had been 
a major in the Revolution; a large man, of 
fine personal appearance, witty, and the de- 
light of the lawyers who traveled upon the 
circuit in that day. There was Ross 
Thompson who had practiced in other 
courts, admitted in 1784, but who died 
young. Another, John Andrew Hanna 
(1785) settled in Harrisburg at about the 
time of the formation of Dauphin county. 
He was a son-in-law and executor of John 
Harris, the founder of Harrisburg. He was 
elected to Congress from his district in 1797 
and served until his death in 1805. There 
was Ralph Bowie, of York, admitted to 
our bar in October, 1785, who practiced 
considerably in our courts from 1798 till 
after 1800. He was a Scotchman by birth 
and had probably been admitted to the bar 
in his native country. He was a well read 
lawyer and much sought after in important 
cases of ejectment. He was of fine personal 
appearance, courtly and dignified in man- 
ner, and neat and particular in dress. He 
powdered his hair, wore short clothes in 
the fashion of the day and had social quali- 
ties of the most attractive character. The 
writer was told, some years ago, by the 
then oldest living member of our bar, that 
Mr. Bowie was connected in some way with 
the Gordon Riots in London. 

Of James Hamilton, James Riddle, 
Charles Smith, John Joseph Henry,Thomas 
Smith, all of whom practiced at this period 
but became judges subsequently, we will 
speak later. 

Two prominent members of the bar were 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

admitted in 1790, Thomas Creigh and 
David Watts. The former was the son 
of Hon. John Creigh, who emigrated from 
Ireland and settled in Carlisle in 1761. 
John Creigh was an early justice and one 
of the nine representatives who signed the 
first Declaration, June 24, 1776, for the 
colony of Pennsylvania. Thomas Creigh 
was born in Carlisle August i6th, 1769. 
He graduated in the second class which 
left Dickinson College in 1788. He prob- 
ably studied law under Thomas Duncan, 
upon whose motion he was admitted. He 
died in Carlisle, October, 1809. He was 
a brother-in-law of Samuel Alexander, 
Esq., of Carlisle, and of Hon. John Ken- 
nedy, of the Supreme Court. 

David Watts, one of the strongest mem- 
bers of the early bar, son of Frederick 
Watts, who was a member of the early 
Provincial Council, was born in Cumber- 
land county, October 29th, 1764. He grad- 
uated in the first class which left the then 
unpretentious halls of Dickinson College 
in 1787. He afterwards read law in Phil- 
adelphia under the eminent jurist and ad- 
vocate, William Lewis, LL. D., and was 
admitted to our bar in October, 1790. He 
soon acquired an immense practice, and 
became the acknowledged rival of Thomas 
Duncan, who had been for years the recog- 
nized leader on this circuit. He had been 
in the Revolution and in the Whiskey In- 
surrection, on the side of law and order, in 
1794. He was a man of Herculean frame, 
had a strong, powerful voice, was a forci- 
ble and impassioned speaker, who gener- 
ally selected only the strong points of his 
case and labored upon them with an earn- 
estness and zeal which approached to fury.* 
He was the father of the late Hon. Fred- 

* See Brackenricige's Recollections, where is 
given a fine word portrait of the contrasting per- 
sonal appearance and mental characteristics of 
Watts and Duncan. 

erick Watts. He died September 25th, 

We have given a brief sketch of our Bar 
from the earliest times down to the Con- 
stitution of 1790, when, in the following 
year, Thomas Smith, the first President 
Judge of our Judicial District, appears 
upon the Bench. 

From the adoption of this first constitu- 
tion until the present, the judges who have 
presided over our courts are as follows: 

Thomas Smith, 1791 ; James Riddle, 
1794; John Joseph Henry, 1800; James 
Hamilton, 1806; Charles Smith, 1819; 
John Reed, 1820; Samuel Hepburn, 1838; 
Frederick Watts. 1848; James H. Graham, 
1851; Benjamin F. Jenkins, 1871; Martin 
C., 1875; Wilbur F. Sadler, 1885; 
Edward W. Biddle, 1895. 

Hon. Thomas Smith first appeared upon 
the Bench in October term, 1791. He re- 
sided in Carlisle. He had been a deputy 
surveyor under the government and thus 
became well acquainted with the land sys- 
tem in Pennsylvania, then in progress of 
formation. He was accounted a good 
common law lawyer and did a considerable 
business. He was commissioned Presi- 
dent Judge by Governor MifHin on Aug. 
25th, 1 79 1. He continued in that posi- 
tion until his appointment as an associate 
judge of the Supreme Court on the 31st 
of January, 1794. He was a small man, 
rather reserved in manner, and of not very 
social proclivities. He died at an ad- 
vanced age in the year 1809. 

Owing to the necessity of being resworn 
under the new Constitution the following 
attorneys "having taken the oath pre- 
scribed by law," were readmitted at this 
term of court : James Riddle, Andrew Dun- 
lap, of Franklin ; Thomas Hartley, of York, 
David Watts, Thomas Nesbitt, Ralph 
Bowie, Thomas Duncan, Thos. Creigh, 
Robt. Duncan, James Hamilton and others. 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


Hon. James Riddle first appears upon 
the Bench in April term, 1794. He was 
born in Adams county, graduated at 
Princeton, and read law at York. He 
was about thirty years of age when admit- 
ted to the bar. He had a large practice 
until his appointment as President Judge 
of this Judicial District by Gov. Mifflin in 
Feb. 179 — . He was well read in science, 
literature and law, a good advocate and 
very successful with the jury. He was a 
tall man, broad shouldered and lusty, with 
a noble face and profile and pleasing man- 
ner. He was an ardent Federalist, and, 
owing to the strong partisan feeling which 
existed, he resigned his position as judge 
and returned to the practice of law. He 
died in Chambersburg about 1837. 

John Joseph Henry, the third President 
Judge of pur Judicial District, was from 
Lancaster, and was born about the year 
1758. He was appointed in 1800. He 
had previously been the first President 
Judge of Dauphin county, commissioned 
1793. He was, as a youth, in the Revolu- 
tion and the expedition against Quebec, 
under General Benedict Arnold. He was 
taken prisoner at Quebec. He was a large 
man, probably over six feet in height. He 
died in Lancaster in 1810. 

And now we have arrived at the dawn 
of a new century. A change had come or 
was coming upon us, and many of the old 
forms and customs of Colonial days were 
passing away. The Continental dress, the 
powdered queue, the dignified ceremon- 
ials of the courts, and the refined 
manners of the gentlemen of the old 
regime were then becoming a mat- 
ter more of memory than of observation. 
Judge Henry was on the Bench. Watts 
and Duncan were unquestionably the lead- 
ing lawyers. They were engaged proba- 
bly in more than one half of the cases 
which were tried and were always upon 

opposite sides. Hamilton came later, six 
years afterwards to be upon the Bench. 
There was also Charles Smith, who was to 
succeed Hamilton; Bowie, of York, and 
Shippen, of Lancaster, with their queues 
and Continental knee breeches, and the 
Duncan brothers, James and Samuel, and 
Thomas Creigh, all of them engaged in 
active practice at our bar in the beginning 
of the century. At this time the lawyers 
still traveled upon the circuit, and circuit 
courts were held also, as will be seen by 
the following entry: "Circuit Court held at 
Carlisle for the County of Cumberland, 
this 4th day of May, 1801, before Hon. 
Jasper Yeates and Hon. Hugh Henry 
Brackenridge, justices of the Supreme 

The most important admission to the bar 
under Henry was that of John Bannister 
Gibson, who was to become afterwards 
Chief Justice of Pennsylvania. He was ad- 
mitted on motion of his instructor, Thomas 
Duncan, Esq., at the March term 1S03, hav- 
ing studied law under his direction for the 
space of two years after having arrived at 
the age of twenty-one. Ralph Bowie, Chas. 
Smith and William Brown were his com- 
mittee of examination. Gibson was then 
aged 23, having been born on November 8th, 
1780. He was graduated from Dickinson 
College in the class of 1798. From 1805 to 
18 12 he seems to have had a fair legal prac- 
tice in Cumberland county, particularly 
when we consider that the field was then 
"occupied by such men as Duncan, Watts, 
Bowie, of York, and Smith of Lancaster, 
who, at the time of which we speak, had but 
few equals in the State."* His reputation, 
however, at this period, was not that of dili- 
gence in his profession, and it is probable 
that at this time he had no great liking for 
it. In 1810 he was elected by the Demo- 

Porter's Essay on Gibson. 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

cratic party of Cumberland county to the 
House of Representatives, and, upon the 
expiration of his term, in 1812, he was 
appointed President Judge of the Court of 
Common Pleas for the Eleventh Judicial 
District, composed of the counties of Tio- 
ga, Bradford, Susquehanna and Luzerne. 
Upon the death of Judge Brackenridge in 
1816 Judge Gibson was appointed by Gov- 
ernor Snyder, Associate Justice of the Su- 
preme Court, where, if Tilghman was the 
Nestor, Gibson became the Ulysses of the 
Bench. This appointment seems to have 
awakened his intellect and stimulated his 
ambition. He became more devoted to 
study and seems to have resolved to make 
himself master of law as a science. Coke, 
particularly, seems to have been his favor- 
ite author, and his quaint, forcible and 
condensed style, together with the sever- 
ity of his logic, seem to have had no small 
influence in the development of Gibson's 
mind, and in implanting there the seeds of 
that love for the English Common Law 
which was afterwards everywhere so con- 
spicuous in his writings. 

Upon the death of Judge Tilghman, Gib- 
son was appointed his successor as Chief 
Justice of the Supreme Court of Pennsyl- 
vania, commissioned i8th of May, 1827. 
From this time forward, says Col. A. Por- 
ter, in his admirable essay, the gradual and 
uniform progress of his mind may be traced 
in his opinions with a certainty and satis- 
faction which are perhaps not ofifered in 
the case of any other judge known to our 
annals. His original style, compared to 
that in which he now began to write, was 
like the sinews of a growing lad compared 
to the well knit muscles of a man. No one 
who has carefully studied his opinions can 
have failed to remark the increased power 
and pith which distinguished them from 
this time forward." In the language of 
Hon. Thaddeus Stevens, "be lived to an 

advanced age, his knowledge increasing 
with increasing years, while his great intel- 
lect remained unimpaired." 

His opinions were among the earliest 
American decisions to be recognized in 
the courts of Westminster, England. It has 
been said of them that they can be "picked 
out from others like gold coin from among 
copper." He was for more than half of a 
long life an associate or chief justice upon 
the bench, and his opinions extend through 
no less than seventy volumes of our re- 
ports,* an imperishable monument to his 
Lancaster. He removed to Philadelphia, 
1853 in the seventy-third year of his age. 
Upon the marble monument erected over 
his remains in the grave-yard at Carlisle is 
the following beautiful inscription from the 
pen of the late Hon. Jeremiah S. Black: 
In the various knowledge 
Which forms the perfect SCHOLAR 
He had no superior. 
Independent, upright and able. 
He had all the highest qualities of a great 
In the difficult science of Jurisprudence, 
He mastered every Department, 
Discussed almost every question, and 
Touched no subject which he did not 
He won in early manhood 
And retained to the close of a long life 
The AFFECTION of his brethren on the 
The RESPECT of the Bar 
And the confidence of the people. 
Judge Gibson was a man of large propor- 
tions, a giant both in physique and intel- 
lect. He was considerably over six feet in 
height, with a muscular, well proportioned 
frame, indicative of strength and energy, 
and a countenance expressing strong char- 
acter and manly beauty. "His face," says 

* From 2 Sargeant & Rawle to 7 Harris. 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


David Paul Brown,* "was full of intel- 
lect, sprightliness and benevolence, and, of 
course, eminently handsome; his manners 
were remarkable for their simplicity, 
warmth, frankness and generosity. There 
never was a man more free from affectation 
or pretension of every sort." "Until the day 
of his death," says Porter, "although his 
bearing was mild and vmostentatious, so 
striking was his personal appearance that 
few persons to whom he was unknown, 
could have passed him by in the street 
without remark." 

Of his wide learning, in language and 
literature, and in other sciences than law, 
we have not space to speak, and we must 
refer the reader to the able tributes of men 
like Judge Black and Thaddeus Stevens 
and to the more lengthy biographical no- 
tices of this great judge, of whom, as yet, 
no sufficient biography exists. 

Alas! said the brilliant Rufus Choate, re- 
alizing the evanescent character of a law- 
yer's fame, "there is no immortality, but a 
book." But the learned Grotius, who had 
written many books seeing still deeper, that 
fame was but a postponed oblivion, ex- 
claimed when dying, "Behold, I have con- 
sumed my life with laborious trifling." He 
had not done so, nor did Gibson, whose 
auto-biography at least is clearly written in 
the history of the growth and development 
of the Common Law in Pennsylvania. 

Others admitted under Judge Henry 
were — George Metzger, born 1782, gradu- 
ated at Dickinson College 1798; read law 
with David Watts and was admitted March 
1805. He served as prosecuting attorney 
and as member of Legislature in 18 13-14. 
He died in CarHsle June loth, 1879. He 
was the founder of Metzger Female Col- 
lege. Andrew Carothers, born in Cumber- 
land county, about 1778; read law with 

** The Forum, 

David Watts; admitted to the bar in 1805. 
Among his pupils were the late Hon. Fred- 
erick Watts and Hon. James H. Graham. 
"He became," says Judge Watts, "an ex- 
cellent practical and learned lawyer, and 
very soon took a high place at the bar of 
Cumberland county, which at that time 
ranked amongst its members some of the 
best lawyers of the State. Watts, Duncan, 
Alexander and iMahan were at diiiferent 
times his competitors, and amongst these 
he acquired a large and lucrative practice, 
which continued through his whole life. 
Mr. Carothers was remarkable for his ami- 
ability of temper, his purity of character, 
his unlimited disposition of charity and his 
love of justice." Fie died July 26th, 1836, 
aged 58 years. 

James Hamilton, the fourth judge under 
the constitution, appears upon the bench in 
1806. He was an Irishman by birth, who 
was admitted to the bar in his native coun- 
try, and emigrated to America before the 
Revolution. He was well educated, large, 
very fat, ver}' eccentric, very social, very 
dignified as a judge and very indififerent as 
to his personal appearance. He was" con- 
sidered an excellent lawyer and tolerable 

"Judge Hamikon," says Brackenridge in 
his Recollections, "was a learned and ele- 
gant lawyer, remarkably slow and impres- 
sive, and in his charges to the jury too 
minute. * * He had received his edu- 
cation in Dublin. Among the younger 
members of the bar," continues he, "Mr. 
Gibson, now Chief Justice of the State, v,'as 
the most conspicuous. He even then had 
a high reputation for the clearness of his 
judgment and the superiority of his taste." 

Hamilton was admitted in 1781, had held 
the office of Deputy Attorney General at 
the bar, and was appointed by Governor 
Snyder to the bench in 1806, in which posi- 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

tion he continued until his death in 1819, 
aged JJ years. 

He was in the habit of having the tip- 
staves attend him when he walked from his 
residence to the court. Watts and Duncan 
were still leaders of the bar under Hamil- 
ton. Watts came to the bar somewhat 
later than Duncan, but both had been ad- 
mitted, and the latter had practiced, under 
the justices prior to the Constitution; but 
from that time (1790) both were leaders of 
the bar under the first five judges who pre- 
sided after the Constitution, until the ap- 
pointment of Duncan to the Supreme 
Bench in 1817. David Watts died two 
years after. 

There is a legend to the effect that a cer- 
tain act, which can be found in the Pamph- 
let Laws of Pennsylvania, (1810, p. 136) for- 
bidding the citation of English precedents 
subsequent to 1776, was passed at the insti- 
gation of Judge Hamilton in order to get 
rid of the nuiltitudinous authorities with 
which Mr. Duncan was wont to confess his 

Among the prominent attorneys who 
practiced for many years at our bar, who 
were admitted under Hamilton, was Isaac 
Brown Parker, March 1806, on motion of 
Charles Smith, Esq. Mr. Parker had read 
law under James Hamilton just previous 
to the time of his appointment to the bench. 
His committee were Ralph Bowie, Charles 
Smith and James Duncan, Esqs. He was 
a gentleman of wealth and refinement and 
a prominent lawyer of his day. Alexander 
Mahan, who had graduated at Dickinson 
College (1805) and who had read law under 
Thomas Duncan, was admitted August 
1808, Gibson, the elder Watts and Car- 
others being his committee. He was ad- 
mitted to Perry county bar in 1 821, and 
was, says Judge Junkin, "a man of great 
oratorical power,"* Hon. William Ramsey 

* Sketch of Perry County Bar, by Hon. B. F. 

was admitted same date. He was Prothono- 
tary for many years and a prominent Dem- 
ocrat politician, (from 1827 to 1831) in the 
latter year of which he died. He began 
practice at the bar in 1827. 

James Hamilton, Jr., born in Carlisle 
October 16, 1793; graduated from Dickin- 
son College in 1812, read law under Isaac 
B. Parker, was admitted while his father 
was upon the bench, (April 1816). Being in 
affluent circumstances he practiced but lit- 
tle at the bar, and died June 23, 1873. 

John Williamson, brother-in-law of Hon. 
Samuel Plepburn, with whom he was for a 
long time associated, born in this county 
Sept. 14, 1789, graduated from Dickinson 
College (1809), read law under Martin 
Luther of Baltimore, Md., (the "Federal 
bull dog" and counsel of Aaron Burr) and 
was admitted to this bar in August 181 1. He 
was a very learned lawyer as a counselor. 
He died in Philadelphia September 10, 

John Duncan Mahan, who was admitted 
under Hamilton in April 1817, was born in 
1814, and read law under the instruction 
of his uncle, Thomas Duncan. He became 
a leader of the Carlisle Bar at a brilliant 
period, until, in 1833, he removed to Pitts- 
burg and became a prominent member of 
the bar of that city, where he died July 
3, 1861. He was a man of rare endow- 
ments. "He had" says Judge McClure, of 
Pittsburg, "the gift, the power and the 
grace of the orator, and in addressing the 
passions, the sympathies and the peculiari- 
ties of men he seldom made mistakes. His 
every gesture was graceful, his style of elo- 
quence was the proper word in the proper 
place for the occasion, and his voice was 
music." He was affable in temper, bril- 
liant in conversation, and was among the 
leaders of our bar under Hamilton, Smith 
and Reed, at a time when it had strong 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 

men by whom his strength was tested and 
his talents tried.* 

An unknown writer speaking of his re- 
miniscences of the bar at about this period 
says, "John D. Mahan was its bright parti- 
cular star, young, graceful, eloquent, and 
with a jury irrisistable. Equal to him in 
general ability, and superior, perhaps, in le- 
gal acumen, was his contemporary and ri- 
val, Samuel Alexander. Then there was 
the vehement Andrew Carothers, and 
young Frederick Watts, just admitted in 
time to reap the advantages of his father's 
reputation and create an enduring one of 
his own. And George Metzger, with his 
treble voice and hand on his side, amusing 
the court and spectators with his not over- 
ly delicate facetiae. And there was William 
Ramsey, with his queue, a man of many 
clients arrd the sine qua non of the Demo- 
cratic party." 

Hon. Charles Smith was appointed to 
succeed Hamilton as the fifth President 
Judge of our Judicial District in the year 
1819. He was born at Philadelphia March 
4> 1 765.' graduated at first commencement 
of Washington College, Md., of which his 
father was founder and provost. He read 
law with his brother, Wm. Moore Smith, 
at Easton, Pa. He was a colleague of 
Simon Snyder in the convention which 
framed the first Constitution of Pennsyl- 
vania, and was a distinguished member of 
that talented body of men. Although dif- 
fering from Mr. Snyder in politics, they 
were, for more than thirty years, firm 
friends, and when Snyder became Gover- 
nor of the State for three successive terms, 
Mr. Smith was the confidential advisor in 
many important matters. Mr. Smith mar- 
ried in 1719, a daughter of Jasper Yeates, 
one of the Supreme Court judges of the 

* For full tribute of Judge McClure see earlier 
history of the Bar, by Bennett Bellman in Dr. 
Wing's History of Cumberland County. 

State. In the circuit he was associated 
with such men as Duncan, the elder Watts, 
Charles Hall, John Woods, James Hamil- 
ton and a host of luminaries of the Middle 
Bar. He was a great land lawyer and in 
trials of ejectment at the bar (then of fre- 
quent occurrence) his learning was best 
displayed. He is the author of the book 
known as "Smith's Laws of Pennsylvania," 
where the land law of the State was ex- 
haustively treated. When appointed judge 
in 1819, this district was composed of the 
counties of Cumberland and Franklin. 
Judge Smith shortly afterwards became the 
first presiding judge of the District Court at 
Lancaster. He removed to Philadelphia, 
where he died in 1841, aged 75 years. 

Hon. John Reed, LL. D., appears upon 
the Bench in 1820. He was born in York, 
now Adams county, in 1786, read law un- 
der Wm. Maxwell, of Gettysburg, was ad- 
mitted to the bar and practiced for some 
years in Westmoreland county. In 1815 
he was elected to the State Senate, and on 
July loth, 1820, was commissioned by Gov- 
ernor Finley, President Judge of the Ninth 
Judicial District, then composed of the 
counties of Cumberland, Adams and Perry. 
When in 1838, by a change in the Consti- 
tution, his commission expired, he re- 
sumed his practice at the bar, and contin- 
ued it until his death, which occurred at 
Carlisle, January 19th, 1850. In 1839 the 
degree of Doctor of Laws was conferred 
upon him by Washington College, Pa. In 
1833 the new board of trustees of Dickin- 
son College established a professorship of 
law, and Judge Reed was elected to fill 
that department. Many who graduated 
at the Law School then formed, became 
eminent afterwards and occupied high po- 
litical and judicial positions. Judge Reed, 
we may mention, was the author of three 
volumes known as the Pennsylvania 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

At this period the Bar was particularly 
strong. The Elder Watts was dead and 
Duncan was upon the Supreme Bench. 
But among the practitioners of that day 
were such men as Carothers, Alexander, 
Mahan, Ramsey, Williamson, Metzger, 
William M. Biddle and Isaac Brown 
Parker; while among those admitted under 
liim who were afterwards to attain emi- 
nence on the bench or at the bar, were 
such men as Charles B. Penrose, Hugh 
Gaullagher, Frederick Watts, Wm. M. 
Biddle, James H. Graham, Samuel Hep- 
burn, William Sterrett Ramsey, S. Dunlap 
Adair and John Brown Parker, a galaxy of 
names which has not since been equaled. 

Gen. Samuel Alexander was born in Car- 
lisle September 20, 1792; graduated from 
Dickinson College (1812), read law at 
Grcensburg, with his brother, Maj. John 
B. Alexander, and became a prominent 
lawyer in that part of the State. He set- 
tled in Carlisle and began practice here at 
about 1818, and soon acquired a prominent 
position. He was a strong advocate, elo- 
quent, with large command of language 
and was a master of invective. In this he 
had no equal at the bar, and in the exami- 
nation of witnesses also, he had no super- 
ior. He died in Carlisle in July, 1845 aged 
52 years. 

From the late Hon. Lemuel Todd, who 
was a pupil of Mr. Alexander, we learned 
that Mr. Alexander was possessed of a ten- 
acious memory and seldom, forgot a case 
which he had once read. That he was 
possessed of great tact and an intuitive 
quickness of perception. That in the man- 
agement of a case he was apt, watchful and 
ingenius, so that if driven from one posi- 
tion he was, like a skillful general, always 
quick to seize another, and that, in this re- 
spect, his talents only brightened amid diffi- 
culties, and shone forth the more resplend- 
ant as the battle became more hopeless. 

Hugh Gaullagher, a practitioner of the 
bar under Reed, read law with Hon. Rich- 
ard Coulter, of Greensburg, and shortly 
after his admission commenced the prac- 
tice of law at Carlisle. This was about 
1824, from which time he continued to 
practice tmtil about the middle of the cen- 
tury. He died in Carlisle, April 14, 1856. 
He was an Irishman by birth, eccentric, 
long limbed, awkward in his gait, and in 
his delivery had the Irish brogue, but he 
was popular, affable, instructive in conver- 
sation, and well read, particularly in his- 
tory and in the elements of his profession. 
He possessed inherent humor and a line of 
fun, had a large circle of friends, and was 
among the number of the old lawyers who 
were fond of a dinner and a song. He 
was strong as a counselor, fond of the old 
cases, and would rather quote an opinion 
by m»y Lord Hale or Mansfield than the 
latest delivered by our courts Governor 
Porter at one time thought very seriously 
of appointing him judge of this district, 
but was deterred from so doing on account 
of his nationality. This has been told to 
the writer by one to whom Governor Por- 
ter himself communicated the fact. 

Hon. Charles B. Penrose, born near 
Philadelphia, October 6th, 1798, read law 
with Samuel Ewing, of Philadelphia, and 
immediately moved to Carlisle. He soon 
acquired a prominent position at the bar. 
He was elected to the State Senate in 1833 
and on the expiration of his term was re- 
elected. He soon achieved distinction 
among the men of ability who were then 
chosen to fill this office. In 1841 he was 
appointed by President Harrison solicitor 
of the treasury, which position he held un- 
til the close of President Tyler's adminis- 
tration. After practicing in Carlisle he 
settled in Lancaster, then in Philadelphia, 
successfully pursuing his profession, and, 
in 1856, was again elected as a reform can- 


didate, to the State Senate, during which 
term he died of pneumonia at Harrisburg, 
April 6th, 1857. In appearance Mr. Pen- 
rose was sHghtly above the medium height, 
with white hair and a fine intellectual cast 
of countenance. In his character he was 
unselfish, benevolent, and earnest in what- 
ever he undertook to accomplish; his man- 
ners polished and courteous, and in short, 
those of a gentleman. 

William M. Biddle was another brilliant 
practitioner who was admitted under Reed. 
He was born in Philadelphia July 3, 1801. 
He was a great-great-grandson of Nicholas 
Scull, Surveyor General of the Province of 
Pennsylvania from 1748 to 1761, who, by 
direction of Governor Hamilton laid out 
the town of Carlisle in 1753. His father, 
William Biddle, was a first cousin to 
Nicholas Biddle, the celebrated financier. 
William M. Biddle read law in Reading 
with his brother-in-law, Samuel Baird, 
Esq., and shortly after his admission to 
the bar, in 1826, he moved to Carlisle, 
where another brother-in-law, Charles B. 
Penrose, who had recently opened a law 
office there and was then rising into a good 
practice, resided. Mr. Biddle soon ac- 
quired a large practice and took a high 
position at the bar, which he retained until 
his death — a period of nearly thirty years. 
He died in Philadelphia February 28th, 
1855. He was not only a genial gentleman, 
and able lawyer, but was endowed with a 
large fund of wit, which combined with his 
high moral and intellectual qualities made 
him a leader at the bar at a time when 
many brilliant men were among its mem- 

Hon. Charles McClure was admitted to 
the bar under Reed in 1826. He was born 
in Carlisle, graduated from Dickinson Col- 
lege and afterwards became a member of 
Congress, and still later, 1843-45, Secre- 
tary of State of Pennsylvania. He was a 

son-in-law of Chief Justice Gibson. He 
did not practice extensively at the bar. He 
removed to Pittsburg, where he died in 

Hon. William Sterrett Ramsey was one 
of the most promising practitioners ad- 
mitted under Reed. He was born in Car- 
Hsle June i6th, 1810. He went to Dickin- 
son College arid in 1829 was sent to Europe 
to complete his education, and to repair, 
by change of scene, an already debilitated 
constitution. In the same year he was ap- 
pointed by our minister to St. James (Hon- 
LewisMcLane),an attache to the American 
Legation. He visited Sir Walter Scott at 
Abbottsford to whom he bore letters from 
Washington Irving. 

After the Revolution of the three days, 
July 1830, he was sent with dispatches to 
France, and spent much of his time, while 
there, in the hotel of General Lafayette, and 
in his saloons met many of the celebrated 
men of that period. In 1831 he returned to 
Carlisle and began the study of law under 
his father, William Ramsey. He continued 
his studies under Andrew Carothers, was 
admitted to the bar in 1833, and in 1838 
was elected as a Democrat to Congress and 
at the expiration of his term was re-elected. 
He was at the time the youngest member 
of Congress in the House. He died, be- 
fore being qualified a second time, b)' his 
own hand, in Barnum's Hotel, Baltimore, 
Md., October 22d, 1840, aged only thirty 
years. Sic transit gloria. Most of the 
above facts are taken from an obituary no- 
tice supposed to have been written by his 
friend, James Buchanan, later. President 
of the United States. 

S. Dunlap Adair was another of the bril- 
liant lawyers admitted under Reed (in Jan. 
1835) and who practiced for. a period of 
fifteen years. While a youth he attended 
the classical school of Joseph Casey, Sr., 
the father of Hon. Joseph Casey (of Casey 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

Report renown) at Newville, Pa., and was 
among the brightest of his pupils. He was 
apt as a Latin scholar and later acquired a 
knowledge of other (modern) languages. 
He was well read in English literature. He 
studied law under Hon. Frederick Watts, 
and soon after his admission was appoint- 
ed Deputy Attorney General for the county. 
He was a candidate of his party, when 
Wm. Ramsey, the younger, was elected. In 
stature below medium height, delicately 
formed, near-sighted, he had a chaste, clear 
style and was a pleasant speaker. He was, 
with William M. Biddle, James H. Graham 
and William M. McClintock, of Philadel- 
phia, counsel for Rev. Dr. McClintock in 
the anti-slavery riots which occurred in 
Carlisle in the spring of 1847. He died in 
Carlisle September 23d, 1850. 

John Brown Parker, Esq., son of Isaac 
B. Parker, is the last whom we shall men- 
tion of the practitioners admitted under 
Reed. Born in Carlisle, October 5th, 1816, 
he was graduated from the University of 
Pennsylvania in 1834; read law with Hon. 
Frederick Watts for the period of one year, 
completing his course of study in the Dick- 
inson College law school vmder Judge 
Reed, and was admitted to practice in April 
1838. He was for some years associated in 
practice with his preceptor, Judge Watts. 
His large means rendered the practice of 
law unnecessary and he retired about 1865 
and moved to Philadelphia where he re- 
sided for some years. He died in Carlisle, 
where he had again made his home, in the 
summer of 1888. A thorough gentleman 
and a fine classical (and particularly Hora- 
cean) scholar he is still remembered by the 
older members of the bar as one who was 
equally distinguished for his uniform cour- 
tesy, gentlemanly urbanity and unpreten- 
tious but real literary attainments. 

During the time when Judge Reed was 
upon the bench, Hon. John Kennedy, who 

had studied law under the Elder Hamilton 
and had been admitted under Riddle in 
1798, was appointed to the bench of the Su- 
preme Court in 1830. He was born in 
Cumberland county in June 1774; gradu- 
ated from Dickinson College in 1795, and 
after his admission to this bar moved to a 
northern district where he became the com- 
peer of men like James Ross, John Lyon, 
Parker Campbell, and others scarcely less 
distinguished. He remained upon the 
bench until his death, August 26th, 1846. 
He was buried in the old grave-yard at 

Among those who did not practice at all 
or for any length of time at the Carlisle 
bar, who were admitted under Reed, but 
who attained to eminence elsewhere were 
Hon. Wm. B. McClure, of Carlisle, who be- 
came judge of the common pleas and court 
of quarter sessions at Pittsburg, from 1850 
to 1861, in which latter year he died; An- 
drew Galbreath Miller, LL. D., a student 
of Carothers, appointed by President Van 
Buren, judge in the territory of Wisconsin 
and afterwards by President Polk, a United 
States judge of that State; Benjamin Mc- 
Intyre, of Bloomfield, who read with Chas. 
B. Penrose; Samuel McCroskey, who turn- 
ing to theology, became Bishop of Michi- 
gan; Hon. Henry M. Watts, afterwards of 
Philadelphia, appointed by President 
Johnston, minister to the court of Austria; 
Hon. Andrew Parker, a pupil of Carothers 
who moved to Mififlintown, and became a 
member of Congress. Then there was 
Hon. Charles McClure, of Carlisle, student 
of John D. Mahan, who became a member 
of Congress and in 1843-5, Secretary of the 
State of Pennsylvania; Hon. James X. Mc- 
Lanahan, student of Carothers, who be- 
came a member of Congress (1849-53); the 
learned Dr. Wm. N. Nevin, professor of 
ancient languages, and late of English lit- 
erature and Belles Lettres in Franklin and 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


Marshall college. Lemuel G. Branden- 
berry, who practiced here for a time, bvit 
was appointed by President Taylor one of 
the first territorial judges of Utah; Hon. 
John P. Hobert (examined and admitted 
August 10, 1836,) who was auditor general 
under Governor Ritner; Hon. Andrew G. 
Curtin, (examined by Williamson, Gaul- 
lagher and James H. Graham) who was war 
governor of Pennsylvania; Rev. Dr. Alfred 
Nevin, LL. D., (same date and committee 
as Curtin, Jan. 1847); the venerable Hon- 
Francis W. Hughs, Secretary of the Com- 
monwealth under Gov. Bigler, (still within 
the recollection of the writer wearing his 
white hair in a powdered queue) ; Hon. 
Joseph Casey, who read law with Lemuel 
G. Brandenberry, and who became a mem- 
ber of Congress, (1849-51), chief justice of 
of the court of claims at Washington, and 
reporter of the Supreme court of Pennsyl- 
vania (1855-60), in the volumes which bear 
his name. 

Hon. Samuel Hepburn, the seventh Pres- 
ident-Judge, was the successor of Judge 
Reed, and first appeared upon the bench in 
April 1839. He was born in 1807 in Wil- 
liamsport, Pa., at which place he began the 
study of law under James Armstrong, who 
was afterwards a Judge on the Supreme 
Bench. He completed his legal studies at 
Dickinson College under Reed, and was 
admitted to the bar of Cumberland county 
in November 1834. He was appointed ad- 
junct professor of law in the law school un- 
der Judge Reed, and before he had been at 
the bar five years he was appointed by 
Governor Porter President Judge of the 
Ninth Judicial District, then embracing 
Cumberland, Perry and Juniata. He was 
at this time the youngest judge in Penn- 
sylvania, to whom a President Judge's 
commission had been ever oflfered. Among 
important cases the McClintock trial took 
place while he was upon the bench. After 

the expiration of his term he resumed the 
practice of law in Carlisle, where he still 
resides. The degree of LL. D. was con- 
ferred upon him by Washington College, 

The most prominent practitioners ad- 
mitted under Judge Hepburn were J. Ellis 
Bonham, Lemuel Todd, Wm. H. Miller, 
Benjamin F.Junkin.Wm. Penrose. Of these 
J. Ellis Bonham was born in Hunterdon 
Co., N. J., March 31st 1816; was graduated 
from Jeflferson College, Pa.; studied law at 
Dickinson College under Reed, and was 
admitted to the bar in August 1839. He 
was soon appointed Deputy Attorney Gen- 
eral of the county — a position which he 
filled with conspicuous ability. His legal, 
literary and political reading and attain- 
ments were extensive. Lii85ihe was elected 
to the Legislature, and during his term was 
the acknowledged leader of the House as 
Hon. Charles R. Buckalew was of the Sen- 
ate. After the expiration of his term he 
was nominated for Congress and although 
he was in a district largely Democratic, 
eminently fitted for the position and had 
himself, great influence in the political or- 
ganization to which he belonged, he was 
defeated by the sudden birth of the Know- 
Nothing party. He died shortly after, of 
congestion of the lungs, March 19th, 1855, 
before his talents had reached their prime, 
after having been at the bar for fifteen 
years, and before he had attained the age 
of forty. 

In appearance Mr. Bonham was rather 
under than above the medium height. He 
was of nervous, sanguine temperament 
with a countenance that was scholarly 
and refined. As an advocate he was 
eminently a graceful and polished speaker, 
attractive in his manner, with a poetic 
imagination and chaste and polished dic- 

Hon. Lemuel Todd was born at Carlisle 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

July 29tfi, 1817; was graduated from Dick- 
inson College in the class of 1839; read law 
under General Samuel Alexander and was 
admitted to practice in August, 1841. He 
was a partner of General Alexander until 
the time of his death in 1843. He was 
elected to Congress from the Eighteenth 
District on the Know-Nothing ticket as 
against J. Ellis Bonham on the Demo- 
cratic, in 1854, and was elected Congress- 
man-at-Large in 1875. He was chairman 
of the first State Committee of the Know- 
Nothing party in 1855-56 and delegate to 
its first and only National Convention in 
February 1856. In this year he presided 
over the Union State Convention (not yet 
known as "Republican") and in the suc- 
ceeding year was chairman of the first Re- 
publican State Committee. He ran as a 
candidate for Governor in 1857, being sec- 
ond on the list of 13 candidates, David 
Wilmot being nominated. He ran as a 
candidate again in i860 but withdrew in 
favor of Andrew G. Curtin. He was tem- 
porary chairman of the State Convention 
at Harrisburg in 1883, and had presided 
over the State Conventions of the Republi- 
can party that nominated David Wilmot 
for Governor, at Harrisburg; at Pittsburg 
that nominated Gov. Curtin and at Phila- 
delphia that advocated for President, Gen. 
Grant. He practiced continuously at the 
bar except for a period during the late war, 
a portion of which time he acted as in- 
spector general of Pennsylvania troops un- 
der Governor Curtin. He died in Carlisle 
May nth, 1891. General Todd was a fear- 
less and eloquent advocate, and as an ora- 
tor he was in his prime and later years a 
peerless leader of the bar, whether in the 
court, upon the stump or before some pub- 
lic convention or assembly. 

William H. Miller, who for more than a 
quarter of a century was an active practi- 
tioner, was a student of Judge Reed and 

was admitted to the bar in August 1832. 
As a lawyer he was studious, deliberate and 
dignified, cool and self-possessed, who suc- 
ceeded in winning a large practice and an 
honorable position at the bar. He died in 
Carlisle in June 1877. 

William McFunn Penrose, (admitted un- 
der Judge Hepburn) was born in Carlisle 
March 29th, 1845; was graduated from 
Dickinson College in 1844 and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in November of the fol- 
lowing year. He was the eldest son of 
Hon. Charles B. Penrose. As a lawyer he 
was eminently successful, learned, quick and 
accurate in his perceptions, urgent in argu- 
ment, terse in expression — he had a keen 
perception of the distinctions in the cases 
and of the principles which underlie them, 
and in all questions of practice he was par- 
ticularly at home. He served for a time 
as Colonel of the Sixth Regiment in the 
Rebellion. He died September 2d, 1872. 

Alexander Brady Sharpe, born in Cum- 
berland county, August 12th, 1827, gradu- 
ated with honor at Jefferson College, Pa., 
in 1846, read law with Robert M. Bard, of 
Chambersburg, and subsequently with 
Hon. Frederick Watts, of Carlisle, and was 
admitted to the bar in November 1848. 
During the late war he served upon the 
staf? of General Ord, and was one of the 
seven officers of the Loyal Legion who re- 
ceived promotion for specific services in the 
field. As a lawyer he was of sterling inte- 
grity; as an advocate strong, dignified and 
eloquent. But he was pre-eminently a 
scholar, familiar with the best literature of 
England, of Rome and (which he liked 
best) of Greece. His memory was great, 
his reading broad, and his conversation 
polished, scholarly and interesting. He 
died at his home in Carlisle on the night 
of December 25th, 1891. 

Under Judge Hepburn those who were 
admitted to the bar, but who did not prac- 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


tice here, were Hon. Alexander Ramsey (of 
Reed law school), examined by Gaul- 
lagher,C. B.Penrose and Frederick Watts), 
who was a member of Congress (1843-47) 
and afterwards appointed by President Tay- 
lor first territorial governor of Minnesota; 
elected its first governor in 1859: re-elected 
in 1 86 1 ; later for two terms United States 
Senator (from 1863) and later still Secretary 
of War under President Playes; Hon. Na- 
than B. Smithers, who was a member of 
Congress and Secretary of State for Dela- 
ware. His examining committee was the 
same as Ramsey's. Then there was Hon. 
Levi N. Mackey, who became a member 
of Congress (1875-79), Adair, Gaullagher 
and Alexander being his comittee of ex- 
amination. Hon. Carroll Spence (of the 
Reed law school) became minister to Tur- 
key under President Pierce, Alexander, 
Gaullagher and Bonham being his commit- 
tee. Hon. James H. Campbell, who was 
examined by Frederick Watts, Samuel 
Alexander and Wm. M. Porter, became a 
member of Congress (1855-57) ^i^d was 
United States Minister to Sweden (1864- 
6y}. Hon. James R. Kelley (of Reed law 
school) went to Oregon and was defeated 
for Governor (1866) but was elected to the 
United States Senate (1871-77) and was 
afterwards Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court. Then there was examined and ad- 
mitted J. C. Kunkle, of Dauphin county, 
who became a Whig member of Congress, 
and Hon. Samuel S. Woods, who became 
the President Judge of the Union and Mif- 
flin county district; and Hon. Benjamin 
Markley Boyer, who was a member of Con- 
gress in 1865-69, and in 1882 President 
Judge of the Montgomery district. Also 
Hon. Benjamin F. Junkin, of Perry, later 
Judge of this Ninth Judicial District. Robt. 
A. Lamberton, LL. D., of Carlisle, mem- 
ber of the Constitutional Convention of 
Pennsylvania in 1880, and later President 

of Lehigh University, and who died in Sep- 
tember, 1893. 

Hon. Frederick Watts became Judge of 
our courts in 1849. He was the son of 
David Watts, of the early bar, and was born 
in Carlisle May 9th, 1801. He was gradu- 
ated -from Dickinson College in 1819; two 
years later entered the office of Andrew 
Carothers, and was admitted to practice in 
August 1824. He soon acquired an im- 
mense practice, which may be judged by 
the fact that, during a period of 42 years 
(from October term, 1827, to May term, 
1869, in the Supreme Court) there is no 
volume of reports containing cases from 
the middle district (except for the three 
years when he was upon the bench) in 
which his name is not found. For fifteen 
years he was the reporter of the decisions 
of that court; from 1829 three volumes of 
"Watts and Penrose," ten volumes of 
"Watt's report," and nine "Watts and Ser- 
geant" were issued. On March 9th, 
1849, he was commissioned by Gov- 
ernor Johnson, President Judge of the 
Ninth Judicial District, containing the 
counties of Cumberland, Perry and Juni- 
ata. He retired in 1852, when the 
judiciary became elective, and resumed 
his practice, from which he gradually 
withdrew in about 1860-69. In August 
1871 he was appointed Commissioner of 
Agriculture by President Hayes. As a man 
he had great force of character, sterling in- 
tegrity and as a lawyer, ability, dignity and 
confidence. He had great power with a 
jury from their implicit, firm, self-reliant 
confidence in him. He was always firm 
self-reliant, despised quirks and quibbles, 
and was a model of fairness in the trial of 
a cause. He died at his home in Carlisle 
on Saturday, August 17th, 1889. 

In an editorial by Hon. A. K. McClure 
on Judge Watts, published in the Philadel- 
phia Times (August 19, 1889) he says: 


Biographical akd Portrait Cyclopedia. 

"Judge Watts' judicial career was brief, but 
quite long enough to make him memor- 
able as one of the most dignified, impartial 
and efficient common law judges of Penn- 
sylvania. * * * jt -^Yas at the bar that 
Judge Watts exhibited his grandest attri- 
butes. He was a great lawyer in all the 
qualities of the legal practitioner. He was 
exceptionally strong in the profounder 
characteristics of the profession, and at the 
same time most thorough as a case lawyer 
and pleader and unsurpassed as an advo- 
cate. He was the most popular lawyer in 
his section of the State, not because of any 
demagogic attempts to popularize himself 
with the multitude, but because he was 
universally regarded as able, skillful and 
honest. * * * j^jg appearance in a 
case was assurance that there must be some 
merit in his cause, and his dignified cour- 
tesy and scrupulous fairness in the trial of 
a case, and his candor, simplicity, earnest- 
ness and rare eloquence as an advocate, 
made him the most formidable of antag- 
onists. ■ 1 ■■^'5} 
Judge Watts was the one man of the in- 
terior bar who could successfully cope with 
Thaddeus Stevens. Even the keen invec- 
tive of Stevens, upon which he so much re- 
lied, was sparingly employed when Watts 
was his opponent, and we recall a memor- 
able will case of thirty years ago, in which 
Watts and Stevens were the opposing law- 
yers, as the model jury trial of our Penn- 
sylvania courts. In unbroken dignity, uni- 
form courtesy, consummate skill, exhaus- 
tive effort and persuasive eloquence, we 
doubt whether it has been surpassed, if ever 
equalled, in the trials of the State. Both 
were yet in the full vigor of their physical 
and intellectual strength, mellowed by the 
achievements and disappointments of their 
earlier struggles in the profession; both 
were masters in their great art; both cher- 
ished the profoundest contempt for the 

clap trap that is so often employed to en- 
thuse the gallery gods, and each felt him- 
self matched in his antagonist. 

Judge Watts was thus a model lawyer as 
he was a model judge, and the influence he 
exerted in dignifying the legal profession 
and in commanding for it general public 
trust is yet felt in the region where his pro- 
fessional efforts are well remembered." 

Hon. James H. Graham, the first of the 
judges after the judiciary became elective, 
was born in Cumberland county, Septem- 
ber lo, 1807, graduated from Dickinson 
College in 1827, studied law under Andrew 
Carothers, and was admitted to the bar in 
1829. In 1839, after the election of Gov. 
Porter, he was appointed Deputy Attorney 
General for Cumberland County, which po- 
sition he filled ably for six years. It may be 
interesting to state that the third year after 
his admission to the bar his fees amounted 
to twelve hundred dollars, and continued 
steadily to increase until he left the bar for 
the bench. After the amendment to the 
Constitution making the judiciary elective, 
he received the nomination (Democratic; 
and was elected in October 1851 President 
Judge of the Ninth Judicial District, com- 
prising the counties of Perry, Cumberland 
and Juniata. At the expiration of his term 
he was re-elected in 1861, serving another 
full term of ten years. After his retirement 
fr.-m the bench he returned to the practice 
of law. He died September 26, 1882. In 
1862 his alma mater conferred upon him 
the degree of LL. D. He was a careful 
and conscientious judge fond of the 
common law, of the Coke school, perhaps 
sometimes severe, but there was never, in 
the language of Judge Watts, "a breath of 
imputation against his character as a law- 
yer or upon his honor as a judge." 

Of the prominent practitioners admitted 
under Judge Graham we have space to 
mention only one — Samuel Hepburn, Jr., 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


who became an acknowledged leader of the 
bar. He was a son of Hon. Samuel Hep- 
burn, born in Carlisle December 30th, 1839, 
entered Dickinson College, then went to 
the University of Virginia, and later to 
Europe and entered the University of Ber- 
lin. On his return he read law with his 
father and was admitted to this bar in 1863. 
He soon stepped to the front rank of his 
profession, for his great legal ability was 
soon recognized and brought him a lucra- 
tive practice. His reputation as a lawyer 
was not local; he was particularly well 
known to the Supreme Court, and in legal 
circles throughout the State. A handsome 
man, with Gladstonian face and attractive 
manners, he looked every inch the thorough 
lawyer which he was. In thorough train- 
ing in the fundamental principles of law, 
(including a knowledge of the Roman 
Law), in breadth and soundness of judg- 
ment, in quick discernment, in the strong 
grasp of broad legal principles and in the 
deduction therefrom of correct conclus- 
ions; in subtle distinction and wide gener- 
alization, as a counselor and as an advo- 
cate, before the jury or before the court, 
he had, perchance, but few, if any, super- 
iors in the State. He died on board the 
steamer "Iroquois" near Charleston, S. C, 
while taking a trip to Florida. 

Hon. Benjamin F. Junkin, the tenth 
President-Judge of this Judicial District, 
was admited to this bar August, 1844. 
He read law with Hon. Samuel Hepburn. 
He moved to Bloomfield and became, with 
the younger Mclntyre, a leader of the 
Perry Co. Bar. He was elected to the 36th 
Congress, and in 1871 was elected Presi- 
dent Judge of the Ninth Judicial District, — 
then composed of Cumberland, Perry and 
Juniata. He was the last of our perambu- 
latory judges, for on the redistribution of 
the district under the Constitution of 1874, 
he chose Perry and Juniata, and from that 

period ceased to preside over the courts of 
Cumberland county. 

Hon. Martin C. Herman, the eleventh 
President Judge of the Ninth Judicial Dis- 
trict, was born in Silver's Spring township, 
Cumberland county, February 14th, 1841. 
He was graduated from Dickinson College 
in the class of 1862. In January of this 
year he had registered as a student of law 
with B. Mclntyre & Son, of the Perry 
County Bar, but later with Wm. H. Miller, 
Esq., of Carlisle, under whom he completed 
his legal studies. He was admitted to the 
bar in January, 1864. He was elected by 
the Democratic party President Judge of 
the Ninth Judicial District, consisting of 
the county of Cumberland, in 1874, serving 
his full term of ten years. On the expiration 
of his term he was renominated by acclama- 
tion, but was defeated by the Republican 
candidate. He died, after a stroke of appo- 
plexy, in Carlisle, on Sunday, January 19, 
1896. He was of unimpeachable integrity, 
careful and conscientious, and very minute 
anu deliberate in his charges to the jury. 

Hon. Wilbur F. Sadler, twelfth President 
Judge of the District, was born in Adams 
county. Pa., October 14, 1840, but removed 
to Cumberland county with his parents in 
his infancy. He read law under Mr. Mor- 
rison, of Williamsport, Pa., and later, fin- 
ished his legal studies in Carlisle and was 
admitted to the bar in April, 1865. He 
soon acquired a large clientage and was 
elected District Attorney in 1871, and in 
1884 President Judge of the district on the 
Republican ticket. After the expiration of 
his term he resumed the practice of law, in 
which he is now engaged. 

Hon. Edward W. Biddle, the present 
Judge of the Judicial District, was born in 
Carlisle, May 3d, 1852; was graduated from 
Dickinson College in 1870; read law with 
Wm. M. Penrose, Esq., and was admitted 
to the bar in April, 1873. I" 1895 he be- 


Biographical anu Portrait Cyclopedia. 

came the candidate of the Republican 
party, as against the late Hon. M. C. Her- 
man, (Democratic,) and was elected to the 
position which he now holds. 

The Present Bar. We have now 
brought the history of our bar down to a 
period which is within the recollection of 
the youngest member of it. Of the living 
(save in the case of those who have been 
upon the bench) we have made no mention, 
leaving them to the mercy of some future 
historian by whom the names of those who 
are found most worthy, will, no doubt, be 
duly recorded. 

The present members of the bar, with the 
dates of thier admission, are as follows: 
Charles P. Addams, '87 ; Hon. F. E. Beltz- 
hoover, (Ex-Member of Congress), '64 ; 
Bennett Bellman, '73; J. E. Barnitz, 'jj; 
Edw. W. Biddle, Jr., '89; C. C. Bashore, 
'95; C. E. Brinton, '95; Herman Berg, Jr., 
'96; W. B. Boyd, '96: Frank C. Bosler, '96; 
E. F. Brightbill, '96; Charles S. Dakin, '92; 
James W. Eckels, '84; Wm. W. Fletcher, 
'96; Duncan M. Graham, '76: Hon. Samuel 
Hepburn, LL. D., '34, (ex-judge and oldest 
surviving member of the bar): Hon. R. M. 
Henderson, LL. D., '47; John Hays, '59; 
Christian P. Humrich, '54; J. Webster 
Henderson, '79; F. H. Hofifer, '82; Conrad 
Hambleton, '91; Geo. M. Hays, '95; W. A. 
Kramer, '85; Jos. C. Kissell, '94; John B. 
Landis, '81; Stewart M. Leidich, '72: J. C. 
Long, '95; H. M. Leidich, '87; John R. 

Miller, '67; A. G. Miller, '73; Hon. Till- 
more Maust, (present member of Legisla- 
ture), '83; Geo. E. Mills, '92; A. R. Rupley, 
(Dist. Atty.), '91; John M. Rhey, '96: Hon. 
Wilbur F. Sadler, (Ex-President Judge) 
'64; William J. Shearer, '52; A. D. B. 
Smead, '74; Hugh Silas Stuart (took post 
graduate legal studies at University of Edin- 
burgh), '81; J. T. Stuart, '76: G. Wilson 
Swartz, '89; Jas. S. Shapley, '93; Lewis S. 
Sadler. '96; Wm. H. Starney, '96; William 
Trickett, LL. D., (Dean of the Dickinson 
Law School and author of various legal 
works), '75; Jos. G. Vale; '71; Thomas E. 
Vale, '91, J. W. Wetzel, '74; Edward B. 
Watts, '75; R. W. Woods, '88; C. W. Web- 
bert, '91 ; Hon. J. Marion Weakley, '61 ; J. 
E. Walters, '96. 

In Mechanicsburg there are: Hon. W. 
Penn Lloyd, '65; H. H. Mercer, '83; Miss 
Ida G. Kast (first and only lady admitted 
to the Cumberland County Bar), '96; John 
L. Shelley, '75; Hon. James L. Young, 
(Ex-member of Legislature,) '91 ;and Harry 
M. Zug, '79. 

In Shippensburg the attorneys are : E. J. 
McCune, '75; Quinn T. Mickey, '93; and 
J. S. Omwake, '96. 

In Newville: Hon. Robt. McCochran, 
(Ex-member of Legislature), '58; and B. F. 
Seitz, '87. 

In Shiremanstown: S. S. Rupp, '92, and 
in New Cumberland, J. H. ReifT, '95. 


The Medical Profession. 

F NOW in tracing the medical history 
of the district we could turn back 
"the sunlit hemisphere of modern 
science" to that position which it occupied 
at the time the first physician came west 
of the Susquehanna, we would find the 
medical profession poorly equipped indeed, 
compared to its fitting out today, for the 
conquest of disease. 

In pioneer days Lancaster was the near- 
est town to any of the little settlements 
planted in the great wilderness regions of 
the district, and in case of any serious sick- 
ness or severe injury if a physician was 
called it was most likely he came from 
Lancaster, but there is no account of any 
visiting physician from Lancaster let 
alone any record or the name of the first 
one. The next chance of the pioneers to 
secure medical attention was from the phy- 
sicians or surgeons who accompanied the 
military forces sent west of the Susque- 
hanna river during the French and Indian 
war but of such possible services there ex- 
ists neither history nor tradition. 

First Resident Pliysicians. From what 
little can be learned of pioneer times it 
seems that Dr. David Jameson, of York, 
is entitled to the honor of being the first 
resident physician in the territory of the 
present Nineteenth Congressional District. 
Dr. Jameson was born and reared in Scot- 
land where he received his education and 
studied medicine and surgery. He came 
to Pennsylvania about 1740 and pushing 
out to the frontier became one of the first 

inhabitants of the town of York. He was 
a graduate of the University of Edinburgh, 
a fine physician and surgeon and served as 
an ofhcer in the French and Indian war and 
in the Revolutionary struggle. His sons 
Horatio G. and Thomas were celebrated 
physicians, and the former served as presi- 
dent, at different times, of Washington and 
Ohio Medical colleges. 

Another finely educated and skillful ph}- 
sician who came to the frontier and after- 
wards became prominent in military life was 
Dr. William Irvine, who was educated at 
the University of Dublin and settled in 
1763, at Carlisle where he had an extensive 
practice for nearly forty years. He re- 
moved in 1801, to Philadelphia, where he 
died three years later. 

The (third physician in order of practice 
was a Dr. Kennedy, of York county, about 
1760, and he was followed by Dr. William 
Plunkett, of whom we only have record 
that he was "a practitioner of physic in 
1766," at Cariisle. 

Pliysicians 1766— 1896. Succeeding Dr. 
Jameson, at York, came Drs. Peter Hawk, 
in 17S0; Thomas Jameson, 1790; Charles 
Ludwig, John Rouse and Peter Lansing, 
about 1800; Luke Rouse and Henry Nes, 
about 1825; Charles M. Nes, 1845, 
and S. T. Rouse, 1861. The physicians of 
Hanover up to 1881 have been Drs. John 
Baker, before the Revolutionary war ; Peter 
Miller and Dr. Wampler, about 1803; the 
Culbertsons, father and son; Dr. Ecker, G. 
W. Hinkle and Dr. Smith, and J. P. Smith. 

Biographical akd Portrait Cyclopedia. 

About 1805 Drs. Montgomery and Bryan 
were in Peach Bottom; Dr. De Lassel at 
Day's Landing; Dr. Armstrong Dill, at 
Dillsburg; Dr. Hamburgh, at Jefferson; Dr. 
Webster Lewis, at Lewisburg, and Dr. F. 
E. Melsheimer, the great entomologist, at 
Davidsburg. Succeeding them in York 
county, outside of York and Hanover, came 
Drs. Thomas McDonald, of Fawn town- 
ship; R. N. Lewis, of Dover, who culti- 
vated the opium he used in his practice; 
Dr. Shearer, Dr. Connor, A. R. Prowell 
William Allebaugh and E. W. Melsheimer. 

In the early part of the eighteenth cen- 
tury the following additional physicians 
were in York county: Drs. William Mc- 
Ilvain, John Fisher, John F. Spangler, 
John Morris, L. Martin, John Bentz, Mich- 
ael Hay, T. N. Holt, Jacob Fisher, John 
Rouse, T. N. Haller, Luke Rouse, W. F. 
Johnson, Jacob Hay, Sr., Benjamin Johns- 
ton, Alex. Small, Alex. Barnitz, Andrew 
Patterson, Dr. Beard John Hay, D. 
S. Peffer, Thomas Cathcart, William Hay, 
D. S. Peffer, Thomas Cathcart, William 
Isenhart, J, F. Hollahan and E. H. Pentz. 

Of the physicians from 1850 to 1885 we 
find no list and in the latter year the fol- 
lowing physicians were in York county: 

Drs. J. W. Kerr (1S40), Jacob Hay, Jas. 
McKinnon, A. R. Blair, W. S. Roland, 
John Ahl, E. W. Meisenhelder, L. M. Loch- 
man, C. M. Nes, B. F. Spangler, J. R. 
Spangler, J. Wiest, W. H. Wagner, L C. 
Gable, Z. C. Myers, Alfred Long, F. X. 
Weile, Dr. Jordy, H. B. King, D. King 
Gotwald, T. B. Kain, S. Miller, I. Ickes, 
and T. H. Beltz, of York; G. R. Hursh, 
Fairview township; W. E. Swiler, Yocum- 
town; P. D. Baker, Franklintown; Dr. 
Bailey, Dillsburg, A. C. Heteric, Wells- 
ville; J. M. Gross, Dover; J. C. May, Dr. 
W. F. Smith, Airville; B. F. Porter, 
Chanceford; J. S. Heteric, New Freedom; 
G. P. Yost, Glen Rock; George Holtz- 

apple, Loganville; Dr. Hildebrant, Win- 
terstown; J. M. Hyson, Red Lion; J. R. 
Martin, Stewartstown; W. Bigler, Windsor 
township; J. A. Armstrong and William 
Deisinger, Hellam township; Dr. Thomp- 
son and G. A. Rebnian, Wrights- 
ville; G. W. Metzger and L. A. Roth,Jack- 
son township; M. A. Hoke and C. Bahn, 
Spring Grove; William Brinkman and Z. 
C. Jones, Jefferson; W. C. Stick, Codorus; 
Allen Glatfelter, Seven Valleys; E. W. 
Gerry, James Gerry and H. G. Bussy, 
Shrewsbury; C. Taylor, Shrewsbury town- 
ship; O. C. Brickley, E. W. Brickley, B. T. 
Reich and J. H. Yeagley, York; E. A. 
Wareheim, Glen Rock; D. B. Grove, Han- 
over; J. D. Keller, Glenville; H. C. Alle- 
man, A. J. Snively, A. F. Koch, J. H. Bit- 
tenger, A. C. Wentz, G. P. Weaver, and 
Dr. Buchen, of Hanover. 

In Cumberland county succeeding Doc- 
tors Irvine and Plunkett came Drs. S. A. 
McCaskey, 1774; Lemuel Gustine, about 
1778; George Stevenson, 1781; Samuel 
Fahnstock, 1800; G. D. Foulke, about 
1803; James Armstrong, Ephraim M. 
Blaine, Adam Hays, W. C. Chambers, John 
Creigh, J. S. Given, Theo. Myers, John M)'- 
ers, John Eliott, D. N. Mahan, Jacob John- 
son, John Paxton, Charles Cooper, William 
Irvin, and James Armstrong, from 1812 to 
1828; S. B.Kieffer, R. L. Sibbet, A. J. Her- 
man, W. W. Dale, W. H. Longsdorf, W. H. 
Cooke, E. A. Grove, George Hemminger, 
J. S. Bender, W. S. Reily, J. S. Musgrove, 
G. W. Foulke, L. W. Foulke, from 1828 to 
1879. The physicians of Shippensburg up 
to 1879 were: Drs. John Simpson, 1778; 
Alex. Stewart, 1795: John Ealy, 1809; W. 
A. Findlay, 1815; William Rankin, 1821 ; 
Alexander Stewart, 183 1; Thomas Greer, 
1834; J. N. Duncan, 1841; Elijah Ealy, 
about 1845; D. N. Rankin, 1854; and W. 
M. Witherspoon, 1869. The Mechanics- 
burg physicians from 1815 to 1879 were: 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 

Drs. Asa Herring, 1815; Jacob Weaver, 
1825; J. G. Oliver, about 1830; Ira Day, 

1833; George Fulmer, ; A. H. Van- 

hofif, W. A. Steigleman and P. H. Long 
about 1845; J- B. Herring, 1851; E. B 

Brant, 1856; R. G. Young, ; M. B 

Mosser, ; R. N. Short, 1865; L. P. O 

Neale, 1870; L. H. Lenher, 1872; and J. H 
Deardorfif. Newville's physicians from 1797 
to 1879, have been Drs. John Geddes, 1797 
W. S. Rutger, 1812; J. P. Geddes and W 
M. Sharp, 1819; Joseph Hannon, John Ahl 

1844; M. F. Robinson, ; J. A. Ahl 

; Alex. Sharp, 1850; David Ahl, 1853 

J. G. Barr, 1858; and S. H. Brehm, 1866. 
Elsewhere in Cumberland county the phy- 
sicians up to 1879 have been Drs. Lerew 
Lemer (1832) and J. W. Trimmer, (1876) 
at Lisburn; I. W. Snowden (1832) and 
Joseph Grain, ( — ) at Hogestowm ; C. H. Gib- 
son (1875), Churchtown; Jacob Black and 
William Mateer (1853) and W. S. Bruck- 
hart (1874), Shiremanstown ; David Smith 
(1832) and A. A. Thompson (1864), New- 
burg; John Mosser (181 5, New Cumber- 
land; Israel Betz, ( ), Oakville; Jacob 

Sawyer ( ), Boiling Springs; J. E. A-^an 

Camp ( ), Plainfield; and Peter Fahnes- 

tock (1805), Oyster's Point. From 1879 to 
1885, the following physicians were in 
Cumberland county; Drs. George Grove, 
Big Springs; J. C. Davis, Mt. Holly 
Springs; P. R. Koons, Aliens; J. H. Smith, 
Dickinson township; F. B. Leberknight, 
Newberry; D. C. Cramer, Newburg; J. G. 
Fickle, Carlisle; J. J. Koser, Shippensburg; 
R. S. Prowell. New Cumberland; J. B. 
Marshall, Shippensburg; S. McKee Smith, 
Heberling; E. S. Conlyn, Cariisle; H. H. 
Longsdorf, Dickinson township; M. K. 
Bowers, Boiling Springs; J. J. Deshler, 
Shippensburg; R. B. Polinger, Carlisle; 
Wilmot Ayres, Middlesex; J. P. Orr, New 
Cumberland; J. H. Kaufifman, Newburg; 
R. M. McGary, Shiremanstown; and S. L. 

Diven, Carlisle; I. Y. Reed and J. L. 
Baeher, Leesburg; J. A. Morrett, New 
Kingston; C. C. Hammel, E. N. Mosser, T. 
J. Stevens, F. E. Rogers, J. U. Hobach, D. 
A. Lauk, G. M. Eckels and J. B. Spangler, 
Mechanicsburg; G. W. Ziegler, S. P. Zieg- 
ler, C. W. Krise, W. F. Reily, Thos. Ste- 
wart, Sr., Thomas Stewart, Jr., A. I. Miller, 

C. H. Hepburn, M. M. Ritchie, J. S. Ben- 
der, and J. R. Bixler, Carlisle; J. W. Bow- 
man, Camp Hill; Levi Funk, New Kings- 
ton; Jacob Roop, New Cumberland; R. M. 
Hays, Newville; M. L. Hoover, Silver 
Spring township; H. D. Cooper, Newville; 
Z. D. Hartzell, Newburg; Jesse Laverty, 
Sr., East Pennsborough township; A. B. 
Sechrist, Upper Allen township; R. W. 
Ross, Shepherdstown ; M. B. Rogers, Mid- 
dlesex township; W. A. English, Mrs. 
A. English, J. J. Koser, R. C. Stewart, D. 

D. Hays, C. A. Howland; J. H. Mowers, 
J. J. Deshler, and A. P. StauiTer, Shippens- 
burg; Austin Best, Shiremanstown; T. L. 
Neff, Carlisle; W. B. Reynolds and W. 
G. Stewart, Newville; H. R. Williams, 
borough township; R. C. Marshall, West 
Fairview; S. H. C. Bixler, Bloseville; H. 
W. Linebaugh, New Cumberland; J. H. 
Houck, Boiling Springs; A. W. Nichols, 
Camp Hill; J. L. Schoch, Shippensburg; 
David Coover, Upper Allen township; D. 
W. Basehore, West Fairview; W. E. Cor- 
nog, Mt. Holly Springs; J. H. Boyer, Me- 
chanicsburg; J. T. Hoover, Southampton 
township; Fred. Hartzell, Churchtown; S. 
N. Eckee, Jacksonville; Levi Clay, West 
Pennsborough township; B. H. Bockus, 

; J. K. Bowers, ; J. C. 

McCoy, ; C. M. Fager, West Fair- 
view; John Logan, ; Jacob Peters, 

Henry Clay; M. J. Jackson, ; J. R. 

Rodgers, Sterrett's Gap; C. J. Heckert, 
Wormleysburg; D. T. E. Casteel, Allen; 
G. S. Comstock, Bloserville; and W. J. 
Kasten, Boiling Springs. 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

The people of what is now Adams county 
during the days of early settlement de- 
pended largely upon the first physicians of 
York and Cumberland county for medical 
assistance in cases of dangerous sickness or 
extreme surgical need. Home remedies of 
field, forest and garden were prepared by 
the mothers and grandmothers for the ail- 
ments of humanity and we find no record 
or tradition of a resident physician in the 
Marsh Creek or Conewago settlements for 
over half a century. Sometime before 1800, 
Dr. John Agnew, who published the first 
paper on vaccination in this country, came 
to Gettysburg, where his great talents and 
fine medical ability were never fully appre- 
ciated. His contemporary at Gettysburg 
was Dr. William Crawford, "a man of great 
and varied abilities and of national and last- 
ing fame" who came in 1795. Dr. Johu 
B. Arnold, of Connecticut, Dr. James 
Hamilton, a wealthy southern man, were in 
the county as early as 1800, and soon fol- 
lowing them were Drs. John Knox and 
John Runkle, the latter from Maryland. 
One of the earliest of Crawford's students 
was Dr. James H.Miher.who became a great 
medical authority in the county, and those 
ing fame" who camfe in 1795. Dr. John 
Paxton, David Horner, Charles Berlucky 
and John Parshall. Drs. Crawford and Mil- 
ler were the only men in the county, who 
could amputate a limb until Dr. David Gil- 
bert came to Gettysburg in 1830. Physi- 
cians increased slowly until 1873, when 
there were thirty-five practitioners of medi- 
cine in the county. In 1881 the Legisla- 
ture required certain qualifications of each 
practicing physician except he had been ten 
years in continuous practice and all were 
to register in the prothonotary's office in 
the county where they practiced. The 
physicians in Adams county in 1885 were: 
George B. Aiken, V. H. B. Lilly, and Geo. 
L. -Rice, McSherrystown; J. B. Combs, 

Round Hih; E. W. Cashman and D. L, 
Baker, East Berlin; A. L. Bishop, C. P. 
Gettier, Jonathan Howard, H. W. Lefevre, 
R. S. Seiss, Joshua S. Kemp, E. F. Shorb, 
and S. B. Weaver, Littlestown; John C. 
Bush, Movmt Joy township; A. P. Beam, 
Fairfield; J. E. Gilbert, Charles Horner, 
Robert Horner, John W. C. O'Neal, W. H. 
O'Neal, J. B. Scott, James Warren, and T. 

T. Tate, Gettysburg; J. R. Dickson, 

;A. B. Dill, J. R. Plank, R. M. Plank, 

J. H. Marsden and L W. Pearson, York 

Springs; Jeremiah Diore, — ■ ■ — ; A. M. 

Evers, W. C. Sandrock, J. L. Sheetz and 
J. W. Smith, New Oxford; R. B. Elderice, 

; Samuel Enterline, Huntingdon 

township; E. K. Foreman, Littlestown; C. 
E. Goldsborough, Hunterstown; W. F. 
Hollinger, C. W. Johnston, F. C. Wolf, 
Abbottstown; A. W. Howard and E. W. 
Mumma, Bendersville; Ephraim Howard, 
Straban township; Andrew Howard, 
Mount Pleasant township; L P. Lecrone, 
Arendtstown; Richard McSherry, Ger- 
many township; R. N. Meisenhelder, East 
Berlin; Emanuel Melhorn and D. H. Mel- 
horn, New Chester; Alfred Myers, Hamp- 
ton; Agideous Noel, Bonneauville; C. H. 

Rupp, ; C. K. Rether, Biglers- 

vlhe; C. E. Smith, Center Mills; A. S. 
Scott, Fairfield; W. O. Smith, and W. C. 
Stem, Cashtown; G. W. Smith, Flora Dale; 

A. O. Scott, ; O. W. Thomas, 

Arendtsville; J. C. Warren, Butler town- 
ship; J. D. Weddelle, Bigler; C. W. Wea- 
ver, Glenville, and James G. Watson. 

The Indian Physician. Dr. Carlos 
Montezuma, whom O. B. Super describes 
in the April number of the New England 
Magazine for the year 1895, is a full-blood- 
ed Apache Indian, who was captured and 
carried off at five years of age by a neigh- 
boring tribe and has never seen his parents 
since. A traveling artist named Gentile 
purchased the boy from his captor for $30 



atid sent him to school. The Indian boy 
worked his way up step by step, paying 
most of his way by hard work and com- 
pleted his education notwithstanding the 
remarkable declaration once made by a 
Congressman, that "there is as much hope 
of educating the Apache as there is of edu- 
cating the rattlesnake upon which he 
feeds." Montezuma left school read medi- 
cine and after graduating from the Chica- 
go Medical college held various positions 
in connection with the Indian school and 
agency business until he came to Carlisle 
where he has been resident physician of 
the Carlisle school ever since. He has al- 
ways performed his duties in a satisfactory 
manner and has written many articles on 
the Indian question. He says his case is ex- 
ceptional only in so far as he received ex- 
ceptional treatment, and his views on reser- 
vation plan of the United States Govern- 
ment are the same as Captain Pratt, who 
says: "Pandering to the tribe and its so- 
cialisms, as most of our Government and 
Mission plans do, is the principle reason 
why the Indians have not advanced more 
and are not now advancing as rapidly as 
they ought. We easily inculcate principles 
of American citizenship and self-support in- 
to the individual in the schools located 
where such examples and principles prevail. 
The misfortune is that the only future to 
which such youth are invited is that of the 
reservation where their new principles are 
not only most unpopular, but in many cases 
interdicted. It is a common experience of 
our returned students to have not only their 
savings carried home from the school taken 
from them at once, but to be unable to re- 
alize much of anything for themselves from 
am earnings they may make at the agen- 
cies. Their relations and friends come 
upon them with demands for a share of 
tiieir earnings, and often before they re- 
ceive their pay it is all promised in small 

sums to such relations and friends, who do 
not and will not work. In but few of the 
tribes have allotments been made, and 
markets are remote. There is, therefore, 
on the agricultural line at the agencies very 
little encouragement to the individual. No 
manufactories of any kind nor commercial 
interests, except the few Indian traderships, 
are allowed upon the reservations, and 
there is no opportunity, outside the very 
limited Agency needs, for them to obtain 
employment. They are consequently at' a 
great disadvantage. The more these op- 
pressive conditions become apparent to 
students somewhat advanced in education, 
and who have experienced the better con- 
ditions of civilized life, the more there is 
oi a growing disposition to break away 
from the reservation and to strike out into 
the world where occupation and opportu- 
nity invite. It should be the duty of every 
Indian School, whether Governmental or 
Mission, Agency or remote from the 
Agency, as well as the duty of the Indian 
Agent, and other Indian service employes, 
to forward Indian youth and worthy In- 
dians of any age into civilized communi- 
ties and the honorable employments of civ- 
ilized life, and to constantly direct the at- 
tention of all Indians that way." 

County Medical Societies. The Cum- 
berland county medical society was organ- 
ized July 17, 1866, with twenty-four mem- 
bers representing every section of the 
county, and twenty years later held its 
meeting at the Indian industrial school of 
Carlisle, where the subjects discussed and 
the manner of discussion evinced the 
growth and the usefulness of the society. 
The original members were Drs. Dale 
Ziegler, Keiffer, Zitner, Schelling, Herman, 
Demme, Herring, Short, Brandt, Cram, 
Cram (R. M.), Mosser, Bowman, Coover, 
Bashore, Hays, Nevin, Stewart, Loman, 
Cuddy, Ahl, Robinson and Haldeman. 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

The Adams County Medical Society 
dates back to June 14, 1873, when it was 
formed at Gettysburg, where Drs. Elder- 
dice, Horner, McClure, Baehr, Holtz, 
Thompson and O'Neal met in the interests 
of association and organization. At that 
time there were about thirty-five practicing 
physicians in the county, and the society 
rapidly increased its membership from 
their numbers. 

The present York County Medical So- 
ciety was organized May 11, 1873, through 
the efforts of Dr. John F. Holohan. Its 
meetings are monthly and have been held 
with but few exceptions in York city. The 
society by 1885 numbered 48 members and 
has made its influence felt in various ways, 
and sends its delegates regularly to the 
State and National Medical Associations. 
This society absorbed the members of the 
old York county society which was organ- 
ized in March, 1868, at Hanover, by Drs. 
Smith, Plowman, Koch, Alleman, Wiest, 
Jones and Culbertson, and the association 
of physicians at East Prospect formed in 

York Hospital. This institution is the 
result of the suggestion of Samuel Small, 
Sr., and the action of the York County 
Medical Society, whose members attended 
it gratuitously from 1879 to 1885. Mr. 
Small purchased the Busser property on 
College avenue, York, on which was a 
three-story brick building, that was fitted 
up under the direction of the medical so- 
ciety as York hospital which has been a 
boon to hundreds of sick and injured. 

Dr. Dady, the Impostor. Among the 
early irregular practitioners were the Eis 
enhart family, of York county, some of 
whose members achieved quite a reputa- 
tion, but there were others, who were not 
only ignorant of all curative processes but 
also practiced all manner of impositions 
on the credulous people. The most noted 

of these imposters was the famous Dr. 
Dady, whose career is described by Judge 
John J. Henr}' in the following account 
which he wrote from notes taken at Dady's 

"Dr. Dady, who was a German by birth, 
came to this country with the Hessians dur- 
ing the American revolution. Possessing 
a fascinating eloquence in the German lan- 
guage, and being very fluent in the Eng- 
lish, he was afterwards employed as a min- 
ister of the gospel by uninformed, but hon- 
est Germans. When the sacerdotal robe 
could no longer be subservient to his avar- 
icious views, he laid it aside and assumed 
the character of a physician. As such he 
came to York county and dwelt among the 
poor inhabitants of a mountainous part 
thereof, (now within the limits of Adams 
CO.,) where, in various artful ways, he 
preyed on the purses of the imwary. Of 
all the numerous impositions with which 
his name is connected, and to which he lent 
his aid, we will mention but two. The 
scene of one of them is in what is now 
Adams co., where he dwelt, and of the 
other in the "Barrens" of York co. 

The following is an account of the 
Adams county imposition: Rice Williams, 
or rather Rainsford Rogers, a New Eng- 
lander, and John Hall, a New Yorker, 
(both of whom had been plundering the in- 
habitants of the southern states by their 
wiles,) came to the house of Clayton 
Chamberlain, a neighbor of Dady, in July, 
1797. On the following morning, Dady 
went to Chamberlain's, and had a private 
conversation with Williams and Hall be- 
fore breakfast. After Dady had left them, 
Williams asked Chamberlain whether the 
place was not haimted. Being answered 
in the negative, he said that it was haunted 
— that he had been born with a veil over 
his face — could see spirits, and had been 
conducted thither, sixty miles, by a spirit. 

NiiTOTEENTH Congressional District. 


Hall assented to the truth of this. In the 
evening of the same day, they had another 
interview with Dady. Williams then told 
Chamberlain, that if he would permit him 
to tarry over night, he would show him a 
spirit. This being agreed to, they went 
into a field in the evening, and Williams 
drew a circle on the ground, around which 
he directed Hall and Chamberlain to walk 
in silence. A terrible screech was soon 
heard proceeding from a black ghost (!) 
in the woods, at a little distance from the 
parties, in a direction opposite to the place 
where Williams stood. In a few minutes 
a white ghost appeared, which Williams 
addressed in a language which those who 
heard him could not understand — the 
ghost replied in the same language! After 
his ghostship had gone away, Williams said 
that the spirit knew of a treasure which it 
was permitted to discover to eleven men — 
they must be honest, religious, and sensi- 
ble, and neither horse-jockeys nor Irish- 
men. The intercourse between Williams 
and Dady now ceased to be apparent, but 
it was continued in private. Chamberlain 
convinced of the existence of a ghost and 
a treasure, was easily induced to form a 
company, which was soon effected. Each 
candidate was initiated by the receipt of a 
small sealed paper, containing a little yellow 
sand, which was called "the power." This 
"power" the candidate was to bury in the 
earth to the depth of one inch, for three 
days and three nights — performing several 
other absurd ceremonies, too obscene to 
be described here. A circle, two perches 
in diameter, was formed in the field, 
in the centre of which there was a hole 
six inches wide and as many deep. A cap- 
tain, a lieutenant, and three committeemen 
were elected. Hall had the honor of the 
captaincy. The exercise was to pace around 
the circle, etc. This, it was said, propitiated 
and strengthened the white ghost, who was 

opposed by an unfriendly black ghost, who 
rejoiced in the appellation of Pompey. In- 
the course of their nocturnal exercises they 
often saw the white ghost — they saw Mr. 
Pompey too, but he appeared to have "his 
back up," bellowed loudly, and threw 
stones at them. On the night of the i8th of 
August, 1797, Williams undertook to get 
instructions from the white ghost. It was 
done in the following manner. He took a 
sheet of clean white paper, and folded it in 
the form of a letter, when each member 
breathed into it three times; this being re- 
peated several times, and the paper laid 
over the hole in the centre of the circle, the 
instructions of the ghost were obtained. 
The following is a short extract from the 
epistle written by the ghost: "Go on, and 
do right, and prosper, and the treasure shall 
be yours — O . Take care of your pow- 
ers, in the name and fear of God our pro- 
tector — if not, leave the work. There is a 
great treasure, 4,000 pounds apiece for you. 
Don't trust the black one. Obey orders. 
Break the enchantment, which you will not 
do until you get an ounce of mineral dul- 
cimer eliximer; some German doctor has 
it. It is near, and dear, and scarce. Let 
the committee get it — but don't let the doc- 
tor know what you are about — he is 
wicked." The above is but a small part of 
this precious communication. In conse- 
quence of these ghostly directions, a young 
man named Abraham Kephart waited, by 
order of the committee, on Dr. Dady. The 
Dr. preserved his "eliximer" in a bottle 
sealed with a large red seal, and buried in a 
heap of oats, and demanded fifteen dollars 
for an ounce of it. Young Kephart could not 
afford to give so much, but gave him thirty- 
six dollars and three bushels of oats for 
three ounces of it. Yost Liner, another of 
these wise committeemen, gave the doctor 
121 dollars for eleven ounces of the stuff. 
The company was soon increased to 39 per- 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

sons, many of whom were wealthy. Among 
those who were most miserably duped may 
be mentioned Clayton Chamberlain, Yost 
Liner, Thomas Bigham, William Bigham, 
Samuel Togert, John McKinney, James 
Agnew, (the elder,) James McCleary, Robert 
Thompson, David Kissinger, Geo. Sheck- 
ley, Peter Wikeart, and John Philips. All 
these and many other men were, in the 
words of the indictment, "cheated and de- 
frauded by means of certain false tokens 
and pretenses — to wit, by means of pre- 
tended spirits, certain circles, certain brown 
powder, and certain compositions called 
mineral dulcimer elixir, and Dederick's 
mineral elixir." 

"But the wiles of these impostors were 
soon exerted in other parts. The following 
is an account of their proceedings in and 
about Shrewsbury township, in this county. 
Williams intimated that he had received a 
call from a ghost, resident in those parts, at 
the distance of 40 miles from Dady's. Jacob 
Wister, one of the conspirators, was the 
agent of Williams on this occasion. He in- 
stituted a company of 21 persons, all of 
whom were, of course, most ignorant peo- 
ple. The same, and even more absurd cere- 
monies were performed by these people; 
and the communications of the ghost were 
obtained in a still more ridiculous manner 
than before. The communications men- 
tioned Dr. Dady as the person from whom 
they should obtain the dulcimer elixir, as 
likewise a kind of sand which the ghost 
called the "Asiatic sand," and which was 
necessary in order to give efificacy to the 
"powers." Ulrich Neaff, a committeemen, 
of this company, paid to Dr. Dady $90 for 
y^ ounces of the elixir. The elixir was put 
into vials, and each person, who had one of 
them, held it in his hand and shook it, as 
he pranced around the circle. On certain 
occasions he anointed his head with it; and 
afterwards, by order of the spirit, the vial 

was buried in the ground. Paul Baliter, an- 
other of the committeemen, took with him 
to Dr. Dady's $100, to purchase "Asiatic 
sand," at $3 per ounce. Dady being ab- 
sent, Williams procured from the doctor's 
shop as much sand as the money would 
purchase. In this instance Williams cheated 
the doctor, for he kept the spoil to himself; 
and thence arose an overthrow of the good 
fraternity. Each of them now set up for 
himself. Williains procured directions from 
his ghost, that each of the companions 
should dispatch a committeeman to Lan- 
caster, to buy "Dederick's mineral elixir" 
of a physician in that place. In the mean 
time Williams and his wife went to Lancas- 
ter, where they prepared the elixir, which 
was nothing but a composition of copperas 
and cayenne pepper. Mrs. Williams, as 
the wife of John Huber, a German doctor, 
went to Dr. Rose, with a letter dated "13 
miles from Newcastle, Delaware," which di- 
rected him how to sell the article, &c. 
The enormity of the price aroused the sus- 
picion of Dr. Rose. In a few days the dele- 
gates from the committee arrived, and pur- 
chased elixir to the amount of $740,33. 
When the lady came for the money she was 
arrested, and the secret became known. 
Her husband, Williams, escaped. The Lan- 
caster expedition having led to the discov- 
ery of the tricks of the imposters, a few 
da3's after the disclosures made by Mrs. 
Williams an indictment was presented, in 
the criminal court of York county, against 
Dr. John Dady, Rice Williams, Jesse Mil- 
ler, Jacob Wister the elder, and Jacob Wis- 
ter the younger, for a conspiracy to cheat 
and defraud. The trial took place in June 
following, and resulted in the conviction of 
Wister the elder, and of Dr. Dady — the 
former of whom was fined $10, and impris- 
oned one month in the county jail; the lat- 
ter fined $90, and sentenced to two years' 
confinement in the penitentiary of Philadel- 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


phia. Dady had just been convicted of par- 
ticipating in the conspiracy at Shrewsbury, 
when he and Hall were found guilty of a 
like crime in Adams county — whereupon 
Hall was fined $100, and sent to the peni- 
tentiary for two years ; and Dady was fined 
$i69,andsentenced to undergo an addition- 
al servitude of two years in the penitentiary, 
to commence in June, 1800, when his first 
term would expire. Thus ended the history 
of a man in this county, who certainly was 
not devoid of talent; who possessed a most 
winning address, and was a thorough mas- 
ter in quick and correct discernment of 
character. He reigned, for a season, with 
undisputed sway, in what was then the 
western part of York county. His cunning 
for a long time lulled suspicion to sleep. 
The history of his exorcisms should teach 
the credulous that the ghosts which appear 
now-a-days are as material as our own 

Medical Statistics. The subject of med- 
ical statistics has not received the attention 
that its importance demands. Statistics of 
mortality, beyond the numerical number of 
deaths, called the "death figure," should 
show the relative prevalence of diseases and 
comparative salubrity of climate in differ- 
ent sections, and point out the best means 
for promoting health and longevity. The 
annual death-rate doubled generally gives 
the sick rate. 

In 1880 the census authorities divided 
the United States into twenty-one grand 
districts in each of which mortality and 
vital statistics were taken. The first four 

of these districts comprising the Atlantic 
and Gulf coasts whose climate is largely 
controlled by that great balance-wheel of 
temperature, the ocean. The sixth grand 
group comprised the Central Appalachian 
region embracing Central and Southern 
Pennsylvania where the proportion of 
deaths from diphtheria was very high and 
those of heart disease lower than in New- 
York. The prevalent fatal diseases were 
scarlet fever, diphtheria, old age, cancer, 
heart failure and diseases of the nervous 
system more especially apoplexy, paralysis 
and convulsions. The States were also di- 
vided into groups and in Pennsylvania 
Adams and Cumberland were placed in 
group I and York in group 2. In Adams 
county there were 232 deaths of males and 
260 of females, or a death rate of 14.7 of the 
former and of 15.6 of the latter per thou- 
sand of population. Cumberland deaths 
were males 327 and females 308, or death 
rates of 14.8 and 12.9, while York had 506 
deaths of males and 437 of females with 
death rates of 11.6 and 9.9 per thousand re- 

Knowledge, skill and discovery are rapid- 
ly widening the domain of medicine. Small 
pox is robbed of its terrors, children are 
saved from diphtheria, consumption shows 
signs of yielding to science, the use of 
anesthetics does away with a large part of 
pain, while the X-rays promise new con- 
quests to medicine. And in this wonder- 
ful advance of the 19th Century medical 
science, the physicians of the Nineteenth 
District have kept abreast of the times. 


Religious Denominations. 

THAT RELIGION wields the 
scepter of the centuries has been 
truly said, for it has been attest- 
ed in the history of every nation both in the 
old and the new world. "Other forces 
weaken, other issues die, other actors pass 
ofif the stage and are heard of no more; 
but religion remains forever." The religious 
system of Pennsylvania was indeed the 
most remarkable feature of her public po- 
licy, for it was different from every other 
Colonial system and under its workings 
genuine religious freedom was enjoyed 
throughout the Quaker province of Penn. 
The oppression of New England and Vir- 
ginia were unknown in Pennsylvania,where 
religious toleration did not exist as a miser- 
able policy of expediency, for the Quakers 
in authority were true to the doctrine of re- 
ligious freedom which they preached when 
persecuted. Thus Pennsylvania attracted 
the followers of all forms and creeds to her 
territory, where Lutheran, Presbyterian, 
German Reformed, Baptist, Anabaptist. 
Dunkard, Moravian, Mennonite, Episcopa- 
lian and Catholic enjoyed religious freedom 
in the full sense of the term. 

Reference has been made in a preceding 
chapter to the earliest churches and that 
three of the immigrant classes of church 
people were Friends, Episcopalians and 
Presbyterians of English and Scotch-Irish 
nationality and speaking the English lan- 
guage, while four of them were Lutherans, 
German Reformed, German Baptists and 
Moravians who were of German stock and 

language. All seven of these denominations 
were in York county at an early date; the 
Presbyterians, Lutherans and Catholics are 
the oldest denominations in Adams county, 
and the Presbyterians for a number of 
years had the only churches in Cumberland 

Lutherans. The Evangelical Lutheran 
church, founded on the Augsburg Confes- 
sion, claims the high appellation of "The 
Mother of Protestants" because she is not 
a branch of the Protestant church but the 
great body and trunk ot it, and a massive 
and living trunk still. 

The Lutherans now are the most numer- 
ous in York county, where they have 
churches whose membership exceed 500. 
The first Evangelical church of York was 
formed 1733 with Rev. John Casper Stoever 
as the first pastor, and in 1852 separated in- 
to churches, one conducting exercises in 
German and the other in English, now St. 
Paul's church. Zion church of York was 
organized in 1847; Union, 1859; St. John's, 
German, 1873, and St. Luke's church, 1882. 
St. Matthew's church of Hanover was or- 
ganized about 1 73 1, and Wrightsville 
church in 1852. The Kreutz Creek Luth- 
eran and Reformed church was formed be- 
fore 1741; Mt. Zion, in Spring Garden, in 
1852; Manchester church, 1857; Hoover's, 
1819; St. Paul's, 1763; and Lewisberry, 
1792; Mt. Zion in Fairview township was 
formed about 1857; Filey, about 1800; St. 
Paul's of Dillsburg, 1855; Franklintown, 
1884; St. John's, of Franklin township. 



about 1780; Rossville, 1848; St. Paul's and 
Salem, of Washington township, 1844 and 
1800; Dover, 1757; , of Dover town- 
ship, 1870; Zion, of Conewago township, 
1767; Holz Schwamm, 1775; Pidgeon Hill, 
Jackson township, 1785; St. Paul's, of 

Spring Grove, 1880; Dubbs, ; West 

Manheim, 1750; St. Bartholomew, about 
1835; St. Peter's, 1833; Stelzes, 1794; Zieg- 
ler's, 1800; New Salem, 1861 ; Staverstown, 
1880; Jefferson, 1827; Shrewsbury, 1822; 
Glen Rock, 1859; Friedensaals, 1774; Sa- 
lem, of Springfield township, 1841 ; St. 
John's, 1748; St. Paul's, of Dallastown, 
1855 ; Emanuel, 1771 ; Lower Windsor, 
1763; Stable's, 1784; Lebanon, 1814; and 
Sadler's, . Many of these congrega- 
tions worship in union houses built by them 
and the Reformed, and but very imperfect 
accounts can be obtained of various 

In Adams county the records obtainable 
are of many churches unsatisfactory. 
Christ's Lutheran church in Gettysburg 
was formed before 1789 and is generally 
known as the "College Church." St. John's 
church, of Berwick township was organ- 
ized 1829; Biglerville, 1881; St. Matthew's, 
1743; Flohr's, 1822; Trinity, 1781 ; St. 
Paul's and St. John's, of Germany town- 
ship, 1863, and 1763; East Berlin, 1811; 
Fairfield, 1855; Huntingdon, 1831; Christ, 
of Latimore township, 1745; Bendersville, 
1835; Wenksville, 1836; Grace, 1876; New 
Oxford, i860; Pines, 1861 ; Heidlersburg, 
1844; and St. John's, of Union township, 

The growth of Lutheranism in Cumber- 
land county has been largely in the present 
century. Hickory Wood Evangelical Luth- 
eran church was organized as early as 1765, 
in East Pennsborough township ; and the 
Shippensburg church was formed in 1780, 
while the Carlisle congregation was in ex- 
istence as early as 1816. The Second (Ger- 

man) Lutheran church of Carlisle was or- 
ganized in 1853; St. Luke's and Trinity, of 

Mechanicsburg, and ; St. John's 

of Hampden township, 1866; First, of New- 
ville, 1832; Dickinson, 1829; Centervihe, 
1852, and Mt. Holly Springs. 

Reformed. The "Reformed Church in 
the United States" was known as the "Ger- 
man Reformed Church in the United 
States" until 1869 when the word German 
was dropped from its name. It is different 
from the "Reformed Church in America," 
which previous to 1867 was the "Dutch 
Reformed Church in America." The Ger- 
man Reformed church was organized about 
1740 in eastern Penns5'lvania by immi- 
grants from Germany and Switzerland, and 
its doctrines are Calvinistic, making the 
Heidelberg Catechism its symbol. "High 
Church" and "Low Church" views at the 
present are the result of a division of the 
prominent leaders of the church, the East- 
ern Synod being High Church and the 
Western Low Church. 

The Reformed settlers at York organized 
a church as First Reformed church at an 
earl}' day, and it is now known as Zion Re- 
formed church from an interesting history 
of which we quote: 

"If all accounts are true the Reformed 
Church, in York, antedates the organiza- 
tion of York County. There was preaching 
in the early 1730's. 

However difficult it may seem to get 
along without a leader, these Reformed 
people kept together and not until when 
the Rev. Jacob Lischy, the great "Swiss 
Preacher," visited this settlement and 
preached for them, did they enjoy the la- 
bors of a stated clergyman in their midst. 
The Rev. Lischy, having received a call as 
their regular pastor, he declined the same, 
but the congregation did not listen to this 
and as a result sent him (Rev. Lischy) the 
second call on May 29, 1745, and after a 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

persistent urging on the part of the mem- 
bers he accepted the call. 

Now they had a pastor but no house of 
worship wherein these good people could 
gather until in the year 1746, when a log 
building was erected on the ground where 
the present Zion Reformed church stands, 
which was known as Lot No. 91, and was 
granted by the Penn's. 

There are many interesting stories told 
concerning the locating of the church lots 
in York donated by the Penns. It having 
been left to a Board of Arbitration as to 
which denomination should occupy the 
ground, the board decided that the church 
members who would put in the first spade 
and turn the ground on a certain day 
should forever hold the right to the ground. 
Thus, where Christ Lutheran church stands 
today seems to have been the more favor- 
able lot at that time, and both the Reformed 
and Lutherans being anxious to occupy 
that plot, they arranged to be on the 
ground. The legend goes that while the 
Reformed people had counted on breaking 
ground at 4 o'clock a. m., the Lutherans 
broke the ground at one minute after 12 
o'clock midnight. It seems the Reformed 
people slept just four hours too long to oc- 
cupy the desired lot of Christ Lutheran 
church, but it was a fortunate sleep for the 
Reformed people, as they evidently occupy 
the more desirable lot, being on the main 
street of the City, while the other lot is on 
the side street. 

Since the time that these lots have been 
occupied many changes have taken place in 
this old colonial inland city, which has 
greatly enhanced the value of property, and 
this congregation as a result, has largely 
shared in the increase. 

The present structure is the Wren style 
of architecture and comprises the finer de- 
tails known to the early German builders, 
who came to this country and had no other 

occupation in view, except that of adorning 
the new land with German houses and 
church edifices. This old Reformed church, 
in point of architecture, is without a doubt 
the peer of any in the State of Pennsylvania. 
Its central tower and open belfry adorns its 
low solid walls with exquisite symmetry. 
Although snugly packed between other 
buildings, it loses none of its charms and 
beauty and continues to stand as an open 
monument to its early construction. 

There seem to have been some very ex- 
citing scenes through which this congrega- 
tion had to pass while the Rev. Jacob 
Lischy remained pastor on account of his 
unsettled position between the Reformed 
and Moravian churches. At different times 
he wanted to lay down his work at this 
place, but a strong element prevailed upon 
him and he remained pastor up to 1760, 
when he, withdrawing, organized an inde- 
pendent church in Codorus township and 
was deposed by the Synod. 

For one year there was no regular pastor 
over this congregation, and not until the 
Rev. John Conrad Wirtz entered upon his 
labors as pastor on May 9, 1762, when, after 
a short period, he brought the congregation 
into harmony, and through his indefatig- 
able labors the congregation prospered, and 
the block building erected in 1746 was 
razed and steps taken towards the erection 
of a large stone building, of which the cor- 
ner stone was laid May 25, 1763. The Rev. 
Wirtz, however, did not live to see this 
church completed. He died September 21, 
1763, and was buried under the altar. 

Again, according to records, there was a 
vacancy for two years, and there is no rec- 
ord of these two years to be found. In Sep- 
tember, 1765, the Rev. William Otterbein 
was called to the pastorate, and having ac- 
cepted the call, he became pastor in No- 
vember, 1765, and having a desire to visit 
his native land, he did so in 1770, and dur- 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 

ing his absence in Germany of about one 
year, the Rev. Daniel Wagner, who was 
then pastor at Kreutz Creek, preached oc- 
casionally. The Rev. Otterbein returned 
on October i, 1771, and continued to be 
pastor of this church until 1774, when he 
went to the city of Baltimore. In May, 1774, 
the Rev. Daniel Wagner was called to serve 
this people. He remained their pastor dur- 
ing the entire period of the Revolutionary 
war, resigning in the year 1786 to accept a 
call from the Tulpehocken charge, in Berks 
county, this State. 

During the session of the Continental 
Congress in York, in 1776 and 1777, many 
of the then prominent men attended divine 
services in the second building on this lot, 
even though the preaching was in the Ger- 
man language. For many years there was a 
graveyard back of the Church, among its 
many dead were the remains of Col. Philip 
Livingston, one of the signers of the 
Declaration of Independence. His remains, 
however, have since been disinterred, as 
well as the remains of all the dead with but 
two exceptions. 

Again comes a period of which there is 
no record, but it is known that a young 
man named Rev. Philip Stock preached and 
also the Rev. George Troldenier served this 
people for a short period. These two min- 
isters, as far as can be learned, served from 
the fall of 1786 to the spring of 1793. The 
congregation still having a love for their 
former pastor, the Rev. Daniel Wagner, 
they extended a call to him, and accepting, 
he entered upon his duties August i, 1793. 
H^is second ministry was more successful 
than his former one. During the Rev. 
Wagner's second pastorate the Stone 
church, built in part under the pastorate of 
Rev. John Wirtz, was destroyed by fire on 
July 5, 1797, and all the records of the con- 
gregation were burned, save one book. The 
congregation, under its estimable pastor, at 

once took steps towards the erection of a 
new building, which they erected on the 
same spot, 65x55 feet, with the side to the 
front, and the steeple in the rear. The cor- 
ner-stone of this building was laid June 19, 
1798, and dedicated in May, 1800, though 
old as it is, its general appearance is good, 
and a landmark to many of our citizens,wlio 
can trace their ancestry back to the time 
when they were devoted seekers of salva- 
tion within its walls. The old steeple has 
just been remiodeled at an expense of sev- 
eral hundred dollars, and it is the finest 
piece of colonial architecture to be seen 

In May, 1804, Rev. Wagner resigned and 
the Rev. George Guistweit was called to the 
pastorate and accepted the call, and remain- 
ed pastor of the flock for sixteen years, un- 
til 1820. Now there was new life brought 
to the congregation through the calling of 
the Rev. Lewis Mayer, D. D., who began 
his work January 8, 1821. At this stage 
English was introduced with the German. 
He built a lecture and Sunday school room 
on the rear of the lot. Having received a 
call to the Theological professorship in the 
Seminary he resigned April 3, 1825. The 
church having no regular pastor for two 
years the Rev. James Ross Reily accepted a 
call on April i, 1827, but his health failing, 
he had the Rev. Daniel Zacharias, a licen- 
tiate, as his assistant from 1828 to 1830. 
The Rev. Reily resigned July, 1831. 

Not until the Rev. John Cares was called, 
October i, 1832, did these people again 
have a regular pastor. The lecture and 
Sunday school room was destroyed by fire 
December 8, 1837, and instead of rebuild- 
ing it, the congregation resolved to alter 
the interior of the Church and take off ten 
feet of the audience room and make a two- 
story building out of it and have the audi- 
ence room up stairs and the Lecture and 
Sunday School room down stairs. The Rev. 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

Cares served eleven years, having died 
April 5, 1843. 

Now followed an exciting and stormy 
period in the history of this congregation. 
No sooner was the grave of their beloved 
pastor closed than certain parties made a 
strenuous efifort to secure the services of 
the Rev. Herman Douglas , a converted 
Jew, the pastor of an Associated Reformed 
Church at Hagerstown, Md. He was a 
powerful pulpit orator and had many bril- 
liant attainments. This brought about op- 
position, and the opposers brought the mat- 
ter before Classis. Rev. Douglas took 
charge of this Church July, 1843, ^"d re- 
mained only until January I, 1845, when 
he resigned and went to Europe. The 
congregation January 16, 1845, extended 
a call to the Rev. William A. Good, of Ha- 
gerstown, Md. Rev. Good was the father 
of Rev. James I. Good, D. D., of Calvary 
Reformed Church, Reading, Pa. During 
the pastorate of Rev. Good the congrega- 
tion was chartered by the Legislature, on 
March 9, 1849, under the title, "The First 
Reformed Church of the Borough of York 
and its vicinity." The first charter ever 
issued to this congregation was given at 
Lancaster January 7, 1809, by the Com- 
monwealth of Pennsylvania, Simon Snyder, 
Governor. A copy of which the congrega- 
tion still retains. 

Under this charter of 1849 the congrega- 
tion was authorized to lay out a public 
cemetery under the title of "Prospect Hill 
Cemetery," which contains at the present 
time between 80 and 100 acres. In the 
latter part of Rev. Good's pastorate, it was 
resolved to call a co-pastor to preach ex- 
clusively in the English language. This 
resulted in a call to the Rev. Phillips as 
English pastor, however, this proved un- 
satisfactory and they then resolved to di- 
vide into two sections, English and Ger- 
man, each section to call their own pastor 

and support him, but to hold their prop- 
erty in common under one corporation. 
This called for the resignation of botli the 
English and German pastors — Rev. Phillips 
and Rev. William A. Good, in the fall of 

The Rev. David Bossier, of Harrisburg, 
was then called by the Germans, and en- 
tered upon his duties April 4, 1852, and on 
November 6, 1852, the Rev. J. O. Miller, 
of Winchester, Va., was called by the Eng- 
lish section, and began his labors January 
I, 1853, and has labored with his people 
ever since; the English section after leav- 
ing the Zion Reformed Church, organized 
and adopted the name of Trinity Reformed. 
Each of the sections had the use of the 
audience room on alternate Sunday morn- 
ings. In the spring of 1862 Rev Bossier 
resigned. He was succeeded by the Rev. 
Daniel Ziegler, who became pastor of the 
Mother Reformed congregation. The in- 
convenience of two congregations worship- 
ping in one building manifested itself, and 
steps were taken for a final separation. Ar- 
ticles of agreement for the sale of the 
Church property were adopted December 
26, 1862. The Germans paid the English 
section, after the sale, $9,925. 

In 1872 at a congregational meeting it 
was decided to change the name of First 
Reformed Church, to that of Zion Re- 
formed Church, and the charter was ac- 
cordingly amended, thus changing the 
name from First to Zion Reformed Church, 
of York, Pa. 

The Rev. Daniel Ziegler remained pas- 
tor until 1875, when the Rev. Aaron Span- 
gler was called to succeed Rev. Ziegler, 
and labored with his flock until the fall of 
1886. During Rev. Spangler's pastorate 
the Church was remodeled at an expense 
of several thousand dollars. 

The Rev. O. P. Schellhamer was next 
called to take oversight of this congrega- 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


tion, in the spring of 1887, and remained 
pastor until March 31, 1894. 

Rev. Morgan A. Peters, the present in- 
cumbent, next received a unanimous call 
March 12, 1894, and began his labors April 
I, 1894. The services at present are con- 
ducted in both the German and English 
languages. The first English sermon was 
preached to this congregation on Sunday 
evening, September 8th, 1878, and at once 
the consistory introduced the English into 
the Sunday school. The present member- 
ship of the congregation is over 400 and of 
the Sunday school 560. 

Thus you are hastened over a brief his- 
tory of The Mother Reformed church, of 
York, Pa., embracing 164 years from the 
time of its first organization. 

Of the formation of other Reformed 
churches we have account of the following : 
Emanuel, of Hanover, about 1750; Trinity, 
Hanover, 1884; Kreutz Creek, about 1750; 
Mt. Zion, of Spring Garden township, 1852; 
Hoover, about 181 9; Wolf's, 1763; St. 
John's, of Franklin township, about 1785; 
Rossville, 1S69; St. Paul's, of Washington 
township, 1844; Salem, 1800; Dover, 1757; 
Zion, Conewago township, 1767; Holz- 
Schwamm, 1775: Pidgeon Hill, about 1786; 

Dubbs, ; St. David's 1750; St. Peter's, 

Codorus township, 1760; Stelze's 1794; St. 
Jacobs, about 1785; Zion, Codorus town- 
ship, ; Ziegler's about 1800; Christ's, 

Codorus, about 1827; Shrewsbury, 1822; 
St. Peter's, Springfield township, 1783; St. 
John's, York township, 1748; St. Paul's, 
York township, 1855; St. John's, Red Lion, 
1882; Emanuel's, Windsor township, about 
1772; Locust Grove, 1874; Lower Windsor, 

1764; and Lebanon, . Many of the 

churches accommodate both Lutheran and 
Reformed congregations and some of them 
have been so used for over a centurv and a 

In Adams county the Reformed church 

was organized at Gettysburg in 1790; 
Emanuel, of Berwick township, before 
1783; Zion, Arendtsville, about 1781; Re- 
deemer's, Littlestown, 1859; St. James, 
Germany township, 1851; Union, 181 1; 
Fairfield, 1824; Mt. Olivet, 1745; Liberty, 
about 1823; Bendersville, 1824; Mark's, 
1789; St. James, Mountjoy township, 1851; 
St. Luke's, near Whitehall, 1846; St. Paul's, 
New Oxford, 1820; and Christ, Union 
township, 1847. 

Cumberland county contained Reformed 
congregations among its early German set- 
tlers Carlisle Reformed church was or- 
ganized before 1807; Mechanicsburg, ; 

Shippensburg, about 1780; Frienden's 
Kirche, before 1797; Poplar, about 1788; 
and Mifflin before 1790. 

Friends or Quakers. Originally calling 
themselves Seekers and later Friends, 
in derision the name Quakers was applied 
to them. They rose in England about 
1650 and soon introduced the tenets of their 
religious faith into other European coun- 
tries and the English colonies of North 
America, where acting as "the spirit moved 
them," they taught valuable lessons of pa- 
tience, prudence, and peace to the world. 
Most prominent among their early leaders 
was George Fox, and most illustrious of 
their denomination is William Penn, the 
founder of Pennsylvania. Refusing to take 
oaths, opposed to war, slavery and a paid 
ministry and admitting women to preach, 
they ran so largely counter to the spirit of 
the seventeenth age that persecution be- 
came their portion in every land in which 
they settled. 

After Penn planted his colony in Penn- 
sylvania he welcomed every creed and faith 
and while his own followers were most 
numerous on the Delaware and Schuylkill, 
yet west of the Susquehanna they were in 
the minority in most of the early settle- 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

The first monthly meeting in York 
county |was called Warrington and com- 
posed of Newberry preparative, Warring- 
ton worship and Menallen "indulged" 
meetings. This monthly meeting was a 
part of Concord quarterly meeting which 
belonged to the Philadelphia yearly meet- 

Warrington and Fairfax quarterly meet- 
ing was set apart in 1776 and joined to the 
Baltimore yearly meeting. An "indulged" 
meeting was held at York in 1754, and 
York monthly meeting was established in 
1786. The York meeting house was built 
about 1766 and of the meeting houses after- 
ward erected in the county, only the Fawn 
Grove house remained in 1885 as a place for 
regular services. Warrington meeting is 
held but once a year and Newberry and 
York meetings have been discontinued as 
many of the early Friends emigrated south 
and west and the descendants of those re- 
maining joined other denominations. The 
Quaker societies were principally in the 
northern part of the county. Near 
Wrightsville a meeting house was built 
about 1776, if not earlier. Another meeting 
house was at Newberrytown, west of it was 
a Friends school house, and both probably 
built before 1770. The meeting house near 
Wellsville, and the one at Fawn Grove are 
successors to one built prior to the Revolu- 
tionary war. 

There were Quakers among the settlers 
of Adams county and in 1850 two of their 
societies were still in existence. Southeast 
of York Springs is a Friends meeting house 
and graveyard, and in Butler township is 
another Quaker graveyard, while beyond 
the mention of these bare facts it seems 
the local historians have recorded nothing 
of the Quakers of Adams county. 

In Cumberland county were some 
Quaker settlers but we have no account of 
any meeting or meeting house of their's. 

Presbyterians. Calvinism was first ex- 
emplified at Strasburg, France, where Cal- 
vin established a church on his own plan in 
1538, but Geneva was the great center from 
which the system spread in Central and 
Northwestern Europe and was carried by 
John Knox into Scotland where it had 
room to expand from parochial sessions 
into Presbyteries and Synods under a gen- 
eral assembly. John Knox, the disciple of 
Calvin, by his preaching founded Presby- 
terianism which is represented today by 
several denominations. 

While the Quaker was in the northern 
part of York county, the Lutheran and 
German Reformed predominated in the 
central part, and the Presbyterians ruled in 
the southern part where they were the first 
settlers and have increased ever since in 
numerical strength and influence. 

The First Presbyterian church of York 
was organized prior to the Declaration of 
Independence, while the second or Calvary 
Presbyterian church of York did not come 
into existence until a century later, being 
formed in 1882. The Wrightsville church 
was organized in 1828; Dillsburg, about 
1737; new Harmony, 1847; Chanceford, be- 
fore 1760; Stewartstown, 1844; Centre, 
about 1780; Slate Ridge, about 1747; and 
Slateville in 1849. 

The Presbyterian church in Adams 
county dates back to the days of early set- 
tlement. The Gettysburg church was or- 
ganized about 1740, and some time later 
Upper Marsh Creek was formed. The Mu- 
masburg church was organized before 
1882; Berlin, in 1801; Lower Marsh Creek, 
before 1790; York Springs, 1818; and 
Great Conewago, 1740. 

While Presbyterianism was predominant 
in one part of York and prevalent in one 
section of Adams county, yet its home west 
of the Susquehanna seemed to be in the 
Cumberland valley where nearly every strong 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


spring of water had a Presbyterian church 
planted by its side and bearing its name. 
Cumberland county was first included in 
Donegal Presbytery which was organized 
about 1732 and two years later Meeting 
House Springs and Silvers' Spring congre- 
gations were formed. Big Spring (now 
Newville) and Middle Spring (north of 
Shippensburg) congregations were organ- 
ized about 1740. The first regular settled 
pastor was Rev. Thomas Craighead, a son 
of Rev. Robert Craighead, "who was in the 
siege of Londonderry, and the father of 
Rev. Alexander Craighead whose advanced 
political views, in North Carolina, bore fruit 
after his death in the Mecklenburg Declar- 
ation of Independence" made in 1775. Rev. 
Thomas Craighead was a very eloquent 
man and fell dead in the pulpit as he enun- 
ciated the word farewell in pronouncing 
the benediction. The First Presbyterian 
church of Carlisle was formed about 1753; 
the Second Presbyterian church of Car- 
lisle was organized in 1833, ^"d Walnut 
Bottom church was formed in 1810. 

In speaking of the Scotch-Irish Presby- 
terians in the Cumberland Valley, Dr. Nor- 
cross, pastor of the Second Presbyterian 
church of Carlisle, says : "It was the same 
sturdy race of men who planted the firbt 
churches up the Susquehanna and along 
the blue waters of the Juniata, who 'held 
the fort' in Sherman's valley and set up 
their standards in the Path Valley region, 
who planted old Monaghan in the edge of 
York county, spread out through the 'Bar- 
rens,' and built the stone churches on the 
Great Conewago and Marsh Creek. The 
status of the churches in Cumberland val- 
ley has been altered somewhat by the 
changes which have gradually come over 
the race elements of our population. Many 
families of the original settlers have passed 
on the wave of emigration to the west, and 
their places have been taken by worthy 

people of the German stock. But most of 
these original churches continue strong and 
prosperous, notwithstanding the racial 
changes which have gone on around them. 
The strength of the original congregations 
is evinced not only by their present healthy 
condition, but by the strong colonies which 
they have sent out. These young churches 
have in some instances quite equaled their 
parent hives, and almost all are showing 
the aggressive power of a pure gospel by 
gathering into their communion many who 
were not originally of Presbyterian families. 
Our people are generally true to the tradi- 
tions of the fathers; for though devoted to 
his "Confession of Faith," the Ulsterman 
was able to criticise it. The authority in 
matters of religion which it had conceded 
to the civil magistrate, he was no longer 
willing to admit. He had learned some- 
thing in the school of affliction, and on this 
point he had grown wiser than his teachers. 
In an ideal Christian state, where all men 
had accepted one interpretation of Scrip- 
ture, it might be a very beautiful system; 
but in such a very imperfect world as this, 
with its conflicting opinions as to the claims 
of God, the powers of the church, and the 
needs of the soul, the Ulsterman had found 
to his sorrow that the civil magistrate could 
not be safely trusted with the question of 
heresy. The freedom which he claimed for 
himself he conceded to others. The out- 
ward uniformity in religion which the 
Westminster fathers had hoped might be 
secured in Great Britain and Ireland, he 
saw was a Utopian dream which he re- 
nounced forever. He revised his "Confes- 
sion of Faith" (1788) so as to limit the pow- 
ers of the civil magistrate to secular con- 
cerns, and left the church free in its own 
province. On this whole question Presby- 
terians of Pennsylvania were greatly in ad- 
vance of the New England Puritans and 
the churchmen of the South. The restless 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

spirit of enterprise in the Scotch-Irish race 
has caused the children of many of these 
early settlers in the Cumberland valley to 
seek their fortunes in distant parts of the 
land, but the churches which they planted 
remain the sacred monuments of their re- 
ligious principles. Other races have come 
in to swell the population of their beautiful 
valley, but the day must be far distant when 
their memorials shall have perished from 
the land which they at first consecrated to 
liberty and religion by toil and sacrifice in 
tears and blood.'" 

United Presbyterians. This denomina- 
tion was formed in 1858 by a union of the 
"Associate Reformed" and the Associate 
Presbyterian" churches. The "Associate 
Reformed" church was formed in 1782 by 
a union of large portions of the Associate 
and Reformed Presbyterian churches, both 
of which were oiifshoots from the church 
of Scotland. The Associate or Seceder 
church was organized in 1733, while the 
Reformed or Covenanter church, although 
organized about 1706, yet many Covenants 
were associated together as early as 1588, 
and one time had been known as Cameron- 
ians and also as Mountain People. Rev. 
John Cuthbertson held the first Covenan- 
ters' communion in America, near New 
Kingston, Cumberland county, in 1752, 
while his first sermon had been preached in 
Adams county on September i, 1751. Be- 
fore his arrival seven or eight Covenanter 
societies had been organized between the 
Susquehanna and the Blue Ridge. Guinston 
Associate church in Chanceford township, 
York county, was organized about 1753; 
Airville United Presbyterian church in 
Lower Chanceford township, in 1771 ; and 
Hopewell, in Hopewell township in 1800. 

In Adams county Upper Marsh Reform- 
ed church was organized April 8,1753: Hill 
or Marsh Creek Associate church before 

1763 and one or two other early churches 
of which no account can be secured. 

Cumberland county contained Covenan- 
ter congregations. Stony Ridge Covenan- 
ter church was organized about 1752, when 
the Covenanters in the county were esti- 
mated at 250, but of the two or three other 
congregations in the county no account 
has been preseved. 

Episcopalians. This denomination had 
its origin in England, and was planted in 
America under the auspices of the Eng- 
lish Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel in Foreign Parts which contributed 
largely to the support of the ministers of its 
churches in Pennsylvania prior to the Revo- 
lution. The three English orders of bish- 
ops, priests and deacons are retained in this 
country, where the churches choose their 
pastors, the parish, the vestry, and the 
communicants, the church-wardens. The 
Episcopalians form a large and respectable 
denomination in the United States, and 
their church vestries always embrace men 
of prominence and worth. 

When the first regular Episcopal mis- 
sionary from England visited York in 1755 
he found a congregation of Churchmen, but 
without pastoral care. This missionary, 
Rev. Thomas Barton, organized congrega- 
tions at York Springs, in Adams, and Car- 
lisle, in Cumberland county, and sotight 
to convert the Indians. He also armed and 
led his congregations in several Indian 
campaigns. He served St. John's church 
at York, where he was succeeded about 
1765, by Rev. John Andrews, who secured 
the building of the first church edifice 
either in 1766 or 1769. Succeeding Rev. 
John Andrews came Revs. Daniel Batwell, 
1772 to 1776; John Campbell, 1784 to 1804; 
John Armstrong, 1810 to 1819; Grandison 
Asquith, 1821 to 1823; Charles Williams 
1S23 to 1825; Richard Hall, 1826 to 1836; 
W. E. Franklin, 1836 to 1838; J. H. Mars- 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


den, 1841 to 1844; J. H. Hoffman, 1844 to 
1849: Charles West Thomson, 1849 to 
1866; W. P. Orrick, i86^to 1873; Octavius 
Perinchief, 1873-74; E. L. Stoddard, 1874 
to 1877; W. T. Wilson, 1877 to 1878; H. 
W. Spalding, 1878 to 1883; and Arthur C. 
Powell, who was called to the rectorship 
in June 1883. 

St. John's Episcopal church of Carlisle 
was organized about 1754, erected its first 
church edifice in 1765, and has been served 
by some very able rectors. 

In Adams county Christ church of York 
Springs was organized about 1756, and 
was served by the rectors of St. John's 
church of York until 1804, since which year 
it has had different pastors for a large part 
of the time. Another church of which we 
have no history was erected prior to 1850, 
and in 1875 ^^ Episcopal church was or- 
ganized at Gettysburg. 

Baptists. This denomination is distin- 
guished from all other religious denomina- 
tons by its opinions respecting the ordin- 
ance of Christian Baptism. The Baptist 
claim their origin from the ministry of 
Christ and his Apostles, trace their history 
through a succession of churches down to 
the Reformation, and then after half a cen- 
tury of persecution alike from Catholic and 
Protestant, found protection under the 
Prince of Orange, the founder of the Dutch 
Republic. The Baptist disclaim all con- 
nection with the Anabaptists, have largely 
been pioneers of religion, and an able 
writer says, that "theirs is the high honor 
of establishing in the little colony of Rhode 
Island, in 1636, the first civil government 
in modern times which declared that con- 
science should be free." 

The first Baptist church in the Nine- 
teenth District seems to have been Dover 
church which was founded about 1804 and 
had its house of worship on the site of Roh- 
ler's meeting house. The First Baptist church 

of York was constituted May 21, 1851, 
Peach Bottom church at Delta was organ- 
ized in 1872, and other churches are said to 
have existed in York county prior to 1850. 

In Adams county we find no account of 
any regularly organized Baptist church, 
while in Cumberland county there is no 
account by the local historians of any 
church of this denomination, yet the census 
reports of 1850 credits the county with five 
Baptist churches. 

Catholics. The Roman Catholic church 
claims "that God has promised and conse- 
quently bestows upon it, a constant and 
perpetual protection, to the extent of guar- 
anteeing it from destruction, from error, or 
fatal corruption," They also claim that the 
Holy Catholic Apostolic Roman church is 
the mother of all churches, and that obedi- 
ence is due to the Bishop of Rome, as suc- 
cessor to St. Peter, prince of the apostle, 
and vicar of Jesus Christ; and complain that 
doctrines are laid to their charge which 
they do not hold. The early Catholics in 
the United States settled in Maryland and 
along the banks of the Mississippi, but since 
1850 the tide of foreign immigration has 
added largely to their numbers and made 
their growth rapid and substantial. 

The Jesuit fathers came into what is now 
Conewago township, Adams county, as 
early as 1720, some of them being from 
Baltimore and others from Montreal and 
Quebec, Canada. Josiah Grayton, S. J., 
used the wigwam for a temple, and in 1730 
or 1735 came Irish and German Catholic 
settlers who organized Conewago congre- 
gation, long known as Conewago chapel, 
now the Church of the Sacred Heart. The 
Gettysburg church was organized prior to 
1826; St. Ignatius, before 1816; St. Aloy- 
sius, about 1790; Paradise, about 1780; 
Fairfield Mission, 1851; St. Joseph's 1859; 
and Immaculate Heart, 1852. 

A supply station of the Jesuits of Cone- 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

wago was established at an early day at 
Carlisle and in due time became the pres- 
ent St. Patrick's church of that place. 

From Conewago the Jesuit Fathers 
passed into York county and founded sup- 
ply stations, some of which became 

St. Patrick's church of York was organ- 
ized prior to 1750; St. Mary's, 1852; St. 
Joseph's, of Hanover, 1853; Paradise, be- 
fore 1843; St. John, 1842; St. Joseph's, of 
Dallastown, before 1851; and a church in 
Codorus township. 

Moravians. The Unitas Fratrum or 
Church of the Bohemian and Moravian 
Brethren was founded by followers of John 
Huss in 1457, and by persecution became 
very nearly extinct, but a "hidden seed" re- 
mained in Herrnhut church organized in 
1722, on the estates of Count Zinzendorf. 
The Moravians are strictly evangelical in 
doctrine with a simple ritual and in 1742 
first came to PennsA'lvania, settling at Beth- 

Services were held in York county by 
Moravian missionaries as early as 1744 and 
in 1851 Rev. Philip John Meurer organized 
the present Moravian church of York, 
whose earliest members were among the 
original lot holders of the town and for 
several years had been a part of the first 
German Reformed congregation of York. 
Another church was organized in Codorus 
township over a century ago but has gone 

Adams county contained some Mora- 
vians in her early settlements and a Mora- 
vian church was still in existence in 1850. 

Although the census returns of 1850 
give six Moravian churches in Cumberland 
county for that year, yet the local histor- 
ians are alike silent as to past record or 
present existence of any these churches. 

Mennonites. This denomination was 
founded by Menno Simon and in 1708 a 

church was organized at Germantown, 
which soon established numerous branches 
in the eastern counties of Pennsylvania. 
They practice baptism by pouring and lay- 
ing on of hands, and oppose every form of 
infant baptism. 

The Manchester Society in York county 
was formed prior to 1810; Dover society, 
1753; Bairs, 1774; and Hanover, before 


Hanover, Bairs, and Hosteter's meeting 
in Adams county are served by one minis- 
ter and form one congregation with three 
meeting houses. There is a church in 
Washington and one in Codorus township, 
and in 1885 York county contained twelve 
Mennonite congregations, while Flohr 
church, now Mumasburg, in Adams 
county, was formed in 1822. 

In Cumberland county the Mennonites 
about 1803 were sufficiently strong to or- 
ganize a congregation at Slate Hill, near 
Shiremanstown. The Stone church congre- 
gation was formed at a point two miles east 
of Carlisle, before 1832, while services in 
English and German were conducted in 
1885 at various other places. 

The Reformed Mennonites who separat- 
ed from the old church party in 181 1 pro- 
fess to live nearer the doctrines and usages 
of the primitive church than the latter and 
established congregations at Winding Hill, 
Middlesex and Plainfield. 

Qerman Baptists. This denomination 
is also known as Tunkers or Dunkards.and 
in many places is divided into three 
branches. Primitive, Conservative and Pro- 

The mother church commenced at 
Schwardzenau, Germany, in 1708, with but 
seven members, and "that in a place where 
no Baptist had been in the memory of man, 
nor any now are." The first German Bap- 
tists in Pennsylvania came in 1719, and the 
denomination is known as a peace-loving 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


and industrious people, who practice trine 
immersion, are opposed to war and secret 
societies, and call themselves "Brethren." 
Some of the Brethren were among the early 
settlers who came to York county in 1736 
and two years later formed their first 
church in the vicinity of Hanover. The 
second church was formed in 1741, being 
14 miles west of York. The Bermudian 
church was organized in 1758; and York 
county in 1885 was divided into three 
church districts: Upper Codorvis, with 
Black Rock, Jefferson, Wildasin's and Bea- 
ver Creek meeting houses; Lower Codorus, 
with Loganville, Herbst, Union and West 
York meeting-houses; and , with Ber- 
mudian, Walgemuth's, Altland's and Union 
meeting houses. 

In Adams county we have account of 
Biglerville, East Berlin, Trostel's, Hamp- 
ton's, Latimore, Liberty, Upper Conewago 
churches, but with no definite dates of or- 
ganization; while in Cumberland county 
there were preaching points maintained at 
private houses, and in barns and school 
houses until 1823, when Elder Daniel Bol- 
inger efifected a church organization that 
existed up to 1836, in which year the 
the church was divided into two congrega- 
tions, called respectively the Upper church 
and the Lower church. At first these con- 
gregations met in Union houses, but be- 
tween 1855 and 1885, they built meeting 
Louses at Baker's, IVliller's, Mohler's, 
Huntsville, Boiling Springs and Fogel- 

United Brethren. This society, al- 
though distinct from the Moravians, is of- 
ten mistaken for the latter. The United 
Brethren in Christ was founded in 1800 by 
Rev. Philip Wilhelm Otterbein, who came 
to this county in 1752 and preached for a 
time with Bishop Asbury. Otterbein was a 
minister of the German Reformed church 
and preached that all true Christians, of 

whatever name, should unite at the Lord's 
table. The concord was such among those 
of different denominations who joined him 
that they agreed to take the name of United 
Brethren in Christ. 

Probably the oldest congregation is in 
AVindsor township, York county, where 
Zion church was organized soon after 1800. 
Hanover church was formed prior to 1847; 
Franklintown, before 1849; Dover, 1858; 
and Mt. Zion, 1847. 

In Adams county there is record of the 
following churches: Biglerville, organized 

in 1859; Idaville, 1859; Latimore, ; 

ilountjoy, 1869; Salem, before 1845; ^^d 
Heidlersburg, 1840. 

Congregations of the United Brethren 
are to be found in all parts of Cumberland 
county. The Mechanicsburg church was or- 
ganized in 1846; Shippensburg, 1866; New 
Cumberland, before 1873; Newville, before 
1867, and several other churches of which 
no record is to be found. 

Welsh Calvinists and Congregational- 
ists. The Welsh slate miners in Peach 

Bottom township, York county, have two 
churches. West Bangor Calvinistic Metho- 
dist church, organized before 1854, and the 
West Bangor Congregational church or- 
ganized in 1855. 

Methodists. The Methodist Episcopal 
church in the United States was organized 
in 1784, and in less than a century spread 
over the whole North American continent 
numbering its members by the million. The 
Revolutionary war led to its establishment 
and prior to that Methodism was without 
an organized ministry and without ordi- 
nances. Philip Embury, a local preacher, 
first introduced Methodism in New York 
city in 1766 and in 1873 the Preachers' 
National Association erected a beautiful 
monument to his memory and on the mar- 
ble shaft was the eloquent inscription dic- 
tated by the brilliant Maffit: "Philip Em- 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

bury, the earliest American minister of the 
jMethodist Church, here found his last 
earthly resting place. Born in Ireland, an 
emigrant to New York, Embury was the first 
to gather a little class in that city, and to 
put in motion a train of measures which re- 
sulted in the founding of John Street 
church, the cradle of American Methodism, 
and the introduction of a system which has 
beautified the earth with salvation and in- 
creased the joys of heaven." Upon ques- 
tions of church government there have been 
secessions from the Methodist church and 
among those seceding churches are the 
Southern Methodists, the Reformed Meth- 
odists, the Methodist Society, the Metho- 
dist Protestants, the Wesleyan Methodists, 
the Primitive Methodists and the Evangeli- 
cal Association. 

Methodism was introduced into York 
county in 1 781 by Rev. Freeborn Garret- 
son, who preached first in the house of 
James Worley and then at Lewisberry on 
his way to Carlisle. The first churches 
were at York and Lewisberry, and now 
exist in all the EngHsh speaking townships 
of the county. In York the first church 
was organized about 1781, and next came 
Beaver Street church, from which origi- 
nated West Princess street and Ridge 
Avenue churches, while Duke street church 
was organized in 1861, and Princess street 
church was the result of a Sunday school 
started in 1881. Lewisberry church was 
organized about 1 781; Hanover, 1825; 
Wrightsville before 1828; Newberry town, 
1833; Rock Chapel, 1794; Shrewsbury, 
181 1 ; Glen Rock, 1865; Bethel, 1821; Mc- 
Kendree, 1825; Stewartstown, before 1833; 
and Zion, 1845. 

Turning to Adams county we find that 
the Gettysburg Methodist Episcopal church 
was organized in 1818; Littlestown, in 
1828; East Berlin, 1854; Fairfield, 1827; 
Bendersville, about 1832: Pine Grove, 1870: 

Wenksville, 1872; New Oxford, 1829; Read- 
ing, 1851; and Hunterstown, 1839. 

The Methodist church in Cumberland 
county dates back to 1787 and to Shippens- 
burg where in that year the first Methodist 
church in the Cumberland valley was or- 
ganized. The Carlisle church was formed 
before 1823; Newville, 1826; Mechanics- 
burg, 1827; Mt. Holly, before i860; and 
New Cumberland, West Fairview and 
Rehobath were organized between 1875 
and 1885. 

Methodist Protestant. This branch of 
Methodism was organized at Baltimore in 
1830, when thirteen annual conferences 
were represented. They reject episcopacy 
assert ministerial parity, and give an equal 
representation to ministers and laymen. 

The Methodist Protestants in York 
county organized their first congregations 
in the southeastern section in Hopewell, 
Fawn and Peachbottom townships. Fawn 
Grove circuit of the Maryland conference 
consists of Mt. Nebo, Mt. Olivet, Delta and 
Norrisville churches and Whiteside chapel. 

In Adams county we find no account in 
the local histories of any Methodist Pro- 
testant church; while in Cumberland 
county the Barnitz's Hill church was or- 
ganized prior to 1844. 

Evangelicals. This denomination gen- 
erally called the Albrights, are a branch of 
the Methodist church, and was organized 
in 1800 by the Rev. Jacob Albright who 
confined his labors chiefly to the German 
population of Eastern Pennsylvania. Al- 
bright was "a man of limited education, but 
earnest piety," first a Lutheran and after- 
wards a Methodist. The denomination he 
established called itself the Evangelical 
Association of North America and is now 
divided in two organizations. 

The Evangelical Association was intro- 
duced into York county in 1810, in Shrews- 
bury, Springfield and Dover townships. The 

Nini:teenth Congressional District. 


first church erected was at Shrewsbury and 
in 1885 eleven charges were in existence: 
Queen street and King street, in York, 
York Circuit, Prospect, Chanceford, Jar- 
rettsville (Md.), Shrewsbury, Glen Rock, 
Loganville, Dillsburg, and Lewisberry. 

In the local history of Adams county we 
find nothing of any Evangelical church, but 
in Cumberland county there are records 
that place Letort Spring church as the first 
organization effected there and make its 
establishment to have been in 1833. Suc- 
ceeding Letort Springs church came church 
organizations and houses of worship at 
Carlisle, Cleversburg, Hickorytown, Lees- 
burg, McClure's Gap, Middlesex, Mifflin, 
Mount Holly, Mount Rock, New Kingston, 
and Wagner's. At Carlisle a class was 
formed in 1866, and four years later St. 
Paul's Evangelical church was completed 
and dedicated. 

The African Methodist Episcopal church 
and the African Methodist Episcopal Zion 
church both have congregations within the 
district, the former body copying after the 
Methodist Episcopal church from which 
the other body seceded in 1820. 

Winebrennarians, or Hembers of the 
Church of Qod. This denomination was 
formed in Lancaster county in 1830 by Rev. 
John Winebrenner, and while Arminian in 
doctrine is Presbyterian in ecclesiastical 
government, but rejecting infant baptism 
and practicing immersion. 

The Church of God was established in the 
upper end of York county, about 1835, and 
during the half century succeeding, twelve 
churches were organized in Newberry, 
Warrington, Monaghan, Franklin and 
Windsor townships. Some of these churches 
are designated as bethels. 

There are Winebrennarians in Adams 
county, but we have no record of any 

In Cumberland county in 1834 or 1835, 

the Union Christian church of Shippens- 
burg, which had been formed in 1828, be- 
came a Church of God congregation. Be- 
tween 1835 and 1885, congregations were 
organized and bethels or houses of wor- 
ship erected at Milltown, formed 1833; 
Walnut Grove, 1835; Shiremanstown, 1837; 
Newburg, 1834; Newville, 1837; Green 
Spring, 1852; Plainfield, 1854; and Carlisle, 

River Brethren. Distinct from the 
Moravians, German Baptists and United 
Brethren, this denomination was formed 
along the Susquehanna river, in Conoy 
township, Lancaster county, in 1786, al- 
though there had been a temporary organi- 
zation from 1776. They worship in union 
houses at the villages of Manchester, 
Strinestown and Longstown, in York 
county, and some of them reside in Adams 
and Cumberland, but we find no account of 
their church organizations in York county, 
where they have congregations. 

Dutch Reformed. The Dutch Reform- 
ed church was founded in America, at New 
York, in 1619, and since 1866 has been 
known as the Reformed church, as its ser- 
vices are all in English. It has but little to 
distinguish it from the American Presby- 
terian church. 

The Dutch in the Conewago settlement, 
of Adams county, organized a church two 
miles east of Hunterstown, but its members 
in 1817 obtained permission from the leg- 
islature to sell their church property on 
account of dissentions and western emigra- 
tion and the church organization was dis- 

A comprehensive view may be obtained 
of the religious denominations of the Nine- 
teenth District nearly half a century ago 
from the United States census report of 
1850 which gives the following denomina- 
tions and the number of churches of each 
in Adams, Cumberland and York counties: 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

Denominations. Adams. Cumb'l'd. York. 

Baptist 5 3 

Catholic 3 2 3 

Episcopal 2 I I 

Free i 

Friends 2 . . 4 

Germ'n Reformed 363 

Mennonite 3 10 

Lutherans 15 11 30 

Method't Ep'cop'l 14 15 24 

Moravian i 6 2 

Minor Sects . . 4 

Presbyterian .... 7 13 14 

Tunker i . . i 

Union 11 4 

Totals 48 74 103 

Cemeteries. With the early church 
stood the school house, and adjoining was 
the graveyard whose earliest tomb stones of 
sandstone or flagstone were either unletter- 
ed or else but rudely carved to tell the nam.e 
and virtues of those whose fondest memory 
in life was of childhood's happy wander- 
ings in Rhineland valleys or on Scottish 

highlands. As the settlements grew and the 
graveyard increased its area, marble came in 
use, and within the memory of some of the 
living the memorial tablet and the monu- 
mental pillar were first erected amid the 
weathern-worn stones of a century ago. By 
1858 many oi the old graveyards had been 
abandoned, while others had been enlarged, 
improved and beautified and henceforth 
became known as cemeteries. Also cemetery 
companies came into existence and the 
larger towns commenced to lay out their 
"cities of the dead" with walks, trees and 
flowers, and the resting places of the dead 
were no longer the special property of the 

The 225 churches of 1850 will in all pro- 
bability increase to 400 in number with the 
closing year of the present century, and 
with their missionary and Sunday school 
work will then be recognized as most im- 
portant factors in the civil and commercial 
as well as in the aesthetic and moral 
growth of the Nineteenth district. 


Literature and the Press. 

THE FACTS of a language involve 
its laws, but the productions of a 
language constitute its literature, 
and the literature of a country, a district or 
a county is one of the most instructive parts 
of their history. Literature ebbs and flows 
like the tide, but without its regularity, and 
unusual literary activity is a manifestation 
of an increased mental energy which always 
marks a period great in deeds and in 

Literary attainments were an object with 
many of the early settlers, and the classical 
schools and academies founded at Carlisle, 
York and near the site of Gettysburg before 
the Revolutionary war led to the establish- 
ment in 1783 of Dickinson college, which 
was the first college in the Cumberland 
valley, and is the thirteenth in age of the 
present four hundred colleges of the United 
States. Dickinson college was an import- 
ant factor in arousing a literary spirit in the 
counties of the present Nineteenth Con- 
gressional District, and from its portals 
have gone forth many men of national repu- 
tation, while in addition to James Bu- 
chanan and other distinguished graduates 
of Dickinson, the district has been the 
home of Brackenridge, Ross, Black, Stev- 
ens, Lenhart, Miller, Watts, Gibson, Mese- 
heimer, Fisher, McPherson, Durant, Rich- 
ard, Bradby, Sheely, Wing, Wills, Boyd, 
Norcross, Hersh, Gassat, Crawford, 
Schmucker, Swartz, Valentine, Wolf and 
others who have won standing and fame in 
many different fields of authorship. 

Bibliography. Although numerous and 
prominent yet it is impossible at this writ- 
ing to give an}'thing near a list of the writ- 
ers and authors of the Nineteenth District, 
as the data lacking would require a long 
and painstaking research to secure it. 

Dickinson and Pennsylvania colleges 
have graduated many able men whose 
works have been recognized as of high 
standing in various fields of literature, while 
others educated in the public schools and 
the academies have achieved well in the 
line of authorship. 

Hugh Henry Brackenridge was among 
the early distinguished authors. He was 
a native of Scotland, but grew to manhood 
in York county and wrote Modern Chi- 
valry, a satire on the state of society at 
that time, of which it was a fair picture. 

Ellis Lewis, a son of the founder of 
Lewisberry, and for some years Chief Jus- 
tice of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, 
was author of the Abridgement of the 
Criminal Law of the United States, and 
wrote articles of literary merit for leading 

Lewis Mayer, an able Reformed minister, 
who resigned the presidency of a theologi- 
cal seminary, to devote his time entirely to 
literary labors, was the author of Sin against 
the Holy Ghost, Lectures on Scriptural 
Subjects, Hermeneutics and Exegesis, and 
History of the German Reformed Church. 

Jeremiah S. Black, while but the author 
of two books, both Supreme Court reports, 
in addition to his distinguished legal la- 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

bors found time to write many excellent 
articles on controverted subjects in differ- 
ent fields of literature. 

Stephen Gill Boyd, much of whose life 
has been given to the study of literary and 
scientific subjects, will be long remem- 
bered by his work, Indian Local Names 
with their Interpretation, which was issued 
in 1885. This book is dedicated to the 
common school teachers, and "will awaken 
a deeper interest in the subject of which it 
treats, and in the history, habits and man- 
ners of the aboriginal races of America." 
Mr. Boyd in his introduction says, "Scat- 
tered all over our continent are to be found 
scores upon scores of local names standing 
as silent but most eloquent memorials of 
the previous existence of aboriginal races. 
To all appearances those names are almost 
as imperishable as the objects to which 
they are attached, and whilst the sweet 
melody of their sounds is the subject 
of unceasing admiration, their signification 
though known to comparatively few per- 
sons, are no less entitled to the attention of 
those who admire the exercise of good 
judgment in the practical affairs of life, and 
the beautiful in thought and sentiment. To 
bring into clearer relief some of those char- 
acteristics of our aboriginal races, as illus- 
trated in their local nomenclature, as well 
as to give greater zest to the study of our 
local history and geography, is the chief 
purpose of this compilation." Mr. Boyd 
succeeded well in his object and his work 
is accepted as a standard on Indian local 

Chauncey Forward Black, distinguished 
in politics and journalism, often wanders in- 
to graceful lines of literature in which he 
has done much good work. 

Grier Hersh is another native of York 
county, who has written some widely read 
articles, one of which on the Scotch-Irish 
of York and Adams counties is published in 

the proceedings of the Eighth Scotch-Irish 
Congress of America which met in Harris- 
burg in 1896. 

H. L. Fisher has written numerous 
poems and prose articles of merit, and is 
best known by his Olden Times or Penn- 
sylvania Rural Life, some fifty years ago, 
which tells in verse of the old home, pious 
and popular superstitions, old time customs 
habits, employments and recreations. In 
his prefatory remarks he says "The family 
home is a divine institution; a heaven-like 
retreat in our earthly pilgrimage; the scene 
of births and deaths, of hopes and fears, 
joys and sorrows. Yet to it we turn from 
the toils and troubles of life for rest and 
comfort as to the shadow of a great rock 
in a weary land or a fountain in the desert. 
We would not, even if we could, turn back 
the hand of progress and real improvement, 
so as to restore the state of things that ex- 
isted a half century or more ago. All that 
is claimed or urged is a due respect or 
veneration for the good, old, simple, hon- 
est, and more social, ways, manners and 
customs of the past; more especially on ac- 
count of their inseparable association with 
our own Merry Olden Times. Such, and 
such only is the crude, but, as is hoped, 
truthful picture attempted to be sketched 
in the following pages of the home-life of 
our honest country-folk, as it was within 
the memory of many still living." Want 
of space compels all further mention of the 
different subjects treated except the record- 
ing of two or three verses: 

"So various are our checkered lives, 
And pressing are our days — 
As quilts, at firesides made and rolled, 
Our lives like fireside talei are told. 

"Not all the wealth of India's mines 
Could fill the farmer's place, 
And heaven's smiles are mirrored 
In the sweat in labor's face. 

"Beyond the dark and gloomy river. 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


Whose surging billows near me roll, 
Immortal youthland, bright forever, 
Invites the weary, wand'ring soul." 

William Lenhart, one of the most emi- 
nent diophantine algebraists that ever 
lived, died from bodily afflictions which ren- 
dered him incapable ofattainingto his high- 
est efforts and best work. He possessed 
imagination, susceptibility, wit and acute- 
ness in a high degree and wrote some very 
fine pieces of poetry. 

Lewis Miller, while industrious and 
somewhat eccentric, was a man of genial na- 
ture, quick perception and aesthetic taste, 
who delighted in drawing and sketching, in 
which he was quite successful. He was a 
poet of more than ordinary ability. Some 
of his verses have been preserved, and when 
an octogenarian in years he still voiced his 
thoughts in poetic form. From one of his 
last pieces we quote: 
"The hand of Time upon my brow may trace its 

lines ; 
From Memory's page efface fond recollection's 

But not the treasured thought of friends who yet 

can cheer 

This saddened heart of mine." 

Henry Harbaugh, minister, scholar and 
author, possessed a deHcate vein of humor 
and some poetic ability, but lived more in 
the future than in the present and wrote 
seven theological and religious books of 
interest and merit. 

George R. Prowell, historian and histori- 
cal writer, has contributed many valuable 
articles on the special history of York 
county and the early settlements along the 

Mrs. Mary C. Fisher has written well of 
Hospital Work at York during the late 
civil war and of other kindred subjects. 

John Gibson, president-judge of the 
York county courts, acted efificiently as his- 
torical editor of the History of York 
County pubHshed in 1886. 

R. C. Bair has written on various topics, 
and his article on the Scotch-Irish has been 
widely read. 

James Wilson, one of the first judges of 
Supreme Court of the United States, was a 
resident for some years of Carlisle, and his 
Lectures on Jurisprudence were published 
between 1790 and 1798. 

Charles Smith, president-judge of the 
courts of Cumberland and Franklin coun- 
ties, was the author of the compilation 
known as Smith's Laws of Pennsylvania in 
which he treated very fully land and crim- 
inal laws. 

John Bannister Gibson, a giant in phy- 
sique and intellect, was a fine musical con- 
noisseur and art critic, and when appointed 
as a judge of the Supreme Court became 
the Ulysses of the bench. His accuracy in 
language was partly due to his close study 
of synonyms. He reviewed a work on 
Limited Partnership, wrote decisions of 
great importance and Judge Jere S. Black 
said of him, "In the various knowledge 
which forms the perfect scholar he had no 

Frederick Watts, who was president- 
judge of the courts of Cumberland, Perry 
and Juniata counties, and afterwards served 
as commissioner of agriculture under 
Hayes, was reporter of the Supreme Court 
for fifteen years, writing three volumes of 
reports and assisting largely in the pre- 
paration of nineteen other reports. 

Rev. George Norcross, pastor of the Sec- 
ond Presbyterian church of Carlisle, is a 
polished and graceful writer whose articles 
on the early Presbyterian churches of the 
Cumberland Valley is published in the pro- 
ceedings of the Eighth Scotch-Irish Con- 
gress of America. 

Joseph Alexander Murray, secretary of 
the Historical Association of Carlisle, and 
a well known Presbyterian minister, deliv- 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia, 

ered a number of discourses and addresses, 
which have been pubHshed. 

Robert I.owry Sibbet, a prominent phy- 
sician of CarHsle, has been a frequent con- 
tributor to the hterature of his profession. 

Conway Phelps Wing, who wrote the 
larger -part of Scott's History of Cumber- 
land county, was a distinguished Presby- 
terian minister, and contributed many ar- 
ticles to religious periodicals, Bible com- 
mentaries, and leading encyclopedias be- 
sides delivering several sermons and ad- 
dresses which were published; he published 
also two editions of a history of the Wing 
family in America. 

George H. Russell, of Cumberland 
county, is the author of New Discoveries 
in Physiology on the Ductless Organs and 
their Functions, which he claimed was to 
regulate the circulation of the blood and 
also to electrify it. 

Samuel S. Wylie, a Presbyterian minis- 
ter is author of an authentic history of 
Middle Spring Presbyterian church. 

H. Louis Baugher, editor and commen- 
tator of the Luther Publication Society, 
was born at Gettysburg and served for a 
number of years as Franklin professor of 
the Greek language and literature in Penn- 
sylvania College. 

Philip M. Bikle, Pearson professor of 
the Latin language and literature in Penn- 
sylvania College, was elected as editor of 
the Lutheran Quarterly in 1880, and has 
furnished a number of articles to different 

Edward S. Breidenbaugh, Ockershausen 
professor of chemistry and the natural sci- 
ences in Pennsylvania College, is the 
author of a number of publications on var- 
ious subjects. 

Moses Kiefifer, an ex-president of Heid- 
elburg College and once publisher of the 
Quarterly Review, furnished many contri- 
butions to the religious press. 

Edward McPherson, one of the most dis- 
tinguished men in political life that Adams 
county has ever produced, is known all 
over the Union by his literary productions 
in the field of politics. His services as a 
Congressman were distinguished by several 
able speeches. As clerk of the House of 
Representatives for six Congresses he gath- 
ered special materials for his political his- 
tories of the United States during the Re- 
bellion and the period of reconstruction. 
He commenced his series of Hand Books 
of Politics in 1872, and delivered many 
addresses on educational and other pro- 
gressive matters that have been published. 

Samuel S. Schmucker, first president of 
the Gettysburg Lutheran Theological 
Seminary, and one of the most active and 
influential ministers of his denomination in 
the United States, was a prolific author in 
the fields of theology, church history and 
mental philosophy. His publications were 
over forty, of which many were important 
and passed through numerous editions. 
He devoted the latter part of his life to lit- 
erary labors. 

Aaron Sheely, an educator and county 
superintendent of prominence, wrote many 
magazine articles, prepared the educational 
chapter of the History of Adams county 
published in 1886, and is the author of 
Anecdotes and Humors of School Life. 

Joel Swartz, a Lutheran minister and 
seminary professor, became popular as a 
lecturer, and his volume of poems, Dream- 
ings of the Waking Heart, has received 
warm commendation. 

Milton Valentine, a professor in the Get- 
tysburg Theological Seminary, is the au- 
thor of Natural Theology or Rational The- 
ism, and a number of his sermons, essays 
and discussions have been published in 
pamphlet form. 

Edward W. Spangler, Esq., of York, in 
a recently published volume entitled, "An- 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


nals of the Spangler Families of York 
County, Pa., with Biographical and Histor- 
ical Sketches, and Memorabilia of Contem- 
poraneous Local Events," has made an 
important and painstaking contribution to 
the genealogical, biographical and histor- 
ical literature of the State. Mr. Spangler's 
book has been very favorably noticed, both 
by the public press and by individual attes- 
tation. The following is quoted from the 
Philadelphia Press: 

It is rather a far cry from Pennsylvania 
in these piping days of the nineteenth Cen- 
tury to a Bavarian bishopric in the Twelfth 
Century, but such a leap into the past Mr. 
Edward W. Spangler found necessary in 
clearing up the genealogy of the Spangler 
family, as is fully set forth in his work, 
"The Annals of the Families of Caspar, 
Henry, Baltzer and George Spengler, who 
settled in York county. Pa., respectively 
in 1729, 1732, 1739 and 1751; with bio- 
graphical and historical sketches and mem- 
orabilia of contemporaneous local events." 
The Spanglers, or Spenglers, as they origi- 
nally spelled their name, Mr. Spangler by 
his most minute and painstaking research 
has discovered were descended from a cer- 
tain George Spengler, who held the office of 
cup-bearer to the Bishop of Wurzberg in 
1 1 50. This study of the genealogy of the 
Spenglers is, however, not a mere family 
tree analysis. On the contrary Mr. Spang- 
ler by his side lights on the doings of colon- 
ial and post-colonial times in York, town 
and county, in which he again shows his 
aptitude and qualifications for historical 
work, has made a valuable contribution to 
colonial literature. Among his discoveries 
are the original muster rolls of thirty-five of 
the York county companies in the Revolu- 
tion, and his facts gained from contempo- 
raneous records make up an historical mo- 
saic of early Pennsylvania days of great in- 

Edmund J. Wolf, a Lutheran minister 
and seminary professor, is a religious 
author of standing and authority. He has 
written several volumes, published a num- 
ber of sermons, and contributes many ar- 
ticles to different church papers and peri- 

Elias D. Weigle, a Lutheran minister 
and a man of classical education, is a liter- 
ary correspondent of several papers and 

The Press. Newspapers and periodicals 
comprise a part of the reading of all, and 
constitute nearly all of the reading of some. 
They are popular educators, cover a wide 
field of activity in every department of 
thought, and are recognized as an impor- 
tant factor of development in the political, 
medical, scientific, literary and religious 

The press of the Nineteenth district has 
won its present prominent position from 
ver)- small beginnings. The first printing- 
press erected west of the Susquehanna was 
that of Hall and Sellers', of Philadelphia, 
which was brought to York in October, 
1777, by the Continental Congress, which 
had it used for printing public information 
and a quantity of Continental money. In 
June, 1778, this press was taken back to 
Philadelphia. Franklin's Pennsylvania Ga- 
zette was published at York during the 
time that Congress met there. After the 
removal of the Gazette to Philadelphia in 
1778 there was no newspaper west of the 
Susquehanna until July, 1785, when the 
Carlisle Weekly Gazette, a small four- 
paged sheet, printed on blue paper, was 
issued by Kline & Reynolds. The next 
paper was the Pennsylvania Chronicle and 
York Weekly Advertiser, whose first num- 
ber was issued in 1787 by M. Bartgis & 
Co., who continued two years and then re- 
moved to Harrisburg. Succeeding this 
paper came the Pennsylvania Herald and 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

York General Advertiser, founded on Jan- 
uary 7, 1789, by James and John Edie and 
Henry Wilcocks. Their press was made in 
York and their ink at Germantown and 
their sheet ran for 11 years without change 
of name. In 1796 Solomon Meyer estab- 
lished Die York Gazette, the first Ger- 
man paper, which ran until 1804, and three 
years later the Carlisle Eagle, by John 
Thompson, and the Der Volks Verichter 
by Andrew Billmyer of York, made their 
appearance, the former running until 1824 
and the latter going out of existence by 
1804. On November 12, 1800, Robert 
Harper established the Centinel, at Gettys- 
burg where it ran for sixty-seven years. 

The early papers contained but little 
local intelligence, but a few advertisements 
and devoted their columns largely to po- 
litical discussions. The press of the pres- 
ent century before the late Civil War im- 
proved slowly on the early papers and 
local news only became a prominent feat- 
ure as late as 1867. 

The first daily paper in the district was 
the York Daily, which was started at York 
October 5, 1870, and eleven years later, on 
December 13, 1881, the daily Valley Sen- 
tinel was established. Since 1881 the press 
of the District has been fully up to the high 
standard of the modern inland newspaper 
in all of its numerous departments, and to- 
day is a potential factor of its progress and 

Since 1800 the growth of the York 
county press has been slow but substantial. 
In 1800 the Herald changed to the York Re- 
corder and 30 years later was succeeded by 
the York Republican and it in turn by the 
Pennsylvania Republican which ran until 
1834. Der Wahre Republican started in 
1805 as the successor of the Verichter, in 
1830 became Der Republicanische, and fin- 
ally ran as the Republican until its years 
numbered nearly 100. The Expositor was 

formed in May, 1808, and ceased to exist in 
1814, while the Village Museum ran from 
1 810 to 18 14, and Der Union's Freund ex- 
isted from January 19, 181 5, to October, 
1816. The initial number of the York Ga- 
zette was issued May 18, 181 5 and is now 
the oldest paper in York county. Die 
Evangelical Zeitung ran from 1828 to 1830, 
the Harbinger, brought from Shrewsbury, 
existed but a few years, and the York 
County Farmer had a two year existenci 
from December, 183 1. The Democratic 
Press was established in June, 1838, to op- 
pose the erection of the court house on its 
present site, the York Pennsylvanian was 
founded in 1851 and both are now leading 
papers of the county. The York Advo- 
cate, of Whig principles, and the American 
Eagle, of American policy, were both short 
lived sheets. The Weekly Dispatch was 
founded June 7, 1864, under the name of 
the True Democrat, and was the first paper 
printed by steam in York. The York 
Daily was established October 5, 1870, and 
the Evening Telegram ran from October, 
1873, to June, 1875, being the first paper in 
York county to be connected with the As- 
sociated Press, and paying 30 dollars per 
week for dispatches. The Teachers's Jour- 
nal was established in 1874; the daily Even- 
ing Dispatch, May 29, 1876; and the daily 
Age, January 24, 1883, while the Fountain, 
a school monthly, was founded in Septem- 
ber, 1883. The Commercial Monthly and 
the Record were two short lived sheets. 
The present leading papers of York are 
the Age (dail)'). Christian Guide (monthly), 
York Daily, York Dispatch (daily and semi- 
weekly), York Democratic Press (weekly), 
York Gazette (daily and semi-weekly), 
York Pennsylvanian (weekly), and the 
York Weekly. The American Home Mag- 
azine is published monthly, besides other 
monthlies and a few quarterly periodicals 
which are printed in the city. 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


The York Daily and York Weekly. 

The first number of the York Daily made 
its appearance October 5th, 1870, under 
the management of J. L. Schaw, C. H. 
Glassmeyer, and A. P. Burchell, all of 
whom were strangers in York. It was 
printed in a Columbia office, and brought 
to York in the morning trains. Its orig- 
inal size was 14x21 inches. The business 
office was Capt. Solomon Myers' building, 
No. 304 W. Market Street. After a few 
weeks existence. Rev. J. C. Smith, a highly 
respected clergyman of York, and F. B. 
Raber, coal merchant, each having a son 
who was a practical printer, purchased 
printing material and placed it in the hands 
of the original firm, with the condition that 
their sons, John C. Smith and Lewis B. 
Raber become printers in the business. The 
arrangement ceased on account of the ex- 
penses exceeding the income, when Isaac 
Rudisill, in connection with Raber and 
Smith, by reducing the size of the paper, 
continued its publication. Its size after 
the reduction was 12x20 inches. Under 
this management the press work was done 
by S. H. Spangler, at the office of the 
American Lutheran. The paper was en- 
larged to 18x26 inches and its circulation 
began to increase. John B. Welsh, of the 
Gazette, purchased one-half interest in it, 
April 4, 1871, and during the following 
June became the sole proprietor, with Isaac 
Rudisill as local editor. In September, 
1871, the office was moved to No. 3 South 
Beaver Street, where it remained until 
April, 1874, when it was removed to No. 4 
North Beaver Street. During this time 
new machinery and material was pur- 
chased and Associated Press news was re- 
ceived. On September 4, 1876, the Daily 
was sold to Isaac Rudisill, John H. Gibson 
and A. P. Moul, who formed a co-partner- 
ship in its publication. All of them were at 
the time employes in the office. April i, 

1877, the paper was enlarged and greatly 
improved. The Daily had long before be- 
come a necessity in York, even though for 
a time during its early history it struggled 
for an existence. In 1881 it was moved to 
its present place opposite the court house. 
On January 26, 1882, it was purchased by 
its present proprietors, E. W. Spangler, 
John B. Moore and S. C. Frey. In Feb- 
ruary of the same year it was increased in 
size, and made a sheet of 25x36 inches. 
During the following July the price was 
changed from $3.00 to $4.00 per annum, 
and a more complete supply of associated 
press dispatches received. It thus became 
one of the largest and newsiest of inland 
dailies. April i, 1885, the issue of a 
twenty page paper from this office was con- 
sidered a marvel of enterprise. Though 
suffering two fires which entirely destroyed 
its fine plant, it never missed an issue and 
is now better equipped than ever. 

On February 21, 1887, a charter was ob- 
tained for the York Daily Publishing Com- 
pany, and E. W. Spangler was elected 
President, John B. Moore, Secretary, and 
S. C. Frey, Treasurer; these officers con- 
tinued until the death of John B. Moore 
in January, 1894, since which time E. W. 
Spangler has been President, and S. C. 
Frey Treasurer. On May 29, 1886, the 
Daily was enlarged to an eight column 
paper, and on May 13, 1893, to a nine col- 
umn paper, being now four pages 26x45 
inches each, — the largest paper published 
in the city. The Mergenthaler Linotype 
machines are used in this ofBce. Its cir- 
culation and influence have kept pace with 
its growth and size, and it is the represen- 
tative paper of York. 

The York Weekly is now published on 
Tuesdays and Fridays; the Tuesday edition 
being a four page paper and the Friday an 
eight page paper with a circulation of 6,- 
000, by far the largest circulation of any 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

paper printed in tlie 19th Congressional 
District. The two papers are unsurpassed, 
either as newspapers or advertising med- 
iums, and are firmly entrenched in the af- 
fections of the people of York county. 

In connection with these papers there is 
a Job Department, the largest in the city, 
with all the modern conveniences and facil- 
ities for the execution of the best of work. 
This Department has executed, and is pre- 
pared to execute, work that no other office 
in the city would attempt, yet the smallest 
jobs will receive as careful and prompt at- 
tention as the largest contract; whether 
book, poster or business-card, the aim is 
to do the best work at the most reason- 
able price. 

The "Lutheran Missionary Journal," the 
"Medico-Legal Journal," the "Lutheran 
World," the "Childrens' Missionary," the 
"York Lutheran," and the "York Legal 
Record" are some of the publications that 
are issued regularly from this establish- 

The York Gazette. The York Gazette, 
which is issued in the ordinary daily, a 
Sunday and a semi-weekly editon, at York, 
Pennsylvana, is one of the pioneer news- 
papers of the Nineteenth Congressional 
District. There is reliable evidence that 
the first issue of the Gazette, which was 
in German, made its appearance not later 
than 1796. Though the succession which 
brings the history of the paper down to the 
present day is somewhat broken and the 
records somewhat indefinite, yet that Ger- 
man weekly was clearly the beginning of 
the Gazette of to-day. One evidence of 
this fact still existed several years ago in 
more or less complete files of the paper of 
1796, but these have been destroyed, 
through ignorance of their value as a proof 
of the connection between the little weekly 
of 1796 and the daily of a hundred years la- 
ter, assuming that the meagerness or total 

absence of local news deprived them of any 
local historical value. As an English pa- 
per, the Gazette was first published in 
York, on May 18, 181 5. Die York Ga- 
zette, the German paper previously referred 
to, as having been established not later than 
1796, may, however, have antedated that 
year, as tradition without any reliable rec- 
ords to sustain it, fixes the year of its incep- 
tion in 1795. It is known that its founder 
was Solomon Meyer, and that it was the 
first German paper established in York 
county. In 1804 it belonged to Christian 
Schlichting and by him its publicaton was 
stopped and the press, type and other pub- 
ishing paraphernalia were sold to Daniel 
Heckert, who in turn sold the outfit to 
Stark and Lang, of Hanover. These gen- 
tlemen then started the Hanover Gazette, 
which was continued until 186.. 

The founder of the English Gazette was 
supposed to have been William Harris, for 
his name appears as publisher at the head 
of the first column and the oldest known 
copy, now extant, dated November 30, 
1815. The paper was published every 
Thursday and its subscription rate was two 
dollars per annum. The first issue consis- 
ted of four pages 20x16 inches in size, four 
columns to the page. In April, 1816, the 
paper appeared under the title of York Ga- 
zette and Public Advertiser. About this 
time Mr. Harris died and W. M. Baxter is 
supposed to have succeeded to the owner- 
ship of the paper; though no issue bearing 
his name is known to be extant to confirm 
this supposition. May 13, 1819, the paper 
appeared in size 19^x12^ to the page and 
was published by King & Mallo. In the 
early part of 1820 Mr. Mallo was suc- 
ceeded in the firm by a Mr. Abbott, and 
the size of the paper was increased to 2of x 
30 inches, with six columns to a page. In 
1824 the firm again changed, becoming 
King and Welsh. The new member, Henry 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


Welsh, was one of the most prominent men 
of his day in the public affairs of the 
count}' and State. In 1829 the partnership 
was again dissolved and Mr. Welsh was 
succeeded by George A. Barnitz. In April 
1835, Adam J. Glossbrenner became a 
member of the firm, succeeding Mr. Bar- 
nitz ; and the following month, through the 
melancholly ending of Mr. King's life, 
David Small became a member of the firm. 
The following year the paper was enlarged 
by 21^x25 inches; and another enlarge- 
ment, which made it 26^^ by 39J is recorded 
in 1858. Having been elected sergeant at 
arms of the national house of representa- 
tives, Mr. Glossbrenner retired from the 
firm that same year and Mr. Small then 
sold a half interest in the paper to William 
H. Welsh. This firm published the paper 
until 1866. During the war, owing to the 
high price of paper, the size was decreased 
to 23^x38 inches. Up to this time the Ga- 
zette had been, in a manner, a sort of peri- 
patetic publication and its history is largely 
a long list of removals from place to place 
about town, but in 1865 it settled down in 
the Jordan building in the north-western 
angle of Centre Square, where it remained 
for twenty-four years and then, in 1889, re- 
moved to its present home, 12 South 
George Street. 

In 1886, Adam F. Geesey, Stephen G. 
Boyd and Guy H. Boyd became the owners 
of the paper and some time later a joint 
stock company was organized. Professor 
Boyd became the editor and remained at 
the head of the paper until 1891, when he 
was succeeded by H. B. Shoch, of Harris- 
burg, formerly of the Philadelphia Times 
and Harrisburg Patriot. In November, 
1887, the publication of a daily edition had 
been begun in conjunction with a weekly 
edition and four years later the latter was 
made a semi-weekly publication. In July, 
1893, the circulation having grown to such 

proportions that it was impossible to get 
out the editions with sufficient promptness 
on the old fashioned press then belonging 
to the paper, a new and more modern press, 
a Cox Duplex, was purchased and the pa- 
per was then changed from a four to a six 
page sheet. The old press thus supplanted 
was the first cylinder press ever brought 
to York and in its days was considered a 
marvel of printing machinery. 

April I, 1894, Editor Shoch retired and 
Robert F. Gibson was made editor. The 
paper at this time was entirely in the hands 
of Mr. A. B. Farquhar, who had, by suc- 
cessive purchases from the Boyds in 1890, 
from Mr. Geesey, in 1891, and from other 
shareholders later on, secured practically 
the entire stock of the original company. 
Upon Mr. Shoch's retirement Mr. Far- 
quhar thoroughly re-organized the paper. 
Messrs. T. B. G. Hiestand and J. F. Mitzel 
took charge of the business department; 
and Messrs. J. C. Herbert, of Harrisburg, 
and J. H. Gibbons assumed charge of the 
local department, which has always been 
esteemed by the management as the chief 
news department of the paper and has ac- 
cordingly always been ably conducted. The 
paper continued under this management 
until January 4, 1897, when Mr. Farquhar, 
whose personal views upon the money ques- 
tion were in opposition to the attitude 
which the management of the paper had 
given it, in support of the Chicago plat- 
form, sold his entire interest to Love, Hies- 
tand and Company, the present publishers. 
Mr. Gibson retired from the editorship of 
the paper and T. B. G. Hiestand assumed 
the editorial management, with James C. 
Herbert as associate editor. This manage- 
ment was continued until June, when Mr. 
Gibson was re-elected editor and has since 
had editorial charge of the paper. 

The German edition of the paper was 
continued until 1891, when, upon the pub- 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

lication of the semi-weekly edition, it was 
discontinued. The Sunday issue, which is 
at present published, was started September 
16, 1894. 

In the matter of departments and in the 
literary finish of what is written for the pa- 
per, the Gazette is the best edited paper in 
the 19th District. It is the only paper in 
York which makes a specialty of original 
editorials and this department is supple- 
mented by able correspondence from both 
the national and State capitals. It receives 
the regular Associated Press service, from 
which it culls and carefully edits the most 
interesting telegraph news. But, however 
well conducted, no paper in a community 
like York can achieve success through 
such departments as these alone. A local 
paper must depend for its success, both in 
securing subscribers and advertising, upon 
the amount of local news which it presents 
and the manner in which this is written. 
In this respect the Gazette is correctly con- 
ducted. It not only collects the general 
news to which other local papers pay atten- 
tion but gives space, mostly in the form 
of departments, to local politics, local secret 
societies, local industries, local business af- 
fairs, sports and other matters. Its news 
is also arranged with the same taste that is 
shown in its preparation and among news- 
paper men it is regarded as almost a model 
local paper. When, in 1894, a special edi- 
tion was issued in connection with a change 
in its typographical appearance, contribu- 
tions were received from such eminent men 
as Grover Cleveland, Charles A. Dana, Col. 
John Cockerell, Edward Atkinson, Henry 
Watterson, William M. Singerly and others, 
who recognized the paper as one of merit 
and accompanied their contributions with 
words of laudation. Since then the paper 
has continued its career of improvement. 

York Dispatch. In proportion to the im- 
portant issues with which it dealt, wrought 

and achieved, the Repubhcan party in its 
earlier career, down into the most trying 
days of the Civil War, went ineffectively 
championed as to party press in York 
county. There were of course patriotic pa- 
pers which supported the union cause and 
urged the supremacy of the party; but none 
of them had sprung from the new party it- 
self and the odor of other days and ante-bel- 
lum political revilement manifestly handi- 
capped their usefulness and impaired their 
capacity to inspire homogeneity of feeling. 
They had lingered to the last in the Whig 
organization and had been drawn into the 
new party by the great political vortex 
which had brought together the anti-slav- 
ery elements of the old parties for the for- 
mation of the Republican. Thus, while 
their services were admittedly patriotic, the 
element of expediency which had dictated 
their course was none the less manifest. 
Such papers, could not, of course, win the 
entirely cordial and enthusiastic allegiance 
and support of mere Union men — of that 
large and loyal element which had been 
moved to change political faith upon the 
issue of the union or its dissolution — and 
the war Democrats, for instance, who had 
become fixed Republicans as the most rea- 
sonable and effective course for them to 
pursue. Out of the animosities of other 
days, memorable for the bitterness and 
malignancy of their political strife and par- 
tisanship, had been bred lasting dislikes for 
many of the old Whig organs, more acutely 
perhaps in York county than in many 
other communities. It was felt, therefore, 
that there was a field for a new party paper 
— one born of the party itself and free of the 
contamination of the past. Weighed, dis- 
cussed and finally acted upon, this idea on 
June 7, 1864, the day that witnessed Lin- 
coln's renomination at Baltimore, culmin- 
ated in the appearance of the True Demo- 
crat, a four page weekly of strong Republi- 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


can proclivities, with nine columns of news, 
editorial advertisement and miscellany to 
the page. The paper was edited and pub- 
lished by Hiram Young and was prepared 
and printed in the McGrath building on 
South George Street, adjoining which the 
Colonial Hotel now stands. For a com- 
munity such as York at that time, it had a 
phenomenal success and speedily outstrip- 
ped its venerable contemporaries. Its cir- 
culation soon attained 3,200, and improved 
and enlarged facilities of publication be- 
came imperative. In 1867 the plant was 
therefore removed to 10 East Market 
Street, the present home of its daily and 
weekly successors, and the first steam 
power employed in printing in York was 
introduced there. May 29, 1876, Mr. 
Young, started the daily edition under the 
title of York Dispatch. This paper also 
achieved a great success and to-day it is the 
most widely read local paper in York 
county. Mr. Young's long association with 
it, a circumstance without parallel among 
the papers of York, has given the Dispatch 
a greater influence and prestige in the 
moulding of public opinion, than any of its 
contemporaries enjoy. This circum- 
stance, the fact of being practically the 
only organ of the Republican party in the 
county, has also contributed not a little. 
The policy of the paper is broad — not con- 
fined to partisan politics — for while it is 
cordial and energetic in the support of its 
party's principles and candidates, it is also 
honest and fearless enough to condemn the 
faults and shortcomings of its own leaders 
and men. Mr. Young and his paper dis- 
play a warm interest in the welfare of the 
farmer, not only in the distribution of en- 
lightening information, but in contending 
for wholesome and just legislation in his 

In its efiforts along these lines the paper 
has secured not merely, local, but national 

recognition, especially from the Wool 
Growers organization and in a recent let- 
ter. Judge Lawrence, president of the Na- 
tional Association, writes: "If we could 
have had in each of the principal wool 
growing States, five, or even three, such 
newspapers as the York Dispatch, wool 
growers would have secured just and ample 
protection." Success has also come from 
the fact that the Dispatch is quick to en- 
courage all local interests ; and much of the 
splendid development of York has been as- 
sociated with the helpful efforts of the pa- 
per. In the mere, yet essential, depart- 
ment of news the Dispatch has also ac- 
quired a flattering prestige through its 
promptness and thoroughness. Such a 
paper must grow if fed by communal 
growth, expansion and enlightenment and 
this is peculiarly true in a community like 
York, emerging as it is from the trammels 
of primitiveness with which a simple but 
phlegmatic race of pioneers endowed it. 

Twice of late the Dispatch has found it 
opportune to adapt itself to an enlarged field 
of usefulness as a newspaper. In October, 

1895, it disposed of the Hoe double cylin- 
der press which the town had considered 
a marvel of printing machinery, and intro- 
duced a Scott perfecting press with a maxi- 
mum hourly capacity of 24,000; and also 
a complete stereotyping outfit. In April, 

1896, two Mergenthaler linotype machines 
were added to the outfit and the plant is 
now regarded as the best equipped 
for newspaper work — outside of Phila- 
delphia — in the southeast section of 
Pennsylvania, with hardly an equal 
in the entire State outside of a few of the 
larger cities. Associated with Mr. Young 
in the conduct of the various departments 
are his four sons Edward S., Charles P., 
William L. and John F. They are young 
men of practical experience; and it is Mr. 
Young's intention that they shall succeed 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

him as the owners and pubhshers of the 

The first Hanover paper was Die 
Pennsylvanische Wockinschrift, running 
from April, 1797, to February, 1805, suc- 
ceeded by the Hanover Gazette (German) 
which ceased pubhcation in 1864, after an 
existence of sixty years. The first EngHsh 
paper, at Hanover, the Guardian, ran from 
1818 to 1835, and was succeeded by the 
Hanoverian, while the Intelligenceblatt, 
which started in 1824, was soon removed to 
Adams county. The Hanover Spectator 
was started in 1841 as the Democrat; the 
Hanover Citizen, English and German, in 
1861 ; and the Hanover Herald, June, 1872. 

The Hanover Herald was founded in 
June, 1872, by M. O. Smith, of York, and 
P. H. Bittenger, of Hanover. Mr. Smith 
had founded the Glen Rock Item in 1870, 
and sold his interest in that journal to his 
partner, N. Z. Seitz. The Herald was a 
seven column folio, printed on a hand press, 
and was independent in politics. The busi- 
ness grew and a power press, the first in 
Hanover, was procured in 1876, when the 
paper was enlarged to eight columns. By 
1881 a further increase in business de- 
manded the introduction of steam power. 
In April, 1885, Mr. Bittenger retired, since 
which time Mr. Smith has been the sole 
proprietor of the paper. In July, 1894, an 
evening edition was commenced, styled the 
"Evening Herald," which now averages i,- 
000 circulation — the weekly edition having 
an average issue of about 2,000 copies. The 
office is up to date, being fitted out with a 
Thorne type-setting machine, first-class 
cylinder and job presses, run by electric 
motors and a gas engine. 

The Record. The first daily newspaper 
in Hanover, Pa., the Daily Record, was 
started August 11, 1892, by Joseph S. 
Cornman, publisher of the Citizen, a weekly 
that had existed half a century. 

On April ist, 1875, the Record Publish- 
ing Co., comprising P. J. Barnhart, A. R. 
Brodbeck, L. D. Seh, H. N. Gitt and H. D. 
Young was organized, and the materials of 
the Weekly Citizen and Daily Record were 
purchased from Mr. Cornman, and of the 
Weekly Advance from H. D. Young. This 
company continued the Daily and estab- 
lished the Weekly Record, with J. S. Corn- 
man in charge, who with Mr. Young, alter- 
nated as editors until September 9th, follow- 
ing, when Ed. J. Frysinger, then on the 
staff of the Philadelphia Ledger, but with 
previous training on inland dailies and a 
practical printer and newspaper man, be- 
came editor and manager which responsi- 
bility he yet holds. When Mr. Frysinger 
assumed control the Daily had only 600 
daily circulation and 850 weekly, the oppo- 
sition being the Daily and Weekly Herald. 
On Jan. ist, 1897, sixteen months later, the 
Weekly Record had a sworn circulation of 
3,426, and the Daily Record 1,100, which 
is conceded a remarkable growth. In poli- 
tics the Record is Democratic. 

The Delta Times was founded about 
1876; the Delta Herald, established Sep- 
tember I, 1878; the Dillsburg Bulletin in 
1876, as the New Era; the Glen Rock Item, 
in 1870; and the Wrightsville Star, in 1854. 

The Cumberland County press goes back 
to the Carlisle Weekly Gazette in 1785, and 
its successor the Carlisle Eagle, which 
changed successively to the Herald and 
Expositor, and Herald and Mirror, and then 
to the Herald. The Cumberland Register 
ran from 1804 to 1 814, the Carlisle Gazette 
from 1822 till about 1827; and the Messen- 
ger of Useful Knowledge from 1830 to 
183 1. The American Volunteer was star- 
ted in 1814, and has continued under Demo- 
cratic management up to the present time. 
The Valley Sentinel was started at Ship- 
pensburg April 22, 1861, and removed May 
22, 1874, to Carlisle, where in addition to 

Nin:eteenth Congressional District. 


the weekly, a daily was established Decem- 
ber 13, 1881. The Evening Sentinel, an in- 
dependent Democratic daily, has been es- 
tablished since 1886. The first paper of 
Shippensburg was a small sheet, whose 
name is now unknown. It was followed by 
the Shippensburg Free Press, started April 
10, 1833, and the Intelligencer, September 
19, 1833, both of which were consolidated 
into one sheet which soon died. The Ship- 
pensburg Herald started in May, 1837, and 
died in 1839; the Cumberland and Frank- 
lin Gazette existed for a year or so from 
April I, 1840; and the Cumberland Valley 
continued from 1841 to 1843; while the 
Valley Spirit, started in 1846, was soon re- 
moved to Franklin county. The Weekly 
News was established April 26, 1844, and is 
now an independent sheet. The Shippens- 
burg Chronicle was founded February 4, 
1875, 3^nd like the News is an Independent 
paper. The first two papers of Mechanics- 
burg, the Microcosm, started in 1835, and 
the Independent Press, established in 1844, 
soon went down. The Independent Jour- 
nal was founded in 1872 by a consolidation 
of the Valley Independent, originated in 
1868 as the Valley Democrat, and the 
Cumberland Valley Journal formerly the 
Weekly Gazette and originally the Mechan- 
icsburg Gleaner which dated back to 1854. 
The Saturday Journal, now a society paper, 
was started in October, 1878, and among 
the papers that have gone down at Mechan- 
icsburg may be named the Farmers Friend, 
started in 1874; the Republican, 1873; and 
the Semi- Weekly Ledger, 1877. The first 
paper at Newville was the Central Engine 
whose existence was spanned by the year 
1843. The Star of the Valley started in 
1858 and in 1885 was united with the En- 
terprise under its present name of Star and 
Enterprise. The Weekly Native started in 
1858, and Cupid's Corner in 1883, but both 

have gone down. The Newville Times, star- 
ted in 1885, was originally the Plainfield 
Times. The Mountain Echo is an inde- 
pendent paper of Mt. Holly Springs, and 
the Observer is a local sheet of New Cum- 

The press of Adams county has not yet 
reached the first century of its existence, for 
its earliest newspaper, the Centinel was 
born at Gettysburg November 12, 1800. 
Robert Harper the founder of the Centinel 
died in 1817 and fifty years later it was 
consolidated with the Star under its present 
name of Star and Sentinel. The Star had 
been established in 1828. The Compiler 
was started September 16, 1818, and has 
been Democratic in politics ever since. The 
York Springs Comet was established at 
Gettysburg as the Century and in 1877 was 
removed to the former place. Littlestown 
has had a number of short lived papers: 
The Weekly Visitor (started in 1847), 
Weekly Ledger, Crystal Palace, Littles- 
town Press, Littlestown News, The Cour- 
ier, and Littlestown Era. The present pa- 
per of Littlestown is the Independent. The 
Record was started at New Berlin about 
1885 and continued for some time, while 
Abbottstown has had two papers. The Yel- 
low Jacket, started in 1840, and a German 
paper, the Intelligencer, which went down 
in 1850 under the name of the Wochen- 
blatt. The New Oxford Item was founded 
in April, 1877. 

There are two college journals published 
in the district, the Pennsylvania College 
monthly and the Dickinsonian monthly, 
while the religious press is represented by 
the Lutheran Quarterly of Gettysburg, and 
the Christian's Guide, Lutheran Missionary 
Journal, Sunday School Worker, and the 
Teachers' Journal which are monthly pub- 
lications of York. 


Miscellaneous Topics. 

Historians. Day in his Historical Col- 
lections of Pennsylvania gives some valu- 
able and important information of each of 
the counties of the Nineteenth District, 
while Rupp, Mumbert and Glossbrenner in 
their histories have preserved a large 
amount of general and local history. Wing 
did good work in History of Cumberland 
county and Hon. John Gibson edited care- 
fully the History of York county published 
in 1886, of which the special history was 
prepared by George R. Prowell and in 
which valuable articles appear which were 
written by Mrs. Mary C. Fisher, George R. 
Prowell, H. L. Fisher, R. C. Bair, Profes- 
sor Frazer, R. F. Gibson. Glossbrenner 
was assisted by Carter, and Smith pub- 
lished a history of York county in the 
Hanover Herald. 

In the history of Cumberland and Adams 
counties published in 1886, in which good 
work was done, the general history of Cum- 
berland county was written by Durant and 
Richard, while the bench and bar and 
township and borough history was pre- 
pared by Bellman. The general history of 
Adams county was prepared by Bradsby 
except two chapters furnished by Sheely, 
and the local history was written by Leeson. 

Slavery and Redemptioners. In 1780 
the legislature of Pennsylvania passed an 
act for the gradual abolition of negro slav- 
ery and 1850 the last slave in the district 
was free. In some townships where the 
Quakers predominated no slaves were ever 
held, as that denomination was opposed to 

the institution of human servitude. In the 
present territory of York and Adams coun- 
ties there were 471 slaves in 1810 and but 
6 in 1820. There were quite a number of 
slaveholders in Cumberland county, which 
had 18 slaves in 1768; 228 in 1810; and 24 
as late as 1840. A large number of manu- 
mited slaves passed through the district 
between 1820 and 1850, and on August 8, 
1819, the York County Colonization so- 
ciety was formed to aid in transporting the 
freed slaves and free negroes to Liberia, 

When the fugitive slave law was passed 
the "underground railroad" had many 
agents in the district. William Wright 
was a prominent agent and York was a sta- 
tion on one of these roads that passed to Co- 
lumbia. Another road came through 
Adams county to Dover in York county 
and thence to Boiling Springs in Cumber- 
land county and to Middletown Ferry on 
the Susquehanna river. 

Another evil almost as bad as slavery 
was the importation of redemptioners dur- 
ing colonial days. The redemptioners were 
principally from Germany and were to be 
sold for so long a time to pay for their 
passage to this country. In some instances 
children were kidnapped, and often treated 
worse than slaves. In 1760 there were 100 
redemptioners in York county and quite a 
number in Cumberland and Adams coun- 
ties, and as late as 1781, 49 of this class, 
whose time had not expired, still remained 
in York county. 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


Political and Civil Lists of Cumber- 
land County. The offices of Sheriff and 
Prothonotary were filled as early as 1749 
and 1750 and in the civil list we give the 
principal county offices. 

Congress: 1795, James Wilson; 1778, 
John Armstrong; 1783, to July 4, John 
Montgomery; 1797, John A. Hanna; 1805, 
Robt. Whitehill; 1814, Wm. Crawford; 
1815-21, Wm. P. McClay; 1827, Wm. Ram- 
sey; 1833, unexpired term, C. T. H. Craw- 
ford; 1835-37, Jesse Miller; 1838, Wm. S. 
Ramsey; 1841, Amos Gustine; 1843, James 
Black; 1847, Jasper E. Brady; 1849, J. X. 
McLanahan; 1853, Wm. H. Kurtz; 1855, 
Lemuel Todd; 1857, John A. Ahl; 1859, 
B. F. Junkin; 1861, Joseph Bailey; 1865, A. 
J. Glossbrenner; 1869, Rich. J. Haldeman; 
1873, John A. McGee; 1875, Levi Maish; 
1879, F. E. Beltzhoover; 1883, W. A. Dun- 
can; 1885, J. A. Swope. 

State Senators: 1841, J. X. McLana- 
han; 1844, W. B. Anderson; 1847, R- C. 
Sterrett; 1850, Joseph Bailey; 1853, Sam'l 
Wherry; 1856, Henry Fetter; 1859, Wm. 
B. Irwine; 1862, Geo. H. Bucher; 1865, A. 
H. Glatz; 1868, A. G. Miller; 1871, J. M. 
Weakley; 1875, James Chestnut; 1878, 
Isaac Hereter; 1882, S. C. Wagner; 1886, 
W. A. Martin. 

Members of Assembly: 1779, Abraham 
Smith, Samuel Cuthbertson, Frederick 
Watts, Jonathan Hoge, John Harris, Wil- 
liam McDowell, Ephraim Steele; 1780, S. 
Cuthbertson, Stephen Duncan, Wm. 
Brown, J. Hoge, John Andrews, James- 
Harris, John Allison; 1781, James McLean, 
John Allison, James Johnson, Wm. Brown, 
Robt. McGan, John Montgomery, Stephen 
Duncan; 1782, S. Duncan, John Carothers, 
J. Johnson, Wm. Brown, James McLene, 
J. Hoge, Patrick Maxwell; 1783, Wm. 
Brown, F. Watts, James Johnson, John 
Carothers, Abraham Smith, Wm. Brown, 
Robt. Whitehill; 1784 to 1814, no record 

available; 1814, Jacob Alter, Samuel Fen- 
ton, James Lowry, Andrew Boden, Wm. 
Anderson; 1815, Philip Peffer, Wm. Wal- 
lace, Sol. Gorgas; 1824, James Dunlap; 
1829, Wm. Alexander, Peter Lobach; 1833, 
Michael Cochlin, Samuel McKeehan; 1834, 
David Emmert; 1835, Wm. Runsha, 
Charles McClure; 1836-38, W. R. Gorgas, 
James Woodburn; 1840, A. S. McKinney, 
John Zimmerman; 1841, Wm. Barr, Joseph 
Culver; 1842, James Kennedy, George 
Brindle; 1843, Francis Eckels; 1843-44, Ja- 
cob Heck; 1844, George Brindle; 1845, A. 
H. Van Hoff, Joseph M. Means; 1846, 
James Mackey, Armstrong Noble; 1847, 
Jacob LeFevre; 1847-48, Abraham Lam- 
berton; 1848, George Rupley; 1849-50, 
Henry Church, T. E. Scouller; 1851, Ellis 
J. Bonham; 1851-52, Robert M. Hender- 
son; 1852-53, David J. McKee; 1853, 
Henry J. Moser; 1854, Montgomery Don- 
aldson, G. W. Criswell; 1855-56, Wm. Har- 
per, James Anderson; 1857, Charles C. 
Brandt; 1857-58, Hugh Stuart; 1858-59, 
John McCurdy; 1859, John Power, i860, 
W. B. Irvine, Wm. Louther; 1861, Jesse 
Kennedy; 1861-62, John P. Rhoads; 1863- 
64, John D. Bowman; 1865-66, Philip 
Long; 1867-68, Theodore Cornman; 1869- 
70, John B. Leidig; 1871-72, Jacob Bom- 
berger; 1873-74, Wilham B. Butler; 1874- 
75, G. M. Mumper; 1876-77, Samuel W. 
Means; 1877-78, Samuel A. Bowers; 1878- 
8o,A. M. Rhoads.R.M. McCochran, Jr. ; 1882 
George M. D. Eckels, John Graham; 1888, 
S. M. Wherry, J. P. Zeigler. 

Sheriffs: 1749, John Potter; 1750, Ezek- 
iel Dunning; 1756, William Parker; 1759, 
Ezekiel Smith; 1762, Ezekiel Dunning; 
1765, John Holmes; 1768, David Hoge; 
1 77 1, Ephraim Blaine; 1774, Ephraim 
Blaine; 1774, Robt. Semple; 1777, James 
Johnson; 1780, John Hoge; 1783, Sam'l 
Postlethwaite; 1786, Charles Deeper; 1789, 
Thos. Buchanan; 1792, James Wallace; 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

1795' Jacob Crever; 1798, John Carothers; 
1801, Robt. Greyson; 1804, George Stroup; 
1807, John Carothers; 1810, John Boden; 
1813, John Rupley; 1816, Andrew Mitchell; 
1819, Peter Pitney; 1822, James Neal; 
1825, John Clippinger; 1828, Martin Dun- 
lap; 1831, George Beetem; 1834, Michael 
Holcombe; 1837, John Myers; 1840, Paul 
Martin; 1843, Adam Longsdorf; 1846, 
James Hoffer; 1849, David Smith; 1852, 
Joseph McDarmond; 1855, Jacob Bowman; 
1858, Robt. McCartney; 1861, J. T. Rippey; 
1864, John Jacobs; 1867, J. C. Thompson; 
1870, J. K. Foreman; 1873, Joseph Totten; 
1876, David H. Gill; 1879, A. A. Thomson; 
1882, George B. Eyster; 1885, James R. 

Prothonotaries: 1750-1770, Hermanus 
Alricks, Turbutt Francis, John Agnew; 
1777, Wm. Lyon; 1820, B. Aughinbaugh; 
1823, J. P. Helfenstein; 1826, R. McCoy; 
1828, Willis Foulke; 1829, John Harper; 
1835, George Fleming; 1839, George San- 
derson; 1842, T. H. Criswell; 1845, Wil- 
liam M. Beetem; 1848, J. F. Lamberton; 
1851, Philip Quigley; i860, Benjamin 
Duke; 1863, Samuel Shireman; 1866, John 
P. Brindle; 1869, W. V. Cavanaugh; 1872, 
D. W. Worst; 1875, J. M. Wallace; 1878, 
Robt. M. Graham; 1881, James A. Sibbett; 
1884, Lewis Masonheimer. 

Treasurers: 1787, Stephen Duncan; 1789, 
Alex. McKeehan; 1795, Robt. Miller; 1800, 
James Duncan; 1805, Hugh Boden; 1807, 
John Boden; 1810, Robert McCoy; 1813, 
John Mc'Ginnis; 181 5, Andrew Boden; 
1817, George M. Feely; 1820, James 
Thompson; 1824, George McFeely; 1826, 
Alex. Nesbitt; 1829, Hendricks Weise; 
1832, John Phillips; 1835, Jason W. Eby; 
1838, W. S. Ramsey; 1839, Robt. Snod- 
grass; 1841, W. A. Mateer; 1843, Robt. 
Moore, Jr.; 1849, W. M. Porter; 1851, W. 
S. Cobean; 1853, N. W. Woods; 1855, 
Adam Senseman; 1857, Moses Bricker; 

1859, A. L. Sponsler; 1861, John Gutshall; 
1863, Henry S. Riter; 1865, Levi Zeigler; 
1867, Christian Mellinger; 1869, George 
Wetzel; 1871, George Bobb; 1873, L. H. 
Orris; 1875, A. A. Thompson; 1878, J. C. 
Eckels; 1881, W. H. Longsdorf; 1884, Ja- 
cob Hemminger. 

County Commissioners: 1834, Alex. M. 
Kerr; 1840, Michael Mishler; 1841, Jacob 
Rehrar; 1842, Robert Laird; 1843, Chris- 
tian Titzel; 1844, Jefferson Worthington; 
1845, David Sterrett; 1846, Daniel Coble; 
1847, John Mell; 1848, James Kelso; 1849, 
John Sprout; 1850, W. H. Trout; 1851, J. 
G. Cressler; 1852, John Bobb; 1853, James 
Armstrong; 1854, Geo. M. Graham; 1855, 
W. M. Henderson; 1856, Andrew Kerr; 
1857, Samuel Magaw; 1858, N. H. Eckels; 
1859, J. H. Waggoner; i860, George Mil- 
ler; 1861, Michael Kast; 1862, George Sco- 
bey; 1863, John McCoy, (3 yrs), M. Mc- 
Clain (2 yrs); 1864, Henry Karns, John 
Harris; 1865, Alex F. Meek; 1866, M. G. 
Hale; 1867, Allen Floyd; 1869, Jacob 
Rhoads; 1870, David Deits; 1871, J. C. 
Sample; 1872, Samuel Ernst; 1873, Jacob 
Barber; 1874, Joseph Bauts; 1875, Jacob 
Barber; 1878, Jacob Barber; Hugh Boyd; 
1 88 1, Hugh Boyd, Alfred B. Strock; 1884, 
James B. Brown, George Hauck. 

Registers: The office of Clerk, Register 
and Recorder were held by John Creigh 
and William Lyon, and then from 1798 to 
1832 the ofilices of Register and Recorder 
were combined. The Registers from 1834 
have been 1834, J. G. Oliver; 1835, Wilham 
Line; 1839, Isaac Angey; 1842, Jacob 
Bretz; 1845, James McCullough; 1848, 
Wm. Gould; 1851, A. L. Sponsler; 1854, 
Wm. Lytle; 1857, S. M. Emminger; i860, 
E. N. Brady; 1863, G. W. North; 1866, Ja- 
cob Dorsheimer; 1869, Joseph Neely; 1872, 
John Reep; 1875, Martin Guswiler; 1878, 
J. M. Drawbaugh; 1881, C. Jacoby; 1884, 
L. R. Spong. 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


Clerks and Recorders: 1832, Reinneck 
Angney; 1834, John Irvine; 1836, Thomas 
Craighead; 1839, Willis Foulke; 1842, 
Robt. Wilson; 1845, John Goodyear; 1848, 
John Hyer; 1851, Samuel Martin; 1854, J. 
M. Gregg; 1857, D. S. Croft; i860, J. B. 
Floyd; 1863, Eph. Cornman; 1866, Samuel 
Bixler; 1869, G. S. Sheaffer; 1872, G. S. 
Emig; 1875, D. B. Stevick; 1878, John 
Sheaffer; 1881, D. B. Saxton; 1884, John 

Indian Local Names Many a moun- 
tain and river of this broad land will carry 
its Indian name down to the end of time, 
through the English language. Mrs. Sig- 
ourney has said truthfully of the Indians: 
"But their name is on your waters; 

Ye may not wash it out." 
"Your mountains build their monuments, 
Though ye destroy their dust." 

The Indians living in and passing 
through the territory of the present Nine- 
teenth District gave names to mountain, 
stream and plain but nearly all knowledge 
of them was lost when the early settlers 
passed away. 

From Boyd's Indian Local Names we 
select those that pertain to the district and 
its adjoining territory: 

Accomac (acaumauke), means on the 
other side. 

Chesapeake, great water stretched out. 

Cocalico, where snakes gather together 
in dens. 

Codorus, rapid water. 

Conedoguinit, continual bends. 

Conestogo, corruption of Canastagiowne, 
the great magic land. 

Conewago, long strip, or long reach. 

Conecocheague, indeed a long way. 

Cookquago, big owl. 

Coos, a Lenappe word, the pines. 

Kithanne or Kehthanne, applied to the 
Delaware river, meaning the largest stream. 

Lackawanna (Lechauhanne), forked 

Mauch Chunk (Machktschunk), the bear 

Susquehanna (gawanowananeh), great 
island river. 

Waseca, red earth, or red paint. 

Yellow Breeches (Callapasscink), where 
it turns back again. 

Meteorology. But few meteorological 
observations taken in the district are on 
record. Great floods have occurred on the 
Susquehanna river in 1744, 1758, 1772, 
1784, 1786, 1800, 1814, 1817, 1822, 1846, 
and 1884, while immense ice floods were 
along the river in 1830, 1865 and 1875. 
Deep snows fell in 1772 and 1894, and hail 
storms occurred in 1797 and 1821, while 
1822 witnessed a great drought. The great 
meteoric shower of 1833 was observed by 
many, and already some are looking for- 
ward to the expected shower of 1899. 

Political and Civil Lists of Adams 
County. Adams county has been in six 
different Congressional Districts from 1800 
to 1897. 

Congressmen: 1800, John Stewart; 
1804, James Kelly; 1808, Wm. Crawford; 
1812, Robert Whitehill;' 1814-16, Wm. Mc- 
Clay; 1816-18, Andrew Boden; 1818, David 
Fullerton; 1820, James McSherry; 1820, 
James Duncan, Thomas G. McCullough; 
1821-24, John Finley; 1822-26, James Wil- 
son; 1826-30, Wm. Ramsey; 1828-30, T. H 
Crawford; 1832, George Chambers; 1836, 
Daniel Sheffer; 1838, James Cooper; 1842, 
Henry Nes; 1844, Moses McClean; 1846, 
Henry Nes; 1850, W. H. Kurtz; Joel B. 
Danner; 1852, S. L. Russell; 1854, D. F. 
Robinson; 1856, Wilson Reilly; 1858, Ed- 
ward McPherson; 1862, A. H. Cofifarth; 
1864, W. H. Koontz; 1868, John Cessna; 
1870, B. F. Meyers; 1S74, Levi Maish; 
1878, F. E. Beltzhoover; 1882, W. A. Dun- 
can; 1884, J. A. Swope. 

State Senators: 1801, Wm. Reed; 1803, 
Randolph Spangler; 1805, William Miller; 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

1811, John Stroman; 1813, James Mc- 
Sherry; 1815, C. A. Barnitz; 1817, Wm. 
Gilliland; 1819, Fred Eichelberger, George 
Eyster; 1821, George Eyster; 1823, Wm. 
Mcllvaine; 1824, Zeph Herbert; 1826, 
Henry Logan; 1829, Ezra Ely the; 1831, 
Henry Smyser; 1833, David Middlecoff; 
1835, James McConkey; 1837, C. B. Pen- 
rose, Jacob Cassat; 1841, J. X. McLana- 
han, W. R. Gorgas; 1844, Thomas Carson; 
1847, Wm. R. Sadler; 1850, Thomas Car- 
son; 1853, David WelHnger; 1856, G. W. 
Brewer; 1859, A. K. McClure; 1862, Wm. 
McSherry; 1865, David McConaughy; 1894, 
C. M. Duncan; 1871, Wm. McSherry; 1874, 
James Chestnut; 1878, Isaac Hereter; 1882, 
S. C. Wagner; 1886, W. A. Martin. 

Members of Assembly: 1800-02, Thomas 
Thornbaugh; 1800-3, Henry Slagle; 1802- 
04, William Miller; 1803-06, Andrew 
Shriver; 1805-06, Walter Smith; 1807, 
James McSherry, James Gettys; 1810, Jas. 
McSherry, James Robinnette; 1813, James 
Robinnette, William Miller; 1816, Michael 
Slage, Samuel Witherow; 1818, Samuel 
Witherow, William Thompson; 1819, Wil- 
liam Miller, William Thompson; 1820, 
Jacob Cassat, Isaac Weirman; 1824, James 
McSherry, George Deardorf; 1826, James 
McSherry, T. T. Bonner; 1827, Ezra 
Blythe, T. T. Bonner; 1828, James Mc- 
Sherry, Thos. Stevens; 1829, James Mc- 
Sherry, D. Middlecauf; 1830, James Mc- 
Sherry, Andrew Marshall; 1831, Christian 
Picking, Andrew Marshall; 1832, James 
Potters, Wm. Renshaw; 1833, James Pat- 
terson, Thaddeus Stevens; 1834, James Mc- 
Sherry, Thaddeus Stevens; 1836, Wm. Mc- 
Curdy, Christian Picking; 1839, D. M. 
Smyser, Wm. Albright; 1840, D. M. Smy- 
ser, G. L. Fauss; 1841, Thaddeus Stevens, 
G. L. Fauss; 1842, John Marshall, Henry 
Myers; 1843, James Cooper; 1845, John 
Brough; 1846, James Cooper; 1847, Wm. 
McSherry; 1848, James Cooper; 1849, Wm. 

McSherry; 1849, Daniel Smyser; i8so,Wm. 
McSherry; 1851, David Mellinger; 1853, 
J. C. Elhs; 1854, Moses McClean; 1855, 
Isaac Robinson; 1856, John Musselman; 
1857, Chas. Will; 1858, Sam'l Durborrow; 
i860, Henry T. Myers; 1861, John Bushey; 
i862,Henry T.Myers; i863,Jas. H.Marshall; 
1865, P. L. Houck; 1866, Nicholas Heltzel; 
1868, A. B. Dill; 1870, Isaac Hereter; 1872, 
W. S. Hildebrand; 1874, E. W. Stable, 
Daniel Geiselman; 1876, W. A. Martin, W. 
T. McClure; 1878, W. R. White, J. E. 
Smith; 1880, J. U. Neely, A. W. Storm; 
1882, R. W. Bream, F. G. Smeringer; 1884, 
S. S. Stockslager, Eph. Myers; 1888, John 
J. Brown, Francis Cole. 

Sheriffs: 1800, Geo. Lashells; 1803, Jas. 
Gettys; 1806, Jacob Winrott; 1809, James 
Horner; 1812, John Murphy; 1815, Sam'l 
Galloway; 1818, John Arendt; 1821, Ber- 
nard Gilbert; 1824, Thos. C. Miller; 1827, 
Philip Heagy; 1830, Wm. Cobean; 1833, 
James Bell; 1836, Wm. Taughinbaugh ; 
1839, G. W. McClellan; 1842, Francis 
Bream; 1845, Benj. Shriver; 1848, Wm. 
Fickes; 1851, John Scott; 1854, Henry 
Thomas; 1857, Isaac Lightner; i860, Sam'l 
Wolf; 1863, Adam Rebert; 1866, Philip 
Hann; 1869, Jacob Klunk; 1872, James 
Hersh; 1875, Joseph Spangler; 1878, A. J. 
Bowers; 1881, J. H. Plank; 1884, Samuel 

Prothonotaries: 1800 to 182 1, James 
Duncan, appointed; 1821, Wm. McClel- 
lan; 1824, Geo. Welsh; 1832, Geo. Zeigler; 
1835, Bernard Gilbert; 1839, J. B. Danner; 
1839, ^- McGinley; 1842, J. B. Danner; 
1845, A. B. Kurtz; 1848, John Picking; 
1851, W. W. Paxton; 1854, John Picking; 
1857, Jacob Bushey; i860, J. F. Bailey; 
1862, Jacob Bushey; 1865, J. A. Kitzmiller; 
1868, Jacob iMelhorn; 1871, Thos. G. 
Neely; 1877, Daniel Chronister; 1880, 
Robt. McCurdy; 1883, S. A. Smith. 

Registers and Recorders: 1800-21, 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


James Duncan; 1821, J. Winrott; 1823, 
Wm. McClellan; 1824, George Zeigler; 
1830, J. B. Clark; 1835, T. C. Miller; 1836, 
J. A. Thompson; 1839, Jacob Le Fevre; 
1839, Wm. King; 1845, Robt. Cobean; 

1848, W. W. Hammersly; 1851, Daniel 
Plank; 1854, W. F. Walter; 1857, Zach 
Myers; i860, Chas. X. Martin; 1863, Sam'l 
Lilly; 1866, W. D. Holtzworth; 1869, S. A. 
Svvope; 1872, J. C. Shriver; 1875, N. Mil- 
ler; 1878, S. B. Horner; 1881, J. Slay- 
baugh; 1885, I. S. Stonesifer. 

Clerks of the Courts: The prothonotar- 
ies served as clerks until 1832. 1832, John 
1835, Thos. Dickey; 1839, J. B. Danner; 
1839, S. H. Russell; 1842, D. C. Brinker- 
hoff; 1845, W. S. Hamilton; 1848, Hugh 
Dinwiddle; 1851, Eden Norris; 1854, J. J. 
Baldwin; 1857, H. G. Wolf; i860, John 
Eiholtz; 1863, J. J. Fink; 1866, A. W. 
Marter; 1869, H. G. Wolf; 1872, Robt. 
McCleaf ; 1875, A. King; 1878, J. C. Pitten- 
turf; 1881, F. M. Timmins; 1884, C. W. 

County Treasurers: 1801, James Scott; 
1805, Samuel Agnew; 1807, Mathew Long- 
well; 1809, Walter Smith; 1812, John Mc- 
Canaughy; 1815, Wm. McLean; i8i8,Wal- 
ter Smith; 1821, Robt. Smith; 1825, J. B. 
McPherson; 1828, W. S. Cobean; 1831, 
Robt. Smith; 1834, Wm. Laub; 1835, Jesse 
Gilbert; 1836, Bernard Gilbert; 1837, Jesse 
Gilbert; 1838, J. H. McClellan; 1841, J. A. 
Thompson; 1843, J. H. McClellan; 1845, 
David McCreary; 1847, R. G. Harper; 

1849, J. H. Fahnestock; 1851, Thos. War- 
ren; 1853, Geo. Arnold; 1855, J. L. Shick; 
1857, J. B. Danner; 1859, W. Ziegler; 1861, 
H. B. Danner; 1863, Jacob Troxel; 1865, 
Jacob Sheads; 1867, H. D. Wattles; 1869, 
W. J. Martin; 1871, R. D. Armor; 1873, 
W. K. Gallagher; 1875, Chas. Zeigler; 
1878, F. S. Ramer; 1881, S. K. Folk; 1884, 
G. E. Stock. 

County Commissioners: 1800, Walter 

Smith, Henry Hull, Michael Slagle; 1801, 
Walter Smith; 1802, Henry Hull; 1803, 
Michael Slagle; 1804, Moses McClean; 
1805, Jacob Cassat; 1806, John Bounce; 
1807, John Arendt; 1808, Joseph Swear- 
inger; 1809, Samuel Withrow and Peter 
Mack; 1810, Henry Brinkerhoff; 1811, 
Mack; 1812, Robt. Hays; 1813, John Stew- 
art and Alex. Russell; 1814, Henry Smyser 
and David Stewart; 1815, Amos McGinley; 
1816, Michael Newman; 1817, James Hor- 
ner; 1818, Wm. Patterson; 1819, Joseph 
Swearinger; 1820, Archibald Boyd; 1821, 
Alex. Mack; 1822, Harmon Weirman; 
1823, Jacob Shorb; 1824, James Paxton; 
1825, J. F. McFarlane; 1826, S. B. Wright; 
1827, Jacob Fickes; 1828, James Mcll- 
henny; 1829, Thos. Ehrehart; 1830, Jacob 
Cover; 1831, J. L. Gubernator; 1832, Robt. 
Mcllhenny; 1833, John Brough; 1834, 
John Musselman; 1835, George Will; 1836, 
John Wolford; 1837, Wm. Rex and James 
Renshaw; 1838, Daniel Diehl; 1839, J. J. 
Kuhn; 1840, Wm. Douglas; 1841, Geo. 
Basehoar; 1842, James Patterson; 1843, 
Peter Diehl; 1844, James Cunningham; 
1845, James Funk; 1846, And. Heintzel- 
man; 1847, Jacob King; 1848, J. G. Morn- 
ingstar; 1849, John Musselman, Jr.; 1850, 
Jacob Griest; 1851, A. Reaser; 1852, John 
Mickey; 1853, J. S. Wills; 1854, Geo. 
Myers; 1855, H. A. Picking; 1856, Josiah 
Benner; 1857, J. Rafifensperger ; 1858, D. 
Geiselman; 1859, J. H. Marshall; i860, W. 
B. Gardiner; 1861, Eph. Myers; 1862, 
Jacob Eppleman; 1863, Sam'l March; 1864, 
Abraham Krise; 1865, Sam'l Wolf; 1866, 
N. Weirman; 1867, Jacob Lott; 1868, 
Moses Hartman; 1869, E. Neidich; 1870, 
Francis Will; 1871, J. E. Smith; 1872, J. 
H. Myers; 1873, John Herbst; 1874, H. W. 
Swartz; 1875, John Nunemaker, J. E. 
Leas, I. D. Worley; 1878, Henry Gulp, 
Jacob Hainish; 1884, Abraham Sheely, E. 
D. Keller, J. T. Hartzell. 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

Secret Societies. Tradition asserts that 
a traveling Masonic lodge of Revolutionary 
times held sessions at York in 1777, but the 
first regular Masonic lodge there was St. 
John's, No. 123, which was instituted Oc- 
tober 27, 1810, while the present lodges, 
York, No. 266, and Zeredatha were consti- 
tuted November 4, 1852, and November 
24, 1869. Other lodges were founded at 
other places in York county, and chapter 
and commandery were organized in due 
time. Cumberland Star Lodge, No. 197, 
Free and Accepted Masons was instituted 
at Carlisle, November 6, 1824, and was fol- 
lowed by St. John's Chapter, St. John's 
Commandery and St. John's Lodge, at Car- 
lisle and by chapters and lodges in other 
parts of Cumberland county. Good Sa- 
maritan Lodge, No. 200, was constituted at 
Gettysburg, January i, 1825, and a chapter 
organized in 1886. 

Odd Fellowship. This organization 
whose lodges and camps are so numerous 
in the Nineteenth district, was introduced 
at York in 1842 by the institution of Mt. 
Zion Lodge, No. 74. Mt. Vernon Chapter, 
No. 14, was organized January 28, 1845, 
and soon lodges were started in all of the 
larger towns of York county. Cumberland 
Lodge, No. 90, was founded December 12, 
1846. Carlisle Lodge, No. 91, was institu- 
ted December 22, 1843, Mechanicsburg, 
Lodge, No. 215, in 1846, and Valley En- 
campment, No. 34, June 22, 1846. An Odd 
Fellow lodge was organized at Gettysburg 
before 1850, and Union Encampment of 
that place was instituted October 3, 1857. 

Improved Order of Red Men. Cayuga 
Tribe, No. 31, was organized at Gettysburg, 
June 25, 1854, and tribes have been institu- 
ted since in different parts of Adams 
county. Conedoguinet Tribe, No. 108, was 
instituted at Carlisle, September 27, 1868, 
but Conewago Tribe, No. 37, was or- 
ganized at York in 1857, and tribes now are 

numerous in some parts of the district. 

Knights of Pythias. On November 
II, 1869, White Rose Castle, No. 211, was 
instituted at York, and soon other Castles 
were organized, but internal troubles in 1874 
retarded the growth of the order for a time. 

Temperance Organization. As early 
as 1829, a temperance society was formed at 
Carlisle and the Washingtonians, Good 
Templars and other secret branches of the 
temperance organizations have been repre- 
sented in the district. 

Grand Army of the Republic. Cor- 
poral Skelly Post, No. 9, was organized at 
Gettysburg prior to 1872, and is one of the 
oldest posts in the State, while posts are 
now in existence in dififerent parts of the 
district, and as death thins the veteran 
ranks, and sweeps away the posts, camps 
of Sons of Veterans are being organized to 
take their places. 

Knights of the Qolden Eagle. This or 
ganization is growing rapidly in the district 
and a number of castles are in existence, 
but we have no data to give the year and 
place of its introduction. 

Other Societies. At present there exist 
in the Nineteenth District conclaves of the 
American and Junior orders of Mechanics; 
lodges of Knights of Labor, Mystic Broth- 
ers, Mystic Chain, Artificers, Sons of St. 
John, and Heptasophs; branches of the 
Brotherhood of Engineers ; camps of Patri- 
otic Order Sons of America; councils of L'. 
A. Mechanics and the Royal Arcanum; and 
negro lodges of Masons and Odd Fellows 
introduced from England originally and 
erroneously called colored Masons and 
Odd Fellows, as all races are colored or 
have color as well as the negro. Besides 
these secret societies are some semi-secret 
associations, such as St. Mary's and St. 
Joseph's and the German Laboring Men's 
Beneficial Association. 

Insurance. The progress of insurance 



has naturally followed the development of 
commerce and trade, and the system of do- 
ing business on credit necessitates the in- 
surance of goods, while the possibilities of 
fire demands insurance as the secret means 
of protection against loss in that line. The 
leading life, accident and fire insurance 
companies of this country and England are 
well represented in every county in the 
Nineteenth District, in which the introduc- 
tion of insurance was between 1840 and 

In addition to foreign companies doing 
business in the district, there have been 
many local insurance companies organized 
since 1840. In York county, the York 
County Mutual Insurance company was 
incorporated April 4, 1843; Farmers Insur- 
ance, April 6, 1853; Farmers Mutual, of 
Paradise, March 24, 1854; Codorus and 
Manheim Mutual, May 24, 1856; Dover, 
Conewago, Newberry, East and West 
Manchester Mutual, 1856; Southern Mutual, 
about 1862; and Spring Garden Mutual, 
April 14, 1864. 

Gettysburg National Cemetery. The 
grounds of the National Cemetery at Get- 
tysburg comprise seventeen acres of land on 
the highest point on Cemetery hill in the 
great battlefield, where 400 monuments and 
1,000 markers costing nearly 3 million dol- 
lars, stand to tell of the desperate struggle 
there. Judge David Wills suggested this 
cemetery which is the first of all our na- 
tional cemeteries. The Gettysburg ceme- 
tery association representing 18 States, was 
incorporated by the Pennsylvania legisla- 
ture in 1864, and on June 22, 1871, transfer- 
red it to the general government. The 
cemetery is semicircular in form and the 
3,590 graves are in 22 sections, with the 
feet of the dead laid toward the center of 
the semi-circle where the National m.onu- 
ment executed by Powers stands, a beautiful 
shaft 60 feet high and crowned with a 

splendid statue representing the Goddess of 
Liberty. The grounds were consecrated 
November ig, 1863, when the dedicatory 
address — of which every word seemed an 
inspiration — was delivered by Abraham 
Lincoln. Edward Everett was the orator of 
the day, and commenced his great oration 
by saying, "Standing beneath this serene 
sky, overlooking these broad fields, now re- 
posing from the labors of the waning year, 
the mighty Alleghenies dimly towering be- 
fore us, the graves of our brethren beneath 
our feet, it is with hesitation that I raise my 
poor voice to break the eloquent silence of 
God and nature;" while his closing words 
were "that wheresoever throughout the civ- 
ilized world the accounts of this great war- 
fare are read and down to the latest period 
of recorded time, in the glorious annals of 
our common country there will be no 
brighter page than that which relates to the 
battle of Gettysburg." The corner stone 
of the monument was laid July 4, 1865, with 
General Howard as orator of the day, and 
was dedicated July I, i86g, when Oliver P. 
Morton delivered the oration and in open- 
ing said, "When the monument which we 
are about to dedicate shall have crumbled 
into dust; when the last vestige of this 
cemetery shall have been obliterated by the 
hand of time; when there shall be nothing 
left of all that we see now but the hills, the 
valleys, the streams and the distant moun- 
tains, the great battle which here took 
place, with its far-reaching consequences, 
will still live in history." 

York County Political and Civil Lists. 
Congressmen: 1788, Thomas Hartley; 
1 801, John Stewart; 1804, James Kelly; 
1808, Wm. Crawford; 1812, Hugh Glas- 
gow; 1816, Jacob Spangler; 1818, Jacob 
Hostetter; 1822, J. S. Mitchell; 1826, Adam 
King; 1832, C. A. Barnitz; 1834, Henry 
Logan; 1838, James Gerry; 1842, Henry 
Nes; 1850, W. K. Kurtz; 1854, Lemuel 


Biographical ant) Portrait Cyclopedia. 

Todd; 1858, B. F. Junkin; i860, Joseph 
Bailey; 1868, R. J. Haldeman; 1872, J. A. 
McGee; 1874, Levi Maisli; 1878, F. A. 
Beltzhoover; 1882, W. A. Duncan; 1885, 
John Swope; 1887, Levi Maish; 1891, F. E. 
Behzhoover; 1895, Col. J. A. Stahle; 1897, 
George J. Benner. 

State Senators: i790,Adam Hubley, Jr., 
Michael Schmeiser and Sebastian Groff; 
1794, Michael Schmeiser and Thomas 
Lilly; 1795, James Ewing; 1800, Wm. 
Reed; 1803, Wm. Miller; 1807, Thos. 
Campbell, 1809, Wm. Gilliland; 1811, John 
Strohman; 1813, James MsSherry; 1815, 
C. A. Barnitz; 1817, Wm. GilHland; 1819, 
F. Eichelberger ; 1821, Jacob Eyster; 1823, 
Wm. Mcllvaine; 1824, Zeph. Herbert; 
1826, Henry Logan; 1829, Henry Blythe; 
1831, Henry Smyser; 1833, D. Middle- 
kauf; 1836, James McCochran; 1843, Adam 
Eby; 1846, Philip Smyser; 1849, Henry 
Fulton; 1852, T. S. Haldeman; 1855, W. 
H. Welsh; 1861, A. H. Glatz; 1863, G. H. 
Bucher; 1866, A. H. Glatz; 1872, Wm. 
McSherry; 1875, H. G. Busey; 1878, J. H. 
Ross; 1879, A. C. Miller; 1887-94, Gerard 
C. Brown; 1895-98, Harvey W. Haines. 

Members of Assembly; 1749, John 
Wright and John Armstrong; 1750, no re- 
turn; 1 75 1, John Wright and John With- 
erow; 1752, no return; 1753, John Wright 
and David McConaughy; 1760, John 
Blackburn and David McConaughy; 1765, 
John Blackburn and Robert McPherson; 
1767, .Archibald McGrew and Robert Mc- 
Pherson; 1768, Thomas Minshall and 
Michael Schwaabe; 1771, James Ewing 
and Michael Schwaabe; 1772, James 
Ewing and John Pope; 1774, James Ewing 
and Michael Schwaabe; 1776, Archibald 
McLean, Michael .Schwaabe, David Dunn- 
woodie, James Dickson, Michael Hahn and 
John Read; 1777, David Dunwoodie, 
James Dickson, Michael Hahn, Matthew 
Dill, John Agnew, John Orr; 1778, 

Thomas Hartley, Samuel Edie, Thos. Lilly, 
Michael Schmeiser, Wm. Ross, Henry 
Schlegal; 1779, David Dunwoodie, James 
Dickson, Matthew Dill, John Orr, Henry 
Schlegel, James Leeper, John Hay, David 
Kennedy; 1780, James Dickson, Thomas 
Lilly, Michael Schmeiser, Moses McLean, 
Robert Gilbraith, James Smith, Williain 
Mitchell, James Ramsay; 1781, Michael 
Hahn, Thos. Lilly, Michael Schmeiser, 
Moses McLean, Robert McPherson, James 
Ramsay, Joseph McGafifin; 1782, Michael 
Hahn, Thos. Lilly, Michael Schmeiser, 
Moses McLean, Robert McPherson, Jos- 
eph McGaffin, John Hay, Patrick Scott, 
1783, Moses McLean, Robt. McPherson, 
Joseph McGaffin, John Hay, Henry Miller, 
Philip Gardner, David Grier, David Mc- 
Conaughy; 1784, Robert McPherson, John 
Hay, Henry Miller, Philip Gardner, David 
McConaughy, James Ewing, Henry Tyson, 
Joseph Lilly; 1785, Henry Miller, PhiHp 
Gardner, David McConaughy, Henry Ty- 
son, Joseph Lilly, David McLellan, Adam 
Eichelberger, Michael Schmeiser; 1786, 
David ATcConaughy, Henry Tyson, Joseph 
Lilly, David McLellan, Adam Eichelberger, 
Michael Schmeiser; i787,Mich'l Schmeiser, 
Joseph Lilly, David McLellan, Joseph 
Read, Thomas Clingan; 1788, Michael 
Schmeiser, Thomas Lilly, Henry Tyson, 
David McLellan, Joseph Read, Thomas 
Clingan; 1789, Thomas Lilly, Thomas 
Clingan, Jacob Schmeiser, John Stewart, 
William Godfrey, Joseph Read; 1790, 
Joseph Read, Philip Gardner. Henry Tyson, 
William McPherson, John Stewart, Thos. 
Lilly; 1 79 1, Thomas Lilly, John Stewart, 
William McPherson, Alexander Turner, 
Thomas Thornburg, Henry Tyson; 1792, 
Philip Gardner, John Stewart, Alexander 
Turner, Thomas Thornburg, Thomas Lilly, 
William McPherson; 1793, Thomas Lilly, 
Philip Gardner, John Stewart, Alexander 
Turner, Thomas Campbell, James Kelly; 



1794, Philip Gardner, John Stewart, Wm. 
McPherson, Alexander Turner, Thomas 
Campbell, James Kelly; 1795, William 
McPherson, Alexander Turner, Thomas 
Campbell, Philip Gardner, William Miller, 
John Stewart; 1796, William McPherson, 
John Stewart, Philip Gardner, Alexander 
Turner, Thomas Campbell, William Miller; 
1797, Thomas Campbell, William McPher- 
son, Alexander Turner, Philip Gardner, 
Jacob Hostetter, James Kelly; 1798, Thos. 
Campbell, Alexander Turner, William Mc- 
Pherson, James Kelly, Jacob Hostetter, 
Philip Albright; 1799, William McPherson, 
Alexander Turner, Thomas Campbell, Yost 
Herbach, Alexander Cobean, Jacob Hos- 
tetter; 1800, Jacob Hostetter, Frederick 
Eichelberger, William Anderson, Michael 
Gemmill; 1801, Frederick Eichelberger, 
William Anderson, Michael Hellman, Dan- 
iel Stouffer; 1802, Frederick Eichelberger, 
William Anderson, Michael Hellman, Dan- 
iel Stouffer; 1803, Michael Hellman, Dan- 
ie Stouffer, Matthew Clark, George Speng- 
ler; 1804, Michael Hellman, Matthew 
Clark, George Spengler, Adam Hendricks; 
1805, George Spengler, Conrad Sherman, 
William McLellan, Benjamin Pedan; 1806, 
William Anderson, George Spengler, Adam 
Hendricks, Robert Hammersly; 1807, Con- 
rad Sherman, Jacob Eichelberger, Robert 
Gemmill, John McLellan; 1808, George 
Spengler, Abraham Grafifius, Archibald 
Steele, George Nes: 1809, George Spengler, 
Abraham Graffius, George Ness, Archibald 
S. Jordan; 1810, George Nes, James S. Mit- 
chell, Moses Rankin, Rudolph Spensrler; 
1811, Adam Hendricks. James S. Mitchell, 
Moses Rankin. George Stake; 1812, James 
S. Mitchell, Peter Storm. Jacob Heckert, 
Adam Hendricks: 1813, James S. Mitchell, 
Jacob Heckert, Archibald S. Jordan. Geo. 
Frysinger; 1814. Archibald S. Jordan, Peter 
Storm, Peter Small, James S. Mitchell; 
1815, Frederick Eichelberger, Peter Storm, 

John Livingston, John Strohman; 1816, 
Frederick Eichelberger, Peter Storm, Mich- 
ael Gardner, John Livingston; 1817, Mich- 
ael Gardner, Frederick Eichelberger, Peter 
Storm, Moses Rankin; 1818, Jacob Doll, 
Peter Reider, Robert Ramsey, Henry Lo- 
gan; 1 819, Jacob Doll, Peter Reider, Robert 
Ramsey, Henry Logan; 1820, Jonas Dier- 
dorff, William Nes, John Livingston, Peter 
Storm; 1821, Jonas Dierdorff, William Nes, 
John Livingston, Peter Storm; 1822, John 
Gardner, Samuel Jordan, William Diven, 
Christian Hetrick; 1823, John Gardner, 
Samuel Jordan, William Diven, Christian 
Hetrick; 1824, Samuel Jordan, Christian 
Hetrick, William Diven, John Kauffelt; 
1825, Christian Hetrick, Simon Anstine, 
John Eichelberger, Michael Gardner; 1826, 
Christian Hetrick, John Becker, Peter Wol- 
ford, Stephen T. Cooper; 1827, Stephen T. 
Cooper, Peter Wolford, John Becker, Geo. 
Fisher; 1828, Stephen T. Cooper, Michael 
Doudel, Thom-as Metzler, George Fisher; 
1829, Michael Doudel, George Fisher, An- 
drew McConkey; 1830, George Fisher, An- 
drew McConkey, John Rankin, 1831, An- 
drew Flickinger, John R. Donnel, John 
Rankin; 1832, John Rankin, John R. Don- 
nel, Daniel Durkee; 1833, John R. Donnel, 
William McClellan, Henry Snyder; 1834, 
William McClellan, Henry Snyder, Samuel 
Brooks: 1835, Jacob Kirk, Jr., Joseph Gar- 
rettson and William Cowan. The last 
named ("1885) is still living in Lower 
Chanceford at the age of ninety-five years. 
1836,-37 IMartin Shearer, John Thompson, 
Samuel Brooks, Jr., 1838, Martin Shearer, 
James Kerr, George Dare; 1840, Jacob 
Stickel, William Snodgrass, Robert Mc- 
Clellan; 1841, Isaac Garrettson, Adam 
Ebatigh, John Mav; 1842, Adam Ebaugh, 
Isaac Garrettson, William S. Picking; 1843, 
Samuel N. Bailey, M. W. McKinnon, Wil- 
liam S. Picking; 1844, William S. Picking, 
Samuel N. Bailey, Stephen McKinley;i845, 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

Samuel N. Bailey, Stephen McKinle}', John 
Kellar; 1846, James Starr, William Mc- 
Abee, George S. Murphy; 1847, William 
McAbee, William Ross, Daniel L. Gehley; 
184S-49, George F. Carl, David F. Wil- 
liams, Thomas Grove; 1850-51, Edwin C. 
Trone, Alexander C. McCurdy, Jacob M. 
Anderson, Ezekiel R. Herbert; 1854, Jacob 
K. Sidle, Vincent C. S. Eckert, Joseph Wil- 
son; 1855, Eli W. Free, William McCon- 
key, Daniel Rutter; 1856-57, Isaac Beck, 
Samuel Manear, James Ramsey; 185S-59, 
A. Heistand Glatz, William W. Wolf; 1860- 
61, Frederick Sultzbaugh, John Manifold; 
1862, J. Dellone, James Ramsay; 1863, Jos. 
Dellone, A. C. Ramsey; 1864, Daniel Reifif, 
John F. Spangler; 1865, John F. Spangler, 
James Cameron; 1S66, James Cameron, 

A. S. Lawrence; 1867-68, Levi Maish, Ste- 
phen G. Boyd; 1869-70, George R. Hursh, 

B. F. Porter; 1871-72, Lemuel Ross, Frank 
J. Magee; 1873-74, George W. Fleiges, D. 
M. Loucks; 1875-76, John B. Gemmill, 
Emanuel Myers, Adam Stevens, George 
Anstine; 1877-78, John B. Gemmill, Adam 
Stevens, Phihp S. Bowman, George E. 
Sherwood, Philip S. Bowman, William 
Campbell and John Wiest; 1881-82, Wil- 
liam Campbell, John Wiest, Millard J. 
Blackford, J. C. Deveney; 1883-84, Millard 
J. Blackford, J. C. Deveney, Morris M. 
Hays, Williams B. Bigler; 1885-86, M. J. 
McKinnon, S. J. Barnhart, J. P. Robinson, 
Charles Williams; 1887-88, Simon J. Barn- 
hart, I. C. Dellone, E. C. Strine, H. M. 
Bortner; 1889-90, L C. Dellone, J. L. Shil- 
lito, M. J. McKinnon, H. W. Haines; 1891- 
92, Harvey W. Haines, John L. Shillito, 
David C. Eberhart, Daniel S. Dubs; 1893- 
94, Daniel S. Dubs, H. W. Fishel, 
H. M. Bortner, L R. Robinson; 1895-96, 
Wm. H. Long, Chrales A. Hawkins, Chas. 
M. Kerr, James C. Graham; 1897-98, Chas. 
M. Kerr, Wm. H. Long, James C. Gra- 
ham, Reuben R. Kayler. 

Prothonotaries: 1749, George Steven- 
son; 1764, Samuel Johnston; 1777, Arch. 
McLean; 1786, Henry Miller; 1794, John 
Edie; 1800, C. W. Hartley; 1806, Wm. 
Barber; 1823, M. W. Ash, 1830, Richard 
Porter; 1833, J. W. Hetrick; 1836, Benj. 
Lanius; 1839, W. Ilgenfritz; 1845, J- R- 
Donnell; 185 1, E. Garretson; 1854, Joseph 
Holland; 1857, H. G. Bussey; 1863, W. 
Ilgenfritz; 1866, T. G. Cross; 1869, J. B. 
Ziegler; 1872, Frank Geise; 1875, W. Y 
Link; 1878, S. B. Heiges; 1881, W. H. 
Sitler; 1884, S. B. Hofif; 1887, Emanuel S. 
Smith; 1890, Henry Boll; 1893, Benj. F. 
Frick; 1896, Andrew Dellone. 

East and West Indian Trail. Over ilie 
founding and history of a great east and 
west Indian trail coming past Gettysburg 
and York from the North Mountain to the 
Susquehanna oblivion has settled such im- 
penetrable gloom that even tradition has 
not dared to penetrate its depths, and only 
imagination can vainly conjecture the 
swift march of avenging war parties and 
the fearful scenes enacted around the tort- 
ure stake and in the gaunlet running. Be- 
neath the shadows of the mountain, in the 
recesses of the valleys and by the river 
brink innumerable deeds of horror and 
m.assacre were done, and over its route un- 
numbered warrior bands advanced and 
retreated during the centuries of Indian 

Population. The population of each of 
the three counties at each United States 
census from 1790 to 1890 has been as fol- 
lows : 
U. S. Cumber- 
Census, land. Adams. York. 
1790 18,243 37,747 
1800 25,386 25,643 
1810 26,757 31,938 
1820 23,606 38,759 
1830 29,226 42,859 
1840 30.953 47.010 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


U. S. Cumber- 
Census, land. Adams. York. 
1850 34,327 57,450 
i860 40,098 28,006 68,200 
1870 43.912 30,315 76,134 
1880 45,997 32,455 87,841 
1890 47,241 33,486 99,489 

City of York. From a forest village to 
the proportions of a Nineteenth Century 
city tells the story of the growth of York 
during its one hundred and fifty-six years 
of existence. York was laid out in 1741, 
incorporated as a borough September 24, 
1787, and chartered in 1887 as a 
city. Old time fairs were held from 
1741 to about 1820, a riot occurred in 1786 
to rescue a cow taken for tax, and its post- 
office was 'established February 16, 1790, 
with Andrew Johnston as postmaster. The 
fire department dated back to April 3, 
1772, when the Sun fire company was 
formed, while the manufacturing interests 
of the city commence with the making of 
copper stills by Maj. William Bailey about 
17^5.' The York gas company was in- 
corporated January 24, 1849, Prospect Hill 
cemetery laid out in 1859 and the York 
Opera house built in 1882. The city is 
provided with good water works, a well 
equipped volunteer fire department oper- 
ated on an electric fire alarm system, and 
an efficient police department. York has 
a good electric street railway, while two 
electric plants furnish street and house 
lighting and power for manufacturing 
purposes. The city has good streets, and 
drainage and a number of building and 
loan associations. York is a city of homes 
and churches, is blessed with a good cli- 
mate, and has a large number of fraternal 

We quote from a late writer the follow- 
ing concerning the City of York: 

"The city of York is situated in the Co- 
dorus valley, in Southern Pennsylvania, 

and is the county seat of York county, one 
of the richest and most fertile agricultural 
counties in the Keystone State, and in the 
midst of a country that affords good and 
cheap living. It is distant from Harris- 
burg twenty-eight miles, from Baltimore 
fifty-seven miles, from Philadelphia ninety- 
four miles and from Washington ninety- 
seven miles, and eleven miles from the Sus- 
quehanna river, into which the Codorus 
creek finds an outlet, and has been made 
navigable by a series of slack-water pools 
and locks, completed by a company in 
1833. For many years the Codorus creek 
has served to turn the wheels of industry 
and furnishes excellent water power for 
the various operators of milling and ma- 
chinery. The city of York is surrounded 
by a picturesque and smiling landscape. 
The surrounding country is exceedingly 
fertile and the scenery is very beautiful, 
giving glimpses of mountain and valley, 
field and forest. The business portion of 
the city, which contains many handsome 
buildings, as will be seen by accompanying 
views, are beautifully laid out and present 
an attractive appearance. The line of 
goods carried in the stores is metropolitan, 
as regards richness, style and variety. The 
streets are broad and lined on either side 
by umbrageous trees, whose overhanging 
boughs and variegated leaves shelter the 
many pedestrians from the glare of the 
summer sun. 

"Prospect Hill Cemetery is one of the 
most beautiful cities of the dead in the 
country. It lies on a grassy slope on the 
uplands situated in the northern part of the 
city. The surface is picturesquely irregu- 
lar and studded here and there with a large 
variety of beautiful trees and shrubbery. 
Art has come to the aid of nature and 'aid 
out a system of winding roads and paths 
that bring to view fresh beauties at every 
turn. Exquisite and loving care is visible 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

at every point in the neatly kept lots, and 
beautiful monuments, from the simple 
headstone or slab to the more elaborate 
group or pile surrounded by expensive 
statues of various sizes. There is no lack 
of costly monuments to the old families, 
and these stones seen through the leafy 
vista make a rarely beautiful and impres- 
sive sight. 

"The Catholics have a beautifully laid 
out and well kept cemetery located in an- 
other part of the city. 

"Manufacturing has been the keynote of 
York's rapid growth, and it is this feature 
that makes the future so full of promise. 
It is situated within easy distance of the 
great coal fields and forests of Pennsyl- 
vania and its railroads lead to all markets. 
It has a contented working population who 
own their homes, and it ofifers unusual in- 
ducements to the manufacturer. These are 
described in detail elsewhere. Fuel is 
cheap, water power is used to some extent, 
and the facilities for bringing in the raw 
material and shipping away the finished 
product are good. Chief among the diver- 
sified industries are agricultural imple- 
ments, cigars and tobacco, steam engines 
and boilers, wall paper, wire cloth, ice ma- 
chinery, power transmitting machinery, 
organs and pianos, water wheels, bank 
vaults, safes and locks, and confectionery. 
These give employment to thousands of 
men and women. Late statistics are not 
compiled, but it is estimated there are 7000 
persons in the industrial ranks and that 
their yearly pay is a good way beyond the 
million mark. Two hundred and fifty sales- 
men canvass the markets in the interest of 
the manufactories, of which there are more 
than two hundred. Purchasers are found 
in several foreign countries. It needs but 
a walk through the factory sections, where 
are massive, towering mills, running up to 
six and seven stories, wood-working fac- 

tories resounding with the shriek of saws 
and planers, and on every side evidence of 
growth to convince one that this is bound 
to become a great manufacturing city. 

"For the establishment and maintenance 
of a great trade and manufacturing center, 
the question of transportation is paramount 
to all other considerations. York is highly 
favored in this respect by the centering 
here of several lines of railroads, among 
which are the Western Maryland, York 
Southern, N. C. and Frederick Division, 
the latter two being a part of the great 
Pennsylvania system, one of the greatest 
trans-continental routes in the United 
States, and a road that leads to all markets, 
and combinedly they offer transportation 
facilities equal to more favored localities. 


"The location of York is one which ren- 
ders it impossible for any combination of 
circumstances to arrest its growth, either 
as a place of business or residence. The 
past of York having furnished a record of 
continuous and sustained growth it is a fair 
presumption that the future will present 
results of proportionate advance or even 
accelerated expansion. This is an age of 
speed, and the industries of the close of the 
Nineteenth Century are surrounding them- 
selves with forces and agencies as amazing 
in their results as those of steam and elec- 
tricity. Already the developments of elec- 
trical science have given us a re\-olution in 
methods of obtaining motive power which 
bids fair to supplant all others. In the util- 
ization of all the resources which nature 
has furnished or science unveiled, there is 
every reason to believe that York will be 
abreast with the most progressive cities. It 
has no lack of men with business sagacity 
equal to the improvement of every oppor- 
tunity, and it is safe to predict that the 
historian of the industries of the future will 
be able to point back to those of to-day as 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


the auspicious beginnings of a greater and 
brighter destiny." 

Carlisle. Quiet, substantial and progres- 
sive, is the quiet and peaceful borough of 
Carlisle, the seat of justice for Cumber- 
land county and a great business center of 
the Cumberland Valley, whose early 
growth and present prosperity has resulted 
from Scotch-Irish prudence and German 
thrift. Carlisle is named for that historic 
Carlisle in Cumberland county, England, 
which like its new-world namesake lies in 
a valley between lofty ranges of paralleled 
hills. James LeTort, the French-Swiss, 
settled on the site of Carlisle about 1720. 
A Colonial stockade fort was erected at 
LeTort's some time before 1751, in which 
last named year the town was laid out. 
Carlisle was a prominent point in the 
French and Indian war, became well- 
known during Revolutionary times and the 
war of 1812, and felt the heavy hand of war 
during Lee's invasion of Pennsylvania. 
Dr. Crooks describes Carlisle in 1839 as 
follows: "The valley in the midst of which 
Carlisle stands has often been compared by 
the imaginative mind to the happy vale of 
Rasselas. Encircled lovingly on either side 
by the Blue Mountain ridge, and enveloped 
in an atmosphere of crystal clearness, on 
which the play of light and shade produce 
every hour some new and stirring effect, it 
was in a measure withdrawn from the tu- 
mult of the world. The tumult might he 
heard in the distance, but did not come 
near enough to disturb the calm of studious 

CarHsle grew slowly as an agricultural 
center and college town for many years 
and its manufacturing interests are of late 
growth. It is plentifully supplied with pure 
water, and gas for lighting was introduced 
in 1853. It has good schools, numerous 
churches and fraternal societies, and its 
beautiful Ashland cemetery was laid out :n 

1865. It has extensive shoe and carriage 
factories, machine shops and car works. 
Carlisle is distinctively a place of homes, a 
town of handsome residences and a literary 

The population of Carlisle in 1830 was 
3,708, which ten years later had increased 
to 4,350. In 1880 the population of the 
borough was 6,209 distributed in the wards 
as follows: First, 1,714; Second, 1,202; 
Third, 1,613; Fourth, 1,680. 

Major Andre was imprisoned at Carlisle 
in 1776, Washington came to the town in 
1794, and two years later Louis Philippe, 
of France, passed through it on his way to 
New Orleans. "The borough of Carlisle 
is situated in latitude 40 degrees 12 minutes 
north, longitude yy degrees 10 minutes 
west, 18 miles west of Harrisburg, in the 
Cumberland Valley, bounded upon either 
side by the long ranges of the Blue or Kit- 
tatinny mountains. The town lies in the 
midst of a rolling country, which is both 
beautiful and productive. The borough is 
laid out into wide and straight streets, rec- 
tangular, well macadamized, and with 
many trees which particularly during the 
spring and summer months, add greatly to 
the beauty of the town. Dickinson college 
is a noted institution of learning, and the 
Indian Industrial school seems to be a suc- 
cessful effort in the attempted civilization 
of a savage race. 

Gettysburg. This town whose name has 
passed alike into the history of the nation 
and the world, was founded in 1780 by 
James Gettys and grew up as the early bus- 
iness center of the Marsh Creek settlement. 
Twenty years later it became the seat of 
justice for the newly established county of 
Adams, and on March 10, 1806, was in- 
corporated as a borough, with 83 houses. 
In 1807 a classical high school was opened 
and three years later came the Gettysburg 
Academy, while the Theological Seminary 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

was established in 1826, and Pennsylvania 
College was founded in 1832, thus making 
the town at an early day a religious and 
literary center. Fire companies were or- 
dered as early as 1808, and the first engine 
house was built in the following year. The 
first water works was secured by Thad- 
deus Stevens, and now a large reservoir is 
kept filled from an inexhaustible lake of 
pure water having a 70 foot granite roof. 
Gettysburg has good banking and railroad 
facilities, and the great battle field and sol- 
dier's cemetery has made it a famous na- 
tional resort. The town is well supplied 
with schools and churches and fraternal so- 
cieties. The population of Gettysburg in 
i88o was 2,814. 

Boroughs. Commencing with Cumber- 
land county we find that Shippensburg was 
settled by 12 families in June, 1730, but 
not laid out until I740,and is second in order 
of age of the towns in Pennsylvania west 
of the Susquehanna. Its founder, Edward 
Shippen, was the grandfather of Benedict 
Arnold's wife, and in 1750 the first court 
of justice for Cumberland county convened 
in it. The early growth of Shippensburg 
was slow on account of Indian depreda- 
tions. It was a fort town, is the oldest 
town in the valley, but was not incorpor- 
rated till January, 1819. In 1810 it had 
1,410 population; in 1840, 1,473; and in 
1880, 2,213. Shippensburg has improved 
greatly since 1880. It became a post town 
in 1790, has excellent schools and numer- 
ous churches and is the seat of the Seventh 
State Normal school of Pennsylvania, while 
it has two papers and a number of societies 
and enjoys good railroad facilities. 

Mechanicsburg, the second town in pop- 
ulation and importance of Cumberland 
county, was laid out in 1820 and incorpor- 
ated April 28, 1828, being formerly known 
as Drytown and Stoufferstown. Its popula- 
tion in 1830 was 554, and in 1881 was 3018. 

Mechanicsburg is a manufacturing and 
agricultural center with water and gas 
works, and churches, schools and banking 
and railroad facilities. 

Shiremanstown, twelve miles east of Car- 
lisle, derives its name from Daniel Shire- 
man, had its first house in 1814, and was 
incorporated 60 years later. Its population 
in 1880 was 404, and it is a prosperous 
railroad town. 

Camp Hill is two miles west of the Sus- 
quehanna river, was known until 1867 as 
White Hall and became a borough in 1885, 
The White Hall Soldier's Orphan school is 
at this place whose population in 1880 was 

Newburg is between Carlisle and Rox- 
burg, was laid out in 1819, organized as a 
borough in 1861, and in 1880 had a popu- 
lation of 433. 

New Cumberland, originally known as 
Haldeman's town, is on the site of a Shaw- 
nee village and on the west bank of the 
Susquehanna river at the mouth of Yellow 
Breeches creek. It was laid out in 1814 and 
incorporated in 1831. New Cumberland 
was an early grain, iron and lumber center, 
and Governor Geary made it his residence 
for a number of years. It is a prosperous 
town, and its population in 1880 was 569. 

Newville, founded during the colonial 
days, and laid out in 1794, is 12 miles west- 
ward of Carlisle, and was incorporated Feb- 
ruary 26, 1817. It is a flourishing railroad 
borough, having a population of 1547 in 
1880. It was the home for many years of 
Wm. Denning, who made the first wrought 
iron cannon in America. It has a fire de- 
partment, newspaper and bank, with sever- 
al churches and societies. 

Mt. Holly Springs is at the entrance to 
Holly gap and almost within the shadow of 
the South Mountain, deriving its name 
from the gap and comprising what was 
known formerly as Upper and Lower 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


Holly, Kiderminster and Papertown. Iron 
works were built here as early as 1785, and 
the new founded village and afterwards 
rapidly growing town became quite an iron 
and paper manufacturing center. During 
Lee's invasion in 1863 over 40,000 men 
passed through Mt. Holly. The town was 
incorporated in 1873, and is thriving and 
prosperous, having paper factories, a news- 
paper, churches and schools and one of the 
most beautiful streets in the State. Popu- 
lation in 1880, 1,256. 

In Adams county the boroughs are not 
as large or as numerous as in Cumberland 
and York counties. 

Abbottstown dates back to 1773 for its 
first settlement, was laid out in 1755 by 
John Abbott, and incorporated in 1835 
under the name of Berwick. It is a rail- 
road town and in 1880 had 368 population. 
The name of the borough was changed be- 
tween 1880 and 1886 from Berwick to that 
of Abbottstown. 

McSherrytown, named for Patrick Mc- 
Sherry, was laid out November 14, and in- 
corporated in 1882. It has macadamized 
streets, a building and loan association, 
pubHc and parochial schools, the latter held 
partly in the old convent buildings and 
under charge of the Sisters of St. Joseph. 

Littlestown, on the "Dutch plateau" was 
laid out in 1765 and incorporated in 1864. 
It was originally known as Kleina Stedtte, 
then as Petersburg and finally became Lit- 
tlestown. The place is thoroughly mod- 
ernized, and has its complement of 
churches and schools. The population in 
1890 was 991. 

East Berlin, in the northeastern part of 
Hamilton township, was laid out May 8, 
1764, and incorporated in 1879. It has 
been prosperous and in 1890 had 595 pop- 

York Springs, on Latimore creek, was 
laid out in 1800 under the name of Peters- 

burg for Peter Thick the first settler and 
merchant, and incorporated in 1868 as 
York Springs, receiving the latter name on 
account of its sulphur springs. Its popula- 
tion in 1890 was 340. 

New Oxford was laid out in 1792 as Ox- 
ford Town, and incorporated August 1874 
as New Oxford. It is a railroad town, was 
the seat of New Oxford medical college 
during its existence and has a very fine 
cemetery. It had 585 population in 1890 
and is a prosperous town. 

York county contains the largest number 
of boroughs of any county in the Nine- 
teenth Congressional district. 

Hanover, one of the most important 
towns and business centers of Southern 
Pennsylvania, was laid out in 1763 or 1764 
by Richard McAllister. The name was 
given in honor of Hanover, Germany, at the 
suggestion of Michael Tanner, a native of 
that German duchy. Hanover was not in- 
corporated until 181 5 and has had an event- 
ful history. The postofifice was established 
in 1794, the first bank was chartered in 
1835, and the first industry of importance 
was wagon-making. Numerous industries 
are now carried on at Hanover. The fire 
department traces its existence back as far 
as 1780, gas was introduced in 1870, and 
two years later a water company was organ- 
ized, while old time fairs were kept up for 
many years. Hanover has excellent rail- 
road facilities which it utilizes for many 
present purposes. Its schools and churches 
are numerous and flourishing, while many 
facilities exist for future prosperity. The 
population in 1890 was 3,746. 

Entomology. Rev. Frederick V. Mel- 
sheimer and his sons. Rev. John F. and 
Dr. Ernst F., of York county, have been 
called the "Fathers of American entomo- 
logy." Rev. F. V. Melsheimer in 1806, 
published the well known catalogue of In- 
sects of Pennsylvania. It was a work of 


60 pages and classified 1363 species of Rev. D. Ziegler, of York borough, was 

beetles. The Melsheimer collection of ento- an eminent entomologist and his collection 

mological specimens was bought by Louis was also bought by Agassiz and is now in 

Agassiz and is now in the museum of Har- the Harvard College Museum. The Ziegler 

vard College. It contains 5,302 species, collection consists of 5,302 species of in- 

14,774 specimens, and was sold for $250. sects with 11,837 specimens. 





miah S. Black was born in Somer- 
set County, Penn., January lo, 1810, and 
received the usual education in the schools 
of the neighborhood of his home. His 
father, Henry Black, was for twenty years 
an associate judge of that county, was a 
member of the State Legislature and a 
representative in Congress. His mother 
was born in York County, and was a 
daughter of Patrick Sullivan, who came to 
this country about the year 1790; was a 
captain in the Revolutionary war, and was 
married in York County, whence he re- 
moved to Somerset. The future chief jus- 
tice and statesman very early evinced a 
predilection for the higher order of litera- 
ture and classics, and such studies prepared 
him for the exercise of that forcible 
rhetoric so eminent a characteristic of his 
subsequent literary and forensic disputa- 
tions. He studied law with Chauncey 
Forward, Esq., of Somerset, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar before he was of age. 
When Mr. Forward was elected to Con- 
gress his business was intrusted to Mr. 
Black, who was soon after appointed deputy 
attorney general for Somerset county. 

In 1842, at the age of thirty-two years, he 
was appointed by Gov. Porter, president 
judge of the Sixteenth Judicial District of 
Pennsylvania, succeeding the Hon. Alex- 
ander Thompson. He very soon attained 
distinction as a judge, and became known 
throughout the Commonwealth as one of 
its judicial lights. The law was then, as it 

were, in a transition state in many of its 
features, and the symptoms of those inno- 
vations which subsequently occasioned al- 
most acrimonious controversy on the elec- 
tive supreme bench, had begun to manifest 
themselves. In 1851, under the judiciary 
amendments to the constitution, he was 
made one of the candidates by the Demo- 
cratic Convention for the Supreme Bench, 
together with John B. Gibson, then Chief 
Justice; Ellis Lewis, then President of the 
Lancaster District; Walter H. Lawrie, of 
the district court of Pittsburgh, and James 
Campbell, late of the common pleas of 
Philadelphia. At the election he received 
the highest popular vote. On the opposite 
ticket were such men as William M. Mere- 
dith and Joshua Comley and Richard Coul- 
ter, the last-named being elected. 

Judge Black became chief justice by lot, 
drawing the shortest term. In 1854, his 
term having expired, he was re-elected to 
the supreme bench over Hon. Daniel M. 
Smyser and Hon. Thomas H. Baird by a 
very large plurality vote. His judicial ca- 
reer, though brief, was distingushed; his 
decisions, contained in the State reports 
from Fourth Harris to Fifth Casey, are 
cited as emphatic expositions of the law; and 
when he was obliged to dissent from the 
majority of the court, his opinions contain- 
ed unquestionable law at the time. His loy- 
alty to his great predecessor in the chief 
justiceship, as well as his own firm convic- 
tions regarding what were then acknowl- 
edged landmarks of the law, held them to- 

1 66 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

gether against what they conceived to be 
innovations; and this position was main- 
tained by him after his lamented and re- 
nowned colleague, Judge Gibson, was re- 
moved from the bench by death. These 
evolutions, however, take place in law, as 
well as in other human afifairs; and the 
body of our jurisprudence received a deep 
impress from his terse and vigorous style, 
the clearness and logical force of his rea- 
soning, almost formulating a code on many 
subjects discussed by him. 

Shortly after the 4th of March, 1857, 
while upon the supreme bench. President 
Buchanan appointed him Attorney-General 
of the United States. In this position, upon 
which he entered with no other experience 
as a lawyer than the practice of Pennsyl- 
vania law affords, and no political experi- 
ence other than may be gained by any citi- 
zen, he acquired distinction. In law, the 
great cases of the California land grants, in- 
volving in extent over 19,000 square miles, 
including a large part of San Francisco,tlie 
whole of Sacramento and other cities, and 
in money $150,000,000, called into exercise 
not only the legal ability, but the profes- 
sional skill of the Attorney General, result- 
ing in a great triumph of justice over a 
most stupendous fraud. This laid the foun- 
dation as a lawyer, and secured that mar- 
velous success that attended his subsequent 
professional career. 

In statesmanship, during that trying per- 
iod of our country's history, there devolved 
upon him the most onerous duties. 
He was the principal adviser of the Presi- 
dent, who was a man of high intellectual 
abihty, but who, on account of the warring 
elements of his cabinet, was compelled to 
lean his arm upon his Attorney General for 
support. Upon the resignation of Gen. 
Cass, Mr. Buchanan appointed Judge Black 
Secretary of State. The events of the clos- 
ing months of that administration are me- 

morable, and the action of the cabinet has 
been but recently revealed. The course of 
Judge Black has been vindicated by the 
documents prepared under his own hand 
or supervision, and the legal and constitu- 
tional status of the government and its pow- 
ers, in case of secession as then expovmded, 
and the wisdom of the determination of the 
many intricate questions arising in that 
crisis, have been sustained in the light of 
subsequent events. 

During the earlier portion of that admin- 
istration, the great struggle between the 
North and the South for the occupation of 
the territories under existing institutions 
culminated. The Lecompton constitution 
and other troublesome matters raised issues 
that severed the dominant party. The great 
champion of territorial rights, Stephen A. 
Douglas, had announced doctrines on be- 
half of the party which the attorney-general 
entering the arena, showed to be unsound. 
It was in that controversy that Judge Black 
first attracted the attention of the people of 
the United States to that keen power of 
logic and force of rhetoric which have made 
him so famous in polemics. 

At the close of Mr. Buchanan's adminis- 
tration Judge Black was nominated for the 
supreme bench of the United States, but, 
in that crisis, and in the midst of the poli- 
tical excitement thereby occasioned, it was 
not acted upon. He was subsequently ap- 
pointed reporter of the supreme courts, and 
published two volumes: First and Second 

At the close of Mr. Buchanan's adminis- 
tration he became a resident of York, and 
participated in the trial of some local 

The career of Judge Black after his re- 
tirement from public life was unexampled 
in the line of professional success as a law- 
yer. His name is associated with greater 
cases and larger fees than that of any 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


American lawyer who preceded him, in the 
highest tribunal of the land or in local 
courts. The war gave rise to a class of 
cases which, strange to say, involved the 
fundamental principles of liberty, the strug- 
gles for which had been handed down to us 
from a past age, and which, it was presurri- 
ed, had been settled a century before. The 
cases of citizens of the republic, Blyew, Mc- 
Ardle and Milligan, have made the state 
trials of the United States of America more 
illustrious than those of Great Britain, for 
they arrested in this land the encroachment 
of a government, Republican in form, upon 
the absolute rights of individuals, when the 
excitement of the hour seemed to obscure 
the better judgment of those in power. They 
established the judiciary as truly the bul- 
wark of liberty. 

The case of Blyew arose under the Civil 
Rights' Bill. The defendant had been sen- 
tenced to death by a Federal court in the 
State of Kentucky, but the prisoner, for 
whom Judge Black appeared, was released 
by the supreme court. The case of Mc- 
Ardle arose under the Reconstruction acts. 
The defendant was held under a conviction 
by a military commission, and under the ar- 
gument of Judge Black would have been re- 
leased had not Congress invalidated the jur- 
isdiction of the supreme court. The prisoner 
was then released by the government. The 
case of Milligan was a trial and conviction 
before a military commission. He, too, was 
under sentence of death, approved by the 
president of the United States. The case 
came before the supreme court on a writ of 
habeas corpus. The argument of Judge 
Black, in this last mentioned case, is 
one of the most memorable of forensic ef- 
forts before any tribunal. The case is among 
the most celebrated of State trials, and its 
result, the discharge of the prisoner, main- 
tained inviolate the constitution of the 
United States. 

In 1876, the year that completed the cen- 
tenary of American independence, a presi- 
dential election took place, the contest over 
the result of which shook the pillars of our 
electoral system. By an electoral commis- 
sion, mutually agreed upon by the contest 
ants, the question of the result in the several 
disputed States was determined by a ma- 
jority of the commission according to their 
political predilections. Judge Black, as 
one of the counsel for Mr. Tilden, contend- 
ed with great force against the fraudulent 
returns which were counted. His effort in 
the South Carolina case is a masterpiece of 
bold invective. 

Judge Black occupied no official position 
after leaving the cabinet, except as a mem- 
ber of the constitutional convention of 
Pennsylvania, 1872-3, as a delegate at large. 
His appearance in that body attracted the 
marked attention of his fellow members, as 
did also every word he uttered there, not 
only in debate but in ordinary conversation. 
Though he participated but little in its pub- 
lic discussions, he largely influenced the ac- 
tion of the convention on many important 
subjects, notably those upon the restric- 
tions of railroad corporations and upon 
legislative jobbery. Afterward he took 
the part of the people before the ju- 
diciary committees of the legislature 
against monopolies, as manifested in the 
combinations in defiance of the new consti- 
tution, and contended for the power of the 
general assembly to check their rapacity. 
In the matter of legislative jobbery, the of- 
fense of private solicitation under which 
the conviction of prominent lobbyists has 
been secured, was owing to him, as well 
as in a great degree the limits put upon the 
legislative power. 

Judge Black acquired fame as a contro- 
versialist on many subjects connected with 
his own political experience on questions of 
political reform and the redress of wrongs. 

1 68 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

He also entered the arena in defense of 
Christianity, with a force of logic that the 
champion of the attack has not been able 
to answer. 

His colloquial powers were of the highest 
order. It has been regretted that there has 
been no Boswell to transcribe his many 
wise and witty sayings, the strength and 
drollery of his observations, his readiness 
of forensic repartee, nay, his deep philoso- 
phy. The table-talk of many of the literati, 
such as Coleridge, for instance, has been 
given to the world, and the coteries of 
France, where the great Franklin appeared 
with his practical wisdom, have been cele- 
brated by historians. Are there not many 
observations of our own savant that may yet 
be profitably gathered for publication? 

Judge Black enjoyed the powers of his 
intellect to the last. He seemed to be in the 
enjoyment of sound health when stricken 
by the hand of death at his beautiful home, 
"Brockie," near York. He died, August 
19, 1883. His high character, his open 
heartedness and wealth of intellectual re- 
sources have made his memory sacred 
among the people of his adopted home, the 
fame of which has been eniianced by his 

How shall I attempt to give, even in 
rudest outline, the true sketch of a hu- 
man life? Even the best biography gives but 
a distorted skeleton, without flesh and 
blood. Johnson is embalmed in Boswell, 
but how much of Johnson, even in this 
completest of all human biographies, has 
escaped? We know each other but imper- 
fectly while we live and measure others 
with imperfect and partial standards when 
they have departed. For, after all, we but 
give the faint outlines of the picture as it 
is reflected in ourselves. 

* Contributed by Bennett Bellman, Esq. 

To write such a sketch of the life of Mr. 
Bosler we shall not attempt, save in so far 
as the few facts and suggestions gathered 
serve to give some glimpse, as it were, of 
a strong and kindly personality that has 
gone from among us; to attempt to do 
more than this would be presumptuous, for, 
as Emerson has said of thought, human 
souls "will not sit for their portraits." 

I was too young and my personal ac- 
quaintance with Mr. Bosler too slight to 
gather more from my own knowledge than 
the strong impression of his kindly per- 
sonality, and I think but few, even of those 
in our own community who were his 
closest personal friends, knew him for the 
man he really was. They knew his genial 
comradeship, his charming bon hommie, 
his kindly hospitality, his modest and 
unassuming manner without pretension to 
seem other than just what he was; a smaller 
circle knew his generosity of heart; all 
knew of his large business tact and far 
seeing judgment — his pecuniary success in 
life, — but few knew, or now know his wide 
acquaintance in later life with the most 
prominent public men of the day and his 
large influence in helping to mould the 
"passing destiny" of the State and of the 
Republic. The prophet hath honor save 
in his own country and the real influence 
of a man is known only after he is dead. 

Such has been the case with the subject 
of this memoir. His predominant trait, as 
known to his casual acquaintances and to 
his fellow townsmen, was his modest, his 
sunshiny geniality, his unassuming kindli- 
ness and generosity. He was the kind of 
a man who would do anything for a friend 
and who seemed to have no enemy. Wealth 
and success may conceal this where enmity 
may wear a mask, but in this case there 
was no enmity to be concealed. The man 
in this world who meets with masks must 
wear one, and he wore none. In dress 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 

he was neat and unostentatious as in man- 
ner, and in manner he was the same to the 
laborer and to the millionaire. Success 
did not bring him envy or make him proud 
and the influence which his wealth, his 
practical intelligence and large knowledge 
of business and of men gave to him to 
wield, he used in a wider sphere than that 
of which he ever spoke save to his closest 
friends — nor did the general public know. 
His correspondence, to which we have had 
access, reveals it, and of this we dare use 
but a fragmentary portion. 

James Williamson Bosler, deceased, was 
of German lineage. He was born upon 
the homestead farm, in Silver's Spring 
township, Cumberland county. Pa., April 
4th, 1833. He was the third son of Abram 
and Eliza (Herman) Bosler, and was de- 
scended upon the paternal side by the 
fourth generation from Jacob Bosler, who 
settled in Donegal township, Lancaster 
county, Pa. His descendant, John Bosler, 
(the grandfather of the subject of this 
memoir) married Catharine Gish, of Lan- 
caster county, after which he removed to 
Silver's Spring township, Cumberland 
county, in 1791, and there purchased the 
homestead where our subject was born. 
Abram Bosler, the father of James W. 
Bosler, was the youngest child of John and 
Catharine (Gish) Bosler. He married, 
February 20th, 1830, Eliza Herman, of 
Silver's Spring township, a daughter of 
Martin and Elizabeth (Bowers) Herman, 
the former of whom was descended from 
Martin Herman who emigrated from Ger- 
many in 1754 and settled in Silver's Spring 
township in 1771. Their son. Christian, 
born in Lancaster county in 1 761, was a 
soldier in the Revolution, fought under 
Washington at Germantown, passed 
through the trials and sufferings at Valley 
Forge, and was present at the seige of 
Yorktown and the surrender of Lord 

Cornwallis. He was, upon the maternal 
side, the grandfather of our subject. He 
married Elizabeth Bowers, of York 
county, Pa., in 1793, and their daughter, 
Eliza, married Abram Bosler, the father of 
our subject, as above mentioned. Abram 
Bosler died at his residence in Carlisle (to 
which place he had removed in 1871) De- 
cember 31st, 1883, in the seventy-eighth 
year of his age. He was a prominent 
farmer and merchant, and had been en- 
gaged in the milHng and distilling business 
for many years. He was a life long mem- 
ber of the Presbyterian church, first at Sil- 
ver's Spring and subsequently of the Sec- 
ond Presbyterian church, at Carlisle, as 
was also his wife. Their eight children, all 
born in Silver's Spring township, were: J. 
Herman, James W., Benjamin C, Joseph, 
Elizabeth Bowers, Mary Catharine, George 
Morris and Charles, who died in infancy. 

James W. Bosler obtained a good, but 
not a complete collegiate education. His 
lines were not those of the student of books 
but of life. He knew less of books than of 
men. He remained upon the homestead 
farm until he entered Cumberland Acad- 
emy, at New Kingston. Two years later 
he entered Dickinson College, at which in- 
stitution he remained during his junior 
year. He was possessed of only moderate 
means, and after he left college, in 1852, 
he taught school in Moultrie, Columbiana 
county, Ohio, during the winters of 1853- 
54. He then went to Wheeling, West 
Virginia, where he read law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar. His inclinations led 
him to a business hfe, and at Wheeling, W. 
Va., he entered a store and next bought 
and controlled one in the same Ohio 
county where he had taught school. In 
1855 his store was destroyed by fire and he 
determined to go further west, which 
movement was the beginning of his re- 
markably successful business career. He 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

made the long journey to Sioux City, on 
the frontier of Iowa, where the recently or- 
ganized territories of Kansas and Ne- 
braska stood on the further banks of the 
Missouri river, ready to become the battle 
ground of the slavery and fre€ labor ques- 
tions. Here he formed a partnership in 
the banking and real estate business with 
Charles E. Hedges, and there established 
the "Sioux City Bank" under the firm 
name of Bosler & Hedges, and later en- 
gaged in the forwarding and contracting 
of supplies — goods, grain and cattle — for 
the Interior and War Department of the 
Government from his extensive ranches on 
the North Missouri river. The partner- 
ship was dissolved in 1866, but Mr. Bosler 
continued and extended the business until 
the time of his death. He was the pioneer 
representative in this line from Cumber- 
land county. He lived for half a century 
and built up a fortune not only for himself, 
but for his family, for his brothers partici- 
pated in his success. As this was then 
upon the frontier of civilization most of the 
business which came to the bank was nat- 
urally connected with the government op- 
erations. The Indians were close by, 
many of whom by treaty had to be fed by 
the government. Railroads, in the course 
of time, led straight through that country. 
The raising of cattle on the nutritious 
grasses of the plains was known to this 
man among the earliest. He became a 
strong and successful operator and up- 
builder in this new field of energy. If he 
was a man who seemed to have exceptional 
opportunities it was because he made them, 
and was the architect of his own fortune. 
"He who will not take advantage of oppor- 
tunities," said Napoleon, "may be sure that 
opportunities will take advantage of him." 
There is luck in life, and real or seeming 
chance, but more than this there is cool, 
clear sighted judgment and the indomita- 

ble will which strives with circumstances 
and conquers fortune. 

During his residence in Sioux City he 
was an active politician; he erected by con- 
tract the school house and jail of that city, 
and was nominated for the State Treasurer 
of Iowa on the Democratic ticket. He was 
elected to the State Legislature, and in 
1859 hs was sent as a delegate to that polit- 
ical convention at Charleston, South Caro- 
lina, where "a distempered individual broke 
down one of the great parties of the coun- 
try and made the civil war inevitable." 

At the brink of the war he married in 
i860, at Rose Balcony, near Boiling 
Springs, Helen Beltzhoover, daughter of 
Michael G. and Mary (Herman) Beltz- 
hoover, and with her he lived out the war 
period at Sioux City. Having by dint of 
energy and business sagacity by this time 
acquired a large fortune, he returned, in 
1866, to his native county in Pennsyl- 
vania, and built himself a beautiful resi- 
dence in the suburbs of Carlisle, where, 
although still continuing his extensive bus- 
iness in the West, he continued to reside 
until his death. For many years before 
his death he was a warm personal friend of 
Hon. James G. Blaine, of Maine, whose 
ancestors were originally from Cumberland 
county, and he was on intimate terms with 
a large number of the distinguished men of 
the country. Among these were such men 
as Garfield, Arthur and Brewster. He was 
a member of the Republican National 
Committee in the memorable campaign of 
1880, and he, John Roach, the shipbuilder, 
and Senator Chaffee, of Colorado, were ap- 
pointed a committee to take charge of the 
interest of ]\Ir. Blaine in his campaign for 
the Presidency in the Chicago Convention 
of that year. 

Says George Alfred Townsend, better 
known as "Gath." in speaking of Mr. Bos- 
ler, "His work for his party, his State, his 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


neighborhood was always that of a leader. 
Without any pretention he went to the 
front when an important thing was to be 
done, and by his example other men be- 
came as generous, and to him the election 
of General Garfield was as much due as to 
any man in the United States. He organ- 
ized the financial support of that campaign, 
when it had begun to droop, and he never 
asked to be named in the matter, but on the 
contrary compelled those who had knowl- 
edge of the subject to omit reference to 
him." Again in a published article he 
says: "Every time that he (Mr. Blaine) 
made a campaign for the Presidency, Mr. 
Hosier's subscription was at the top, but 
he was not content with giving money 
alone, he made other men give up to his 
measure. When Garfield was running for 
President in 1880 Mr. Bosler made a list of 
rich men who should have a sense of con- 
sonance with the government, and he re- 
fused to take from these men any sub- 
scription less than ten thousand dollars. 
In many cases these men had business rela- 
tions with him, and he said to them, "I 
want you on this list, and it will be a mat- 
ter of sacrifice for you as for me." 

Although not a member of that conven- 
tion of 1880, he was present and was a 
most interested spectator of it. In a letter 
written to him by Hon. Benjamin Harris 
Brewster the action of some of the delegates 
of that convention is eloquently compared 
to the charge at Balaclava — "it was grand, 
but it was not war — it was not politics." 
But when the candidate was named Mr. 
Bosler gave his loyal adhesion and support 
to Mr. Garfield and became his friend. 

"The Roscoe Conkling Republicans," 
says Townsend, "made repeated efforts 
during the Star Route investigations to 
besmirch Mr. Bosler. The idea was that 
if Mr. Bosler could be shown to have any 
connection with the Star Route matters 

some slime would attach to Mr. Blaine 
himself. His only relation with that ele- 
ment was a banker's relation. They had 
within the Post Office Department made 
up their combination, but they needed 
money to buy their equipments. As it was 
the act of the government through its rep- 
resentatives, Mr. Bosler loaned the money. 
They were never able to make any mark 
upon his character." 

The most interesting of all Mr. Hosier's 
political correspondence is that between 
himself and Hon. Benjamin Harris Brew- 
ster, who was one of Mr. Bosler's closest 
friends, and who frequently enjoyed his 
hospitality. These letters were written in 
1880 and 1 881; they were often written on 
successive days, and they deal in the most 
unreserved manner with the characters of 
many of the most noted public men of the 
day, and with the unpublished secrets of 
the campaign, in the city of Philadelphia, 
the State and of the Nation. 

The warm personal intimacy which ex- 
isted between Mr. Blaine and Mr. Bosler 
may be judged by the following beautiful 
tribute which was written by Mr. Blaine 
to Mrs. Bosler several years after his death. 
He says: "As the years go by I realize 
more and more how great was my own loss 
in the death of your husband, and from that 
I can realize in some faint degree how in- 
estimable was your affection. He was the 
dearest and most unselfish of friends, and 
I keep his memory green in my heart." 
Some have said that Mr. Blaine was cold. 
He was present at the funeral of Mr. Bos- 
ler, and there was a tear that glistened in 
his eye as he stood beside the silent form 
of his dead friend. 

Another wrote: "He certainly was one 
of the grandest specimens of American 
manhood I ever knew, and one whose loy- 
alty and devotion to friendship will never 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

be forgotten by a single person who ever 
had the right to cah him friend." 

Mr. Brewster wrote to him: "For you 
and your labors and anxiety and generous 
interest in my behalf, I can never — never 
be too grateful, and I hope I may get to be 
able to show my gratitude in some practi- 
cal way. It has been one of the great 
compliments of my life that I have in some 
happy way attracted the esteem and jeal- 
ous good feeling of an earnest, honest, able 
and practical man like yourself." 

Mr. Brewster might well say so. At the 
time when these letters were written Ben- 
jamin Brewster, the erudite, the polished, 
the profound lawyer and gentleman of the 
old school, had the bee of office very badly 
in his bonnet. He wanted the Senatorship 
and Mr. Bosler aided him, but he was de- 
feated; he wanted to be Postmaster Gen- 
eral and was afraid that another possible 
appointment would crowd him out; and 
then — what at first he feared was not within 
his reach — he wanted, more and more, and 
with an ever increasing and pathetic long- 
ing — to be Attorney General — and he got 
it, and he got it principally or altogether 
through the influence and efforts of his 
friend, Mr. James Bosler. This we know 
is unwritten history. Here is some frag- 
mentary proof: 

We find from these letters that Mr. Bos- 
ler was ardent for Mr. Blaine. Mr. Brew- 
ster, who wanted the Senatorship, wished 
Mr. Bosler to reach Gen'l Bingham and 
other such Blaine men who could control 
representatives. December 28th, 1880, he 
writes that Mr. Blaine has been offered the 
Secretaryship of State, and that he will ac- 
cept it — that the intention was to give 
either the Attorney Generalship or Post- 
master Generalship to Pennsylvania. '"I 
hope," he says, "not the Postmaster 
Generalship, as that will rule me out if 
I fail in the present enterprise." He 

writes, December 29th, that four names 
from Pennsylvania are under considera- 
tion, viz: Harmer for Postmaster Gen- 
eral and for Attorney General, Armstrong. 
McVeagh and Brewster. Then stating 
some facts, he adds: "Now do you 
keep that open until after the Senatorship 
is done for. D. Cameron is now with 
Garfield — that I know — do not have it 
from me, but it is so. Mr. Garfield may 
slip into some promise with him now. That 
should not be, and you can prevent that. 
Mr. Blaine can prevent that — do so! 
Should the Senatorship be a failure then 
the Attorney Generalship will be open, 
etc., etc. Verily you are a man of deeds. 
To-day's Times (McClure's) contains just 
such a letter from Washington as you said 
you would have written. Thanks!" On 
January 2nd, 1881, he says: "If the com- 
mission for a Senatorship and for the At- 
torney Generalship laid side by side on my 
table now, I would be puzzled which to 
pick up. The Attorney Generalship has 
such temptations for a lawyer, and I feel I 
would not like the contention of Senatorial 
life." January 4th, 1881, he writes: "I 
have no friend I trust more fully than I do 
you. Your generous ofifer to help me and 
your constant current of unbroken useful- 
ness have prompted me to impose too 
much on you. Your wisdom and knowl- 
edge of men will guide you."* * * At bot- 
tom I fear it is any one but Brewster. It 
looks so. Do you keep watch on this. I 
may be mistaken * * * but I put great 
faith in your ability to collect unexpected 
strength for me from the Grow and other 
sources outside of all that combination 
which has been professing to help my pro- 
motion. January 17th, 1 881: "You gave 
me great and comforting consolation on ac- 
count of your talk with Mr. Blaine. * * * 
We should see each other. That is all 
that Mr. Garfield and Mr. Blaine want as 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


evidence of the real state of things. Let 
us shape ourselves for the cordial support 
of this administration and the restoration 
of honest party rule obeying public opinion 
in the State." January 22d, 1881 : "If you 
have that proposed talk with Mr. Blaine 
and can present the subject of the Attorney 
Generalship as you proposed to do, it will 
gratify me more than all of the Senator- 
ships that can be proposed. You may make 
that a success — indeed I think you can and 
will, for Pennsylvania must and ought to be 
remembered." Feb. 9th, '81, he writes: 
''Each day developes the wisdom of your 
line of action and I am happy that I have 
conformed to it. If I am chosen I will owe 
it to your prudent advise. * * I write to 
you for I must talk to some one on this 
subject and keep silent to the rest of the 
world. I would by far rather be Attorney 
General. It would just suit my turn of 
mind and be the crowning of my career as 
a lawyer." Later (i8th of February, 1S81) 
he reiterates: "For my part I would — yes, 
by far, be the Attorney General. That is the 
place to rule in. Urge that, urge that, and 
we will win. * * J never can repay you 
for your anxiety and your efforts. I fear 
that as the city is late and the time short 
that my chance is short too. I hope not, 
for by all the gods at once I would rathei 
have that than to be President or Senator." 
In May he says, "I think it is very import- 
ant that we should see each other. I wish 
we may act in harmony and concert and 
desire to confer with you before I act at all. 
You should put Mr. Blaine on his guard as 
to this, * * * So Mr. Conkling has 
strutted ofif. Bah! out of all this will 
come a boiling cauldron. Mr, Mahone and 
his "pragmatic sanction" is broken. "God 
disposes when man only proposes." Alas! 
there did come, if not the boiling cauldron, 
the assassin's bullet; but we have quoted 
enough from these letters which throw a 

lurid side-light upon the times, to indicate 
the close personal and political relationship 
of Mr. Bosler to Mr. Brewster, who did be- 
come Attorney General, winning that niucli 
coveted prize in the President's cabinet, and 
as we believe, principall}', against the 
machinations of others, through the influ- 
ence of his friend. 

In 1882, Mr. Bosler was nominated by 
the Republicans in the 32d District, em- 
bracing the counties of Cumberland and 
Adams, for State Senator, as against Sam- 
uel Wagner, the Democratic candidate. The 
district had 1800 Democratic majority, 
which he reduced to 130. The contest was 
therefore a very close one, Mr. Bosler run- 
ning so far ahead of the ticket — some 1600 — 
that on the face of the returns he was only 
beaten by a small majority. He at once 
announced his intention of contesting his 
opponent's claim to the certificate of elec- 
tion, and the case was taken into court. 
Here he adduced evidence showing fraud 
at the polls, but there was not sufficient to 
overcome the returned majority for Mr. 

His whole life shows, that, like the king- 
maker, Warwick, he cared more for the po- 
litical preferment of his friends than he did 
for his own success in this one personal at- 
tempt in politics. With his large influence, 
his extensive acquaintance with public men, 
and wide knowledge of public affairs, he 
may, and we believe he did, see public is- 
sues and interests which would have been 
greatly conserved by his election. Who 
knows? We know acts, but he who would 
pass a final judgment upon the motives of 
his fellow man usurps the attributes of the 

The dark curtain upon his life was soon 
to fall, beyond which no mortal sees. He 
died in his office, on the beautiful grounds 
of his residence, on Monday afternoon, De- 
cember 17th, 1883. He had arrived home, 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

only a few daj's previously, from a business 
trip to Philadelphia and Washington, and 
was stricken down, in the prime of life, by 
the hand of death, in the form of apoplexy. 
As his friend "Gath" has pathetically said: 
"A boy's heart below his shoulders and a 
man's head above them, he wore himself 
out smiling, and hardly knew that he was 
tired; but the active brain, submerged in its 
own blood told the tale of a fellow sufferer 
with all who push beyond the plainest limi- 
tations of existence, and proved that the 
real martyrs of life are often not those who 
fail, but those who succeed." 

There is little else to tell. In 1883 he at- 
tended, with some friends, the centenary 
anniversary of Dickinson College, in which 
he had been a student when a boy, and, at a 
meeting of the trustees, with his usual gen- 
erositv, he subscribed ten thousand dollars 
to the endowment of a Prof. McClintock 
chair. He died before this was carried into 
execution, and his widow added unto this 
more than seven fold, the result of which is 
seen in the splendid "James W. Bosler 
Memorial Hall," which will stand for cen- 
turies as a monument to his memory. 

His sudden death was a shock to the 
commimity, to which he had shown himself 
so public spirited a friend and citizen, and 
drew forth the warmest expressions of sym- 
pathy from the widest business and political 
circles. To some of these we have alluded. 
Kindly words of regret and sympathy came 
from Hon. Chas. B. Lore. James G. Blaine, 
Hon. Stephen B. Elkins, Thos. Beaver, of 
Danville, Jacob Lome, of Maryland, Enoch 
Pratt, of Baltimore library fame, and from 
others of this class. 

We have only space to add a tribute by 
H. J. Ramsdell, the well known Washing- 
ton correspondent, which he wrote to the 
"Philadelphia Press" at this time. It is as 
follows : 

To the Editor of the Press: 

Sir: I returned last night from the fun- 
eral of a man who was loved by all his 
neighbors, high and low, and whose death 
I shall never cease to mourn. Friendship 
is a word used most thoughtlessly. Ordinar- 
ily it does not mean anything. As long as 
one man can be of use to another, friend- 
ship is a pleasant word; as long as one man 
can amuse another they are friends as the 
world goes. But when ill-luck or adver- 
sity comes, the common friendship of men 
is blown away by the first wind. James W. 
Bosler, of Carlisle, died last Monday, and 
was buried in the beautiful village of his 
birth on Thursday. Such universal mourn- 
ing I never saw. On the day of the funer- 
al the picturesque park in which his magni- 
ficent house is situated was thronged with 
people, rich and poor, high and low, men, 
women, children. In the house were the re- 
latives of the deceased and the distinguished 
persons who came to pay the only tribute 
they could pay to the man they loved. I 
have no wish to parade their names. A 
choking sensation was felt in every throat 
when Mr. Blaine burst into tears as he 
looked at the face of his dead friend. It was 
the saddest scene I ever saw. A thousand 
persons said when his name was mentioned : 
"He was the best friend I ever had." 

In this city it is much the same: "Poor 
Bosler," "Dear Old Bosler," are heard 
everj'where. He never said an ungentle 
word in his life, and he never did a mean 
thing. I could fill The Press with the 
noble things he has done. He was one of 
the very few greatly successful men in the 
world who did not lose his heart. He was 
several times a millionaire, if reports are 
true, and yet his manners, his dress, and 
habits were as simple as the humblest man 
in his employ. 

By his marriage to Helen Beltzhoover 
Mr. Bosler left five children, four of whom 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


are living, namely, Frank C, born May ist, 
1869, graduated from Harvard College in 
the class of 1894; Mary Eliza; De Witt Clin- 
ton, born April 25th, 1873, graduated from 
Harvard College, class of 1897; and Helen 
Louise Bosler. 

He was one of the incorporators of the 
Independent National Bank, of Philadel- 
phia, and a director until the time of his 
death. At the time of his death he was 
President of the Palo Blanco Cattle Com- 
pany, of New Mexico, and of the Carlisle 
Manufacturing Company, and he was a 
director of the Carlisle Deposit Bank and 
of the Gas and Water Company of his na- 
tive borough. No man, says a local obitu- 
ary, "was more generally beloved in a com- 
munity than was Mr. Bosler in Carlisle, for 
his benevolence was as broad as his means 
were great. With a strong intelligence and 
remarkable judgement he united great 
kindness of heart." 

He was a man of deeds. Whatever he 
promised he kept. His word was his bond, 
and this was in great things and small. But 
he held not this exactitude of others if pov- 
erty or adverse circumstances prevented of 
its keeping; he aided, and with a careless 
grace those who were thus circumstanced, 
sympathizing rather with the weaknesses of 
human nature than, Shylock-like, demand- 
ing the fulfillment of his bond. 

A word in closing this somewhat lengthy 
sketch! For the dead, if they have been 
successful in life (and only, often, as the 
world regards "success") there is apt to be 
too much eulogy and for those who fail or 
are criminal, perchance, too much blame. 
Obituaries and tombstones often lie, so 
that, with Charles Lamb, we sometimes 
wonder where the bad are buried. Human 
judgment fails and justice errs, and to hold 
the balances at all seems to be an almost 
sacriligious act, against that divine precept 
of the Christian Master, "Judge not that 

ye be not judged." In this deeper sense, as 
we interpret it, we put no finger upon the 
question of tne religious belief of the sub- 
ject of this sketch. We believe that men 
are wider than are creeds. While in heart- 
felt sympathy with the church of his ances- 
tors and a trustee of the Second Presbyter- 
ian church of Carlisle, we are inclined to be- 
lieve that he never became an active mem- 
ber of it, (although financially a strong sup- 
porter of it) because, perhaps unconsciously 
he inclined to a belief in the axiom we have 
expressed. He was, we would suppose 
from his character, too modest of his own 
merits to do so without strong conviction, 
and, possibly Hke so many others, would 
rather remain without the pale of that "sa- 
cred circle" than be in it with the chance of 
his own conscience accusing him of being 
a hypocrite. Few men were less sceptical 
than he. Of religion we never heard him 
speak — we do not think it was his nature to 
do SO' — but of humanity he was full, and of 
charity to his fellow man. 

a distinguished citizen of Get- 
tysburg, Pennsylvania, is a descendant 
in the fourth generation of Robert and 
Janet McPherson, who settled on Marsh 
creek, Adams county, (then Lancaster) in 
the year 1738. Robert McPherson died in 
1749 and his wife in 1769. 

Col. Robert McPherson, his great-grand- 
father, was educated at the academy located 
at New London, Chester county, Pennsyl- 
vania, and was for thirty years an active 
and influential citizen and filled many im- 
portant positions in York county. He was 
auditor in 1755 and 1767; commissioner in 
1756: sherifif in 1762 and assemblyman in 
1765 to 1767 and 1781 to 1784. He was a 
member for York county of the provincial 
conference of committees which met in 
Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia, June 18, 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

T776, and was also a member of the Con- 
stitutional Convention which in July, 1776. 
formulated the first Constitution of the 
State of Pennsylvania. He was captain in 
Gen. Forbes' expedition to reduce Fort 
Duquesne in 1758 and served as colonel in 
the Revolutionary army and after the ex- 
piration of his term as an assistant com- 
missary of supplies. His wife was Agnes 
Miller, of the Cumberland Valley, by whom 
he had nine children, six daughters and 
three sons. Of the former two died in in- 
fancy. Janet married David Grier, of 
York; Mary married Alexander Russell, 
Esq., of Gettysburg; Agnes married Dr. 
Andrew McDowell, of Chambersburg, and 
Elizabeth married James Riddle, of Cham- 
bersburg. The eldest son, William mar- 
ried, first, Mary Carrick, of Maryland, and 
after her death Sarah Reynolds, of Ship- 
pensburg, Pennsylvania. Robert died un- 
married and John married Sarah Smith, of 
Frederick, Maryland. Col. Robert was 
one of the chartered trustees of Dickinson 
College. He died in 1789. 

Lieutenant William McPherson, grand- 
father of Edward, served honorably in the 
Revolutionary war, having been a lieuten 
ant in 1776 in Miles Rifle Regiment, and 
was captured by the enemy at the battle of 
Long Island and kept a prisoner of war for 
nearly two years. On his return to civic 
life he discharged many public trusts, and 
for nine years represented York county in 
the Legislature as the special champion of 
the bill for the creation of Adams county, 
which division was made in 1800. He died 
in Gettysburg August 2, 1832, in his sev- 
enty-fifth year. 

John B. McPherson, grandson of Col. 
Robert McPherson, a son of Lieutenant 
William McPherson, by Mary Carrick, of 
Frederick county, Maryland, and father of 
Edward, was born near Gettysburg, No- 
vember 15, 1789, on the farm on which his 

great-grandfather settled in 1738. He died 
in Gettysburg, January 4, 1858. John 
B. McPherson lost his mother when quite 
young and spent several of his earlier years 
with his grandfather, Capt. Samuel Car- 
rick, of the neighborhood of Emittsburg, 
Maryland. He subsequently returned 
to his home, where he spent his youth. He 
received a fair education at the academies 
of Gettysburg and York, subsequently 
spent several years of his life in Frederick 
City, Maryland, with his uncle. Col. John 
McPherson, and for a year was a clerk in 
the Branch bank located in that place. He 
was married in Frederick, April 5, 1810, to 
Catharine, daughter of Godfrey Lenhart, 
Esq., and grand-daughter of Yost Har- 
bach (now spelled Harbaugh), all of York 
county. Early in 18 14 he removed to 
Gettysburg with a view to entering the 
mercantile business, but on the 26th of 
May, of that year, was elected cashier of 
the bank of Gettysburg, then recently char- 
tered and organized. He continued in that 
position until his death, a period of nearly 
forty-four years. He had superior busi- 
ness ability and courteous manners, com- 
bined with strength of character and a high 
sense of personal and official honor. He 
participated actively in municipal and 
county affairs and filled many posts of 
trust. He was a highly intelligent and 
well read man, a patron and efficient friend 
of Pennsylvania College, of whose board of 
trustees he was president at the time of his 
death. His widow survived him about one 
year. They left several children. A grand 
son. Dr. J. McPherson Scott, has twice 
represented his native county of Washing- 
ton, Maryland, in the Legislature, is a phy- 
sician of high standing and was a district 
delegate to the Republican National Con- 
vention of 1884. 

Hon. Edward IMcPherson, youngest son 
of John B. and Catharine McPherson, was 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


born in Gettysburg, July 31, 1830, and was 
educated at the public schools of that bor- 
ough, and at Pennsylvania College, gradu- 
ating from the latter as valedictorian of his 
class in 1848. He early developed a taste 
for politics and journalism, but at the re- 
quest of his father began the study of law 
with Hon. Thaddeus Stevens, at Lancas- 
ter, which, however, he abandoned on ac- 
count of failing health and for several win- 
ters was employed at Harrisburg as a re- 
porter of legislative proceedings and a cor- 
respondent of the Philadelphia North 
American and other newspapers. In the 
campaign of 1851 he edited in the interests 
of the Whig party the Harrisburg Daily 
American, and in the fall of that year he 
took charge of the Lancaster Independent 
Whig which he edited until January, 1854. 
In the spring of 1853, he started the Inland 
Daily, the first daily paper published at 
Lancaster. His health proved unequal to 
such exacting labors and he relinquished 
them as stated, except for brief periods at 
Pittsburg, in 1855, and at Philadelphia 
from the Fall of 1878 to the Spring of 1880, 
since which time he has not had active 
connection with the press. The first im- 
portant public service rendered by Mr. 
McPherson was the preparation of a series 
of letters, ten in number, which were 
printed in the Philadelphia Evening Bulle- 
tin in the year 1857 and afterward in pam- 
phlet form, their object being to prove the 
soundness of the financial policy which de- 
manded the sale by the State of its main 
line of public improvements. The letters 
analyzed the reports of the canal commis- 
sioners for a series of years, proved the 
falsity of conclusions drawn from them, and 
demonstrated the folly of State ownership 
and management. The letters were never 
answered, and they formed the text from 
which were drawn the arguments in favor 
of the sale which was accomplished in 1858. 

The next year he prepared a like series on 
the sale of the branches of the State canal 
which had a like reception. Both series of 
letters were published anonymously, but 
were signed "Adams," after his native 
cotmty. In 1856 he published an address 
on "The Growth of Individualism," which 
was delivered before the alumni of his alma 
mater, of whose board of trustees he had 
been for years an active member. Another 
was published in 1858 on the "Christian 
Principle, Its Influence Upon Govern- 
ment," and still another in 1859, on "The 
Family in its Relations to the State," both 
of which were delivered before the Y. M. C. 
A., of Gettysburg. In 1863 he delivered 
an address before the literary societies of 
Dickinson College, on the subject "Know 
Thyself," personally and nationally con- 
sidered. In 1858 Mr. McPherson was 
elected to the 36th Congress from the i6th 
district of Pennsylvania, then embracing 
the counties of Adams, Franklin, Fulton, 
Bedford and Juniata, and was re-elected in 
i860. In 1862 he was defeated in the 
political re-action of that date, the district 
having been meanwhile changed by the 
substitution of Somerset county for Juniata. 
LTpon the completion of his Congressional 
term of service he was appointed in 1863, 
by President Lincoln, upon Secretary 
Chase's recommendation. Deputy Com- 
missioner of Internal Revenue, in which 
position he served until December, 1863, 
when he was chosen Clerk of the House of 
Representatives for the 38th Congress, 
which office he continued to hold during 
the 39th, 40th, 41st, 42d and 43d Con- 
gresses, again in the 47th Congress, and 
again in the 51st Congress, being the long- 
est continuous service and the longest ser- 
vice in that post of any similar official from 
the beginning of the government. During 
the administration of President Hayes he 
served as chief of the Bureau of Engraving 



of the Treasury Department for i8 months, 
during which time he re-organized and re- 
formed its administration and obtained 
from Congress an appropriation of $325,- 
000 for the erection of its present fire-proof 
building in Washington city. The entire 
cost of it was met out of one year's appro- 
priations made for the bureau and an equal 
amount was left unexpended in the treas- 
ury. During his service in Congress the 
principal speeches of Mr. McPherson were 
on "Disorganization and Disunion," deliv- 
ered February 4, i860, in review of the two 
months' contest over the election of a 
Speaker in the 36th Congress; "The Dis- 
union Conspiracy," delivered January 23, 
1861, in examination of the secession move- 
ment and the arguments made in justifica- 
tion of it; "The RebeUion; Our Relations 
and Duties," delivered February 14, 1862, 
in general discussion of the war; "The Ad- 
ministration of Abraham Lincoln and Its 
Assailants," delivered June 5, 1862. During 
and since his incumbency of the clerkship 
he published "A Political History of the 
United States During the Rebellion," ex- 
tending from the Presidential election of 
i860 to April 12, 1865, the date of Linc- 
oln's death; "A Political History of the 
United States During the Period of Re- 
construction," extending from 1865 to 
1870; "Hand Book of Politics for 1870 and 
1872;" Hand Book of Politics for 1872 and 
1874; also similar hand books at intervals 
of two years up and including 1894. These 
latter volumes are editorial compilations 
of the political records of men and parties 
during that eventful period, and have re- 
ceived a high place in the confidence of all 
parties for completeness, fairness and ac- 
curacy. During the Summer and Fall of 
1861 our subject served as a volunteer aide 
on the staff of Gen. McCall, commanding 
the Pennsylvania Reserves, with a view of 
studying the wants and organization of the 

army, and to fit himself for intelligent leg- 
islative action on those subjects. In the 
37th Congress he was a member of the mil- 
itary committee of the House and took an 
active part in legislation respecting ths 
army. He also served as chairman of the 
committee on the library and as regent oi 
the Smithsonian Institute. He was sec- 
retary of the People's State Committee of 
Pennsylvania in 1857; was a member of the 
Republican National Committee from i860 
to 1864; was frequently a delegate to State 
conventions; was a representative delegate 
to the Republican National convention of 
1876, and was permanent president of that 
body. He actively participated in politics 
for many years and had been during five 
campaigns the secretary of the Republican 
Congressional committee. In 1867 the de- 
gree LL. D. was conferred upon him by 
Pennsylvania College. Mr. McPherson 
was married November 12, 1862, to Miss 
Annie D., daughter of John S. Crawford, 
Esq., of Gettysburg, and grand daughter, 
on her father's side, of Dr. William Craw- 
ford, a native of Scotland, who settled near 
Gettysburg about 1786, and who for eight 
years represented that district in Congress, 
and on her mother's side, of Rev. Dr. Wil- 
liam Paxton, who for nearly fifty years 
served with distinction and abihty Lower 
Adlarsh Creek Presbyterian church. To this 
union were born five children, four sons 
and one daughter, whose names are as fol- 
lows: John B., William L., Norman C, 
Donald P., and Annie D. McPherson. 

John B. McPherson, Esq., was born on 
October 7, 1863. He received his prelimi- 
nary education in the private schools of 
Gettysburg and entered Penns)dvania Col- 
lege in the year 1879. from which he was 
graduated in 1883. He subsequently be- 
came a student at the University of Penn- 
sylvania, from whose law department he 
was graduated in the class of 1888. After 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


graduation he returned to his native place 
and became editor of the Star and Sentinel, 
a position which he held from that time 
until 1896. In the latter year he sold his 
interest to Guyon H. Buehler, Esq., and re- 
tired from journalism. He immediately 
associated himself with his brother, Donald 
P. McPherson, under the firm name of Mc- 
Pherson & McPherson, in the practice of 
law. In i8g6 he was elected vice president 
of the Gettysburg National Bank and a 
trustee of Pennsylvania College. 

Donald P. McPherson is a graduate of 
Pennsylvania College, class of 1889, and of 
Harvard Law school, class of 1895. Like 
their father before them, the McPhersons 
are loyal Republicans and take an active 
interest in the politics of their county and 

most prominent and distinguished 
families of Southern Pennsylvania this fam- 
ily must be accorded a high place, both in 
point of business success and social posi- 
tion. The business interests of the Small 
family largely centre around the well 
known firm of P. A. & S. Small, the origi- 
nal members of which were Philip A., and 
Samuel Small, both of whom are now de- 

Philip Albright Small and Samuel Small 
were descendants from the prolific stock of 
Lorenz Schmah, a German emigrant to 
America from the Middle Palatinate in the 
year 1743. Lorenz Schmall upon his ar- 
rival settled in what is now Hellam town- 
ship, about six miles east of York. His 
family consisted of four sons and two 
daughters, the eldest of whom, Killian, set- 
tled in the town of York, where he begat 
seven sons: Jacob, John, George Joseph, 
Peter, Rlichael and Henry. George Small, 
the third son married Anna Maria Albright, 
a daughter of Philip Albright, an oilicer in 

the Revolutionar}' army, whose sword re- 
mains in the possession of the family. Pie 
had four children: Cassandra, Philip Al- 
bright, Samuel and Alexander. George 
Small became a carpenter and assisted his 
brother Peter in building the Lutheran 
church and spire, still standing on South 
George street. In 1809, he purchased for 
thirteen hundred dollars the property at the 
corner of East Main street and Centre 
Square, in the borough of York, where 
subsequently he went into business with his 
sons, and where that business has been con- 
tinued to the present day. 

Philip Albright Small, eldest son of 
George, commenced his business life in the 
employ of Shulz, Koenig & Company, of 
Baltimore, who had extensive hardware 
and grocery trade throughout the South. 
For this firm he made collections, travel- 
ing on horse back through Virginia, the 
Carolinas, Northern Georgia and Alabama, 
Tennessee and Kentucky, returning from 
Cincinnati by boat and stage. In 182 1 he 
entered into the hardware business with his 
father on the corner of East Market street 
and Centre Square, under the firm name of 
George Small & Son, which was afterward 
changed to George Small & Sons, upon the 
second, Samuel, becoming a partner. In 
1833, George Small, desiring to retire 
from business, sold out his interest to his 
sons and then, on July i, 1833, the firm ot 
P. A. & S. Small began and has ever since 
continued its honorable career without 
blot or stain, without protest or extension, 
without interruption of its prosperity, or 
any shadow on its credit. In 1838 the 
completion of the Baltimore and Susque- 
hanna railroad, from Baltimore to York, 
enabled the firm to commence a grain busi- 
ness, buying and shipping to Baltimore 
large quantities, which has since enlarged 
into an extensive flour manufacture and 
shipping business with Rio Janeiro and 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

other South American ports. In the same 
year the manufacture of iron, then grow- 
ing in importance, was begtm by the firm, 
first at Manor, York county, then at Sarah 
Furnace, Harford county, Maryland, and 
afterward at Ashland, Baltimore county, 
Maryland, in which latter place, in con- 
junction with Messrs. E. & J. Patterson, 
they erected large furnaces. The high 
credit always enjoyed by P. A. & S. Small, 
made the firm for many years the depositor 
of many large sums of money on call, left 
with them especially by the farmers from 
whom they made their purchases of grain; 
the amount of cash thus deposited witli 
them ran up as high as 200,000 dollars, and 
this continued until the firm, owing to the 
decreasing value of money and rates of in- 
terest, declined any longer to receive de- 

The senior member, Philip A. Small, de- 
voted his attention principally to the man- 
agement of the out door business of the 
firm. The mills, farms, ore banks and fur- 
naces were under his supervision. He was 
always a firm believer in the value of real 
estate, and much of the large amount of 
land owned by the firm was bought at his 
instance. In all matters connected with 
agriculture he was an expert and recog- 
nized as an authority. One of the origina- 
tors of the York County Agricultural So- 
ciety and one of its board of managers for 
a number of years, he was deeply interested 
in the promotion of scientific husbandry. 

He was a man of singularly genial dispo- 
sition, of most pleasing and agreeable man- 
ners and yet withal of great personal dig- 
nity. He was peculiarly charitable in his 
judgment of the conduct of others and of 
the most absolute integrity and truthful- 
ness himself, he could tolerate no false- 
hood or fraud in any one, yet his kindly 
disposition made him slow to condemn. On 
all public questions his views were broad 

and catholic and on matters of public or 
economic policy his counsels were wise and 
judicious. Politically he was first a Whig 
and afterward upon the organization of the 
Republican party became an ardent sup- 
supporter of that body. 

On account of his business sagacity 
Philip A. Small occupied many positions oS 
trust in various corporations external to 
the direct interests of the firm of P. A. & 
S. Small. For many years he was presi- 
dent of the York County National Bank, 
was a director and active promoter of the 
Hanover and York railroad company; was a 
director of the York Water company and 
president of Ashland Iron company. His 
counsel and assistance were always sought 
and never vainly in every enterprise and 
undertaking for the advancement of the 
public good. 

He died on April 3, 1875, leaving to sur- 
vive him five daughters and three sons, who 
now compose the firm of P. A. & S. Small ; 
George, William Latimer and Samuel, the 
first being one of the leading business men 
of Baltimore. 

Samuel Small, second son of George 
Small and Anna Maria, his wife, was born 
in York on July 25, 1799. Like his brother 
Philip, he commenced his business career 
in the employ of Shulz, Koenig & Com- 
pany, of Baltimore, who, recognizing his 
abihty, sent him to Pittsburg to open a 
branch store. Here he made a new depar- 
ture by removing his stock of goods to a 
flat boat, which he floated down the Ohio 
river stopping at various points on its 
banks to make sales. He landed at Cin- 
cinnati, rented a store and put in it his 
stock of goods. While engaged in busi- 
ness in Cincinnati he received letters from 
his father urging him to return to York, 
and in the year 1826, having sold out his 
store in Cincinnati, returned to his native 
city and engaged with the late George S. 


Morris in the dry goods business, where 
the building occupied by the York County 
National Bank now stands. This he con- 
tinued until his admittance into the firm of 
George Small & Sons, the predecessors, as 
already stated of P. A. & S. Small. His 
time and attention henceforth were mainly 
devoted to the financial departments of the 
firm's business, to the management of 
which he was exceedingly well adapted. As 
a financier, he was shrewd, cautious and far 
sighted, never led into foolish speculations 
by specious appearances, but instinctively 
distinguished the substantial and solid from 
the merely meretricious. He was acknowl- 
edged to be the highest authority in his 
community on all matters of a financial 

On the death of the late William Cole- 
man, Mr. Small became guardian of his two 
minor children. The estate, though im- 
mensely valuable had been grossly mis- 
managed when Mr. Small assumed control. 
But so skillful did he (with the aid of Arte- 
mus Wilhelm, Esq.,) manage the estate that 
on the arrival of the heirs at their respec- 
tive majorities he turned over to each up- 
ward of a million and a third of dollars, be- 
sides their valuable ore land. For these 
years of efficient service he made no charge. 

Mr. Small was preeminently a philan- 
thropist, and it is in connection with his 
noble charities that he will be longest re- 
membered in the community where he 
spent his life. His hand was ever open to 
the appeal of the poor and friendless. No 
worthy applicant was ever turned away un- 
aided. In person and by trusted assistants 
he constantly sought out the necessitous in 
order to minister to their necessities. Ahorse 
and conveyance was kept for the use of one 
of his assistants in this work, in order that 
he might more readily reach the poor and 
money was ever furnished to meet all 
worthy demands. 

In connection with the late Charles A. 
Morris and others, he founded the Chil- 
dren's Home of York, where fatherless and 
motherless, deserted and friendless children 
have been cared for and educated and after- 
ward followed into the active duties of life 
with his paternal benediction. The York 
Collegiate Institute was exclusively founded 
and endowed by him. Here he endeavored 
to found an institution where the forma- 
tion of individual Christian character would 
be the first aim. He endowed it liberally 
and provided a fund called the "Coleman 
Scholarship Fund," to assist young men 
in preparation for the Christian ministry. 
Fle also with others established the York 
Hospital and Dispensary, donated the build- 
ing and ground and subscribed liberally 
to its support. These acts of public char- 
ity and philanthropy were supplemented 
by many others lesser in extent but just 
as important in their moral results. His life 
seemed a perfect continuum of business suc- 
cess, charitable giving and devotion to the 
common interests of humanity. 

Early in life he united himself with the 
German Reformed Church, but later be- 
came a member and ruling elder in the 
First Presbyterian church. In church, Sun- 
day school and prayer meeting, while in 
health, his seat was never vacant. 

He died July 14, 1885, and the day of his 
sepulture was observed by a general sus- 
pension of business and a universal exhibi- 
tion of grief. He occupied a larger place 
in the public estimation, was more loved and 
respected throughout the community, has 
left in his death a greater vacancy, and been 
more missed than any other individual in 
his city or county ever has been or possibly 
could be. 

The peculiar share of Cumberland 
countv in the life of this eminent man 


Biographical antd Portrait Cyclopedia. 

of science calls for, at least, a brief state- 
ment of the leading facts in his life. 

He was born in Reading, Pa., February 
3rd, 1823. His father, Samuel Baird, a 
lawyer in that city, died when he was ten 
years old. He spent several years at a 
Quaker boarding school, at Port Deposit, 
Md.; entered Dickinson College in 1837, 
and was graduated in 1840, at the age of 
seventeen. He continued to reside with 
his mother in Carlisle for the next few years 
prosecuting studies in Natural History, and 
attended a course of lectures in JMedicine in 
New York. In 1845 he was made pro- 
fessor of Natural History in his alma mater 
and in 1848 professor of Chemistry and 
Natural Philosophy. This position he held 
until called to the Smithsonian Institution 
at Washington, July 5th, 1850, as assist- 
ant secretary, at the suggestion of professor 
Henry, who had been greatly impressed, 
upon his acquaintance with him. His 
father had been a lover of nature and out- 
door pursuits, as well as a cultured gentle- 
man. His two sons seem to have inherited 
his tastes. The elder, William, became in- 
terested in making a collection of the 
game-birds of Cumberland county in 1836, 
and found in the younger brother an in- 
telligent, as well as enthusiastic collabo- 
rator. In 1842 they jointly published a de- 
scription of two new species. In 1838 
Spencer made the acquaintance of Audu- 
bon, with whom he corresponded for many 
years, and from whom he received many 
specimens for his collection. During that 
period he made many scientific excursions 
on foot throughout Pennsylvania, walking 
in one of them, at the age of 18. 400 miles 
through the mountains in 21 days, and in 
1842 traversing on foot over 2,200 miles. 
As a result his collection of birds, deposited 
in the Smithsonian Institution, when he be- 
came assistant secretary, numbered 3,696, 
and contained specimens of almost every 

species of bird occurring regularly or oth- 
erwise in eastern and central Pennsylvania. 
It is still in a complete state of preserva- 
tion, entirely free from insects; the labels, 
with their precise data firmly attached, al- 
though it has been much handled; "every 
standard work on North American birds 
published since 1850, having been based 
essentially upon it, so far as eastern species 
are concerned." But his attention even 
then was by no means exclusively confined 
to ornithology. The flora was almost as 
familiar as its birds. New species of fos- 
sils were described. The cave on the Con- 
edoguinet, near Carlisle, always of great 
local interest, was thoroughly and scienti- 
fically explored, and wagon loads of bones 
of animals, mostly extinct in this region, 
removed. They are deposited in the 
Smithsonian Institution, and are exceed- 
ingly interesting as among the earliest re- 
sults of cave explorations. As a professor 
in the college he was an inspiration to those 
who were brought into contact with him. 
After his removal to Washington he was 
a frequent visitor to Carlisle, where his sis- 
ter continued to reside, and he seemed to 
have quite an interest in the old borough 
and its vicinity. Many of the older inhabi- 
tants of the rural districts still recall inci- 
dents connected with some of his tramps 
afield. Upon his entrance into the Smith- 
sonian, he at once proved a valuable coad- 
jutor of Professor Henry in carrying out 
the plans that have made that institution 
unique in its influence upon scientific in- 
vestigation and the distribution of scientific 
information. In 1878, upon the death of 
Professor Henry, he was appointed secre- 
tary. It is difficult to estimate the field of 
his greatest usefulness. As an investiga- 
tor and author he had already become the 
authority in ornithology. The publication 
of his great work "The Birds of North 
America" (first published by the Govern- 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


ment as Vol. IX of the "Report of Explora- 
tions and Surveys to ascertain the most 
practicable and economical route for a 
Railroad from the Mississippi River to the 
Pacific Ocean"), is regarded "as the begin- 
ning of the so called "Bairdian Period of 
American Ornithology," and excited an in- 
fluence more widely felt, even, than Audu- 
bon's and Wilson's, and together with his 
subsequent publications, made a profound 
impression on European ornithologists. In 
other departments of zoology he was al- 
most equally influential. In his official po- 
sition he was ever alert in promoting scien- 
tific investigation. Experts were attached 
to government exploring, surveying and 
railroad expeditions, and naval cruises, and 
thoughtfully equipped for the acquisition 
of information and material. With the vast 
accumulations resulting from these, he pro- 
jected a National Museum building, and 
got for it the favorable consideration of 
Congress. The attention of Congress 
having been called to the decline in the 
production of the fisheries, it authorized the 
appointment of a Commissioner of Fish- 
eries of approved scientific and practical 
acquaintance with the fishes of the coast to 
prosecute investigations into the causes and 
to report measures for adoption. He was 
at once appointed by President Grant and 
confirmed by the Senate, in 1871. Labor- 
atories were established and vessels fitted 
up for investigation, and in a few years he 
brought together the largest body of facts 
relating to fish and fisheries ever prepared 
or digested for such purposes by any in- 
dividual or organization, and was "recog- 
nized by experts of foreign countries with 
one accord, as the most eminent living au- 
thority on economic ichthyology." The 
biological laboratory at Wood's Holl, under 
him became the greatest in the world. He 
edited for seven years the "Annual Record 
of Science and Industry," and the scien- 

tific columns of many leading periodicals. 
He was always on call of the government. 
He was advisory counsel at the Halifax 
Fishery Commission in 1877. His multi- 
farious occupations gave him but little time 
for rest. As director of the United States 
National Museum, secretary of the Smith- 
sonian Institute, and United States Com- 
missioner of Fish and Fisheries he per- 
formed the labors of three more than ordi- 
nary men. He worked easily and system- 
atically, and enjoyed his work, but even his 
strong physique, developed by early out-door 
pursuits combined with great capacity for 
work, at last gave away under the demands 
made upon him, and especially under the 
great responsibility attached to his several 
official positions. At the urgent advice of 
his physician he agreed to take needed rest. 
He spent his last ten months at Wood's 
Holl, where he died August 19th, 1887. A 
few days before his death he was wheeled 
through the laboratories he had built up, 
interested in everything around him. Per- 
sonally, Professor Baird was physically 
above the usual stature. He was of a mod- 
est, retiring, almost difficult disposition. He 
seldom, if ever, made a formal address or 
set speech. But when occasion arose, clear 
in presentation of a case, fortified with a 
complete knowledge of his subject, with 
consummate tact, in a conversational way, 
he generally carried conviction, without the 
graces of oratory. His success in carrying 
through his great plans was due in great 
degree to his remarkable ability in that re- 
spect. In his relations with others he was 
eminently fair and honorable. No one as- 
sociated with him, ever felt that he did not 
receive his full share of credit. He was 
unselfish in the highest degree, often per- 
forming work of the highest character 
without remuneration. His name attached 
to any enterprise was sufficient guarantee 
of its honorable character. He could not be 

1 84 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

drawn into personal controversy. As his 
own knowledge in many fields, vast as it 
was, was in so great a measure the result 
of his own investigations, he sympathized 
with the spirit of investigation in others, 
and was always accessible to any one, how- 
ever humble, who could be aided by advice 
or information. As recreation this busy 
man enjoyed lighter fiction and juvenile 
stories. He is survived by a wife and 

For further details reference is made to 
the Biography, one of the United States 
Museum publications, in which may be 
found a complete bibliography of his writ- 
ings comprising more than looo titles, the 
names of societies, American and foreign, 
of which he was an active or honorary 
member, of honorary degrees conferred 
and of the decorations bestowed upon him 
by foreign governments. 

MOLLY PITCHER. The simple ac- 
count of a picturesque historic 
incident, especially if invested with the 
romantic interest a woman's participa- 
tion imparts, often becomes rapidly en- 
crusted with so many traditional varia- 
tions in details, which obscure the 
basis of historic truth, that the in- 
credulous are inclined to regard the 
whole story as one of those pleasing myths 
that often embellish sober history. Such is 
the story of Molly Pitcher, the heroine of 
the battle of Monmouth. But in Carlisle, 
from which place she went, to which she 
returned after the war, where she died 
among her descendants and where she is 
buried, there is no doubt about the leading 
facts of her life. The Molly Pitcher, of 
Lossing, the heroine of Ft. Washington, 
buried along the Hudson, is a different in- 
dividual though frequently confounded with 
the heroine of Monmouth. The substan- 
tial facts seem to be: that during the battle 

of Monmouth, June 28th, 1778, lasting 
through "one of the hottest days ever 
known," when soldiers were dying of heat 
and thirst, the wife of John Hays, a ser- 
geant of artillery, was carrying water in a 
pitcher to the thirsty soldiers, who called 
her familiarly, by reason of this grateful ser- 
vice, Molly Pitcher. Her husband during 
the battle was struck down insensible, but 
not killed as is frequently stated, and the 
piece was ordered to be withdrawn. She 
at once stepped to the front, seized the 
rammer and continued to assist in serving 
the piece effectively till the close of the bat- 
tle. Tradition, among other things, says 
that the attention of General Washington 
was attracted by her and he complimented 
her and made her a sergeant on the spot 
and that the soldiers thereafter called her ser- 
geant or Major Molly. At all events her 
husband recovered and she continued with 
him in the army, nursing the sick and 
wounded and making herself generally use- 
ful. At the close of the war she returned 
with him to Carlisle, where he shortly after- 
ward died. She was then married to John 
McCauly, a friend and fellow soldier of her 
husband. He did not live very long and 
their marriage was not a very happy one. 
She survived her husband many years, 
known of course as Molly McCauly, and 
the statements so frequently made that 
Molly Pitcher was a young Irish woman, 
originated doubtless, from this name derived 
from her second marriage. The fact is she 
was of good Pennsylvania-German stock. 
Her maiden name, Mary Ludwig, would 
almost justify this statement; but, in addi- 
tion, her grand-daughter, Polly McClees- 
ter, who knew her well, when it was sug- 
gested, that she was Irish, replied indig- 
nantly: "No, she was Dutch as sauer 
krout; her maiden name was Mary Lud- 
wig!" Her first husband, John Hays, was 
a barber in Carlisle at the outbreak of the 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


war, and enlisted there in the artillery. 
She soon joined him in the field at his re- 
quest, and with the permission of Colonel 
Proctor, commanding the regiment. They 
had been married several years before. As 
a girl of about 20, she had been "hired" in 
the family of Gen. William Irwin, of Car- 
lisle, and her grand-daughter recollected an 
account given her of the short and amusing 
courtship, commenced whilst she was 
sweeping in front of the Irwin home, in her 
short gown and petticoat. She was still 
with the Irwin family at the outbreak of the 
war. After the war she lived in the family 
of Dr. George D. Foulke, and served other 
families in Carlisle. The notice of her 
death in the "Volunteer" states: "For up- 
wards of forty years she resided in this bor- 
ough, and was during that time recognized 
as an honest, obliging and industrious 
woman." In person, it is said, by those 
who remembered her, she was not very at- 
tractive. She was rather short and mascu- 
line in appearance and manner, but kind- 
hearted and helpful to the sick and needy. 
Her descendants, all by her first husband, 
have been highly respectable citizens. Her 
son, John L. Hays, the middle initial being 
that of his mother's maiden name, was ser- 
geant in the old infantry company of Car- 
lisle, and was in the war of 1812. He died 
in Carlisle about 1853 and was buried with 
the honors of war, the band of music and a 
large escort of U. S. troops having been 
furnished by Capt. May, then commanding 
at the U. S. Barracks. His sons, John and 
Frederick, lived in Carlisle, the former be- 
ingstreet commissioner in 1883. His daugh- 
ter, Polly McCleester, lived at Papertown, 
Mt. Holly Springs. She remembered her 
grandmother very well, and in her 8ist 
year unveiled the monument to her erected 
in the old cemetery at Carlisle. It bears the 
following inscription: 


Renowned in History as 


The Heroine of Monmouth, 

Died Jan. 1833, 

Aged 79 years. 
Erected by the Citizens of 
Cumberland County, 
July 4, 1876. 
She died in Carhsle, Jan. 22, 1832, nearly 
ninety years old. The date of her death on 
the monument is unaccountably incorrect. 
Various statements are made in regard to 
the recognition accorded her by the Gov- 
ernment. The following extract from the 
American Volunteer, Feb. 21, 1822, under 
head of "Legislature of Pennsylvania" not 
only shows what was done by the State, but, 
also incidentally, shows that by common 
consent, at a time when many were living 
who could have disputed the facts, the gen- 
eral statements in regard to her history 
were accepted: It is credited to the 
Flarrisburg Chronicle as follows: "A bill 
has passed both Houses of the Assem- 
bly granting an annuity to Molly Mc- 
Cauly (of Carhsle) for services she rendered 
during the Revolutionary war. It appeared 
satisfactorily that this heroine had braved 
the hardships of the camp and dangers of 
the field with her husband, who was a sold- 
ier of the revolution, and the bill in her 
favor passed without a dissenting voice. — 
Chronicle." According to the records at 
Flarrisburg, no application was made for 
this pension after Jan. ist, 1832, a fact, if 
any were needed, corroborative of 1832 as 
the year of her death. The foregoing state- 
ments are believed to be reliable. They are 
based mainly upon exhaustive investiga- 
tions of that painstaking and authoritative 
local historian. Rev. J. A. Murray, D. D., 
and include the results of personal inter- 
views with many who were acquainted with 
the heroine. 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

PH. D., LL. D. This eminent 
professor and scientist was born at Worm- 
leysburg, Cumberland county, in 1826. His 
ancestors came from Germany about 1753. 
His youth was spent in CarHsle. He entered 
Dickinson College, but left it after a few 
years, before graduation, to enter upon his 
medical studies in Philadelphia Medical 
College, from which he was graduated in 
1849. ■'^t Carlisle he was brought into as- 
sociation with Spencer F. Baird, resident in 
Carlisle, and part of the time professor in 
Dickinson College, then in the early flush 
of his scientific activity and already well 
known. Young Wormley accompanied 
him on many of his scientific excursions, 
and the intimate friendship then formed 
survived into the whole after life of these 
eminent men. In August, 1850, after a year 
spent in Carlisle, Dr. Wormley began the 
practice of medicine in Columbus, Ohio. In 
1852 he became Professor of Chemistry and 
Natural Science in Capitol University, Col- 
umbus, and continued in that position until 
1865. In 1854 he was also appointed to the 
chair of Chemistry and Toxicology in Starl- 
ing Medical College, in the same place, 
which he filled until his election, June 5th, 
1877, to the chair of Chemistry and Toxico- 
logy in the Medical Department of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, which he occupied 
at the time of his death, January 6th, 1S97. 
During his residence in Columbus he had 
also filled the responsible position of State 
Gas Commissioner of Ohio for eight years, 
from 1867, and State Chemist of the Ohio 
Geological Survey from 1869 until the com- 
pletion of the survey in 1874. He was a 
member of many scientific bodies including 
the American Philosophical Society of Phil- 
adelphia, American Chemical Society, of 
which he was one of the vice presidents in 
1879, American Meteorological Society, 
corresponding member of the New York 

Medico-Legal Society, Fellow of the Amer- 
ican Association for the Advancement of 
Science, and also of the Chemical Society 
of London. Among the honorary degrees 
conferred upon him were those of Ph. D. 
by Dickinson College, LL. D. by Marietta 
College, Ph. D. by Pennsylvania College. 
He was a frequent contributor of articles 
of high scientific value, embodying the 
methods and results of original investiga- 
tions, especially in toxicology. In 1876 he 
delivered a very able address on "American 
Chemical Contributions to the Medical Pro- 
gress of the Century" before the Interna- 
tional Congress in Philadelphia. His great 
work is the "Micro-Chemistry of Poisons," 
a large and exhaustive treatise, upon an 
original plan, and a standard authority 
throughout the world. The microscopic il- 
lustrations accompanying the work were 
drawn from nature under the microscope by 
his wife, and, from their nature and the ex- 
quisite character of the drawing, it was 
given as the opinion of experts in engrav- 
ing that only the one who had made the 
drawing could satisfactorily transfer them 
to steel, and it almost seemed that this es- 
sential feature of the book would have to be 
abandoned; whereupon Mrs. Wormley took 
up and learned the art of steel-engraving, 
and acquired such skill that the engravings 
are the admiration of experts for their 
technical excellence, and the accuracy with 
which the minute and exquisite details of 
the drawings have been rendered. She 
must be numbered among the remarkable 
women of America, in a field almost 
wholly her own. The book is dedicated to 
her with exquisite taste and tenderness. As 
a scientific expert, Dr. Wormley, was en- 
gaged in most of the famous medico-legal 
cases of the past quarter of a century, and 
it is difficult to determine which is most 
worthy of admiration, his full and minute 
knowledge of the subject and ability to 



present it clearly, or his conscientious de- 
votion to truth and freedom from bias. As 
a professor he was a most successful 
teacher. Personally modest and unassura- 
ing he was deeply respected by his col- 
leagues, and the students, and by all who 
came into intimate contact with him, and 
he had many warmly attached personal 
friends. His wife, who survives him, was a 
daughter of John L. Gill, of Columbus, 
Ohio. He left two daughters, the one wife 
of Dr. John Marshall, Dean of the Depart- 
ment of Medicine of the University of 
Pennsylvania, and the other Miss Theodora 
B. Wormley. 

the close of the war in 1783, a second 
college in Pennsylvania was founded at 
Carlisle, and named after John Dickinson, 
then Governor of the State and a liberal 
benefactor of the college. The Rev. Charles 
Nisbet, of Montrose, Scotland, one of the 
most learned, popular and influential di- 
vines of his country was called to the "Prin- 
cipalship" or presidency of the new college. 
He was born at Haddington, Scotland. Jan. 
2 1st, 1736, had supported himself through 
his course at Edinburgh University by 
teaching, and during the subsequent six 
years of his Theological course by editorial 
work on a popular magazine. Licensed to 
preach at 24 years of age, he was called to 
Montrose a few years afterward, and soon 
became widelv known outside of his con- 
gregation for his vast learning and his abil- 
itv and fearlessness in the discussion of the 
leading questions of that day. His estimable 
social qualities attracted to him a large cir- 
cle of devoted personal friends, among 
whom were many of the most influential 
men of his country. It seems at first sieht 
almost unaccountable that he should have 
even considered a proposition that involved 
the relinquishment of his congenial lit- 

erary and social surroundings and assured 
position for the presidency of a college on 
the border of a sparsely settled country, 
with its plans on paper and its revenues on 
promises. Two factors seem to have been 
potent in influencing him. During the war 
his svmpathy with the colonists had been 
earnest and outspoken. On an occasion of 
a Fast-day sermon the town council of 
Montrose had felt constrained to leave the 
church in a body during his introductory 
remarks, and were followed by the remark, 
with outstretched finger, "The wicked flee 
when no man pursueth." To his mind the 
"formative condition of America," now free, 
"with the minds of the people free from the 
shackles of authority," presented a fascinat- 
ing picture of possibilities. But there was 
needed in addition the persistent urgency 
and the ardent and eloquent persuasive- 
ness of Dr. Benj. Rush with all the high 
coloring imparted to the prospects of the 
new college by his sanguine temperament, 
to fix the decision of Dr. Nisbet. Whilst 
a student at Edinburgh, Dr. Rush had 
made the acquaintance of Dr. Nisbet and 
knew well his high standing at home. 

After a voyage of 47 days from Greenock, 
he arrived, with his family, June 9th, 1785. 
at Philadelphia. For several weeks he was 
there the guest of Dr. Rush, and received 
marked attention from the leading citizens. 
He arrived at Carlisle on the Fourth of 
July, and was met by a troop of horse, and 
escorted to the town. He entered next day 
upon his position. But a severe illness, 
shortlv afterward, of himself and the mem- 
bers of his family, which he regarded as 
the efifect of the climate, "especially of the 
great heats beyond the conception of any 
who has not felt them," led him to resign 
in the fall, and to prepare to return to Scot- 
land. Unable, or unwilling, to attempt a 
winter passage, with the return of spring 
and with improved health, he accepted a re- 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

election to the presidency of the college, 
in which he continued with unimpaired 
health until his death. His labors in con- 
nection with the position were prodigious. 
As President he was also professor of 
Moral Science, but in order to bring the 
college nearer to his ideal, he delivered at 
the same time lectures on Moral Philoso- 
phy, Logic, Philosophy of the Mind, and 
Belles Lettres, and upon request of a class 
added a fifth on Systematic Theology, em- 
bracing 418 lectures, and extending 
through two years. At the request of the 
Trustees, he traveled over different sections 
of Pennsylvania and the adjoining States, 
for the most part in the saddle, to excite in- 
terest in the college and solicit funds. At 
the same time he filled the pulpit of the 
Presbyterian church in CarHsle alternately 
with Dr. Davidson. Under manifold diffi- 
culties and discouragements of the most 
varied character, for nineteen years, he 
conducted the college, part of the time in a 
"Shabby small building fronting on an al- 
ley," according to Chief Justice Taney, a 
student at the time, part of the time in Bar- 
racks, erected by the captured Hessians, 
belonging to the government. The high 
character of the man, in spite of all the de- 
ficiencies of the new institution, attracted 
to it the sympathy and active interest of 
friends of higher educaton, as well as stu- 
dents from all parts of the country. The 
long roll of prominent men, especially in 
the Presbyterian church, who were in- 
structed and inspired by contact with him 
attested the permanence of the impression 
made by him. His death, at the age of 68 
years, occurred Jan. i8th, 1804, after an ill- 
ness of a few days, resulting from a heavy 
cold. He lies buried in the Old Grave Yard 
at Carlisle, and his monument bears a 
lengthy epitaph in Latin by Dr. Mason, one 
of his successors. Anywhere Dr. Nisbet 

would have been regarded as a remarkable 
man. He was at home in all branches of 
human learning. He was an omnivorous 
reader and seemed to forget nothing. He 
had the use of at least nine languages, and 
was familiar with the whole range of classi- 
cal literature. Whilst in Europe, he was 
regarded as one of its best Greek scholars. 
Pie could repeat whole books of Homer, 
and the whole of the Aeneid, and it is said 
frequently heard recitations in the classics 
without a text-book. As a speaker he was 
said to be fluent and remarkably clear, dir- 
ect, and unaffected. He never used aids 
of any kind in the pulpit. He was unriv- 
alled in wit and humor and when he chose 
scathing in sarcasm. In discipline of stu- 
dents he is said to have relied rather upon 
the latter than upon college law. Physically 
he was rather below middle stature, slender 
and agile. It is said, that he frequently 
walked twenty or thirty miles on a winter 
morning, before breakfest, without painful 
effort. In later Hfe he became corpulent, 
but retained his activity to an advanced age. 
The horrors of the French Revolution 
combined with disappointed expectations 
in some directions, imparted a tinge of an- 
ti-republican pessimism to his sentiments 
which cropped out at times in his lectures, 
but according to Judge Taney the high re- 
gard for the man restrained the young re- 
publicans of that day from what might 
have been open rebellion with any other 
professor, whilst they simply omitted the 
offensive passages from their notes. 

The only son that survived him, Alex- 
ander Nisbet, was for many years a judge 
in Baltimore, Md. His eldest daughter, 
Mary, was married to William Turnbull, 
Esq., to whom there were nine children. 
Their only son, Samuel, became a Bishop 
of the Episcopal church, their daughter, 
Mary, was married to Rev. Erskine Mason, 
D. D., of New York, the younger daugh- 


Nineteenth Congressional District. 

ter, Allison, was married to Professor 
Charles D. Cleveland. 

RAY, D. D. Born at Carlisle, Pa., 
Oct. 2, 1815. His father, George Murray, 
born near Fort Pitt, March 17, 1762, was 
the first white child born within the limits 
of Pittsburg. He settled at an early date 
in Carlisle, where he died at the age of 94. 
He married JMiss Denny, a daughter of 
William and Agnes Denny, and sister of 
Major Ebenezer Denny, of Revolutionary 
fame. Joseph Alexander, the youngest of 
five children, prepared for college in Car- 
lisle and was graduated in 1837 from the 
Western University of Pennsylvania at 
Pittsburg, and in 1840 from the Western 
Theological Seminary in Allegheny. Dur- 
ing his residence in Pittsburg he was a 
member of the household of Hon. Harmar 
Denny, long the representative in Congress 
from this district, and prominent in nation- 
al politics. In 1840 he was hcensed to 
preach by the Presbytery of Ohio, which 
embraced Pittsburg, and received a call to 
preach at Marion, Ohio, where he preached 
six months. During a visit to his eastern 
home he received and accepted a call to the 
united congregation of Monaghan (Dills- 
burg) and Petersburg, Pa., which he 
served for 18 years, when he resigned on 
account of impaired health and removed 
to Carlisle. Although his heahh greatly 
improved he did not feel free to assume 
the responsibility of a charge. He was, 
however, almost equally active in all church 
work, preaching frequently, serving as 
commissioner to the General Assembly in 
1844, 1861, 1865, and as Moderator of his 
Synod, and member of important commit- 
tees. Besides his interest in church affairs, 
his scholarly habits and tastes asserted 
themselves in a variety of directions. His 
fondness for antiquarian research led to the 

accumulation of much information and of 
much documentary material of great value. 
He rescued many papers of great interest 
in national and State history. So well were 
his resources of information and document- 
ary evidence in these respects known, that 
not only by personal interviews, but by 
correspondence that grew to be voluminous 
in recent years, information was solicited 
on many points, and his well known pains- 
taking accuracy gave to his statements a 
lecognized authority. All information was 
cheerfully given and without reserve. He 
was a frequent contributor to literary, his- 
torical, and religious periodicals and a 
number of his public addresses were pub- 
lished. He was in every way a useful and 
public spirited citizen. His alma mater 
conferred upon him the degree of D. D. 
He was a member of the Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania, of the American Philoso- 
phical Society of Philadelphia, correspond- 
ing member of the Numismatic and Anti- 
quarian Society of Philadelphia, and of 
numerous cognate local organizations. He 
was a director of the Western Theological 
Seminary, and at his decease a large part 
of his valuable library was given, by his 
daughter, to that institution, in which, by 
the gift of $3,000, he had previously 
founded a scholarship. He was married 
April 25, 1843, to Ann Hays Blair, daugh- 
ter of Anderson Blair, a very prominent 
citizen of Carlisle. She died 1875, leaving 
an only child, Mary E., wife of Professor 
Charles F. Himes, Ph. D. In January, 1879, 
he married Miss Lydia S. Foster, of Phila- 
delphia, who survives him. 

at New Oxford, Pa., May 29th, 
181 2, where he passed the greater part of 
his life, and died Jan. nth, 1896. He was 
an excellent representative of the oldest 
Pennsylvania-German stock. His great- 



Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

grandfather, William Heim, came from the 
Palatinate, by way of Rotterdam, in the 
ship "Thistle of Glasgow" from that port, 
in 1730. Plis grandmother, Francis Himes, 
(Heim) born in Hanover, Pa., in 1737, re- 
sided there, where he kept an inn and car- 
ried on a small farm and oil-mih, and died 
1811, possessed of a considerable estate, 
including a "boy Billy, of color," left at 
disposal of his wife. His son George, the 
sixth of eight children, born Dec. 16, 1775, 
in Hanover, married, 1809, Helen Catherine, 
daughter of Daniel and Susan (Eichelber- 
ger) Barnitz. The former was a brother of 
General Jacob Barnitz, of York, and served 
through the Revolutionary War as fife- 
major. He purchased in 1810 the first es- 
tablished and well known "Dutch" Freder- 
ick's Tavern Stand at Oxford, on the 
route between Pittsburg and the Susque- 
hanna, which he conducted until 1828, and 
was afterward occupied with his large 
business interests in this and the adjoining 
counties. He was commissioned by the 
Governor a colonel in the militia, a title by 
which he was generally known. He died 
in New Oxford in 1850. The son, the sub- 
ject of this sketch, was the second of eight 
children. The oldest, Charles F., graduated 
with great credit at Dickinson College in 
1829, read law with Thaddeus Stevens, but 
died before entering upon the practice of 
the profession. William manifested a de- 
cided disposition for active business. He 
learned the trade of tanning, working first 
in Hanover, then in York, and subsequent- 
ly in Philadelphia and becoming an expert 
in leathers of highest grade. He was not 
apprenticed as was usual in those days, and 
never carried on the business of tanning. 
In 1835 he made an extended trip on horse- 
back through the far west as far as Chi- 
cago, then little more than a trading post, 
at which a treaty with the Pottawatamies 
was then made. On his return to the east 

he engaged in merchandizing in Inter- 
course, Lancaster county, for a few years, 
when he returned to New Oxford to assist 
his father. Col. George Himes, in the man- 
agement of his growing business interest. 
Here, as opportunity offered, he soon ex- 
hibited remarkable business aptitude, sound 
judgment, and promptness of decision in 
enterprises of the most honest character. 
Especially expert in estimating the value 
of real-estate he was a frequent purchaser 
on a large scale, in this and the adjoining 
counties, and at one time a large owner. 
For a number of years he was the principal 
partner in operating Margaretta Furnace 
and Foundry in York County, and pur- 
chased that property with its ore-banks, 
flouring mill, furnace, foundry and wood- 
stock forge of his father's estate, and the 
Hahns of York, and retained possession of 
a large part of it at his decease, although 
the iron works were dismantled many years 
ago as out of competition with those in 
favorable localities. For more than 50 
years he was director of the Gettysburg 
Bank, since 1866 a National Bank, and was 
its vice president from 1884 to the time of 
his decease, for a considerable time with 
the responsibilities of president. He was ac- 
tive, with his father, in establishing the Car- 
lisle Deposit Bank, at Carlisle, Pa. For 
forty years he was director in the York and 
Gettysburg Turnpike Co., and for many 
years President of the Gettysburg & Pet- 
ersburg Turnpike Co., and there was hard- 
ly a business enterprise in his section with 
which he was not in some degree identified 
He was characterized not more by business 
ability of a high order, than by his absolute 
integrity and high sense of business honor 
and all his intercourse. As a public spir- 
ited citizen he supported all enterprises 
looking to the development of the com- 
munity. He was the unswerving sup- 
porter of Thaddeus Stevens as a representa- 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


live from Adams county in his advocacy of 
the common school system, and his father 
gave the lot for the erection of the first 
common school in the township, and the 
son was for many years the leading mem- 
ber of the Board of Directors. His inti- 
mate personal contact with Thaddeus 
Stevens, as an active and influential poli- 
tical friend, as well as his intercourse with 
him as the trusted attorney and partner of 
his father in many business matters, con- 
tributed much to his development as a 
business man. After his retirement from 
more active business he was still an inval- 
uable citizen not only as a counsellor in all 
public enterprises, but as the friend of the 
humblest citizen, to whom he was always 
freely accessible. He died Jan. nth, 1869, 
in his 84th year, after confinement to the 
house for several months, by weight of 
years rather than by specific disease, with- 
out suffering, in the full enjoyment of all 
his mental faculties. He married, in 1836, 
Magdalene, daughter of Christian Lanius, 
of York, whose ancestors also came from 
the Palatinate in 1731. He is survived by 
the following children: Professor Charles 
F. Himes, Carlisle, Pa.; Helen A., widow 
of Rev. W. H. Keith, Gettysburg; Mary E., 
wife of Professor J. W. Kilpatrick, Fayette, 
Missouri; William A. Himes and Harriet 
O. Himes, New Oxford, Pa. A son, James 
Lanius, a successful lawyer in Minnea- 
polis, Minn., died in 1881. 

The subject of this sketch was dis- 
tinctively a representative of the best ele- 
ment of Cumberland county. He was 
born February 14, 1841, near New Kings- 
ton on the old family homestead, pur- 
chased originally by his great grandfather, 
Martin Herman, who came from Germany 
in 1754. He had remained several years 
at Philadelphia, where he landed, and then 

removed to Lancaster county, where he en- 
gaged in farming, and married Miss Anna 
Dorothea Boerst. In 1771 he removed to 
Cumberland county and purchased the 
homestead where he died in 1804, aged "jz 
years. He and his wife were members of 
the Lutheran church. They had four sons 
and four daughters. The son Christian, 
born in Lancaster county October 20th, 
1 76 1, was in the army under Washington, 
participated in the battle of Germantown, 
the privations of Valley Forge, and the en- 
gagements generally of this part of the 
army, and was present at the surrender at 
Yorktown. He was a farmer and married, 
in 1793, to Miss Elizabeth Bowers, of York 
county, also a member of the Lutheran 
church. He died October 23, 1829. Eight 
of their children lived, and had families, 
among them, Martin, born July 10, 1801, 
on the old homestead which he inherited by 
will from his father. Christian, and where 
he died May 22, 1872. By his marriage in 
February, 1827, to Miss Elizabeth Wolford, 
born in York county in 1802, he had six 
children, among them, Martin Christian, 
the subject of this sketch. He worked upon 
the ancestral farm with his father until 16 
years of age, attending school in the win- 
ter, and afterward prepared for college at 
the well known academy, in charge of Geo. 
W. Ruby, at York, Pa. He entered the 
Freshman class of Dickinson College in 
September, 1858, and was graduated June 
26th, 1862. During his college course he 
took the Silver Junior Prize Medal for ora- 
tory, and as the choice of his fellow stu- 
dents had the honor to deliver the 76th an- 
niversary oration of the Belles Lettres So- 
ciety in 1862. Before graduation in Janu- 
ary, 1862, he had registered as a law stu- 
dent with B. Mclntire & Son, of Perry 
county, but subsequently with William H. 
Miller, Esq., of Carlisle, and was admitted 
to the bar of Cumberland county, January 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

13, 1864. He immediately began the prac- 
tice of law at Carlisle. In 1874, at the 
early age of 34 years, he was elected presi- 
dent judge of the Ninth Judicial District, 
then composed of Cumberland county, and 
served for 10 years from Jan. ist, 1875. He 
was an able lawyer, of eminently judicial 
mind and temperament and of unimpeach- 
able integrity; his decisions were generally 
sound and seldom reversed. After his re- 
tirement from the bench he rapidly acquired 
a large and lucrative practice, the result of 
general confidence in his ability as a lawyer 
and his integrity as a man. Whilst engaged 
in court he was stricken with paralysis, and 
died after an illness of several months. He 
married June 5th, 1873, Miss Josie Adair, a 
daughter of S. Dunlap Adair, at one time 
a leading lawyer of the Cumberland county 
bar. She survives him with four children: 
Adair, Henrietta G., Joseph B., and Bessie 
H.; the first is a graduate of his fathers al- 
ma mater and at present a student in the 
Dickinson School of Law. 

Smith, father of the Hon. James 
Smith, was born and educated in Ireland, 
in which country he was a respectable and 
enterprising farmer. What induced him to 
prefer this one of the colonies, was that 
some of his brothers and uncles had emi- 
grated hither before him, having come over 
with Penn when that proprietor first visited 
this province. Those of his relations settled 
in Chester County and became Quakers; 
their descendants still live in that county 
and the county of Lancaster. 

Mr. John Smith proceeded with his fam- 
ily to Lancaster County, and finally settled 
west of the Susquehanna in what is now 
York County. Here he continued to reside 
until about the year 1761, when he died in 
the neighborhood of Yorktown at an ad- 
vanced age. 

James Smith, the second son of John and 
the subject of our present biography, was 
aged about ten years when he came with 
his father into this country. He resided in 
the paternal mansion for some years; but 
when his brother George had begun to 
practice law, he removed to Lancaster, and 
commenced in his office the study of the 
same profession. He completed his law 
studies under the tuition of his brother, at 
the time of whose death he was aged but 

Not long after he was admitted to the 
practice of the law, he removed to the 
neighborhood of the place where Shippens- 
burg now stands in company with Mr. Geo. 
Ross, who was the friend and companion 
of Mr. Smith in early and after life. The 
chief occupation of Mr. Smith in his new 
abode was that of surveying; though when- 
ever occasion offered, he gave advice on 
subjects connected with his profession. Af- 
ter a few years he removed to the town of 
York, where he made his permanent home 
for the rest of his life. Here he commenced 
the practice of the law, and continued in it 
with few intermissions until near the time 
of his death. 

Hitherto Mr. Smith had led a single life 
but in or about 1760 he married Elea- 
nor Armor, daughter of John Armor, who 
lived near New Castle in Delaware, and 
who was a brother of Thomas Armor, a 
justice and surveyor in York County be- 
fore the Revolution. Eleanor, at the age of 
twenty-one, came to reside for a while with 
her uncle in York, but in less than a year 
after her arrival she was wedded to one of 
the best of husbands. 

Mr. Smith began about this time to have 
a very extensive practice. He attended the 
courts of all the neighboring counties. With 
no other events in his life than those which 
are incident to most gentlemen of his pro- 
fession, he continued in York until the be- 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


ginning of the Revolution. But here it 
should be remarked that Mr. Smith was for 
some time the only lawyer in York; for 
though Joseph Yeates and other lawyers of 
the neighboring counties did much business 
here, yet Mr. Smith had (with the excep- 
tion of perhaps a few years) no brother in 
the law that resided here. When Thomas 
Hartley, afterward colonel in the Revolu- 
tion and a member of Congress, com- 
menced practice here in the year 1759, 
there were but two lawyers in the county 
of York, viz: himself and Mr. Smith. 

At the commencement of the Revolution, 
Mr. Smith was distinguished as one of the 
warmest friends of our liberties. 

In 1774 he was chosen a deputy from the 
county of York to attend a provincial meet- 
ing at the city of Philadelphia which meet- 
ing began on the 1 5th of June and was con- 
tinued by adjournments from day to day. 
Mr. Smith was one of those who were ap- 
pointed by this meeting or rather "com- 
mittee for the province of Pennsylvania." 
to "prepare and bring in a draught of in- 
structions to the representatives in assem- 
bly met." 

In 177s he was elected a member for 
York County in the "Provincial Conven- 
tion for the Province of Pennsylvania held 
at Philadelphia, January 23d, and continued 
by adjournments from day to day to the 
28th." In the same year he received a mili- 
tary honor, viz., the appointment of col- 

In 1779 he was deputed by the committee 
of York County "to join in a provincial 
conference of committees of the Province 
of Pennsylvania." The conference was 
held at Philadelphia, and began on the i8th 
of June and ended on the 25th of the same 
month. In the same year (1776) he was 
elected a member of the convention for the 
State of Pennsylvania, which commenced 
their session at Philadelphia on the 15th of 

June and ended on the 28th of September. 
This convention framed the first constitu- 
tion of the commonwealth. In the same 
year (1776) he was elected a delegate from 
Pennsylvania to serve in the Continental 
Congress, at which time he signed the 
Declaration of Independence. 

Mr. Smith was hkewise a member of 
Congress in the year 1777-78. When Con- 
gress sat in York, the board of war was 
held in his law office. 

After the cessation of his Congressional 
labors he continued to reside in York, and 
devoted himself with great success to the 
practice of law. 

In October, 1780, we find him a member 
of the General Assembly of Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Smith becoming burthened with a 
weight of years, and having a sufficiency of 
this world's goods, relinquished the prac- 
tice of law in 1 80 1. 

An event happened in the autumn of 
1805 which is much to be regretted, viz.: 
the destruction of his office by fire. His 
books and papers of business, which were 
on the lower floor, were saved, but all his 
numerous private papers, which were in the 
upper part of the building, were destroyed. 
Among these were the records of the fam- 
ily and manuscripts of his own, connected 
with the history of the times, and numer- 
ous letters from Benjamin Franklin, Sam- 
uel Adams and many other men distin- 
guished in the Revolutionary history of our 
country. Mr. Smith corresponded, both 
during and after the Revolution, with many 
of those patriots with whom he had been 
in intimate connection while a member of 
Congress, etc. As their letters were de- 
stroyed, the burning of the office may bo 
considered a public loss. 

Mr. Smith employed his latter days in 
conversation with his friends and in review- 
ing and re-perusing those works which had 
been the delight of his youth. In view of 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

his present and increasing infirmities, he 
made his will April 25, 1806. He died at 
his house in York on July 11, in the same 
year, at an advanced age. 

There is no small difference of opinion 
with regard to the age of Mr. Smith. His 
tombstone, erected by his son James in the 
yard at the English Presbyterian church at 
York, states that he was ninety-three years 
old at the time of his death. Many of his 
surviving friends say that he could not have 
been so old, and place his age at about 
eighty-seven; others say that he was not 
more than eighty-four or five. Two points, 
however, we have ascertained, viz. : that he 
was but ten years of age when he came to 
America, and was but twenty-one years of 
age at the time of his brother George's 
death. Supposing his age then to have 
been eighty-seven (a matter on which there 
is some doubt) he must have been born in 
1719 and come with his father to America 
in 1729 and have lost his brother George 
in 1740, at which time he (James) had com- 
pleted his study of the law. An obituary 
notice of Mr. Smith says, "He was the old- 
est advocate in York, and perhaps in Penn- 
sylvania, for he had been in practice of the 
law more than fifty years." He could not 
but have been a member of the bar between 
sixty and sixty-five years. 

Mr. Smith was remarkable for an un- 
commonly retentive memory, the strength 
of which did not seem to be impaired by 

He was uniformly facetious and fond of 
anecdotes, which he always told with a 
happy manner. Possessing in a high de- 
gree that faculty of the mind which is de- 
fined by metaphysicians to be the tracing 
of resemblances or analogies between dis- 
tant objects, he often exerted it in the halls 
of justice, producing a wild and roaring dis- 
cord from all within the reach of his voice. 

Mr. Smith at different times had manv 

law students. Among them may be men- 
tioned the Hon. Robert Smith, who began 
his studies here but did not complete them, 
and who is the same gentleman that after- 
ward became Secretary of State under the 
United States Government. David Grier, 
who practiced law and died in York, was 
likewise a student of Mr. Smith. 

Mr. Smith left a widow and two out of 
five children surviving him; they are all 
now gathered to the house appointed for all 

liartley was born in the neighbor- 
hood of Reading, Berks Co., Penn., Sep- 
tember 7, 1748. Having received the rudi- 
ments of a good classical education in that 
town, he removed when eighteen years of 
age, to York, Penn., when he commenced 
the study of the law under the tuition of 
Mr. Samuel Johnson. Having pursued his 
law studies with diligence for the term of 
three years, he was admitted to practice in 
the courts of York, July 25, 1769. He now 
arose in his profession with an almost un- 
exampled rapidity, for he not only had a 
thorough knowledge of the law, but was 
acquainted with two languages, each of 
which was then necessary in such a county 
as York; his early days having been spent 
in Reading, then as now mostly peopled by 
Germans, he was from childhood acquainted 
with their language, which he spoke with 
the fluency of an orator. Another thing 
which favored young Hartley much, was 
that he and the Hon. James Smith were for 
some time the only practicing lawj^ers of 
the county; Mr. Johnson, with whom he 
had studied, being then prothonotary. 

Plartley was early distinguished as a 
warm friend of his country, both in the 
cabinet and in the field. In the yeari774,he 
was elected by the citizens of York county, 
a member of the provincial meeting of 



deputies, which was held at Philadelphia 
on the 15th of July. In the year 1775, he 
was a member, from the same county, of 
the provincial convention which was held 
at Philadelphia on the 23rd of January. 

The war of the Revolution was now ap- 
proaching and Hartley was soon distin- 
guished as a soldier. The Committee of 
Safety for Pennsylvania, recommended a 
number of persons to Congress, for field 
officers to the Sixth Battalion, ordered to 
be raised in that colony, and Congress ac- 
cordingly January 10, 1776, elected Wil- 
liam Irwin, Esq., as colonel; Thomas Hart- 
ley, Esq., as lieutenant-colonel; and James 
Dunlap, Esq., as major. Mr. Hartley was 
shortly aTtervvard promoted to the full de- 
gree of colonel. ' : 

Col. Hartley having continued about 
three years in faithful and laborious duty as 
an officer, wrote a letter to Congress Feb- 
ruary 13, 1779, desiring leave to resign his 
commission. Congress thinking the rea- 
sons offered, satisfactory, accepted his res- 
ignation, and on the same day resolved that 
they had "high sense of Col. Hartley's 
merit and services." 

In October, 1778, he was elected a mem- 
ber of the State Legislature from the 
county of York. 

In the year 1783, he was elected a mem- 
ber of the Council of Censors, the first day 
of whose meeting was on the loth of No- 

In the latter part of the year 1787, he was 
a member of the State Convention which 
adopted the Constitution of the United 

In the year 1788, he was elected a mem- 
ber of Congress and accordingly attended 
their first session under the constitution. As 
a new order of things had now commenced, 
the public mind was filled with hope and 
fear. The citizens of York county had ta- 
ken a great interest in the establishment of 

the new constitution, and as Col. Hartley 
was the first person who was to go forth 
from among them, as a member of congress 
under that constitution, they determined in 
the warmth of their feelings, to show him 
every honor. When he set out from York on 
February 23, 1789, on his way to the city 
of New York, where the Congress was to 
sit, he viras accompanied to Susquehanna 
by a great number of the inhabitants of the 
borough and was there received by a com- 
pany from that part of the county and from 
Lancaster. The citizens then partook of a 
dinner, and the whole was one splendid cel- 
ebration. When on the way of his return, 
he arrived at Wright's Ferry on October 
6, he was met at the place by a munber of 
gentleman from the borough and county 
of York, and was there conducted to his 
house in town amidst the acclamations of 
his friends and fellow citizens. 

Col. Hartley continued a member of con- 
gress for about twelve years; he was such 
until the time of his death. 

On April 28, 1800, he was commissioned 
by Gov. M'Kean, as major-general of the 
Fifth Division of the Pennsylvania Militia, 
consisting of the counties of York and 

His life of labor, usefulness and honor 
are now drawing to a close. Disease was 
destroying his energies, and had already 
commenced the work of death. After a 
long and tedious sickness he died at his 
home in York, on the morning of Decem- 
ber 21, 1800, aged fifty-two years, three 
months and fourteen days. When his mor- 
tal part was deposited in the burying 
ground of the Church of St. John the fol- 
lowing tribute of respect to his memory 
was paid by the Rev. Dr. John Campbell, 
his pastor and friend: 

"If I could blow the trump of fame over 
you ever so loud and long, what would you 
be the better for all this noise? Yet, let not 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

your integrity, patriotism, fortitude, hospi- 
tality and patronage be forgotten. Another 
(who need not be named), hath borne away 
the palm of glory, splendid with the never- 
dying honor of rearing the stupendous fab- 
ric of American freedom and empire. De- 
parted friend! you hear me not, the grave 
is deaf and silent. In this work of blessing 
to future ages you bore, though a subordi- 
nate, yet an honorable part. Soldiers of 
Liberty! come drop a tear over your com- 
panion in arm.s. Lovers of justice! come 
drop a tear over your able advocate, and 
of science! come drop a tear over its warm- 
est patron. Children of misfortune! come 
drop a tear over your benefactor and pro- 
tector. Brethren of the earthly lodge! re- 
joice that our brother is removed to the 
temple of the Supreme. Ministers of relig- 
ion! come drop a tear to the memory of a 
man, who, lamenting human frailty, was 
ever the friend of truth and virtue. And 
thou, my soul! come not into the assembly 
of those who would draw his reposing spirit 
from the bosom, of His Father who is in 

As an appendix to the biography of this 
soldier and statesman we give the following 
address to his constituents, which he pub- 
lished a short time before his decease, and 
which is one of the last acts of his life. 
Fellow Citizens: 

Through want of health, and a wish to 
retire from a sedentary public life and to at- 
tend to my private concerns, which have 
been much deranged by my absence from 
York town, I have been induced most fix- 
edly to decline serving in the House of Rep- 
resentatives in Congress after the third day 
of March next. Indeed it is well known 
that for som.e years past I have not wished 
to be elected; and should long since have 
declined the honor had it not been for the 
political condition of the world, and of our 
own States in particular, which have fre- 

quently suffered from two great nations; — • 
I hope however we shall soon have peace. 

A great portion of my life has been de- 
voted to the service of my country, as will 
appear from the following facts. I have to 
say that I was in two provincial conven- 
tions previous to the revolution, that I 
served in the Revolutionary army more 
than three years, was one year in the As- 
sembly of the State of Pennsylvania, in 
the Council of Censors one year, was in 
the convention which adopted the consti- 
tution of the United States, and have twice 
been elected by citizens of Pennsylvania at 
general elections, and four times at district 
elections, as a member of the House of 
Representatives in Congress. In some in- 
stances I have perhaps been useful; but I 
may say I have ever desired to advance 
the interests of the United States as far as 
my powers and constitution would admit. 
I shall endeavor to be of as much service as 
possible in the militia, which will occasion- 
ally require some attention and exercise. 

I thank the citizens of Pennsylvania at 
large for showing their frequent confidence 
in me, and particularly of that part of the 
State composing York and Adams Coun- 
ties, and wish them every happiness. 

I am with due respect for them, 

Thomas Hartley. 

York, September 8th, 1800. 

N. B. — My indisposition has retarded 
this publication longer than I intended. 

Durkee was of English descent, 
the family coming to America early in the 
eighteenth century and settling in Wind- 
ham, Conn. Here his great grandfather, 
Nathaniel Durkee, was married August 21, 
1727, and from there his son, Timothy 
(judge Durkee's grandfather), removed to 
Vermont while that State was yet a wilder- 
ness. His maternal grandfather, Elisha 
* By Hon. James W. Latimer. 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


Rix, also went from Connecticut to Ver- 
mont about the same time, both famihes 
settling in the valley of White River. In 
their journey of about two hundred miles, 
they were guided by marked trees. They 
settled on adjoining farms, granted by the 
government of New York, then claiming 
jurisdiction over the territory. The families 
were united by the marriage of Heman, the 
eldest son of Timothy Durkee, to Susan, 
daughter of Elisha Rix. Heman succeeded 
to the Durkee farm, and both farms have 
remained in possession of members of the 
family until recently. Situated in the town- 
ship of Royalton, they adjoin South Royal- 
ton, a thriving village and railroad center. 
Here Daniel Durkee, the subject of this 
sketch, was born on August 27, 1791. His 
father's death occurring when he was but a 
boy, the years of his early manhood were 
spent in the home and on the farm of his 
mother. He married April 8, 1813, Mary, 
daughter of Capt. John Wright, of Nor- 
wich, Vt. A few years after his marriage he 
commenced the study of law with Judge 
Jacob Collamer, of Royalton (afterward 
United States Senator from Vermont and 
Postmaster General), and Judge Hutchin- 
son, of Woodstock, Vt. He was admitted 
to the bar in Chelsea, Orange Co., Vt., 
June 12, 1818, and opened an office in Wil- 
liamstown, in the same county. Desirous ot 
settling in Pennsylvania, he left WiUiams- 
town the following December, and came to 
Lebanon, Penn., taking an office just va- 
cated by his brother-in-law, John Wright, 
Esq., who had removed to York. Some 
months later, illness in his family compell- 
ing Mr. Wright to return to New England, 
Judge Durkee came to York, iwhere he 
continued to reside until his death. At that 
time, Lebanon was thoroughly German. So 
universally was that language spoken there, 
that there was but one family in the town 
with whom the Durkee family could com- 

municate in the English tongue, while in 
York there was a large English element, 
though the German was almost universally 
spoken in the surrounding country. With- 
out any knowledge of that language, he 
soon became a popular lawyer with the 
German population and a successful prac- 
titioner. Pennsylvania thenceforth became 
the State of his adoption. But he was ever 
loyal to New England and his native home, 
which continued to be the home of his 
mother until her death in 1853. It was his 
"Mecca." He never failed to go there an- 
nually (in the thirty-six years of his life in 
Pennsylvania), taking his family or several 
members of it with him in each alternate 
year. The New England festival, "Thanks- 
giving," was always observed in his home, 
the appointment of the governor of Ver- 
mont being a national appointment. Judge 
Durkee was admitted to the bar of York 
County in 1820. In 1832 he was elected to 
the legislature. In 1833 he was appointed 
by Gov. Wolf judge of the district court. 
In 1S35, the district court having been abol- 
ished, he was appointed president judge of 
the Nineteenth Judicial District, composed 
of the counties of York and Adams. He 
held the ofifice for ten years, when, at ^he 
expiration of his term, he was succeeded 
by Judge Irwin. On the resignation of the 
latter in 1849, Judge Durkee was again ap- 
pointed to the president judgeship by Gov. 
Johnson, and held the office until 1851, 
when, the judgeship having been by a con- 
stitutional amendment made elective, Judge 
Fisher was chosen to succeed him. 

He then resumed the practice of his pro- 
fession, which he continued to the time of 
his death. He died November 23, 1854, 
aged sixty-three years and three months. 
Thus, for nearly half the entire period of his 
residence in Pennsylvania, Judge Durkee 
held the office of president judge. On the 
bench. Judge Durkee was careful and 

Biographical an"d Portrait Cyclopedia. 

painstaking and showed great discrimina- 
tion in separating from the mass of less im- 
portant matters, the real points involved 
in the cases brought before him. In his 
charges he was remarkably happy and suc- 
cessful in presenting cases to juries, in en- 
abling them to perform their duties intelli- 
gently, and in preventing them from falling 
into errors. Of eminent sagacity, clear per- 
ceptions and sound conclusions, he enjoyed 
during his official career the confidence and 
respect of the bar, and in a great degree 
that of the appellate court, which reviewed 
his judgments. As an evidence of the es- 
teem in which he has been held, there is 
subjoined an extract from the York Gazette 
of September 24, 1839, which, as published 
by a political opponent of Judge Durkee, 
is all the more valuable tribute to his 
worth: "We find in the Adams Sentinel 
of a late date, a communication, in which 
the Hon. Daniel Durkee, president judge 
of this judicial district, is spoken of in terms 
of high commendation. We feel proud of 
this justly merited tribute to the worth of 
one of our citizens; and here at York,where 
Judge Durkee "is at home," we feel sure 
that every word will be attested by every 
one who reads it. We hope that this dis- 
trict will not lose the services of so upright 
and excellent a judicial officer under the op- 
eration of that provision of the new con- 
stitution, which limits the tenure of office 
of president judges of the courts of com- 
mon pleas to ten years. Every friend of 
justice and morality, all who desire to see 
the bench occupied by a stern foe to vice 
and disorder, are interested in keeping the 
judicial ermine upon the shoulders of Judge 
Durkee." As a practicing lawyer, Jvidge 
Durkee always occupied a high position at 
the bars of York and Adams counties. His 
specialty was the conducting of trials be- 
fore juries. He managed his causes with 
great tact and judgment, and while at the 

bar, always had a large portion of its foren- 
sic practice. Few causes of magnitude or 
importance were tried in which he was not 
one of the leading counsel. His influence 
with a jury, whether he addressed them 
from the bar, or charged them from the 
bench, seemed almost magical. Although 
Judge Durkee was not indebted to the cul- 
ture of the schools, he had evidently prac- 
ticed self-discipline long and carefully. But 
it was from nature he received his best 
gifts — gifts, the absence of which no 
amount of educational facilities can supply. 
The characteristics of his mind were clear- 
ness and originality. Both these mental 
qualities, so rarely met, even singly, he pos- 
sessed in a very considerable degree. They 
manifested themselves on the bench, at the 
bar, in social conversation, and even in 
casual remarks, in the working out of his 
intellectual processes, in the language he 
selected, and in the figures and illustrations 
he employed. For this reason he was al- 
ways listened to with attention and inter- 
est. It was well known that there was no 
danger of being wearied by anything feeble, 
or commonplace or obscure in what he 
said. Most frequently the products of his 
mind exhibited the freshness of vigorous 
and independent thinking, were expressed 
in strong, idiomatic English, which, adapt- 
ing itself to the tournure of the thought, 
fitted close to it, and conveyed to others his 
ideas with all the clearness in which they 
existed in his own mind, were elucidated 
by illustrations, which were apt, striking, 
felicitous, and, when the subject or occa- 
sion would admit, were enlivened by the 
scintillations of genuine wit. In his legal 
investigations and discussions, he always 
sought for the reason of the law, and en- 
deavored to be guided by principles rather 
than by discordant and irreconcilable de- 
cisions. With his great powers of mind, he 
united great kindness of heart and an emi- 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


nently sympathetic and affectionate disposi- 
tion, causing him to be beloved in his neigh- 
borhood, and idoHzed in his family. Judge 
Durkee had none of the arts and stooped 
to none of the tricks and methods of the 
politician. His popularity grew out of his 
genial and kindly disposition, and his well 
known integrity. 

large part of the judicial history of 
York County is inseparably associated with 
the career of Hon. Robert J. Eisher, who, 
for more than thirty years, presided over 
its courts. On the 4th day of November, 
1828, when twenty-two years of age, he 
was admitted to practice in the several 
courts of York County. He had received 
a thorough legal education at the Yale Law 
School, New Haven, Conn., and in the of- 
fice of his father, George Fisher, Esq., at 
Harrisburg, who was widely known and 
honored, and was for many years a leading 
member of the Dauphin county bar. For 
twenty-three years he worked diligently at 
the bar, attaching to himself by his integ- 
rity and ability a large clientage and a host 
of friends. Being twice re-elected (1861 
and 1871), he was, until 1875, the only law 
judge of the two counties, accomplishing a 
vast amount of labor, and rendering with 
promptness and widely recognized learning, 
decisions which have commanded general 
respect. His rulings have almost univer- 
sally been upheld by the appellate tribunals, 
and his opinions have been quoted as an 
authority in this and other States, with 
more frequency than those of almost any 
other contemporaneous nisi prius judge. 
Although an earnest Democrat, during his 
official career, he carefully abstained from 
all connection with politics. Judge Fisher 
possessed, in an unusual degree, the rare 
ability of viewing a question impartially 
and deciding on principle unafTected by 
* By Henry C. Niles, Esq. 

prejudice or fear. Particularly was this 
characteristic strikingly illustrated in his 
course during the Rebellion. Now that 
the intense excitement and intolerant par- 
tisanship of the time have passed away, his 
undeviating adherence to the established 
principles of the common law, appears most 
admirable. Though a decided and uncom- 
promising Unionist, he was, nevertheless, 
determined in his opposition to every un- 
warrantable encroachment of the military 
upon the civil power. When passion and 
fear deprived others of their judgment, he 
seems never to have lost his cool discretion, 
either in the presence of Federal soldiers or 
rebel invaders. On one occasion, a citizen 
had been illegally arrested by the military 
authority at the hospital on the commons, 
and a writ of habeas corpus was taken out 
in his behalf. Upon its return, the prisoner 
was brought into court by a squad of sol- 
diers with fixed bayonets. That show of 
force, however, failed to affect the action of 
the court. Promptly he required the sol- 
diers to recognize civil authority, saying 
that as citizens they had a right to be there, 
but as armed men, they must withdraw. Af- 
ter a hearing, the prisoner was released. 
At the time of the Confederate occupation 
of York, in 1863, the rebel commander sent 
to Judge Fisher for the keys of the court 
house. He replied that he did not have 
them, and that the commissioners were the 
only legal custodians of the public build- 
ings; upon another summons being sent, 
however, he went with the messenger and 
found that the soldiers had in some way ob- 
tained admission to the prothonotary's of- 
fice, and were preparing to destroy the rec- 
ords there deposited. As the chief judicial 
magistrate of the county, he warmly expos- 
tulated against the destruction of these val- 
uable evidences, the loss of which would 
be irremediable. The general at first said 
it would only be just retaliation for the dep- 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

redation of the Northern armies in the 
South, but after a long discussion, the judge 
compelled him to acknowledge the unlaw- 
fulness of all such acts of useless plunder, 
and persuaded him to withdraw his men. 
The records and valuable documents of the 
county were thus saved by the coolness and 
firmness of the venerable judge. There are 
several other occasions, which many citi- 
zens recall, during those turbulent times, 
when he showed like remarkable courage, 
facing mobs with fearless dignity and with 
unusual mildness, but at the same time un- 
usual determination, maintaining order and 
insisting upon the supremacy of the civil 

Judge Fisher comes of one of the oldest 
and most respectable families of the State. 
Born in Harrisburg, May 6, 1806, he is the 
son of George Fisher, Esq., and Ann Ship- 
pen, daughter of Robert Strettell Jones, of 
Burlington, N. J. He was babtized Rob- 
from 1741 for twenty years. Robert Strett- 
ell was a member of the Provincial Council 
from 1741 for twenty years. Robert Strett- 
ell Jones, his grandfather, was a member of 
the New Jersey legislature and secretary of 
of the Committee of Safety in 1776. His 
great-grandfather, Isaac Jones, was twice 
mayor of Philadelphia (1767 and 1768,) and 
a member of the common council in 1764. 
His great great grandfather Fisher was one 
of the original company of Quakers, who 
came from England with William Penn, in 
1682, and who laid out the city of Philadel- 
phia. His grandfather, George Fisher, re- 
ceived from his father a large tract of land 
in Dauphin county, upon which he laid out 
the borough of Middletown. Judge Fisher 
was twice married, and in the quiet scenes 
of domestic life he always experienced great 
satisfaction. His first wife, Catharine, 
daughter of Horatio Gates Jameson, M. D., 
became the mother of eight children, and 
died in 1850. In 1853 he married Mary 

Sophia, daughter of Ebenezer Caldwell, of 
Northljridge, Mass., who bore him two 
children. His eldest son, George Fisher, 
Esq., is a well established member of the 
York County bar, and his other son, Rob- 
ert J. Fisher, Jr., having been for several 
years connected with the patent office, is 
now one of the three examiners in chief. 
In matters of religion, Judge Fisher has al- 
ways been eminently catholic. From child- 
hood his associations have been largely 
with the Protestant Episcopal Church, al- 
though particularly charitable toward those 
of different faith and order, and a frequent 
attendant at their services. In 1870, he 
became a communicant member of St. 
John's Church, in York, was for many 
years a vestryman, and was the first chan- 
cellor of the diocese of central Pennsyl- 

O LIVER STUCK, ESQ., the subject 
of this sketch, was practically a self- 
made man, and who by perseverance, thrifc 
and industry made his mark in the world, 
achieving success in his profession of jour- 
nalism. From a very tender age he had 
been a hard worker, and the success with 
which he met in life is all owing to the hab- 
its of industry and frugality he formed in 
his youth. Oliver Stuck was born in the 
borough of York, September 19, 1817. His 
father was Capt. Charles Stuck, a carpenter 
by occupation. Capt. Stuck was a member 
of the famous company of volunteers which 
marched to the defense of Baltimore under 
Capt. Michael H. Spangler, on August 29, 
18 14, and were attached to the Fifth Mary- 
land Regiment, and participated in the bat- 
tle of North Point, September 12, 1814. 

The mother of Oliver Stuck, our subject, 
was Rebecca Snyder Stuck, a most estima- 
ble lady, who lived to the advanced age of 
eighty-two years, dying in the year 1877, 
October 15, at the home of her daughter, 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 

in Sunbury, Northumberland Co., Pa. Oli- 
ver Stuck, at the early age of scarcely 
twelve years, was apprenticed to the print- 
ing business with Messrs. King & Barnitz, 
then proprietors of the old York Gazette, 
June 20, 1829, serving an apprenticeship of 
five years very faithfully. At the expira- 
tion of his term of service he worked in the 
same office as a journeyman for a number 
of years, after which he went to Harrisburg, 
and worked in the State printing office on 
the Legislative Record. There being no 
railroad in those days between York and 
Harrisburg, Mr. Stuck used to walk the 
twenty-six miles distance intervening be- 
tween the two points, in his frequent visits 
home to his parents, whose principal sup- 
port he was. From the early age at which 
he entered upon his apprenticeship, it will 
be observed that he did not possess the ad- 
vantage of securing an education in the 
schools, and really attended school very 
little, gleaning all the knowledge he pos- 
sessed in that great college, the printing of- 
fice, and by the reading of useful books. His 
ambition was to become the editor and pro- 
prietor of a newspaper, and with that end in 
view he applied himself vigorously to work, 
and his efforts were finally rewarded with 
success. In the year 1839 he became one 
of the editors and proprietors of the York 
Democratic Press by the purchase of a half 
interest in the paper, and continued as such 
until he became finally the sole proprietor 
by purchasing his partner's interest, and 
conducted the paper in his own name and 
interest ever since. The Press ''espoused 
the principles of the Democratic party, and 
as an exponent of those principles, and a 
disseminator of news, has proved a very 
acceptable paper to the people; and its edi- 
tor, by hard work and the practice of the 
most rigid economy, has made it a success 

In the year 1843, April 17, he was mar- 

ried to Margaret Gilberthorpe, daughter of 
the late William Gilberthorpe, Sr., deceased. 
He has reared a family of six children (two 
sons and four daughters), one of which, the 
eldest, is Edward Stuck, the editor of the 
York Age. Oliver Stuck held several im- 
portant positions of honor and trust. In 
November, 1852, he was appointed State 
agent, on the Philadelphia and Columbia 
Railroad, by the board of Canal Commis- 
sioners, of Pennsylvania, the State, at that 
time, owning what is now known as the 
Pennsylvania Railroad. This position he 
held until August, 1857 — when the road 
passed out of the hands of the State into the 
possession of the present owners by pur- 
chase — with credit to himself and an unim- 
peachable record as a faithful and efficient 
officer. During his connection with the 
railroad he still devoted all his spare mom- 
ents to editing his newspaper, and upon re- 
tiring from the road gave his entire atten- 
tion to the newspaper business. He kept 
the Press fully abreast of the times, and 
succeeded in placing it beside the most in- 
fluential weeklies of the State. He had al- 
ways taken an active part in the politics of 
the county, and was the champion of the 
reform wing of the Democracy, denouncing 
the methods of those who did not consider 
holding office a public trust but simply for 
their own pecuniary advantage. Against 
all politicians of this class he wielded his 
pen, denouncing the e.xtravagance and cor- 
ruption v^'hich disgraced the records of of- 
ficeholders and reflected upon the fame of 
the Democratic party. Much of the credit 
for the healthy state of affairs in this county 
is due to his efforts, through the Press, to 
bring about this great and wholesome 
change, and to the sterling gentlemen who 
rallied around his paper in its work for re- 
form. In June, 1880, he was nominated 
by his party as their candidate for Register 
of Wills of York County, and ran on the 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

same ticket with Gen. Hancock for Presi- 
dent, receiving the highest number of votes 
of any candidate upon his ticket. He en- 
tered upon the duties of his office in Jan- 
uary, 1881, and filled it acceptably to the 
people, and at the end of his term was com- 
plimented by the Auditor-General of Penn- 
sylvania, for the excellent manner in which 
the affairs of the office were administered. 

OHver Stuck died at his residence, in 
York, Pennsylvania, February 3rd, 1890. 

man of great and varied promi- 
nence, for many years, in the affairs of the 
community in which he lived was the de- 
scendant of men equally prominent in the 
Province, and subsequent State of Pennsyl- 
vania. His grandfather, Frederick Watts, a 
native of Wales, came to America about 
1760. He became an active advocate of 
the rights of the colonies, and was Colonel 
of one of the first regiments raised and sub- 
sequently held the commission of General. 
He served in the Assembly, and also as a 
member of the Supreme Executive Council. 
His maternal grandfather, Gen. Henry Mil- 
ler, as lieutenant of a company from York 
participated in the battle of Bunker Hill, 
was an active officer during the Revolution- 
ary War, and was in command of troops at 
Baltimore in 1812. His father, David 
Watts, an only son, was in the first-class 
graduated from Dickinson College. He 
was not only one of the most distinguished 
lawyers and prominent politicians of his 
day but was noted for his great learning 
and general culture. The subject of this 
sketch, one of twelve children, was born in 
Carlisle, May 9th, 1801. He was gradu- 
ated at Dickinson College in 1819, and 
passed the two subsequent years with his 
uncle, William IMiles, in Erie County, en- 
gaged in agricultural pursuits, which pos- 
sessed an attraction for him throughout his 

long and busy life. In 1821 he was en- 
tered as a law student with Andrew Car- 
others, Esq., of Carlisle, and was admitted 
to practice in 1824. He became the part- 
ner of his ipreceptor, and at once took a 
high position at the bar. From 1829 to 
1854 he was a reporter of the decisions of 
the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. The 
first three volumes of reports were pub- 
lished in connection with Hon. C. B. Pen- 
rose, then ten volumes by him as sole re- 
porter, and subsequently nine volumes in 
connection with Henry J. Seargeant, Esq. 
In 1845 lis was made President of the Cum- 
berland Valley railroad, then in a very bad 
condition financially and physically. By 
his energetic and intelligent management 
he brought it to a high degree of efficiency 
and productiveness, and rendered it an im- 
portant factor in the development of the 
Valley. He retired from the presidency in 
1873, but was continued as a director until 
his death in 1889. In 1849, by the appoint- 
ment of Governor Johnston, he became 
President Judge of the Ninth Judicial Dis- 
trict, composed of the counties of Cumber- 
land, Perry and Juniata, and continued in 
office until succeeded by an elected succes- 
sor in 1852. From 1824 to 1828 he was 
secretary of the Board of Trustees of Dick- 
inson College and from 1828 to 1832 a 
member of the board and took an active 
part in the proceedings of that body. In 
1854 he was influential in establishing the 
Agricultural College of Pennsylvania in 
Centre County, now State College, and was 
elected first president in its Board of Trus- 
tees and served as such until . In the 

same year he projected the Gas and Water 
Works of Carlisle, and was elected presi- 
dent of the company formed. In i860 the 
taste for agricultural pursuits, early mani- 
fested and cultivated during a busy profes- 
sional life asserted itself, and he removed 
to one of his farms near Carlisle, and grad- 


Nineteenth Congressional District. 


ually withdrew from the active practice of 
law. In 1871 he was induced to accept the 
appointment of Commissioner of Agricul- 
ture, made by President Grant, after having 
at first declined it, and continued in the of- 
fice until the close of Gen. Grant's second 
term. His administration of the depart- 
ment was able and systematic, and under it 
accurate and detailed information could be 
readily obtained. He died in Carlisle, Au- 
gust 17th, 1889, at the age of 88 years, in 
full possession of his mental faculties. Per- 
haps no man has left a profounder impres- 
sion upon the community in which his long 
and industrious life was passed. As a law- 
yer he had occupied a front rank for nearly 
half a century. There is not a report of the 
Supreme Court of his State for forty-two 
years, except whilst he was on the bench 
that does not contain his name as counsel. 
In his practice in the adjoining counties he 
frequently encountered Thaddeus Stevens 
then in the full vigor of his professional ca- 
reer. The two were warm friends. 

His success as a lawyer rested largely 
upon his great powers of concentration and 
discrimination, his self-reliance, and indom- 
itable persistence. He possessed unusual 
influence with a jury, a result not more of a 
clear, forcible, dignified presentation of his 
case, than of general belief in his integrity 
and honor as a man, and in his fairness in 
conducting a trial. He possessed the re- 
spect of his fellow members of the bar to an 
unusual degree. As a citizen in the com- 
munity and in public life the same qualities 
combined with large public spirit made him 
in many instances foremost in projecting 
and most influential in carrying out meas- 
ures of public interest and utility. 

TACOB FORNEY, who filled so large a 
place, While living, in the esteem of 
the people of Hanover, where his life's 
work was principally done, was a man of 

superior mind, spotless character, and dis- 
tinguished for his practical sense and un- 
effected piety. He was a son of Adam and 
Rachel (Shriver) Forney, and was born on 
the old Forney homestead near Hanover, 
York County, Pennsylvania, February i, 
1797. He was a direct descendant from 
John Adam Forney who with his wife and 
four children came to Philadelphia in 1721, 
from Wachenheim near the Hartz moun- 
tains, in the Palatinate, Germany. From 
family tradition, John Adam settled first in 
Lancaster county, and remained there un- 
til 1734 in which year he became a settler 
in what was known as "Digges Choice" in 
the Conewago settlement and a part of his 
land embraced the site of the borough of 
Hanover. Philip, one of eight children in- 
habited a portion of this tract. Philip For- 
ney was born September 29, 1724, and on 
INIay 8, 1753, married Elizabeth Sheads, the 
date of whose birth was 1730. To them 
were born six sons and six daughters, and 
their eldest child was Adam Forney, who 
inherited a section of the lands of his ances- 
tors and erected the old homestead house 
which now stands on Frederick street in 
the borough of Hanover. Adam Forney 
was born June 15, 1754, served as a soldier 
under Washington in the Revolutionary 
War, and afterward built one of the first tan- 
neries in the southern part of York County. 
He was a tanner by trade and did a very 
profitable business as a tanner and farmer 
during his active years of life which ex- 
tended up almost to the time of his death, 
which occurred June 29, 1822. He was a 
strict member of the Reformed church, and 
on October 26, 1784, wedded Rachel 
Shriver, who died December 7, 1843, aged 
j6 years. Their children, none of whom 
are now living, were: Lydia (Mrs. Jacob 
Welsh), David, Samuel, Lewis, Peter, Ja- 
cob, Rebecca, (Mrs. Eli Lewis), Sally (Mrs. 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

Henry Winebrenner) and Susan (Mrs. Dan- 
iel Barnitz). 

Jacob Forney was reared on the old 
homestead, and made good use of the lim- 
ited educational privileges of his day. He 
learned the trade of tanner with his father 
with whom he remained until the death of 
the latter. He then turned his attention to 
the cultivation of land and was so successful 
as to make it very valuable in a few years. 
In the meantime, in the march of material 
progress, came the steam railway and Mr. 
Forney was one of the first to perceive the 
importance, convenience and value of a 
railroad in the southwestern part of the 
county. With him, to think was to act, and 
in 1849 he immediately undertook the mat- 
ter with his accustomed energy, securing 
rights of way, and obtaining subscriptions 
of stock for the Hanover branch railroad. 
Of this company he served as president in 
1852, and during the remainder of his life 
was ever ready and active in its support in 
any emergency or time of difiSculty. When 
the Civil War came and swept out of exist- 
ence the Old State banking system, Mr. 
Forney was one of the first to comprehend 
clearly the changed financial conditions of 
the country and moved quickly in the inter- 
ests of Hanover when provisions were 
made for the present National banking sys- 
tem. He, in connection with F. E. Metz- 
ger and H. M. Schwenk secured the estab- 
lishment of First National bank which was 
organized November 20, 1863, and is one 
of the oldest National Banks in the United 
States. Mr. Forney was its first president 
and served in that capacity until 1875. 
Mainly instrumental in securing to Han- 
over its railway and its banking facilities, he 
was likewise foremost and active in all other 
movements for the benefit or progress of 
the borough. He rounded out a long and 
useful life with deeds of kindness, and acts 
of public benefit. 

He died January 4th, 1882, aged 84 years. 

On June 25th, 1829, Mr. Forney married 
Elizabeth Winebrenner, who was a daugh- 
ter of Peter Winebrenner and died Nov. 
17th, 1861, aged 58 years. Their children 
were: Anna M., Adam, Jacob and David, 
who all died in infancy; Sarah who passed 
avi'ay in early woman hood; Mary, now re- 
siding on the old homestead; Emelia, wed- 
ded to W. S. Young; and Elizabeth who 
married George Young, who passed away 
October i6th, 1895. 

Jacob Forney was a Whig and a Repub- 
lican in politics, and a member for many 
years of the Reformed church. While ac- 
tive in the business interests and moral 
and religious growth of his borough and 
county, he was no politician or office 
seeker. He was a man of great force of 
character, splendid executive ability and 
excellent judgment. He was a gentleman 
in the best and truest sense of the word, 
gentle but manly, the enemy of nothing but 
what was wrong and the friend of every- 
thing noble, true and right. He was a 
representative business man, and a noble 
spirited citizen, who enjoyed the respect of 
all who knew him. He possessed a strong 
love for home and for the domestic circle, 
and preferred the society and endearments 
of his family and devoted friends more 
than the honor of political life, or the meed 
of popular applause. Earnest, noble and 
faithful in life, he passed calmly and 
trustingly into the valley of the shadow 
of death, and his spirit left its earth- 
clay casket on January 4th, 1882. His re- 
mains were interred with appropriate cere- 
monies in a beautiful spot in Mount Olivet 
cemetery. No man's death for many years . 
in the southwestern part of York county 
was more generally felt or called forth such 
an outspoken expression of sorrow, for he 
was deeply loved by his family and wide 
circle of friends, and singularly fortunate in 



the possession of the esteem of the com- 

JAMES UNDERWOOD, deceased, late 
a prominent resident of CarHsle, was a 
son of John and Sarah (Morri- 
son) Underwood, and a native of the town 
of his residence. He was born October 14, 
1739, and died November 8th, 1834. He 
was of Scotch-Irish ancestry, his father 
John Underwood, having been born in 
county Antrim, Ireland, of Scotch Presby- 
terian parents. The grandfather was a 
mere boy when he left Scotland. His 
grandmother's maiden name was Nancy 
Henry. The father of James Underwood 
left Ireland in 1775 and after his arrival at 
Philadelphia in June of that year, settled in 
Lancaster county, eight miles east of the 
town of Lancaster, and served in the War 
of the Revolution. His first commission 
from the Assembly of the colony, which is 
still treasured by his descendants as a prec- 
ious heirloom, bears date of March 15, 1776, 
and is signed "John Morton, Speaker." It 
appointed him ensign of the fifth battalion 
of associates of the county of Lancaster for 
the defense of American liberty. Later he 
served as captain in the Continental army. 
He was twice married first to Janet Mc- 
Cord, of whose children William B. Under- 
wood, born in Lancaster County, March 8, 
1779, alone survived. William was a stu- 
dent of the class of 1800 at Dickinson Col- 
lege, became a printer and in 1814 estab- 
lished the American Volunteer at Carlisle, 
associating with him as editor and proprie- 
tor, James, the subject of this sketch, a half 
brother, being a son by his father's second 
wife, Sarah Morrison, who was also a na- 
tive of county Antrim, and like the Under- 
woods of Scotch Presbyterian parentage. 
She came to America with her brother John 
Morrison. In 1788 John Underwood re- 
moved to Carlisle and engaged in general 

merchandizing. He became the father of 
six children by Sarah Morrison: James, 
Janet, Sally, Morrison, Joseph and Ann. 
Janet and Sally died in infancy. Joseph 
was born April 8, 1798, and died unmar- 
ried February tenth, 1823. 

James Underwood served one year on 
the Niagara frontier during the war of 

1812. He was a member of Captain J. H. 
Moore's company, First Baltimore volun- 
teers and participated in the battles of York 
and Fort George, Canada. September 8, 

1813, he was honorably discharged at Lew- 
iston, his term of service having expired. 
In 1818 he was married at Carlisle, Penna., 
to Catherine, a daughter of Thomas and 
Mary Scott Goddard. Thomas Goddard 
was born of English parents in Boston, 
Mass., and Alary Scott was a native of Lon- 
don, England. They were married at Hal- 
ifax, Nova Scotia, and removed to New 
York in 1785. Their daughter Catharine, 
wife of James Underwood, was born in 
1796. Six children were born to the Un- 
derwoods: Sarah Morrison, Mary Scott, 
Martha Ker, Anne Harriet, Edmund and 
John Morrison, only two of whom are liv- 
ing at this time: Mary, widow of Dr. Isa- 
iah ChampHn Loomis, who resides with 
her daughter, Mrs. S. T. Milbourne, at 
Cambridge, Maryland; and Anne Harriet 
Underwood, who lives in the old home in 
Carlisle, Pa. Of Mrs. Loomis' children 
Edmund U., an officer in the U. S. Navy 
was lost on the ill-fated ship Huron, in 

Martha Ker Underwood, the 3rd daugh- 
ter of our subject, graduated from the 
Steubenville, Ohio, seminary and taught in 
the Carlisle schools for thirty years. For 
sixteen years she was principal of the girls' 
High School. She died in 1890. Her sis- 
ter, Anne, taught from 1858 to 1873 i" the 
same schools. Edmund the eldest son was 
born in 1828 — he served with the volun- 



Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

?eers in Mexico, in Captain E. C. William's 
"Cameron Guards." In 1848 he was ap- 
pointed a regular army lieutenant. In 1852 
he married Mary Beardsley of Otsego Co., 
New York. He was stationed at various 
army posts on the Pacific Coast until the 
breaking out of the Civil War, when he was 
ordered east to active service. He died at 
Utica, New York, September 5, 1863, from 
sickness broug'ht on by exposure in the 
line of duty. He had been mustering and 
disbursing officer for some time just prev- 
ious to his death and had attained the rank 
of major. A son, Edmund Beardsley Un- 
derwood, is now lieutenant in the navy and 
instructor at the naval academy, Annapolis, 
Md. His wife was Charlotte, only daugh- 
ter of Professor E. J. Hamilton, of Oswego, 
New York. His brother Champlin Loo- 
mis Underwood married Deborah Cress- 
well, of Overbrook, Pennsylvania. John 
Morrison Underwood, youngest son of 
James and Catherine Underwood, was edu- 
cated in the public schools and at Dickin- 
son College, class of '53, Carlisle, studied 
law, located at Greensburg, Westmoreland 
county, Pa., in 1855, elected District Attor- 
ney'in 1856. His health failing, he return- 
ed to Carlisle in 1861. He died in 1862. 

Morrison Underwood, a brother of 
James, the subject of this sketch, became a 
promient business man and banker at 
Greensburg and Pittsburg, but after the 
death of his wife in 1876, he returned to 
Carlisle, his native place, where he died in 
1885. His sister Ann married Ephraim 
Steele in 1831. They had eight children, 
three of whom survive. Mrs. Ann Steele 
died in 1880. 

The remains of John Underwood, father 
of our subject, and of the majority of the 
descendants repose in the old graveyard 
southeast of the borough of Carlisle which 
was originally given by the Penns for the 
purpose of a burial ground. 

REV. JACOB BOAS was born in Read- 
ing, Pennsylvania, November 15, 
181 5, and died of paralysis of the heart in 
Carlisle, Pennsylvania, April 4, 1884, aged 
sixty-eight years, four months and nineteen 

He was of German ancestry and his great- 
grandfather, who was a Reformed minister, 
emigrated from the Fatherland to this coun- 
try. Here he labored faithfully in the ser- 
vice of his church and was a highly re- 
spected and God-fearing man. He had a 
son named Daniel who was the father of 
our subject. Daniel married Catharine 
Goodman. Our subject was converted at 
the age of fifteen and when but seventeen 
and a half years old attended the Eastern 
Conference of the United Evangelical 
church held at Orwigsburg, June 3, 1833, 
and was admitted into the itinerancy, being 
the youngest man ever known to have been 
received into traveling connection with the 

In 1844 he married Rebecca Kurtz, who 
survives him. Five children were born to 
him: D. K., A. D., J. E., E. B., and Mrs. 
L. B Hoflfer. The eldest daughter is the 
wife of the late Rev. J. M. Ettinger. In 
1834 Rev. Boas traversed Lake Circuit, 
New York; 1835, Indiana Circuit; 1836, 
Erie Circuit; 1837, Miami Circuit. This 
year he was sent by the presiding elder to 
Illinois, where he formed the first circuit 
of his church, west of Chicago. He served 
Canton Circuit, Ohio, in 1838. Bedford cir- 
cuit 1839, and from 1840 to 1841 was mis- 
sionary to Baltimore. Here his labors re- 
sulted in laying the foundation of the sub- 
stantial and prosperous work of his church 
in that city. In 1842 and 1843 he traveled 
Cumberland circuit; 1844 and 1845 Gettys- 
burg circuit; 1846 Baltimore city; 1847 
York; from 1848 to 1851 was presiding el- 
der of the Baltimore district; from 1852 to 
1855 Centre district and in 1856, Baltimore 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


district again. In 1857 his health having 
failed, he took a superannuated relation 
which he sustained until 1872, when he 
took a Perry circuit serving it for four years, 
from 1873 to 1877. He traveled Jersey 
Shore circuit from 1879 to 1880; Big Spring 
circuit from 1881 to 1882, taking a super- 
annuated relation again the year following. 
Rev. Boas was a genial, sympathizing, af- 
fectionate pastor and an able and faithful 
preacher. His sermons were forcibly 
Scriptural. His prayers were humble, ten- 
der, child-like. He seemed to excel in his 
local church work as a Sunday school 
teacher. He was the pastor's helper and 
counsellor, an affectionate husband, a kind 
father, a consistent friend, a cheerful Chris- 
tian and a patient sufferer. By his last 
illness he was confined to his house nearly 
three months, though confined to his bed 
but little over a week. As the end drew 
near he had no doubt nor misgivings. At 
one time he said, "I have no clouds, no 
fears, no doubts." After bidding his be- 
loved wife, children, physician and others 
farewell he quoted passages of Scripture 
and quietly passed beyond. His funeral 
services were held April 7th, in the St 
Paul Evangelical church of Carlisle. 

DAVID E. SMALL, a great-great- 
grand son of Lorenz, gjeat-grand- 
son of Killian, grandson of Joseph, and 
son of Henry Small, was born December 
3, 1824, and died March 25, 1883. He was 
one of the most enterprising and public 
spirited men that York has known. At 
the age of thirteen, he left York County 
Academy and entered the store of his 
father's cousins, P. A. & S. Small, and be- 
came one of the family of Samuel Small. 
He rose from one position to another, and 
soon demonstrated that he had learned the 
important principles of a prosperous and 
successful business career. In 1845 he en- 

gaged with his father in the lumber busi- 
ness, and two years later the firm became 
H. Small & Sons. In 1852 he entered 
into partnership with Charles Billmyer, for 
the manufacture of railway cars in York, 
which business greatly prospered. In 1853 
while conducting a gentleman through the 
shops, his clothing caught in the rapidly 
revolving machinery, from which accident 
he lost his right arm. He, however, re- 
sumed business in a few weeks. Upon the 
death of Mr. Billmyer, the firm became 
Billmyer & Small Company and Mr. Small 
was made its president. He also became 
a prominent stockholder in the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad, and in 1874, was appointed 
on a special committee to examine and re- 
port the condition of that road and all its 
branches. He was elected president of the 
First National Bank of York, in 1867, and 
continued as such until December, 1876. 
He was chosen president of the York Gas 
company, director of the York Water com- 
pany, director in the Lochiel and Wrights- 
ville Iron works, a member of the school 
board, trustee of the York County Acad- 
emy, Collegiate Institute, Orphans' Home 
and York Hospital, and likewise served as 
president for many years of the Young 
Men's Christian Association of York. 

Mr. Small was an earnest and consistent 
advocate of temperance and wielded a pow- 
erful influence for good in any cause or 
enterprise he supported. He was unusu- 
ally active in church and general philan- 
thropic work, frequently representing the 
church in Synod and General Assembly, 
served on important committees during 
the church's most critical history and was 
particularly active in the Sunday school 
and other auxiliary departments of the 
church. He attempted on three different 
occasions to enlist in the active defense of 
the nation during the late Civil War and 
was as often rejected on account of physi- 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

cal disability. Subsequently he entered 
the secret service of the United States gov- 
ernment and did excellent service. He 
filled a great many responsible positions 
by reason of his preeminent executive ca- 
pacity, and had a wonderful faculty for the 
rapid transaction and dispatch of business. 
In the year 1876, his nervous system gave 
way and from that time to his death he 
never fully recovered his health. He was 
a Republican in politics and an active mem- 
ber and elder of the Presbyterian church. 

In 1849 David E. Small was united in 
marriage with Mary Ann Fulton. There 
survive five children, whose names are as 
follows: Henry Small, John Hamilton 
Small, J. Frank Small, M. D., David Etter 
Small, Julia Agnes Small. 

Lewis Mayer was born at Lancaster, 
Penn., March 26, 1783, and was the son of 
George L. Mayer, a gentleman of liberal 
education. He received a good German 
and English education in his native town, 
and at an early age removed to Frederick, 
Md., and began business. Being better 
suited to books, he then determined to en- 
ter the ministry. He made rapid progress 
in classical and theological studies, and was 
licensed to preach in 1807, by the Re- 
formed Synod, which met that year at New 
Holland, Lancaster county. He is sup- 
posed to have preached at Frederick the 
first year of his ministry. In 1808 he accep- 
ted a call to the Shepherdstown, W. Va., 
charge, where he officiated twelve years. 
In this position he succeeded well, and soon 
became one of the most prominent minis- 
ters of his church. In 1821 he was called 
to the Reformed church of York, which 
position he filled until his election to pre- 
side over the Theological Seminary of the 
German Reformed Church, which was es- 
tablished in 1820, at Carlisle. Mr. Mayer 

resigned his charge in York in 1825, and 
went to Carlisle and commenced operations 
as its president. In 1829 the seminary was 
removed to York, where it rapidly in- 
creased in number of pupils and influence 
under his direction and care. This year 
the Reformed Dutch College, at New 
Brunswick, N. J., conferred upon Mr. 
Mayer the honorary degree of doctor of 
divinity. In 1835 the synod determined to 
remove the seminary to Mercersburg, when 
Dr. Mayer resigned his professorship, and 
determined to remain at York. He spent 
the remainder of his life in literary labors. 
He was favorably known as a scholar, min- 
ister and author. He was a great student, 
a deep and correct thinker. For a long 
time he edited the German Reformed Mes- 
senger and Magazine. Among his works 
are "Sin Against the Holy Ghost," "Lec- 
tures on Scriptural Subjects," "Hermeneu- 
tics and Exegesis," "History of the Ger- 
man Reformed Church." He was twice 
married. His first wife was Catharine 
Line. By this marriage they had six chil- 
dren, one of whom was John L. Mayer, for 
many years a prominent lawyer of York. 
His second wife was Mary Smith. Dr. 
Mayer, who did not enjoy good health for 
many years, died of dysentery on August 
25, 1849- 

Henry Nes, M. D., was born in 
York, in 1799; received a liberal educa- 
tion; studied medicine, and practiced for 
many years; filled several local offices; was 
elected to represent York County in the 
Twenty-eighth Congress, as an Independ- 
ent, receiving 4,016 votes against 3,413 
votes for Dr. Alexander Small, Democrat, 
serving from December 4, 1843, to March 
3, 1845; he was again elected to the Thir- 
tieth Congress as a Whig; and was re- 
elected to the Thirty-first Congress, re- 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


ceiving 6,599 votes against 5,989 votes for 
J. B. Banner, the Democratic candidate, 
serving from December 6, 1847, to Septem- 
ber 10, 1850, when he died at York. Dr. 
Nes was a man of remarkable popularity, 
and possessed an extraordinary faculty for 
electioneering. He was a member of the 
House of Representatives when ex-Presi- 
dent John Quincy Adams, then a fellow 
member, fell from his chair from a stroke 
of apoplexy. Dr. Nes was one of his at- 
tending physicians. 

William B. Frankhn was born in 
York, Pa., February 27, 1823. He was ap- 
pointed to the military academy from this 
district and graduated at West Point, in 
1843, ^t the head of his class. In the sum- 
mer of 184s he accompanied Brig. Gen. 
Kearney on an expedition to the South 
Pass of the Rocky Mountains. In the war 
with Mexico he served on the staff of Gen. 
Taylor at the battle of Buena Vista, and 
was breveted first lieutenant for his part in 
it. In 1848 he became assistant professor 
of natural and experimental philosophy at 
West Point. In 1852 he was appointed 
professor of the same science, together 
with civil engineering at the New York 
City Free Academy. During the next 
eight years he was continually employed 
as consulting engineer and inspector on 
various public works. He was engineer 
secretary of the lighthouse board, and su- 
perintendent of the capitol extension, and 
other government buildings in Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

In May 14, 1861, he was appointed col- 
onel of the Twelfth Regiment of Infantry, 
and in July was assigned a brigade in 
Heintzelman's division of the army of 
northeast Virginia. At the disastrous bat- 
tle of Bull Run, according to the ofificial 
report of Gen. McDowell, he was "in the 

hottest of the fight." In August he was 
made brigadier general of volunteers, his 
commission to date from May 17, 1861. In 
September he was appointed to the com- 
mand of a division in the Army of the Po- 
tomac. He was sent to reinforce Gen. Mc- 
Clellan. After the evacuation of Yorktown 
he transported his division by water to 
West Point, on York river, and repulsed 
the enemy under Gens. Whiting and G. W. 
Smith, who attempted to prevent his land- 
ing May 7, 1862. 

During the movement to the James 
River, which began June 27, he repulsed 
the enemy on the right bank of the Chick- 
ahominy, June zj and 28, and again in con- 
junction with the corps of Gen. Summer, 
at Savage's Station, June 29 also com- 
manded ai. battle of White Oak Swamp 
bridge on the 30th. He was promoted to 
rank of major-general of volunteers July 
4, previously having been appointed brevet 
brigadier-general in regular army, June 4. 
In the battle of South Mountain Septem- 
ber 14, he distinguished himself by storm- 
ing Crampton's Gap. He was in the bat- 
tle of Antietam, September 17, and in No- 
vember was placed in command of the left 
grand division of the Army of Potomac, 
including the First and Sixth Corps, which 
he commanded in the battle of Fredericks- 
burg, December 13. The next year he was 
transferred to the department of the Gulf, 
commanded the expedition to Sabine Pass, 
1863, and was second in command in 
Bank's Red River expedition, April, 1864,. 
being in the battle of Sabine Cross Roads. 
His capture by and escape from Maj. Harry 
Gilmore, of the Confederate Army, which 
occurred near Baltimore, when he was on 
his way from Washington to New York, is 
a very interesting chapter of his life. He 
was breveted major-general in United 
States Army in 1865, and resigned March 
15, 1866. He was vice president of 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

Colt's Manufacturing Company, of Hart- 
ford, Conn., and held many positions 
of trust in his adopted city and State. He 
was consulting engineer of the commission 
for the erection of the new State House. 
He was a director of the Connecticut Mu- 
tual Life Insurance Company and held sev- 
eral other positions of prominence and re- 

In 1875 he was one of the commissioners 
of the Centennial Exposition, chairman of 
the department of engineering and archi- 
tecture. In the same year he was chosen 
one of the electors for President from that 
State throwing his vote for Tilden. In June, 
1880, he was elected by Congress a member 
of the board of changers of the National 
House for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers. In 
July, 1880, he was elected president and 
treasurer of the board. His term expired 
in 1884, when he was re-elected to serve 
for six years. 

DAVID JAMESON. David Jameson 
was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, 
about 171 5, and graduated at the medical 
school of the celebrated university of that 
ancient city. He immigrated to America 
about the year 1740, accompanied by his 
friend and fellow-surgeon, Hugh Mercer, 
afterward distinguished in his profession 
and as a general officer of the Revolution- 
ary Army. He landed at Charleston, S. 
C, and, after a brief sojourn there, removed 
to Pennsylvania; resided for some time at 
Shippensburg, and finally settled at York, 
in that province, where his name and fame 
yet linger, and where a number of his de- 
scendants of the fourth and fifth genera- 
tions still reside. He became an officer of 
the provincial forces of Pennsylvania and 
attained the rank of lieutenant-colonel in 
the same, and of colonel in the militia of 
Pennsylvania, in the Revolutionary war.* 

*The commissions (military and civic; — now 

He also held, by executive appointment, 
civic offices in the county of York. The 
only ones of which any record is found are 
those of justice of the peace, the appoint- 
ments bearing date October, 1754, and 
June, 1777 — (Glossbrenner's History of 
York County, 1834) — and a special com- 
mission to him and his associate, Martin 
Eichelberger, Esq., to try certain offenders. 

During the French and Indian war 
(1756) many murders and depredations 
were committed by the Indians on the 
frontier of Pennsylvania, extending to all 
the settlements from Carlisle to Pittsburg. 
A road had been opened from Carlisle 
through Cumberland county, which crossed 
the North Mountain at a place since called 
Stra(w)sburg; thence to Bedford and to 
Fort du Quesne (now Pittsburgh). Near 
Sideling Hill was erected a log fort called 
Fort Lyttleton on this road — since the 
"Burnt Cabins." This fort was constructed 
of logs and surrounded with a stockade 
work. Here we first find Capt. Jameson 
in his military movements. He was ap- 
pointed an ensign by the proprietary gov- 
ernor of Pennsylvania but at what precise 
period we are not informed. He very 
soon rose to the rank of captain without an 
intermediate lieutenancy. 

During his frontier service, Capt. Jame- 
son was dangerously wounded in an en- 
gagement with Indians, near Fort Lyttle- 
ton, at Sideling Hill, on the road from Car- 
lisle to Pittsburg, then Fort du Quesne. 
His sufferings and perils (being left for 
dead on the field), and rescue make a 
thrilling narative. 

It became necessary for him to repair to 
Philadelphia for medical aid, but it was but 

much worn and obliterated by time — held by him, 
except that of ensign, are in the possession of his 
great-grandson, Brevet Brig. -Gen. Horatio Gates 
Gibson, Colonel of the Third Regiment of Artil- 
lery, United States Army. 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 

a few months till he assumed the field 
again, though he did not recover fully for 
six years. He afterward discharged the 
duties of brigade-major, and also of lieu- 
tenant-colonel, all of which he did to the 
entire satisfaction of the appointing power, 
at Carlisle and at different ponts, then on 
the frontier of Pennsylvania. 

Capt. Jameson had been educated a 
physician, yet his ambition had prompted 
him to solicit a command and to share in 
the dangers of the field. This did not in- 
terfere with his humane prompting to de- 
vote a portion of his time to the sick and 
wounded, and we have seen a letter writ- 
ten by Dr. Rush, in which he says: "I well 
remember to have seen your father (Dr. 
Jameson) dress the wound received in the 
shoulder by Gen. Armstrong, at the battle 
of Kitanning." 

In Scott's geographical description of 
Pennsylvania, 1805, the following is found: 

"Capt. Jameson is described by Burd as 
a 'gentleman of education, who does his 
duty well and is an exceedingly good offi- 
cer.' " 

"Col. David Jameson had command of 
Fort Hunter, Fort Augusta, Fort Augh- 
wick, and was at the battle of Loyal 
Hanna, March 14, 1769." 

Col. Jameson's age, on reaching this 
country, could not have been less than five 
and twenty years, for the medical school of 
the famed University of Edinboro' town 
then, as now, required six years' matricula- 
tion. In the French and Indian war, he 
must have attained the ripe age of forty. 
When the English colonies of America en- 
tered upon their long struggle for national 
independence, although he had passed the 
limit of age for military service, and his 
natural force had somewhat abated, and ad- 
vancing years and wounds had in a meas- 
ure enfeebled his physical powers, he never- 
theless seems to have been active and effi- 

cient, joining at the age of sixty "a march- 
ing regiment" to reinforce the Army of 
Washington, and otherwise aiding "the 
grand cause" of his country. 

The following letter is from the Com- 
mittee of York county to the Committee of 
Safety in Philadelphia, dated December 31, 

"In these times of Difficulty several gen- 
tlemen have exerted themselves much in 
the Grand Cause. Several Militia Com- 
panys have marched ; more will march from 
this county, so as in the whole to compose 
at least a pretty good Battalion. The gen- 
tlemen who deserve the most from the pub- 
lick are David Jameson, Hugh Denwoody, 
Charles Lukens and Mr. George Eichel- 
berger. They have been exceedingly use- 
ful. As most of the Companys who have 
marched have chosen their officers, pro 
Tempore, an arrangement will be necessary 
as to Field Officers. We propose David 
Jameson, Col., Hugh Denwoody, Lt. Colo- 
nel, Charles Lukens, Major and 'George 
Eichelberger, Quartermaster of the York 
County Militia, who now march. It will 
be doing Justice to merit to make the ap- 
pointm't, and we make, no Doubt, it will 
be done by your Board. We congratulate 
you on the Success of the American Arms 
at Trenton." 

It is also stated, on the authority of his 
son, Dr. H. G. Jameson, "that he had de- 
spoiled his fair estate near York of acres 
of its fine woodland, in order to contribute 
without money and without price, to the 
aid of "the Grand Cause." 

The intimate friend of Hugh Mercer, 
Benjamin Rush, James Smith, and Horatio 
Gates, and well known to other illustrious 
men of the Revolution, it is much to be re- 
gretted that the story of the life of a soldier 

"good old colony times 
When we lived under tlie King," 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

cannot be made more complete than the 
fragmentary records left behind him en- 
able his descendants to do. 

After the close of his military service un- 
der the province of Pennsylvania, David 
Jameson practiced his profession in York, 
(interrupted only by the period of his ser- 
vice in the Revolution), and died in York 
during the last decade of the last century, 
leaving a widow and children. In a 
memoir, prefacing a sketch of his services 
during the French and Indian war, and un- 
der the Province, by his son, Horatio 
Gates Jameson, M. D., the following refer- 
ence is made to his abode near York: 

"The spacious domain near the ancient 
borough of York, which, with a refined and 
cultivated taste, he adorned and beautified 
— though not after the manner (which 
could not be), of his ancestral home in 
"Bonnie Scotland," yet adding to its nat- 
ural beauty all that art could devise to 
make it fair to view; and where he dis- 
pensed a generous and graceful hospitality 
— has passed, as usual in our country, out 
of the hands of his posterity; the last poss- 
essor of the blood (about 1869) being his 
great-grandson, Gates Jameson Weiser, 

Col. Jameson married Emily Davis, by 
whom he had eleven children. — Thomas, 
James, Horatio Gates, David, Joseph, 
Nancy, Cassandra, Henrietta, Emily and 
Rachel. His sons all became physicians. 
Thomas settled in practice in York, James 
in Allentown, Pa., Horatio Gates in Balti- 
more, and David and Joseph in Columbus, 
Ohio, and all left descendants. 

D., was born in York in 1778, and 
married August 3, 1797, Catharine Shevell 
(Chevell), of Somerset, Pa., (where he then 
abode), and had issue: Cassandra, Eliza- 
beth, Rush, Catharine, Alexander Cobean, 

David Davis, Horatio Gates. He seems to 
have sojourned, after his marriage, in Som- 
erset, Wheeling, Adamstown and Gettys- 
burg, until about 1810, when he removed 
to Baltimore, where he established himself 
permanently in practice, founded and be- 
came president of the Washington Medical 
College, and, at one time, Health Officer 
of the city. About 1830 Dr. Jameson with 
his wife and daughter, Elizabeth Gibson, 
made a voyage to Europe on one of the 
packets running from Baltimore to the 
ports of Germany, and visited several places 
on the continent, but sojourned longest at 
Copenhagen, Denmark; to and from the 
American representative at whose court he 
was accredited as a special bearer of dis- 
patches by the government at Washington. 
While on his return from a trip to Texas 
(where he had purchased lands) the faculty 
of the Ohio Medical College at Cincinnatti, 
composed of Drs. Gross, Drake, Rives and 
Rogers — all celebrities in their profession — 
tendered him its presidency; accepting 
which, he removed with his family from 
Baltimore to Cincinnati in October, 1835. 
The ill health of his wife compelled him to 
return to Baltimore in March, 1836, and 
resume practice there. On one (or two) of 
his journeys between Texas or the West 
and Baltimore, he was severely injured by 
the upsetting of a stage coach on the 
mountains of (West) Virginia, and was un- 
able to rejoin his family for months. His 
wife, Catharine Shevell Jameson, died in 
Baltimore, November i, 1837; and he mar- 
ried in 1852, a lady of Baltimore, Hannah 
J. D. Ely, nee Pearson, (the widow of 
Judah Ely, Esq., with a son, Jesse Pearson 
Ely). Within the last year of his life, he 
left Baltimore and went to York, to spend 
his last days among the scenes of his child- 
hood — so fondly remembered and graphi- 
cally described by him in a Baltimore jour- 
nal in 1842. But the hope and ambition 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


of his life — to obtain and restore to the 
family his patrimonial homstead and estate 
— he never reaUzed; and he died, unposs- 
essed of its acres and domicile, while on a 
visit to the city of New York in July, 1855 
— the same year in which the ancient 
homestead was destroyed by fire. His 
widow survived him nearly thirty years, 
and died in the city of Baltimore, August 
19, 1884, at the ripe age of eighty years. 

Dr. Jameson was celebrated for his surgi- 
cal skill and knowledge, and also had a wide 
repute for his successful treatment of chol- 
era — epidemic in Baltimore and Philadel- 
phia, 1793-98 and 1832. He wrote several 
medical works, which were accepted as au- 
thority by the profession, and was an able 
and earnest advocate of the "non-conta- 
gion" theory. Like the great Dr. Rush, he 
belonged to the school of the immortal 
Sangrado of Gil Bias fame, whose theory 
of practice obtained even unto the days of 
the writer. The earliest recollection of the 
writer's youth is that of a fine old English 
engraving, which hung over the mantel in 
his grand-father's office. It represented 
Galen discovering a skeleton in a forest; 
and neither it, nor the lines engraved be- 
neath, have ever been effaced from the wri- 
ter's memory. The latter are reproduced 
here, as a suggestive indication that the 
disciples of Galen, in those days, were de- 
vout men, fearing God: 
Forbear, vain man, to launch with Reason's eye 
Into the vast depths of dark Immensity ; 
Nor think thy narrow but presumptuous mind, 
The last idea of thy God can find ; 
Though crowding thoughts distract the laboring 

How can Finite INFINITE explain ? 

Hamilton, the first sherifif of York 
County, and one of the most influential of 
the early settlers, was born in 1721, and died 
February 2, 1772, aged fifty-one years. In 

the first legal records of York County, he 
is generally alluded to as of Cumberland 
Township (now Adams County), though 
he probably died at his mill property in 
Menallen Township; his will having been 
executed in that township. The executors 
named in it are his brother, John Hamil- 
ton, Robert McPherson, Esq., and Samuel 
Edie, Esq. The active executor was Col. 
Robert McPherson. His remains were first 
interred in what is known as Black's grave- 
yard, the burying-ground of the Upper 
Marsh Creek Presbyterian church, where 
they reposed for eighty years, and were 
then disinterred and placed a short distance 
south of the eastern entrance of Evergreen 
Cemetery, at Gettysburg. Concerning the 
headstone, which is now much weather- 
beaten, the following receipt will be per- 
used with interest: 

Received 2nd of September, 1772, of 
Robert McPherson, fifteen shillings, for 
making a headstone for Hance Hamilton's 
grave. Adam Ling. 


The signature to this document is in Ger- 
man. Among the first public trusts with 
which Hamilton was charged, was the will 
of his brother James Hamilton, made June 
23, 1748, "in the County of Lancaster." 
York County was formed the next year. It 
was acknowledged in the presence of Abra- 
ham Lowry, William Brown and James 
McGinly. The will was proven before "Sa 
Smith, Esq., of Newberry Manor, west of 
the Susquehanna," December 22, 1748. 
The estate amounted £139 13s 7d. York 
County was erected by an act of Assembly, 
August 19, 1749. In October of that year 
an election was held for sheriff and coroner, 
when Hance Hamilton was elected to the 
former office, and Nicholas Ryland to the 
latter. These officers were at that time 
elected annually, and at the next election in 
1750, a serious riot ensued between the 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

supporters of Hance Hamilton, and those 
of his opponent, Richard McAlHster, the 
founder of Hanover, as a result of which 
the sheriff refused to go on with the 
election. The coroner, Ryland, opened 
another box, with other officers and 
took votes until evening. At the 
general county election in those days, 
all persons who voted, were required 
to go to York. There was but one poll in 
the county. At the election, the sheriff is 
represented, in his own statement, as hav- 
ing declined to assist in counting the 
tickets, and to make a return, giving as the 
reasons that he was "drove by violence from 
the place of election, and by the same vio- 
lence was prevented from returning there, 
whereby it was not in his power to do his 
duty, and therefore could not make no re- 
turn." On a public hearing by the Provin- 
cial Governor and Council at Philadelphia, 
it was unanimously agreed "that it was not 
owing to Hamilton that the election was 
obstructed, and hkewise that he could not, 
in his circumstances, as proved by the wit- 
nesses, make a return." The governor, 
therefore, granted Hamilton a commission 
as sheriff during his pleasure. The court 
of York, in view of the absence of a return, 
directed that the commissioners and asses- 
sors for the previous year, serve for another 
year until there shall be a new election. As 
a result of this riot, and consequent want 
of a return, York County was without rep- 
resentation in I the General Assembly for 
that year. In 1751, Hance Hamilton was 
again re-elected sheriff, with Alexander 
Love as coroner. After the expiration of 
his term of office as sheriff, Hamilton be- 
came one of the judges of the court of com- 
mon pleas of York County. In April, 1756, 
as captain, he commanded a company of 
Provincial troops from York County, that 
took part in the French and Indian war. 
He was at Fort Littleton (now in Fulton 

county), where he wrote a letter describing 
the capture by the Indians of McCord's 
Fort. He was at Fort Littleton in the fall 
of 1757. He was also in Armstrong's ex- 
pedition against Kittaning, where a bloody 
and important victory over the Indians 
was won by the "Scotch-Irish of the bor- 

On the 31st of May, 1758, he was com- 
missioned by William Denny, Lieutenant- 
Governor, as "Lieutenant Colonel of the 
First Battalion of the Pennsylvania Regi- 
ment of foot soldiers in pay of the Prov- 
ince." Col. Hamilton carefully kept all his 
business documents, and many of them, in- 
cluding the executors' accounts, were 
in possession of Hon. Edward McPherson 
of Gettysburg. Among them is his will, 
dated January 27, 1772, only four days be- 
lore his death. It was probated March 11, 
1772, a receipt of James McClure was given 
los 6d "for expenses laid out in attending 
at York to prove the will," also a receipt of 
Sarah Black for £3 2s 6d for two gallons of 
liquor and three gallons of rum, "expended 
at the funeral" of Hance Hamilton. At the 
"wakes in those days, it was a common cus- 
tom to use liquors. His personal property 
was sold March 19-20, 1772. Among the 
articles advertised were "six negroes, two 
of which are men well acquainted with 
farming business, one very likely wench, 
two fine promising boys and one child." 
There were quite a number of slaves in his 
township at the date of his death. What 
they brought is not known. On the 26th 
of September, 1760, "William Buchanan, of 
Baltimore town," signed a receipt to Hance 
Hamilton of £200 for one negro man; £70 
for one negro boy. Hamilton's real estate 
was sold April i, 1773, to David McCon- 
aughy, Esq., Dr. William Cathcart and 
John Hamilton as "trustees for his heirs." 
The entire estate was about £3,000 in Penn- 
sylvania currency, nearly equally divided 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


between personal and real property. This 
was a large amount for these colonial days. 
Nothing is definitely known of his children, 
except that one of them "was apprenticed" 
in September, 1767, to Dr. Robert Boyd, of 
Lancaster, to study physic and surgery, to 
stay two years, for a fee of £70 for instruc- 
tion." He graduated at the University of 
Pennsylvania in 1768. The children men- 
tioned in his will are Thomas, Edward, Har- 
riet Sarah, married to Alexander McKean; 
Mary, married to Hugh McKean; Hance 
Gawin, George, John, William and James. 
None of his descendants are now living in 
either York or Adams county. In his will 
among many other bequests, he left to his 
son, Thomas, a pair of silver-mounted pis- 
tols, valued at iio, to his son, Hance, a 
pair of brass-barreled pistols and holster, 
valued at £5 ; one silver medal, valued at 5s ; 
to his son Gawin, a silver snuff box, val- 
ued at £2 los; George also received a pair 
of silver buckles appraised at 12s, and John, 
a silver watch appraised at £5 los. It would 
be exceedingly interesting to trace the his- 
tory of these trophies, but of them nothing 
more can be authoritatively said, neither is 
it known where one of them now is. Hance 
Hamilton was a man of enterprise, great 
force of character and activity in public af- 
fairs. Had he lived during the Revolu- 
tionary period, he would doubtless have be- 
come a very conspicuous officer of that 
eventful war. He was a typical fronti( rs- 
man, and located as nearly as can be deter- 
mined at first in Sir William Keith's tract, 
called Newberry, and in 1746 became one 
of the most influential members of the 
Scotch-Irish settlement on Marsh Creek, 
near the site of Gettysburg. He was first 
chosen sheriff of York County, when but 
twenty-eight years of age, and died sud- 
denly, when but fifty-one. Those twenty- 
three years were devoted to the care of his 
family, to the affairs of the community, and 

to the common dangers of the period. He 
died as the Revolutionary movement was 
gathering force. Had he lived he would, 
no doubt, have embraced the cause with 
ardor, and spent his strength, and if need 
be, his life, for the freedom of his country. 
Among the roll of "the forty-nine officers of 
Scotland in 1649, was Sir Hance Hamilton, 
who obtained adjudicated lands in the 
Province to the amount of 1,000 acres. 
From him Col. Hance Hamilton of York 
County doubtless descended." 

Robert McPherson was the only son 
of Robert and Janet McPherson, who set- 
tled in the western portion of York county, 
in the fall of 1738 on the "Manor of 
Maske." He was born presumably 
in Ireland, about 1730, and was a 
youth of eight years on his parents 
becoming part of the well-known 
Marsh Creek settlement. He was educa- 
ted at Rev. Dr. Alison's school at New 
London, Chester Co., Penn., which acad- 
emy was afterward removed to Newark, 
Delaware, and became the foundation of 
the present college at that place. His father 
died December 25, 1749, and his mother 
September 23, 1767. In 1751 he married 
Agnes, the daughter of Robert Miller of the 
Cumberland Valley. In 1755 he was ap- 
pointed treasurer of York County, and in 
1756 a commissioner of the county. The 
latter office he resigned on accepting a 
commission as captain in the Third Battal- 
ion of the Provincial forces, May 10, 1758, 
serving under General Forbes on his expe- 
dition against Fort Duquesne. From 1762 
to 1765 he was sheriff of the county, and 
from 1764 to the beginning of the Revolu- 
tion was a justice of the peace under the 
Proprietary, serving from 1770 as President 
Justice of the York County Court, and was 
re-commissioned a justice under the first 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

constitution of the State. From 1765 to 
1767 he was a member of the Provincial 
Assembly, and in 1768 was appointed 
county treasurer to fill a vacancy. He was 
a member of the Provincial Conference, 
which met at Carpenter's Hall, Philadel- 
phia, June 18, 1778; and was one of the 
Representatives of York County in 1776, 
which formed the first constitution of the 
State of Pennsylvania. At the outset of 
the war for Independence, he was commis- 
sioned a colonel of the York County Bat- 
talion of Associators, and during this and 
the following year he was in active duty in 
the Jerseys and in the subsequent campaign 
around Philadelphia. After his return from 
the field he was employed as the purchasing 
commissary of army supplies for the west- 
ern end of York County. In 1779 he was 
one of the three "auditors of confiscation 
and fine accounts." From 1781 to 1785 he 
served as a member of the assembly of the 
State. Col. McPherson was one of the 
charter members of the corporation of 
Dickinson College, and continued to act as 
trustee until his death. He was an elder in 
the Upper Marsh Creek Presbyterian 
Church, which was organized in 1740, or 
within two years of the beginning of the 
settlement. His death, from paralysis, oc- 
curred February 19, 1789, his wife surviv- 
ing him until September 13, 1802. He had 
a large family. Two of his sons, William 
and Robert, were officers in the service of 
the Revolution. Some of his descendants 
remain in Adams County, but the great 
majority are scattered over the various 
States of the Union. For over thirty years 
he was one of the most active, influential 
and conspicuous citizens of York County. 

McPherson, son of Col. Robert 
was born December 2, 1757, on the farm 
settled by his grandfather in 1738. He died 

in Gettysburg, August 2, 1832. He filled 
sundry public trusts of a local character, 
and was, from 1790 to 1799, a member of 
the general assembly of the State for York 
County, except in 1793. He actively 
pressed and participated in the movement 
for the erection of Adams County, which 
was accomplished the last year of his pub- 
lic service. During the Revolutionary war, 
he served as a lieutenant in Capt. Albright's 
company. Col. Miller's regiment, and was 
captured in the battle of Long Island. The 
British held him a prisoner of war for over 
a year, during which time he endured many 
hardships. After the war he became a pros- 
perous and influential citizen in his vicinity. 
He was twice married, first in 1780 to Mary 
Garrick, of Frederick County, Maryland, 
and second in 1793, to Sarah Reynolds of 
Shippensburg. He was the father of four- 
teen children, a few of whom are married. 
One of his sons, John B. McPherson, was 
a prominent citizen of Adams County, and 
for forty-five years was cashier of the Bank 
of Gettysburg. Hon. Edward McPherson, 
of Gettysburg, for a number of years rep- 
resentative in Congress, for nearly a quar- 
ter of a century clerk of the United 
States House of Representatives, and the 
distinguished American Statistician, is a 
son of John B. McPherson, and great 
grandchild of Col. Robert McPherson of 
Revolutionary fame. His sons are of the 
sixth generation of McPhersons, who have 
lived in the same vicinity since the arrival 
of their worthy ancestors. 

bald McClean was of Scottish ori- 
gin. In the year 171 5, a portion of the 
clan M'Clean, or McClean, who were sup- 
porters of the Stuarts, sought a home near 
Glenairm, in the County of Antrim, Ireland, 
and with others soon after emigrated to 
southern Pennsylvania. Among them was 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


Archibald McClean, who in 1738 located in 
the Marsh Creek district of York county, 
near what is now Gettysburg. He soon 
became a prominent surveyor in the Prov- 
ince of Pennsylvania, assisted in establish- 
ing the "Middle Point" between Cape Hen- 
lopen and the Chesapeake, and in locating 
the great "Tangent Line" through the Pe- 
ninsula, and in tracing the well known "arc 
of the circle" around New Castle, Delaware. 
This was during the years 1760, 1762 and 
1763. As a surveyor he was the chief as- 
sociate of the celebrated mathematicians, 
Mason and Dixon. In running the fam- 
ous line which bears their name, six of his 
brothers were also employed in assisting 
to establish the line from 1763 to June 4, 
1766, when the party arrived as far west as 
the summit of "Little Allegheny," and were 
there stopped by troublesome Indians. On 
June 8, 1767, Mason and Dixon and Arch- 
ibald M'Clean began to continue the sur- 
vey from the top of the "Little Allegheny, 
accompanied by a delegation of friendly In- 
dians as an escort, against the savages. On 
the 14th of June they reached the top of 
the "Great Allegheny," where fourteen 
more friendly Indians joined them as inter- 
preters. At this time there were thirty as- 
sistant surveyors, fifteen ax-men, and a 
number of Indians. They continued west- 
ward 240 miles from Delaware to "Dunker 
Creek," as marked on their map. This was 
thirty-six miles east of the western limit of 
the present Mason and Dixon line. The 
balance was run in 1782 and 1784. Archi- 
bald M'Clean in 1776 was chosen a member 
of the General Assembly of Pennsylvania. 
He was an ardent patriot, and the next year 
became chairman of the Committee of Safe- 
ty for York County, during the Revolution. 
He served as prothonotary and register and 
recorder of York County from 1777 to 
1786. At his death his remains were inter- 
red in the historic old Marsh Creek burv- 

ing ground, on a part of what is now the 
famous battle-field of Gettysburg. 

Henry Miller was born near the city 
of Lancaster, Penn., on February 13, 1751, 
Early attention was paid to his education, 
but his father, who was a farmer, thought it 
necessary to place his son within the walls 
of a university. The high school of Miller, 
as of Washington and Franklin, was the 
world of active life. 

Young Miller, having received a good 
English education, was placed in the office 
of Collison Reed, Esq., of Reading, Penn.^ 
where he read law and studied conveyan- 
cing. Before, however, he completed his 
studies, he removed to Yorktown, in about 
the year 1760. At this place he pursued 
his studies under the direction of Samuel 
Johnson, Esq. At that time Mr. Johnson 
was prothonotary of York county and in 
his office Mr. Miller acted as clerk. 

The subject of our memoir was married 
on June 20, 1770, about which time he pur- 
chased a house in Yorktown, and furnished 
it. Here he supported his family mostly 
by the profits arising from conveyancing, 
and from his clerkship; for as he found that 
he did not possess talents for public speak- 
ing, he devoted his industry and attention 
to those subjects. 

The war of the Revolution was now ap- 
proaching, and young Miller's noble soul 
was kindled to a generous indignation as he 
heard and read of the wrongs of his coun- 
try. A man like him could not doubt a 
moment. On June i, 1775, he commenced 
his march from York to Cambridge, Mass. 
He went out as first lieutenant of a rifle 
company, under the command of Capt. 
Michael Doudel. This company was the 
first that marched out of Pennsylvania, and 
was, too, the first that arrived in Massa- 
chusetts from any place south of Long Is- 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

land, or west of the Hudson. The company 
to which he belonged was attached to Col. 
Thompson's rifle regiment, which received 
the first commissions issued by congress, 
and took rank of every other regiment. 

On the arrival of the company at Cam- 
bridge, the gallantry and zeal of Miller 
prompted him to attempt some military act 
before the remainder of the regiment could 
arrive. His active mind immediately formed 
a plan to surprise the British guard at Bun- 
ker Hill. This was the second day after 
his arrival, fresh from a march of 500 miles, 
a march which would have deprived ordi- 
nary men of their fire of feeling, but which 
left Miller in the glowing enthusiasm of a 
young soldier, impatient of delay. Miller 
submitted the plan to his captain, whose 
courage was more tempered with prudence 
and who wished to decline engaging in 
such an attack, alleging, as reasons against 
it, the small number of his own men and his 
want of acquaintance with the ground and 
works. But Miller, who was never checked 
in his military career by the appearance of 
danger, informed his captain that if he 
should decline engaging personally in the 
attack, he would solicit Gen. Washington 
to appoint him (Miller) to the command. 
Thus urged, the captain allowed his laud- 
able prudence to be overcome by the ardor 
of his gallant young lieutenant, and his own 
desire to effect the capture of the guard. 
The attempt was made — but, as the captain 
had predicted, without accomplishing the 
object. They were obliged to retreat — 
though not till after several British soldiers 
had bit the dust, and several others were 
prisoners in the hands of the gallant York- 
ers. Captain Doudel's health being very 
much impaired, he was obliged to resign 
not long afterward when Miller was ap- 
pointed to the command of the company. 
From that time onward he was distin- 

guished as a most enterprising, intelligent 
and valuable officer. 

In 1776, his company with the regiment 
to which he belonged, commanded at first 
by Col. Thompson, and afterward by Col. 
Hand, marched to New York. In 1777, on 
the 1 2th of November, he was promoted by 
congress to the ofifice of major in the same 
regiment. In the year following (1778) he 
was appointed lieutenant-colonel, comman- 
dant in the Second Regiment of Pennsyl- 
vania. In this latter office he continued 
until he left the army. 

Miller was engaged, and took an active 
and gallant part, in the several battles of 
Long Island, York Island, White Plains, 
Trenton, Princeton, Head of Elk, Brandy- 
wine, Germantown, Monmouth, and in a 
considerable number of other but less im- 
portant conflicts. At the battle of Mon- 
mouth, he displayed most signal bravery. 
Two horses were, during that conflict, suc- 
cessively shot from beneath this youthful 
hero and patriot ; but nothing depressed the 
vigor of his soul, for mounting a third he 
was in the thick of the battle. 

A companion in arms, writing of Miller, 
in the year 1801, says, "He was engaged in 
most of the battles of note in the middle 
States. It would take much time to enum- 
erate the many engagements he was in, as 
the general engagements, were such, as are 
incident to Hght corps. It may, with con- 
fidence, be stated, that he must have risked 
his person in fifty or sixty conflicts with the 
British foe. He served with the highest 
reputation as an heroic, intelligent and use- 
ful officer." In a letter of Washington to 
Congress dated "Trenton Falls, December 
12, 1776," are these words: "Capt. Miller, 
of Col. Hand's regiment, also informs me, 
that a body of the enemy were marching to 
Burlington yesterday morning. He had 
been sent over with a strong scouting party, 
and, at daybreak, fell in with their advance 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


guards consisting of about four hundred 
Hessian troops, who fired upon him before 
they were discovered, but without any loss, 
and obHged him to retreat with his party 
and to take boat." Gen. Wilkinson, in his 
memoirs, states that Major Miller of 
Hand's riflemen, was ordered by Gen. 
Washington to check the rapid movements 
of the enemy in pursuit of the American 
Army, while retreating across the State of 
New Jersey. The order was so successfully 
executed, and the advance of a powerful 
enemy so embarrassed, that the American 
troops which afterward gained the indepen- 
dence of their country, were preserved from 
an overthrow which would have proved the 
grave of our liberties. In a note to the 
memoirs, the author says, among other 
things, "Gen. Miller, late of Baltimore, was 
distinguished for his cool bravery wherever 
he served. He certainly possessed the en- 
tire confidence of Gen. Washington." To 
multiply quotations would be useless, suf- 
fice to say that Miller is mentioned by many 
of the American historians, and always with 
much applause. 

When Miller first engaged in the war of 
the Revolution, he had little or no other 
fortune than his dwelling house. But be- 
fore the close of the war he was reduced 
to such necessities to support his family 
that he was compelled to sell the house over 
the heads of his wife and children. He 
sometimes spoke of this as a very hard case, 
and in terms so pathetic as to excite the 
most tender emotions. At other times he 
would say, "I have not yet done all in my 
power to serve my beloved country, my 
wife and my children I trust will yet see 
better days." 

In his pleasant manner he was heard to 
say that, as to the house, the sale had at 
least saved him the payment of the taxes. 
Col. Miller, being thus, through his patriot- 
ism, humiliatingly reduced in pecuniary cir- 

cumstances, was obliged in the spring of 
1779 to resign his commission in the army 
and return to York. Here he continued 
to reside for some years, enjoying the love 
and affection of all his fellow citizens. In 
October, 1780, he was elected high sheriff 
of the county of York, and as such he con- 
tinued until the expiration of his term of 
office in November, 1783. At the sev- 
eral elections in October of the years 1783- 
84-85, he was elected a member of the Leg- 
islature of Pennsylvania. In May, 1786, he 
was commissioned as prothonotary of York 
County, and in August of the same year he 
was appointed a justice of the peace, and of 
the court of Common Pleas. In the year 
1790 he was a member of the convention 
which framed the present constitution of 
the commonwealth of Pennsylvania. He 
continued in the office of prothonotary un- 
til July, 1794. In this year (1794), great 
dangers were apprehended from the en- 
croachments of the English on our western 
territories. Wayne was, at that time, car- 
rying our arms against the Indians into 
the western wilderness. Agreeably to the 
requisition of the President of the United 
States, contained in a letter to the Secretary 
of War, dated May 19, 1794, Pennsylvania 
was required to furnish her quota of bri- 
gades toward forming a detachment of 10,- 
769 militia, officers included. At this time 
Miller was general in the first brigade, com- 
posed of the counties of York and Lancas- 
ter, and belonging to the second division of 
Pennsylvania Militia commanded by Maj. 
Gen. Hand. This division, with several 
others, was required to be in readiness to 
march at a moment's warning. 

In the same year was the "western expe- 
dition," an expedition occasioned by an in- 
surrection in the four western counties to 
resist the laws of the union. 

At this time Gen. Miller was appointed, 
and went out as quartermaster-general. In 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

the same year he was appointed, by Gen. 
Washington, supervisor of the revenue for 
the district of Pennsylvania. In this office 
he acted with such abiUty, punctuality and 
integrity, that no one ever laid the least 
failure to his charge. But in 1801, Mr. Jef- 
ferson having been elected President, Gen. 
Miller was removed from the office of sup- 
ervisor and was succeeded by Peter Muh- 

Upon this event he left York Novem- 
ber 18, 1801, and removed to Baltimore, 
where he resided for some years as an hon- 
est and respectable merchant. At the com- 
mencement of the war of 1812, his soul was 
kindled to the former fires of youthful feel- 
ing. Relinquishing his mercantile pursuits 
he accepted the appointment of brigadier 
general of the militia of the United States, 
stationed at Baltimore, and charged with 
the defense of Fort McHenry and its depen- 
dencies. Upon the enemy's leaving the 
Chesapeake bay, the troops were dis- 
charged and Gen. Miller again retired to 
private life. 

In the spring of 1813, Gen. Miller left 
Baltimore, and returned to his native State, 
Pennsylvania. He now resided on a farm 
at the mouth of the Juniata river, in Cum- 
berland County, devoting himself, with 
Roman virtue, to agricultural pursuits. But 
his country soon called him from his retire- 
ment. The enemy having again made 
their appearance from Baltimore, he 
marched out with the Pennsylvania troops 
in the capacity of quartermaster-general. 
He again, after a short time, returned to 
Pennsylvania, to reside on his farm at the 
mouth of the Juniata. At that place, like a 
Cincinnatus, away from the tumult of war, 
he continued to reside until the spring of 
1 82 1. At that time, being appointed pro- 
thonotary of Perry County, by Gov. Hies- 
ter, he removed to Landisburg, the seat of 
justice for that county. He continued to 

live at Landisburg, until he was removed 
from office, by Gov. Shulze, in March, 1824. 
On the 29th of the same month, the Legis- 
lature of Pennsylvania began to make, 
though at a late period, some compensation 
for his important Revolutionary services. 
They required the state treasurer to pay 
him $240 immediately; and an annuity of 
the same sum during the remainder of hi^ 
life. But Gen. Miller did not live long 
enough to enjoy this righteous provision. 
He removed with his family to Carlisle ; but 
he hardly fixed his abode there, and caught 
the kind looks of his relatives and friends, 
when he was called by the messenger of 
peace to a distant and far brighter region 
where the music of war is unheard, and the 
storms of contention are at rest. He was 
seized with inflammation of the bowels and 
died suddenly, in the bosom of his family, 
on Monday, the 5th of April, 1824. On 
Tuesday afternoon, the mortal part of the 
hero and the patriot was consigned, with 
military honors, to the small and narrow 

In private life Gen. Miller was friendly, 
social and benevolent. He was generous 
even to a fault. 

In public life, he had, what Lord Claren- 
don says of Hampden, a head to contrive, a 
heart to persuade, and a hand to execute. 

There are a few citizens who will 
remember the career of this distinguished 
"American Commoner" while he was a 
teacher in the York County Academy and a 
student at law in York. He was born in 
Danville, Vermont, April 4, 1792. His 
father was a shoemaker, of dissipated hab- 
its, who died of a bayonet wound in the at- 
tack on Oswego, while bravely defending 
his country during the war of 1812. His 
mother, whom he never wearied praising, 
was a woman of strong natural sense and 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 

unconquerable resolution. In his youth, 
Thaddeus was one of the most diligent read- 
ers ever known in America, and at the age 
of fifteen he began to found a library in his 
native town. He entered Burlington Col- 
lege first, graduated at Dartmouth in 1815, 
and a few months afterward was engaged 
by Rev. Dr. Perkins, then principal of the 
York County Academy, as an assistant. 
Amos Gilbert, the famous teacher of the 
Lancastrian School, who resided for a short 
time at York, during the period that young 
Stevens was here, says: "he was a modest, 
retiring young man, of remarkably studious 
habits." Feeling somewhat displeased with 
the actions of some of the members of the 
York bar, he made application for admis- 
sion at Gettysburg, which at that time con- 
tained but few lawyers, as the county was 
only fifteen years old. Not having read 
law, according to requirements, under the 
instructions of a person learned in the law, 
he was rejected. The laws of Maryland 
were not so rigid; he then went to Bel Air, 
where he was admitted under Judge Chase. 
The committee on examination he said 
asked him only three questions, whereupon 
the judge promised if he would buy the 
champagne for the party, a certificate would 
be forthwith granted. He agreed to this; 
the certificate was signed, but before being 
handed over, two more bottles were de- 
manded of the young lawyer. To use his 
own words, "when I paid my bill the next 
morning, I had only $3.50 of the $45 that 
swelled my pocket-book the evening be- 
fore." From there he went to Lancaster, 
crossing the Susquehanna at McCall's 
ferry, York county. Here his horse took 
fright at some of the timbers of the new 
bridge, which was then being built across 
the river a that point, and horse and rider 
would have fallen into the stream, had it 
not been for the bravery and presence of 
mind of one of the men working on the 

bridge. He arrived at Lancaster, and the 
next day came to York, and in a few days 
located as a lawyer in Gettysburg. He did 
not succeed at first, and while attending a 
public meeting at Littlestown, Adams 
county, he told a number of persons that 
he was going to leave the county as he 
could not make a living in it at the prac- 
tice of law. A terrible murder was com- 
mitted a few days later and he was em- 
ployed as counsel for the defendant. From 
this case he drew a fee of $1,500, which 
was the beginning of his career of fortune 
and fame. For a number of years, his 
familiar form was seen in the court houses 
of York, Adams and Franklin counties, 
always being employed in the most intri- 
cate cases. Subsequently as a lawyer, 
member of the Pennsylvania Legislature, a 
distinguished member of the Lancaster bar, 
and the great American congressman and 
debater, his name and fame are familiar to 
every intelligent American citizen. 

HON ELLIS LEWIS was born in 
Lewisberry, this county, May 16, 
1798, and was a son of Eli Lewis, the 
founder of the village. He attended 
the schools of his native town, and as re- 
membered by some of the oldest citizens 
now living, was an unusually bright pupil. 
He learned the printing trade, then studied 
law, and was admitted to the bar at Wil- 
liamsport, in 1822, and two years later was 
elected to the Pennsylvania Legislature 
from Lycoming county. In this sphere he 
soon showed his ability as a lawyer and 
legislator. Gov. Wolf, in 1833, appointed 
him attorney-general of Pennsylvania; soon 
after he was appointed president judge of 
the Eighth Judicial District, and in 1843 
was made judge of the Second District, 
which embraced the courts of Lancaster 
county. In the year 185 1 he was elected 
judge of the supreme court of the State of 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

Pennsylvania, and succeeded to the posi- 
tion of chief justice. In 1857 he decHned 
the unanimous nomination for re-election 
to the supreme court, and retired to private 
life. In 1858 he was appointed one of the 
commissioners to revise the criminal code 
of Pennsylvania. On account of his ex- 
tensive knowledge of medical jurisprudence 
the medical college of Philadelphia con- 
ferred upon him the honorary degree of 
M. D. He received the title of LL. D. 
from Transylvania University and from 
Jefferson College. Judge Lewis' legal 
opinions on important and difficult cases 
are frequently cited with approval. He 
published a work, of which he was the au- 
thor, entitled "An Abridgement of the 
Criminal Law of the United States." He 
was a profound jurist, and a man of great 
versatility of talents. Some fine specimens 
of literature from his pen found their way 
into the periodical journals. In early life, 
during the year 1828, he became an honor- 
ary member of the York bar, but never 
practiced here regularly. His death occur- 
red in Philadelphia on March 9, 1871. 

' Chapin, Esq., was for fifty-five years 
practicing attorney in the courts of York 
county, and for the larger portion of that 
period an acknowledged leader of the bar. 
He was born in Rocky Hill, Conn., on 
the 19th day of February, A. D. 1799. On 
both sides he was descended from a long 
line of distinguished ancestry. His mater- 
nal great grandfather was the celebrated 
Jonathan Edwards, for many years presi- 
dent of the College of New Jersey, and the 
ablest of American theologians. His theo- 
logical works have given him a world-wide 
reputation. His maternal grandfather was 
Jonathan Edwards, familiarly known as 

* By Hon. James W. Latimer. 

"the second President Edwards," who was 
president of Union College. Both were 
like Mr. Chapin, graduates of Yale College. 
His father, the Rev. Calvin Chapin, D. D., 
was a recognized leader in the Congrega- 
tional Church of Connecticut. He was 
president of Union College, and was the 
originator of and pioneer in the movement 
for the prohibition by law of all traffic in 
intoxicating liquor. Of this cause he was 
the earnest advocate during his whole life. 
Pie did not live to see it successful, but his 
work has, since his death, produced and is 
now producing good fruit. The 'Chapin 
family descended from Deacon Samuel 
Chapin, the first of the name to emigrate 
from England to America. He came at a 
very early period, and settled in New Eng- 
land. His descendants, numbering over 
4,000, assembled in Springfield, Mass., a 
few years since. Among them were repre- 
sentatives from all parts of the United 
States many of them distinguished in the 
professional, political and literary walks of 
life. Rev. Henry Ward Beecher and Rev. 
E. H. Chapin, D. D., of New York, Presi- 
dent Lucius Chapin, of Beloit College, 
Wisconsin, Hon. Solomon Foote, United 
States Senator from Vermont, and Dr. J. 
G. Holland were present. Among the 
lineal descendants of Deacon Samuel 
Chapin is the Adams family of Massachu- 
setts, which has furnished two presidents 
of the United States. 

Edward Chapin, Esq., graduated at Yale 
College in the class of 1819. He read law 
in Connecticut, and after his admission to 
the bar there he resided for a time in Bing- 
hamton, N. Y., where his father had large 
landed interests. He removed to York in 
1823, and was admitted to the York bar on 
motion of Walter S. Franklin, Esq., on 
April 10 of that year. He soon acquired 
a reputation as an able lawyer and profound 
thinker, and during his professional career 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


was engaged in many of the most import- 
ant causes tried in York and Adams coim- 
ties, especially those involving intricate and 
difficult legal questions. In the construc- 
tion of obscure wills and deeds Mr. Chapin 
was especially skillful, and he pressed upon 
the courts his views on such questions with 
such force of logic and profundity of legal 
learning, that even when unsuccessful, it 
was usually easier to reject his conclusions 
than to demonstrate their incorrectness. 
Judge Fisher, who presided in the courts 
of York county during eighteen years of 
Mr. Chapin's practice here, has said that 
his legal arguments were the ablest and 
most thorough and exhaustive he ever lis- 
tened to. 

Mr. Chapin was an intimate personal 
friend of Hon. Thaddeus Stevens, who 
practiced law in the adjoining county of 
Adams during part of Mr. Chapin's pro- 
fessional life. They were each in the habit 
of obtaining the assistance of the other in 
causes of unusual magnitude or difficulty. 
One of the latest and most important cases 
in which they both appeared, was the 
Ebert will case, an issue framed to deter- 
mine the validity of the will of Martin 
Ebert. Messrs. Evans & Mayer, of York, 
and Hon. Samuel Hepburn, of Carlisle, ap- 
peared for the propounders of the will ; and 
Messrs. Chapin and Stevens for the con- 
testants. It was a contest of intellectual 
and professional giants, to which the mag- 
nitude of the interests involved, as well as 
the reputation of counsel concerned, at- 
tracted great public interest. Though un- 
successful in winning his cause, Mr. Chap- 
in's address to the jury has been pro- 
nounced, by competent judges who listened 
to it with delight, the most eloquent ora- 
torical appeal ever made to a jury within 
their recollection. 

Mr. Chapin was not what is called "a 
case lawyer." A close reasoner, a pro- 

found thinker, deeply versed in the princi- 
ples underlying the science of law, his ar- 
guments contained few citations of author- 
ity and few references to text books. He 
was always listened to, both in the county 
court and in the supreme court, with the 
respectful attention his great professional 
learning and ability deserved. 

Mr. Chapin was a great reader. He pos- 
sessed a considerable knowledge of most 
branches of natural science. His learning 
and culture embraced a wide field. 

As a legal practitioner his conduct was 
not only above reproach or suspicion of un- 
fairness or impropriety, but he rejected as 
beneath him many of the methods resorted 
to by practitioners who are regarded as 
reputable. He once told the writer of this 
sketch, and his life bore witness to the 
truth of the statement, that he never, dur- 
ing his whole professional life, solicited or 
sought directly or indirectly the business 
or employment of any individual. Content 
with the business that his talents and repu- 
tation brought, he used no artifice to ex- 
tend his clientage. 

He was the counsel of the York and 
Maryland Line Railroad Company from the 
inception of that enterprise, and of the 
Northern Central Railway Company, into 
which it afterward merged from the time 
of his death. 

Mr. Chapin's delight and recreation was 
in the cultivation of fruits, flowers and veg- 
etables. He was extremely fond of gun- 
ning, and his portly form, armed with a 
gun which few men could hold to their 
shoulder, was a familiar figure about Peach 
Bottom in the ducking season. 

Mr. Chapin died on the 17th day of 
March, 1869, leaving to survive him a 
widow, since deceased, a daughter, married 
to Edward Evans, Esq., and a son Edward, 
now a practicing attorney at the York bar. 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

nent scholarship and somewhat re- 
markable career of William Lenhart (al- 
ready referred to) claim special and ex- 
tended mention. The few octogenarians 
among us will remember an humble log- 
house that once stood at the northwest 
corner of North George street and Centre 
Square, where, nearly a century ago, 
lived Godfrey Lenhart, "der Silwerschmidt 
und Uhremacher" — the silversmith and 
clock-maker, and many a "grandfather's 
clock," after a long banishment, now re- 
called by the growing love for the antique, 
bears upon its broad open, smiling face, the 
inscription "Godfrey Lenhart, Yorktown, 
Penn." That humble log-house (so faith- 
fully sketched by Louis Miller in his 
"Chronics") no doubt was the birthplace, 
January 19, 1787, of a child, whose powers 
of intellect, but for his physical misfortunes 
and scanty pecuniary resources, would 
probably have enabled him to "illustrate 
the name of his country throughout the 
scientific world." His father, Godfrey Len 
hart, though a highly respectable citizen, 
and by the free suffrage of his fellow citi- 
zens, chosen to the (then) honorable and 
responsible office of high sheriff, which he 
held and faithfully filled from 1794 to 1797, 
was nevertheless a gentleman of limited 
means, and, therefore, really unable to give 
his children more than the ordinary and 
very meager common pay-school education 
of the day. About the year 1801, how- 
ever, when William was not above fourteen, 
Dr. Adrian, then obscure, but after- 
wards famous as a mathematician, opened 
a school in York, and William Lenhart be- 
came one of his pupils. He at once began 
to develop that extraordianry talent, espe- 
cially for the science of mathematics, in 
which he made such rapid progress that. 

* By Henry L,. Fisher, Esq. 

before he quit Dr. Adrian's school, and be- 
fore he had attained his sixteenth year, he 
had become a contributor to the "Mathe- 
matical Correspondent," a scientific period- 
ical published in the city of New York, and 
when only seventeen, he was awarded a 
medal for the solution of a mathematical 
prize question. 

About this time he quit Dr. Adrian's 
school, and being an accomplished penman 
and accountant, accepted the offer of a po- 
sition as clerk in a leading mercantile house 
in Baltimore. At this period of his life, it 
is said he was remarkable for his personal 
attractions, and, always, for excellence of 
manners and good conduct. As might be 
expected, however, he soon tired of such a 
business, and, though but little bettering 
his situation, accepted a position in some 
clerical employment in the sheriff's office. 
He remained in Baltimore about four years 
during all which time, however otherwise 
employed, his leisure was devoted to read- 
ing, his favorite study, mathematics, and 
contributions to the Analyst, published by 
Dr. Adrian in Philadelphia. Afterward, he 
became bookkeeper in the commercial 
house of Hassinger & Reeser in the latter 
city. As clerk and bookkeeper his profici- 
ency was unrivaled, his salary was doubled 
at the end of the first year, and the accounts 
he made out for foreign merchants were 
long kept by his employers as models of 
perfection ; and in view of his eminent per- 
sonal services, the firm, at the end of the 
third year, admitted him as a partner, with- 
out other capital. Before entering upon 
his duties, however, and while on a visit 
to his parents at York, an imfortunate ac- 
cident befell him which, doubtless, proved 
to be the turning point in a career which 
would, otherwise, have shed undying luster 
on his name and on his country. While 
enjoying a rural drive, his horse became un- 
manageable, ran away, breaking the car- 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


riage, throwing him out and fracturing one 
of his legs. On his supposed recovery he 
returned to Philadelphia, and, sometime 
after, while engaged in a game of quoits, 
was suddenly seized with excruciating pain 
in his back and partial paralysis of the 
lower extremities. After eighteen months 
of the most skillful medical and surgical 
treatment by Drs. Physick and Parish, his 
recovery was pronounced hopeless. What 
wonder that his cup of misery overflowed 
in view of the fact of his engagement at the 
time to a young lady of most estimable 
character, to whom he had been attached 
from early life. The injury, he had re- 
ceived from the fall from his carriage, 
most probably caused his spinal affection 
from which, and a subsequent injury, he 
was destined to sixteen years of suffering 
and torture, and eventually to pine away 
and die at an age when men, ordinarily, 
are in their prime. But incredible as it 
may seem we are assured on the highest 
authority that during all that long interval 
of constantly increasing pain and suffering 
he not only cultivated light literature and 
music, but, as before, devoted much time 
to mathematics. In music he made great 
proficiency and was considered the best 
parlor flute player in this country. In 1828 
he sustained a second fracture of his leg, 
in consequence of which, and his already 
existing complication of disorders, his suf- 
ferings, at times, almost passed the bounds 
of endurance. He was now passing most 
of his time with his sister, in Frederick. 
But his very lips became at length par- 
alyzed from the progress of his disease, and 
even the pleasures of his flute were denied 
him. What must have been the talents, 
moral energy, and force of will, which, un- 
der bodily afflictions like these, made such 
advances in abtruse science as to confer 
immortality on the name of their possessor? 

During the last year of his life he thus 
wrote to a friend: 

"My afflictions appear to me to be not 
unlike an infinite series, composed of com- 
plicated terms, gradually and regularly in- 
creasing — in sadness and suffering — and 
becoming more and more involved; and 
hence the abstruseness of its summation; 
but when it shall be summed in the end, 
by the Great Arbiter and Master of all, it 
is to be hoped that the formula resulting 
will be found to be not only entirely free 
from surds, but perfectly pure and rational, 
even unto an integer." 

During the sixteen years from 181 2 to 
1828 he did not, of course, nor could he, de- 
vote himself to mathematical science. But 
afterward he resumed these studies for the 
purpose of mental employment, and con- 
tinued his contributions to mathematical 
journals. In 1836 the publication of the 
Mathematical Miscellany was commenced 
in New York, and his fame became estab- 
lished by his contributions to that journal. 
''I do not design," says Prof. Samvtel Tay- 
lor, "to enter into a detail of his profounil 
researches. He attained an eminence in 
science of which the noblest intellects 
might well be proud and that, too, as an 
amusement, when suffering from afflictions 
which, we might suppose, would have dis- 
qualified him for intellectual labor. It will 
be sufficient for my purpose to remark that 
he left behind him a reputation as the most 
eminent Diophantine Algebraist that ever 
lived. The eminence of this reputation 
will be estimated when it is recollected that 
illustrious men, such as Euler, Lagrange 
and Gauss, are his competitors for fame in 
the cultivation of the Diophantine analysis. 
Well might he say that he felt as if he had 
been admitted into the sanctum sanctorum 
of the great temple of numbers, and per- 
mitted to revel among its curiosities." 

Notwithstanding his great mathematical 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

genius, Mr. Lenhart did not extend his in- 
vestigations into the modern analysis and 
the differential calculus as far as into the 
Diophantine analysis. He thus accounts 
for it: "My taste lies in the old fashioned 
pure geometry and the Diophantine analy- 
sis, in which every result is perfect; and be- 
yond the exercise of these two beautiful 
branches of the mathematics, at my time of 
life, and under present circumstances, I feel 
no inclination to go." The character of his 
mind did not consist entirely in the mathe- 
matical tendency, which was developed by 
the early tuition of Dr. Adrian. Possessed, 
as he was, of a lively imagination, a keen 
susceptibihty to all that is beautiful in the 
natural and intellectual world, wit and 
acuteness, it is manifest that he wanted 
nothing but early education and leisure to 
have made a most accomplished scholar. 
He was also a poet. One who knew him 
well says: "He has left some effusions 
which were written to friends as letters, 
that for wit, humor, sprightliness of fancy, 
pungent satire, and flexibility of versifica- 
tion, will not lose in comparison with any 
of Burns' best pieces of a similar kind." 
Mr. Lenhart was of a very cheerful and 
sanguineous temperament full of tender 
sympathies with all the joys and sorrows of 
l\is race, from communion with whom he almost entirely excluded. Like all 
truly great and noble men, he was remark- 
able for the simplicity of his manners. Thai 
word, in its broad sense, contains a history 
of character. He knew he was achieving 
conquests in abstruse science, which had 
not been made by the greatest mathemati- 
cians, yet he was far from assuming any- 
thing in his intercourse with others. 

"During the autumn of 1839, intense suf- 
fering and great emaciation indicated that 
his days were almost numbered. His intel- 
lectual powers did not decay; but like the 
Altamont of Young, he was "still strong to 

reason and mighty to suffer." He indulged 
in no murmurs on account of the severity 
of his fate. True nobility submits with 
grace to that which is inevitable. * * * 
Lenhart was conscious of the impulses of 
his high intellect, and his heart must have 
swelled within him when he contemplated 
the victories he might have achieved and 
the laurels he might have won. But lie 
knew his lot forbade that he should leave 
other than "short and simple annals" for 
posterity. He died at Frederick, Md., July 
10, 1840, in the fifty-fourth year of his age, 
with the calmness imparted by philosophy 
and Christianity. Religion conferred upon 
him her consolations in that hour when it 
is only through religion that consolation 
can be bestowed; and as he sank into the 
darkness and silence of the grave, he be- 
lieved there was another and a better world, 
in which the immortal mind will drink at 
the very fountain-head of knowledge, un- 
encumbered with the decaying tabernacle 
of clay by which its lofty aspirations are 
here confined as with chains. 

at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, July 29, 
1817; was graduated from Dickinson Col- 
lege 1839; read law under General Sam- 
uel Alexander at Carlisle, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1841. Was elected 
in 1854 in the strong Democratic district 
composed of York, Cumberland and Perry 
counties over Hon. J. Ellis Bonham, 
one of the Democratic leaders of the 
State. He was chairman of the Know- 
Nothing State committee in 1855-56. He 
was prominently named for Governor in 
1857 and in i860. He was elected Con- 
gressman-at-Large in 1875-79. He pre- 
sided over the State Convention at Har- 
risburg which nominated David Wil- 
mot for governor: and that at Pittsburg 
which nominated Andrew Curtin, and that 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


at Philadelphia which advocated Grant for 
the presidency. He was temporary chair- 
man of the State Convention at Harris- 
burg in 1883. He was three times the can- 
didate of his party for president judge of the 
Ninth District. 

In 1861 he was Major of the First Penn- 
sylvania Reserves and Inspector General 
of Pennsylvania on Governor Curtin's 
staff. He died May nth, 1S91. 

His success as a lawyer and politician 
seemed to cost him little effort. It was 
due largely to his great natural eloquence 
and effectiveness as a public speaker. 

Through the liberality of his widow a 
building in Carlisle has been put in pos- 
session of a corporation for the purpose of 
a public hospital, named in memory of him 
the Todd Hospital. 

COL. HENRY SLAGLE, soldier, judge 
and legislator, was born in Lancaster 
county, in 1735, and was a son of Christo- 
pher Slagle or Schlegel, a native of Saxony, 
who in 1713 erected an early mill on Cones- 
toga creek. Henry Slagle was a brave 
revolutionary officer, who served as a mem- 
ber of several provincial bodies, and the 
Constitutional Convention of 1789-90. A 
year later he was elected as an associate 
judge of Adams county, which he repre- 
sented in the Pennsylvania Legislature of 

HON. JACOB CASSAT, a recognized 
Whig leader of learning and ability, 
was a son of David Cassat, whose father, 
Francis Cassat, a French Huguenot, married 
in Holland and came to this country in 
1764. Jacob Cassat was born February 
7, 1778, in Straban township, Adams 
county, and being largely self-taught com- 
menced life for himself with no powerful 
friends or influence to aid him. He was 
an active church member, lived a useful 

life and died in 1838, when ranking as one 
of the most prominent men of his county. 
He served as county commissioner, aided 
in the defense of Baltimore in 1814, was a 
member of the State Legislature from 1820 
to 1824, and in 1837 was elected to the 
State Senate, from whose chamber he was 
driven by a mob on December 25, 1838, 
for making an impassioned speech on the 
cause of the "Buckshot War." He was 
found dead in his bed the next morning, 
and his county mourned the loss of one of 
her noblest sons. 

PATRICK McSHERRY, the founder 
of McSherrystown, was an honored 
early settler of Adams county, and the 
founder of a long line of families which 
have been worthy of the honorable name 
which they bear. Mr. McSherry was the 
father of Hon. James McSherry, the popu- 
lar political leader, and the grandfather of 
James McSherry, Jr., the Maryland his- 
torian. He founded McSherrystown in 
1765 and lived near it until his death. 

in ancient German records is written 
Kalb, came to Adams county in 1787. He 
married and had four sons: Christopher, Jr., 
Mathias, Peter and Christian, the latter 
three of whom reared large families. They 
were steady, industrious citizens, and Peter, 
the third son, was .'the father of Henry 
Gulp after whom was named Gulp's Hill, 
which has such prominent place in the im- 
mortal story of Gettysburg. 

GEN. WILLIAM REED, an active 
Pennsylvania militia officer during 
the Revolution and the war of 1812, served 
as a member of the State Senate, from 
Adams county, from 1800 to 1804, and was 
appointed as adjutant general of the State 
on August 4, 181 1. While holding this 



last office he died suddenly on June 15, 
1813, at New Alexandria, Westmoreland 
county, where he was organizing the State 
militia for possible service along the north- 
ern border of Pennsylvania. 

born in Hagerstown, Maryland, 
August 31, 1810, was a son of Peter 
and Christina (Shane) Glossbrenner, and 
was largely self-educated. At the age 
of nineteen he commenced learning the 
printing business, and in 1827 began the 
publication of the Ohio Monitor at Colum- 
bus, Ohio, for Judge Smith. In 1828 he 
started the Western Telegraph, at Hamil- 
ton, Ohio. In 1829 he visited York on an 
engagement to remain a month or two and 
the visit was protracted to a term of fifty 
years. In 1831 he started the York County 
Farmer and two years subsequent married 
Charlotte Jameson, a daughter of Dr. 
Thomas Jameson, of York. In the same 
year he published the History of York 
County, which for the period covered and 
in point of accuracy and literary merit is the 
best extant. In 1834 he became a partner 
in the publication of the York Gazette, and 
continued his connection witii that paper 
until i860, when he became private secre- 
tary to President Buchanan. In the year 
1862 he established the Philadelphia Age, 
and in the same year was nominated for 
Congress by the Democratic convention of 
York County in opposition to Hon. Joseph 
Bailey, who had been elected as a Demo- 
crat to the 38th Congress but had been re- 
pudiated by his party in York County. Af- 
ter a somewhat notable political struggle 
Mr. Bailey was nominated by a small ma- 
jority and elected. In 1864 Mr. Glossbren- 
ner was renominated by the Democratic 
Congressional Conference of York, Cum- 
berland and Perry counties and was elected 
by a large majority. After his retirement 

from Congress he became connected with 
the Pennsylvania Railroad company at 
Philadelphia. Immediately subsequent to 
his connection with the York Gazette, in 
1836, he was chosen clerk of enrollment of 
bills in the House of Representatives at 
Harrisburg, and two years later was ap- 
pointed by Governor Porter to take charge 
of the motive power department of the Co- 
lumbia and Philadelphia railroad. In 1843 
he became cashier of the contingent fund 
of the House of Representatives at Wash- 
ington and in 1847 was appointed by Presi- 
dent Buchanan, officer in charge of emigra- 
tion and the copyright bureau in the De- 
partment of State at Washington, and in 
1850 was elected sergeant-at-arms in the 
United States House of Representatives 
and re-elected to four successive Con- 

In 1833 Mr. Glossbrenner was married 
to Charlotte Jameson, who bore him four 
children whose names are as follows : Emily 
Jameson, of York; Mary, deceased; Jame- 
son Shane, deceased; and Ivan, of York. 

JOHN L. MAYER, Esq., a distinguished 
lawyer of the York Cotmty Bar, was 
born at Shepherdstown, Jefferson 
County, Virginia, on August 5, 1810, and 
died at his home in York, Pennsylvania, 
August 17, 1874. He was a son of Rev. 
Lewis Mayer, D. D., and Catharine Mayer. 
The founder of the Pennsylvania branch 
of the Mayer family was Christopher 
Bartholomew Mayer, who was born at 
Carlsruhe, Germany, in November, 1702, 
and came to this country fifty years later. 
Pie was the grandfather of Rev. Lewis 
Mayer, D. D., a prominent and scholarly 
clergyman of the Reformed church. After 
his arrival in this country Christopher B. 
Mayer tarried a short time, with his wife 
and four children at Annapolis, Maryland, 
but shortly subsequent went to Monocac) 

JthM^ ^, tALCU4j2yr- 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


Station, now Frederictown, in the western 
part of the province. 

It is supposed that it was his design to 
acquire a large tract of land and settle his 
family in that fertile region, but before he 
could accomplish this purpose death over- 
took him six months after his arrival and 
he was buried in the Gottes Oken cemetery 
of the Lutheran church at Frederictown, 
Maryland, on November 21, 1752. After 
their father's death the family gradually dif- 
fused, some settling in Pennsylvania and 
others remaining in Maryland and Virginia. 
George Ludwig Mayer, the oldest son and 
the father of Rev. Dr. Lewis Mayer quitted 
Frederictown for Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 
which henceforth became the seat of his 
ministerial activity, and where many of his 
descendants still live. Christian Mayer, 
second, founder of the Baltimore branch of 
the family was born at Ulm in 1763 and 
came to America in 1784, and settled in 
Baltimore where he passed the remainder 
of his life and died. 

John L. Mayer, after a thorough prepa- 
ration entered Yale College in 1829 and 
was graduated in 183 1. Subsequently 
he studied law with John Evans, Esq., at 
York, and was admitted to the Bar of York 
county, February 18, 1834, and pursued 
diligently the practice of his profession in 
York and adjoining counties for a period of 
forty years. He was a co-partner of his 
preceptor, John Evans, Esq., for many 
years, and the legal firm of Evans & Mayer 
possessed the largest clientage and tried the 
major portion of the cases in the courts of 
York County during the partnership. Af- 
ter its dissolution Mr. Mayer continued to 
hold a very large and lucrative practice. In 
politics he was nominally a Whig, very 
rarely took part in its activities and never 
held ofifice. 

Mr. Mayer was a man of very great eru- 
dition in his profession and an omniverous 

reader of legal and judicial literature. In 
the extent and character of his legal knowl- 
edge he had no superior at the Bar. His 
arguments were close and exhaustive, his 
citation of authorities was voluminous ; but 
it seemed necessary for him thus to cite 
them because of that keen analytical power 
he possessed of resolving cases into princi- 
ples, and then leading the mind to the par- 
ticular point by a line of thought that dis- 
tinguished his case from all apparent anal- 
ogies. He was moreover a scholar in the 
true sense of that word; an indefatigable 
student in various branches of learning out- 
side of his profession and he could adorn 
his argument with apt quotations and illus- 
trations drawn from a multitude of sources. 

He possessed, too, a good knowledge of 
business, a practical mind, and by close at- 
tention and prudence amassed a very con- 
siderable competency which descended to 
his children in addition to the heritage of a 
distinguished name. 

On December 16, 1858, Mr. Mayer was 
joined in marriage with Julia Lyne, which 
resulted in an issue of seven children, only 
three of whom are living. 

grandson of John George Loucks,who 
was one of the early emigrants from Ger- 
many that settled in the beautiful region of 
Berks County, known as Tulpehocken, 
where he purchased a tract of land. About 
the year 1780, hearing of the fertile lands 
west of the Susquehanna, he immigrated to 
York County to continue his chosen occu- 
pation of farming, and purchased land 
southwest of York. May 13, 1805, he pur- 
chased the mill and farm where Z.K.Loucks 
recently lived. George Loucks, son of 
John George Loucks, father of the subject 
of this sketch, was born August 18, 1787, 
and died October 29, 1849, aged sixty-two 
years, two months and eleven days. He 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

followed the two occupations of miller and 
farmer at the Loucks' homestead. He pur- 
chased a great deal of real estate, and at his 
death owned the mill property. He was 
married to Susanna Weltzhofifer, of Hellam 
Township, and had three sons and four 
daughters. Zachariah K. Loucks, the subject 
of this sketch, was born March 4, 1822. He 
received his education in the York County 
Academy, under Rev. Stephen Boyer; for a 
number of years was a class-mate of the late 
Prof. Kirkwood,the famous astronomer and 
mathematician. He commenced business 
in York first as a clerk with the firm of 
Schriver, Loucks & Co., and afterward was 
a clerk for Loucks & Becker at the Old 
Manor Furnace in Chanceford Township, 
where he remained one year. He then en- 
tered the store of Henry Becker in York 
until 1839, when he returned to his home in 
Spring Garden Township, and attended to 
the duties of the grist-mill and farm until 
his father's death. After this event he and 
his brother, Henry L, succeeded their father 
in business at the old homestead, about 
one mile north of York, along the 
line of the Northern Central Railroad. 
For many years he turned his attention 
closely to farming and milling. Here, 
on this site, was erected one of the first 
grist-mills west of the Susquehanna. The 
old two-story mill, distillery and saw- 
mill were destroyed by fire on April 29, 
1864. The present commodious, five-story 
brick mill was built during the fall of 1864, 
at a cost of $30,000. It contains the latest 
improvements of milling machinery, and 
has a capacity of 150 barrels of flour in 
twenty-four hours. During the past twenty 
years it has been leased by P. A. & S. 
Small, of York. Cars are pulled by water 
power to the mill, over a switch from the 
Northern Central Railway to load flour. 
In connection with milling and farming, 
Mr. Loucks was largely engaged in other 

business. At the time of the organization 
of the First National Bank of York, in 
1863, he was elected a director. He was 
afterward elected vice-president, and in the 
year 1877 was chosen president of that in- 
stitution. He was a director and general 
financier of the York & Peach Bottom 
Railway when it was built; for many years 
a member of the board of directors of York 
County Agricultural Society and a life 
member of the same; one of the projectors 
and president of the Chanceford Turnpike 
Company and a director; was a director of 
the York City Market until its completion, 
when he resigned; vice-president of the 
Penn Mutual Horse Insurance Company, 
of York, and largely engaged in the real es- 
tate business. Mr. Loucks was married 
January 5, 1843, to Sarah Ann, daughter of 
Col. Michael Ebert, of Spring Garden. She 
was born March 18, 1822. Their eldest 
son, Alexander, resides in Manchester 
Township, and was married to Catharine 
Wambaugh. They have four children: 
Harry, William, Annie and Isabel. George 
E., the second son of Z. K. and Sarah Ann 
Loucks, was married to Susan Jane Myers. 
He resides at Hellam Station. Edward, 
the third son, was a law student in Philadel- 
phia, and graduated with high honors from 
the College of New Jersey, at Princeton; 
Isabella, the only daughter, was married to 
John W. Kohler, and died at the age of 
twenty-seven, leaving two children: Wil- 
liam I. and Edwin. Mr. Loucks, as a busi- 
ness man, has had an active and prosperous 
career. He was possessed of good judgment, 
keen discrimination and excellent financial 
and executive abilities. In politics he was 
originally an active Whig, cast his first 
Presidential vote for Gen. Harrison, and 
was an enthusiastic advocate of Henry 
Clay's election. 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


LL. D. Born September loth, 1807, 
in West Pennsborough township, on 
the site of the log house erected by his 
grandfather, James Graham, on land 
granted his father, Jared Graham, in 1774, 
by the Penns. His father, Isaiah Graham, 
one of five sons, was a prominent politician. 
He served two terms in the State Senate 
from 181 1, and filled the position of asso- 
ciate judge by appointment of Governor 
Findlay from 1817 to his death in 1835. 
He was a ruling elder in the Big Spring 
Presbyterian church. The son, James 
Hutchinson Graham, was prepared under 
Dr. McConaughy, at the Gettysburg Acad- 
emy, for the Junior Class in Dickinson 
College, and was graduated from that in- 
stitution with honor in 1827. He read law 
with Andrew Caruthers, Esq., of Carlisle, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1829. By 
his careful and painstaking treatment of 
his cases he soon acquired a prominent 
place among the younger members of the 
bar, and in 1839 was appointed deputy at- 
torney general for Cumberland county by 
Governor Porter. This position he filled 
with high credit for six years and then de- 
clmed reappointment. In 185 1 he was 
elected president judge of the Ninth Dis- 
trict, composed of Cumberland, Perry and 
Juniata counties, and was re-elected in 1861. 
On the bench he established a character as 
one of the foremost jurists of the State. 
On his retirement from the bench he re- 
sumed the practice of law and became the 
trusted counsellor of many. In 1862 the 
faculty and trus/tees of Dickinson College 
conferred upon him the degree of LL. D. 
and afterwards made him head of the law 
department of Dickinson College. Of 
Scotch-Irish and Presbyterian descent he 
was one of the earliest members of the 
Second Presbj'terian church of Carlisle, 
and president of its board of trustees. He 

was a director of the Carlisle Bank, and 
president of the board at the time of his 
election as judge. In every direction he 
manifested the character of a public spir- 
ited and useful citizen; and respected and 
esteemed by all for the purity and honesty 
of his life, and his consistency of conduct 
in all its relations, he left a deep impress 
upon the community in which he had passed 
his life. He was twice married and left a 
large family of children. He died in 1882. 
Three sons, John, James and Duncan G., 
adopted his profession. They were all 
graduates of Dickinson CoHege and met 
with creditable success. The latter alone 
survives. He was deputy attorney general 
of the State under the second administra- 
tion of Governor Pattison. Lieut Samuel 
A. Graham, U. S. A., is a graduate of the 
naval academy at Annapolis, as well as of 
Dickinson College, and the youngest son, 
Frank G. Graham, also a graduate of 
Dickinson, is successful editor of the Kan- 
sas City Times. Miss Agnes Graham took 
the degrees of A. B. and A. M. at Colum- 
bian University, Washington, D. C. 

HON JOHN GIBSON, at the time of 
his death, July 6, 1890, President 
Judge of the county of York, and one of 
the most prominent figures in the judiciary 
of the State, was born in the city of Balti- 
more, Md., April 17, 1829, the third son of 
John and Elizabeth (Jameson) Gibson. 
The distinctions of ancestry were united in 
him to a conspicuous degree. Traced 
back through both the paternal and mater- 
nal lines, his lineage was a procession of 
generations marked by vigorous intellect, 
inborn integrity and deep religious feeling 
— characteristics drawn on the paternal side 
from Irish sources and on the maternal 
derived from Scottish nativity. 

Robert Gibson, the paternal grandfather 
of John Gibson, was born in County Down, 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

Province of Ulster, Ireland. His son 
William became a celebrated minister of 
the Reformed Presbyterian or Covenanter 
church and came to America in 1797. He 
located at Ryegate, Vermont, but after- 
ward removed to Philadelphia, where he 
became pastor of a church. His death 
occurred in 1838. Three sons, Robert, 
John, the father of our subject, and Wil- 
liam, became distinguished divines of the 
Presbyterian church. 

On his mother's side Mr. Gibson was 
descended from a line of distinguished pio- 
neers and physicians. Dr. David Jameson, 
his maternal great grandfather, was a colo- 
nel in the provincial and revolutionary 
forces of Pennsylvania. The doctor was a 
native of Edinburgh and a graduate of the 
medical department of the university of that 
city. He came to America in 1740 and 
first settled in South Carolina. From 
thence he removed to York county and 
possessed himself of a homestead and plan- 
tation in York township, about two miles 
south of York. He married Eliza Davis 
and had three sons, Thomas, James and 
Horatio Gates Jameson, the latter of whom 
became an eminent physician and married 
Emily Shewell, of Somerset county. After 
his marriage, Horatio Gates Jameson re- 
moved to Baltimore and there in connec- 
tion with an active practice of his profes- 
sion, laid the foundations of Washington 
medical college. A few years prior to his 
death, which occurred in 1855, he moved 
back to his native county and located at 
York. Of Col. Jameson's daughters, Cas- 
sandra married Rev. M. J. Gibson, D. D., 
late of Duncansville, Blair county, Pa.; 
Catharine married Hon. Robert J. Fisher, 
late president judge of York county; while 
Elizabeth became the wife of Rev. John 
Gibson and the mother of our subject. 

Though not born in York, Judge Gib- 
son spent all but a few earlier years of 

life there and in the old York county 
academy, under such able tutors as Rev. 
Stephen Boyer, Daniel M. Ettinger and 
Daniel Kirkwood — afterward a noted as- 
tronomer — his education was begun and 
acquired. Leaving the institution at the 
close of his student days he entered the 
law office of his uncle, Hon. Robert J. 
Fisher, and there pursued the study of his 
chosen profession tmtil admitted to the bar 
September 30, 185 1, being at the time 22 
years of age. He continued in active prac- 
tice thirty years, and only terminated his 
career at the bar to assume the higher 
duties and honors of the bench in 1881. 
Those thirty years were marked by active 
devotion to public interests. In 1868 Mr. 
Gibson represented his party in the Demo- 
cratic National Convention which met at 
New York and nominated Horatio Sey- 
mour for the presidency and in 1872 he 
was chosen with Hon. Thomas E. Cochran, 
of York county, and Hon. Wm. McLean, 
of Adams, a delegate to the State Consti- 
tutional Convention which met at Harris- 
burg and formulated the present organic 
law of the State. 

In 1882 Mr. Gibson was nominated by 
his party for the office of judge. His nomi- 
nation was accepted by the Republican 
party and his election without opposition 
followed in November. He succeeded 
Hon. Robert J. Fisher, but Pere L. Wickes, 
the additional law judge elected in 1875, 
by priority of commission became president 
judge and held that position on the bench 
until the expiration of his term, January 
I, 1886, when Judge Gibson assumed the 
senior position. 

A year later Judge Gibson's health, 
never robust, began to fail seriously. In the 
summer of 1890 his condition became so 
serious that he retired to the seashore to 
gain rest and retrieve his failing physical 
powers, but the effort was in vain and on 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


July 6th he died at Atlantic City. The 
funeral on the 9th of July succeeding was 
largely attended. The services were held 
at St. John's Episcopal church, of which 
the judge had been a vestryman, and his 
remains were laid to rest in Prospect Hill 

Mr. Gibson was married June 22, 1865, 
to Miss Helen Packard, the youngest 
daughter of Benjamin D. Packard, Esq., 
of Albany, N. Y., a distinguished journalist 
and the founder of the Evening Journal of 
that city. Their married life was one of 
great devotion and happiness and two sons 
and one daughter were born to them: 
Robert Fisher, who graduated at the head 
of his class at Yale and is at present a 
prominent young attorney and the editor 
of the York Gazette; John Jameson, a 
graduate of Lehigh and at present an elec- 

trical engineer in Greater New York; and 

John Gibson was more than a lawyer or 
judge, though it was in these capacities 
that the fine energies of his mind and na- 
ture were mostly revealed. He was emi- 
nently endowed for either literary or relig- 
ious callings and had he chosen to enter 
either of these fields, he must have wrought 
success out of his abilities. The numerous 
literary productions which he left, such as 
the history of the county, reveal a flowing, 
graceful style. His devoutly religious na- 
ture was in a large part inherited from his 
Presbyterian ancestry. It made him an ac- 
tive member of the church, foremost in 
moral and spiritual movements in the com- 
munity, ever mindful and just on the bench 
and attuned his character to gentleness, 
sympathy and benevolence. 






ARTHUR B. FARQUHAR, the lead- 
ing manufacturer of York, Pennsyl- 
vania is of mixed Scotch, German and Eng- 
lish ancestry, and was born in Montgomery 
County, Maryland, September 28th, 1838. 
He is a son of William Henry and Mar- 
garet (Briggs) Farquhar. 

The chain of lineage on both the paternal 
and maternal side has been honorable and 
conspicuous. His earliest ancestors be- 
longed to the historic coterie of Scottish 
Chiefs, and was known as the Clan Farqu- 
har. William Farquhar, great-great-grand 
father, emigrated from Scotland about the 
year 1700, taking with him a number of 
rehgious refugees, with whom he settled in 
Frederick County, Maryland. The mater- 
nal ancestor, Robert Brooke, of the House 
of Warwick, was born in London in 1602, 
and in 1635 married Mary Baker, daughter 
of Roger Mainwaring, the dean of Worces- 
ter. In 1650 he emigrated to Charles 
county, Maryland, with his wife, ten chil- 
dren and twenty-eight servants. Here 
subsequently, Robert Brooke became the 
commandant of the county and president of 
the Council of Maryland. His children and 
grandchildren afterwards gradually diflfused 
and most of them settled in what is now 
known as Montgomery County, Md. In 
1812, Amos Farquhar, paternal grandfather 
of Arthur B., removed to York County, 
Pennsylvania, where he erected a cotton 
factory, which proved unsuccessful after the 
war with England had been concluded. On 
June 14, 1813, wKle a resident of York 


County, his son, William Henry, father of 
the subject of this sketch, was born. He 
was a precocious lad, a proficient Latin and 
Greek scholar at the age of thirteen, later a 
mathematician of note and withal a man of 
the highest cultivation and attainments. 
Moncure D. Conway, a distinguished Uni- 
tarian divine and literateur, characterized 
him as the most accompHshed gentleman 
whom it had been his good fortune to meet. 
He died February 17, 1887, and was inter- 
red at Friends' Burying ground. Shady 
Spring, Montgomery County, after many 
years spent in scholarly pursuits and devo- 
tion to his own peculiar ideals. 

Arthur B. Farquhar, was educated in pri- 
vate schools and at Benjamin Hallowell's 
select school for boys at Alexandria, Vir- 
ginia. After the completion of his aca- 
demic education, he spent a year in the 
management of his father's farm, but al- 
ways showed a ruling fondness for mechan- 
ics, which was generously fostered by his 
father. In view of the proclivities exhib- 
ited by his son, the father early conceived 
the idea of fitting him for some phase of the 
manufacturing industry and consequently 
gave him every advantage in the pursuit of 
a practical mechanical education. He was 
afterward sent to York where he learned 
the trade of machinist, and so pronounced 
was his proficiency that at the expiration of 
two years he was admitted to a partnership 
in the business. This concern, under the 
firm name of W. W. Dingee & Co. contin- 
ued to do a prosperous business until the 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

outbreak of the Civil War, but during the 
progress of that conflict it was severely crip- 
pled. These reverses were followed by a 
severe loss by fire which so completely 
wrecked the enterprise that the assets were 
barely sufficient to pay twenty-five cents on 
the dollar. Mr. Farquhar was not satis- 
fied, however, with such an adjustment and 
persuading his creditors to let him retain 
the assets and start anew, he again began 
business and at the end of two years was 
enabled to liquidate the indebtedness dol- 
lar for dollar. From that modest begin- 
ning — a small frame shop with but seven 
hands employed — the present colossal es- 
tablishment, the Pennsylvania Agricultural 
works, has grown. In 1889 the A. B. Far- 
quhar company, limited, was organized 
with a capital of $500,000. This stock, 
with the exception of one share, is owned 
entirely by members of the Farquhar fam- 
ily. The annual business of the A. B. Far- 
quhar company aggregates more than one 
million dollars and is yearly increased. A 
large part of the products of the Agricul- 
tural Works is shipped to the Argentine 
Confederation, Brazil, Mexico, Chili, and 
South Africa. The success of the estab- 
lishment is largely due to the careful selec- 
tion of foremen for the dififerent depart- 
ments, all of which are supervised bv men 
who are masters of the various branches of 
mechanics and artisanship represented. To 
this of course must be added the rare busi- 
ness ability and keen foresight of the ex- 
ecutive head. The motto of the concern 
has always been:" Perfection attained, suc- 
cess assured." 

The name of Farquhar in the city of 
York has been a synonym of progress, and 
its present prominence as a manufacturing 
centre is in a great measure due to the en- 
ergy, integrity and executive ability of A. 
B. Farquhar, the founder of the Pennsyl- 
vania Agricultural Works. In addition to 

his interest in the latter, he is also a mem- 
ber of the Board of Trade of York, a di- 
rector of the York Trust, Real Estate and 
Deposit Company, the Colonial Hotel 
Company, President of the York City Hos- 
pital, and an active member of a number of 
other lesser concerns. He is also interested 
in a general ways in the cause of education 
and in various private charities. 

Mr. Farquhar's wide business experience 
and observation have been important and 
far reaching in more senses than one. Amid 
the arduous cares of trade he has yielded, 
incidentally, to the seductive field of litera- 
ture, and upon political economy, and ques- 
tions of finance, industrial policy and prac- 
tical legislation, he has written with force 
and authority. His contributions to these 
subjects, published in the New York and 
Philadelphia papers, have attracted marked 
attention, while his pamphlets on the ques- 
tions of the hour, notably the Silver ques- 
tion, have been circulated by the thousand. 
A more pretentious book, "Economic and 
Indvistrial Delusions," evinces a thorough 
grasp of the economic situation, wide and 
diverse reading and a dignified independ- 
ence of thought. In this book the author 
elucidates the subjects of Free Coinage and 
a High Protective TarifT, clearly demon- 
strating that the first would unsettle the fi- 
nancial stability of the country and that the 
latter is a barrier to the exchange of the 
products of our work shops and the fruits 
of our fields and forests for the raw mater- 
ials of other countries. In economics, as in 
politics, Mr. Farquhar has always been 
more than a mere sectary, and has invaria- 
bly insisted in placing the convictions of 
experience and the demands of a moral 
civil polity above party declarations or party 
ties. Politically, his ancestors were JefTer- 
sonian Democrats, though Mr. Farquhar 
disclaims any strictly so called party affilia- 
tions. As a true Jefifersonian, his father 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


naturally found himself identified with the 
new Republican party, chiefly owing to its 
pronounced opposition to slavery and its 
strong national instincts, and although 
living in Maryland he was an enthusiastic 
Union man. Inheriting his father's convic- 
tions, A. B. Farquhar cast his first Presi- 
dential vote for Abraham Lincoln and 
henceforth continued to vote with the Re- 
publican party as long as it seemed to him 
to subserve the nation's best interest. But 
being always an advocate of the largest 
freedom of trade, he naturally found him- 
self more at home with the new Democratic 
party under the leadership of ex-President 
Cleveland, and shortly after the latter's in- 
duction into office became his warm per- 
sonal friend — a friendship which has con- 
tinued ever since. Mr. Farquhar took no 
active part in political affairs until Mr. 
Cleveland's second nomination when he en- 
thusiastically supported his candidacy. For 
a number of years past, he has been active 
in com.bating the Silver delusion, placing 
himself emphatically and unambiguously 
on the side of the Gold standard — the com- 
mon standard of the enlightened world. To 
this end he used all his efforts to stem the 
tide which culminated at Chicago in the 
nomination of free silver candidates for the 
Presidency upon a free silver platform. Rec- 
ognizing the inevitable drift of that conven- 
tion, he advised ex-Secretary Whitney, of 
New York, and ex-Governor William E. 
Russell, of Massachusetts, to organize a 
bolt in favor of sound money and a true 
Democratic policy. Secretary Morton and 
others in high place approved this plan but 
it was not executed. He, however, contin- 
ued his advocacy of sound Democratic can- 
didates and principles through various pub- 
He men of his acquaintance until their ef- 
forts were crowned with success in the plat- 
form of the convention at Indianapolis. 
Colonel Wm, M. Singerly, editor of the 

Philadelphia Record, observed in a recent 
public speech at York that A. B. Farquhar 
was one of the three men to whom most 
credit was due for the beneficent results of 
the Indianapolis convention. 

In 1892 Mr. Farquhar was appointed one 
of the State Commissioners to the World's 
Columbian Exposition at Chicago by ex- 
Governor Robert E. Pattison. By the 
State Commission he was elected executive 
commissioner and by the National Associa- 
tion of Executive Commissioners of all the 
States represented at Chicago, was made 
their president. He visited Europe about 
this time, acting under a commission by the 
government, where he performed valuable 
service for the exposition. Upon his re- 
turn he again took up the active manage- 
ment of his vast business interests, rebuild- 
ing the factories upon a larger scale, fitting 
them with the latest improved machinery 
and increasing the general capacity of the 
works. They are now the largest and best 
equipped in Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Farquhar was appointed a delegate 
to the National Coast Defense Convention 
held in Tampa, Fla., during the winter of 
1897 where he made an address attracting 
considerable attention, against the policy of 
any general system of coast defenses, al- 
leging that our nation had outgrown the 
necessity of forts and battleships, and that 
its proper defense consisted in the morale 
of the people. 

Personally Mr. Farquhar is pleasing and 
dignified in manner, unostentatious, but al- 
ways mentally active. He is progressive and 
public spirited in all that promotes the wel- 
fare and prosperity of his city. State or 
nation, and manifests an abiding interest in 
all vital questions of sociology and econom- 
ics. A man of vast practical knowledge, 
amply versed in the literature of civics, he 
sustains an important relationship to the 
industrial and political life of this District. 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

In their religious affiliations his ancestors 
were ! Friends and he adheres largely to 
their faith, though a regular attendant of 
the Episcopal church and an active suppor- 
ter of the Young Men's and trustee of the 
Women's Christian Association. 

On September 20th, i860, Mr. Farquhar, 
was married to Elizabeth N. Jessop, daugh- 
ter of Edward Jessop, of York. Five chil- 
dren have resulted from this union, only 
three of whom are now living: William E., 
associated with his father in business; Per- 
cival and Francis, both members of the New 
York City bar. The two latter were grad- 
uated from Yale University, and Columbia 
Law School. Those deceased are Estelle 
and Herbert. 

Rev. George Norcross, D. D., the 
eloquent and scholarly pastor of the Sec- 
ond Presbyterian church of Carlisle, Penn- 
sylvania, is a son of Hiram and Elizabeth 
(McClelland) Norcross, and was born near 
Erie, Pennsylvania, April 8, 1838. He is of 
English and Scotch-Irish ancestry and his 
father, grandfather and great-grandfather 
were well-to-do farmers in their day. The 
great-grandfather, Abraham, was a native 
of New Jersey, where he married Nancy 
Fleming and after some years removed to 
Milton, Pennsylvania, where he continued 
to reside until his removal to Erie in the 
same State where the latter part of his life 
was spent. His son, John Norcross, was 
born in New Jersey September 22, 1783, 
but his boyhood was mostly spent on the 
Susquehanna in Central Pennsylvania. 
When a young man he sought his fortunes 
in the new County of Erie, which had been 
lAirchased from New York by the Keystone 
State. Here he married Margaret McCann-, 
who was born in North Ireland about the 
year 1790. 

Hiram Norcross, their eldest child, was 

born near Erie, July 16, 1809, where he re- 
sided until the fall of 1844, when he re- 
moved to Monmouth, Illinois, where he 
died in 1879. He was a farmer by occupa- 
tion and a ruling elder in the Presbyterian 
church for nearly forty years. He married 
Elizabeth McClelland, of Crawford County, 
Pennsylvania, June I, 1837. To this union 
were born the following named children, 
who lived to reach maturity: Rev. Dr. 
George, the subject of this narrative; Hon. 
William Charles, Judge of Warren County, 
Illinois; Hiram Fleming, a lawyer of Los 
Angeles, California; Isaiah, of Monmouth, 
III; Thomas Rice, of Liberty, Nebraska, 
and Sarah Gibson, deceased, wife of Henry 
Fieckwith, of New London, Conn. 

Mrs. Norcross, the mother of our subject, 
Mas the only daughter of Thomas and 
Sarah (Gibson) McClelland, both of Scotch- 
Irish extraction. Sarah Gibson was the 
youngest daughter of Hugh Gibson, who 
was taken captive by the Indians in 1756, 
at the time of the famous Indian raid 
through the Cumberland and contiguous 
valleys. At the same time his mother, the 
widow of David Gibson, was cruelly mur- 
dered. The scene of this tragedy was Rob- 
inson's Fort in Sherman's Valley, now the 
site of Center church, Perry County, Pa. 

Dr. Norcross was brought up chiefly at 
Monmouth, Illinois, where he prepared for 
college. He subsequently entered Mon- 
mouth College, an institution under the 
care of the United Presbyterian Church, 
where he was graduated with credit in the 
class of 1861. He then pursued his theolo- 
gical studies at Chicago in the Seminary of 
the Northwest, now McCormick, and in the 
Theological Seminary of the U. P. Church, 
at Monmouth. During the latter part of 
this period he served as the supply of the 
North Henderson church, besides holding 
a professorship in Monmouth College. 

In October, 1864, he entered the Theolo- 




gical Seminary at Princeton, New Jersey, 
where he spent his last year of study in 
preparation for his life-work. Having re- 
ceived a call to the congregation which he 
had already served as stated supply for 
about seventeen months, he was ordained, 
June 6, 1865, to the ministry of the Presby- 
terian church and installed as pastor of the 
North Henderson church, Mercer County, 
Illinois. Here he was among a kind and 
appreciative people where his labors, hrst 
and last, were greatly blessed. 

In the spring of 1866 he was called to the 
Presbyterian church (O. S.) of Galesburg, 
IlHnois. After nearly three years of labor 
in this field he was called to the Second 
Presbyterian church, of Carlisle, Pennsyl- 
vania, where he has labored efficiently and 
continuously for the past twenty-eight 
years. At the beginning of his pastorate, 
January, 1869, the church had about 230 
members and the Sabbath school reported 
an attendance of only 125 scholars and 
teachers. These numbers have been greatly 
augmented; the roll of communicants has 
increased to about 500 and the Sabbath 
schools of the church have an enrolled 
membership of about 600. 

During his first year at Carlisle the 
Manse was built and during his second 
year the old church building was torn 
down and preparations were made for the 
erection of the present sanctuary. This 
beautiful Gothic church was finished at a 
cost of about fifty thousand dollars and 
dedicated May 29, 1873. In 1887 it was 
thoroughly renovated and improved at an 
expense of about ten thousand dollars. 
Provision for these improvements was 
largely made by the bequest of Mrs. Robert 
Givin and the generous gift of her only 
daughter, Miss Amelia Steele Givin. The 
benefactions of these faithful friends were 
supplemented by the congregation who 
made the addition to the Lecture Room at 

a cost of about two thousand dollars. 

Dr. Norcross has represented the Pres- 
bytery of Carlisle four times in the 
General Assembly of the Presbyterian 
Church, viz, in 1871 at Chicago, in 1874 at 
St. Louis, in 1885 at Cincinnati, in 1895 at 
Pittsburg. In the last two Assemblies he 
was the chairman of important standing 

In 1877 he attended the first Pan-Pres- 
byterian Council at Edinburgh, Scotland, 
as an associate member and was present 
during all the deliberations of that historic 
body. Subsequently with his wife he made 
the tour of the Continent. On July 5, 1890, 
he sailed again, and this time with his fam- 
ily, from New York for the Old World. 
Seven months of study were spent in the 
city of Leipzig, Germany, and six months 
were devoted to travel through Holland, 
Belgium, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, 
Italy and France, the family party return- 
ing early in August, 1891. 

In the year 1879 the subject of this 
sketch received the degree of Doctor of Di- 
vinity from Princeton College in recogni- 
tion of well known literary attainments and 
faithful ministerial service. He evinces 
unusual culture and learning, is a forceful 
speaker and sustains an important relation 
to his adopted county, both as a minister 
and a citizen. Though rigorously confin- 
ing" himself to the work in his own congre- 
gation, he is known as the friend of every 
reform. When the question of Constitu- 
tional Amendment in the interest of Tem- 
perance was before the people in 1889 he 
addressed many popular meetings in sup- 
port of Prohibition and his famous "Ox 
Sermon" preached before Presbytery on 
"Our Responsibility for the Drink Traffic" 
was printed and widely circulated. In his 
many activities in behalf of church and mis- 
sion work he is ably assisted by his wife. 

Dr. Norcross has been married twice. On 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

October i, 1863, he married Mary S. Tracy, 
of Monmouth, IlHnois, who died March 25, 
1866. After her death he removed to Gales- 
burg, IlHnois, where on April 22, 1867, he 
wedded Mrs. Louise (Jackson) Gale, a 
daughter of Mr. Samuel Clinton Jackson 
and widow of Major Josiah Gale, the son 
of Rev. Dr. Gale, the founder of Galesburg. 
By his first marriage he had one child which 
died in infancy; and to his second union 
have been born five children: Delia Jack- 
son, George who died at eight years of age, 
Elizabeth, Mary Jackson and Louise Jack- 

In the year 1886, upon the occasion of 
the Centennial celebration of the Presby- 
tery of Carlisle, Dr. Norcross became the 
editor of a memorial publication in two vol- 
umes entitled 'The Centennial Memorial of 
the Presbytery of Carlisle," which grew 
into a valuable historical and biographical 
review of the origin and growth of Presby- 
terianism in the central and eastern part of 
Southern Pennsylvania. As the result of 
this and similar literary work he was made 
a member of the American Society of 
Church History and the Scotch-Irish So- 
partment of Church History which has 
manifested a growing interest in the de- 
partment of Church History which has 
been exhibited in a course of carefully pre- 
pared lectures on "The Great Reformers." 
At the request of the committee of arrange- 
ments, he prepared a paper on "The Scotch- 
Irish in the Cumberland Valley" which he 
read before the Eighth Scotch-Irish Con- 
gress in Harrisburg in 1896. In this ad- 
dress he eloquently tells the story of the 
Scotch-Irish in the Cumberland valley and 
presents the record of the establishment of 
the early Presbyterian churches in this re- 
gion. In concluding his article and speak- 
ing generally of the Scotch-Irish race, he 
says, — 

"The War of the Revolution was begun 

and maintained for principles peculiarly 
dear to Scotch-Irish Presbyterians. As 
they were among the first to declare them- 
selves in favor of separation from the 
mother country, so they were among the 
last to lay down their arms, and that only 
when the great cause was won. They were 
conspicuous in almost every battle of the 
great struggle ; and when the conflict ended 
in the triumph of their aspirations, it is not 
strange that the free representative princi- 
ples of their Church government should 
have been adopted as the model for our 
Federal Constitution. The Scotch-Irish 
Presbyterians at last had attained to their 
ideal: a free Church in a free State." 

ident Judge of Cumberland County, 
Penna., son of Edward M. and Julia A. 
(Watts) Biddle, was born in Carlisle on 
May 3, 1852, and has resided there all his 
life. He is a descendant of William Biddle, 
who settled in the province of West Jersey 
in 1 681, and became a large landowner. Bid- 
die's Island in the Delaware River, consist- 
ing of 278 acres, being one of his acquisi- 

Since then the family has furnished to the 
world many men who have become illus- 
trious in the annals of law and of finance. 

On the maternal side Judge Biddle's 
great-grandfather, Frederick Watts, was a 
prominent citizen of Pennsylvania during 
Revolutionary days and was a member of 
its Supreme Executive Council from Oc- 
tober 20, 1787, until the abolition of that 
body by the constitution of 1790; and his 
grandfather, David Watts, was one of the 
leading lawyers of the State in the early 
part of this century; so, in the various ram- 
ifications of the family for several genera- 
tions, men of culture, ability and influence 

After passing through the public schools 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


to the High School, the subject of our 
sketch entered Dickinson College and was 
graduated from that institution in 1870, the 
youngest member of his class, with high 
standing. After spending several months 
in civil engineering he commenced the 
study of law in the office of his cousin, 
William M. Penrose, Esq., and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in April, 1873. From 
that time he gave his attention almost ex- 
clusively to his chosen profession and pur- 
sued a wide range of legal studies. In 
1877 ^i^d again in 1883 he was unanimously 
nominated by the Republican county com- 
vention for the office of district attorney 
and on both occasions ran far ahead of his 
ticket, but in neither instance was elected. 
These political episodes did not in any way 
interfere with his professional work, and for 
many years prior to his election to the 
judgeship he had charge of some of the 
most important cases and largest interests 
in Cumberland county. In 1885 he was se- 
lected as one of the assignees for the bene- 
fit of creditors of P. A. Ahl and D. V. Ahl, 
individually and trading as P. A. Ahl & 
Bro., who had valuable landed possessions 
in several States and whose affairs were 
much involved. In the capacity of assignee 
and attorney for the three estates he was 
largely instrumental in carrying to a suc- 
cessful termination the most intricate equity 
litigation ever conducted in Cumberland 
county, as well as an important equity suit 
in Hagerstown, Md., and these legal vic- 
tories saved the assignors from insolvency. 
The qualities which he displayed in the 
above and other cases brought to his office 
an extensive miscellaneous practice. He 
was always much interested in the material 
progress of his native town, and in i8go 
he became united with several other gen- 
tlemen in organizing The Carlisle Land 
and Improvement Company, which imme- 
diately purchased a large tract of land at 

the edge of Carlisle and became a potent 
factor in its recent marked development. 
In the establishment of various factories in 
the borough he likewise took an active part 
and at this time is president of the Carlisle 
Silk Company and a director of the Lindner 
Shoe Company, both of which are flourish- 
ing industrial corporations. On February 
2, 1882, he married Gertrude D., a daughter 
of J. Herman and Mary J. (Kirk) Bosler, 
of Carlisle. They have two children: Her- 
man Bosler, born April 14, 1883, and Ed- 
ward Macfunn, born May 29, 1886. 

In the fall of 1894 he was elected to the 
position of president judge of Cumberland 
county, and on the first Monday of the fol- 
lowing January, entered on the duties of a 
ten years' judicial term. 

He is a member of the American Bar 
Association and of the Pennsylvania State 
Bar Association, and as a member of the 
committee on law reform of the latter body 
has given a good deal of time and thought 
to furthering the ends for which the or- 
ganization was formed. In December, 
1896, as a representative of that commit- 
tee, he united with the chairman of the 
committee on legal education in calling the 
first and only convention of Pennsylvania 
judges which has ever been held, the pur- 
pose of the meeting being twofold: First, 
to consider the expediency and feasibility 
of obtaining uniform rules of court 
throughout the State; and second, to take 
steps to put into operation an approved 
system of legal education. The conven- 
tion was held in Philadelphia on Decem- 
ber 29, 1896, and was a marked success, 
about two-thirds of the judges of the Com- 
monwealth, and more than a hundred attor- 
neys in active practice, who were inter- 
ested in the subjects under discussion, 
being present. 

Judge Biddle's excellent private law 
library remains in the office where for many 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

years he conducted active practice, and 
there he still works and hears arguments 
at chambers between sessions of court. 

LL. D., seventeenth president of 
Dickinson College was born in Brownville, 
Maine, in 1846. His father, a clergyman of 
the Methodist Episcopal church, came to 
America from England in 1836. 

The father dying when the son was about 
six years of age, the mother, a woman of 
great strength of character removed with 
her large family to Lowell, Mass., in the 
schools of which city George received the 
rudiments of his education. The family, 
however, being in straitened circumstances 
the boy was compelled at an early age to 
begin the battle of life for himself, which 
he did. Serving for several years in var- 
ious capacities in one of the large manu- 
facturing companies of the "Spindle City," 
first as "runner" in the counting room and 
later as "bobbin boy" in the mills. In the 
summer he worked on the farm adjacent 
to the city, gaining in this severe school 
the stalwart, vigorous frame which has 
stood him in such good stead in later years. 
Having at last accumulated money enough 
to warrant the continued pursuit of the 
studies he had been compelled, .tempor- 
arily, to lay aside, in January, 1865, he en- 
tered the Wesleyan Academy, Wilbraham, 
Mass., to prepare for college. This he ac- 
complished in the surprisingly short space 
of one term and a half, doing within this 
period the amount of work usually gone 
over in nine months. Dr. Reed justly re- 
gards this as the greatest achievement of 
his life, the record never, to his knowledge, 
having been surpassed. Entering Wes- 
leyan University, Middletown, Conn., in 
September, 1865, he was graduated with 
distinction in 1869, in a class famous in the 
history of the college for the number of its 

members who have attained eminence in 
their various callings. 

After his graduation from college, he 
passed one year in the study of theology 
in the school of theology of Boston Uni- 
versity. Retiring from the school in 1870, 
he at once began the work of the ministry 
of the Methodist Episcopal church, serving 
two most important churches of that body 
in Willimantic, Conn., and in Fall River, 
Mass. In 1875, being then but twenty- 
nine years of age, he was transferred to the 
Hanson Place Methodist Episcopal church, 
Brooklyn, N. Y., then and now the largest 
church of that religious denomination in 
this country. At the end of three years he 
was appointed to an influential church in 
Stamford, Conn. 

In 1881 he became pastor of the Nos- 
trand Avenue church, Brooklyn, where he f 
continued for three years, at the expira- 
tion of which period he served again in the 
Hanson Place church. On leaving the city 
of Brooklyn he was tendered a reception in 
the Brooklyn Tabernacle by citizens of the 
city, irrespective of denominational lines in 
recognition of public services rendered. 

In 1887 Dr. Reed assumed the pastorate 
of Trinity church. New Haven. While 
serving his second year there he was hon- 
ored with a unanimous call to the presi- 
dency of Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa., 
one of the oldest of the colleges of the 

The presidency of Dr. Reed has been 
eminently successful, the number of stud- 
eats in attendance having more than 
doubled during the years of his adminis- 
tration, with corresponding evidence of 
prosperity in all lines of college work. In 
addition to the various duties of his posi- 
tion Dr. Reed is in great demand as lect- 
urer and preacher in all parts of the coun- 
try and with constantly increasing fame. 

Dr. Reed is a careful thinker, eloquent 


Nineteenth Congressional District. 


in diction, self-possessed in manner and 
attractive in the mode of presenting his 
subject. He clearly enunciates his propo- 
sitions and logically follows them to their 
conclusions, convincing the minds of his 
hearers and winning their hearts by the 
clearness of his statement and the sincerity 
and earnestness of his convictions. 

In June, 1870, he was married to Ella 
Feanres Leffingwell, of Norwich, Conn., a 
lineal descendant of the famous Puritan 
captain, Miles Standish, of the Plymouth 
Colony. To them one son has been born. 

During his public career President Reed 
while a clergyman by profession and de- 
voted to his calling, has nevertheless always 
manifested great interest in political aflairs, 
not hesitating to take the stump for the 
candidate of the political party — the Re- 
publican — to which he has always belonged 
and to lead in independent movements, par- 
ticularly in Brooklyn, when, in his judg- 
ment, it seemed advisable to act outside of 
party lines. 

As a political orator, no less than 
preacher and lecturer, Dr. Reed has won 
enviable distinction. 

J HERMAN BOSLER, citizen of Car- 
• lisle, Cumberland County, Pennsyl- 
vania, is a man of large wealth, pro- 
nounced influence and the scion of an old 
and distinguished Pennsylvania family. He 
was born in Silver's Spring township, Cum- 
berland county, on December 14th, 1830, 
and is the son of Abraham and Eliza (Her- 
man) Bosler. 

The lineage of the Pennsylvania branch 
of the Bosler family is easily traceable to 
the pre-Revolutionary period of our history 
— to a certain John Bosler, who emigrated 
from Hanover, Germany, and settled be- 
tween Elizabethtown and Maytown, now 
known as Hosier's church, Lancaster 
county, Pennsylvania, in the year 1761. 

Here he married a Miss Longenecker and 
reared a large family of children who grad- 
ually scattered through the various counties 
of Southern Pennsylvania. One son, John, 
married Catherine Gish, of Lancaster 
county, and removed to Cumberland 
county, settling in Silver's Spring township. 
This township became henceforth the 
homestead cradle of the Boslers in Cumber- 
land county through the successive genera- 
tions. To John and his wife, Catherine, 
were born five children, three sons and two 
daughters: Jacob D. Bosler, M. D., married 
Anna D. Herman; John, twice married 
first, a daughter of Rev. Jacob Keller, and 
upon her decease a daughter of Geo. Web- 
bert; Nancy, was also twice married, first 
to John Rife, and after his decease to Mel- 

chior Webbert; Catherine, married Dr. 

Fahnstock; and Abraham, the youngest 
son, who married on February 20th, 1830 
Eliza Herman, daughter of Martin and 
Elizabeth (Bowers) Herman, of Silver's 
Spring township. 

During the early years immediately after 
reaching his majority, Abraham Bosler en- 
gaged in mercantile pursuits at Hogues- 
town. Pa., but a few years later formed a 
co-partnership with Francis Porter for the 
purpose of conducting a produce business, 
which largely consisted in shipping pro- 
duce by boat on the Susquehanna river to 
Baltimore. In 1851, Mr. Bosler sold his 
property interests in Silver's Spring town- 
ship and removed to South Middleton 
township, where he purchased a farm upon 
which was erected a mill and a distillery. 
These three branches of industry — farming, 
milling and distilling — continued to engage 
his attention until 1 87 1, when he retired 
and removed to Carlisle, where he died De- 
cember 2ist, 1883, in his 78th year. His 
wife survived him two years, dying in her 
76th year. Early in life Mr. and Mrs. Bos- 
ler united with the Presbyterian church at 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

Silver's Spring and at the time of their re- 
moval transferred their membership to the 
Second Presbyterian church of Carlisle. 
They were both progressive and zealous 
workers in the cause of Christian living 
and contributed liberally toward the expan- 
sion of the church's usefulness. Their 
marital union was blessed by the birth of 
eight children, all born in Silver's Spring 
township: John Herman, James William- 
son, Benjamin C, Joseph, Elizabeth Bow- 
ers, Mary Catherine, George Morris, and 
Charles, who died in infancy. 

The boyhood hfe of John Herman Bos- 
ler was passed upon his father's farm in 
Silver's Spring township and was character- 
ized by the common incidents and scenes 
of rural life. At the age of seventeen he 
entered as a student of Cumberland Acad- 
emy and during the years 1850 and 1851 
studied at Dickinson College, Carlisle. 
Upon leaving the college halls he at once 
entered upon an active business career, 
which succeeding years have abundantly 
crowned with success. In the outstart he 
formed a partnership with his father in the 
milling and distilling business and contin- 
ued to be so identified for a period of five 
years. He then became interested in the 
iron producing industry in Huntingdon 
county, where he remained two years. 
Just about this time, October ist, 1856, he 
married Mary J., eldest daughter of James 
and Martha (Saeger) Kirk, of Mifflin, Juni- 
ata county, shortly after which he returned 
to Cumberland county and resumed the 
milling business, which he suplemented by 
purchasing and shipping grain in large 
quantities. This was continued until the 
year 1870. In 1869, in association with his 
brother, James W., Mr. Bosler engaged in 
stock ranching in Nebraska and became a 
large investor in the cattle business, both 
in Nebraska and Wyoming, which ventures 
met with an immediate and emphatic suc- 

cess. Later he turned his attention to 
landed investments, and with his accus- 
tomed sagacity, became one of the largest 
purchasers of land in South Omaha in con- 
nection with his brother George. These 
lands were subsequently transferred to the 
South Omaha Land Company, of which 
Mr. Bosler became Vice-President, and in 
which he retained a large interest. The 
operations of this company resulted in the 
foundation of the town of South Omaha, at 
that time three miles from the centre of the 
city of Omaha proper; and so rapid has 
been its developement, that at the present 
time it is a corporate part of the city itself. 
The enterprise proved to be markedly suc- 
cessful, even beyond the expectation of the 
founders, and stands out as a fair testimo- 
nial to their judgment and foresight. 
While apparently intent upon his western 
enterprises, Mr. Bosler did not lose sight of 
his opportunities in the east,especially in his 
native county. He was naturally attracted 
to the development of home enterprises and 
was very prompt to take the initiative in 
these Hnes. The foundation of the Carlisle 
Manufacturing Company, of which his 
brother, James W. Bosler, was President, 
was in no small measure due to his impetus 
and cordial support. He was one of its 
founders and charter member. This con- 
concern is engaged in the manufacture of 
freight, box and coal cars, railroad frogs, 
switch stands, boilers, horizontal and verti- 
cal engines and numerous other collateral 
articles and supplies, comprising a variety 
and extent of products not exceeded in 
Cumberland county. 

In addition to the foregoing, Mr. Bosler 
is President of the Carlisle Shoe Factory, 
a live and progressive concern, an influen- 
tial director in the Carlisle Deposit Bank, 
the Merchants National Bank, the Carlisle 
Gas, Water and Electric Light Co., a -dir- 
ector of the Cumberland Valley and Dills- 



burg Railroad Company and was President 
of the Carlisle Land and Improvement 
Company, which latter is now extinct, to all 
of which he has contributed an unusual 
business ability. 

In 1891 Mr. Bosler associated himself 
with a number of enterprising gentlemen, 
whose purpose was the purchase and devel- 
opement of large tracts of Western land. 
The first purchase made by this associa- 
tion, whose legal designation was the South 
San Francisco Land and Improvement 
Company, was in San Mateo county, Cali- 
fornia, embracing a tract of 440 square 
miles, bounded on the west by the Pacific 
Ocean and on the North by the Bay of 
San Francisco. The surface of the land is 
undulating and covered with a heavy 
growth of timber, while the soil is arable 
and productive. It is also prolific of miner- 
al springs, some of which are impregnated 
with sulphur and others with iron and 
lithia in such proportions as to render them 
highly efificacious as medicinal waters. 
Deposits of coal have also been found and 
the land is well adapted to the production of 
the cereal grains and grass for grazing 
purposes. Sometime after the first pur- 
chase, a second purchase of 3400 acres was 
made by the same company. The capita- 
lization of the company was fixed at $2,- 
000,000.00 and it was designed to comprise 
in addition to its real estate holdings, a 
Stock Yard Company, an Abattoir Com- 
pany, a Banking Company and any other 
form or function of industrial or financial 
organization that wovdd contribute toward 
the more perfect improvement and expan- 
sion of the Company's interest. This gi- 
gantic enterprise has so far proved an ex- 
ceptional venture. 

In Cumberland county Mr. Bosler is the 
owner of a number of farms in whose man- 
agement and improvement he takes a spe- 
cial delight, chiefly because it affords him 

a restful diversion from his multifold busi- 
ness connections. This has led him also to 
ally himself with the Cumberland County 
Agricultural Society, which has lalways 
found in him a valuable co-worker and an 
interested patron. 

While Mr. Bosler's life has been essenti- 
ally that of a business man, with a multi- 
plicity of cares, yet he has found time to 
manifest an abiding interest in other forms 
of social activity. He is a man of a pro- 
nounced religious character and has always 
shown a cordial solicitude for the welfare of 
the the church and its influence. He is a 
member of the Second Presbyterian 
church of Carlisle and has been assiduous 
and untiring in aiding all its forms of mater- 
ial and moral beneficence. In politics he 
has always been a staunch Democrat and 
has brought to the support of his party the 
same strength and patriotic zeal that has 
characterized his business career. In 1888 
he served as the Democratic elector from 
the Nineteenth Congressional District. 

Mr. Bosler's career has been among the 
most conspicuous in this Congressional 
district. It has been so because of his fam- 
ily heritage, his distinctive personal success 
and the high esteem in which he is held by 
his business colleagues, social acquaint- 
ances and fellow townsmen. His business 
relations have been marked with candor, 
honesty, and a rare good judgment, while 
his courageous and progressive spirit have 
added greatly to the wealth and general 
well-being of his city and county. All these 
things are in high attestation of the char- 
acter and demeanor of Mr. Bosler and 
mark him as a man of distinguished citizen- 
ship as well as a person of exemplary quali- 

Mr. and Mrs. Bosler have had ten chil- 
dren, six of whom are now living: Gertrude 
wife of Judge E. W. Biddle; Herman, Sec- 
retary and Treasurer of the Fidelity and 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

Deposit Company, of Maryland, with head 
office at Baltimore, Md.; Lila McClellan, 
deceased, wife of Edmund Hooker, of 
Omaha, Nebraska; Jean M., wife of James 
I. Chamberlain, Attorney-at-Law, Harris- 
burg, Pa.; Fleta, unmarried; Kirk, student 
at Dickinson College, Carlisle; the others 
died in infancy. 

FRANKLIN GARDNER, retired man- 
ufacturer and business man of Car- 
lisle, Cumberland county, Pennsylvania, was 
born in Hellam Township, York County, 
Pennsylvania, on December nth, 1820. He 
is a son of Martin and Mary (Thomas) 

The Gardners are of German lineage and 
the name has been prominent in Pennsyl- 
vania biographical history for a number of 
generations, the great grandfather of our 
present subject having located in York 
County while it was still in a semi-pioneer 
state. Here he secured a patent for six 
hundred acres of land in Hellam Township 
from the Penns, which at the time of his 
death descended to his heirs and became 
the homestead of the family in York 
County. Upon this homestead Martin 
Gardner, grandfather, was born, reared and 
demised. He was a steady, industrious far- 
mer, a member of the Lutheran church and 
brought up to maturity, with his accustom- 
ed care, a family of six children: Mrs. 
George Smyser (deceased), of Gettysburg, 
Pennsylvania; Mrs. Samuel Weiser, late of 
York; Michael, (deceased), ex-sheriff of 
York County; Martin, father of Franklin; 
David, a farmer by occupation, deceased in 
Harrisburg; Daniel, a farmer and at the 
time of his death a citizen of the State of 

Martin Gardner, father, like his progeni- 
tors for several generations, was a native of 
York County, Hellam township, and was 
brought up to and chiefly followed agricul- 

tural pursuits. For a period of eight years 
he served as steward of the York county 
almshouse and subsequently removed to the 
city of York, where he lived in retirement 
until his death in the year 1837. Near the 
close of the war of 1812 he was drafted into 
the LTnited States military service but be- 
fore the order came to march to the front 
that memorable struggle had closed. He 
was a Lutheran in his church membership 
and a Whig in politics. His wife was a 
daughter of John Thomas of York county 
and bore him six children, five sons and one 
daughter: Franklin; Israel, late of Carlisle; 
Martin, a machinist, now located at Al- 
toona, this State; Henry, a citizen of Har- 
risburg; Albert, a machinist, located at Al- 
toona, and Lucy, wife of Danford Edmars, 
State of Indiana. 

Our subject, Franklin Gardner, was 
brought up on the old homestead farm until 
he attained his eighth year and received 
the educational advantages afforded by the 
common schools of York county at that 
time. In 1840, when twenty years of age, 
he directed his steps to Carlisle, Cumber- 
land county, where after working a short 
period in a foundry he succeeeded his for- 
mer employee and began his independent 
struggle by starting in a small way, a 
machine shop and foundry combined on 
the corner of Bedford and High streets. 
At first the heavier machinery was operated 
by horse power but on July 4th, 1842, the 
latter was superseded by steam power, the 
introduction of which marked the advent of 
the first steam engine in Carlisle. Through 
this and other constant additions from time 
to time the business kept expanding and in 
1848 William J. Brown was admitted to a 
partnership interest, the firm name becom- 
ing Gardner & Brown. In 185 1 the works 
were destroyed by fire and compelled a 
reconstruction. At this juncture Mr. 
Brown retired from the p^tnership and the 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


work of rebuilding was begun and com- 
pleted by Mr. Gardner, who continued sole 
proprietor until 1857. During this year E. 
Beatty secured an interest and the business 
was conducted as Gardner & Company un- 
til 1880 George Butem (deceased) having 
been admitted into the partnership in 1867. 
At this time the facilities, output and gener- 
al business of Gardner & Company had 
grown from the very modest beginnings of 
1840 to very generous proportions, involv- 
ing assets of more than $75,000, and a va- 
riety of manufactured implements and 
foundry work not excelled in the county. 
In 1880 Mr. Gardner closed out his inter- 
ests in the foundry and machine shop to 
what is now known as the Carlisle Manu- 
facturing Company. In 1883, in conjunction 
with his two sons, Edward J. and John H., 
Mr. Gardner built and organized the Letort 
Axle Works, located in the eastern 
part of the town, and maintained an active 
interest in that well known industry until 
August 1st, 1896, when he retired and the 
firm became F. Gardner's Sons. This estab- 
lishment engages in the manufacture of 
axles for all kinds of carriages and vehicles, 
besides the general iron products of a ma- 
chine shop. It employs about sixty men 
and has a weekly pay roll of about four 
hundred dollars. In point of the excellence 
of its products, financial stability and tact- 
ful management it ranks with the first in- 
dustries of the county. In addition to the 
foregoing interests Mr. Gardner is a large 
real estate owner, and director of the Gas 
and Water Company for thirty-five years, 
and has many lesser business connections. 
He is an active member of the Lutheran 
church a member of the Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows and has been conspi- 
cuous as a man of public spirit and civic 
pride. His business success, no less than 
his standing as a citizen, has been due to 
his characteristic energy, business methods 

and uncompromising honesty. During the 
long years of residence in his adopted home 
he has seen it developed from a hamlet of 
less than four thousand people to a beauti- 
ful city replete with industry and educa- 
tional institutions and can rest secure in the 
knowledge that he has done his share in its 

On March 24th, 1842, Mr. Gardner was 
joined in marriage with Sarah Jane Abra- 
hams, daughter of Jacob Abrahams, of Car- 
lisle. This union resulted in the birth of 
ten children: Carolina, widow of William 
Maize, of Pottsville, Pennsylvania; Martin, 
deceased: Annie, wife of Henry W. Bow- 
man, of Philadelphia; Alice, wife of J. R. 
Butem, of Philadelphia; Edward J., mem- 
ber of F. Gardner's Sons; John H., mem- 
ber of F. Gardner's Sons; Laura, wife of 
Charles P. Adams, Attorney-at-Law, of 
Carlisle, Pa., and three deceased. 

D. Since April 16, 1865, Dr. Hen- 
ry Edward Niles has been pastor of the 
First Presbyterian Church, of York. One 
of his first public appearances here, was 
April 19th, 1865, when he delivered the ora- 
tion at the Lincoln funeral services in Christ 
Lutheran Church. 

During these years his strong character 
and devotion to principle and duty, aided 
by a peculiarly responsive sympathy and 
enforced by no ordinary eloquence and a 
ready pen, have made him an influential 
factor in the religious and intellectual life 
and development of the town and county. 

Under his charge the Church has con- 
stantlv increased in numbers, philanthropy 
and influence; branches have been estab- 
lished in the north and south section of the 
city, known as the Westminster and Cal- 
vary churches; and the parent organization 
is now larger and more active than ever in 
its history. 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

He was largely interested in forming 
plans upon which his intimate friend and 
elder, Samuel Small, founded the York Col- 
legiate Institute, of which he has from the 
beginning been a Trustee. 

He is also a Trustee and active friend of 
Lincoln University; and has given much 
thought and care to the Board of Minister- 
ial Relief of the Presbyterian Church, of 
which for many years, he has been a mem- 

In 1874 he was moderator of the Synod 
of Philadelphia, and in 1877 was Associate 
Member of the Pan-Presbyterian Council 
which met at Edinburgh, Scotland. 

Nor have his energies and talents been 
devoted by any means exclusively to his 
own church and to Presbyterian institu- 

All wise reforms in morals and politics 
have had in him a fearless and judicious 
advocate, and he has been a strong support 
for all movements of evangelization and 

Before the union of the Old and New 
School, in 1870, he and his church were 
connected with the latter branch and his 
ecclesiastical tendencies have always been 
in favor of all liberty of thought and ex- 
pression, consistent with devotion to fun- 
damental truth. 

Dr. Niles is of an old New England 
family. He was born August 15, 1823, at 
South Hadley, Mass., the second child of 
William Niles and Sophia Goodrich; and 
was descendant in the seventh generation, 
from Captain John Niles, who came from 
Wales in 1630, settled in Abington, Mass., 
and afterwards moved to Braintree. 

William Niles moved with his family to 
Spencertown, Columbia county, N. Y., 
when Henry was about five years old; and 
the boy spent his youth amid the beauties 
of the Hudson River and Berkshire Hills. 

He was graduated from Union College, 

Schenectady, N. Y., in 1844, and from 
Princeton Theological Seminary in 1848; 
and was ordained by the Presbytery of Co- 
lumbia and installed pastor at Valatie 
(Kinderhook), N. Y., October 24, 1848. 

In 1855 broken health compelled him to 
spend about a year in travel and recreation ; 
after which he supplied the church at An- 
gelica, N. Y. 

From 1859 until the outbreak of the war 
he served as pastor-elect of the North 
church of St. Louis, Mo. 

In 1861 he was called to Albion, N. Y., 
from whence, after a very successful minis- 
try, he came to York. 

In 187s he received the degree of Doctor 
of Divinity from Wooster University. 

June 26, 1850, at Lowell, Mass., Mr. 
Niles married Jeannie E., daughter of Sum- 
ner Marsh; whose qualities and efforts have 
so supplemented and aided his, as to make 
their lives a harmonious whole of joint de- 
votion to all that is good, unselfish and 

They have three living children: Henry 
Carpenter, born at Angelica, N. Y., June 
17, 1858, a member of the York bar; Alfred 
Salem, born at St. Louis, October 28, i860, 
a lawyer at Baltimore, and Edward, born at 
York, September 18, 1868, pastor of the 
Reformed churcTi at Gardner, N. Y. 

minent lawyer of Carlisle and a dis- 
tinguished citizen of the Cumberland Val- 
ley, is a son of James Weakley and Eliza- 
beth (Lockhart) Weakley. He was born 
in Dickinson township, Cumberland county, 
Pennsylvania, April 12,1839. He is fourth 
in descent from the pioneer James Weakley, 
Sr., of English descent, who settled as early 
as 1725, on the Yellow Breeches, in what 
was then called Pennsborough township. 
Here he purchased a tract of six hundred 
acres of land from the Penns, on which he 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


built a house, enclosed by a stockade for the 
protection of his family and neighbors from 
the attacks of the savages during the Indian 
troubles. He increased his possessions con- 
siderably by purchasing, and at his death 
was the owner of large estates in lands. His 
family consisted of six sons and five daugh- 

His son, James Weakley, who inherited 
the tract purchased by his father from the 
Penns, served two enlistments during the 
Revolutionary war, retiring with rank of 
Captain. He lived on the home farm until 
his death in 1814 at the age of eighty-four 
years. He married Rebecca McKinley, by 
whom he had four sons, Isaac, James, Na- 
thaniel and William, and four daughters, 
Mrs. Jane Woods, Mrs. Rebecca Boden, 
Mrs. Elizabeth Woodburn and Nancy 
Weakley. William died in early manhood. 
All his other children lived to an advanced 
age. '; •" 

James Weakley, the second son of Cap- 
tain James Weakley, born April 16, 1785, 
inherited the home of his ancestors. 
When he was more than forty-five years 
old, he encountered financial trouble and 
the old homestead was sold from him. He 
then married Elizabeth Lockhart, the 
daughterof a farmer in Dickinson township, 
and began anew. Engaging in the manu- 
facture of lumber, by hard work and severe 
economy he soon began to acquire pro- 
perty. When he retrieved his fortune he 
purchased a farm in Penn township, to 
which he removed in 1847, ^"d resided 
there until his death. In 1861, then seventy- 
six years old, he re-purchased the old home- 
stead, paying for it a price four times 
greater than it brought when it was sold 
from him in 1835. He died August 30, 
1873; his wife had passed away June 7, 
1854. He was a strong, earnest indomitable 

His family consisted of three sons and 

one daughter, William H. and Wilson C. 
Weakley, who are farmers in Dickinson 
township; Rebecca C. Weakley, and the 
subject of the present sketch. 

James M. Weakley was reared on his 
father's farm, received a fair academic edu- 
cation, and in i860, began the study of law 
with William H. Miller, of Carlisle. He 
was admitted to the Cumberland County 
Bar in 1862, and has been in active practice 
ever since in the courts of this and other 
counties of the State. Mr. Weakley, on 
September 12, 1865, was married to Mary 
F. Sullivan, who died March i, 1880. He 
has had three children, Florence, who died 
in childhood; Mary F., a graduate of The 
Academy of the Visitation, Georgetown, 
D. C, and Francis J., a graduate of St. 
John's College, Fordham, New York city, 
and of the Dickinson School of Law, who 
is now practicing his profession in Jeffer- 
son county, Pennsylvania. 

For several years Mr. Weakley was inter- 
ested in journalism. He was for eight years 
editor and part owner of the Carlisle Her- 
ald, the Republican organ of Cumberland 
county, and for two years editor of the Car- 
lisle Leader. He is a member of the Second 
Presbyterian church, of Carlisle, and a past 
master of St. John's Lodge, Free and Ac- 
cepted Masons. He was several years presi- 
dent of the Cumberland Valley Mutual In- 
surance Company, and has held other po- 
sitions of trust and responsibility. 

His political career began in 1865, when 
he was elected a member of the Borough 
Council, in which he served until 1868. The 
year following he was appointed by Gover- 
nor Geary Assistant Secretary of the Com- 
monwealth, which important and respon- 
sible position he filled from 1869 to 1872. 
In 1871 he was elected State Senator from 
the district composed of Cumberland and 
Franklin counties and was a member of the 
Senate for three years serving on the com- 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

mittees on Corporations, Judiciary General 
and Constitutional Reform. Just prior to 
his election to the Senate he was chosen a 
member of the School Board of Carlisle,and 
was re-elected four times, being President 
of the Board the last ten years of his ser- 

In 1891 he was elected professor of 
Pleading in the Dickinson School of Law, 
and the following year was made Pro- 
fessor of Equity. He has filled these posi- 
tions ever since. Since his retirement from 
politics Mr. Weakley has engaged actively 
in the practice of the law and has main- 
tained a high position in his profession. He 
has had a varied, honorable and successful 

distinguished citizen of Carlisle, son 
of Wm. M. and Elizabeth (Parker) Hend- 
erson, was born March nth, 1827, in North 
Middleton township, Cumberland county, 
Pa. He was educated in the public schools 
of Carlisle; and at Dickinson College, grad- 
uating from the High School in 1838, and 
from Dickinson College in 1845; studied 
law with Hon. John Reed and was ad- 
mitted to practice Aug. 25, 1847. He was 
elected by the Whigs a member of the 
Pennsylvania Legislature in 1851; and re- 
elected in 1852. At the outbreak of the Re- 
bellion he was chosen, and duly commis- 
sioned April 21, 1861, Captain Co. A, 7th 
Penn'a Reserves, 36th Pa. Volunteers. This 
regiment was attached to 2nd Brigade, Mc- 
Call's Division, Army of Potomac, and 
served through the Peninsular campaign; 
and afterwards joined the army of Northern 
Virginia under Gen. Pope, and engaged in 
the battle of Bull Run (second). During 
this engagement Col. Henderson while 
making a charge was shot through the body 
with a minnie ball, and carried from the 

Judge Advocate, Court Martial, Decem- 
ber, 1861, June 1862. 

Lieut. Colonel July 4, 1862, upon the 
recommendation of Brig. General Seymour 
for "briUiant gallantry," &c. 

Inspector General, stafif of General Dou- 
bleday, commanding Penn'a Reserves — 
January to February, 1863. 

With Burnside's 2nd campaign January 
20-24, 1863. 

May I, 1863, appointed under an Act of 
Congress, Provost Marshal, 15th District 
of Pennsylvania (now 19th), and held this 
position until the close of the war. 

Brevetted Colonel U. S. Volunteers 
March 13, 1865 — "for gallant and meritor- 
ious conduct during the action at Charles 
City Crossroads, Virginia, when he was 
wounded, and for good conduct through- 
out the campaign." 

Brevetted Brig-General U. S. Vol., "for 
gallant and meritorious conduct at the Bat- 
tle of Bull Run (second), Virginia." 

General Henderson upon the close of his 
career as a soldier resumed the practice of 
law at Carlisle, and assumed in connection 
therewith the Presidency of the Carlisle De- 
posit Bank. In April, 1874, he was ap- 
pointed by Governor Hartranft additional 
law judge of the 12th Judicial District of 
Pennsylvania, composed of Dauphin and 
Lebanon counties, and was nominated and 
elected to the same office without opposi- 
tion in November of the same year. Janu- 
ary I, 1882, he became President Judge of 
the district, and in March, 1882 resigned 
from the bench, and returned to Carlisle 
and resumed the practice of his profession. 

In addition to the public positions in the 
army and State so acceptably filled by 
Judge Henderson, he is honored by many 
other positions of public and private trust. 
Among these may be mentioned: The Pres- 
idency of the Carlisle Deposit Bank, Chair- 
man Group 5, Pennsylvania Bankers' Asso- 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


ciation; President of the Board of Trustees 
of IMetzger College; Trustee Carlisle Indian 
Training School; a Director of the Penn- 
sylvania Scotch-Irish Societ}', &c., &c. He 
is also a member of the Military Order of 
the Loyal Legion of the United States, and 
of the Grand Army of the Republic. 

LL. D. This widely known edu- 
cator and scientist was born in Lancaster 
county, Pa., in 1838. The family, however, 
came from Adams county. His father, 
William D. Himes, and his grandfather. 
Colonel George Himes, were both well 
known. His ancestry was of the German 
imm-igration of about 1730. When only 
seventeen years of age he was graduated 
at Dickinson College as A. B. with high 
rank. Immediately after graduation he 
taught Mathematics and Natural Science 
in a seminary of the Wyoming Conference 
for a year, then went to Missouri, where he 
taught in the public schools and read law 
at the same time. During a visit to the 
East he was persuaded to restmie teaching 
and after being connected with Baltimore 
Female College for a year, he became pro- 
fessor of Mathematics in Troy University. 
In 1863 he went to Germany, and prose- 
cuted scientific studies at the University at 
Giessen. In the fall of 1865 he returned to 
America to assume the professorship of 
Natural Science in Dickinson College, 
which he had accepted upon the ur- 
gent request of the faculty and trustees of 
the college. He at once proposed and car- 
ried out successfully elective Laboratory 
Courses of study in the Junior and Senior 
years, according to the report of the Na- 
tional Commissioner of Education among 
the very first of the kind in the country, and 
by pen and addresses he advocated the New 
Education of that day. In 1885, at the 
opening of the Jacob Tome Scientific Build- 

ing, Dr. Himes selected the chair of Phy- 
sics. Fie had contributed much to the erec- 
tion of this building by his persistent advo- 
cacy of enlarged facilities for the expanded 
department, and he added complete Physi- 
cal Laboratory courses at once to the curri- 
culum of the college. At the commence- 
ment, in June 1S96, Professor pre- 
sented his resignation to the Trustees be- 
cause of the serious demand made upon his 
time by the purely routine work of a profes- 
sorship. Aside from his duties as a Profes- 
sor, he was for many years Treasurer of 
the corporation and was Secretary of the 
Board of Trustees up to the recent meeting. 
As senior professor in service, he was act- 
ing President of the college for months at 
a time. In each of these relations to the 
college, as well as professor, his term of 
service exceeded that of any other in the 
long history of the college. In accepting 
the resignation of Professor Himes, the 
Board of Trustees coupled, with expressions 
of regret, the conferment of the degree of 
LL. D., in recognition of his attainments 
and his great service to the college. The 
graduating class made a prominent feature 
of Class-day exercises the unveiling of a 
portrait of Dr. Himes, hung in Bosler Hall, 
presented by the class to the college, with 
remarks expressive of the high place held 
by him in the affections of his students. 
The consensus of opinion of the alumni of 
the thirty-one years of his professorship 
seems to be, that as a teacher he never con- 
fined his instruction to the text book, and 
that his methods were personal rather than 
mechanical, and effective in inspiring to 
thoughtful study rather than to sporadic 
cram, whilst his acknowledged success as a 
disciplinarian, without the use of a demerit 
mark throughout his long professorship, 
seemed to be due to the universal respect of 
his classes resulting from a dignified and 
friendly intercourse, Naturally a man of 




fine feeling and noble instincts, he has en- 
deared himself to every class, and he will be 
remembered with great respect by every 
one familiar with his work. Dr. Himes has 
seen much of life in the old world. He was 
a student there from 1863 to 1865, and in 
1872, 1883, and again in 1890 visited the old 
world, accompanied by his family. He was 
one of the earliest amateur photographers, 
and always abreast of the most advanced 
methods, and his camera has always been a 
valuable companion in these trips, furnish- 
ing valuable notes of science and travel, in- 
cluding the glaciers of the Zermatt region 
of Switzerland. Instruction in Photography, 
as an educational means, and as an aid in 
scientic investigation, has had a place in the 
Physical Laboratory of the college for years. 
Dr. Himes also organized and conducted 
successfully the first Summer School of 
Photography, in 1884 and 1885, at Mt. Lake 
Park, Md., which is still in successful opera- 
tion. Besides his regular work in the college 
he has delivered numerous lectures and ad- 
dresses of a scientific, educational and pop- 
ular character. Among those published, 
some fully illustrated, may be mentioned 
those on "Actinism or the Scientific Basis 
of Photography," delivered at the Interna- 
tional Electrical Exhibition in Philadelphia; 
on "The Stereoscope and its Applications;" 
on "Amateur Photography in its Educa- 
tional Relations," before the Franklin In- 
stitute, Philadelphia: on "The Scientific Ex- 
pert in Forensic Procedure," before the 
Franklin Institute and the Dickinson School 
of Law; "Science in the Common Schools," 
before the Pennsylvania State Teachers' As 
sociation; "Phenomenon of the Horizontal 
Moon and Convergency of the Optic Axis 
im Binocular Vision," before the New York 
Academy of Sciences; "Scientific Theories 
and Creeds," before the American Institute 
of Christian Philosophy; "Photography as 
an Educational Means," before the Con- 

gress at the Columbian Exposition 1893; 
"Address at the opening of The Jacob 
Tome Scientific Building." 

His contributions to scientific and educa- 
tional literature are numerous and valuable, 
among them "Preparation of Photographic 
Plates by Day-light," "Methods and Re- 
sults of Observations of Total Eclipse of the 
Sun," "Review of Professor Porter's Amer- 
ican Colleges and American Public," 
"Methods of Teaching Chemistry," "Photo- 
graphy Amongthe Glaciers," "Investigation 
of the Electric Spark by means of Stereo- 
scopic Photography," &c., &c. 

From 1872 to 1879 Dr. Himes was asso- 
ciated with Professor S. F. Baird in the 
preparation of the "Record of Science and 
Industry," and of the scientific columns of 
Harper's publications, and other period- 
icals. He has also published three editions 
of "Will's Tables for Chemical Analysis," 
translated and enlarged; "Leaf-Prints, a 
text-book of Photographic Printing;" "the 
Stereoscope, Its History, Theory, and Con- 
struction ;" "Report of the Section of the 
United States Government Expedition, Sta- 
tioned at Ottumwa, Iowa, to Observe and 
Photograph the Total Eclipse of the Sun, 
in 1869;" "History of Dickinson College, 
more particularly of the Scientific Depart- 
ment, and of Scientific Education in Amer- 
ica." Illustrated. 

Professor Himes is a Member and Fellow 
of the Association for the Advancement of 
Science; the American Philosophical So- 
ciety of Philadelphia; the New York Acad- 
emy of Sciences; the Philadelphia Photo- 
graphic Society; the Maryland Academy of 
Sciences; American Institute of Christian 
Philosophy; The Pennsylvania German So- 
ciety, &c. 

Professor Himes married Miss Mary E. 
Murray, a daughter of Rev. Joseph A. Mur- 
ray, D. D., a prominent Presbyterian min- 
ister of Carlisle, Pa. They have two chil- 
dren Mary M. and Anna M. 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


subject of this sketch, Judge W. F. 
Bay Stewart, was born in Chanceford town- 
ship, York county. Pa., on the 25th of Feb- 
ruary, 1849. His father was Thomas R. 
.Stewart, and his mother a Miss Bay, a 
daughter of Thomas Bay, of Cooptown, 
Harford county, Md., who for many years 
was Judge of the Orphan's Court of Har- 
ford county, and who commanded an Ar- 
tillery Company at the battle of North 
Point. He is full Scotch-Irish on both 
sides, his great grandfather on his father's 
side having been an Irishman, and 
his great-grandmother on the same side a 
Scotchwoman, married before they came to 
this country. On his" mother's side his 
grandfather was of Scotch descent, and his 
grandmother of Irish descent. 

He attended the public schools until sev- 
enteen years of age and then learned the 
blacksmith trade. Very shortly after fin- 
ishing his trade his health failed, and upon 
the advice of his physician he abandoned it 
and devoted himself to study. He attended 
school at the Pleasant Grove Academy in 
Lower Chanceford, and later at the historic 
old York County Academy in the city of 
York. He taught in the public schools two 
years, and afterwards in the York County 
Academy, the same in which Thaddeus 
Stevens once taught. After leaving this in- 
stitution Judge Stewart studied law with 
Col. Levi Maish. who was afterwards a 
member of Congress from the York-Adams 
and Cumberland district, and was admitted 
to the bar on November 3, 1873. -^ V^^r 
later he formed a partnership with John 
Blackford, then district attorney of the 
county, and a leading lawyer of the York 
bar, which continued until Mr. Blackford's 
death in 1884. On October i, 1884, he 
formed another law partnership with Henry 
C. Niles and George E. Neff, which contin- 

ued until the election of Mr. Stewart to the 
judgeship in 1895. 

In the meantime, from 1883 to April i, 
1894, Judge Stewart had been engaged in 
the foundry, machine and tanning business 
as a partner of the firm of Baugher, Kurtz 
& Stewart, composed of William H. Kurtz, 
a local capitalist, and himself. Mr. Kurtz 
had no practical knowledge of the business, 
and Mr. Stewart, at the time of entering 
upon it, still less, but he soon mastered its 
details, and it became one of the largest and 
most prosperous industries of the city, em- 
ploying over three hundred workmen. An- 
other industry with which he was connected 
was the York Card and Paper Company, 
manufacturers of wall paper. This he took 
hold of when torn by dissensions among its 
officers, became its president, and has made 
it the largest plant of its kind in the world. 

Judge Stewart early took a leading posi- 
tion at the bar, and easily maintained it. He 
and the members of his firm appeared on 
one side or the other of nearly every im- 
portant case, and with such uniform suc- 
cess that it became a subject of comment. 

In T895 he received, unsolicited, the 
unanimous nomination of his party for the 
judgeship, and, although declining to make 
any personal effort to secure his election, 
was elected by a large majority over his 
competitor, who was just completing a ten 
years' term on the bench. 

Judge Stewart received a good English, 
classical and scientific education, and has 
always been a close student, particularly in 
the realm of abstruse thought and specula- 
tive philosophy, and has received the hon- 
orary degree of A. M. from Ursinus Col- 
lege. He has always taken great interest 
in economics and financial questions, and 
at the time of his election was president of 
the Security Title and Trust Company, 
which he was largely instrumental in or- 
ganizing, and which is now one of the 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

leading financial institutions of the city. 

At the time of his election to the judge- 
ship, and many years before, he was largely 
interested in many corporations, in nearly 
all of which he was one of the chief pro- 
motors. All of these have been prosperous. 
The stock and only argument used against 
his election was that he was a corporation 
lawyer, but his corporations had been so 
generally successful that they secured him 
friends, rather than the contrary. 

Judge Stewart is married to a daughter 
of the late Edward Danner, who was one 
of York's most respected and wealthy citi- 
zens. His wife and one daughter consti- 
tute his family, with whom he lives in their 
handsome home on Market street in the 
city of York. 

Judge Stewart was raised a strict Pres- 
b3'terian, but is now a member and elder of 
Heidelberg Reformed Church. Although 
coming to York in 1871 without a dollar, 
he is a man of independent fortune, the 
fruits of his own industry and economy. He 
is a member of the Reform Club, of New 
York, and the American Academy of Po- 
litical and Social Science of Philadelphia. 

MOORE, of Camp Hill, Cumber- 
land county, Pennsylvania, is a descendant 
of Robert and Margaret Aloore, who emi- 
grated from Derry County, Ireland, early 
in the eighteenth century, or about 1720, to 
the State of Maryland, then under a pro- 
visional government. Robert was inter- 
marriet with Margaret Ramsey before emi- 
grating, and of their issue, James, married 
Jane Caughran and settled at a place now 
known as Bendersville, Adams county, 
Penna. In the struggle for Independence 
he joined the patriot cause and gave his life 
for his country in the battle of Brandy wine, 
September 11. 1777. John, grandfather of 
our subject, was born in 1764, was also a 

Revolutionary soldier near its close, and 
intermarried with Rebecca Curran, late of 
Mifflin, now Juniata county, Pennsylvania, 
and there settled in the vicinity of Van Wert 
postoffice. He died in 1856, ninety-two 
years old. James Moore, his oldest son, in- 
termarried with Harriet Barton, daughter 
of Kimber A. and Mary Barton, of Shirleys- 
burg, Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania. 
The latter was of English descent. Dr. 
James Moore was born December 14, 1789, 
in the territory now known as Juniata 
county, Pennsylvania, and was the father of 
our present subject. In 181 3 he began the 
practice of medicine in Shirleysburg, Hun- 
tingdon county, Pennsylvania, where he 
continued over thirty years at his profes- 
sion, having a large practice and acquir- 
ing the reputation of a very skilfull and suc- 
cessful physician. In 1841 he removed to 
Wells Valley, Fulton county, Pennsylvania, 
where he continued to practice his profes- 
sion until within eight years of his death, 
which occurred March 27, 1872. His wife 
died in September, 1864, while all of her 
sons were in the Union army. 

Joseph Addison Moore, the subject of our 
sketch, was born in Shirleysburg, Pennsyl- 
vania, August 26, 1833, and was one of 
eight sons who were all in the Union army 
at one time, he and his brother, James M., 
being both seriously wounded. Their rec- 
ord is not surpassed by that of any other 
family in this country, and is one of which 
they and their children may feel justly 
proud. This remarkable family was rep- 
sented in nearly all the great battles of the 
war. Immediately after the firing on Fort 
Sumpter, our subject enlisted in Company 
D., Fifth Pennsylvania Infantry for three 
months, and was made first sergeant. At 
the expiration of his term he was instru- 
mental in raising Company O, 28th Penn- 
sylvania Infantry, and August 17, 1861, 
was mustered in and took the field again as 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


first lieutenant under Colonel (afterward 
General and Governor) John W. Geary, 
under whom he served all through the war, 
at one time on his staff as division com- 
missary of subsistance for seven months. 
He participated, besides numerous smaller 
engagements, in the battles of Cedar Moun- 
tain, and second Bull Run, and at Antietam, 
&c. While first lieutenant in command of his 
company, two Rebel flags were captured 
by his company. Here his company had one 
third killed and wounded in action. Four 
color bearers belonging to the color guard, 
his being the center company, were shot 
while bearing the flag. His company was, 
after the Antietam battle, transferred, and 
became company B., 147th Pennsylvania 
Infantry, and in February, 1863, he was 
commissioned captain, commanding at 
Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg, in the 
East ; and Lookout Mountain, Chattanooga, 
Taylor's Ridge, Cassville, Rocky Face 
Ridge, Dug Gap, Resacca and New Hope 
church, Georgia, in the southwest. He was 
severely wounded at New Hope churcTi,and 
in consequence, was incapacitated for 
further active service, and was consequently 
transferred to the Barracks at Madison, Wis- 
consin, on light duty until the end of his 
term of service, October 28, 1864, when he 
was honorably discharged. He was later 
Brevetted Major for gallant and meritorious 
service. At the close of the war he resum- 
ed mercantile pursuits at Pittsburg, Penn- 
sylvania, but in November, 1867, was called 
by his old commander, then Governor of 
the State, to take charge of the White Hall 
Soldiers Orphan School at Camp Hill, 
Pennsylvania, which, under his manage- 
ment, became the leading school of that 
system in the State, reflecting great credit 
on his ability as manager and proprietor. 
He continued in charge of the school until 
September ist, 1886, when, having leased 
the same, he retired from the responsible 

position, which he had so long and faith- 
fully filled. In 1869 he was married to Miss 
Lizzie C, daughter of Jacob and Elizabeth 
Longsdorf Kline, of Mechanicsburg, Penn- 
sylvania. He has but one child living, Joy 
Leslie Moore, born January 6, 1877, who is 
now a Sophomore in the class of 1900 at 
Yale University. 

Major Moore enjoys the unbounded re- 
spect of every one who knows him, and in 
his large acquaintance throughout his na- 
tive State no man stands higher in char- 
acter or is more deservedly respected. He 
is a member of the Baptist church and a 
stanch Republican. He also holds mem- 
bership in a number of fraternal organiza- 
tions, being a member of Post 58, Grand 
Army of the Republic, riarrisburg. Pa., 
since 1868; a member of the Military Order 
of the Loyal Legion; a member of Robert 
Burns Lodge, Free and Accepted Masons, 
of Harrisburg; Samuel C. Perkin's Chapter, 
Royal Arch Masons, Mechanicsburg; Har- 
risburg Council, No. 7, Royal and Select 
Masters, and of Pilgrim Commandery, No. 
II, Knights Templar, of Harrisburg. He 
received the degree of Master of Arts from 
the Lewisburg (Bucknell) University. Of 
late years he has been successfully engaged 
in buying and selling real estate, and has 
taken a live interest in the progress and de- 
velopment of the beautiful borough of 
Camp Hill, in which he has resided for the 
past thirty years; having held various offices 
since its incorporation in 1885. He was one 
of the prime movers in the erection of the 
People's Iron Bridge across the Susque- 
hanna river at Harrisburg, and has been 
one of that com.pany's directors since its in- 
ception and completion. He has taken a 
lively interest in the progress of building 
the Flarrisburg and Mechanicsburg Electric 
road, which now indicates an early comple- 
tion through the lower end of Cum,berland 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

county, connecting with Mechanicsburg 
and Carlisle. 

DR. J. H. BITTINGER, a physician 
and surgeon, bank president and 
one of the leading citizens of Hanover, 
Pennsylvania, was born in Berwick town- 
ship, Adams county, a few miles from his 
present place of residence, Feb. 3, 1852, the 
son of Henry and Amanda Bittinger. The 
Bittingers are of German origin and their 
connection with this section of Pennsyl- 
vania is early and prominent. Adam Bit- 
tinger, the doctor's first paternal ancestor 
in this country, emigrated from Alsace, Ger- 
many, in 1736, and soon after settled in 
the rich agricultural section a few miles 
from the present town of Hanover. The 
land upon which he located has remained in 
possession of succeeding generations ever 

Nicholas Bittinger, the son of Adam Bit- 
tinger, and great-grandfather of the doctor, 
was an ardent patriot in the Revolutionary 
war, was one of the first members of the 
committee of safety from York cotmty and 
for three years commanded a company of 
soldiers in active service. In addition to 
this distinguished patriot and ancestor, 
other members of the family took part in 
the struggle for American independence. 

Dr. Bittinger's father, Henry Bittinger, 
was a prosperous farmer in Berwick town- 
ship, Adams covmty, while other members 
of the family, uncles of our subject, have 
been professionally identified with the Pres- 
byterian church and have won distinction 
as able pulpit orators and theologians.' 
Henry Bittinger married Amanda, a daugh- 
ter of Solomon and Barbara Allewelt by 
whom he had four children: Ruhamah E. 
John R., present member of State Legisla- 
ture, Joseph H. and Mary A. 

In politics he was a Republican and in 
religion a member of the Lutheran church. 

Dr. Bittinger secured his preliminary ed- 
ucation in the public schools and completed 
it with a course in Pennsylvania College at 
Gettysburg. He then taught school in Illi- 
nois and Pennsylvania for five years. 
For some time during his residence in 
Illinois he was associated with his uncles 
in the foreign and domestic fruit business 
in Chicago and was located in that 
city at the time of the memorable fire which 
nearly destroyed it in 1871. After that he 
returned to his native State and began the 
study of medicine with Dr. A. J. Snively, at 
that time a leading physician of Hanover. 
After reading for some time under this pre- 
ceptor he entered Jefferson Medical College 
of Philadelphia and pursued a course of 
study which terminated with his graduation 
in 1878. The class of that year has become 
one of the most distinguished ever gradu- 
ated from the institution, and a not incon- 
siderable part of the lustre which its 
achievements have reflected upon it has 
been contributed by Dr. Bittinger. The 
doctor began the active practice of medi- 
cine in Hanover and two years after his 
graduation returned to Philadelphia on ac- 
count of the superior advantages which the 
city could ofifer to an ambitious and ener- 
getic practitioner. He continued his prac- 
tice in that city until 1883, when he returned 
to Hanover, resumed his old practice and 
has since resided there. He is one of the 
most skillful physicians in the county and is 
one of the leaders of his profession in sur- 
gery. Since 1887, he has been physician 
and surgeon for the Pennsylvania railroad 
at Hanover and holds a similar position 
with the Western Maryland Company. Be- 
sides this he has been connected with the 
leading life insurance companies as their 
local surgeon and examiner. He is a mem- 
ber of the York County Medical Society 
and takes an active part in its deliberations. 
He was a member of the Ninth Internation- 




al Medical Congress which met in Wash- 
ington in 1891 and is one of the censors of 
the Medico-Chirurgical college of Philadel- 
phia. He is one of the Vice Presidents of 
the State Medical Society of Pennsylvania 
and has been a member of the American 
Medical Association since 1881. He has al- 
ways been an active citizen and greatly in- 
terested in local afifairs. In 1893 he was one 
of the organizers of the People's bank at 
Hanover, an institution which, though its 
existence has been recent, has had a very 
successful career. In 1887 he assisted in 
organizing the Hanover and Littlestown 
Turnpike Company and has been its treas- 
urer since 1889. He is a Republican in po- 
litics and for three years served as school 
director. He is also a director in the Penn 
Flouring Company, of Hanover, and Vice 
President of the Consumers Water Com- 
pany, which he and others organized in 
1896. Fraternally he is a member of these 
orders: of Patmos Lodge, No. 348, Free 
and Accepted Masons; Good Samaritan 
Chapter, No. 266, Royal Arch Masons; 
York Commandery, No. 21, Knights Temp- 
lar; Hanover Lodge, No. 327, Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows, and of Washington 
Council, No. 328, Patriotic Order Sons of 
America. With his extensive professional 
knowledge and his deep interest in public 
affairs. Dr. Bittinger combines a charming 
and intelligent personality that has made 
him many friends in and out of the profes- 
sion. He stands today in the sight of every 
fellow townsmen, a type of the progressive, 
intelligent, and popular citizen. 

In 1882 he married Clara E., a daughter 
of Michael and Eliza Bucher, and a lady of 
culture and rare accomplishments. Mrs. 
Bittinger is a member of one of the oldest 
and most prominent families of Hanover. 
Their union has resulted in the birth of six 
children, four of whom are dead: Lyda M., 

Bryant Henry, Bertha and Clara. Those 
living are Ralph Emerson and Mary A. 

nent lawyer and president of the Mer- 
chants' National Bank, of Carlisle, 
was born April 20, 1850, at Carlisle, Cum- 
berland county, Pennsylvania, and is a son 
of George and Sarah E. (Shade) Wetzel. 
The Wetzel and Shade families are of Ger- 
man descent and George Wetzel was born 
and reared in Carlisle, where he has re- 
sided ever since. He was born December 
25th, 1826, attended the schools of his boy- 
hood days and engaged in wagon manufac- 
turing which he followed until a few years 
ago. He has always taken an active part 
in political affairs, is a strong Democrat, 
and served as treasurer of Cumberland 
county in 1869 and 1870. He married 
Sarah E. Shade, a daughter of John Shade, 
and who died September 6th, 1891, aged 62 
years. To their union were born ten chil- 
dren: John W., Charles H., Catharine, who 
died in infancy; Sallie, married Niles M. 
Fissel and died in 1881 ; Rebecca, wife of 
Harry Newsham; Mary, wife of Frank 
Kimmel; Annie, wife of H. G. Rinehart; 
George B. McClellan, Ida, wife of William 
H. Goodyear, and William, who died in in- 

John Wise Wetzel was reared at Car- 
lisle, attended the common schools, pre- 
pared for college in Professor Sterrett's 
Academy and entered Dickinson College, 
from which he graduated in the class of 
1874. While attending college he read 
law with the late C. E. Maglaughhn, Esq., 
from 1872 to 1874, and was admitted to 
the bar of Cumberland county in April, 
1874, about two months before he was 
graduated from college. Upon admission 
to the bar he opened an office at Carlisle, 
where he has practiced his chosen profes- 
sion most successfully ever since. He is 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

a strong and influential Democrat, and has 
always taken an intelligent and active in- 
terest in political affairs. In 1876 he was 
elected to represent his county in the Dem- 
ocratic State Convention at Lancaster, six 
years later, in 1882, was made chairman 
of the Democratic county executive com- 
mittee, and in i8go again represented the 
county in the State Conventoin of his party, 
which was held that )'ear in Scranton. In 
1880 he was elected district attorney of 
Cumberland county and served in that ca- 
pacity from 1881 to 1883, succeeding Geo. 
S. Emig and preceding John T. Stuart in 
that office. Mr. Wetzel is interested in 
educational and business affairs, as well as 
political m.atters, yet never neglects his 
labors, by attention to other interests. He 
is one of the incorporators of the Dickin- 
son School of Law at Carlisle, and has 
been for ten years a member of the board 
of trustees of Franklin and Marshall Col- 
lege, at Lancaster city. He has been ac- 
tive for some years in the business afifairs 
of Carlisle, being a director of the Carlisle 
Electric Light and Gas companies, and of 
the Beetem Lumber and Manufacturing 
company, besides acting as president of the 
Cottage Club and director of the Big 
Spring Turnpike Company. 

On September 3rd, 1872, Mr. Wetzel 
married Lizzie Wolf, youngest daughter of 
John and Elizabeth Wolf. Mr. and Mrs. 
Wetzel have one child, a son, named George 
Frank, who is a graduate of Franklin and 
Marshall College. 

Mr. Wetzel's legal business is now 
largely in the line of corporation work, rep- 
resenting some of the largest corporations 
in the county. He is attorney for the 
Standard Oil Company, Philadelphia and 
Reading Railway Co., and the Philadel- 
phia, Harriburg and Pittsburg and the Get- 
tysburg and Harrisburg railway companies. 
He stands deservedly high in his profession 

and is now secretary of the committee on 
adm.issions of the State Bar Association of 
Pennsylvania. He is practically a self- 
made man, liberal and progressive in all 
things, and has been an active factor in the 
social and material development of his bor- 

He is a director and president of the 
Merchants National Bank, of Carlisle, be- 
coming associated with that financial insti- 
tution in 1890, and was made its chief ex- 
ecutive officer in 1893. He is a member 
of the Pennsylvania State Bankers Associ- 
ation, and together with Mrs. Wetzel is a 
member of the First Reformed chuich, in 
which he has been a deacon for over ten 
years. Fraternally, he is a member of 
Lodge No. 56, Knights of Pythias, and a 
member and past master of Cumberland 
Star Lodge No. 197, Free and Accepted ^ 
Masons of Carlisle. 

rector of St. John's Protestant Epis- 
copal church, of York, Pennsylvania, is a 
son of Charles L. and Marian (Davis) 
Wood, and was born in Cleveland, Ohio, 
July 4, 1854. He is descended from an old 
and distinguished line of English ancestors, 
and the American branch of the family has 
been resident in the United States for a 
number of generations. His great-grand- 
father was an officer in the Colonial army 
during the War for Independence and his 
grandfather was a merchant and manufac- 
turer in the State of Connecticut. Charles 
L. Wood, his father, was a native of Essex 
county. New York, a merchant and manu- 
facturer by occupation and closely wedded 
to his business interests. He was a Re- 
publican in politics, but held himself en- 
tirely aloof from partisan affi.liations. Relig- 
iously, he held membership in the Protest- 
ant Episcopal church, and fraternally, was 
connected with the Masonic Order. 



Charles James Wood was fitted for col- 
lege at the Cleveland High school and un- 
der the tuition of Rev. Frederick Brooks, 
brother of the late Bishop Phillips Brooks 
of Trinity church, Boston. He subsequent- 
ly entered Harvard University and was 
graduated in the class of 1875. Soon after 
graduation he entered the General Theo- 
logical Seminary, in New York city, where 
he remained three years. After ordination 
to the ministry of the Protestant Episcopal 
church he accepted a call from the Church 
of the Good Shepherd, in Cleveland, Ohio, 
where he remained until 1879, when he be- 
came rector of Trinity church, Michigan 
city, Indiana. Subsequently he filled pastor- 
ates in New Jersey, Philadelphia and Lock 
Haven, Pennsylvania, in which latter place 
he remained until 1894, when he accepted 
the rectorship of St. John's church, York, 
Pennsylvania, with which he has been 
identified down to the present time. 

Rev. Mr. Wood is a member of the Insti- 
tute of Christian Sociology, member of the 
American Oriental Society, member of Vic- 
toria Institute, of the Folk Lore Society, 
of the American Archaeological Society, of 
the Brotherhood of the Kingdom, the Sal- 
magundi club, of New York, of the 
Knights of the Golden Eagle, and of the 
Alasonic Fraternity, with which learned, 
social and fraternal organizations he has 
been conspicuously identified for a number 
of years. He is also honorary local secre- 
tary of the Egyptian Exploration Fund 
and performed services of a high order in 
connection with that society. Aside from 
his pastoral work Mr. Wood has variously 
indulged himself along literary lines in 
the fields of anthropology, crimino- 
logy, comparative religion and general 
criticism, in all of which he has 
written with learning, discrimination and 
authority. His well recognized at- 
tainments, his strong personality, moral 

force and literary versatility have made him 
a man of unusual force in the community 
in which he resides. During his connection 
with St. Paul's Protestant Episcopal church 
at Lock Haven he was made Archdeacon 
of the Diocese of Central Pennsylvania and 
has also served in other official positions in 
the higher assemblies of the church. 

LL. D., Professor of Systematic 
Theology and chairman of the faculty in 
the Theological Seminary of the General 
Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church 
at Gettysburg, Pa., was born at Uniontown, 
Carroll county, Maryland, January i, 1825. 
His parents were Jacob and Rebecca (Pick- 
ing) Valentine, the former a native of Mary- 
land and the latter of Pennsylvania. The 
family is descended from George Valen- 
tine, who emigrated from Germany in the 
early part of the i8th century and in 1740 
located on the Monocacy River in Freder- 
ick county, Maryland, where he was en- 
gaged in agricultural pursuits until his 
death, which occurred is 1783. The land on 
which he lived is still in possession of the 
Valentine family. This George Valentine, 
who was the great-grandfather of our sub- 
ject, was an earnest Christian and a de- 
vout member of the Lutheran church. 

Jacob Valentine, the father of our sub- 
ject, had a family of nine children, all of 
whom were reared on the farm in Mary- 

Dr. Valentine was next to the youngest. 
He was confirmed as a member of Trinity 
Lutheran church in Tanej'town, Md., in 
1843. He prepared for college in the aca- 
demy at Taneytown, and in 1846 entered 
the Freshman class in Pennsylvania Col- 
lege at Gettysburg, and in 1850 was gradu- 
ated from that institution. After a course 
of two years in the Theological Seminary, 
of which he is now the honored head, dur- 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

ing which time he tutored in the college, 
he graduated and was licensed to preach. 
At first he temporarily supplied the pulpit of 
the Lutheran church in Winchester, Vir- 
ginia, and during the winter of 1853-1854 
was engaged in missionary work in Alle- 
gheny city, Pennsylvania, and was pastor 
of the Lutheran church at Greensburg, 
Westmoreland county, this State, in 1854- 
55. Owing to a throat trouble he retired 
from the ministerial work in 1855, and from 
that time until 1859 was principal of Emaus 
Institute, Middletown, Pennsylvania. From 
1859 to 1866, having returned to active 
ministerial work again, he served as pastor 
of St. Matthew's church, in Reading, Penn- 
sylvania, and from 1866 to 1868 was profes- 
sor of Ecclesiastical History and Church Po- 
lity in the Theological Seminary at Gettys- 
burg. In 1868 he was called to the Presi- 
dency of Pennsylvania College and continu- 
ed in that position for sixteen years, during 
a portion of which time, from 1868 to 1873, 
he also gave instruction in the Seminary. In 
1884 he was elected to his present position 
in the Seminary. Dr. Valentine is a man 
of recognized ability and has contributed 
numerous sermons, essays and pamphlet 
discussions to the theological literature of 
his church. He is also the author of "Nat- 
ural Theology or Rational Theism" which 
was published in 1885 by S. C. Griggs & 
Company, of Chicago, and has since been 
introduced into many colleges as a text 
book, receiving from eminent educators 
throughout the country unqualified endorse- 
ment. He is also the author of a work on 
"Theoretical Ethics," recently published by 
Scott, Foresman & Co., of Chicago, which 
has been received with great favor and is 
being rapidly adopted as a manual of in- 
struction on that subject in colleges and 

In personal appearance Dr. Valentine is 
venerable, with the air of a scholar, and im- 

presses one as a possessor of unusual intel- 
ligence and moral force. He is dignified 
yet kindly in his manner, and no man pro- 
bably is wider known, or more highly es- 
teemed in the Lutheran church. 

December 18, 1855, he married Mar- 
garet G., daughter of Sterling and Mar- 
garet (Grayson) Gait, of Carroll county, 
Maryland, who is of Scotch-Irish descent. 
They have four children: Sterling Gait, 
A. M., Ph. D., engaged in the iron business, 
Lebanon; Rev. Milton Henry, pastor of 
Messiah Lutheran church, Philadelphia; 
Esther Amelia, married to Rev. E. Grim 
Miller, of Easton, Pa., and Margaret Gray- 
son, married to Mr. Henry W. Siegrist, of 
Lebanon, Pa. 

York, Pennsylvania, member of the 
Bar and one of the leading lawyers of 
Southern Pennsylvania, is a native of Ohio, 
born at Washingtonville, May 14th, 1850. 
His proxiinate ancestors were Pennsyl- 
vania Germans, whose lives and fortunes 
have been identified with the various in- 
terests of the Keystone State for a number 
of generations. 

The paternal grandfather of Mr. Wan- 
ner was born at "The Trappe," Montgom- 
erly county, Pennsylvania, was a farmer by 
occupation, and a man of influence in his 
community. Here also was born his son, 
Rev. Aaron Wanner, father of Nevin M. 
The former was a well known minister of 
the Reformed church, and passed a full 
half century in fruitful ministerial and ex- 
ecutive service in connection with that re- 
ligious body. After a course in Marshall 
College, and the Theological Seminary at 
Mercersburg he was licensed to preach by 
the Synod of Winchester, Virginia, in the 
year 1843, and subsequently filled a num- 
ber of pastorates in the States of Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio and Maryland. In recognition 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


of his well known attainments and vener- 
able years of service in the cause of the 
Christian ministry, he received from Ur- 
sinus College, Collegeville, Pennsylvania, 
in the year 1879, the degree of Doctor of 
Divinity. On September 23rd, 1844, the 
Rev. Mr. Wanner was joined in marriage 
with Rebecca Miller, a daughter of Solo- 
mon Miller, a Justice of the Peace of 
Franklin county, near Chambersburg,Penn- 
sylvania, which union resulted in an issue 
of ten children, six of whom grew to years 
of maturity. His decease occurred in York 
Pennsylvania, June 23rd, 1894, when in his 
seventy-sixth year. 

Nevin M. Wanner, after the usual pre- 
paration, entered Heidelberg College at Tif- 
fin, Ohio, in 1866, where he remained for a 
period of two years. Immediately follow- 
ing this he matriculated at Franklin and 
Marshall College, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 
from which latter institution he graduated 
with class honors in 1870. In the latter part 
of the same year he entered the law de- 
partment of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, and devoted the two succeeding 
years to the study of law and juris- 
prudence. Simultaneous with his uni- 
versity course, he was registered as a stu- 
dent in the office of General B. F. Fisher, 
of Philadelphia, Pa., and Erastus H. 
Weiser, Esq., of York, Pa., and was ad- 
mitted to the Bar of York county, August 
28th, 1872. Since this time he has been in 
continuous and active practice, and rapidly 
rose to a commanding position in his pro- 
fession. In the year 1876 he was admitted 
to practice in the supreme court of the 

Mr. Wanner has met with signal success 
both as a lawyer and an advocate. He is 
distinctively a case winner, in both the 
lower and the Supreme Courts. In point of 
legal erudition, adroitness and forensic 
ability, he easily ranks with the limited few 

at the head of his profession. One of the 
important contributory forces which has 
been potent in giving him the place he so 
well deserved, is his strict fidelity or, pro- 
bably better, consecration to his chosen vo- 
cation. He has steadily and persistently re- 
fused all such business, political, and other 
alliances as would have a tendency to di- 
vert his energies and ambition from the 
law, and the result has been highly gratify- 
ing both to himself and his profession. 
Mental alertness, quick perception, ample 
knowledge of human nature, a thorough 
acquaintance with legal procedure in all its 
forms, and a fearless fidelity to the cause 
of his clients, — all these combine to give 
Mr. Wanner unusual prestige and force as 
a lawyer. 

In politics Air. Wanner has always been 
an adherent of the Democratic party but 
his engrossing legal work has latterly taken 
him out of practical politics. 

He held the ofifice of District Attorney 
of York county from January i, 1887, to 
January i, 1890. He has been urged by 
many of his friends as being peculiarly 
fitted for judicial honors, but up to the 
present, has declined them, preferring to re- 
main in the professional ranks. Religiously 
he was originally a member of the German 
Reformed church, but in later years has 
been an attendant at St. John's Episcopal 
church of York, Pennsylvania. 

On November ist, 1882, Mr. Wanner 
was united in marriage with Amelia D. 
Croll, a daughter of John R. Croll, de- 
ceased, of York, Pa., and a descendant of 
one of the oldest families of local promi- 
nence in the county since the days of the 
Revolution, in which some of her ancestors 
figured prominently. 

VINCENT G. STUBBS, President of 
the First National Bank, of Delta, 
York county, Pennsylvania, and one of the 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

best and most favorably known business 
men in his community, is a son of Isaac 
and Elizabeth (Haines) Stubbs. He was 
born in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, 
near the Susquehanna river, February 28, 
1826. He is a descendant of an old and 
distinguished colonial family that origin- 
ally settled in Eastern Pennsylvania. His 
grandfather was also named Vincent 
Stubbs, and was a son of Thomas 
Stubbs, one of the original ancestors who 
came from England and settled in Chester 
county, Pennsylvania, near Chad's Ford. 
The latter was a farmer by occupation and 
espoused the religious faith of the Quakers 
or Friends. Grandfather Stubbs was born 
upon the old homestead in Chester county, 
but most of 'his life was spent in Little 
Britton, Lancaster county, where he died in 
the year 1820 at an advanced age. He too 
was a farmer, but combined with his agri- 
cultural pursuits the conduct of a grist mill. 
He was a Whig in politics, and in matters 
of religion adopted the traditional faith of 
his ancestors. His marriage with Priscilla 
Cooper resulted in a family of the following 
named children: John, Daniel, Vincent, 
Isaac, Thomas, Hannah, Sarah and Ruth, 
all deceased. Isaac Stubbs, father of Vin- 
cent G., was a native of Little Britton 
township, Lancaster county, but died in 
Peach Bottom township, York county, in 
1875, having located in the latter section 
in 1842. He spent the major portion of his 
life in agricultural pursuits, and at the time 
of his death had lands equal to or exceeding 
360 acres. Besides his duties as a farmer, 
the elder Stubbs took quite an active inter- 
est in local public affairs. He served for a 
number of terms as supervisor, school dir- 
ector, and other positions of public trust. 
His wife was a daughter of Reuben Haines, 
a native of Cecil county, Maryland, by 
whom he had the following children: Vin- 
cent G., subject; Albert, a farmer of Peach 

Bottom township; Joseph H., a practicing 
physician, located at London Grove, Ches- 
ter county, Pennsylvania; Daniel, a farmer 
residing in Peach Bottom township; Tho- 
mas, also a resident of Peach Botton town- 
ship; Henry J., physician, located at Wil- 
mington, Delaware; Mary, deceased; Sarah 
wife of Jacob Swayne, of Cecil county, 
Maryland; and Reuben, deceased. 

Vincent G. Stubbs was joined in marriage 
with Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Pier- 
son, of Chester county, Pennsylvania, on 
April 28, 1853. This marriage resulted in 
the birth of the following named children: 
Edward P., a resident of Minnesota; Isaac 
H., merchant; J. Howard, lumber and coal 
merchant of Delta; William F., a farmer re- 
siding in Harford county, Maryland; 
Hannah M., intermarried with Calvin Gal- 
braith, of Harford county, Maryland; 
Charles H., deceased; V. Gilpen, furniture 
dealer, of Delta. 

Vincent G. Stubbs was 16 years of age 
when his parents removed from Chester 
county to Peach Bottom township. During 
his boyhood he was brought up on a farm 
and received the customary education of 
those days. In 1850 he engaged in mer- 
chandising in the village of Delta, and con- 
tinued in that business over a period of 46 
years. Besides the mercantile business he 
engaged in slate producing as a side issue, 
and occasionally in other enterprises of an 
investment nature. His long and creditable 
business career makes him one of the best 
known and most highly respected citizens 
in the Southeastern section of York county. 
He was one of the organizers of the First 
National Bank of Delta, a carefully con- 
ducted financial institution, and in 1893, was 
made its President. In politics he is a Re- 
publican, and was the first burgess as well 
as the first postmaster of the borough of 
Delta. Mr. Stubbs has been pioneer in 
point of disaster, as well as success, for a 

c/ a a/dL 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


side from being the pioneer merchant, he 
was also the first to suffer loss through fire. 
The destruction of his residence by fire took 
place in 1854, but he soon rebuilt a brick 
house, and thenceforth his business result- 
ed in continued prosperity. In addition to 
the business relations already noted he was 
first President of the Delta Building and 
Loan Association, and also connected with 
a number of other and lesser concerns. 

Mr. Stubbs is a man of undoubted pro- 
bity, careful business habits and keen fore- 
sight. He is progressive in all that relates 
to the public welfare of his county, and is a 
loyal supporter of all measures and methods 
for the intellectual and moral advancement 
of his community. 

IC. GABLE, M. D., one of the leading 
• and successful physicians of York, 
who stands deservedly high in citizenship, 
as well as professional life, is the son of 
Valentine and Mary (Miller) Gable, and was 
born June 26, 1849, in Windsor township. 

His father was for many years a teacher 
in the public schools of York county, and 
engaged in agricultural pursuits. Dr. 
Gable comes of a long lineage of Swiss- 
German ancestry in America antedating 
Revolutionary times. His grandfather 
served under General Anthony Wayne. 

He received his preliminary education in 
the public schools of his native township, 
supplementing this with a literary course 
at the Pennsylvania State Normal school 
at Millersville. 

In 1867 he began his active and inde- 
pendent career as a teacher in the public 
schools and devoted himself to this voca- 
tion until 1874, during which time he taught 
in Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana. He 
began the study of medicine under the pre- 
ceptorship of Dr. James W. Kerr and after 
a preliminary course of reading, entered 
the Medical Department of the University 

of Pennsylvania, in 1875, from which he 
was graduated with honors, March 12, 
1877. While attending the University he 
pursued a special course of reading under 
the preceptorship of Dr. Charles T. Hunter, 
who held the chair of clinical surgery and 
subsequent to graduation took a post grad- 
uate course in his alma mater, devoting 
most of his time to the special study of 
general surgery, in that institution and in 
the Pennsylvania Hospital. In 1878 he 
opened an office in York where he has been 
a practitioner since that time. 

December 15, 1888, Dr. Gable was united 
in marriage with Miss Eva A. Fon Der- 
smith, of Lancaster, by whom he has one 
son, Raymond F. Dr. and Mrs. Gable are 
attendants and communicants of the First 
Presbyterian church of York, in whose acti- 
vities and welfare they are always interested. 

Soon after beginning his professional ca- 
reer. Dr. Gable rapidly advanced to a com- 
manding position in his profession. He is a 
thorough student of medical literature, a 
man of practical skill, ample mental en- 
dowment, and withal, of the highest char- 
acter. He is a member and ex-president 
of the York County Medical Society, has 
been vice president and censor of the Penn- 
sylvania State Medical Society, and for the 
last seven years has served as a member of 
the State Medical Legislative Committee 
and is now serving as its chairman. During 
the period of his service on this committee 
the present statutory enactment, known as 
the .State Medical Act of Pennsylvania was 

In 1894, at the meeting of the State Medi- 
cal Society, in Philadelphia, he was ap- 
pointed to deliver the annual address on 
"Medicine," in Chambersburg, the follow- 
ing year. Dr. Gable has contributed other 
valuable articles to the Society which have 
been widely circulated in the published pro- 
ceedings of that body. 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

At present he is also president of the 
Board of Trustees and Judicial Council of 
the State Medical Society and has been 
prominent in National as well as State 
Medical Councils. In 1880, at a meeting 
held in New York city he became a mem- 
ber of the American Medical Association 
and was made the chairman of the Pennsyl- 
vania delegation at the meeting of that or- 
ganization inMilwaukee, Wisconsin, ini89i. 

He is a member of the Pan-American 
Medical Congress and was a member of 
the Auxiliary Committee appointed for the 
organization of that body. He is one of 
the censors of the Medico-Chirurgical col- 
lege of Philadelphia, and is medical in- 
spector to the State Board of Health for 
York county. Aside from these more 
strictly official relations, he is medical ex- 
aminer for many leading life insurance 
companies represented in this city and has a 
professional practice in the various depart- 
ments of medicine and surgery enjoyed by 
but few in this district. 

J ERE CARL, president of the York 
Water company and a prominent cap- 
italist, of York, has been variously 
identified with the latter city for over a 
quarter of a century and has done much for 
its material development and prosperity. 
He is the only living child of Martin and 
Mary (Deardorfif) Carl, and was born in 
Franklin township, York county, Pennsyl- 
vania. July 21, 1829. His father, Martin 
Carl, was reared and educated in his native 
county, where also for a number of years he 
was engaged in mercantile and other pur- 
suits. He was a Democratic in politics and 
usually took an active part in the manage- 
ment of local affairs, holding at different 
times nearly all the offices of Franklin 
township. He served one term as Director 
of the Poor for York county. He was born 
October 17th, 1782, and died June 29th, 

1855, his remains being interred in Pros- 
pect Hill cemetery. Eleven children result- 
ed from this union: Henry, Martin D., 
Lewis, Jere, Sarah, wife of Christian Ben- 
der, of York, Mary A., married to Peter 
Wolford, Lydia, wife of Joshua Green, Eli- 
zabeth, and Andrew, and two who died in 
infancy. All these children are deceased 
with the exception of our subject. 

Jere Carl was reared to habits of econ- 
omy and thrift, was educated in the com- 
mon schools and at an early age became 
an apprentice in the office of the York 
Democratic Press, where he learned the 
trade of printing, which, however, he never 
followed. At the close of his apprentice- 
ship, he was made a clerk in the store of 
his brother, Lewis, at York, and remained 
with him for seven years. On January i, 
1853, he secured a clerkship in the old 
York bank, which he held up to January i, 
1867. In the latter year he formed a part- 
nership with Charles Weiser and Charles S. 
Weiser, under the firm name of Weiser, Son 
& Carl, bankers. This firm continued 
to do a private banking business until Jan- 
uary I, 1889, when their bank was consoli- 
dated with the York County National 
Bank, with which institution he has since 
remained as an officer and director. Mr. 
Carl also turned his attention to other busi- 
ness concerns and projects, some of which 
he has controlled ever since. He has been a 
leading spirit in the advocacy of good 
roads, and to his efforts largely is due the 
present meritorious condition of a number 
of the best roads in York county. He is 
president of the York and Gettysburg turn- 
pike company, treasurer of the York and 
Chanceford turnpike company, and has 
been for some years secretary of the 
Wrightsville turnpike company. He is also 
president of the York Water Company, 
which has now in process of erection a new 
system of water works on the most im- 

<3^^>^ .-;::^ir.>^ 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


proved modern plan, which when finished, 
will be second to none of their kind in the 
State in point of utility, effectiveness and 
completeness. The York Water Company 
has a capital stock of half a million dollars 
and is accounted one of the most substan- 
tial concerns in the city of York. The new 
water works will have a capacity of 40,000,- 
000 gallons, and have been planned not on- 
ly to satisfy present needs, but to meet fu- 
ture contingencies and increase of popula- 

On January loth, 1861, Mr. Carl was uni- 
ted in marriage with Adaline Weiser, a 
daughter of Charles Weiser, of York. To 
their union were born 3 children, two sons 
and a daughter: One son died in infancy; 
Charles, who died on February 2,^, 1882; 
and Bella married on November 5, 1896, 
to William A. Keyworth, cashier of the 
First National Bank, of York. Mrs. Carl 
died on February 23rd, 1897. 

Mr. Carl has been uniformly active in re- 
ligious matters and in various philanthropic 
and charitable movements. He is a mem- 
ber of St. Paul's Lutheran church, has been 
the lay representative to the General Synod 
to that church on several occasions, is a 
member of the Board of Church Extension 
and is also a member of the church council. 
He is also a member of the various Ma- 
sonic bodies, and in earlier years was one 
of the chief spirits in the organization of 
the various branches. 

In politics he is a Democrat, was elected 
Chief Burgess of the Borough of York in 
1875, 1876 and 1878, but has carefully 
eschewed partisan politics as an office 
seeker or promoter. 

Mr. Carl is held in the highest esteem 
as a business man of integrity and public 
spirit. He is always approachable, kind and 
gentle in his manner and devoid of ostenta- 
tion. Few men have so quietly and steadily 
won success in business life, and yet main- 

tained with Mr. Carl's equanimity the at- 
tributes of good citizenship and the graces 
of Christian character. 

ior member of the law firm of Coch- 
ran & Williams, of York, is a son of Hon. 
Thomas E. and Anna (Barnitz) Cochran, 
and was born in the city of York, York 
county. Pa., January 6, 1857. 

Hon. Thomas E. Cochran, who was not 
only active but distinguished in profes- 
sional and political Hfe, was a native of the 
State of Delaware and was the oldest son of 
Dr. Richard E. Cochran. In 1824 his 
father and family removed to Columbia, 
Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, where he 
was reared and educated. In 1834, at the 
solicitation of Thomas C. Hambly he came 
to York to edit and publish the Republican, 
of which he had charge until 1833. Simul- 
taneous with his connection with the Re- 
publican he contributed valuable editorials 
to the leading newspapers of the State and 
country. During his editorial life he be- 
came a student-at-law with the late Hon. 
Charles A. Barnitz, and was admitted to the 
York County Bar on December 6, 1842. 
Two years prior to this, however, he was 
elected to the State Senate from the 20th 
Senatorial District, then composed of the 
counties of York and Lancaster, and con- 
tinued to represent that district until the 
year 1844. A writer of that day referring 
to Mr. Cochran's career says: "Mr. Coch- 
ran is inferior in point of native talents to 
no man in the Senate. This is admitted by 
his contemporaries, who are competent 
judges in these matters, for they speak of 
that which they themselves do feel." In 
1856 Mr. Cochran was the Anti-Buchanan 
candidate for canal commissioner and in 
1859 was elected auditor general of the 
State and served until 1862, a period bur- 
dened with grave responsibility and peculiar 



difficulties. With the expiration of his term 
as auditor-general he partly withdrew from 
political affairs and gave his time largely to 
the practice of law. For nearly forty years 
he was an active practitioner in the courts 
of York and adjoining counties, and distin- 
guished himself in various parts of the 
State as well. At the time of his death he 
was next to the oldest member of the York 
County Bar, Hon. Robert J. Fisher being 
his senior. In i860 he associated with him 
in the practice of law, William Hay, Esq., 
who continued to be his partner until the 
time of his death. In 1860-64 and 1868 Mr. 
Cochran was a delegate to the Republican 
National Convention and in 1872 became a 
member of the State Constitutional Conven- 
tion, in which latter body he was chairman 
of the committee on "railroads and canals" 
and a member of the committee "on ac- 
counts and expenditures" and "on print- 
ing and binding." In addition to these pub- 
lic positions of honor he performed the dut- 
ies of many offices of trust and exhibited an 
unusual public spirit. He possessed great 
industry, energy and firmness of character 
and was not easily driven from the course 
he believed to be right, nor forced from it 
when once convinced that it was the path 
duty pointed out. He was a man of good 
judgment, ample intellectual endowment, 
wise in state-craft, possessed a spirit of 
Christian philanthropy and was an orna- 
ment to his profession. Born March 23, 
1813, his eventful and useful life drew to a 
close on May i6th, 1882, and his remains 
are entombed in Prospect Hill cemetery. 

On April 14, 1853, Mr. Cochran married 
Anna M. Barnitz, a daughter of General 
Jacob Barnitz, of York county, by whom 
he had one son, Richard E., the subject of 
this sketch, and three daughters. Mr. and 
Mrs. Cochran were members of St. John's 
Episcopal church with which he was offi- 
cially connected for many years. 

Richard E. Cochran was brought up in 
the City of York and received his education 
in the York County Academy and the York 
Collegiate Institute. Subsequently he de- 
termined upon law as his life vocation, read 
with his father and was admitted to the 
York County Bar on September isth, 1879. 
He pursued the independent practice of his 
profession for a period of three years, when 
he formed his present co-partnership with 
Smyser Williams, Esq., under the firm 
name of Cochran & Williams. This firm is 
known as one of the leading law firms of 
York county and maintains a deservedly 
high standing in the various courts with 
which it sustains professional relations. Mr. 
Cochran is an active and influential Repub- 
lican in politics and has been twice hon- 
ored with a nomination to public office by 
his party. In 1880 and again in 1886 he 
was made the candidate for District Attor- 
ney, but the county being strongly Demo- 
cratic, he suffered defeat in both instances. 
In 1891 he was nominated and elected a 
member of the proposed State Constitu- 
tional Convention, but the convention never 
having been held, the project was defeated. 

Mr. Cochran married on November 3, 
1886, Mary E. Dickey, a daughter of Hon. 
O. J. Dickey, of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. 
Mrs. Cochran died August 30, 1887. 

Fraternally Richard E. Cochran is one 
of the prom.inent Masons of his city and 
county, being Past Master of York Lodge, 
No. 266, Free and Accepted Masons, a 
mem.ber of Howell Chapter, No. 199, Royal 
Arch Masons, and the present Captain Gen- 
eral of York Commandery, No. 21, Knights 

• member of the legal firm of Ross & 
Brenneman, and one of the leading mem- 
bers of the York Count)' Bar, is a son of 
Rev. Joseph Alexander and Mary Jamison 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


(Harvey) Ross, and was born in Northum- 
berland, Northumberland county, Pennsyl- 
vania, May 3, 1858. The paternal great- 
grandfather of our subject came from Scot- 
land to the United States some time prior 
to the Revolutionary war and his son, 
James H. Ross, served as an officer in that 
conflict. After the close of the war for In- 
dependence, in which he rendered noble 
and patriotic service, the latter settled down 
as a civilian in Miffiin county, Pennsyl- 
vania, where by thrift and industry during 
the succeeding years of peace he accumu- 
lated quite a competency. It is supposed 
that the wife of the original ancestor was 
also a native of Scotland and accompanied 
him to the new world. On the maternal side 
Mr. Ross' progenitors were among the old- 
est and most conspicuous settlers of Luzerne 
county. The Harveys are of English stock, 
the grandfather of N. Sargent Ross, being 
one Benjamin Harvey, of Harveyville, Lu- 
zerne county, the founder of that place and 
by occupation a farmer, merchant and mill 
owner of prominence. Subsequent descend- 
ants of this family occupied commanding 
positions in the professional and business 
life of Luzerne county, and have been iden- 
tified with many of its industrial enterprises 
and material development. The Rosses 
were Scotch Presbyterians in religious be- 
lief while the Harveys were adherents of the 
Methodist Episcopal church. 

One of the sons of James H. Ross was 
Rev. Joseph Alexander Ross, father of N. 
Sargent. The former was born on July 4, 
1816, in McVeytown, Mifflin county, Penn- 
sylvania, where he grew to manhood and 
obtained his elementary education. He sub- 
sequently studied theology and entered the 
ministry of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
with which he labored faitnfully for many 
years. Shortly after his installation he was 
assigned to several churches successively in 
Pennsylvania and Maryland,and in i86oand 


1861 became pastor of the Beaver Street 
Methodist church, of York. A short time 
subsequent he removed to Carlisle, Cumber- 
land county, was appointed chaplain in the 
United States army and remained in the 
federal service during the Civil war. After 
his retirement from the United States army 
in 1866, he again entered the itinerancy, 
filling various appointments in the Cen- 
tial Pennsylvania conference of the M. E. 
church. He continued active in the work 
of the ministry until about two years prior 
to his death, which occurred on his farm 
near East Waterford, Juniata county, Penn- 
sylvania, February 14, 1888, after fifty years 
of untiring service in the cause of Christian- 
ity. He was followed to his grave by a 
large concourse of people, and his funeral 
cortege was one of the most notable in the 
history of Juniata county. He was united in 
marriage with Mary Jamison, a daughter 
of Benjamin and Sarah (Nesbit) Harvey, of 
Luzerne county, which union was blessed 
with six children: Elizabeth, deceased wife 
of Dr. I. T. Andrews, of Lewistown, this 
State, who at her death left surviving a son 
and two daughters; William H., a resident 
of Petersburg, Huntingdon county; Jose- 
phine Alexina, wife of Joseph Erwin, a resi- 
dent of Concord, Franklin county; Sarah, 
wife of Dr. William Shull, of Hummels- 
town, Dauphin county; N. Sargent, sub- 
ject, and Frank S., engaged in clerical work 
in the city of Philadelphia. 

N. Sargent Ross, although born in North- 
umberland county, was brought up at dif- 
ferent points in Pennsylvania to which his 
father had been assigned as a minister of 
the Methodist Episcopal church. He re- 
ceived a college education and subsequently 
read law in the office of Judge Jeremiah 
Lyons, of Miffiintown,Pa.,and was admitted 
to the Bar of Juniata county in 1882, and 
later, on October 4, was admitted to prac- 
tice in the courts c^ York county. He had 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

orginally begun the practice of his profes- 
sion at Mifflintown, Juniata county, which 
latter place he left in March, 1883, to be- 
come a resident of York. Subsequent to his 
removal to York, he went into the office of 
Edward W. Spangler, Esq., with whom he 
practiced successfully up to the year 1896, 
when his present alliance with H. C. Bren- 
neman, Esq., was formed under the firm 
name of Ross and Brenneman. 

On April I2th, 1890, Mr. Ross united in 
marriage with Sue W. Sanks, a daughter of 
Rev. James Sanks, of York. To this union 
one child has been born, Ruth C, who died 
on July 1 2th, 1892. 

In the political field Mr. Ross has, since 
his residence in York county, been recog- 
nized as a leader and counsellor of the Re- 
publican party of ability. In 1885 he was 
elected a delegate to the Republican State 
convention, and in 1892 he was made the 
nominee of his party for its representative 
in Congress from the Nineteenth Congres- 
sional District. The traditional Democratic 
majority was large and immobile and con- 
sequently he was defeated by the Hon. F. E. 
Beltzhoover, late Democratic representative 
from Carlisle, Cumberland county. While 
closely wedded to his professional career, 
still Mr. Ross has found time and pleasure 
in a number of business enterprises and pro- 
jects. He is a stock-holder and director of 
the City Bank of York, has various minor 
business interests and has always manifested 
a commendable degree of activity in the 
public welfare, material progress and moral 
improvement of his adopted city. For a 
nuniber of years he has been prominent in 
secret and fraternal organizations, and is a 
member of the following named orders: 
Harmonia Lodge, Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows; Crystal Lodge, Knights of 
Pythias; York Lodge, Benevolent and Pro- 
tective Order of Elks, of which he is a 
charter member. He is also a prominent 

Mason, being past master of York Lodge, 
No. 266, Free and Accepted Masons; Past 
High Priest of Howell Chapter, No. 199, 
Royal Arch Masons; Eminent Commander 
of Gethsemane Commandery, No. 75, 
Knights Templar, and a member of Lulu 
Temple, Ancient Order of the Mystic 
Shrine, Philadelphia. 

the second president of Metzger 
College, Carlisle, Pa., is of Scotch descent 
and was born in Lowell, Mass., September 
9, 1857. His father, a native of Scotland 
was the Rev. John Wilson Dick, a Baptist 
clergyman, well known in New England. 
His mother, Mrs. Eveline M. Dick, still 
living in Boston, Mass., was Miss Eveline 
Maranda Spoor, a native of Vermont. Presi- 
dent Dick thus combines the qualities of the 
Scotch with the sturdy New England char- 

After receiving his elementary education 
in the schools of his native city he was pre- 
pared for college in the famous Woodstock 
Academy, Woodstock, Conn., and entered 
Brown University, Providence, R. I., in 
1875, then presided over by the distinguish- 
ed educator, the late Rev. E. G. Robinson, 
D. D., LL. D. Mr. Dick took the four 
years' classical course and was graduated 
in 1879, with the degree of A. B. While 
making a special study of languages, he 
was an all-round student and during his 
Junior year received the Howell Premium 
of sixty dollars awarded, annually, to the 
student having the "highest rank in mathe- 
matics and natural philosophy for the pre- 
vious two years and a half." 

He received the first honor of his class in 
the appointments for Commencement, con- 
cluding his graduating oration, "Discon- 
tent an Incentive to Inquiry," with the vale- 
dictory addresses, formerly given on such 
occasions. He received several of the high- 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


est college honors, and holds high testi- 
monials from the faculty of Brown. He is a 
member of tjie Phi Beta Kappa society, 
having been received at the end of his jun- 
ior year. At the Junior oratorical exhibi- 
tion of his class in 1878, he delivered an 
original Latin oration upon the theme, "Ni- 
hil mente praestabilius." 

Early in his college course, Mr. Dick de- 
cided to be a teacher, and during the first 
year after graduation he was principal of 
the public schools of Wickford, R. I. The 
Principalship of the High School, Wake- 
field, R. I., was then tendered to him and 
was accepted. His teaching here was in the 
department of languages. From time to 
time he instructed classes in Higher Eng- 
lish, Latin, Greek, French and German. Mr. 
Dick introduced music and physical train- 
ing into the High School and lectured once 
a week to the entire school on subjects of 
general importance, especially, on "Civil 
Government." While here, in 1882, he re- 
ceived the degree of M. A., in course, from 
his Alma Mater. During his stay in Wake- 
field, he was active in church and Sabbath 
school work, having been Superintendent 
of the Sabbath school the two years prior 
to his leaving Wakefield. 

After four years' service as Principal of 
the High School, Mr. Dick accepted a State 
Normal School Professorship in the South- 
western State Normal School, located at 
California, Pennsylvania. His chair here 
was English, exclusively, and he was a most 
popular instructor. In 1885, Prof. Dick ac- 
cepted the position of Professor of Natural 
Sciences and Modern Languages in the 
Central State Normal School, Lock Haven, 
Pa. He was soon elevated to the vice prin- 
cipalship and taught Latin, History and 
Pedagogics. While here he was in constant 
demand as instructor at County Institutes. 

In 1891 he was called to the Chair of 
Languages in the State Normal School, 

West Chester, Pa. Various considerations 
induced him to accept this position, after 
much deliberation. On the occasion of his 
resignation in 1895, a leading daily of West 
Chester paid him the following tribute: 
"Professor Wallace Peter Dick, who for the 
past four years has ably filled the Chair of 
Classical and Modern Languages at the 
State Normal School, has resigned to ac- 
cept the Presidency of Metzger College to 
which he was recently elected. Professor 
Dick came here in 1891 from Lock Haven 
a^id his record in West Chester is one to be 
envied, as he has raised the standard of 
Latin in the Normal School, teaching sev- 
eral times the amount required by law." 

In July, 1895, President Dick entered 
upon his new duties at the head of Metzger 
College for young ladies at Carlisle, Pa. The 
institution was sufifering somewhat from the 
depression of the times, but, by making 
numerous improvements, by selecting a 
strong Faculty, by issuing a beautifully il- 
lustrated catalogue setting forth the new 
and enlarged courses of study and by vari- 
ous other means. Prof. Dick has succeeded 
in bringing the merits of the college to the 
favorable attention of a still wider number 
of those who have daughters to educate, or 
who are interested in the higher education 
of girls. 

President Dick is a popular and efficient 
lecturer at County Institutes, as his work 
in the various counties of the State during 
the last twelve years will attest. His subjects 
are drawn mainly from language, science 
and pedagogy. He has never ceased to be 
a student. In 1889 he took a year's course, 
by correspondence, in the school of Peda- 
gogy of the University of the City of 
New York, and in private study, has cov- 
ered a large part of the work required in 
Latin and Pedagogy at the best universities 
for the degree of Ph. D. 

Prof. Dick is much interested in music as 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

a diversion. He plays the piano and organ 
and is an excellent baritone singer. He has 
filled the position of church organist and 
also that of precentor. He has written sev- 
eral pieces for the piano and several songs. 
Very few of these have yet been published. 
Of two of his best songs, "Little Sunbeam" 
and "Lighl of My Life" he composed 
both words and music. 

Prof. Dick has been too much engrossed 
with the work of teaching to write much of 
a literary character for publication. He 
published some years ago a little pamphlet, 
"Topical Outlines in Natural Philosophy." 
He has also projected a Latin book for be- 
ginners embodying the results of his study 
and experience and a work on Pedagogy. 
He is a poet of natural ability and has fur- 
nished numerous poems for special occa- 

Prof. Dick is thus a gentleman of versa- 
tile powers — a thorough scholar and a prac- 
tical educator. His work at Lock Haven 
and West Chester, covering a period of ten 
vears, was of great value in making the 
Normal School so powerful a feature in the 
field of education, and under him Metzger 
College ought to take high rank as an in- 
stitution for the higher education of girls. 
President Dick is a member of the Presby- 
terian church and President of the Cumber- 
land County Sabbath School Association. 

He was united in marriage, in 1885, to 
Miss Ida May McConnell of Elizabeth, Pa. 
Their only child, a son, died at the age of 
two months. 

DR. JAMES A. DALE, President of 
the York County National Bank and 
senior member of the wholesale drug house 
of Dale & Hart.of York, is a son of Alpheus 
and Catharine (Thrush) Dale, and was born 
in Shippensburg, Cumberland county. Pa., 
on March g, 1845. Both the Dale and 
Thrush families are of German lineage, but 

their early history in Pennsylvania cannot 
at this time be supplied. Alpheus Dale was 
a native of Centre county, Pennsylvania, 
but removed to Cumberland county in 1842, 
where he still lives at Mechanicsburg. He 
was a millwright contractor by occupation, 
and made a specialty of bridge-building. 
During the late civil war he entered the em- 
ploy of the United States Government as an 
expert bridge-builder to repair and con- 
struct bridges in the Southern States, where 
the Union armies were operating. He mar- 
ried Catharine Thrush, a daughter of Solo- 
mon Thrush, of Shippensburg, to which un- 
ion seven children were born, four sons 
and three daughters. James A. Dale was 
educated in the common schools of Cum- 
berland county, and at an early age secured 
a clerkship in the post office at Mechanics- 
burg, where he remained for a year. He 
then became a clerk in the drug store of J. 
B. Herring, of Mechanicsburg, where he 
spent an additional six years, during which 
time he mastered the details of the retail 
drug trade. With this preliminary qualifi- 
eation he left Mr. Herring in 1868, and 
came to York, where he soon formed a 
partnership with Dr. Jacob Hart, under the 
firm name of Dale & Hart, and opened one 
of the earliest wholesale drug houses in the 
place. The establishment prospered from 
its very inception, and from time to time 
its proprietors were compelled to enlarge 
their establishment to accommodate an in- 
creasing volume of business. In July, 1894, 
Dr. Hart was drowned in the Yougho- 
gheny river, which fatality necessitated a 
change in the firm. It was accordingly re- 
organized by the admission of Samuel S. 
Long and Charles W. Brandt and Guy H. 
Boyd to the partnership under the title of 
Dale, Hart & Company. Since Dr. Hart's 
death, the executive management of the 
business fell to the care of Dr. Dale, 
which has been in no wise permitted 


Nineteenth Congressional District. 


to fall below the high standard originally 
set. In addition to the drug business, Dr. 
Dale has embarked successfully in other in- 
dustrial enterprises. He is public spirited 
in a high degree, and throws himself ener- 
getically into any project or enterprise pro- 
mising well for the growth and welfare of 
his adopted city. He is a director of the 
York Opera House Company, President of 
the York Hotel Company, President of the 
York County National bank, to which latter 
position he was elevated in January, 1897, 
upon the death of Dr. William S. Roland. 
He is also the owner of large real estate in- 
terests, and is President of the York City 
Market Company being the original pro- 
moter of this enterprise. The Colonial Ho- 
tel, whose erection was effected through 
the York Hotel Company, is one of the 
finest and best appointed hotels in the State, 
erected at a cost of $175,000, exclusive of 
furnishings. The completion of this project 
was due in the largest degree to the person- 
al efforts of Dr. Dale, who, by personal so- 
licitation, obtained the stock subscriptions 
to insure its success. He also was the mov- 
ing and directing spirit in obtaining the 
stock necessary to erect the York City 
market house, which was erected in 1878, at 
a cost of $45,000. 

In addition to these business activities 
Dr. Dale has been interested in a number 
of lesser projects which have always felt 
the energetic impress of his business gen- 
ius. He is a careful, conservative financier, 
full of resources, tactful and always enter- 

Mr. Dale is an ardent Republican in po- 
litics, gives an intelligent support to his 
party, is carefully informed upon financial 
and economic problems and has been a man 
of genuine worth to his community. He is 
unalterably opposed to what is termed 
"Boss Rule," and supports his party upon 
the strength of the great principles it repre- 

sents, and not as a machine for the further- 
ance of the party ambitions of professional 

Mr. Dale is a member and the corres- 
ponding secretary of the Board of State 
P'ish Commissioners, and in his lighter mo- 
ments is a devoted follower of Isaac Wal- 
ton's pleasure-craft. He is a member of 
York Conclave Lodge, No. 124, Improved 
Order of Heptasophs, and Eureka Lodge, 
No. 302, Free and Accepted Masons. He 
served in Co. F, ist Penn. Vols. State Mili- 
tia during the war and did active and hon- 
orable service at the battle of Antietam 
and during the Rebel raid. 

D. D., pastor of St. John's Evange- 
lical Lutheran church, of York, since its 
organization in 1874, was born on Septem- 
ber 28, 1842, in the Empire of Germany. 
He is a son of Frederick C. and Gertrude 
(Schomburg) Walker. At the time of his 
birth that part of Prussia, which was the 
place of his nativity, was comprised in the 
kingdom of Hanover, and consequently 
both of his parents were natives of the 
kingdom of Hanover. Mr. Walker was 
partially reared in Hanover during the 
third interregnum in the history of Ger- 
many, but left the Fatherland before the 
Bismarckian policy of blood and iron 
wrought the unification of the German 
Empire under its present form. After com- 
ing to this country in 1854, he first located 
in Cleveland, Ohio, in which city he spent 
two years in work preparatory to entering 
college. In his 15th year he entered Con- 
cordia College, Fort Wayne, Ind., from 
which he was graduated in the classical 
course in 1862. In the same year he became 
?. student in the Concordia Theological 
Seminary at St. Louis, Missouri, and fin- 
ished his course there in 1865. Immedi- 
ately subsequent he visited his native land, 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

at which time Prussia and Austria were 
commencing their noted struggle to deter- 
mine the question of royal primacy in Ger- 
many. He returned from this tour in 1866, 
shortly after which he received and ac- 
cepted a call from St. Paul's Lutheran 
church, Paterson, New Jersey. This pas- 
torate extended over a period of eight 
years. In March, 1874, he accepted a call 
to St. John's church, York, which had been 
just organized with a hundred voting mem- 
bers, but with no definite policy as to the 
future of the organization. His labors in 
this new field were zealous and persistent, 
the siiccess of which is attested by a growth 
in membership from 100 to 600. This 
growth has been substantial and enduring 
in other senses than the numerical and 
material. The Sunday school at the pres- 
ent time numbers almost as many members 
as the congregation itself, while the paro- 
chial school organized in 1874, and taught 
by two specially trained teachers, is not 
only unique in its organization and meth- 
ods, but has been remarkable in its results, 
as well. Up to the year 1895 all services of 
the church and Sunday school were con- 
ducted im the German language, but since 
that year English services have been intro- 
duced and both languages are given equal 
importance in the parochial school. St. 
John's church is the only church in the, 
Nineteenth Congressional District belong- 
ing to the Missouri Synod. To Dr. Walk- 
er's efforts largely is due the erection of 
the brick church edifice and the parochial 
school building on West King street which 
form the home and radiating centre of his 
intellectual, moral and religious teaching. 

On August 27, 1868, Rev. Dr. Walker 
wedded Eleonora E. Melcher, a daughter 
of Frederick Melcher, of Cleveland, Ohio. 
To their union have been born eight child- 
ren; Marie, who died May 4, 1896, aged 26 
years, a young woman of varied accom- 

plishments and highly esteemed for her lov- 
able disposition and many Christian vir- 
tues; Constantine, who died in infancy; Ly- 
dia; Martin, now a student in the Concor- 
dia Seminary, St. Louis, Missouri, with a 
view to entering the Lutheran ministry; 
Clara, Henry and Nora, all deceased in ear- 
ly childhood ; and Julius. 

Rev. Dr. Walker enjoys the somewhat 
unusual advantage of being surrounded by 
Democratic institutions, after having re- 
ceived an intellectual heritage under a 
monarchial form of government. He has 
always been a close student, not only of 
church history and theological systems 
but also of economical and industrial rela- 
tions, and follows with interest and appre- 
ciation the trend of all religious and moral 
movements. He is an eloquent and forci- 
ble speaker, an indefatigable church work- 
er and has endeared himself to his people 
by his moral earnestness and Christian sym- 
pathy. Since 1885 Dr. Walker has held 
the ofiice of vice president of the Eastern 
District of the Missouri Synod, having 
been re-elected to this position three suc- 
cessive times, holding also during the same 
period the office of Visitator or Presiding 
Elder of the Baltimore District Conference. 

T SAAC A. ELLIOTT, cashier of the 
J. York County National Bank, has been 
connected with that bank for a longer per- 
iod of years than any other person now liv- 
ing. He is a son of Isaac and Catharine 
Elliott, and was born in the City of York, 
Pennsylvania, on August 23, 1845. His 
father, Isaac Elliott, was born and reared 
in the State of Maryland. About the year 
1836 he removed to York, which thereafter 
became his place of residence. In Febru- 
ary, 1856, he went to South Carolina, as 
superintendent of the construction of a tele- 
graph line in that State, and while engaged 
in that undertaking contracted a fever, 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


which obliged him to return home where, 
he died in October of the same year. At 
the time of his death he was in his 48th 
year. He was a member of the German 
Reformed church, a man of standing in the 
community, and in 1845 was commissioned 
Heutenant in a military company known as 
the York Rifles. 

Isaac A. Elliott attended the public 
schools of York, until the death of his 
father in 1856 when he started on his career 
in life as a newsboy, which line of work he 
continued until April 26, 1858, when he en- 
tered as errand boy the large business 
house of P. A. & S. Small, of York, with 
whom he remained for a period of 11 
years. During this period of service he 
was promoted from time to time until he 
was made receiving clerk in the counting 
room and through his hands the receipts 
for merchandise sold by this large firm were 
obliged to pass. Upon the death of Wil- 
liam Wagner, cashier, of the York County 
National Bank in July, 1869, Mr. Elliott 
was made teller in that institution. He 
served as teller for 20 years, and in 1889 
was elected cashier to succeed James A. 
Schall, deceased. Since that time he has 
been the only incumbent of that office and 
has fully justified the confidence of the di- 
rectors by his conservative and careful con- 
duct of ofScial duties. 

The York County National Bank was 
originally organized as the York Savings 
Institution, with a capital of $10,000 which 
was subsequently increased to $50,000. In 
1850 the bank was re-organized under the 
title of the York County Bank, with a capi- 
tal of $150,000, and in 1864, it became the 
York County National Bank, and the capi- 
tal stock was increased to $300,000. The 
present officers are: James A. Dale, presi- 
dent; Jere Carl, vice president; Isaac A. 
Elliott, cashier; directors. Dr. James A. 
Dale, Samuel Gotwalt, George S. Schmidt, 

David H. Welsh, Charles Kurtz, D. F. 
Hirsh, William Laumaster, Jere Carl and 
Philip A. Small. Of all the persons con- 
nected with the bank, Mr. Elliott is the old- 
est in service, having been at his post con- 
tinuously as teller and cashier for a period 
of 28 years. On November 14, 1871, Mr. 
Elliott was married to Virginia A. Osborne, 
a daughter of the late James W. Osborne, 
of Washington City. Their union has been 
blessed by the birth of two children, a son 
and a daughter: Blanche S., the wife of S. 
Forry Loucks, and Lewis C, who ' is a 
bookkeeper in the York County National 

In political opinion Mr. Elliott is a Re- 
publican though he takes only a nominal 
interest in party politics. In religious faith 
and church membership he is a Presbyter- 
ian, being an attendant and communicant 
of the First Presbyterian Church, of York, 
of which he has been a member since 
1867. He is a member of the Masonic 
Fraternity, in which he has been prominent 
and active for a period of thirty years, hav- 
ing served as Worshipful Master of York 
Lodge, No. 266, F. & A. M., M. E. High 
Priest of Howell Chapter, No. 199, R. A. M., 
Eminent Commander of York Comman- 
dery. No. 21, Knights Templar, and eight 
years as District Deputy Grand Master of 
District No. 4, comprising York and 
Adams Counties. 

JAMES G. GLESSNER, Esq., one of 
the leading young lawyers of York, 
was born at Lewisberry, York County, 
Pennsylvania,November 9, 1865, and is the 
son of Henry and Anna (Graham) Gless- 
ner. Henry Glessner was of Swiss descent, 
while his wife's ancestry were of Scotch- 
Irish origin. The elder Glessner was a 
painter and cabinet maker by trade, lived a 
quiet and unassuming life at Lewisberry 
and died on February 21st, 1884, at the age 



of 54 years. Both Mr. and Mrs. Glessner 
were natives of York County, affiliated with 
the Methodist Church and became the pap- 
ents of seven children. 

James G. Glessner was brought up in 
boyhood in his native village, and attended 
the common schools until he was 16 years 
of age. He then taught scihool a year, 
attended the State Normal school at Lock 
Haven, Pa., and subsequently attended the 
Cumberland Valley State Normal school, 
Shippensburg, Pa., from which he was 
graduated in the class of 1885. In the en- 
suing year he commenced the study of law 
with the firm of Kell & Kell, of York, and 
after teaching a term of school in 1887, was 
admitted to the Bar of York County in the 
following year. Immediately after his ad- 
mission to the Bar he opened an office 
with Silas H. Forry, Esq., and took up his 
residence in York, where he has since con- 
tinued to reside. Mr. Glessner's success was 
immediate and emphatic and he at once be- 
came prominent in both professional and 
public life. He is an ardent and energetic 
Republican and at a very early age became 
interested in the activities and policies of his 
party. In 1890 he was elected secretary of 
the Republican County Committee, and 
held that position through two successive 
campaigns. Upon the death of the county 
chairman in 1892, Mr. Glessner immediately 
announced himself as a candidate for the 
vacant position, and after a spirited contest 
was elected chairman. As chairman he had 
to deal with new forces and factors in State 
and national politics but acquitted himself 
with so much satisfaction and with such 
fine spirit and leadership that during the 
four succeeding years he was honored by 
a unanimous re-election. During all these 
years, and especially in 1896, he fully sus- 
tained the well earned distinction of 1892. 
A vigorous and persistent worker, he has 
shown himself amply able to meet the exi- 

gencies of political campaigning, and has, 
by ability and sagacity, won an unusual rep- 
utation as a successful Republican leader. In 
1890 his party made him its candidate for 
District Attorney, and notwithstanding his 
advanced vote, yet he was unable to over- 
come the large adverse majority in the 
county. He is a trenchant and forcible 
speaker, ample intellectual endowment, and 
has already reached an enviable position in 
the legal fraternity of his county. 

Mr. Glessner is a stockholder and direc- 
tor of the Drover's and Mechanic's Na- 
tional Bank, and besides is interested as a 
stockholder or director in a number of 
other concerns. 

Fraternally he is a member of the Ma- 
sonic Order, Knights of the Golden Eagle, 
Knights of Pythias and the Benevolent and 
Protective Order of Elks, of which last 
named Lodge he is a Past Exalted Ruler. 

On June i8th, 1891, Mr. Glessner was 
united in marriage with Joanna, a daughter 
oi Mrs. Mary M. Bowen, of Shippensburg, 
this State. Mr. and Mrs. Glessner have 
two children, a son and a daughter: Hazel 
M., and Silas Forry. 

Ph. D., professor of physics in Dick- 
inson College, Carlisle, Pennsyl- 
vania, is a son of Samuel and Elizabeth 
(Williams) Mohler, and was born at Boiling 
Springs, Cumberland County, Pennsyl- 
vania, October 30, 1864. The Mohler 
family is one of the old German families of 
Lancaster County, and its descendants are 
now resident in various counties of the 
State. One of their descendants, Jacob 
Mohler, was a farmer in Lancaster County 
and afterward removed to Cumberland 
County, where he died in 1878, at Me- 
chanicsburg, aged eighty-five years, while 
his wife lacked but three birthdays of 
reaching the century mark. Mr. and Mrs. 

NirreTEENTH Congressional District. 


Mohler were Dunkards or German Baptists 
and reared a family of twelve children all 
of whom attained to a ripe old age. Their 
son, Samuel Mohler, was born February 13 
1830, being next to the youngest child of 
the family and was the first of the children 
to die, passing away March 31, 1883, at 53 
years of age. He followed his trade of mill- 
wright until the year 1862, when he en- 
listed in Company C, i68th Pennsylvania 
volunteers. By promotion he reached the 
rank of first lieutenant, and served up to 
July, 1863, when he was honorably dis- 
charged. Returning home he was success- 
fully engaged in farming, first near Boiling 
Springs and next at Middlesex, where he 
died. He was an active member and 
worker of the Evangelical Association and 
in politics supported the Republican party. 
He served as justice of the peace for a num- 
ber of years, and married Elizabeth Wil- 
liams, a daughter of David Williams, a far- 
mer of Cumberland county. To their union 
were born five children: William D., a 
machinist of Harrisburg; Laura, wife of 
Rev. G. S. Smith, of Callaway, Nebraska; 
Ida, wedded Charles W. Heagg, of Car- 
lisle; Professor John F., and Susan, wife 
of William Staat, of Blackbird, in the State 
of Delaware. 

John F. Mohler was reared on the farm 
and attended the common schools until he 
was sixteen years of age when he com- 
menced teaching in order to acquire means 
sufficient to obtain a college education. 
After teaching three years he entered Dick- 
inson College in December, 1883, and after 
losing one year was graduated from that in- 
stitution in the class of 1887, of which he 
was valedictorian. Leaving college he 
taught a short time at Mechanicsburg, was 
then instructor in mathematics and science 
in Wilmington Conference Academy of 
Dover, Delaware, for three years, and went 
to Wesleyan Academy of Wilbraham, 

Mass., where he heM fhe chair of malthe- 
matics for four years. In 1894 he attended 
Johns Hopkin's University and made spec- 
ialties of physics, astronomy and mathe- 
matics for a year, was appointed assistant 
in astronomy in that institution and a year 
later was made a fellow in physics. Leaving 
Johns Hopkins in June 1896 he came to 
Carlisle, and was elected professor of phy- 
sics in Dickinson College. Professor Moh- 
ler not only endeavors to teach the essen- 
tial facts of the science, but also emphasizes 
the value of scientific method as necessary 
intellectual discipline. He is the author of 
several works upon subjects in the line of 
his specialty among which are "Notes on 
Refraction," "Index of Water and Alcohol 
for Electrical Waves," "Efifect of Pressure 
on Spectral Lines," and "Surface Tension 
of Water at Temperatures below Zero De- 
gree Centigrade." 

Prof. Mohler is a member of the Phi 
Beta Kappa Society of Dickinson College, 
and a member of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science. He is a 
Republican in politics, and a member of the 
Allison Methodist Episcopal church. 

In June 1892 Professor Mohler married 
Sarah Loomis, a daughter of Rev. Phineas 
Loomis, a native of Bloomfield, Connecti- 
cut, and a member of the New York East 
Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. Their union has been blessed with 
two children: Frederick and Samuel. 

M., pastor of Zion's Lutheran church 
of Newville, Cumberland county, Pennsyl- 
vania, was born at Middletown, Frederick 
county, Maryland, and is the son of Heze- 
kiah and Lydia (Bittle) Floyd. 

By his paternal ancestry, the subject of 
this sketch, is of English ex)traction. Mary 
(Douglass) Floyd, his great-grandmother, 
and founder of the branch in America, 


Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

landed at Baltimore, Maryland, from Eng- 
land in 1770. She was a widow with seven 
children and settled in Howard county, Md., 
at Lisbon, near Ellicott's Mills. She was 
of Scotch-Irish descent and in religion was 
a Roman Catholic. 'Her children were: 
Philip, William, Obadiah, Elizabeth, John, 
Sarah and Providence. 

John Floyd, who was the grandfather of 
Rev. David B. Floyd, was born March 6, 
1766, in England, and was the youngest of 
his mother's sons. He was only four years 
eld when brought to this country. During 
the last quarter of the Eighteenth Cen- 
tury, Nicholas Bowlus, a prominent farmer 
in the Middletown valley, Frederick county, 
Maryland, was engaged in hauling produce 
to and from Baltimore city. He invariably 
stopped at the home of Mary Douglass 
Floyd, and, when John Floyd developed 
into manhood, he was received into the 
Bowlus family. March 19, 1797, he married 
Elizabeth, a daughter of Nicholas Bowlus. 
Subsequently he became the owner of a val- 
uable farm near Myersville, Frederick 
county, Maryland, where he lived and died. 
He was a man of powerful physique and 
muscular development, and was the recog- 
nized champion of strength in Frederick 
county. He was the father of nine children, 
viz: Elizabeth, Catharine, Sophia, Mary, 
Margaret, John, Jr., Eleanor, Henry and 
Hezekiah. These children inherited certain 
traits of character, which distinguished 
them. They were hardy, thrifty, resolute, 
upright and honorable. The sons inherited 
the prodigious strength of their father, and 
the daughters, the superb and daring eques- 
trian skill of their mother. John Floyd 
was born a Roman Catholic. His wife was 
born and raised a Lutheran, and was a very 
consistent member of that faith from her 
childhood to her death. All their children 
partook of the religion of their mother; but 
having married into families connected with 

other branches of the Protestant faith, some 
of them have become identified with other 

Hezekiah Floyd, the father of Rev. David 
B. Floyd, was born August 15, 1816. In his 
youth he became a member of the Lutheran 
church at Middletown, Maryland, under 
the ministry of Rev. Abram Reck. For 
many years he was a deacon of the church. 
In politics he was a Democrat, until the 
war began, when he became a Republican. 
He was a lieutenant in the militia of the 
Maryland line in the Mexican war. In later 
years he was on the police force in the city 
of Greencastle, Indiana. He was a man of 
positive character, and possessed strong 
and decided convictions in political and re- 
ligious matters. He was twice married. On 
May 10, 1835, he became the husband of 
Lydia Bittle. The union was one of uniform 
cordiality and felicity. After her death he 
married Elizabeth Brown by whom he had 
two children: Sarah and Edward Z. Floyd. 
Hezekiah Floyd was environed with some 
of the best and most distinguished men and 
women of the Lutheran church. Lydia 
Bittle, who became his first wife, was a sis- 
ter of Rev. David F. Bittle, D. D., the 
founder and first president of Roanoke Col- 
lege in Virginia; another brother-in-law 
was Rev. Daniel H. Bittle, D. D., of Sa- 
vannah, Georgia. Hezekiah Floyd's niece 
was the wife of Rev. Ezra Keller, D. D., 
first president of Wittenberg College, in 
Ohio. His sister-in-law was the aunt of Rev. 
Charles P. Krauth, D. D., LL. D., who was 
the professor of intellectual and moral phi- 
losophy in the University of Pennsylvania. 

By his maternal ancestry. Rev. David B. 
Floyd is of German extraction. In 1780 
George Michael Bittle, who married Anna 
Marie Elizabeth Beale, emigrated from 
Prussia to America. He was a sturdy Ger- 
man Lutheran, who first located in Adams 
county. Pa., and afterwards moved to Fred- 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


erick county, Maryland, locating near 
Bealesville, so called in honor of his wife's 
name. His children were five in number, 
as follows: Thomas, George, Elizabeth, 
Catharine and Jonathan. 

Thomas Bittle, Rev. David B. Floyd's 
maternal grandfather, was born February 
22, 1783. He was a lieutenant in the war 
of 1812. He was known throughout the 
Middletown valley in Frederick county by 
the sobriquet of "Honest Thomas Bittle." 
In February, 1810, he was united in mar- 
riage with Mary, a daughter of Philip and 
Elizabeth (Loerne) Bear, of Frederick 
county, Maryland, who were also of Ger- 
man extraction and came to America in 

Lydia Bittle, the daughter of Thomas 
Bittle, who, by her marriage with Hezekiah 
Floyd, became the mother of the subject of 
this sketch, was born January 11, 181 5. She 
was a woman of unusual consistency in re- 
ligion and of deep piety and devotion in 
the Lutheran church. She was called to 
move in a conspicuous, rather than an ele- 
vated sphere of life, where she exhibited 
peculiar wisdom, prudence, patience, econ- 
omy and all the domestic virtues. 

The children of Hezekiah and Lydia Bit- 
tle Floyd were eight in number, viz: 
Amanda Elizabeth Floyd, who married 
Sanford Fortner, a captain and stafif officer 
of the 2nd Brigade, 3d Division, 14th Army 
Corps, during the Rebellion; Dr. John 
Thomas Floyd, who died of apoplexy 
at Noblesville, Indiana, in 1867. He 
was captain of Company D, loist Indiana 
Regiment, in the late war, and assistant in- 
spector general on the stafif of General J. J. 
Reynolds. At the close of the war he grad- 
uated from the Ohio Medical College in 
Cincinnati, and, after receiving his degree, 
practiced medicine until the time of his 
death; Major Mahlon Henry Floyd, who 
married Clarinda H., a daughter of Hon. 

James L. Evans, member of the 44th and 
45th Congresses of the United States. Dur- 
ing the war, Mahlon H. Floyd was Major 
of the 75th Indiana Regiment. He died 
August, 1891 ; Mary Jane Floyd, who mar- 
ried Rev. Martin L. Culler, a Lutheran 
minister, who was a member of the Chris- 
tian commission during the war; Captain 
Daniel Hezekiah Floyd, assistant quarter- 
master of the United States Army, who 
graduated from the United States Military 
Academy at West Point. He was assigned 
to the ninth cavalry as a second lieutenant 
and served on the frontiers of Texas and 
New Mexico. In 1874 he was appointed to 
pursue a post graduate course in the gov- 
ernment artillery school at Fortress Mon- 
roe, Virginia; and two years later was pro- 
moted to the rank of first lieutenant in the 
iSth Infantry. In command of a detach- 
ment of his regiment he was sent to quell 
riots in the States of North and South Caro- 
lina during the pohtical imbroglio of 1876. 
In 1883 President Arthur appointed him 
captain and assistant quartermaster. He 
died in 1894; Charlotte Cordelia Floyd died 
in infancy and George Edward Floyd was 
not quite three years old when he died. 

Rev. David Bittle Floyd, A. M., was born 
March 15, 1846. He was baptized in in- 
fancy and confirmed in manhood by his 
uncle. Rev. David F. Bittle, D. D. In 1858 
he removed with his parents to Hamilton 
county, Indiana. His youth and early man- 
hood were spent at school, where he soon 
gave promise of future development of 
mind and heart. In 1862, when a mere 
youth, he abandoned his studies and vol- 
unteered in the service of his country, serv- 
ing as sergeant for three years in Company 
I, 75th Regiment of Indiana Volunteers. 
He was one of the youngest soldiers of the 
war, being only sixteen years of age at the 
time of his enlistment. On August 19, 
1862, there were presented to him through 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

a small window of the arsenal at Indianapo-3 
lis, a Springfield rifle and cartridge box, 
and three years afterwards, at the close of 
the war, he returned the same rifle through 
the same window. He holds a lieutenant's 
commission, granted for meritorious con- 
duct, by Indiana's war governor, Oliver P. 
Morton. He fought with Thomas, under 
Rosecrans at Chickamauga, under Grant 
at Chattanooga, and marched with Sher- 
man to the sea. 

During the winter of 1866 the subject of 
our sketch was a medical student in the 
University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. In 
1867 he entered Asbury (De Pauw) Univer- 
sity at Greencastle, Indiana; and in 1868 he 
became a student at Roanoke College, Vir- 
ginia, graduating in 1872 with second 
honor in his class. In the winter of 1872-3, 
he entered Bellevue Medical College, New 
York city ; but a few months prior to grad- 
uation he became convinced that it was his 
duty to abandon his medical studies and 
enter the ministry of the Lutheran church. 
In consequence of this decision he left New 
York and taught school at Martinsburg, 
West Virginia, until the opening of the ses- 
sion of 1873-4 of the Lutheran Theological 
Seminary at Gettysburg, from which he 
graduated in 1876. 

In May 1874 while a student of The- 
ology he met General Sherman at Gettys- 
burg, and upon separating, the General 
took him by the hand and made this signi- 
ficant remark: "You were one of my brave 
boys; and you will have harder battles to 
fight in the profession you have now 
chosen, than you had in the army under 
my command." Rev. D. B. Floyd is a mem- 
ber of the Phi Delta Theta (college) Fra- 
ternity and while a student, was the cham- 
pion chapter founder of the fraternity, es- 
tablishing no less than eight chapters. He 
is also a member of Geo. H. Thomas Post, 
Grand Army of the Republic of Indiana. 

g In 1876 Rev. David B. Floyd was ordain- 
'■' ed to the ministry by the Synod of Mary- 
land in session at Washington. February 
15, 1877, he married Mary E., eldest daugh- 
ter of Nathaniel and Margaret (Wilen) Cut- 
ting. His fields of labor in the ministry 
have been as follows: Brandonville, West 
Virginia, during vacation in the summer of 
1875; Uniontown, Maryland, from 1876 to 
1882; Boonsboro, Maryland, from 1882 to 
1885; and Zion's church, Newville, Cum- 
berland county, Pennsylvania, since 1885. 

Rev. David B. Floyd is a frequent con- 
tributor to various periodicals. He is the 
author of "Necrology of Lutheran minis- 
ters, born in the Middletown valley, Mary- 
land;" of "Reynolds' Division in the Battle 
of Chickamauga;" of "History of the 75th 
Regiment of Indiana Infantry Volunteers;" 
and of "History of Zion's Lutheran Con- 
gregation of Newville, Pennsylvania," from 
1795 to 1895." By request of the commis- 
sioners from Indiana for the erection of 
monuments in the Chattanooga and Chick- 
amauga Military Park, he wrote the inscrip- 
tion for the monument erected to the 75th 
Indiana Regiment. He has also delivered 
several addresses and sermons before ex- 
soldiers and others, which were published 
by request. 

CHARLES S. WEISER. The story of 
the Weiser family runs as a thread 
through the whole length of the fabric of 
history which the emigration, colonization 
and achievement of the Pennsylvania Ger- 
man people have woven. It was back in 
the time of Queen Anne of England and 
partly through her policy of encouraging 
emigration to the American colonies, that 
the first member of this family came 
to this country. His christian name 
has been lost in the lapse of years 
since then, but it is known that he was one 
of 4000 Germans who in 1708 were trans- 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 

ported from the Palatinate to Holland and 
from thence to England with the design of 
sending them to America as colonists. They 
camped in tents at Blackmoor, near Lon- 
don. An embassy of chiefs then in Lon- 
don are said to have suggested their colon- 
ization of a tract of land west of the Hud- 
son. The voyage consumed six months 
and seventeen hundred died at sea. There 
appeared to have been an understanding 
that they should provide tar and raise hemp 
for the government naval stores to pay for 
their transportation, but from the German 
account of the transaction it appears to 
have been somewhat in the nature of a 
speculation at their expense. Gov. Hun- 
ter quartered them on Governor's Island, 
cared for the sick, apprenticed the young 
orphans and sent the able bodied to Liv- 
ingstone Manor to work out their contract. 
Here they remained three or four years in 
a sort of slavery, as their accounts claim, 
and then most of them removed to the 
Schoharie Valley, where land given by the 
Indians had been promised them. Among 
these was the great ancestor of the Weiser 
family, from one of whose sons the York 
county Weisers are descended. The colony 
at Schoharie did not prosper. The gov- 
ernor allowed the colonists to plant crops 
and then when everything seemed to be in 
a prosperous way, a question as to the val- 
idity of their titles was raised and the set- 
tlers were partially dispersed in 1723. Then 
began a search for a new home. They wan- 
dered southward until they reached the 
Susquehanna, where canoes were fashioned 
and in them the wanderers floated down 
the river to the north of the Swatara and 
thence to a fertile spot along Tulpehocken 
creek, where they settled among the In- 
dians in the fa;ll of 1723. The father of 
Conrad Weiser having acquired a knowl- 
edge of the Indian language remained at 
Schoharie as an interpreter until 1729, when 

with his wife and four children he gained 
the settlement on the Tulpehocken. He 
devoted himself to farming, but on noted 
occasions he served the State authorities as 
interpreter in conference with the Indians. 
In 1736 he was sent to treat with the Six 
Nations concerning a war threatened be- 
tween them and the Indians of Virginia. 
He was assisted August 14, 1752, by Count 
Zinzendorf, who met a numerous embassy 
of the Six Nations and preached to them 
at Tulpehocken. At the conclusion of his 
remarks he said of Weiser: "This is a man 
whom God hath sent, both to the Indians 
and to the white people, to make known 
His will unto them." In 1752 he was ap- 
pointed a public school trustee. After a 
useful and eventful life he died at Wormels- 
dorf, July 13, 1760. 

Samuel Weiser, a descendant of the Tul- 
pehocken settlement, came to York in 1780 
and commenced the hat business half way 
between the present corner house and the 
square. In 1808 he also opened a dry 
goods store on the southeast corner of the 
square. He died in 1834. Charles, his 
third son, associated himself with his 
brother Jacob in the dry goods business 
from 1818 to 1846. In 1856 he formed a 
private banking house and in i860 took his 
son, Charles S., subject of this narrative, 
into partnership. Mr. Weiser was at var- 
ious times a director of the York bank and 
president of the York and Gettysburg, and 
York and Susquehanna Turnpike com- 
panies. He was a member of Christ Luth- 
eran church. His death took place July, 
1867, in the 71st year of his age. Mrs. 
Weiser was Annie, a daughter of Gen. 
Jacob Spangler. 

Charles S. Weiser, the subject of this 
sketch, was their fourth son. He was born 
in York March 13, 1838, and was educated 
at the York County Academy. After taking 
the regular course he left that institution 

Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia. 

{ind for several years served as a clerk in 
the dry goods business conducted by his 
brother John. In 1861 he associated him- 
self with his father in the private banking 
business. In the early part of 1867, pre- 
ceding the death of his father, Jere Carl 
was taken into the firm which then became 
Weiser Son & Carl, and continued in ex- 
istence until 1889, when the partnership 
was discontinued, owing to ill health. While 
in active business life Mr. Weiser was asso- 
ciated with about 18 corporations, but af- 
ter retiring, he withdrew from most of the 
positions. Thus, he was borough and city 
treasurer for sixteen years and at various 
periods held the treasurerships of the York 
Water Company, York County Academy, 
York Hospital and Dispensary, Society for 
the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, York 
County Mutual Fire Insurance Company, 
Board of Home Missions of the General 
Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod, 
of the Theological seminary at Gettys- 
burg and of the C. A. Morris Fund of St. 
Paul's church. He has also served as vice 
president of the Orphan's Home, as director 
in the York and Susquehanna Turnpike 
company and on the death of the late Post- 
master Small, filled that office for five 
months until President Harrison made an 
appointment. Mr. Weiser is a Democrat, 
but not a politican. He is a member of St. 
Paul's Lutheran churc h and a member of 
the church council. His record in the Ma- 
sonic fraternity is that of Past Master in 
York Lodge, and a member in Howell 
Chapter, No. 199, R. A. M., and York Com- 
mandery. No. 21, K. T. 

On August 27th, 1866, Mr. Weiser was 
united in marriage with Isadora Brown, 
daughter of the late Wm. Brown, Esq., of 
York. To this union was born one child, 
Charles, who died in infancy. 

By reason of his vast and varied business 
experiences his close identification with the 

material and industrial progress of York 
county, Mr. Weiser is one of the best and 
most favorably known men of affairs. He 
has been a skilled financier, a man pos- 
sessed of first-rate executive capacity, irre- 
proachable integrity and withal a man of 
the cleanest personal character. He is a 
sympathetic patron of education, unselfish 
in his devotion to public charities, public 
spirited in all that pertains to the welfare of 
his community and a high-minded citizen 
of genuine worth and untrammeled convic- 

leading lawyer and journalist of 
York, was born in Paradise (now Jackson) 
township, York county, Pa., Feb. 23, 1846, 
While a lad in the country he performed 
boys work on his widowed mother's farm, 
and during four months of the winter at- 
tended the free school of the district. Never 
relishing agricultural labors, he abandoned 
them at the first opportunity, and at the age 
of thirteen became a student in the York 
County Academy, of which the great com- 
moner, Thaddeus Stevens, was once the 
principal. After a year's study he entered 
as a clerk one of the leading dry-goods 
houses of York. In August, 1862, at the 
age of sixteen, he responded with others to 
the call of President Lincoln for nine 
months' volunteers, and enlisted as a private 
in Company K, One Hundred and Thir- 
tieth Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers. 
After six week's service in the Army of the 
Potomac, he received his first baptism of 
fire at the battle of Antietam, in which his 
company lost in killed and wounded one- 
third of the number engaged. Mr. Spang- 
ler fired eighty rounds with which he 
was equipped, and, finding use for more, 
took ten rounds from the cartridge box of 
a dead comrade, eight of which he dis- 
charged before his regiment was relieved. 

Cdmvl (J}. 

Nineteenth Congressional District. 


During the engagement, the stock of his 
rifle was shattered by a Confederate bullet. 

At the battle of Fredericksburg, his divi- 
sion, the Third of the Second Corps, made 
the initial and sanguinary charge on 
Maryes' Heights, where his Colonel was 
killed at he first fire. At Chancellors- 
ville his division was thrown into the breach 
to arrest the victorious Confederates in 
their headlong pursuit of the routed 
Eleventh Corps. During that terrible Sat- 
urday night, May 2, 1863, his company was 
fighting in the front line on the plank road 
on which Stonewall Jackson the same night 
was mortally wounded. The following 
morning General Berry, of Maine, who 
commanded a division of the Third Corps, 
was killed in his Company, and General 
Hays, the Commander of Mr. Spangler's di- 
vision, was taken prisoner. Although in the 
forefront of every battle, Mr. Spangler was 
unharmed in each. The term of enhstment 
having expired the regiment returned home 
anc" was disbanded. 

Upon his return to civil life he was ap- 
pointed Deputy United States Marshal of 
York County. He held this office for a few 
weeks only, when his leg was broken by the 
kick of an abandoned Confederate horse, 
and being incapacitated for active duty, he 
resigned. Upon convalescence he resumed 
his studies at the York County Academy, 
and also registered as a student of law. Af- 
ter attending a course of lectures in the 
law department of the University of Penn- 
sylvania at Philadelphia, he was admitted 
to the York Bar, March 4, 1867. He soon 
acquired a very lucrative practice, which he 
has since retained. He has practiced in th